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Title: Final Report of the Louisiana Purchase Exposition Commission

Author: Louisiana Purchase Exposition Commission

Release date: August 23, 2004 [eBook #13266]
Most recently updated: December 18, 2020

Language: English

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59TH CONGRESS, 1st SESSION
DECEMBER 4, 1905—JUNE 30, 1906
SENATE DOCUMENTS
VOL. 14, 1906

      SENATE: 59TH CONGRESS: 1st Session
              DOCUMENT No. 202
             FINAL REPORT OF THE
   LOUISIANA PURCHASE EXPOSITION COMMISSION
                    1906
              FEBRUARY 8, 1906
READ, REFERRED TO THE COMMITTEE ON INDUSTRIAL
    EXPOSITIONS, AND ORDERED TO BE PRINTED
WASHINGTON, GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE, 1906

CONTENTS.

Letters of transmittal
Final report
Centennial Day
Diplomatic Day
State Day
Appendices:
  Report on Accounts and Statement of Receipts and Disbursements
  Disposal of Salvage
  Reports of Foreign Countries
  Reports of States, Territories, and Districts
  Report of Board of Lady Managers
  Statement of Expenditures

LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL.

To the Senate and House of Representatives:

I transmit herewith a communication from the Secretary of State submitting the final report of the Louisiana Purchase Exposition Commission, furnished in pursuance of section 11 of the "Act to provide for celebrating the one hundredth anniversary of the purchase of the Louisiana Territory," etc., approved March 3, 1901.

THEODORE ROOSEVELT. THE WHITE HOUSE, February 8, 1906.

* * * * *

The PRESIDENT:

The undersigned, Secretary of State, has the honor to lay before the President the final report of the Louisiana Purchase Exposition Commission, presented, as required by section 11 of the act of Congress approved March 3, 1901, entitled "An act to provide for celebrating the one hundredth anniversary of the Louisiana Territory by the United States by holding an international exhibition of arts, industries, manufactures, and the products of the soil, mine, forest, and sea in the city of St. Louis, in the State of Missouri."

Respectfully submitted.

ELIHU ROOT. DEPARTMENT OF STATE, Washington, February 5, 1906.

FINAL REPORT OF THE LOUISIANA PURCHASE EXPOSITION COMMISSION.

As required by section 11 of an act of Congress entitled "An act to provide for the celebrating of the one hundredth anniversary of the purchase of the Louisiana Territory by the United States by holding an international exhibition of arts, industries, manufacturers, and the products of the soil, mine, forest, and the sea in the city of St. Louis, in the State of Missouri," approved March 3, 1901, this final report is here presented:

In the early part of the year 1900 the citizens of St. Louis inaugurated a movement looking to the celebration of the one hundredth anniversary of the acquisition of the Louisiana Territory by an international exposition. A temporary organization having been effected, the subject was presented to Congress through a committee of citizens appointed for that purpose. Congress conditionally approved the enterprise by enacting a law which in substance provided that the Government would extend the required aid to the proposed exposition, providing the petitioners would furnish assurance that the sum of $10,000,000 had been raised for and on account of inaugurating and carrying forward an exposition at the city of St. Louis, Mo., in the year 1903, to celebrate the one hundredth anniversary of the purchase of the Louisiana Territory.

Prior to March 3, 1901, the Louisiana Purchase Exposition Company, then consisting of an association of persons, furnished the Secretary of the Treasury proof to his satisfaction that said sum of $10,000,000 had been raised for the purpose indicated. Thereupon the act hereinbefore cited was passed and duly approved by the President.

Including the appropriation made by the act of Congress, the sum of $15,000,000 was provided for the exposition, as follows:

Donated by the city of St. Louis …………………. $5,000,000
Subscription to the capital stock of the Louisiana
  Purchase Exposition Company ……………………. 5,000,000
Appropriated by Congress, through the act aforesaid … 5,000,000

On April 1, 1901, in accordance with section 2 of the act of Congress, the President appointed a nonpartisan commission, consisting of nine members, known and designated as the "Louisiana Purchase Exposition Commission," the names of the appointees and the States in which they resided being as follows:

JOHN M. THURSTON Nebraska.
THOMAS H. CARTER Montana.
WILLIAM LINDSAY Kentucky.
GEORGE W. MCBRIDE Oregon.
FREDERICK A. BETTS Connecticut.
JOHN M. ALLEN Mississippi.
MARTIN H. GLYNN New York.
JOHN F. MILLER Indiana.
PHILIP D. SCOTT Arkansas.

The name of the Commission being somewhat lengthy it became known and was referred to in the law and proceedings throughout as "The National Commission."

Pursuant to a call by the Secretary of State, the members of the Commission met at the Southern Hotel, in the city of St. Louis, on April 23, 1901, and adjourned until the following day, when organization was perfected.

Thomas H. Carter, of Montana, was elected president; Martin H. Glynn, of New York, vice-president, and Mr. Joseph Flory, of St. Louis, Mo., secretary.

The following committees were appointed:

Executive.
THOMAS H. CARTER.
JOHN F. MILLER.
PHILIP D. SCOTT.
JOHN M. ALLEN.
FREDERICK A. BETTS.

Judiciary.
WILLIAM LINDSAY.
JOHN M. THURSTON.
GEORGE W. MCBRIDE.

Plan and Scope.
GEORGE W. MCBRIDE.
FREDERICK A. BETTS.
WILLIAM LINDSAY.
MARTIN H. GLYNN.
JOHN F. MILLER.

Members of Board of Arbitration. JOHN M. THURSTON. JOHN M. ALLEN.

Auditing.
JOHN F. MILLER.
PHILIP D. SCOTT.
JOHN M. THURSTON.

Insurance.
THOMAS H. CARTER.
MARTIN H. GLYNN.
FREDERICK A. BETTS.

Ceremonies.
THOMAS H. CARTER.
JOHN M. ALLEN.
JOHN M. THURSTON.
WILLIAM LINDSAY.

Mr. Claude Hough, of Sedalia, Mo., was appointed official stenographer of the Commission on May 6, 1901, and has capably and efficiently served in that capacity throughout.

The organization of the Louisiana Purchase Exposition Company was not formally perfected until about a month after the first meeting of the National Commission, when the association which had theretofore existed under that name was duly organized and became an incorporated company under and in conformity with the laws of the State of Missouri. In the meantime informal conferences were held between the Commission and the prospective officers of the company in reference to a site for the exposition.

The municipal assembly of the city of St. Louis enacted an ordinance authorizing the use of a portion of Forest Park as a site for the exposition, as follows:

    An ordinance authorizing the use of either O'Fallon Park or
    Carondelet Park or a portion of Forest Park as a site for the
    world's fair, to be held in commemoration of the Louisiana
    Purchase.

    Be it ordained by the municipal assembly of the city of St.
    Louis as follows:

SECTION 1. The corporation or association formed to manage and conduct the world's fair or exposition in commemoration of the purchase of the Louisiana Territory, when organized or incorporated in accordance with the law, is hereby granted the privilege of using either O'Fallon Park or Carondelet Park or that portion of Forest Park lying west of the line described as follows, to wit: Beginning at the intersection of the south line of Forest Park with the north line of Clayton road, and running thence in a northerly direction along the west line of the Concourse drive two thousand five hundred fifty feet; thence in a northerly direction to the east end of the large lake, a distance of twelve hundred feet; thence northwesterly direction about two thousand feet to the intersection of the south line of Lindell avenue, with the west line of De Baliviere avenue produced southwardly, for and as a site for said world's fair or exposition, reserving, however, unto the city of St. Louis all regulation and control of any of the sites above described, together with all right to excises and licenses.

SEC. 2. The board of public improvements shall at all times, beginning with the selection of the site out of the three sites above referred to, until the close of said world's fair or exposition, and until the complete restoration of said site as hereinafter provided, have the power to provide such regulations, conditions, and requirements as it may deem necessary to protect the interests of the city with respect to the construction of all sewers, drains, and conduits of any kind, and the laying of water pipes or fixtures; and the plans and specifications for the construction of the foregoing work shall be subject to the approval of the board of public improvements, and no such work of any kind shall be done without such approval by the board. All such sewers, drains, conduits, pipes, and fixtures shall become and be the property of the city.

SEC. 3. Within six months after the close of said fair or exposition, the corporation or association aforesaid shall clear the park, or in the event of the selection of Forest Park, the part thereof above described, of all tramways and railway tracks, rubbish and debris, and of all buildings, sheds, pavilions, towers, and other structures of every kind, and shall within twelve months after the close of such fair or exposition, fully restore the park selected as a site, or in the case of Forest Park, that portion thereof above-described, by doing all necessary grading, the restoration and repair, or the formation of all walks and roads, the planting of trees, the placing of sod and the planting of shrubs and plants, all in accordance with plans to be approved by the board of public improvements, and all to be done subject to the inspection of the park commissioner, and to his entire satisfaction and approval.

SEC. 4. The corporation or association aforesaid shall, within six months after the approval of this ordinance by the mayor, file its written acceptance thereof with the city register, and make its selection of the park to be used as aforesaid; and said corporation or association shall also, within the same time, file its bond in the sum of one hundred thousand dollars, with good and sufficient sureties, to be approved by the mayor and council, conditioned for a full compliance with and performance of all the terms, requirements, and conditions of this ordinance. Said board of public improvements shall have the right, however, at any time before the opening of said fair or exposition, if it deems it necessary in the interest of the city, to require an additional bond in such amount as it may believe to be proper, whereupon said corporation or company shall give such bond with sureties to be approved in like manner, and said corporation or association shall have no authority to open or hold any fair or exposition upon the site so selected, and no machinery or improvements of any kind shall be removed from the premises of said world's fair site until said bond in the sum so demanded shall have been so filed and approved.

Approved May 16, 1901.

Considerable correspondence ensued between the Commission and the Exposition Company in reference to the proposed site, the Commission particularly insisting upon an adequate water supply and proper drainage and grading of the property. On June 28, 1901, the site was formally approved by the Commission and, according to section 9 of the act authorizing the exposition, the President of the United States was duly notified.

Prior to August 15, 1901, the National Commission having ascertained that due provision had been made for grounds and buildings for the uses contemplated by the act of Congress, so certified to the President of the United States, who did thereafter, to wit, on the 20th day of August, 1901, in behalf of the Government and the people, invite foreign nations to take part in said exposition, and to appoint representatives thereto, the President's proclamation reading as follows:

Whereas notice has been given me by the Louisiana Purchase Exposition Commission, in accordance with the provisions of section 9 of the act of Congress, approved March 3, 1901, entitled "An act to provide for celebrating the one hundredth anniversary of the purchase of the Louisiana Territory by the United States by holding an international exhibition of arts, industries, manufactures, and the products of the soil, mine, forest, and sea in the city of St. Louis, in the State of Missouri," that provision has been made for grounds and buildings for the uses provided for in the said act of Congress:

Now, therefore, I, William McKinley, President of the United States, by virtue of the authority vested in me by said act, do hereby declare and proclaim that such international exhibition will be opened in the city of St. Louis, in the State of Missouri, not later than the first day of May, nineteen hundred and three, and will be closed not later than the first day of December thereafter. And in the name of the Government and of the people of the United States, I do hereby invite all the nations of the earth to take part in the commemoration of the purchase of the Louisiana Territory, an event of great interest to the United States and of abiding effect on their development, by appointing representatives and sending such exhibits to the Louisiana Purchase Exposition as will most fitly and fully illustrate their resources, their industries, and their progress in civilization.

In testimony whereof I have hereunto set my hand and caused the seal of the United States to be affixed.

Done at the city of Washington, this twentieth day of August, one thousand nine hundred and one, and of the Independence of the United States the one hundred and twenty-sixth.

[SEAL.]
WILLIAM MCKINLEY.

    By the President:
    JOHN HAY,
    Secretary of State.

At a meeting of the Commission held on October 15, 1901, the following resolution relative to the lamented death of President McKinley was unanimously adopted by the Commission:

Resolution.

    Since this Commission last convened the President of the United
    States has met a tragic death.

The manner of his death was a blow at republican institutions and felt by every patriotic American as aimed at himself. It can truly be said that of all our Presidents William McKinley was the best beloved; no section of the country held him as an alien to it. Partisan differences never led to partisan hatred of him; party faction did not touch him. Nearly half the people differed with him on public questions, but his opponents accorded to him the same honesty of purpose which he always accorded to them. He was the President of the whole people, and was received by them as such with the honors due his great office and his splendid manhood, from the Atlantic to the Pacific and from the Lakes to the Gulf. Pure of life, lofty of purpose, and patriotic in every endeavor, he was the highest type of our American citizenship.

The prayers of an united people were wafted on high to spare our President, but "God's will, not ours" was done, and the pain of personal grief was felt in every American home.

Resolved by the Louisiana Purchase Exposition Commission,

    First. That in the death of President McKinley, the United
    States have lost a President who fulfilled the best ideals of
    the Republic.

    Second. That in every walk of life, in peace and in war, in
    private and in public station, he was faithful to every trust
    and did his duty as God gave him light to see it.

Third. That these resolutions be spread upon our record and a copy thereof sent, with an expression of our tenderest sympathy, to Mrs. McKinley.

Certain rules and regulations governing foreign exhibitors, which had been formulated by President Carter of the Commission and President Francis of the Exposition Company at a meeting held in Chicago, Ill., on August 14, 1901, were approved by the National Commission on October 15, 1901. The rules are as follows:

    Adopted under, and in pursuance of an act of the Congress of the
    United States, entitled,

"An act to provide for celebrating the one hundredth anniversary of the purchase of the Louisiana Territory by the United States, by holding an international exhibition of arts, industries, manufactures, and the products of the soil, mine, forest, and sea in the city of Saint Louis, in the State of Missouri,"

approved March 3, 1901, a copy of which said act is hereunto attached. As provided by law the Louisiana Purchase Exposition will be held in the city of St. Louis, State of Missouri, U.S.A., and will be opened on the 30th day of April, A.D. 1903, and will be closed on the 1st day of December of that year. The exposition will be closed on Sundays.

This exposition will embrace an exhibition of arts, industries, manufactures, and the products of the soil, mine, forest, and sea. It will be held to celebrate the one hundredth anniversary of the purchase of the Louisiana Territory by the United States from France.

The exposition will be international in character, as contemplated by section 9 of the act of Congress, which reads as follows:

"That whenever the President of the United States shall be notified by the National Commission that provision has been made for grounds and buildings for the uses herein provided for, he shall be authorized to make proclamation of the same, through the Department of State, setting forth the time at which said exposition will be held, and the purposes thereof, and he shall communicate to the diplomatic representatives of foreign nations copies thereof, together with such regulations as may be adopted by the Commission, for publication in their respective countries, and he shall in behalf of the Government and the people invite foreign nations to take part in the said exposition and appoint representatives thereto."

Rules and regulations have been adopted by the National Commission to be communicated to the diplomatic representatives of foreign nations for publication in their respective countries as follows:

ARTICLE 1. All communications relating to the exposition should be addressed to Hon. David R. Francis, president of the Exposition Company, St. Louis, U.S.A.

ART. 2. All applications for space for buildings must be filed with the company on or before July 1, 1902.

ART. 3. Applications for space for exhibits in the buildings of the Exposition Company must be filed on or before the respective dates following, to wit:

    (A) For machinery and mechanical appliances intended for
    exhibition, in operation, October 1, 1902.

    (B) For machinery and mechanical appliances not intended for
    exhibition, in operation, November 1, 1902.

(C) For works of art, natural and manufactured, products, and all productions not herein expressly classified, December 1, 1902.

    ART. 4. Applications for special concessions to individuals,
    associations, or corporations, December 1, 1902.

    All applications must be in writing and should be presented on
    forms which will be furnished by the Exposition Company.

ART. 5. No charge will be made for space allotted for buildings or exhibits of foreign governments. Allotments of space to exhibitors from countries whose governments have appointed commissioners to the exposition will be made by or through such commissioners.

ART. 6. No exhibit shall be removed in whole or in part until the close of the exposition.

Immediately after the close of the exposition exhibitors shall remove their effects and complete such removal before January 1, 1904.

ART. 7. Exhibits from foreign countries will be admitted free of customs duties, as provided in the law and the regulations of the Treasury Department.

ART. 8. The Exposition Company may from time to time, with the approval of the National Commission, promulgate a classification and such additional rules and regulations, not in conflict with the law or regulations herein announced, as may be necessary to facilitate the success of the exposition and to serve the interest of exhibitors.

On October 15, 1901, the Commission was notified that the Exposition
Company had, by a resolution dated October 8, 1901, of which the
Secretary of the Treasury had been duly notified, authorized the
Commission to disburse the sum of $10,000 per annum for contingent
expenses, in accordance with the act of Congress therein referred to.
Following is a copy of the resolution:

Resolved, That the Louisiana Purchase Exposition Commission be, and is hereby, authorized to disburse out of the $5,000,000 appropriated under the provisions of the act approved March 3, 1901, in aid of the Louisiana Purchase Exposition, the sum of $10,000 annually for contingent expenses of said Commission under such rules and regulations as may be prescribed by the Secretary of the Treasury, and upon vouchers to be approved by him.

D.R. FRANCIS.

Attest: W.B. STEVENS, Secretary.

The question of appointing a board of lady managers, authorized by section 6 of the act of Congress, was considered by the National Commission and the Exposition Company at a meeting held on October 16, 1901.

After giving the matter due and careful consideration, the Commission and the company decided to create a board of lady managers of 21 members. The membership of the board was subsequently increased to 24. The names of the board of lady managers are as follows:

Miss Helen Miller Gould.
Mrs. John A. McCall.
Mrs. John M. Holcombe.
Miss Anna L. Dawes.
Mrs. W.E. Andrews.
Mrs. Helen-Boice Hunsicker.
Mrs. James L. Blair.
Mrs. Fannie L. Porter.
Mrs. Frederick M. Hanger.
Mrs. Jennie Gilmore Knott.
Mrs. Emily Warren Roebling.
Mrs. M.H. De Young.
Mrs. Belle L. Everest.
Mrs. Margaret P. Daly.
Mrs. W.H. Coleman.
Mrs. C.B. Buchwalter.
Mrs. Louis D. Frost.
Mrs. Finis P. Ernst.
Mrs. Mary Phelps Montgomery.
Mrs. John Miller Horton.
Mrs. Annie McLean Moores.
Mrs. A.L. Von Mayhoff.
Mrs. Daniel Manning.
Mrs. James Edmund Sullivan.
Miss Lavinia H. Egan.

Rules and regulations for the classification of exhibits at the exposition, which had been presented for the consideration of the Commission by the Exposition Company, and which had been discussed at length, were finally approved on October 17, 1901, and the Exposition Company was notified of that fact.

The matter of formulating rules and regulations for the government of the exposition was one of the first questions to be considered by the Commission. The matter was taken up at the various meetings of the Commission, and conferences were held with the officers of the Exposition Company from time to time. The Commission contended that in the event of a disagreement between the representative of any foreign government and the Exposition Company the representative of such foreign government should be allowed to refer the matter to the National Commission for joint consideration and adjustment with the company. With that end in view the Commission insisted that the following provision should be incorporated in the rules and regulations governing the exposition:

Should disagreement arise between the Exposition Company and the representative of any Government, State, Territory, or District, such representative shall have the privilege, under such rules of procedure as the National Commission may from time to time promulgate, of referring the matter in disagreement between such representative and the company to the National Commission for joint consideration and adjustment with the company.

The company objected to the insertion of this clause.

Thereupon the Commission and the company agreed to submit the matter in dispute to arbitration, in accordance with law. The Commission notified the company that the members of the arbitration board appointed by the Commission were prepared to meet the arbitrators of the company when such last-named arbitrators should be appointed. But owing to the fact that the arbitrators on behalf of the company had not yet been appointed, it was impossible at the time to submit the matter in controversy to arbitration.

In November, 1901, it became evident that the success of the exposition demanded the immediate promulgation of the rules and regulations for the guidance of intending competitors. The Exposition Company communicated with the National Commission to that effect and requested that it be allowed to promulgate the rules and regulations so far as agreed upon, and that the matter in dispute should be left to subsequent arbitration. On November 22, 1901, the Commission consented to the promulgation of the rules and regulations, so far as modified, with the understanding that the provision in dispute, hereinbefore stated, should thereafter be incorporated and given due publicity, provided it was adopted by the board of arbitration. On December 1, 1901, the rules and regulations were published, and a copy thereof, as approved by the National Commission, is as follows:

An act to provide for celebrating the one hundredth anniversary of the purchase of the Louisiana Territory by the United States, by holding an international exhibition of arts, industries, manufactures, and the products of the soil, mine, forest, and sea, in the city of St. Louis, in the State of Missouri, approved March 3, 1901, a copy of which said act is hereto attached.

As provided by law, the Louisiana Purchase Exposition will be held in the city of St. Louis, State of Missouri, U.S.A., and will be opened on the 30th day of April, A.D. 1903, and will be closed on the 1st day of December of that year. The exposition will be closed on Sundays.

This exposition will embrace an exhibition of arts, industries, manufactures, and the products of the soil, mine, forest, and sea. It will be held to celebrate the one hundredth anniversary of the purchase of the Louisiana Territory by the United States from France.

The exposition will be international in character, as contemplated by section 9 of the act of Congress, which reads as follows:

"That whenever the President of the United States shall be notified by the National Commission that provision has been made for grounds and buildings, for the uses herein provided for, he shall be authorized to make proclamation of the same, through the Department of State, setting forth the time at which said exposition will be held, and the purposes thereof, and he shall communicate to the diplomatic representatives of foreign nations copies thereof, together with such regulations as may be adopted by the Commission, for publication in their respective countries, and he shall, in behalf of the Government and the people, invite foreign nations to take part in the said exposition and to appoint representatives thereto."

Rules and Regulations.

The following general rules and regulations are promulgated by the Louisiana Purchase Exposition Company, having been approved by the Louisiana Purchase Exposition Commission:

ARTICLE I.
SECTION I. Under a proclamation of the President of the United States, signed August 20, 1901, all nations and peoples are invited to and may participate in this exposition.

    SEC. II. The site of the exposition will be the west portion of
    Forest Park and adjacent territory, and will comprise,
    approximately, 1,000 acres.

SEC. III. The executive of the exposition is the president of the board of directors of the Louisiana Purchase Exposition Company. There are four principal executive divisions presided over by the following officers: Director of exhibits, director of exploitation, director of works, director of concessions and admissions.

Under the officers subordinate departments for the supervision of exhibits, of construction, and of maintenance may be created, each department having its individual chief.

SEC. IV. The bureau of transportation shall have entire charge of all matters relating to the transportation of passengers and freight to and from the exposition grounds from all parts of the world. It will quote rates and classifications, remedy delays, and be constituted in such a manner as to extend practical assistance and information to all exhibitors and the public at large. This bureau has for its chief officer a traffic manager, who will report direct to the president.

ARTICLE II.
SECTION I. For the development of the exposition to the full extent of the general plan as outlined, provision will be made for the installation and care of exhibits, and for the construction of exhibition palaces, ample and adequate to the theoretical and physical scope of the exposition.

SEC. II. For the purposes of installation and review of exhibits a classification has been adopted. The classification heretofore adopted has been divided into a number of departments, each of which is again divided into groups and subdivided into classes. Under this scope and plan the exposition will be constructed, the installation perfected, and the system of awards conducted. In conformity therewith the following exhibit departments are created: Department A—Education; Department B—Art; Department C—Liberal Arts; Department D—Manufactures; Department E—Machinery; Department F—Electricity; Department G—Transportation; Department H—Agriculture; Department J—Horticulture; Department K—Forestry; Department L—Mines and Metallurgy; Department M—Fish and Game; Department N—Anthropology; Department O—Social Economy; Department P—Physical Culture.

Exhibits shall be classified into 15 departments, in 144 groups, and in 807 classes.

ARTICLE III.
SECTION I. The directors of the four executive divisions, and the chief of the different departments thereunder, may promulgate special rules and regulations governing the more minute and technical details of the operation of the respective departments.

SEC. II. The director of exhibits shall have general charge of the installation of all exhibits and the control and management of the same.

ARTICLE IV.
SECTION I. The general classification is hereby made a part of these rules and regulations.

SEC. II. The Louisiana Purchase Exposition Company reserves the right, subject to the approval of the Commission, to amend or correct the classification at any time before the opening of the exposition by giving thirty days' public notice.

ARTICLE V.
SECTION I. The price of admission will be 50 cents.

SEC. II. While the broadest construction will be placed upon the rights of exhibitors and their agents to free admission to the grounds for the purpose of caring for their respective exhibits, it is intended to restrict these courtesies within reasonable limits.

ARTICLE VI.
SECTION I. No charge will be made for space allotted for exhibits.

SEC. II. No charge will be made for space allotted for buildings of foreign governments, or the United States Government, or of the State, Territorial, or District governments of the United States.

ARTICLE VII.
SECTION I. Exhibitors of manufactured articles must be the manufacturers or producers thereof.

SEC. II. The country where an exhibit is produced, and not the citizenship of the exhibitor, will determine the nationality of an exhibit.

SEC. III. Each foreign nation participating in the exposition will be accorded an official representative, to be accredited to the president of the Louisiana Purchase Exposition Company, through the Secretary of State of the United States, or otherwise.

SEC. IV. Allotment of space to exhibitors from countries where governments have appointed official representatives to the exposition will be made by or through such representatives.

SEC. V. While it is expected, as far as possible, to confine negotiations in the United States to the official representatives of the respective States, Territories, and Districts, the right is reserved to confer directly with individuals.

ARTICLE VIII.
SECTION I. All applications for space for buildings must be filed on or before July 1, 1902.

SEC. II. Application for space for exhibits in the buildings of the exposition must be filed on or before the respective dates following, to wit:

(a) For machinery and mechanical appliances intended for exhibition in operation October 1, 1902.

    (b) For machinery and mechanical appliances not intended for
    exhibition in operation, November 1, 1902.

    (c) For works of art, natural and manufactured products not
    herein expressly classified, December 1, 1902.

(d) For special concessions to individuals, associations, or corporations, December 1, 1902.

SEC. III. All applications for space must be in writing, addressed to the president of the exposition, and should be presented on forms which will be furnished by the Exposition Company.

SEC. IV. Each application for space for exhibits must be accompanied by a sketch, drawn to a scale of one-fourth of an inch to the foot, showing the ground floor plan, and, if possible, the front elevation and general outlines. These installation plans and schemes must receive the indorsement of the chief of the department in which the exhibit is to be located, and the approval of the director of exhibits, and must conform to the general architectural design for the treatment of the interior of the building as prepared by the director of works.

SEC. V. Permits for space will not be transferable, and exhibitors will be confined to such exhibits as are specified in their applications.

ARTICLE IX.
SECTION I. All communications relating to the exposition should be addressed to the president of the Louisiana Purchase Exposition Company, St. Louis, U.S.A.

SEC. II. All packages containing exhibits must be addressed to the president of the Louisiana Purchase Exposition Company.

SEC. III. Direction labels will be furnished by the Exposition Company to be attached to each package. This label must be filled out so as to convey the following information:

(a) The department in which the exhibit is to be installed.

(b) The country, State, or Territory from which the package is consigned.

(c) The name and address of the exhibitor and the total number of packages sent by such exhibitor.

SEC. IV. In boxing or casing any material intended for exhibition, screws should be employed in preference to nails or steel hoops, and packages should be addressed on two or more sides. Each package should contain a list of the goods therein.

SEC. V. Consignments intended for different buildings should be in separate packages, and not be included in the same box, crate, or barrel.

SEC. VI. Freight and express charges and all charges appertaining to the transportation of material belonging to individuals, such as exhibits, building material, concession material and supplies, etc., must be prepaid at the point of shipment, and the goods delivered at the exposition clear of all charges of any description incident to the transportation.

ARTICLE X.
SECTION I. If no authorized person is at hand to take charge of an exhibit within reasonable time after its arrival at the exposition buildings said exhibit will be removed and stored at the cost and risk of whosoever it may concern.

SEC. II. The installation of heavy articles, requiring foundation, may, by special agreement with the director of works, begin as soon as the progress of the construction of the buildings will permit.

SEC. III. No exhibits shall be removed in whole or in part until the close of the exposition.

SEC. IV. Immediately after the close of the exposition exhibitors shall remove their exhibits and construction, and complete such removal before March 1, 1904. Any exhibit or material not removed on March 1, 1904, will be considered to have been abandoned by the exhibitor, and will be subject to removal at the cost of the exhibitors, or to such disposition by the Exposition Company as may be deemed advisable.

ARTICLE XI.
SECTION I. All show cases, cabinets, shelving, counters, etc., required in the installation of an exhibit, must be provided at the expense of the exhibitor, and all countershafts, steam pulleys, belting, etc., and all compressed-air connections, and all water and sewerage connections must be paid for by the person applying for the same.

SEC. II. All decorations and designs to be constructed in connection with the installation must conform to the rules and regulations promulgated by the director of exhibits, and receive the approval of the chief of the department interested.

SEC. III. No exhibitor will be permitted to install an exhibit so as to obstruct the light or occasion any inconvenience to or disadvantageously affect the display of other exhibitors.

SEC. IV. The flooring of an exposition building must not be cut or removed, or its foundation disturbed, and no part of the construction of a building shall be employed for installation purposes, except upon the recommendation of the director of exhibits, approved by the director of works.

SEC. V. Special rules regulating the height of platforms, partitions, rails, cases, cabinets, counters, and any special trophy or feature will be issued by the chiefs of the different departments, with the approval of the director of exhibits.

SEC. VI. All designs for the treatment of exhibition spaces must be in accordance with the foregoing limitations. The material used for covering counters, screens, partitions, or floors will be subject to the approval of the director of exhibits, upon the recommendation of the chiefs of the department, and must be in accordance with the general color scheme of the director of works.

SEC. VII. Special rules and regulations in addition to and not in conflict with the general rules and regulations of the Louisiana Purchase Exposition Company may be promulgated by the different departments.

ARTICLE XII.
SECTION I. All articles which shall be imported from foreign countries for the sole purpose of exhibition at said exposition, upon which there shall be a tariff or customs duty, will be admitted free of payment of duty, customs fees, or charges, under such regulations as the Secretary of the Treasury shall prescribe under an act of the Congress providing for the exposition.

SEC. II. It will be lawful at any time during the exposition to sell for delivery at the close thereof any goods or property imported for and actually on exhibition in the exposition buildings or on the grounds, subject to such regulations for the security of the revenue and for the collection of import duty as the Secretary of the Treasury shall prescribe. Such articles when sold or withdrawn for consumption in the United States will be subject to the duty, if any, imposed upon such articles by the revenue laws in force at the date of the importation, and all penalties prescribed by the laws of the United States will be applied and enforced against such articles and against the person who may be guilty of any illegal sale or withdrawal.

SEC. III. Such arrangements will be made with the Government of the United States as will permit the transportation of foreign exhibits in bond direct to the exposition grounds, which will be designated as a United States bonded warehouse.

ARTICLE XIII.
SECTION I. While the Exposition Company will provide every, possible protection for exhibits and for the property of exhibitors, it will not be responsible in any case for loss by fire, accident, vandalism, or theft, through which objects placed upon exhibition may suffer, whatever may be the cause or the amount of the damage.

SEC. II. Any object or article of a dangerous or detrimental character, or that is incompatible with the object or decorum of the exposition or the comfort or safety of the public, will be refused admission to the grounds or removed from any building or any part of the grounds upon the recommendation of the director of exhibits, approved by the president.

SEC. III. Articles that are in any way dangerous or offensive, also patent medicines, nostrums, and empirical preparations whose ingredients are concealed, will not be admitted to the exposition. The director of exhibits, with the approval of the president, has the authority to order the removal of any article he may consider dangerous, detrimental to, or incompatible with the object or decorum of the exposition or the comfort and safety of the public.

SEC. IV. The Louisiana Purchase Exposition Company will carry no insurance on exhibits, but favorable terms will be secured by the Exposition Company under which exhibitors may insure their own goods in responsible companies.

ARTICLE XIV.
SECTION I. Advertisement by means of posters, prints, handbills, etc., will not be permitted within the exposition grounds except upon the recommendation of the proper authorities, approved by the president of the Exposition Company, and then to a restricted degree only.

SEC. II. Exhibitors' business cards and brief descriptive circulars only may be conveniently placed within such exhibition space for distribution; but the right is reserved to the chief of the department, upon the approval of the director of exhibits, to restrict or discontinue this privilege whenever it is carried to excess or becomes an annoyance.

ARTICLE XV.
SECTION I. Exhibitors will be held responsible for the cleanliness of their exhibits and the space surrounding same.

SEC. II. All exhibits must be in complete order each day at least thirty minutes before the buildings are open to the public. No janitor or other work of this character will be permitted during the hours the buildings are open to the public. In case of failure on the part of any exhibitor to observe these rules, the chief of the department, with the approval of the director of exhibits, may adopt such means to enforce the same as circumstances may suggest.

ARTICLE XVI.
SECTION I. No crates, barrels, or packing cases will be permitted to remain upon the exhibition space after their contents have been removed, except upon the recommendation of the chief of the department where the exhibit is installed, approved by the director of exhibits.

SEC. II. The Exposition Company will provide a storage warehouse for crates, barrels, and packing cases, under a reasonable schedule of charges based upon those levied by similar warehouses, which it will be optional for exhibitors to use.

SEC. III. Facilities for the conveyance of empty crates, barrels, or packing cases to storage places will be provided at a moderate price.

ARTICLE XVII.
SECTION I. No exhibit or object upon exhibition may be sketched, copied, or reproduced in any way whatever without the permission of the exhibitor, approved by the director of exhibits, except that the president of the company may give such permission.
ARTICLE XVIII.
SECTION I. Exhibitors desiring to contract for service of electricity, steam, compressed air, power from shafting, gas, or water, must make application to the chief of the department in which their exhibits are installed. No application for service will be entertained unless made upon a blank furnished by the director of works, which may be obtained from a chief of a department, and when an application for service has been approved by the director of exhibits the contract will be executed on the part of the Louisiana Purchase Exposition Company by the director of works on terms and conditions that will be stated in each case. The director of exhibits and the director of works, in their discretion, are authorized to furnish gratuitously to exhibitors a limited amount of power for the operation of machines and processes. The character of the exhibit requiring power for its operation will have much to do with determining the amount of power that will be furnished gratuitously.
ARTICLE XIX.
SECTION I. Concessions may be granted for private exhibitions for which a charge for admission may be made; for restaurants, for places of amusement, for merchandising, and for other purposes not incompatible with the scope and dignity of the exposition, under terms and conditions to be determined upon by the proper authorities in each case.
ARTICLE XX.
SECTION I. An official catalogue of all exhibits will be published in English by the Exposition Company. Foreign governments and the governments of the States, Territories, and Districts of the United States, making a collective exhibit, may publish separate catalogues of their own exhibits when recommended by the director of exhibits to the president and approved by him.

    SEC. II. The sale of catalogues is reserved exclusively by the
    Exposition Company.

ARTICLE XXI.
SECTION I. The Exposition Company will organize, equip, and maintain an efficient police system for the protection of property and the preservation of peace and good order.

SEC. II. The exposition will maintain a corps of janitors and scavengers, whose duty it will be to properly care for and clean the roadways, approaches, paths, etc., in general of the exposition and the aisles within the exhibit buildings; but their duties and responsibilities will not extend to exhibit spaces, to the subsidiary aisles, or to the buildings of foreign or domestic governments or individuals.

SEC. III. Exhibitors may employ watchmen and janitors of their choice to guard and care for their material during the hours the exposition is open to the public. Such watchmen will be subject to the rules and regulations governing employees of the exposition; but no exhibitor will be permitted to employ attendants for service of this character except upon the written consent of the chief of the department, approved by the director of exhibits.

SEC. IV. Each country, commission, organization, corporation and individual, by becoming an exhibitor, agrees to conform to all the rules and regulations established for the government and conduct of the exposition.

ARTICLE XXII.
AWARDS.
SECTION I The system of awards will be competitive. The merit of exhibits as determined by the jury of awards will be manifested by the issuance of diplomas, which will be divided into four classes; a grand prize, a gold medal, a silver medal, and a bronze medal.

SEC. II. No exhibit can be excluded from competition for award without the consent of the president of the Exposition Company, after a review of the reasons or motives by competent authorities hereafter to be provided.

SEC. III. In a fixed ratio to the number of exhibits, but reserving to the citizens of the United States approximately 60 per cent of the jury membership, the construction of the international jury will be based upon a predetermined number of judges allotted to each group of the classification and upon the number and importance of the exhibits in such group.

SEC. IV. A chairman of the group jury will be elected by his colleagues in each group, this chairman to become, by right of his position, a member of the department jury, which department jury shall in turn elect its chairman, who shall thereupon become a member of the superior jury.

SEC. V. Special rules and regulations governing the system of making awards and determining the extent to which foreign countries may have representation on the juries will be hereafter promulgated.

SEC. VI. Allotment of space for exhibitors, the classification of exhibits, the appointment of all judges and examiners for the exposition, and the awarding of premiums, if any, shall be done and performed by the Louisiana Purchase Exposition Company, subject, however, to the approval of the Louisiana Purchase Exposition Commission.

DAVID R. FRANCIS, President.

Attest: WALTER B. STEVENS, Secretary.

On February 7, 1902, the Commission, subject to the approval of the Exposition Company, which approval was thereafter given, adopted the following general rules, prescribing the general scope of the duties to be performed by the board of lady managers, to wit:

First. To appoint one member of all committees authorized to award prizes for such exhibits as may have been produced in whole or in part by female labor.

Second. To exercise general supervisory control over such features of the exposition as may be specially devoted to woman's work.

Third. To take part in the ceremonies connected with the dedication of the buildings of the exposition, and in all official functions in which women may be invited to participate, and in other official functions upon the request of the company and the Commission.

Fourth. To elect such officers, appoint such committees, and to make and promulgate such rules and regulations as may be deemed necessary for the efficient discharge of the duties aforesaid; provided, that said board shall not make any expenditures nor incur any financial obligation except under authority previously obtained from the company and the Commission.

The members of the board of lady managers voluntarily proposed to serve without compensation, and in view of such proposal, at a conference between the Commission and the president of the Exposition Company, it was decided to remunerate them for their traveling and other expenses while attending meetings of the board by an allowance of 5 cents per mile for travel and a per diem allowance of $6 in lieu of subsistence during the sessions of the board.

It was decided, also, that the membership of the board be increased to a maximum of 24 members.

Early in 1902 it became evident that it would be necessary to postpone the exposition for one year, and the Exposition Company consequently notified Congress to that effect.

In the act making appropriations for sundry civil expenses of the Government for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1903, and for other purposes, approved June 28, 1902, provision was made for the postponement of the Exposition until 1904 in terms as follows:

Provided, further: That sections eight and twelve of an act entitled "An act to provide for celebrating the one hundredth anniversary of the purchase of the Louisiana Territory by the United States by holding an international exhibition of arts, industries, manufactures, and the products of the soil, mine, forest, and sea in the city of Saint Louis, in the State of Missouri," approved March third, nineteen hundred and one, be, and the same are hereby, amended so as to read as follows:

SEC. 8. That said Commission shall provide for the dedication of the buildings of the Louisiana Purchase Exposition in said city of Saint Louis not later than the thirtieth day of April, nineteen hundred and three, with appropriate ceremonies, and thereafter said exposition shall be opened to visitors at such time as may be designated by said company, subject to the approval of said Commission, not later than the first day of May, nineteen hundred and four, and shall be closed at such time as the National Commission may determine, subject to the approval of said company, but not later than the first day of December thereafter.

SEC. 12. That the National Commission hereby authorized shall cease to exist on the first day of July, nineteen hundred and five.

On July 1, 1902 the following proclamation, announcing the postponement of the exposition, was issued by the President of the United States:

Whereas the President on August 20, 1901, issued his proclamation stating that he has been advised by the Louisiana Purchase Exposition Commission, pursuant to the provisions of section 9 of the act of Congress approved March 3, 1901, entitled "An act to provide for celebrating the one hundredth anniversary of the purchase of the Louisiana Territory by the United States by holding an international exhibition of arts, industries, manufactures, and the products of the soil, mine, forest, and sea in the city of St. Louis, in the State of Missouri," that provision had been made for grounds and buildings for the uses specified in the said mentioned act of Congress;

Whereas it was declared and proclaimed by the President in his aforesaid proclamation that such international exhibition would be opened in the city of St. Louis, in the State of Missouri, not later than the 1st day of May, 1903, and be closed not later than the 1st day of December thereafter;

And whereas section 8 of the act of Congress approved June 28, 1902, entitled "An act making appropriations for sundry civil expenses of the Government for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1903, and for other purposes," fixes a subsequent date for the holding of the said international exhibition, and specifically states that said Commission shall provide for the dedication of the buildings of the Louisiana Purchase Exposition in said city of St. Louis not later than the 30th day of April, 1903, with appropriate ceremonies, and thereafter said exposition shall be opened to visitors at such time as may be designated by said company, subject to the approval of said Commission, not later than the 1st day of May, 1904, and shall be closed at such time as the National Commission may determine, subject to the approval of said company, but not later than the 1st day of December thereafter;

Now, therefore, I, Theodore Roosevelt, President of the United States, do hereby declare and proclaim the aforesaid provision of law to the end that it may definitely and formally be known that such international exhibition will be opened in the city of St. Louis, in the State of Missouri, not later than May 1, 1904, and will be closed not later than December 1 of that year.

In testimony whereof I have hereunto set my hand and caused the seal of the United States to be affixed.

Done at the city of Washington the 1st day of July, 1902, and of the independence of the United States the one hundred and twenty-sixth.

[SEAL.]
THEODORE ROOSEVELT.

    By the President:
    DAVID J. HILL,
    Acting Secretary of State.

On April 30, 1903, the buildings of the Louisiana Purchase Exposition were dedicated in the city of St. Louis under the direction of the Commission.

PROGRAMME

CENTENNIAL DAY, APRIL 30, 1903.

GRAND MARSHAL, MAJ. GEN. HENRY C. CORBIN, UNITED STATES ARMY. * * * * *

At 10 o'clock a.m. the freedom of the city was tendered to the President of the United States by the mayor of St. Louis.

The military parade, composed of United States troops and the National Guard in attendance, assembled under direction of the grand marshal and moved from the junction of Grand avenue and Lindell boulevard promptly at half-past 10 o'clock, preceded by the President of the United States and official guests in carriages, through Forest Park to the exposition grounds, where the Presidential salute was fired, and the parade was reviewed by the President of the United States.

At 1.30 p.m. a grand band concert took place, the doors of the Liberal Arts Building, where the dedication exercises were held, were thrown open, and the audience seated under direction of the guards and ushers.

Promptly at 2 o'clock the assembly was called to order by Hon. David R. Francis, president of the Exposition Company, and the following programme was carried out:

First. Invocation by his eminence Cardinal James Gibbons, as follows:

We pray Thee, O God of might, wisdom, and justice, through Whom authority is rightly administered, laws are enacted, and judgment decreed, assist with the Holy Spirit of counsel and fortitude the President of the United States, that his Administration may be conducted in righteousness and be eminently useful to Thy people over whom he presides, by encouraging due respect for virtue and religion, by a faithful execution of the laws in justice and mercy, and by restraining vice and immorality.

By the light of Thy divine wisdom direct the deliberations of Congress and shine forth in all their proceedings and laws framed for our rule and government, so that they may tend to the preservation of peace, the promotion of national happiness, the increase of industry, sobriety, and useful knowledge, and may perpetuate to us the blessings of equal liberty.

We pray for his excellency, the governor of this State, for the members of the legislature, for all judges, magistrates, and other officers who are appointed to guard our political welfare, that they may be enabled by Thy powerful protection to discharge the duties of their respective stations with honesty and ability.

We pray for the president and directors of the Louisiana Purchase Exposition, that their arduous labors may be crowned with success, and may redound to the greater growth and development of this flourishing city on the banks of the Father of Waters.

May this vast territory which was peacefully acquired a hundred years ago be for all time to come the tranquil and happy abode of millions of enlightened, God-fearing, and industrious people engaged in the various pursuits and avocations of life. As this new domain was added to our possessions without sanguinary strife, so may its soil never be stained by bloodshed in any foreign or domestic warfare.

May this commemorative exposition to which the family of nations are generously contributing their treasures of art and industry bind together the governments of the earth in closer ties of fellowship and good will, and of social and commercial intercourse. May it hasten the dawn of the reign of the Prince of Peace, when national conflicts will be adjusted, not by hostile armies, but by permanent courts of arbitration.

May this international exposition, inaugurated in the interests of people and commerce, help to break down the walls of dissension, of jealousy, and prejudice that divides race from race, nation from nation, and people from people, by proclaiming aloud the sublime gospel truth that we are all children of the same God, brothers and sisters of the same Lord Jesus Christ, and that we are all aspiring to a glorious inheritance in the everlasting kingdom of our common Father.

Second. Address by Mr. Thomas H. Carter, of the National Commission, president of the day.

One hundred years ago to-day the Government of the United States acquired sovereignty over the vast territory west of the Mississippi River, which has since been known to the geographical nomenclature of the world as the "Louisiana Purchase." Beyond the river the boundaries and the resources of the territory were ill defined and but vaguely comprehended. The purchase price of $15,000,000 was pronounced exorbitant, the free navigation of the Mississippi being the only part of the property deemed worthy of serious consideration. The transaction was regarded by many as a violation of the Constitution and a menace to our form of government. The grave doubts of president Jefferson were only resolved into action by his patriotic desire for national supremacy over the river and his prophetic faith in the possibilities of the mysterious country beyond it. The revelations of a century most amply justified his faith.

When the treaty of cession was concluded, President Jefferson represented less than 6,000,000 people. During these ceremonies, President Roosevelt, the Executive of over 80,000,000 of freemen, will dedicate the buildings.

The magical story of local development puts to shame the creations of fiction. The contented and prosperous inhabitants of the Louisiana Purchase to-day substantially equal in numbers three times the total population of the United States in 1800. The conquest of space, forests, streams, and deserts and the founding of cities and States in waste places within this territory mark an advance unsurpassed in the history of human endeavor.

In conformity with a special act of Congress, the President has invited all the nations to cooperate with us in properly commemorating the masterful achievements of a century in this new country.

It is fitting that the celebration should be international, for you will in vain attempt to name a civilized country whose sons and daughters have not contributed to the glorious triumphs of peace recorded here. In vain will you seek a more cosmopolitan and at the same time a more homogeneous population than that of the Louisiana territory. The purchase facilitated by the exigencies of European war, and made in a season of darkness and peril, has proven a boon not only to the grantor and the grantee, but to humanity at large, for here the nations have commingled, and the brotherhood of man has become a demonstrated possibility.

As a means of giving expression to the universal appreciation of what has been accomplished for humanity within this field during the century, the Louisiana Purchase Exposition was organized under authority of an act of Congress. With the aid of the United States Government and the city of St. Louis, the Exposition Company, through its officers, agents, and employees, has erected the majestic exposition buildings whose massive proportions and classical outlines excite the wonder and admiration of the vast multitude assembled within and about their walls.

To everyone present is accorded the privilege of assisting in the dedication of these buildings to their intended use. The President of the United States honors us by being present to extend his greetings and to voice the approving sentiments of his countrymen.

Moved by a broad and generous spirit, the nations of the earth, from the empire of most ancient origin to the republic of twentieth-century creation, dignifies the occasion by the presence of their accredited representatives. Our home folks from all the States, Territories, and districts betoken by their numbers and enthusiasm the interest of the body of the people in the exposition and the great historic event it is intended to commemorate.

In the name of the National Commission, directed by Congress to provide for the dedication ceremonies, I extend to you all a cordial welcome, and as responsive to this inspiring scene of peace and generous feeling, I call upon the chorus to favor us with Beethoven's Creation hymn.

Those best informed will, by unanimous consent, yield to Hon. David R. Francis, president of the company, the highest measure of praise for the organization of the exposition and the construction of the buildings he will now present to the President of the United States for dedication.

Third. Grand chorus: "The Heavens Proclaiming."

Fourth. Presentation of the buildings by Hon. David R. Francis, president of the Exposition Company:

    The people of the Louisiana Purchase are proud of their
    membership in the Federal Union.

They are grateful for the benefits that have flowed from a life under the enduring institutions framed by the founders of the Republic. They congratulate their brethren on the position our country occupies among the nations of the earth, and felicitate themselves on the part they have performed toward raising it to its present prestige and power.

They felt it a patriotic duty to fittingly commemorate the completion of the first century of their connection with the American Republic, and the rounding out of an important epoch in the life of the Republic. In the discharge of that duty this exposition was conceived. The inhabitants of the fourteen States and two Territories comprised within the purchase selected St. Louis as the scene of the celebration.

The people of this city, grateful for the honor conferred, promptly accepted it and cheerfully assumed the immense responsibility it entailed. The century just closed, unequaled as it was in every line of progress, furnishes no more striking evidence of the advance of civilization than the development of the Louisiana territory. A celebration in such an age and in such a country, to be fit, should be upon a scale in keeping with the best and the highest, and should be planned upon lines broad enough to take in every people and every clime.

A scheme so ambitious in its inception naturally had comparatively few advocates and encountered many antagonists and more doubters. It could not be accomplished without the recognition and the aid of the General Government, which, for a time, it seemed impossible to enlist. It was decided that the amount required to launch an undertaking so comprehensive should be the same as that paid for the empire which Jefferson purchased—$15,000,000. The Congress said to St. Louis, "When you have secured two-thirds of that sum, we will provide the remaining third." The conditions were accepted and fulfilled.

After three years of struggle the sinews had been secured—the first step accomplished. Two years have since elapsed. During that period the work has been pushed in every State and Territory and possession of the United States, and in every civilized country on the earth. The disappointments experienced and the obstacles encountered have but served to spur to renewed effort those who, from the inception of the movement, had determined to carry it to a successful consummation.

The further encouragement of the General Government on the provision for its own exhibit, the cooperation of 41 States and Territories and possessions of the United States, the pledged participation of 32 foreign countries are the results of vigorous domestic and foreign exploitation. That, and what you behold here to-day in physical shape, we submit as the product of five years of labor, nearly four of which were devoted to propaganda and appeal and organization.

The plan and scope, comprehensive as they were in the beginning, have never diminished at any stage of the progress; rather have they been amplified and enlarged.

St. Louis, with an ever-widening sense of the responsibility, and an ever-growing appreciation of the opportunity, has, up to this moment, risen to the full measure of the duty assumed. The management of the exposition has never despaired, but with a realizing sense of the mighty task it has undertaken, and mindful of the limitations of human capabilities, with singleness of purpose and with personal sacrifice for which it neither asks nor deserves credit, has striven to meet the expectations of those whose trust it holds.

The Exposition Company makes its acknowledgments to those faithful and efficient officials whose intelligent service have contributed so much toward bringing the enterprise to its present stage. The company expresses its obligation to the artists and artisans who have reared these graceful and majestic structures and whose labors have been inspired more by pride in the end to be achieved than by hope of material reward.

The Universal Exposition of 1904, when the date of opening rolls around one year from to-day, will, with its buildings completed, its exhibits installed, be thoroughly prepared to receive the millions of visitors who will enter its gates. The distinguished assemblage which honors us with its presence to-day can come nearer forming an adequate conception of the scope of the work by personal inspection than through the writings or illustrations of authors and designers, however great their talent may be.

To the President of the United States, to the accomplished representatives of foreign countries, to the chief executives of the sovereign States, to the Senators and Representatives of the National Congress, to the great concourse of visitors here congregated, we extend greeting. If you are pleased with what has been accomplished, your approval is abundant reward for the labor we have performed.

We bear in mind and trust you do not overlook that this celebration is of no section, but of the entire country. It is our hope and our expectation that every section and every commonwealth, and in fact, every community, will cherish a proprietary interest and lend hopeful aid to this undertaking, to the end that it may prove as nearly as may be commensurate with the country and the century whose achievement and advancement it is designed to commemorate.

The beautiful picture whose outlines you now behold will, to adopt the simile of the chief designer, when completed, compose a song that will reverberate around the globe.

And now, Mr. President, it is my pleasing privilege and high honor to present to you for dedication the buildings of the Louisiana Purchase Exposition. May a high standard of citizenship and broader humanity and the mission of the country whose worthy representative you are be sustained and fostered and promoted by the uses to which these structures are devoted. May the happiness of mankind be advanced and broadened by the lofty purposes that inspired this undertaking and moved our own and sister countries to unite in its accomplishment.

Fifth. Dedication address by the President of the United States:

MR. PRESIDENT, LADIES AND GENTLEMEN: At the outset of my address let me recall to the minds of my hearers that the soil upon which we stand, before it was ours was successively the possession of two mighty empires—Spain and France—whose sons made a deathless record of heroism in the early annals of the New World.

No history of the Western country can be written without paying heed to the wonderful part played therein in the early days by the soldiers, missionaries, explorers, and traders who did their work for the honor of the proud banners of France and Castile.

While the settlers of English-speaking stock and those of Dutch, German, and Scandinavian origin, who were associated with them, were still clinging close to the eastern seaboard, the pioneers of Spain and of France had penetrated deep into the hitherto unknown wildness of the West and had wandered far and wide within the boundaries of what is now our mighty country. The very cities themselves—St. Louis, New Orleans, Santa Fe, N. Mex.—bear witness by their titles to the nationalities of their founders. It was not until the Revolution had begun that the English-speaking settlers pushed west across the Alleghanies, and not until a century ago that they entered in to possess the land upon which we now stand.

We have met here to-day to commemorate the hundredth anniversary of the event which more than any other, after the foundation of the Government, and always excepting its preservation, determined the character of our national life—determined that we should be a great expanding nation instead of relatively a small and stationary one.

Of course, it was not with the Louisiana Purchase that our career of expansion began. In the middle of the Revolutionary war the Illinois region, including the present States of Illinois and Indiana, was added to our domain by force of arms, as a sequel to the adventurous expedition of George Rogers Clark and his frontier riflemen.

Later the treaties of Jay and Pinckney materially extended our real boundaries to the west. But none of these events was of so striking a character as to fix the popular imagination. The old thirteen colonies had always claimed that their rights stretched westward to the Mississippi, and vague and unreal though these claims were until made good by conquest, settlement, and diplomacy, they still served to give the impression that the earliest westward movements of our people were little more than the filling in of already existing national boundaries.

But there could be no illusion about the acquisition of the vast territory beyond the Mississippi, stretching westward to the Pacific, which in that day was known as Louisiana. This immense region was admittedly the territory of a foreign power, of a European kingdom. None of our people had ever laid claim to a foot of it. Its acquisition could in no sense be treated as rounding out any existing claims. When we acquired it, we made evident once for all that consciously and of set purpose we had embarked on a career of expansion; that we had taken our place among those daring and hardy nations who risk much with the hope and desire of winning high position among the great powers of the earth. As is so often the case in nature the law of development of a living organism showed itself in its actual workings to be wiser than the wisdom of the wisest.

This work of expansion was by far the greatest work of our people during the years that intervened between the adoption of the Constitution and the outbreak of the civil war. There were other questions of real moment and importance, and there were many which at the time seemed such to those engaged in answering them; but the greatest feat of our forefathers of those generations was the deed of the men, who with pack train or wagon train, on horseback, on foot, or by boat upon the waters pushed the frontier ever westward across the continent.

Never before had the world seen the kind of national expansion which gave our people all that part of the American continent lying west of the thirteen original States—the greatest landmark in which was the Louisiana Purchase. Our triumph in this process of expansion was indissolubly bound up with the success of our peculiar kind of Federal Government, and this success has been so complete that because of its very completeness we now sometimes fail to appreciate not only the all importance but the tremendous difficulty of the problem with which our nation was originally faced.

When our forefathers joined to call into being this nation, they undertook a task for which there was but little encouraging precedent. The development of civilization from the earliest period seemed to show the truth of two propositions: In the first place, it had always proved exceedingly difficult to secure both freedom and strength in any Government; and in the second place, it had always proved well-nigh impossible for a nation to expand without either breaking up or becoming a centralized tyranny. With the success of our effort to combine a strong and efficient national union, able to put down disorder at home and to maintain our honor and interest abroad, I have not now to deal. This success was signal and all important, but it was by no means unprecedented in the same sense that our type of expansion was unprecedented.

The history of Rome and of Greece illustrates very well the two types of expansion which had taken place in ancient times, and which had been universally accepted as the only possible types up to the period when, as a nation, we ourselves began to take possession of this continent. The Grecian states performed remarkable feats of colonization, but each colony as soon as created became entirely independent of the mother state, and in after years was almost as apt to prove its enemy as its friend. Local self-government, local independence was secured, but only by the absolute sacrifice of anything resembling national unity.

In consequence, the Greek world, for all its wonderful brilliancy and extraordinary artistic, literary, and philosophical development, which has made all mankind its debtor for the ages, was yet wholly unable to withstand a formidable foreign foe, save spasmodically. As soon as powerful permanent empires arose on its outskirts, the Greek states in the neighborhood of such empires fell under their sway. National power and greatness were completely sacrificed to local liberty.

With Rome the exact opposite occurred. The imperial city rose to absolute dominion over all the people of Italy, and then expanded her rule over the entire civilized world, by a process which kept the nation strong and united, but gave no room whatever for local liberty and self-government. All other cities and countries were subject to Rome. In consequence, this great and masterful race of warriors, rulers, road builders, and administrators stamped their indelible impress upon all the after life of our race, and yet let an over-centralization eat out the vitals of their empire until it became an empty shell, so that when the barbarians came they destroyed only what had already become worthless to the world.

The underlying viciousness of each type of expansion was plain enough, and the remedy now seems simple enough. But when the fathers of the Republic first formulated the Constitution under which we live, this remedy was untried, and no one could foretell how it would work. They themselves began the experiment almost immediately by adding new States to the original thirteen. Excellent people in the East viewed this initial expansion of the country with great alarm. Exactly as during the colonial period many good people in the mother country thought it highly important that settlers should be kept out of the Ohio Valley in the interest of the fur companies, so after we had become a nation many good people on the Atlantic coast felt grave apprehension lest they might somehow be hurt by the westward growth of the nation.

These good people shook their heads over the formation of States in the fertile Ohio Valley, which now forms part of the heart of our nation, and they declared that the destruction of the Republic had been accomplished when through the Louisiana Purchase we acquired nearly half of what is now that same Republic's present territory. Nor was their feeling unnatural. Only the adventurous and the farseeing can be expected heartily to welcome the process of expansion, for a nation which expands is a nation which is entering upon a great career, and with greatness there must of necessity come perils which daunt all save the most stout-hearted.

We expand by carving the wilderness into Territories, and out of these Territories building new States when once they had received as permanent settlers a sufficient number of our own people. Being a practical nation, we have never tried to force on any section of our new territory an unsuitable form of government merely because it was suitable for another section under different conditions. Of the territory covered by the Louisiana Purchase, a portion was given statehood within a few years. Another portion has not been admitted to statehood, although a century has elapsed, although doubtless it soon will be. In each case we showed the practical governmental genius of our race by devising methods suitable to meet the actual existing needs, not by insisting upon the application of some abstract shibboleth to all our new possessions alike, no matter how incongruous this application might sometimes be.

Over by far the major part of the territory, however, our people spread in such numbers during the course of the nineteenth century that we were able to build up State after State, each with exactly the same complete local independence in all matters affecting purely its own domestic interests as in any of the original thirteen States, each owing the same absolute fealty to the Union of all the States which each of the original thirteen States also owes, and, finally, each having the same proportional right to its share in shaping and directing the common policy of the Union which is possessed by any other State, whether of the original thirteen or not.

This process now seems to us part of the natural order of things, but it was wholly unknown until our own people devised it. It seems to us a mere matter of course, a matter of elementary right and justice, that in the deliberations of the national representative bodies the representatives of a State which came into the Union but yesterday stand on a footing of exact and entire equality with those of the commonwealth whose sons once signed the Declaration of Independence.

But this way of looking at the matter is purely modern and in its origin purely American. When Washington, during his Presidency, saw new States come into the Union on a footing of complete equality with the old, every European nation which had colonies still administered them as dependencies, and every other mother country treated the colonists not as a self-governing equal, but as a subject.

The process which we began has since been followed by all the great people who were capable both of expansion and of self-government, and now the world accepts it as the natural process, as the rule; but a century and a quarter ago it was not merely exceptional—it was unknown.

This, then, is the great historic significance of the movement of continental expansion, in which the Louisiana Purchase was the most striking single achievement. It stands out in marked relief even among the feats of a nation of pioneers, a nation whose people have, from the beginning, been picked out by a process of natural selection from among the most enterprising individuals of the nations of western Europe.

The acquisition of the territory is a credit to the broad and far-sighted statesmanship of the great statesmen to whom it was immediately due, and, above all, to the aggressive and masterful character of the hardy pioneer folk to whose restless energy these statesmen gave expression and direction, whom they followed rather than led. The history of the land comprised within the limits of the Purchase is an epitome of the entire history of our people. Within these limits we have gradually built up State after State, until now they many times over surpass in wealth, in population, and in many-sided development the original thirteen States as they were when their delegates met in the Continental Congress.

The people of these States have shown themselves mighty in war with their fellow-man and mighty in strength to tame the rugged wilderness. They could not thus have conquered the forest, the prairie, the mountain and the desert, had they not possessed the great fighting virtues, the qualities which enable a people to overcome the forces of hostile men and hostile nature.

On the other hand they could not have used aright their conquest had they not in addition possessed the qualities of self-mastery and self-restraint, the power of acting in combination with their fellows, the power of yielding obedience to the law and of building up an orderly civilization. Courage and hardihood are indispensable virtues in a people, but the people which possess no others can never rise high in the scale either of power or of culture. Great peoples must have in addition the governmental capacity which comes only when individuals fully recognize their duties to one another and to the whole body politic and are able to join together in feats of constructive statesmanship and of honest and effective administration.

The old pioneer days are gone with their roughness and their hardship, their incredible toil and their wild, half-savage romance. But the need for the pioneer virtues remains the same as ever. The peculiar frontier conditions have vanished; but the manliness and stalwart hardihood of the frontiersman can be given even freer scope under the conditions surrounding the complex industrialism of the present day.

In this great region acquired for our people under the presidency of Jefferson, this region stretching from the Gulf to the Canadian border, from the Mississippi to the Rockies, the material and social progress has been so vast that alike for weal and for woe, the people share the opportunities and bear the burdens common to the entire civilized world. The problems before us are fundamentally the same east and west of the Mississippi, in the new States and in the old, and exactly the same qualities are required for their successful solution.

We meet here to-day to commemorate a great event, an event which marks an era in statesmanship no less than in pioneering. It is fitting that we should pay our homage in words; but we must in honor make our words good by deeds. We have every right to take a just pride in the great deeds of our forefathers; but we show ourselves unworthy to be their descendants if we make what they did an excuse for our lying supine instead of an incentive to the effort to show ourselves, by our acts, worthy of them. In the administration of city, State, and nation, in the management of our home life and conduct of our business and social relations, we are bound to show certain high and fine qualities of character under penalty of seeing the whole heart of our civilization eaten out while the body still lives.

We justly pride ourselves on our marvelous material prosperity, and such prosperity must exist in order to establish a foundation upon which a higher life can be built; but unless we do in very fact build this higher life thereon, the material prosperity itself will go but for very little. Now, in 1903, in the altered conditions, we must meet the changed and changing problems with the spirit shown by the men who in 1803 and in subsequent years, gained, explored, conquered, and settled this vast territory, then a desert, now filled with thriving and populous States.

The old days were great because the men who lived in them had mighty qualities; and we must make the new days great by showing the same qualities. We must insist upon courage and resolution, upon hardihood, tenacity, and fertility in resource; we must insist upon the strong virile virtues; and we must insist no less upon the virtues of self-restraint, self-mastery, regard for the rights of others; we must show our abhorrence of cruelty, brutality, and corruption, in public and private life alike.

If we come short in any of these qualities we shall measurably fail; and if, as I believe we surely shall, we develop these qualities in the future to an even greater degree than in the past, then in the century now beginning we shall make of this Republic the freest and most orderly, the most just and most mighty nation which has ever come forth from the womb of time.

Sixth. Grand chorus: "Unfold Ye Portals."

Seventh. Address by Hon. Grover Cleveland:

MR. PRESIDENT, LADIES AND GENTLEMEN: The impressiveness of this occasion is greatly enhanced by reason of an atmosphere of prophecy's fulfillment which surrounds it. The thought is in our minds that we are amid awe-inspiring surroundings, where we may see and feel things foretold a century ago. We are here in recognition of the one hundredth anniversary of an event which doubled the area of the young American nation, and dedicated a new and wide domain of American progress and achievement. The treaty whose completion we to-day commemorate was itself a prophecy of our youthful nation's mighty growth and development. At its birth prophets in waiting joyously foretold the happiness which its future promised. He who was the chief actor in the United States in its negotiations, as he signed the perfected instrument, thus declared its effect and far-reaching consequences: "The instrument which we have just signed will cause no tears to be shed. It prepares ages of happiness for innumerable generations of human creatures. The Mississippi and the Missouri will see them succeed one another, truly worthy of the regard and care of Providence in the bosom of equality under just laws, freed from the errors of superstition and the scourges of bad government."

He who represented the nation with whom we negotiated, when he afterwards gave to the world his account of the transactions, declared: "The consequences of the cession of Louisiana will extend to the most distant posterity. It interests vast regions that will become by their civilization and power the rivals of Europe before another century commences," and warmed to enthusiasm by the developments already in view and greater ones promised, he added: "Who can contemplate without vivid emotion this spectacle of the happiness of the present generation and the certain pledges of the prosperity of numberless generations that will follow? At these magnificent prospects the heart beats with joy in the breasts of those who were permitted to see the dawn of these bright days, and who are assured that so many happy presages will be accomplished."

There was another prophet, greater than all—prophet and priest—who, higher up the mountain than others, heard more distinctly the voice of destiny, whose heart and soul were full of prophecy and whose every faculty was tense and strong as he wrought for our nation's advancement and for the peace and contentment of his fellow-countryman. From the fullness of gratitude and joy, he thus wrote to one who had assisted in the consummation of this great treaty:

"For myself and my country, I thank you for the aid you have given in it; and I congratulate you on having lived to give these aids in a transaction replete with blessings to unborn millions of men, and which will mark the face of a portion of the globe so extensive as that which now composes the United States of America;" and when, as President, he gave notice in a message to Congress of the actual occupancy by the Government of its new acquisition, he happily presaged the future and gave assurance of his complete faith and confidence in the beneficent result of our nation's extensions, in these words: "On this important acquisition, so favorable to the immediate interests of our western citizens, so auspicious to the peace and security of the nation in general, which adds to our country territories so extensive and fertile and to our citizens new brethren to partake of the blessings of freedom and self-government, I offer Congress and our country my sincere congratulations."

    Our prophets do not live forever. They are not here to see how
    stupendously the growth and development of the American nation,
    or the domain newly acquired in their day, have, during a short
    century, outrun their anticipations and predictions.

    Almost within the limits of the territory gained by the
    Louisiana purchase, we have already carved out twelve great
    States, leaving still a large residue whose occupants are even
    now loudly clamoring for statehood.

Instead of the 50,000 white settlers who occupied this domain in 1803, it now contains 15,000,000 of industrious, enterprising, intelligent Americans, constituting about one-fifth of the population of all our States; and these are defiantly contesting for premiership in wealth and material success with the oldest of our States, and are their equals in every phase of advanced intelligence and refined civilization.

The States which composed the Union when its possessions were so greatly extended have since that time seen the center of the nation's population carried more than 500 miles westward by the swift and constant current of settlement toward this new domain; and the citizens of these States have been flocking thither, "new brethren to partake of the blessings of freedom and self-government," in multitudes greater than even Jefferson would have dared to foretell.

I shall not enter the field of statistics for the purpose of giving details of the development of the territory acquired under the treaty we commemorate. I have referred to such development in some of its general features by way of suggesting how distinctly the century just ended gives assurance of a startling and superabundant final fulfillment of the prophecies of its beginners.

The supreme importance of the Louisiana purchase and its value as a national accomplishment, when seen in the incidents of its short history and in the light of its present and prospective effects, and judged solely by its palpable and independent merits, can not be better characterized than by the adoption of the following language from the pen of a brilliant American historian: "The annexation of Louisiana was an event so portentious as to defy measurement. It gave a new face to politics and ranked in historical importance next to the Declaration of Independence and the adoption of the Constitution, events of which it was the logical outcome. But as a matter of diplomacy it was unparalleled because it cost almost nothing."

How fitting on every ground it is that the centennial of this stupendous event should be joyously and appropriately celebrated; and that it should be celebrated here in the most populous of the States created from the territory which the Louisiana purchase gave to us. And how in keeping it is with the character of this acquisition and with its purpose and mission that our celebration should not waste itself on the pomp and pageantry that belongs to the triumphs and spoils of war, or to the rapacious dispossessions of ruthless conquest. Every feature of our celebration should remind us that we memorialize a peaceful acquisition of territory for truly American uses and purposes; and we should rejoice not only because this acquisition immediately gave peace and contentment to the spirited and determined American settlers who demanded an outlet of trade to the sea, but also because it provided homes and means of livelihood for the millions of new Americans whose coming tread fell upon the ears of the expectant fathers of the Republic, and whose stout hearts and brawny arms wrought the miracles which our celebration should interpret.

We are here at this hour to dedicate beautiful and stately edifices to the purposes of our commemoration, but as we do this let us remember that the soil whereon we stand was a century ago dedicated to the genius of American industry and thrift. For every reason, nothing could be more appropriate as an important part of the centennial commemoration we have undertaken than the gathering together on this spot of the things that are characteristic of American effort and which tell the story of American achievement; and how happily will this be supplemented and crowned by the generous, magnanimous, and instructive contributions from other and older lands, which, standing side by side with our exhibits, shall manifest the high and friendly regard our Republic has gained among the governments of the earth, and shall demonstrate how greatly advancing civilization has fostered and stimulated the brotherhood of nations.

I can not, however, rid myself of the feeling that the inspiration and value attending such an exposition may be anticipated and increased if on this dedicatory occasion we promote appropriate reflections by a retrospection of some of the incidents which accompanied the event we celebrate.

We all know that long before the negotiations of the treaty of 1803 our Government had a keen appreciation of the importance to American settlers in the valley of the Mississippi of an arrangement permitting their products to be deposited and exported at the entrance of that river to the sea. It will be remembered that this need of our settlers had been met in a limited and not altogether secure manner by a treaty with Spain, allowing such deposits and exports to be made at the city of New Orleans. This privilege was entirely withdrawn in October, 1792, the territory appurtenant to such privilege having been in the meantime transferred to France. The situation thus created was extremely delicate. There was presented to the Government on the one hand the injury to western settlers through the loss of their trading outlet, and on the other the perplexing question of affording them relief by means of diplomatic agreement, or in some other method. The abandonment of our settlers to their disheartening fate was of course not contemplated.

It can not be denied that the conditions plainly pointed to cautious and deliberate negotiations as the way of prudence and safety. It very soon became apparent, however, that delay and too much deliberation did not suit the temper and spirit of sturdy Americans chafing under a sense of wrong and convinced that they were entitled to prompt assistance. The inhabitants of our territory bounding on the east side of the Mississippi, in a memorial addressed to the President, Senate, and House of Representatives, after reciting their discouraging conditions and expressing their faith in the Government's disposition to extend the necessary aid, closed their memorial with these significant words: "And so far as may depend on ourselves, we tender to our country our lives and fortunes in support of such measures as Congress may deem necessary to vindicate the honor and protect the interests of the United States."

The settlers in the States "west of the Allegheny Mountains" also, in a memorial to the Government, clearly indicated their impatience and readiness for extreme action, declared that prompt and decisive measures were necessary, and referred to the maxim that protection and allegiance are reciprocal as being particularly applicable to their situation. They concluded their statement with these solemn words: "Without interfering in the measures that have been adopted to bring about the amicable arrangement of a difference which has grown out of the gratuitous violation of a solemn treaty, they desire that the United States may explicitly understand that their condition is critical; that the delay of a single season would be ruinous to their country, and that an imperious necessity may consequently oblige them, if they receive no aid, to adopt themselves the measures that may appear to them calculated to protect their commerce, even though those measures should produce consequences unfavorable to the harmony of the Confederacy."

These representations emphasized the apprehension of those charged with governmental affairs that the course of deliberate caution and waiting, which up to that time had appeared to be the only one permissible, might be insufficient to meet the situation, and that whatever the result might be, a more pronounced position and more urgent action should be entered upon. President Jefferson wrote to a friend on the 1st of February, 1803: "Our circumstances are so imperious as to admit of no delay as to our course, and the use of the Mississippi so indispensible that we can not hesitate one moment to hazard our existence for its maintenance." He appointed an additional envoy to cooperate with our representative already at the French capital in an attempt to obtain a concession that would cure the difficulty, and, in a communication to him, after referring to the excitement caused by the withdrawal of the right of deposit, he thus characterizes the condition which he believed confronted the nation: "On the event of this mission depend the future destinies of this Republic. If we can not by a purchase of the country insure to ourselves a course of perpetual peace and friendship of all nations, then, as war can not be far distant, it behooves us immediately to be preparing for that course, though not hastening it."

I have not recited these details for the purpose of claiming that this accelerated speed and advanced position on the part of our Government had any important effect in hastening final results. I have thought it not amiss, however, to call attention to the fact that a century ago the people of this country were not seeking to gain governmental benefit by clandestine approach and cunning pretense, but were apt to plainly present their wants and grievances, and to openly demand such consideration and care from the General Government as was their due under the mandate of popular rule, and that in making their demands they relied on the mutual obligation of the relationship between the governed and those invested with authority, and invoked the reciprocity in political duty which enjoins that for the people's obedience and support of government, there shall be given in exchange, by the Government to the people, defense of their personal rights and the assurance that in safety and peace they shall surely reap the fruits of their enterprise and labor.

It may also be well to note the efficacy of the people's call upon the Government in those early days, and how quickly the response came; not by yielding to gusts of popular whim and caprice; not by conferring benefits upon the few at the expense of the many; but by a quick observation of the fact that the withdrawal of certain rightful privilege by another nation from American settlers had caused them distress, and by a prompt determination to relieve their distress, even if the unwelcome visage of war frowned in opposition.

Another incident which, it seems to me, we may recall to-day with profit and satisfaction, grew out of the conduct of the President when the treaty of 1803 had been formulated and was returned to him for ratification and final completion. He was, as is well known, originally quite firm in his belief that the Constitution as it stood did not authorize such an extension of our limits by purchase as the treaty for the acquisition of the Louisiana Territory contemplated. Holding this opinion, and at the same time confronted with the clear conviction that the treaty, with all its stupendous advantages, could not be allowed to fail without positive peril, if not to our national life, at least to its most vital object and aspirations, his perplexity was increased by the receipt of an authoritative intimation that any delay in final action on the treaty might open the way to a recession on the part of France. In these circumstances, not daring to risk the delay of an amendment to the Constitution prior to such final action, he proposed reconciling consistency with duty by procuring confirmation of the treaty by the Senate and compassing its unquestionable validation by a subsequent constitutional amendment.

In view of the conclusive statement, since that time of this constitutional question by every branch of the Government against Mr. Jefferson's original opinion and in favor of the nation's power to acquire territory, as was done under the treaty of 1803, and considering the fact that we have since that time immensely increased our area by the acquisition, not only of neighboring territory, but of distant islands of the sea, separated by thousands of miles from our home domain, we may be inclined to think lightly of President Jefferson's scruples concerning the acquisition of lands, not only next adjacent to us, but indisputably necessary to our peace and development.

There were wise men near our President in 1803 who differed with him touching the nation's power to acquire new territory under the original provisions of the Constitution; and these men did not fail to make known their dissent. Moreover, in the Senate, to which the treaty was submitted for confirmation, there was an able discussion of its constitutional validity and effectiveness. The judgment of that body on this phase of the subject was emphatically declared, when out of 31 votes 24 were cast in favor of confirmation. An amendment to the Constitution was afterwards presented to Congress, but its first appearance was its last. It does not appear that the President interested himself in its fate, and it died at the moment of introduction.

While in this day and generation we may wonder at the doubts which so perplexed Jefferson in 1803 and at his estimate of the limitation of our fundamental law, and may be startled when we reflect that if they had been allowed to control his action we might have lost the greatest national opportunity which has been presented to our people since the adoption of the Constitution, we can not fail at the same time to be profoundly grateful that these doubts and this estimate were those of a man sincere enough and patriotic enough to listen to wise and able counselors and to give his country the benefit of his admission of the fallibility of his judgment.

Thomas Jefferson never furnished better evidence of his greatness than when, just before the submission of the treaty to the Senate, he wrote to a distinguished Senator who differed with him on this question: "I confess that I think it important in the present case to set an example against broad construction by appealing for new power to the people. If, however, our friends shall think differently, certainly I shall acquiesce with satisfaction, confiding that the good sense of our country will correct the evil of construction when it shall produce ill effects."

A recent writer on American diplomacy, who is not suspected of partiality for Jeffersonian political doctrine, gave in strong and graceful terms a good reason for our gratitude to-day, when, in referring to this subject, he wrote: "It was fortunate for the future of America that we had at the head of affairs a man of such broad views of our country's future. A less able President, with the same views as entertained by Jefferson as to the constitutionality of the measure would have put aside the opportunity. Jefferson put aside his preconceived views as to the fundamental law; or subordinated them to the will of the nation and welcomed the opportunity to open up the continent to the expansion of American democracy and free institutions."

We are glad at this hour that Jefferson was wrong in his adverse construction of the Constitution and glad that he was liberal minded enough to see that he might be wrong. And yet may we not profitably pause here long enough to contrast in our thoughts the careful and reverent manner in which the restrictions of our fundamental law were scrutinized a hundred years ago with the tendency often seen in later times to flippantly attempt the adjustment of our Constitution to the purposes of interest and convenience?

In conclusion, I hope I may be permitted to suggest that our thoughts and surroundings on this occasion should lead us to humble recognition of the providence of God in all that has made us a great nation. From our beginning as a people our course has been marked by concurrences and incidents so striking, so significant and so constant, that only superstitious dullness or intellectual blindness will place them to the credit of luck or chance.

In the midst of our rejoicing to-day it is peculiarly fitting that we recall with soberness and meekness some of the happiness in connection with the great event we celebrate, which impressively illustrate the interposition of Divine Providence in our behalf. We sought from a nation ruled by one whose ambition was boundless and whose scheme for aggrandizement knew neither the obligations of public morality nor the restraints of good faith, the free navigation of the Mississippi River, and such insignificant territory as would make such navigation useful. While our efforts toward the accomplishment of this slight result languished and were fast assuming a hopeless condition, the autocrat of France suddenly commanded one of his ministers to enter into negotiations with our waiting and dispirited representatives and exclaimed: "I renounce Louisiana. It is not only New Orleans I cede. It is the whole colony without reserve."

It was only nineteen days thereafter that the treaty transferring to us the magnificent domain comprised within the Louisiana Purchase was concluded.

This astonishing change in our prospects, which dissipated the fears and apprehensions of our Government and revived the promise of our perpetuity and happy destiny, came at the very moment that Bonaparte was organizing a force to occupy the Louisiana Territory in the prosecution of colonial occupation and development, which, if consummated, would probably have closed the door even to the slight acquisition which we originally sought. The French colony of Santo Domingo was, however, a prime factor in this scheme of occupation, and it was essential to its success that this colony and Louisiana should both be included and should supplement each other. A serious revolt then raging in Santo Domingo delaying proceedings, the occupation of Louisiana was postponed until this revolt should be overcome. The troops sent from France to accomplish this apparently easy task were so stubbornly resisted by hundreds of thousands of freed blacks fighting against their reenslavement, and they suffered so terribly from climatic conditions and deadly fever, that after the sacrifice of 25,000 soldiers, many of whom were intended for the subsequent occupation of Louisiana, Bonaparte's plan for the occupation of both colonies miscarried. The disappointment and the conception of new schemes of war and conquest by the restless dictator of France, and his need of money to carry out these schemes, were controlling circumstances in leading him to throw in our lap the entire Louisiana Territory. None of these circumstances were within our procurement or knowledge; but who shall say that God was not accomplishing His designs in our behalf amid the turmoil and distressing scenes of Santo Domingo's revolt? And how can it be said that there was no Providence in the unexpected unyielding and successful fight for continued freedom on the part of the negroes of Santo Domingo, or in the fatal pestilence that vied with bloody warfare in the destruction of the army of subjugation, or in the fever of war and aggression which heated the blood of Bonaparte, all combining to turn him away from the occupation of the Louisiana Territory? All these things, so remote and so far out of sight, pointed with the coercion that belongs to the decrees of God to a consummation which restored to our people peace and contentment, and secured to our nation extension and development beyond the dreams of our fathers.

Thus we may well recall in these surroundings the wonderful measure of prophecy's fulfillment within the span of a short century, the spirit, the patriotism, and the civic virtue of Americans who lived a hundred years ago, and God's overruling of the wrath of man and His devious ways for the blessing of our nation.

We are all proud of our American citizenship. Let us leave this place with this feeling stimulated by the sentiments born of the occasion. Let us appreciate more keenly than ever how vitally necessary it is to our country's weal that everyone within its citizenship should be clean minded in political aim and aspiration, sincere and honest in his conception of our country's mission, and aroused to higher and more responsive patriotism by the reflection that it is a solemn thing to belong to a people favored of God.

Eighth. "America," with full chorus and band accompaniment.

Ninth. Prayer by Bishop E.R. Hendrix:

Almighty God, our Heavenly Father, we devoutly thank and worship Thee, the Author of our being, and the gracious source of all our blessings. We are because Thou art; and Thou hast made us in Thy image capable of fellowship with Thee and delighting in a fellowship with one another as we resemble Thee. Thou hast given us our reason and the power of cooperation with one another in all worthy ends looking to the well-being of our race. Civilization with its conquests over the material world is possible only with Thy aid. Christianity with its conquests over evil is the work of God and man, as Thou dost call us to be Thy fellow-workers and dost inspire us with courage and faith.

This wonderful achievement of human effort and skill which we dedicate this day is possible only by Thy help and as we have imitated Thy example. Thou art the great Architect and Builder. Thou art the great Mathematician and Engineer. Thou art the great Chemist and Electrician. Thou art the great Thinker and Artist. Our works are but pale and feeble copies of Thine, and are possible only because Thou workest until now and dost bless our works. The uniformity of Thy laws bids us work in confidence, and the unity of nature bids us work intelligently, because we work with Thee. We praise Thee for thy growing confidence in man, as Thou dost place in his hand the keys of every laboratory and dost trust him with the secrets of nature that have been hid from the foundation of the world. Again Thou dost give man dominion, whether in science, or art, or government, nor wilt Thou remove his scepter if he wield it for the betterment of his kind and for Thy glory. As the high priest and interpreter of nature may he prove worthy of his great trust.

We thank Thee for this great exposition, whose stately and noble exterior gives promise of being the home of a mighty spirit of worldwide fellowship of the nations. It is not only another milestone of progress, it is a timekeeper of civilization. We thank Thee for the pioneers and the prophets, the statesmen and the patriots who secured for us this great inheritance, and for their sons who have cultivated and developed it. Help us that we may realize the high ideals of our fathers who sought to establish and maintain good and righteous government, and to reap the harvests of patient industry. May no evil occurrence mar the happiness and good will which we invoke for the council of nations which shall here be held. May the commerce of ideas no less than of products be borne by favoring tides around the globe. To this end we implore Thy blessings upon the rulers of the nations of the earth which may be presented here. Grant peace in our time, O Lord, and may the victories of peace abound.

And now, O Lord, our God, we dedicate to Thee and to the welfare of our common humanity these buildings and grounds which Thy providence has made possible. Bless with Thy presence and favor this great festival of the nations that it may help to make stronger the bonds of human brotherhood in all the world. And all this we ask in the name of Christ, our Lord. Amen.

Tenth. Benediction by Right Rev. Henry C. Potter:

May the blessing of the Lord God Almighty, without whom all our labor is but vain, rest upon this work, and all who are or shall be engaged in it.

May He take these buildings under His gracious keeping and crown this great undertaking with His enduring favor, making it the school of truth and beauty and so a revelation of His infinite mind working and through the mind of man. And to Him be glory and honor and power now and always.

The Lord bless us and keep us; the Lord make His face to shine upon us and be gracious unto us; the Lord lift up the light of His countenance upon us and give to us and to all the people of this land peace, purity, and prosperity, both now and forevermore. Amen.

Eleventh. Centennial salute of 100 guns.

At 8 o'clock p. m. a grand pyrotechnic display took place on the open grounds south of the Administration Building.

PROGRAMME

DIPLOMATIC DAY, MAY 1, 1902.

At 10.30 a. m. the members of the Diplomatic Corps, the representatives of the foreign governments to the exposition, and other official guests assembled at the St. Louis Club, and they were then conducted by military escort to the Liberal Arts Building.

At 12 o'clock m. the assembly was called to order by Mr. Corwin H.
Spencer, chairman of the committee on ceremonies of the Exposition
Company, and the following programme was carried out:

First. Invocation by Rev. Carl Swenson:

Great God, the God of our fathers and of their children, accept our heartfelt worship and gratitude. We bless Thy holy name for that wonderful providence of bountiful love and inspiring benevolence by which Thou hast made us a great and mighty nation out of an insignificant, struggling, and sorrow-laden beginning.

We render willing and adoring worship to Thee for that divine guidance and wisdom so admirably exhibited in the wide-visioned policy in the nation's most inspired leaders a hundred years ago, and to-day the policy which in one brief century has created an empire of a dozen magnificent Commonwealths of an unknown expanse of uninhabited wilderness and desert.

Vouchsafe ever to us as a people leaders of prophetic understanding, who in an uncertain present fathom the true inwardness of conditions pregnated with the greatest possibilities for a future of ever increasing proportions and realizations.

We thank Thee for the wealth of hope and promise implied in the dedication and completion of this unparalleled congress of peace, good will, and universal fraternity, made possible not only by the enterprise, patriotism, and gratitude of this splendid Commonwealth and our own entire people, but also by the responsive, generous, and helpful cooperation of the nations of the whole world.

We pray for Thy blessing, guidance, and love upon every national life here represented. May, in Thy beneficent providence, the inspiring competitions and tournaments so necessary between one people and another become an ennobling race for a higher culture of the human heart and mind; a more universal usage of the forces of nature for the best interests of man and for the full fruition for each and every one of the unexampled industrial and commercial activities which has taken possession of the civilized world.

We pray Thee that the forces ever jointly employed in producing the advance of a free people may learn better to understand their mutual relationship.

Liberate and save capital from every alleged and real form of a grasping, destructive, and disloyal selfishness, which may turn even the present midday of national prosperity and contentment into the threatening deepening gloom of an advancing cyclone of unavoidable loss and destruction.

Give to the possessors of our fabulous wealth an ever-increasing philanthropy, devoting a surplus of possessions unheard of by our fathers to education, literature, arts, and mercy, thereby making themselves the beloved and blessed favorites of a happy and grateful people.

We pray Thee that labor and toil may ever be held in due honor and respect in our broad land. Help us to realize that labor, be it of hand or brains, is the sinews and backbone alike of our past, present, and future as a free people.

Grant, O God, to the leaders in the world of labor the highest and most patriotic ideals of citizenship—ideals and purposes commending themselves to the intelligence and justice of the entire people.

And as neither capital alone, nor labor alone, could have built this wonderful exposition, grant, O God, that capital and labor all over our glorious land may learn to join hands in fair-minded cooperation for the upbuilding of such conditions of society which will prove an inspiration to ourselves and a worthy example to others, ending all forms of illegal coercion by one party or the other, and calling into permanent existence that truest and greatest America which is ever the dream of loyal and patriotic hearts.

We pray Thee help us to realize and profess, amidst the justifiable joy of a happy people, that Thou art God alone, and that there is salvation only in the name of the Blessed Redeemer. Grant that we may continually see in the cross on Calvary the tested emblem of a new life for time and eternity, a life of insight, energy, and the power of universally recognized leadership ever characterizing the nation whose boon is the Bible and whose master is Christ. Bless and protect the President of our nation, the governor of the State, the mayor of this city, and the president of this exposition, with all their associations. God of our fathers, give unto us all that sincerity of purpose, that rectitude of action so necessary for the preservation of our rights and privileges. Make us the toiling means for promulgating for Thee, and ever more successfully, the divine message of the Fatherhood of God and the brotherhood of man, and to Thee, the Father and the Son and the Holy Ghost, shall be glory now and forevermore. Amen.

Second. The following is a brief outline of the sentiments expressed by
Mr. Thurston, president of the day:

    We are here to welcome the ambassadors, ministers, and
    representatives of friendly foreign nations.

Here we gather to commemorate an event which changed the whole history of America, for the acquisition of the Louisiana Purchase extended the boundaries of the young Republic, which up to that time had no seacoast, except that of the Atlantic Ocean on the east, and gave us a continental domain extending from ocean to ocean.

We come here to celebrate, through this magnificent exposition, the centennial anniversary of the Louisiana Purchase. This is not an exposition of a city or of a State, or even of the United States; it is an exposition of and for the world.

Gentlemen, our visitors and our friends, in this temple of peace, dedicated to the progress of man, your presence is significant of the friendliness to us and toward each other of the nations of the world. May we not hope that in the electric splendor of the twentieth century there will come to all peoples a living exemplification of the words of the Master, "Peace on earth, good will toward men."

Third. Greeting to the representatives of foreign governments, from the
Universal Exposition of 1904, by Hon. David R. Francis, president of the
Exposition Company:

    The Universal Exposition of 1904 extends a cordial greeting to
    the distinguished representatives of foreign countries who favor
    us with their presence on this memorable occasion.

An assembling of envoys of organized governments, however limited in their number and whatever its object may be, is characteristic of a high civilization; but when that convening is as general in its character as this, it indicates marked progress in the establishment of a better understanding between interests and policies long antagonistic and at variance.

And when the object of such a meeting is, as in this case, to establish and cement friendly relations between people who differ in form of government, in religion, and in race, it means a distinct step toward the organization of a parliament, an accomplishment worthy of highest endeavor, because its consummation would result in universal peace.

When the civilized nations of the earth meet in friendly rivalry, their better acquaintance engenders increased respect. The closer commercial relations that follow are conducive to mutual benefit. They efface prejudice, they broaden sympathies, they deepen and widen the foundations of human progress.

The civilization of past ages would have experienced no overthrows if they had been based on intelligence of the masses and had been imbued with broader humanity which distinguishes and ennobles the fraternal spirit of the twentieth century.

The cycle of one hundred years, whose close we have just passed, incomparable as it was in the discovery and the invention and the application of forces and methods in the physical world, and remarkable as it was for an advancement in every line of thought and research, will be surpassed and distanced by the new century upon which we have entered if the material potentialities and the intellectual faculties of mankind can be utilized and trained toward a common end, and that end the uplifting of the human race and the promotion of its happiness.

Concomitant with industrial progress is social development. The policy of engaging in foreign wars in order to prevent or to pacify domestic unrest may have been wise if not humane, but the time for such a policy has passed. That government is strongest whose subjects are intelligent and contented. Contentment follows the employment of intellectual faculties, in the development of natural resources, and in the production of those activities that result in greater comforts of living and higher planes of thought. The bringing together in a Universal Exposition of the best that all civilized countries have produced, opens to all who participate new lines of thought, better methods and better appliances, and, therefore, conduces to the material benefit of every country participating. It promotes universal economy of human endeavor by enabling the countries taking part to determine through a comparison of their exhibits the lines in which they can produce the best results.

The economy of the world for saving time and energy by the adaptation of physical and intellectual forces to pursuits in which they are most effective, is a profitable study for nations, as it is for individuals. Hand in hand, however, with such occupation should go the cultivation of the taste for the beautiful, and an abounding conviction that man is his brother's keeper and has an inalienable obligation to better the condition of his fellows.

The International Exposition whose dedication you honor by your presence, was conceived in an effort to commemorate a great achievement which has proven a potent factor in increasing our wealth and sustaining our institutions and perpetuating our independence.

The interest manifested by the governments and people whom you represent in pledges of participating has been encouraging and helpful in the highest degree, and we are glad of the opportunity to express our deep gratitude. Your coming enables us to show you the scope of the undertaking we have launched. Our plans are ambitious and our hopes high, but we are energetic and untiring, and with your recognition and assistance we expect to carry to a successful consummation an enterprise which will not only assemble the natural resources of the earth and bring together the best products of human skill, but will be the occasion for eliciting the expression of the best thought and for classifying and systematizing all human knowledge.

We hope this exposition will be an epitome of the progress of the world from the beginning of history. The nineteenth century was characterized by unprecedented and almost incomprehensible industrial advancement. The earth was made to reveal its hidden treasures. The unknown forces of nature were harnessed and utilized. Lines of commerce were established which encircle the earth.

Sections of the globe remote and almost unknown to each other were brought into close communication and friendly relation. It would seem that there is little to be done in the field of scientific effort. But every discovery and every advance opens a broader plane for the exercise of human ingenuity.

The problems, however, that seem to confront us most prominently to-day, and that require for their solution not only experience and intelligence, but fraternal sentiment as well, are those of a social character. The aggregation that we call society is bound together by ties of sympathy, strengthened it may be by culture, but often strained by selfishness and pride. The relation of man to nature and her physical forces commands the highest functions of the mind, but the relation of man to his fellows not only enlists the highest intellectual effort, but requires that it be tempered by impulses of human kindness. Those who have as the mainspring of their actions the elevation of their fellows live and move upon a higher plane and are better members of society than those who subordinate sentiment and sympathy to gain and power.

The earth in its fertility and resourcefulness furnishes material sufficient to maintain in comfort all of its sons. If their genius and energy could be devoted to the utilization of that material instead of to a continuous struggle between themselves for occupation and possession, the destiny of the human race would be higher and nobler and nearer in accord with the immortal principles enunciated by Him whose life and teachings have for nearly two thousand years been a rule of conduct for man, while broadening his usefulness and enhancing his happiness.

That this exposition may be a powerful aid in the elevation and advancement of the human race is the prayer of those who organized and have brought it to its present stage of progress. That the countries for which you stand may unite with us in promoting an undertaking fraught with much good to humanity is the earnest wish of the local management and the sincere hope of every right-thinking citizen of the American Republic.

    Again, I welcome you as guests whom we delight to honor for your
    personal worth, as well as for what you represent.

Fourth. Music, United States Marine Band, "Marseillaise Hymn of
Liberty."

Fifth. Address by the French ambassador, M. Jean J. Jusserand:

When the treaty signed in Paris one hundred years ago, and by which the area of the United States was to be more than doubled, stood for ratification before Congress, there were, contrary to what we might suppose, protracted discussions and objections of many sorts. Some thought that the title to the new acquisition was not a sufficient one; others were anxious on account of the very magnitude of the new territories, and expressed the fear that the federal tie would be loosened if extended to such remote and partially unknown regions. Many were the criticisms and long the speeches.

Senator Jackson, of Georgia, rose and turning toward one of the hostile parties, said: "In a century, sir, we shall be well populated * * * and instead of the description given of it by the honorable gentleman, instead of howling wilderness where no civilized foot shall ever tread, if we could return at the proper period, we should find it the seat of science and civilization."

Senator Jackson's time has come the very year he named; one century has just elapsed since he spoke. If he could return among us, he would see no howling wilderness, but one of the most brilliant gatherings which this country has ever beheld, including the Chief of the State and a former Chief of the State, representatives of all the powers of the globe, soldiers and sailors, priests, magistrates, savants, artists, tradesmen and agriculturists, workmen and citizens innumerable, all bent upon consecrating by their presence and homage the work done during the hundred years. Good work indeed; nay, stupendous.

Sanguine as he was, Senator Jackson would, I think, scarcely believe his eyes and ears if he saw the matchless sight we presently behold, and the preparation for the pending exhibition of the produce, all the discoveries, all the art of the wide earth.

He would scarcely believe his ears if he heard that we came in twenty-seven hours from the place where he had delivered his prophecy and which had become only two years before the seat of Government. No less would be his surprise, if he learned that the supposed "howling wilderness" had been turned into an immense garden, dotted with wealthy towns; that all the land called in his days Louisiana produces yearly now millions of bushels of various kinds of grain, and that the private belongings of the successors of the scattered settlers of his time are valued in ours at many millions of dollars.

But he would not be surprised if he learned that the federal tie has not been loosened; that the number of States has increased, their wealth, too, the number of their inhabitants, their importance in every respect, and that they consider as more and more sacred the bond which unites them to the older part of the community. Such are the effects of liberty and just laws.

In this triumphal day, amid the shouts of joy, the reports of the guns and ringing of the bells, considering the splendid results, it is only natural that we carry our look backward to the past and have a thought for the lonely pioneers of long ago, who came one by one to this then unknown land, and who tried among incredible difficulties to make it less unknown, to make it more productive and easier to reclaim for you, their distant inheritors. No one, I am sure, will think it amiss that I, a compatriot of theirs and a representative of their country, shall recall at this day their efforts, and express to-day's gratitude for yesterday's work. For they were hardy men, those children of distant France; they were plucky, enterprising, and courageous; they led strenuous lives indeed; all qualities for which you ever had a special regard. To say that they did not fear danger is to slander them; they loved it.

Soldiers, missionaries, governors of cities, explorers came year after year from the time of Louis XIV, attracted by the chances or the beauty of the unknown and the opportunity of increasing their country's dominions, or of becoming famous, or of instructing souls, and of dying, if death was to be met, bravely and honorably. Very French they were, with all the qualities of their race, and something else, perhaps, some of them, than the qualities.

As they went down the great rivers from the regions of the Canadian lakes to the Mexican sea they gave them French names, and the reading of a map of that epoch reminds one of the century of the Sun King. There he is with all his court, figured in lands, cities, lakes, and rivers. Louisiana bears his own name; Lake Pontchartrain the name of his minister for marine; Fort Duquesne, the name of his famous sailor. There were also the rivers Colbert and Seigneley, better known nowadays as Mississippi and Illinois. One of the Great Lakes had been named after the Duke of Orleans; another, the great Conde, the winner of Rocroy; another after his brother, Prince de Conti; but this last inland sea, as indeed most of the others, soon resumed its Indian name, the homely name of Lake Erie, the Lake of the Cat.

Very French they were, those men—this Father Marquette, who, with Joliet, first beheld the magnificent water that washes your walls, the vast existence of which was then unknown, and who explored it down to the country of the Arkansas; this Robert Cavalier Sieur de la Salle, who had, long before our days, our days' notions of the importance of great commercial routes; whose purpose was to open one to China across this continent at the very spot where your northern lines of railways have opened theirs; who called his first house on American soil La China in order that he might never forget his initial purpose. He died in the quest, but not before he had explored the Mississippi down to its mouth; not before he had ascertained that its source was to the West, and that the river therefore could be used as a guiding thread toward the Pacific; not before he had made the first French settlement in this, your country, and given it a name, which has not been replaced by another, and is its present name of Louisiana.

Long is the roll and great were the hardships. To the same region, with the same object of discovering and improving, came that typical cadet De Gascogne, the Chevalier Antoine de la Mothe Cadillac, who, on the 21st of July, 1701, unfurled the French flag at a certain spot where he began the building of a town, now the town of Detroit. He became afterwards governor of Louisiana. Then such men came as Du Tissnet, as the brothers Le Moine de Iberville and Le Moine de Bienville, this last the founder of New Orleans; as Father de Charlevoix, who gave the best account we have of the country, and spoke most wisely about its future; as La Clede, worthier than anyone to be remembered at this day and this place, as he was the founder of your town.

The exploration of the coasts had been comparatively easy, and thousands had attempted it. Settlers from France were the first to try their chance inland; they traveled across a huge continent more unknown then to the civilized world than was in our time the Africa of Livingstone and Stanley. They did it in a cheerful, optimistic spirit that nothing daunted but death. Living as they did in truly "howling wildernesses," there remained yet with them something of the mother country; and that appeared not only in their speech and manners, but in their very attitudes. Charlevoix meets figures of dead men fabricated by Indians. He was glad to find that they were represented with falling arms, from which he concluded that the authors of the trophies had massacred some of their own kin. When Indians killed French people, the figures represented men with their fist on their hip, Versailles fashion.

How could it be otherwise when they lived, some of them, on a settlement owned by a gentleman called d'Artagnan and managed, as was appropriate, by two musketeers. One almost expects the names of those two to have been Porthos and Aramis; but they were d'Artiguidres and De Benac.

And these men recalled their country in more important things than names and attitudes. Cadillac had scarcely given a name to the spot where he meant to create a town than he sent for his wife and younger son. It was to be a town, indeed, with wives and children and family life, and it was so, and it has ever been so since Cadillac willed it. When La Salle was killed in his second journey to the Mississippi in 1687, he had with him his brother and two nephews. The newcomers soon discovered that the region was not the metallic eldorado they had heard of it in Europe, but that it was a matchless agricultural country, and they began cutting the trees and tilling the ground, with none of the modern instruments and helps, no harvesting machines from "Chicago," as the then desert spot was called in their days; no horses, no horned cattle. They led, indeed not in fiction, but in truth—and long before the famous "Mariner of York" was wrecked by the Orinoco River—the life of Robinson Crusoe. Unknown to Europe, far from any neighbors, by the shade of the pathless forest, they tried their best. They died, many of them obscurely, leaving no name to be engraved on the bronze tables of history, but leaving better than a mere name—families, many of which still subsist; better than families—examples of earnestness and endurance, creating a tradition which will never die out, "Rien ne se perd."

The greatness of their difficulties, the scantiness of their means, the wisdom of many of their views are equally striking. More than one did their utmost to teach and improve their Indian neighbor. They forbade at an early date the selling to them of the destructive "fire water." Cadillac did so from the first; the Marquis de Vaudreuil reissued the same orders later. They soon discovered that the northern regions alone could produce wheat enough to feed the whole country, "though it should be quite peopled down to the sea." The question of labor was one of prominent difficulty and importance. Should it be hired labor of freemen or the compulsory labor of the imported negro? On this, one of those early French explorers, Charlevoix, summed up his opinion in the following memorable sentence: "Hired servants should be preferred. When the time of their service is expired they become inhabitants and increase the number of the King's natural subjects, whereas the slaves are always strangers. And who can be assured that by continually increasing in our colonies they will not one day become formidable enemies? Can we depend upon slaves who are only attached to us by fear and for whom the very land where they are born has not the dear name of mother country?"

More striking than all was the observation of a Frenchman who never visited America, except in thought, but saw distinctly its future. When no one yet believed it, that great economist and statesman, Turgot, said: "America one day will be free."

Years went on. The dark shadows and splendid rays of light with which French history is interwoven shone and vanished in their grand and awful alternance. One day the French flag was lowered in Louisiana; that was at the close of the Seven Years War. Another day the same flag was seen on the mast of a small vessel leaving the harbor at Bordeaux and sailing for America. The ship happened to bear the auspicious name of La Victoire, and it bore Lafayette. Then it was the alliance of 1778, and the coming on the same year of the first envoy accredited by any nation to this country, my predecessor, Gerard de Rayneval, a staunch friend of America; then the peace of 1783, when, with the assent of the whole world, to the joy of every French heart, 13 stars shone on the American flag.

France recovered, then, neither Louisiana nor Canada, nor anything. But she never intended it. She won a friend, and such a friend is better than any province.

She was very happy, having exactly fulfilled without change, bargain, or extenuation the task she had mapped out for herself in 1778, when she declared in the alliance treaty that the "direct and essential object of the same was efficaciously to maintain the freedom, sovereignty, and absolute and illimited independence of the United States." The joy was such in Paris at the news of American independence that performances in the theaters were interrupted; the great event was announced, and audiences rose to their feet to cheer the new-born Republic. Festivities were given and colored prints were scattered all over France for the benefit of those who could not be present. Such souvenirs were proudly kept in families. One such came to the remote house of my own parents in the mountains, and it was carefully preserved and I possess it at this day.

France followed her destinies; in 1800 Louisiana was French again; three years later on the spontaneous proposal of the French Republic, not New Orleans alone, not a mere strip of land, but the whole country became forever American.

The treaty signed one hundred years and a day ago had little precedent in history; it dealt with territories larger than the Empire of Alexander; it followed no war; it was preceded by no shedding of human blood; the new possessions got a hundred times more than they even thought of demanding, and the negotiations were so simple, the good faith and mutual friendship so obvious, that all was concluded in a fortnight. The simplest protocol on postal or sanitary questions takes nowadays more time. Each party found its interest in the transaction, but something more than interest led the affair to a speedy conclusion and that was the deep-rooted sympathy of the French and American nations.

The French were simply continuing what they had begun; they had wished America to be free and they were glad to think that she would be great. Money was paid, it is true; had this been the main consideration, Louisiana would have been preserved, for the money was not by far the equivalent of the buildings and lands belonging to the State. Part of the money was employed in satisfying American claims. "Those," says the French negotiator, Marbois, "who knew the importance of a good understanding between these two countries, attached more importance to the $4,000,000 set apart for American claims than to the $12,000,000 offered to France."

An impending war in Europe, the possibilities of an occupation of Louisiana by a foreign power was not, either, the main motive. In the council held at the Tuileries on Easter day, 1803, the Marshal and Prince of Wagram, Berthier, whose first war had been the war of American independence, said, as to this: "If Louisiana is taken from us by our rivals what does it matter? Other possessions would soon be in our hands, and by means of an exchange, we should quickly obtain a restitution." He concluded, "No navy without colonies, no colonies without a navy."

Add again that the value of Louisiana was much better understood than it had been before. "I know the worth of what I give up," said Bonaparte; and the French Government knew it indeed. They acted with open eyes, for they had taken care from the year 1800 to gather all available information. One of the memoirs with which they enlightened themselves had been asked of Louis Vilemont, former captain in the regiment of Louisiana. It is still unpublished; and it informed the Government that "from various reports of Canadian and Indian hunters it is possible to walk from Missouri to the sea in less than two months and a half."

An access to the Pacific was not so easy as now, but yet an access was practicable, and the wealth of the country was extraordinary. Warming at the souvenir of what he knew, the retired officer exclaimed, "What sources of wealth can we not expect to find in those parts! At each step made from east to west all produce, all things increase tenfold. It seems as if nature had made this corner of the globe the most favored one of our immense empire. The samples of all reigns have more beauty and majesty than anywhere else. The men born there look more like the descendants of Alcides than the kinsmen of the tribes who worship Manitou."

The main motive power, without which all the others would have been of no avail, was, indeed, mutual sympathy. When the treaty was signed the three negotiators, Barbe-Marbois, Monroe, and Livingston, who had known each other in America at the time of the war of Independence, rose, and, what is rare on such occasions, one of them was able to express in a single sentence the intimate feelings of the three. "The treaty which we have just signed," said Livingston, "will cause no tears; they prepare centuries of happiness to innumerable generations of human beings; from this day the United States take their place among the powers of the first rank."

I do not think that there is another example in the history of the world of a cession of such vast territories thus obtained by the representatives of one of the parties to the applause and with the heartfelt consent of the representatives of the other.

The treaty giving away in full possession and forever Louisiana to the United States, allowing them to spread without meeting any foreign neighbors from one ocean to the other, adding fourteen States to the original thirteen, was signed one hundred years ago, "au nom du peuple Francais" in the year XI of the French Republic. The results have passed the most sanguine hopes, but they have not gone beyond the extent of our friendly wishes for the sister Republic of America. The representative of France comes to this spot that was French in former times with a feeling of admiration for what you have done, and no feeling of regret. He sees splendid development, arts, sciences, trade, and agriculture equally prosperous; he applauds your success, and expresses from his heart his good wishes for your grand exhibition of next year.

As for his own country, if she no longer holds those immense domains, she has, on the other hand, found other territories for the peaceful employment of her inexhaustible energy, with results which will forever redound to the praise of the Government of the Republic. And as for Louisiana itself, France rests satisfied with remembering that she could not have more friendly nor more sympathetic intentions. She remembers also, not without pride, that her sons first discovered and tilled the soil, first described it, and first drew a map of it; that one of her most famous writers first revealed to the world the springs of poetry that lay concealed as much under the fir trees of the Mississippi Valley as under the plane trees of Tempe; the diplomat and literary artist who made all those who had a mind and heart weep for the fate of Atala.

Seeing the results, my countrymen have never ceased to approve of the treaty signed a hundred years ago "au nom de peuple Francais." Eighteen hundred and three is the third memorable date in the relations between France and America. In giving the United States, according to the words of your negotiator, its place among the greatest powers in the world, 1803 did nothing but perfect what had been gloriously begun in 1778 and 1783.

Sixth. Music by the Marine Band, playing the Spanish "Himno de Riego."

Seventh. Address by the Spanish minister, Señor de Ojeda:

MR. PRESIDENT, LADIES AND GENTLEMEN: I greatly regret my inability to respond to the very flattering recognition of the part played by Spain in the early history of this territory. I wish I were endowed with the same eloquence displayed by previous orators, which it has been our privilege to listen to and admire. Still, had not the national glories of Spain been so brilliantly alluded to, were I able to recall them now with colors as glowing as the warmth their memory brings to my Spanish heart, I feel I could not raise to them a loftier or more eloquent monument than has been raised by those immortal works of Washington Irving, Prescott, Lowell, and Ticknor, which have made of Spanish tradition a familiar household patrimony of this nation.

I am sure you will agree with me in thinking that I could do no better, that I could not pay a higher nor more honorable nor lasting tribute to our share in the history of this continent than by invoking the testimony of your own literary genius and by referring now to that grateful recognition which moved the founders of this Republic to associate the revered memory of Isabella, the soul-stirring deeds of Pizarro, Cortez, and Ojeda, with the temple of your nationality.

If ever the engrossing conclusions of your wonderful actual prosperity, the intensity of your life, made one of your strenuous citizens forget what your present owes to your past, let him ascend the steps of your national capitol, let him pause before its majestic gates, and there he will behold, carved in bronze on the threshold of your proudest monument, the effigies and the names of those Spanish heroes who discovered, conquered, and pointed to you the way in which path you have so successfully followed.

As a guest, sitting now for the first time at the hearth of the American nation, I feel bound to respond to that high tribute made to Spain by publicly acknowledging here the enviable kindness shown by all classes of your people since I landed on your shores.

As the representative of the nation whose ancient and honored flag was the first to be reflected in the majestic course of the father of American rivers, I am happy to feel that my first official appearance before an American audience is associated in both your minds and mine with the commemoration of an event which, although involving far-reaching issues in the respective histories of three great nations, has not and never was darkened by the rankling memories which war and international strife always leave in their wake.

For, Mr. President, Spain, exclusively devoted to-day to the task of developing her immense resources, is happy to be associated with you in this peaceful celebration of a peaceful event. Believe me, Mr. President, the Spanish people will enter into this noble competition for the prizes of progress and civilization with that same stubbornness with which during seven centuries they maintained the heroic struggle which saved Europe and the Christian world from the baneful invasion of African hordes.

Spain will apply to the arts of peace, to the conquests of progress, that same and indomitable spirit which enabled her to enrich the Old World with a new one, over whose brilliant destinies she watches and ever will watch with intense and undying interest.

Spain hails with pleasure an opportunity like your future exposition will afford of showing her peaceful conquests in the domains of labor, and is especially bent on attracting toward her the benefits to be derived from this growing tendency of her people to an everlasting commercial, agricultural, and industrial interchange. She, more than over anxious to cultivate and strengthen her friendly relations with the world, could not but welcome with sympathy the announcement of this vast enterprise as a right step toward that blending of her material and moral interests with those of other nations, to that better understanding among them which she will indefatigably strive to attain.

You can therefore rest assured, Mr. President, that my country will contribute to the World's Fair and enhance with its varied exhibits its universal and historical features. I am, in fact, authorized to inform you that His Majesty's Government has decided to ask for the requisite appropriation as soon as Parliament assembles. Spain will appear before you, if not in all the splendor that the requirements of her wise, economical programme now forbid, at least in the manly garb of a nation meaning to show you and to show the world that her gloriously checkered career, instead of impairing our vitality, has retempered the ever-elastic steel of our national fiber and concentrated and directed all its latent energies toward the modern conquests of progress, labor, and civilization to which the city of St. Louis is now erecting a temple worthy of the city itself and of the auspicious event we are now commemorating.

And now, Mr. President, in wishing success to your noble undertaking, in thanking you and this city for its cordial hospitality, I beg to acknowledge also my gratitude for the numerous tokens and expressions of good will toward Spain which have been uttered during this solemn celebration and which I so fully appreciate.

I beg to salute reverently in that new-born flag of your exhibition and august emblem of peace and labor, a touching appeal to fraternity among nations. In that flag are blended the past and the present with the glorious colors of the three nations representative of St. Louis's early and contemporary history. Let us welcome its appealing and eloquent symbolism like the herald of an ever-cloudless future.

Eighth. "Hallelujah Chorus" from The Messiah.

Ninth. Benediction by Rev. Samuel J. Niccolls:

Almighty God, Heavenly Father, whose all-wise Providence did lead our fathers across the seas to this land, and Who hath given their children a goodly heritage, let Thy blessing rest upon their children. Let Thy blessings rest upon all the nations represented here to-day and upon the representatives. May we continue in the bonds of peace for all time. May the grace of God, mercy, and peace be with us. Amen.

Tenth. Centennial salute of 100 guns.

PROGRAMME

STATE DAY, MAY 2, 1903.

The civic parade assembled at 10.30 a.m. under direction of Col. Eugene J. Spencer, marshal of the day, and moved from the junction of Grand avenue and Lindell boulevard through Forest Park to the exposition grounds, where the parade was reviewed by the governors of the States.

At 1.30 p. m. the audience assembled in the Liberal Arts Building. The assembly was called to order by Mr. William H. Thompson, chairman of the committee on grounds and buildings, and the following programme was carried out:

First. Invocation by Rev. William R. Harper:

    Our Father which art in Heaven, whose work for man no man knows,
    whose heart is full of wisdom, to Thee be our prayers directed.
    Hallowed be Thy name. Thou art the pure and the very great. May
    Thy peace be manifested to us in all Thy work.

Give us this day our daily bread, and for the following day. Forgive us our sins, as well as forgive them that sin against us. Take away all hatred and strife and whatever prejudice may hinder us from union and concord. Let us be under one bond of faith and peace.

Show us Thy kindness and so fill us with Thy goodness that our souls may be filled with the manifold delights of charity and good will. Let nations abide under Thy law, for Thine is the kingdom, the power, and the glory. Amen.

Second. Address by Mr. William Lindsay, of the National Commission, president of the day, as follows:

MR. PRESIDENT AND LADIES AND GENTLEMEN: This is the last day of the interesting and memorable ceremonies with which the great exposition has been inaugurated. We have had with us the chief representative of the people. The next day we had with us the diplomats, the representatives of foreign climes. To-day we have with us the toilers. We have had the governors of the sovereign States which make up this great Union. When I beheld the great cavalcade I felt that the time had almost come when the industries will solely be confined to working for peace and divorced from devotion to the implements of war.

It is not merely a question of a fair profit upon money that is uppermost before the people to-day. It is not the question of a fair return for labor. But it is the question of equitable distribution of the products of labor and of the surplus of capital. This is the great question; that is what involves the happiness of mankind, and the man who solves that question will rise in greatness to such a point that other statesmen, or even Presidents, will pale into insignificance.

This is labor day, and as such we should honor it.

And the governors. We had governors before ever we had a President. Each State represents yet a great residuum of power. In the hands of State are the life and liberty of the people. We must remember that the governors, representing the unit of the national power, have the first place in national precedence.

There is on the right of me the governor of the great Empire State of the Atlantic. There is on the left of me the governor of the great Empire State of the Louisiana Purchase. I need not introduce to you the governor of Missouri, but it is upon the programme, and hence I will say the words—I beg to introduce Governor A.M. Dockery, who will now address you.

Third. Address of welcome by Hon. A.M. Dockery, governor of Missouri, as follows:

The pleasing duty devolves upon me of extending a cordial greeting in behalf of the people of Missouri to you as the chief magistrates and representatives of sister States, who come with kindly messages and substantial evidence of the nation's interest in our stupendous undertaking. The work already completed and yet to be done could only be accomplished by a people known and respected as the incarnation of intelligent, ennobling enterprise.

The occasion which will bring us together is the precursor of the most marvelous exhibition the world has ever seen. The wealth, the ingenuity, the forethought, and the ability of all nations will contribute to this magnificent result. The masterful statesmanship of Thomas Jefferson builded better than even he could know when he purchased from the Emperor Napoleon this vast domain—the connecting link between the fair country skirting the Atlantic coast, which had only been recently emancipated from despotic rule, and the rich possession on our west, extending to the Pacific Ocean.

The Mississippi River marks the eastern limit of this priceless acquisition. Sweeping away to the west, the south, and the north, its area of 14 States and Territories embraces great cities, beautiful towns and villages, farms and gardens, mighty waterways, vast railway systems, and a wealth of gold, silver, and other resources which a wise Providence provided for His people. Can the mind of man conceive a more resplendent territory? And when it is remembered that the Louisiana Purchase States are only a part of the still more glorious whole, is it any wonder that the American people are proud of their country and true to their Government?

Nature, with regal prodigality, has lavished gifts on this fair land, and its people are especially endowed with those qualifications which can not fail to produce the greatest excellence in everything.

But to return to the coming exposition. Everywhere during this pageant of entertainment have we seen evidences of the progress of this enterprise so mighty in its conception as to be astounding. Sites have been assigned to each State and foreign country, and the result already accomplished is spread out before you in brilliant panorama. There is no longer any question about anything but the magnitude of the success of the undertaking. This has been made possible only by the intelligent cooperation of all the people, and to you, as representatives of sister States, I extend most grateful acknowledgment.

The selection of our own metropolitan city as the proper place in which to hold this exposition seems peculiarly fitting. Its very name breathes the spirit of its French ancestry to whom we are so greatly indebted, and its geographical situation is preeminently satisfactory.

To guard our shores, to make impregnable our southern border against foreign assault, and to enlarge the scope of our commerce and liberty was the controlling thought of Thomas Jefferson and his compatriots when the "Purchase Territory" was added to the American Union. Fifteen millions of dollars represented the purchase price, and by a happy coincidence which may not have been altogether accidental, $15,000,000 represented the basic sum by which this exposition first became possible—$5,000,000 contributed by the city of St. Louis, $5,000,000 raised by popular subscription, and $5,000,000 given by the National Government. Missouri has since appropriated $1,000,000, that her resources may be fittingly exploited, while your States have in turn liberally set apart amounts which will lend the magnificence of their products to the scene.

To-day closes the celebration incident to the dedicatory exercises of the exposition, and in the hour of greeting we are reminded that soon we must part for a time. The panoply of war in the execution of our regular and citizen soldiery has joined with the pomp and pageantry of civil life. Their commingling is further proof of the pride of the people in all the institutions of our country. Civilian and soldier have given the weight of their influence to make more impressive the scenes attendant on this display, and will be equally enthusiastic when the gates of the great exhibition are formally opened. Months will pass before that event, but in the meantime an army of the employed will perfect the scheme which, in its full fruition, will herald abroad the triumph of this wonderful exposition.

In conclusion, permit me to say, the welcome of every true Missourian is yours, and in parting a cordial adieu is wafted with the hope expressed for a safe return to your homes and to your people.

Fourth. Music by the Marine Band.

Fifth. Response by Hon. Benj. B. Odell, jr., governor of New York, as follows:

The past, with all of its achievements, with all its successes, is to us but an incentive and guide for the future progress of our country. America still beckons to the oppressed of all lands and holds out the gifts of freedom, and we at this time and upon this occasion should renew our adherence to those policies which have made us a great nation. The future is before us, and the patriotism and self-sacrifice of those who made the country's history so glorious should be an Inspiration to us for all higher ideals of citizenship. Through the golden gates of commerce pours an unceasing stream of immigration which must be amalgamated with American ideas and American principles.

The battles of the past have been for freedom and liberty, and the struggle of the future will be for their preservation, not, however, by force of arms, but through the peaceful methods which come through the education of our people. The declaration which brought our Republic into existence has insured and guaranteed that liberty of conscience and that freedom of action which does not interfere, with the prerogatives or privileges of a man's neighbors.

Capital and labor are the two great elements upon which the prosperity and happiness of our people rest, and when, therefore, aggregations of the one are met by combinations of the other, it should be the aim of all to prevent the clashing of these great interests. The products of toil are worthless unless there be some means by which they can be substituted or transferred for that which labor requires. The concrete form in which these transactions are conducted is the money power or the capital of the land.

Without work all of these fertile fields, these teeming towns, would have been impossible; and without a desire to benefit and elevate humanity, its onward progress would have been useless. To work, to labor, is man's bounden duty, and in the performance of the tasks which have been placed upon him he should be encouraged, and his greatest incentive should be the knowledge that he may transmit to his children and his children's children a higher civilization and greater advantages than he himself possessed.

Trade conditions which would permit to the toiler but a bare sustenance, the bare means of a livelihood, would be a hindrance to human progress, a hindrance not to be removed by all of the maxims of the philosopher or the theories of the doctrinaire.

Promise without fulfillment is barren, but when you can place before the mechanic the assured fact that the performance of his duty means success in life, and that his nonperformance means failure; when you can show him that this law is immutable, you have made of him a useful citizen and have instilled into his mind a firm belief that the freedom and liberty of which we boast is not an inchoate substance to be dreamed of and not enjoyed.

But this desired result can not be secured if combinations of capital, which produce the necessaries of life cheaper and better, are assailed as the enemies of mankind. There is always a mean between those who seek only a fair recompense and return for that which they produce and those who seek undue advantages for the few at the expense of the many. The laws which have been enacted, if properly executed, are sufficient in their force and effort to encourage the one and to punish the other, but in our condemnation let us not forget that with the expansion that has come to our country an expansion of our business relations is also necessary.

This growth has brought us into intimate contact with the markets of the world, and in the struggle that is always before us the competition of trade, if we are to hold our own among the world's producers, we should encourage, not hinder, those who, by their energy, their capital, and their labor, have banded together for the purpose of meeting these new conditions—problems which our individual efforts alone can not solve, but which require the concentrated force and genius of both capital and labor.

Incentive for good citizenship would indeed be lacking if these were taken from us—the opportunities for development, the opportunities for the young man to follow in the footsteps of those who have written their names in the history of our country as the great captains of industry.

Success will always follow perseverance and genius. Every heresy, every doctrine which would teach the young man of this country differently, is an insult to the intelligence of our people, and is in the direction of building up a dangerous element in American society which in time would threaten not only the peace and prosperity we enjoy, but our very institutions themselves.

When you have placed before the young man all of his possibilities, you have made it impossible to make of our Republic a plutocracy controlled by the few at the expense of the many. The individual should count for as much as the aggregation of individuals, because an injury to the one will lead to the destruction of the many.

The question of adjusting and harmonizing the relations of capital and labor is the problem before us to-day, and is one which will become more urgent in the future. Its solution must be along those lines of constitutional right which every citizen has been guaranteed.

Every man is entitled, in the prosecution of his work, to the broadest possible liberty of action and the protection of law—of that law which is the outgrowth of necessity and which seeks to encourage and not to oppress. Such recognition can always be secured if there is a determination upon the part of those charged with the responsibility of government to have it. And who is not?

Every man possessed of a ballot is responsible and has the power not only to formulate, but to criticise and punish as well. If the right be properly exercised, an honest and efficient administration of our affairs can always be secured.

The greatest solvent for political heresies, for doctrines which are antagonistic to popular government, is education. To the educated mind there comes a conception of duty which is not possible to the ignorant.

Sixth. Grand chorus.

Seventh. Benediction by Rabbi Leon Harrison:

Unto Thee, Almighty God, the God of Moses, the God of Jesus, the God of Mohammed, and the God of every living creature, God of the church, of the mosque, and of the synagogue, unto Thee we bring homage and praise.

We worship Thee in this temple of labor, reared by faithful hands, and implore Thy benediction on the work, for, unless the Lord blesses the house, the labor is in vain. May it be dedicated to the enlightenment of humanity that brotherhood may be increased and patriotism deepened.

Bless this august assembly. Bless this great cause, its tireless leaders, and faithful workers, and above all bless our beloved country, the haven of the oppressed and the home of liberty. Bless its rulers and its people.

May it go on as from the beginning, from strength to strength, that the nation and the Government may increase in power and in the end be a union of all mankind, all races, all nations, proclaiming one God, one law of righteousness, one humanity, and saying Thy God shall reign from generation to generation. Amen.

Eighth. Centennial salute of 100 guns.

A grand display of daylight fireworks took place at the conclusion of the exercises in the building.

Immediately after the close of the ceremonies in the Liberal Arts Building, the governors present proceeded to the building sites selected for their respective States, where corner stones were laid and State colors were raised with appropriate ceremonies.

The lady managers of the exposition were conducted by military escort in advance of the parade each day to the reviewing stand. They were accompanied by the wives of the members of the Diplomatic Corps, members of the Supreme Court of the United States, members of the Cabinet, members of the Joint Committee of Congress, the Admiral of the Navy, the Lieutenant-General of the Army, the grand marshal, the governors of the States, the officiating clergymen, and members of the National Commission.

Receptions were held each day by the board of lady managers during the progress of the dedication ceremonies.

The magnificence of the spectacle will live long in the memories of the hundreds of thousands of people who witnessed the ceremonies.

All the nations were present by their diplomatic and accredited representatives.

The presence of Theodore Roosevelt, President of the United States, and of Grover Cleveland, his only living predecessor in office, intensified the interest of the vast concourse of people at the dedication ceremonies. Their addresses were listened to by 80,000 persons assembled in the Liberal Arts Building.

The committees appointed by the respective Houses of Congress to attend the dedication ceremonies consisted of the following Senators and Representatives:

    Committee of the Senate.—Messrs. Burnham, New Hampshire;
    Depew, New York; Penrose, Pennsylvania; Dolliver, Iowa;
    Hansbrough, North Dakota; Mitchell, Oregon; Teller, Colorado;
    Berry, Arkansas; Martin, Virginia; Foster, Louisiana.

    Committee of the House of Representatives.—Messrs. Jas. A.
    Tawney, Jas. S. Sherman, Thad. M. Mahon, Richard Bartholdt, H.
    C. Van Voorhis, Richard W. Parker, Jesse Overstreet, Jas. R.
    Mann, Walter I. Smith, Jas. M. Miller, E.J. Burkett, S.M.
    Robertson, C.L. Bartlett, John F. Shafroth, Jas. Hay.

Special rules and regulations providing for an international jury and governing the system of awards, which had been in course of preparation by the Commission and the Exposition Company for some time, were finally drafted and sent to the Commission for approval on May 2, 1902. As approved by the Commission and subsequently promulgated the rules read as follows:

UNIVERSAL EXPOSITION, ST. LOUIS, 1904, COMMEMORATING THE ACQUISITION OF LOUISIANA TERRITORY.

1. The total number of jurors in the international jury of awards shall be approximately 2 per cent of the total number of exhibitors, but not in excess of that number, and each nation having 50 exhibitors or more shall be entitled to representation on the jury. The number of jurors from each art or industry and for each nationality represented shall, as far as practicable, be proportional to the number of exhibitors and the importance of the exhibits.

Of this selected body of international jurors three graded juries will be constituted: One, the general organization of group juries; two, department juries; three, a superior jury.

2. Each group jury shall be composed of jurors and alternates.

The number of alternates shall in no case exceed one-fourth of the number of jurors, and they shall have a deliberative voice and vote only when occupying the places of absent jurors.

3. The United States jurors and alternates of the group juries shall be nominated by the chiefs of departments to which the respective groups belong. The jurors and alternates of the group juries representing foreign countries and the United States insular possessions shall be nominated by the commissioners of such countries.

The Louisiana Purchase Exposition Company shall certify to the board of lady managers the number of groups in which the exhibits have been produced in whole or in part by female labor; to each of the groups so certified the board of lady managers may appoint one juror and one alternate to that juror; such appointees, when confirmed, shall have the privileges and be amenable to the regulations provided for other jurors and alternates.

All the above nominations shall be made not later than August 1, 1904, except that nominations made to fill vacancies may be made at any subsequent time.

    Jury nominations made by commissioners of foreign countries
    shall be forwarded to the president of the Louisiana Purchase
    Exposition Company.

    Nominations made by chiefs of departments and by the board of
    lady managers shall be submitted to the director of exhibits,
    and when approved he shall transmit them to the president of the
    Exposition Company.

The nomination of group jurors and alternates, when approved by the president of the exposition, shall be transmitted to the president of the Louisiana Purchase Exposition Commission for the approval of that body.

These nominations having been considered and confirmed by the authorities, as provided by section 6 of the act of Congress relating to the approval of the awarding of premiums, the appointments to the international jury shall be made in accordance with section 6 of Article XXII of the official rules and regulations of the Louisiana Purchase Exposition Company.

4. Each group jury shall choose its own officers, consisting of a chairman, a vice-chairman, and a secretary.

Of the two first-named officers one shall be a citizen of the United States and the other shall be from a foreign country represented in the division of exhibits.

5. The chief of each department shall have general charge of the organization and direction of the group of juries in his department for the purpose of securing the proper examinations of all exhibits and to see that the work laid out for the juries is conducted strictly in accordance with the official rules and regulations.

He shall be admitted to all sessions of these juries for the purpose of directing their attention to matters relating to the judging of exhibits.

6. The work of the group juries shall begin September 1, 1904, and shall be completed not later than twenty days thereafter.

    Examinations or other work not completed in the time specified
    herein will be transferred to the department jury.

7. Group juries may, on the recommendation of the chiefs of their respective departments, and with the approval of the director of exhibits, have authority to appoint, as associates or experts, one or more persons especially skilled in matters submitted for examination. These experts shall participate only in such special work as they are selected to perform and shall have no vote on the question of the merit of the exhibit under consideration.

8. Each group jury shall carefully examine all exhibits pertaining to the group to which it has been assigned. It shall also consider and pass upon the merits of the collaborators whose work may be conspicuous in the design, development, or construction of the exhibits.

The jury shall prepare separate lists presenting the names of such exhibitors as are out of competition, awards recommended to exhibitors in order of merit, awards recommended to collaborators in order of merit, a report giving an account of the most important objects exhibited, and a general account of the group as a whole.

These papers shall be certified to the chief of the department to which the group belongs, and the chief of the department shall certify the same, with such recommendations as he may deem advisable, to the department jury.

9. In order to expedite their work group juries may be divided into committees for the examination of exhibits.

These committees shall be governed by paragraphs 1, 2, and 3 of rule 8, just cited; when they have completed the work assigned them they shall report to the full jury, which shall review the findings after an inspection of all the exhibits in the group.

10. When the exigencies of the work require such procedure, and when recommended by a chief of a department and approved by the director of exhibits, two or more group juries may be combined.

11. In the case of temporary exhibits and such other exhibits as are developed through a considerable period of time, or which for other reasons can not be governed by the time limits prescribed, the juries of such groups may continue in service throughout the entire period of the exposition. Special juries may be formed when urgently needed for special occasions.

At the close of each temporary exhibit or competition the jury having the same in charge shall prepare a list of awards proposed in order of merit and shall certify the same to the chief of the department to which the exhibit pertains.

Special awards for such temporary exhibits or competitions may be provided by the chief of the department to which the exhibits belong, on the approval of the director of exhibits and the president of the Exposition Company.

12. Each department jury shall be composed of the chairman and vice-chairman of the group juries of the respective departments, with one member of the directory of the Louisiana Purchase Exposition Company, to be named by the president of the company, and one person appointed by the board of lady managers.

    The department juries shall choose their own officers,
    consisting of a chairman, three vice-chairmen, and a secretary.

    The chairman and first vice-chairman shall be, one a citizen of
    the United States, and the other a citizen of a foreign country.

    The secretary may be selected by the members of the jury from a
    list of persons recommended by the director of exhibits.

    13. Each department jury shall complete its organization and
    begin its work on September 20, 1904.

The duties of these juries shall be to consider carefully and review the reports of the group juries; to harmonize any differences that may exist between the recommendations of the several group juries as to awards, and to adjust all awards recommended so that they will be consistent with the rules and regulations.

No more than ten days may be devoted to this work, and when the awards recommended by the group juries have been adjusted, the department juries shall, through the chiefs of their respective departments, submit their findings to the director of exhibits, who shall, within five days after the receipt thereof, certify the same to the superior jury, including such work as may have been left incomplete by the department jury.

14. The officers and members of the superior jury shall be as follows: President, the president of the Louisiana Purchase Exposition Company; first vice-president, the director of exhibits; second vice-president, a citizen of the United States to be named by the Louisiana Purchase Exposition Commission. The members of the jury shall further consist of the commissioners-general of the nine foreign countries occupying with exhibits the largest amounts of space in the exhibit palaces; the chairman and first vice-chairman of the department juries; the chiefs of the exhibit departments, and one person appointed by the board of lady managers.

Two additional vice-presidents and such other officers as may be required shall be elected by the superior jury from the members herein provided for.

No chief of a department shall represent more than a single department. The president of the Louisiana Purchase Exposition Company shall appoint from the United States membership of the department juries such other members as may be necessary to give to each exhibit department of the exposition a representative on the superior jury.

There shall also be a secretary of the superior jury, who may be selected by the members of the jury from a list of persons recommended by the president of the jury.

    15. The superior jury shall determine finally and fully the
    awards to be made to exhibitors and collaborators in all cases
    that are formally presented for its consideration.

Formal notification of the awards shall, in each case, be sent by the president of the jury to the exhibitors at the place of their respective exhibits.

If, for any reason, an award is not satisfactory to an exhibitor, he may file written notice to that effect with the president of the jury within three days after the date of the official notification of the award; and this notice shall be followed, within seven days after said date, by a written statement setting forth at length his views as to wherein the award is inconsistent or unjust.

In the adjustment of differences and in considering the recommendations of the department juries, the superior jury may provide for hearings of members of the department jury and of exhibitors, but in no case shall it be required to consider matters which have not been regularly presented as heretofore provided.

16. The work of the superior jury shall be completed on October 15, 1904, and, as soon as practicable thereafter, formal public announcement of the awards shall be made. A final complete list of awards shall be published by the Louisiana Purchase Exposition Company, in accordance with the provisions of section 6 of the act of Congress, and section 6, Article XXII, of the rules and regulations.

17. A committee, consisting of the president and the four vice-presidents of the superior jury, shall continue the work of the superior jury as long as may be found necessary after that jury has disbanded.

This committee shall have charge of the preparation, collection, and publication of the official list of awards and shall make the necessary provisions for the proper distribution of the awards.

18. The deliberations of all juries shall be strictly secret.

The president of the Exposition Company, the director of exhibits, and the chiefs of departments shall have the privilege of attending any sessions of the several juries.

A majority of any jury shall, in all cases, render and confirm a decision.

19. The exhibits of persons serving as jurors or alternates over groups embracing their exhibits shall be classed as noncompetitive and shall not be examined by the juries. This rule applies to managers, agents, or others representing a company or corporation which is entered as an exhibitor. It does not, however, apply to the officers or representatives of governments which are entered as exhibitors.

20. Each regular exhibitor may receive an award, although his exhibit be joined with that of others in a single installation.

Only one award shall be given to a collective exhibit, but the names of all the contributors to such collective exhibit may be entered on the diplomas awarded, and each participant shall receive a copy.

If so desired by a group of exhibitors, a single award may be made to an individual representing such group.

21. An exhibit shall receive only one award in any group.

The same object, shown in several groups and adjudged by more than one jury, shall be entitled only to the highest award accorded to it.

An exhibitor who has different objects entered as exhibits in different groups may be given an award in each group.

22. Exhibitors who desire to have their exhibits excluded from competition shall notify the chief of department as to their wishes when making application for space, giving their reasons at length for their request and objections to a competitive exhibit; and these papers shall be transmitted through the directory of exhibits to the president of the Louisiana Purchase Exposition Company with such recommendations as may be deemed necessary. Exhibits thus exempted from competition shall not be examined by the juries, and shall not be entitled to official recognition in connection with the system of awards.

23. In addition to the awards prescribed for exhibitors, an award may also be made to the inventor, designer, or artisan, who, as collaborator, has, in the judgment of the jury, shown more than ordinary skill in connection with an exhibit. A collaborator is a person who has distinguished himself as the designer or producer of remarkable objects shown at the exposition. He is not a person who has merely aided in the arrangement or installation of exhibits.

In order that this may be equitably accomplished, each exhibitor who has received an award may furnish the chief of his respective department, for transmission to the proper jury, a list of the names of his collaborators, arranged in order of merit, based on skill, ability, magnitude and value of work, and length of service. It will then remain for the jury of awards to determine whether the assistance rendered by the persons named in the manner described has been sufficient to entitle them, or any of them, to the rank of collaborator, and to name the award which may be conferred therefor.

24. Whenever it is applicable, a decimal scale system shall be used in judging the merits of exhibits, 100 representing perfection; and as a suggestion to juries, for instance, in commercial exhibits, the following is offered:

(a) Value of the product, process, machine or device, as measured by its usefulness, its beneficent influence on mankind in its physical, mental, moral, and educational aspects. Counting not to exceed 25.

(b) Skill and ingenuity displayed in the invention, construction, and application. Counting not to exceed 25.

(c) Merits of the installation as to the ingenuity and taste displayed, the cost and value as an exposition attraction. Counting not to exceed 10.

(d) Magnitude of the business represented, as measured by the gross sales during the calendar year preceding the opening of the exposition. Counting not to exceed 10.

(e) Quality or cheapness, with reference to the possession by the exhibit of the highest possible quality, or the fact that the article is sold at so low a price with reference to its quality as to make it a valuable acquisition to the purchaser. Counting not to exceed 10.

(f) For completion of installation within required time and for excellence of maintenance. Counting not to exceed 10.

(g) Length of time exhibitor has been in business as showing whether exhibit is a development of original invention or is an improvement on the work of some prior inventor. Counting not to exceed 5.

(h) Number and character of awards received from former expositions. Counting not to exceed 5.

25. A special award, consisting of a gold medal in each department, may be recommended by the department jury for the best, most complete, and most attractive installation.

26. The following scale of markings shall be used in determining the final merits of an exhibit and fixing the award that should be made, 100 being used as indicating perfection:

    Exhibits receiving markings ranging from 60 to 74 inclusive,
    bronze medal.

    Exhibits receiving markings ranging from 75 to 84 inclusive,
    silver medal.

    Exhibits receiving markings ranging from 85 to 94 inclusive,
    gold medal.

    Exhibits receiving markings ranging from 95 to 100 inclusive,
    grand prize.

27. The diplomas or certificates of award for exhibitors shall be signed by the president of the Louisiana Purchase Exposition Company, the president of the Louisiana Purchase Exposition Commission, the secretary of the Louisiana Purchase Exposition Company, the director of exhibits, and the chief of the department to which the exhibit pertains.

28. Special commemorative medals and diplomas may be issued to the officers of the exposition, to the United States, State, and foreign commissioners, to the members of the international jury of awards, and to such other persons as may be deemed worthy of special recognition.

29. The compensation of foreign jurors shall be fixed and paid by the countries which they respectively represent.

30. United States jurors, except such as are officers and employees of the exposition, shall receive actual cost of necessary transportation, and compensation at the rate of $7 per day for such time as they are actually engaged in the work assigned them at the exposition.

    DAVID R. FRANCIS,
    President.

    FREDERICK J.V. SKIFF.
    Director of Exhibits.

    APPROVED.
    THOMAS H. CARTER,
    President Louisiana Purchase Exposition Commission.

    ATTEST:
    WALTER B. STEVENS.
    Secretary Louisiana Purchase Exposition.

The Commission early experienced great inconvenience in preparing and submitting its monthly reports, as required by law, to the President of the United States, of the financial condition of the exposition, owing to delay in receiving monthly statements from the company and the incomplete nature of such statements when received.

From an examination of the reports furnished by the Exposition Company, it will be observed that they were at all times deficient in that they did not show the outstanding liabilities of the company. The Commission assiduously endeavored to secure such amendment to the books of account kept by the company as would secure the incorporation of a statement of such outstanding liabilities.

The following correspondence between the Commission and the Exposition Company shows the repeated efforts of the Commission to obtain the information essential to the preparation of the monthly reports referred to:

OCTOBER 3, 1902.

DEAR SIR: I am directed by the Commission to refresh your memory as to our conversation yesterday with regard to furnishing a statement of all outstanding liabilities of the Exposition Company.

Section 11 of the act of Congress, approved March 3, 1901, requires the Commission to furnish the President of the United States a summary of the financial condition of the Exposition Company, and this can not be done in a satisfactory manner without a statement of outstanding liabilities under contract, expressed or implied.

It is the desire of the Commission to furnish the President with detailed information of the character indicated, in connection with the report for the current month, to the end that he may have complete data available for consideration in connection with his message to Congress.

It will greatly oblige the Commission to have the statement referred to furnished in duplicate.

Yours, very truly, THOMAS H. CARTER, President.

Hon. D.R. FRANCIS, President Louisiana Purchase Exposition Company, City.

ST. Louis, U.S.A., October 15, 1902.

DEAR SIR: In reply to your letter of October 3 with respect to a summary of the financial condition of the Louisiana Purchase Exposition Company, I desire to say that the attention of the proper officers of the company has been called to this request of your part, and I may assure you that the desired information will be prepared and furnished at an early date.

Yours, truly, D.R. FRANCIS, President.

Hon. THOMAS H. CARTER, President National Commission, St. Louis, Mo.

ST. Louis, U.S.A., November 1, 1902.

DEAR SIR: I am directed by President Francis to transmit to you the following information of the total receipts and disbursements of the Louisiana Purchase Exposition Company to November 1, 1902:

As shown by the report of the treasurer, the collections on account of subscriptions to the capital stock to November 1, 1902, amount to $2,478,030.83.

The treasurer has received from the city of St. Louis the proceeds of the sale of $5,000,000 in bonds, said sale having been made in June, 1902, at a price slightly above par.

    The total disbursements to November 1, 1902, as shown by the
    books of the treasurer, amount to $21,284,141.01.

    The outstanding obligations and contracts, including
    disbursements to November 1, 1902, amount to $6,931,853.41.

    There is in the hands of the treasurer, November 1, 1902, the
    sum of $5,193,889.82.

    Respectfully,
    W.B. STEVENS,
    Secretary.

    Mr. JOSEPH FLORY,
    Secretary Louisiana Purchase Exposition Commission.

ST. Louis, U.S.A., November 26, 1902.

DEAR SIR: By direction of the Commission I respectfully call your attention to the following entry in the minutes of the proceedings at a meeting of the Commission held on October 2, 1902, as follows:

"President Francis was requested by the Commission to furnish a detailed statement of all outstanding contract obligations and other liabilities of the exposition for transmission to the President of the United States with the monthly report for the current month. He said the statement would be furnished the Commission as requested."

The statement referred to was not furnished to the Commission for transmission to the President of the United States with the monthly statement for the month of October. Presumably this default occurred because of your inability to have the statement prepared in season for transmission with that report. It is deemed by the Commission absolutely essential that the statement should be transmitted with the report for the month of November, to the end that it may be on file and available for examination by the President or by Congress.

You are, therefore, respectfully requested to furnish such detailed statement to the Commission at the earliest practicable date, to the end that it may be examined during the present meeting of the Commission.

The Commission desires that the statement should show the contract obligations for the several buildings, the names of the contractors, the dates fixed for payment, the amounts heretofore paid, and the date for final completion of each structure. Also all contracts existing requiring the payment of money for the acquisition of grounds and improvements to be made thereon, and for services rendered, or to be rendered, together with the amounts heretofore paid on the respective contracts, and the names of the contractors to whom payments have been or are to be made. In short, it is the desire of the Commission that the statement should give the substance of each and every contract for the payment of money made by the Exposition Company prior to November 1.

The Commission also desires that the statement should embrace an approximate estimate of the cost of all contemplated construction, improvements, and necessary expenditures connected with the exposition as contemplated by the plan and scope thereof heretofore approved.

The Commission deems the statement referred to necessary under the requirements of section 11 of the act of Congress approved March 3, 1901, which requires the Commission to give a general summary of the financial condition of the exposition.

The Commission will appreciate the courtesy of the statement in duplicate.

    Very respectfully,
    THOS. H. CARTER,
    President.

    Hon. D.R. FRANCIS,
    President Louisiana Purchase Exposition Company,
    St. Louis, Mo.

ST. LOUIS, November 26, 1902.

    DEAR SIR: I beg to acknowledge receipt of a communication dated
    November 26, signed by President Carter, requesting a detailed
    statement of the financial obligations and expenditures of the
    Louisiana Purchase Exposition Company up to and including
    October 31, 1902.

    Respectfully,
    W.B. STEVENS,
    Secretary.

    Hon. JOSEPH FLORY,
    Secretary National Commission, City.

ST. LOUIS, U.S.A., November 26, 1902.

    DEAR SIR: I send herewith a statement of the disbursements and
    liabilities of the Louisiana Purchase Exposition Company, which,
    I think, meets the request made by the National Commission.

    Respectfully,
    D.R. FRANCIS,
    President.

    Hon. THOMAS H. CARTER,
    President National Commission, St. Louis.

ST. LOUIS, November 29, 1902.

    DEAR SIR: I send herewith the financial statement and duplicate
    duly certified in accordance with the request of the National
    Commission.

    Respectfully,
    W.B. STEVENS,
    Secretary.

FEBRUARY 5, 1903.

DEAR SIR: Referring to conversation had with you this morning, relative to the detailed statement of disbursements and liabilities transmitted this Commission each month, I wish to say that the statement does not furnish all the information requested.

By reference to letter addressed President Francis by President Carter under date of November 26, 1902, on the second page of which you will note this Commission desires a statement showing the contract obligations for the several buildings, the name of the contractors, the dates fixed for payment, the amounts heretofore paid, and the date for final completion of each structure. Also all contracts existing requiring the payment of money for the acquisition of grounds and improvements to be made thereon, and for services rendered or to be rendered, together with the amounts heretofore paid on the respective contracts, and the names of the contractors to whom payments have been or are to be made, giving the substance of each and every contract for the payment of money made by the Exposition Company prior to November 1. If you could have the statement include the months of November, December, and January it would be appreciated.

You will also note that it is desired that the statement should embrace an approximate estimate of the cost of all contemplated construction, improvements, and necessary expenditures connected with the exposition, as contemplated by the plan and scope thereof heretofore approved.

This Commission will meet on March 10, and I will appreciate it if you will have the statement furnished at your earliest convenience.

Thanking you in advance for your kindness, I beg to remain,

Yours, very truly, JOSEPH FLORY, Secretary.

W.B. STEVENS, Esq., Secretary Exposition Company, Building.

ST. LOUIS, U.S.A., February 19, 1903.

DEAR SIR: The information asked for in your letter of the 5th instant, namely, "A statement showing contract obligations for the several buildings, names of contractors, dates fixed for payment, amount heretofore paid, and dates for final completion of each structure," is being prepared and will be forwarded to you.

Respectfully, W.B. STEVENS, Secretary.

Mr. JOSEPH FLORY, Secretary.

The statements furnished by the Exposition Company following this correspondence did not seem to the Commission to be sufficiently explanatory of the financial condition of the exposition, and with a view of obviating this difficulty, and of insuring better results in the future, the Commission on March 13, 1903, appointed a special auditing committee, consisting of Messrs. Scott, Thurston, and Miller, to audit the books and accounts of the Exposition Company up to April 1, 1903. Mr. Scott, as chairman, was authorized by the following resolution to make the audit:

Copy of Resolution.

Resolved, That the special auditing committee heretofore appointed be, and said committee is hereby, directed to inquire into and report to the Commission at its earliest convenience the true situation concerning the financial condition of the Exposition Company in the matter of cash receipts from different sources, including receipts for admissions and concessions and other sources; also all disbursements of any nature made by the Exposition Company. They will also examine all advertisements for bids; also all competitive bids submitted by contractors under each advertisement, and compare the accepted bids with the rejected bids, and determine if the accepted bids are reasonable in comparison with the material and service rendered. They will also prepare a comparative statement showing all bids submitted, and a copy of all contracts as finally awarded.

It is the wish of the Commission that you, as chairman of the special auditing committee, proceed with as much expedition as possible to make the examination and secure the information as set forth in above resolution.

Owing to the magnitude of the work of auditing the books of such an immense enterprise, Mr. Scott engaged the services of Jones, Caesar & Co., expert accountants, of St. Louis, to make the investigation under supervision of the committee.

On June 23, 1903, the special auditing committee made a report to the Commission, and at various times thereafter submitted other reports of the financial standing of the Exposition Company, based upon the findings of the above-named firm of expert accountants, all of which are in the files of the Commission.

The last report of the expert accountants employed by the Commission, containing a statement of receipts and disbursements of the Exposition Company from date of its incorporation to date of April 30, 1905, together with a condensed statement compiled by said expert accountants, showing their estimate of the financial result of the exposition, which they state has been prepared from the accounts of the company to May 3, 1905, and from an estimate of future receipts and expenditures, furnished by the president of the Exposition Company, is herewith submitted as a part of this report as "Appendix No. 1."

The Commission was compelled from time to time to call the attention of the Exposition Company to the apparently excessive number of free admissions in comparison with the total attendance at the exposition.

On May 10, 1904, the Commission wrote to the Exposition Company, pointing out that for the first seven days of the exposition, with the exception of the opening day, the number of free admissions compared with paid admissions was in the ratio of 7 to 6. On several subsequent occasions the Commission insisted that prompt action should be taken to check the indiscriminate use of passes.

On May 24, 1904, the Commission adopted the following resolution:

Resolved, That Mr. Thurston, as a member of the judiciary committee present, call upon Judge Ferris, general counsel for the Exposition Company, and indicate to him the condition of correspondence with reference to free admissions to the fair grounds, and to suggest to him that in the absence of any disposition on the part of the Exposition Company to take notice of the protests of the Commission, he has been authorized to prepare the case for submission to the Attorney-General of the United States, with request that action be taken in the courts to prevent further violation of the law and rules as agreed upon by the joint action of the company and the Commission.

On the same day Mr. Thurston, in a conference with Judge Ferris, general counsel of the Exposition Company, brought the said action of the Commission to his attention and insisted that the Exposition Company should at once take immediate steps to put an end to the excessive and improper issuance of free passes. Mr. Thurston was assured by Judge Ferris that he would immediately consult with the exposition officials and endeavor to secure such action on their part as would meet the views and wishes of the Commission.

As there was no apparent cessation in the distribution of passes, the president of the Commission, on May 31, addressed the following communication to the president of the Exposition Company:

MAY 31, 1904.

SIR: Under date of May 26 Secretary Stevens transmitted to the National Commission what he denominated "The rules and regulations governing and restricting the issuance and use of passes," as adopted by the company and now in operation. This communication, with the rules referred to attached, was obviously intended as an answer to the communication of the Commission to the company on that subject under dates of May 10 and May 19.

I am directed by the Commission to call your attention to the following sentence contained in my letter of 19th, above referred to, to wit:

"Persons not entitled to admission to the grounds under article 5 of the rules and regulations can only be legally and properly admitted by the Exposition Company with the approval of the National Commission."

With that proposition the answer of the executive committee of your company takes issue by submitting what you evidently deemed a sufficient answer through rules and regulations adopted by the company and now in operation, without the approval of the Commission.

The Commission understands that the following issues arise from this letter and the correspondence to which it refers, to wit:

First. That the Louisiana Purchase Exposition Company asserts and is exercising the asserted right to formulate and put into operation rules and regulations governing and restricting the issuance and use of free passes to the exposition grounds, without submitting such rules and regulations to the Commission and obtaining its approval thereof.

Second. That the Louisiana Purchase Exposition Company asserts and is acting upon the assertion of its alleged right, through its officers and agents, to issue free passes to the exposition grounds without the concurrence or approval of the National Commission, expressed through general rules or regulations or otherwise.

In reply to these asserted rights, and the exercise thereof by the Louisiana Purchase Exposition Company, the Louisiana Purchase Exposition Commission denies the right of the company to promulgate and put into operation rules and regulations governing and prescribing the issuance and use of free passes to the exposition grounds without submitting such rules and regulations to the Commission, and without obtaining its approval thereof, and denies the right of the Louisiana Purchase Exposition Company to issue free passes to the exposition grounds without the concurrence or approval of the National Commission, expressed through general rules and regulations, or otherwise.

Upon the two issues here presented the Commission invokes the judgment of the board of arbitration, provided for in section 4 of the act of Congress, entitled:

"An act to provide for celebrating the one hundredth anniversary of the purchase of the Louisiana territory by the United States by holding an international exhibition of arts, industries, manufactures, and the products of the soil, mine, forest, and sea, in the city of St. Louis, in the State of Missouri, approved March 3, 1901."

For convenience a copy of the correspondence referred to is hereunto attached.

Hon. John M. Allen and Hon. John M. Thurston, the members of the Commission appointed to act for this body on the board of arbitration, will hold themselves in readiness to meet the members of that board appointed by the company at their pleasure.

    Yours, very respectfully,
    THOS. H. CARTER.

    Hon. D.R. FRANCIS,
    President Louisiana Purchase Exposition Company.

On June 14 the Exposition Company submitted certain rules and regulations governing the issuance of passes. The Commission gave due consideration to the proposed rules, and on June 25 returned them to the Exposition Company with certain modifications, which the executive committee of the Exposition Company refused to adopt. Whereupon, on July 7, the Commission, by resolution, demanded immediate arbitration on the matter and protested against the issuance of free admissions pending a decision by the board of arbitration.

Mr. Joseph Flory, secretary of the Commission since its organization,
resigned from that office on July 1, 1904. Mr. Lawrence H. Grahame, of
New York, assistant secretary, was elected as secretary to succeed Mr.
Flory.

On July 13, 1904, the board of arbitration of the Commission and the Exposition Company finally met, and the question of free passes was discussed. Another meeting of the arbitrators was held on July 18, and rules and regulations governing the use of passes were drafted.

These rules were subsequently adopted by the company and approved by the
Commission on July 20, 1904. The rules read as, follows:

Resolved, That the rules and regulations governing free admission to the exposition grounds, prepared by the Louisiana Purchase Exposition Company, governing the corporation are fixed and established by said company to read as follows:

The official badges of the officers and directors of the company, directors of divisions, and chiefs of departments of the exposition, duly approved by the board of directors of the company; the official badges of the officers and members of the National Commission, duly approved by said Commission; and the official badge of the board of lady managers, duly approved by said board, shall entitle the officers and members wearing the same to free admission to the exposition grounds.

Card passes for the entire period of the exposition will be issued to the following officials and their wives, to wit:

The President of the United States.

The Vice-President of the United States.

Members of the Cabinet.

Judges of the Supreme Court of the United States.

The Secretary to the President of the United States.

Members and officers of the National Commission.

The directors and officers of the Exposition Company.

The mayor of the city of St. Louis.

    Card passes for the entire period of the exposition will be
    issued to the following persons, to wit:

    Members of both Houses of Congress, and the chief officers
    thereof.

The Diplomatic Corps.

The diplomatic representatives of the United States abroad.

The governors of States, Territories, Districts, and dependencies of the United States, and the Commissioners of the District of Columbia.

Commissioners of foreign countries accredited to the exposition.

    Commissioners of States, Territories, Districts, and
    dependencies of the United States accredited to the exposition.

    Directors of divisions and chiefs of the departments and bureaus
    of the exposition.

The widows of deceased directors of the Exposition Company.

The members of the board of lady managers.

Members of the United States Government board.

The commander of the Jefferson Guards and his official aides.

    The members and chief officers of the municipal assembly of the
    city of St. Louis.

    The heads of departments of the municipal government of the city
    of St. Louis.

    The chief of police and the chief of the detective force of St.
    Louis.

Limited admission passes will be granted, under such rules and regulations as the Exposition Company may prescribe, to the following classes of persons whose duties require their presence upon the exposition grounds, to wit:

The judges and jurors of awards.

Employees of the Exposition Company.

Employees of the National Commission.

Employees of the board of lady managers.

Officers and employees of the United States actually in charge of or connected with the Government exhibits, or otherwise officially engaged within the exposition grounds.

Agents and employees of foreign governments actually in charge of or connected with their exhibits or buildings.

Duly accredited press representatives.

Private exhibitors and their employees.

Concessionaires and their employees.

The term "employee" as herein used shall be construed as meaning only such persons as are actually and necessarily employed within the exposition grounds, and when in any case such employment ceases the pass shall be taken up and canceled.

A vehicle may be admitted to the grounds upon payment of 50 cents, but the driver and occupants thereof shall be subject to the general rules governing admissions.

Provided, That all official vehicles and the vehicles of officers and directors of the Exposition Company, of officers and members of the National Commission, and the members of the board of lady managers shall, with the driver thereof, be admitted free upon presentation of official permit.

Any person entering the grounds upon a badge or card pass shall be required to deposit with the gate keeper a personal card with pass number thereon.

In exceptional cases the president of the Exposition Company may issue passes to persons not included in the foregoing classification, when such action is deemed for the best interest of the exposition.

Passes will not be replaced during the period for which same may have been issued. When a pass is lost, prompt notice should be given to the department of admissions in order that notice of same may be posted and the pass taken up if presented.

When an employee is discharged or resigns, a pass will not be issued to his successor until the original pass is returned to the department of admissions.

The Louisiana Purchase Exposition reserves the right to call in and revoke or cancel any pass at any time.

Passes are void and will be forfeited if showing any evidence of alteration or erasure. All passes are nontransferable, and will be forfeited if presented by any other than person named thereon.

    Any person holding a pass may be required to prove his identity
    by signature or otherwise.

    All passes will be issued subject to the conditions printed
    thereon.

    All passes issued in conflict with the foregoing rules and
    regulations shall be recalled and canceled.

The Exposition Company shall furnish the National Commission a complete list of all card passes and a statement of all other passes issued prior to July 1, classified as to departments, divisions, and bureaus, as accurately as may be done from the books of the company, and hereafter the company shall keep an accurate record by departments, divisions, and bureaus, showing all passes issued by each under the foregoing rules, and shall furnish a copy of such record to the National Commission with each monthly financial statement, and such statement shall contain a list of all card passes issued during the month to which the financial report refers.

Prior to the approval of the rules and regulations governing free admissions to the exposition grounds, the president of the Exposition Company exercised a free hand in the distribution of passes.

On April 30, and during the month of May, 1904, of the 1,841,275 total admissions only 667,772 were paid admissions, thus making the free admissions substantially two-thirds of the total.

In June, 1904, the total admissions were 2,448,519, and of this number 1,382,865 were paid.

In July an improvement occurred. Of the 2,498,265 admissions during that month, 1,514,743 were paid. Thenceforward less than one-half of the total admissions were free. But notwithstanding the effort to check this abuse it was indulged to such an extent that the final totals make a remarkable showing, as follows:

Total admissions during the entire period
  of the exposition ………………….. 20,066,537
Total paid admissions during the entire
  period of the exposition ……………. 12,804,616

The total attendance and the paid admissions at the exposition do not compare favorably with those of the Columbian Exposition of 1893. The Columbian Exposition was conducted during a period of great financial depression, while the St. Louis Exposition was held during a period of remarkable prosperity. The Government aid extended to the latter was far greater in every respect than was given the former.

The method of advertising the exposition adopted by the company was a subject of constant and almost universal criticism, and complaints were made to the Commission and in the public press that exploitation of the fair was inadequate. On every possible occasion members of the Commission personally brought the matter to the attention of the exposition officials and suggested that steps be taken to give the enterprise wider publicity.

The Commission received communications and personal visits almost daily from persons interested in the success of the exposition, urging that some official action be taken to improve the existing advertising arrangements. So insistent became the demand for greater publicity that the president of the Commission addressed the following letter to the Exposition Company, suggesting the importance of properly advertising the exposition throughout the country.

JULY 20, 1904.

DEAR SIR: By direction of the National Commission, I respectfully call your attention to the apparent need for an extension and enlargement of the publicity feature of the exposition.

The zeal and efficiency of the press of the city of St. Louis has demonstrated what may be done in the creation of active interest by enlightened exploitation through the public press. Within the range of the general circulation of the papers published in this city all features of the fair have been made known; but, unhappily, the journals of this city, like those of all other cities, enjoy general circulation only in a limited area. Beyond the line of the special influence of the local press the extensive proportions and interesting details of the fair do not appear to the Commission to have been made known to the general public, to the extent or in the manner calculated to inspire the interest and secure the attendance warranted by the extraordinary merits of the great educational force here installed. In the opinion of the Commission this delinquency does not arise from any lack of devotion to the public welfare by the press of the country at large.

The munificent recognition of the fair by the General Government attracted national attention. The invitation extended by the President of the United States, under authority of law, to the nations of the earth to participate in the exposition, supplemented by the cordial cooperation of our diplomatic and consular representatives abroad, secured the most extensive foreign participation ever accorded to any like undertaking. Moved thereto by the example of the National Government, the States, Territories, and dependencies of the United States joined in the exposition with unparalleled generosity and enthusiasm. The groups of palatial buildings erected by the foreign governments and by the States and minor subdivisions of our country, together with the exhibits installed in the exhibition palaces provided by the company, bear the amplest testimony of their earnest desire to make the exposition a pronounced success. The splendid exhibit installed here by the government of the Philippine Islands rises to the proportions of an exposition on its own account.

The buildings are completed, the exhibits are installed, and the exposition has been in progress for substantially three-sevenths of its allotted period. The faith of the management in the merits of the exposition has been justified by the approving judgment of all who have entered the gates; but the daily attendance has been far short of what it should be from any point of view.

Unhappily, the magnificent proportions and the numberless attractions of the exposition do not seem to be fully understood by the masses of the people throughout the United States, whence attendance must be chiefly expected. The results obtained from the territory commanded by the press of St. Louis warrants the belief that the unsatisfactory conditions prevailing would be overcome if the country at large could be adequately advised of what is to be seen, learned, and enjoyed within these grounds.

All the National, State, Territorial, and District governments participating in the exposition are quite as much interested as the company in the diffusion of knowledge concerning the merits of the exposition and securing the attendance of the largest number of people who may find it possible to enjoy the benefits and the pleasure of a visit to the grounds. It appears to the Commission that the company may well call to its aid the forces referred to. The details through which publicity may be widely extended might wisely be made the result of a conference by a committee made up of persons appointed by the Exposition Company, the National Commission, and the representatives of Governments, States, Territories, and Districts having duly accredited commissioners appointed to represent them. It is probable that such a conference would find the representatives of each Government, State, and District anxious to cooperate by furnishing detailed information along well-considered lines concerning the participation of each in the fair. For example, the people of New York will be interested in a well-prepared description of the exhibits of that State, whereas the same subject-matter would not be of like interest to the people of California; but, on the contrary, the people of California would be interested in a graphic description of California exhibits.

The newspapers of the respective States will, without doubt, cheerfully give space to descriptive matter directly relating to the exhibits and achievements of their readers.

One instance has been called to the attention of the Commission where the names of visitors to the fair, registered at a State building, are being forwarded to the leading daily papers of the State, and published as a matter of news in their columns. The papers in question not only publish the list of arrivals at the exposition, but have called for any other matter of interest occurring here relating to the people or affairs of the State. This method of publicity pursued by the commissioners of one State might, as the result of conference, become generally adopted. The Exposition Company could well afford to aid and assist in the preparation of descriptive articles, accompanied by plate matter, relating to different localities, because it is evident that the creation of interest in any locality will contribute to the general purpose. But it is not the intention to here attempt to detail the many ways of securing merited publicity which would undoubtedly evolve from a general conference by representatives of all the interested forces.

The commissioners representing the various States and governments are persons of wide experience and broad intelligence; and they are all, in their respective spheres, undoubtedly as anxious to contribute to the success of the exposition as the directors and officers of the Exposition Company are known to be.

It is far from the intention of the Commission to interfere with the operation of any of your own matured plans; but it is respectfully submitted that the failure of expected and necessary attendance at the exposition is a matter of such supreme importance as to warrant the employment of every available force connected with this enterprise in the work of calling public attention to the exposition through the press of the whole country, and such other agencies as may be suggested and adopted.

Very respectfully,

    Thos. H. CARTER,
    President.

    Hon. D.R. FRANCIS,
    President Exposition Company, Building.

The exposition management did not elect to avail itself of the cooperation of the National Commission in the matter of exploitation, but very shortly after the foregoing letter was delivered the advertising department became more active by advertising in the newspapers and by the use of billboards in St. Louis and the adjacent territory.

The National Bill Posters' Association, which met in St. Louis about this time, observing the inadequacy of the provision made for advertising, volunteered to cooperate with the Exposition Company by posting bills on their boards free of charge throughout an extensive area.

A cursory examination of reports of the daily attendance will show a very perceptible increase of receipts at the gates in consequence of the effort made about this time to call the attractions of the exposition to the attention of the people. Unhappily the exploitation work thus commenced was practically one year behind time. Undoubtedly the paid attendance at the exposition could have been very largely increased by an efficient system of exploitation initiated one year before the gates were opened and vigorously prosecuted until the close of the exposition.

In order to increase the attendance at the exposition, as well as to increase the revenues of the Exposition Company at certain periods, the National Commission at different times cheerfully approved the modifications of the rules proposed by the Exposition Company authorizing the sale of season tickets, also of special tickets for limited periods, at reduced rates. Such modifications proposed by the Exposition Company were in all instances, except one, approved by the National Commission substantially as proposed; but in one instance the Commission was impelled from a sense of its duty to the Government to decline to approve a rule proposed by the company providing for the sale of special coupon tickets good for 50 admissions to stockholders of the company only.

It is proper to say that prior to the submission to the Commission of the proposed rule, or modification of the rules, announcement had been made in the newspapers of St. Louis that such tickets would be sold by the company, and, in fact, the sale of the proposed tickets had already begun.

The following letter contains the proposal of the company to authorize the sale of such special tickets to stockholders only:

MAY 18, 1904.

    DEAR SIR: I am directed by the executive committee of the
    Louisiana Purchase Exposition Company to inform the National
    Commission that the committee has approved the following
    resolution:

Resolved, That a ticket, photographic, nontransferable, having 50 coupons good for admission at any time during the World's Fair shall be sold to stockholders at the rate of $12.50; this privilege to continue to and including June 15, to be open to all who shall be stockholders up to and including that day.

I am directed by the executive committee to ask favorable action upon the resolution by the National Commission.

Respectfully,

    WALTER B. STEVENS,
    Secretary.

    Mr. JOSEPH FLORY,
    Secretary National Commission.

It was the opinion of the National Commission that the sale of the proposed tickets to stockholders alone at the reduced price proposed was in the nature of a dividend or pecuniary benefit in which the United States Government could not participate, and therefore contrary to law; and in view of the fact that the people of the United States had contributed through the Government appropriation for the exposition an amount of money equal to that which had been furnished by the stockholders of the company it seemed to the Commission that no special privilege respecting the purchase of tickets should be given such stockholders that was not given equally to all citizens of the United States.

This view was especially enforced by the consideration that stockholders of the company had subscribed for such stock in the belief that the citizens of the city of St. Louis would reap large local benefits from the holding of the fair in that city, while it was obvious that the other citizens of the United States could not in any degree participate in such benefits.

The Commission, believing that the sale of special coupon tickets at that time would increase the revenues of the company at a time when such increase seemed to be especially desirable, submitted to the company a modification of the proposed rule, as set forth in the following letter:

MAY 19, 1904.

DEAR SIR: I am directed by the National Commission to inform you that they have had under consideration the resolution contained in your esteemed favor of 18th instant, reading as follows:

"Resolved, That a ticket, photographic, nontransferable, having 50 coupons, good for admission at any time during the World's Fair, shall be sold to stockholders at the rate of $12.50; this privilege to continue to and including June 15, and to be open to all who shall be stockholders up to and including that day."

The Commission respectfully declines to approve the resolution as presented, but, being in hearty accord with the laudable purpose of the company to offer inducements tending to insure an extensive sale of admission tickets before the 15th of June, approves that feature of the resolution by modifying the same so as to read as follows:

"There shall be sold to the public up to and including June 15 at $12.50 a photographic, nontransferable ticket with 50 coupons thereunto attached, each good for one admission to the fair at any time prior to August 31."

In the judgment of the Commission the use of the tickets proposed should be restricted by a time limit, inasmuch as a failure to provide such a restriction would be equivalent to a reduction of admissions to 25 cents each. Moreover, limiting the time for use of the tickets, as proposed, would tend to stimulate attendance at the fair during the summer months.

The Commission is not insensible to the natural desire of the Exposition Company to give some privilege to the stockholders who subscribed to the capital stock of the corporation, but, while appreciating the generous motive of the executive committee, the Commission feels constrained to withhold its approval for the reason that approval thereof would, in the judgment of the Commission, violate the letter and spirit of section 20 of the act of Congress approved March 3, 1901, which, in so far as applicable, reads as follows:

    "That there shall be repaid into the Treasury of the United
    States the same proportionate amount of the aid given by the
    United States as shall be repaid to either the Louisiana
    Purchase Exposition Company or the city of St. Louis."

The proposal to give to stockholders of the Exposition Company tickets of admission good until December 1 at half price confers upon the stock a special privilege not contemplated by the act of Congress, and is apparently in the nature of a dividend or pecuniary benefit in which the United States can not participate.

I am also directed by the Commission to say that if, in the opinion of the company, the best interests of the fair would be advanced by making the proposed tickets good for the entire time of the fair the Commission would view such action with favor, providing the price of the ticket should be fixed at $15.

Yours, very respectfully, JOSEPH FLORY, Secretary.

Mr. WALTER B. STEVENS, Secretary Louisiana Purchase Exposition Company, Building.

On May 23, 1904, a conference was held between the National Commission and a committee on conference appointed by the Exposition Company. At such conference the National Commission insisted that the proposed special coupon tickets be sold to the public, while the conferees on the part of the company urged the acceptance of the original rule proposed by said company, limiting the sale of stockholders only. Finally, upon the proposal of the conferees of the company, and in order to reach an agreement, the National Commission assented to a rule whereby the company should be authorized to sell such tickets to its stockholders, also to any person presenting an order from the National Commission therefor, as is set forth in the following copy of the conference agreement:

At a conference between the officers and members of the executive committee of the Exposition Company and members of the National Commission, held at the office of President Francis on Monday, May 23, it was agreed, after a full and free conference, that the disagreement existing between the Exposition Company and the Commission with reference to the sale of 50-coupon, photographic, nontransferable tickets to stockholders of the Exposition Company, at $12.50 each, on or before June 15, such tickets to be good during the period of the fair, was settled by the adoption of the following addition to article 5, to wit:

"That any stockholder of the Exposition Company, or any person presenting an order from the National Commission to the treasurer of the company, may, at any time prior to June 15, purchase for $12.50 one photographic nontransferable ticket with 50 coupons attached, each coupon good for one admission to the fair at any time on or before December 1, 1904."

    To which addition to the aforesaid article 5 full assent was
    given by the company and the Commission.

    D.R. FRANCIS, President,
    W.H. THOMPSON, Treasurer,
    FESTUS J. WADE,
    Chairman Ways and Means Committee,
    Committee Representing Louisiana Purchase Exposition Co
.

    Thos. H. CARTER,
    JOHN M. THURSTON,
    GEO. W. MCBRIDE,
    PHILIP D. SCOTT,
    JOHN F. MILLER,
    FREDERICK A. BETTS,
    For the National Commission Louisiana Purchase Exposition.

The Commission, desiring that the public should have the amplest opportunity to participate in the purchase of these special tickets at reduced rates, and in order that the knowledge of such privilege should have the widest publicity, addressed and sent to the Associated Press the following notice:

To the Associated Press:

Some days ago the Exposition Company proposed to issue a nontransferable photographic coupon ticket good for 50 admissions for the sum of $12.50, that amount being half rate. This proposal was disapproved by the National Commission, because deemed in the nature of a dividend on the stock. The Commission insisted that if the price of tickets was reduced in the manner proposed, they should be presented to the public for sale without preference as to purchasers. As the result of a conference it was agreed that the Exposition Company might sell to its stockholders nontransferable tickets at the rate of $12.50 each for 50 admissions, and that at the same time any person not a stockholder presenting an order from the National Commission to the treasurer of the company would be entitled to the same privilege. The Commission desires to announce that any person not a stockholder of the Exposition Company may, upon application to the Commission, procure an order on the treasurer of the Exposition Company for the delivery of one of the tickets referred to upon the payment of $12.50. The privilege of purchase can not be exercised after June 15. Applications for orders may be made in person or by letter addressed to the National Commission, Administration Building, St. Louis. Payment for tickets to be made to William H. Thompson, treasurer, Laclede Building, St. Louis.

JOSEPH FLORY, Secretary.

The sale of these tickets was larger than had been expected either by the company or the Commission, and that it was satisfactory to the company was indicated by its proposal, under date of June 7, 1904, to extend the sale of such tickets from June 15 to and including July 1, the price being increased to $15. This proposal was promptly approved by the National Commission, and the sale resulted in materially increasing the revenues of the Exposition Company.

JURORS AND AWARDS.

It will be perceived that rules and regulations governing the appointment of jurors and the awarding of premiums were presented by the company and adopted by the company and adopted by the Commission on May 2, 1903. These rules required that the nominations of all proposed jurors be submitted to the Commission on or before August 1, 1904.

Believing that the approval of the jurors by the Commission should not be merely perfunctory, but that the nominations should be scrutinized with care before approval, the Commission, on the 18th day of May, 1904, addressed the Exposition Company the following self-explanatory communication:

ST. LOUIS, May 19, 1904.

Hon. D.R. FRANCIS, President Exposition Company.

MY DEAR SIR: Inasmuch as objections may be urged to the appointment of certain persons upon juries of awards, it is the intention of the National Commission to give public notice, allowing reasonable time for the filing of any objections that may be offered to the appointment of any individual on the jury. As this proceeding will necessarily consume time, it is desirable that the names of persons proposed for the respective juries be transmitted to the Commission from time to time as the respective groups are completed by the company. It is believed that final action can be reached in a more orderly and satisfactory manner by taking up the names proposed for each jury separately rather than to have the entire membership of all the juries submitted for consideration simultaneously.

    Yours, very respectfully,
    THOS. H. CARTER, President.

A communication on the same subject was addressed to the president of the Exposition Company on May 23, as follows:

MAY 23, 1904.

DEAR SIR: By direction of the Commission, I have the honor to call your attention to section 6 of the act of Congress making an appropriation for the exposition, and for other purposes, approved March 3, 1901, which provides that the appointment of all judges and examiners for the exposition shall be made by the Louisiana Purchase Exposition Company, subject to the approval of the Commission created by section 2 of the act.

Some days ago a gentleman reported to the Commission that certain jurors had been appointed and were actually discharging their duties as judges and examiners. This rumor seemed to the Commission utterly incredible, but this morning the director of exhibits confirmed the rumor informally by admitting that certain jurors had been at work for a considerable length of time in certain departments of the exposition.

The Commission does not desire to assume a position at all hypercritical, but I am directed to say that an utter disregard of provisions of the law can not be countenanced.

To the end that no question may arise concerning the legality or regularity of the action of any jury or board of examiners, I have the honor to request, in behalf of the Commission, that the names of jurors be forwarded to the Commission for consideration before there is any pretense to giving them authority to act.

Inasmuch as an infraction of the law has heretofore occurred according to the director of exhibits, I can but request that the names of the jurors who have heretofore been commissioned to act be forwarded for consideration without delay. We are not unmindful that free and full consideration of the names of persons thus empowered to act without full authority will be somewhat embarrassing in view of their having been employed for a considerable length of time before the Commission will have been advised of their designation by the company.

Yours, very respectfully,

    Thos. H. CARTER,
    President.

    Hon. D.R. FRANCIS,
    President Exposition Company, Building.

As indicated by correspondence hereinafter set forth, the company did not present the names of jurors to the Commission on or before August 1, and indeed did not advise the Commission of the names of many of the jurors until long after the time had elapsed for the performance of their duties.

After the group juries had performed their duties certain persons, feeling aggrieved by the awards made, undertook to appeal to the Commission for redress. The Commission disclaimed jurisdiction to consider the matter until the awards were submitted to it for approval. Upon inquiry growing out of these attempted appeals, it was ascertained by the Commission that the Exposition Company questioned the right of the Commission to inquire into or in any manner to pass upon the justice or regularity of any award made. The company having submitted certain proposed amendments to the rules and regulations, the Commission undertook by further amendments to settle the question as to the right of the company to refuse to submit awards made to the Commission for its approval, as required by law. The right of the Commission to even inquire into charges of fraud, bribery, or corruption in connection with awards the company steadily denied and never conceded.

In the records of the Commission filed with this report will be found charges under oath against a division chief, alleging that he was a party to negotiations for a bribe of $2,000 to be paid on the awarding of the grand prize to a certain manufactured article, and that when the matter was brought to his attention his only explanation was that he had declined to be the stakeholder or custodian of the money because of possible criticism in case the transaction should become public. This individual was a member of the group jury, a member of the department jury of his department, and a member of the superior jury.

The Commission felt that investigation of such serious charges was absolutely necessary to guarantee the integrity of the awards.

On October 18, 1904, Commissioner Allen, as acting president of the
Commission, set forth the existing status of the case in a letter to
Hon. D.R. Francis, president of the Exposition Company, reading as
follows:

OCTOBER 18, 1904.

SIR: On October 11 the National Commission sent to the local company a communication suggesting certain amendments to an amendment to the rules and regulations governing the system of awards sent us by the Exposition Company. To date we have not received reply to the communication referred to, nor have we heard from your company, excepting a visit from Judge Wilbur F. Boyle, a member of your executive committee, who called on the Commission on Friday, October 14, in relation to this matter.

The amendments suggested by this Commission were to carry into effect the law as we understand it, and what we have been assured was so understood by your company, to wit: That the awards, before becoming final, should be approved by the National Commission. We infer from what was said by you to Mr. Scott, a member of this Commission, and what was said by Judge Boyle to the Commission, that the position of your company is that the approval of the National Commission only refers to the system of making the awards, and not to the awards of the juries. While we do not agree to this contention, we desire to call your attention to what we consider a number of violations of the rules and regulations governing the system of awards, as agreed upon by the local company and the National Commission. In the first place, in paragraph 3 of the special rules and regulations providing for the appointment of jurors and governing the system of making awards, it is set forth "that the nominations for group jurors shall be made not later than August 1, 1904, except that nominations made to fill vacancies may be made at any subsequent time." It is also provided "that nominations of group jurors and alternates, when approved by the president of the Exposition Company, shall be transmitted to the National Commission for the approval of that body." "These nominations, having been considered and confirmed by the authority provided by section 6 of the act of Congress, relating to the approval of the awarding of premiums, the appointment to the international jury shall be made in accordance with section 6 of article 22 of the official rules and regulations of the Louisiana Purchase Exposition Company."

You will remember that the nominations of group jurors were not made until long after the time specified in the rules and regulations, which left but a brief time to notify the jurors and allow them time to get here to begin the performance of their duties by the 1st of September.

You will doubtless remember that the writer, Mr. Allen, had an interview with you and Mr. Skiff, in which he protested on behalf of the National Commission that no time was given the Commission to investigate the character of qualifications of the jurors thus nominated, and that it was placing in the hands of the chiefs of the different departments the power to fix up juries and make the awards conform to their own wishes, if they desired to do so.

You will also doubtless remember that Mr. Skiff, in your presence, said to Mr. Allen, as he has said to the Commission frequently before and as he assured us he had said to hundreds of exhibitors, that after the action of the group juries these awards would have to pass the department juries, then the superior jury, then the local company, and finally be approved by the National Commission, and that if anything wrong was done by the group juries thus selected ample opportunity would be had to right such wrong. Acting on this assurance the National Commission went ahead and approved such jurors as were sent them for their approval.

Paragraph 4 of said rules and regulations provides that each group jury shall choose its own officers, consisting of a chairman, vice-chairman, and secretary. It came to the knowledge of the Commission that when the group juries were being organized this rule was being violated, and in most, if not all instances, the officers of the group juries were being selected by the chiefs of the departments. We went to see the secretary of the exhibit department, who had charge of the matter of juries in that department, and informed him of this violation of the rules. We were informed by him that he did not know the chiefs had gone to the extent of informing the juries who their officers should be, but that they had been instructed to make suggestions that they might keep the chairmanship of the juries in the hands of the Americans.

We find that a large number of group jurors have been appointed, have participated in making awards, have been paid off, and have gone home without their names ever having been submitted to the National Commission for approval.

We are informed that the course adopted by the chiefs in the organization of the group juries was pursued when it came to the organization of the department juries, and in this way the chiefs, in violation of the rules, have selected the main body of the superior jury. We were also informed that the department juries were instructed to pass the matters that we think would properly belong to that body up to the superior jury; consequently the principal duty performed by the department jury was to enable the chiefs to select two members for the superior jury. We have been informed that the chiefs in some departments have taken it upon themselves to forbid the jurors from considering certain matters that were proper subjects for their consideration.

In paragraph 15 of said rules and regulations it is provided that if for any reason an award is not satisfactory to an exhibitor he may file notice to that effect with the president of the superior jury within three days after the official notification of the award; this notice shall be followed within seven days by a written statement setting forth at length his views as to wherein the award is unjust. We see now that the superior jury has been disbanded within three or four days after most of the exhibitors received their official notification, thus cutting off the opportunity of exhibitors who were dissatisfied with the awards to present their cases as provided for by the rules.

We are also informed that instead of the superior jury hearing any protests or complaints of the awards, these were referred to subboards or subjuries made up in the main of jurors who had been brought up by the chiefs from the various group juries to the superior jury by the methods heretofore described.

We have also been informed by a gentleman who attempted to make a protest and get a hearing before these subcommittees so organized with the superior jury that he was informed he could only make his complaint to the chief of the department from which the exhibit referred to came, and when one chief was approached he said he would not permit the matter complained of to be investigated by the superior jury. He then appealed to the full superior jury to hear him, and he was informed that they had agreed that no one should be heard. So that it occurs to us that the thing we sought to warn you against has been practically accomplished, and the assurance given us that the method by which these things might be corrected has been denied, so that if we understand your contention that we were only to approve the system of making awards instead of the awards we claim the system that we approved has been violated from start to finish.

We also find that some jurors who were appointed and approved for certain departments had been transferred to other groups and departments without the knowledge or approval of the National Commission.

We are not thoroughly familiar with the character of all your chiefs for integrity or impartiality, but from some things that we have heard we are unwilling for some of them to make up a list of awards without the National Commission's performance of the duty that devolves on us by the act of Congress and by section 6 of article 22 of the rules and regulations of the Louisiana Purchase Exposition, adopted in pursuance of an act of Congress of the United States, and we again wish to protest as we have had occasion to do several times before, against the apparent disposition on the part of the local company to ignore the National Commission, and disregard the powers vested in this body by the act of Congress, under which this exposition is held.

We see from the papers that your company, without any reference to the National Commission, is proceeding to publish the list of awards made as heretofore described in this communication. We wish to enter a protest against this being done, and to inform you that under section 4 of the act of Congress a board of arbitration is provided for, "to whom all matters of difference arising between the Commission and said company concerning the administration, management, and general supervision of said exposition, including all matters of difference arising out of the power given by this act to the said company, or to the said National Commission to modify or approve any act of the other of the two bodies, shall be referred for determination," and to notify you that we insist upon such arbitration if your company insists upon its refusal to submit these awards to the National Commission for approval.

The matters to be submitted to said arbitration board are as follows:

First. The right of the National Commission to have submitted for its approval the awards found under the jury system and ready to be promulgated by the superior jury.

Second. If our contention as to our rights in this matter be found by said board of arbitration against us, then as to whether or not the rules and regulations adopted by the local company and the National Commission governing the system of awards have been so complied with as to bind the National Commission to any approval of the system by which the awards have been made.

Third. Whether or not, under the rules and regulations, it is necessary for the president of the National Commission to sign the diplomas or certificate of awards; and if so, can his name be put on such diplomas or certificates without his consent.

We trust any further announcement of the awards of the superior jury may be withheld until this matter shall have been arbitrated.

Respectfully,

    THE LOUISIANA PURCHASE EXPOSITION COMMISSION,
    JOHN M. ALLEN, Acting President.

    Hon. D.R. FRANCIS,
    President Exposition Company, Building.

A formal acknowledgment of this letter was received from Secretary Stevens, with the advice that the same had been placed before the executive committee for consideration.

At about this time there appeared in several St. Louis newspapers advertisements of prominent firms of St. Louis, setting forth the alleged fact that they had been awarded grand prizes on their exhibits, and in connection with such advertisements was displayed a cut of an official award ribbon, bearing the facsimile signature of the president, the director of exhibits, the secretary of the Exposition Company, and the chief of the department in which the exhibit was made.

The fact that the awards were being advertised broadcast in this manner before they had been approved by the Commission was called to the attention of President Francis by Mr. Allen, acting president, by a letter under date of November 4, as follows:

NOVEMBER 4, 1904.

SIR: If the inclosed advertisement is published by authority of the Louisiana Purchase Exposition Company, it seems to be directly in conflict with the understanding had with the National Commission that before awards be announced officially they were to be submitted to the National Commission for approval. This advertisement purports to be by authority of the Louisiana Purchase Exposition Company, signed by David R. Francis, president, and F.J.V. Skiff, director of exhibits. No final action on awards by the superior jury have been submitted to the National Commission, but nearly all the exhibitors in the exhibit buildings are advertising what purports to be the official awards.

We most earnestly submit that this action on the part of the exhibitors is in direct conflict with the law and with the agreement had with you by the National Commission, and if it is being done with the approval of your company, we desire again to protest against it. We understood after our demand for arbitration on the construction of the law as to the right of the National Commission to approve or disapprove of awards, that your company agreed to our contention, and that these awards were to be submitted to us before being published. If your understanding does not accord with ours, we again ask for arbitration. If it does accord with ours, we insist that the spirit of this agreement be adhered to.

Very respectfully,

JOHN M. ALLEN, Acting President.

Hon. D.R. FRANCIS, President Louisiana Purchase Exposition Company, Administration Building.

The following communication was received from President Francis, in reply to Mr. Allen's letter:

NOVEMBER 4, 1904.

DEAR SIR: I am in receipt of contents of your letter of this date concerning the advertisement of the Brown Shoe Company of their awards. It surprised me as much as it did you. I have instituted inquiries, and as soon as I ascertain by whose authority the announcement was put in the papers, I shall advise you. Of course you know that the exposition authorities had no knowledge of such an advertisement until it was given to the public. These ribbons are sold by a concessionaire, who was instructed weeks ago to sell none of them until the awards are officially announced.

Very truly, yours,

    D.R. FRANCIS,
    President.

    Hon. J.M. ALLEN,
    Acting President National Commission, St. Louis, Mo.

Shortly after the receipt of the foregoing letter from President Francis another letter bearing the same matter was delivered to the Commission, as follows:

NOVEMBER 4, 1904.

DEAR SIR: Since writing you a hurried note this morning, I have read your letter more carefully, and desire to state in addition that, referring to that portion of your letter relating to what you term an "agreement" between this company and the National Commission that no award can be made without being approved by the Commission, I beg to say I am not advised of such an agreement or understanding having been made. It was our understanding that, before official notification to exhibitors, a list of the awards made by the superior jury would be furnished by the secretary of said jury to the Commission and also to this company for their information and for the purpose of giving to the Commission and to this company an opportunity to call the attention of the jury (or the committee of five now acting as such) to any errors which the Commission or this company might discover, so that the same might be considered and corrected before giving official notification to the exhibitors. My understanding is that the committee of five are sending these lists as fast as its clerical force can make them out.

Yours, truly,

    D.R. FRANCIS,
    President.

    Hon. JOHN M. ALLEN,
    Acting President National Commission.

On November 5, Mr. Allen addressed another communication to President
Francis, as follows:

NOVEMBER 5, 1904.

SIR: The National Commission is in receipt of your two letters of the 4th instant, in reply to one of same date sent to you. The first of the two letters recognizes our contention. Your second letter is one of the most surprising communications we have ever had from the local company. You seem to have mended your hold after your first letter of the 4th instant and for some reason repudiated what Mr. Miller, Mr. Betts, and the writer clearly understood to be an acquiescence in and an agreement to the contentions as to the rights of the National Commission contained in our letter to you of October 18. We inclose herewith a copy of said letter of the 18th instant for the purpose of refreshing your memory without the necessity of looking it up.

You will see that in that letter we defined the contention of the National Commission as to its right to approve or disapprove of the awards of the juries, and it concludes with a demand for arbitration unless this right is conceded by your company.

You will remember that instead of answering this letter you invited Mr. Betts and the writer into your office, where we sent for Mr. Miller, to discuss this question. You should remember that when you broached this subject the writer said to you, "We are not looking for work, nor are we looking for trouble, but we think Congress has imposed this duty of approving and disapproving these awards on us, and we will not shirk it." There was considerable discussion in your office that day, but no intimation from you or anyone else that there was still opposition to our contention. You went on to say that the lists that you were getting out were not official in any sense and would not be until we said so.

You will recall that this interview between us was at your suggestion and intended, we supposed, as an answer to our communication of the 18th of October, in which we had demanded arbitration on this very question. You say in your second letter of the 4th instant that "It was our understanding that before official notification to exhibitors a list of awards of the superior jury would be furnished by the secretary of said jury to the Commission and also to this company for their information and for the purpose of giving the Commission and this company an opportunity to call the attention of the jury, or the committee of five now acting as such, to any errors which the Commission or this company might discover, so that the same might be considered and corrected before giving official notification to the exhibitors." We can not understand where you could have gotten that understanding. I know that there was nothing said about the National Commission having a list submitted to it for any other purpose than the purpose of approval or disapproval. We never asked for a list for information, nor was anything ever said about referring anything back to the committee of five. What was ever said by the members of the National Commission then present to indicate to you that we withdrew or abandoned our demand for arbitration if the right of approval or disapproval was not accorded the National Commission? And if nothing was said by us evidencing such an abandonment of the demand, what answer have you ever made to such a demand? If your conversation with the members of the National Commission in your office that day was not intended to make the impression on them that you assented to sending the awards to the National Commission for approval or disapproval, it was as misleading a conversation as I ever listened to, and both the other gentlemen of the National Commission who were present agree with me in this view.

Right here let me suggest that in the future our written communications be answered in writing. We will then at least have a record in writing.

We reiterate that we are not looking for trouble or work, but as the representatives of the Federal Government we do not propose, if we can prevent it, to acquiesce in having the awards of this exposition promulgated without our approval when we think the law devolves this duty upon us. If your second letter of the 4th instant, in which you state your understanding, is the course your company proposes to take about this matter, we reiterate our demand for arbitration as contained in our letter of October 18. We suppose it will not be contended that we have lost the right of arbitration. We insist that there be no official promulgation of the action of the superior jury until such arbitration shall have been concluded.

    Awaiting your early reply,
    Very respectfully,

    JOHN M. ALLEN,
    Acting President.

    Hon. D.R. FRANCIS,
    President Louisiana Purchase Exposition Company,
    Administration Building
.

Under date of November 8, President Francis replied to the foregoing letter as follows:

NOVEMBER 8, 1904.

DEAR SIR: Your communication of Saturday, November 5, was not read by me until yesterday, Monday, November 7, and was submitted to the executive committee to-day. I can not say whether the tone and spirit of the letter, or the statement that you misunderstood the position of the Exposition Company, was the more surprising. I desire to state emphatically that at no time have I ever told you or said anything that would justify you in believing that the Exposition Company accepted the contention that the National Commission has the right to approve or disapprove the awards of the superior jury before they are final. It is true I did invite you into my office after the receipt of your letter of October 18, and also true that I stated to you I regretted the view taken by the National Commission of its prerogatives or its duty, but none the less true that I also said that, inasmuch as the rules governing the system of awards had been promulgated and acted upon after approval by the Exhibition Company and the National Commission, that neither the Exposition Company nor the National Commission has the right to review the awards or overturn them. I did state that no official announcement of awards would be made until the Exposition Company and the National Commission should be advised of what they were, to the end that, if there had been any irregularity in the awarding, any errors or omissions, or any fraud, the same might be corrected; but at no time have I ever said anything that would justify you or anyone else in the conclusion that either the Exposition Company or the National Commission had the right to review the action of the superior jury with the power to overturn the awards on the ground that they were not justly made on the merits of the exhibits. It was certainly my understanding when we parted after the conference in my office that the situation was clear to you, and I have a distinct recollection, as does Judge Ferriss, who was present at the conference, that Mr. Betts accepted the situation. You offered no definite objection, but did state in an interrogatory tone that you were not yet ready to relinquish the right of the National Commission to approve the awards. I have had no conversation with you since that date on the subject, but Judge Boyle tells me that in conversation with Mr. Betts on the subject, after the interview in my office, he told Mr. Betts that the superior jury was progressing with its work and had no objection to any member or members of the National Commission being present at its sessions; and further, that as fast as the work progressed the results would be informally communicated to the National Commission, so that if the Commission should find any errors it could call the committee's attention to same, so that corrections could be made before an official announcement of awards. His impression, from the conversation with Mr. Betts, was that this arrangement was entirely satisfactory to the Commission, and would obviate any further controversy as to the right of the Commission to approve or disapprove the awards before they became final.

I therefore not only deny any intention to mislead you or the National Commission concerning the position of the superior jury and the Exposition Company, but state emphatically that I have said nothing that justifies any belief or impression on the part of anyone that either the superior jury or the Exposition Company admitted the contention of the National Commission that it had the right to approve or disapprove awards finally made by the superior jury in pursuance of the rules and regulations adopted by this company and approved by the Commission.

I made two replies to your letter of November 4, and my reason for doing so was explained in the second letter. My first letter was dictated immediately on receipt and on a cursory reading of your communication inclosing the advertisement of an award in the morning papers of November 4, and was hurriedly made through earnest consideration for and extreme courtesy toward the National Commission. It merely advised that I was investigating the advertisement and would report as soon as I could learn upon what authority of the Exposition Company or superior jury, if any, it had been inserted in the daily papers. Upon a rereading of your letter and a reference of same to members of the superior jury, my attention was called to the fact that a failure to reply to that portion of your letter claiming the right of the National Commission to approve or disapprove awards made on their merits might be construed as an acknowledgment of such contention, whereupon I sent to you the second communication. Until the receipt of your letter of the 5th, I was under the impression that the situation as it exists was accepted by the National Commission, as it has been by the Exposition Company.

I note the request in your letter "that in future our (your) written communications be answered in writing," and it will be complied with. Furthermore, if this request is made by authority of the National Commission, as such, I desire that all communications of the National Commission to the Exposition Company shall hereafter be in writing.

As to your request for an arbitration, if you still insist on having it the Exposition Company will interpose no obstacle.

In this connection, I desire to inform you that the diplomas or certificates of award provided for in the rules and regulations are being engraved, and the facsimile signatures of the president, secretary, and director of exhibits of the Exposition Company, and of the president of the National Commission placed thereon. If the National Commission is unwilling to have the name of its president engraved on these diplomas until or unless the awards are approved by the National Commission, the fact should be made known at the earliest possible moment, so that there may be no unnecessary expense incurred.

    This letter has been submitted to the executive committee of the
    Exposition Company and has been approved by it.

Yours truly

P.R. FRANCIS, President.

Hon. JOHN M. ALLEN, Acting President National Commission, Administration Building.

Informal conferences were held with the exposition officials from time to time, but no agreement was reached, and on November 11 the Commission submitted the following draft of suggestions to the Exposition Company for the finding of the board of arbitration:

First. The awards as made by the superior jury are final and binding upon the Exposition Company and the National Commission, unless the same are impeached for fraud, or unless misconduct amounting to fraud is proven.

Second. The lists of awards as made by the superior jury are to be transmitted to the Exposition Company, and certificates of awards shall be authorized by said company, and thereafter said lists are to be transmitted to the National Commission and certificates of award authorized by said Commission, all without further question or investigation, unless the said awards are impeached for fraud or misconduct, as hereinbefore stated.

Third. No complaint or protest as to any of said awards will be received or considered, either by the Exposition Company or the National Commission, unless the same is made in writing over the signature of some competing exhibitor and substantiated by affidavit or other sworn testimony establishing a prima facie case of such fraud or misconduct in procuring or making of said award.

The arbitration committee of the Exposition Company replied to the foregoing propositions as follows:

NOVEMBER 11, 1904.

DEAR SIR: After consulting Judge Boyle I find that the suggestions you have presented for a finding by the board of arbitration will be acceptable to both of us if the following amendments are made:

First. Change in the first clause, so as to read as follows:

"The awards as made by the superior jury are final and binding upon the Exposition Company and the National Commission, except as to any award or awards which are impeached by said company or Commission for fraudulent conduct on the part of said jury in making the awards."

Second. Omit entirely the third clause.

We are of the opinion that ample provision is made in the rules and regulations for having any fraud or fraudulent conduct on the part of any subordinate jury or juror fully considered and determined by appeal to the superior jury, and that no further precaution or provision is needed unless the conduct of the superior jury is shown to have been fraudulent.

Our purpose in striking out the third clause is that a charge of fraud against the superior jury should be made only when supported with the character and dignity pertaining to the Exposition Company or the National Commission, and that the provision made in the third clause for affidavits is wholly unnecessary because the charge would not be made by either of those bodies except upon such evidence as they would be satisfied warranted making the charge.

Yours, very truly,

    CHAS. W. KNAPP,
    Member Board of Arbitration.

    Hon. JOHN M. THURSTON,
    Member Arbitration Board, National Commission.

On November 12, 1904, the Commission addressed the following communication to the President of the Exposition Company, forbidding the use of the signature of the president of the Commission to any certificate of award until the matter at issue was determined.

NOVEMBER 12, 1904.

SIR: Your letter of November 8 received and contents noted. The statements contained therein as to what occurred in your office on the 19th of October in your interview with Mr. Betts, Mr. Miller, and the writer do not accord with the distinct recollection or understanding of any of the three parties mentioned.

I am glad to know that our communications will hereafter be in writing, that these misunderstandings may be avoided. The National Commission is in entire accord with this position, and we will try and observe our part of this understanding.

The informal conferences between the members of the National Commission and representatives of your company seem to have resulted in no definite understanding, and the Commission therefore insists that arbitration be had to determine the true effect and meaning of section 6 of the act of Congress approved March 3, 1901, as affecting the rights and duties of the National Commission to approve or not approve the awards.

    In the meantime and until this question is determined the
    Commission can not authorize the use of its president's
    signature on any certificate of award.

In any arrangement preliminary to the settlement of this controversy the writer will be pleased to confer with your arbitration committee at any time.

Very respectfully,

    JOHN M. ALLEN,
    Acting President.

    Hon. D.R. FRANCIS,
    President Exposition Company, Building.

After many futile efforts to reach an agreement as to the subject-matter to be submitted for arbitration, it became obvious to the Commission that it was the intention of the Exposition Company to ignore the right of the Commission to finally consider or approve the awards of the superior jury. Under these circumstances the president of the Commission was directed, on November 22, 1904, by resolution, to forward to the president of the Exposition Company a communication summing up the controversy and stating clearly the stand taken by the Commission.

The communication is as follows:

St. Louis, November 22, 1904.

Sir: To the end that an understanding may be reached as to issues involved in correspondence between your company and the National Commission, extending from the month of May, 1904, almost to the present date, relative to the appointment of jurors and the awarding of premiums, it appears desirable and necessary that the law and the facts be briefly stated and the relative position of your company and the Commission clearly defined.

In so far as applicable to the subjects referred to, section 6 of the act of Congress making an appropriation for the exposition, and for other purposes, approved March 3, 1901, reads as follows:

"That the allotment of space for exhibitors, classification of exhibits, plan and scope of the exposition, the appointment of all judges and examiners for the exposition, and the awarding of premiums, if any, shall all be done and performed by the said Louisiana Purchase Exposition Company, subject, however, to the approval of the Commission created by section two of this act."

Under and in conformity with the provisions of law above cited, certain general and special rules and regulations providing for an international jury and governing the system of making awards were submitted by the company and approved by the Commission in the year 1903.

The general rules applicable read as follows:

ARTICLE XXII.
AWARDS.
SECTION 1. The system of awards will be competitive. The merit of exhibits as determined by the jury of awards will be manifested by the issuance of diplomas, which will be divided into four classes—a grand prize, a gold medal, a silver medal, and a bronze medal.

SEC. 2. No exhibit can be excluded from competition for award without the consent of the president of the Exposition Company after a review of the reasons or motives by competent authorities hereafter to be provided.

SEC. 3. In a fixed ratio to the number of exhibits, but reserving to the citizens of the United States approximately 60 per cent of the jury membership, the construction of the international jury will be based upon a predetermined number of judges allotted to each group of the classification and upon the number and importance of the exhibits in such group.

SEC. 4. A chairman of the group jury will be elected by his colleagues in each group, this chairman to become, by right of his position, a member of the department jury, which department jury shall in turn elect its chairman, who shall thereupon become a member of the superior jury.

SEC. 5. Special rules and regulations governing the system of making awards and determining the extent to which foreign countries may have representation on the juries, will be hereafter promulgated.

SEC. 6. Allotment of space for exhibitors, the classification of exhibits, the appointment of all judges and examiners for the exposition, and the awarding of premiums, if any, shall be done and performed by the Louisiana Purchase Exposition Company, subject, however, to the approval of the Louisiana Purchase Exposition Commission.

The special rules provide for the appointment of three graded juries, designated as, first, the general organization of group juries; second, department juries, and, third, the superior jury.

At the conclusion of the recital of the manner of selecting the jurors a paragraph in section 3 of the rules provides that "all the above nominations shall be made not later than August 1, 1904, except that nominations made to fill vacancies may be made at any subsequent time."

In conclusion, the section last referred to reads as follows:

"The nominations of group jurors and alternates, when approved by the president of the exposition, shall be transmitted to the president of the Louisiana Purchase Exposition Commission for approval of that body.

"These nominations having been considered and confirmed by the authorities as provided by section 6 of the act of Congress relating to the approval of the awarding of premiums, the appointment of the international jury shall be made in accordance with section 6 of Article XXII of the official rules and regulations of the Louisiana Purchase Exposition Company."

Section 6 of the aforesaid special rules provides that—

"The work of the group juries shall begin September 1, 1904, and shall be completed not later than twenty days thereafter."

Section 15 of the special rules and regulations provides that—

"The superior jury shall determine finally and fully the awards to be made to exhibitors and collaborators in all cases that are formally presented for its consideration."

Section 16 of the special rules and regulations provides that—

"The work of the superior jury shall be completed on October 15, 1904, and, as soon as practicable thereafter, formal public announcement of the awards shall be made. A final complete list of awards shall be published by the Louisiana Purchase Exposition Company, in accordance with the provisions of section 6 of the act of Congress, and section 6, Article XXII, of the rules and regulations."

Sec. 27 of the special rules and regulations provides that—

"The diplomas or certificates of award for exhibitors shall be signed by the president of the Louisiana Purchase Exposition Company, the president of the Louisiana Purchase Exposition Commission, the secretary of the Louisiana Purchase Exposition Company, the director of exhibits, and the chief of the department to which the exhibit pertains."

The foregoing rules clearly required the submission of the names of all proposed jurors to the Commission for its approval or disapproval prior to August 1, 1904, except as to nominations to fill vacancies.

Realizing the necessity for the exercise of great care on the part of the Commission in the discharge of its duties in the premises, and the necessity for ample time for investigation as to the fitness of persons and their willingness to serve as jurors of awards, the Commission addressed you a letter under date of May 18, 1904, reading as follows:

"SIR: Inasmuch as objections may be urged to the appointment of certain persons upon juries of awards, it is the intention of the National Commission to give public notice, allowing reasonable time for the filing of any objections that may be offered to the appointment of any individual on a jury. As this proceeding will necessarily consume time, it is desirable that the names of persons proposed for the respective juries be transmitted to the Commission from time to time, as the respective groups are completed by the company. It is believed that final action can be reached in a more orderly and satisfactory manner by taking up the names proposed for each jury separately rather than to have the entire membership of all the juries submitted for consideration simultaneously.

Yours, very respectfully,

THOS. H. CARTER, President."

Our files do not show any recognition of this communication by your company. A short time thereafter the Commission was unofficially advised that certain jurors had been selected by the company and were actually exercising the functions of judges and examiners without notice to or approval by the Commission, and on the 23d of May, 1905, this fact was duly called to your attention by letter. Some time later the director of exhibits appeared before the Commission and admitted that certain examiners and jurors had been selected, without reference to the Commission, to pass upon exhibits of a perishable character. In three communications, each bearing the date of June 3, 1904, you transmitted the names of the jurors referred to, and in the light of the explanations made by the director of exhibits and in your communications, the Commission, with many misgivings as to the regularity of the proceedings and solely to avoid embarrassment to the exhibitors and to the company, approved the names submitted as of the date of their selection by the company.

    Aside from the few jurors thus irregularly selected for
    emergency work, no jurors were nominated or submitted to the
    Commission as required by the rules and regulations prior to
    August 1.

    The first list of group jurors was transmitted in your
    communication bearing date of August 10, delivered to the
    Commission about August 15, and the last list was transmitted to
    this Commission on October 27.

    The respective dates of your letter transmitting nominations of
    group jurors and the respective dates of the receipt of the same
    by the Commission are as follows:

———————————————|——————|——————-
                              | |
                              | Date of | Date same
                              | letters of | letters
                              | Exposition | received
                              | Company. | by National
                              | | Commission.
———————————————|——————|——————-
           Department. | |
                              | |
Education and Social Economy | Aug. 10 | Aug. 15
                              | Sept. 6 | Oct. 3
Art Department | Aug. 10 | Aug. 15
                              | Aug. 23 | Aug. 26
                              | Aug. 26 | Aug. 28
                              | Aug. 27 | Aug. 29
Liberal Arts | Aug. 10 | Aug. 15
Manufactures | Aug. 25 | Aug. 29
Machinery | Aug. 10 | Aug. 15
                              | Aug. 16 | Aug. 20
                              | Corrected list
                              | Oct. 18.
                              | Sept. 7 | Sept. 10
Electricity | Aug. 10 | Aug. 15
                              | Sept. 9 |
Transportation | Aug. 9 | Aug. 15
                              | Sept. 8 | Oct. 3
Horticulture | June 3 | June 6
                              | Aug. 18 | Aug. 19
                              | Aug. 23 | Aug. 24
Agriculture | Aug. 10 | Aug. 15
                              | Aug. 13 | Aug. 22
                              | Aug. 31 | Sept. 3
                              | Sept. 2 | Do.
Fish and game | Aug. 10 | Aug. 15
                              | Aug. 31 | Sept. 1
                              | do | Sept. 3
Mines and metallurgy | Aug. 10 | Aug. 15
                              | Sept. 6 | Oct. 3
                              | Sept. 13 | Oct. 27
                              | Corrected list
                              | Oct. 18.
Anthropology | Aug. 10 | Aug. 15
Physical culture | do | Do.
Livestock | Aug. 4 | Aug. 19
                              | Aug. 11 | Aug. 18
                              | Sept. 1 | Sept. 14
Poultry | Sept. 26 | Oct. 3
Dogs and pigeons | Oct. 17 | Oct. 27
Rabbits | Oct. 22 | Do.
                              | |
             Country. | |
                              | |
Austria | Aug. 12 | Aug. 15
                              | Sept. 7 | Sept. 12
Argentine | Aug. 23 | Aug. 26
Brazil | Aug. 17 | Aug. 22
                              | Aug. 31 | Sept. 1
Belgium | Aug. 12 | Aug. 15
Bulgaria | Aug. 31 | Sept. 1
Ceylon | Aug. 12 | Aug. 15
China | do | Do.
                              | Aug. 31 | Sept. 1
Cuba | Aug. 12 | Aug. 15
Egypt | Aug. 14 | Aug. 18
France | Aug. 12 | Aug. 15
                              | Sept. 1 | Sept. 12
Germany | Aug. 24 | Aug. 26
                              | Aug. 31 | Sept. 1
                              | Sept. 1 | Sept. 12
                              | Sept. 4 | Do.
Guatemala | do | Do.
Great Britain | Aug. 12 | Aug. 18
                              | Aug. 24 | Aug. 26
                              | Sept. 1 | Sept. 12
Hungary | Aug. 31 | Sept. 1
                              | Aug. 16 | Sept. 18
Holland | Sept. 8 | Sept. 15
Haiti | do | Sept. 12
India | Aug. 24 | Aug. 26
Italy | Aug. 12 | Aug. 18
                              | Aug. 31 | Sept. 1
                              | Aug. 26 | Aug. 30
                              | Aug. 31 | Sept. 1
                              | Sept. 7 | Sept. 12
                              | Sept. 16 | Sept. 17
Japan | Aug. 23 | Aug. 26
                              | Sept. 7 | Sept. 8
Monaco | Sept. 2 | Sept. 12
Mexico | Aug. 12 | Aug. 18
                              | Sept. 6 | Sept. 12
Netherlands | Aug. 23 | Aug. 26
Nicaragua | do | Do.
Porto Rico | Aug. 26 | Aug. 30
Portugal | Aug. 24 | Aug. 22
Russia | Aug. 31 | Sept. 1
Sweden | Aug. 12 | Aug. 19
                              | Sept. 3 | Sept. 13
Siam | Aug. 12 | Aug. 18
Venezuela | Aug. 16 | Do.
                              | Sept. 1 | Sept. 2
———————————————|——————|——————-

On the morning of October 3 thirteen letters of transmittal signed by you, bearing dates between August 31 and September 27, were delivered to the Commission, inclosing twenty nominations to fill vacancies in group juries, and on October 6 the secretary of the superior jury delivered to the Commission what purported to be a corrected list of group jurors who had actually served. Thereafter, in your letters of October 17, 22, and 24, delivered to the Commission on October 27, you transmitted what you assume to be "a roster of those who served as group jurors in the various departments of the exposition."

This last series of names transmitted by you does not agree with the list delivered by the secretary of the superior jury on October 6, but by checking and comparison we find that the several lists delivered to the Commission between October 3 and October 27 show the names of over sixty persons who served as group jurors without having been submitted to the Commission for approval, and these have not been approved. Other names appear on the lists referred to which were originally approved by the Commission for service in one group who were, without notice to the Commission, assigned to service in other groups. Upon this point it is believed by the Commission that the names should have been resubmitted for approval in order to make the appointments valid, it being evident that the Commission might regard a person as a competent judge of live stock, but incompetent to pass upon the merits of a mineral exhibit or of electrical appliances.

It is obvious from the foregoing record that the rules were not observed by the Exposition Company in the nomination of jurors, and it is further clear that through the failure of the company to observe the rules the Commission was in all instances deprived of opportunity to give notice or to take reasonable time to make proper investigation as to the fitness of nominees, and their willingness to serve, and in many cases no opportunity whatever was allowed for the purposes indicated, and, finally, as to a large number of the jurors, the Commission was not advised of their selection until they had exercised their functions and departed from the grounds.

Disregard of the rules and regulations in this behalf not only defeated the purpose of the law in providing for the exercise of the powers of approval or disapproval on the part of the Commission, but left insufficient time for notice to the persons appointed to enable them to appear and discharge their duties within the allotted period, and in consequence a large number of those approved by the Commission on short notice, being unable to appear within the time stated, were set aside by the company and substitutes named, of whose competency the company could not, in the nature of things, be advised, and of whom the Commission had no knowledge whatever.

Notwithstanding the violation of the rules, and manifest irregularity in the formation of the group juries, we understand you to inform us that the power of approval or disapproval of awards vested in the National Commission by section 6 of the act of Congress shall not be exercised as to any award made in connection with the exposition. To the end that there may be no misunderstanding upon this point, the following quotation from your letter to the acting president of the Commission under date of November 8 is incorporated:

"I desire to state emphatically that at no time have I ever told you, or said anything that would justify you in believing, that the Exposition Company accept the contention that the National Commission has the right to approve or disapprove the awards of the superior jury before they are final. * * * That neither the Exposition Company nor the National Commission had the right to review the awards or overturn them."

The Commission understands your contention to be that the judgment of the superior jury is not only final but conclusive, and that the rule under which this contention is made operates to nullify the language of the act of Congress, which provides that "The awarding of premiums, if any, shall be done and performed by said Louisiana Purchase Exposition Company, subject to the approval of the Commission created by this act." Even if such construction could be accepted as plausibly tenable, which the Commission denies, it could only be so regarded by virtue of previous conformity to the rules providing for the nomination of jurors by the company and their approval by the Commission. To commit the Commission to the approval of the conclusions reached by jurors, with whose selection they had nothing whatever to do, can not be accepted as even a colorable compliance with the law. The Commission holds that the judgment of the superior jury is final in so far as the juries are concerned, but that above and beyond the superior jury the Exposition Company and the National Commission have certain statutory duties to perform which they could neither delegate nor ignore.

The files of the National Commission are to-day encumbered with complaints and affidavits which amply vindicate the wisdom of the law in providing for final approval of awards before their promulgation. It is not the intention to here assume that any charge of fraud or misconduct on the part of any person connected with the awarding of premiums has been established, but the fact must be stated that reputable persons have filed charges with the Commission in the form of affidavits and otherwise, alleging such grave misconduct on the part of certain persons who acted in connection with the awards as to bring about an unavoidable necessity for a reasonable investigation before final approval is given to the acts of the persons charged with fraud and misconduct.

The value of each award is dependent upon the credit to which the action of the juries, the company, and the Commission may be entitled at every step from the beginning of the examination to the final approval of the award.

    At an informal conference in the course of an attempt to reach a
    basis for action, three members of the Commission suggested to
    your executive board the propriety of submitting for the
    approval of the board of arbitration the following:

First. The awards, as made by the superior jury, are final and binding upon the Exposition Company and the National Commission, unless the same are impeached for fraud, or unless misconduct, amounting to fraud, is proved.

Second. The lists of awards, as made by the superior jury, are to be transmitted to the Exposition Company, and certificates of award shall be authorized by said company; and thereafter said lists are to be transmitted to the National Commission and certificates of award authorized by said Commission, all without further question or investigation, unless the said awards are impeached for fraud or misconduct, as hereinbefore stated.

Third. No complaint or protest as to any of said awards will be received or considered either by the Exposition Company or the National Commission unless the same is made in writing over the signature of some competing exhibitor and substantiated by affidavits or other sworn testimony establishing a prima facie case of such fraud or misconduct in procuring or making of said award.

Your representative did not entertain the proposition for arbitration, according to the suggestions submitted, but proposed to change the first clause so as to confine the impeachment of an award or awards to fraudulent conduct on the part of the superior jury, and thus to exclude inquiries concerning fraud, if any, practiced on any jury by successful competitors, or misconduct on the part of individual jurors, or misconduct on the part of any officer or representative of the Exposition Company, amounting to fraudulent influence and affecting the character of an award, or the course of procedure in reference thereto. The representatives of the Exposition Company declined to consider the third clause suggested.

A communication was received from Mr. Knapp, a member of your arbitration board, under date of November 11, submitting amendments to the suggestions transmitted by the Commission under the same date, as follows:

(1) Change in the first clause so as to read as follows:

"The awards as made by the superior jury are final and binding upon the Exposition Company and the National Commission, except as to any award or awards which are impeached by said company or Commission for fraudulent conduct on the part of said jury in making the award."

(2) Omit entirely the third clause.

The restrictions thus sought to be placed upon the investigation of charges of fraud or misconduct as proposed by the amendment were unsatisfactory.

First. Because the impeachment of an award, as construed by your Mr. Knapp's letter, was to be confined exclusively to the company and the Commission, whereas in the judgment of the Commission any party feeling aggrieved, and having knowledge of the fraud or misconduct complained of, should be permitted to come forward with the charges and proofs.

Second. In confining the investigation of alleged fraudulent conduct to the superior jury alone, the proposed amendment would obviously operate to preclude any inquiry into any charge of fraud or misconduct on the part of any group or department jury or jurors, or any person or persons not connected with the juries, who might, through fraud, bribery, or misrepresentation have illegally or wrongfully influenced or procured an award, the facts concerning which may not have been brought to the attention of the superior jury for investigation.

Third. In confining the investigation to the action of the superior jury your proposed amendment practically precluded the possibility of any investigation, for the reason that the good faith of the superior jury is not regarded by the Commission as open to question, nor has the Commission contemplated as possible any necessity to question the findings of the superior jury on any subject properly and fully presented to, and decided by, that body on the merits.

It has been, and is, the contention of the Commission that fraud or corruption at any stage of the proceedings, whether discovered before or after action by the superior jury, if not investigated and adjudicated by that jury on the merits, should be open to the freest and fullest investigation by the Company and the Commission before final approval of the award.

In conclusion we briefly recapitulate the following points of law and fact, which we hold to be beyond dispute:

First. The law provides that the appointment of all judges and examiners for the exposition shall be approved by the Commission.

Second. The rules provide that all nominations of group jurors shall be made not later than August 1, 1904, except that nominations made to fill vacancies may be made at any subsequent time.

    Third. That the nominations of jurors were not made to the
    Commission prior to August 1, as required by the rules.

    Fourth. That no appointment of a juror could be legal or
    effective until approved by the Commission.

    Fifth. That a large number of jurors were not nominated to the
    Commission until after they had performed their functions and
    repaired to their homes.

    Sixth. That nominations of jurors were not made to the
    Commission in time to permit of any reasonable notice or
    investigation as to their fitness or willingness to serve.

Seventh. That in contemplation of law the Commission in approving or disapproving of an award would be called upon to exercise a quasi-judicial rather than a mere ministerial function, or, in other words, that the approval was not contemplated as a perfunctory act, and that, therefore, under no theory of construction can it be held that the Commission, not having been consulted in the appointment of jurors, as provided by the rules, is estopped from investigating charges of fraud or misconduct in procuring or making the awards.

Eighth. That before approval, it is the right, and is, therefore, the duty of the Commission, under the law, where the charges are of a character sufficiently grave and adequately sustained by affidavits, or otherwise, to investigate any charge of fraud made at any stage of the proceedings, either in the selection of the jurors or in procuring or making the awards.

Ninth. That under special rule No. 27 neither the superior jury nor the Exposition Company has the right to issue or promulgate any diploma, certificate, or other evidence of award for exhibitors without the signature of the president of the Louisiana Purchase Exposition Commission having been previously attached thereto by authority of the Commission.

Holding these views and representing the Government of the United States in these important transactions, the Commission can not permit the use of its name, nor the name of any of its officers or members, in connection with any diploma, certificate, or other evidence of award while any part of the proceedings rest under adequately supported and uninvestigated charges of bribery, attempted bribery, corruption, fraud, or misconduct amounting to fraud.

In view of the position of your company, as announced in your letter of November 8, from which quotations are herein made, by direction of the Commission, I hereby notify you to refrain from using the name of the Commission or of any of its officers or members in or connected with any diploma, certificate, or other evidence of award for any exhibit or under special rule No. 27, until such time as the proposed award shall have been by you submitted to the Commission for approval, as provided in section 6 of the act of Congress and rule 6 of Article XXII of the general rules and regulations, which rules we hold to have the effect of law until modified or repealed by the consent of the Commission.

Respectfully, THOS. H. CARTER, President.

    Hon. D.R. FRANCIS,
    President Exposition Company.

A formal acknowledgment of the receipt of the foregoing communication was received from the Exposition Company on November 30, 1904.

No reply has ever been made to the letter or the subject-matter thereof on the merits. The allegations therein contained of flagrant violation of the rules and regulations in the selection and organization of the juries are strongly supported by the records and the silence of the officials of the Exposition Company. The charges of fraud and corruption in connection with certain awards, referred to in the letter, have never been denied nor explained.

The fact that there was a disagreement between the National Commission and the Exposition Company regarding awards became known through the public press, and thereupon the files of the Commission were quickly supplied with letters from exhibitors charging fraud and favoritism, and asking for information as to the status of the awards in the event of certificates of award being issued without the approval of the Commission.

The situation was aggravated by the fact that a concern known as "The Official Ribbon Company," acting under a concession from the Exposition Company, was disposing of ribbons certifying over the signatures of the president and the director of exhibits of the Exposition Company that awards had been made to the holders for the specific exhibits therein named.

Judging from the letters received by the Commission, these ribbons were disposed of indiscriminately and regardless of the fact as to whether or not the purchaser was entitled to the award set forth on the ribbon. Thus exhibitors who had been awarded silver medals by the jurors could and (the Commission is informed in some cases) did buy and display for advertising purposes ribbons certifying that they had received higher awards.

The relations of the Official Ribbon Company to the Exposition Company were based upon a contract, under the provisions of which the Exposition Company received 60 per cent of all moneys paid by the purchasers of the said ribbons.

The Official Ribbon Company carried on its correspondence under the letter heads of the Louisiana Purchase Exposition Company, bearing the names of the president and other officers of said company.

Notwithstanding these communications, the ribbons continued to be advertised and sold, and, at the date of writing this report, they are prominently displayed in the place of business of a director of the Exposition Company, who was an exhibitor at the exposition.

The ribbons were sold to a large number of exhibitors before any awards were legally made, and bore notice that the holder thereof had received the award shown thereon.

Litigation has arisen between the Exposition Company and various exhibitors, seeking redress of wrongs or investigation of alleged fraud, which is now pending in the courts.

Within a few days of the time for filing this report under the provisions of the law, a director of the Exposition Company requested the Commission to specify the awards it would approve without investigation, to the end, presumably, that unchallenged awards might be submitted for approval. The Commission declined to enter upon the matter in this form for four reasons:

First. Because in its judgment every award should be subject to challenge on account of fraud, or misconduct amounting to fraud, at any time before the approval thereof.

Second. Because, through the means suggested, awards made by the company which were under charges of fraud and corruption would escape investigation, and the guilty parties would thereby be relieved from probable prosecution on account of criminal connection therewith, should the subject to be investigated disclose criminal action.

Third. The proposal did not come officially from the Exposition Company.

Fourth. That the proposition was made at so late a day as to preclude the possibility of investigation during the life of the Commission.

Thus it unhappily occurs that the awards must be made, if made at all, without the approval necessary to give them legal effect. This approval the Commission could not give without investigation, in the presence of unexplained charges of irregularity and fraud in certain cases.

By means of procrastination and evasion in the preparation of the subject-matter, in disagreement for arbitration, and finally by the issuance by authority of the company of official ribbons for a money consideration without the knowledge or approval of the Commission, the whole subject of the awarding of premiums is left without final action by the Commission at the date of the termination of its existence.

No list of the awards made has been submitted by the company to the Commission for approval, nor has the Commission ever been advised of the reasons for the persistent refusal of the company to submit the awards for its examination, save and except as set forth in the correspondence on the subject embodied in this report.

The whole matter turns upon the insistence of the Commission to investigate the charges of fraud made and fortified by affidavits in certain cases.

The company was notified that the Commission would accept the findings of the superior jury as conclusive in all cases excepting those in which fraud or misconduct amounting to fraud was charged. Under these circumstances, for the apparent purpose of avoiding such investigation and for no other reason known to the Commission, the company elected to decline agreement upon the matter to be arbitrated and to withhold all of the awards from the Commission. At the time of writing this report the Commission is not advised of any award made by the superior jury, nor does any award seem to have been promulgated, except through the Official Ribbon Company herein referred to, whose operations and whose relations to the Exposition Company should be inquired into by some competent authority.

At midnight on December 1, 1904, the Louisiana Purchase Exposition closed, and thereafter the disposition of the salvage was called the attention of the Commission by a communication from an attorney in St. Louis, which set forth charges of irregularity and discrimination on the part of the company in awarding a contract for the wrecking of the exposition buildings and the sale of the salvage. The attention of the Commission was called to statements from various contractors who had bid on the salvage of the exposition, that their bids had been ignored, and that favoritism had been shown to the wrecking concern which eventually obtained the salvage contract. The Commission decided that in view of the seriousness of the charges the subject required attention, and that statements supported by affidavits should be received setting forth all the facts in connection with the transaction. Prior to taking this step, however, the president of the Commission addressed the following communication to the president of the Exposition Company:

WASHINGTON, D.C., February 28, 1905.

SIR: I am directed to advise you that in the judgment of the National Commission the interest of the United States in the disposition of the property of the Exposition Company is manifest from a perusal of section 20 of the act of Congress approved March 3, 1901, making an appropriation for the exposition and for other purposes.

In the proceeds of the sale and disposition of the property purchased with the funds supplied by the General Government, the city of St. Louis, and the Louisiana Purchase Exposition Company, the United States is interested to the extent of one-third. Believing that this view of the law is correct, the Commission feels called upon not only to report the amount received from the sale or sales of the property of the exposition, but likewise where the bona fides of transactions is called in question to ascertain and report to the President of the United States the facts and circumstances therewith connected.

These suggestions are called forth by certain statements presented to the Commission, which, if true, affect the interests of the United States as defined by section 20 of the aforesaid act of Congress. These statements relate to the specifications and instructions dated October 1, 1904, signed by Mr. Isaac S. Taylor, director of works, under which bids were to be received for wrecking buildings and structures on the exposition grounds, together with a certain contract bearing date November 30, 1904, between the Louisiana Purchase Exposition Company and the Chicago House Wrecking Company, said to be of record in the office of recorder of deeds in the city of St. Louis, book 1811, page 195 and following pages.

There is obviously a marked variance between the property referred to in the specifications and instructions and the property enumerated in the recorded contract. The specifications seemed to require that 50 per cent of the amount of the bid should accompany the same in the form of a check certified by some banking institution in the city of St. Louis, and that the remainder of the amount bid should be paid upon the execution of the contract.

Further, the specifications required that a bond should be filed with the Exposition Company in an amount equal to the bid to guarantee faithful execution of the terms of the contract by the bidder. The specifications expressly reserved copper wire, the intramural railway, the railroad tracks in the buildings, all machinery, etc., whereas the contract executed on November 30 seems to include all the items referred to and many other pieces of property not mentioned in the specifications.

The contract as executed seems to call for the payment of $450,000, of which only the sum of $100,000 was to be paid in cash and the remainder at stated periods in the future. Instead of requiring a bond equal to the amount of the bid the bond called for in the contract is less than 10 per cent of the amount of the bid.

It is alleged:

    First. That secrecy was observed in handling the bids for the
    wrecking of buildings.

    Second. That the Chicago House Wrecking Company was favored from
    the beginning.

Third. That the exposition officials rejected higher bids than that of the Chicago House Wrecking Company, so that the latter might have further opportunity to raise its figures.

Fourth. That only a partial list of the property, which did not include many valuable articles, was submitted to bidders outside of the Chicago House Wrecking Company, and that a complete list was refused other bidders.

Fifth. That a written offer of $400,000 cash, and more if lists could be secured, was ignored.

    Sixth. That a bid of $450,000, half cash, was presented to the
    Exposition Company after the announcement of the sale of the
    salvage to the Chicago House Wrecking Company for $386,000.

    Seventh. That the contract was eventually given to the Chicago
    House Wrecking Company for $450,000, with contract provisions
    inferior to the former $450,000 bid made by a party outside the
    Chicago House Wrecking Company.

    Eighth. That the contract with the Chicago House Wrecking
    Company does not adequately protect the Government, the city of
    St. Louis, and the stockholders, the $40,000 bond being out of
    all proportion to the size of the sale.

    Ninth. That the sale of the salvage to the Chicago House
    Wrecking Company was consummated over the protests of some of
    the directors of the Exposition Company.

Tenth. That the specifications were misleading, in that one item of copper wire, valued at $650,000, was omitted; also 5,000 electric lights, 5,000 tons of iron piping, 3,500 tons of other piping, the railway system on the exposition grounds, the fire apparatus, etc., were omitted.

Eleventh. That, according to an estimate made by several reputable contractors, the property sold was of the reasonable value of $1,955,000.

Twelfth. That the Chicago House Wrecking Company, through undue advantage, obtained inside information as to the extent and value of the property to be sold, and thereby, to the material injury of the United States, secured a contract with the Exposition Company insuring a profit of more than $1,000,000.

The above matters have been called to the attention of the Commission by Mr. Frank E. Richey, attorney and counselor at law, Oriol Building, Sixth and Locust streets, St. Louis, Mo., who accompanies his statements with copies of the contract and specifications referred to and many statements which he believes corroborate the charges he presents.

As the Commission may feel called upon to refer to this important transaction in its final report, it desires to afford the Exposition Company an opportunity to submit such statement or to take such action as it may deem proper in the premises.

Respectfully,

THOMAS H. CARTER, President.

Hon. DAVID R. FRANCIS, President Louisiana Purchase Exposition Company, St. Louis, Mo.

To the foregoing communication the secretary of the Exposition Company made the following reply:

ST. LOUIS, U.S.A., March 7, 1905.

SIR: At a meeting of the executive committee of the Louisiana Purchase Exposition Company held this day the secretary, in the absence of the president, was instructed to prepare and to forward at once a response to the inquiries embodied in the letter of the National Commission bearing date of February 28, as regards the disposition of the salvage of the exposition.

At a meeting of the board of directors of the Exposition Company held September 13, 1904, on the recommendation of the executive committee a special committee on disposition of salvage was provided for "to consider and report at a date as early as practicable a plan for disposing of the property of the Exposition Company." Records and correspondence of the Exposition Company upon the disposal of the property are voluminous and definite. They show frequent meetings of the salvage committee, together with progress reports, consideration, and action by the executive committee and by the board of directors at almost every meeting, until, on the 13th of December, the salvage committee reported its recommendation, with the approval of the executive committee, to the board of directors that the property, with certain exceptions, be sold to the Chicago House Wrecking Company for $450,000. From this sale were excepted the intramural cars and equipments, the property of the General Service Company, and certain other items, which are specified in the contract of sale.

For the cars and equipments the Exposition Company, as shown by the report of the auditor forwarded monthly to the National Commission, has received about $150,000. The property of the General Service Company, including buildings, horses, vehicles, and other physical property, is still in the possession of the Louisiana Purchase Exposition Company.

At the meeting of the board of directors held December 13, fifty-four members of the board being present, the recommendation of the committee on salvage, approved by the executive committee, that the physical property be sold to the Chicago House Wrecking Company for $450,000, was approved. Not only was the vote unanimous, but the terms of the sale were made the subject of much congratulation by directors. No word of protest or of adverse criticism by any director of the Exposition Company is of record in the proceedings of the board and of the several committees or has come to the knowledge of the officers of the Exposition Company.

The salvage committee, before arriving at terms of sale, as the records show, held many meetings and resorted to various methods to elicit proposals for the property. Early in October sealed bids were invited for the wrecking and removal of the exhibit buildings. These advertisements were published in daily papers and in technical journals not confined to St. Louis. In addition to the advertising, circular letters were sent out to a long list of addresses of persons who had from time to time addressed letters on the subject of the salvage or parts of it to the exposition. Correspondence was taken up by the director of works with persons and firms in various parts of the country who were known to be in the wrecking business. Specifications were prepared and furnished to all who desired them.

On the 10th of November bids were opened by the committee on salvage. They were of very unsatisfactory character. Most of the bidders selected single exhibit buildings or small groups of minor buildings. The highest bid for all of the exhibit buildings opened that date was $50,000. One bid of $325,000 was made for "buildings, structures, salvage of all kinds, and all property owned by the Exposition Company." On the 12th of November the salvage committee rejected all bids. During the following two weeks the salvage committee held frequent meetings. Hearings were given by officers of the exposition to all persons desiring to negotiate for salvage. By wire and by mail persons and firms who might be interested were advised that the property was being offered for sale. Proposals were invited for all physical property of the company, except the intramural cars and equipments and the general service outfit.

The salvage committee waited for proposals in response to this invitation, covering the physical property generally, until nearly the end of November. Three bids were received. The highest was $420,000; the next highest was $300,000. After careful consideration and much negotiation with the various bidders, the salvage committee proposed to the highest bidder, namely, the Chicago House Wrecking Company, which had bid $420,000, to recommend the sale of the physical property to the board of directors, with the exceptions mentioned, for $450,000. This, after some delay, was accepted by the Chicago House Wrecking Company on the 30th of November, and was reported to the board of directors on the 13th of December, and was ratified unanimously.

The records and correspondence showing the proceedings throughout are on file in the office of the secretary, and are ready for inspection and investigation.

    The allegations set forth in the letter of the National
    Commission as having been made to that body and the answers to
    be given to such allegations are:

    First. That secrecy was observed in handling the bids for the
    wrecking of buildings.

Answer. It was the judgment of the salvage committee that better results could be obtained if secrecy was observed, in so far that the amounts of bids were not made public until the sale was accomplished. The wisdom of this judgment was vindicated in the amount realized for the salvage when compared with the lower bids.

Second. That the Chicago House Wrecking Company was favored from the beginning.

Answer. This is utterly false.

Third. That the exposition officials rejected higher bids than that of the Chicago House Wrecking Company, so that the latter might have further opportunity to raise its figures.

Answer. No higher bid was received either before or after the sum of $450,000 had been agreed upon to be recommended by the committee on salvage.

Fourth. That only a partial list of the property, which did not include many valuable articles, was submitted to bidders outside of the Chicago House Wrecking Company, and that a complete list was refused other bidders.

Answer. No complete list was submitted to the Chicago House Wrecking Company or to any other bidder. The Exposition Company, through the salvage committee and the executive committee, with deliberate intent refused to furnish any list purporting to be complete.

Fifth. That a written offer of $400,000 cash, and more, if lists could be secured, was ignored.

Answer. No such offer was received.

    Sixth. That a bid of $450,000, half cash, was presented to the
    Exposition Company after the announcement of the sale of the
    salvage to the Chicago House Wrecking Company for $386,000.

    Answer. No such bid of $450,000 was received; the Chicago House
    Wrecking Company did not make a bid for $386,000.

    Seventh. That the contract was eventually given to the Chicago
    House Wrecking Company for $450,000, with contract provisions
    inferior to the former $450,000 bid made by a party outside the
    Chicago House Wrecking Company.

    Answer. This statement is not true. There had been no bid of
    $450,000 on any terms when the sale was closed. The contract
    provisions were superior to any made in the bids.

    Eighth. That the contract with the Chicago House Wrecking
    Company does not adequately protect the Government, the city of
    St. Louis, and the stockholders, the $40,000 bond being out of
    all proportion to the size of the sale.

Answer. The bond of $40,000 was not taken to secure the payment of the $450,000, or any part of it. The first payment of $100,000 was made on the signing of the contract of sale. The remaining $350,000 was secured adequately by a mortgage on the property covered by the bill of sale. The $40,000 bond was required to enforce other conditions of the contract, namely, those relative to the wrecking and removal of the property under conditions of leases upon which the property stood. A part of the contract required that property be kept insured for the benefit of the Exposition Company until all payments were made. The bond covered these provisions. The Chicago House Wrecking Company made its second payment of $100,000 on February 1. The third payment will be due March 15. The company holds a mortgage on the property to secure the remaining payments, and only releases the property to the Chicago House Wrecking Company as the payments are made.

Ninth. That the sale of the salvage to the Chicago House Wrecking Company was consummated over the protests of some of the directors of the Exposition Company.

Answer. On the contrary, as the records show, the board was unanimous in approval of the contract of the sale and, as stated, there is no record anywhere of objection on the part of any director.

Tenth. That the specifications were misleading, in that one item of copper wire, valued at $650,000, was omitted; also 5,000 electric lights, 5,000 tons of iron piping, 3,500 tons of other piping, the railway system on the exposition grounds, the fire apparatus, etc., were omitted.

Answer. The first specifications, probably those referred to in this paragraph, related only to exhibit buildings. Subsequently the salvage committee informed bidders when bids were taken on all of the physical property that the intramural cars and equipments were to be excepted, and also the property of the General Service Company, which was owned by the Exposition Company. Quantities of wire had been purchased under the contracts permitting return on a percentage of the price paid. As regards the iron piping, bidders were informed of the clause in the ordinance authorizing the use of Forest Park which declared that "sewers, drains, conduits, pipes, and fixtures shall become and be the property of the city." By reference to the contract of sale to the Chicago House Wrecking Company it will be observed that the company sells "subject to whatever rights the city of St. Louis may be entitled to in certain underground pipes, sewers, and conduits in Forest Park." Some of the fire apparatus was loaned or rented to the Exposition Company, and was not owned by it. Many things used by the Exposition Company were sold to it with the privilege of return, or with a contract to return at stipulated amounts or percentages. The exposition officers and the salvage committee answered inquiries, as far as were in their power, made by bidders regarding the property, but from first to last refused to furnish an itemized list. By reference to the contract of sale it will be observed that no list is contained therein, but that the company sells and transfers "the interest, or right, or ownership in or to any and all physical property purchased, constructed, or acquired by the said Exposition Company, excepting as hereinafter mentioned."

Eleventh. That according to an estimate made by several reputable contractors the property sold was of the reasonable value of $1,955,000.

Answer. The Exposition Company has no knowledge of such estimates. If contractors did place such estimates upon the value of the physical property they were singularly lacking in enterprise when they did not come forward with higher bids. The amount realized was the highest bid made for the property.

Twelfth. That the Chicago House Wrecking Company, through undue advantage, obtained inside information as to the extent and value of the property to be sold, and thereby to the material injury of the United States secured a contract with the Exposition Company insuring a profit of more than $1,000,000.

Answer. The Chicago House Wrecking Company obtained no information that was not accessible to and obtainable by any other bidder.

    Very respectfully,
    WALTER B. STEVENS,
    Secretary.

    Hon. THOMAS H. CARTER,
    _President National Commission,
    Louisiana Purchase Exposition.

ST. LOUIS, March 7, 1905.

MY DEAR SENATOR: I send herewith, by direction of the executive committee, a reply to the letter from the Commission of February 28. President Francis is absent from the city, having gone last week to New Orleans. I think I should add something from my personal knowledge. Mr. Richey is well known to me, and has been for years. He must have been badly misinformed to have made such allegations as are contained in the letter. I have all of the minutes of the various meetings and a collection of correspondence which go to show that many of these allegations are without foundation. Some of them, I can see, are inferences drawn from misstatements of the facts and from misunderstandings of the real situation.

I have never so much as heard an intimation that any director of the company, or anyone else who knew of the transactions, protested against the sale or adversely criticised the amount realized. On the other hand, the general impression among directors and on the part of the public seems to be that the Exposition Company realized more than was to be expected. The salvage of the World's Fair in Chicago sold for $80,000, that of Omaha for $37,500, and that of Buffalo for $67,000.

Before the exposition closed the management had begun to dispose of salvage in a small way, but the results were very discouraging. It looked much as if the property of this exposition would go as had that of previous expositions, for a very small fraction of the cost. At one time the directors of the company thought it might be necessary to organize a company and carry the salvage through a series of years in order to realize on it. But the best that could be figured from such a course was from $300,000 to $350,000 for the same property sold to the Chicago House Wrecking Company for $450,000.

The only persons who raised any question about the sale and the amount realized were two disappointed bidders. These bidders were given all of the time they asked. They were furnished information in reply to their inquiries. They could not be given lists of the property of the exposition because, after careful consideration of such lists, it was deemed inadvisable by the exposition to attempt a sale on that basis. It was the conclusion that more could be realized by selling all right and title to the physical property of the exposition. I believe that more was realized than would have been obtained on bids if an inventory had been furnished.

The Chicago House Wrecking Company was doing business on the grounds during the exposition and previous thereto. The officers of that company have been in the wrecking business for years. Looking forward to the time, they saved, as I happened to learn, clippings from the newspapers showing contracts let by the exposition; also clippings showing purchases of various kinds. In fact, for months they were gathering through outside sources all the information they could as to the character of the company's property. In this way they obtained their information as to this property. They were given no list from the company. They were given no advantage over other bidders. I know it to be a fact that the Exposition Company did all in its power to induce other bidders to come from other cities, and stimulated competition. The correspondence and telegrams passing through my hands show this. There was a great deal of property that the exposition had the use of and did not own. This applied to fire apparatus, to electric switch boards, to machinery, to street sweepers, to watering carts, and to a great variety of things that were of utility and were loaned by the manufacturers or dealers, who wished to have them in service for the advertising to be gained thereby.

The city is claiming, under the ordinance from which I have quoted in the other letter, the piping on that part of the ground included in Forest Park, and only to-day wrote asking to know when this pipe could be taken up by the city.

It will afford me pleasure to answer any inquiry or to forward to you any document relating to this salvage matter which you may desire to see.

Can you advise me how long you expect to remain in Washington?

    Very truly, yours,
    WALTER B. STEVENS,
    Secretary.

    Hon. THOMAS H. CARTER,
    President National Commission,
    Louisiana Purchase Exposition
.

Having been elected a Senator of the United States from the State of Montana, Mr. Thomas H. Carter, president of the Commission, resigned his office as member of the Commission on March 9, 1905. At a meeting of the Commission held on March 20, 1905, the following letter was received from Mr. Carter, and his resignation as president of the Commission was duly accepted:

WASHINGTON, D.C., March 9, 1905.

GENTLEMEN: Finding that my duties as United States Senator, assumed on the 4th of this month, will so far require my attention as to render it difficult to longer continue a member of the Commission, I have determined to hand my resignation to the president, and preliminary thereto I respectfully resign the position of president of the Commission.

In tendering my resignation I can not refrain from expressing to the Commission jointly, and to the members separately, my grateful appreciation of the unfailing confidence and cordial support with which I have been favored at all times by the members of the Commission, without exception.

It is questionable whether any like body of men, selected from the country at large, has ever acted more harmoniously in the discharge of any public duty.

    With deep regret, and only from a sense of duty, I sever my
    relations with the Commission, and in doing so wish each of my
    associates on the Commission long life and prosperity.

    Respectfully submitted.
    THOS. H. CARTER.

    The honorable LOUISIANA PURCHASE EXPOSITION COMMISSION,
    Washington, D.C.

Mr. Carter also addressed a letter to the President of the United States, tendering his resignation as a member of the Commission, which reads as follows:

WASHINGTON, D.C., March 9, 1905.

SIR: My election to the Senate of the United States from the State of Montana imposes upon me duties which render it quite impracticable for me to devote the time and attention necessary to a proper discharge of my duties as a member of the Louisiana Purchase Exposition Commission. I therefore respectfully tender you my resignation as a member of the Commission, and in doing so I thank you sincerely for the cordial and unfailing support and consideration you have always extended to me as a member of that body.

    Very respectfully, your obedient servant,
    THOS. H. CARTER.

    The PRESIDENT,
    Washington, D.C.

Mr. John M. Thurston was thereupon unanimously elected to succeed Mr.
Carter as president of the Commission.

At this meeting Mr. John D. Waite, of Lewistown, Mont., recently appointed by President Roosevelt as a member of the Commission to fill the vacancy caused by the resignation of Mr. Carter, appeared and took his place on the Commission.

At the same meeting the secretary of the Exposition Company requested the privilege of making a personal explanation with reference to the disposition of the salvage.

From his statement it appears that he was not connected personally with the transaction, which was conducted by a committee, of which the president of the Exposition Company was chairman. The secretary did not leave any written statement or explanation, but in general terms said the exposition officials were entirely satisfied with the amount of money received for the salvage; that it was more than they expected, and that they thought the result of the sale was a subject for congratulation.

Upon the suggestion of the Commission the secretary of the Exposition Company on March 23 addressed a communication to the Commission on this subject, of which the following is a copy:

MARCH 23, 1905.

DEAR SIR: By way of supplement to the letter forwarded to the National Commission March 7, and in accordance with suggestion made verbally by the Commission at the meeting Monday, March 20, I submit this statement relevant to the tenth allegation on page 3 of the letter from President Carter, dated February 28, 1905.

Tenth. That the specifications were misleading, in that one item of copper wire, valued at $650,000, was omitted; also 5,000 (500,000) electric lights, 5,000 tons of iron piping, 3,500 tons of other piping, the railway system on the exposition grounds, the fire apparatus, etc., were omitted.

Answer. The Exposition Company purchased under contract with the American Steel and Wire Company, dated April 3, 1902, copper wire to the amount of $320,160.33. The estimated salvage under this contract as furnished by the electrical engineer of the Louisiana Purchase Exposition Company on or about November 14, 1904, was $121,753.68. Of this estimated salvage the sum of $46,700 was based on the presumption that the Exposition Company could sell in the open market the copper wire in its storehouse that had never been used. The contract with the American Steel and Wire Company, as read to the National Commission, provided that wire in good condition should be taken back by the American Steel and Wire Company at 55 per cent of its original cost. Owing to changes in the head of the electrical department, Mr. Rustin being compelled to give up his position on account of sickness, and owing to changes made in the plans for electric lighting, the Exposition Company at the opening was in possession of this quantity of unused wire, estimated in the salvage to be worth $46,700, if sold at the market value, but worth to the Exposition Company $23,860 if it was returned to the American Steel and Wire Company under its contract at 55 per cent of the original cost. The Exposition Company claimed that this unused and unpacked wire should not be returned under the contract and endeavored to sell it. The company was prevented from making sale by an injunction taken out by the Chicago House Wrecking Company. The Wrecking Company had purchased the Steel and Wire Company's rights of salvage under the contract of April 3, 1903. This injunction was pending in court at the time the sale of salvage was negotiated in November. If the contention of the Chicago House Wrecking Company was sustained it would have reduced the estimated salvage on the copper wire to $97,893.68. The purchase of the general salvage by the Chicago House Wrecking Company ended the injunction proceedings. Copies of the contract with the American Steel and Wire Company and of the contract between the American Steel and Wire Company and the Chicago House Wrecking Company, which are of record in the office of the recorder of St. Louis City and in the office of the county clerk of St. Louis County, will be forwarded to the National Commission if desired. The reason that the copper wire could not be included in the original specifications was the pending injunction proceedings.

The Exposition Company purchased electric light bulbs referred to in the tenth allegation, of different sizes and under different contracts, to the amount of $65,688. The estimated value of lamps not used at the time of the close of the fair was $16,890.

As regards the fire-fighting apparatus it may be explained that most of this material was procured by the exposition on a rental or loan basis. The Exposition Company owned one second-hand La France fire engine, one second-hand Silsby fire engine, one fuel wagon, and four combination chemical hose wagons. The total cost of this apparatus to the Exposition Company was $5,325.

As regards the piping it can be stated that the Exposition Company had no unused piping; the company did not buy pipe and carry it in stock, but paid under contract for the pipe of various sizes after it was laid in the ground at so much per foot. This was the general practice by the company as regards the piping. By reference to the letter of March 7, it will be observed that the answer to the tenth allegation explains why the company could only sell the piping "subject to whatever rights the city of St. Louis may be entitled to in certain underground pipes, sewers, and conduits in Forest Park." It can be stated that this complication of title to the piping applied to two-thirds if not three-fourths of all of the piping which had been laid at the expense of the Exposition Company.

Because the copper wire was involved in the injunction proceedings, because the electric lights constituted a minor item as shown by the figures given above, because the piping was involved in the construction of the city ordinance, because the greater part of the fire apparatus was not owned by the Exposition Company these items were not mentioned in the original specifications.

As stated in the former letter, the intramural cars and equipments were excepted from all offers of sale because the company had already contracted for the sale of them.

After the first bids received under the specifications referred to in the tenth allegation had been rejected because they were in the opinion of the salvage committee wholly insufficient, new bids were asked for all of the salvage of the company including such right and title as it might have in the copper wire, in the electric lights, in the iron piping, in the fire apparatus, etc., with the exceptions of the intramural cars and equipments and the property of the General Service Company. From that time to the acceptance of the proposition to sell the Chicago House Wrecking Company the negotiations proceeded on the plan that the Exposition Company would sell all right, title, and interest to its property with the exceptions of the cars and equipments and property of the General Service Company.

Under the original specifications a certified check for one-half of the amount of the bid was required and the terms were half cash, but this requirement and these terms did not enter into the negotiations following the rejection of the first bids. All bidders showing a disposition to bid for right, title, and interest of the Exposition Company to all salvage except as stated were treated alike. Certified checks were not required on these later bids. The negotiations were carried on verbally with the bidders in turn, it being understood that the company would insist upon what it deemed to be an adequate cash payment when the contract of sale was concluded.

The secretary of the company is authorized to say that the executive committee courts the fullest investigation of all circumstances connected with the sale of the salvage and that if the National Commission shall deem it necessary to include in its report mention of the allegations contained in the letter of the president of the Commission, dated February 28, the committee asks that in justice to the Exposition Company such investigation shall be made and the conclusions of the Commission shall be given.

Very respectfully, WALTER B. STEVENS, Secretary.

    Mr. LAURENCE H. GRAHAME,
    Secretary National Commission, Washington, D.C.

Another communication bearing on the disposition of the salvage was received from Mr. Stevens, as follows:

MARCH 23, 1905.

DEAR SIR: At a meeting of the National Commission on the 20th the suggestion was made by a member of the Commission that the answer to allegation third did not fully cover the ground. The allegation and the answer were:

That the exposition officials rejected higher bids than that of the Chicago House Wrecking Company, so that the latter might have further opportunity to raise its figures.

Answer. No higher bid was received either before or after the sum of $450,000 had been agreed upon to be recommended by the committee on salvage.

The purpose was to answer that no higher bid than that made by the Chicago House Wrecking Company was received either before; at the time, or after the sum of $450,000 had been agreed upon to be recommended by the committee on salvage.

On the 30th of November, early in the day, the Chicago House Wrecking Company made a bid for $420,000. Up to that time and during that day the next highest bid was under $400,000. Late in the day, the 30th of November, the salvage committee, after conference with all bidders who presented themselves, made the proposition to the Chicago House Wrecking Company that if it would raise its bid from $420,000 to $450,000 the committee would recommend acceptance by the executive committee.

Respectfully, WALTER B. STEVENS, Secretary.

Mr. LAURENCE H. GRAHAME, Secretary National Commission, Washington, D.C.

As a result of the inquiry instituted by the Commission into the disposal of the salvage, statements supported by affidavits were received and the same are appended to this report and marked "Appendix No. 2."

Under the act of Congress the Commission had no power to undertake a more thorough investigation of the charges and allegations made in respect to the manner in which the salvage of the exposition had been disposed of.

Without authority to send for persons and papers, to administer oaths, or to compel witnesses to testify, any further attempt upon the part of the Commission to inquire into the salvage matter would have been futile and ineffective. If any further action is to be taken to ascertain whether or not the financial interest of the United States has been sacrificed by the manner in which the salvage was disposed of, the inquiry must be conducted by some committee or official having these powers, which the Commission did not possess.

A careful perusal of the law under which the Commission was appointed will show the narrow limits of its legal authority, and the records disclose the policy of the Exposition Company not only to confine the Commission strictly within the narrowest limits of the law, but also to question and resist the exercise of its authority in many instances where the law seemed to place such authority beyond question.

From the very beginning the Commission sought to establish harmonious relations with the company, and at all times refrained from contention with its officials as to all matters not vitally affecting the interest of the Government, and endeavored in every possible way to cooperate with the company in promoting the exposition and insuring its success.

It is pleasant to turn from disagreements to achievements. From the scientific, the artistic, and the industrial points of view the exposition was a pronounced success. The munificent and unfailing support given the enterprise by the Government of the United States guaranteed that it would be a great exposition.

Considering the primary appropriation of $5,000,000, the loan of $4,600,000, and the contributions by the direct appropriations and by indirect means through the assignment of officers paid from other appropriations, together with the exhibits from Districts, Territories, and dependencies of the United States, and for the Government exhibit, the aggregate contributions, direct and indirect, to the success of the fair approximated substantially $15,000,000 on the day the gates were opened to the public.

In addition to this proclamations were twice issued by the President inviting foreign nations to participate in the exposition; the consular and diplomatic representatives of the Government were inspired to aid the exposition to the extent of their ability, within the limits of official propriety; the army transports and the vessels of the Navy were generously employed in furtherance of the project, where such employment was found consistent with duty. Never in history has any Government done so much in aid of any like enterprise. With such support from the Government failure was impossible under any rational management.

[Transcriber's note: The easiest way to explain the garbled nature of the following paragraph, is that the first line beginning with St. Louis is a misplaced duplicate of the third line below it, replacing some other typeslug.]

Fortunately the construction of the main exhibit buildings was placed by the directors of the Exposition Company in charge of two gentlemen deserving of special mention on account of the devotion and exceptional ability displayed by each. As chairman of the committee on grounds and buildings, Mr. William H. Thompson, of St. Louis, discharged the duty of director of works. To the united ous devotion to the task assigned him. With rare ability and commendable persistence Mr. Isaac S. Taylor, the talented architect of St. Louis, discharged the duty of director of works. To the united efforts of these gentlemen the exposition and the country are indebted for the magnificent architectural creations which adorned the exposition grounds. Their relations to the work of construction and to the affairs of the company enabled them to act with a necessary degree of self-reliance and independence on their own initiative.

Among the many contributions made by the Government of the United States to the success of the exposition, the exhibit from the Philippine Islands deserves marked attention. This exhibit was so extensive, interesting, and unique that it became the center of predominating interest. Through its various departments a most valuable and accurate knowledge of the Philippine Archipelago was diffused, not only throughout the United States, but throughout the world.

By a fortunate coincidence it occurred that the Secretary of War, who had most to do with the marshaling of this exhibit, had been prepared for the work by his experience as governor of the Philippine Islands. Hon. William H. Taft, as president of the Philippine Commission, and subsequently as governor of the Philippine Islands, manifested a sympathetic interest in the condition of the people, the resources of the islands, and in the proper adjustment of both to their new relationship with the United States. About the time the exposition was projected Governor Taft, whose long and faithful service in the Philippines had endeared him to the inhabitants, was called by the President to accept the portfolio of war. His familiarity with the people and the resources of the islands proved of inestimable value in the preparation of the representation and exhibits at the exposition. Through his efficient Chief of the Insular Bureau, Col. Clarence R. Edwards, the Secretary, with great zeal and effectiveness, addressed himself to the task of securing appropriate representation for the Philippine people.

The administrative work was placed in charge of Dr. W.P. Wilson, of the Philadelphia Museum. A more appropriate selection of an executive officer could not have been made. Industrious, painstaking, and devoted, Doctor Wilson threw all his energy and superior ability into the task assigned him.

In Dr. Gustavo Neiderlein and Mr. Edmund A. Felder, Doctor Wilson had able and faithful lieutenants. Through the combined efforts of such competent and devoted men the Philippine exposition was developed into a revelation of world-wide interest.

The extremes of civilization found in the Philippine Islands were exhibited upon the grounds. The industrial conditions existing in the islands in their various stages of progress were clearly set forth. The millions of visitors who were interested and instructed by this remarkable exhibit must have been deeply impressed with the importance and extent of our new possessions in the Orient.

It is quite impossible to compute the value to the American people of this Philippine exhibit. In giving to the country the basis upon which to form a just conception of the character and possibilities of our new possessions the Philippine department alone fully justified the interest of the nation in the Louisiana Purchase Exposition.

The official report of the Philippine exhibit, filed with the records of the Commission, is replete with interest and will justify careful perusal.

REPORTS OF FOREIGN COUNTRIES.

The response of foreign governments and peoples to the invitation of the President of the United States was in every way most gratifying. For an adequate description of the manner and extent of foreign participation in the exposition, reference must be made to the reports of the respective commissioners to their governments, copies of which are filed with this report.

The Commission, desiring to tersely review the exhibits of the various countries, called upon their several representatives for a brief statement of the nature and extent of their exhibits. The responses received convey but a meager idea of the great display made, but a perusal of the epitomized reports will serve to convey an outline of the exhibits made and the buildings constructed.

Condensed summaries of these reports have been prepared and are submitted as a part of this report, marked "Appendix No. 3."

REPORTS OF STATES, TERRITORIES, AND DISTRICTS.

Inspired by the example of the General Government, and stimulated by the extent of foreign participation, in response to the invitation of the President, the several States, Territories, and Districts of the United States contributed to the success of this exposition in a far greater degree than on former occasions of like character.

As in the case of foreign countries, the Commission called upon the representatives of the various States, Territories, and Districts for a brief statement of the extent and character of the exhibits made by them. The reports of the representatives to the authorities by which they were appointed have been collected as far as practicable and are filed with this report.

Condensed summaries of these reports have been prepared and are submitted as a part of this report, marked "Appendix No. 4."

THE BOARD OF LADY MANAGERS.

The board of lady managers appointed by the Commission proved themselves eminently qualified to perform the exacting and comprehensive duties assigned them. Their organization was one of the most popular and successful instrumentalities of the exposition.

These distinguished and representative women of our country were quickly recognized as organizers and leaders of the many public and semiofficial entertainments and functions, which all must agree were so necessary and contributed so greatly to the success of the exposition.

It is undoubtedly true that their efforts in enlisting the sympathy and support of the women of the United States not only made possible an adequate presentation and exploitation of woman's work and woman's sphere, but also secured the attendance of thousands upon thousands of the best people of the land who otherwise would have remained away.

It is not too much to say that the money appropriated for and expended by the board of lady managers was, from the standpoint both of national interest and financial success, one of the wisest expenditures made in connection with the exposition.

This board of lady managers was fortunate in the selection of Mrs. Daniel Manning as its president. Mrs. Manning, in addition to her experience in public life and affairs, and her well deserved general popularity, proved herself possessed of rare executive ability, and the management of those features of the exposition coming under the supervision and direction of the board won the respect and admiration of the exposition officials and of all the representatives of our own and other governments having connection with or participating in the exposition.

It is but fair to say that this tribute of the Commission to the efficiency of the board of lady managers is given not in compliment, but in justice.

The vast amount of work performed by the lady managers and the delay in the completion by the company of authoritative reports necessary to enable the board to complete their final report to this Commission have delayed the closing and presentation of this report by the Commission beyond the period of six months from the close of the exposition.

The final report of the board of lady managers is now presented in connection with the report of the Commission, and is herewith filed, marked "Appendix No. 5."

The Commission calls particular attention to the excellence and the interesting features of the report of the board of lady managers, and suggests that its publication and distribution as a document is especially to be desired.

GOVERNMENT EXHIBIT.

The exhibit made by the Government of the United States will long stand as monumental in the history of Government exhibits. Not content with the exhibition of special features of governmental activity in the various departments of the exposition, Congress provided for the erection of a Government exhibition palace, which was confessedly the most striking and successful architectural triumph upon the exposition grounds.

The Government Building was located on an eminence at the eastern termination of "Louisiana Way," the principal avenue on the exposition grounds. From its commanding position all portions of the exposition grounds could be seen. Within the building every department of the Government was represented by an appropriate exhibit upon a liberal scale.

This great Government exhibit was under the direction and control of a board, consisting of the following-named gentlemen:

Members United States Government Board.—Mr. Wallace H. Hills, Treasury Department, chairman; Mr. William H. Michael, Department of State; Mr. John C. Scofield, War Department; Mr. Cecil Clay, Department of Justice; Mr. John B. Brownlow, Post-Office Department; Mr. B.F. Peters, Navy Department; Mr. Edward M. Dawson, Department of the Interior; Mr. S.R. Burch, Department of Agriculture; Mr. Carroll D. Wright, Department of Commerce and Labor; Dr. F.W. True, Smithsonian Institution and National Museum; Mr. W. de C. Ravenel, Bureau of Fisheries; Mr. G.W.W. Hanger, Department of Labor; Mr. Williams C. Fox, Bureau of the American Republics; Mr. Roland P. Falkner, Library of Congress; Dr. A.C. True, Agricultural Colleges; Mr. William V. Cox, secretary; Mr. William M. Geddes, disbursing officer; Mr. C.S. Goshert, clerk of board.

The members of this board cooperated in a united effort to install a Government exhibit in every way representative and creditable. To their success the millions of visitors bore cheerful witness in expressions of unbounded satisfaction. The board was at all times harmonious within itself, and it is pleasing to note that its relations with the National Commission were always of the most cordial character. From the report of the Government board a fair but an inadequate estimate may be formed of the extent and brilliant success of this feature of the exposition.

Under the law the life of this Commission expires on the 1st day of July, 1905. The Commission has delayed closing its final report to the last day of its existence in the hope that before that time a full and final report might be received from the Exposition Company. Unfortunately, however, no such report has been received, and therefore the Commission is unable to submit the same to the President.

The monthly financial reports of the Exposition Company have been received up to and including the month of April, 1905, and have been transmitted as received to the President in accordance with the act of Congress.

After repeated and urgent requests for a complete report from the
Exposition Company the following final answer was received:

[Telegram.]

St. Louis, June 17, 1905. Hon. John M. THURSTON, President National Commission, Portland, Oreg.:

Think it will be several weeks before report of two divisions can be completed, and several months before president's report will be ready. Impossible to close up as rapidly as desired.

WALTER B. STEVENS, Secretary.

It will at least be seen that the Commission has exhausted all its powers and made every effort possible to comply with the act of Congress in the making and transmission of this, its final report, and the failure to accompany this report by full and complete reports from the Exposition Company is in no wise due to any lack of endeavor on the part of the Commission.

According to section 3 of the act of Congress approved March 3, 1901, the National Commission was allowed the sum of "ten thousand dollars per annum, or so much thereof as may be necessary," for the purpose of defraying the clerical, office, and other necessary expenses of the Commission. Including the year 1901 the amounts thus allowed aggregate the sum of $41,923.36. The expenditures for the entire term of the Commission's existence amount to $32,763.22. This includes an investment of $952.16 in furniture, which has been delivered to the Secretary of the Treasury.

Total unexpended balance reverting to credit of Exposition Company, $9,160.14.

The expenditures made by the Commission from April 23, 1901, to June 30, 1905, are set forth in a statement, submitted herewith as Appendix No. 6.

This report can not fairly be concluded without commendatory reference to the zeal and devotion of the people of the city of St. Louis toward this great enterprise. With great generosity and hospitality their beautiful homes were thrown open to visitors; constant and delightful entertainment was provided, and there can be no doubt that the millions who came to see the exposition took away with them abiding and affectionate remembrance of the universal consideration and courtesy shown them.

The directors of the Exposition Company, comprising ninety-odd representative business men of the city, devoted time and attention to the affairs of the exposition with unfailing interest and fidelity. They not only contributed as subscribers to the stock of the Exposition Company, but in cases of emergency volunteered advances from their private fortunes and freely loaned their credit to the exposition.

The daily newspapers and other publications of the city were tireless in their efforts to sustain the enterprise, and to set forth its unusual attractions.

The residents of the Louisiana Purchase in particular, and the people of the whole country in general, are indebted to the people of St. Louis and the press of that city for the commendable and stupendous efforts made in behalf of the exposition.

As a landmark in the world's progress the Louisiana Purchase Exposition well deserves and will doubtless be accorded a conspicuous place in exposition history.

Portland, Oreg., June 30, 1905.

THE LOUISIANA PURCHASE EXPOSITION COMMISSION,
By JOHN M. THURSTON, President.
The PRESIDENT.

APPENDIXES.

APPENDIX I.

REPORT ON ACCOUNTS AND STATEMENT OF RECEIPTS AND DISBURSEMENTS

FROM INCORPORATION OF COMPANY TO APRIL 30, 1905.

The following is a copy of letter received from the firm of Messrs.
Jones, Caesar, Dickinson, Wilmot & Co.:

St. Louis, June 5, 1905.

DEAR SIR: We are duly in receipt of your telegram, reading as follows: "Send statement liabilities Exposition Company to June 1, showing cost of restoring grounds and approximate cost of matters in litigation," and beg to send you herewith a statement of the estimated financial position of the Louisiana Purchase Exposition Company, made up as at May 3, 1905, which we have just received and which we understand has been approved by the president of the Exposition Company. In his statement are included the estimated future liabilities of the company, including $200,000 for the restoration of Forest Park, and after providing therefor there appears an estimated surplus of assets of $467,211.45, subject, however, to possible liabilities on suits and claims pending against the Exposition Company.

With regard to the estimate of $200,000 for the restoration of Forest Park, it may be well to mention that the company is under obligation to restore the park without any limit as to cost. Moreover, the company has given the city of St. Louis two bonds aggregating $650,000, which we understand is the amount of an estimate made on behalf of the city of the probable cost of restoration. Of the bonds given, one is for $100,000, secured by guarantee of certain directors of the Exposition Company, and the second for $550,000, secured as to $100,000 by personal guarantees, and as to the balance by a mortgage on the Art Building. We understand that an effort is now being made to effect a settlement of the company's liability to the city, but we are of course unable to say whether the estimate of $200,000 now taken into account will eventually prove sufficient or, if not, by how much the estimate will be exceeded.

With regard to the suits now pending against the Exposition Company, it is of course impossible to make any estimate of the eventual liability to fall on the company.

We would call your attention to the note made in the statement as regards the cash in trustees' funds and would point out that, as the liability of the company as principal under the various bonds is included in the statement of liabilities, this cash may practically be regarded as an available asset. In other words, if the cash is excluded from the assets, the liability falling on the company under the various bonds should be correspondingly reduced.

We should be glad to be advised whether there are any further points in connection with this statement with which you would desire us to deal, either by letter or in our final report, and would add that, on hearing from you, we are prepared to send in the signed report.

    We are sending a copy of this letter to the secretary of the
    Commission, in case it should not reach you at Portland.

Yours, faithfully,

JONES, CAESAR, DICKINSON, WILMOT &, CO.

    Hon. J.M. Thurston
    President Louisiana Purchase Exposition Commission,
    Portland, Oreg.

    STOCK EXCHANGE BUILDING,
    St. Louis, June 8, 1905.

GENTLEMEN: We beg to inclose herewith statement of receipts and disbursements of the Louisiana Purchase Exposition Company from the date of its incorporation to April 30, 1905, and to report as follows on the audits which we have from time to time made, and which together cover the whole of the period above mentioned. For your convenience we propose to deal in this report with the accounts for the whole period, and therefore to repeat some of the comments contained in our previous reports.

Receipts.

    Collections on account of sales of capital stock:
      The total subscriptions to capital stock, as shown by the
         treasurer's record, amount to ……………. $5,294,490.00
      Of this sum there had been collected, in cash,
        to April 30, 1905 ……………. $4,821,456.11

      In a number of cases where the liability on
        subscriptions was disputed, compromises
        were effected, and under these compromises
        the company waived claims amounting to 48,952.09
                                                         ——————
                                                         4,870,408.20

      Which would leave a balance uncollected on
        April 30, 1905 of ……………………….. 424,081.80

We have been furnished with detailed statements of claims in the hands of attorneys for collection, amounting in the aggregate to about $25,000 more than the balance shown above as outstanding. We are informed that this difference represents principally receipts by the company which were credited as capital stock collections, but in respect of which no certificates were ever issued, though it is also due to some extent to clerical errors in the treasurer's books, which have not yet been located and adjusted.

The greater part of the balance now outstanding is expected to prove irrecoverable, owing to deaths, removals, etc., of subscribers, and to repudiations of liability in some cases. In this connection, it may be mentioned that the number of subscribers exceeded 20,000.

It should be added that it is not yet possible for the treasurer's department to prepare any final report and adjustment of the capital stock accounts, and that such a report will necessarily be deferred until the whole, or at any rate the greater part, of the suits now pending can be disposed of.

Proceeds of Sale of City of St. Louis Bonds.

In accordance with an amendment of the charter of the city of St. Louis, approved at a general election held on November 6, 1900, the city sold, in the month of June, 1902, its 3-1/4 per cent bonds to a par value of $5,000,000. The price realized for these bonds was $1,000.01 for each $1,000 bond, and the proceeds were turned over to the treasurer of the company on the following dates:

    June 26, 1902 …………………………. $1,800,018.00
    July 2, 1902 ………………………….. 3,200,032.00
                                                  ——————-
                                                   5,000,050.00

A question arose whether the sale price included accrued interest on the bonds to the date of sale, and as the city officers and the purchasers of the bonds were unable to agree on this point, the company, in order to avoid the delay and loss that would have resulted from a second offering of the bonds, decided to pay the accrued interest, amounting to $35,901.34. The net realization to the company from the issue of the bonds was therefore—

    5,000 bonds, at $1,000.01 ………………. $5,000,050.00
    Less accrued interest paid ……………… 35,901.34
                                                  ——————-
                                   4,964,148.66

United States Government Aid.

Of the total sum of $5,000,000 appropriated by act of Congress approved March 3, 1901, there has been received by the company the sum of $4,752,968.45, of which sum $250,000 was in the form of souvenir gold coin. We understand, however, that amounts have also been paid by the United States Treasury out of this appropriation which have not been reported to, or included in the accounts of, the company.

United States Government Loan.

Pursuant to an act of Congress approved February 18, 1904, there was advanced to the company from the United States Treasury, by way of loan, the sum of $4,600,000, repayable by semimonthly installments, commencing June 15, 1904, and equivalent to 40 per cent of the receipts from admissions and concessions during the half month immediately preceding the date of payment, it being provided that each installment after July 1 should amount to not less than $500,000. The whole of this loan was duly repaid on the following dates:

          June 16 …………………………… $195,057.04
          July 1 ……………………………. 213,092.15
          July 15 …………………………… 500,000.00
          August 1 ………………………….. 500,000.00
          August 15 …………………………. 500,000.00
          August 31 …………………………. 500,000.00
          September 14 ………………………. 500,000.00
          October 1 …………………………. 500,000.00
          October 15 ………………………… 500,000.00
          October 31 ………………………… 500,000.00
          November 15 ……………………….. 191,850.81
                                                   ——————
                                                   4,600,000.00

    Loan on Security of Capital Stock Subscriptions and Premium on
      Souvenir Coins.

On August 22, 1903, the company entered into a contract with the Mississippi Valley Trust Company, the Lincoln Trust Company, the Mercantile Trust Company, and the St. Louis Union Trust Company, as trustees, under which it assigned all subscriptions which were at that date wholly or partly unpaid, together with all further subscriptions which might be received, and the premium to be received on the sale of $239,000 souvenir gold coin, in consideration of the sum of $600,000, with a provision that when the trustees should have received the full sum of $600,000, together with interest at the rate of 6 per cent per annum and expenses of collection and management, they would reassign the subscriptions and rights to the company.

Prior to the completion of the loan there was received by the company from the sources assigned upwards of $162,000, and this amount was deducted from the loan, making the net amount received by the company $438,000. Payments were subsequently made on account of this loan out of the receipts from the above-mentioned sources, and on March 15, 1904, the balance then outstanding of $92,515.25 was paid out of the general funds of the company, in anticipation of receipts from the sources assigned and with a view to effecting a saving of interest charges.

It should be added that the subsequent receipts from capital stock subscriptions have amounted to more than the amount temporarily advanced out of the general funds of the company.

Admissions.

We have agreed the figures of receipts shown by the books of the auditor and the treasurer with those of the admissions department.

We have agreed the receipts from sales of tickets with the ticket custodian's record, and have verified the tickets appearing on that record as unsold. We have also satisfied ourselves that the system in the admissions department was such as to provide adequate safeguards for the collection by the company of the admissions receipts derived from other sources.

It would appear that the total loss of the company in this department through shortages of employees, counterfeit and mutilated coins, etc., amounted to about $1,250, about one-third of which is probably recoverable from the bonding company, so that the final loss to the exposition will be very small.

The total receipts for admissions are distributed as follows:

    Exposition period:
       Admissions of individuals ……………. $6,042,746.65
       Vehicles …………………………… 5,671.50
                                                  ——————-
      $6,048,418.15
    Pre-exposition period ……………………………….
      175,906.25
    Post-exposition period ………………………………
      16,156.50

——————

6,240,480.90

    The details of the attendance and revenue during the exposition
    period are as follows:

———————————————————+—————-+———————-+————-
                                      | Number. | Receipts. |Cents per
                                      | | |admission
———————————————————+—————-+———————-+————-
Adults: | | |
 General admission ……………… | 11,180,996| $5,589,715.50 | 50.00
 Season and other commutation tickets | 961,175| 291,827.00 | 30.32
Children: +—————-+———————-+————-
 General admission ……………… | 621,640| 155,634.25 | 25.04
 Season and other commutation tickets | 40,805| 5,569.90 | 13.65
                                      +—————-+———————-+————-
Total paid attendance …………… | 12,804,616| 6,042.746.65 | 47.19
Free: | | |
 Adults ……………………….. | 6,480,267 | …………. | ……..
 Children ……………………… | 409,972 | …………. | ……..
                                      +—————-+———————-+————-
    Total exposition days ……….. | 19,694,855| …………. | ……..
Sundays (free) …………………. | 371,682| …………. | ……..
                                      +—————-+———————-+————-
    Grand total ………………… | 20,066,537| …………. | ……..
———————————————————+—————-+———————-+————-

    It may be of interest to add that the attendance by months was
    as follows:

———————————————-+————————————+————-+—————- | Exposition days. | | Date. +————————————+ Sundays | Total. | Paid. | Free. | (free). | ———————————————-+——————+—————-+————-+—————- April 30 and May …………. | 667,772 | 1,102,656 | 70,847 | 1,841,275 June ……………………. | 1,382,865 | 1,016,281 | 49,373 | 2,448,519 July ……………………. | 1,514,743 | 928,224 | 55,298 | 2,498,265 August ………………….. | 1,992,248 | 1,096,498 | 45,477 | 3,134,223 September ……………….. | 2,683,511 | 968,262 | 52,182 | 3,703,955 October …………………. | 2,758,149 | 864,180 | 64,107 | 3,686,436 November and December 1 …… | 1,805,328 | 914,138 | 34,398 | 2,753,864 +——————+—————-+————-+—————- Total ……………….. | 12,804,616 | 6,890,239 | 371,682 | 20,066,537 ———————————————-+——————+—————-+————-+—————-

Concessions.

We have agreed the amount of collections reported by the treasurer, together with the amount of bills still outstanding, with the amount of bills rendered (after deducting allowances and rebates), as reported by the concessions department. Inasmuch as all bills originated in the concessions department and the collections were made by the treasurer, we think this reconciliation affords a satisfactory check on the receipts reported by the treasurer.

We have also looked into the system in this department, and believe that it was well calculated to secure, as far as possible, the proper collection of revenues accruing due to the exposition.

The net receipts of this department, as shown by its records, are as follows:

Pike rentals ……………………………. $218,187.50

    Concessions revenue:
    Exposition period ………………………. 2,812,995.59
    Pre-exposition period ……………………. 32,366.06
    Post-exposition period …………………… 1,855.54
                                                   ——————
                                                   3,065,404.69

The difference between this figure and the total of $3,076,958.69, shown in the inclosed accounts, consists of refunds of $15,554, which are treated in the statement as disbursements, less $4,000 rents collected by the concessions department, credited in the statement against the rent paid by the company, as the latter practically acted only as agent in the transaction.

Under the lease of the Catlin tract, on which the greater part of the concessions were built, sureties were required, and for the protection of these sureties and of sureties under other bonds it was arranged that all ground rentals received from concessions on the "Pike" should be paid into a special fund for the purpose of securing such sureties against loss in respect of the bonds given by them. Upon the books of the company, therefore, the above figure of "Pike rentals" has been credited to a separate fund account, together with an amount of $2,580.68 interest allowed on this fund.

There was withdrawn from this fund the sum of $100,000 on account of payment of rentals of the tract, and the fund now amounts to $120,768.18, as shown among the cash balances in the inclosed statement.

    The total earnings accruing due to the company
      under concession contracts amounted to ……………….
      $3,803,724.53
    Of this total there has been collected
      (as above) the sum of ………………… $3,065,404.69
    There was waived by the company under various
      compromises the sum of ……………….. 434,204.36
    And there still remain uncollected bills
      amounting to ………………………… 304,115.48
                                                  ——————-
      3,803,724.53

    We have seen authorizations from the executive or concessions
    committee for all the important compromises effected.

Intramural Railway.

We have agreed the receipts shown by the general books of the company with the report of the manager of the railway. The number of passengers carried and the amount of revenue therefrom, by months, were as follows:

               Date. Passengers Revenue.
                                                 carried

    April 30 and May …………………….. 295,152 $29,515.20
    June ……………………………….. 861,409 86,140.90
    July ……………………………….. 815,034 81,503.40
    August ……………………………… 1,018,195 101,819.50
    September …………………………… 1,394,444 139,444.40
    October …………………………….. 1,273,207 127,320.70
    November and December 1 ………………. 617,297 61,729.70

Total ………………………………. 6,274,738 627,473.80

It is not possible to arrive at the cost of operating the railway, as the power was furnished from the general power plant, and the cost thereof can not be ascertained separately.

Service, Power, Light and Water, Transportation.

We have agreed the collections from these sources with the books of the treasurer, and as regards the principal items we have also agreed the accounts shown on the general books with those of the departments in which the charges originated, subject to some inconsiderable differences which are now being investigated and will be adjusted by the company as soon as possible.

Music Department.

We have agreed the receipts shown by the auditor with the report of the bureau of music.

The total receipts are made up as follows:

    Music furnished German Tyrolean Alps Company ………. $67,220.25
    Music furnished other parties ……………………. 300.00
    Receipts from admissions to Festival Hall and sales of
      reserved seats ……………………………….. 77,078.23
      Total earnings ……………………………….. 144,598.48
    Add refund on expenses credited this account ………. 1,940.00
      Total as per statement ………………………… 146,538.48

    We have verified the receipts from the German Tyrolean Alps
    Company with the contract.

Premium on Souvenir Gold Coin, less Expense.

    This total represents the premium of $2 per coin on $67,176.00
      33,588 coins sold
    Less expenses ………………………………… 13,506.67
      Total ……………………………………… 53,669.33

We have agreed the number of coins sold with the difference between the number originally received and the number now certified to be on hand.

Photo-Pass Receipts.

The system in regard to the collections in this department appeared to be such as to insure the full amount of collections being received by the company.

Photographic passes were charged in some cases at $1 and in others at $2, and many were issued without charge, and it is not therefore possible, without a very great amount of work, to check the collections against the number of passes issued.

Interest on Deposits.

This total represents the amount of interest received on balances from time to time remaining on hand in the company's bank. We have included therein the amount of $2,580.68 received In respect of the Pike rental fund and credited on the books of the company to that fund.

Miscellaneous Collections.

This total is made up as follows:

    Insurance premiums refunded ……………….. $63,983.17
    Refrigerating plant receipts ………………. 20,178.99
    Garbage coupon books ……………………… 11,506.80
    Miscellaneous revenues ……………………. 31,230.52
    Refund account, overpayments ………………. 4,715.96
    Personal damage account, receipts ………….. 2,572.50
    Uniform special fund ……………………… 2,514.89
    Damage to property, receipts ………………. 72.50
                                                    —————-
      Total …………………………………. 136,775.33

We have checked the insurance receipts with the report of the agents of the policies canceled and of the amount of return premiums due the company thereon.

We have agreed the receipts from the refrigerating plant, which represent the company's proportion of the profits on the operation thereof, with the report of the manager. A final audit of the books of the plant is now being made by the Exposition Company, and it is possible that a small further sum will be received on this account.

We counted the garbage books remaining on hand and satisfied ourselves that the number thereof, together with the number reported as sold, made up the total number originally received.

The remainder of the receipts included under this head consists of various incidental receipts which it is not possible to verify completely.

Salvage.

This amount is made up as follows:

    Contract price for salvage sold to Chicago House
      Wrecking Company ………………………. $450,000.00
    Less amount not yet due or paid …………… 150,000.00
                                                   ——————
                                                     300,000.00
    Resale of cars and motors under original
      purchase contract with St. Louis Car Company 158,667.25
    Miscellaneous sales ……………………… 4,198.03
                                                   ——————
      Total ………………………………… 462,865.28

    We have verified the two large items with the original
    contracts.

Special Fund.

We have not been able to obtain a detailed statement of the badge fund, which represents deposits made by employees in respect of badges issued to them, and it is probable that the greater part of this sum has been refunded and charged through various departments to other accounts.

The pay-roll fund represents unclaimed wages and has been agreed with a detailed list submitted to us.

Disbursements.

Properly approved vouchers have been produced to us for all disbursements except as regards two payments aggregating $252.45, the vouchers for which have, we understand, been mislaid.

The only items calling for special comment are, we think, the following:

Special Installation of Exhibits.

This sum represents the purchase price of the whole of the capital stock of the General Service Company, which held a concession for hauling and storage. From a balance sheet of that company, recently prepared, it would appear that the amount to be realized by the Exposition Company in respect of this investment will be about $104,000. We are advised by the president that in spite of the apparent loss of $21,000 involved, this transaction is regarded by the Exposition Company as an advantageous one, inasmuch as, at the time it was effected, there were serious controversies and substantial claims in question between the two companies, and by the purchase these claims were, of course, completely disposed of; and, moreover, the installation of exhibits was much expedited and serious inconvenience to exhibitors avoided.

Money Advanced.

The principal item included under this head is an amount of $152,000 advanced to the emergency exploitation committee from time to time to meet the expenses incurred by that committee. Practically the whole of this amount has been expended, but up to the date of our audit vouchers for the expenditures had not been turned in by the committee or put through the general books of the company. We understand that this is now being done.

Board of Lady Managers.

Included under this head is the full amount of $100,000 appropriated for the board out of the Government loan of $4,600,000. This sum was paid by the company into a special account, subject to the order of the board, and no details as to the disbursement thereof appear on the books, owing, as we are informed, to the fact that no report of such disbursements has yet been made by the board to the Exposition Company.

Cash Balances.

Certificates of deposit have been produced to us, and we have been furnished with a certificate from the bank as to the balance on current account.

The cash immediately available for the general purposes of the company amounts to $668,754.36, the remaining $182,846.41 being deposited in a special account to secure the sureties under various bonds given on behalf of the company.

Of this total of $182,846.41, the sum of $120,768.18 is derived from Pike rentals, as hereinbefore explained. The balance of $62,078.23 consists of receipts of the music bureau, which were originally paid into a separate fund because of a difference between the bureau of music and the division of concessions as to the policy in operating Festival Hall. Subsequently the president recommended that this fund be added to the fund held for the protection of the sureties, in accordance with the authority granted to the executive committee by the board of directors to make such provision as might be deemed advisable to protect these sureties, and the president informs us that this suggestion was approved by the executive committee.

It will of course be understood that the maintenance of the separate funds would become a matter of practical importance only in the event of the funds of the company proving insufficient to meet its liabilities, a condition which is not now deemed likely to arise.

General Financial Condition of the Company.

We have been furnished by the president of the Exposition Company with a statement of the estimated assets and liabilities of the company on May 3, 1905, a copy of which we append hereto. From this statement it will be seen that, subject to whatever liability may eventually result in respect of suits and disputed claims now pending against the company, it is estimated that the assets will exceed the liabilities by $467,211.45.

In arriving at this figure, the liability of the company in respect of the restoration of Forest Park is estimated at $200,000. In this connection it may be well to point out that the company is under obligation to restore the park without any limit as to cost, and has, moreover, given the city of St. Louis two bonds aggregating $650,000, being the amount of an estimate made on behalf of the city of the probable cost of restoration. Of the bonds given, one is for $100,000, secured by guarantee of certain directors of the Exposition Company, and the second for $550,000, secured as to $100,000 by personal guarantees and as to the balance by a mortgage on the Art Building.

Legislation is now pending looking to the acceptance by the city of a fixed sum in settlement of the company's liability and the carrying out of the work of restoration by the city itself, but it is not, of course, possible to say at the present time whether the estimate of $200,000 now taken into account will eventually prove sufficient.

It is not at present possible to estimate the liability on suits and claims pending.

In conclusion, we would state that every facility was extended to us by the officials of the company in the course of our audits.

Yours, faithfully, Jones, Caesar, DICKINSON, WILMOT & Co.

LOUISIANA PURCHASE EXPOSITION COMMISSION, Washington, D.C.

Statement of receipts and disbursements from the incorporation of the company to April 30, 1906 (inclusive).

RECEIPTS.

Capital liabilities:
  Collections on account of sales of
    capital stock ……………………… $4,821,456.11
  Proceeds of sale of city of St. Louis
    bonds ……………………………… 5,000,050.00
  United States Government aid …………… 4,752,968.45
                                               —————— $14,574,474.56

Loans contracted:
  United States Government ………………. 4,600,000.00
  Loan on security of capital stock
    subscriptions, etc ………………….. 438,000.00
                                               —————— 5,038,000.00
Revenue:
  Admissions collections (Exhibit A) ……… 6,240,480.90
  Concessions collections (Exhibit B) …….. 3,076,958.69
  Intramural railway receipts ……………. 627,473.84
  Service, power, light, and water receipts
    (Exhibit C) ………………………… 655,684.00
  Transportation collections (Exhibit D) ….. 218,207.20
  Music Department collections …………… 146,538.48
  Premium on souvenir gold coin
    (less expenses) …………………….. 53,669.33
  Photo pass receipts …………………… 51,469.00
  Interest on deposits (Exhibit E) ……….. 131,407.83
  Miscellaneous collections (Exhibit F) …… 136,775.33
  Salvage ……………………………… 462,865.28
                                               —————— 11,801,529.88
Special funds
  Badge ……………………………….. 6,830.00
  Pay roll …………………………….. 5,769.04
                                                —————- 12,599.04
                                                             ——————-
                                                             31,426,603.48

DISBURSEMENTS.

Preliminary expenses ……………………………….. $37,418.78
Construction (Exhibit G) ……………………………. 16,729,755.48
Rent of grounds and buildings (Exhibit H) …………….. 1,240,113.80
Maintenance and operating (Exhibit I) ………………… 1,070,537.51
Special installation of exhibits …………………….. 125,000.00
Exhibits division (Exhibit J) ……………………….. 2,189,125.93
Exploitation division (Exhibit K) ……………………. 1,327,337.11
Protection—Fire, police, insurance, etc. (Exhibit L) ….. 1,089.992.35
Concessions and admissions division (Exhibit M) ……….. 564,112.28
Executive and administrative division (Exhibit N) ……… 440,874.46
Transportation bureau (Exhibit O) ……………………. 321,074.58
Money advanced (Exhibit P) ………………………….. 167,350.14
Sundry disbursements (Exhibit Q) …………………….. 114,920.78
Board of lady managers:
  Government appropriation ……………….. $100,000.00
  Miscellaneous disbursements …………….. 16,831.20
  Furnishing rooms ………………………. 2,558.31
                                                —————- 119,389.51
                                                             ——————-
                                                             25,537,002.71
Loans repaid ………………………………………. 5,038,000.00
Cash balances:
  Cash in bank, general fund ……………… 5,067.22
  Local treasurer's cash …………………. 24.58
  Certificates of deposit ………………… 663,662.56
                                                —————-
                                                 668,754.36
  Certificates of deposit, D.R. Francis and
    W.H. Thompson, trustees (Exposition
    Company sureties) ……………………. 182,846.41
                                                —————- 851,600.77
                                                             ——————-
                                                             31,426,603.48

We have examined the above statement of receipts and disbursements, with the books of the Louisiana Purchase Exposition Company, and certify the same to be correct. Satisfactory evidence has been produced to us as to all payments made, and proper certificates have been furnished as to the balance of cash in bank, on deposit, and on current account.

JONES, CAESAR, DICKINSON, WILMOT & Co., Certified Public Accountants.

St. Louis, June 9, 1905.

    Estimate of current assets and liabilities at close of business,
    May 3, 1905.

ASSETS.

Cash on hand with treasurer …………………………. $199,888.36 Cash on hand with local treasurer ……………………. 508.33 Cash on hand with paymaster …………………………. 1,500.00 Cash on hand with police court ………………………. 300.00 Bills receivable, S.W. Bolles ……………………….. 153.10 Due from Alexander on account of insurance ……………. 2,040.80 Due from bonding company on account of gatemen ………… 335.20 Estimated revenue from admissions, three months ……….. 3,750.00 Estimated collections from concessions, balance due …………………………… $281,252.98 Estimated collections from Pike rentals, balance due …………………………… 23,862.00 —————— 20,000.00 Estimated collections from service bills, balance due …………………………… 109,211.01 10,000.00 Estimated collections from capital stock, balance due …………………………… 473,741.69 20,000.00 Estimated collections from other sources ……………… 5,000.00 Salvage, per certificates of deposit 463,662.56 Salvage, per bills receivable 150,000.00 —————— 613,662.56 Assets of General Service Company (excluding bills against Louisiana Purchase Exposition Company) ………………………. 40,000.00 Cash in hands of trustees, on account of ground rent ……………………………. 120,768.18 Cash in hands of trustees, on account of music …………………………………. 62,078.23 —————- 182,846.41 ————— $1,099,984.76

(See note.)

LIABILITIES.

Warrants unpaid ………………………….. $43,863.60
Less warrants payable to General Service
  Company ……………………………….. 13,706.33
                                                —————- 30,157.27
Special and trust fund ……………………………… 12,599.04
Vouchered accounts, no warrants drawn ………. 56,664.66
Less General Service Company vouchers ………. 26,255.93
                                                —————- 30,408.73
Ground rent ……………………………………….. 9,500.00
Tesson heirs' claim ………………………………… 5,300.00
Unvouchered accounts:
  Division of works—
    Electrical department …………………. $31,257.10
    Mechanical department …………………. 12,702.44
    Civil engineering …………………….. 7,723.56
    Director's office …………………….. 2,994.24
                                                —————- 54,677.34
  Concessions and admissions—
    Woodward & Tiernan ……………………. 2,945.15
    J.E. Allison …………………………. 39.28
    David L. Grey ………………………… 456.00
                                                —————- 3.440.43
  Division of exhibits—
    Director's office …………………….. 2,140.50
    Awards ………………………………. 1,784.50
    Art …………………………………. 262.87
    Live stock …………………………… 59.25
    Electricity ………………………….. 30.25
    Education ……………………………. 4.10
    Manufactures …………………………. .25
    Physical culture ……………………… $30.70
    Anthropology …………………………. 387.40
    Machinery ……………………………. 76.00
    Mines and metallurgy ………………….. 200.00
    Model street …………………………. 30.70
    Salary, three days in May ……………… 107.46
                                                —————- $5,113.98
Park restoration, three days' salaries and wages ………. 448.41
Park restoration, Art Museum, salaries and wages ………. 117.17
Transportation, salaries and wages …………………… 29.04
Legal department, salaries and wages …………………. 112.11
Secretary's office, salaries and wages ……………….. 426.20
Auditor's office, salaries and wages …………………. 128.61
Collector and local treasurer, salaries and wages ……… 54.40
Treasurer's office, salaries and wages ……………….. 27.76
Care of buildings (janitors), salaries and wages ………. 17.91
Report of Congress of Arts and Sciences ………………. 4,213.91
Diplomas ………………………………………….. 44,000.00
Unmatured liabilities:
  Administration expenses during liquidation of
    Exposition Company (estimated) …………………… 100,000.00
  Publication of president's report ………………….. 10,000.00
  Publication reports Congress of Arts and
    Sciences ………………………………………. 18,000.00
  Publication of physical-culture reports …………….. 5,000.00
  Restoration of Forest Park (estimated) ……………… 200,000.00
  Restoration of leased tracts and additional
    rental thereon (estimated) ………………………. 50,000.00
  Taxes for three years on leased tracts, in litigation
    (estimated) ……………………………………. 25,000.00
  Contingent fund ………………………………….. 20,000.00
  Administration expenses of superior jury ……………. 4,000.00
Excess of current assets over current liabilities,
  which is exclusive of contingent liabilities in the
  shape of suits pending versus Louisiana Purchase
  Exposition Company, and other items as per memorandum
  below …………………………………………… 467,211.45
                                                                —————
                                                             $1,099,984.76

CONTINGENT LIABILITIES.

Suits pending against Exposition Company:
  Exposition Water Company ………………………….. 63,000.00
  Fraternal Identification Company …………………… 50,000.00
  Charles Holloway …………………………………. 2,000.00
  Star Bottling Company …………………………….. 235,449.79
    Do ……………………………………………. 30,600.00
  Gardner T. Voorhees ………………………………. 25,000.00
  Exposition Water Company ………………………….. 63,000.00
  Bessie M. Liggett (two suits), action for rent
    of New York office ……………………………… 1,500.00
  Willis ………………………………………….. 15,000.00
  John Culligan ……………………………………. 100.00
                                                             ——————-
                                                               $562,849.79

(In addition to the above there are a number of claims made by concessionaires, aggregating a large amount, which have not yet been put in suit.)

CONTINGENT ASSETS.

There may be an appropriation made at next session of Congress to pay amount due Louisiana Purchase Exposition Company on account of Philippine exhibit, which amounts to ………… $100,000.00

(This is so uncertain that it can not be counted as a probable asset.)

NOTE.—In the assets is listed trustees' fund, $182,846.41. This amount is not at present an available asset, for the reason that it is a trust fund placed to secure bondsmen for ground rent and other purposes, and may be partially or totally absorbed for the reimbursement of bondsmen who may be defendants in suits that may be instituted.

* * * * *

EXHIBITS TO STATEMENTS OF RECEIPTS AND DISBURSEMENTS, APRIL 30, 1905.

EXHIBIT A.—Admissions collections, April 30, 1905.

Admissions collections:
  Preexposition ……………………………………. $175,906.25
  Exposition ………………………………………. 5,704,846.15
  Postexposition ………………………………….. 16,156.50
Chicago day tickets ………………………………… 270.00
National Commission season tickets …………………… 28,637.50
November tickets …………………………………… 4,870.00
St. Louis day admissions ……………………………. 39,536.00
Season tickets …………………………………….. 94,030.00
Single admission tickets ……………………………. 14,651.00
Special August tickets ……………………………… 1,410.00
Stockholders' tickets ………………………………. 160,167.50
                                                             ——————-
    Total …………………………………………. 6,240,480.90

EXHIBIT B.—Concessions collections, April 30, 1905.

Concessions revenue:
  Preexposition ……………………………………. $32,366.06
  Exposition ………………………………………. 2,808,995.59
  Postexposition …………………………………… 1,855.54
Concessions receipts, subsequently refunded (contra) …… 15,554.00
Catlin tract Pike rentals …………………………… 218,187.50
                                                             ——————-
    Total …………………………………………. 3,076,958.69

EXHIBIT C.—Receipts account of service, power, light, and water bills, etc., April 30, 1905.

Miscellaneous, prior to September 3, 1902 …………….. $434.45
Animals, care of …………………………………… 55.00
Bags ……………………………………………… 1,971.30
Blacksmith shop ……………………………………. 121.35
Building permits …………………………………… 1,015.58
Cinders …………………………………………… 142.50
Coal sold …………………………………………. 1,040.70
Cleaning closets …………………………………… 263.50
Cord wood …………………………………………. 3,020.94
Cremating animals ………………………………….. 141.30
Damages …………………………………………… 11.41
Dam in Arrowhead …………………………………… 3,068.93
Draft returned …………………………………….. 1,000.00
Electric connections, various service ………………… 686.00
Electric power service ……………………………… 7,609.09
Force account ……………………………………… 21,798.14
Freight charges ……………………………………. 119.11
Garbage cans ………………………………………. 465.00
Gas connections and inspections ……………………… 530.00
Hauling garbage, etc ……………………………….. 871.54
Light service ……………………………………… 7,639.57
Miscellaneous ……………………………………… 5,264.41
Miscellaneous hauling ………………………………. 22.75
Paving ……………………………………………. 138.60
Permits other than buildings ………………………… $830.59
Piling ……………………………………………. 589.10
Rebates on collections ……………………………… 15,011.58
Removing garbage …………………………………… 1,767.85
Removing rubbish …………………………………… 435.60
Rent of cross arms …………………………………. 438.95
Rent of conduits …………………………………… 1,108.04
Repairs …………………………………………… 24.12
Salvage …………………………………………… 87.26
Sawmill …………………………………………… 950.42
Alternating currents ……………………………….. 26.26
Amperes oven service ……………………………….. 41.25
Compressed air service ……………………………… 1,310.50
Electric heater service …………………………….. 533.31
Fan power service ………………………………….. 1,948.36
Furnace service ……………………………………. 5.71
Gaslight service …………………………………… 5,799.75
Arc light service ………………………………….. 13,112.32
Incandescent service ……………………………….. 243,578.64
Miscellaneous service ………………………………. 17,246.36
Changing electric service …………………………… 150.00
Miscellaneous electric service ………………………. 81,425.68
Miscellaneous light service …………………………. 3,907.45
Picture machine service …………………………….. 27.50
Searchlight service ………………………………… 202.20
Motor service …………………………………….. 82,597.25
Steam service ……………………………………… 1,661.02
Telephone service ………………………………….. 540.56
Water service ……………………………………… 68,023.74
Water applications and inspections …………………… 14,672.50
Sewer applications and inspections …………………… 6,240.00
Plumbing applications and inspections ………………… 5,436.00
Compressed air connections ………………………….. 35.00
Electric heater connections …………………………. 40.00
Fan power applications and connections ……………….. 150.00
Gas connections ……………………………………. 1.059.40
Gas inspections ……………………………………. 211.00
Arc light connections ………………………………. 170.64
Incandescent light connections ………………………. 5,780.32
Miscellaneous electric connections …………………… 116.85
Miscellaneous light connections ……………………… 210.00
Light applications, etc. ……………………………. 413.00
Miscellaneous connections …………………………… 60.64
Miscellaneous inspections …………………………… 6.50
Motor applications and connections …………………… 2,556.43
Picture machine connections …………………………. 5.00
Plumbing applications ………………………………. 1,202.75
Plumbing inspections ……………………………….. 1,055.50
Sewer applications …………………………………. 647.00
Sewer inspections ………………………………….. 420.00
Sanitary sewer applications …………………………. 1,820.00
Sanitary sewer inspections ………………………….. 1,530.00
Steam pipe connections ……………………………… 7.50
Steam sewer connections …………………………….. 191.35
Water applications …………………………………. 2,702.35
Water inspections ………………………………….. 1,605.00
High pressure applications ………………………….. 3,125.00
High pressure inspections …………………………… 1,047.50
Various direct currents …………………………….. 26.00
Force account, post-exposition ………………………. 78.33
Arc light service, post-exposition …………………… 591.41
Gas connections, post-exposition …………………….. 10.00
Gaslight service, post-exposition ……………………. 92.16
Crane service, post-exposition ………………………. 19.50
Incandescent light service, post-exposition …………… 112.93
Miscellaneous service, post-exposition ……………….. 89.98
Water service, post-exposition ………………………. $1,333.02
Removing garbage, post-exposition ……………………. .40
Gas inspections ……………………………………. .50
                                                             ——————-
  Total …………………………………………… 655,684.00

EXHIBIT D.—Transportation collections, April 30, 1905.

Switching:
  Exposition period ………………………………… $135,087.12
Postexposition period ………………………………. 71,169.34
Car service ……………………………………….. 5,148.30
Parking private cars ……………………………….. 2,506.00
Drayage …………………………………………… 5.32
Miscellaneous ……………………………………… 4,291.12
                                                             ——————-
  Total …………………………………………… 218,207.20

EXHIBIT E.—Interest receipts, April 30, 1905.

Interest on deposits ……………………………….. $116,356.03
Interest on Government loan …………………………. 3,926.63
Washington University, special fund ………………….. 8,544.49
Pike rental, special fund …………………………… 2,580.68
                                                             ——————-
  Total …………………………………………… 131,407.83

EXHIBIT F.—Miscellaneous collections, April 30, 1905.

Refunds prior to September 3, 1902 …………………… $4,870.46
Admissions, exposition ……………………………… 201.61
Admissions department ………………………………. 102.66
Ceremonies, dedication ……………………………… 22.40
Conscience fund ……………………………………. 31.25
Drafts returned ……………………………………. 186.00
Freight charges refunded ……………………………. 367.70
Miscellaneous collections …………………………… 2,411.98
Interest on stock notes …………………………….. 1,260.04
Interest on stock of estate …………………………. 3.90
Interest and costs, delinquent subscriptions ………….. 111.52
Janitor service ……………………………………. 1,650.62
Lost property ……………………………………… .50
Miscellaneous sales ………………………………… 9,516.84
Percentages, Bell Telephone Company pay stations ………. 1,363.51
Postage …………………………………………… 5.39
Redemption of horses and vehicles ……………………. 86.00
Rent ……………………………………………… 13.00
Sale of buildings ………………………………….. 50.00
Sale of property …………………………………… 3,248.78
Geo. F. Parker, resident representative, London ……….. 145.03
Intramural railway maintenance ………………………. 180.55
Concessions department, ticket account ……………….. 47.50
Concessions ……………………………………….. 10.50
Ticket sellers, change account ………………………. 40.00
Impounding vehicles ………………………………… 1.00
Force account, postexposition ……………………….. 228.00
Miscellaneous, postexposition ……………………….. 75.62
Postage, postexposition …………………………….. 2.85
Physical-culture fund ………………………………. 3,495.31
Aeronautics entry fees ……………………………… 1,500.00
Insurance premiums refunded …………………………. 63,983.17
Refrigerating plant receipts ………………………… 20,178.99
Garbage coupon books ……………………………….. 11,506.80
Refund account, overpayments ………………………… 4,715.96
Personal damage receipts ……………………………. 2,572.50
Property damage receipts ……………………………. 72.50
Uniform account, special fund ……………………….. 2,514.89
                                                             ——————-
  Total …………………………………………… 136,775.33

EXHIBIT G.—Construction, April 30, 1905.

Architecture, department of …………………………. $138,395.61
Architects' commissions …………………………….. 81,000.00
Architects' fees and expense ………………………… 94,019.88
Agriculture Building ……………………………….. 524,185.51
Approaches to Government Building ……………………. 34,585.90
Art Building ………………………………………. 945,849.45
Athletic field …………………………………….. 16,000.00
Band stands ……………………………………….. 25,793.00
Barracks buildings …………………………………. 26,925.75
Bridges, permanent …………………………………. 102,785.07
Bridges, temporary …………………………………. 1,666.78
Building, engineers ………………………………… 11,578.85
Cascades and terraces, excavating ……………………. 142,629.08
Civil engineers ……………………………………. 308,031.74
Dairy barn building ………………………………… 27,570.08
Day nursery building ……………………………….. 6,035.82
Drainage ………………………………………….. 100,813.86
Drinking fountains …………………………………. 898.00
Director's office ………………………………….. 224,008.48
Electricity and Machinery …………………………… 444,553.70
Electricity and machinery department …………………. 122,589.49
Electric and power plant ……………………………. 2,868,047.38
Electrical subway ………………………………….. 23,494.33
Emergency installation ……………………………… 13,746.91
Engine house ………………………………………. 41,152.18
Exhibitors' exposition power plant …………………… 201,099.93
Exhibitors' pre-exposition power plant ……………….. 16,989.63
Entrances …………………………………………. 31,736.00
Finish on bridges, lagoons, and cascades ……………… 155,488.72
Festival Hall ……………………………………… 221,999.45
Fire department, temporary building ………………….. 220.71
Fire plant ………………………………………… 370,622.09
Forestry, Fish, and Game Building ……………………. 174,317.38
Fences ……………………………………………. 37,325.16
Filtration plant …………………………………… 11,689.20
Freight platforms ………………………………….. 14,298.51
Furniture and fixtures ……………………………… 19,727.83
Garbage crematory ………………………………….. 8,746.90
Grading …………………………………………… 269,454.94
Gas piping ………………………………………… 44,665.62
Horticulture Building ………………………………. 225,408.27
Horses, harness, and vehicles ……………………….. 7,069.30
Hospital building ………………………………….. 20,508.38
Hauling and piling up soil ………………………….. 1,720.80
Implements and tools ……………………………….. 9,271.02
Intramural railway …………………………………. 498,393.90
Landscape gardening ………………………………… 500,566.59
Louisiana Purchase Monument …………………………. 7,593.93
Liberal Arts Building ………………………………. 475,370.95
Live stock exhibit buildings ………………………… 147,464.55
Machinery Building …………………………………. 497,408.35
Manufactures Building ………………………………. 710,284.49
Mines and Metallurgy Building ……………………….. 491,802.41
Mural decorations ………………………………….. 41,467.88
Philippine Commission ………………………………. 198,442.15
Police station …………………………………….. 6,646.17
Preparing grounds ………………………………….. 738,508.51
Press building …………………………………….. 4,899.32
Pump well, pavilion, and conduit …………………….. 37,845.24
Plumbing ………………………………………….. 129,834.02
Refrigerating and ice plants ………………………… 37,177.84
Restaurants and colonades …………………………… 174,106.80
Reservoirs ………………………………………… 3,013.53
Roadways ………………………………………….. 441,676.12
Sculpture …………………………………………. 518,039.87
Sculpture Hall Building …………………………….. $39,388.99
Service building …………………………………… 41,743.81
Shelter houses …………………………………….. 4,924.35
Stables …………………………………………… 6,167.01
Sewers ……………………………………………. 62,700.14
Sawmill …………………………………………… 6,781.24
Street railway, private right of way …………………. 12,788.98
Supplies, miscellaneous …………………………….. 9,053.73
Temporary boiler house ……………………………… 1,808.50
Textiles Building ………………………………….. 381,446.85
Ticket booths ……………………………………… 6,940.00
Turnstiles ………………………………………… 25,416.15
Town Hall Building …………………………………. 15,398.34
Transportation Building …………………………….. 675,586.39
Triumphal causeway …………………………………. 7,885.00
Uniforms ………………………………………….. 1,054.42
United States life-saving exhibit ……………………. 925.25
Varied Industries Building ………………………….. 733,831.21
Warehouse Building …………………………………. 24,446.87
Water mains ……………………………………….. 159,650.94
Waterways …………………………………………. 34,643.38
Water rent ………………………………………… 72,207.50
West pavilion ……………………………………… 5,722.50
Widening and straightening river Des Peres ……………. 115,159.78
World's fair terminals ……………………………… 454,824.81
                                                             ——————-
  Total ………………………………………….. 16,729,755.48

EXHIBIT H.—Rent of grounds and buildings, April 30, 1905.

Washington University tract …………………………. $750,000.00
Other tracts west of Skinker road ……………………. 230,250.00
Catlin tract ………………………………………. 200,000.00
Sundry ground rents ………………………………… 25,403.36
Coliseum ………………………………………….. 18,666.66
Offices …………………………………………… 15,793.78
                                                             ——————-
  Total …………………………………………… 1,240,113.80

EXHIBIT I.—Maintenance and operating, April 30, 1905.

Care of buildings ………………………………….. $89,251.97
Electric and power plant ……………………………. 675,462.29
Electric power rentals ……………………………… 28,438.91
Fuel not yet distributed ……………………………. 2,299.43
Gas-light buildings ………………………………… 1,474.16
Garbage cremation ………………………………….. 5,083.08
Maintenance of—
  Grounds …………………………………………. 77,902.63
  Roads …………………………………………… 20,228.49
  Lagoons, cascades, and basins ……………………… 2,408.33
  Fire plant ………………………………………. 3,499.69
Operating expenses:
  Buildings ……………………………………….. 11,914.50
  Landscape gardening ………………………………. 24,365.86
  Lavatories ………………………………………. 583.83
  Waterways ……………………………………….. 1,405.87
  Miscellaneous ……………………………………. 5,308.30
Repairing buildings ………………………………… 46,672.38
Refrigeration ……………………………………… 14,735.53
Removal of garbage and rubbish ………………………. 21,227.60
Sewers, water supply system …………………………. 1,824.17
Special police …………………………………….. 7,034.94
Telephone rentals ………………………………….. 29,102.97
United States Life-saving station ……………………. 312.52

Total …………………………………………… 1,070,537.51

EXHIBIT J.—Exhibits division, April 30, 1905.

Aeronautics ……………………………………….. $42,405.98
Agriculture ……………………………………….. 77,382.24
Agriculture, live-stock section ……………………… 281,275.37
Anthropology ………………………………………. 76,443.95
Art ………………………………………………. 131,138.89
Director's office ………………………………….. 145,899.05
Education …………………………………………. 49.684.59
Electricity ……………………………………….. 52,934.65
Fish and game ……………………………………… 27,664.88
Forestry ………………………………………….. 13,409.84
Horticulture ………………………………………. 91,174.48
International congresses ……………………………. 131,842.43
International jury of awards ………………………… 109,882.62
Liberal arts ………………………………………. 45,094.44
Machinery …………………………………………. 61,686.62
Manufactures ………………………………………. 86,487.23
Mines and metallurgy ……………………………….. 85,042.23
Music …………………………………………….. 494,984.48
Physical culture …………………………………… 87,876.53
Social economy …………………………………….. 42,376.81
Transportation …………………………………….. 54,438.62
                                                             ——————-
  Total …………………………………………… 2,189,125.93

EXHIBIT K.—Exploitation division, April 30, 1905.

Argentina …………………………………………. $29,958.08
Australia …………………………………………. 4,452.20
Alabama …………………………………………… 22.30
Arkansas ………………………………………….. 98.41
Bureau of information ………………………………. 9,728.37
Brazil ……………………………………………. 16,789.30
Central American States …………………………….. 12,643.84
Cuba ……………………………………………… 5,503.48
California ………………………………………… 600.20
Colorado ………………………………………….. 61.91
Connecticut ……………………………………….. 689.77
Director's office ………………………………….. 22,865.10
Domestic office ……………………………………. 36,415.86
Domestic incidentals ……………………………….. 32,722.72
Delaware ………………………………………….. 125.43
Dutch manufacturers in Holland ………………………. 1,012.33
Egypt …………………………………………….. 5,432.26
Europe ……………………………………………. 43,773.46
Eastern headquarters ……………………………….. 9,310.59
Emblem account …………………………………….. 1,035.38
Emergency exploitation ……………………………… 872.27
Fourth of July celebration ………………………….. 8,561.24
Florida …………………………………………… 1,019.40
Germany …………………………………………… 10,724.77
Georgia …………………………………………… 191.61
Foreign incidentals ………………………………… 18,232.25
India …………………………………………….. 4,949.36
Italy …………………………………………….. 11,011.31
Idaho …………………………………………….. 80.60
Illinois ………………………………………….. 22.05
Incidentals, various States …………………………. 3,696.96
Indiana …………………………………………… 35.75
Indian Territory …………………………………… 755.43
Iowa ……………………………………………… 164.03
Kansas ……………………………………………. 15.00
Kentucky ………………………………………….. 1,524.99
London …………………………………………… 17,807.78
Maine …………………………………………….. $94.25
Maryland ………………………………………….. 671.66
Massachusetts ……………………………………… 264.14
Michigan ………………………………………….. 1,339.55
Minnesota …………………………………………. 959.58
Mississippi ……………………………………….. 193.05
Municipal exhibits …………………………………. 52.55
Nebraska ………………………………………….. 417.41
New England States …………………………………. 78.00
New York ………………………………………….. 657.19
New York, New Jersey, and Rhode Island ……………….. 455.90
North Carolina …………………………………….. 1,499.92
New Hampshire ……………………………………… 150.25
North Dakota ………………………………………. 317.96
Netherlands ……………………………………….. 45.00
Oriental countries …………………………………. 46,388.68
Ohio ……………………………………………… 429.80
Paris …………………………………………….. 11,229.17
Portugal ………………………………………….. 1,384.62
Press representative to Europe ………………………. 14,144.79
Pan-American Exposition Building …………………….. 15,826.09
Press and publicity ………………………………… 435,118.82
Pennsylvania ………………………………………. 241.10
Peru, Ecuador, and Venezuela ………………………… 17,652.97
Rhode Island ………………………………………. 965.80
Russia ……………………………………………. 600.00
South Carolina …………………………………….. 1,826.18
Southern States ……………………………………. 3,737.28
South Dakota ………………………………………. 123.85
South Africa ………………………………………. 945.33
Spain …………………………………………….. 2,261.23
Special Commissioner Buchanan ……………………….. 25,070.45
New York and Massachusetts ………………………….. 159.50
Special Commissioner Hayward ………………………… 3,000.73
Sweden and Norway ………………………………….. 12,318.15
South Carolina and Interstate and West Indian Exposition .. 11,948.82
Saengerfest subscription ……………………………. 5,000.00
Tennessee ………………………………………… 697.51
Texas …………………………………………….. 159.00
Transportation day …………………………………. 7,908.22
Vermont …………………………………………… 10.00
Virginia ………………………………………….. 1,122.80
Windward Islands and Trinidad ……………………….. 1,200.00
World's Fair Fraternal Association …………………… 2,945.00
Dedication ceremonies ………………………………. 233,341.16
Ceremonies ………………………………………… 2,744.13
Bureau of ceremonies ……………………………….. 39,693.86
Entertainments …………………………………….. 70,583.36
Receptions and entertainments ……………………….. 8,736.73
Competitive drills …………………………………. 7,500.00
Pike day expenses ………………………………….. 9,190.57
Promotion …………………………………………. 5,928.26
Firemen's convention and tournament ………………….. 2,814.60
Good roads conventions ……………………………… 2,286.35
                                                             ——————-
  Total …………………………………………… 1,327,337.11

Exhibit L.—Protection, April 30, 1905.

Fire department ……………………………………. $162,471.26
Medical department …………………………………. 37,559.01
Jefferson Guards …………………………………… 471,245.74
Custodian of buildings ……………………………… 2,354.07
Fire-fighting exhibit:
  Preexposition ……………………………………. 16,500.00
  Exposition ………………………………………. 25,000.00
Insurance:
  Accident ………………………………………… $86,174.33
  Boilers …………………………………………. 541.28
  Buildings ……………………………………….. 260,172.35
  Contents of buildings …………………………….. 24,607.07
  Miscellaneous ……………………………………. 1,404.90
Premium on Fidelity bonds …………………………… 1,962.34
                                                             ——————-
  Total …………………………………………… 1,089,992.35

EXHIBIT M.—Concessions and admissions division, April 30, 1905.

Advance payments, concessions ……………………….. $27.00
Admissions department ………………………………. 280,337.55
Concessions department ……………………………… 222,664.57
Collector's office …………………………………. 36,756.99
Ticket account …………………………………….. 138.00
                                                             ——————-
  Total …………………………………………… 564,112.28

EXHIBIT N.—Executive and administrative division, April 30, 1905.

Auditor's office …………………………………… $61,025.11
Collector's office …………………………………. 36,756.99
Incidental expenses ………………………………… 24,341.83
Legal department …………………………………… 87,598.15
Local treasurer's office ……………………………. 12,703.22
President's office …………………………………. 9,963.17
President's contingent fund …………………………. 1,413.63
Secretary's office …………………………………. 155,687.16
Supply department ………………………………….. 21,430.07
Treasurer's office …………………………………. 29,954.53
                                                             ——————-
  Total …………………………………………… 440,874.46

EXHIBIT O.—Transportation bureau, April 30, 1905.

Director's office ………………………………….. $12,003.04
Equipment …………………………………………. 805.00
Intramural Railway:
  Operating ……………………………………….. 59,578.81
  Maintenance ……………………………………… 5,694.39
Operating department ……………………………….. 210,976.38
Traffic manager ……………………………………. 15,449.05
World's Fair terminal, maintenance …………………… 16,567.91
                                                             ——————-
  Total …………………………………………… 321,074.58

EXHIBIT P.—Money advanced, April 30, 1905.

Board of lady managers ……………………………… $3,000.00
Bolles, S. W ………………………………………. 153.10
Buchanan W. I ……………………………………… 71.02
Chase, C.A., paymaster ……………………………… 1,500.00
Emergency exploitation committee …………………….. 152,986.49
Kurtz & Watrous ……………………………………. 8,000.00
Money changers at entrances …………………………. 665.20
Moore, Thomas M ……………………………………. 1,100.37
Thompson, J.C., jr …………………………………. 16.00
                                                             ——————-
  Total …………………………………………… 167,350.14

EXHIBIT Q.—Miscellaneous, April 30, 1905.

Accrued interest, city of St. Louis bonds …………….. $35,901.34
Band contests ……………………………………… 500.00
Bond for rent of land ………………………………. 540.00
Disbursement agent, United States Government ………….. $8,500.38
Interest on bills payable and advances on capital stock … 15,625.55
Inside Inn ………………………………………… 147.49
National Civic Federation …………………………… 73.13
Operating expenses, sanitation ………………………. 400.44
Press parliament …………………………………… 1,132.90
Personal damages …………………………………… 6,171.70
Postage …………………………………………… 21.64
Refund:
  Admissions ………………………………………. 405.20
  Concessions collections …………………………… 15,554.00
  Grounds and buildings collections ………………….. 1,656.97
  Photo pass account ……………………………….. 1,154.00
  Transportation collections ………………………… 502.53
Sanitation ………………………………………… 430.90
Supervision of sanitation …………………………… 382.19
Telegrams …………………………………………. 2,254.46
Refund, overpayment of capital stock …………………. 1,816.33
Ways and means committee ……………………………. 65.26
Million Population Club …………………………….. 20.00
Park restoration …………………………………… 9,527.35
Park restoration, Art Museum ………………………… 1,043.39
Salvage expense ……………………………………. 240.31
Damage to property …………………………………. 5,269.00
Refund, season tickets ……………………………… 75.00
Special exhibit, Agricultural Hall …………………… 5,509.32
                                                             ——————-
Total …………………………………………….. 114,920.78

Condensed statement showing estimated financial result of the exposition.

RECEIPTS.

Subscribed funds:
  United States Government …………………………… $4,752,968.45
  City of St Louis ………………………………….. 4,964.148.66
  Individual subscriptions …………………………… 4,839,867.28
                                                            ——————— $14,556,984.39
Loans:
  United States Government …………………………… 4,600,000.00
  Loan on stock subscriptions, etc. …………………… 438,000.00
                                                            ———————
                                                              5,038,000.00
  Less repaid ………………………………………. 5,038,000.00
                                                            ———————
Revenue:
  Admissions ……………………………………….. 6,244,544.65
  Concessions ………………………………………. 3,081,406.78
  All other sources …………………………………. 1,931,571.35
                                                            ———————
                                                             11,257,522.78
                                                            ———————
                                                             25,814,507.17

DISBURSEMENTS.

Expenditures:
  Construction ………………………………………$16,729,755.49
  Less salvage 625,680.90
                                                            ———————
                                                             16,104,074.59
  Rents of grounds and buildings ……………………… 1,279,913.80
  All other expenses ………………………………… 7,713,307.34
  Estimated liability for restoration of site ………….. 250,000.00
                                                             ——————-
                                                            $25,347,295.73
Surplus, subject to liability on pending suits and claims 467,211.45
                                                            ———————
                                                             25,814,507.18

The above condensed statement has been prepared from the accounts of the company to May 3, 1905, and from an estimate of future receipts and expenditures furnished us by the president of the Exposition Company.

JONES, CAESAR, DICKINSON, WILMOT & CO.

ST. Louis, June 12, 1905.

APPENDIX 2.

DISPOSAL OF SALVAGE OF LOUISIANA PURCHASE EXPOSITION.

State of Missouri, City of St. Louis, ss:

Before me, this the 16th day of March, 1905, personally appeared H.S.
Albrecht, who, being duly sworn, on his oath says:

My name is H.S. Albrecht. I reside in St. Louis. Have lived here the past twenty-five years. I am engaged in business in St. Louis. In regard to the sale of the salvage of the Louisiana Purchase Exposition Company I herewith make the following statement:

When I saw by the papers that bids were requested for the wrecking and removal of certain exhibit buildings now on the World's Fair grounds I decided that I would make a bid on same. I submitted a bid on that part of the salvage to be disposed of as shown in the specifications prepared by Director of Works Taylor and on following buildings:

Mines and Metallurgy; Liberal Arts; Education and Social Economy; Manufactures; Electricity; Varied Industries; Machinery; Transportation; Forestry, Fish, and Game; Agricultural; Horticulture; four dairy barns, octagonal; live-stock forum; Live-Stock Congress Hall; stock barns; Steam, Gas, and Fuel Building, and cooling towers; Festival Hall; terrace of States, including pedestals and statuary; two pagoda restaurant buildings on Art Hill; four fire-engine houses; five toilet-room buildings; five band stands.

The time limit set for the removal of the buildings and debris was short—namely, three months—and no one could make a reasonable bid. I made my bid in the sum of only $50,000 for that reason, and accompanied same by a certified check for $25,000, as required by the Exposition Company.

The bids were to be opened at 12 o'clock noon of November 10. I, with a number of other bidders, was present in an anteroom adjoining the office of Mr. Isaac S. Taylor, director of works. The bids were not opened at the appointed hour, and we waited there for three hours and until 3 o'clock. We expected the bids to be opened in public, as is done by the United States Government and the city when they dispose of large properties. We were called into Mr. Taylor's office and were informed by President D.R. Francis that the bids would not be opened in public, but in private. I immediately arose and offered an objection to this mode of procedure, as I did not think it was the proper way to handle the matter. I told them what I thought of the whole proposition. My protest was a vigorous one. A Mr. Harris, a representative of the Chicago House Wrecking Company, immediately arose and stated that he desired to have his bid kept secret. Mr. Francis overruled my objection and sustained Mr. Harris. Mr. Francis asked the other bidders present what they desired as to the manner of handling the bids, and they all stated that the bids should be opened in public and not in private. Not only as a contractor, but as a stockholder of the Exposition Company, I demanded that the bids be opened publicly, in a straightforward manner. We were instructed to go out into the anteroom and remain until called for. About fifteen minutes later I was recalled alone to the meeting room of the salvage committee, where President Francis questioned me in regard to the $50,000 bid, and asked whether I could remove the property in the time limit set. I informed the gentlemen that I could make my bid considerably higher if I was granted more time in which to remove the debris. President Francis asked me how much more I could bid, and I told him I could not state offhand. The conditions as to the removal of the wreckage in the specified time, namely, three months, were somewhat prohibitive, as it would be impossible to fulfill the requirements without an enormous expense. It would be well-nigh impossible to get sufficient men and teams on the work to complete the same in the specified time. President Francis stated to me that it was probable that all the bids would be rejected. I requested him to ask for new bids, which were to be opened in public, or that the property be sold at public auction. I saw by the newspapers a few days later that all bids had been rejected, and my check for $25,000 was returned to me. I later saw by the papers that the Exposition Company contemplated forming a company among the directors and wreck the buildings themselves and dispose of the salvage. Later on I saw in the papers that the Chicago House Wrecking Company was figuring to buy all the World's Fair property, and was about to close a deal for the purchase of the salvage in the sum of $386,000.

No further information as to the sale of the salvage was ever furnished me, nor was any notice given me that further or additional bids would be received.

I had never at any time been furnished a list of the property for sale, and made my bid on the buildings as shown by the specifications prepared by Mr. Taylor, director of works. I requested a list of the property for sale, but was never able to get one.

As soon as I heard that the property of the exposition was to be sold to the Chicago House Wrecking Company for the sum of $386,000 I wrote a letter to President Francis as follows:

DECEMBER 5, 1905.

GENTLEMEN: Noticing in the daily papers that you will sell the entire property owned by the Louisiana Purchase Exposition, including railway tracks, exhibit and other buildings, fencing, furniture, wiring, lamps, piping, plumbing, machinery, etc.—in fact, everything owned by the company. If this is the fact we can pay you about $400,000 and perhaps more. Will you kindly furnish us a complete list of everything that you have for sale and specified time of removal, so we can give you an intelligent bid or proposition?

    Very respectfully,
    SCHOELLHORN-ALBRECHT REAL ESTATE CO.,
    Per H.S. ALBRECHT, President.

    President D.R. FRANCIS and
    BOARD OF DIRECTORS ON SALVAGE,
    Louisiana Purchase Exposition, St. Louis.

I failed to receive a reply to the above letter or to receive a list of the property to be sold, and was not notified that further bids would be received therefor. As far as I know, none of the former bidders, nor any one else, for that matter, were given the slightest opportunity to bid on the whole property, except the Chicago House Wrecking Company.

There seemed to be a disposition on the part of the salvage committee to observe the greatest secrecy in procuring the bids and the awarding of the contract. The property was not properly advertised and lists were not furnished to bidders, as is customary in public sales, where large amounts of valuable property is to be sold.

From the contract between the Exposition Company and the Chicago House Wrecking Company, now a matter of record here, I have noticed the nature of the material and property sold to the Chicago House Wrecking Company, and had I been furnished a list of that property I would have bid $750,000, all cash, and would have made a great profit on it at that price. If the property had been properly listed and widely advertised, much higher bids would have been made. If the property had been properly advertised and had been sold at public auction, in detail, I am safe in saying that the Exposition Company would have realized more than $1,000,000 out of the salvage. In my opinion the property delivered to the Chicago House Wrecking Company was of the market value of fully $1,500,000.

H.S. ALBRECHT.

Subscribed and sworn to before me this 16th day of March, 1905. My commission expires on the 22d day of July, 1909.

[SEAL.] IRA C. MONEY, Notary Public, City of St. Louis, Mo.

STATE OF MISSOURI, City of St. Louis, ss:

Before me, this the 16th day of March, 1905, personally appeared Charles
L. McDonald, who, being duly sworn, on his oath says:

My name is Charles L. McDonald. I reside in the city of St. Louis. Am connected with the St. Louis Steam Forge and Iron works. I saw by the St. Louis Globe-Democrat of October 17, 1904, that Mr. Isaac S. Taylor, director of works of the Louisiana Purchase Exposition, had requested sealed proposals addressed to the "Committee on Salvage and Sale of Buildings," for the wrecking and removal of certain exhibit buildings now on the World's Fair grounds, and that specifications and instructions for the above-mentioned work and drawings and specifications of the buildings to be wrecked could be seen at the office of Mr. Taylor. All bids were to be in Mr. Taylor's office by 12 o'clock noon of Thursday, November 10, 1904.

The specifications and instructions as prepared by Mr. Taylor for the wrecking of the buildings, and for which sealed proposals were requested, only applied to the following buildings: Mines and Metallurgy; Liberal Arts; Education and Social Economy; Manufactures; Electricity; Varied Industries; Machinery; Transportation; Forestry, Fish, and Game; Agriculture; Horticulture; four dairy barns, octagonal; live stock forum; Live Stock Congress Hall; stock barns; steam, gas, and fuel buildings and cooling towers; Festival Hall; terrace of States, including pedestals and statuary; two pagoda restaurant buildings on Art Hill; four fire-engine houses; five toilet-room buildings; five band stands; and excluded, or rather did not include, all electrical wiring, piping, plumbing, roadmaking machinery, fire hose in the various buildings, two hospitals complete, Jefferson Guards' uniforms and accouterments, railroad tracks in the various buildings, the Intramural Railway, which included all the equipment (except the cars), hothouses, horses, wagons, and vehicles of all kinds, and many other valuable items.

I submitted a bid on one of the buildings only. However, I was associated with Mr. Albrecht and others when he submitted a bid on all the buildings as shown by the printed list, and was also concerned with him in his proposition of December 5, wherein he offered $400,000 cash for the property, and more if a list of all the property could be secured.

The conditions embodied in the specifications and contract, with reference to the time limit for the removal of all the debris from day to day as the work progressed were too exacting, in that they did not allow sufficient time, and if the same were strictly enforced by Director of Works Taylor would materially add to the expense of the contractor. The time was too short for the amount of work to be done.

On November 10, at the hour called for the opening of the bids, I was present and appeared with other bidders before the committee on salvage. I, with a number of other bidders, waited until after 3 o'clock for the committee to get together and open the bids, and was very much surprised when President Francis announced that all bids would be opened in secret by the committee. This procedure was not in accordance with the custom of the Government and city in the handling of its property when same is for sale under bids. Mr. Albrecht objected to the bids being opened in secret session and demanded that they be opened before the bidders. President Francis asked me what I had to say about the way in which the bids were to be handled, and I answered that I could do nothing more than emphasize the protests of Mr. Albrecht.

I have been a bidder at many sales of both Government and city, property, and the method employed at such sales provided for the opening of bids in public in the presence of such bidders as desired to be present.

A few days later I saw by the papers that the Exposition Company had rejected all bids. After the rejection of our first sealed bids, I learned through another bidder, with whom I was interested, that the World's Fair officials had announced that it was probable that they would wreck the exposition buildings themselves. Upon this information I dropped the matter and heard nothing further about the bidding until it was announced that the Chicago House Wrecking Company had secured the contract. When I heard that the Fair Company proposed to do its own wrecking I thought it a good plan.

The carrying on of the bidding through private negotiations, as President Francis terms it, was not, I contend, the most advantageous to the Exposition Company and its stockholders. If they had given all the bidders an equal show in the matter, and had furnished a list of the property to be sold, much higher bids would have been obtained.

The secrecy with which the contracts were handled did not give the bidders a fair opportunity, and was, I believe, an injustice to the thousands of stockholders of the exposition. The United States Government, the city of St. Louis, and the stockholders were partners in the exposition, which made the fair unquestionably a public institution. Why, then, were not the bids opened in public, thus securing the largest amount for the exposition and for the stockholders? This was not done. If it had been the bidding would have been greatly stimulated, bringing results quite different. The salvage committee refused to allow the bids to be opened publicly before the contractors, but held them for their eyes only. This is not in accordance with the manner of handling bids on big public works. When the partial list of property was given out the requirements in the specifications almost made the bidding prohibitive. The Exposition Company demanded a check for half of the amount of the bid. In all my experience I have never before been asked to meet such a requirement. In itself that was almost enough to drive off the bidders. The Chicago House Wrecking Company put up less than one-fourth of the price to be paid, or $100,000.

I am of the opinion that had the Exposition Company properly prepared a list of its properties and holdings and furnished the prospective bidders with such lists and an opportunity for the examination of the articles mentioned therein, together with a reasonable period of time for removal of the buildings and debris, they could easily have obtained $750,000.

I have obtained a more comprehensive knowledge of the amount and character of the material and property since put into the hands of the Chicago House Wrecking Company, and am of the opinion that at the time the contract was made with the Chicago House Wrecking Company the property sold represented a value in excess of $1,000,000.

There was present in the office of Mr. Taylor, director of works, at the time the bids were to be opened the following members of the salvage committee: President Francis, Director of Works Taylor, John A. Holmes, Mr. Samuel Kennard, and Mr. John Scullin.

Had I been furnished with a list of all the properties that I have since learned was acquired by the Chicago House Wrecking Company I would have gladly submitted a bid in the amount of $500,000.

C.L. MCDONALD.

Subscribed and sworn to before me this 16th day of March, 1905. My commission expires on the 22d day of January, 1909. [SEAL.] IRA C. MONEY, Notary Public, City of St. Louis, Mo.

STATE OF ILLINOIS, County of Cook, ss:

Before me this the 28th day of March, 1905, personally appeared Mr. S.
Krug, who, being duly sworn, on his oath says:

My name is S. Krug. I am a resident of Chicago. Have resided here for the past thirty-seven years. For the past twenty-seven years I have been engaged in the excavating and sand business. During this time I have also been engaged on contracts for wrecking large buildings. I wrecked the First National Bank Building, the Metropolitan Building, the Montauk Block; Hibbard, Spencer & Bartlett store, and numerous other large buildings in Chicago.

In regard to the sale of the World's Fair salvage at St. Louis I will make the following statement:

I was told by a friend of mine that bids had been requested for wrecking and removal of certain World's Fair buildings at St. Louis, and that specifications and instructions could be obtained from Mr. Isaac S. Taylor, director of works. For business reasons I did not wish the Exposition Company to know that I wanted to figure on the contract. I asked a friend of mine to procure a copy of the specifications for me. It was necessary for him to deposit $10 for the specifications. He sent the specifications to me. Mr. John M. Dunphy, who is in my employ, and I went over the specifications at length and studied them pretty thoroughly. The specifications only referred to exhibit buildings, band stands, fire-department houses, live-stock barns, dairy barns, Festival Hall, fuel building, terrace of States, and toilet-room buildings. On October 24, 1904, some ten days after we read over the specifications and instructions, Mr. Dunphy, Mr. Powers, and myself went to St. Louis to look over the plans to see the nature of the material and the construction of the various buildings. We went to Mr. Taylor's office and were informed that Mr. Taylor was busy and could not see us. Mr. Taylor's secretary, Mr. Carl Hoblitzelle, took us into an adjoining room. He did not ask our names, and we did not tell him who we were. While we were waiting in this room—I presume we were there about five minutes—Mr. Frank Harris, a member of the Chicago House Wrecking Company, came into the room. It looked to me as if he had been posted as to our, being there and came to see who we were. Mr. Harris remained there three or four minutes and then left. We asked the clerk in charge of the office there for the plans of the various buildings to be wrecked. He handed us two sets of plans—one for the Agricultural and one for the Horticultural Building. We requested more plans of him, but he said he was too busy to take them down and immediately left the room and remained out all the time we were in there. We went to the shelves and took out the plans ourselves and looked them over. After we had looked over the plans for a couple of hours we went out on the exposition grounds, and spent the rest of that day and the next on the grounds, and on the following day we returned to Chicago. The bids were to be in Mr. Taylor's office by 12 o'clock noon Thursday, November 10, 1904. Mr. Schmitt, my bookkeeper, and myself went to St. Louis on November 9 and were present at Mr. Taylor's office in the Administration Building before the hour of 12 o'clock noon, November 10. I had prepared my bid. At this time I only bid on the stock barns, live-stock forum, Congress Hall, Agricultural and Horticultural buildings. I also had a separate bid prepared for the Transportation Building, which I submitted. I took my bids and handed them to Mr. Carl Hoblitzelle, Mr. Taylor's private secretary. He placed them in his desk and said he would bring them to the attention of the committee when the time came to open the bids. Mr. Schmitt and I then went into an anteroom, where the other bidders were gathered. There were present at the time Mr. H.S. Albrecht, of the firm of Schoellhorn & Albrecht, St. Louis; Mr. Charles McDonald, of the St. Louis Steam Forge Company, St. Louis; Mr. W. Ware, of the Columbia Wrecking Company, St. Louis; a Mr. Schaeffer and son, of St. Louis, and Mr. Frank and Abraham Harris, who represented the Chicago House Wrecking Company. There were one or two other gentlemen present, but I can not now recall their names. Some middle-aged man came in with the Harris Brothers. He seemed to have free access to the room where the salvage committee was in session, and ran back and forth two or three times and held a conversation with the Harris Brothers in the hall. We expected the bids to be opened at 1 o'clock. It was now some time after 1 o'clock. We were all waiting there when President Francis came in and announced that they were going to lunch, and for us to come back later on. We all left the room and I with several other gentlemen went to get a little lunch. We were back in the anteroom of Mr. Taylor's office by 2.30 p. in. We waited there until 4 o'clock when Mr. Taylor's secretary came into the room and requested all the bidders to go into the room where the salvage committee was in session. The committee met in Mr. Taylor's office. President Francis, Mr. Taylor, Samuel Kennard, Mr. Holmes, and some other gentleman, I can not call his name now. President Francis arose and said: "Gentlemen, the bids are all there on the table and we will open them shortly." He asked how we wished the bids handled—that is, whether we wanted them opened in our presence or in a secret session of the Committee. Mr. H.S. Albrecht, of St. Louis, immediately arose and stated that he wanted the bids opened in the presence of the bidders present, as he wanted everything to be open and above board. All the other bidders present requested that the bids be opened in their presence, except Mr. Abraham Harris, president of the Chicago House Wrecking Company, who arose and offered an objection to the bids being opened in public, and stated that he did not want his bid to be opened in public, but wanted it opened in private, for the reason that he did not want everybody to know what his bid was; that if he was the successful bidder his bid would be published and everybody would know what it was, but if he was not the successful bidder he did not want it known what amount he bid. President Francis held a whispered conversation with several members of the committee and then turned to the bidders and said: "Gentlemen, we have decided to open the bids in secret session." He thus favored Mr. Harris and ignored the demand of the other bidders. Mr. Albrecht again demanded that the bids be opened in our presence. We were then told to repair to the anteroom and wait until called for. While we were waiting in the anteroom Mr. Taylor's secretary called Mr. Abe Harris into the committee room, where the salvage committee was opening the bids. He remained in there some little time. As soon as Mr. Harris came out Mr. H.S. Albrecht was called in. He told me when he came out that he had entered a vigorous protest as to the way the bids were being handled, and that he as a stockholder and a bidder had again demanded that the bids be opened in the presence of the bidders. Mr. Schmitt and myself were next called into the room where the salvage committee was in session. Mr. Taylor asked me if I knew a Mr. Schluetter, of Chicago. I told him that I was well acquainted with the gentleman, that I had done considerable work for him in Chicago, and that he had always paid me for it. When I made this remark President Francis looked at Mr. Taylor and laughed in rather a sneering way. I presumed from his actions that the Exposition Company had had some trouble with Mr. Schluetter. President Francis said to me, "Mr. Krug, you have some excellent recommendations here from prominent people and banks of Chicago." I told him that I was well able to carry out any contract I undertook, as I had good financial backing and understood my business. He said to me, "Mr. Krug, your bid is very satisfactory, but why have you not submitted a bid on all the buildings shown in the specifications?" I told him I had taken into consideration the insurance on the various buildings and that I was afraid I might have trouble in getting insurance on all the buildings, and therefore submitted a bid on buildings that were quite a distance apart and less liable to fire. I told President Francis at this time that I was willing to submit a bid for $76,600 on all the buildings shown in the specifications prepared by Mr. Taylor. My first bid did not include all the buildings shown in the specifications. I made this offer offhand. He asked me if I wanted to figure on wrecking the buildings for the Exposition Company on a percentage basis, they to own all the material and sell it and I to get a per cent for doing the work. I told him I would take it by contract for an agreed figure or would do the work for him on a percentage basis, and that I would be glad to do anything for him I could. President Francis said to me, "Mr. Krug, you put in your bid for $76,600 in writing and have it in this office to-morrow morning." We were then asked to wait out in the anteroom. We waited there until about 6 o'clock. At about 6 o'clock Mr. Taylor's secretary came in and announced that the meeting had adjourned until the next day. We all left the room then. At 10 o'clock the next morning, November 11, 1904, Mr. Schmitt and myself went to Mr. Taylor's office, where I filed my bid in writing for $76,600 to cover all the buildings shown in the specifications. We waited there until about 4 o'clock, expecting some decision from the salvage committee. About 4 o'clock Mr. Taylor's secretary came in and announced that the meeting of the salvage committee had adjourned until the following Monday.

The conditions embodied in the specifications as to the time allowed for removal of the wreckage were so prohibitive as to render it almost impossible to carry them out. The time limit—namely, three months—was too short. It would entail an enormous expense and waste of material to try to comply with the time conditions stated in the specifications.

The amount required by the specifications to be deposited in the form of a certified check, payable to the Exposition Company, viz, 50 per cent of the amount of bid, was very exorbitant. This check was to be forfeited to the Exposition Company in the event the successful bidder failed to enter into a contract with the salvage committee within five days after they accepted the bid. I consider the amount demanded, 50 per cent, very excessive, and it had the effect of frightening bidders away. A 5 to 10 per cent deposit is usually the amount required by the Government and the city.

The specifications also stipulated that the full amount of the contract, less the amount of the certified check, held and to be appropriated by the Exposition Company, must be paid to the Exposition Company at the time the contract is signed. I consider this out of all reason, and in itself would have a tendency to prohibit bidding.

The time-limit clause, namely, three months, from March 1 to June 1, 1905, in which all the buildings must be torn down and the grounds cleared, was entirely too short a time, and out of all reason, as it would be physically impossible for any contractor to do the work in the time specified, and no contractor would attempt it under the terms of the specifications unless he knew he would be favored with an extension of time later on.

The specifications appear to me to have been drawn up with the intent and purpose of discouraging bidders. In all my experience I have never encountered such requirements as set forth in those specifications.

I told Mr. Taylor and President Francis that the time limit was too short, and that I would be glad to make a much higher bid if they would extend the time. They said, "We cannot extend the time one day—the grounds must be cleared by June 1, 1905."

On the following Monday, November 14, 1904, I went to Mr. Taylor's office at 10 a.m. I was informed by Mr. Taylor's private secretary that all bids had been rejected, and that I would be notified if further bids would be requested. I returned to Chicago that night, and awaited some advice from the Exposition Company as to what disposition was to be made of the property, and if new bids would be requested. For fear that something might happen that I would get slipped up on, and the contract be given to some one else, I sent my agent, Mr. John M. Dunphy, to St. Louis, so that he would be on the ground and be in touch with what was going on, and told him to watch the papers to see if new bids were requested. Mr. Dunphy was in St. Louis from November 20 to 26, inclusive, and he informed me that during all this time he was unable to get any information as to what the Exposition Company was going to do with the property or whether new bids would be asked for. Mr. Dunphy was compelled to return to Chicago on the night of November 26. He asked a friend of his, a Mr. William H. Ranstead, who lives in St. Louis, to look out for news in regard to the wrecking of the World's Fair buildings, and if new bids were requested to notify him immediately by telephone or by telegraph. On November 28 I received a telegram from Mr. Ranstead, as follows:

ST. Louis, November 28. S. KRUG and John Dunphy, 167 Dearborn street, Chicago, Ill.:

Salvage committee met at 2 p. m. At the adjournment Mr. Taylor and President Francis called me in and wished me to wire you to come on first train. Everything looks well. Meet me at the Lindell Hotel before you go to the grounds. Also wire me in care Lindell Hotel when you leave.

W.H. RANSTEAD.

This message was received by me at about 8.40 a. m. November 29. Mr. Dunphy and I took the first train out to St. Louis. We left here at 11.03 a. m. and arrived St. Louis at 6 p. m. November 29. We met Mr. Ranstead at the hotel and talked matters over. The next day, November 30, Mr. Ranstead, Mr. Dunphy, and myself went to the fair grounds and called at office of Mr. Stevens, secretary of the Exposition Company. This was about 10.30 a. m. At about 11 a. m. Mr. Stevens took us to the room where the salvage committee was holding a meeting. Mr. Stevens did not remain in the room during the meeting. There were present President Francis, Mr. Taylor, Mr. Kennard, and Mr. Holmes, members of the salvage committee. After a short preliminary talk, we were told by Mr. Francis that we would have to put in our bid for all the buildings shown in the specifications, including copper wire and railroad iron, and that we would have to have the bid in by 4 o'clock that afternoon. It was then about: 12 o'clock. We protested against such short time for figuring on all the property shown by the specifications. I requested more time and told them I would be able to make an intelligent bid if granted more time. I asked President Francis to give me the figures on the steel rails and the copper wire, and stated that he should have the figures showing the amount on hand, as it was all bought by weight; that if I could get an idea of the amount of wire and rail I could get my bid in all right in time. He stated he could not give me the figures on the rail and the wire. Mr. Kennard then stated that I could put in a bid for the buildings that were shown in the specifications, including the intramural stations, the fences, and the bridges by 4 o'clock that day, and that I could have until Friday, December 2, to put in my bid on the railroad iron and the copper wire. I asked if it would be possible for me to get an extension of time in which to do the work, providing I secured the contract. President Francis stated that the time could not be extended one day. I then asked for a list of the property so I could figure on all of it. President Francis stated that they did not have any lists and that it would be necessary for us to go over the ground and get our own data. He stated to me then that there were 2,000 tons of steel rails. We then left the office and walked over the grounds and looked at the buildings, the intramural stations, the fences, and bridges, on which we were asked to submit a bid that afternoon. We did not look over the rail and the wire, as we thought we would have more time the following day for that. We went back to Mr. Taylor's office at 4 o'clock p. in. We waited there in the anteroom until about 5.30 p. in. While we were waiting in the anteroom Mr. Frank and Mr. Abe Harris, of the Chicago House Wrecking Company were closeted with the salvage committee in Mr. Taylor's office. While we were waiting there they came out of Mr. Taylor's office without their overcoats or hats on. They had left them in the room where the salvage committee was in session. Mr. Dunphy, Mr. Ranstead, and myself were then requested to enter the room where the salvage committee was in session. Mr. Frank and Abe Harris waited outside until we got through. The same members of the salvage committee present at the morning session were present at this meeting, including Mr. John Scullin, but Mr. Scullin only remained a few minutes after we entered the room. There was another gentleman present, but I do not know who he was. President Francis told me later that he was an insurance agent and that he held insurance on all the buildings then. I handed the bid, or rather Mr. Dunphy handed the bid to President Francis, who in turn handed it to Mr. Kennard, who opened it and read it aloud. The bid was for $101,000 for the buildings mentioned in the specifications, the intramural stations, the fence around the grounds (except the stadium fence), and the bridges. Mr. Francis held a whispered conversation with Mr. Taylor, and then turned to us and said that the committee had decided to let the contract that day, and that they would not wait until Friday for the bid on the other material, that is the rails and the copper wire, and that it would be necessary for me to put in my bid that night, as they would be in session until 11 p. m. I stated that I could not make an intelligent bid on such short notice, unless I was furnished with figures showing amount of rail and wire purchased by them. Mr. Taylor spoke up and asked me if I knew a man by the name of Evans, of Chicago, who was in the wrecking business, I told him that I did not know a Mr. Evans, of Chicago, who was engaged in the wrecking business, and that I was well acquainted with all the prominent wrecking concerns and contractors in Chicago but had never heard of or met Mr. Evans, the gentleman referred to. Mr. Taylor asked me why I could not get in a bid in the same time that Mr. Evans got his in, and stated that Mr. Evans had submitted a bid on all the property from Chicago by wire in three hours. I stood up then and spoke to President Francis and said, "President Francis, how do you know but that this bid of Mr. Evans may be a dummy?" President Francis arose from the table and stood opposite me, and, scratching his head, said: "Well, Mr. Drug, you have got me a guessing. There may be something in that."

President Francis said to me, "Mr. Drug, I made a mistake this morning in giving you the number of tons of steel rail; there are 4,000 tons instead of 2,000 tons of rail." I then told him that it would be impossible for me to give him any kind of an intelligent bid without some kind of a list of the property to figure on. President Francis stated that the matter would be settled that night and that I had until 11 p. m. to bring in my figures on all the property to be disposed of as shown by the specifications, and including the intramural stations, the bridges, the fence around the grounds, the copper wire, and the railroad rails. We then left the room, and as we were passing out President Francis asked our names and where we were stopping as they would call us up later on that day.

As soon as we walked out of the room Mr. Frank and Abe Harris of the
Chicago House Wrecking Company went in.

We left the fair grounds immediately and went to the Lindell Hotel, where we prepared a new bid. About 7.30 p. m. we decided to put in our bid by telephone. Mr. Dunphy called up Mr. Taylor's office and was informed by the party who answered the telephone that the salvage committee had adjourned at 7 o'clock p.m. Mr. Dunphy told me that the salvage committee had adjourned, and I supposed they had adjourned to get something to eat and would be back shortly. I told him to call up again. About 8.30 p. in. Mr. Dunphy called up Mr. Taylor's office and was told that the salvage committee had adjourned at 7 p. m. and would not be back that night. About 10 p.m. he called up President Francis's residence and was inform that President Francis was not at home, and also received the same reply when he called up Mr. Taylor's house, and when he called up Mr. Holmes's residence he was informed that Mr. Holmes had gone to bed. We were unable to reach any of the salvage committee. were not called up that evening, nor did we hear anything from the salvage committee that evening, although we waited in the corridor of the Lindell Hotel until after 12 o'clock midnight.

During our conversation with the committee nothing was said about fire engines, office furniture and furnishings, hose carriages, fire hose, horses, buggies, wagons, steam rollers, roadmaking machinery, three steel greenhouses, with plants of every description, surveying instruments, engineering tools, two hospitals complete, 2,000 folding cots, 2,500 opera chairs, 400 revolving chairs, 25,000 kitchen chairs, 200 roller-top desks, 300 flat-top desks, 200 typewriter desks, the brick in the roadways, and the various buildings, or numerous other valuable articles and pieces of property.

About 8.30 a. m. Thursday, December 1, Mr. Dunphy, my agent, called up Mr. Holmes's residence to find out what Mr. Holmes knew about the disposition of the bids. He was told by some lady who answered the telephone that Mr. Holmes was on his way to his office. He came and told me that Mr. Holmes was on his way to his office. I requested Mr. Dunphy to go to Mr. Holmes's office and try and ascertain what the committee had done about the bids. Later in the day Mr. Dunphy came to me and told me that Mr. Holmes had told him that the contract had been awarded to the Chicago House Wrecking Company between the hours of 6 and 7 p. m. of November 30.

On December 3, 1904, I addressed a letter to President Francis in which I offered him $199,000 for all railroad iron and ties and all wire in and about the exposition grounds. I also, in the same letter, offered to pay him $101,000 for the buildings, fences, bridges, and intramural stations on the exposition grounds, which would total $300,000.

On December 5 I addressed a letter to President Francis as follows:

St. Louis, December 5, 1904.

Dear Sir: Since I have made an examination of the property belonging to the Exposition Company I find a great deal more property than was stated to me at your meeting last Wednesday. If you will furnish me with a correct list of the property I think now that I can make you a bid of from $400,000 to $450,000 for same, half cash, balance to be paid when property is turned over. I am prepared to make my bid in three hours after I receive a list of the property. Should my proposition meet with your consideration call me up at the Lindell Hotel and I will call for the copy at once.

    Yours, truly,
    S. Krug.

    Hon. D.R. Francis,
    President Louisiana Purchase Exposition Company,
    St. Louis, Mo.

I never received a reply to either of the letters referred to.

In the specifications as prepared by Mr. Taylor it was stipulated that a charge of $6 per car would be made for switching empty cars into the exposition grounds, while I notice the contract between the Chicago House Wrecking Company provides that only $3 per car shall be charged for this service.

The specifications as prepared by Mr. Isaac S. Taylor, director of works, provides that—

All bids must be made out upon blanks furnished by the director of works, and with each bid there shall be deposited a certified check, payable to the exposition, upon a responsible bank doing business in St. Louis, for the amount of 50 per cent of the amount of bid submitted, the sum indicated in said check to be forfeited to the Exposition Company in case the party or parties to whom award is made does not enter into contract with the Exposition Company within five days from date of said award for the work called for in these specifications and instructions—

while I see by the contract between the Exposition Company and the Chicago House Wrecking Company, which is of record in office of recorder of deeds, city of St. Louis, in book 1811, page 195 and following pages, that the bid of the Chicago House Wrecking Company was accompanied by a check for $100,000, which amount represented less than 25 per cent of the amount of their bid, viz, $450,000.

The specifications further stipulate that "A contract will be written by the Exposition Company for the faithful performance of this work, and upon the signing of same by the parties thereto, the full amount of said contract, less the amount of the certified check held and to be appropriated by the exposition Company, must be paid to the said Exposition Company by the contractor," while the contract between the Chicago House Wrecking Company and the Exposition Company, which is of record, provides that the Chicago House Wrecking Company shall execute and deliver to the said Exposition Company at the time the contract is signed four promissory notes three for $100,000 each, and one for $50,000, making a total, all told including the certified check, of $450,000, and allows them six months in which to make the payments.

The specifications further required—

That a surety company's bond for an amount equal to the amount of contract must also be given to the Exposition Company by the said contractor to protect the said Exposition Company from loss during the execution of the work and for faithful performance contract—

while the contract referred to shows that the Chicago House Wrecking Company furnished a bond in the small sum of $40,000, or less than one-tenth the amount required by the specifications.

From the above it is my belief that the Chicago House Wrecking Company was shown favoritism and that they were favored from the beginning of the deal.

I was never furnished a full list of the property to be disposed of by the Exposition Company. I personally requested a list two or three times, as did Mr. Dunphy, but we were unable to get one. Had I been furnished a list of the property that I learn has since been turned over to the Chicago House Wrecking Company under their contract I would have gladly bid $800,000, and would have made a very handsome profit on the deal at that price.

I consider the value of all the property turned over to the Chicago
House Wrecking Company on November 30 was more than $1,000,000.

I consider the manner in which the bids were handled was very irregular and not the usual custom in that the bids were opened in secret and not in the presence of the bidders, as requested by a majority of the bidders present, but as requested by Mr. Abraham Harris, who represented the Chicago House Wrecking Company. This is not the customary procedure when bids are called for by the city or the Government.

From what I saw there in the anteroom and in the presence of the salvage committee the several times we were there I am convinced that the Chicago House Wrecking Company was furnished inside information and that they were shown favoritism.

Mr. W.B. Stevens, the secretary of the Exposition Company, was not present in the committee room at any time while I was there talking over the bids and he does not know what was going on in there, except what has been told him and what he has gained from the papers he handled.

The contract between the Exposition Company and the Chicago House
Wrecking Company, which is of record in St. Louis, bears date of
November 30, 1904, while I note by a letter dated March 7 and signed by
Mr. W.B. Stevens, he states the contract was not closed until December
13, 1904, on which date the board of directors of the exposition met.
This was eight days after my letter of December 5 was delivered to Mr.
Stevens in person by Mr. Ranstead.

If the sale of the exposition buildings and the property to be disposed of had been properly advertised there would have been much more competition in the bidding. If a list of all the property to be disposed of had been furnished the bidders much higher bids would have been made. If the property had been sold at public auction, building for building, and other property in detail, so anyone could have bought what he wanted and had use for, I am confident that the Exposition Company would have received more than a million and a half dollars.

I consider the manner in which the salvage committee handled the bids very irregular in that great secrecy was observed, and will state that the awarding of the contract to the Chicago House Wrecking Company for the sum of $450,000 was unjust to other bidders, and detrimental to the interests of the United States, the city of St. Louis, and the stockholders of the Exposition Company.

S. KRUG.

Subscribed and sworn to before me this 28th day of March, 1905. My commission expires on the 15th day of October, 1905. [SEAL] HARRIET A. Dumas, Notary Public.

STATE OF ILLINOIS, County of Cook, ss:

Before me, this, the 28th day of March, 1905, personally appeared Mr.
George J. Schmitt, who, being duly sworn on his oath, says:

My name is George J. Schmitt. I reside in Chicago, Ill.; have resided here for the past thirty-five years. Am employed as clerk and bookkeeper in office of Mr. S. Krug, contractor, of Chicago. I have been in Mr. Krug's employ for the past eight years. On November 9 I left Chicago for St. Louis with Mr. Krug, to look after his bids and do any clerical work that he might want done. We arrived St. Louis on morning of November 10, 1904. Mr. Krug had his bid made up, and upon arrival at St. Louis we immediately went to the National Bank of Commerce, where Mr. Krug wanted to have his draft cashed and his check certified. We then went to the Administration Building and called at the office of Mr. Isaac S. Taylor, director of works, where Mr. Krug handed his bid to Mr. Taylor's clerk. This was about 12 o'clock noon on November 10. We were requested to go into the anteroom and wait until called for. There were present in the anteroom at the time Mr. Albrecht, Mr. McDonald, Mr. Schaeffer and son, Mr. Ware, of the Columbia Wrecking Company. One or two other gentlemen were present. I do not now recall their names. After we had been there some little time, Messrs. Frank and Abraham Harris, of the Chicago House Wrecking Company, came in. We all waited there until about 2 p. m. About this time President Francis passed through the room and went into Mr. Taylor's office. He came back shortly and said to us to come back in about an hour, as the salvage committee was going to lunch then. We went back again about 3 p. m. The same crowd of bidders present in the room. There, was some gray-haired gentleman who came in with the Harris brothers. When I first saw him I thought he was a member of the salvage committee, on account of his running back and forth into the room where the salvage committee was in session. I learned from Mr. Albrecht later on that the gentleman referred to was working for the Harris brothers. While we were waiting there to be called in he made two trips into the room where the salvage committee was in session, and came back each time and went and held a whispered conversation with the Harris brothers in the hall.

We waited in the room there until 4 o'clock, when Mr. Taylor's private secretary requested all the bidders to go into Mr. Taylor's office, where the salvage committee was in session. We all went in there. President Francis asked the bidders how they wanted the bids handled, whether opened in their presence or opened in secret session of the salvage committee. All the bidders present requested that the bids be opened in their presence, except Mr. Abe Harris, who got up and told President Francis that he did not want his bid opened in the presence of the bidders, as he did not want everybody to know what he had bid, and that if he was the successful bidder we would all know later on what he had bid, and if he was not the successful bidder he did not want his bid to be known. Mr. Albrecht got up and stated that he wanted his bid to be opened in the presence of the bidders, as he wanted everything to be open and aboveboard. President Francis then held a whispered conversation with Mr. Taylor and some other gentleman there, and then in a few minutes turned to the bidders and said, "Gentlemen, we have decided to open these bids in secret session of the salvage committee." and requested us to go into the anteroom and wait until called for. We all went back into the anteroom. In a few minutes President Francis requested the Harris brothers to come in the room where they were holding the meeting. They did so, and remained in there about ten or fifteen minutes. As soon as they came out Mr. Albrecht went in, and when Mr. Albrecht came out Mr. Krug and myself went in. President Francis spoke to Mr. Krug and said, "Mr. Krug, you seem to have some very good letters of recommendation here, and from the letters I judge you have done considerable work." Mr. Taylor asked Mr. Krug if he knew a Mr. Schluetter, of Chicago. Mr. Krug said that he was acquainted with Mr. Schluetter, had done considerable work for him, and had always been paid his money. I inferred from their actions that they had had some trouble with Mr. Schluetter. President Francis said, "Mr. Krug, your bid is very satisfactory." Mr. Krug had only submitted a bid on part of the buildings, as shown by the specifications. President Francis asked Mr. Krug if he could not put in a bid on all the buildings, and why he had not done so. Mr. Krug said that he was afraid he would have some trouble getting insurance on all the buildings, and for that reason only submitted a bid on buildings that were more isolated and less liable to fire. President Francis told him it would be an easy matter for him to get insurance, and he asked Mr. Krug what he would bid on all the buildings, according to the specifications. Mr. Krug said that he would be willing to bid $76,600 on all the buildings as shown in the specifications. President Francis asked Mr. Krug what he would wreck the buildings for on a percentage basis, or if he would take the work on a contract at a figure to be agreed upon, and they to own and dispose of all the material themselves. Mr. Krug studied awhile and said that he would be willing to do the work for President Francis, but it would take him some time to figure on the proposition so as to submit an intelligent figure. President Francis said that if they decided to wreck the buildings themselves on a contract that he would let him know when his bid would be wanted. At this time President Francis requested Mr. Krug to submit in writing his bid for $76,600 and have it in by 10 o'clock the next morning. We then left the room, and they requested us to remain in the anteroom. We were there until about 6 o'clock. During that time they called in other bidders. About 6 o'clock Mr. Taylor's secretary came into the room and announced that the salvage committee had adjourned until the next day at 2 p. m. We then left the grounds and went to the Lindell Hotel. When we reached the hotel that night we made up a revised bid. The next day we went to Mr. Taylor's office about 10 a. m. and gave to Mr. Taylor's clerk the bid in writing for $76,600, and he said he would bring it to the attention of the committee when they met. We waited there from 10 a. m. until 2 p. m. In the meantime Mr. Krug sent in his card to Mr. Taylor's office and asked if any action would be taken on the bids that afternoon. We were informed that nothing would be done with the bids that day, and that the salvage committee had adjourned until the following Monday. I left St. Louis that night for Chicago. I returned to St. Louis on Monday, November 14, 1904, arriving there at 10 a. m. Mr. Krug remained in St. Louis all the time. When I returned to St. Louis Mr. Krug and I went to Mr. Taylor's office. We reached there about 10 a. m., Monday, November 14. We waited there until about 2.30 or 3 p. m. While we were waiting in the anteroom Mr. Taylor's private secretary came in and told us that all bids had been rejected. We then left the grounds, and Mr. Krug and I returned to Chicago that night.

I never saw by the papers or otherwise where new bids were requested after the announcement that the first bids had been rejected. I watched the papers very closely, as we were desirous of submitting a new bid when called for.

From what I saw while I was in the anteroom and in the committee room I am fully convinced that the Chicago House Wrecking Company was given inside information as to what property was to be sold, and I consider that they were given privileges and favored from the beginning of the deal, in view of the fact that a majority of the bidders desired their bids opened in public, while the Harris brothers protested against such procedure, and they were sustained in their protest by the salvage committee.

I have had considerable experience in handling bids and being present when bids are opened, and I never before saw such proceedings as took place in the meeting room of the salvage committee on November 10, 1904.

I am sure that had the Exposition Company properly advertised the sale and furnished a list of the property to be disposed of, which I have since seen published in a catalogue gotten out by the Chicago House Wrecking Company and listed in the contract between the Exposition Company and the Wrecking Company, was turned over to the Chicago House Wrecking Company, that much higher bids would have been made, and considerably more money realized from the sale than they received from the Chicago House Wrecking Company.

Between the 15th and 20th of December, 1904, I came in possession of one of the catalogues that the Chicago House Wrecking Company sent out, showing all the property they had for disposal. It contained cuts and descriptions and computations that would take at least one month or more to compile and print. I have had considerable experience in getting up catalogues of material and property, and am confident that they could not have compiled all the figures, secured all the cuts and descriptions, and had the catalogue printed and on the market in a month's time.

I consider the manner in which the bids were handled very irregular, and that the awarding of the contract to the Chicago House Wrecking Company for $450,000, in view of the amount and value of the property turned over to them, as shown by their catalogue and their contract, to have been detrimental to the interests of the United States, the city of St. Louis, and the stockholders of the Exposition Company.

GEORGE J. SCHMITT.

Subscribed and sworn to before me this 28th day of March, 1905. My commission expires on the 9th day of November, 1908.

[SEAL.] S.E. KELLOGG.

STATE OF ILLINOIS, County of Cook, 88:

Personally appeared before me this 28th day of March, 1905, Mr. John M.
Dunphy, who, being duly sworn, on his oath says:

My name is John M. Dunphy; I reside in the city of Chicago; I have resided here for the past forty-seven years. I was city treasurer of Chicago for one term; was commissioner of buildings for one term in this city; I have been engaged in the contracting business for the past forty years; I have been in the employ of Mr. S. Krug, contractor, of Chicago, for the past three years; I am very familiar with construction and wrecking work.

In regard to the sale of the salvage of the St. Louis Exposition I desire to make the following statement:

Through a friend, Mr. Krug received specifications and instructions for the wrecking and removal of certain buildings at the St. Louis Exposition. These specifications were obtained from Mr. Isaac S. Taylor, director of works of the Louisiana Purchase Exposition. After we had looked over the specifications Mr. Krug suggested that we go to St. Louis and look over the plans and the buildings, with a view of submitting a bid on the work. Mr. Krug, Mr. Powers, and myself arrived in St. Louis on October 24, 1904. We called at Mr. Taylor's office that day. I asked for Mr. Taylor, but was informed by some clerk there that Mr. Taylor was too busy and could not see us. I talked with his secretary, Mr. Carl Hoblitzelle, in the presence of Mr. Krug and Mr. Powers. He told us he could answer all questions. I told him I wanted to look at the plans, as we desired to figure on some of the buildings that were to be disposed of. He took us into another room where the plans were stored and introduced us to some gentleman in charge there. I requested the plans from this gentleman. I asked for the plans for the Agricultural and Horticultural buildings. After we had finished looking these two plans over I looked around for the young man to ask for more plans, but could not find him, and we went to the shelves and got down the plans ourselves.

While we were there looking over the plans some gentleman came into the room and spoke to Mr. Krug. Later on I asked Mr. Krug who the gentleman was, and he told me it was a Mr. Frank Harris, of the Chicago House Wrecking Company. Mr. Krug further stated that Mr. Harris was a resident of Chicago, but was then interested in the Ferris Wheel at the exposition. We remained in St. Louis for two days longer looking over the plans and buildings, and then returned to Chicago. I never saw any notice in the newspaper requesting sealed proposals for the wrecking and removal of the exposition buildings. The first I knew about it was when Mr. Krug received the specifications from his friend. We talked over the matter of submitting bids on the work. On the 9th of November, 1904; Mr. Krug and Mr. Schmitt, a bookkeeper for Mr. Krug, went to St. Louis to submit a bid on the work, according to the specifications and instructions prepared by Mr. Taylor, director of works. The bids were to be in Mr. Taylor's office by 12 o'clock noon Thursday, November 1 1904. Mr. Schmitt returned to Chicago on Friday night. Mr. Krug remained in St. Louis. Mr. Schmitt went to St. Louis again on Monday, November 14. On Tuesday, November 15, Mr. Krug and Mr. Schmitt returned to Chicago and told me that all the bids had been rejected. Mr. Krug desired that some one be on the ground to look after his interests, and suggested that I go to St. Louis and keep in touch with affairs there and try and ascertain what was going on. I left Chicago for St. Louis on Sunday, November 20, 1904, and arrived at St. Louis morning of November 21. After I was informed that all bids had been rejected I did not see any published notice requesting additional or new bids, although I watched the papers pretty close and tried to keep in touch with what was going on. I went to Mr. Taylor's office several times while I was there and sent in my card, as agent for Mr. Krug. I was informed each time by some clerk in the office that Mr. Taylor was busy and could not see me. I remained in St. Louis until the evening of November 26, when I was compelled to return to Chicago. I requested Mr. Wm. H. Ranstead, a friend of mine who lives in St. Louis and who was in pretty close touch with what was going on, to look after matters there for me during my absence, and to keep me advised of what went on, and if new bids were requested to telephone or telegraph me. On the morning of Tuesday, November 29, 1904, I received a telegram from Mr. Ranstead requesting Mr. Krug and myself to go to St. Louis at once, as Mr. Taylor and President Francis desired to have a talk with us. We left Chicago for St. Louis on the first train out—11.03 a. m.—and arrived St. Louis at 6 p. in. November 29. We met Mr. Ranstead at the Lindell Hotel. We talked over matters that evening. The next morning, November 30, Mr. Krug, Mr. Ranstead, and myself went to the office of Mr. W.B. Stevens, secretary of the Exposition Company. We waited in Mr. Stevens's office some time. After a while Mr. Stevens took us to Mr. Taylor's office. The salvage committee was in session in Mr. Taylor's office. There were present at the time President Francis, Mr. Taylor, Mr. Samuel Kennard, and Mr. J.A. Holmes. We talked with the salvage committee, and asked them how they wanted us to submit a bid, and what they had to sell that they wanted us to bid on. President Francis said that he wanted us to bid on all the buildings shown in the specifications, and to include the intramural stations, the bridges, and the fence around the grounds; also the railroad rails and the copper wire. President Francis said that the bid must be in by 4 o'clock that afternoon. It was then about 12 o'clock noon. Mr. Krug said that he could not make an intelligent bid on such short notice and asked for more time. Mr. Kennard then spoke up and said: "Mr. Krug, you can give us a bid on the buildings, including the intramural stations, the bridges, and the fence this afternoon, and have it in by 4 o'clock, and we will give you until Friday, December 2, to put in your bid on the rail and the copper wire." President Francis then stated, "Mr. Krug, there are 2,000 tons of steel rail to be disposed of." Mr. Krug asked for a statement showing the amount of rail and copper wire, and stated he would be able to put his bid in before Friday if he was furnished the statement. President Francis stated they could not furnish such a statement. We then left the office and walked around the grounds looking over the stations, the bridges, and the fences. We did not look over the rail and wire that afternoon, as we thought we would have more time for that the following day. After we had gone over the ground we went and figured out a new bid and returned to the office of Mr. Taylor about 4 o'clock. The salvage committee was in session at the time. Mr. Frank and Mr. Abraham Harris, of the Chicago House Wrecking Company, were holding a conference with the committee at the time. About 5.30 p.m. the Harris brothers came out of the committee room without their overcoats and hats on. They had left them in the room where the committee was meeting. As soon as they came out we went in. We were asked if we had prepared our bid. I handed the bid to Mr. Francis, who in turn handed it to Mr. Kennard, who opened it and read it aloud. The bid was for $101,000. This was only for the buildings, as shown by the specifications, and on the intramural stations, bridges, and fences, it being agreed during the talk in the morning that these latter items should be included. President Francis then told Mr. Krug that he could not wait until Friday for the bid on the railroad steel and the copper wire; that it would have to be in by 11 p.m. that night, and that the salvage committee would be in session until that hour. He said, "To-morrow is the closing day of the Fair—Francis Day—and I will be very busy." During our talk there then, President Francis told Mr. Krug that he had made a mistake that morning in saying there were 2,000 tons of steel rail; that there were 4,000 tons. Mr. Krug then asked for a list of the rails and wire, or rather for a statement of the amount they had purchased, so he could figure on it, but he was unable to get same. We then left the fair grounds and went to the Lindell Hotel. As we were leaving the room President Francis asked our names and where we were stopping, and stated they would call us up over the telephone during the evening. When we arrived at the hotel we held a conference and agreed on a new bid. I went to the telephone at about 7.30 p.m. and called up Mr. Taylor's office. I was informed by the party who answered the telephone that the salvage committee had adjourned at 7 o'clock. I presumed they had adjourned to get something to eat and would return shortly. About 8.30 p.m. I again called up Mr. Taylor's office and was informed that, the salvage committee had adjourned at 7 p.m. and would not be back that night. Shortly after this I called up President Francis's house and was informed that he was not at home. I then called up Mr. Taylor's house and was told that he was not at home. About 10 p.m. I called up Mr. Holmes's residence and was informed that Mr. Holmes had gone to bed. I tried every way I could to reach some member of the salvage committee, but could not. The next morning, December 1, about 8.30 a.m., I called up Mr. Holmes's house and was informed that Mr. Holmes was then on his way to his office. I told Mr. Krug this, and he suggested that I go to Mr. Holmes's office and see him. I went to the office of Mr. Holmes and waited there some time. I think I was there about thirty minutes before he came in. When he came he invited me into his private office. I asked him what the salvage committee had done about the bids. He asked, "Did they not call you up?" I said "No; nobody called us up." He said, "Why, that is singular; it was understood that they would call you up before doing anything." I told him that I had telephoned the office of Mr. Taylor the night before, and was informed that the salvage committee had adjourned at 7 o'clock. I asked him if the contract had been awarded, and he told me that it had been given to the Chicago House Wrecking Company before they adjourned at 7 o'clock on the evening of November 30. I went back to the hotel and told Mr. Krug and Mr. Ranstead that the deal had been closed and that the contract had been given to the Chicago House Wrecking Company. I asked him for what amount the contract was closed and he refused to tell me. I came back to Chicago the next day, December 2.

While we were in the salvage committee room talking about the bids I asked President Francis for a list of all the property to be disposed of, so that we would know what to figure on and make an intelligent bid. He said that they were not furnishing lists to anyone; that they were only giving out the specifications, and that we could go out on the grounds and gather our own data. I never saw, by the papers or otherwise, that new bids were requested after I was informed that the first bids had been rejected.

I consider the manner in which the bids were handled very irregular, in that the bids were opened in secret, and not in public, as demanded by a majority of the bidders, and as is customary on large contracts. The manner in which the bids were handled was not in accord with the way the Government and the city handle bids.

I have had a great deal of experience in the past thirty years in figuring on specifications for the construction and wrecking of buildings, and never before saw specifications drawn up in the manner in which these specifications were drawn up. They required such a large deposit to accompany the bid and made the time limit too short, namely, three months. The usual amount required to be deposited with a bid runs from 5 to 10 per cent of the amount bid.

I have seen a list of the property acquired by the Chicago House Wrecking Company under the terms of the contract, and will say that I consider the market value of all the property at the time it was turned over to the Chicago House Wrecking Company, on November 30, 1904, to have been at least $1,000,000.

I will say further, that had the Exposition Company properly advertised the sale of the property, and had disposed of same in piece lots, they would have realized at least $1,200,000.

It was very apparent to me that the Chicago House Wrecking Company was being furnished inside information, and it was also evident that they were being favored in the deal.

I consider the awarding of the contract to the Chicago House Wrecking
Company for the sum of $450,000 was detrimental to the interests of the
United States, the city of St. Louis, and the stock-holders of the
exposition.

JOHN M. DUNPHY.

Subscribed and sworn to before me this 28th day of March, 1905. My commission expires on the 15th day of October, 1905. [SEAL.] HARRIET A. DUMAS, Notary Public.

APPENDIX 3.

REPORTS OF FOREIGN COUNTRIES.

THE ARGENTINE REPUBLIC.

In November, 1903, the organization commission was appointed by the
President as follows: Señor Francisco Sequi, president; Señor Ricardo
Pillado, secretary; Señor Luis Suberbuhler; Señor Antonio Lanusse; Señor
Francisco de Souza Martinez; Señor Manuel G. Llamazares.

Dr. Jose V. Fernandez, commissioner-general; Señor Eduardo Schiaffino, commissioner of fine arts; Señor Horacio Anasagasti, commissioner of liberal arts and mines; Señor Guillermo A. Puente, commissioner of manufacture and electricity; Dr. Damian Lan, commissioner of live stock; Señor Ernesto Nelson, commissioner of education; Señor Enrique M. Nelson, commissioner of agriculture and forestry; Señor Jose de Olivares, commissioner of press and propaganda; Miss Ernestina A. Lopez, Ph.D., delegate of the National Board of Education; Mrs. Sara C. de Eccleston, delegate to the Women's Congress; Dr. B. del Castillo, delegate of the Argentine Press Association; Dr. Luis A. Sauze, honorary commissioner; Dr. Vicente Casares, jr., honorary attaché; Señor Ricardo Fernandez Guerrico, honorary attaché; Señor Jorge Newbery, delegate of the municipality of Buenos Aires to the Congress of Electricity.

In the extent and importance of its participation the Argentine Republic ranked among the greatest foreign exhibitors at the International Exposition of 1904. The total amount of money expended, including the national appropriation by Congress, the contributions of the various ministries of the Government and of the art, industrial, and scientific institutions of the country, represented more than $300,000 gold. The total space covered by the Argentine exhibit sections, independent of the site occupied by the national pavilion, was about 20,000 square feet.

The Argentine commission constructed an elegant pavilion at the northern extremity of the grounds in the renaissance style, which was a copy, although reduced in dimensions, of the two higher stories of the central part of the "Casa Rosador," or "Pink Palace," the principal Government building in Buenos Aires. In the pavilion was installed the offices of the Commission, a reception and a reading room. On the second floor was exhibited an excellent archaeological collection.

Numerous photographs distributed on the walls, in albums, and in stereoscopic apparatus almost equaled a visit to the principal cities of the country. The principal exhibits of the Argentine Republic were found in the palaces of Agriculture, Mines, Liberal Arts, Manufactures, Fine Arts, Education, and Electricity. The art façades constructed about each of the exhibit spaces in the greater palaces of the exposition were universally admired.

The Argentine Republic, being a country essentially agricultural, its section in the Agriculture Building revealed the productiveness of the country and its vast agricultural resources. Wool was displayed in numerous samples. That obtained from the Merino and Lincoln sheep was noticeable. The first species was of a short and exceedingly fine thread; the other, longer, coarser, and adapted for the manufacture of "cheviot."

The Argentine Republic is reputed to be the greatest producer of wool in the world, having outrivaled Australia in its annual output. It is said to have 120,000,000 sheep, or as many as Australia and the United States combined. Besides wool, there was a magnificent display of sheepskins and hides. The industry of footwear and harness was excellently displayed.

The Argentine section in the Palace of Agriculture showed the enormous development of the dairy industry, including the manufacture of butter and cheese. Two large Argentine establishments exhibited natural milk, pasteurized, sterilized, and maternized. Both of these companies each day produced 6,000 gallons of milk, for which 5,000 cows are milked daily. In eight years the export of butter has multiplied twelve times. The product exhibited was excellent, having been tested by examination and analysis made in various colleges of agriculture in the United States.

Numerous samples of wheat, corn, and cotton were shown also. There were samples of wheat weighing 67 pounds to the bushel. Statistics show that the annual harvest of wheat reaches 120,000,000 bushels. Argentine linseed also deserves consideration in this description, the Republic producing almost one-third of the linseed consumed in the world. Flax in abundance indicated the existence of an important textile industry in connection with the enormous production of linseed.

There were exhibited also various fibers extracted from native plants, and excellent samples of cordage showed what industry can get out of the rich Argentine textile material.

The Argentine section of the manufactures offered many interesting exhibits, among which figured a large variety of tanned leathers. In the same section was exhibited foundry work executed in the Arsenal de Guerra, of the city of Buenos Aires. There were also artistic medals, ornamental shields, and munitions of war. One of the industries of Buenos Aires is the manufacture of wax matches. The exhibit in the section of manufactures spoke eloquently in favor of the position reached by the industry in Buenos Aires. Exhibits of this industry showed that Argentina is rapidly passing into the rank of industrial nations. This suggestion was confirmed by the display of the other manufactures exhibited in the Argentine section, which consisted of furniture, textiles, hats, footwear, etc. The Republic also displayed an interesting collection of minerals, which generally are shown in the Departments Nacional de Minas Geologia, in the city of Buenos Aires. There were samples of gold, silver, and copper on exhibition; also an excellent display of coal.

Another Argentine section of great interest was that in the Liberal Arts Palace, where an extensive collection of plans and relief models were displayed, showing notable works undertaken by the Argentine Republic to facilitate river as well as ocean navigation. One of the models showed the harbor of Buenos Aires, which now occupies the second place in the South American continent.

An interesting exhibit representative of the Argentine Republic was that of the national press, which in the number of publications presented and extent of space covered was one of the most important displays of the kind in the exposition.

In consequence of the size and importance of the exhibit, it was found necessary to install it in a special section. The credit for the collection of the press exhibit was due principally to the Circule de la Prensa, or National Press Association of the Argentine Republic, one of the principal literary and journalistic institutions in the southern continent. Models of dams, as constructed in the interior of the country to facilitate irrigation, were also shown. The same section contained excellent lithographic and engraving work.

The Argentine Republic had two rooms in the west wing of the Palace of Fine Arts. The Argentine paintings received as many awards in this department as any other country in proportion to the number of exhibitors.

The intellectual development of the country revealed itself in the Palace of Education. A graphic statistical exhibit in the Argentine section showed that that country spends as much money per capita in public education as any other nation in the world. Another statistical display demonstrated the number of teachers employed. A diagram showed that the Argentine Republic comes next to France and among the Latin countries in respect to the number of students attending schools. The scholastic works, especially the needlework, ranked well with that in many of the advanced schools of the United States.

AUSTRIA.

Austrian commission.—Mr. Adalbert R. Von Stibral, commissioner-general; Mr. Victor Pillwax, assistant commissioner; Mr. Dominik Fetz, secretary; Mr. Emil S. Fischer, commercial secretary.

Austrian commercial commission.—Count Johann Harrach, president; Mr. Oskar Edler Von Hoefft, first vice-president; Mr. Franz Hiess, second vice-president; Mr. Charles M. Rosenthal, executive commissioner; Mr. Johann Peterka, commercial director; Mr. Adolph Taussig, commercial representative and assistant commissioner.

One of the most interesting and, as far as the interior scheme of decoration is concerned, the most artistic of the various foreign buildings in the World's Fair grounds, was that of the Austrian Empire. It was most prominently situated at the western end of Administration avenue, immediately opposite the Administration Building of the World's Fair. The garden at the west end of the pavilion, though small, attracted a great deal of attention on account of its artistic beauty. Morning-glory and other vines had been planted around the building, and before the close of the fair had covered the walls and added much to the beauty of the structure.

The Austrian Government Building was of impressionistic architecture. It was 60 meters long, 35 meters wide, and built in the form of a T. From the transepts a middle aisle, 24 meters broad, extended to the building line. On either side of the aisle exits led to the loggias and to the lawns. The pavilion was built of wood and all the rooms had skylights. The style of architecture and decoration was modern, with a classical toning. The exterior of the building was faced with a grayish, yellow-colored gypsum, shaded with gold, dark blue, and light green. Two groups of figures, above life size, adorned the main porch of the central building. The imperial coat of arms, with a crown surrounded by a large wreath, was raised above the center of the pavilion, and to the right and left two sphinxes crowned the gables. The center building (garden front) was finished with two enormous square pylons, with festoons and masks and decorated with all the coats of arms of the Austrian crown lands. Four stela-bearing gilded busts were symmetrically placed along the front of the flower beds, in which monumental fountains had been erected. The interior of the building was divided into fifteen rooms. To the left and right of the entrance hall, which was adorned with a marble bust of the Emperor, were the official apartments, one of which was meant as a library and reading room and the other as a reception room. Beyond the entrance hall was the technical exhibition of the ministry of railways, which likewise occupied the room on the left-hand side for an exhibition, "Sceneries and People of Austria." The hall to the right was devoted to the department of the ministry of commerce for the building of waterways. At the back part of the middle aisle a large hall was devoted to the exhibits of the professional art schools, and two smaller ones showed interiors executed by the schools for arts and crafts in Vienna and Prague. The fine-arts exhibits of the Vienna Artists' Association and of the association called "Hagenbund" were on the right of the transepts; pictures by Bohemian and Polish artists on the opposite side.

The artists and artisans who took part in building and decorating the Austrian Government pavilion were as follows: The plans of the whole building, the entrance hall, the two halls of the ministry of railways, and the hall containing the exhibition of waterways were designed by the chief architect, Oberbaurat Ludwig Bauman, Josef Meissner substituting him in the superintendence of the works; contractor J. Lecoeur.

The library was designed by Leopold Bauer, architect, and the architect
Joseph Pleonik designed the reception room.

The plastic on the outside of the building was delivered by the sculptor Othmar Schimkowitz. The figurate frieze in the library was the work of the painter Josef Engerhart. The painter Ferdinand Andri executed the frescoes on the facade and Meinrich Tomec those in the department for waterways. The Emperor's bust, which was made of Lassar marble and which had been executed in the workshop of the Tyrol Marble and Porphyry Company (Fritz Zeller), Laas (Tyrol), was a copy of Professor Strasser's model.

The relief "Empress Elizabeth" (allegory) in the reception room was by the late Rudolf Weigl, sculptor.

Sandor Jaray had been intrusted with the interior decorations and fittings. The carpets were delivered by J. Ginskey, Maffendorf, and the ornamental locksmith work by Alexander Nehr.

The mosaic and artistic work was done by Max Freiherr von Spann and Johann Kappner; the fancy needlework by Carl Giani; the inlaid work (intarsia) by Michael Kehl, Josef Duchoslav, and Franz Makienec, and the bronze works by Johann Hastach, Carl Kratky, J. Schubert, and A.T. Lange. On account of the beauty of its furnishings and the harmonious color schemes of the interior the pavilion was especially attractive to women visitors to the fair.

Austria is the home of the European alpine railways. The oldest, the Semmering Railway, constructed in 1848-1854, lies on the South Railway main line from Vienna to Trieste and is the first mountain railway conducted exclusively on the adhesive principle. Then followed the Brenner Railway (1864-1867), the shortest railway communication between central Germany via Tyrol to Italy (Verona), and the Arlberg Railway (1880-1884), which opened up the route via Tyrol and Vorarlberg to the west (Switzerland and France). Four great panoramas in the exhibition showing the above-mentioned alpine railways were witness to Austria's prominence in this special field of railway technique. One room in the pavilion was devoted to the models of alpine railways. There were also plans of the lines, photographic views of buildings and of the tracks of the first three mentioned lines, which are in full working order. The lines in course of construction were further illustrated by models of tunnels, scaffoldings, foundations of arched bridge (with span of 80 meters) over the Isonzo (littoral lands of Austria), with statistical calculations and charts of the largest vaulted bridges ever built, and photographic views of the working in the Karawanken and Wocheiner tunnels. Among the other exhibits in this department may be mentioned a model of the groundwork of the Austrian State railways for express trains, photos of the imperial court train and of the newest locomotives and passenger carriages of the Austrian State railways, as well as plans for iron bridges, groundwork, locomotives, and passenger carriages of the State railways. The work published for the Emperor's jubilee, "History of the Railways of the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy," together with a number of other publications on the statistics, pedagogy, and technique of railways, were exhibited. Finally, there was a chart of the railways of the Austro-Hungarian monarchy on a scale of 1:1000000.

For a long time the Austrian ministry of railways set itself the task of drawing the attention of the traveling public to the beauties of the scenery and the ethnographical charms in which Austria abounds, and thus inducing them to visit the country. To gain this end the ministry issued various publications, opened inquiry offices, and arranged exhibitions. The exhibition "Sceneries and People of Austria" in the Government pavilion was arranged, with the cooperation of several artists, for the same object. The exhibit principally consisted of a collection of views of the most beautiful parts of Austria, especially the Austrian Alps, and pictures of Austrian national life. Photographs taken by the best photographers, as well as a number of artistic amateur photos, representing important traveling districts in Austria (99 in all), were enlarged and reproduced as pigment prints or linographs. Two series of photographic prints were exhibited also, one consisting of Austrian castles and strongholds and the other of various favorite alpine resorts. Further, a selection of alpine and traveling works in luxurious editions were shown.

The whole exhibition was finished off with a collection of 14 pictures of costumes and sport, arranged like a frieze and illustrating special Austrian national scenes. Four bronze statuettes, viz, "Chamois-hunter," "Alpine tourist," "Ski sportsman," "Alpine dairy woman," had been placed in the room as decorations.

The exhibition of models, plans, and photographs of the existing and projected canal for deep-draft ships, arranged by the department of the ministry of commerce for the building of waterways, offered a general view of the whole network of the Austrian waterways, comprising those of the Danube, Moldau, and Elbe rivers, together with the system of canals.

The beautiful landscape of the river sides was shown by means of views of the Danube, contained in an album, while the plans, photographs, and models exhibited by the Danube Regulation Commission showed the river courses, the harbor in lower Austria and Vienna, as well as the construction for regulating the water level in the Vienna-Danube Canal. A map of Prague showed the harbor and canal construction works, some finished and others projected, in the precincts of the town. The drawings and photos exhibited in a corner of the hall by the Aussig-Teplitz Railway Company illustrated the position and traffic of the harbor of Aussig, the most important inland harbor of Austria. The charts, in addition to giving a view of the position of the canals and rivers, with canals projected, showed also longitudinal sections of the Danube-Oder Canal.

The exhibitions of the State professional art schools, arranged by the imperial royal ministry of public instruction, Vienna, gave an idea of the work done by these institutions. The exhibition was arranged in three divisions, the first two containing the exhibits of the schools for arts and crafts in Vienna and Prague (the largest of their kind in Austria) and the third the work of the other professional art schools.

The decoration of the two interiors of the schools for arts and crafts, Vienna (Director Felizian Freiherr von Myrbach) and Prague (Director Georg Stibral), as well as all the objects exhibited in these divisions, were designed at the above institutions and executed by the pupils. The organization of the "collective exhibition" of the other professional art schools was intrusted to the inspector of these schools and Hofrat Arthur von Scala, director of the Austrian Museum, Vienna. The interior and the exhibits themselves were executed in the workshops of 46 different professional art schools, with the cooperation of the pupils.

The amount of money appropriated by the Austrian Government for the participation of the Austrian Empire at the exposition was 1,100,000 crowns (about $220,000). The appropriation, however, was almost exclusively made for the display of Austria in connection with the Austrian Government Pavilion. The appropriated amount had to cover the expense for the erection of the pavilion and its installation, as well as the installation of two rooms in the Fine Arts Building, where the Vienna Artists' Association had an additional display. The appropriated amount had also to cover the transportation of the Austrian Government exhibits as well as the expense of the reshipment of same. The Government provided the 1,100,000 crowns not only for the erection of the pavilion and its sculptural works, but for the expenses of installation, transportation, etc. Part of this money was used by the various Government participants, viz:

(1) The imperial royal railroad ministry.

(2) The imperial royal department of waterways of Austria.

(3) The imperial royal ministry of education.

(4) And finally by four fine art associations. These fine art associations were: (1) the Vienna Artists' Association, (2) the "Hagenbund" Artists' Association of Vienna, (3) the Bohemian artists, and (4) the Polish Artists.

The fine art associations had their display each in one room of the thirteen contained in the Austrian Government Pavilion. The Vienna Artists' Association had also two rooms covering the Austrian section in the Fine Arts Building.

In reference to the commercial exhibit, a number of prominent individuals of Austria organized an exhibition of the manufacturers of Austria. They secured a number of participants, mostly glass and porcelain manufacturers as well as leather and jewelry merchants of Austria. Their exhibits representing Austria were displayed in the Manufactures Building, Varied Industries Building, Liberal Arts Building, and in the Agricultural Building.

BRAZIL.

By decree No. 4897 of July 21, 1903, the President of the Republic of
Brazil sanctioned the act of Congress making an appropriation of
$600,000 giving the Government authorization for the representation of
Brazil at the Louisiana Purchase Exposition.

On the 27th of the same month the following commissioners were appointed:

Col. F.M. De Souza Aguiar, president; Maj. J. Da Cunha Pires, secretary
and commissioner; Mr. J. Da Motta, assistant commissioner; Mr. Antonio
Olyntho, commissioner; Mr. J.C. Alves de Lima, commissioner; Dr. A. Da
Graca Couto, commissioner; Commodore J.C. Do Carvalho, commissioner;
Commodore A. Correa, commissioner; Mr. J.A. Dos Santos, commissioner;
Mr. A.J. Da Costa Couto, commissioner; Mr. Ferreira Ramos, commissioner;
Capt. J. Cordeiro da Graca, commissioner; Mr. Eugenio Dahne, assistant
commissioner; Mr. E. Da Rocha Dias, aide; Air. Ricardo Mardock and Mr.
A.C. Lopes Goncalves, commissioners from State of Amazonas.

One of the most attractive exhibits at the World's Fair was offered by Brazil. That country showed itself so rich and diversified in resources as to astonish the public, and in keeping with its large exhibit erected a building which soon became one of the features of the fair.

The Brazilian Building, which was designed and personally supervised by the commissioner-general, Col. F.M. de Souza Aguiar, was located in the southwestern part of the section occupied by the foreign governments, having on its north the Belgian, Cuban, and Chinese buildings, and on the east that of Nicaragua, on the south those of France and India, and on the west the Forestry, Fish and Game, Italian, and Administration buildings.

In the center of the grounds, surrounded by lawns with flower beds and wide gravel walks, stood the Brazilian Building in the French renaissance style of architecture. The main cornice, 80 feet high, was supported by eight groups of three columns each at the corners and sides of the two entrances of the building, and by six single columns at each loggia. These thirty-six columns were of the corinthian style of architecture, without the fluting ordinarily used with this particular column, and were ornamented only at the lower third of the shaft with the Brazilian coat of arms between floral festoons. Projecting above the roof of the building were three domes, two of which, on either loggia, were spherical in form, being 44 feet in diameter, while the apex of the central dome attained a height of 135 feet. The dome was octagonal in shape, having at each corner an exterior buttress, adorned with a large statue at its top. Encircling the same was a gallery from which could be viewed the greater part of the exposition grounds and the surrounding country. Above the cornice of the building was a balustrade decorated with shields, showing the coats of arms of the twenty-one States of Brazil.

The main floor was reached by means of a flight of nineteen granitoid steps on either the north or south side of the building, which led through two spacious porticoes. The second floor formed one large room only, the ceiling of which was divided into rectangular panels, supported by thirty-two Doric columns. The second floor was reached also by a majestic double staircase, where a spacious reception room, two apartments for ladies, and the offices of the commission were situated. In the center of the reception room was a marble statue representing "the Feast," mounted on a large pedestal and encircled by an upholstered settee. Above this statue the large central dome opened, supported by eight columns, which formed an interior gallery.

In simplicity, stateliness, and beauty of outline the Brazilian Pavilion was equal to any of the foreign buildings on the grounds. Its dome rose 90 feet above the main structure, which covered 191 by 132 feet, and it soon became known as a landmark in the foreign government section of the fair.

The interior decorations of the building were entirely in keeping with the magnificent exterior. The apartments were sumptuously furnished and decorated with rare statues. The colored glass which ornamented the central dome gave a soft tint to the furnishings beneath. On the walls were hung interesting photographs and charts illustrating the chief industry of the country-coffee culture. This industry was further demonstrated by machinery of the most improved pattern, showing the process of preparing coffee for the market. In sacks, in glass jars, and cases, coffee beans ranging in size from furled grains as small as peas to flat beans as large as cocoa beans were displayed. To illustrate the abundance of the product Brazil had built here a fountain which poured forth coffee beans instead of water. At night rows of electric lights, outlining the same, took the place of the Brazilian and American flags, which ornamented it by day. There were fifteen hundred of these lights distributed throughout the building, some clustered in rich chandeliers from the center of the reception halls and loggias, others placed in rows to outline galleries and dome.

In addition to the appropriation of $600,000 made by the Federal Government, many of the States contributed all the expenses toward propaganda, collection and transportation of exhibits from their own individual territories. The installations and booths (ten in all) in the exposition building were made at the expense of the Brazilian Government at a cost of $70,000. The cost of the main building, complete with its furnishings and improvement of grounds, was $135,000. The cost of transportation of exhibits from Brazil to St. Louis was $30,000. In all, Brazil had 2,400 exhibitors in 14 departments out of 16.

CANADA.

The government of the Dominion of Canada was represented at the World's Fair by the exhibition branch of the department of agriculture of Canada. This branch was organized some years ago for the purpose of collecting, installing, and maintaining exhibits at expositions where the government of Canada was officially represented. The personnel of the exhibition branch is as follows: Hon. Sidney A. Fisher, minister of agriculture; William Hutchinson, exhibition commissioner; W.A. Burns, secretary and assistant to the commissioner; W.H. Hay, decorator; S. Anderson, superintendent of installation.

The government and products of Canada were represented at the fair in several exhibits, viz, an official building or pavilion; a collection of minerals and mining products in the Palace of Mines and Metallurgy; a display of the grains, grasses, and the agricultural products in the Palace of Agriculture; an exhibit of all the various fruits grown in the Dominion in the Palace of Horticulture; a special exhibit of the forest products of Canada showing the great variety of timber, bark, pulp wood, etc., in a building erected especially for the purpose; also a varied collection of the larger and smaller game, fish, etc., together with specimens of all the numerous varieties of wood produced in the forests and inland waters of the Dominion, exhibited in the Forestry, Fish, and Game Building, and in a special exhibit of live beaver in the same building.

As an appropriation for the installation of these exhibits the government of Canada made a preliminary grant of $150,000, which was supplemented by further appropriations for maintenance aggregating $175,000, making a total of $325,000.

The official pavilion was a structure built after the fashion of a clubhouse, located near the north entrance to the Palace of Agriculture, costing, with forestry building in rear, about $35,000. This building was furnished throughout with the products of Canadian factories and decorated with the work of Canadian artists, all suggestive of the natural wealth, progress, and enterprise of the country.

The mining exhibit occupied a space of 10,000 square feet, and comprised large quantities of coal and all the coarser metal ores, together with an extensive collection of all the finer metals minerals, building stones, and every product of the mines known to science and commerce.

The agricultural exhibit occupied a space of 12,000 square feet, and consisted of a large central figure in the form of an octagonal trophy rising to a height of 60 feet, in which were artistically worked over three hundred grasses, grains, and plants, all grown in Canada, and decorated with landscape views of the various breeds of cattle raised in the Dominion. On either side of this central figure was a pedestal of maple sugar and honey, respectively, and in the rear other products of tobacco, grain, flour, breadstuffs, etc.

The horticultural display consisted of a varied collection of all the fruits grown in Canada, comprising ninety-four varieties of apples in their natural state, taken from cold storage, and a large collection of pears, peaches, plums, grapes, currants, gooseberries, strawberries, cranberries, raspberries, and everything included in horticulture, presented in glass jars as well as in their natural state throughout their respective seasons.

The special exhibit of forest products consisted of sections of the great fir trees, pines, cedars, oaks, hemlocks, birch, ash, walnut, cherry, etc., and specimens of rough and polished lumber from every variety of wood grown in the Dominion, together with a large pyramid of pulp wood, of which Canada possesses millions of acres, railway ties, tan bark, etc.

In the Forestry, Fish, and Game Building the exhibit consisted of an unique arch or bridge structure with a double span covering 80 feet, and on this structure and under it were numerous specimens of moose, deer, elk, buffalo, mountain goat, polar, grizzly, and brown bears, and every fur-bearing animal to be found in America. There was also a fine collection of game birds and water fowls, fish, etc. In this bridge structure was worked over three thousand varieties of wood, all grown in Canada. In another section of the building was shown a pool containing a family of live beaver, an interesting animal common to the streams and lakes of Canada.

Besides those already enumerated, Canada made a very creditable display of figure and landscape paintings in the Palace of Fine Arts, as well as a collection of various subjects in water colors.

Later in the season Canada made a very successful exhibit in the live-stock department. Her display was especially large in sheep and swine classes and almost equally good in poultry and pet stock.

In addition to those enumerated in the foregoing list, Canada is entitled to credit for a number of individual exhibits of various kinds scattered over the exposition grounds; for example, in the Building of Mines and Metallurgy there was an exhibit of natural and wrought nickel, every pound of the raw material coming from the Sudbury mines, in the Province of Ontario. The exhibit occupied a large space in the Mining Building and consisted of a varied and comprehensive display of nickel and nickel goods, from the natural ore to the finest and most polished culinary and domestic utensils. Every pound of raw material used in this display was from the mines situated in Denison Township, Sudbury District, Ontario, Canada.

In Machinery Hall there was an exhibit comprising a great variety of corundum products, every pound of whose raw material came from Canada. The exhibit showed corundum in bulk, in large wheels, small wheels, hones, and every variety of grinding and sharpening specialties. The amount of raw corundum used annually by the company reaches nearly 1,000 tons. In the Machinery Building, also, was an exhibit of asbestos and its products, the raw material of which came from Canada. The display consisted of steam-pipe coverings, mattings, packings, and everything of that nature required in heating and steam machinery; also asbestos mattings and fire screens, heavy papering and cardboards, and other things that asbestos can be worked into. All the asbestos came from the Shedford and Black Lake mines, in the Province of Quebec.

In the Manufactures Building was a very fine assortment of stones, etc., from different parts of Canada. Among the assortment were garnets from the Stikine River and also from the Province of Quebec; amethysts from Thunder Bay; labradorite, finest in the world, from the Isle of St. Paul; spinel from Ottawa County, Quebec; sodalite from British Columbia; pitanite, Litchfield, Quebec; lercon and perthite from Quebec; sunstone and lebra stone from Perth, Ontario, and crown sunstone from Renfrew County, Ontario.

Besides the exhibits mentioned there were in the Mines Building an exhibit of mineral water from Abenakis Springs, Quebec; in the Philadelphia exhibit in the educational department a fine display of asbestos and pulp.

CEYLON.

Consequent on the visit to Ceylon of Hon. John Barrett, commissioner of the Louisiana Purchase Exposition, in the latter part of 1902, Hon. W.H. Figg was dispatched as advance commissioner to St. Louis to investigate the conditions of the proposed World's Fair of 1904 and to make preliminary arrangements for the representation of the colony thereat. Mr. Figg's report, dated New York, February, 1903, was followed by the appointment of a commission composed of the following members:

Hon. Stanley Bois, commissioner-general; Mr. R. Huyshe Eliot, assistant
commissioner; Mr. P.E. Pieris, assistant commissioner; Mr. Russell
Stanhope, assistant commissioner; Mr. Peter De Abrew, commercial agent;
Hon. J. Ferguson, C.M.G., Mr. F.C. Roles, Mr. H. Van Cuylenberg, and Mr.
D. Obeyesekeri, official visitors.

By vote $150,000 was placed at the disposal of this commission, and a further sum of $10,000 was contributed by the Planters' Association.

The scheme finally adopted for the exploitation of the products of Ceylon at the World's Fair was that all articles of artistic interest should be displayed in a special court and those of commercial importance in the various palaces. It was agreed that the practical demonstration of the use of tea should be carried on in the court and made as attractive as possible to the American public. A concession was accordingly obtained from the Exposition Company for the sale of tea in the cup at a nominal price, and an excellent site was allotted to the Government of Ceylon immediately west of and adjoining the lake, where the United States Life-Saving Service had its daily display and facing the north end of the Palace of Agriculture. The building (which was designed in Ceylon by Mr. Skinner) was rectangular in form, 120 feet long and 60 feet wide, and two stories in height.

Broad verandas, so characteristic a feature of oriental houses, ran round each floor, and there tea was served daily by 20 Cingalese servants. These tea servers dressed in spotless white, and with long hair fastened with big tortoise shell combs, made a most picturesque appearance and gave a touch of reality to the Cingalese pavilion.

From the center of the building sprang an octagon 75 feet high, reproducing the building where the kings of Ceylon used to show themselves to their subjects at their ancient capital of Kandy. Smaller octagons rose from the four corners. The ornamentation was characteristically Cingalese. Broad friezes painted by native artists represented the various birth stories of the Buddha. The door panels and quaint capitals were such as may be seen at many a temple in Ceylon and formed an appropriate setting for the impassive images of the Buddha. The building was constructed by Messrs. Broderick & Wind, contractors of New York, under the general supervision of Mr. Russell Stanhope, representative at St. Louis of the commissioner-general, at a total cost of $30,000.

Downstairs were the offices of the commission, while on the upper floor the greater portion of the fine art exhibit of Ceylon was situated. The native artist was seen at his best in the magnificent jeweled caskets of carved ivory and the exquisite reprousse work in silver, representing an art which has been handed down from father to son for twenty-five centuries in the caste of Cingalese silversmiths.

The department of manufactures was represented by massive furniture in calamander, ebony, and satinwood, carved with the most elaborate devices, dainty laces made by the nimble fingers of village women, beautiful productions on tortoise shell and gold, heavily embroidered cloths of gold, and a large collection of the various curios for which the East is famous, besides a display of tanned hides and jewelry of exceptional merit. There was a further display of art work in the international room of the Palace of Fine Arts. More than 100 exhibitors were represented in this building, the total value of their exhibits exceeding $50,000. Outside on the lake was an outrigger canoe of full size, such as is still in use among the fishermen of Ceylon.

The chief commercial exhibit of the country was to be found in the Palace of Agriculture, where a space of 2,000 square feet had been allotted to it. First and foremost was the great industry of tea cultivation. Thirty years ago the island exported a million tons of coffee annually, and tea was an unknown article; last year the quantity of the leaf which was exported to all parts of the world exceeded 150,000,000 pounds (of which 18,000,000 was sent to the United States), while coffee hardly figures on the customs returns The industry is almost exclusively in the hands of Europeans. All the chief producers were represented at the exposition, their interests forming the special province of an assistant commissioner.

The cocoanut palm and its cultivation was fully represented. The nut itself, the various fibers, matting and ropes made from its husk, the copra or dried kernel, from which is extracted the oil now so largely used in the manufacture of best soaps and hair oils; the desiccated and "shredded" cocoanut, the demand for which among confectioners is rapidly increasing; cocoanut butter, an excellent emollient and substitute for lard; the arrack, distilled from the "toddy" extracted from the flower, a valuable liquor after a few years in cask; the vinegar and "jaggery," or molasses; down to the brooms, made from the "ekels" or midrib of the leaves, were shown in infinite variety.

Rice, the staple food of the country, was represented in a few of its 350 varieties, and cinnamon in bark or oil, cloves, nutmegs, mace, cardamoms, pepper, vanilla, and citronella oil, cocoa and coffee, rubber, cinchona bark, from which quinine is prepared, croton seed, and annotto dye might also be seen. The fibers included those of the Kitul and Palmyra palms and the silky niyande (sansevier zeylanical). One hundred and twenty exhibitors were represented, and the value of the collective exhibit was $5,000.

The educational exhibit, which had been prepared under the direct supervision of the director of public instruction in Ceylon, illustrated the procedure adopted by the British Government in dealing with races with an advanced literature of their own, to whom a certain knowledge of English is a necessity. The present conditions of education—elementary, advanced, and technical—were well depicted, and the exhibit contained in addition a collection of the various scientific journals issued by the Colombo Museum and the department of the botanical gardens in Ceylon.

Graphite, locally known as plumbago, the only commercial mineral of the country, might be seen in the Palace of Mines and Metallurgy. More than 600,000 hundredweights of this valuable commodity were exported in 1899, the greatest demand being in the United States, where the article is employed in the manufacture of crucibles, for stove polish, and for lubricating purposes. A few of the choice rubies and sapphires, for which the island is so famous, were on view in the Ceylon court. Thirty firms and private individuals were represented in this department, the exhibits exceeding $12,000 in value.

In Liberal Arts the government of Ceylon snowed the admirable work turned out by its printing offices, and various private firms of printers and photographers were represented. The large model of the artificial harbor of Colombo was of particular interest as illustrating the position of the city as the tenth port in the world for tonnage entering and clearing. There was also a good private collection of coins found in Ceylon and covering a period of nearly two thousand years. The space occupied in the Palace of Liberal Arts was 600 square feet, and the value of the total exhibit was $1,000.

The musical instruments of the country, chiefly consisting of drums and the varied equipment of the "devil dancers," were shown in the Ceylon Building.

In the Palace of Forestry a space or 600 square feet was occupied by Ceylon. The chief exhibit there consisted of the massive trunk of a satinwood tree, hollowed out so as to form a receptacle for "books," which consisted of blocks of all the various trade timbers of the country. An exhibit prepared by the marine biologist illustrated everything connected with fishing in the Ceylon waters, from the crude fish trap of the villager to the latest addition to knowledge regarding the origin of the lustrous oriental pearl. Models of the various kinds of boats employed in the country were also shown. The wild animals of the country, its beautiful birds (including the swift, which builds the edible nest), and gorgeous butterflies, were well shown. The exhibit represented a value of $3,000.

Finally, in the department of anthropology there were shown, in the Ceylon Building, types of the various races found in Ceylon, illustrations of their pre-Christian civilization, the utensils of brass and wood still used in their houses, and all the accompaniments of their philosophic religions.

A special handbook was prepared by a subcommittee in Colombo containing information for the use of the American people regarding the trade and resources of the country.

CHINA.

The participation of China at the Louisiana Purchase Exposition was authorized by an imperial decree issued in January, 1903. The same decree appointed an imperial commission, as follows:

His Royal Highness Prince Pu Lun, imperial high commissioner; Sir Robert Hart, Bart., G.C.M.G. (inspector-general of customs), president ex-officio; Mr. Wong Kai-Pah, imperial vice-commissioner; Mr. Francis A. Carl, imperial vice-commissioner; Mr. D. Percebois, secretary of Chinese imperial commission; Mr. J.A. Berthet, assistant to secretary of Chinese imperial commission.

The amount set apart by the Chinese Government to meet the expenses connected with China's participation in the Louisiana Purchase Exposition was 750,000 taels, or, roughly speaking, $500,000 gold. As with all previous expositions in which China has taken part, the collecting of exhibits was intrusted to the imperial Chinese maritime customs service, under the control of Sir Robert Hart, Bart., G.C.M.G., inspector-general of customs. This service, with its numerous branches and ramifications throughout the Empire and an experienced staff acquainted with both native and foreign tastes was in an exceptional position to succeed in making a representative collection of the best in Chinese arts, manufactures, and products. The commissioners of customs at the principal trading centers took the work in hand, selecting such exhibits as were suitable when offered by merchants, and purchasing outright such articles as could not be procured otherwise. The collections were made at the following treaty ports: Newchang, Tientsin, Chefoo, Chungking, Hankow, Kiukiang, Wuhu, Nanking, Chinkiang, Shanghai, Hangchow, Ningpo, Wenchow, Foochow, Amoy, Swatow, Canton, Pakhoi, Kiungchow, Mengtse, Lungchow, and Szemao.

Besides the Government exhibits from the foregoing-mentioned places, the provincial authorities of Hupeh, Hunan, Kiangaan, and Fukien also made collections. This is noteworthy, as it was the first time on record that the regular Chinese officials have taken any interest in a foreign exhibition. In addition to the Government participation, fifty-three firms and private individuals sent their quota of exhibits. The following table gives the kind, class, and approximate value of exhibits installed by each:

Porcelain curios, cloisonne, carpets, art work in metal,
 tapestries, furniture, silks, ivory, fans, and jade …… $510,200
Furs and skins …………………………………….. 6,500
Cement and fire bricks ……………………………… 1,000
Fancy articles, wood carvings, paintings, and drawings, etc 11,600
Collections of butterflies ………………………….. 100
Preserved meats, fish, vegetables, and fruit ………….. 100
Chinese postal stamps and coins ……………………… 5,000
Silverware and lanterns …………………………….. 2,750
                                                           ——————
  Total …………………………………………… 537,250
Government exhibits ………………………………… 40,000
Provincial ………………………………………… 61,000
                                                           ——————
  Grand total ……………………………………… 638,250

The collection made by the twenty-two treaty ports comprised such articles as were not offered by the mercantile class. In nearly every case the ports' collection included samples of products and manufactures typical to the district, models of the prevailing architecture and of any special costume worn by the people, models of the types of boats in use, carriages and wheelwrights' work, agricultural implements and farm machinery, appliances and methods used in agricultural industries, agricultural seeds, equipment and method employed in the preparation of foods, minerals and stones and their utilization, musical instruments, chemical and pharmaceutical arts, gold and silver ware, weights and measures, coins and medals, and photographs of the port. The collections made by the provincial authorities comprised art work in jade, crystal, porcelain and bronze, Chinese books and publications, lacquered ware and fancy articles.

The total approximate value as given above was $638,250, but this sum included the cost of transportation and installation. It represents in fact the market value in the United States. There was in the neighborhood of 2,000 tons of shipments from China to St. Louis—800 tons from the south of China, and 1,200 from the north of China. The rate from the south of China, i.e., Hongkong, was $8 per ton, while from the north of China, i.e., Shanghai, or nearly 900 miles shorter trip, the rate was $14 per ton. The amount paid for transportation was more than $20,000, to which must be added some $2,000 for terminal and switching charges. The cost of installation for the entire exhibit was about $7,500. The exorbitant wages necessary for all work done at the exposition accounts for this heavy expenditure. Another large item of expense, according to the Chinese commissioner, was the 5 per cent rate charged in this country for fire insurance. Most of the foreign countries taking part in the exposition effected insurance in home companies at about half the above rate.

The total cost of the Chinese Government Pavilion amounted to $75,000. It was partly a reproduction of a portion of Prince Pu Lun's palace at Peking. Models were sent from China and copied in this country, the large arch at the entrance being a "Pai-Lou," or memorial arch, common in China as entrances to palaces, temples, and tombs. A small octagonal pavilion or tea house was shown. They are always at some beautiful spot in the gardens of the wealthy. Two flagstaffs outside were also copies of Chinese models. The wood carvings were very expensive, and good examples of what the Chinese workman can do in that line. Special men from China were imported to carry out the designs of the building and to do the painting in the Chinese style.

The space occupied by the Chinese in the Liberal Arts Palace was 28,000 square feet, and, with the exception of another 1,500 square feet in the Educational Department, China was not represented in other buildings of the exposition. The small exhibit in the Educational Palace was not an attempt to illustrate the Chinese system of education. It was intended simply to give the world an idea of the work being done by foreign societies—missionary and otherwise—in the educational line in China.

The maintenance of the staff looking after exhibits was about $30,000. The expense connected with the repacking and return of freight and unsold exhibits was about $15,000.

CUBA.

On July 20, 1903, the Cuban Congress passed the following resolutions authorizing the participation of that country at the Louisiana Purchase Exposition:

The Executive is hereby authorized to dispose of $80,000 from the public treasury to meet the expenses which the representation of the Republic of Cuba will incur at the Louisiana Purchase Exposition which will take place at St. Louis, Mo., in the year 1904.

Of this amount $30,000 shall be set aside to meet the expenses of a special commission whose object is to study the advancement which may have been realized in agriculture, chemistry, and mechanical industries applicable to the industries of Cuba, also public instruction in hygiene.

The commission will report the results of their investigation to the Executive, which reports will be duly published.

The expenses incurred in the publication of the reports will be met by the public treasury and will not be included in the above allowed sum.

On the 15th of July, 1904, the Congress voted $50,000 as an additional sum for the same purpose.

The Cuban Pavilion at the exposition was constructed on a lot 140 by 170 feet. The building was 100 feet by 80 feet surrounded by a garden containing more than five hundred native plants. It was one story high. At its front was a beautiful terrace, and there were extensive porticoes on the sides. Access to the building was gained by a 32-foot stair on the front, and by lateral stairs of smaller size.

Five rooms surrounding a central court. Access to the roof was obtained by a winding stair placed on a tower. The style of architecture on the building in its exterior court and entrances was Florentine-Renaissance, from the last half of the fourteenth century. The other salons were decorated in the modern style, called "New Art." The building was lighted by more than four hundred incandescent lamps, arranged in such a manner that they formed part of the decorations. The cost of erecting the building was $31,050.

The members of the Cuban commission were as follows:

Mr. Gonzalo de Quesada, honorary president; Mr. Esteban Duque Estrada, commissioner-general; Mr. Antonio Carillo, secretary of the Cuban commission; Mr. Eduardo Morales de los Rios, commissioner of education; Mr. Sixto Lopez Miranda, technical commissioner of education for Cuba; Dr. J.J. Luis, commissioner of social economy; Mr. Enrique B. Barnet, sanitary commissioner; Mr. J.W. Flanagan, honorary commissioner; Mr. J.E. Bernal, Mr. Fernando Mesa, Mr. Francisco de Armas, assistant commissioners; Mr. Antonio E. Trujillo, disbursing officer; Mr. John R. Taylor, assistant sanitary commissioner. Technical commission: Dr. Enrique Jose Varona, doctor in philosophy and letters; Dr. Carlos de la Torre, doctor of natural sciences; Señor Carlos Theye, chemical engineer; Señor Manuel D. Diaz, civil engineer; Señor Ramon Jimenez Alfonso, agronomical engineer; Dr. Gaston Alfonso Cuadrado, doctor of sciences and pharmacy.

The exhibit of Cuba in the Department of Education comprised the whole educational system from the kindergarten to the university. For the organization of this exhibit the secretary of public instruction, Dr. Leopolds Cancio, appointed a committee of seven. The committee issued several circulars inviting the teachers to contribute to the educational exhibit.

Toward the beginning of March the first contributions began to arrive, and in the early days of April the first shipment was made. This was followed by others, and by the 25th of April all the educational exhibits were in the various booths and ready for display.

This exhibit was classified in groups 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, and 8, which left the only two groups, 5 and 7, in which it was not represented.

In group 1 it was represented by the normal school of kindergarten of Habana, and by kindergarten public schools of Habana, Guanabacoa, Matanzas, Gardenas, Sagua la Grande, and Cienfuegos, by elementary public and private schools from most of the school districts of the country, by a teachers' academy, and by training and correctional schools for boys and girls.

In group 2 the six public secondary schools of the country were represented by photographs, reports, collections of shells and butterflies, pupils' work and reports.

The "San Alijandro" School of Painting and Sculpture of Habana appeared with a report and photographs in group 4.

In group 6 the School of Arts and Trades of Habana had a very good display of manual training and photographs.

Correspondence schools, the Academy of Science, meteorological and magnetical observations of the Belen Observatory, geological collections, text-books, school appliances, and a collection of the text-books used at the present and of those used under the Spanish Government in the public schools were all classified in group 8.

One of the most important features of the exhibit was the display of photographs showing over 500 views of schoolrooms, school buildings, groups of teachers and children, institutions of secondary education, institutions of special education, and the university.

In these photographs the department showed the best schools, such as
"Luz y Caballero," of Habana, and the "Eseulen Modelo," of Santiago de
Cuba, and the least advanced rural schools located in thatched-roof huts
20 or more miles from the nearest town.

The exhibit showed not only the great increase in the last few years in the number of schools and in the school expenditures, both of which have increased about tenfold, but the great change undergone in the methods of teaching, which at present accord with the most modern standards, the old methods having been entirely abolished from the public schools.

The superior board of health of Cuba was represented at the exposition by Dr. Federico Torralbas, as medical inspector of the sanitary department of Habana; Dr. Emilo Martines, as assistant professor of pathology of the National University, and member of the commission for infectious diseases of the sanitary department of Habana; Dr. Juan H. Davalos, as chief of the section of bacteriology of the laboratory of the island of Cuba, who is considered the leading authority on bacteriological subjects in Cuba; Dr. Enriqui B. Barnet, as the executive officer of the sanitary department of Habana and acting secretary of the superior board of health of Cuba; Mr. John R. Taylor, as preparator of the laboratory of Las Animas Hospital, of Habana, having a thorough knowledge of the transmission of diseases by the medium of the mosquito. He was one of those who voluntarily allowed himself to be bitten with infected mosquitoes known to be capable of transmitting yellow fever, recovering after a severe attack of the disease.

In the Department of Mines and Metallurgy, Cuba's exhibition consisted of Portland cement and its products, asphaltum (crude and refined), iron, manganese, copper, zinc, tin, gold, and silver ores, and a collection of marbles of the Isle of Pines.

In Liberal Arts Cuba's exhibition consisted of photographs, engravings, periodicals, perfumes, soaps, and other manufactured articles.

In the Department of Art Cuba had a room where about one hundred and fifty pictures were hung, consisting of oil paintings and water colors.

In the Department of Agriculture Cuba's exhibit consisted of manufactured cigars, chocolate, jellies, beer, preserved fruits of all descriptions, cotton, hemp, coffee, sugar, and various other agricultural products of Cuba.

In the Department of Forestry, Fish, and Game Cuba's exhibition consisted of samples of woods used in construction and for furniture, house decorations, etc. The collection of woods at the Forestry Building was given to the Yale University Forestry Schools at the close of the fair. The mineral collection at the Mines Building was subsequently donated to the United States National Museum, at Washington, D.C.

DENMARK.

The Government of Denmark, while making no appropriation for a participation at the Louisiana Purchase Exposition, appointed William Arup as commissioner-general to look after the interests of the Danish exhibitors. At the same time the Government appointed a committee, consisting of the following-named persons, to assist him in his work: Charles Ambte, director of State railways; Mr. N. Anderson, councilor of state, P.D.; Arnold Krog, professor in arts, P.D.; Admiral Richeleu St. Kors, of D.; Philip Schon, councilor of state. Of these gentlemen only Admiral Richeleu visited the fair.

Commissioner-General Arup personally bore the total expenses of transportation and installation, which amounted approximately to $25,000.

Denmark had no official building on the grounds but confined her space to the principal exhibition palaces. Her principal displays were installed in the Palace of Varied Industries, where she occupied about 5,000 square feet of space.

Twenty exhibitors displayed goods in the Palace of Varied Industries. Their displays consisted principally of porcelain, silverware, art pottery, cabinet works, embroideries, photography, ship models, and a ship model of the free port of Copenhagen. The last-mentioned model was subsequently donated to the Chicago Municipal Museum.

In the Palace of Electricity, the Agricultural Building, and the Palace of Fine Arts Denmark occupied smaller spaces, but her exhibits attracted general attention on account of their universal excellence.

EGYPT.

The amount of Government appropriation for Egypt's participation at the Louisiana Purchase Exposition was approximately $50,000. The principal exhibit made by the Government of Egypt consisted of a representation of antiquities in the Anthropology Building; an exhibit by the Sudan Government in the foreign section, comprising ivory, gum, rubber, various cereals, and a variety of ancient weapons and curious articles in use by the natives of Sudan. In the same section were exhibited some heads of wild animals including hippopotamus and the buffalo. In the Liberal Arts section was displayed a large relief map showing the system of irrigation in use in Egypt with the canals clearly marked. This exhibit was made by the administration of the Daira Sanich, which forms part of the Government, and in the same section the public works department of the Government exhibited various models of the Delta Barrage and other irrigation works existing in various parts of Egypt.

In the Agricultural Building, through the Khedivial Agriculture Society and the Produce Association of Alexandria, a complete collection of cotton and cereals and every kind of agricultural product grown in Egypt were shown, in addition to which the Campagnie des Sucreries of Egypt had a very fine display of sugar, and the Port Said Salt Association sent samples of various kinds of salt.

The commissioners appointed by the Egyptian Government were Herman E. Lawford and Abdel Hamid Abazza. The latter was in charge of the agricultural section. He is connected with the Khedivial Agriculture Society of Egypt, and was requested by the Government of Egypt to make a report on the cotton industry in this country, particularly with regard to diseases of the cotton plant. Mr. Lawford has resided in Egypt for several years and has been connected with various land and industrial companies. Mr. Quibell, who was attached to the commission, is an inspector of antiquities in the employ of the museum at Cairo, and has been in Egypt for a number of years, his time being devoted to scientific researches.

FRANCE.

The French Government, at the time when the general commission to the Louisiana Purchase Exposition was appointed, appropriated a sum of 600,000 francs for its expenses and a sum of 600,000 francs for the participation of the fine arts. Later on an appropriation of 350,000 francs was made for the educational exhibit and several other exhibits over which the Government had immediate and direct control. The entire charge of putting up the French commercial exhibits in the various palaces, except Fine Arts and Education and National Pavilion, had been granted, in April, 1902, to a permanent committee on foreign expositions, which worked under the supervision of the French general commission. The committee raised from private sources a sum of 5,000,000 francs.

Aside from the above sums, an appropriation of 100,000 francs was made by the department of the colonies for the participation of the different colonies at the exposition.

Another appropriation of the same amount was made for the social economy exhibit.

The approximate amount of money spent by France for its participation in the Louisiana Purchase Exposition was 7,750,000 francs. The contract for building the French Government Pavilion was let to a general contractor in Paris, who undertook to build it for the sum of 500,000 francs.

In addition to the above sum, an appropriation of 100,000 francs was made for the painting of the building; 10,000 francs for the statuary over the roof. An appropriation of 150,000 was made for the gardens.

The commission appointed by the Government of France was as follows:

Mr. Alfred Picard, special envoy of the French Republic; Mr. Georges Gerald, commissioner-general; Mr. Jules Boeufvé, assistant commissioner-general; Mr. Felix Lamy, secretary of the French commission; Mr. Robert Delaunay-Belleville, private secretary to the special envoy; Mr. Max Ferlaud, private secretary to the commissioner-general; Mr. Emile Heurteau, private secretary to the special envoy; Mr. Marcel Estieu, attaché; Mr. André Artoine, attaché. French commercial section: Mr. Ancelot, president; Mr. Gustav Kester, vice-president; Mr. Perdoux; Mr. Maurice Estieu, treasurer. Fine arts section: Mr. André Saglio, commissioner; Mr. Horteloup; Mr. Delestre, attaché.

The National Palace of France, as erected at the St. Louis World's Fair, was a reproduction of the Grand Trianon, at Versailles. It was located at the west end of the Louisiana way, one of the main avenues on the fair grounds; at the other end of the avenue was located the United States Government Building.

The French Pavilion consisted of three rectangular buildings bordering on a main state court. Large pilasters of white and pink marble were arranged as the frame work for high windows, topped with decorative arches. An outside flight of stairs and porphyrolite sills of imitation marble gave that impression of luxury and good taste which is characteristic of all productions of the Louis XIV period.

Two large wrought-iron brackets supported lanterns in the same style and gave a more animated appearance to the main entrance at the end of the court. Part of the arch decorations were reserved for the entrances; the balance of the arches used in the arrangement of windows with balcony were fitted with wrought-iron balustrade railings, in the general style of the palace.

Only one change was made in the otherwise exact reproduction of the Grand Trianon. According to documents published in the seventeenth century, and especially to the tentative drawings made by Lepautri himself, the Grand Trianon architect, that monument was originally to be decorated over its high balustrade railings with some artistic devices and groups of children, each to be found in the present French monument. The architects of the St. Louis Palace, Messrs. Gustave Umbdenstock and Roger Bouvard, conceived the happy thought of making that restoration complete, and thus contributing a more lifelike appearance to the whole palace.

On the other hand, a large allegorical medallion was arranged over the central decorative device, which was indicative of the national character. The medallion bore the coat of arms of the French Republic topped with the "Phrygian" cap, being flanked on either side by two allegorical female figures, one of which was symbolic of the Armed Peace protecting herself with a sword, and the other was intended to represent French trade. Over the allegorical medallion was the mainmast used to display the French flag. Owing to the arrangement of the palace itself the flag was thus displayed in the continuation of the center of the main monumental avenue of the fair.

From the entrance to the French Concession, which covered an area of about 150 meters in width by 250 meters in depth, a large monumental grill in the style of Louis XIV covered the entire front of the grounds separating the garden from the avenue which bounded it at the right corner. The grill included three large gates supported by four metal towers which were topped by lanterns and decorated with allegorical panels, producing the finest effect. The grills were devised on the same lines as those exhibited at Versailles and on the Place Stanislas, at Nancy.

A large garden, laid out in French style, was arranged in a border on the central path leading to the palace. The latter, with flower beds in the border, was ornamented with vases and statuary on pedestals.

The interior arrangement of the palace was such that the public would visit it regularly in its entirety without the necessity of passing twice through the same rooms. Double doors were provided so as to permit a continuous circulation for entrance and egress.

The building at the farthest side of the state court was devoted to the large state room, the decoration of which was intrusted to the National "Garde-Meuble," or "Historical Furniture Depot." The size of the room was 30 meters in length by 9 meters in width, and it was lighted by seven large windows; its height was 7 meters to the ceiling. The entrance stairs on the outside and the entrance hall were paved with imitation marble of pink and white. The carved ceiling was arranged as a framing for three large decorative paintings executed by Mr. George G. Roussel. The subject selected by the artist was Liberty, Equality, Fraternity. The Liberty allegory represented France placing her sword in 1772 at the service of America for the conquest of the latter's independence.

In "Equality" the figures were personifications of the commerce and industry of both nations.

"Fraternity" represented America receiving the France of 1904 in a symbolic group.

In the corner of the ceiling were a child uniting the flags of both nations and goddesses personifying Fame hovering over a globe representing Earth in glorification of that cordial understanding.

The large state room contained fine Gobelin tapestries reproducing scenes of the reign of Louis XIV, as follows:

(1) Audience of Cardinal Chigi (July 29, 1664). This was a tapestry woven of wool and silk set off with gold manufactured at the Gobelin factory in the seventeenth century. It was one of a series illustrating the history of King Louis from Van der Meulen et de Charles Le Brun. It had a very rich border by Yvart.

(2) Entrance of the King into Dunkerque (December 2, 1662). A wool and silk woven tapestry set off with gold, made at the Gobelin factory in the seventeenth century; one of the series of the history of King Louis XIV from Van der Meulen et de Charles Le Brun drawing. A rich border by Yvart.

(3) The Siege of the City of Douai (July, 1667). A wool and silk woven tapestry with gold, made at the Gobelin factory in the seventeenth century; one of the series of the history of King Louis XIV from Van der Meulen et de Charles Le Brun drawing. A rich border by Yvart.

(4) A piece of tapestry. This was woven from wool and silk and made at the Gobelin factory in the seventeenth century; one of the series of hangings (portieres) of the Triumphal Chariot and bearing the coat of arms of France and Navarre; made from the drawings of Charles Le Brun (the final drawings).

The right wing of the palace was used first by the National Factory of Sevre, with a room 12 meters by 8 meters and a hall in front which measures 8 meters by 3.50 meters.

The decoration of this room was subdued to enhance the appearance of the vases and bisques exhibited. The walls were hung with watered silk to a height of 4.50 meters, the tone of the silk being well adapted to set off the whiteness of the china. Above this hanging a painted frieze was decorated with gray and blue leaves set off with medallions of crystallized pink stone work. The application of ceramics to decorative purposes was again found in the trimmings of the portieres in the shape of pendentives.

The objects exhibited in these rooms were especially selected with due consideration to the place they were to occupy and with a view to making up a complete decorative whole.

In the main room the place in the center of the longest sides were occupied by Houdon's bust of Lafayette, with a small statue of Liberty by Aube in front, and by a Puech's bust of President Loubet, with a small statue of De la Paix by G. Michel in front.

On either side of these busts were seen four pink vases of the so- called "Cleremont" class and four vases of the "Chelles" class representative of the four seasons in floral decorations.

At the corners of the main room in niches especially provided for them were four Blois vases, decorated with hollyhocks, Chinese lilies, and magnolias. On either side of the window were two d'Auxerre "Flambets" (signed) vases.

The city of Paris occupied three rooms in the right wing of the National
Palace.

There were in the exhibit many statues, pictures, objects of the Paris municipal council and of the council-general of the Department of Seine, the insignia of councils, engravings, reproducing the most important decorative works in the Paris Hotel de Ville (city hall); also work done by pupils of the professional and industrial art schools, such as the Germain Pilon, Bernard, Palissy, Dorian, Diderot, Estienne, Boulle, etc.; such work includes ceramic pieces, modeling, bookbinding, furniture, chasing work, pottery, etc. The architectural service was represented by plans and drawings illustrating some types of the main edifices in Paris, such as the Sorbonne, Palais des Beaux Arts de la Ville de Paris, the barracks, mayoralty buildings, professional schools, primary schools, etc.

The departments of public highways, public lighting, water and health exhibited some graphical and statistical information in reference to their undertakings.

The Metropolitan Underground Railway sent most complete information covering its most interesting work.

The department of public charity exhibited water colors which gave useful information in reference to its various branches and modes of operating.

The department of historical work and the committee of ancient Paris showed a collection of publications covering the history of the city and of its several transformations. The general decorations included views of Paris, public gardens, and two large panels by de Grinberg, showing the Notre Dame Cathedral and the Pavilion de Fiore, in the Tuilleries.

There were also frontispieces and escutcheons by the master decorator Jambon. Elaborate middle pieces and a beautiful chandelier in the middle of the main room attracted considerable attention.

There was a small horizontal show case containing a collection of objects employed by the teacher in lecturing on civic instruction. These objects included various kinds of tickets, stamps, tax bills, receipts, official postals, etc.

Agricultural education occupied an extensive area, showing the importance attached in France to that department. A very remarkable collection, filling seven volumes, showed the really wonderful result that an inspector of the Brittany region was able to obtain in a district consisting of some hundred townships. There was also an "experiment case," which was to be found again in the normal school graduate's outfit, and a set of small instruments made by the country teachers.

The series, drawings, samples of manual work, of sewing, etc., showed how republican schools in France care for the workman's interests.

Other superior schools were represented in adequate manner through the aggregate exhibits. That at Onzain showed a few peculiarities of the rural type.

Superior primary schools for girls only showed a few specimens of several collections of work. The department of technical education, as represented by practical, industrial, and commercial schools, gave a fair idea of what is done in France in that branch.

The aggregate display gave a fair idea of what is going on in France in the normal schools, where teachers of both sexes are being prepared for their work.

Attention was particularly directed to manual work, especially to the scientific training that the girls of the normal school receive on leaving school.

A show case in one of the compartments contained a complete collection of documents relating to primary education in France. Several displays of that kind were attached to the walls, such as the six graphical tables made by Levasseur, which are summaries of statistical documents.

The Museum of Pedagogy had collected in similar summary form the most important results obtained for the past twelve years in the work done in promoting special work as a complement to school education.

Enlarged photographs representing scenes of school life were placed practically everywhere throughout the exhibit of French primary schools. They were prepared by the school administration as a reproduction, on a smaller scale, of the exhibit which proved such a success at the Paris Exhibition Fair in 1900.

The exhibit of higher education included displays from universities and scientific institutions, the leading ones being the College of France, the Museum of Natural History, the Practical of Highest Studies, the School of Charters, the School of Living Oriental Languages.

An inquiry was instituted in 1883 in academic councils and faculties in reference to drafting a plan for the constitution of universities that should administer and manage themselves under the supervision of the State.

Many had been impressed with the inconvenience caused by a lack of cohesion in the work. Attention was called to those many common interests of which the faculties should have been the guardian, but of which they could not take care on account of their isolation. Inquiry, begun in 1883, made the necessity of a reform obvious. It ended in the rendering of the decrees of July 25 and December 28, 1885. These decrees may be divided into two distinct parts—one covering the interior life of faculties, the other providing for a grouping of faculties established in each academic center and the general council of faculties to be the representative organ and executive power of the new faculty life created.

Appreciable results were derived from these reforms. However they were incomplete, and it was thought, in consequence, that genuine unity should be given to a superior education. The establishment of the new universities had been a legal consequence of that express wish.

The law of July 10, 1896, gave the name of university to each body of faculties, substituting the university council for the general council of faculties, the duties and powers of such university council being regulated by the decree of July 21, 1897. The rector of the university is president of that council by right, and is the legal representative of the university before the courts.

In the Department of Machinery the French exhibit included according to the general classification groups, steam engines, various motors and engines, sundry general machinery, machine tools, and shipyard machinery. All of these several groups and classes were united in order to form a collective exposition for the whole department.

To the above groups there were added the following: Spinning and rope-making machinery and weaving machinery and materials. The latter groups included machinery that could also have been placed in the department of general machinery.

In compliance with a suggestion made by the head of the engineering service at the fair, all machines and mechanical appliances exhibited in the Palace of Machinery were distributed, not in accordance with the nationality of exhibitors, but in accordance with the character and nature of the machinery.

French manufacturers had nothing to fear from the fact of their machinery having been placed in the immediate vicinity of other similar machines made by foreign manufacturers. On the contrary, a closer contact only resulted in setting off in a better light those particular qualities that have made France so successful in that branch of industry on previous occasions.

Outside of the Palace of Machinery there were exhibited in the boiler buildings five steam generators made by French manufacturers. These boilers contributed to the generation of the steam required for the power houses of the fair.

The distribution of exhibits all over the Palace of Machinery has made it impossible to arrange any decorative devices for the whole group of French exhibitors.

Another manifestation of the French mechanical industry was found in a pavilion which was built on ground between two of the main gates leading to the main entrance to the Hall of Machinery.

The French department of electricity was located on the left of the main entrance to the Palace of Electricity, occupying an area exceeding 2,000 square meters. In the center of the exhibit there was a space 350 square meters in area, used as a resting room for visitors. There were to be seen in a circular arrangement the show cases that made up the retrospective and modern exhibits sent by the French department of commerce, industry, post, and telegraph.

The decorative frieze arranged around the room bore, between laurel wreaths, the name of the most illustrious French physicians or electricians from the eighteenth century to this date.

The French exhibit in the Palace of Agriculture occupied an area of nearly 2,800 square meters. It was located in the northern corner and next to one of the main gates, fronting the French National Palace.

The French exhibit extended along the front of the palace on the northern and eastern sides.

The French exhibit of social economy occupied an area of 700 square meters in the Palace of Education. The main entrance formed one of the largest avenues in that palace, giving access to a main hall 50 meters in length by 12 meters in width, both front sides of which were subdivided into a score of small rooms 3 by 5 meters. The front sides of these small rooms were made up of partitions 4 meters high, decorated with mural paintings, and topped with a decorative frieze that bore the titles and subtitles belonging to the group of exhibits represented in the room. A shelf 0.50 meter wide, with a ledge, was arranged all along the rooms at the height of 1 meter from the ground, and supported all pamphlets, books, and other documents that supplemented the information supplied by the exhibits on the walls.

A show case and bookcase were put in the center of each room, containing the documents placed in view by the several exhibitors who were represented through publications only.

The individuality of each of the several groups was evident by titles or medallions of a decorative character, which also included a subtitle and index, arranged with as many particulars and in as methodical manner as possible, of all exhibitors, in order that the visitor might be saved as much labor as possible in his inquiries.

GERMANY.

Members of commission.—Dr. Theodor Lewald (privy councilor), imperial German commissioner-general; Dr. Eugene Wagner (superior Government councilor), vice-commissioner; Mr. Otto Zippel (imperial councilor), treasurer; Mr. Heinrich Albert, assistant commissioner; Mr. Paul A. Zilling, commercial attaché, department of arts and crafts; Dr. Fritz Kestner, attaché; Dr. Hugo Hardy, attaché; Fritz Von Bardeleben, attaché; Dr. F.C. Rieloff, imperial consul; Baron von Reden, imperial vice-consul; Count Limburg-Stirum, general commissioner education department; Dr. Leopold Bahlsen (professor), substitute to the general commissioner education department; Mr. Herman Albert, commissioner mining department; Mr. Alard Scheck, commissioner of forestry department; Dr. Ludwig Wittmark (privy councilor), agricultural department; Dr. Hugo Kruss, scientific instruments; Dr. Johannes Breger, hygienic department; Dr. Otto Zwingenberger, chemical exhibits.

By order of the German Emperor, the German House (das Deutsche Haus) was erected on a prominence in the center of the World's Fair near the Cascades. It was a replica of one of the German castles most celebrated in history and art, and the most prominent German architects reproduced it in St. Louis and equipped it with the best products of modern art industry.

In the year 1902 the great question arose as to what kind of style and which building should be erected in America as a symbol of Germany. The Emperor decided that Charlottenburg Castle should be used for this purpose, as one of the most aristocratic and characteristic monuments of the first epoch of the Prussian Kingdom. The location of the German House on a towering hill and its purpose called for a different architecture from that of the Charlottenburg Castle, which is situated in a plain and which at the same time serves as a dwelling house. So the two wings of the Charlottenburg Castle were omitted, one of them to give room to the Pergola and the German Wine Restaurant. The place of a court of honor was here taken by the massive stairway and there were new ideas produced in the cupola, the exterior ornamentation, and in some of the interior apartments. The erection of the building was awarded to Prof. Bruno Schmitz, of Berlin, who in Germany has built some great monuments, and who is no stranger to the American public.

The equipment of the interior rooms was awarded to a number of the first German manufactories in the line of art furniture, the art of weaving and illuminating, and was finished by the most skillful artisans. The German House was on the same level as the Palace of Fine Arts and Festival Hall. Its base was 47 feet higher than the Mining Building. From the State buildings in the southern divisions of the World's Fair a wide path led through artistic garden spots to the rear entrance of the German House and from the Mining Building large stairs led up to the German Restaurant. Ascending the hill of the German House, the first impression was that of a castle front. The dimensions of the castle were: Length, 150 feet; depth, 69 feet; the height of the building to the apex of the cupola was 160 feet; it covered an area of 10,000 square feet, while the complete site with the terraces amounted to 174,931 square feet.

The castle consisted of a two-story gable, the front of which was almost exclusively occupied by the high windows and two by-parts with four axes, each with three-quarter Corinthian columns. Of the three stories, the uppermost—the mezzanine story—served only as a storeroom. The gable above the center part bore in large letters the inscription "Das Deutsche Haus." Groups at the corners of the gable represented Power and Wisdom. The capitals of the columns were molded from the original and the balustrades of the cornices were made from designs. The roof of the house was a platform like the original in Charlottenburg, surrounded by a cast-iron balustrade.

As at the prototype, in front of the German House the two Borghesian gladiators with sword and shield kept guard. The death masks on the sentry houses were Schluter's work and were erected after models taken in Charlottenburg. The dark color of the building and the patina of the roof accentuated the historical character of the building.

Around the building on the broad terraces, surrounded by a balustrade in modern Baroque, were long rows of laurel trees and rhododendrons which were brought over from Germany.

In the lower story was a circular center hall, the flat ceiling of which was supported by 8 columns, a true copy of the entrance hall of the Charlottenburg Castle. In the two wall niches, between high laurel trees, were placed busts of the Emperor and Empress. The pedestals were done in gray, specially prepared oak wood. Behind the busts were two stucco reliefs molded from the originals in Charlottenburg, representing scenes from Roman history.

A room with modern escritoire equipment served as reading and writing room for the members of the German press.

Off the center hall and facing the front was the extensive reading hall, likewise a copy of the room of the Charlottenburg Castle.

Noticeable in the room was a picture of the capital of the German Empire, Berlin, showing the bridge across the Spree, with the renowned statue of the Great Elector; behind this the great Royal Palace; also a picture of the "Hohkonigsberg," in olden times a mighty castle in German Alsatia, which for centuries has been a desolate ruin, but now is built anew in its old pomp and splendor. The series of pictures was concluded by a view of a plaza in the Hansa Town Lubeck.

In addition to these views, around the hall were the busts of eminent scholars, artists, poets, musicians. Besides other pieces of ornament, the reading room contained choice pieces of the royal porcelain manufactory, as well as a series of artistically finished groups representing the different countries of culture. Finally, to symbolize the character of the reading room, on the right table a bronze figure was placed showing the greatest German historian of all times, Theodore Mommsen, who only a short time ago died in extreme old age.

In the rear of the reading hall a broad terrace led down to the garden plots, embellished by the group by Professor von Uechtritz, Berlin, "The Crown is the safeguard of peace."

At both sides of the reading hall the office rooms were situated; to the right a large office room of the imperial commissioner or his representative, very tastefully equipped in modern style. The walls were wainscoted in oak and had capacious book shelves. From the ceiling, the beams of which were ornamented, numerous lamps and large candelabra were suspended. The room was completed by a comfortable fireplace, and to the left side of the room, or reading hall, were office rooms.

The upper center hall, with its eight columns, was a copy of the center hall of the Charlottenburg Palace, and in its quiet dignity highly characteristic of the Prussian development of the art of the Baroque.

In front of the nether window, between two columns, was placed the bust of the German Emperor in the uniform of the Gardes du Corps, with the eagle helmet, from the royal porcelain manufacturer in Berlin.

Another interesting feature of the German Building was the Gobelin hall. The rich ceiling in its pure plastic was modeled after the Elizabeth hall in the royal palace of Berlin, the stucco figures, as well as the decorations of the ceiling, likewise the golden medallions at the four corners, representing a procession of bacchantes, while the rich door panelings were modeled in the royal palace and placed here. The walls all around were wainscoted with palisander. But the main interest in this room centered in the four mighty gobelins. These gobelins were, by the charm of their colors and the delicacy of the composition, a source of enjoyment to every lover of art.

The Gobelin hall was laid out with a gorgeous modern carpet from the carpet works at Barmen. Of surprising delicacy were the curtains and the golden hangings above the windows, all masterpieces of the modern art of weaving, as were those all over the house made by the concern Hertzog in Berlin. The great candelabra of bronze and mountain crystal were lighted by wax candles.

Off the Gobelin hall was one of the richest rooms of the castle, the
Bradenburg chamber. This red-velvet chamber was used for one of the most
brilliant ceremonies in the royal palace, the solemn decoration of the
Knights of the Order of the Black Eagle.

Adjacent to this rich room was the main hall of the Deutsche Haus, the famous oak gallery, 115 feet long and 20 feet broad. The oak gallery forms in Charlottenburg the most important apartment of the castle and is characteristically German. The combination of the simple oak wood with the delicate gold carving produced a most original and most restful effect. The wonderful dimensions, the beautiful material, the harmony of colors, and perfection of artistic details all combined to impress the observer. The entire length of the long wall was divided into niches by pilasters. Each niche contained a mirror and over that a picture from the ancient classics. Along the walls of the hall were placed on marble pedestals the busts of former Prussian rulers.

The series of state rooms was concluded by one of the very finest rooms, the Tressen Saal (galloon room), also a copy from the Charlottenburg Castle. In contrast to the substantial splendor of the oak gallery, this apartment showed the whole delicacy and refinement of the Baroque. The name "Tressen Saal" was given to this room in consideration of the gold interwoven bands (tresses) which were sewn on to the red damask.

The harmony of the oak carvings, of the gilt stucco, the red damask, and the gold galloon composed one of the most delicate decorations of Prussian castles. This was finished by the ceiling, where were seen allegories painted and mounted on linen in imitation of the Tressen Saal in Charlottenburg Castle.

There was no special act authorizing the German exposition. In accordance with the general principles of the German constitution, the sum required for this purpose was entered in the budget. After an approval of the budget by the Bundesrath and the Reichstag the participation of Germany became a law. The fire insurance of the combined German exhibits covered $4,000,000, and this sum may be regarded as the approximate value of the exhibits. The aggregate cost of the organization, installation, and transportation paid by the Government was $1,300,000, of which the Imperial Government paid $900,000, the Prussian government $250,000, and the other Federal States $150,000.

GREAT BRITAIN.

Members of commission.—His Royal Highness the Prince of Wales, K.G., president of the royal commission; the Right Honorable Viscount Peel, chairman of the royal commission; Col. Charles M. Watson, R.E., C.B., C.M.G., commissioner-general and secretary of the royal commission; Mr. J.H. Cundall, general superintendent; Mr. Edmund H. Lloyd, general superintendent; Mr. Lucien Serraillier, secretary to the commissioner-general and for juries; Mr. C.D. Barrett, accountant; Mr. Herbert Langridge, in charge of correspondence and catalogue. Clerical assistants: Mr. R. Grant Dalton, Mr. S.G. Hutchinson, Mr. J. Perrin Harris. Department of education: Capt. P.H. Atkin, representative of the education committee; Mr. C.E. Down, assistant superintendent. Department of art: Mr. R.S. Hunt, representative of the art committee; Mr. Alfred A. Longdon, representative of the applied art committee. Department of liberal arts: Mr. J.E. Petavel, scientific manager of low temperature exhibit; Mr. H. Payne, assistant. Assistant superintendents of exhibits: Mr. J.F. Barrett, mines and metallurgy; Mr. John E. Blacknell, manufactures; Mr. J.T. Christie, liberal arts; Mr. Harold Darby, transportation; Mr. Joseph Devlin, agriculture, fish, and game; Mr. Edward Dixon, electricity; Mr. H. Werninck, liberal arts; Mr. W.C. Forster, Queen Victoria's jubilee presents; Mr. W. Brown, in charge of the British Pavilion garden; Mr. Arthur Smith, general foreman.

On April 23, 1903, the royal commission of King Edward VII was issued at Whitehall under His Majesty's royal sign, appointing the following commissioners to the Louisiana Purchase Exposition:

The Prince of Wales; Arthur Wellesley, Viscount Peel; Victor Albert
George, Earl of Jersey; Richard George Penn, Earl Howe; Bernard Edward
Barnaby, Baron Castletown; George Arbuthnot, Baron Inverclyde; Richard
Barnaby, Baron Alverstone; John, Baron Avebury; Horace Cruzon Plunkett;
Charles Napier Lawrence; Sir Charles William Fremantle; Sir George
Hayter Chubb; Sir Edward John Poynter; Sir Charles Rivers Wilson; Sir
Edward Maunde Thompson; Sir William Henry Preece; Sir William Turner
Thiselton-Deyer; Sir Herbert Jekyll; Sir Lawrence Alma Tadema; Sir
Caspar Purdon Clarke; Sir George Thomas Livesey; Henry Hardinge; Samuel
Cunyghame; Edward Austin Abbey; Charles Vernon Boys; Thomas Brock;
George Donaldson; Clement Le Neve Foster; John Clarke Hawkshaw; Thomas
Graham Jackson; William Henry Maw; Francis Grant Ogilvie; William
Quiller Orchardson; Boverton Redwood; Alfred Gordon Salamon; Joseph
Wilson Swan; Jethro Justinian Harris; Teall, and Francis William Webb.

Col. Charles Moore Watson was appointed secretary to the commission. Subsequently, on the 6th of June, 1903, Sir John Benjamin Stone, M.P., was appointed additional commissioner.

At the first meeting of the royal commission, held at Marlborough House on the 28th of April, 1903, His Royal Highness the Prince of Wales, K. G., made a speech showing the interest that was felt in the exposition generally throughout Great Britain.

The interest taken in the exposition by Great Britain was exemplified strikingly in the amount of space which she occupied in the various exhibition buildings, amounting in the aggregate to no less than 206,642 superficial feet, of which only 8,000 feet was occupied by the Royal Pavilion. An idea of the vast scope of the exhibit may be learned from the following table, which gives the amount of space in each of the various exhibit palaces occupied by Great Britain's display:

                               Superficial feet.
Education …………………. 6,500
Social economy …………….. 810
                                 ———- 7,310
Art ……………………………… 20,872
Liberal arts ……………………… 35,500
Manufactures ……………………… 58,000
Electricity ………………………. 5,960
Transportation ……………………. 33,500
Agriculture ………………………. 20,400
Horticulture ……………………… 500
Forestry, Fish, and Game …………… 3,900
Mines and Metallurgy ………………. 11,700
Physical Culture ………………….. 1,000

In making choice of an interesting type to be followed in the British Royal Pavilion at the Louisiana Purchase Exposition, it was felt that the Orangery of the Royal Palace of Kensington would be representative of English domestic building at one of its happiest periods, and a tribute also to the memory of the great architect, Sir Christopher Wren. In the Orangery of Kensington was found a building that could be strictly reproduced to its real size. The Orangery was 170 feet long and had a range of sash windows uninterrupted by doorways, the central and end windows having stall boards under them, making the entrances. The long line of roof was broken only by the three brick parapets or pediments, the center one being carried on half-round columns and pilasters of gauged brickwork. The walls were of red brick and stock brick spaced out with design, imitation white stone being sparingly introduced in cornices or keystones to give a note of white in the color scheme. The long hall ended in circular anterooms. In the replica, at St. Louis, of Wren's building, the only departure from the original was the introduction of an enriched plaster ceiling, such as would be found in a house of the period; the real Orangery was left bare and whitewashed.

The architects used the Orangery as the principal front to a quadrangular building, the necessary offices and accommodation for royal commissioners and executive staff being provided in wings that led from the two circular anterooms. The fourth side of the open court was made by a colonnade, the royal arms being above the central opening. The character and details of the Orangery were carried through as far as possible, so that harmony and unity was given to this pleasant composition.

In the garden surrounding the pavilion an attempt was made to reproduce on a small scale the style of garden that was generally attached to the mansion residences in England during the reign of William III and Mary, in the latter part of the seventeenth century, and at the time of Queen Anne, in the early part of the eighteenth century. The old-fashioned garden with characteristic features of shady terraces of "peached alleys," as they would be called, inclosed by hedges clipped into shapes and embellished with topiary work with the forms of animals and birds cut out of yews and boxes attracted much attention. The garden was filled with old-fashioned flowers. A water basin and fountain, typical of the old English gardens, were there, as also were stone statues and lead urns and vases. The garden became one of the sights of the exposition and was usually crowded with interested and delighted sightseers.

His Majesty King Edward VII was graciously pleased to lend the Queen Victoria jubilee presents to the exposition. The valuable and unique collection was placed in the upper story of the Hall of Congresses, one of the permanent stone buildings, now a part of the Washington University, and, according to the terms of loan, admission was free to the public. The royal presents included in the collection chiefly consisted of gifts made to Her Majesty the late Queen Victoria on the occasion of the jubilee celebrations of 1887 and 1897. Of these, the greater number came from India, where native princes of all grades and representatives of all nationalities and religions vied with each other in offering to her majesty the splendid tribute of her Indian Empire.

These Indian presents were of great interest, not merely on account of the precious metals and rare woods in which they were worked, but as showing how in recent years European ideas have influenced native Indian art, which, in many instances, was represented in its most characteristic and unaffected form.

The remainder of the collection included gifts offered by the representatives of the British colonies, many of them richly illuminated addresses, inclosed in caskets handsomely worked in metal or in native woods, or, as in the case of Cape Colony, which was represented by a magnificent screen of ostrich feathers, by objects recalling an important industry of the colony. These presents formed only a small proportion of the thousands sent from every part of the British Empire.

The presents were guarded night and day by members of the constabulary force of the city of London. Policemen from the same body patrolled the British Pavilion and grounds. The uniform courtesy of these men and their patience in answering the many questions put to them by a curious public spoke well for the corps which they represented.

The grant voted by the British Government for participation at the Louisiana Purchase Exposition was £150,000. Private exhibitors bore all the expense connected with the collection, installation, and maintenance of their exhibits.

GOVERNMENT OF GUATEMALA.

The small but artistic pavilion erected by the Government of Guatemala was situated at the extreme northern end of the World's Fair grounds, just east of the Administration Building and beside the pavilion of the Argentine Republic. It was intended as an exhibit palace, with the object of installing all the Guatemalan exhibits, as well as being a bureau of information.

In its exterior facade appeared an extensive, semicircular peristyle, sustained by columns of the renaissance style, and in front two doors leading to the two rooms into which the building was divided. In the upper part of the middle of the doors was placed the national shield, with the American flag on the right and the Guatemalan ensign on the left, both surrounding the bust of Extrada Cabrera, the present President of this wealthy and prosperous section of Central America.

The salon to the left was decorated with pictures by Guatemalan artists and had other artistic features, such as native pottery, statuettes, etc. Here every afternoon the coffee for which Guatemala is so justly famous was served to visitors. In the same room also were placed an extensive collection of newspapers and a series of literary works, scientific and didactic, by Guatemalan authors.

In the department to the right, arranged very tastefully and skillfully, were samples of valuable products, demonstrating the agricultural and mineral wealth of Guatemala. Among the exhibits was a collection of specimens of all classes of coffee, arranged in 160 receptacles and two small crystal columns. A magnificent collection of 186 specimens of cabinet work wood, beautiful in construction and coloring, attracted much attention by its wonderful variety.

The mineralogical section was not so extensive as that devoted to wood, but it showed magnificent specimens from the gold mines, also samples of silver, copper, lead, isinglass, coal, marble, kaolin, etc. Another installation showed some samples of native beer of excellent quality. There were also samples of rum and brandies, distilled from sugar cane and native fruits, among these products being the "banana whisky," a delicious liquor, exhibited for the first time to the public. The manufacture of this whisky is a new industry, and promises an excellent future.

The cereal and grain section was notable for the great variety of corn, frejols, wheat, barley, etc. The famous cocoas known by the name of "Socomusco," and which since the earliest time have been recognized as among the best produced on the continent, were also represented in this section, as well as sugar, which is being produced in the country in respectable quantities. The attention of visitors was attracted by the silk (or "ceiba") cotton, installed in the same section. It is remarkable for fineness, softness, and special color. It is locally known as "Algodon de Cajeta."

The extensive and variegated collection of roots, barks, and medicinal plants constituted a special section. Among them were different kinds of quinine, sarsaparilla, ipecacuana, and other herbs. Elastic or "india rubber," stearin, gums, vanilla, etc., made up an interesting exhibition of native products. Tobacco, similar to the kind grown in Cuba, which is produced in great abundance in Guatemala, was presented in its various processes of development, from the native leaf to the finished cigar or cigarette. Samples of fibers, grasses, flowers, roots, and palms were shown in abundance. From the palms of Guatemala are manufactured the so-called "Panama hats." Visitors were much interested in their extreme lightness and the uniformity of tissue of the Guatemalan hand-made straw hats.

The building was erected at a cost of $10,000. This sum included ornamentation and the landscape gardening. The cost of the exhibits, freight, and installation was approximately $10,000, and the expenses of the commission extant during the exposition was estimated at $5,000. This brought up the expenditure to the amount appropriated by the Guatemalan Government for the expenses of the exhibit.

The exhibit was authorized by a decree issued by the President of
Guatemala appointing the commission to represent the Government at the
St. Louis Universal Exposition, dated the 7th of April, 1904, which
reads as follows:

The constitutional President of the Republic has resolved that the official representation of Guatemala at the Universal Exposition of St. Louis shall be in charge of the legation of this Republic at Washington, D.C., and designates Mr. Carlos F. Irigoyen as special commissioner to be in charge of the exhibition, and appoints Mr. Manuel M. Jiron as attendant to the commission and to have charge of the degustation of our coffee. Mr. Jiron shall receive orders from the special commissioner, who in turn shall receive his instructions from the minister of fomento.

HAITI.

Members of Haiti commission.—Mr. J.N. Léger, president; Mr. Edmond Roumain, commissioner-general; Mr. Joseph Duque, commissioner; Mr. Price Mars, commissioner.

The participation of the Government of Haiti in the Louisiana Purchase Exposition was decided by the deliberation of the ministerial council, presided over by the President of the country. The decision was taken previously in 1901, under the former government of Gen. Tiresias Simon Sam, and maintained by the actual government of Gen. Nord Alexis, in February and March of this year. The amount of the appropriation by the Haitian Government spent in its exhibit was $50,000.

Haiti unfortunately arrived too late at the fair to construct a special building, but installed excellent exhibits in the Forestry, Fish, and Game Building and in the Palace of Mines and Metallurgy.

The Haitian exhibit at the World's Fair was located in the southwestern section of the Forestry, Fish, and Game Building, next the California exhibit, and covered a space of 30 by 75 feet. In the center was a beautiful pavilion in which the following species of native woods were represented: Mahogany, Santa Maria, tacha, rosewood, and tavernon. The woods most used in the construction were mahogany and Santa Maria. Most of the panels and all of the columns were made of these two woods, and they blended in such a manner that they looked as if they were one and the same wood. The other varieties were used in the smaller decorations. The object in making the pavilion was to show the native cabinet woods of Haiti, especially that of Santa Maria, a wood which very much resembles mahogany. Four columns of the pavilion were made of Santa Maria, one of mahogany, and one partly of each. In the pavilion were served coffee and cocoa, native products.

Just at the rear of the pavilion was a display of imported liquors and sirups from the land of Haiti, including anisette, maraschuino, repikes, creme de menthe, sirup d'orfeat, sirup de granadine, and crême de cocoa; also triple-distilled bay rum and rum of good quality from four distilleries in Haiti. On either side were glass cases in which were shown other interesting exhibits. First a collection of cigars and of beeswax in molds. Next a sectional case containing, samples of cotton mapon, used for the filling of mattresses and pillows. Then the cocoa bean; also coffee taken from the cherry, peanuts, sugar from the sugar cane, and bottled honey. In the next case were hides, leather, and a collection of fine shoes made in Haiti. Next to this case was a display of coffee beans and an interesting exhibit of hats made from palm leaves and corn husks. The chairs were made from the osier, or water willow. In the rear was a cabin made from the natural woods imported from Haiti. The roof was covered with palm leaves. The entrance was draped with an American flag on the, left and the red and blue flag of Haiti on the right. This Haitian; flag was made entirely by hand. In the interior was a fine collection of hand-carved vases, pedestals, mortar and pestles, bowls, urns, and tobacco boxes.

HONDURAS.

Members of Honduras commission.—Mr. Salvador Cordova, commissioner-general; Mr. Howard S. Reed, executive commissioner; Mr. Alejandro Bauer, assistant commissioner.

In the Palace of Agriculture, surrounded by a tropical bower of graceful palms and thousands of yards of long gray Spanish moss, was shown a collective exhibit of the wondrous and little known country of Honduras, Central America. Upon all sides the visitor was confronted by most curious and interesting samples of its varied resources. Crowds were constantly gathered about the rubber tree with its white, milk-like sap, and everyone seemed interested in the great bales of dried raw rubber, while questions, opinions, and discussions were many regarding this little known raw product. Even the great scarlet and blue macaw, from his high perch overhead, joined in with wild screeches when the crowds got too noisy.

Curious bales of sarsaparilla wrapped in white cowhide, great clusters of cocoanuts in their thick hulls, long tables with hundreds of specimens of dug plants and medicinal barks and roots, attracted curious crowds. The banana bulbs and stalks, 20 feet high, eleven months' growth, with the fruit which they had produced, gave the visitor an idea of what is possible by systematic culture, as a banana plantation with the proper care will produce fifty-two crops a year, which means a cutting every week. The consumption of the banana has increased with greater rapidity than any other fruit, and it occupies a position second to none as a food and fruit. The sarsaparilla in its original packing case was unique, and it represented its share in the country's exportations. Honduras sarsaparilla has taken the highest award at the last five expositions.

The cocoanut in its fibrous hull was a surprise to many, as the market shows them only clear of the hull. It is said that each cocoanut tree in Honduras averages about 365 nuts a year, or a nut each day. Brazil nuts were shown, with their hard outside shell, in which some 15 to 20 of the nuts are closely packed.

Of the 400 specimens of cabinet woods which were displayed, only about 100 are known to commercial uses; the rest are awaiting development. In this exhibit were the woods which neither burn nor float. Lignum-vitae, which is one of the heaviest woods known to science, and used extensively in the manufacture of mallets, etc., was displayed; also the San Juan wood, which has lately been discovered, and is found extensively on the coast. This wood is practically non-combustible, and is said to be the coming wood for car building, furniture, and interior finishing, being susceptible of a high polish. The mahogany, for which Honduras is noted, was shown in many varieties, as were rosewood, redwood, hard pine, cedar, etc.

The exhibit of native drug plants received special recognition. Among other herbs were the Peruvian and cinchona-bark quinine, rhubarb, vegetable wax, and many others unknown to science. Sugar planters were astounded at the cane only three months old and 12 feet high, grown without cultivation, and stalks were exhibited 24 feet high of twelve months' growth. At present there is not a sugar refinery in the country.

The ores exhibited were many specimens of quartz and placer gold, silver, lead, copper, and magnetic iron, of which there is practically an inexhaustible supply. The work of the natives was shown in hats, baskets, hammocks, etc., being of a high order of perfection. Many of the finest panama hats are made by the Indians in Honduras. The different kinds of sisal and hemp shown were pronounced by manufacturers to be of the very highest grade.

Many people, when the name Honduras, Central America, is mentioned, think of a far-away land untrodden by man. As a matter of fact, it was pointed out that it is not as far from New Orleans to Honduras as it is from St. Louis to either New York or Boston.

HUNGARY.

Several causes prevented an appropriation by Parliament for Hungary's participation at the Universal Exposition held in St. Louis; consequently the royal Hungarian minister of commerce, anxious that Hungary should be represented at the Congress of Nations in St. Louis, decided to furnish a sufficient sum out of funds at his disposal to make this participation possible.

Acting upon this decision, he appointed George de Szogyeny, LL.D., at that time commissioner of commerce, and accredited to the State Department in Washington, D.C., as commissioner-general, and commissioned the Hungarian Society of Fine Arts and the Hungarian Society of Applied Arts to arrange the exhibits in the Fine Arts Building and to arrange for the exhibit of applied arts.

The Hungarian Society of Applied Arts sent Paul Horti as its representative. Mr. Paul Horti is a well known art critic of Hungary. Mr. R.E. Rombauer was also a member of the commission.

The cost of Hungary's participation was approximately 200,000 crowns.
The value of exhibits was as follows:

Fine arts, 150,000 crowns; applied arts in the Manufactures Building, 600,000 crowns. There were other individual exhibits scattered through the palaces of Agriculture, Mines and Metallurgy, and Education, but they represented only a small value.

EAST INDIA.

The government of India and the provincial governments of Bengal, Assam, and Mysore jointly contributed the sum of 105,000 rupees (equivalent to about $35,000), and the Indian Tea Association, Indian Tea Cess Committee, and the United Planters' Association of southern India, contributed 90,000 rupees (equal to about $30,000) for the erection of a building and expenses attendant on the work of the exhibition proper, which was designed to promote and encourage the use of India tea and coffee in America. When it was decided that India should take part in the exhibition, exhibitors of Indian manufactures, for whom no space had been reserved in the exhibition palaces, were referred by the government of India, the exhibition authorities, and by the British royal commission to the commissioners in charge, and their exhibits, together with those made of tea, coffee, cardamoms, and pepper, were installed in the government building and formed practically the entire exhibit from India.

Mr. R. Blechynden was the only executive officer appointed for East India. F.C. Williams, of New York, was subsequently appointed as honorary assistant commissioner.

The exhibit would not have been made but for the urgent request of those representing the tea interests, through the Bengal Chamber of Commerce, and it was intended primarily and mainly for the exploitation of Indian teas in America, thus finding a wider market for their use. In addition to the erection of a building and the serving of tea in liquid form to the visitors at a nominal charge, a considerable fund was set apart for advertising the merits of these teas in the Middle West. Part of this sum was expended during the continuance of the exhibition, and the work was all coordinated and in the hands of the commissioner. The exploitation may continue for several years. Advertisements have appeared in newspapers in St. Louis, Omaha, Chicago, Columbus, Indianapolis, Cincinnati, Louisville, and many other smaller towns. The aggregate of expenditure in the next few years will be much more than set apart for the exhibition.

All of the East India exhibits were contributed by individuals and were confined to the East India Building, but were grouped under the heads of art, liberal arts, manufactures, and agriculture.

ITALY.

Members of Italian commission.—His Excellency Baron E. Mayor des Planches, honorary commissioner-general; Mr. Giovanni Branchi, commissioner-general; Mr. Adolfo Appoloni, commissioner of fine arts; Chev. Vittorio Zeggio; Mr. Guido Pantaleoni; Mr. Alberto Alfani, Mr. Tullio Giordana, Mr. Cesare Della Chiesa, Mr. Jerome Zeggio, secretaries; Mr. Giuseppe Sommarauga, architect of the pavilion.

The Italian pavilion was one of the most artistic and beautiful, if not one of the smallest, foreign buildings on the World's Fair grounds. It was a construction of Roman travertine stone, ornamented with bronze and marble sculptures. It was an architectonic fancy, Graeco-Roman, on the style of the ancient villas of the emperors of the Caesarian age, with garden and fountains.

The front colonnade ended in two stout lateral "pillars," crowned by two "victories" of gilded bronze (a work by Bialetti, of Milan), one of which bore the Italian laurel and the others the olive branch, as a token of peace and welfare.

After ascending the first stairs, about 90 feet wide, and passing through all the colonnade of ionic style, was the garden where the ancient Romans used to grow their laurel, an image of glory.

The building was erected on a strong base more than 15 feet high, with another flight of stairs more than 45 feet wide.

The front was formed by a central body of the Corinthian style of the best epoch, flanked by two lower parts ornamented by marble and bronze works. The caryatides of the three latticed windows were authentic copies of the ancient caryatides of Greek origin now in the Castle of Abano, near Rome.

In the hall, together with cases and various ancient works, there was a faithful copy of the famous Etruscan vase called "Of François," belonging to the gallery of Florence, and a good copy in marble of the Roman group of wrestlers. Also in the same halls, in the cavities at the end under the frieze, with the inscription in Roman characters, "Italia lux alma preevit," were two great oil paintings of their Royal Majesties the King and Queen of Italy.

This monument of art was the work of Giuseppe Sommarauga, architect, of Milan, who had also the task of originating and directing all the principal decorations made and shipped from Italy.

The participation of Italy at the Louisiana Purchase Exposition was authorized by a law of the Italian Parliament dated December 27, 1903. The participation was prepared by the department of agriculture, industry, and commerce, under the direct supervision of the minister, Hon. Luigi Rava. A special committee was appointed for that purpose by the King, and the Hon. Angelo Pavis, a prominent member of the Italian Parliament, was elected chairman of the committee. The Italian ambassador to the United States, the Baron Edmondo Mayor des Planches, who advised the Italian Government to let Italy appear officially at the exposition, was appointed honorary commissioner-general, and Hon. Giovanni Branchi, the Italian consul-general in New York, was appointed commissioner-general. Adolfo Appoloni, one of the members of the royal commission in Rome, was appointed special commissioner for fine arts, and Mr. Branchi chose as members of the commission Guido Pantaleoni, electrical engineer, of St. Louis, and Chev. Vittorio Zeggio, who was special delegate from the Louisiana Purchase Exposition, to promote the participation of Italy to the World's Fair. Besides these members of the commission four secretaries and several assistants helped the commission in the work of arranging and distributing the different exhibits.

The appropriation of the Italian Government for the exposition was 650,000 lire ($130,000), but this appropriation was raised in progress to 800,000 lire ($170,000). A small fee of $4 per square meter was assessed to the exhibitors, but the artists and the schools had nothing to pay. No private contributions were accepted by the Government. The Government paid the cost of transporting and maintenance of exhibits, which amounted to about $30,000. The number of exhibitors was about 1,100. Many more firms would have sent their products to this exposition had they had time to arrange a fitting display. For this reason the Italian display was not a full demonstration of what Italy produces.

The largest Italian displays were in the Fine Arts, the Manufactures, and the Agriculture buildings. The paintings and the sculptures exhibited were sufficient to give an idea of the modern art in Italy. They were all quite recent, with the exception of some pictures exhibited as loan, which were painted before the Chicago Exposition. The largest and most important art societies of Italy took a great interest in the exposition, but lack of time prevented the artists from preparing special works to be exhibited. The spirit of modern Italian art was individual, all working for the development of a national art. Among the sculptures were Monteverde, Fontana, Origo, and Romanelli. Among the painters, Previati, Rizzi, Mancini, Gioli, Morbelli, Dall'Oca Bianca Laurenti, Ciardi, Fattori de Karolis, Nomellini, Gelli, etc.

In the Manufactures Building the exhibits of carved wood furniture was displayed, together with ceramics, pottery, marble, bronzes, silks, textiles, laces, embroideries, paving bricks, and many other exhibits of great importance. Among the show cases was a large and artistic one, in which was exhibited the silk factories' display.

In the Agriculture Building Italy had a large display of samples of the many kinds of wines and olive oils it produces, and there was a large display of seeds sent by the department of agriculture.

In the Mines Building a beautiful collection of marbles and sulphur showed the wealth of the under-soil resources of Italy.

The photographs, the plans, and the maps of the electrical power houses and diverting works for the production of electricity in the Electricity Building attracted many visitors.

In the Transportation Building the Rete Mediterranes, one of the railroads that operates in Italy, exhibited the electrical system used on some of its lines.

One of the best and most important Italian exhibits was in the Educational and Social Economy Building. In both these lines Italy stood among the most progressive nations in the world. The results of the schools, the people's banks and savings banks, and the mutual help societies were an excellent demonstration.

In the Liberal Arts were to be seen musical instruments, books, and products of the paper factories.

Corals, cameos, and mosaics were exhibited in the Varied Industries
Building, and some of them were remarkable works of art.

JAPAN.

On July 10, 1903, an imperial ordinance for the organization of the imperial Japanese commission to the Louisiana Purchase Exposition was issued by the Mikado to the effect that the imperial commission to the Louisiana Purchase Exposition should be under the supervision of the minister of state for agriculture and commerce, and should deal with all the matters relating to the participation of the Japanese Empire in the Louisiana Purchase Exposition; that the imperial commission should consist of the following:

Nonresident: Baron Keigo Kiyoura, president; Baron Masanao Matsudaira, vice-president. Resident: Mr. Seiichi Tegima, commissioner-general; Mr. Hiromichi Shugio; Mr. Ushitaro Beppu; Mr. Naozo Kanzaki. Nonresident commissioners: Mr. Hajime Ota, Mr. Haruke Yamawaki, Mr. Masanao Hanihara, Mr. M. Isobe, Mr. J. Koyama, Mr. M. Oka, Mr. Okamoto. Resident: Mr. Keisuke Niwa, director of works; Mr. Yukio Itchikawa, landscape architect; Mr. Saizo Tajima; Prof. Yoshitaro Wantanabe; Mr. Mosuke Matsumura, secretary education department; Mr. Kannosuke Miyashima, expert home department. Secretaries (resident): Mr. Harukazu Miyabe, Mr. Michio Hattori, Mr. Toyozo Kobayashi. Attachés (resident): Mr. Shun Suzuki, Mr. Kiro Harada, Mr. Teiichiro Gejyo, Mr. Risaburo Ota.

Beginning with the international exposition held at Vienna in 1873, and including the Louisiana Purchase Exposition, Japan has participated in twenty-seven world's fairs. Her participation in the exposition at St. Louis was more memorable in many respects than at any preceding exposition. In the first place, the exhibits never before occupied such an extensive area. It was three times as large as that occupied by Japan at the Chicago World's Fair of 1893 and the Paris Exposition of 1900, respectively. In each department where Japan took any part at the fair her location was excellent. The enthusiasm of Japanese manufacturers and traders in their desire to participate in the exposition was so intense that despite the effort of the Government to discriminate between numerous applicants the quantity of exhibits was swelled to such an extent that it was a matter of no small difficulty to find places for all the articles sent in for exhibition. Notwithstanding the fact that there was only a short period of nine months between Japan's decision to participate and the opening of the fair, and that in the course of that comparatively short period the rupture of friendly relations between Russia and Japan greatly handicapped the latter's endeavors concerning the exposition, the officials and exhibitors pursued their preconceived plan without an interruption. In view of such disadvantages, the promptness and accuracy with which articles were brought into their destination, arranged, and displayed seasonably in proper form may well be regarded as remarkable. By the time the gates of the fair were thrown open to the public the display had been well-nigh completed, to the gratification of the Exposition Company and the Japanese exhibitors.

When Japan was first invited to take part in the exposition she was busily engaged in preparing for the Fifth National Exhibition held in the city of Osaka. For that reason she declined reluctantly to accept the invitation; but as the inauguration of the Louisiana Purchase Exposition was consequently postponed until the 1st day of May, 1904, Japan was later enabled to accept the invitation.

Early in the year 1904 the imperial Government sent a corps of officials to St. Louis to select a suitable location for the Government buildings, and to apply for space in the various departments of the exposition. Due to the prompt attention of the Japanese Government and the courtesy of the managers of the exposition, the desired arrangements were accomplished without the slightest difficulty. A bill appropriating $400,000 to be expended for the exposition was passed by both houses of the legislature, and in July, 1903, the Government formally notified the Exposition Company at St. Louis that Japan would be represented at the fair.

The Japanese commission for the exposition took great care not to accept for exhibition any articles which had mere virtue of novelty, without practical value, or any articles not produced in large volume. The idea of the Government in employing such discrimination was to so plan the exhibition that it would leave some lasting effects after the exposition upon the world's trade and commerce. The exhibition of matters relating to education was executed under the direct supervision of the department of education, and was so planned as to make it represent a complete system of the education now in vogue in Japan. In regard to the exhibitions of mines, fish, forestry, agriculture, and horticulture, the department of agriculture and commerce exercised the authority of deciding what articles should be displayed. The arrangement of articles exhibited in various departments of the exposition was made so that those independent of the Japan Exhibits Association were arranged by individual exhibitors under the supervision of the Japanese commission, while others were set out in proper order by the association.

There was no department or palace in which Japan did not exhibit. Displays on an especially elaborate scale, however, could be found in the following eleven palaces, namely: Palaces of Education and Social Economy, Fine Arts, Liberal Arts, Manufactures, Varied Industries, Transportation, Mines, Forestry, Fish, and Game, Electricity, and Agriculture. The total area of space of the Japanese sections in these departments was distributed among different sections as follows:

                                                    Square feet.
Palace of Education …………………………. 6,299
Palace of Fine Arts …………………………. 6,825
Palace of Liberal Arts ………………………. 400
Palace of Industry ………………………….. 27,384
Palace of Manufactures ………………………. 54,737
Palace of Transportation …………………….. 14,160
Palace of Electricity ……………………….. 1,100
Palace of Mines …………………………….. 6,903
Palace of Forestry, Fish, and Game ……………. 2,982
Palace of Agriculture ……………………….. 8,667
                                                    ———-
       Total ……………………………….. 129,457

Besides the above areas in the various departments, a garden of a genuine Japanese style covered an extensive space of ground, in which stood the Government building. Attached to it was a reception hall and several artistic mansions. Displays of Japanese garden and floricultural arts were exhibited in the garden. In the reception hall were exhibited various data showing the growth and present status of the Red Cross Society of Japan. Altogether, the dimension of space taken by Japan for the garden aggregated approximately 148,361 square feet. Artistically distributed within the precincts of the garden were the reception hall, the office building, the Formosa tea house, the Kinkaku tea house, and several cottages and a bazaar. Hills and waterfalls, ponds and bridges were presented in miniature scale. In the verdant lawns flowers of different colors were all harmonized into an artistic unit in unique landscape gardening. Beautifully trained dwarf trees, centuries old, were brought from Japan for the special purpose of ornamenting the garden. There were also the drooping wisteria and gay peony, the scented lily and blushing maple.

The building materials for the reception hall, the office building, and resting cottages were brought from Japan. The reception hall was built entirely by native carpenters, after the style of a daimyo's goten (palace of feudal lord) of some six hundred years ago. The architectural style of the building was what is termed Heike, a style prevailing at the time when a military family called Heike held a paramount power. The artistically curved roofs, projecting one upon another, were a modest representation of architectural accomplishment already attained in Japan several centuries ago. Hanging on the inner wall of the hall was the portrait of Her Majesty the Empress of Japan, and occupying a section of the room were the exhibits of the Red Cross Society of Japan, in which the Empress takes a keen interest. The resting cottage was modeled after a cottage in a shogun's (military magistrate) garden, two or three centuries ago. Close to the south bank of the lake was a small reproduction of Kinkaku Temple. Close to the right of the front gate of the garden stood the Formosa mansion, a fair representation of characteristic native dwellings. The Kinkaku Temple was built under the auspices of the Japan Tea Traders' Association, and the Formosa mansion by the initiative of the Formosa government.

MEXICO.

Members of Mexico commission.—Engineer Albino R. Nuncio, commissioner-general; Mr. Benito Navarro, assistant to the commissioner-general; Mr. Juan Renteria, assistant to the commissioners general; Engineer Lauro Viadas, chief department of agriculture; Mr. Daniel R. De la Vega, assistant to the chief; Mr. Isidoro Aldasoro, chief department of art and ethnology; Mr. Leopoldo Tell and Mr. Octavio Andrade, assistants to the chief; Mr. Maximiliano M. Chabert, chief department of liberal arts; Mr. Alberto Ocampo, assistant to the chief; Mr. Julio Poulat, chief department of education; Mr. Manuel Costa, assistant to the chief; Mr. Enrique Garibay, chief department of forestry, fish, and game; Mr. Jorge Salazar, assistant to the chief; Mr. J. Alberto MacDowell, chief department of horticulture; Mr. J.M. Nuncio, chief department of manufactures; Mr. Antonio Sierra Cruz, assistant to the chief; Engineer Eduardo Mantinez Baca, chief department of mines and metallurgy; Mr. Miguel Peinado, assistant to the chief; Maj. S. Garcia Cuellar, chief department of transportation; Lieut. Manuel Garcia Lugo and Lieut. Jose Ortiz Monasterio, assistants to the chief; Mrs. Laura M. De Cuenca, Dr. Plutarco Ornelas, Prof Teofilo Frezieres, Mr. E.H. Talbot, Mr. Jose M. Trigo De Claver, Mr. Roberto Garcia, Mr. Jose A. Bonilla.

The amounts voted by the Mexican Congress, according to dates since the organization of the work, for the participation of Mexico at the Universal Exposition of St. Louis, were as follows:

October 22, 1901 …………………………. $50,000
July 1, 1902 …………………………….. 70,000
November 23, 1902 ………………………… 15,000
July 1, 1903 …………………………….. 90,000
December 3, 1903 …………………………. 250,000
July 1, 1904 …………………………….. 100,000
November, 1904 …………………………… 300,000
                                                ————
   Total ………………………………… 875,000

The Mexican exhibit in the department of education, as a whole, demonstrated the remarkable development of public instruction from primary to scientific, and at the same time the progress made by adopting new plans and systems. The exhibit as a whole could also be studied in detail by looking over the regulations, plans of study, statistics, texts, etc., which were displayed there.

The Gallery No. 94 of the west pavilion of the Fine Arts Building was the one assigned by the Exposition Company to the exhibition of fine arts from the Republic of Mexico. This small gallery contained 38 oil paintings, 2 pen drawings, and 2 sculptures. The paintings belonged to 11 exhibitors.

The importance of the exhibition as relates to the art cultivated in Mexico was represented by the famous works of the Artist Fabres, which attracted a great deal of attention.

In the Palace of Liberal Arts Mexico exhibited technical works and diversified industrial products. Among the most important were those of official character, such as geographical maps, the system used for the illumination of the seashores, the construction of buildings for special works, etc. Also plans and constructions of architectural character from' prominent architects of Mexico.

Displayed here were exhibits from the manufactures of drugs and chemical products, perfumes, paper, printing and binding companies, and many others comprised in the extensive official classification. One most important exhibit was that of chemical products and pharmacy.

Another very important branch of liberal arts, and very well developed, was that of photography. Very remarkable works of the most expert photographers of the country were exhibited.

In the Department of Manufactures the industrial concerns from Mexico were represented as follows: The cotton and woolen mills, which have greatly developed in the Republic; the leather and shoe industry was well demonstrated by a number of factories which exhibited their products; there were also shown a number of samples from the manufacture of furniture and decorating fixtures for buildings and residences.

Full information about the railroad lines, general railroad map, and great number of photographs of the most important points on the lines, plaster models of the Tehuantepec Railroad connecting the two oceans, and statistical information of the railroad development were exhibited in the Transportation Building. Models of light-houses and original light-houses that will be used in the Vera Cruz Harbor were displayed also, as well as models of the harbors of Mazanillo, Salina, Curz, Coatzacoalcos, and Tampico. Tools, bags, scales, etc., used in the mail service, and statistical information of the development of the service were shown, as were carriages, harness, saddles, and all kinds of implements used for driving and riding.

The war department had a general display of educational methods used in the military and naval academies, and maps, military library, improvements invented by some member of the army and samples of materials made by its factories.

In the Electricity Building were maps and reports of the most important electrical installations of the country.

In the Machinery Hall were displayed machines made in the factories of the army for the manufacture of cartridges, and antiscaling substance.

Among the Mexican exhibits at St. Louis, the largest number was in the Agricultural Building, where the display occupied over 900 square feet of space. The exhibits made by the three leading breweries of Mexico was noticeable as to elegance and artistic good taste. Great importance was attached to the exhibits of leaf and manufactured tobacco. The coffee exhibit attracted general attention.

The exhibit of fibers, especially that of Henequen, from Yucatan, was very important and complete, the last named being the cause of flourishing trade with the United States. The exhibit of sugar showed the great resources of Mexico in this product. A splendid exhibit of Mexican vanila attracted the attention of all visitors. The exhibit of agronomical maps by the Mexican Commission was of much scientific value, and the collection of insects and injurious parasitical plants was also worthy of attention.

The Mexican exhibit in the Department of Forestry, Fish and Game consisted of 600 specimens, arranged and classified by the Medical and National Institute of Mexico, and attracted considerable attention. The magnificent exhibit of animals and stuffed birds was also admired. The exhibit was arranged and presented by the Geographical Commission of Mexico. The collection of woods presented by the governments of the States of Colima, Durahgo, Mexico, Puebla, San Luis Potosi, Michoacan, Yucatan, and the department of fomento was noticeable for the diversity of kinds of woods forming the collection, amounting to 800. The exhibit of broom root from Mexico was the only one of its kind in all the Department of Forestry, and concerning which the largest number of inquiries was made.

In the Palace of Mines and Metallurgy Mexico occupied 13,000 square feet of space. A great variety of ores and minerals was displayed, viz, gold, silver, lead, iron, copper, antimony, zinc, etc. The number of exhibitors amounted to 330. The Geological Institute of Mexico presented maps, geological plans, mineral rocks, publications, etc. Among the latter a very interesting study of the veins of the mines of Pachuca and Real de Monte, also another of the Rhyolitas of Mexico.

The social and economical conditions of the Republic of Mexico were splendidly represented in the Department of Social Economy by numerous official and private publications and photographs. The wise steps taken by the Government, which have changed the economical conditions of the country, constituting an intellectual, material, and positive development, were logically collected according to the department of state to which they belong. The exhibit was completed by a numerous collection of photographs of cities, ports, public buildings, monuments, residences, etc., showing how Mexican cities have been improved and beautified and how the Republic of the south has progressed from a material and artistical standpoint.

NEW ZEALAND.

Members of commission.—Mr. T.E. Donne, representative; Mr. Frederick Moorhouse and Mr. Thomas Clarkson, attachés.

When the New Zealand government received the invitation of the Louisiana Purchase Exposition executive to be represented at the World's Fair the colonial parliament gave the utmost publicity to the proposal and offered to allow any of its business firms a share of the space that was to be placed at its disposal. The tariffs of the United States, however, proved a serious obstacle, as the chief business houses of the young nation failed to see how their interests would be served by advertising in a country which placed a heavy tariff on their goods. However, the executive of the government, recognizing the cordiality of the invitation and with a desire to emphasize its wishes for the closest relationship with the American people, decided to be represented directly by one of its own departments—the department of tourist and health resorts. The chief of that branch of the public service, Mr. T. E. Donne, was therefore authorized to prepare an exhibit setting forth the attractions of New Zealand to tourists and the work the department is doing in that connection. When compiling the exhibit Commissioner Donne represented to his government that it would be advisable also to include a few of the country's general products, and it therefore extended the original idea in this direction.

In the Department of Forestry, Fish, and Game New Zealand had a unique and tastefully arranged display that attracted keenest interest. A collection of Scotch red deer and fallow deer heads testified to the magnificent hunting that is obtained among the virgin forests of New Zealand, and specimens of trout—rainbow, salmon, fario, and fontinalis—taken from the mountain-fed streams that intersect the country from one end to the other appealed to the fishing enthusiast.

Pictures and paintings around the walls were fascinating in that they served to indicate to visitors the character of a country which nature has blessed, when judged from a point of view of the beautiful and picturesque. Mount Cook, majestically rising to a height of nearly 13,000 feet, was shown in paintings and photographs. Lakes Taupo, Te Anau, Wakatipu, Manawapouri, Waikaremona, and others, whose clear, glassy waters, surrounded by verdure-covered hills, gave some idea of the loveliness of New Zealand lakes. The Wanganui River, Milford Sound, one of the world's wonderful fiords, and the canyons known as the Otira and Buller gorges were some of the features that interested the visitors.

The thermal districts were chiefly represented by the great Waimangu geyser and its crater, 21/2 acres in extent, which throws up boiling water, mud, and stones to a height of 1,500 feet, claiming a place as one of the "wonders of the world."

Forestry was represented by beautifully finished ornamental wood and a splendid exhibit of the famous Kauri gum. This gum, which is used principally in the manufacture of varnish, takes an important place among New Zealand products, no less than five million dollars worth being exported last year. Of special interest to ornithologists were the native wingless birds of New Zealand.

The ancient habits of that interesting and progressive race, the Maori, who preceded white people in New Zealand, were shown in some remarkably realistic and unique carvings and paintings. The Maori has long since passed the savage state and has shown his ability to attain the highest stages of modern civilization. The contrast between the position of the Maori in 1840 and in 1904 constitutes a remarkable progress in racial development. Formerly the Maori was a savage, clever and enterprising, but ferocious, cruel, and a cannibal. To-day he tills the soil, speaks English, and sends his children to school and college, where they study for the highest professions, such as medicine, law, teaching, etc. Contact with a highly civilized community has diverted the natural intelligence of the Maori to useful channels, while Christianity has developed the best instincts of a fine race of people. In the to-day the Maori stands side by side with the white man, a welcome comrade in the building of a new nation. Six Maoris occupy positions in the New Zealand legislature, and one is a cabinet minister.

In the Agricultural Building a score of sacks containing wheat, oats, peas, beans, clover, grass seed, etc., paid tribute to the climate and soil of New Zealand. The extreme interest shown by all visitors constituted a very high compliment to the country. The demand by farmers for samples of wheat and oats was great. The attention bestowed by farmers and grain merchants upon the New Zealand grain display had its counterpart in the attitude of women visitors toward the exhibit of woolen rugs and blankets. Its exceptional soil and climate enable the New Zealand farmer to rear sheep with a grade of wool that can seldom be obtained elsewhere. Factories that have been established in the principal cities weave the wool into clothing, rugs, and blankets of an excellent strength and quality. Fleeces, both scoured and greasy, afforded wool experts an opportunity of closely examining the staple in raw material. Other products shown in the Palace of Agriculture were bales of hemp manufactured from New Zealand flax, a very fine sample of hops grown in the Nelson district, rabbit skins packed and ready for export, kegs of tallow, crude petroleum, etc. These served to indicate partially the resources of a wonderfully rich and productive country.

A chief attraction of the New Zealand exhibit was the opportunity it provided Americans for personally interrogating the New Zealand representatives concerning the government of their country. Political economists in America, as in other parts of the world, have in recent years been pointing to New Zealand as a country where a government fulfills its proper functions in caring for the welfare of the whole of the people, where each man and woman takes a recognized and effective part in the making of the laws which govern them, and where high ideals of modern civilization are lived up to.

NORWAY AND SWEDEN.

The Norwegian Storthing (Parliament) on the 20th of January, 1904, failed to pass a bill appropriating funds for Norway's participation in the Louisiana Purchase Exposition. The Government, however, being aware that there would be some individual exhibitors, decided to accept the invitation from the American authorities to have a commission appointed.

By resolution of the Crown Prince Regent on March 25, Frederick L.M. Waage, vice-consul for Sweden and Norway to St. Louis, was appointed commissioner-general for Norway. No Government appropriation and no money was raised by private subscriptions.

Three individual exhibitors displayed goods:

David Andersen, Christiana, in the Varied Industries Building, silverware and enamel. Cost of exhibit, $40,000; installation, $500, transportation, $800.

Chr. Knag, Bergen, furniture of the old Norwegian style in the east wing of the Fine Arts Building. Cost of exhibit, $3,000; transportation, $125.

Nordenfjeldske Kunstindustrimuseum, Dortheim, tapestries, old and new Norwegian patterns and designs by Gerhard Munthe. Cost of exhibit, $10,000; transportation, $35.

Sweden's participation at the Louisiana Purchase Exposition was authorized by the following decree addressed by King Oscar, of Sweden and Norway, to A.R. Akerman, director-general and president of the board of trade, which decree appointed Mr. Akerman commissioner-general to the exposition. The decree gives fully an account of the Swedish participation and was as follows:

Greetings, etc.

Since the President of the United States has invited the governments of other states, including Sweden, to participate in a Universal Exposition in St. Louis, originally intended to be held in 1903, but now being decided to be open during the period from May 1 to December 1, 1904, and we, through gracious proposition, of which a copy is herewith attached, suggested to the Riksdag to appropriate, on an extra budget for 1904, an amount of 120,000 kronor for Sweden's participation in the art and educational exhibits of the exposition has the Riksdag in a communication of May 22, 1903, with reference to the arrangements of expenses of the State budget, eighth section, communicated the following:

The Riksdag had considered the advisability that Sweden be officially represented at the Universal Exposition in St. Louis 1904, especially as this could be supposed as being in line with the desire of the Swedes residing in the United States and serving to strengthen the ties that still unite them with their Fatherland, and in accordance with the expression of the chief of our ecclesiastic department in the minutes of our ministry had the Riksdag embraced the opinion that the official participation of Sweden should embrace the departments of art and education, in which sections our country seems to have especially good possibilities successfully to compete with the greater countries of culture.

In a letter to the Academy of Fine Arts, incorporated in the minutes of our ministry, the three societies of artists had expressed the desire that from the collections of art belonging to the State works of art should be contributed that might be required in order that the exposition in question should give a complete illustration of the development of art in our country. In consequence of this, the Riksdag had considered it necessary to point out the fact that as it has occurred that works of art contributed from the collection of the States to be exhibited at other places at the return of the same were more or less damaged, and that as in consequence of the transport that would be necessary in this case absolute guarantee for the restitution of these works of art in an undamaged condition could hardly be had, doubts seemed to meet as to such a contribution as had been suggested by the societies of artists.

Calling attention to what has just been pointed out, the Riksdag stated that the Riksdag, with consent to our proposition in question regarding the participation of Sweden in the art and educational departments of the Universal Exposition in St. Louis 1904, had appropriated on an extra budget for the year 1904 the sum of 120,000 kronor.

Having had this presented before us, we have, accepting on Sweden's behalf the above-mentioned invitation as far as concerns the art and the educational departments of the exposition, resolved to appoint a committee, who is hereby empowered to take all measures necessary for the participation of Sweden in these departments of the exposition and to transact all business belonging to the same which is not of a nature to be submitted to our gracious consideration; and we have appointed you as president of the committee and as members of the same selected the principal of the technical school of Stockholm, Bror Viktor Adler; the inspector of the common schools at Stockholm, Carl Gustaf Bergman; the vice-general consul, Bror Axel Fredrik Georgii; the assistant professor at Ostermalms public secondary school, Stockholm, Nols Gerhard, Eilhelm Lagerstedt, and the superintendent of the art section of the National Museum, Carl Ludvig Looström.

We, intending to appoint in the future, on the recommendation of the committee, a commissioner for Sweden at the exposition, herewith empower the committee to appoint a secretary and necessary assistants and in as far as it is found necessary to secure the cooperation of persons whose insight and ability can secure for Sweden a successful and honorable representation at the exposition.

Finally, we authorize the committee to collect after the beginning of 1904, at our exchequer department, the above-mentioned amount appropriated by the Riksdag to be used as demands require for the purpose intended, with the obligation to account for same and with the understanding that the committee assumes the responsibility that this amount under no circumstances is exceeded; and we have ordered the exchequer department to pay from moneys on hand in advance, on requisition and to be deducted from the mentioned appropriation, what is necessary to carry on the work of the committee during the year 1903, not exceeding an amount of 20,000 kronor. Which we herewith communicate for your knowledge and abeyance as far as you are concerned, at the same time as a gracious letter is sent to the exchequer department.

PERU.

For the representation of Peru at the Louisiana Purchase Exposition, the Peruvian Government appropriated approximately $100,000. The President of Peru appointed Mr. Alexander Garland, a distinguished Peruvian and noted writer of international and economical matters, commissioner-general. Mr. Garland, it is said, has always been noted in his country as a strong upholder of favorable trade relations with the United States. Mr. Miguel Miro-Queseda, a newspaper man of Peru, was appointed secretary to the commission. Subsequently Mr. Ernest H. Wands, of New York, and Wilfred H. Schoff were appointed commissioners and Mr. Manual C. Velarde secretary.

A variety of samples of cotton and woolen goods manufactured by factories lately established in Peru, at La Victoria, Vitarte, La Providencia, San Jacinto, Malastesta, etc., was displayed in the Peruvian section of the Agriculture Building, together with abundant samples of different qualities of Peruvian cotton. In the same building were exhibited excellent samples of sugar cane from Grande, Cartavio, Roma, and Chiquitoy. Samples of other products of the soil, as cotton, coffee, cacao, cocoa, cocaine, rice, etc., which figure under the exports of Peru, were also exhibited. In the same section were samples of Peruvian maize, white, yellow, and red, at least double the size of the corn raised in other parts of the world, as well as other specimens of the agricultural products of Peru.

The mines section showed the mineral resources of the country. Gold, silver, copper, lead, cinnabar, manganese, and all kinds of minerals were represented by a large variety of rich samples. Large blocks of lignite, anthracite, etc., gave an idea of the importance of the coal fields of Peru. Mineral oils, mineral waters, sands from placers, and a variety of salts samples were exhibited demonstrating that Peru is well endowed in minerals. There was also a mineral map of Peru made under the direction of the Sociedad Nacional de Mineria.

The Peruvian section in the Forestry, Fish, and Game Palace had samples of rubber of the Peruvian varieties in large quantities. Samples of wood gave an idea of the inexhaustible amount of raw materials that are contained in the vast forests of Peru, valuable for civil and naval construction and cabinetwork. Barks, resins, nuts, roots, seeds, and leaves for medical use and dyeing and tanning purposes confirmed the richness of Peruvian soil.

RUSSIA.

Russian Commission.—Mr. Edward Grunwaldt, executive commissioner; Mr. Jacob Godberg, Mr. Max Berkowitz, Mr. L.A. Robinson.

Russia was at different times invited to participate in the Louisiana Purchase Exposition of 1904, but no definite acceptance was received until Mr. Thomas H. Cridler, the foreign representative of the Exposition Company, made a personal visit to the Emperor. His Majesty was heartily in favor of the proposition, and in proof of his good feeling toward the American people, ordered an appropriation of 450,000 rubles be set aside to meet the preliminary expense of the Russian exhibit.

A commissioner-general was appointed. He was instructed to proceed to
St. Louis and secure the necessary space for exhibits and a site for
Russia's pavilion.

Committees were appointed for the purpose of collecting exhibits and to look after the work of installation and maintenance.

On the outbreak of the Russia-Japan war it was deemed advisable to withdraw the Government exhibit. This was a cause of considerable concern to the Russian Emperor, who had been anxious to show his appreciation of the friendship that existed between Russia and the United States.

The commissioner-general then made a report that was unfavorable to
Russia's participation at the exposition, and he was then informed
through the minister of finance of the withdrawal of Russia as a
Government exhibitor.

The question of having Russia represented at the exposition by private exhibitors was then considered. The minister of finance informed Mr. Grunwaldt that the Government would offer no objection to individual participation.

The Exposition Company allotted space to Mr. Grunwaldt in the various buildings. Exhibits were installed in the Fine Arts, Liberal Arts, Manufactures, Varied Industries, and Agricultural buildings. The exhibits were very extensive in all the departments.

The entire cost of collecting, transportation, and installation of exhibits, and the maintenance of same, was borne by Mr. Grunwaldt.

SIAM.

While making an extended tour of the United States in 1902, His Royal Highness the Crown Prince of Siam visited St. Louis and was the guest of the Louisiana Purchase Exposition Company. His entertainment was so generous and his reception throughout the entire country so cordial that he decided to use his influence toward inducing His Siamese Majesty to participate in the exposition of 1904. The plan, consequently, that suggested itself as to the character of Siam's display was to send to St. Louis the most interesting articles and the best examples of Siamese industries.

The National Siamese Pavilion, a typical specimen of the architecture of the country, was a reproduction of the Wat (or temple), Benchamabopit, now in the course of erection at Bangkok. The plans were closely followed, thus creating a type of Siamese architecture which in itself was an exhibit of interest and instruction. The building cost $25,000.

Within the pavilion were placed many objects from the Royal, Museum, notably a large collection of ancient weapons, drums, cymbals, temple gongs, howdahs, some wonderful examples of mother-of-pearl work, hammered silver of antique designs, old lacquer, enormous elephant tusks, ancient theatrical costumes and properties, and portraits of Their Majesties the King and the Queen and His Royal Highness the Crown Prince.

In the Agricultural Building were displayed models of farming implements of all kinds and examples of the agricultural products of the land. Especially noticeable was the large collection of rice, the most important of Siam's exports.

The exhibit in forestry, fish, and game showed the great variety of woods that grow in Siam, the appliances that are used for fishing, skins of the many wild animals of the country, and a large collection of forest products.

Teak, for which Siam is famous, was shown in a number of ways—cross sections, longitudinal cuts, and portions of the outer surface.

In the Transportation Pavilion were shown models of boats, panniers, and carts, howdahs, a buffalo cart, and a buggy in full size. The boat models were especially interesting. Because of the many navigable rivers and canals a greater part of transportation is by water; consequently a large variety of boats has been evolved to meet the various conditions.

The collection of spinning and weaving appliances in the Manufacturers' Building was large and instructive. Here, too, were many fine examples of mother-of-pearl work, pottery, hammered silver, and lacquer; also a collection of mats and textiles, both cotton and silk.

In the Mines and Metallurgy Building were displayed samples of the many minerals that are found in the country and models of the appliances used to secure them.

Altogether nearly six thousand individual articles were on exhibition and represented more completely the industries and resources of Siam than has any previous collection. In each State or Province of Siam a local committee was appointed with instructions to gather and forward to Bangkok at least one example of every article produced either for home use or sale. From these consignments a selection was made by the Commission and forwarded to St. Louis. In this way objects representing every section and all the arts and industries were shown. The total cost of the exhibition of the Government of Siam was approximately $120,000.

Although the trade of Siam has developed very rapidly during the past few years, the exhibits sent did not have for their purpose the extension of commerce with this country. The relations between the United States and Siam are most cordial. The latter recently accredited to the United States a minister, and Congress very promptly elevated the rank of the United States representative to that of minister plenipotentiary. Thus when the invitation to participate in the exposition was accepted, prospects of commercial gain were not in contemplation. The one idea was to contribute in every conceivable manner to the attractiveness of the exposition and add to its educational possibilities. The invitation was looked upon by the Siamese Government as a compliment, and the unselfish manner in which its acceptance was shown proved conclusively that the compliment was appreciated.

On the occasion of the exposition there was published by the Commission a richly illustrated book entitled "The Kingdom of Siam." This work was presented to the educational institutions of this country, to public libraries, and to all persons who were known to be interested in Siam. The book, written by experts, will be an authority for years to come upon Siam, its climate, resources, people, institutions, and industries, and will doubtless supplant the writings of hurrying traveler and transient visitor.

The commissioners appointed by the King of Siam were as follows: His
Royal Highness the Crown Prince, president. Vice-presidents: His Royal
Highness Prince Devawongse Varopakar, minister of foreign affairs; His
Royal Highness Prince Mahisra Rajaharudhai, minister of finance; His
Excellency Chow Phya Devesra Wongse Vivadhna, minister of agriculture;
Mr. A. Cecil Carter, M.A., department of education, secretary-general.
Members: His Royal Highness Prince Sanbasiddhi Prasong, His Royal
Highness Prince Marubongse Siribadhna, His Highness Prince Vadhana, His
Excellency Phya Vorasiddhi Sevivatra, His Excellency Phya Sukhum
Nayavinit, His Excellency Phya Amarindra Lujae, His Excellency Phya
Surasih Visisth Sakdi, His Excellency Phya Kamheng Songkram, His
Excellency Phya Sunthorn Buri, His Excellency Phya Rasda Nupradit, His
Excellency Phya Kraibej Ratana Raja Sonkram, His Excellency Phya
Vijayadibadi, Phra Phadung-Sulkrit. Prof. James H. Gore, Columbian
University, commissioner-general.

SPAIN.

The only Spanish exhibits at the Louisiana Purchase Exposition were shown in the Agricultural Building. There were but three displays, one being of pure sherry brandy, another of wines, and another of olive oil.

D. Mauricio Mandil was the only exhibitor from Spain, and he had the brandies, wines, and olive oil analyzed by well-known analytical chemists. The brandy exhibit consisted of a pyramid of ten barrels, well finished and varnished, placed on a fancy stand in the center of a well-polished platform, in the corners and sides of which were piled up polished pine cases of pure brandy distilled from sherry wine. On the top box of each pile were pyramids of bottles of different fancy packings artistically located.

The wine exhibit occupied a square 20 feet on each side. It represented a vine in full growth, being 18 feet high. The four corners were the trunks, on which were painted life-size figures of Spanish girls surmounted by the vine, bearing grapes. This square was covered by a silk awning made in the Spanish colors. In the center of the tent and on a platform was located a pyramid 15 feet high, composed of barrels and bottles artistically placed. The wines exhibited were mostly of old vintages, dating as far back as 1809, and among these was a special brand brought to America for the first time, and called Solera Lincoln, it being of the vintage of 1865, the year of Lincoln's assassination.

The olive-oil exhibit was made by one of the largest exporters of olive oil in the world.

TURKEY.

The Imperial Government of Turkey with great regret decided, for financial reasons, not to participate officially in the Louisiana Purchase Exposition, and therefore no official pavilion was built. The three functionaries appointed for the Turkish commission were instructed to aid and to give advice to private exhibitors only who were Turkish subjects and who could be accommodated in exhibit buildings.

The three officials appointed were Chékib Bey, envoy extraordinary and minister plenipotentiary to the United States, commissioner-general; Dr. Hermann Schoenfeld, consul-general in Washington, associate commissioner-general; George Eli Hall, consul-general in San Francisco, secretary-general of the commission.

VENEZUELA.

The participation of Venezuela in the St. Louis Exposition was authorized in the month of October, 1903, immediately after the end of one of the most sanguinary civil wars known in the history of the country. The following-named gentlemen were appointed as commissioners of the Venezuela Government: Gen. Cipriano Castro, honorary president; Eugenio M. Ambard, commissioner-general; Dr. H. Lameda, attaché; H. Meinhard, secretary.

The amount of the Government appropriation was at first $25,000, but this amount was soon exhausted and smaller amounts were subsequently sanctioned for the maintenance, transportation, and installation of exhibits. The total amount of appropriation was $30,000. There was absolutely no private contribution in cash. The approximate value of the exhibits was about $105,000.

Some of the most interesting features of the exhibition were:

First. A collection of over 200 varieties of fibers prepared under different processes and taken from different altitudes. Nearly all were prepared by a machine invented by Dr. J. Lameda, who collected and took the greatest interest in the fiber exhibit. From the coarsest to the finest were to be found among these fibers. The longest was of the musa variety, a coarse fiber which grows to the length of 10 feet. The Annanassa sativa, a fine fiber, grows to the length of 5 feet. This was the only collection of the kind at the exposition or which has ever been shown at any other exposition.

Second. The magnificent collection of hard woods from the Government States of Carabobo, Zulia, and Guayana, each comprising over 600 specimens of native logs, woods for cabinetwork, for building construction, lumber, staves, dyewoods, tanning, resinous, oil, rubber, and fragrant woods.

Third. A most unique and complete collection of forest plants, roots, herbs, leaves, barks, seeds, fruits, resins, gums, and dyeing and flavoring materials used by herbalists and pharmacists. These were collected, prepared, and classified by E.M. Ambard.

Fourth. A complete collection of all the minerals and precious stones (uncut) found in South America, prepared, collected, classified, and catalogued by Dr. Louis Plazard, who devoted nearly all his life to this work.

Fifth. A collection of cocoa beans from different regions, which is considered to be one of the best and most nutritious cocoas in the world, and has always obtained a far higher price than any other cocoa; also a collection of coffee from different altitudes, considered by authorities to be of very fine flavor and high grade.

The Venezuela Government had no special building. The exhibits were shown in the various exhibit palaces on the grounds.

VATICAN.

The Holy See having been requested to take part in the Louisiana Purchase Exhibition, accepted the invitation and sent to St. Louis, Mo., as its commissioner, Mr. Francis Cagiati, of Rome.

The exhibits sent by the Vatican to the fair were phototypical reproductions of the most valuable manuscripts existing in the Vatican Library, as well as some excellent specimens of works in mosaic, manufactured by the Studio del Mosaico Vaticano.

No special building was erected for the Vatican exhibit, but as the special nature of the objects required, the entire exhibit was placed in the Administration Building.

The exhibits sent by the Holy See to the Louisiana Purchase Exposition were as follows:

Copies of valuable manuscripts, codes, and documents from the Vatican
Library.

The Roman Virgil (fifth century), the miniatures of the Greek Palatine Balter (twelfth century), the famous Greek Vatican Bible (fourth century), the Vatican Virgil (fifth century), the miniatures of the Bible of the Patricins Leo (tenth century), selected pages from the Papal Letter Book (eleventh century), Papal letters regarding Greenland (ninth century), earliest Papal documents regarding America (sixteenth century), the miniatures of the Ottobonian Pontifical (fifteenth century), the Palmipsett manuscript of the (de republica) of Cicero (fifth century), the ivories of the Christian, Museum of the Vatican Library.

Many phototypical and photographical reproductions of the Borgia rooms,
Sistine Chapel, Raphael's Stanze.

Forty-one different pieces of mosaic work.

The death mask of Leo XIII.

Cast of the right hand of Leo XIII.

APPENDIX 4.

REPORTS OF STATES, TERRITORIES, AND DISTRICTS.

ALABAMA.

Committee on Birmingham district exhibit: Fred M. Jackson, president; J.
B. Gibson, secretary; J.A. MacKnight, special representative; Rufus N.
Rhodes, Culpepper Exum, F.H. Dixon, George H. Clark.

The legislature of Alabama failed to provide any funds for an exhibit of the resources of that State. A commission which had been appointed by the governor to attend to the business for the State was powerless to act and gave up the undertaking. In consequence of this failure the Commercial Club of Birmingham decided, when it was almost too late to arrange for any kind of an exhibit, to make a display of the State's mineral resources by means of a fund raised by popular subscription. The actual amount of money raised was approximately $20,000.

After considerable discussion the Commercial Club decided, upon a suggestion made by J.A. Mac Knight, to build a colossal statue of Vulcan, god of fire and metals, in iron. F.M. Jackson, president of the club, and J.B. Gibson, secretary, took a deep interest in the matter, and as a result the work was commenced in October, 1903. Great difficulty was met with in securing the services of a competent sculptor who was willing to build the model for such a statue, which was to be of a height of at least 50 feet. Mr. Mac Knight was appointed special representative of the club to promote this work and finally secured the services of Mr. G. Moretti, a sculptor residing in New York, who undertook to perform the task and to complete it in time for the exposition.

The model of this colossal statue of Vulcan was first built in clay at Passaic, N.J., where Mr. Moretti carried on the work under adverse circumstances and through the zero weather of the winter of 1903-4. It was then cast in plaster of Paris in sections, which were braced and stayed with scantling on the inside of the shell, to be used as patterns in the foundry. The entire model was shipped to Birmingham, Ala., on seven flat cars, its bulk rendering it impossible to put it in box cars. As soon as it reached Birmingham the work of casting the figure in iron was begun in the foundry of the Birmingham Steel and Iron Company.

Mr. Moretti went to Birmingham to keep the patterns in condition during the process of casting, and it was well that he did so, because the extreme cold had frozen the plaster casts before they were dry, rendering them so brittle that many of them were broken in handling, and the head itself was crumbled into a hundred pieces and had to be entirely remodeled.

Iron manufacturers from all parts of the world have said in regard to this statue that it was the most remarkable piece of iron casting they had ever seen. An agent of the Japanese Government was present at Passaic to watch the building of the model, and followed the work to Birmingham to make notes on the methods of casting it in iron. He also went to St. Louis and remained during its erection in the Mines Palace, and made an extended report to his Government on the subject.

The statue was successfully completed and set up in the exposition within three weeks after the day of opening. At the close of the exposition it was taken down and removed to Birmingham, where it is to be set up in a public park. Its height is 56 feet, and its weight a little more than 60 tons. The head was cast in one piece and weighed over 17,000 pounds. There were 20 casts in all, including the anvil and anvil block. The statue, which was intended to show forth the colossal iron deposits of Alabama, representing primitive man at the time he discovered the method of hardening iron into steel. Vulcan held aloft in his right hand the finished spearhead as a result of his knowledge and handicraft. It is the largest cast statue in the world, and it could not be duplicated for less than $40,000.

The space occupied by the exhibit collected and installed by the Commercial Club was 62 by 32 feet on the south side of the Mines Building, and contained approximately 2,000 square feet. The statue of Vulcan stood in the center of one side of the space facing the center of the Mines Palace. It was placed on a platform built upon nine heavy piles, which were driven to bedrock. The figure was perfectly poised when set up, but as an additional safeguard anchor bars were run down through the legs and through a heavy timber, which was bolted to the piles. These passed through plates on the inside of the timber and were screwed up tight. The rest of the space was occupied by a complete exhibit of raw mineral products from all parts of Alabama and especially iron and coal from the Birmingham district. The raw materials embraced the following: Brown hematite iron ore, soft red ore, hard red ore, bituminous coals, building stone, gray iron, limestone, dolomite, kaolin, clays, cement rocks, gold ores, copper ore, lignite, and glass sand, and a long list of other minerals which have not been developed. The products of coal and iron were coke and pig iron. The finished products were as follows: Open-hearth steel rails, bar and angle iron, car wheels, bar steel, steel plate, sewer pipe, and vitrified brick. This entire exhibit was displayed in an attractive manner and was the object of a great deal of comment by visitors to the exposition and by newspapers throughout the country and Europe.

A display of Alabama marble was made in the form of a head of Christ, which was carved by Moretti, while he was at work on the Vulcan statue at Birmingham. This marble is of exceedingly fineness and whiteness. Moretti gave it as his opinion that this marble is equal to the best Carara or Parian marbles, and it is believed that the making of this exhibit will lead to the development of the marble deposits of Alabama, which are believed to be very extensive and of superior quality. The raw materials displayed offer to capital and enterprise a number of splendid opportunities. The glass sands are probably destined to place Alabama in the front rank in glass making in the future, while the following resources were displayed in such abundance and were of such excellent quality as to offer the greatest inducements to capital and skill:

An exhibit of porcelain clays and kaolins, which should lead to the establishment of the manufacture of all kinds of crockery and pottery ware near these deposits.

The cement rocks, which formed a principal part of the exhibit, have already attracted capital, and Portland cement of the highest quality is now being manufactured to a limited extent. Large industries in this line are to be located near these deposits, which are among the finest in the world and in inexhaustible quantity.

The beds of lignite, of which samples were on exhibition, are said to be of very superior quality. No artificial binder is required to make this material up into briquettes for fuel. It is understood that very profitable enterprises in this line are to be built up near these deposits.

The marble deposits, gold and copper ores, and other mineral deposits were sufficiently exhibited to warrant the assertion that they were worthy of the fullest investigation. The large deposits of low-grade gold ore in the eastern part of Alabama, according to exhibitors, will undoubtedly prove immensely profitable to anyone who may establish a system to extract the gold economically.

Owing to the failure of the State to make an exhibit, the authorities of the exposition recognized the Birmingham committee as the State commission of Alabama and extended to them the courtesies due to a State commissioner. The exhibit was maintained through the period of the exposition, and many thousands of souvenirs of the great statue of Vulcan were sold at the exhibit. An electric picture machine was installed, which gave a large series of moving pictures representing the scenery and life of the Birmingham district. The business of the exhibit was under the direction of J.A. MacKnight, of Birmingham, throughout the exposition, and he had his office at the exhibit.

ALASKA.

Members of the Alaska commission.—Thomas Ryan, First Assistant Secretary of the Interior, chairman; Governor John F. Brady executive commissioner; Joseph B. Marvin, resident representative; Mrs. Mary E. Hart, hostess. Honorary commissioners: M.E. Martin, mayor of Ketchikan; Peter Jensen, mayor of Wrangell; O.H. Adsit, mayor of Juneau; Frank Bach, mayor of Douglas; John Goodell, mayor of Valdez; L.S. Keller, mayor of Skagway; D.B. Miller, mayor of Eagle City; W.H. Bard, ex-mayor of Nome; Anthony Tubbs, mayor of Treadwell; H.P. King, mayor of Nome.

The district of Alaska appeared at the Louisiana Purchase Exposition as an exhibitor in a national exposition for the first time. The conception of the Louisiana Purchase Exposition and its plans were presented for the consideration of the Congress of the United States at a time when the reports of the committees of Congress sent to Alaska to investigate its resources and needs had aroused the Congress to the duty of enacting legislation for the development of this great region. In appropriating the large sum of $50,000 for an Alaska Building and an Alaska exhibit at the Louisiana Purchase Exposition it was the purpose of Congress to afford an object lesson as a means of education to the millions of people who should attend the exposition as to the extent and resources of this country or territory. The sequel showed that the money was wisely expended, as the Alaska exhibit had the distinction of being regarded by the thousand of its visitors as forming one of the most interesting, instructive, an surprising exhibits shown at the great World's Fair.

When the United States, thirty-seven years ago, paid to Russia the sum of $7,200,000 for the almost unknown territory of Alaska, the purchase was not generally approved; and even members of Congress denounced it, regarding the acquisition as a region of icebergs and glaciers. Later, when gold was discovered in Alaska, the region was regarded as being one of ice and almost inaccessible gold, and few had the hardihood to venture within its precincts, even with the possibility of finding gold as an inducement for the venture.

Still later, after the reports of the Revenue-Cutter Service and the recognizances of army officers and naval commanders, the United States Geological Survey sent men into Alaska to investigate its resources. The Department of Agriculture tested its capacity for agriculture, the Bureau of Education established schools and introduced reindeer from Siberia, the Signal Service began to build telegraph lines and to inspect the country as to the availability of its rivers and harbors for navigation, and it became known by the Government that Alaska was richer in resources by far than had been supposed. This knowledge was not common to the public, and emigration to that region was tardy.

The United States could hardly have done more for the furtherance of the development of the great rich district of Alaska, with its untold wealth in minerals and its great possibilities in agriculture, than it did by securing to the people of Alaska an opportunity to display their resources and products to the inspection of the millions who have visited the Louisiana Purchase Exposition. The exhibits shown by them excited the utmost wonder and surprise in the minds of many witnessing them, who had been in ignorance of the resources of their country. Thousands have been led to investigate and seek further information. The effect of the Alaska exhibit will undoubtedly be far-reaching and permanent; nor can it be doubted that Congress will supplement this contribution to Alaska's welfare in the near future by legislation which shall secure the one great need of Alaska—inland transportation.

An appropriation of $50,000 for the Alaskan exhibit at the Louisiana Purchase Exposition was made by act of Congress March 3, 1903, as follows:

To enable the inhabitants of the district of Alaska to provide and maintain an appropriate and creditable exhibit of the products and resources of that district at the Louisiana Purchase Exposition in the city of St. Louis, Missouri, in nineteen hundred and four, and to erect and maintain on the site of said exposition a suitable building to be used for the purposes of exhibiting the products and resources of said district, the sum of fifty thousand dollars, to be subject to the order of the Secretary of the Interior, who is hereby authorized to expend the same in such manner as in his judgment will best promote the objects for which said sum is appropriated in accordance with the rules and regulations to be prescribed by him.

After the passage of the act of Congress which made appropriation for the Alaska exhibit, providing that the sum appropriated should be expended by the Secretary of the Interior in such manner as in his judgment would promote the objects for which the sum was appropriated, in accordance with rules and regulations prescribed by him, one of his first acts was the appointment of Hon. Thomas Ryan, First Assistant Secretary of the Interior, chairman of the Alaska commission, to have immediate charge at the Department of the elaboration of the exhibit. Later Governor John G. Brady was appointed executive commissioner, and entered upon the task of gathering together and forwarding to the exposition such collections of exhibits as would best represent and illustrate the products and resources of Alaska.

Still later Mr. Joseph B. Marvin was appointed special agent of the Alaska exhibit and was sent to St. Louis in December, 1903, to superintend the construction of the Alaska Building, to attend to all accounts with the Department, and to arrange for the installation of the exhibits as they arrive.

Mrs. Mary E. Hart was employed January 1, 1904, to assist in the securing of the exhibits in Alaska, especially in the Department of Education, and upon the opening of the exposition Mrs. Hart was directed to proceed to St. Louis, where she was designated as hostess and placed in charge of the bureau of information in the Alaska Building. At the same time attendants were selected, whose duty it was to explain the exhibits to visitors.

The executive commissioner, the honorary commissioners, the hostess, all of the attendants, and those employed in collecting exhibits in Alaska were all Alaskans, the attendants being especially selected because of their acquaintance with Alaska and its products.

It was the desire of the executive commissioner that the utmost hospitality should be shown to all visitors at the Alaska Building, and the commodious and homelike parlors on the second floor of the building were free to the public, maids being employed for special attention to the wants of ladies and children.

The principal exhibits in the Alaska Building related naturally to the mining interest of the country.

One of the most impressive and significant exhibits was a gilded cube, about 3 feet in diameter, representing the size of a block of gold worth $7,200,000, which was the amount paid by the United States to Russia for Alaska, and beside it, inclosed in a brass railing, a gilded pyramid of blocks representing the amount of gold taken each year since 1882 from the Treadwell mine in Alaska, aggregating $21,800,000, a sum which is three times the amount paid for Alaska taken from one mine.

The ore exhibit, especially of gold and copper ores, was very large, filling a glass case 75 feet long and 5 feet high. These ores were collected by an expert mineralogist employed by the Alaska commission, and included specimens from nearly all the mines in Alaska.

Following is a list of exhibits, showing the principal industries the country, as displayed throughout the building: Marble, canned goods, furs, coal, oils, guano, vegetables and fruit, Indian basketry and curios, and mounted specimens of game and fish.

An interesting exhibit of Alaskan ethnology was made, twenty totem poles and two native houses and one war canoe being located about the building. The totem poles came from different places on Prince of Wales Island and from two different tribes. At an old village called Tuxekan four were obtained. These represented the totem or heraldic sign of each family, and the back part of the totem was excavated to receive the charred bones of friends and ancestors of the man who raised it. The Thlingits were in the habit of burning their dead, but carefully preserved all the charred embers from the funeral pile. These totem poles were always erected on great occasions, and the bones were usually carefully wrapped in a new blanket and incased in the back part of the totem.

The Commission was fortunate in securing for the exhibit a fine collection of samples of grains raised at the experiment stations at Alaska, consisting of the grains in the straw and thrashed grains, including wheat, rye, barley, and oats. These samples were handsomely displayed, some of the grains and straw being tastefully arranged on the walls, covering a space 10 by 40 feet, and the balance in a pyramid some 10 feet high and 8 feet in diameter. The thrashed grains were displayed in glass jars. The grasses were shown in bales of hay. The display of cereals and grasses was one of the most important, instructive, and surprising to visitors of any display in the Alaska Building, for it demonstrated the fact that agriculture is possible in Alaska, and seekers of the treasures of the mines may always feel sure of subsistence.

ARIZONA.

Arizona commission.—A.J. Doran, chairman; B.F. Packard, treasurer;
H.B. St. Claire, secretary; Mrs. J.A. Black, commissioner; R.N.
Leatherwood, superintendent of exhibits.

The Arizona Building stood near the southeast entrance of the grounds. Its architecture was Spanish, belonging to the sixteenth century. It contained seven rooms, elegantly furnished and decorated. The cost of the building was approximately $5,000. During the exposition period a large amount of literature descriptive of the Territory and its various resources was distributed.

The exhibits in the Arizona State Building other than those placed therein by the board of managers were a prehistoric collection loaned by Mrs. M. Aguria, of Tucson, Ariz., valued at $5,000; an oil painting of a mountain scene in southern Arizona, loaned by Mr. A.J. Scofield and valued at $4,000; a collection of Indian baskets, rugs, and blankets (Navaho), valued at $600; an exhibit of cactus picture frames, loaned by F.E. White, of Florence, Ariz., valued at $250.

The Territory made exhibits in the departments of Mines and Metallurgy, Education, Agriculture and Horticulture. The exhibit in the Palace of Mines and Metallurgy occupied a space of 80 feet frontage by 20 feet in depth. In all, nearly 300 mines were represented by characteristic ores showing actual values rather than specimens, including in nearly every exhibit the inclosing and country rocks in which the vein matter occurred. These exhibits were arranged in two tiers, running the full length of the space, each mine having its distinctive ore placed on wooden mounts, appropriately labeled, giving the county, district, owner, name and character of ore, and its value per ton in gold, silver, copper, or lead. The exhibit also showed free gold, native silver, native copper, copper bars, lead-silver bars, copper ingots, onyx (rough and polished), marble (rough and polished) building stone of various kinds, lithographic stone, petrified wood in rough and polish, meteoric iron, etc.; also photographic views of many of the mines, mills, reduction works, and localities from which the exhibits were taken. The value of the exhibit was approximately $20,000 and the cost of installation $1,900.

The educational exhibit in the Education and Social Economy Building represented the school work of the Territory from the kindergarten to the academic grade, showing the educational system and the progress made in Arizona. The value of the exhibit was approximately $2,500 and the cost of installation $750.

The agricultural exhibit in the Agricultural Building showed the various products of the soil of the Territory. Wheat, oats, barley, corn, Kaffir corn, sorghum, millet, alfalfa seed, alfalfa, hay, vegetables, olives, olive oil, preserved fruits, dates, etc., were displayed The exhibit cost approximately $875. The cost of installation was $1,500.

In the Horticultural Building there were maintained throughout the fair from 130 to 160 plates on the table, which held the following: Valencia late oranges, Washington navel oranges, Mediterranean sweets, lemons, limes, grape fruit, citronella, tangarines, grapes, plums, quinces, apricots, plum grabites, pears, cantaloupes, melons, olives, olive oil, pickled olives, etc. The value of the exhibit was approximately $2,500 and the cost of installation $950.

The amount appropriated by the legislative act for the participation of Arizona was $30,000 in bonds, which were sold for 7 per cent. premium, thus making available from that source $32,000. No other funds from any source came into the hands of the board of managers.

ARKANSAS.

Members of Arkansas commission.—George R. Belding, president; J.C. Rembert, secretary; Thomas W. Milan, manager; George T. Lake; John P. Logan, superintendent horticultural department; A.H. Purdue, superintendent mines; H.T. Bradford, agriculture department; Miss Lizzie Cage, assistant lady manager.

In May, 1901, the legislature of the State of Arkansas enacted a bill appropriating the sum of $30,000 for the erection and maintenance of a State building at the Louisiana Purchase Exposition, and for the installation and maintenance of the exhibits of the State. Subsequently, in 1903, the State legislature appropriated a further sum of $50,000 for the purpose of the State exhibit. There were no private subscriptions, the entire cost of the State building and maintenance thereof being borne by the State appropriation.

The cost of the installation and transportation of the different exhibits made by the commission was $18,102, besides the cost of returning the exhibits.

The Arkansas Pavilion at the Louisiana Purchase Exposition was a fine specimen of Georgian architecture, of the type so much used throughout the South in antebellum times. The adaptation of the colonial features to the purpose for which the building was used was most admirable. The location, with its foreground of grass and forest trees, produced an effect suggesting age and permanency that few buildings on the ground possessed. In fact, on coming upon the building unexpectedly, one would presume that it had occupied its site for two generations at least. The building was arranged for the entertainment of the Arkansans visiting the fair, and served the purpose of a clubhouse and general headquarters for thousands of people.

The principal feature of the plan of the building was the large reception hall in the center, connecting through wide openings two reception rooms, one on either side, and an exhibit room in the rear. On this floor there were also four smaller rooms used as commissioners' headquarters, manager's office, post-office, and lady manager's headquarters; also wide hallways at right angles to the principal axis of the building.

The second story of the building contained the library, auditorium, headquarters of the State Bankers' Association, and ladies' parlor, four sleeping rooms, together with the general toilet rooms.

The three exterior porticos were connected with wide terraces, affording over 3,000 square feet of floor space. The building was constructed entirely of Arkansas timber, and was designed by Frank W. Gibb, A.I.A. A., architect, Little Rock, Ark., and constructed at a cost of $19,944.05.

At the conclusion of the fair the building was sold to a citizen of
Arkansas, where it is to be reerected as a residence.

In the building were exhibited many handsome pieces of art and fancywork, burnt-wood plaques and panels, china work, a large silk map of the United States, showing States, rivers, railroads, principal towns, etc.; oil paintings, pictures, and portraits, and miscellaneous exhibits.

In the main exhibit hall of the building was a composite exhibit made by the land department of the Iron Mountain Railroad, consisting of a collection of minerals found in the State, samples of the various woods of the State, a wooden library of seventy-five volumes, each book being made of a different kind of Arkansas wood, paintings and pictures of Arkansas scenes, and a historic clock made in Germany in 1763 for the Duke of Saxony, and samples of mineral waters of Montgomery County.

The Arkansas State commission maintained five exhibits in the exhibition palaces, viz, Agriculture, approximate value, $7,500; Horticulture, approximate value, $9,300; Forestry, approximate value, $3,500; Mines and Metallurgy, approximate value, $6,500; Education, approximate value, $3,600. In addition to these State exhibits, the city of Hot Springs maintained in the Government Building a unique exhibit in the nature of a cave or grotto made of quartz, crystals.

CALIFORNIA.

Members of California commission.—Frank Wiggins; J. A Filcher; George A. Dennison, secretary; Lewis E. Auburg, chief department of mining; George C. Roeding, chief department of horticulture; W.H. Mills, chief department of forestry; Robert Furlong, chief department of education.

On March 25, 1903, the legislature of the State of California passed a bill appropriating the sum of $130,000 for the purpose of adequately exploiting California's resources and progress at the Louisiana Purchase Exposition, and providing for two commissioners—one to have had one year's residence in the southern half of the State; both to have had experience in installing and managing exhibits at former, expositions. In addition to this appropriation, there was about $120,000 raised by the various counties of the State for exclusive county displays to be installed in the Agricultural Building. These displays were intended to set forth the possibilities of California in an agricultural and horticultural way. The cost of installation of said features was about $40,000. The transportation of all the exhibits, including those of the counties, which were paid by the State, amounted to, approximately, $15,000.

The California State Building was located on "The Trail" in the vicinity of the buildings erected by Georgia and other Southern States, and was always an object of interest to sightseers at the fair. The pavilion was built after the Mission style of architecture, modeled after the houses in which the old Spanish settlers in California used to live. The front of the building was an exact copy in reduced proportions of the Mission at Santa Barbara, which was erected by the Franciscan monks in 1786. The pavilion contained no special exhibits, but its furnishings and decorations were entirely of Californian material, manufactured by Californian labor. The cost of the building complete was about $17,000, the balance of the appropriation by the State being consumed in the collection of the exhibit, its maintenance, and in general demonstration.

In the Forestry Pavilion California showed altogether 73 varieties of commercial and cabinet woods. A separate exhibit in the same place displayed an exhibit of the fish and game of the State. Just outside of the building there was an exhibit of forestry containing five logs, or timbers, which were too heavy to be placed on the Exhibition Building floor.

In the Agricultural Building the State made a distinctive feature of wine, dried fruits, canned fruit, processed vegetables, honey, hay, hops, canned fish, seeds and cereals, grasses and vegetable fibers, etc. A façade was erected in this department and decorated most artistically. The counties made separate displays. Altogether 23,300 feet of space was occupied by the State in agriculture, exclusive of aisles.

In the Horticultural Building the State occupied 9,000 square feet of space and made a strong showing of processed fruits, fresh fruits, nuts, and a panoramic scene illustrating methods of orchard irrigation. There was also shown a cabinet containing the insects that prey on California orchards, and their parasites.

An operating mill and concentrators were displayed in the Mining Gulch, and in the Palace of Mines the State occupied 5,200 feet of floor space with an exhibit showing all the commercial minerals of California. Altogether there were forty-odd varieties.

In education a strong showing of the university work was made in one of the alcoves, 40 by 40 feet, and 2,000 feet of floor space was occupied for the general artistic exhibit of school work from the kindergarten to the high school. This was inclosed within a characteristic façade of California redwood, finished in natural color.

A handsome display was a butter feature in the refrigeration department of agriculture with a beautiful modeled goddess of California, draped in fruits. Incubators were shown in the proper department, and on the grounds and in the conservatory were exhibited about 600 rare plants and shrubs and some tropical fruit trees.

COLORADO.

The Colorado legislature of 1901 appropriated $50,000 for the purpose of making a display of Colorado products and resources at the Louisiana Purchase Exposition and provided for the appointment by the governor of the State of a board of five commissioners, of which the governor should be a member and ex officio president. In 1903 an additional $100,000 was appropriated and the board was increased from five to seven members.

The following-named persons composed the Colorado commission:

Governor James H. Peabody, president; T.J. O'Donnell, vice-president;
Paul Wilson, commissioner in chief; I.N. Stevens, secretary; Harry
Cassady, treasurer; Mrs. Lionel Rose Anthony; William F. Sperry; John A.
Wayne, assistant to commissioner in chief; Maria W. Stewart, assistant
treasurer.

The appropriation by the legislature of 1903 unfortunately was placed in the fifth-class appropriation, and not all of the sum was available for the use of the board; but by arrangement of other departments of the State government and with the State institutions of Colorado $80,000 of the $100,000 was made available for the State's participation in the exposition.

The work of the board was divided into six departments, all under the direction of Commissioner in Chief Paul Wilson, as follows:

Mining Department, Mr. I.N. Stevens, chairman; Horticultural Department, Mr. Paul Wilson, chairman; Agricultural Department, Mr. Harry Cassady, chairman; Educational Department, Mrs. I.R. Anthony, chairman; Forestry, Fish, and Game Department, Mr. T.J. O'Donnell, chairman; Fine Arts Department, Mr. W.F. Sperry chairman.

The exhibits of the resources of the State were collected from every portion of the State in these various departments.

The value of the mining exhibit placed by the State of Colorado on exhibition in St. Louis was $500,000; the value of the agricultural exhibit, $10,000; horticultural exhibit, $8,000; educational exhibit, $15,000; forestry, fish, and game exhibit, $7,500.

The approximate cost of installing and caring for these exhibits was as follows:

Mining Department …………………… $25,000
Horticultural Department …………….. 10,000
Agricultural Department ……………… 15,000
Educational Department ………………. 12,000
Forestry, Fish, and Game Department …… 10,000

CONNECTICUT.

The legislature of Connecticut appropriated $100,000 for the participation of that State at the Louisiana Purchase Exposition. The following commissioners were appointed by the governor of Connecticut, according to an act of the legislature passed April 2, 1903:

Frank L. Wilcox, president: Charles Phelps, vice-president; J.A. Vail,
secretary-treasurer; Edgar J. Dolittle, Isaac W. Birdseye, Phelps
Montgomery, Mrs. Louis R. Cheney, Mrs. George H. Knight, Miss Anne H.
Chappell. National commissioners: Frederick Betts, Mrs. John M.
Holcombe. Resident commissioner, Hobart Brinsmade.

The Connecticut State Building was intended to represent colonial design. In its main exterior features it was a replica of the Sigourney mansion in Hartford, built about 1820 by Charles Sigourney, whose wife Lydia Huntley Sigourney, was highly regarded as a poet in her time. In later years it was the home of Lieut. Governor Julius Catlin. The architect of the Connecticut building was Edward T. Hapgood, of Hartford. The interior plan was designed to combine colonial ideas with modern requirements, which were carried out to such extent as to make it one of the most attractive and homelike structures on the exposition grounds. It was erected by The H. Wales Lines Company, of Meriden, Conn., at a cost of about $31,000, and official inspectors pronounced it the best-built edifice at the exposition. The walls of the rooms on the first floor and the upper hall were hung with five different designs of exquisite silk tapestry, the gift of the Cheney Brothers, of South Manchester. These added a "finishing touch" that found no comparison elsewhere on the grounds. The furnishing of the building was in excellent harmony with its colonial design. Highboys and lowboys, Chippendale, Hepplewhite and Windsor chairs, Sheraton and thousand-legged tables, flax wheels and warming pans were associated with canopied high-post bedsteads, while corner cupboards revealed rare copper-luster china of almost untold value. As a colonial exhibit it was unique, and had it been entered in competition for reward would most surely have been given the grand prize. The souvenir catalogue issued by the Connecticut commission contains a list of 514 articles, most of them loaned from various Connecticut homesteads. The catalogue also contains a list of oil paintings and water colors, all by Connecticut artists, which embellished the walls of the building, the selection being made by Charles Noel Flagg, of Hartford, chosen by the commission for that service.

The collective exhibits of Connecticut were in the following-named departments: Education, farm products, tobacco, dairy, horticulture (including pomology), herbarium, public parks and residential grounds (photographs), and shellfish. The grounds surrounding the Connecticut Building form part of the State horticultural exhibit.

On account of the limited appropriation it was necessary to abandon the live exhibit of Connecticut in the Fish and Game Building. With the limited amount of stock which the oystermen had, owing to the lack of "set" for a number of years, they considered it a detriment to advertise, and it was only through a regard for the commission that any of the larger cultivators would contribute to the exhibit.

The exhibit was advantageously placed in the center of the Forest, Fish, and Game Building and attracted a great deal of attention from visitors and will undoubtedly prove of material advantage to an immense State industry.

On one side of the booth the strictly State exhibit was placed, showing in the cases the oysters of all ages, their enemies, and various curiosities in growth and development. Over the cases were maps of the oyster grounds, with photographs showing the oyster houses, docks, and steamers. On the opposite side were individual displays of several of the larger cultivators.

Connecticut made a good display. Fifty-eight different specimens of nuts attracted much attention, many of the varieties shown now growing in the West and South, and being seen for the first time by many of the visitors.

Much interest was manifested in flint (Yankee) corn, as it was called by people of the West and South, and many samples were given to people from all parts of the United States and to some from foreign countries.

Samples of grass taken from a field yielding 121 tons to the acre far surpassed any yield of alfalfa claimed from the rich soil of California or any other Western State.

Exhibit of tobacco leaf and the continuous and frequent favorable comment demonstrated clearly that its reputation as a State growing fine quality of wrapper leaf is confined to no small area.

Connecticut has the credit of being the only New England State which made any dairy exhibit, and in this exposition Connecticut did what she has never before attempted. An entry was made for the permanent exhibit as well as for the butter sent for scoring. The lower part of this space was filled with packages of butter, both tubs and prints, handsomely arranged so as to make an artistic display.

This was surmounted with a form like a large open book, on one page of which was the coat of arms, and the other the Charter Oak, both made from the butter from Connecticut and from true models.

The coat of arms and the Charter Oak were exact reproductions.

These spaces were kept at low temperature by refrigeration, and the exhibit lasted until the end of the fair.

Connecticut was the first State to have her exhibit completed.

About 775 square feet was assigned to Connecticut in Horticultural Building, and some time before the opening of the exposition, this space was fitted with tables and other needed appliances. The space assigned came within the section where only low installation was allowed. As a result, those in charge were enabled to install the exhibit at much less expense than anticipated, which accounts for much of the unexpended portion of the appropriation set apart for this display. The location was very desirable, being open, airy, and very accessible from all parts of the hall.

The exhibit was opened the first day of the fair and was one of the very few that had the tables fully occupied the opening day of the exposition. The display, mostly of apples, but including pears and cranberries, was kept up from stock in storage, using from 5 to 10 barrels per week until about July 15, when the first apples of 1904 and some small fruits were available. Soon after that regular supplies were sent forward, but not until September 15 was the storage stock fully disposed of and the tables wholly filled with fruit of 1904 and kept in that condition until the close of the exposition, making the exhibit of great credit to the State, and the only one from New England.

During the season all cultivated fruits grown in the State, except blackberries and raspberries, were shown, even the so-called tender or perishable fruits being sent in large lots, and usually arriving in very satisfactory condition. It was expected, at first, that apples and pears would constitute the exhibit, but a trial shipment convinced the committee that it was perfectly feasible to send the finer fruits, and this was continued as long as they were to be obtained.

In horticulture, Connecticut, after careful consideration, decided to make only so much of the exhibit of living plants as was needed for the decoration of the grounds around the Connecticut Building. This was done apparently to the satisfaction of those interested in the fair and to the pleasure of people who visited the exposition, for uniformly it was spoken of as being one of the best planted and decorated grounds around any State building.

The collection of the herbarium was most successful. The botanists of the State gave a great deal of gratuitous labor that it might be completed. It was exhibited on revolving screens, the first attempt ever made to so exhibit the flora of a State. It was so arranged that every specimen was readily available for examination and study. This exhibit, after the close of the fair, was presented to Trinity College, Hartford, at the request of the college authorities, they paying all expenses of its return and agreeing to give it suitable location for exhibition in their Natural Science Building, where it can be seen and studied by all interested.

The parks and public grounds of the State were well represented by photographs, as were also the private grounds. These photographs have been returned to Hartford and are now stored in the capitol, awaiting final disposition.

In school-garden work Connecticut was a leader, having one of the best equipped school gardens in the country. Believing that a knowledge of what this State has done in this work should be known and recognized at the fair, a committee was created to arrange for a school garden and conduct the same during the World's Fair, and their work was most excellent.

GEORGIA.

Members of Georgia commission.—Governor J.M. Terrell, ex officio chairman; O.B. Stevens, commissioner of agriculture; Col. Dudley M. Hughes, commissioner-general; Glascock Barrett, assistant commissioner-general; Hugh V. Washington, vice-commissioner-general; F. B. Gordon, commissioner; H.H. Tift, commissioner. Advisory board: John M. Egan, Col. P.A. Stovall, E.L. Rainey, I.P. Cocke, Dr. L.H. Chappell, Harry Fisher, Oliver Porter, Dr. J.H. Turner, W.J. Kinkaid, A.H. Shaver, W.J. Neal, Dr. T.H. Baker, McAlpine Thornton, James M. Smith, Dr. J.F. Erwin, H.M. Franklin, E.B. Hook, Col. J.F. De Lacy, W.S. Humphries, John A. Cobb, R.C. McIntosh, James B. Gaston.

Situated on one of the main avenues of the exposition, known as "The Trail," and immediately north of Virginia and opposite Tennessee and Ohio, was a replica of the home of the late Gen. John B. Gordon at Kirkwood, near Atlanta, erected by the Georgia State commission as the official headquarters of Georgia. The building was paid for by a fund raised by public subscription, at an approximate cost of $16,000. The house was furnished entirely with Georgian manufactures. The cost of furnishing the building was approximately $3,000.

Although the appropriation made by the State of Georgia was only $30,000, the amount was largely increased by popular subscription from counties and cities. The $30,000 appropriated by the legislature was designated as a basis for increasing the State's museum.

Owing to the lateness of the date that the work of preparing for the exposition was begun—October, 1903—Georgia did not make so complete and comprehensive an exhibit of her natural, educational, and manufacturing advantages as she would otherwise have made.

In the Forestry, Fish, and Game, Georgia contributed a very fine exhibit, at a cost of $3,500, of which much the larger part was composed of Georgia pine. In this department there was a complete exhibit of naval stores, beginning at the pine tree, showing in detail the different methods of boxing, gathering the crude products, tools used, distillation, turpentine, different grades of resin, and its different by-products. This was donated by the Board of Trade of Savannah, Ga., at an approximate cost of $2,000.

In the Agricultural Building, one of the most interesting exhibits contributed by Georgia was that of the manufacture of the celebrated Georgia cane sirup, which was demonstrated by two negro women serving waffles and sirup from a miniature log cabin. Sirup and cabin and expenses were donated by the Georgia Sirup Growers' Association, and cost approximately $1,700. There was also a complete display of sea-island cotton in bales and types, together with threads and the various cloths manufactured from same, the cost of installation and maintenance being $2,400.

Possibly the most interesting and complete exhibit made by Georgia at the fair was the display of its cotton industry. This consisted of a pyramid containing cotton-seed hulls, meal linters, crude oil, surrounded by commercial packages of meal and hulls, refined oils and lard compounds manufactured from cotton seed. The material and maintenance cost $12,000. An exhibit of cotton products showing in detail cotton seed, cotton on the stalk and in bales, cotton-seed oils, crude and refined, and oil products, lard compounds, food cooked with cotton-seed oils, and cotton-seed hulls and meals for cattle feeding showed some of the many uses to which the cotton plant can be put. The most interesting display in this connection was that of a fountain flowing cotton-seed oil and surrounded by illuminated columns containing manufactured products of oils, such as soaps, etc. This display cost $10,000.

Georgia being to a certain extent a tobacco State, samples of the "weed" indigenous to the State and said to be equal to the very best Cuba and Sumatra tobaccos were shown in the raw leaf and in cases. The exhibit cost approximately $2,900.

In the block immediately adjoining the cotton exhibit were displayed 86 commercial packages of forage grasses donated by farmers throughout the State, valued at $500; an exhibit of the silk industry, valued at $400; wheat, oats, field peas of seventy-odd varieties, rye, rice, barley, flour, bran, peanuts, pecan nuts, corn meal, and all of the varied agricultural exhibits. These were donated by farmers of Georgia. The freight, installation, and care of them was provided by public subscription. The cost of installation, freights, and care, including the proper show cases and glass containers, which belonged to the State museum, was estimated, in addition to the amounts enumerated above, at $12,000. Besides the above items, nearly every city of importance made appropriations to cover expenses of having prepared for distribution books and pamphlets calling the attention of the public to the many advantages of their several localities, at an estimated cost of $10,000.

Subsequently the Georgia commission to the Louisiana Purchase Exposition
donated the entire furnishings of the State building to the Georgia
Industrial Home at Macon, Ga., the only nonsectarian orphanage in the
State.

The resolution creating the appropriation for the installation and exhibit of Georgia products, which was approved August 17, 1903, provided—

That the sum of thirty thousand dollars should be appropriated, to be expended in collecting and permanently preserving specimens of minerals, granite, clays, kaolin, marble, iron, and such other minerals and precious stones as may abound in or are found within the State; to further collect specimens of the field and forest, mills and mines, orchards and vineyards of this State, and such other matters and things pertaining to the character and the productiveness of the soils of Georgia; that when the specimens aforesaid were collected they should be deposited in the State museum, there to be safely kept and displayed; and that the exhibit thus collected should be displayed at the Louisiana Purchase Exposition at St. Louis, Missouri.

IDAHO.

Members of Idaho commission.—Gov. J.T. Morrison; James E. Steele, president; R.W. McBride, vice-president; Mrs. W.H. Mansfield, secretary; Martin J. Wessels, Idaho section Forestry Building; Dr. Harold J. Read; Clarence B. Hurtt, executive commissioner; Miss Anne Sonna; Miss Genevieve Vollmer.

Idaho was represented by a State building and by exhibits in four of the great exhibit palaces of the exposition. The building was situated upon the elevated ground east of the Palace of Agriculture, and the surroundings made it one of the most attractive spots of the exposition. The Idaho Building was not big or imposing, but there were few State buildings on the World's Fair grounds that excited more interest or inquiry. The building was a bungalow with an open court, in which were grass and bright flowers. The structure, which was 60 feet square, was but 1 story high and contained ten rooms. The roof was of red tile and the exterior of cream-colored staff. The interior finish served to show the utility of Idaho woods for this particular use. Transparencies and mounted photographs illustrated the vast forest resources of the State. Around the court a row of heavy columns supported the overhanging roof, and a wide cloister behind the columns, paved with brick, afforded a charming resting place. At the close of the exposition the building was sold to a citizen of Texas, who is to have it reerected on his ranch, and it will still bear the name of "Idaho."

The exhibits of the State were shown in the departments of Education,
Mining, Agriculture, and Horticulture. The State appropriation for the
World's Fair was $25,000.

While not boasting a large acreage under cultivation, Idaho was a competitor at the World's Fair with the best of her sisters in the quality of her field products. The exhibit in the Palace of Agriculture was impartially chosen and fairly represented all parts of the State where agricultural interests have a foothold. In the exhibit were 47 varieties of wheat, 41 varieties of oats, 32 varieties of flax—the only specimen of white flaxseed known to exist, from the farm of Alonzo McWillis, of Rosetta, who received a gold medal for his exhibit. Wheat was shown weighing 62 to 64 pounds to the bushel in comparison with the standard of 60 pounds. Idaho barley weighs 53 to 54 pounds to the bushel, while the standard is but 48. A bunch of alfalfa of the second cutting was received early in October and was more than 6 feet high. Displays of beans of many varieties, peas, corn, alfalfa, and clover seed all indicated the resourcefulness of Idaho soil.

It was not practicable to show Idaho melons, strawberries, and small fruits in fresh condition, but a display with a showy array of canned fruits and dried fruits of favorite sorts attracted attention. Idaho potatoes of the 5-pound class were a part of the exhibit, along with turnips, carrots, parsnips, onions, and other vegetables. There was a small showing also of popcorn, sweet corn, and the field varieties.

The effort to make a complete fruit exhibit on behalf of Idaho had its justification in the wide advertising its fruit and agricultural lands would receive from an effective presentation of the products of the many fine orchards of the State. The exhibit contained many surprises, such as the soft-shell almonds. Idaho's grape display was a surprise to many of the States. In the exhibit were about a dozen varieties that are new in this country, the vines of which were brought from Persia and other eastern Mediterranean countries. Among these were the Hunisa, a dark grape which is regarded as a distinct gain to the Pacific slope grape-growing interests because of its fine flavor and sweetness and good keeping qualities.

The educational exhibit was collected by Miss May Scott, State superintendent of public instruction, installed at State expense, but maintained at the personal expense of Mrs. S.M. Harris, of Silver City, and Mrs. C.J. Johnson, of Pocatello. The Boise exhibit showed the work of all grades, elementary, secondary, and high school pupils doing themselves and the State credit in comparison with other States. Lessons, drawings, photographs, and maps were displayed in 37 bound volumes, besides 5 volumes of district school work and 33 card mounts of lessons, embracing the 8 grades of the primary schools. Silver City exhibited graded work from the first to eighth grades, inclusive, very attractively mounted on cards. Credit is due the Weiser schools, also, for all-around good work. The schools contributed to the general display a fine collection of mounted cards in elementary work, and the Industrial School sent a good display of the work in manual training, including needlework and photographs of buildings. Moscow made a good general display of school work, and particularly in composition and writing. Every community was shown to be alive to the importance of having good schools. A part of the space in the exhibit was devoted to photographs of the University of Idaho, about which a great many questions were asked. The work of the Mountainhouse School was handsomely bound in a burnt-leather cover.

The Pocatello public school work was delayed and reached the exhibit so late that it could not be judged. The display consisted of photographs of the children and schoolhouses and the work of the schools from the kindergarten to the high school. The Shoshone County exhibit was displayed in 79 volumes, embracing the work from the first grade to the high school work. A number of mounted cards of kindergarten work were also shown. The Wallace schools were commended for several excellent examples of map drawing contributed. Kendrick made a good display in 11 bound books. Coeur d'Alene sent a dozen volumes of bound work. Bonners Ferry and Sandpoint contributed good work in a number of bound books and photographs. Idaho County made a good display of raffia work and Indian pictures, besides the school-work exhibit. The Albion State Normal School made a large display of photographs showing the institution and its equipment. Oro Fino sent a collection of drawings, and Council and Harrison both made good displays of what their schools are doing to keep up with the times. The work of the Lewiston schools, which would have formed a conspicuous and very creditable part of the Idaho educational display, was lost in transit.

The mineral exhibit of the State at the World's Fair at St. Louis embraced specimens from every county and mining district. Hundreds of mines contributed specimens of ore and they were all labeled and displayed to the best advantage possible in the Idaho booth. The largest specimens were huge nuggets of lead ore weighing several tons each, almost pure lead, which occupied a central place in the exhibit and served to draw attention to the vast collection of other mineral specimens. Boise, the seat of government, was represented by specimens of gold-bearing rhyolite from the granite slopes north of the city, as well as by samples of fire clay of high quality; found partly within the city limits. From the Black Hornet and Curlew Creek districts came quartz specimens containing gold and silver. From Bear Creek were cuttings from the dike formation of low-grade ores that may mean much to Boise if they be profitably handled.

There were specimens of lead ores from Halley and Wood Rivet district, where lead to the value of $20,000,000 has been taken out. These ores run high in silver, and the revival of interest in the workings there is a matter of comment. These specimens included some of the Minnie Moore deposits, the most famous mine in Idaho's history, whose best ores show 70 per cent lead and 110 ounces of silver to the ton. A few specimens of gold-bearing quartz from the Boise basin were shown, although these deposits are but partly developed, more interest attaching to the placer mining, which has produced a hundred million dollars' worth of gold in the history of this region. The Pearl district contributed good specimens of oxidized quartz and granite gangue, iron and arsenical pyrites with zinc blend, and a showing of galena and copper sulphides. Monaxite, a heavy yellow sand, the ore of thorium, is found here, and is in considerable demand on account of the new discoveries in the radio activity of certain minerals.

From the vicinity of Pocatello were fine specimens of copper and lead ores having gold and silver veins, iron, and manganese oxide ores. These came principally from the workings on Rabbit Creek, Pocatello Creek, and the Hovey group. Coal specimens were shown from the vicinity of Blackfoot and Idaho Falls. From Bear Lake County were ores carrying copper, gold, and silver. Coal specimens were shown from the Goose Creek Mountains and the ranges in the southern part of Cassia County. The mines all about Silver City, the county seat and mining center, were well represented. The South Mountain district, south of Silver City, was represented by ores from some of the reopened mines which had been idle for many years.

Ores from the Rocky Bar, Atlanta, Pine Grove, Black Warrior, Neal, Lime Creek, and Dixie districts made a good representation for Elmore County, which, on account of its nearness to Boise and railroad facilities, has been better developed than many other parts of the State. The Yankee Fork, Loon Creek, and Stanley basin districts of Custer County were all contributors to the State exhibit of gold and silver ores. The lead-silver ores of Custer County came from the Bayhorse, Squaw Creek, Clayton, Poverty Flat, and Slate Creek districts. Copper ores from the Big Lost River Valley were convincing proof of the richness of mines in that newly developed part of the State. Fremont County sent specimens of coal from the rich mines opened a year ago in the eastern part of the county.

Shoshone County was represented by huge nuggets of lead-silver ore. Gold ores from Shoshone County showed the wide distribution of the yellow metal, which appears in every county in the State. Copper ores from Shoshone County were an indication of future possibilities in copper production in the State.

It was the earnest endeavor of the Commission to make the most of the opportunities and the means at their disposal to give Idaho and her resources a thorough advertisement. The press of the country was interested in Idaho's development, with the result that hundreds of articles have been printed about the State's large showing at the exposition in the newspapers of all States. The large number of gold, silver, and bronze medals awarded to the exhibitors bore evidence of the success of the work.

ILLINOIS.

To Illinois belongs the distinction of having held the first and, until the Louisiana Purchase Exposition, the greatest World's Fair. Naturally the State of Illinois at that time had a more immediate pride in its showing and spent a vastly greater sum to gather and shelter its exhibits than it could afford for an exposition outside of its own borders; but it is not the opinion of any that Illinois has been outclassed in any respect at the World's Fair of 1904. With comparatively a small appropriation, when the $800,000 appropriated by Illinois in Chicago in 1893, or the $1,000,000 spent by Missouri, in St. Louis is considered, Illinois has taken a leading part in the Louisiana Purchase Exposition. It has not only furnished its large share of the attractions, but it no doubt sent to the exposition the largest number of visitors from any one State outside of Missouri.

Only exhibits of a public character were installed at the expense or through the efforts of the commission. Private enterprises, many of which took exhibits from this State, were not assisted at the expense of the commission; but the State exhibits were gathered, prepared, installed, and cared for wholly or in part at the expense of the State, authorized by an act of the Forty-second general assembly in 1901, which appropriated the sum of $250,000 for the purpose.

The law provided for the appointment of a commission of 15 members. The members of this commission as originally appointed were:

Samuel Alschuler, C.F. Coleman, F.M. Blount, I.L. Ellwood, D.M. Funk,
Jos. P. Mahoney, J.N.C. Shumway, H.C. Beitler, C.C. Craig, H.M. Dunlap,
J.H. Farrell, J.H. Miller, P.T. Chapman, C.N. Travous, C.N. Rannals.

The commission organized by the election of officers, as follows:
President, H.M. Dunlap; vice-president, C.N. Travous; second
vice-president, J.P. Mahoney; treasurer, P.T. Chapman; secretary, John
J. Brown.

Of the members originally appointed the following afterwards resigned,
viz, I.L. Ellwood, P.T. Chapman, H.C. Beitler, C.N. Rannals, Samuel
Alschuler, F.M. Blount, and were succeeded by John H. Pierce, Albert
Campbell, Walter Warder, W.L. Mounts, T.K. Condit, William J. Moxley.

The advantage of nearness to the seat of the World's Fair which made possible the great displays of Missouri was enjoyed and made use of almost as fully by the sister State of Illinois. In every department of the exposition the great resources of Illinois were shown.

The State House was, with possibly two exceptions, the most pretentious of all the State buildings, and certainly its location was the most commanding. From the intramural cars this great white structure, with its generous verandas and its wealth of ornament, could be seen at several points. It was not on the Plateau of States, but was the important member of another State group on The Trail, directly west of the Cascade Gardens. Across the way were the beautiful gardens of Japan, and the Lincoln Museum was directly north.

The building was designed along the lines of the French renaissance, but it was entirely modern in treatment. For instance, in the relief ornament of frieze and cornice the fleur-de-lis was replaced by the ear of corn motif. This was Illinois renaissance and was something more than cut and dried ornament. It was symbolic of the State.

The two great statues that greeted the visitor were those of Lincoln and Douglas. The grand central reception hall was done in tones of ivory, green, and gold, with floor of tile. The medallion center of the tile was the great seal of the State. At one side of the broad staircase was a raised platform, on which stood a grand piano. The elevated apartment served as a reception and music room.

Opening from the great hall were reading rooms, rest rooms, and the office of the commission. On the floor above were the suites of apartments for the governor, the commissioners, and the officers of the building. The wives of the commissioners served as hostesses, each doing the honors for a period of ten days at a time.

One of the most noteworthy features of the Illinois State Home was its verandas. From these every part of the exposition grounds could be seen, and the night view was especially glorious. The building was designed by Illinois architects, erected by Illinois labor, and furnished, for the most part, by Illinois firms. Hence it was really an expression of the State it represented. Its cost was $90,000.

Aside from the State House, the most remarkable exhibits of the State were those in the Palace of Mines and Metallurgy and the Palace of Agriculture. In the former there was abundant evidence that Illinois is primarily a mining State, while the latter wholly contradicted this notion. As a matter of fact, Illinois ranks second to Pennsylvania in the production of coal, and its quarries yield a fine quality of both sand and lime stone. The booth in the Palace of Mines contained the largest block of soft coal ever removed from a mine. It was 6 by 7 by 8 feet in size and was hoisted 335 feet from the shaft. In the coal exhibit there were specimens of the product of over 50 mines, with chemical analyses showing their respective heating elements.

There was a large display of the clay industry of the State, including bricks, tile, and pottery. In addition there were shown splendid specimens of fluorspar, lead, and zinc.

In the Palace of Horticulture there was an extensive table exhibit of fresh fruit, especially of apples and the more ephemeral fruits, such as berries and plums. However, the best display of all was in the Palace of Agriculture. In the cold-storage case in the dairy section were two exceptionally good pieces of butter sculpture. They were the busts of those two great Illinoisans—Lincoln and Grant.

The most striking feature of the great corn pavilion was an enormous broom, that was typical both of the production of broom corn and of the State's broom industry. In the corners were small ornamental booths made entirely of the native woods of the State. One of these was used as an office by the secretary. There were several excellent pictures made of various grains. Among the grain pictures were three that were worthy to stand together. They were President Lincoln, Governor Yates, and the great seal of the State.

By far the largest and most significant part of the exhibit was the collection of samples of corn planted, cultivated, and harvested by boys. The League of Corn Growers numbered 8,000 members, and there were 1,100 prizes each year, the first being $500. Each boy submitted 10 ears of corn from his own patch, together with an account of his experiences and method. The prize winners attached their photographs to the little pyramids of 10 ears of fine corn. For the farming industry of the State it was felt that nothing could possibly be better than this annual contest. The boy is taught to look upon the scientific cultivation of the soil as something worthy his best effort. That in which he takes a personal pride ceases to be drudgery. As a result of this corn contest much of the danger that all the farmer boys will seek the great cities may be averted, and it was felt that the great exposition should encourage the boys in their worthy enterprise.

There were installed by the Illinois commission 14 separate and distinct exhibits, including that of live stock. Each exhibit was in charge of a superintendent and a committee of the commission.

As soon as the Illinois commission had been appointed the members of the Illinois State Historical Society felt that the society should make an exhibit. As the appropriation of $2,000 was small and the time brief for the preparation of the exhibit, the trustee decided that no better and more appropriate exhibit could be made than a manuscript and pictorial life of Abraham Lincoln, these manuscripts and pictures to be arranged so plainly that they could be understood and appreciated by all.

The plan of the exhibit was to utilize all the space possible, and as this was the only exhibit in the Illinois Building it was made as handsome in appearance as possible. Accordingly 16 large wall frames handsomely labeled in gold letters were prepared. The labels read as follows:

(1) Ancestry of Lincoln. (2) Youth of Lincoln. (3) Lincoln at New Salem. (4) Lincoln as a Surveyor. (5) Lincoln in the Black Hawk War. (6) Lincoln as a Lawyer (two cases). (7) Lincoln in Congress. (8) Domestic Life of Lincoln. (9) Lincoln and Douglas. (10) Lincoln and Douglas Debates. (11) Lincoln and the Foundation of the Republican Party. (12) The Campaign of 1860. (13) Lincoln in Washington, The Cabinet. (14) The War of Rebellion. (15) Assassination and Death.

The titles indicate the character of the contents.

The agricultural committee was organized, and the scope and character of the exhibit to be made by Illinois was carefully considered.

It was determined to devote entire attention to the exploitation of those products which can be grown most successfully and profitably within the limits of this State. While the interests of Illinois were, of course, always given the first consideration, such an exhibit was of just as much interest and value to adjoining States, or, in fact, to any countries of the Temperate Zone where similar conditions of climate and soil exist as in the State of Illinois.

Accordingly it was determined to exploit the principal crop of the
State, which surpasses all other in value—that of corn.

It was also planned to exhibit choice specimens of wheat, oats, rye, millet, sorghum, Kaffir corn, clover, broom corn, and other grains and grasses, and did exhibit those varieties that can best be raised in the different sections of the State. The grains were shown both in the sheaf and thrashed. There were collected over one hundred varieties of native woods from different sections of the State.

The installation and exhibit was completed early in May, soon after the fair opened, except the soil exhibit, which was not finished in all its details until about a month later. A company of Chicago donated to the committee an assortment of some thirty new by-products of corn, which have been manufactured by them in the last few years, including different varieties of glucose, starch, proteins, and different varieties of sugar, rubber, dextrine, corn oils, sirups, etc., which were exhibited in large jars arranged in the form of a pyramid. The entire agricultural exhibit covered 10,000 square feet of space.

During the fair additions were made from time to time as the season progressed, and specimens of grains and corn from the crop of 1904 were added.

The exhibit as completed showed the variety and character of Illinois soil and also showed the elements which they contain and which they lack in various portions of the State. The proper treatment, cultivation, and fertilization necessary to bring each kind of soil to the standard and keep it there; the products that could be raised to best advantage on these soils; the method of raising them, and the appearance and characteristics of these crops at various stages of their growth; the best seed to plant, and, finally, the grown and ripened products and the various articles manufactured therefrom, and the uses to which they could most successfully and profitably be put. Attendants were engaged who were able to fully explain the various features of the exhibit, and as there were so many things that had never been exhibited or shown anywhere before the exhibit appealed strongly to those interested in farming.

And in this connection it might be stated that thousands of schoolteachers from every State came to the Illinois section to study corn in a more scientific manner than they had ever studied it before. This was especially true of the teachers of the East and South.

There was no effort made to collect every known grain or grass or seed that grows upon the farm, but to display such products as were considered most valuable to the different sections of the State. Only the leading standard varieties were installed and such valuable varieties were exhibited in such proportion and in such profusion as to demonstrate their value in different sections of the State. Large displays of wheat, oats, grasses, and grains of all kinds, in sheaf and thrashed, were exhibited, and it was intended to show both the growth of the root and the stalk, as well as the grain. As an example, more than thirty varieties of oats were exhibited, showing root growth, stalk growth, size and length of head, and beside each variety was 1 peck of the oats thrashed.

In one corner of our exhibit was erected a triangle of grain pictures, three in number, each 8 by 10 feet, and made entirely of seeds. One picture was that of Abraham Lincoln, another Governor Richard Yates, and a third represented the State seal.

Upon seven large tables were displayed more than 500 glass bottles of seeds, ranging from 8 ounces to 1 gallon each.

But the feature of the agricultural display that attracted more attention than anything else was the immense display of corn grown by the farmer boys of Illinois. The commission from the very start determined to make this display by the farmer boys a strong feature of the exhibit, and how well their efforts were rewarded is now known by millions of people who visited the Agricultural Building. The superintendent solicited special premiums to the amount of $3,500. Circulars describing the farmers boys' corn contest were placed in the hands of 120,000 farmer boys in Illinois. Eight thousand entered the contest.

Above the two vast pyramids of white and yellow corn, each 20 by 30 feet, was a handsome banner inscribed "Grown by the farmer boys of Illinois."

One of the most attractive and interesting sections of the dairy exhibit was that installed by the Illinois commission. The statuary in this exhibit consisted of a full-length ideal statue representing "Illinois," holding the shield of State with one hand, while the other grasps the shaft holding the streamer reading "Illinois" in large, clear, golden letters. On either side of this figure were large busts of Lincoln and Grant. These busts and the full-length figure were made of pure Illinois creamery butter.

The background for the statuary was arranged with the banner won by the Illinois creameries and two large United States flags, which were in keeping with the historical character of the two men represented.

At the sides and in front heavy draperies separated the statuary from the commercial exhibits, which consisted of print butter from the Elgin district and from the University of Illinois, arranged in various designs; also samples of condensed milk, malted milk, and evaporated cream.

There were also jars with samples showing the amounts of water, butter fat, casein, albumen, and other ingredients entering into the composition of a 30-pound tub of butter.

Tables showing the value of the great dairy industry of Illinois, the production of butter and cheese in the Elgin district, the butter and cheese market of Chicago, and large photographs portraying typical Illinois dairy cows and Illinois creameries and the condensing plants occupied prominent positions among the exhibits. Several bulletins from the University of Illinois agricultural experiment station, showing the importance of clean milk and pure butter and other information of value to dairymen, were distributed from the superintendent's desk. The cheese exhibited consisted of samples made by students at the University of Illinois, and a large collection installed by M. Uhlmann & Co., of Chicago, occupied a space in the cheese case directly opposite the butter exhibit.

The refrigerator which contained these exhibits had a glass front formed of three thicknesses of plate glass, with air spaces between. The temperature inside the case was kept close to the freezing point by an ice-making machine in constant operation.

The Illinois commission set apart $15,000 to make a duplication as far as possible of premiums won by the breeders of live stock exhibited in the Louisiana Purchase Exposition, less than $1,000 of which was reserved to provide for the necessary expenses incident to printing, allotting, and distributing the said prize fund.

The live stock from the State of Illinois won one-twentieth of the entire premiums offered by the Louisiana Purchase Exposition.

Five thousand square feet of space was secured in the Palace of Horticulture at the exposition for the exhibit and installation and fixtures placed thereon prior to the opening of the exposition, May 1, 1904, upon which date the exhibit was put in place and maintained with apples from storage of 1903 crop until the crop of 1904 began to mature about June 1. From this latter date fruits of all kinds were supplied as they matured during the period of the exposition. Among the most popular varieties of apples exhibited were: For early apples—Yellow Transparent, Red June, Benoni, Wealthy, Duchess, Maiden Blush. For fall or early winter—Grimes Golden and Jonathan. Winter varieties—Wine Sap, Willow Twig, Rome Beauty, Ben Davis. Peaches—Reeves, Elberta, Diamond. Pears—Bartlett, Tyson, Sechel, Duchess.

Mines and metallurgy exhibit.—The mines and metallurgy exhibit covered a space 25 by 75 feet facing on two of the main aisles near the southeast entrance to the Mines and Metallurgy Building.

The installation was uniform with that of the other exhibits of the State. The object of the exhibit was to show particularly the mineral and to some extent the mineral industries.

The most important branch of production, according to its value, was that of coal. After this came the various materials used in the manufacture of brick and ceramics.

The building stone, although limited to a few varieties of limestone and sandstone, was of great importance, as was also some stone and gravel used for road material, railroad ballast, concrete, and flux for iron reduction.

The exhibit of coal consisted of a series of large blocks intended to show the character and thickness of the veins; the largest block, weighing 15 tons, is the largest single piece ever hoisted from a mine. There are 11 of these blocks from different mines, ranging from the largest down to one block of 1 ton.

In clay products the importance of the industry could only be shown by statistics, as common brick, which is made all over the State in such a uniform character, are so well known that exhibits are not necessary.

Neither the geology nor topography offer many opportunities for the development of stone quarries, but such stone as is extensively used was displayed. The limestones of the Silurian series are the principal sources of supply, the quarries about Joliet being among the largest in the United States. The limestone is generally used in the form of rubble or rock-faced ashler.

The exhibit at the United States Fish Commission Building was in the large aquarium situated in the southeast corner of the building and the two smaller aquaria immediately adjoining on the right and left.

In the large aquarium the commissioners decided to show the commercial fishes of the State—that is, such fishes as were commonly used for shipping and found in greatest abundance, namely, the carp, buffalo, the coarser catfishes, and dogfish. The dogfish in the last few years has become a very important factor in the food supply, having been previously thrown away as worthless, but is now extensively used by a class of people in the larger cities and sold alive under the name of grass bass. In this aquarium has been carried, for a period of seven months, perhaps the largest amount in weight ever carried in an aquarium for that length of time with so small a percentage of loss.

In the smaller aquaria were shown the game fish of the State, a list of which comprises the black bass, crappie, sunfishes, yellow perch, white perch, warmouth bass, and the two varieties of striped bass.

These aquaria have attracted a great deal of attention, particularly among those who were interested in the subject of fish propagation and distribution, and gave people a better idea of what Illinois produced than could have been obtained by any other method.

The exhibits of the common schools and the five State normal schools were installed under the direction of the State superintendent of public instruction. The material of the exhibits was furnished, except that from the normal schools, by the school districts, without expense to the commission, and in substantial conformity to the following suggestions, sent to the schools about November 1, 1903:

Classification of schools.—Group 1. Elementary education.—Class 1. Country schools. Class 2. Semigraded schools. Class 3. Graded schools. Group 2. Secondary education.—Class 4. High schools. Class 5. Normal schools.

Under this classification it is desired to exhibit: (1) Legislation, organization, general statistics; (2) buildings, photographs, plans, models; (3) administrative methods; (4) results obtained by methods of instruction.

The educational exhibit of the university of Illinois occupied a space 30 by 45 feet, or an area of 1,290 square feet, open upon an aisle on its long dimension. Against the back and the two side walls were glass-inclosed cases 7 feet high, and above these were many enlarged photographs in frames, showing the main buildings, views of the campus, etc., together with numerous pictures from the department of art and design, also a set of finely colored plates of the food and game fish of Illinois. Other cases occupied a part of the central area of the space, with room for seats and a writing table.

The exhibits were classified according to general subjects illustrative of the equipment and work of the colleges of the university from which they came. An attendant was on hand to supply published documents and information to visitors.

The exhibit of the college of science contained diagrams and photographs and a set of bound volumes of the contributions to science published by the members of the college faculty, but was otherwise almost wholly illustrative of the work of only one of its eight departments, that of chemistry, and in this it was confined to the results of two line of investigation, which have for some years been closely associated with the work of the department; first, a study of the chemical composition and heating value of the coals of the State, and, second, a sanitary survey of Illinois waters. The importance of the first is emphasized by the fact that Illinois ranks second among American States in tonnage output, with a valuation in the aggregate of $35,000,000 annually.

The agricultural portion of the university exhibit was designed to show the comparative produce of Illinois soils expressed in terms of both crops and animal products. The yields shown were of corn, wheat, oats, beans, potatoes, apples, tomatoes, milk, butter, cheese, port, mutton, and beef.

The actual amount of corn, wheat, apples, and other crops shown was the normal yield of one-hundredth of an acre of standard fertile soil of Illinois. The milk shown was the amount that should be produced from the same amount of land when growing crops suitable for milk production, and the butter and cheese shown were such as could be made from this milk.

A mounted steer, which when living weighed 750 pounds, represented the amount of beef that should be produced from an acre of soil in one year. The same land would produce 10 such sheep as shown, weighing in all 1,100 pounds, or 100 pigs like the roaster shown, or their equivalent, with a total weight of 1,400 pounds.

Incidentally the work in soil improvement was shown by a number of yields from soils naturally deficient in fertility, taken both before and after treatment, and thus showing the benefit of intelligent methods of soil restoration.

The articles contributed by the College of Engineering were arranged in an alcove, partly inclosed by cases of books and for folding frames, on which were placed photographs and diagrams mounted on large cards. A larger case contained the more bulky specimens of the work of students in the engineering shops. Above these cases were placed on the walls enlarged views and some original designs by architectural students.

A large series of good photographs arranged for convenient examination presented views of all buildings occupied by the College of Engineering, especially of their interiors, showing class and drawing-rooms, shops and laboratories, incidentally illustrating much of the equipment of machines and apparatus. A series of large diagrams and tables afforded full information concerning the very remarkable increase in the number of students in attendance during recent years.

The exhibit of the College of Medicine consisted of a large series of normal and pathological specimens and dexterously executed dissections of various portions of the human body. These were mounted so as to show to best advantage the special peculiarities in each case and so as to secure permanent preservation.

Closing up.—The closing up of the business of the commission, the sale of the building, furniture, and exhibits involved considerable work. The commission on two separate occasions advertised the building and furniture for sale, advertisements to that effect appearing in the St. Louis, Chicago, and Springfield papers. Opportunity was given for the people to bid for the building and furnishings as a whole, for them separately, or for any part. About sixty separate bids were received, some for one article only, many for a few pieces of furniture, and a very few for the building or furniture as a whole. Four bids were received for the building, viz, $200, $500, $750, and $1,000, the bids on the building including a provision that all debris from the wrecking of same should be removed and the ground cleared and left as it was originally, all of which involved considerable expense. The bid of the Southern Illinois Construction Company, of East St. Louis, was the highest, including building, furniture, and furnishings, and amounted to $4,250. This bid was accepted. Articles in other exhibits not included were afterwards disposed of and are included in the financial statement, bringing the amount of salvage to over $5,000. This amount seemed small, but was in line with the results of all expositions. At Chicago, with a net appropriation of $662,000 and with a building and furnishings costing $277,000, the total amount realized from the sale of buildings and furnishings was $3,926.50. At Omaha and Buffalo the amounts realized were less than $1,000.

INDIANA.

On March 9, 1903, the legislature of the State of Indiana appropriated the sum of $150,000 for the necessary expenses of the participation of Indiana at the Louisiana Purchase Exposition. At the same time the governor of the State was authorized and directed to appoint a commission of fifteen persons, not more than nine of whom were to be of the same political party.

Newton W. Gilbert, president; Henry W. Marshall, vice-president; James
W. Cockrum, secretary; A.C. Alexander, assistant secretary; W.W.
Wicks, W.W. Stevens, W.H. O'Brien, Crawford Fairbanks, D.W. Kinsey,
N.A. Gladding, Frank C. Ball, C.C. Shirley, Fremont Goodwine, Joseph
B. Grass, Stephen B. Fleming, Melville W. Mix.

The State made altogether seventeen exhibits in the various exhibit palaces, the total value of which was approximately $60,000. The exhibits consisted of needlework and lace work in the Manufactures Building, decorated china in the Varied Industries Building, coal and stone exhibits in the Mines and Metallurgy Building, horticultural exhibit in the Horticultural Building, special corn and dairy exhibits in the Agriculture Building, and general educational, library, college, State board of health, juvenile courts, department of inspection, school for feeble-minded youths, and State board of charities exhibits in the Educational Palace.

The Indiana Building at the Louisiana Purchase Exposition was located in the center of the State group, on one of the most artistic spots within the exposition grounds. It was designed in the spirit of the French renaissance, and was intended to be a resting place for all visitors to meet friends and enjoy social and musical entertainments.

The building was surrounded by a broad terrace, with balustrade embellished with flowers and pedestals supporting vases with flowers and vines. The approach was through a spacious portico, on either side of which were candelabra of monumental character. A large lounging hall, 30 by 58, was furnished with heavy leather upholstered furniture. On either side were men's and women's resting rooms, 19 by 37, back of which were commodious toilet and retiring rooms. The toilet rooms had tile floors and walls and partitions made of "novus" sanitary glass, manufactured at Alexandria, Ind. The resting rooms were wainscoted 7 feet high with paneled oak, and were luxuriously furnished with rugs, upholstered furniture, and each was furnished with an upright piano.

In connection with the lounging hall were a secretary's office, a post-office, check room, registry desk, and bureau of information. The broad, spacious stairway in the center led to a landing with Corinthian columns supporting an art-glass dome.

Midway was a large landing and on either side were wide stairs leading to the floor above. This landing merged into a large music room, 25 by 50, superbly furnished with oriental rugs, Louis XIV furniture, and containing two grand pianos.

The art-glass decorations throughout the building and in the dome represented a material whose quality is said to be unexcelled in the world.

On the second floor was a large library, or reading room, in which were kept on file all the State newspapers and magazines; also all the principal daily papers and monthly magazines.

At one end of the building was the governor's reception room; at the other, the commissioners' reception room and private office. In connection with this latter was the art and literary department of the State, which contained copies of books by prominent Indiana authors and original manuscripts and drawings. The paintings which adorned the walls of the building were the product of Indiana genius. Her artists were lavish of their time and thought in contributing to the effect sought. The color scheme of the building was the result of educated taste.

The electric lighting was a special feature. A multitude of 4-candlepower lamps were used, distributed on the ceiling in pleasant form, that harmonized the decorative plaster panels. The woodwork throughout the building was stained and finished in bog oak. Most of the furniture was of the Mission style, stained to suit the interior finish.

The building was furnished and decorated luxuriously and in a quiet character, making an interior that offered comfort and quiet environment to the weary visitor. At the very beginning it was determined that this building and the things associated with it and housed in it should speak the culture and artistic development of Indiana life, and so it has gathered within its walls the best offerings of literature and art—the trophies of civilization.

INDIAN TERRITORY.

Members of Indian Territory commission.—Thomas Ryan, chairman; F.C. Hubbard, executive commissioner; H.B. Johnson, honorary commissioner; A.J. Brown, honorary commissioner; W.L. McWilliams; H.B. Spaulding; J.E. Campbell; J.J. McAlester; William Busby; Miss Olive Blentlinger, clerk.

A fund of $50,000 was expended for the Indian Territory participation in the Louisiana Purchase Exposition. Of this amount, $25,000 was appropriated by Congress and $25,000 was raised by popular subscription in the Territory. The expenditure, according to the provisions of the Congressional appropriation, was made under the direction of the Secretary of the Interior. It was the purpose of the commission to make the Indian Territory exhibit one that would primarily set forth the actual condition that existed in the Territory and to advertise the developments and resources of the same in a comprehensive manner. The same general lines that were adopted by other States and Territories in similar work were followed as closely as practicable.

Because of its limited funds the Territorial commission deemed it advisable to make exhibits only in the following departments: In the Mines and Metallurgy Building were displayed the coke and coal, marble, granite, and oil exhibits. The corn and cotton exhibits were shown in the Palace of Agriculture. In the Horticultural Building exhibits of the orchards and gardens of Indian Territory were maintained, and all other exhibits, such as educational, photographic, mineral specimens, etc., were installed in the Indian Territory Building.

The Indian Territory Building was completed and exhibits installed on the opening day of the exposition, April 30, 1904. It was located on a beautiful site in the Plateau of States, near the southeast entrance to the grounds. The building was a two-story colonial structure, 109 by 72 feet. The first floor contained, besides the large lobby room, two exhibit rooms. In one of these rooms was displayed the art and educational exhibit; in the other the photographic exhibit. These two exhibits—one setting forth the artistic, the other the commercial development of the residents of the Indian Territory—went far toward dispelling the somewhat prevalent idea that the Indian Territory is a wilderness, where progress and civilization are unknown.

In the art and educational room were displayed many beautiful paintings, studies, laces, fine needle and bead work, and industrial work, all the products of Indian Territory students and residents. In the photographic room were arranged 500 large photographs suitably framed and mounted, taken from all parts of Indian Territory, and representing the actual status and present commercial condition in the Indian Territory.

In the main lobby on the first floor of the Territory Building were displayed the collections of old Indian pottery, beadwork, etc. These collections belong to J.E. Campbell, of the Cherokee Nation; Mr. and Mrs. J.S. Murrow, of the Choctaw Nation; Mr. Thomas P. Smith and Miss Alice M. Robertson, of the Creek Nation, and were all especially fine and very valuable, many of the articles being more than a hundred years old and representing in the highest type the work of the old Indians. The paintings of Jefferson and his descendants, the work of Mrs. Narcissa Owen, of the Cherokee Nation, as well as the tapestries by the same artist, were admired by the many thousands who visited the Territory pavilion. Mention should be made also of the 100 wild flowers of the Indian Territory, mounted and framed, the collection of Mr. J.B. Bushyhead, of the Cherokee Nation.

The second floor of the Territory Building contained a large reception hall, ladies' parlors and resting rooms, and the offices of the executive commissioner. An especially attractive feature about the pavilion were the large stair landing and the five big windows, two transparencies being set in each and representing typical scenes from the Territory.

The Indian Territory was also represented in three of the exhibit palaces of the exposition, maintaining booths in the Palace of Mines and Metallurgy, the Palace of Horticulture, and the Palace of Agriculture.

The coal fields of the Indian Territory, especially in the Choctaw Nation, have for years been operated successfully, and within the past two years the development of the coal industry has been immense. Petroleum is also found in many parts of the Indian Territory. This industry, though new, is developing into gigantic proportions. Hundreds of wells are going down in both the Bartlesville and Muskogee fields, and the majority of those already opened are good producers. The crude oil in the Bartlesville field is in grade about the same as the Kansas oil, while the grade of the Muskogee field is somewhat better. Railroads, pipe lines, and refineries are being built for handling this product, which promises to be in such abundant supply. In the Indian Territory booth in the Mines and Metallurgy Building were shown many samples of Indian Territory coals and oils. Beside the four large cubes of the four separate grades of bituminous coal found in the Territory, there were arranged cases of the finest samples of egg coal, nut coal, and pea coal, and pyramids of coal and coke were erected. Samples of the oil from 27 flowing wells, together with samples of the oil sands, were arranged in glass and formed the background of the booth. Cubes of the Chickasha granite and the Cherokee marble and many blocks of building stone, filtering rock, colite, etc., were shown in this booth. A large relief map, costing more than $2,000, of the Choctaw coal fields and many pictures and plates of the top works of coal mines, oil wells, and asphaltum works were attractively placed in this booth.

A comprehensive display of the corn and cotton products of the Indian Territory was made in the two booths maintained in the Palace of Agriculture. The Indian Territory is particularly a cotton country. No finer staple is sold on the Liverpool market than that which grows in the bottoms along the Arkansas, Verdigris, Canadian, Washita, and Red rivers. Corn, wheat, oats, rye, and, in fact, all grains and products that flourish in such States as Kansas, Iowa, and Illinois do equally well in Indian Territory. With practically an unvarying temperature and abundant rainfall the "Indian lands" will, within a few years, be converted into agricultural domains rich and beautiful.

Though not the largest, one of the very prettiest displays in the Palace of Horticulture was that of the Indian Territory. Occupying the very center circular space in the building, this booth was kept constantly supplied with Indian Territory products of the orchard and flower gardens. Apples, peaches, pears, grapes, and plums seem to grow to perfection in the Indian Territory, and the many thousands who saw the fruit display at the exposition can attest the fact that wonderful are the products from Indian Territory orchards and gardens.

KANSAS.

The legislature of the State of Kansas in 1901 appropriated the sum of $75,000 for the purpose of having the State represented at the Louisiana Purchase Exposition. Subsequently, in March, 1903, a second appropriation of $100,000 was made. There were no subscriptions of any kind for this purpose.

In 1901 the governor of Kansas appointed the following-named gentlemen as commissioners:

John C. Carpenter, president; J.C. Morrow, vice-president; R.T. Simons, treasurer; C.H. Luling, secretary; W.P. Waggener, commissioner.

Kansas made exhibits in the Agriculture, Horticulture, Education, and Social Economy buildings and in the Dairy Department. The State also made large exhibits in live stock of horses, cattle, swine, sheep, and poultry.

In the Agricultural Palace the corn steer, corn eagles, corn Indian, and several other striking features of installation, made exclusively of agricultural products, were greatly admired and favorably commented upon. In this department a grand prize was given to the State.

Although known principally as an agricultural State, the exhibit made by Kansas in the Mines and Metallurgy palaces was such as to astonish all who saw it. Besides its other large and varied resources and fine installation of lead, zinc, coal, salt, gypsum, stone, shale for manufacture of brick, cement, etc., Kansas is known as one of the greatest oil and gas fields in the United States.

The floor space assigned to the Kansas educational exhibit in the Educational Building was 45 by 30 feet. The walls were 15 feet high, thus giving for display purposes a surface of 2,100 square feet in addition to the floor space. All the wall space was used to show drawing maps, charts, photographs, and work in manual training. Thirty cabinet cases were used to exhibit miscellaneous work, mainly in drawing, kindergarten, sewing, and in photographic representations of various kinds.

The total cost of the booth was about $1,230, and of the furnishings about $600. The transportation of the educational exhibits cost approximately $100. The total cost of the educational exhibit in the Kansas booth was about $6,000.

In the Kansas school exhibits the work of the common schools was made conspicuous. There were on the tables in the booths between three and four hundred bound volumes of written work, comprising spelling, writing, composition, arithmetic, geography, grammar, United States history, map drawing, kindergarten. But while the work of the elementary schools was given the most important place in the Kansas exhibit, higher education was kept well in the foreground. The University of Kansas effectively showed its work through 50 large framed photographs in which all the buildings and many of the class rooms made the work of the institution visible to all.

There was work of some kind from 104 cities and about 400 country districts. The exhibits from many of the smaller cities did not appear separately on the catalogues, because they were included in county displays.

The Kansas Pavilion in the Agricultural Palace occupied a space 92 by 62 feet on the main aisle, near the center of the building. On each side were pillars 16 feet high decorated with ears of corn and corn husks. Upon each of these rested a Grecian vase made of corn husks and festooned with rosettes and garlands of corn husks, the whole being very attractive.

Standing at the main entrance, between the two high corn columns, were two eagles with wings spread for flight—one made of corn husks and kernels of corn, the other made of wheat straw and kernels of corn. They were the work of an artist.

One of the most striking features was the large center pyramid, surmounted by a monster steer of the Hereford type, 7 feet in height, fashioned of red and white shelled corn. At the top of this pyramid the word "Kansas" was worked in corn.

At the north entrance stood a pyramid of native grasses, upon which was a vase made of oat heads, 7 feet high. Directly opposite stood a pyramid of tame grasses, upon which rested a vase made of the heads of grains and grasses, 7 feet high.

The Kansas State Agricultural College, at Manhattan, exhibited alfalfa, corn, cane, Kaffir corn, oats, buffalo grass, and big blue-stemmed grass, showing the plant and root growth. Besides these there were 25 varieties of wheat sheaves, 10 varieties of cane 14 feet in length, 4 varieties of Kaffir corn, 3 of broom corn 15 feet, stalks of corn 16 feet, and millet 6 feet high.

The State Agricultural College Experiment Station, Hays, Kans., had a collection of wheat, rye, barley, speltz, oats, and flax.

The total cost of the various installations of the agricultural exhibits of Kansas was $17,750.

The Kansas exhibit in the Horticultural Department fully and completely represented that branch of industry in the State and was highly commented upon by the people generally from all sections of the country. Kansas was given space covering 2,000 square feet. The commission appropriated $9,000 for this exhibit, which covered all expenses.

The fruits, especially apples, placed Kansas high in rank as one of the leading apple-growing States of the Union. Kansas also ranked close along with the leading States in peaches, plums, grapes, and small fruits and was the banner State in the production of cherries.

The Kansas commission secured an 8-foot square space in the butter pavilion, Palace of Agriculture, at a cost of $500 for the season. The cost of placing and maintenance was $2,500.

Kansas did very well in her live-stock exhibit, for which an appropriation of $10,000 was used. More than two hundred entries won prizes, aggregating $313,800.

In the art exhibit, in the Kansas Building, the total number of articles entered and shown was 537. The total value of the same was $20,247, classified as follows: Sculpture, paintings in oil, paintings in water colors, pastels and other drawings, miniatures, etchings, etc., paintings on china, art needlework, embroideries, etc., tapestries, etc.

KENTUCKY.

The legislature of 1902 refused to make an appropriation for a State exhibit. The organization of the Kentucky Exhibit Association to raise a fund by private subscription followed. For fourteen months an active canvass was conducted, resulting in $30,000 and a sentiment so unanimous for the State's representation at the fair that in January, 1904, the general assembly supplemented this amount with $75,000. The Kentucky Exhibit Association had several hundred members, with a board of 15 directors. Upon the passage of the appropriation act, Governor J.C. Beckham, who signed the measure, appointed the following commissioners, all to serve without compensation:

A.Y. Ford, president; Charles C. Spalding, vice-president; R.E. Hughes,
secretary; W.H. Cox, W.T. Ellis, Clarence Dallam, W.H. Newman, Sam P.
Jones, Samuel Grabfelder, M.H. Crump, J.B. Bowles, Charles E. Hoge, A.G.
Caruth, B.L.D. Guffy, Garrett S. Wall, Frank M. Fisher, Mrs. Bertha
Miller Smith, hostess.

Mr. Hughes, as secretary, was in charge of the building, and as director of exhibits maintained supervision over Kentucky's entire representation in the exhibit palaces. He was Kentucky's member of the Executive Commissioners' Association of the fair. Mr. Hughes had a most capable secretary in Mr. Frank Dunn, who was connected with the work from the organization of the old Kentucky Exhibit Association. Mrs. Bertha Miller Smith, of Richmond, Ky., held the position of hostess of the building.

Besides erecting a State Building, Kentucky collected, installed, and maintained 16 different exhibits; a collective display of minerals, a separate display of coal, a separate display of clays, in the Mines and Metallurgy Building; a collective display from the schools and colleges of the State and two separate displays in the blind section in the Palace of Education and Social Economy; two collective displays—one exterior, the other interior—of forestry in the department devoted to Forestry, Fish, and Game; a collective display of general agricultural products in the Palace of Agriculture; and displays of paintings and sculptures by Kentucky artists and sculptors, of fancy needle and drawn work by women, and of the works of Kentucky authors and composers in the Kentucky Building.

The displays in the exhibit palaces occupied 15,000 square feet of space, the tobacco display with 4,000 square feet having the largest space assigned any one product. Four thousand square feet were devoted to minerals, 1,200 to education, 3,000 to a general agricultural exhibit, 1,200 to forestry and its manufactured products, and 1,200 to horticulture.

In the Palace of Mines and Metallurgy the general display combined both State and individual effort. Its 3,400 square feet of space faced on three of the main aisles of the building. Facing on three aisles the exhibit had three entrances, an arch of cannel coal, an arch of white limestone, and an arch of terra cotta burned in St. Louis from clay taken from Waco, Madison County. The arches were connected by a 3-foot wall of minerals, forming an inclosure for the exhibit. In this wall were shown, as approaches to the clay-entrance arch, building brick, tiles, paving brick, fire brick, plain and decorated pottery, etc.; as approaches to the cannel-coal arch, both bituminous and cannel coal, and as approaches to the stone arch, building stones and cement building blocks.

Oil and its future development was found in a collective petroleum exhibit from the several oil horizons. Large blocks of coal, representing the different veins of Kentucky, several full lines of broken coals, and a very complete display of coke were also displayed. A very elaborate display of kaolin—plastic, vitrifying, and refractory clays—was made.

In all, there were 114 different specimens of clay attractively displayed in glass cases and in convenient corners; also plain and decorated pottery, white and cream-colored wares, terra cotta, earthen-ware, building brick, firebacks, coke-oven sundries, paving brick, fire brick, tiles, etc. The Kentucky display contained also zinc ore and sphalerite, lead ore and barite, lead and zinc ore, and fluarite from the mines in Chittenden County; zinc and lead ores and metallic zinc from "the Joplin district of Kentucky;" sphalerite and galena from Marion, galena (in barite) from Lockport, Henry County, and large lumps and ground fluorspar and lead concentrates from Marion, Crittenden County. There were 138 samples of iron ore shown as a collective State exhibit, and in addition to this there was ore from Edmonson County, ore from Nelson County, ore from Allen County, ore from Carter County, and ore from Hart County. One of the unique displays was a sample bottle of oil from the old American oil well in Cumberland County. This well, begun September 10, 1827, was the first oil well in America. Collective State exhibits of oynx marble, paint earths, polished earths, sands, silicious earths, road materials, fluorspars, barite calcite, cement materials, salt, lithograph stone, lime, potash, marl, asphalt rock, etc., were also to be found in Kentucky's general mineral exhibit.

The State made a fine display in forestry, fish, and game. The collection embraced displays from all parts of Kentucky. The forestry exhibit not only showed Kentucky's timbers in the rough and polished state, but hundreds of samples of the manufactured products. One of the exhibits was a full-sized log wagon, carrying three large logs 10 feet long, one each of oak, poplar, and hickory. The idea of showing the timber from which the product was made was carried out as far as possible throughout the exhibit.

Kentucky's educational exhibit occupied 1,100 square feet, every foot of which was utilized to advantage. The public schools, Catholic institutions, commercial branches, and colleges were given due prominence, while special attention was given to mountain school labors. One part was devoted to public schools and another to Catholic institutions. The school work of the totally blind pupils occupied six display cabinets. These cases showed the entire course, from 8 years to 18. The display from the Kentucky School for the Deaf at Danville, illustrating the work done in its manual-training department, was shown also. This school was the pioneer in the manual-training movement in Kentucky, and for over half a century every graduate has left its halls equipped with a knowledge of some useful handicraft. More than a year was consumed in the collection of Kentucky's educational exhibit.

Kentucky made a good showing agriculturally, and had a creditable and attractive representation in the Palace of Agriculture. Raising more than 90 per cent of the hemp of the United States, Kentucky made one of the really distinctive exhibits of the Agricultural Building at the exposition. The exhibit occupied more than 2,000 square feet. An experiment station showed 50 varieties of grasses and 15 varieties of wheat, both in the seed and in the sheaf Another interesting feature was an entire case of insects injurious to fruit trees and staple products. An interesting feature was an obelisk, 12 feet high, made of blue grass from the experiment station The apex was of ripened blue grass; the shades leading up to it, formed the base, beginning with the grass in its green state. The bluish tint that gives the grass its name could be seen. Various stages of hemp culture and harvest were shown also. These include the seed, the stalk intact, broken and dressed hemp. Practically 100 different places were represented in this Kentucky exhibit. There were in all 242 exhibitors. Fifty-two of these showed tobacco, 108 corn, 18 wheat, 6 oats, 8 seeds, 5 hemp, and the others miscellaneous.

The display of tobacco was conceded to be most instructive. Occupying an entire block—4,628 square feet of space—it covered more floor area than any other display in the 1,240 acres of the exposition devoted to a single product. There was shown in miniature or by pictures tobacco in every phase of its culture and manufacture. A box of plug tobacco 3 feet square, the largest ever made, was shown here. To show to good advantage the successive steps in the culture, harvesting, curing, and marketing of the tobacco, two platforms, each 31 feet long by 8 feet wide, were utilized. They were on opposite aisles of the space, running parallel with the 89-foot sides. On one platform were shown the plant beds and fields, on the other the curing barns and warehouses.

The State Pavilion was dedicated as the "New Kentucky Home." By a careful study of the visitors' register with the total attendance at the exposition it was found that 1 out of every 18 visitors to the fair visited the "New Kentucky Home." The registers showed for one day alone citizens from 35 States and 11 foreign countries. Its walls, hung with more than $20,000 worth of the paintings of Kentucky artists, the most important collection in the State Building; a score of glass cases holding one of the exhibits of fancy needlework and a display of relics, with a library of the works of Kentucky authors and an art-design piano with Kentucky-written music, the "New Kentucky Home" was most interesting. With four sides, and every side a front, its doors were always wide open and no restriction was placed upon visitors. Its 582 lights at night spoke an invitation to all.

LOUISIANA.

Members of commission.—Governor Newton C. Blanchard, president; Dr.
W.C. Stubbs, State commissioner; Maj. J.G. Lee, secretary; Gen. J.B.
Levert; Col. Charles Schuler; H.L. Gueydan; Robert Glenk, assistant to
State commissioner; Charles K. Fuqua, assistant secretary.

The legislature of the State of Louisiana in 1902 passed an act providing that a board of commissioners, to be known as "The Board of Commissioners of the Louisiana Purchase Exposition," be created, consisting of the governor, who should be ex officio president thereof, and four other members to be appointed by the governor. The sum of $100,000 was appropriated by the same act for Louisiana's participation in the Louisiana Purchase Exposition.

In the city of New Orleans is an old Spanish building, erected in 1795, used during the Spanish reign as a cabildo or court building. In this building the actual transfer of the Louisiana purchase from Spain to France and from France to the United States occurred, the first on November 30 and the last on December 20, 1803.

The commission wisely determined to reproduce this building as it was at that date on the exposition grounds at St. Louis and to use the same as a State building. It was determined also to furnish it with furniture and pictures of that date. On account of the prominence of the State of Louisiana in the original purchase, she was accorded first choice in the selection of a site for her State building. A beautiful spot overlooking Government Hill and directly south of Missouri's handsome State Palace was selected. The building was completed in October, 1903, at a cost of $25,000. On account of its historic interest and rich antique furnishings, the State building attracted much attention, and the visitors that passed through its portals numbered perhaps nearly a million.

In front of the building was reproduced the "Place d'Armes" of the French and Spanish regimes, now Jackson square, in the center of which was erected an equestrian statue of Andrew Jackson, modeled upon the one erected to the hero of Chalmette in the square in New Orleans by the grateful citizens of Louisiana.

In the room known as Sala Capitular, in which the transfer occurred, was exposed throughout the exposition a facsimile of the treaty signed by Livingstone, Monroe, and Marbois. In the jails in the rear of the Cabildo were placed the original stocks used by the Spanish in punishment of their criminals.

Besides the Cabildo, which was a veritable museum of curios and interesting relics, Louisiana had 15 exhibits in 10 buildings.

In the Agricultural Palace she had 8,500 feet of space, of which 2,000 was devoted to sugar, 2,000 to rice, 2,000 to cotton, and 2,500 to general agriculture.

In the sugar exhibit was a field of cane made of wax, with negroes cutting the same, and from this field there was a train of cars carrying cane to the sugarhouse. On reaching the sugarhouse the cane was unloaded by machinery and crushed by a complete sugar mill with crusher. Surrounding the sugarhouse were 500 small barrels of sugar and 100 barrels of molasses; also in the same space were commercial samples of plantation and refined sugars and a life-sized model of "Miss Louisiana" made of sugar. Samples of 100 varieties of cane were shown and samples of sugarhouse products were also, displayed. There were also to be seen beautiful samples of paper Of all grades made from the cane.

In the rice exhibit were to be found, first, large shocks of each, variety of rice in the sheaf. A field of growing rice, made of wax, with a harvesting machine cutting and binding the same, was in evidence. All stages of growing rice were represented, from the sprouting seed to the fully matured grain. Samples of commercial rice were tastefully exhibited.

In the cotton exhibit were to be found 15 commercial bales of cotton specially prepared for the exhibit by patriotic citizens of Louisiana. Over these bales was a platform, upon which was erected a "Carnival King" in cotton. A roller and saw gin, a square and round bale cotton press, and a complete cotton-seed oil mill made up the display of machinery in the cotton exhibit. Nearly 100 varieties were shown in small, neat bales, weighing 3 or 4 pounds each.

In the agricultural exhibit every crop growing in the field and the garden was exhibited. Hay from the grasses and legumes, all kinds of grain, both clean and in the straw; all kinds of fiber plants, in the stock and in the fiber; all kinds of tobacco, yellow-leaf cigar leaf, cigars, and the famous Perique were to be found. Vegetables of all kinds, both fresh and in wax, were handsomely displayed.

In the Palace of Horticulture two exhibits were made. Pecans, oranges, grapefruit, peaches, plums, pears, pomegranates, Japan persimmons, and many other subtropical fruits were shown.

In the conservatory were two carloads of plants brought from New Orleans. In it were 28 varieties of palms and many varieties of oranges, pecans, figs, pineapples, bananas, pomegranates, etc.

In the Forestry Building there were two exhibits from Louisiana. In the
first were to be found timbers of valuable forests and their products.
In the same building were found the birds, fishes, and animals of
Louisiana.

In the Educational Building there were also two exhibits from Louisiana. One was the regular State exhibit, illustrating the work done in the schools, colleges, and universities.

In the same building and in the exhibit from the experimental stations a complete sugar laboratory made by the sugar experimental station at Audubon Park, New Orleans, was shown.

In the Mines and Metallurgy Building were exhibits of sulphur and salt, crude and refined petroleum, marble, and iron ore, all fresh from the mines of Louisiana.

In the Liberal Arts Building were topographical maps showing the levees of Louisiana, and showing also the city of New Orleans in 1803 and New Orleans in 1903. There were also in this exhibit 200 maps of the Gulf coast from 1500 up to the present time, some rare old books, a section of the palisades that surrounded New Orleans in the year 1794, and copies of all the books of the authors of the State.

In the Transportation Building was represented transportation on the Mississippi River, past and present, beginning with the Indian canoe and on through the evolution of transportation up to the monster ocean liner of to-day.

In the Anthropology Building was a very fine collection of Indian relics, including a number of baskets of rare and beautiful type.

MAINE.

The State of Maine erected one of the most noteworthy buildings of the ground and one that attracted universal attention. The building represented accurately the popular conception of what a sportsman's clubhouse should be. The building was made entirely of Maine lumber and was in the form of a log cabin, exaggerated in size and equipped with all the comforts of a country clubhouse. In this connection it is interesting to note that the Maine Pavilion was subsequently sold for $2,000 for the purpose of a sportsman's clubhouse in the country. The spacious, cool verandas and the odor from the fresh pine logs made the log house of Maine a favorite rendezvous during the heated days of the summer. The building was furnished throughout with furnishings from the manufacturers of Maine. The walls were decorated with moose heads and specimens of the game and fish to be found in Maine. The walls of the building were hung with pictures of various scenes in the State. The total cost of the building was $22,361.40, and the furnishings cost $159.80.

The legislature of the State appropriated $40.000 for the purpose of erecting the building and making the display. There was no money given by individuals. The total cost of the exhibit was $1,893.19.

The commissioners appointed by the legislature were as follows:

Louis B. Goodall, Sanford, chairman; Lemuel Lane, Westbrook; Frank H.
Briggs, Auburn; Charles C. Burrill, Ellsworth; Henry W. Sargent,
Sargentville. Edward E. Philbrook was elected secretary.

The purpose of the commission was primarily to advertise they resources of the State of Maine as a vacation and sporting State. The only exhibit made by the State, beyond that described above, was a small display of potatoes and apples.

MARYLAND.

In the legislature of the State of Maryland in 1902 an item of $25,000 was provided in the general appropriation bill "for the use of the commissioners to the St. Louis Fair, hereby authorized to be appointed by the governor." The amount of this appropriation was less than the friends of the measure desired, but it enabled the work to be inaugurated. Governor Smith appointed the following commissioners:

Gen. L. Victor Baughman, chairman; Francis E. Waters, vice-chairman;
Frederick P. Stieff, treasurer; Frank N. Hoen, William A. Marburg,
William H. Grafflin, Wesley M. Oler, Thomas H. Robinson, Jacob M.
Pearce, Orlando Harrison, Mrs. Frances E. Lord, Mrs. Parks Fisher, F.P.
Cator, H.J. McGrath; Samuel K. Dennis, secretary.

A further appropriation of $40,000 was made, giving the commission a total of $65,000. Through the systematic, scientific work of the Maryland geological survey the commission had at hand the basis of an excellent exhibit for the Palace of Mines. After vicissitudes of various kinds, chiefly those occasioned by the great fire in Baltimore, the Maryland Building was finished and opened on June 8. The total cost of the building was $18,402.70. It was of a modern classic design, very boldly treated. In plan it was a parallelogram 100 feet long by 40 feet wide, with a recess on the front 10 by 55 feet, forming a loggia, which was richly decorated in color (the only such external color scheme on the grounds), supported by six columns of the composite order 25 feet high, carrying a cornice and balustrade above. The Maryland State arms were the central feature over the main entrance. At either end there were large semicircular porches, supported on Ionic columns, which made the total length of the building over all 140 feet. The site was an ideal one, close to the New York and other State buildings and on the direct route from the Inside Inn to the center of the grounds. The building was surrounded by a beautiful oak grove, and was on gently rising ground. Inside the classic feeling was maintained. On entering through the loggia one found an imposing hall 55 feet long by 25 feet high. The color scheme of this room was golden brown, with a lighter shade of the same for the vaulted ceiling. Portraits of great value, taken from the statehouse at Annapolis, as well as one of his eminence Cardinal Gibbons, lent an air of dignity. Other rooms on the ground floor were: On the left a picture room, where a large number of framed photographs of Maryland scenery, buildings, and objects of interest were hung, and back of this a lunch room and pantry, for use on reception days. At the other end of the building there was a drawing room, with a room at the back which was used as a men's smoking room, with toilet attached. A stairway led from this part of the building to the ladies' boudoir, which also had toilet attached, and to a ladies' drawing-room.

The second story, at the other end of the building, had a good room fitted up for the gentleman in charge of the building. Mr. Albert Jones, of Baltimore, and Mrs. Parks Fisher, of Baltimore, dispensed hospitality in true Maryland style, and made many friends for the State among the many visitors who came daily to the building. Upon Mrs. Fisher devolved much of the responsibility of making the building popular, and she was careful to have a few representative ladies of old Maryland families established in St. Louis to assist her in entertaining those who came. To Mrs. Fisher is due much of the credit for the taste and judgment used in furnishing the building.

The exhibit of Maryland's mineral resources in the Mines and Metallurgy Building covered an area of nearly 3,000 square feet of floor space, together with about 4,000 square feet of wall and window space. The mineral products were as follows:

Coals, building and decorative stones, ores, clays and clay products (including pottery, tile, terra cotta, fancy and common brick, fire brick, enameled brick, retorts and stove linings), limestones, sands, cement rocks, flints, feldspars, marls, tripoli, barites, soapstones, etc. All of the leading operators and manufacturers in the State took part in the display, some of them supplying large collections of materials. In addition to the exhibit of mineral products there was an extensive systematic collection representing the geology, mineralogy, and paleontology of the State, displayed in a series of plate-glass, cases on the walls. In this exhibit the numerous materials found at the various geological horizons were displayed, the object of the exhibit being to show the great variety of geological formations represented in Maryland.

The Maryland agricultural exhibit occupied a space 90 by 20 feet. A feature intended to illustrate the varied conditions, crops, and methods found in the northern and southern sections of the State, quite foreign to each other, were the two barn scenes, located at each end and on the wall side of the block. The corn exhibit, consisting of samples of ten ears each, was displayed in a handsome case 4 by 12 feet, protected by plate glass. Each sample was tied with orange and black ribbon, with the names and addresses of the growers attached. A second corn exhibit was made in a special exhibit in the, middle aisle of this mammoth building. Here were displayed the four staples—tobacco, sugar, cotton, and corn.

The tobacco exhibit was displayed in a case of like construction and proportions to that occupied by the corn, and located at the opposite end and in front of the "Southern Maryland Barn." It made an attractive showing of the planters' tobacco from both southern Maryland and Frederick County. A special tobacco exhibit was also made in the middle aisle on a space 20 feet square. In the center stood a giant Indian on a pedestal over 7 feet high, with a long-stemmed pipe in his mouth and a horn of plenty on his left arm, from which the manufactured products of the weed fell to the ground. The whole was apparently built of tobacco.

The canned-goods industry was in evidence in this section to the right and left of the "Springhouse." Placed against the wall, which was covered with black cloth, were three pyramids of cans of peas, corn, and tomatoes.

MASSACHUSETTS.

That Massachusetts might be creditably represented at the St. Louis
Exposition the Commonwealth appropriated $100,000.

Governor Bates appointed as the board of managers having the appropriation in charge Dr. George Harris, of Amherst; Mrs. Sears and Mrs. May Alden Ward, of Boston; Thomas B. Fitzpatrick, of Brookline, and Hon. Wilson W. Fairbank, of Warren. Doctor Harris was elected president of the board; Mrs. Sears, vice-president, and Mrs. Ward, recording secretary. To Mr. Harris was assigned the department of education; to Mrs. Sears, art; to Mrs. Ward, history, and to Messrs. Fitzpatrick and Fairbank, finance. Mrs. Sears, Mrs. Ward, and Mr. Fairbank were chosen to serve as the building committee. The board appointed James M. Perkins, of Boston, secretary and George E. Gay, of Malden, educational director.

The State Building at St. Louis was designed by C. Howard Wattset., of Boston, and the cost, including the furnishings and the grading of the grounds, was about $32,000. The building was of colonial style, embodying as many features as possible of the Bulfinch front of the Massachusetts statehouse. The reception hall on the first floor resembled in part the old senate chamber in the statehouse, and the room above, the historical hall, was like the present senate chamber. Most of the furniture in the building was secured from the statehouse by Senator Fairbank, to whom a large part of Massachusetts's success at the fair was due.

In the historical room of the building was a very fine collection of historical relics. Mrs. Ward, who was assisted by Miss Helen A. Whittier, of Lowell, had charge of this exhibit. There were no other exhibits in the State Building, but Massachusetts was well represented in the different exhibit palaces, and in the Educational Building had an exhibit that cost $30,000.

MICHIGAN.

The governor of the State of Michigan appointed the following named persons as commissioners to the Louisiana Purchase Exposition:

Governor Aaron T. Bliss, ex officio member; Frederick B. Smith,
president; Austin Farrell, vice-president; Roy S. Barnhart, treasurer;
Hal H. Smith, secretary; William A. Hurst, assistant secretary; D. Aaron
R. Ingram, Charles P. Downey.

The act which authorized the governor to appoint the commission authorized also the expenditure of $50,000 for the purpose of Michigan's representation at the exposition.

The Michigan State Building was situated at the corner of Federal avenue and Government terrace. The building occupied 80 by 130 feet, and was of colonial renaissance architecture. It rose to the height of two stories and was surrounded by wide porches and terraces. Immediately in front and center four fluted stately columns supported the porch around the entire building. French windows were used on both floors, and their effect was emphasized and enhanced by the use of arches on the lower porch. The whole was painted white and colonial cream.

The interior of the building was divided into a large reception hall, which was flanked on either side by double parlors. The decorations were of green and yellow in quiet tints. From the center of the main assembly hall an imposing staircase was raised to a landing and then to the second floor. The second floor was arranged in a large assembly room, which was decorated with scenes in green and filled with light wicker furniture. At the one side was a writing room, finished in weathered or mission furniture, and decorated with scenes of the resort sections of Michigan; on the other side were the private apartments of the commissioners.

The hangings of the rooms were in quiet tones, harmonizing with the wall tints. The floors were of hard maple throughout, and were covered with attractive and beautiful rugs. The building was erected at a cost of $14,000. The furniture and fittings cost approximately $5,000.

The agricultural exhibit comprised an extensive collection of samples of different varieties of pease and beans; a large exhibit of seeds; an exhibit of grains in stalk, tastefully arranged; an exhibit of grains and corn; also a cabinet of pickled goods; a large exhibit of salt; condensed-milk products; a complete exhibit in season of vegetables from different counties of Michigan. The sugar-beet industry was represented by samples of beets and of sugar in its various processes. The maple-sirup industry of Michigan and the pepper industry were likewise represented by cabinets containing samples of the products. This exhibit was installed, complete, on a space 40 by 40 feet.

The horticultural exhibit comprised a space covering 2,500 square feet of tables. For its first installation there were used 100 bushels of apples grown in 1903, which had been kept in cold storage for this, purpose. It comprised a collection of over 100 varieties of Michigan fruit. With the coming of 1904 fruit, a complete exhibit of fresh apples was installed from time to time, comprising over 150 varieties of apples, requiring as many as 1,500 plates at one time, with many varieties of grapes, peaches, plums, pears, quinces, and cherries. A. large exhibit was also made of small fruit, raspberries, strawberries, currants, and huckleberries. The exhibits were made by individuals, by counties, and by local fair associations of the State.

The forestry exhibit was collected through the generosity and contributions of a committee. It was a complete exhibit of Michigan lumber, showing the rough log and the finished board, both in lumber and in transverse sections. There were also displayed samples of the different products which are manufactured from the log, such as shoe-last blocks, wooden utensils, paper, paper pulp, etc., and there was also an extensive collection of photographs of forestry scenes and lumber camps, together with a complete collection of blueprints for the construction of lumber mills. It was installed in a space 50 by 20 feet, and was surrounded by natural cedar railings.

The mines and metallurgy exhibit comprised exhibits of the iron, copper, and salt products, cement, manufactures of lime and sand, brick, and an extensive collection of specimens of various minerals found in Michigan. The copper mines were represented by samples of rock, minerals, and tailings, models of shaft houses, and manufactured copper. The iron industry was represented by upward of 100 samples of ore of various ranges. These were classified and shown in the various ranges and stages of their production from the rock to the finished product. The cement industry was well represented. Coal of the Saginaw Valley was installed in a 6-foot wall in the booth. An extensive and very valuable collection of over 1,500 specimens were shown in cases. Three large geographical maps showed the location of the different ranges, and photographs of mining scenes supplemented the exhibit.

In the educational exhibit the University of Michigan was represented by a main exhibit in the Education Building and by a small exhibit of the physical-culture work of women in the Physical Science Building. In the Educational Building a space 22 1/4 by 30 feet was assigned to the university, having frontage on two aisles. On this space a booth was erected, built of cypress and stained to resemble weathered oak. Within the booth the floor was stained a dark color, and upon it were spread carefully selected oriental rugs of strong coloring. The furniture was of the "arts and crafts" style. It may be said that the chief motive of the committee having charge of the exhibit was to provide a rest room or social headquarters for the alumni and students of the university and their friends.

There were placed upon exhibition several hundred volumes containing the chief publications of members of the various faculties, also reprints of scientific articles, these and a series of books showing the work of the university bindery.

The engineering department was represented by numerous rolls of large-scale blueprints, by an album of photographs specially prepared, and by a large and attractive sample board of student shop-work. To illustrate the equipment in marine engineering there were presented two models of vessels and a model of the large marine tank which is now in process of completion.

In the Educational Building could also be found cabinets showing the method of collecting vital statistics of the department of the State of Michigan and cabinets exhibiting the work of the School for the Feeble-Minded, of Kalamazoo, and a cabinet of the School for the Deaf and Dumb, of Flint.

A Michigan furniture company, interested in the exposition through the efforts of the commission, expended over $25,000 in the installation of a magnificent exhibit of furniture in the Department of Varied Industries, making the most complete collection of furniture shown by any American firm.

MINNESOTA.

The matter of the participation of Minnesota at the Louisiana Purchase Exposition was brought to the attention of the State legislature at a special session in 1902, and it responded with an appropriation of $50,000. This bill was chapter 87, and was approved March 11, 1902. In January, 1903, Governor Samuel R. Van Sant appointed as the board of three managers authorized by the law Mr. Conde Hamlin, of St. Paul, Mr. Theo. L. Hays, of Minneapolis, and Mr. J.M. Underwood, of Lake City.

At the time of the appropriation it was expected that the exposition would be held in 1903. It, however, grew in magnitude and scope far beyond the original designs of its projectors. The board organized by the election of Mr. Hamlin as president, Mr. Underwood as vice-president, and Mr. Hays as secretary. Charles S. Mitchell, of Alexandria, was elected superintendent and executive officer, to have immediate charge of exhibits and to carry out the plans of the board.

A site for Minnesota's building was selected, and space was reserved in the great exhibit palaces of Mines and Metallurgy, Education, Agriculture, Horticulture, and Forestry, Game, and Fish.

Subsequently, on April 1, 1903, a further appropriation of $100,000 was voted by the Minnesota legislature.

The style of the Minnesota State Building resembled the Byzantine. It was designed for a southern climate. The entire lower floor could be thrown open by means of large glass doors opening upon corridors and a wide promenade, which was protected by awnings. A low wall surmounted this promenade, broken at intervals by abutments, on which were placed large vases of flowering plants. This added color, and with the beds of cannas, which extended along the base of this wall, and large beds of brilliant scarlet geraniums on the lawn, made a handsome setting for the building. These plants were Minnesota grown. The cannas grew to huge proportions, and at the height of the season there were few landscapes on the Plateau of States more effective than that of Minnesota.

The building was ample for its uses. There was a reception room 30 by 50 feet in size, with reading tables, the files of the State papers, a post-office, check room, and superintendent's office. A men's room and a women's room, each 20 by 20 feet, opened from the reception room. Two pianos were free for the use of guests, and were a much-appreciated feature. Every possible convenience was afforded to visitors. That the general public, as well as visitors from Minnesota, appreciated the building was shown by the hundreds who visited it daily and the many who came day after day to write letters, read the papers, or merely to rest and enjoy its coolness. The location gave it added prominence, as it was near the southeast entrance, one of the most convenient for visitors, close to the Inside Inn, and with the Massachusetts, New York, Iowa, and Kansas buildings as neighbors.

The financial statement shows that the construction of the building, with furnishing, landscaping, maintenance, care, and salaries of employees, cost a total of less than $29,000.

In the agricultural display, while wheat was not neglected, especial stress was laid on Minnesota's grasses, both tame and wild, and its general forage crops. It was conceded by experts that no State made a better display in that line of products. Corn was also made prominent. Two elaborate butter models were shown, one in this department and one in the exposition refrigerator.

The State was fortunate in the location secured. It was on one of the large central aisles and adjoining the great glass butter refrigerator, where were shown all the competing fancy butter exhibits from the various States. On the same aisle or near by were the most splendid exhibits in this building, those of States that expended from $30,000 to $100,000 in that department alone, the latter figure being the expenditure of Missouri. That Minnesota was able with $10,000 to make a showing that found credit and favor in comparison with these other much more elaborate and costly displays was surely commendable.

The central feature of the booth was a splendid piece of statuary in butter. On a platform was placed an eight-faced glass refrigerator; it was 8 by 10 feet on the floor and 15 feet high. The statue in butter filled this. The square pedestal had at the four corners figures representing Agriculture, Education, Mining, and Dairying. On the front face was the seal of Minnesota, and on the two side faces medallions of Alexander Ramsey and Samuel R. Van Sant. The crowning figure was that of a mother giving to her little boy, who stood at her side, a piece of bread and butter. Nearly a ton of the best creamery butter made in Minnesota was used in this model.

The butter refrigerator in the Agricultural Building was of triple-plate glass, and was 90 feet long. Minnesota's space was 8 by 16 feet. The subject chosen for its model was historical—a representation of Father Hennepin discovering St. Anthonys Falls. The father, in his priestly garb, was shown in the act of stepping from an Indian canoe to the shore. An Indian was holding the canoe to the bank by grasping a small bush, while the boat was steadied by a French voyageur with his paddle. The three types—the aborigine, the priest, and the French voyageur—were accurately reproduced in costume, expression, and features, and were practically life-size. The swift-flowing river, with a suggestion of the falls, completed the picture, in which nearly 1,500 pounds of butter were used.

In a space just east of the butter refrigerator was the exposition refrigerator for displays of cheese. In this the board took a space 8 by 8 feet.

The horticulture exhibit was placed in the hands of experts from the State Horticultural Society. Here were shown large and small fruits, preserved in many handsome jars. Apples which had been preserved in cold storage from the crop of 1903 kept that feature of the exhibit replenished, while the smaller fruits were shown as they matured, being shipped from the growers in the State almost daily.

In September, when the new apples became available, a second and larger space was secured. Here was made a display which was one of the greatest attractions in the building. It represented a Dutch windmill and tower, done entirely in apples.

During the final months of the exposition, when the live stock displays were made, the board arranged with the State live stock association for an exhibit of cattle, horses, and swine. The board appropriated $4,000 to this department and paid it into the hands of representatives of the association to be distributed to the exhibitors from the State in proportion to the prizes awarded to them by the exposition. This plan was very successful and resulted in a creditable exhibit of the State's prize live stock. At this time also a very successful display of poultry was made, and a great many prizes were won.

In the Department of Education it was determined that Minnesota, should retain its rank among the States and, if possible, should win new glory. It was therefore made a leading department. The exhibit was especially strong in rural school and primary and elementary education, and much more attention than ever before was given to the secondary schools of the State at large. The State department of education was consulted, and the State Teachers' Association, the request of the board, named a committee to advise with the board.

This was the first exposition to devote a separate building and one of the main group of exhibit palaces to education. The plan greatly dignified the department. Minnesota was most fortunate in the location assigned its display, as this exhibit had the first space at the principal entrance and was the first seen on entering the building from the main exposition thoroughfare. The space was 30 by 60 feet. The booth, the cabinet, the furnishings, and the frames were of Mission brown oak. The walls were covered by a deep-blue burlap. The mountings of the wall and cabinet exhibits toned with these colors, as did the hangings. The design, as a whole, was exceedingly simple, but in the style, in harmony of tone, and general artistic merit it was given first rank among all the exhibits in the building. Its prominent position demanded this excellence, for it commanded the most critical dicta of the visitors.

In the arrangement of material, repetition and duplication were avoided. All the written work and much of the drawing, designing, and drafting was mounted in cabinets or bound in books. The arrangement showed the State system as a unit, and every article in the booth was the work of the schools, including the furniture, pottery, bric-a-brac, and hangings. It was especially strong in manual training. In dividing the space the manual-training exhibits were united as far as possible. The first alcove of cabinet exhibits was devoted to the rural schools, the second to the semigraded schools. The third and fourth sets of cabinets contained the work of the secondary high schools and the grades in their respective towns. The fifth set was given to the normal schools, while the last two alcoves were devoted to the schools of St. Paul and Minneapolis, the wall space being also apportioned to them. One cabinet was filled with photographs of the university, the curricula, statistics, etc. On the rear wall was a frieze of excellent photographs of the university buildings, and around the outside of the entire booth was a painted frieze, 5 feet deep, giving a panoramic view of the campus and buildings, both of the academic and of the agricultural department.

A cabinet was also devoted to statistics, which included the State system of aid to rural, semigraded, graded, and high schools. This cabinet also gave figures showing the State permanent school funds, the special tax, and school apportionment based on attendance; school attendance, value of school property, system of examination of teachers, and State examination for pupils, etc. There were also very complete sets of State examination papers.

In the State Building the large reception room and the women's and men's
rooms were furnished by the pupils of the manual training classes of the
Minneapolis high schools, and of the Mechanic Arts High School of St.
Paul.

While the exhibits of mining and building materials were kept separate financially, they were practically combined in one exhibit in the Palace of Mines and Metallurgy. No scientific display was attempted, and the plan of installation was severely simple.

Minnesota has but one mineral in such abundance as to be a great financial asset, but in that one—iron—it produces over half the output of the Lake Superior region, which alone of the United States iron fields produces any considerable quantity of ore of a quality required for manufacturing Bessemer steel. The analysis of the ores and names of the mines were given on the samples, which were shown in nearly 100 large glass jars. A chart of the Mesaba range; a large map of the State, showing the location of the mineral lands; two groups of photographic views of working mines and mining methods, in frames 3 by 10 feet in size, with statistical charts. These constituted the wall display. On the floor was a model, 11 feet square, of the Fayal, the greatest producing mine in the world. This showed all the mining processes and every detail of shaft house, ore dumps, cars, tracks, steam shovels, telegraph lines, etc., in and about the mines.

The stone exhibit was also a practical one. It showed the more marketable varieties as they appear in actual use. There were five large wall pieces of granite, one of Winona stone, one of pipestone, and one of Frontenac stone. Inclosing two sides of the floor space, which was 36 by 54 feet, was a low wall of stone, with two entrances. The shorter wall was of polished granite from the St. Cloud quarries, showing all the more distinct varieties—gray, mottled, black, red, and brown. The wall on the longer side, beginning with a corner post and extending to the entrances, was of polished red granite, with a panel of Minnesota marble. On either side of the side entrance, were high posts of Kettle River sandstone, handsomely carved, and the rest of the wall was of this stone combined in part with the Twin City brick.

An elaborate game and fish display was determined upon in the Game and Fisheries Building. Every inducement was held out by the company, and an especial effort was made for this exhibit. It pledged, among other things, that pure refrigerated water would be furnished for the fish. The board consulted in this department the State game and fish chief, Mr. Samuel Fullerton, who extended all the assistance possible. Eighty-four feet of aquaria were put in, and it is indisputable that they were the best built, most practical, and best arranged in the building. At the close of the fair the Pacific Coast Association offered $1,000 in cash for them where they were, or nearly one-third of their cost. They were planned to show not only the State's trout and small fish, but the large game fish that are found there. As it was, splendid specimens were shipped to St. Louis in the fish car of the Pennsylvania commission, loaned without charge for that purpose. The fish arrived on Minnesota Day under the personal care of Mr. Fullerton and one of his wardens and of three Pennsylvanians, expert in such work. The fish were in splendid condition, and they included wall-eyed pike, pickerel, muskellunge, bass of all varieties, and great northern pike that experts said were larger than had ever before been sent anywhere for exhibition purposes. There were also rare specimens of trout, including the white trout that are a Minnesota specialty. The fish, except the trout, were successfully transferred to the State's tank that evening. By morning only three were alive, and these died during the day. The trout were not tanked at all, but were turned over to the United States authorities, who were glad to get them because of their rarity. The responsibility for this failure rests with the Exposition Company. The water supplied was not from wells, but was the muddy Missouri River water clarified by the alum process, which is fatal to fish. It was also entirely too warm, no attempt to keep the promise of refrigeration having been made. After this disaster the board refused to bring more fish until the company should fulfill its pledge, which it never did. Minnesota's experience was shared by Pennsylvania and Missouri, the only other States prepared to make large live fish displays.

The failure of the St. Louis Fair officials to provide proper water caused a difference in the board finances of nearly $2,000. The board had secured subscriptions from six different towns in the fishing regions of the State toward the payment for the aquaria, the idea being to stock the aquaria with fish from the lakes near the towns that subscribed, and to give them proper individual credit. When the possibility of keeping the fish alive was realized the board promptly released them from their obligations, but it was too late to save the appropriation made through reliance upon the plans and promises of the exposition.

The game exhibit had a large space adjoining that occupied by the aquarium. It was at the principal entrance to the building. The larger part of the space was covered by a realistic scene from the northern woods—the State game region. A pine forest was shown with a rocky embankment at the side, while opposite was a birch opening. Breaking through this opening and represented as scenting danger were three moose—two bucks and a cow—that were the finest specimens of the great game animals in the building. Elsewhere in the scene was a family of three red deer; also very handsome caribou, black bears, wolves, foxes, porcupines, grouse, prairie chicken, owls, etc. The background of the scene was a distant lake view, and with effective lighting it was conceded to be among the most novel exhibits in the building. No other scenic reproduction was more complete. Adjoining this scene was a smaller space filled with moose and deer heads and mounted fish. The walls were draped with fish nets, and a large map of the State showed the railroads, summer resorts, and lakes.

MISSISSIPPI.

In compliance with the very general demand of the press and people, the legislature of Mississippi, in 1902, appropriated $50,000 for the purpose of securing and installing the products, resources, industries, and enterprises of the State at the Louisiana Purchase Exposition. This was the first appropriation ever made by Mississippi for a World's Fair. The bill providing for the State exhibits created a State exposition bureau of five members, specifying that the governor should be ex officio president and name his four associates, the following being the personnel of the bureau: J.K. Vardaman, ex officio chairman; Dr. O.B. Quinn, chairman; Frank Burkitt, secretary; L.H. Enochs; V.P. Still.

At the first meeting of the bureau Col. R.H. Henry, of Jackson, was elected executive commissioner, and was charged with the duty of canvassing the State, with a view of procuring the exhibits. He visited all parts of Mississippi, delivered exposition addresses in the different counties, and urged upon the people the importance of making the best exhibit possible at the exposition. He devoted two years to the work.

The legislature of 1904 made an additional appropriation of $10,000 under the administration of Governor James K. Vardaman, who succeeded Governor Longino as president of the exposition bureau. Several counties also made appropriations, as did some of the factories and mills of the State, the total appropriation aggregating about $62,000.

The Mississippi State Building was a reproduction of the last home of Jefferson Davis, known as "Beauvoir." This home is located near Biloxi, Miss., is of old-style southern architecture, massive in construction and imposing in appearance, and from its broad porches may be seen the "whitecaps" of the Gulf of Mexico. The house was built by James Brown, a rich cotton planter of Madison County, and by him used as a summer home until the close of the civil war, when it was sold to Mrs. Sarah A. Dorsey, from whom Mr. Davis secured it. It contained a large historic collection pertaining to the Davis family, much of the family furniture, the bed upon which Mr. Davis died, and the suit of clothes he wore when captured by General Wilson, in Georgia, at the close of hostilities between the North and the South; the object of the exhibit being to disprove the report that Mr. Davis wore a woman's dress when arrested. A statement of Capt. J.H. Parker, of General Wilson's staff was attached, contradicting the falsehood. The building cost $15,000 without furnishings or pictures. It was built entirely of Mississippi lumber, the contractor being J.F. Barnes, of Greenville, Miss.

In the horticultural exhibit the State showed all varieties of sweet and citrus fruits, pecans and edible nuts, together with a pecan horse.

In the Palace of Agriculture two exhibits were shown, the special cotton exhibit, including the 35-foot statue of "King Cotton," and the collective agricultural exhibit—cotton, corn, cereals, grains, hay, grasses, potatoes, peas, beans, sirups, honey, wines, cordials, preserves, pickles, jellies, canned goods, vegetables, oysters, shrimps, crabs, fish, etc.

All the merchantable timbers of the State were displayed in the forestry exhibit, which contained over 500 samples, highly polished and superbly finished, one of the largest and best collections shown.

In the Department of Fish and Game were exhibited all varieties of native fresh and salt water fish, birds, and wild animals.

In the Educational Building Mississippi showed the best work from the
colleges and high schools of the State. The Agricultural and Mechanical
College had a fine display in the general Agricultural and Mechanical
College section.

Other displays were the following: A varied and attractive collection of building stone, cement material, clays, phosphates, mineral waters in the Mineral Building; buggies and wagons made in the State in Transportation Hall; engines, sawmills, and other heavy machinery in the Machinery Building; a rare old double plate-glass electrical machine was exhibited in the Electrical Building, the contribution of the State university.

Mississippi was awarded over 30 prizes for her various exhibits, including 2 grand prizes on cotton and timbers; 6 gold medals and 3 silver medals on agriculture; a gold, silver, and bronze medal on fish and game; 2 gold, 4 silver, and 5 bronze medals on education; 2 silver and 3 bronze medals on minerals; a silver medal on wagons; a bronze medal on machinery; a gold medal on fruits, and a gold medal on pecans.

Less than $47,000 of the $60,000 appropriated by the legislature was spent on the State building and on the collection and installation of the exhibits, and from $10,000 to $15,000 of the appropriation was turned back into the State treasury. The expenditure proved of incalculable benefit to Mississippi, and good results are already being felt.

The executive commissioner, Col. R.H. Henry, is a native Mississippian. He was born in Scott County, May 15, 1851, and received education in the schools and academies of Mississippi. He engaged in journalism in early life, has been an editor and publisher over thirty years, and is regarded as the most successful journalist of his State. As the executive commissioner and the State's only representative at the exposition Mr. Henry designed and personally supervised the installation of the different Mississippi exhibits, ten in number, and the award of over 30 medals, including 2 grand prizes, abundantly attests and amply proves the merit and value of the Mississippi products.

MISSOURI.

The largest appropriation for exposition purposes by any State was by Missouri, namely, $1,000,000. In every exposition building where a State could have an exhibit Missouri's exhibit was found. In every building where only exhibits by individuals, business firms, or corporations were permitted, Missourians made display of the products of their industry and skill. The Missouri State Building was among the finest upon the grounds. The displays of the State in the Agriculture, Horticulture, Education, Mining, Forestry, Live Stock, Poultry, Dairying, Fish and Game, and Woman's Work were noted for artistic beauty and comprehensiveness.

The exhibit made by Missouri at the World's Fair was the result of the labors of the board of commissioners to the Louisiana Purchase Exposition, appointed by Governor A.M. Dockery, under the direction of which the $1,000,000 voted by the people of Missouri for an exhibit of the State's resources were expended. At the general election in November, 1900, the people adopted a constitutional amendment permitting the legislature of this State to appropriate $1,000,000 for World's Fair expenses. A bill appropriating the amount and providing for a commission to direct its expenditure was passed by the next general assembly and was signed by the governor April 17, 1901. The same bill was reenacted in 1903 and was signed by the governor March 24, 1903. On the 28th of May, 1901, Governor Dockery appointed as the board of commissioners: M.T. Davis, of Springfield; F.J. Moss, of St. Joseph; B.H. Bonfey, of Unionville; W.H. Marshall, of Morehouse; L.F. Parker, of St. Louis; D.P. Stroup, of Norborne; N.H. Gentry, of Sedalia; J.O. Allison, of New London, and H.C. McDougall, of Kansas City. Mr. McDougall resigned and J.H. Hawthorne, of Kansas City, was appointed his successor. When the law was reenacted in 1903 the board was reappointed. The board elected M.T. Davis president, F.J. Moss vice-president, B.H. Bonfey secretary, and W.H. Marshall treasurer. Later the ill health of Mr. Marshall caused his temporary absence from the State, and J.H. Hawthorne succeeded him as treasurer.

The Missouri State building was erected at a cost, including furnishings, of $250,000. The keynotes of the Missouri building were public comfort, culture, and social enjoyment. A golden dome surmounted by an emblematic statue of "The Spirit of Missouri" crowned the building. Over the main entrance was this inscription: "Embracing within her confines all the elements of an empire devoted to all the arts and sciences that advance civilization, Missouri, the central State of the Louisiana Purchase Exposition, greets her sister States and welcomes the world." Around the building were the names of great Missourians: Thomas Hart Benton, Francis P. Blair, B. Gratz Brown, David R. Atchison, David Barton, Meriwether Lewis, Edward Bates, Lewis F. Linn, Lewis V. Bogy, Aylett H. Buckner, John S. Phelps, James S. Green. The building contained rooms adapted for various purposes, two large halls in either wing, a commodious auditorium or State hall, in which conventions were held, a handsome rotunda with brilliant electric fountain, the suite of Governor Dockery, men's parlors, women's parlors, press room, and executive offices. On the second floor were rooms fittingly furnished. The building was warmed by steam in cold weather and refrigerated by cold air in warm weather. The approaches and elevations of the building were adorned with statuary, heroic figures of Thomas Jefferson and Napoleon Bonaparte being placed at the main entrance. In the west hall were placed a collection of paintings by Missouri artists and the fine bell presented by the citizens of the State to the battle ship Missouri. The mural decorations in the rotunda consisted of four pendentives illustrating the prehistoric savage, developing and productive eras in the State's history. The decorations in the dome embodied a historical allegory, tracing the epochs in the development of the Middle West.

In the Palace of Horticulture the space allotted to Missouri was 6,600 square feet—larger than that awarded to any other State, and filled with Missouri fruits. More than 430 varieties of fruits grown in the State were shown from 84 counties.

In the Palace of Agriculture Missouri agricultural resources occupied prominent position at the main entrance of the building and on the main aisle. In the artistic facade, made, as all the decorative features of the display, entirely of grain and grasses, was shown a series of thirty pictures illustrating the marked contrast between the old and new methods in agriculture. Corn was exhibited in many forms. A corn temple, constructed of the great cereal, was in the main aisle, Missouri being chosen by the exposition to represent the great corn States.

In the Palace of Mines and Metallurgy a display was made of the mining resources of the State. Missouri's space was at the main entrance. The exhibit consisted of typical products of Missouri mines and quarries—coal, lead, zinc, iron, copper, tripoli, building and ornamental stone, clay, sands—and mineral waters, crystals of all types, mining machinery at work, laboratory specimens and equipment from the School of Mines, and photographs of 1,200 mining views in a brief comprehensive showing of all the mineral wealth of the State. Every district was represented by adequate specimens. An outside mining exhibit was made by Missouri in the Mining Gulch, where mining machinery was shown at work and a Missouri mine. Special features were a zinc and lead concentrating plant, model of shot tower, illustration of process of making Babbitt metal and solder. A Scotch hearth furnace for smelting lead ore was also in operation.

Missouri was represented in several places in the Palace of Education and Social Economy. Here was made the general exhibit of Missouri schools. The main school exhibit consisted of showings of grades of the work done in the twelve regular grades of the public schools and in the kindergarten, of the work of the colleges and normal schools, of the schools for negroes, and of special schools. Aside from the high school and grade exhibit, private institutions had separate displays. The public school exhibit was intended to show the work of the entire system of the State public schools, each grade being represented by photographs of typical children and school scenes by representative work of the pupils. Over 300 photographs were shown. Mutoscopes presented in moving pictures scenes upon the school grounds. By means of cabinets, tables, and winged frames the exhibits were presented in compact form. Every kind of school—city, town, village, and rural—was represented in the exhibit, and the work of more than 200,000 children was on exhibition.

The State University exhibit showed what that institution had been and what it is doing. Bird's-eye views of the university at different periods of its existence and a fine model of its present buildings and grounds were shown. The various departments made exhibits of their work.

In social economy were shown the work of the Industrial Training School at Boonville, the School for the Deaf and Dumb at Fulton, the School for the Blind at St. Louis, together with photographs of the Colony for the Feeble-Minded at Marshall, the St. Louis Hospital, the Hospital for the Insane at St. Joseph, the work of the Missouri board of charities and correction, and other eleemosynary institutions. The work of the Industrial Manual School was shown by an exhibit of the products of the school—wagons, clothing, shoes, bricks, and other results of the industry of the boys. In addition to an exhibit along similar lines of the School for the Blind and the School for the Deaf and Dumb, showing the pupils' proficiency in industrial training, classes from these schools were at different times shown actually at work in class rooms in the building.

In live stock Missouri offered premiums supplementary to those offered by the Louisiana Purchase Exposition Company. The list of animals for which prizes were offered included cattle, horses, asses, mules, hogs, sheep, goats, and all domestic animals. The aggregate appropriation for live stock was $93,000.

In poultry, prizes for Missouri poultry of all kinds were offered on the same lines as for other live stock, the total of $7,000 being set aside for the purpose.

The fish and game exhibit, located just outside of the Forestry, Fish, and Game Building, was the only exhibit of live game at the exposition. It was arranged in cages around a lake, the waters of which were stocked with fish. A commodious hunter's lodge, furnished in rustic style with the paraphernalia of the sportsman, was conspicuous upon the lake shore. The exhibit showed live deer, wild cat, mountain lion or panther, coyote, gray wolf, red fox, gray fox, opossum, raccoon, beaver, rabbit, fox and gray squirrel, mink, wild turkey, wild geese, wild duck, quail, black wolf, bald eagle, horned owl, and four varieties of pheasants, all the varieties of game to be found in Missouri forests. As showing the chief varieties of fish, were exhibited rainbow trout, lake trout, brook trout, large-mouthed black bass, crappie, channel cat, buffalo, sunfish, perch, eel, and carp.

In the Agriculture Building was shown a model of the St. Joseph stock yards, setting out all the buildings and grounds of that section of St. Joseph. A working model of one of the great packing establishments was exhibited, displaying the actual process of preparing cattle for the market.

The woman's-work exhibit had booths in the Varied Industry Building and the Manufactures Building. In the first were shown specimens of fancy embroideries, laces, and needlework by Missouri women. In the second were displayed china painting, pyrography, and paintings in oil, water color, and pastel, all by Missouri women.

The forestry exhibit, located in the Forestry, Fish, and Game Building, showed the woods of the State available for commercial use rather than a mere botanical display. More than 60 varieties of Missouri woods were shown. The forestry exhibit was shown in two booths—one devoted to gum, the other to Missouri woods. The gum booth showed furniture of black, red, and tupelo gum wood. In the booths were shown hand-carved mantels, tables, and chairs.

The dairy interest of the State was represented in an exhibit in the Palace of Agriculture. In this exhibit samples of the butter and cheese products in Missouri were shown tastefully arranged.

The Kansas City Casino showed a municipal exhibit attractively arranged in a commodious building erected for that purpose. The casino consisted of two wings, each 24 by 58 feet, and connected by an open court 62 by 67 feet, and located on the model street of the exposition. In the casino were a relief map showing Kansas City in detail, a map of the United States showing Kansas City's location with reference to the great productive region, railroad map, assembly room, rest rooms, and library.

MONTANA.

On May 20, 1903, the governor of Montana, Joseph Toole, appointed the
following-named commissioners from the State of Montana at the Louisiana
Purchase Exposition: Lee Mantle, Butte; Martin Maginnis, Helena; Paul
McCormick, Billings; C.W. Hoffman, Bozeman; B.F. White, Dillon; William
Scallon, Butte; F.A. Heinze, Butte; D. McDonald, Butte; Conrad Kohrs,
Helena; J.H. Rice, Fort Benton; W.G. Conrad, Great Falls; T.L.
Greenough, Missoula; C.J. McNamara, Helena; D.R. Peeler, Kalispel; H.L.
Frank, Butte, and William C. Buskett, special representative.

The commission met and appointed the following officers:

Lee Mantle, president; Martin Maginnis, vice-president; Paul McCormick, secretary; C.W. Hoffman, treasurer.

The legislature of the State appropriated the sum of $50,000 on May, 1903, and at the same time made appropriations of $7,300 and $14,290.99, which could be utilized by the commissioners for the purpose of Montana's participation in the exhibition at the World's Fair. Besides the amount appropriated by the State, the sum of $20,000 was contributed from private sources.

The State building was erected at a cost of $20,000, and was maintained throughout the period of the exposition at a cost of $6,000, $1,000 additional being spent for entertainments.

The Montana State Building was of fancy Doric design, and was universally admired by the exposition visitors. One of the prominent features in the interior of the building was the famous painting by Paxton of the Custer Massacre. An onyx mantle from Montana was also greatly admired. The State shield, in gold, copper, silver, and Montana sapphires, was one of the most interesting features of the interior decorations.

The commission appointed as hostess to look after the personal welfare of the visitors from the State of Montana Mrs. Addie McDowell, who was ably assisted by an auxiliary committee consisting of Mary A. Cruse, Mrs. W.W. Cheely, and Mrs. T.R. Carson. State officials and some of the most prominent residents of the State were entertained at various times in the building.

Montana was represented in the following departments: Mines and
Metallurgy, Palace of Agriculture, Horticulture Pavilion, Forestry,
Fish, and Game Building, and the Educational Palace.

In the Mines Building the grand prize was awarded to Montana. In the Agricultural Building the State received 209 medals, and the exhibits in all the other exhibit palaces were remarkably good.

NEBRASKA.

On April 8, 1903, the Nebraska State legislature voted for the appointment of a State board of commissioners by the governor and for the appropriation of $35,000.

The following-named commissioners were subsequently appointed by the governor:

Gurdon W. Wattles, president; Peter Jansen, vice-president; Matt Miller, treasurer; H.C. Shedd, secretary.

Although Nebraska had no State building on the grounds, it erected a very large and commodious pavilion on the main aisle of the Palace of Agriculture, where the State commissioners established their headquarters. In the pavilion were reception rooms, reading and writing tables, post-office, check room, lavatories, and all the articles and conveniences found in the more elaborate State buildings on the grounds. The pavilion covered nearly 8,000 square feet of space, and was handsomely decorated with grains, grasses, and corn arranged in most artistic form. In addition to the appropriation of $35,000 made by the legislature to cover the cost of the exhibit, private subscriptions, amounting in the aggregate to $25,000, contributed largely by exhibitors, increased the amount expended by Nebraska at the fair to $60,000.

The principal exhibit made by Nebraska was in the Agriculture Department. There sheaf grain, grasses, corn, vine products, and all agricultural products were shown, including all varieties of field, sweet, flint, and pop corn.

In connection with the agricultural exhibit in the pavilion, the commission maintained a small theater fitted up with opera chairs, stage, electric fans, and all accessories of the modern playhouse. In the theater a free stereopticon and moving-picture exhibition was given, illustrating the resources and industries of the State. Another attractive feature of the agricultural exhibit was the mounted steer "Challenger," which won the first prize of the world at the international stock show at Chicago, December, 1903.

In the horticultural exhibit a display of Nebraska's choicest fruits attracted much attention.

The educational exhibit showed the work of the Nebraska schools from the kindergarten through the colleges and universities. It also made a fine display of the work of women's clubs in literary and musical lines. Throughout the exhibit the fact that Nebraska ranked first in small percentage of illiteracy was constantly emphasized.

In the mineral exhibit samples of Nebraska's best building stones, bricks, cement, and similar products were displayed, and a complete collection of soils from different parts of the State was shown. Cases of fossils from the university museum, specimens from the geological department of the university, and typical photographs of Nebraska added attractiveness to the exhibit. There was also an exhibit showing Nebraska's dairy and creamery resources.

Opposite the Nebraska Pavilion the State made its main corn display. Nebraska had a larger exhibit of corn than any State making an exhibition of cereals. There were more than 57 varieties, running from the little "Tom Thumb" ears of popcorn to mammoth ears of field corn. One species of corn which attracted particular attention was the result of grafting experiments, whereby several varieties of corn of various colors and shades were made to grow on one cob. This variety was known as the "Evolution Species."

During the exposition live-stock shows the Nebraska commission transported free from Nebraska to St. Louis the prize-winning stock and poultry of the State fair at a cost of several thousand dollars. The choice and exhibition of this kind of stock and poultry were in charge of the Nebraska live-stock and poultry associations.

NEW HAMPSHIRE.

The New Hampshire Building was a reproduction of the birthplace of Daniel Webster. The building was quaint and striking in appearance, with high-pitched roof and an absence of eaves, small-paned, old-fashioned windows, and weatherboarded sides, and an enormous chimney rising from the center of the roof, exactly like the original at Franklin, N.H. In every room was a wealth of old-fashioned furniture from New Hampshire homes, much of it a hundred years old or more, as well as Webster relics, davenports, massive polished-top mahogany tables and sideboards, warming pans, antique sideboards, china closets, straight-backed armchairs, grandfather clocks, china and pewter ware. The greater part of the antique furnishings were from the very valuable collection of Gen. William E. Spalding, of Nashua. The State Building was provided with a lecture hall for stereopticon lectures, having a screen 16 feet square.

The State commission was composed of Gen. Charles S. Collins, president; Arthur C. Jackson, vice-president and executive commissioner; Omar A. Towne, secretary; Augustine R. Ayers, treasurer; J. Adam Graf; Orton B. Brown; Mrs. Arthur C. Jackson, hostess. Mr. Brown contributed a carload of lumber, and General Collins and Mr. Jackson individually bore all the expense of construction and maintenance.

The most elaborate of New Hampshire's exhibits was that of the largest cotton mills in the world, in the Manufactures Building, although the State was represented by individual exhibitors in the various exhibition palaces.

NEW JERSEY.

Members of New Jersey commission.—Foster M. Vorhees, chief commissioner; Elbert Rappleye, Edgar B. Ward, C.E. Breckenridge, Edward R. Weiss, J.T. MacMurray, Ira W. Wood, W.H. Wiley, Johnston Cornish, Harry Humphreys, R.W. Herbert; Lewis T. Bryant, secretary.

The object of the New Jersey commission for the Louisiana Purchase Exposition was to provide visitors from the State with suitable and homelike headquarters and to advertise the extensive resources of the Commonwealth. The growth of the manufacturing interests of the State has been so remarkable that from a purely agricultural center it has, within a comparatively few years, obtained an indisputable position in the forefront of the manufacturing States of the Union. The number and character of individual exhibits compared favorably with other States represented. They represented a variety of industries, and were among the finest exhibits at the exposition.

The State Pavilion was a practical reproduction of the old Ford Tavern at Morristown, N.J., which was used as Washington's headquarters during the winter of 1779-80. Alexander Hamilton made his home there that winter, and there met the daughter of General Schuyler, whom he afterwards married. Among other famous men who have been beneath its roof were Green, Knox, Lafayette, Steuben, Kosciusko, Schuyler, "Light Horse" Harry Lee, Old Israel Putman, "Mad Anthony" Wayne, and Benedict Arnold.

The location of the New Jersey Building was in the center of a grove of trees, with an extensive lawn, and had every convenience for the comfort of visitors. The furnishings were selected to harmonize in color as well as with a view to comfort.

Owing to the expense required to make shipments of fresh articles such a great distance, the commission found it would be impossible to make such agricultural and horticultural displays as would do justice to the State with the amount of the appropriation placed at their disposal.

The educational exhibit differed in some features from that of any other State. For the display of books and various lines of work not readily shown upon the walls or in the cabinets, drawers instead of shelves were placed under the cabinets. This enabled the work to be put in convenient form for inspection, and had the additional merit of keeping it clean. Another feature entirely new and used for the first time at this exposition was the index key. The exhibit was divided into sections lettered from A to M, inclusive, and these were subdivided into units numbered from 1 to 68, inclusive. Each unit consisted of a leaf cabinet with six drawers directly underneath. The units from 15 to 21, inclusive, served as an index to the entire New Jersey educational exhibit. Unit No. 15 directed to first year's work. Unit No. 16 directed to second and fourth year's work. Unit No. 17 directed to third and fourth year's work, and so on.

To find work from a particular school, the card containing work from the county or city in which said school is located was first taken. That card directed to the section in which all work of the school, except that placed upon the walls, could be found. Different lines of school work were bound in different colored volumes, as shown by index cards. Another unique feature of the exhibit was the manual-training work of each school shown in connection with its academic work.

A combined exhibit of music and art was exceptionally fine and attracted much attention. The work of a very large percentage of schools, both rural and urban, was represented, and the Garden State ably maintained the reputation won at former expositions.

In the section of social economy of the Educational Building the State was represented by comprehensive exhibits from the following: The State board of health, Trenton, N.J.; bureau of statistics of labor and industries, Trenton, N.J.; New Jersey School for Deaf Mutes; New Jersey State Institution for Feeble-Minded Women, Vineland, N.J.; New Jersey Training School for Feeble-Minded Boys and Girls, Vineland, N.J.; New Jersey Children's Home Society, Trenton, N.J.; Woodbine Settlement, Woodbine, N.J.; State Custodial Asylum for Feeble-Minded Women, Newark, N.J., and the School for Nervous and Backward Children.

The exhibit of the geological survey in the Mines and Metallurgy Building was in many respects unique among the various exhibits in the Mines Building. Geological surveys have been carried out under State auspices for more than half a century, and, as a result, New Jersey was in a position to illustrate to younger and less thoroughly studied States how science and industry go hand in hand.

New Jersey is the best-mapped portion in America. Therefore a salient feature of the exhibit was a large relief map of the State, models of typical sections of the State, and files of the position and elevation of every portion of the State. The building stones of the State formed a pyramid in the center of the exhibit, and alongside of it was a microscope, with 70 sections of New Jersey rocks, showing how they are studied to estimate their value for construction purposes.

The New Jersey geological survey had two superb terra-cotta columns made of New Jersey clay on enameled brick piers. Adjoining the entrance was the New Jersey clay exhibit proper. In it were shown samples of all the prominent clays, burned bricklets, which illustrated the way clay acts when burned at various cones (temperatures), the air and fire shrinkage, and various other properties and analyses of clays, all facts of importance to the clay worker, as well as large photographs of the chief clay banks and various steps in utilizing clay.

A collection of New Jersey bricks was tested to determine the breaking and crushing strength. The results of these tests were shown, together with samples of the bricks classified according to the method of manufacture and geological occurrences of the clay. A model of a New Jersey clay refinery was shown, illustrating the manner in which high-grade clays are prepared for potteries.

The natural advantages found on the coast and mountains of New Jersey have produced many fine and well-known resorts. In order to illustrate some of the attractions there found, the exhibit in the Forestry, Fish, and Game Building was prepared. It showed beautiful mounted specimens of practically all the birds that frequent the State. In addition to the mounted fresh and salt-water fishes there was displayed, in the largest pool that has ever been constructed at an exposition, a number of the live salt-water fish found along the coast. The oyster industry was represented by an exhibit from the State bureau of shell fisheries. A glass tank filled with salt water showed an oyster bed containing the following variety of oysters, all of which are products of New Jersey: Shrewsburys, Raritan, Barnegat, Maurice River coves, Absecon salts, and the Cape May salts. The tank also contained a profusion of marine vegetation, and a number of the varieties of clams and fish common to the waters of the State. An interesting demonstration was made of each stage of the progression from the spat to the prime oyster.

Another very instructive and important feature was the mosquito exhibit, which was intended to illustrate the work which has been done by authority of the State of New Jersey in studying the life, history, and methods of dealing with the mosquito pest. The work was in charge of Prof. John B. Smith, the State entomologist, and the exhibit was prepared under his direction. It consisted of a series of table cases in which were shown the common species of mosquitoes, with their larvae as well as their natural enemies. Enlarged drawings gave the character of each species so far as they were not obvious on ordinary examination.

At one end of the square was represented a marsh area divided into two parts. One of these showed breeding pools, where the immense shore crop develops. The other showed fiddler crabs and other creatures that provide a natural drainage for the meadows inhabited by them. Areas where fiddler crabs live are never mosquito breeders, and as a matter of fact only a small percentage of the entire salt, marsh country is dangerous. Illustrations showed drainage ditches, the methods of making them, and also typical areas where the insects breed.

New Jersey had an exhibit also of road building in the Model City, showing the manner of constructing and maintaining the excellent highways of that State.

In the Palace of Liberal Arts interesting exhibits were displayed by various business enterprises of the State. This included a variety of printing presses, books, binding, and publications of different series, musical instruments, philosophical and scientific apparatus, coins and medals, as well as an exhibit of chemical and pharmaceutical arts, and model plans and designs for public work.

In the Palace of Manufactures and Varied Industries New Jersey exhibits attracted considerable attention. The display included hardware, carpets, tapestries, fabrics for upholstery, wearing apparel, silks, and clothing.

In the Palace of Electricity New Jersey displays ranked among the best, as was also the case in the Palace of Machinery.

In the Transportation Building and the Palace of Agriculture the displays, while not large, were very commendable.

NEW MEXICO.

The legislature of the Territory of New Mexico in March ,1903, appropriated the sum of $30,000 for the purpose of adequately representing the resources and products of the Territory at the Louisiana Purchase Exposition. Shortly after the passage of the act the governor of New Mexico appointed the following commission, which subsequently met and elected its officers:

Charles A. Spiess, president; Carl A. Dalies, vice-president; Arthur
Seligman, treasurer; W.B. Walton, secretary; Herbert J. Hagerman,
Eusebio Chacon, Fayette A. Jones, and H.W. Porterfield, managers; W.C.
Porterfield, assistant manager.

The ten or eleven years that have elapsed since the Columbian Exposition at Chicago have brought great changes to New Mexico, and the marked advancement and progress made along all lines were emphasized in a comparison of her exhibits at the Louisiana Purchase Exposition with those at Chicago. The Territory had large and excellent exhibits, displayed in a most attractive and interesting manner and showing many of the splendid products of that country, as well as the educational facilities and other interesting features, and it was felt that the chance for statehood had much advanced by the excellent impression made at the fair.

Great irrigation enterprises within the last decade have reclaimed large areas of fine agricultural land, providing happy homes for people in that beautiful and delightful climate.

The superior products shown in New Mexico's agricultural and horticultural exhibits were a revelation to visitors, and demonstrated that the very best results and most perfect development in fruits and farm products are obtained by irrigation and sunny skies. The fruits, grains, vegetables, and other products of the soil shown had few equals. The exhibits were larger and better than have ever been made by the Territory at previous expositions.

New Mexico's exhibit in the Palace of Mines and Metallurgy ably presented the status of one of her most important industries, showing the production of a vastly greater number of producing mines than it was possible to show ten years ago, or when the Territory made an exhibit at Chicago, and it also included a far greater range of minerals, anthracite and bituminous coal, iron, zinc, lead, mineralogical forms, besides mica, gypsum, salt, sulphur, asbestos, marble, onyx, and building stone. A unique and most important product of the mines of New Mexico was the beautiful blue gem stone, the finest and most valuable turquoise found in any part of the world. The Territory had the only turquoise exhibits at the exhibition. One was in the mineral exhibit in the Palace of Mines and Metallurgy, and a larger and perhaps the most extensive exhibit of this stone ever shown was in the Varied Industries Building. An exhibit of a turquoise mine and its products was shown in the gulch, or outside mining exhibit, where a reproduction of the famous turquoise mines of Porterfield, near Silver City, N. Mex., showed the actual geological occurrence of the gem. This was accomplished by bringing to the fair several tons of the rock from the mine with turquoise embedded in it, just as it was when the chemical processes of nature were preparing the beautiful jewels to delight the eye of man.

New Mexico's greatest pride was her educational exhibit, which showed results of splendid schoolroom work and by photographs recorded the grand and stately school buildings, demonstrating that New Mexico was, in proportion to her population, in no way behind the older States in her public school system. At Chicago the school exhibit represented only a few institutions, and these in a limited way; while at St. Louis a very large number of splendid graded schools and country schools were represented by fine exhibits. Besides the work of the colleges of agriculture and mechanical arts, the Military Institute, a university, a school of mines, two normal schools, and a number of denominational schools of higher order were displayed.

The beautifully arranged ethnological exhibit in the Department of Anthropology consisted of a valuable collection, chief among which was the wonderful Harvey collection, brought from Albuquerque.

Among the numerous beautiful buildings which adorned the Plateau of States, many of which were reproductions of historic structures or homes of some of the nation's famous citizens, stood the pretty structure erected by New Mexico, a gem in point of architecture and interior decoration, and one of the ornamental features of the exposition.

NEW YORK.

New York commission.—Edward H. Harriman, president; William Berri, vice-president; Louis Stern, chairman of executive committee; Edward Lyman Bill, treasurer; Lewis Nixon, Frank S. McGraw, Mrs. Norman E. Mack, Frederick R. Green, John C. Woodbury, John K. Stewart, James H. Callahan, John Young; Charles A. Ball, secretary and chief executive officer; Mrs. Dore Lyon, assistant secretary.

New York State's participation in the Louisiana Purchase Exposition was calculated to exploit fully the wonderful resources of the State, as well as to set forth what the Empire State is accomplishing in the various lines of humanitarian work. The New York State commission started out with the idea of making exhibits only in lines where New York was preeminently the leader. On this account and for the reason that the appropriation was relatively limited, exhibits were planned to cover seven distinct departments. It was intended at the outset to make these exhibits strong in every detail, and the commission believes that the close of the exposition has demonstrated the excellent judgment exercised.

The most conspicuous feature of New York's participation in the exposition was her State Building. An excellent site was chosen for this structure, and a handsome building was erected in a conspicuous place on the plateau of the States on the exposition grounds. The building occupied the most commanding site on the State plateau of any of the State buildings. It also enjoyed the benefits of Forest Park, both in front and rear, which made it one of the coolest buildings on the grounds.

The building was simple, but dignified, in design; of Italian architecture in the colonial treatment. Martini's Quadriga flanked the dome, representing the progress or art and commerce, and Lenz's dancing group was placed around the columns at the entrances. A very large hall ran through to the dome, the lower part of which was treated in the Doric order, and the whole was scholarly, dignified, and beautiful in design. Another interesting feature in the hall was the organ case, which was designed particularly for this place. This hall was flanked on the northern side by a large assembly hall with a barrel ceiling running up to the second story, and the treatment of this room in old gold, Antwerp blues, and siennas was beautiful. The draperies were in green velvet, and the chairs were of leather, treated to represent the old Spanish illuminated leather. The floors were carefully made. There were rooms for banquets or functions of any kind. On the westerly side were the waiting rooms for men and women, writing rooms, and also retiring rooms and toilets.

The mural decorations of the large hall were done by Florian Peixotto, and represented De Soto discovering the Mississippi, one showing the French and Indian occupation of the land, and others showing New York in 1803 and New York in 1903. The pendentives, which supported the dome, had four emblematic pictures representing the four States most benefited by the purchase, the blue Mississippi in the background of each.

The second story was divided into apartments for the commissioners and the offices of the secretary, which were perfect in appointments. The suites were composed of parlor, bedroom, and baths.

A piano of great beauty, with inlays and paintings, was contributed by a leading New York manufacturer, a picture of Niagara Falls being particularly fine. A company of New York contributed the organ as an exhibit, and concerts were given each afternoon of the fair.

The grounds received careful consideration, and there were many beds of flowers and shrubbery, such as lily ponds, poppy beds, hydrangeas, and cannae.

The amount of money appropriated by the State of New York for participation at the Louisiana Purchase Exposition was $390,000. There were no private subscriptions of any sort, but many exhibits were loaned to the commission from the various departments of the State to be displayed. The cost of installing the various exhibits was $10,755. This did not include the cost of labor in placing the exhibit, as the work was done by men who were employed by the State in the various departments. The cost of transportation of exhibits was $12,342. The State building cost $88,275.23 to erect.

Upon the landscape gardening, which was one of the most admired features of the exposition, was expended the sum of $4,465.75. The organ case alone cost $3,500. Including that, the total amount expended for furnishing the State building was $23,423.96.

New York displayed her products in six of the exhibit palaces, namely: Agriculture, Horticulture, Education, Forest, Fish and Game, Fine Arts, and Mines and Metallurgy. In addition to this there was a very fine exhibit of live stock. New York State was the only successful exhibitor of a forest nursery.

It is impossible to give an approximate value of the exhibits. In the Fine Arts Department, New York had 1,112 out of a total of 3,524 exhibits. They were selected after very careful scrutiny by a jury appointed by the National Academy of Design, and consisted of oil paintings, mural paintings, water colors, miniatures, illustrations, etchings, engravings, lithographs, wood engravings, sculpture, architecture, and applied arts.

The commission made appropriations for the various exhibits as follows:

Agriculture and live stock ……………….. $25,000
Horticulture and floriculture …………….. 20,000
Forestry, fish, and game …………………. 18,000
Fine arts ………………………………. 10,000
Scientific exhibit ………………………. 7,500
Education and social economy ……………… 27,500

The education exhibit was composite in nature and was subdivided as follows: Administration, kindergarten, elementary grades, high schools, normal schools, training schools and classes, higher education, industrial and trade schools, special schools, business colleges, Indian schools, schools for defectives, summer schools, and extension schools.

There were exhibits from both the State department of public instruction and the University of the State of New York. In the public schools exhibit contributions were received from 24 cities and various villages. There was also a comprehensive exhibit from the rural schools of the State. In the normal school exhibit contributions were received from every normal school. The training schools and classes of the State were very generally represented. Exhibits were in place from Hobart College, Geneva; Manhattan College, New York City; Colgate University, Hamilton, and Syracuse University. In the schools for defectives there were exhibits from the New York State School for the Blind, Batavia; New York Institution for the Blind, New York City; Western New York Institution for Deaf Mutes, Rochester; New York Institution for the Improved Instruction of Deaf Mutes, New York City, and the New York Institution for the Deaf and Dumb, New York City. The exhibit from the Indian schools contained work from all of the seven reservations in the State, and was arranged by the State inspector of Indian schools.

Owing to the plan of installation adopted by the exposition authorities, the State exhibit in the Department of Social Economy was found in several different places. The State commission in lunacy made an interesting exhibit of the ancient and modern methods of caring for insane patients. There was also a model showing the tent system for treatment of tuberculosis. The State board of charities made a very complete exhibit of the several State institutions under its jurisdiction, first, by means of photography of exteriors and interiors, and, second, by specimens of work carried on in the industrial departments of the various institutions. They also made an elaborate photographic exhibit of the almshouses in the State and of the penitentiaries. The State labor bureau sent a series of 28 graphic charts bearing on labor conditions in the State and comparisons between New York and other States and countries. This was supplemented by a series of the reports of the bureau. The State department of health furnished an exhibit of the blanks generally used in the administration of the department of health and graphically showed the work under its jurisdiction. The State excise department furnished a series of graphic charts upon the receipt and disbursement of the excise moneys of the State.

The New York agricultural exhibit differed from the other exhibits in the Agricultural Building in that the object sought was educational rather than spectacular. In wheat there were over 500 varieties and about 1,000 samples; in corn, about 100 varieties and 300 samples; beans, 75 varieties; peas, 50 varieties; oats, 20 varieties; barley, 8 varieties; buckwheat, 50 samples, and other grains in proportion. There were also exhibits of tobacco, salt, canned fruits of every variety, canned meats and fish, hops, flour, maple sirup and sugar, including varieties of potatoes.

In the Cheese Department New York had over half of the exhibit. In the Butter Department a facsimile of the Liberty Bell in butter, exact size, with all the inscriptions.

New York had the largest exhibit in the Horticultural Palace and also had more than twice the number of varieties of any other State. New York was the only State showing pears and grapes.

In exhibiting the timber indigenous to the State in the Forestry, Fish, and Game Building, two specimens of each species were shown in paneled framework, showing both sides of the specimen.

In connection with the specimens of timber were exhibited a series of photographs of trees of New York, eight in number. Each tree was shown in leaf and also as it appears in winter. A life-size photograph of the bark of each tree was shown, and in most instances specimens of the leaves, flowers, and fruit. In this connection there were in small glass jars seeds of all the important forest trees of New York, also by-products of the forest, such as nuts, sugar, pulp, wood alcohol, and many other commodities.

A collection of all the insects injurious to the trees of New York was shown in an attractive manner in cases.

The outside exhibit of New York consisted of a nursery and plantation of forest trees. As a part of the inside exhibit were shown specimens of substantially all the food and game fishes of New York. No attempt was made to show abnormally large specimens; the purpose was to show the average fish, true to color and size. The collection included both fresh and salt water specimens of the fishes of New York. Some interesting specimens of oyster growth and of the enemies of the oyster were also shown.

A part of the inside exhibit was a typical hunter camp. It was constructed of spruce logs and roofed with spruce bark from the Adirondack forest by Adirondack guides.

An outside exhibit of forestry consisted of a nursery and plantation of forest trees, showing the method by which the forest, fish, and game commission of New York is foresting the denuded, nonagricultural lands of the State. The plot was 120 feet by 60 feet and contained 80,000 trees.

In the Mines Building were displayed ten geological maps of the State of New York, besides a relief map of the State, a hypsometric map, a road map, and publications on mineralogical works besides photographs. In metallic products there were iron ores, lead and zinc, and pyrites. In nonmetallic products there were displayed garnet, emery, millstones, infusorial earth, mineral paints, graphite, talc, mica, salt, gypsum, land plaster, and plaster of Paris. In building stones there were shown granite, diabase, morite, sandstone, bluestone, limestone, marble, slate, and marl.

A pavilion was erected in order to display the clay products of the State. The collection was of type products rather than a great mass of similar clays. New York State produces roofing tile, and several styles were wrought into the roof of the pavilion. The brick were of several styles and colors, from the classic roman dry-press brick to the rough rock-face clinker which forms the base course of the structure.

NORTH CAROLINA.

Members of North Carolina commission.—H.H. Brimley, commissioner-general; T.K. Bruner and J.A. Holmes, resident commissioners.

In March, 1903, the legislature of North Carolina appropriated $10,000 for the participation of the State at the Louisiana Purchase Exposition. Ten thousand dollars was also raised by subscriptions among citizens and manufacturers of North Carolina, making a total of $20,000. The cost of transportation, installation, and maintenance, and general expenses of the State exhibit practically used up the total amount.

North Carolina had no State building.

The State had exhibits in the Departments of Mines and Metallurgy, Agriculture, Horticulture, Forestry, Fish and Game. The total cost of the State's participation in the exposition was about as follows:

Value of loan exhibits in the different departments ……. $9,000 Cost of new specimens and cases ……………………… 8,000 Value of specimens and cases already on hand and withdrawn from the State museum …………………………….. 30,000 Installation and expenses …………………………… 12,000 ——— Total ………………………………………. 59,000

In mines and metallurgy the exhibit covered a floor space of about 2,200 square feet. It consisted of a full, systematic collection of the minerals of the State, a representation of the ores of gold, copper, silver, iron, nickel, and tin that are native to North Carolina, and a very full exhibit of the economic minerals. Wherever possible, there were shown specimens of the finished product alongside of the raw material, and this feature added considerable value to the display. A very beautiful and very comprehensive collection of cut gems and crude gem material was perhaps the most attractive feature of the exhibit. The collection of building and ornamental stones included a large variety of granites, marbles, and sandstones, many of them of a very superior quality.

In agriculture the chief features of the exhibit were the special tobacco display and the collection of grains and seeds in the main space. A good line of commercial cotton samples and of the best varieties of cotton seed were shown and some cotton-oil and cotton-mill machinery in connection therewith. The late date at which any money became available prevented any show of sheaf grains or grasses and cut short the exhibit in many ways.

In the Department of Horticulture the show was a small one, owing both to the very poor fruit year and also, again, to the late date at which the collecting had to be started. The space occupied was about 500 square feet in size, while in the four different spaces in the Agricultural Building the total floor area occupied was nearly 4,000 square feet.

The combined forestry and fish and game exhibits were among the most complete of any of the State exhibits. The total floor space occupied by these was 2,400 square feet. The display of native timber specimens was most complete and systematic, and the specimens were shown in a way to impart the most information in a condensed form. The main collection consisted of planks cut the full length and width of the trees, 4 feet long by 4 inches thick, with the bark left attached. One-half of each was dressed and sandpapered, but not varnished; the other half filled and varnished and given an oil-rub finish to bring out the beauties of the grain and to show the best finish the different kinds of wood would take. Wherever possible, two sections were shown in the form of disks cut across the log. These brought out the character of the end grain and the annual growth rings, as well as the size of the trees from which each specimen came. A variety of finished wood products and a collection of forest seeds and of medicinal plants completed the exhibit.

In the Department of Fish and Game the State showed collections of mounted food and game fishes, of oysters and clams, and of tools and appliances used in their capture, including some very fine models of the more typical of the fishing craft used in North Carolina waters. Fairly complete collections of the game birds, wild fowl, and shore birds were shown, as well as most of the prey-catching and fish-eating birds found in the State. The game animals and those valuable for their furs were also exhibited, and a very fine lot of furs, both raw and dressed, occupied a case contiguous to that containing the fur-bearing animals. Guns, traps, etc., were shown as well to illustrate the means used in the capture of the different kinds. Collections of marine invertebrates, of reptiles and batrachians, casts of fishes and cetaceans, an old whaling outfit, and a lot of miscellaneous material completed the exhibit.

Considering the amount of money used, the exhibits were large, varied, full, and of good quality all through, and in some cases unlimited funds could hardly have bettered them.

NORTH DAKOTA.

North Dakota had no State building on the grounds. The exhibits, which comprised every variety of grain and species of grass grown in the State, gathered from the very best samples obtained from the crop of 1903, were shown principally in the Agricultural Building, although there was a very excellent exhibit in the Palace of Mines and Metallurgy, showing the mineral resources of the State, and including coal, clays, cement, building stones, etc.

The State legislature, on March 17, 1903, passed an act authorizing the participation of the State at the World's Fair to be held in St. Louis in 1904, and at the Lewis and Clark Centennial and Pacific Exposition and Oriental Fair to be held at Portland, Oreg., in 1905, and creating a commission composed of the governor, the State auditor, the lieutenant-governor, the commissioner of agriculture, and Warren N. Steele, of Rolette County. The governor was made the president of the commission and the commissioner of agriculture the secretary.

This act appropriated the sum of $50,000 for the exhibits to be made at the two expositions therein named.

The commissioners appointed by the legislature were as follows:

Governor Frank White, president; Commissioner of Agriculture R.J. Turner, secretary; Lieut. Governor David Bartlett, executive commissioner; Hon. H.L. Holmes, and Hon. Warren N. Steele.

There was absolutely no private contribution or subscription. The cost of the installation, including transportation and freight charges, etc., was in the neighborhood of $25,000.

OHIO.

In an act of the general assembly of the State of Ohio a bill was passed May 12, 1902, creating a commission to the Louisiana Purchase Exposition and appropriating $75,000 for the erecting and maintaining of a State building. The act provided as follows:

For the appointment of a commission to erect a building on the grounds of the Louisiana Purchase Exposition and to take charge of the building and exhibits that might be placed therein, the governor was authorized to appoint within thirty days after the passage of the act, a commission of seven residents of the State of Ohio and one executive commissioner, who should be ex officio a member of the commission. No more than four of the commission were to be of the same political party. It was the duty of the commission to decide upon plans and specifications for an Ohio Building to cost not exceeding $35,000. Members of the commission were not entitled to receive any compensation for their services except their actual expenses for transportation and for subsistence for the time they were necessarily engaged on the business of the commission. The salary of the executive commissioner was $2,500 per annum, and in addition to this salary he was allowed his actual and necessary expenses. That there should be appropriated the sum of $50,000, $25,000 to be available on and after the 15th day of February, 1903, for the erection and equipment of the building and for other expenses provided for in the act.

An extra appropriation of $12,500 for the completion of the State building was provided for in an act passed March 25, 1904, making an appropriation for an Ohio Building on the grounds of the Louisiana Purchase Exposition in St. Louis, Mo.

The following commissioners were appointed:

William F. Burdell, president; L.E. Holden, vice-president; Stacey B.
Rankin, executive commissioner; D.H. Moore, Edwin Hagenbuch, M.K. Gantz,
Newell K. Kennon, and David Friedman.

As soon as the bill had been passed and the commissioners had been appointed a meeting of the commission was held for the purpose of deciding upon the plans for the State building. The building was erected on the southeastern end of the fair grounds, on that part known as the Terrace of States, at a cost of $35,000. The structure was designed solely for the comfort and convenience of the people of the State, and no effort was made to exhibit therein any of the resources of the State. In an act of the general assembly of the State an additional bill was passed March 24, 1904, appropriating $12,500 for completing and furnishing the State building on the grounds of the Louisiana Purchase Exposition. In this connection it may be of interest to mention that President Francis especially complimented the commission for its promptness in having the building erected, for on the opening day of the exposition the Ohio Building was ready for occupancy and the president himself was the first to register his name. At the close of the exposition the commission advertised for the sale of the building and disposed of it to the highest bidder.

While Ohio as a State maintained only one exhibit in the Mines and Metallurgy Building, consisting chiefly of clay and its products, over 150 private individuals and corporations throughout the State added to the prominence and magnitude of the exposition by installing costly exhibits, which were maintained by them at very great expense. These miscellaneous exhibits showed to very good advantage the natural resources of the State and its diversified products. In the Palaces of Electricity, Machinery, and Transportation the State was represented remarkably well by these private exhibitors, and much credit is due to them for their attractive and interesting display. In the Liberal Arts Building it may be correctly intimated that the Ohio exhibitors were predominant. In the Department of Anthropology, also, Ohio took the grand prize over all competitors. The display consisted principally of relics taken from the historical mounds of the State, which in themselves were very interesting. Not only was the grand prize awarded for the display, but a special gold medal was presented to Prof. W.C. Mills, librarian and curator of the Ohio Archaeological and Historical Society, for his untiring efforts in revealing to the public of to-day the mode of livelihood and the characteristics of the oldest and most historical race of this continent.

OKLAHOMA.

The Oklahoma World's Fair commission was appointed on April 19, 1901, and organized ready for active work on May 1, 1901. Two days after it was decided to hold the World's Fair in Forest Park, the Oklahoma commission notified Secretary Stevens that Oklahoma was ready to select her site for a building.

Oklahoma was among the very first to select a site on the World's Fair grounds, was first to lay a corner stone for the Territorial building, and the first to accept her building complete from the contractor and dedicate the same.

By an act of the legislature of the Territory of Oklahoma, dated March 1, 1901, the sum of $20,000 was appropriated for the participation of the Territory at the Louisiana Purchase Exposition. Subsequently, on March 14, 1903, the legislature of the Territory enacted a bill appropriating $40,000 additional for the erection and equipment of the building on the grounds of the exposition, and for the transportation and installation of the exhibits of the Territory. The following were appointed by the legislature as a commission in charge of Oklahoma exhibits:

Joseph Meibergen, chairman; Otto A. Shuttee, treasurer; Edgar B.
Marchant, secretary.

The Oklahoma Building was of semi-Moorish architecture, size 71 by 72, with balconies above, below, and in front, the full width of the building. It contained reception halls, parlors, toilet rooms, and commissioner's office, 14 rooms in all. The building was two stories high, with basement, provided with rugs and carpets of Wilton velvet.

The total cost of the building, exclusive of furniture, including gas and electric light fixtures, was approximately $15,500.

All the plaster, inside and out, used in the construction of the building was manufactured from Oklahoma gypsum.

The educational exhibit was shown in the Palace of Education and occupied 488 square feet. It contained representative work from the kindergarten to the University of Oklahoma. All the seven colleges and preparatory schools supported by the Territory were represented, and many of the ten institutions of higher learning supported by denominational and private enterprises. Work from the majority of the 2,192 district schools was shown in leaf cabinets, framed pictures, and in other ways. Taxidermical work and modeling in Oklahoma plaster were shown, together with specimens of the handiwork of the students in the Agricultural and Mechanical College. There were more than 4,000 exhibits contained in the collection, which was shown in cabinets and cases. The total cost of collection, installation, and maintenance was $1,825.95.

The agricultural exhibit was shown in section 42 of the Palace of
Agriculture, and covered 3,600 square feet of floor space.

Specimens of all the agricultural products of the Territory were shown in the exhibit and consisted of the following:

                                      Exhibits.
Thrashed grain:
  Wheat …………………………….. 160
  Oats ……………………………… 65
  Rye ………………………………. 5
  Barley ……………………………. 11
Corn, shelled ……………………….. 19
Miscellaneous, consisting of alfalfa seed,
  timothy, speltz, castor beans, etc …… 31
Corn in the ear:
  1903 ……………………………… 159
  1904 ……………………………… 300
Potatoes:
  Irish ……………………. plates .. 150
  Sweet ……………………… do …. 57
Broom corn ………………………….. 20

The foregoing constituted the main body of the exhibit, which was supplemented by corn in the stalk, wheat, oats, barley, and other grains in exhibit bundles, native and tame grasses in profusion, water-melons, the largest of which weighed 117 pounds; various field and garden vegetables, cotton and cotton-seed products, flax, tobacco, etc. A special feature was a loaf of bread baked from flour ground from wheat of the 1904 crop. The total cost of collection, installation, and maintenance was $4,072.80.

In the Horticultural Department the exhibit covered 1,100 square feet of floor space. The exhibit consisted of 250 jars of preserved fruits of the various kinds produced in Oklahoma, 200 bottles of Oklahoma grape wine, and about 400 plates of fresh fruits of the various kinds in their season. Four hundred and fifty bushels of the choicest apples were placed in cold storage in the fall of 1903 to keep the exhibit fresh. On the 15th of November the exhibit had 1,800 specimens of apples from the crops of 1904. The total cost of collection, installation, and maintenance was $4,892.48.

The mineral exhibit occupied 1,020 square feet in the Palace of Mines and Metallurgy. Here were shown 186 exhibits of sandstone, limestone, and other building stone, magnetite, brick (both burned and green), transparent selenite, and various others from Oklahoma. It also contained salt, oil, and glass sand testing 96 per cent pure. The plaster resources of Oklahoma were shown from the raw material in a solid block weighing 3,600 pounds, through the various evolutions of plaster manufacture to the finished product in dainty statuettes. A prominent feature of this exhibit was the relief map of the Territory, made from Oklahoma plaster by Doctor Finney, of the University of Oklahoma. The map weighed 1,600 pounds and showed every elevation and depression, with the rivers, streams, lakes, gypsum deposits, and salt reserves. The total cost of collection, installation, and maintenance was $3,263.50.

OREGON.

Members of commission.—Jefferson Myers, president; W.E. Thomas, vice-president; Edmond C. Giltner, secretary; W.H. Wehrung, special commissioner and general superintendent; F.A. Spencer, David Rafferty, J.C. Flanders, G.Y. Harry, J.H. Albert, Richard Scott, Frank Williams, F.G. Young, George Conser; Layton Wisdom, private secretary to general superintendent.

The legislature of the State of Oregon made an appropriation of $50,000
for the participation of Oregon at the Louisiana Purchase Exposition.
One of the main objects was to excite interest in the Lewis and Clark
Centennial Exposition to be held at Portland, Oreg., in 1905.

The Oregon State Building was built of logs and was a reproduction of Fort Clatsop, the fort in which Lewis and Clark and their companions resided during their stay in Oregon in the winter of 1805-6. Two square wings stood diagonally from each front corner of the building like the old fortress abutments used in the days when it was necessary for pioneer settlers to maintain such defenses against the hostile Indians.

The cost of the erection and maintenance of the building was $9,000, of which the Lewis and Clark Exposition Company contributed $3,500.

Not including the exhibits in the Oregon Building, the State made
exhibits in six exhibit palaces, as follows: Agricultural Pavilion,
Horticultural Pavilion, Educational Pavilion, Forestry Pavilion, Mining
Pavilion, and Fish and Game Pavilion.

In the Educational Department a very interesting display was made by the State board of education and the public schools of approximately all the towns in the State.

In the Forestry, Fish, and Game Building were exhibits by large lumber corporations of the State and a very interesting display of mounted specimens of fish and game, furs and rugs, also cannery displays from the fish-canning concerns. The Oregon State experimental stations at Corvallis and Union made very interesting exhibits of grains and grasses in the Palace of Agriculture. The same classes of products were exhibited by about 60 individual exhibitors, residents of the State of Oregon. While grains and grasses formed the largest exhibit, there were also interesting displays of wool, mohair, hops, milling stuffs, evaporated cream, and vegetables and fruit, both evaporated and in jars.

In the Horticultural Building about 50 exhibitors displayed specimens of the fruits of Oregon. Apples, pears, and prunes were shown in interesting variety and unexcelled quality.

Four exhibitors made exhibits in the Live Stock Department.

In the Mines and Metallurgy Building there was a very unique and interesting display of mineral specimens, many of which were loaned to the State of Oregon for use at the exposition. Among the specimens there were collections of gold quartz and nuggets from the various gold mines of the State. Besides the gold, there were shown collections of polished pebble, copper ores, native silver, including cobalt and antimony ores, crystals, opals, marble, jasper, asbestos, limestone, kaolin, asphaltum, and tellurium ores. There were also displayed Indian curios, ethnological, geological, and other specimens, all found in the State of Oregon. The total value of the exhibit in the Mines and Metallurgy Building was estimated at $35,000.

The cost of installing and maintaining the exhibits in the several palaces were as follows:

Agricultural Building …………….. $7,117
Horticultural Building ……………. 6,148
Educational Building ……………… 3,800
Forestry Building ………………… 3,200
Mines and Metallurgy Building ……… 5,000
Fish and Game Building ……………. 2,300

The cost of freight and transportation from Oregon to the Louisiana
Purchase Exposition was, approximately, $4,400. Altogether the State of
Oregon expended $45,803.34 out of its appropriation up to the close of
the exposition.