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Title: The Greatest Highway in the World

Author: New York Central Railroad Company

Release date: January 4, 2009 [eBook #27701]

Language: English

Credits: E-text prepared by Juliet Sutherland, David Cortesi, and the Project Gutenberg Online Distributed Proofreading Team (




E-text prepared by Juliet Sutherland, David Cortesi,
and the Project Gutenberg Online Distributed Proofreading Team



Transcriber's Note

Minor typographical errors have been corrected: employes to employees on p. 1, 129, and 130; nagivation to navigation on p. 48; conferation to confederation on p. 46. Inconsistent hyphenation in the original has been retained.

Owing to the method used to scan this work, in a few cases the first or last letters of a line were lost and had to be found from other sources or inferred from context. Where an inference is not certain, the presumed missing letters are in parentheses with a question mark, for example "p(art?)" on page 100. In the table on page 130 ("Passengers carried annually," etc.) the final digit of each number in the column on the right cannot be read and has been replaced with 0.

This HTML edition should be readable at any width, but will most closely resemble the original page layout in a window of 800 pixels or narrower.






Historical, Industrial and Descriptive Information
of the Towns, Cities and
Country passed through between
New York and Chicago via The
New York Central Lines


Based on the
Encyclopaedia Britannica

Cover image



(Supplied by Transcriber)



In furtherance of giving the utmost service to the public, the New York Central Lines asked the editors of the Encyclopædia Britannica to prepare this booklet descriptive of and vivifying the historical development of what has been termed "The Greatest Highway in the World."

It is presented to you in the hope that it may prove a pleasant companion on a journey over our Lines. The information will afford a new appreciation of the historical significance and industrial importance of the cities, towns and country which the New York Central Lines serve.

The New York Central Lines enter twelve states and serve territory containing 51,530,784 inhabitants or 50.3 per cent of the nation's population. This rich and busy territory produces 64 per cent of the country's manufactured products and mines a similar proportion of its coal.

This system does approximately 10 per cent of the railroad transportation business of the United States, although its main-track mileage is only 6 per cent. In other words the business it handles exceeds that of the average railroad, mile for mile, by nearly 100 per cent. The New York Central carries 52 per cent of all through passengers between New York and Chicago, the remaining 48 per cent being divided among five other lines. The freight traffic of the New York Central Lines in 1920 was greater than that carried by all the railroads of France and England combined.

The scenes that stretch before the eyes of passengers on these Lines are rich with historic interest. Few persons know that the second settlement in the United States was at Albany and that it antedated Plymouth by several years. Probably fewer persons know that the first United States flag was carried in battle at Fort Stanwix, now the city of Rome, N.Y. We hope that the reader will discover in the following pages more than one historic shrine which he will wish to visit.

It has been said that the history of a country's civilization is the history of its highways. Certainly the development of a great system such as the New York Central is an important element in the progress and prosperity of the country which it serves. This railroad is, in fact, a public institution, and it will prosper to the extent that it gives service to the public.

The New York Central Lines have the initial advantage that they follow the great natural routes along which the first trails were blazed by the red men, and are almost free from grades, sharp curves and other hindrances to comfortable and efficient transportation. Thus the road owes its superiority primarily to the fact that it lends itself to a maximum degree of efficiency.

But service as it is conceived by the New York Central, involves many aspects. One is the careful provision for the comfort and convenience of passengers; another is adequate and efficient facilities for serving the interests of shippers. In other words, New York Central service means not only fast and luxurious passenger trains, but also the rapid handling of freight. To give such service requires the highest class of equipment—the best rails, the finest cars, the most powerful locomotives, etc.—but it also requires an operating force of loyal, highly trained employees. In both respects the New York Central Lines excel.

The inspiring record of the system's growth through public approval and patronage is fundamentally a tribute to the service rendered, constantly advanced and developed in pace with public requirements. The accompanying booklet is in one sense an expression of past achievement, but it is also an earnest of greater accomplishment to come.


New York to Albany

NEW YORK, Pop. 5,261,151. Grand Central Terminal.

(Train 51 leaves 8:31; No. 3, 8:46; No. 41, 1:01; No. 25, 2:46; No. 19, 5:31. Eastbound: train 6 arrives 9:22; No. 26, 9:40; No. 16, 4:00; No. 22, 5:25.)[1]

[1. Throughout this handbook the time is given at which trains are scheduled to leave or pass through the cities or towns mentioned. From New York to Chicago, Train No. 51 is the Empire State Express; No. 3, the Chicago Express; No. 41, The Number Forty-one; No. 25, the Twentieth Century, and No. 19, the Lake Shore Limited. In the reverse route, from Chicago to New York, No. 6 is the Fifth Avenue Special; No. 26 is the Twentieth Century; No. 16, the New York and New England Special, and No. 22, the Lake Shore Limited. The time given is Eastern Standard Time at all points east of Toledo, and Central Standard Time, which is one hour slower, at Toledo and all points west. (When Daylight Saving Time is adopted during the summer it is one hour faster than Standard time, but all time given in this booklet is Standard time.) The time between 12.01 o'clock midnight and 12.00 o'clock noon is indicated by light face type; between 12.01 o'clock noon and 12.00 o'clock midnight by dark face type. The use of an asterisk (*) indicates places recommended as especially worth visiting. Population figures are those of the 1920 U.S. Census.]

Fifty years ago when Commodore Vanderbilt began the first Grand Central Station—depot, they called it, in the language of the day—he made one error of judgment. His choice of a site proved to be magnificently right, though he selected a spot that was practically open country, then technically known as 42nd St. The story goes—it is a typically American story—that his friends laughed at him, remarking that a person might as well walk to Boston or Albany as go away up to 42nd St. to take a train for those cities. But the people did come, and they admired the commodore's new station, which is perhaps not surprising, since the commodore had set himself to build the greatest terminal in the world. Many Americans considered the new "depot" as only second to the capitol at Washington, and it served as an excellent show place when visitors came to town. Europe might have its cathedrals, but it had no Grand Central Station!

The commodore's one mistake lay in thinking that his fine new station would last a century. Within ten years an addition had to be built; in 1898 it had to be entirely remodeled and enlarged, and fifteen years later it was entirely demolished to make way for the present building which would be adequate for handling the city's ever-increasing millions.

There seems to be little doubt that the city of N.Y. and its environs has become within the last decade larger even than London. The population of greater London (including all the separate [4]administrative entities within the Metropolitan Police District) is estimated at 7,435,379. Jersey City, Hoboken, and the other N.J. cities on the west, as well as Yonkers, Mt. Vernon, New Rochelle, etc., on the north, although politically detached, are included in the "city" of N.Y. in the larger sense, their political detachment being in a certain sense accidental. Including these, the population of N.Y. area corresponding to the Metropolitan London area is 7,583,607. The population of N.Y. City proper is 5,261,151. The London area comparable with this, viz., the part of London governed by the London County Council has a population of 5,028,974. Comparing the areas of the two—N.Y.C. with 327 sq. miles and London with 692 sq. miles, it is hard to understand how the respective populations should approximate each other so nearly until it is remembered that New York grows perpendicularly instead of horizontally, that it usurps more air rather than more land. In some of the downtown business streets, such as Wall or Rector, the buildings tower so high above the narrow thoroughfare that they form a kind of deep canyon along which the wind is drawn as through a tunnel.

Commodore Vanderbilt

Commodore Vanderbilt

Cornelius Vanderbilt (1794-1877) at the age of 16 bought a sailboat in which he carried farm produce and passengers between Staten Island, where he lived, and N.Y. He was soon doing so profitable a business that in 1817, realizing the superiority of steam over sailing vessels, he was able to sell his sloops and schooners, and became the captain of a steam ferry between N.Y. and New Brunswick. His projects grew enormously. He inaugurated steamship lines between N.Y. and San Francisco, N.Y. and Havre, and other places. In 1857-1862 he sold his steamships and turned his attention more and more to the development of railways, with the result that before his death he had built up and was a majority share owner in the N.Y. Central & Hudson River, the Lake Shore and Michigan Southern, the Harlem, and the Michigan Central & Canada Southern railways, and had holdings in many others. He died at N.Y. in 1877.

In the colonial period Philadelphia was the most important city, commercially, politically and socially, while just before the War of Independence, Boston, with a population of 20,000 was the most flourishing town in all the colonies. During the Revolutionary War, N.Y.C. had fallen to a population of 10,000 and in 1790 it had barely gained a position of leadership with 33,131, but by 1840 N.Y.C. had grown to be a city of 313,000 while Philadelphia had 95,000 and Boston 93,000.

Today one of the most remarkable features of New York is the Grand Central Terminal. The exterior finish is granite and Indiana lime-stone; the style somewhat Doric, modified by the French Renaissance. Over the entrance to the main [5]building is a great arch surmounted by a statuary group wherein Mercury, symbolizing the glory of commerce, is supported by Minerva and Hercules who represent mental and moral force.

Within, the main concourse of the station proper is an immense room with a floor space of 37,625 sq. ft. where the New York City Hall might be set and yet leave room to spare. It is covered with a vaulted ceiling 125 ft. high, painted a soft cloudy blue and starred over with the constellations of heaven. Great dome-shaped windows, three each at the east and west ends, furnish light.

The Main Concourse, Grand Central Terminal

The Main Concourse, Grand Central Station

The entire site of the Grand Central Terminal comprises 30 blocks and 80 acres which above the surface are covered with a great variety of buildings, making almost a city in itself. Moreover, there is direct subway entrance to three large hotels, capable of housing as many as 10,000 persons, and to all these conveniences is added that of comfortable temperature throughout the terminal, no matter how cold the weather.


Map of New York City, 1775

Map of New York City, 1775

This survey, made in the winter of 1775, shows the city proper as it existed during the Revolutionary War. Places indicated by the lettering are described under the original as follows: A, Fort George. B, Batteries [at the two points of the island]. C, Military Hospital [south of Pearl St.]. D, Secretary's Office [near Fort George]. E, [Not Shown]. F, Soldiers' Barracks [at extreme right]. G, Ship Yards [lower right hand corner]. H, City Hall [Broad and Wall streets, site of present Sub-Treasury building]. I, Exchange. J, K, Jail and Workhouse [both situated on the "intended square or common," now City Hall Square]. L, College [Church and Murray streets; this was King's College, now Columbia University]. M, Trinity Church [the present Trinity was built on 1839-46, though it stands on the site of the old church built in 1696]. N, St. George's Chapel. O, St. Paul's Chapel [built in 1756, the oldest edifice still standing in N.Y.C.]. P to Z, various churches.

[7] As distinctively "New York" as the sky-scrapers, are the hotels and apartment houses. Of the latter, there are more than in any other city in the world, and the number of persons who are giving up their houses and adopting this manner of life is steadily increasing. The first thing, in fact, that impresses a visitor on his arrival is the seemingly endless amount of buildings adopted for transients. A few of the largest hotels have space for several thousand persons at one time.

New Amsterdam (Now New York City) in 1671

New Amsterdam (Now New York City) in 1671

The point of land in the foreground is now known as the Battery. The large building inside the stockade is a church. In the middle foreground is a gallows. The hills in the background form the approach to the present Morningside Heights.

The old station in 1903-'12 was torn down, brick by brick, while at the same time the new building was being erected—and all without disturbing the traffic or hindering the 75,000 to 125,000 people that passed through the station each day. This was an extraordinary engineering feat, for not only were 3,000,000 yards of earth and rock taken out to provide for the underground development, but hundreds of tons of dynamite were used for blasting. Among the improvements introduced in the new station are ramps instead of stairways, the division of out-going from in-going traffic [8]and the elimination of the cold trainshed. The substitution of electricity for steam as a motive power in the metropolitan area made possible the reclamation of Park Avenue and the cross streets from 45th St. to 46th St.—about 20 blocks in all—by depressing and covering the tracks.

At 56th St. the tracks begin to rise from the long tunnel and pass through the tenement district of the upper East Side. The side streets seem filled with nothing but children and vegetable carts, while along the pavements shrill women with shawls over their heads are bargaining for food with street-vendors. As the railroad tracks rise higher still, we run on the level with the upper-story windows out of which the tenants lean and gossip with one another.

The Jumel Mansion, New York City

The Jumel Mansion, New York City

4 M. HARLEM STATION (125th St.).

(Train 51 passes 8:41; No 3, 8:57; No. 41, 1:12; No. 25, 2:56; No. 19, 5:41. Eastbound: No. 6 passes 9:11; No. 26 9:29; No. 16, 3:49; No. 22, 5:25.)

Old Harlem was "Nieuw Haerlem," a settlement established in 1658 by Gov. Peter Stuyvesant in the northeastern part of Manhattan Island. It existed for 200 years but is now lost under modern Harlem, which centers about 125th St. In this neighborhood to the west occurred [9]the battle of Harlem Heights—a lively skirmish fought Sept. 16, 1776, opposite the west front of the present Columbia University, and resulting in a victory for the forces of Gen. Washington, who up to that time had suffered a number of reverses on Long Island and elsewhere. The battle was directed by Washington from the Jumel mansion*, 160th St. and Amsterdam Ave., the most famous house, historically, on the island of Manhattan. It is still standing.

Peter Stuyvesant and the Cobbler

Peter Stuyvesant and the Cobbler

Peter Stuyvesant, Dutch Governor of N.Y. from 1647 to 1664 and a valiant member of the Reformed Church, had an intense prejudice against all other sects. At Flushing a Baptist cobbler, William Wickendam, ventured to preach "and even went with the people into the river and dipped them." He was fined 12,500 guilders ($5,000) and ordered to be banished. As he was a poor man the debt was remitted, but he was obliged to leave the province.

The house was built in 1763 by Roger Morris for his bride, Mary Philipse of Yonkers, for whose hand, it is said, Washington had been an unsuccessful suitor. The house was subsequently owned by John Jacob Astor and then passed into the hands of Stephen Jumel, a French merchant, who, with his wife Eliza, added new fame to the old house. They entertained here Lafayette, Louis Napoleon, Joseph Bonaparte and Jerome Bonaparte. Aaron Burr (1756-1836) in his old age, appeared at the mansion with a clergyman, and married Mme. Jumel, then a widow. She divorced him shortly afterward, and he died in poverty on Staten Island, 1836. Alexander Hamilton whom Burr killed in the famous duel at Weehawken, N.J. (July 11, 1804) owned a country place in the neighborhood, "Hamilton Grange," which now stands at 140th St. and Convent Ave.

Leaving Manhattan, that extraordinary island which Peter Minuit, director-general of New Netherlands, bought in 1626 from the Indians for sixty guilders' worth of goods (about $24), we cross the Harlem River to the Borough of the Bronx, named for Jonas Bronck, the first white settler, who made his home in 1639 near the Bronx Kills (where the Harlem River flows into Long Island Sound).

The original price paid for the Bronx—or a large share of it—was[10] "2 gunns, 2 kettles, 2 coats, 2 shirts, 2 adzes, 1 barrel of cider, and 6 bitts of money." The assessed value of Manhattan today is $5,116,000,000 and that of the Bronx $732,000,000 (realty).

The Hudson River Division of the New York Central turns to the left and follows the course of the Harlem River, 7 M. long, which separates Manhattan Island from the mainland and connects the Hudson with the East River. On the south bank of the Harlem are Washington Heights, with the Speedway on the immediate bank, and Fort George (near 193d Street) named from a Revolutionary redoubt. The Speedway was built at a cost of $3,000,000 for the special use of drivers of fast horses. On the right, after passing the High Bridge, which carries the old Croton aqueduct, one of the feeders of the city water supply, and the Washington Bridge, are University Heights and (farther to the west) the township of Fordham, where the cottage in which Edgar Allen Poe lived from 1844 to 1849 and wrote Ulalume and Annabel Lee, is still preserved.

New York University, on University Heights, was founded in 1832; the principal buildings include Gould Hall, a dormitory; the library, designed by Stanford White, and the Hall of Fame, extending around the library in the form of an open colonnade, 500 ft long, in which are preserved the names of great Americans.


(Train 51 passes 8:51; No. 3, 9:09; No. 41, 1:23; No. 25, 3:06; No. 19, 5:53. Eastbound: No. 6 passes 8:57; No. 26, 9:17; No. 16, 3:37; No. 22, 5:02.)

Spuyten Duyvil is situated on Spuyten Duyvil Creek, celebrated by Washington Irving, which connects the Harlem and Hudson Rivers. In recent years the creek has been enlarged into a ship canal.

The town and stream receive their curious name from the following story, according to Irving. In 1664, when the Dutch were being threatened by the British, Anthony van Corlear, Dutch trumpeter to Gov. Stuyvesant, was despatched to sound the alarm. It was a stormy night and the creek was impassable. Anthony "swore most valourously that he would swim across it 'in spite of the devil' (en spuyt den duyvil) but unfortunately sank forever to the bottom." The "duyvil" had got him. "His ghost still haunts the neighborhood, and his trumpet has often been heard of a stormy night."

Across the Hudson, along which our route now lies for nearly 150 M., can be seen the Palisades, an extraordinary ridge of basaltic rock rising picturesquely to a height of between 300 and 500 ft. and extending along the west bank of the Hudson about 12 M. from a point north of Ft. Lee, N.J., to Palisades, N.Y.

The peculiar hexagonal jointing of the rock, which has given rise to the name Palisades, is an unusual geological formation; the only [11]other important places where it is found are at Fingal's Cave in Scotland and the Giant's Causeway in Ireland. The beauty of the Palisades was threatened by quarrying and blasting operations until N.Y. and N.J. agreed to the establishment of the Palisades Interstate Park which comprises 36,000 acres (1,000 acres in New Jersey and 35,000 in New York State).

"The spacious and stately characteristics of the Hudson from the Palisades to the Catskills are as epical as the loveliness of the Rhine is lyrical. The Hudson implies a continent beyond. No European river is so lordly in its bearing, none flows in such state to the sea. Of all the rivers that I know, the Hudson, with this grandeur, has the most exquisite episodes."—George William Curtis.

The Half Moon at Yonkers

The Half Moon at Yonkers

In September, 1609, Henry Hudson started up the Hudson in the "Half Moon," which attracted frequent visits from the natives along the route.

To the right, just north of Spuyten Duyvil, is a high promontory, upon which stands a lofty monument to Henry Hudson, who had his first skirmish here with the Indians after entering N.Y. Bay in Sept. 1609. With an excellent harbour at its mouth, and navigable waters leading 150 M. into a fertile interior, the Hudson River began to attract explorers and settlers soon after the discovery of America. Verrazano, the Florentine navigator, sent out by the French king, Francis I, ventured a short distance up the Hudson in 1524, almost 100 years before the Pilgrim Fathers, and in 1609 Henry Hudson sailing in the "Half Moon" nearly up to the [12]site of Albany demonstrated the extent and importance of the river that bears his name.

New York Slave-Market—About 1730

New York Slave-Market—About 1730

Slaves were introduced into N.Y. as early as 1626 when the West India Co. (a Dutch company), which had large establishments on the coast of Guinea, brought negroes to Manhattan, and practiced the slave trade here "without remorse." It is said that in proportion to population N.Y. imported as many Africans as Virginia. That New York did not become a slave-state like Carolina was, according to Bancroft, "due to climate and not to the superior humanity of its founders. [Gov.] Stuyvesant was instructed to use every exertion to promote the sale of negroes. They were imported sometimes by way of the West Indies, often directly from Guinea, and were sold at auction to the highest bidder. The average price was less than $140." With the extension of English rule to N.Y. in 1664 the slave trade in this colony passed into the hands of the British. It is estimated that the total import of slaves into all the British colonies of America and the West Indies from 1680 to 1786 was 2,130,000. The traffic was then carried on principally from Liverpool, London and other English ports; the entire number of ships sailing from these ports then engaged in the slave traffic was 192, and in them space was provided for the transport of 47,146 negroes. The native chiefs on the African coasts took up the hunt for human beings and engaged in forays, sometimes even on their own subjects, for the purpose of procuring slaves to be exchanged for western commodities. They often set fire to a village by night and captured the inhabitants when trying to escape. Out of every lot of 100 shipped from Africa, about 17 died either during the passage or before the sale at Jamaica, while not more than 50 lived through the "seasoning" process and became effective plantation laborers. Slavery in N.Y. was continued till 1827. It was then abolished by terms of an act passed by the N.Y. Assembly ten years earlier.


Henry Hudson, English navigator, made four important voyages to find a passage to China by the northeast or northwest route; it was on the third venture undertaken at the instance of the Dutch East India Co., that he found the Hudson, probably a greater discovery than the one he undertook to make. With a mixed crew of 18 or 20 men he started on his voyage in the "Half Moon," April 6, 1609, and soon was among the ice towards the northern part of Barents Sea. His men mutinied and he was forced to seek the passage farther south. Thus eventually he entered the fine bay of what is now N.Y. harbour, Sept. 3, 1609. John Fiske says: "In all that he attempted he failed, and yet he achieved great results that were not contemplated in his schemes. He started two immense industries, the Spitzbergen whale fisheries and the Hudson Bay fur trade; and he brought the Dutch to Manhattan Island. No realization of his dreams could have approached the astonishing reality which would have greeted him could he have looked through the coming centuries and caught a glimpse of what the voyager now beholds in sailing up the bay of New York." The Dutch called the Hudson the North River (a name which is still used) in contra-distinction to the Delaware which they called the South River.

The lower Hudson is really a fiord—a river valley into which ocean water has been admitted by the sinking of the land, transforming a large part of the valley into an inlet, and thus opening it to commerce as far as Troy (about 150 M.), up to which point the river is tidal and, therefore, partly salt. The Hudson extends above Troy for 150 M. farther, but navigation is interrupted by shallows and swift currents. Below Troy the fall is only five feet in a distance of 145 M. This lower, navigable portion of the Hudson was the only feasible route through the Atlantic highlands, and in consequence it has been one of the most significant factors in the development of the United States. New York City likewise owes its phenomenal development largely to this great highway of commerce.

The invention and successful operation of the steamboat, the first line of which was established on the Hudson by Fulton in 1807, gave early impetus to the importance of N.Y.C., and the building of the Hudson River R.R., one of the first successful railways, now a part of the New York Central Lines, and the opening of the Erie Canal (1825) connecting the Hudson with the Great Lakes and the far interior, were among other contributory factors in the city's growth.

15 M. YONKERS, Pop. 100,226.

(Train 51 passes 8:56; No. 3, 9:15; No. 41, 1:29; No. 25, 3:11; No. 19, 5:59. Eastbound No. 6 passes 8:52; No. 26, 9:12; No. 16, 3:31, No. 22, 4:56.)

When the Dutch founded New Netherlands, the present site of Yonkers was occupied by an Indian village, known [14]as Nappeckamack, or "town of the rapid water," and a great rock near the mouth of the Nepperhan creek (to the north of the station) was long a place of Indian Worship.

In the early days, the Hudson River Valley from Manhattan to Albany was occupied by Algonquin tribes, while the central part of the state along the Mohawk Valley had been conquered by the famous Iroquois Confederation, of which the Mohawks were the most warlike. The Mohawks soon drove out the Mohicans, who claimed as their territory the east bank of the Hudson. On the whole, the Dutch lived peaceably with their Indian neighbors, but an attempt of Gov. Kieft to collect tribute from them led to an Indian war (1641), which resulted in the destruction of most of the outlying settlements. Later a treaty of alliance was made with the Iroquois Confederation, which protected the early settlements in N.Y. from those attacks which occurred so frequently elsewhere in this period. The treaty was renewed when the British took possession of New Netherlands, and lasted until the Revolutionary War.

The land where Yonkers now stands was part of an estate granted in 1646 by the Dutch government to Adrian Van Der Donck, the first lawyer and historian of New Netherlands. The settlement was called the "De Jonkheer's land" or "De Yonkeer's"—meaning the estate of the young lord—- and afterwards Yonkers. Subsequently the tract passed into the hands of Frederick Philipse, the "Dutch millionaire," as the English called him, some of whom alleged that he owed a large part of his fortune to piratical and contraband ventures. The suspicion was strong enough to force Philipse out of the governing council of the colony, and he returned to his manor where he died (1702) at the age of 76.

It was even charged that he was one of the backers of Capt. William Kidd (1645-1701), for whose buried treasure search has been made along the Hudson, as well as in countless places along the Atlantic Coast. Capt. Kidd began the career which made him notorious under a commission from the British Government to apprehend pirates. He sailed from Plymouth, England, in May 1696, filled up his crew in N.Y. in the following year, and then set out for Madagascar, the principal rendezvous of the buccaneers. Deserting his ship, he threw in his lot with theirs and captured several rich booties. Returning to N.Y., he was arrested, sent to London, found guilty and hanged. Of his "treasure" about £14,000 was recovered from his ship and from Gardner's Island, off the east end of Long Island. The stories of large hoards still undiscovered are probably mythical.

The Philipse manor house*, one of the best examples of Dutch colonial architecture in America, erected in 1682 and enlarged in 1745, was the second residence built by the Philipses (the other is at Tarrytown) and is now maintained as a museum for colonial and Revolutionary relics. It was confiscated by the legislature in 1779 in reprisal for the [15]suspected "Toryism" of the third Frederick Philipse, the great grandson of the first lord of the manor and his second successor. Before being converted into a museum it served for many years as the City Hall of Yonkers.

Philipse Manor House, Yonkers, 1682

Philipse Manor House, Yonkers, 1682

This famous old house, said to be one of the best examples of Dutch colonial architecture in America, was built by Frederick Philipse, first lord of the manor of Philipsburg. It was confiscated by the State of New York after the Revolutionary War and for many years served as the City Hall of Yonkers. It is now a museum.

Yonkers has some important manufactures with an annual production of $75,000,000 and 15,000 wage earners; its output includes passenger and freight elevators, foundry and machine shop products, refined sugar, carpets, rugs and hats. It has one of the largest carpet factories in the world.

The country round Yonkers is dotted with fine estates. Conspicuous to the right, 2 M. north of the station, is the battlemented tower of "Greystone," once the home of Samuel J. Tilden and now owned by Samuel Untermyer, the N.Y. lawyer.

Samuel J. Tilden (1814-1886), a lawyer and reformer, served one term as governor of N.Y., and was later candidate for the presidency against Rutherford B. Hayes. He had become famous for his attacks [16]on the notorious Tweed ring of N.Y.C., and later for his exposure of the "Canal ring," a set of plunderers who had been engaged in exploiting the N.Y. canal system. He was given the Democratic nomination for president in recognition of his services as a reformer. The Republicans nominated Hayes, and the result was the disputed election of 1876, when two sets of returns were sent to Washington from the States of Florida, Louisiana, South Carolina and Oregon. As the Federal Constitution contains no provision for settling a dispute of this kind, the two houses of Congress agreed to the appointment of an extra-Constitutional Body, the Electoral Commission, which decided all the contests in favor of the Republican candidates. Tilden's friends charged that they had been made a victim of a political "steam roller," but he advised them to make no protests. Tilden left more than $2,000,000 for a library in N.Y. (now consolidated with the N.Y. Public Library).

Across the Hudson River from Hastings (19 M.) can be seen Indian Head, the highest point on the Palisades, near which (about ½ M. farther north) is the boundary between N.J. and N.Y.; from this point northward both shores belong to N.Y.

20 M. DOBBS FERRY, Pop. 4,401.

(Train 51 passes 8:58; No. 3, 9:23; No. 41, 1:37; No. 25, 3:18; No. 19, 6:07. Eastbound: No. 6 passes 8:45; No. 26, 9:05; No. 16, 3:23; No. 22, 4:48.)

About the time of the Revolutionary War, a Swede named Jeremiah Dobbs, established a ferry here connecting with the northern end of the Palisades (visible on the left across the river). Originally only a dugout or skiff, it was the first ferry north of Manhattan, and was kept up by the Dobbs family for a century. In times past the residents have often tried to change the name of the town to something more "distinguished," but the old name could not be displaced.

The story goes that 50 years ago a mass meeting was held in the village at which it was proposed to name the town after one of the captors of Maj. André—either Paulding or Van Wart. The meeting came to nothing when an old resident suggested Wart-on-Hudson.

The strategic position of Dobbs Ferry gave it importance during the War of Independence. It was the rendezvous of the British after the battle of White Plains in Nov. 1775 and a continental division under Gen. Lincoln was stationed here in Jan. 1777. The American army under Washington encamped near Dobbs Ferry on the 4th of July, 1781, and started in the following month for Yorktown, Va., where the final story of the war took place. Two years later (May 6, 1783) Washington and Sir Guy Carleton met at Dobbs Ferry to negotiate for the evacuation of all British troops, and to make [17]terms for the final settlement recognizing American Independence. Their meeting place was the old Van Brugh Livingston house.

Peter Van Brugh Livingston (1710-1792), prominent merchant and Whig political leader in N.Y., was one of the founders of the College of N.J. (now Princeton), and was president of the first Provincial Congress of N.Y. (1775). His brother, William, was the first governor of N.J.

Reception of President Washington at New York, April 23rd, 1789

Reception of President Washington at New York, April 23rd, 1789

After the ratifying of the federal constitution, Washington, in 1788, was unanimously elected president. On April 23, 1789, he arrived from Virginia at New York, where he was received with a frenzy of gratitude and praise, and was inaugurated at the Senate hall which stood on the site of the present U.S. Sub-Treasury building. The stone whereon Washington stood when he came out of the house is preserved in the south wall of this building. He is described as wearing suit of homespun so finely woven that "it was universally mistaken for a foreign manufactured superfine cloth." This, of course, was a high tribute to domestic industry.

22 M. IRVINGTON, Pop. 2,701.

(Train 51 passes 9:06; No. 3, 9:25; No. 41, 1:39; No. 25, 3:21; No. 19, 6:11. Eastbound: No. 6 passes 8:43; No. 26, 9:03; No. 16, 3:21; No. 22, 4:46.)

"Sunnyside," a stone building "as full of angles and corners as a cocked hat"* and situated behind a screen of trees a little north of the station, was the home of Washington Irving, for whom the town was named. First erected by [18] Wolfert Acker in 1656, it was considerably enlarged by Irving in 1835.


War and Merchant Ships of Revolutionary Days

War and Merchant Ships of Revolutionary Days

These are authentic pictures, showing actual details, of the ships used by the Americans and British at the time of the Revolutionary War. They were originally engraved for the First Edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica (1768). In the centre is a first rate ship of war, "the noblest machine that ever was invented," to quote the First Edition; and the illustration below shows the interior construction of the hull. It will be noticed that there are three gun decks, below which is the poop, or storage deck. "A common first rate man of war," says the First Edition, "Has its gun deck from 159 to 178 ft. in length, and from 44 to 51 broad. It contains from 1313 to 2000 tons; has from 706 to 1000 men, and carries from 96 to 100 guns. The expense of building a common first rate, with guns, tackling and rigging is computed at 60,000 £ sterling."

The east end is covered with ivy said to be grown from a slip given to Irving when he visited Scott at Abbotsford. At Irvington we come to Tappan Zee (to be seen on the left), where the Hudson widens into a lake-like expanse, 10 M. long and 3 to 4 M. wide. It is a favorite cruising place for ghosts and goblins, according to popular legend.

There is, for example, Rambout van Dam, the roystering youth from Spuyten Duyvil, who was doomed to journey on the river till Judgment Day—all because he started to row home after midnight from a Saturday night quilting frolic at Kakiat. "Often in the still twilight the low sound of his oars is heard, though neither he nor his boat is ever seen." Another phantom that haunts the Tappan Zee is the "Storm Ship," a marvellous boat that fled past the astonished burghers at New Amsterdam without stopping—a flagrant violation of the customs regulation, which caused those worthy officials to fire several ineffectual shots at her.

“Sunnyside,” Irving's Home After 1835

“Sunnyside,” Irving's Home After 1835

After a long sojourn abroad, Washington Irving returned in 1835 to "Sunnyside" said to have been built originally in 1656. It was considerably enlarged by Irving, who spent the remainder of his life here. "Sunnyside" is now owned by Irving's descendants.

Across the river from Irvington is Piermont, and 2 M. to the southwest of Piermont is the village of Tappan, where Maj. André was executed Oct. 2, 1780. Lyndehurst, with its lofty tower, the home of Helen Gould Sheppard, the philanthropist, a daughter of Jay Gould, is passed on the right just before reaching Tarrytown.

24½ M. TARRYTOWN, Pop. 5,807.

(Train 51 passes 9:08; No. 3, 9:27; No. 41, 1:41; No. 25, 3:23; No. 19, 6:13. Eastbound: No. 6 passes 8:40; No. 26, 9:00; No. 16, 3:18; No. 22, 4:43.)

Situated on a sloping hill that rises to a considerable height above the Tappan Zee, historic Tarrytown stands on the site of an Indian village, Alipoonk (place of elms), burned by the Dutch in 1644. Irving explains that the housewives of the countryside gave the town its name because their [20]husbands were inclined to linger at the village tavern, but literal minded historians think it was more likely that the name came from Tarwen dorp or Tarwetown, "wheat town." There were perhaps a dozen Dutch families here in 1680 when Frederick Philipse acquired title to Philipse Manor, several thousand acres, in what is now Westchester county. Just above Tarrytown is the valley of the Pocantico creek, the mouth of which is marked by the projection of Kingsland Point.

This is the "Sleepy Hollow" of Irving's legend, where Ichabod Crane, the long, thin school-master, whose conspicuous bones clattered at any mention of ghosts, encountered the Headless Horseman pounding by night through the little Dutch village. It was after a quilting bee at Farmer Van Tassel's, where his daughter Katrina and what would come with her in the shape of fat farm-lands and well-stocked barns, aroused Ichabod's affections to the boiling point. He had a [21]rival, however, "Brom Bones," a young black-headed sprig, who watched Ichabod's advances uneasily. After the party Ichabod mounted his old horse, Gunpowder, as bony as he, but no sooner was he well under way than he heard hoof beats on the road behind him and saw, glimmering in the dark, a white headless figure on horseback, carrying in its arms a round object like a head.... Never before or since was there such a chase in Sleepy Hollow. Perhaps the hapless school-teacher might have escaped, had not the Huntsman, just as they reached the Sleepy Hollow bridge, hurled his head square at his victim. The next morning no Ichabod, only a pumpkin lying on the road by the bridge, where the hoofmarks ceased. He had completely disappeared. Some weeks later Brom Bones led Katrina to the altar.

Washington Irving

Washington Irving

Washington Irving (1783-1859) was intended for a legal profession, but although called to the bar preferred to amuse himself with literary ventures. The first of these, with the exception of the satirical miscellany, "Salmagundi," was the delightful "Knickerbocker History of New York," wherein the pedantry of local antiquaries is laughed at, and the solid Dutch burgher established as a definite comedy type. When the commercial house established by his father and run by his brother began to go under in 1815, Irving went to England to look into the affairs of the Liverpool house, and as it was soon necessary to declare bankruptcy, his misfortune forced him to write for his living. Returning to America in 1832 after 17 years' absence, he found his name a household word. The only interruption to his literary career was the four years (1842-1846) he spent as ambassador to Spain. For the rest, he passed some little time travelling, but in the main kept retreat at "Sunnyside," where he died, Nov. 28, 1859.

Through this valley, we get a glimpse of the site where Philipse erected, partly of brick brought from Holland, a manor house,* a mill,* and a church,* all of which are still standing.

Old Dutch Church (Built About 1686) at Tarrytown, N.Y.

Old Dutch Church (Built About 1686) at Tarrytown, N.Y.

Irving says: "The sequestered situation of the church seems always to have made it a favorite haunt of troubled spirits. It stands on a knoll, surrounded by locust trees and lofty elms, from among which its white-washed walls shine modestly forth, like Christian purity beaming through the shades of retirement." The church is still standing.

"There is probably no other locality in America, taking into account history, tradition, the old church, the manor house, and the mill, which so entirely conserves the form and spirit of Dutch civilization in the New World.... This group of buildings ranks in historic [22] interest if not in historic importance with Faneuil Hall, Independence Hall, the ruined church tower at Jamestown, the old gateway at St. Augustine, and the Spanish cabildo on Jackson Square in New Orleans. And the time will come when pilgrimages will be made to this ancient beautiful home of some of those ideals and habits of life which have given form and structure to American civilization."—Hamilton Wright Mabie.

Old Mill at Tarrytown Built in 1686

Old Mill at Tarrytown Built in 1686

The Manor House, the Old Church and the Mill were erected by Frederick Philipse, the lord of several thousand acres, in what is now Westchester County. The mill, much dilapidated, still exists.

During the War of Independence, Tarrytown was the scene of numerous conflicts between the "cowboys" and "skinners," bands of unorganized partisans who carried on a kind of guerilla warfare, the former acting in the interest of the colonists, and the latter in that of the king. On the old post road on Sept. 24, 1780, Maj. André was captured by three Continentals, John Paulding, David Williams, and Isaac van Wart. The spot where André was captured is now marked with a monument—a marble shaft surmounted by a statue of a Continental soldier.

Tarrytown lies principally along either side of a broad and winding highway, laid out in 1723, from N.Y.C. to Albany. It was called the King's Highway till the War of Independence, then called Albany Post Road, and the section of it in Tarrytown is known now as [23] Broadway. The delights of traveling in the days when the road was first laid out are suggested in the following description: "The coach was without springs, and the seats were hard, and often backless. The horses were jaded and worn, the roads were rough with boulders and stumps of trees, or furrowed with ruts and quagmires. The journey was usually begun at 3 o'clock in the morning, and after 18 hours of jogging over the rough roads the weary traveler was put down at a country inn whose bed and board were such as to win little praise. Long before daybreak the next morning a blast from the driver's horn summoned him to the renewal of his journey. If the coach stuck fast in a mire, as it often did, the passengers must alight and help lift it out."

Many of the stirring incidents of Fenimore Cooper's novel, The Spy, occurred in this neighborhood, and the town is particularly described in The Sketch Book of Washington Irving who was for many years the warden of the old church and is buried in the old Sleepy Hollow burying ground.

With Cooper and Washington Irving (1783-1859) American literature first began to exist for the world outside our own boundaries. The Knickerbocker History of New York, in which the Dutch founders were satirized, was practically the first American book to win appreciation abroad. This and later books "created the legend of the Hudson, and Irving alone has linked his memory locally with his country so that it hangs over the landscape and blends with it forever."

Harvey Birch, the hero of The Spy, is a portrait from the life of a revolutionary patriot who appears in the book as a peddler with a keen eye to trade as well as to the movements of the enemy. One of the best known incidents in the book is that in which Harvey, by a clever stratagem, assists Capt. Wharton to escape. James Fenimore Cooper (1789-1851) was born at Burlington, N.J., but was reared in the wild country around Otsego Lake, in central N.Y., on the yet unsettled estates of his father. It was here he learned the backwoods lore, which in combination with his romantic genius, made him one of the most popular of authors.

Among the literary residents of Tarrytown have been Mrs. E. D. E. N. Southworth, well known to a previous generation for her romantic novels, John Kendrick Bangs, the humorist, and Hamilton Wright Mabie, editor and essayist. Carl Schurz (1829-1906) is buried here in the Sleepy Hollow churchyard. Tarrytown is the trading center of a prosperous agricultural region; it also has about 100 manufacturing establishments with a large output. Just north of Kingsland Point (seen at the left, on the east bank of the river), the seat of William Rockefeller comes into view on the right, and behind it, among the hills, is the estate of his brother, John D. Rockefeller.

John D. Rockefeller was born in 1839 at Richford, Tioga Co., N.Y., but his family moved to Cleveland while he was still a boy, and his career was begun there. In 1858 he went into the produce [24]commission business, and 4 years later his company invested in an oil refinery. Mr. Rockefeller kept constantly adding to his influence and possessions in this field until by 1872 the Standard Oil Co. was organized with him as president, and a practical control of oil production in America was secured. This was the first great American "trust." Mr. Rockefeller himself retired from active business in 1895. While his wealth is enormous, his benefactions have been on an equal scale, comprising gifts to the Baptist Church, the founding of educational institutions and the supporting of those already existent. Scientific research in medical fields has been a particular object of his generosity.

Mr. Rockefeller's country estate is called "Kijkuit," meaning look-out—a name given by the early Dutch settlers to the beautiful hill on which it stands, and which, rising to a height of 500 ft., gives a lovely view up and down the Hudson, across to the distant mountain ridges of N.J., and inland over Westchester County. The house and gardens are famous not only for their splendour, but for the priceless works of art they contain. Among the treasures which have been worked in as details of the landscape gardening is a fountain which for years has been considered unrivalled by experts. The huge basin, 20 ft. 8 in. in diameter, was cut from a single block of granite weighing 50 tons and brought on the deck of a schooner from an island on the Maine coast to the dock at Tarrytown. The heroic figure at the top represents Neptune, and the figures below symbolize the Atlantic, Pacific and Indian Oceans.

In the "morning garden" at the rear of the house is a bronze Victory (a facsimile of the Pompeiian Victory at Naples), which stands on a marble column with a Byzantine capital brought from Greece. The 13th century relief set in the wall of the pergola at the left came from a church in Venice.

Descending a flight of steps to the westward, one comes upon the Aphrodite temple. The style of this is Graeco-Roman, with columns of marble supporting a dome decorated after the fashion of the portico niches in the Massimi palace in Rome, which was designed in the 16th century by Baldassare Peruzzi. Under a roof of copper and bronze, on a high pedestal, stands "Aphrodite," resembling the Venus de Medici, but so superior to her in line and proportion that many critics believe it to be a Praxitilean original from which the Venus de Medici was clumsily copied. This is the greatest art-treasure in the garden.

30 M. OSSINING, Pop. 10,739.

(Train 51 passes 9:15; No. 3, 9:34; No. 41, 1:48; No. 25, 3:30; No. 19, 6:21. Eastbound: No. 6, passes 8:34; No. 26, 8:54; No. 16, 3:11; No. 22, 4:36.)

Ossining was first settled in 1700, when it was part of Philipse Manor. It was originally called Sing Sing, taking its name from the Sin Sinck Indians, but in 1901 the name was changed to Ossining, on account of its association with the Sing Sing prison, which can be seen to the left near the water's edge. The prison is a low white-marble building, built in 1826. Ossining has a public library, several private schools, the Roman Catholic Foreign Missionary Seminary of America, and a soldiers' monument.

[25]Passing the Croton aqueduct (on the right), which is carried over a stone arch with an 80-foot span, the train crosses the mouth of the Croton River and intersects Croton Point. It was at the extremity of this peninsula that the British sloop-of-war "Vulture" anchored when she brought André to visit Benedict Arnold at West Point. Six miles up the Croton River is the Croton Reservoir, which supplies a large share of N.Y. City's water. Across the river is Haverstraw Bay.

At the north end of Haverstraw Bay, on the west bank, is Stony Point Lighthouse, the site of a fort which was the scene of one of the most daring exploits of the Revolutionary War. Gen. Anthony Wayne (1745-1796) had been forced, through political necessity, to relinquish his regular command, and on the recommendation of Washington, he organized a new Light Infantry Corps, with which on the night of July 15, 1779, he stormed the fort and recaptured it from the British at the point of the bayonet. This well-planned enterprise aroused the greatest enthusiasm through the country, and won for him the popular name of "Mad Anthony." Later, in war with the Indians on the frontier, Gen. Wayne further distinguished himself.

At this point is the greatest width (4 M.) in the river's course. Shortly before reaching Peekskill we pass Verplanck's Point (on the left), near which the "Half Moon" dropped anchor, Sept. 14, 1609.

40½ M. PEEKSKILL, Pop. 15,868.

(Train 51 passes 9:36; No. 3, 9:55; No. 41, 2:09; No. 25, 3:50; No. 19, 6:43. Eastbound: No. 6 passes 8:13; No. 26, 8:33; No. 16, 2:47; No. 22, 4:14.)

Peekskill means Peek's creek, and was named from the Dutch mariner, Jans Peek, who established a trading post here in 1760. It will be noticed that the Hudson turns abruptly to the left at this point, while the creek branches off to the right. According to tradition, the adventurous Jans, who had been voyaging up the Hudson, became confused and turned to the right, following the creek with the idea that it was the main river, until his boat ran aground. As a result of this accident he chose the spot to set up a trading post. During the latter part of the Revolutionary War Peekskill was an important post of the Continental Army; and in Sept. 1777, the village was sacked and burned by the British. To the north of Peekskill are Manito Mts., where the N.Y. National Guard has its summer encampment on a high cliff overlooking the river. The summer home of Henry Ward Beecher was in Peekskill, and ex-Senator Chauncey M. Depew was born here.

Peekskill on the east side of the Hudson, and Dunderberg Mt. (865 ft.) on the west, stand at the lower gate of the [26]Highlands, so named from the steeply rising hills which border both sides of the river for the next 16 M. At the foot of Dunderberg Mt. is Kidd's Point, one of the numerous places where the notorious pirate is supposed to have concealed treasure.

Our train passes too close to the hills on the east bank to give a perspective, but on the west, where the Highlands are visible across the Hudson, the outlook is very beautiful. This part of the Hudson, often compared to the Rhine, has always been a source of artistic and poetic inspiration.

Peekskill Landing—About 1815

Peekskill Landing—About 1815

Close to Dunderberg Mt. the river takes a sharp turn to the left, and just beyond the mountain can be seen Iona Island (near the west bank), now occupied by the U.S. Government as a naval arsenal and supply depot. Between the island and the eastern shore the river is so narrow that this stretch is spoken of by boatmen as "The Race." A short distance farther on the west bank is Bear Mt. Park, originally the gift of Mrs. E. H. Harriman, which has been set aside by the Interstate Palisade Park Commissioners as a vacation resort for the poor. Our train presently passes by tunnel under the mountain known as "Anthony's Nose" (900 ft.), so named, [27]according to Diedrich Knickerbocker, from the "refulgent nose" of Anthony van Corlear, Peter Stuyvesant's trumpeter. Across the river is visible the mouth of Poplopen creek, on the north side, Ft. Clinton.

These two forts were involved in the important maneuvers of 1777, when the British, under Sir Henry Clinton, executed a brilliant enterprise northward up the Hudson; they broke through the chains which the Americans had stretched across the river in the hope of checking the advance of British warships, captured Ft. Clinton and Ft. Montgomery and destroyed the fleets which the Americans had been forming on the river.

Three M. farther (on the right) is Sugar Loaf Mt. (765 ft.), noteworthy as the place from which Benedict Arnold, whose headquarters were in the Beverley Robinson House, near the south base of the mountain, made his escape to the British man-of-war "Vulture" (1780) after receiving news of André's capture. On the west shore near Highland Falls stands the residence of the late J. Pierpont Morgan, standing somewhat back from the river and partly hidden by trees.

John Pierpont Morgan (1837-1913) was born in Hartford, Conn., a son of Junius S. Morgan, who was a partner of George Peabody and the founder of the house of J. S. Morgan & Co. in London. After his university training at Göttingen, he began his career in the financial world, and by 1895, as the head of J. P. Morgan & Co., was the greatest American financier. His banking house became one of the most powerful in the world, carrying through the formation of the U.S. Steel Corporation, harmonizing the coal and railway interests of Pennsylvania, purchasing the Leyland line of Atlantic steamships and other British lines in 1902, effecting an Atlantic shipping combine, reorganizing many large railways, and in 1895 supplying the U.S. government with $62,000,000 in gold to float a bond issue and restore the treasury surplus of $100,000,000. Mr. Pierpont Morgan was a prominent member of the Episcopal church, a keen yachtsman, a generous patron of charitable and educational institutions, and a notable art and book collector. As president of the Metropolitan Museum he gave or loaned to it many rare and beautiful pictures, statues, and art objects of all kinds. A memorial tablet was recently unveiled in his honour at the museum.

Buttermilk Falls (100 ft.) are visible on the west bank after a heavy rain; the buildings on the bluff above belong to Lady Cliff, a school for girls.

49 M. WEST POINT (Garrison).

(Train 51 passes 9:46; No. 3, 10:04; No. 41, 2:19; No. 25, 4:00; No. 19, 6:55. Eastbound: No. 6 passes 8:01; No. 26, 8:20; No. 16, 2:34; No. 22, 4:00.)

Across the river from Garrison, the imposing buildings of West Point, the "Gibraltar of the Hudson," come into view. The name "West Point" properly belongs to the village located here, but in ordinary usage it refers to the U.S. [28]Military Academy,* America's training school for officers, which at the present time has about 1,000 cadets.

West Point from an Aeroplane

Photo Brown Bros.

West Point from an Aeroplane

The academy furnishes for those who wish to become army officers a splendid education of a standard equal to the best colleges and without cost to the student. Each cadet is paid $1,028.20 a year, an amount which, with proper economy, is sufficient for his support. West Point, therefore, offers an excellent opportunity for those who can meet the requirements and are capable of successfully undergoing the mental and physical discipline of the school. Each senator and congressman is entitled to nominate two candidates, who are appointed as cadets by the Secretary of War after passing the prescribed examination. There are also 82 appointments at large, and the law of 1916 authorized the president to appoint cadets to the academy from among the enlisted of the Regular Army and National Guard, though not more than 180 at any one time. This law was passed with the idea of introducing a greater degree of democracy into army life. Candidates for admission must be between 17 and 22 years, unmarried, free from physical infirmity and capable of passing a somewhat rigorous examination in high school or preparatory school subjects. The course of instruction, which requires three years, is largely mathematical and professional. From about the middle of June to the end of August the cadets live in camp, engaged only in military duties and receiving military instruction. In general the education and discipline are so excellent that the business world is always ready with its high pecuniary rewards to tempt men away from their military vocation. The result is that graduates frequently resign their commissions, and the army loses what is gained by the world of affairs.

[29]The academy occupies a commanding position on a plateau 150 ft. above the river. As we approach, the power house is in the foreground, with the riding school, a massive building just beyond, while the square tower of the Administration Building dominates the scene on the level of the parade ground above. West Point was first occupied as a military post during the Revolutionary War. In Jan. 1778, a huge chain, part of which is still preserved on the parade ground, was stretched across the river in the hope of blocking the progress of the British men-of-war, and a series of fortifications, planned by the great Polish soldier, Kosciusko, were erected on the site of the present academy.

Thaddeus Kosciusko (1746-1817) had a romantic and picturesque career.

An intended elopement with Ludwika, daughter of the Grand Hetman, Sosnowski of Sosnowica, was discovered by the Hetman's retainers. In the fight that followed, Kosciusko was badly wounded and flung from the house. Shortly afterwards he left for America, where, as he had been well grounded in military science, Washington soon promoted him to the rank of colonel of artillery and made him his adjutant. Kosciusko especially distinguished himself in the operations about N.Y.C. and at Yorktown, and Congress conferred upon him a number of substantial rewards. He returned to his native land to participate in the gallant but unsuccessful effort to free Poland (1794), and is now celebrated among the Poles as one of their greatest heroes.

At West Point were the fortifications that Benedict Arnold, their commander in 1780, agreed to betray into British hands.

Benedict Arnold (1741-1801) was, before his disgrace, perhaps the most brilliant officer and one of the most honored in the American army. It is true that shortly before he took command at West Point a court martial had directed Washington to reprimand him for two trivial offenses, but Washington couched the reprimand in words that were almost praise. The court martial had been ordered by Congress, against which Arnold had expressed his indignation for what he regarded as its mistaken policies in respect to the war. This conflict with Congress, together with certain vexatious circumstances, rising out of his command in Philadelphia—he had gone heavily into debt—led him into a secret correspondence with the British general, Sir Henry Clinton, and he asked for the assignment to West Point for the very purpose of betraying this strategic post into the hands of the British.

In order to perfect the details of the plot, Clinton's adjutant-general, Maj. John André, met him near Stony Point on the night of the 21st of Sept. In the meantime, the man-of-war, "Vulture," [30]upon which André had arrived, was forced to move farther downstream to avoid an impromptu bombardment by American patriots. As a result André had to start back to N.Y. by land. He bore a pass issued by Arnold, but he made the fatal mistake of changing to civilian clothes. Technically, therefore, he was a spy. At Tarrytown he was challenged by three Continentals; he offered them a purse of gold, a valuable watch, or anything they might name if they would permit him to proceed to N.Y.C. His offers were rejected and the incriminating papers were found in his boots. He was carried before the commanding officer of the lines, who, not suspecting his superior could be involved, notified Arnold. The latter was at breakfast with Washington's aides; pretending he had an immediate call from across the river, he jumped from the table, told his wife enough to cause her the greatest consternation, mounted a horse and rode to a barge which took him to the "Vulture." In spite of the protest and entreaties of Sir Henry Clinton and the threats of Arnold the unfortunate André, against whose character no suspicion was ever uttered, was hanged at Tappan, Oct. 2, 1780.

Maj. André

Maj. André

The picture was drawn by André without the aid of a looking-glass on the morning of the day fixed for his execution. A respite of twenty-four hours was, however, given. To Maj. Tomlinson, then acting as officer of the guard, André presented the sketch.

Maj. André was 29 years old at the time, and his fate aroused universal sympathy. It is said that Washington himself, whom some historians censure because he did not save André, wept upon hearing the circumstances of his death, but under military law his execution was inevitable. Arnold, however, escaped the punishment he so richly merited. He was commissioned brigadier-general in the British army and received £6,315 for his property losses. He was employed in several operations during the remaining period of the war but later when he went to England he met with neglect and scorn that probably hastened his death. In 1821 André's remains were taken to England and interred there; at the same time a memorial was erected in Westminster Abbey.

Some time later Washington recommended West Point to Congress as a site for a military school, but it was not until 1802 that the academy was established. There are many notable memorials of early days and distinguished soldiers here.

By far the greater number of America's distinguished generals and soldiers since the War of Independence have been graduates of [31]West Point. These include U. S. Grant, Philip Henry Sheridan, William Sherman, George P. McClellan, Thomas J. (Stonewall) Jackson (Confederate), Robert E. Lee (Confederate) and Richard Henry Anderson (Confederate). Grant was appointed to West Point in 1839; he was a good horseman and good in mathematics, but graduated in 21st place in a class of 39. Sherman, on the other hand, stood near the head of his class when he graduated in 1839. Lee was commissioned in the engineering corps upon his graduation in 1829. The most notable commanding officers in the American army during the World War, including, of course, Gen. Pershing, were West Point graduates; the most conspicuous exception, perhaps, was Maj.-Gen. Leonard Wood, who began his career as a surgeon.

West Point and the Highlands, 1868

West Point and the Highlands, 1868

This picture, published shortly after the Civil War, gives a good idea of the dress and uniform of the period, as well as a typical battery. Note the lady's hoop skirt and the bearded officer to whom she is speaking. The gun is one of the old muzzle-loaders, and there is a mortar in the foreground.

Above the cliff and towards the north and east of the plain is Fort Clinton; on its east front stands a monument erected in 1828 by the Corps of Cadets to Kosciusko, while "Flirtation Walk," on the river side of the academy, leads to Kosciusko Garden, so named because it was much frequented by the Polish hero. On the parade ground is Victory Monument (78 ft. high), erected in 1874 as a Civil War memorial. The library—one of the finest military libraries in [32] existence—contains interesting memorials by Saint Gaudens to J. McNeil Whistler and Edgar Allan Poe, both of whom were cadets at the academy and both of whom were virtually expelled.

Poe's neurotic temperament had led him into a number of escapades, but he gave evidence of improvement after he enlisted in the American Army at Boston in 1827. He served two years, and was promoted sergeant-major. He was then 20 years old, and on the basis of his army record, his uncle, John Allan, obtained for him an appointment to West Point. As a student he showed considerable facility for mathematics, but he incurred the displeasure of his superiors by neglect of duty, and was expelled in 1830, one year after he had been admitted. His temperament was of course unsuited to West Point discipline. The military discipline of the academy was equally odious to Whistler, the painter (1834-1903), who was dismissed and transferred to the United States coast survey. In his third year Whistler failed in chemistry. Col. Larned, one of his instructors, gives the incident thus—"Whistler was called up for examination in the subject of chemistry, which also covered the studies of mineralogy and geology, and given silicon to discuss. He began: 'I am required to discuss the subject of silicon. Silicon is a gas,' 'That will do, Mr. Whistler,' and he retired quickly to private life. Whistler later said: 'Had silicon been a gas, I would have been a major-general.'"

High above the academy on Mount Independence (490 ft.) still stands the ruins of old Ft. Putnam, one of the original fortifications, from which a magnificent view can be obtained of the academy, the river, and the surrounding country.

Our route now lies across a peninsula called Constitution Island, which is the site of a preparatory school for West Point.

For many years the Island was the home of the Misses Anna and Susan Warner, authors of "The Wide, Wide World," and other stories popular with children. Through the generosity of Miss Susan Warner, who survived her sister, and Mrs. Russell Sage, the island was presented to the government a few years ago, and is now part of West Point.

We pass on the west bank Crow's Nest Mt. (1,396 ft.) associated with Joseph Rodman Drake's fanciful poem, The Culprit Fay. Two M. farther we leave the Highlands through the "Golden Gate," where Storm King Mt. rises to a height of 1,340 ft. on the west side of the Hudson, and Breakneck Mt. to a height of 1,365 ft. on the other. Near Storm King a tunnel of the great new Catskill aqueduct, carrying water to N.Y.C., passes under the Hudson at a depth of 1,100 ft.—a depth made necessary to reach solid rock at the bottom.

N.Y. City's Catskill Mt. water supply system is the greatest of waterworks, modern or ancient. Three-quarters of the project has been completed. The waters of the Esopus Creek in the Catskills are stored in the Ashokan reservoir, an artificial lake twelve miles [33]long, situated about 14 miles west of the Hudson River at Kings Mt. From this reservoir the aqueduct extends 92 M. to the city's northern boundary, and supplies about 375,000,000 gallons daily. From the Croton watershed New York receives a supply almost as large—336,000,000 gallons daily. Construction on the Catskill supply system was begun in 1907, and the total cost will be about $177,000,000.

The river now widens and turns to the west; on the further bank is Cornwall, near which is the estate of E. P. Roe, the writer, and "Idlewild," the former home of N. P. Willis, likewise a writer of importance in his day. The home of Lyman Abbott, editor of the Outlook is also here. The proprietor of Bannerman's Island, which we now pass, is a dealer in obsolete war material; he has built on the island a number of castle-like store-houses of old paving stones taken from the streets of New York.

58 M. BEACON, Pop. 10,996 & NEWBURGH, Pop. 30,366.

(Train 51 passes 9:56; No. 3, 10:17; No. 41, 2:29; No. 25, 4:10; No. 19, 7:06. Eastbound: No. 6 passes 7:50; No. 26 8:09; No. 16, 2:22; No. 22, 3:48.)

Beacon was incorporated in May, 1913, by merging the villages of Matteawan and Fishkill Landing, the latter of which lay closer to the west. The first settlement in the township was made in 1690. During the Revolutionary War it was an important military base for the Northern Continental Army. At Fishkill Landing on May 13, 1783, Gen. Knox organized the Society of the Cincinnati.

The Society of the Cincinnati was an organization of U.S. officers who had served in the Revolutionary War. Besides the general society of which Washington was president, another was organized for each state. (The name is in reference to Cincinnati, the Roman patriot who left the plough to serve his country.) Membership was limited to officers, native or foreign, of the Continental army who had either served with honour for three years or had been honorably discharged for disability, and to their descendants.

Because it included several European nobles, such as Lafayette and Steuben, and because it was founded on the principle of heredity the new society was denounced as the beginning of an aristocracy and therefore a menace, by such Revolutionary leaders as Franklin, Adams, and Jefferson, who were ineligible for membership because they had not been in the army. There was perhaps a real fear that it might become a military hierarchy which would appropriate the important offices of the new republic. At any rate, several states adopted resolutions against it and so great was the antagonism at the first general meeting in 1784 Washington persuaded the members to abolish the hereditary feature. In spite of this condition, the excitement did not die, and in 1789 the Tammany Society was founded in N.Y.C. in opposition to the Cincinnati, and as a [34]wherein "true equality" should govern. This was the origin of Tammany Hall, which became conspicuous in N.Y. politics.

Alexander Hamilton succeeded Washington as president, but by 1824 most of the state branches of the Cincinnati and the general society itself were dead or dying. For a long time little was left but a traditional dinner held each year in N.Y.C. In 1893 the general society made an effort to revive the state organizations, with some little success. The hereditary feature has been restored and the living members number about 980. The motto is "Omnia relinquit servare rem publicam." (He abandons everything to serve the republic.)

Washington's Headquarters at Newburgh

Washington's Headquarters at Newburgh

An early picture showing American soldiers on guard at the headquarters of Gen. Washington at Newburgh. The house itself was built about 1760 and was occupied by Washington from the spring of 1782 to August, 1783. It is now open to the public as a museum.

Back of Matteawan are seen Beacon Mts., their name recalling Revolutionary days when beacon fires were lighted as signals on their summits. The summit of the highest of the group, Beacon Hill* (1,635 ft.) can now be reached by means of a cable railway, making possible a very pleasant excursion. The Matteawan State Hospital for the Insane is at Beacon on the north side of Fishkill Creek. Beacon's products include hats, silks, woolens, rubber goods, engines, brick and tile; the total annual value of manufactures is about $4,500,000. Four miles to the northwest on Fishkill Creek is the village [35]of Fishkill, notable for two quaint old churches, both still standing, and interesting enough to repay a visit: the First Dutch Reformed (1731), in which the New York Provincial Congress met in Aug. and Sept., 1776, and Trinity (1769).

After Congress moved elsewhere, Trinity was used as a hospital, and the Dutch church, being constructed of stone, was converted into a prison. Its most famous prisoner was Enoch Crosby (who served as the original for Cooper's hero in The Spy), a patriot who twice escaped with the help of the Committee of Safety, the only persons who knew his true character.

Across the river Newburgh is visible rising above the Hudson. From the Spring of 1782 to Aug. 1783 Washington made his headquarters in the Jonathan Hasbrouck house* (to the south of the city), built between 1750 and 1770. The house, a one story stone building with a timber roof, has been purchased by the State of N.Y. and is open to visitors. It contains many interesting Revolutionary weapons, documents and other relics. Here in May, 1782, Washington wrote his famous letter of rebuke to Lewis Nicola, who had written in behalf of a coterie of officers suggesting that he assume the title of king.

Washington's reply was peremptory and indignant. They could not have found, he said, "a person to whom their schemes were more disagreeable," and charged them, "if you have any regard for yourself or posterity, or respect for me, to banish these thoughts from your mind, and never communicate, as from yourself or any one else, a sentiment of like nature." Here also he made his reply to the so-called Newburgh addresses written by John Armstrong and calling for action on the part of the army to redress its grievances.

Newburgh was still his headquarters when Washington by the force of his influence secured the quiet disbandment of the Continental Army at the close of the war. Upon the occasion of the centennial celebration (1883) of this event, a monument called the Tower of Victory, 53 ft. high with a statue of Washington, was erected.

Newburgh is the center of a rich agricultural region, but it is a manufacturing center as well; its output comprises machine shop products, plaster, cotton, woolen and silk goods, felt hats, furniture, flour, lumber and cigars. Above Newburgh can be seen the lighthouse (on the west bank) called the Devil's Danskammer, or Devil's Dance Hall, recalling the time when Henry Hudson and his crew landed here to witness an Indian pow-wow. The Dutch, who were considerably startled by the affair, thought that it could be nothing less than a diabolical dance; hence the name.

Robert Fulton's First Steamboat

Robert Fulton's First Steamboat
(From Fulton's own Sketch)

On Sept. 1, 1807, the Albany "Gazette" announced that the "North River Steamboat [i.e., the "Clermont"] will leave Paulus's Hook [Jersey City] on Friday, the 4th of September, at 6 in the morning and arrive at Albany on Saturday at 6 in the afternoon." The New York Central train now takes only a few minutes more than three hours to make the trip. The same paper on Oct. 5, 1807, announced that "Mr. Fulton's new steamboat left New York against a strong tide, very rough water, and a violent gale from the north. She made headway against the most sanguine expectations, and without being rocked by the waves."

73 M. POUGHKEEPSIE, Pop. 35,000.

[36](Train 51 passes 10:14; No. 3, 10:38; No. 41, 2:48; No. 25, 4:27; No. 19, 7:24. Eastbound: No. 6 passes 7:32; No. 26, 7:51; No. 16, 2:02; No. 22, 3:29.)

Poughkeepsie was the Apokeepsing of the Indians—"the pleasant and safe harbour" made by the rocky bluffs projecting into the river, where canoes were sheltered from wind and wave. The city is built partly on terraces rising 200 ft. above the river, and partly on the level plateau above. Poughkeepsie was settled by the Dutch in 1698. The most momentous event in Poughkeepsie's history and one of the most important in that of the whole Union, was the convention held here in 1788 at which the state of N.Y. decided to ratify the federal constitution. The decision was carried by three votes.

The credit for bringing N.Y. into the Union must go largely to Alexander Hamilton and his supporters, John Jay and Chancellor Robert R. Livingston. Of the three N.Y. delegates to the federal convention, Hamilton was the only one to sign its report, and when the state convention was called at Poughkeepsie, June 17, 1788, two-thirds of its members voted against the proposed U.S. constitution. The opposition was led by Gov. George Clinton and his party, known as the "Clintonians." Clinton, though he here fought bitterly the proposed new constitution and government, lived to be a Vice President of the U.S. (He should not be confused with the DeWitt Clinton who later built the Erie Canal.) The eloquence of Hamilton, Jay and Livingston, however, coupled with the news that New Hampshire and Virginia had ratified, finally carried the day, and the N.Y. Convention gave its approval of the new Constitution by a vote of 30 to 27.

Vassar College, the oldest women's college in America, and one of the most famous, occupies extensive grounds to the east of the city.


Vassar was founded in 1861 by Matthew Vassar (1791-1868), an Englishman who had established in Poughkeepsie in 1801 a brewery from which he became rich. He got the idea of founding a woman's college from his niece, Lydia Booth, a school teacher. His total gifts to the institution amounted to about $800,000. His nephew, Matthew Vassar, Jr., became manager of the brewery after his uncle's death, and gave in all about $500,000 to the college. Vassar now has a campus and farm of about 800 acres, and possesses an endowment of $2,440,000. Its students number about 1,100.

The Hudson near Poughkeepsie furnishes the course for the intercollegiate races in which American college crews, with the exception of Harvard and Yale (which row on the Thames at New London) have rowed practically every year since 1895. The river is spanned at this point by one of the largest cantilever bridges in the world. It is 2,260 ft. long and 200 ft. above the water, and is the only bridge over the Hudson south of Albany.

It required 4 years to build the bridge, which was finished in 1889 at a cost of $3,500,000. It connects New England directly with the coal fields of Pennsylvania.

Poughkeepsie has more than 50 lines of manufacture, with products of a total annual value of $15,000,000, including mill supplies, clothing, cigars, candied fruit and preserves, cream separators, foundry products, knit goods, ivory buttons, and piano and organ players.

Two miles beyond Poughkeepsie the red brick buildings of the Hudson River State Hospital are passed on the right, and presently our route skirts Hyde Park (79 M.) near which, to the north, can be seen the estate of Frederick W. Vanderbilt. There are many beautiful country-places in the district. A little beyond Hyde Park on the west bank of the river is "Slabsides," the cabin home of John Burroughs, the poet, philosopher, and widely known writer on natural history.

John Burroughs was born in 1837 at Roxbury, N.Y., the fifth son of a farmer. His first books were bought with money he earned from tapping maple trees, boiling the sap and selling the sugar. One season, he tells us, he made twelve silver quarters, and has never been so proud since. Although he has lived much in the world and has travelled widely, the greater part of his time has been divided between Riverby, in the little town of West Park, N.Y., the famous "Slabsides," his cabin in the wooded hills back of the Hudson, and, since 1908, an old farm house which he has christened Woodchuck Lodge, ½ M. from the Burroughs homestead in Roxbury. In his retreat at "Slabsides" he wrote some of his most intimate and appealing studies of nature.

Esopus Island is now passed, on the high left bank of which, near the water, stands the home of Alton B. Parker, Democratic candidate for the presidency against Roosevelt [38]in 1904. We now pass the estates of D. Ogden Mills and W.B. Dinsmore, former president of the Adams Express Company (on the right). Esopus Lighthouse is on the west bank where the river curves sharply to the left. On the high ground on the east bank is the country home of the late Levi P. Morton.

Levi P. Morton (1824-1920), American banker and politician, was born at Shoreham, Vt. After some years in business at Hanover, N.H., Boston and N.Y.C., he established in 1862 the banking house of L. P. Morton & Co. (dissolved in 1899), with a London branch. The American firm assisted in funding the national debt at the time of the resumption of specie payments, and the London house were fiscal agents of the U.S. government in 1873-1884, and as such received the $15,500,000 awarded by the Geneva Arbitration court in settlement of the "Alabama Claims" against Great Britain. In 1899 Morton became president of the Morton Trust Co. of N.Y.C. He was a Republican representative in Congress from 1879 to 1881, U.S. minister to France (1881-1885), vice-president of the U.S. during the administration of Benjamin Harrison (1889-1893) and governor of N.Y. state (1895-1896) signing in that capacity the "Greater New York" bill and the liquor-tax measure known as the "Raines law." In 1896 he was a candidate for the presidential nomination in the Republican national convention.

88 M. RHINECLIFF, Pop. 1,300.

(Train 51 passes at 10:32; No. 3, 10:56; No. 41, 3:07; No. 25, 4:46; No. 19, 9:39. Eastbound: No. 6 passes 7:13; No. 26, 7:31; No. 16, 1:37; No. 22, 3:09.)

Across the river from Rhinecliff is Kingston (Pop. 26,688), most of which lies on a plateau 150 ft. above the river. Rondout, once a separate town, is now a part of the city of Kingston, the center of which lies 3 M. inland. To the northwest is the noble scenery of the Catskills, to the southwest are the Shawangunk Mts. and Lake Mohonk, and in the distance on our right (that is, on the Rhinecliff side) are the Berkshire Hills.

Kingston is one of the oldest towns in the state. In 1658 a stockade was built here by order of Gov. Peter Stuyvesant, and although the Dutch had built a fort here as early as 1614, it is from this event that the founding of the city is generally dated. The town suffered a number of murderous Indian attacks before it was taken over by the British in 1664.

The early history of Kingston reached a climax during the Revolution, when the British under Sir John Vaughan sacked the town and burned the buildings Oct. 17, 1777. The "Senate House"* erected in 1676, was the meeting-place of the first State Senate during the early months of 1777. At the time of the British occupation the interior was burnt but the walls were left standing. The building is now the property [39]of the state and is used as a colonial museum. The present Court House, built in 1818, stands on the site of the old Court House, where New York's first governor, George Clinton, was inaugurated, and in which Chief Justice John Jay held the first term of the N.Y. Supreme Court in Sept. 1777.

The 'Senate House' (1676), Kingston, N.Y.

The 'Senate House' (1676), Kingston, N.Y.

Erected in 1676 as a private residence, the "Senate House" was one of the few buildings left standing when the British sacked the town of Kingston in October, 1777. It had been the meeting place of the first State Senate in the earlier part of that year. The house is now maintained as a colonial museum.

John Jay (1745-1829), son of Peter Jay, a successful N.Y. merchant, had a notable career. He was Chairman of the Commission which drafted the N.Y. State Constitution in 1777. In the same year he was made Chief Justice of the State. In negotiating peace with Great Britain (1783) he acted with Benjamin Franklin, John Adams, Jefferson and Henry Laurens, and he is credited with having been influential in obtaining favorable terms for the former colonies. In 1789 Washington appointed him chief justice of the U.S. Supreme Court, in which capacity he served for six years. In the meantime, 1794, he negotiated the famous Jay Treaty with Great Britain, which averted a dangerous crisis in the relations between the two countries, and settled such questions as the withdrawal of British troops from the northwestern frontier, compensation for the seizure of American [40]vessels during the Franco-British war of 1793, and the refusal of the British up to that time to enter into a commercial treaty with the U.S. From 1795 to 1798 he served as Governor of N.Y. Daniel Webster said: "When the spotless ermine of the judicial robe fell on John Jay, it touched nothing less spotless than itself."

Less than a mile beyond Rhinecliff we pass "Ferncliff," the beautiful country-place of Vincent Astor, son of the late John Jacob Astor III, who lost his life in the "Titanic" disaster. The large white building on a hill nearby is the Astor squash court.

John Jacob Astor III (1864-1912) was the son of William B. Astor II. The latter was the son of William B. Astor (1792-1875), known as "the landlord of New York," because of his extensive real estate holdings in New York City. He was the son of the founder of the Astor fortune, John Jacob Astor (1763-1828). The latter was born near Heidelberg, Germany, worked for a time in London, came to N.Y.C. and took up fur trading, in which he amassed an enormous fortune, the largest up to that time made by any American.

Steps in the Development of the Steam-boat

Steps in the Development of the Steam-boat

The top figure represents a boat of the 15th Century propelled by paddle wheels. Below is a steam tug, the design of Jonathan Hulls, who received a patent on his invention from the British government in 1736. It appears that some time later, in 1802, Robert Fulton, who was then in England, actually rode in a tug of similar design built by William Symington. Fulton, however, was the first to construct a steam-boat in the modern sense of the term. The illustrations used above were taken from the Supplement to the Sixth Edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica.

Six miles above Rhinecliff we pass Anandale on the right, the former home of Gen. Richard Montgomery (b. 1736), who was killed Dec. 31, 1775, while conducting the American attack on Quebec.


It is not always remembered that the Americans undertook an expedition against Quebec during the first year of the Revolutionary War. Gen. Montgomery was joined near Quebec by Benedict Arnold, then a colonel, and they pushed on towards their objective with barely 800 men. The assault met a complete defeat; almost at the first discharge, Montgomery was killed, and many of his men were taken prisoners. In 1818 Mrs. Montgomery, then a gray-haired widow, sat alone on the porch of the house while the remains of Gen. Montgomery were brought down the Hudson on the steamer "Richmond" with great funeral pomp. A monument has been erected in St. Paul's Chapel, N.Y.C., where his remains were finally interred. General and Mrs. Montgomery, who was a daughter of Robert R. Livingston, had been married only two years when he went away on his expedition.

Just north of Tivoli (98 M.) is the site of the Manor House of the Livingston family, "Clermont," after which Robert Fulton named his first steamboat.

The Livingston Manor comprised the greater part of what are now Dutchess and Columbia Counties. The founder of the family was Robert Livingston (1654-1725) who was born at Ancrum, Scotland, emigrated to America about 1673 and received these manorial grants in 1686. He was a member of the N.Y. Assembly for several terms. The Livingston Manor was involved in anti-rent troubles which began in the Rensselaer Manor.

109 M. GREENDALE, Pop. 1,650.

(Train 51 passes 10:54; No. 3, 11:19; No. 41, 3:32; No. 25, 5:08; No. 19, 8:10. Eastbound: No. 6 passes 6:49; No. 26, 7:09; No. 16, 1:07; No. 22, 2:44.)

From Greendale a very fine view is obtained of the noble scenery of the Catskill Mountains. The village of Catskill (Pop. 4,461) across the river, was at one time the only point of entrance for visitors to the mountains—now reached chiefly by railway from Kingston. Catskill Station, however, is still a point of departure for this favorite summer resort. In clear weather it is possible to get a glimpse of the deep gorge of the Kaaterskill Cove (about one mile west of Catskill village) where Rip Winkle strayed into the mountains, discovered Hendrick Hudson playing at skittles, and, bewitched by the wine supplied by the ghostly sportsmen, slept for 20 years. On the high crest back of the station (about 10 M. from the river) the Mountain House (Alt. 2,225 ft.) and Kaaterskill House, famous old hotels, can be seen in clear weather.

The Catskill Mts.,* a group possessing much charm and beauty, run parallel with the Hudson for about 15 miles, at a distance of from 5 to 9 miles from the shore line, on the west bank; they cover an area of about 500 Sq. M. On the side visible from the train they rise steeply to a height of 2,000 to 3,000 feet though on the other sides the slopes are gradual. The highest summits are those of Slide Mt. (4,205 ft.) and Hunter Mt. (4,025 ft.). The summits of several of these mountains are reached by inclined railways that [42]afford splendid views. A number of deep ravines known as "cloves," a word derived from the Dutch, have been cut into the mountains by streams. The name Catskill, formerly Kaatskill, is a word of Dutch origin, referring, it is said, to the catamounts, or wild cats, formerly found here. The Indians called the mountains "Onti Ora" or Mts. of the Sky. Washington Irving in his introduction to the story of Rip Van Winkle says, "Whoever has made a voyage up the Hudson must remember the Kaatskill Mts. They are a dismembered branch of the great Appalachian family, and are seen away to the west of the river, swelling up to a noble height, and lording it over the surrounding country. Every change of season, every change of weather, indeed every hour of the day, produces some change in the magical hues and shapes of these mountains, and they are regarded by all the good housewives far and near as perfect barometers. When the weather is fair and settled, they are clothed in blue and purple, and print their bold outlines on the clear evening sky; but sometimes when the rest of the landscape is cloudless, they will gather a hood of gray vapors about their summits, which in the last rays of the setting sun, will glow and light up like a crown of glory."

Hudson, N.Y. (1835)

Hudson, N.Y. (1835)

Showing one of the early passenger trains on what is now the New York Central route.

114 M. HUDSON, Pop. 11,745.

(Train 51 passes 11:00; No. 3, 11:26; No. 41, 3:37; No. 25, 5:14; No. 19, 8:16. Eastbound No. 6 passes 6:44; No. 26, 7:04; No. 16, 1:02; No. 22, 2:39.)

Hudson, picturesquely situated on the slope of a hill and commanding a fine view of the river and the Catskill Mts., [43]was originally known as Claverack Landing, and for many years it was nothing more than a landing with two rude wharfs and two small storehouses, to which the farmers in the neighborhood brought their produce for shipment on the river. Late in 1783, the place was settled by an association of merchants and fishermen, mostly Quakers, from Rhode Island, Nantucket, and Martha's Vineyard. These enterprising people had been engaged in whaling and other marine ventures, but when these industries were crippled by British cruisers during the War of Independence, they came to Hudson to find a more secluded haven. They were methodical and industrious; they even brought their houses, framed and ready for immediate erection, on their brig, the "Comet." The settlers opened clay pits, burned bricks and built a first class wharf. In 1785 the port was the second in the state in the extent of its shipping. Two shipyards were established and a large ship, the "Hudson" was launched. Toward the end of the 18th century it was the third city in the state, and had one of the three banks then existing in N.Y. State.

The War of 1812 caused a decline, but modern industry has revived the town, and its manufactures include Portland cement (one of the largest manufactories of that product in the United States is here), knit goods, foundry and machine shop products, ice machinery, brick and furniture.

Huge ice houses are seen along this part of the Hudson River, and the question sometimes arises why the river, being partly salt, can yield ice fit for domestic or commercial use. The explanation is that the water, in freezing, rejects four-fifths or more of its content of salt.

Four miles above Hudson we pass the estuary of Stockport, on the north bank of which, at Kinderhook, once lived Martin Van Buren, eighth president of the U.S.

The son of a farmer and tavern keeper, Van Buren (1782-1862) was born at Kinderhook, N.Y., of Dutch descent. He obtained a scanty education, and it is said that as late as 1829, when he became secretary of state, he wrote crudely and incorrectly. He was admitted to the bar in 1803 in N.Y., allied himself with the "Clintonians" in politics and later became a leading member of the powerful coterie of Democratic politicians known as the "Albany regency," which ruled N.Y. politics for more than a generation, and was largely responsible for the introduction of the "Spoils System" into state and national affairs. Van Buren's proficiency in this variety of politics earned him the nickname of "Little Magician." In 1821 he was elected to the U.S. Senate, and in 1828 governor of N.Y., and in the following year was made secretary of state by President Jackson, who used his influence to obtain the nomination of Van Buren for president in 1836. William Henry Harrison, the Whig candidate, was his principal opponent, and the popular vote showed a plurality of less than [44]25,000 for Van Buren. Van Buren's administration was compelled to bear the weight of errors committed by Jackson, his predecessor, and though he showed unexpected ability and firmness in his administration, he was defeated for re-election by Harrison.

130 M. SCHODACK LANDING, Pop. 1,215.

(Train 51 passes 11:17; No. 3, 11:45; No. 41, 3:55; No. 25, 5:30; No. 19, 8:37. Eastbound: No. 6 passes 6:24; No. 26, 6:45; No. 16, 12:41; No. 22, 2:20.)

Schodack was the Dutch rendering of the Indian word "Esquatack," meaning "the fireplace of the nation." The island opposite the station was the site of the first council fire of the Mohican Indians, who were grouped about their "fire place" in 40 villages. They inhabited the Hudson Valley and their domain extended into Mass.

In consequence of attacks by the Mohawks the Mohicans moved from their council fire to what is now Stockbridge, Mass., in 1664. Later many migrated to the Susquehanna Valley and became absorbed into the Delawares. The descendants of those who were left at Stockbridge are now assembled with some of the Munsees on a reservation at Green Bay, Wis. They are truly the "last of the Mohicans." Cooper's story of that name dealt with the earlier period of their dispersal.

In the early days Douw's Point on the right bank, a few miles below Albany, was the head of steamboat navigation. Passengers for Albany used to transfer at this point to the stage. It was here that the "Half Moon" reached its farthest point on its northward trip up the Hudson.

Theodore Roosevelt in his History of New York says: "During the "Half Moon's" inland voyage her course had lain through scenery singularly wild, grand and lonely. She had passed the long line of frowning battlemented rock walls that we know by the name of the Palisades; she had threaded her way round the bends where the curving river sweeps in and out among cold peaks—Storm King, Crow's Nest, and their brethren; she had sailed in front of the Catskill Mts., perhaps thus early in the season crowned with shining snow. From her decks the lookouts scanned with their watchful eyes dim shadowy wastes, stretching for countless leagues on every hand; for all the land was shrouded in one vast forest, where red hunters who had never seen a white face followed wild beasts, upon whose kind no white man had ever gazed."

In modern days the channel has been enlarged, deepened and protected by concrete dykes, which are seen at intervals along the upper river, so that the Hudson is now utilized for navigation as far as Troy. On the left bank just above Parr's Island is the estuary of the Normans Kill, which flows through the valley of Tawasentha, where, according to Indian tradition, once lived the "mighty Hiawatha."

Hiawatha (the word means "he makes rivers") was a legendary chief, about 1450, of the Onondaga Tribe of Indians. The formation of the League of Five Nations, known as the Iroquois, is attributed [45]to him by Indian tradition. He was regarded as a sort of divinity—the incarnation of human progress and civilization. Longfellow's poem "Hiawatha" embodies the more poetical ideas of Indian nature-worship. In this version of the story, Hiawatha was the Son of Mudjekeewis (the West Wind) and Wenonah, the daughter of Nakomis, who fell from the moon.

142 M. RENSSELAER, Pop, 10,823.

(Train 51 passes 11:30; No. 3, 12:02; No. 41, 4:12; No. 25, 5:44; No. 19, 8:53. Eastbound: No. 6 passes 6:00; No. 26, 6:32; No. 16, 12:27; No. 22, 2:07.)

Rensselaer, originally called Greenbush, lies directly across from Albany. It was first settled in 1631 and the site formed part of a large tract of land bought from the Indians by agents of Killiaen Van Rensselaer. On the lower edge of the town Ft. Cralo,* built in 1642 for protection against the Indians, still stands; the fort has a special interest in being connected with the origin of Yankee Doodle.

Some writers claim that Cralo is the oldest fort still preserved in the U.S. Its white oak beams are said to be 18 inches square; its walls are 2 to 3 ft. thick, and some of the old portholes still remain. According to tradition there were once secret passages connecting the fort with the river. About 1770, during the French and Indian Wars, Maj. James Abercrombie had his headquarters here.

Yankee Doodle is said to have been composed at the fort by Dr. Schuckburgh, a British surgeon, as a satire on the provincial troops, who did not show to advantage among the smartly dressed British soldiers. The Yankees, however, adopted the words and the tune, and less than 20 years later the captured soldiers of Burgoyne marched behind the lines of the victorious Continentals to the same melody.

Albany from Van Rensselaer Island in 1831

Albany from Van Rensselaer Island in 1831


Albany to Syracuse

142 M. ALBANY, Pop. 113,344.

(Train 51 passes 11:32; No, 3, 12:05; No. 41, 4:15; No. 25, 5:46; No. 19, 8:55. Eastbound: No. 6 passes 5:58; No. 26,6:30; No. 16, 12:25; No. 22, 2:05.)

Across the river from Rensselaer on sharply mounting hills is the city of Albany. We cross the river by a suspension bridge, passing over Rensselaer Island and seeing ahead of us the handsome new freight houses of the D. & H.R.R., and to right and left the boats of the Hudson River Steamship lines lying against the wharves. Once over the bridge the tracks swerve to the right, and soon lead into the Union Station.

Almost under the shadow of the present Capitol, on a meadow to the north, Ft. Orange was built in 1624, when 18 families of Dutch Walloons selected this site for a permanent settlement in the New World. The history of Albany, however is usually dated from ten years earlier when Dutch traders built Ft. Nassau on Castle Island, the present Rensselaer Island.

According to some writers a temporary trading post was established here by the French as early as 1540—80 years before the Pilgrims landed at Plymouth. But it is on the date 1614 that Albany lays claim to being the second oldest settlement in the colonies, Jamestown, founded in 1607 by Capt. John Smith and Christopher Newport, being the first. It is interesting to note that the Pilgrim Fathers narrowly missed making a settlement somewhere along the Hudson River. William Bradford, second governor of the Plymouth colony, tells in his history, how, at one point in the Mayflower's voyage, they determined "to find some place about Hudson's river for their habitation." But, after sailing half a day, "they fell amongst dangerous shoulds and roving breakers," and so decided to bear up again for Cape Cod.

During the early days Albany held high rank among American settlements. As a center of trade and civilization it rivalled Jamestown, Manhattan and Quebec. In 1618 the Dutch negotiated here the first treaty with the Iroquois, which tended to preserve friendly relations with the Indians for more than a century to come.

The territory of the Iroquois, or Six Nations, the most celebrated of Indian confederations, extended from Albany to Buffalo, that is, over just the country through which the New York Central runs. The name is that given to them by the French and is said to be formed of two ceremonial words constantly used by the tribesmen meaning "real adders." The league was originally composed of five tribes or nations—the Mohawks, Oneidas, Onondagas, Senecas and Cayugas. The confederation probably took place about 1580. In 1722 the Tuscaroras were admitted, the league then being called that of the Six Nations. Without realizing the far-reaching effect of his [47]action, Samuel D. Champlain (1567-1635), the French explorer, probably changed the entire course of history by joining the Algonquins and Hurons in an attack in 1608 on the Iroquois near the present town of Ticonderoga. The Iroquois never forgave the French for the part they played in this battle and naturally turned first to the Dutch and then to the English for allies. "Thus did New France," says Parkman, "rush into collision with the redoubted warriors of the Five Nations. Here was the beginning, and in some measure doubtless the cause, of a long series of murderous conflicts, bearing havoc and flame to generations yet unborn." Parkman estimates that in the period after the Tuscaroras joined the Iroquois, the Six Nations had a population of about 12,000 with not more than 2,150 fighting men. It is a matter of some surprise that so small a fighting force could wield so great a power in the early days. But Theodore Roosevelt, in speaking of the Indians as warriors, says: "On their own ground they were far more formidable than the best European troops. It is to this day doubtful whether the superb British regulars at Braddock's battle or the Highlanders at Grant's defeat a few years later, were able to so much as kill one Indian for every hundred of their own men who fell." Although up to that time they had been loyal friends of the colonists, in the War of Independence the Iroquois fought on the English side, and by repeated battles their power was nearly destroyed. From very early times a silver "covenant chain" was used as a symbol of their treaties with the Whites, and each time a new treaty was signed the covenant chain was renewed or reburnished. There are perhaps 17,000 descendants of the Iroquois now living in reservations in New York State, Oklahoma, Wisconsin and Canada.

Stephen Van Rensselaer

Stephen Van Rensselaer

Stephen Van Rensselaer was the eighth patroon and fifth in descent from Killiaen, the first lord of the Manor. He was lieutenant governor of N.Y., an ardent promoter of the Erie Canal, a major general in the War of 1812 (during which he was defeated in the Battle of Queenstown Heights), and represented N.Y. in Congress from 1822 to 1829. In 1824 he founded a school in Troy, which was incorporated two years later as the Rensselaer Polytechnic institute.

In 1629 the Dutch government granted to Killiaen van Rensselaer, an Amsterdam diamond merchant, a tract of land, [48]24 Sq. M., centering at Ft. Orange, over which he was given the feudal powers of a patroon.

The patroons, under the Dutch régime, were members of the Dutch West India Co., who received large grants of land, called Manors, in New Netherlands. These grants carried with them semifeudal rights, and the patroon could exercise practically autocratic powers in his domain. The first of the patroons, Killiaen van Rensselaer (1580-1645), never came to this country, but he sent over numerous settlers as tenants. The Manor was called Rensselaerswyck, and comprised all of the present counties of Albany and Rensselaer, and part of Columbia.

This was the first manorial grant in New Netherlands and was destined to endure the longest. The colonists sent to this country by van Rensselaer were industrious and the town prospered, although in 1644, it was described by Father Jogues, a Jesuit priest, as "a miserable little fort called Fort Orange, built of logs, with four or five pieces of Breteuil cannon and as many swivels; and some 25 or 30 houses built of boards, and having thatched roofs." On account of its favorable commercial and strategic position at the head of navigation on the Hudson and at the gateway of the Iroquois country and the far west, it maintained its importance among colonial settlements for a century and a half. Its early name, Beverwyck, was changed to Albany—one of the titles of the Duke of York, afterwards James II.—when New Netherlands was transferred to the English (1644). Albany was granted a charter in 1686, and the first mayor (appointed by Gov. Dongan) was Peter Schuyler, who was likewise chairman of the Board of Indian Commissioners.

Peter Schuyler (1657-1724) was a son of Philip Pieterse Schuyler (d. 1683), who migrated from Amsterdam in 1650. The family was one of the wealthiest and most influential in the colony, and it was closely related by marriage to the van Rensselaers, the van Cortlandts and other representatives of the old Dutch aristocracy.

Representatives of Mass., R.I., N.H., Conn., N.Y., Pa., and Md., met in Albany in June, 1754, for the purpose of confirming and establishing a close league of friendship with the Iroquois and of arranging for a permanent union of the colonies. This was the first important effort to bring about a Colonial confederation.

The Indian affairs having been satisfactorily adjusted, the convention, after considerable debate, in which Benjamin Franklin, Stephen Hopkins and Thomas Hutchinson took a leading part, adopted a plan for a union of the colonies on the basis of a scheme submitted by Franklin. This plan provided for a representative governing body to be known as the Grand Council, to which each colony should elect delegates for a term of three years. Neither the British government nor the growing party in the Colonies which was clamoring for [49]colonial rights received the plan with favor—the former holding that it gave the colonies too much independence and the latter that it gave them too little.

At about this time a Swedish naturalist, Peter Kalm, visiting Albany, reported that "there is not a place in all the British colonies, the Hudson Bay settlement excepted, where such quantities of furs and skins are bought of the Indians as at Albany." Most of the houses at this time were built of brick and stood with gable ends to the street; each house had a garden and a stoep, where the family were accustomed to sit summer evenings, the burgher with his pipe and his "vrouw" with her knitting. Well-to-do families owned slaves, but according to Mrs. Anne Grant, an English writer of the day who spent part of her childhood in Albany, "it was slavery softened into a smile."

North Pearl St., Albany (About 1780) Looking North from State St. to Maiden Lane

North Pearl St., Albany (About 1780) Looking North from State St. to Maiden Lane
(From an old French print in the N.Y. Public Library)

In the left foreground is the south end of the Livingston house. Just beyond, with two high gables facing the street, is the Vanderheyden Palace, erected 1725. The square building at the rear, corner of Maiden Lane, is the residence of Dr. Hunloke Woodruff. In the right foreground (on the corner) is the Lydius House, erected in 1657.

It was here that the English from all the colonies, before and during the French and Indian wars met to consult with the Indians and make treaties with them. It was the gathering [50]place of armies where troops from all the colonies assembled and the objective of hostile French forces and their Indian allies on several occasions, yet was never taken by an enemy and never saw an armed foe. Even during the Revolutionary War, when its strategic importance was fully recognized by both armies, it remained immune, though at one time the objective against which Burgoyne's unsuccessful expedition was directed.

In 1777 the English general, John Burgoyne (1722-1792), was placed at the head of British and Hessian forces gathered for the invasion of the Colonies from Canada and the cutting off of New England from the rest of the Colonies. He gained possession of Ticonderoga and Ft. Edward; but pushing on, was cut off from his communications with Canada and hemmed in by a superior force at Saratoga Springs, 30 M. north of Albany. On the 17th of Oct. his troops, about 3,500 in number, laid down their arms, surrendering to Gen. Horatio Gates. This success was the greatest the colonists had yet achieved and proved the turning-point in the war.

In 1797 Albany became the permanent state capital. The election of Martin Van Buren as governor in 1828 marked the beginning of the long ascendancy in the state of the "Albany Regency," a political coterie of Democrats in which Van Buren, W.L. Marcy, Benjamin Franklin Butler and Silas Wright were among the leaders.

Thurlow Weed (1797-1882), the bitterest enemy of this coterie, and the man who gave them their name, declared of them that he "had never known a body of men who possessed so much power and used it so well." Until the election of William H. Seward (the Whig candidate) as governor in 1838, New York had usually been Democratic, largely through the predominating influence of Van Buren and the "Regency." Weed had an important share in bringing about their defeat. He owed his early political advancement to the introduction into state politics of the Anti-Masonic issue; for a time he edited the Anti-Masonic Enquirer. In 1830 he established and became editor of the Albany Evening Journal, which he controlled for thirty-five years.

The anti-rent war, precipitated by the death of Stephen van Rensselaer (1764-1839), the "last of the patroons," centered about Albany. The final settlement of this outbreak, which began with rioting and murder, and ended with the election of a governor favorable to the tenants (1846), disposed of feudal privilege in New York State which had flourished here until well into the 19th century, though it had disappeared elsewhere.

The anti-rent agitation began in the Hudson River counties during the first administration of Gov. Seward (1839). The greater part of the land in this section was comprised in vast estates such as the Rensselaerswyck, Livingston, Scarsdale, Philipse, Pelham and Van Cortlandt manors, and on these the leasehold system, with perpetual leases, and leases for 99 years (or the equivalent), had become [51]general. Besides rents, many of the tenants were required to render certain services to the proprietor, and in case a tenant sold his interest in a farm to some one else he was required to pay the proprietor one-tenth to one-third of the amount received, as an alienation fee.

Stephen van Rensselaer had permitted his rents, especially those from poorer tenants, to fall much in arrears, and the effort of his heirs to collect them—they amounted to about $200,000—was met with armed opposition. In Rensselaer county a man was murdered, and Gov. Seward was forced to call out the militia. The tenants, however, formed anti-rent associations in all the affected counties, and in 1844 began a reign of terror, in which, disguised as Indians, they resorted to flogging, tarring and feathering, and boycotting, as weapons against all who dealt with the landlords. This culminated [52]in the murder of a deputy sheriff in Delaware county. In 1846 the anti-rent associations secured the election of Gov. John Young as well as several legislators favorable to their cause, and promoted the adoption of a new constitution abolishing feudal tenures and limiting future agricultural leases to twelve years. Under the pressure of public opinion the great landlords rapidly sold their farms.

Stephen van Rensselaer was the 8th patroon and 5th in descent from Killiaen, the first lord of the manor. He was lieutenant-governor of New York, an ardent promoter of the Erie canal, a major-general in the War of 1812 (during which he was defeated at the battle of Queenstown Heights) and represented New York in congress from 1822 to 1829. In 1824 he founded a school in Troy which was incorporated two years later as the Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute.

Ancient Dutch Church, Albany (1714)

Ancient Dutch Church, Albany (1714)
(From an old print in the N.Y. Public Library)

This church, built of bricks brought from Holland, stood for about 92 years in the open area formed by the angle of State, Market and Court streets. It was erected in less than four weeks. The early Dutch felt that without the church they could not hope to prosper. The old church was of Gothic style, one story high, and the glass of its antique windows was richly ornamented with coats of arms. In 1806 the church was taken down and its brick employed in the erection of the South Dutch Church, between Hudson and Beaver streets, which in turn was later replaced by a newer structure.

Comparatively few ancient landmarks remain in Albany, though there are some fine specimens of the Dutch and later colonial architecture still standing. Of these the best known is the Schuyler mansion,* built by Gen. Philip Schuyler, in 1760, which, after serving for many years as an orphan asylum, was recently purchased by the state and converted into a museum.

Having served in the French and Indian wars, Philip Schuyler (1733-1804) was chosen one of the four major-generals in the Continental service at the outbreak of the Revolutionary War and was placed in command of the northern department of New York with headquarters at Albany. The necessary withdrawal of the army from Crown Point in 1776 and the evacuation of Ticonderoga in 1777 were magnified by his enemies into a disgraceful retreat, and he was tried by court martial but acquitted on every charge. He was a delegate from N.Y. to the Continental Congress in 1779, and later joined his son-in-law, Alexander Hamilton, John Jay and others in the movement for the ratification by New York of the Federal constitution. In 1790 he was elected to the U.S. senate. "For bravery and generosity" says John Fiske, "he was like the paladin of some mediæval romance."

The Van Rensselaer manor-house, built in 1765, was pulled down in 1893 and reconstructed on the campus of Williams College, Williamstown, Mass., where it forms the Sigma Phi fraternity house. In the Albany Academy, built in 1813 by Philip Hooker, architect of the old State Capitol, Prof. Joseph Henry demonstrated (1831) the theory of the magnetic telegraph by ringing an electric bell at the end of a mile of wire strung around the room. Bret Harte, the writer, was born in 1839 in Albany, where his father was teacher of Greek in the Albany College, a small seminary.

Bret Harte lived in Albany until his 17th year. In 1896, lured by the gold rush, he left for California with his mother, then a widow. Once there, the rough but fascinating chaos engulfed him, and from it, at first hand, he drew the stage properties—Spaniards, Greasers, gambling houses—the humor, sin and chivalry of the '49—which color all his stories. After some little journalism and clerking, he was [53]made secretary to the Supt. of the Mint, a position which was not too exacting to allow a great deal of leisure for writing. Later he returned to the East with his family, made his home in N.Y.C. and gave all his time to authorship. Apparently his success somewhat turned his head. He lived beyond his means, passing his summers at Newport, Lenox and other expensive places, until his unbusinesslike habits and chronic indebtedness became notorious. In 1878 he accepted a consulate at Crefeld, Prussia. He spent the rest of his life abroad and died in England in 1902.

Modern buildings of interest include the City Hall,* a beautiful French Gothic building; the State Educational Building, with its valuable library; the Albany Institute, with its art galleries; the Cathedral of the Immaculate Conception, built of brownstone, with spires 210 ft. high; the Cathedral of All Saints, a fine specimen of Gothic architecture, said to be the first regularly organized Protestant Episcopal cathedral erected in the United States (1883), St. Peter's Church, and, most important, the State Capitol.*

The First Passenger Train in N.Y. State Leaving Schenectady for Albany, July 30, 1831

The First Passenger Train in N.Y. State Leaving Schenectady for Albany, July 30, 1831

On its first trip this train, now preserved on the right balcony of the Grand Central Terminal, attained a speed of nine miles an hour. The route between Albany and Schenectady was practically identical with that of the present New York Central lines.

The Capitol occupies a commanding position in Capitol Square. It is built of white Maine granite, and cost about $25,000,000. Millions were spent in alteration and reconstruction, due to the use of inferior materials and to mistakes in engineering design. The cornerstone was laid 1871, and the building was completed, with the exception of the central tower, in 1904. The legislature first met here in [54]1879. The original designs were by Thomas Fuller, who also designed the parliamentary building at Ottawa, but they were considerably altered. The beautiful Western staircase of red sandstone (from plans by Isaac Gale Perry) and the senate chamber (designed by H. H. Richardson) are the most striking features of the building. The present capitol suffered a heavy loss in the burning of its library in 1911, by which many unreplaceable books and original documents were destroyed.

The city has 11 parks, comprising 402 acres; the most notable is Washington Park, which contains two well known statues—one of Robert Burns, by Charles Caverley, and the bronze and rock fountain, "Moses at the Rock of Horeb," by J. Massey Rhind. The city's filtration system is of special interest to engineers; it occupies 20 acres, has eight filter beds, and filters 15,000,000 gallons of water daily.

Albany's key position with respect to New York, Boston and Buffalo ensured its commercial development. The first passenger railroad in America was operated between Albany and Schenectady.

The first train in the state, consisting of the locomotive "De Witt Clinton," named for the seventh governor, and three coaches (resembling early stage coaches), was built for the Mohawk and Hudson Railroad Co., the original unit of the present New York Central Lines, and was chartered in 1826 to run from Albany to Schenectady—a distance of 16 M. The locomotive was constructed at the West Point foundry and taken to Albany by boat. It had its first trial on rails, July 30, 1831, burning anthracite coal and attaining a speed of 7 M. an hour. After remodeling, it made the trip from Albany to Schenectady in one hour and 45 minutes, using pine wood for fuel. On Aug. 9, 1831, two trips were made, during which a speed of 30 M. an hour was reached. The train ran on iron "straps" nailed to wooden "stringers." As originally built the locomotive weighed 6,758 pounds, which, in remodeling, was increased to 9,420 pounds—less than the weight of one pair of wheels of a modern locomotive. At a banquet on the occasion of the formal opening of the line (Aug. 13, 1831), President Camberling of the railroad gave the following toast: "The Buffalo Railroad! May we soon breakfast at Utica, dine at Rochester, and sup with our friends on Lake Erie." The original train is still preserved and may be seen in the right balcony of the Grand Central Station, N.Y.C.

The first steamboat in the United States made its initial trips between N.Y. and Albany, and the first canal connected Albany with Buffalo.

The original Erie Canal was one of the greatest of early engineering projects in America, and its importance in the development of N.Y. State, and of the country to the west, can hardly be overestimated. Construction was begun in 1817, under a commission including Gouverneur Morris, De Witt Clinton, Robert Fulton, and Robert R. Livingston, and in 1825 the main channel, 363 miles in length, was opened between Albany and Buffalo, the total cost being $7,143,790. Three branches were added later. At the close of 1882, when tolls [55]were abolished, the total revenues derived from the canal had been $121,461,871, while expenditures had amounted to $78,862,154. Various factors, including the competition of the railroads, caused a considerable decline in canal traffic in the last quarter of a century. The old canal was a ditch following the line of the Mohawk and other rivers and creeks. The new barge canal system has four branches, the Erie, from Albany to Buffalo; the Champlain, from Albany to Lake Champlain the Oswego, which starts north midway on the line of the Erie Canal and reaches Lake Ontario, and the Cayuga and Seneca, which leaves the Erie canal a little to the west of the Oswego junction and extends south, first to Cayuga Lake and then to Seneca Lake. The new canal system was first intended for 1,000 ton barges, but its capacity has been made much larger. Various sections of the improved canal were completed between 1916 and 1918, and the total cost has been about $150,000,000.

Within 35 years Albany has increased fivefold in size, and is today the intersecting point of the principal water routes of the Eastern States, for besides being near the head of navigation for large steamers on the Hudson, it is virtually the terminus of the N.Y. State barge canal. It is also the key point in the transportation system of the state, for here the B. & A. and the D. & H. railroads meet the New York Central, so that one can take train for Buffalo and Chicago, the Thousand Islands, the Adirondacks, Saratoga, Lakes George and Champlain, Montreal, Vermont and the Green Mts., the Berkshires, and Boston. It is the second largest express and third largest mail transfer point in the United States. The forests of the Adirondacks and of Canada have made it a great lumber post. Its manufactures have an annual value of $30,000,000 or more; they include iron goods, stoves, wood and brass products, carriages and wagons, brick and tile, shirts, collars and cuffs, clothing and knit goods, shoes, flour, tobacco, cigars, billiard balls, dominoes and checkers.

Leaving Albany, we follow closely the path of the old Iroquois Trail, which was in early days, as now, the chief highway to the Great Lakes.

The Indian trail began at Albany and led directly across the country to Schenectady; from this point to Rome there were two trails, one on either side of the Mohawk. That on the south side had the most travel as it led through three Mohawk "castles" or villages, one at the mouth of the Schoharie Creek, one at Canajoharie, and the third at the town of Danube, opposite the mouth of East Canada Creek. Farther on, the trail passed through the present towns of Fort Plain, Utica and Whitesboro. The trail on the north bank led through Tribes Hill, Johnstown, Fonda and Little Falls, where it united with the main traveled route.

At West Albany are extensive shops of the New York Central Lines. When working full capacity about 1,400 men are employed here. The machines are all of modern design and electrically driven. There are large freight yards having a trackage of nearly 100 M. The [56]passenger car shops include two great buildings which are used for making general repairs and one for construction of steel equipment. One of the repair buildings is 42 ft. by 200 ft. and has a track capacity of 100 cars, and the other, 400 ft. by 80 ft., a capacity of 180 cars. There are two enormous paint shops, a blacksmith shop, where numerous forgings are made for other departments, a woodmill, a machine-shop with a floor space of 13,000 sq. ft., and cabinet, upholstering, brass and plating shops. The truck shop covers 1,800 sq. ft., and is used for building and general repairs of trucks of wood, built-up steel, and cast-iron. From the tin and pipe shop is supplied all the light metal ware needed by the railroad.



Showing the dimensions of the first equipment of the present New York Central Lines—the DeWitt Clinton and three coaches—in comparison with the modern locomotive used to draw the Twentieth Century and other fast trains.

159 M. SCHENECTADY, Pop. 88,723.

(Train 51 passes 11:57; No. 3, 12:47; No. 41, 4:57; No. 25, 6:12; No. 19, 9:32. Eastbound: No. 6 passes 5:24; No. 26, 5:56; No. 16, 11:35; No. 22, 1:24.)

At this point we first enter the historic Mohawk Valley, and on this site, according to tradition, once stood the chief village of the Mohawk Indians.

The Mohawk River rises in Lewis County (northwestern N.Y.), flows south to Rome, then east to the Hudson River which it enters at Cohoes. It is 160 miles long. There are rapids and falls at Little Falls and Oriskany which have been utilized to develop electric power. The Mohawk valley is noted for its beauty and the fertility of its soil. The name Mohawk is probably derived from an Indian word meaning "man-eaters"; but the Mohawks' own name for their tribe was Kaniengehaga, "people of the flint." They lived in the region bounded on the north by the Lake of Corlear, on the east by the Falls of Cohoes, on the south by the sources of the Susquehanna, and on the west by the country of the Oneidas. The dividing line between the Mohawk and Oneida tribes passed through the present town of Utica. The Mohawks had the reputation of being the bravest of the Iroquois; they furnished the war chief for the Six Nations and exercised the right to collect tribute in the form of wampum from the Long Island tribes and to extend their conquests along the sea coast. The tribes, [57]along both banks of the Hudson River, it is said, shrank before their war cry. In the War of Independence they fought with the English, and finally took refuge in Canada, where most of them have remained.

The first settlement at Schenectady was made in 1642 by Arendt Van Corlear and a band of immigrants who had become dissatisfied with conditions on the Manor of Rennselaerwyck where Corlear was manager of the estates of his cousin, Killiaen van Rennselaer.

Van Corlear had emigrated to America about 1630 and while manager of Rennselaerwyck he earned the confidence of the Indians, among whom "Corlear" became a generic term for the English governors and especially the governors of N.Y. The name Kora, derived from the same source, is said to be used even today by surviving Iroquois in Canada to designate the English king.

To each of the 15 original proprietors, except Van Corlear who was to receive a double portion, was assigned a village lot of 200 sq. ft., a tract of bottom land for farming purposes, a strip of woodland, and common pasture rights. Many of the early settlers were well-to-do and brought their slaves with them, and for many years the settlement, originally known as Dorp, was reputed the richest in the colony.

Schenectady was spelled in a great variety of ways in the early records. Its Indian equivalent signified "Back Door" of the Long House—the territory occupied by the Six Nations.

In an early map (1655) the name appears as Scanacthade. As late as 1700 the spelling was still uncertain, as the following minutes from the record of the common council of September 3, of that year show: "The Church wardens of Shinnechtady doe make application that two persons be appointed to go around among the inhabitants of the City to see if they can obtain any Contributions to make up ye Sellary due their minister." Other ways of spelling the name were Schanechtade and Schoneghterdie.

In 1690 the young village received a setback which very nearly brought its early history to an end; on Feb. 9 of that year, the French and Indians surprised and burned the village, massacred 60 of the inhabitants and carried 30 into captivity.

An old tradition says that an Indian squaw had been sent to warn the inhabitants, under cover of selling brooms. In the afternoon of Feb. 8, 1690, Dominic Tassomacher was being entertained with chocolate at the home of a charming widow of his parish when the squaw entered to deliver her message. The widow became indignant at the sight of snow on her newly scrubbed floor, and rebuked her unexpected guest. The Indian woman replied angrily, "It shall be soiled enough before to-morrow," and left the house. The massacre occurred that night.

Schenectady was rebuilt in the following years, but an outlying settlement was again the scene of a murderous [58]French and Indian attack in 1748. In the land along the river, the old part of the town, Indian skulls and arrow heads are still found.

English settlers arrived in considerable numbers about 1700. About 1774 a number of Shaker settlements were made in the lower Mohawk valley.

The Shakers, a celibate and communistic sect—officially the United Society of Believers in Christ's Second Appearance—received their common name from the fact that originally they writhed and trembled in seeking to free "the soul from the power of sin and a worldly life." They had trances and visions, and there was much jumping and dancing. The founder of the sect was Mother Ann Lee (1736-1784) of Manchester, England, who came to N.Y. with a number of relatives in 1774 and bought land in the lower Mohawk Valley. The first Shaker settlement was at Watervliet, not far from Troy. The settlers established a communistic organization with branches in Mass., and Conn. As a matter of practice they do not forbid marriage, but refuse to recognize it; they consider there are four virtues: virgin purity, Christian communism, confession of sin, and separation from the world. The women wear uniform costumes and the men have long hair. The sect is diminishing. There are now less than 1,000 members in 17 societies in Mass., N.H., Maine, Conn., and Ohio, though at its most flourishing period it had nearly 5,000.

Schenectady was chartered as a borough in 1765 and as a city in 1798, and from that period date many quaint examples of colonial architecture. In Scotia, a suburb to the northwest of the city, still stands the Glen-Sanders mansion (built 1713) described as "a veritable museum of antiquity, furnished from cellar to garret with strongly built, elegant furniture, two centuries old." Descendants of the original owners are still living there. A fine specimen of Dutch architecture is the so-called Abraham Yates house (1710) at No. 109 Union Street. The Christopher Yates house at No. 26 Front Street was the birth place of Joseph C. Yates, first mayor of Utica (1788) and governor of the state in 1823. Governor Yates afterwards lived, until his death, in the large colonial house at No. 17 Front Street. The old "depot" of the Mohawk & Hudson Railroad, the first steam passenger railway in America now incorporated with the New York Central, is still standing in Crane Street.

Schenectady is the seat of Union College, which grew out of the Schenectady Academy (established in 1784) and many of the buildings dating back to the early 19th century are still in excellent preservation. They were designed by a French architect, Jacques Ramé, and the original plans are still in the Louvre, in Paris. At one of the entrances to the college on Union Street is the Payne Gate, built as a [59]memorial to John Howard Payne (1791-1852), author of "Home, Sweet Home," who was at one time a student at Union College The college comprises the academic and engineering departments of Union University. The other departments of the university—medicine, law, and pharmacy, as well as the Dudley observatory—are at Albany.

Up to the time of the building of the Erie Canal, Schenectady had been an important depot of the Mohawk River boat trade to the westward, but after the completion of the canal it suffered a decline. The modern manufacturing era, beginning about 1880, brought Schenectady growth and prosperity. To-day the city can boast that its products "light and haul the world." As we enter the town we pass on the left the main establishment of the General Electric Co., the largest electrical manufacturing plant in the world, with 200 buildings and 26,000 employees.

“Dr. Watson's Electrical Machine”

In 1768, when this picture, reproduced here from the First Edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica, was published, only the most elementary principles of electricity had been discovered. Benjamin Franklin's discovery, made with the aid of a kite, that lightning is an electrical phenomenon, was the greatest advance in electrical science up to that time. "Electrical machines," such as that shown, were, designed to produce frictional or "static" electricity, of which the quantity is usually small, and is therefore now produced chiefly for laboratory experiments. When the wheel at the left was turned sufficient electricity was generated to cause a spark to jump between the two hands at the right. This machine paved the way for the invention of the dynamo electric machines for which Schenectady is world famous.

In the years before 1886 Schenectady had been suffering from a long period of stagnation. In that year an official of the Edison Machine Works of N.Y.C. happened to pass through Schenectady and noticed two empty factories, the former Jones Car Works. The [60]Edison Company had been established in N.Y.C. about 1882 by Thomas A. Edison, and it was now looking for an opportunity to remove elsewhere. Accordingly Schenectady was chosen, and in 1892 the Edison Co.—which had been renamed the Edison General Electric Co.—and the Thompson Houston Electric Co. of Lynn, Mass., were consolidated and formed the General Electric Co. The main plant was at Schenectady, but other plants were retained at Lynn, Mass., and Harrison, N.J. The early electrical apparatus was crude and the output of the factory was small, but this consolidation marked the beginning of a world-wide business. In 1893, the book value of the General Electric Co. factory was less than $4,000,000. Since then the company has spent more than $150,000,000 improving and enlarging its plant. Branch factories are now maintained at Lynn, Pittsville, and East Boston, Mass.; Harrison and Newark, N.J.; Erie, Pa.; Fort Wayne, Ind.; Toledo and Cleveland, Ohio. At Schenectady one may see the latest development in practically every variety of electrical apparatus. There are in the General Electric plant individual factories devoted to generators, motors, turbines, transformers, switchboards, rheostats, wire and cable, and searchlights, as well as pattern shops, machine shops, brass and iron foundries, and testing, shipping and power stations. The company pays considerable attention to welfare work among its employees and free instruction in electrical engineering is given on a large scale.

The American Locomotive Co., which likewise has a factory here, with 5,000 employees, turns out some of the largest and fastest locomotives produced in America or abroad. During the last 35 years Schenectady has become one of the greatest industrial centers in the United States; its total annual output has a value of nearly $100,000,000, the output of the General Electric Co, alone being about $75,000,000.

We now cross the Mohawk River, and Erie Canal, and our route ascends the valley of the Mohawk as far as Rome. To the south the Catskill Mts. are visible in the distance, and the outline of the Adirondack Mts. can be faintly seen to the north.

This beautiful group of mountains was once covered, all but the highest peaks, by the Laurentian glacier, whose erosion, while perhaps having little effect on the large features of the region, has greatly modified it in detail, producing lakes and ponds to the number of more than 1,300 and causing many falls and rapids in the streams. In the Adirondacks are some of the best hunting and fishing grounds in the United States, which are so carefully preserved that there are quantities of deer and small game in the woods, and black bass and trout in the lakes. Some 3,000,000 acres are preserved. The scenery is wonderfully fine and the air so clear that many sanatoriums have been established for tuberculosis patients.

175 M. AMSTERDAM, Pop. 33,524.

(Train 51 passes 12:15; No. 3, 1:12; No. 41, 5:20; No. 25, 6:30; No. 19, 9:52. Eastbound: No. 6 passes 5:07; No. 26, 5:39; No. 16, 11:10; No. 22, 1:03.)


Sir William Johnson (1715-1774)

Sir William Johnson (1715-1774)

Sir William was a remarkable figure in early N.Y. history. He is said to have been the father of 100 children, chiefly by native mothers, either young squaws or wives of Indians who thought it an honor to surrender them to the king's agent. According to an early historian, the Indians of the Six Nations "carried their hospitality so far as to allow distinguished strangers the choice of a young squaw from among the prettiest of the neighborhood, as a companion during his sojourn with them."

[62]Amsterdam was settled about 1775 and was called Veedersburg until 1804 when its present name was adopted. It was for some time the home of Elisha Arnold, father of Benedict Arnold, but the latter was born in Norwich, Conn. (Jan. 14, 1741.) The so-called Guy Park Mansion built in 1763, by Guy Johnson, nephew of Sir William Johnson is still used as a private residence. Today Amsterdam ranks as the first city in the United States in the manufacture of carpets and second in the manufacturing of hosiery and knit goods. It has one of the largest pearl button factories in the country; other products are brushes, brooms, silk gloves, paper boxes, electrical supplies, dyeing machines, cigars, wagon and automobile springs; the total value of the output being about $30,000,000 annually.

178 M. FORT JOHNSON, Pop. 680.

(Train 51 passes 12:18; No. 3, 1:15; No. 41, 5:23; No. 25, 6:33; No. 19, 9:56. Eastbound: No. 6 passes 5:03; No. 26, 5:36; No. 16, 11:03; No. 22, 12:59.)

This village is named for the house* and fort erected here in 1742, by Sir William Johnson, one of the most remarkable of the early pioneers.

Sir William Johnson (1715-1774) distinguished himself not only for the prosperous settlements which he built up along the valley of the Mohawk, but also for his military ability and his remarkable influence with the Iroquois Indians. Born in Ireland, he came to America in 1738 for the purpose of managing a tract of land in this valley belonging to his uncle, Admiral Sir Peter Warren. The fort which he built on the site of the present village bearing his name soon became the center of trade with the Indians, and likewise a strategic point for Johnson's military ventures. The Mohawks adopted him and elected him a sachem. He was at various times superintendent of the affairs of the Six Nations, commissary of the province for Indian affairs, and major-general in the British army. As a commanding officer he directed the expedition against Crown Point (1755) and in September of that year defeated the French and Indians, at the battle of Lake George. For his success he received the thanks of parliament and was created a baronet. He took part in a number of other expeditions against the French and Indians, and as a reward for his services the king granted him a tract of 100,000 acres of land north of the Mohawk River. It was in a great measure due to his influence that the Iroquois remained faithful to the cause of the colonies up to the time of the Revolutionary War. In 1739 Johnson married Catherine Wisenberg, by whom he had three children. After her death he had various mistresses, including a niece of the Indian chief Hendrick, and Molly Brant, a sister of the famous chief, Joseph Brant. It is said that he was the father of 100 children in all. After the French and Indian War he retired to the present Johnstown.


Joseph Brant, “Thayendanegea” (1742-1807)

Joseph Brant, “Thayendanegea” (1742-1807)
(From original painting by Romney in collection of Earl of Warwick)

Chief Thayendanegea (Joseph Brant) of the Mohawk tribe was an unusual character, combining the savage traits of an Indian Warrior and the more civilized qualities of a politician and diplomat. Born on the banks of the Ohio River, he was sent to an Indian charity school (now Dartmouth College) at Lebanon, Conn., by Sir William Johnson. He fought with the English in the French and Indian War and with the Iroquois against Pontiac in 1763. Subsequently he became a devout churchman and settled at Canajoharie or Upper Mohawk castle, where he devoted himself to missionary work and translated the Prayer Book and St. Mark's Gospel into the Mohawk tongue. In the Revolutionary War he led the Mohawks and other Indians friendly to the British against the settlements on the N.Y. frontier, even taking part, despite his religion, in the Cherry Valley Massacre. After the war he aided the U.S. in securing treaties of peace with the Miamis and other western tribes. Subsequently he went to Canada as a missionary, and in 1786 visited England, where he raised funds with which was erected the first Episcopal Church in Upper Canada. Brant sat for his picture several times in England, once in 1776, at the request of Boswell (the author of the "Life of Johnson"), and during the same visit for the Romney portrait, at Warwick's request. In 1786 he was painted for the Duke of Northumberland and for a miniature to present to his daughter.

[64]After 1763 the fort was occupied by his son Sir John, who, during the War of Independence organized a loyalist regiment known as the "Queen's Royal Greens," which he led at the battle of Oriskany, and in raids on Cherry Valley (1778-1780) and on the Mohawk Valley. The house, once used as a fort, is described by an early writer thus: "Col. Johnson's mansion is situated on the border of the north bank of the River Moack. It is three stories high (two with an attic) built of stone, with port-holes and a parapet, and flanked with four bastions on which are some small guns. In the yard, on both sides of the mansion, are two small houses; that on the right of the entrance is a store, and that on the left is designed for workmen, negroes and other domestics. The yard gate is a heavy swing-gate, well ironed; it is on the Moack River side; from this gate to the river is about two hundred paces of level ground. The high road passes there." The place, now somewhat remodeled, is owned by the Montgomery County Historical Society and many curious historic relics are on exhibition here. It is open to the public daily.

181 M. TRIBES HILL, Pop. 900.

(Train 51 passes 12:21; No. 3, 1:18; No. 41, 5:27; No. 25, 6:36; No. 19, 10:00. Eastbound: No. 6 passes 5:00; No. 26, 5:33; No. 16, 11:00; No. 22, 12:56.)

Tribes Hill received its name from the fact that it was an old meeting place of the Indians. Across the river, in the estuary at the junction of Schoharie Creek with the Mohawk, once stood Ft. Hunter, which was the lower Mohawk castle, the upper castle being at Canajoharie.

Father Isaac Jogues

Father Isaac Jogues

Isaac Jogues (1607-1646), a French missionary, came to this country to preach among the Hurons and Algonquins. In 1642 he was captured by the Mohawks, who tortured him and kept him as a slave until the following summer, when he escaped. Father Jogues returned in 1646 to establish a mission among his former tormentors. About this time a contagious disease broke out amongst the Indians, and to make matters worse their crops failed. For these misfortunes they blamed the French priest, tortured him as a sorcerer and finally put him to death.

A contemporary description says: "Ft. Hunter, known by the Indians as Ticonderoga, is one of the same form as that of [65]Canajoharie except that it is twice as large. It likewise has a house at each corner. The cannon at each bastion are seven and nine pounders. The pickets of this fort are higher than those at Canajoharie There is a church or temple in the middle of the fort, while in its inclosure are also some thirty cabins of Mohawk Indians, which is their most considerable village. This fort, like that of Canajoharie, has no ditch and has a large swing-gate at the entrance. There are some houses outside, though under the protection of the fort, in which the country people seek shelter when an Indian or French war party is looked for."

About two miles farther at the little village of Auriesville on the left side of the Mohawk, where the river is joined by Auries Creek, there is a shrine (visible on the left from the train) marking the spot where Father Jogues, a Jesuit Priest, was killed in 1646.

186 M. FONDA, Pop. 747.

(Train 51 passes 12:27; No. 3, 1:25; No. 41, 5:39; No. 25, 6:42; No. 19, 10:05. Eastbound: No. 6 passes 4:55; No. 26, 5.28; No. 16, 10:55; No. 22, 12:51.)

The town of Fonda was named for Jelles Fonda, said to have been the first merchant west of Schenectady. Fonda established a prosperous store here about 1760, and his old accounts (still preserved) disclose that he had among his customers "Young Baron of the Hill," "Wide Mouth Jacob," "Young Moses," "Snuffers David," and the "Squinty Cayuga."

Following is a bill from Jelles Fonda's accounts:

Young Moses, Dr.
Sept. 20, 1762£s.d.
To one French blanket0160
"  one small blanket0120
"  4 Ells White linnen080
"  1 pair Indian stockings060
"  1 hat080
"  1 pt. of rum and one dram014
"  1 qt. rum020
I leave in pledge two silver wrist-bands.
[In other words, the wrist-bands were put up as security for the debt.]

Six miles north of Fonda is Johnstown (Pop. 10,908) where Sir William Johnson built his second residence (1762) now in the custody of the Johnstown Historical Society. It is a fine old baronial mansion.

Sir William called this residence Johnson Hall and lived here with all the state of an English country gentleman. He devoted himself to colonizing his extensive lands and is said to have been the first to introduce sheep and pedigreed horses into the province.

Sir William also built the Fulton County Court House with its jail (1772), used during the Revolutionary War as a [66]civil and military prison. A free school, probably the first in N.Y. State, was established at Johnstown by Sir William Johnson in 1764 in his residence. In 1766 he organized a Masonic Lodge, one of the oldest in the U.S. In 1781, during the War of Independence, Col. Marinus Willett defeated here a force of British and Indians. The city is one of the principal glove making centers in the U.S. The total products are valued at about $3,000,000 annually. The manufacture of gloves in commercial quantities was introduced into the U.S. at Johnstown in 1809 by Talmadge Edwards, who was buried here in the Colonial Cemetery.

Old Ft. Van Rensselaer at Canajoharie (Built 1749)

Old Ft. Van Rensselaer at Canajoharie (Built 1749)

This building had originally been the home of Martin Janse Van Alstyn, and was so well built that it had withstood the attacks of the Indians under Brant in 1780. It was therefore appropriated in 1781 by the American government, adopted as a fort, and placed under the control of Col. Marinus Willet, a competent officer chosen by Washington to handle the district in which Ft. Van Rensselaer and Ft. Plain were the military headquarters. (Still standing.)

197 M. CANAJOHARIE (Palatine Bridge), Pop. 2,415.

(Train 51 passes 12:40; No. 3, 1:39; No. 41, 5:55; No. 25, 7:43; No. 19, 10:20. Eastbound: No. 6 passes 4:42; No. 26, 5:45; No. 16, 10:44; No. 22 12:36.)

Passing the villages of Yosts and Sprakers we arrive in the town of Canajoharie, which in early days was the site of the upper Mohawk castle.

The upper Mohawk castle, sometimes called Ft. Canajoharie, was described by an early writer as consisting of "a square of 4 bastions of upright pickets joined with lintels 15 ft. high and about 1 ft. square, with port-holes, and a stage all around to fire from. The fort was 100 paces on each side, had small cannon in its bastions, [67]and houses to serve as a store and barracks. Five or 6 families of Mohawks reside outside the pickets. From Ft. Canajoharie to Ft. Hunter (the lower Mohawk castle) is about twelve league, with a good carriage road along the bank of the river."

In 1749 a fortified dwelling was built here known as Ft. Rensselaer, which was utilized as a place of defence during the Revolutionary War. Canajoharie was the home of the famous Indian leader, Joseph Brant.

On the left, a little beyond Palatine Bridge, can be seen the red brick Herkimer mansion, near which a monument has been erected to Nicholas Herkimer, who died in 1777 from wounds received at Oriskany. We pass the village of Ft. Plain, St. Johnsville and East Creek.

216 M. LITTLE FALLS, Pop. 13,029.

(Train 51 passes 12:58; No. 6, 1:59; No. 41, 6:17; No. 25, 7:14; No. 19, 10:39. Eastbound: No. 6 passes 4:22; No. 26, 4:55; No. 16, 10:22; No. 22, 12:16.)

Our route here lies through a ravine cut by the Mohawk River through a spur of the Adirondack Mts. The town is picturesquely situated on the sides of the gorge overlooking the rapids and falls. The Mohawk here descends 45 ft. in ½ M.

In the gorge, there are crystalline rocks which are of interest as belonging to the Laurentian formation, the oldest rock formation on the face of the globe.

According to geological classification, these rocks belong to the Archæan system. They represent formations of the very earliest period of the earth's history—probably before there was any animal or vegetable life whatsoever. The Archæan rocks have sometimes been spoken of as the original crust of the earth, but this is disputed by many geologists.

Little Falls dates from about 1750. In 1782 there was an influx of German settlers into the village, and almost immediately thereafter the town was destroyed by Indians and "Tories.". It was resettled in 1790. Two and a half miles east of the town was the boyhood home of Gen. Nicholas Herkimer.

Gen. Herkimer (1728-1777) was the son of John Jost Herkimer (d. 1775), one of the original group of German settlers in this section of the Mohawk Valley. Gen. Herkimer was colonel of the Tyrone County Militia in 1775, and was made brigadier general of the state militia in 1776. He was mortally wounded at the battle of Oriskany.

It is planned to establish an Historical Museum at the old Herkimer homestead. Near the city is the grave of Gen. Herkimer, to whom a monument was erected in 1896.

[68]The water power derived from the falls has stimulated manufacturing in the city; its output includes cotton yarns, hosiery, knit goods, leather, etc., valued at $15,000,000 annually. The city is one of the largest cheese markets in the U.S.

Fort Plain (1777)

Fort Plain (1777)
(From an old print in the N.Y. Public Library)

This was built in place of another unsatisfactory fort by the American government early in the Revolution, and was designed by an experienced French engineer. "As a piece of architecture, it was well wrought and neatly finished and surpassed all the forts in that region."

223 M. HERKIMER, Pop. 10,453.

(Train 51 passes 1:07; No. 3, 2:06; No. 41, 6:25; No. 25, 7:22; No. 19, 10:47. Eastbound: No. 6 passes 4:15; No. 26, 4:49; No. 16, 10:12; No. 22, 12:08.)

Herkimer was settled about 1725 by Palatine Germans, who bought from the Mohawk Indians a large tract of land, including the present site of the village. They established several settlements which became known collectively as "German Flats."

These settlers came from the Palatinate, a province of the kingdom of Bavaria, lying west of the Rhine. The district had been torn by a succession of wars, culminating in the carnage wrought by the French in 1707. In the following year, more than 13,000 Palatines emigrated to America, settling first on the Livingston Manor, and later along the Mohawk and elsewhere.

In 1756 a stone house (built in 1740 by John Jost Herkimer), a stone church, and other buildings, standing within what is now Herkimer Village, were enclosed in a stockade [69]by Sir William Johnson. This post, at first known as Ft. Kouari (the Indian name), was subsequently called Ft. Herkimer. Another fort (Ft. Dayton) was built within the limits of the present village in 1776 by Col. Elias Dayton (1737-1807), who later became a brigadier-general and served in Congress in 1787-1788. During the French and Indian War the settlement was attacked (Nov. 12, 1757) and practically destroyed, many of the settlers being killed or taken prisoners; and it was again attacked on April 30, 1758. In the War of Independence, Gen. Herkimer assembled here the force which on Aug. 6th, 1777, was ambushed near Oriskany on its march from Ft. Dayton to the relief of Ft. Schuyler. The settlement was again attacked by Indians and "Tories" in Sept. 1778, and still again in June, 1782. The township of Herkimer was organized in 1788, and in 1807 the village was incorporated. Herkimer is situated in a rich dairying region and has manufactures with an output of $4,000,000 annually.

225 M. ILION, Pop. 10,169.

(Train 51 passes 1:10; No. 3, 2:10; No. 41, 6:29; No. 25, 7:25; No. 19, 10:51. Eastbound: No. 6 passes 4:12; No. 26, 4:46; No. 16, 10:07; No. 22, 12:05.)

This village, the main part of which is situated on the south bank of the Mohawk, owed its origin to a settlement made here in 1725 by Palatine Germans, but the village as such really dates from the completion of the Erie Canal in 1825. In 1828 Eliphalet Remington (1793-1861) established here a small factory for the manufacture of rifles. He invented, and with the assistance of his sons, Philo, Samuel and Eliphalet, improved the famous Remington rifle.

In 1856 the company added to its business the manufacture of farming tools, in 1870 of sewing machines and in 1874 of typewriters. The last-named industry was sold to another company in 1886, and soon afterwards, on the failure of the original Remington company, the fire arms factory was bought by a N.Y.C. firm, though the Remington name was retained. The spot where Eliphalet had his primitive forge on the Ilion gorge road, just south of the town, is marked by a tablet placed there by the Daughters of the American Revolution. The principal manufactures today are typewriters, fire-arms, cartridges, and filing cabinets and office furniture. The annual output is valued at about $10,000,000.

237 M. UTICA, Pop. 94,156.

(Train 51 passes 1:22; No. 3, 2:31; No. 41, 6:42; No. 25, 7:41; No. 19, 11:08. Eastbound: No. 6 passes 3:57; No. 26, 4:31; No. 16, 9:53; No. 22, 11:50.)


The territory on which Utica is built was originally part of the 22,000 acre tract granted in 1734 by George II. to William Cosby (1695-1736), colonial governor of New York in 1732-36, and his associates. It was then known as Cosby's Manor.

Washington and Genesee Streets, Utica, in 1835

Washington and Genesee Streets, Utica, in 1835

Washington Street, with the Presbyterian Church, is seen on the left; the bridge across the Erie Canal is seen on the right, down Genesee Street, and at its extremity the depot of the Utica and Schenectady (now the New York Central) Railroad then recently built.

Sir William Cosby served originally as colonel in the British army, then, after being governor of Minorca and later of the Leeward Islands, he was sent to New York. Before leaving England, he obtained a good deal of money for colonizing expenses, and his refusal to share this with Van Dam, his predecessor and colleague, gave rise to a law suit between the two which came to nothing but was the cause of much bitterness between Cosby and his friends on the one hand, and Van Dam and the people's party on the other. His administration was turbulent and unpopular. The grant made to Cosby was one of a number of colonizing ventures made by the British government during this period.

During the Seven Years' War a palisaded fort was erected on the south bank of the Mohawk at the ford where Utica later sprang up. It was named Ft. Schuyler in honor of Col. Peter Schuyler, an uncle of Gen. Philip Schuyler of the Continental Army.

This should not be confused with the fort of the same name at Rome which was built later. In order to distinguish the two, the fort at Utica is often referred to as Old Ft. Schuyler.

The main trail of the Iroquois which became later the most used route to the western country, crossed the Mohawk here and continued to Ft. Stanwix, now Rome. A branch trail turned slightly to the southwest, then more directly west [71]to Oneida Castle. Cosby's Manor was sold at a sheriff's sale for arrears of rent in 1792 and was bid in by Gen. Philip Schuyler, Gen. John Bradstreet, John Morin Scott and others for £1387 (about 15 cents an acre). The first bridge across the Mohawk at Utica was built in 1792. Soon after the close of the War of Independence, a large number of new settlers arrived, most of them Germans from the lower Mohawk Valley. About 1788 there was an influx of New Englanders, among whom was Peter Smith (1768-1837), later a partner of John Jacob Astor, and father of Gerrit Smith, a political and religious radical, who was born here in 1797.

After graduating from Hamilton College in 1818, Gerrit Smith (1797-1874) assumed the management of the vast estate of his father, and greatly increased the family fortune, but he soon turned his attention to reform and philanthropy. He first became an active temperance worker, and then, after seeing an anti-slavery meeting at Utica broken up by a mob, took up the cause of abolition. He was one of the leading organizers of the Liberty party (1840), and later was nominated for president by various reform parties, notably the Free Soil Party (1848 & 1852). He was likewise the candidate of the anti-slavery party for governor of New York in 1840 and 1858. In 1853 he was elected to Congress as an independent, whereupon he issued an address declaring that all men have an equal right to the soil; that wars are brutal and unnecessary; that slavery could not be sanctioned by any constitution, state or federal; that free trade is essential to human brotherhood; that women should have full political rights, and that alcoholic liquors should be prohibited by state and federal enactments. He resigned at the end of his first session and gave away numerous farms of 50 acres each to indigent families; attempted to colonize tracts in Northern N.Y. with free negroes; assisted fugitive slaves to escape—Peterboro, his home village, 22 miles southwest of Utica, became a station on the "Underground railroad"—and established a nonsectarian church, open to all Christians of whatever shade of belief, in Peterboro. He was an intimate friend of John Brown of Osawatomie, to whom he gave a farm in Essex County. His total benefactions probably exceeded $8,000,000.

Utica is situated on ground rising gradually from the river. There are many fine business and public buildings, especially on Genesee St., the principal thoroughfare, and the city is known for the number of its institutions, public and private. It has some fine parks. In the Forest Hill Cemetery are the graves of Horatio Seymour and Roscoe Conkling.

Horatio Seymour (1810-1886) was a member of the N.Y. Assembly (1842-1845), Mayor of Utica (1843) and Governor of the State (1854-1855). In 1854 he vetoed a bill prohibiting intoxicating liquors in the state. In 1863-1865 he was again governor and opposed Lincoln's policy in respect to emancipation, military arrests and conscription. He was nominated as the Democratic presidential candidate against Grant in 1868, but carried only eight states. He died at Utica at the home of his sister, who was the wife of Roscoe Conkling.

[72]Roscoe Conkling (1829-1888) was a lawyer and political leader who attracted attention in public life because of his keenness and eloquence in debate, his aggressive leadership, and his striking personality. He was born in Albany and was admitted to the bar at Utica in 1850. Having joined the Republican party at the time of its formation, he served for several years as representative in Congress, and in 1867 was elected senator from N.Y. He labored for the impeachment of President Johnson and was one of the senatorial coterie that influenced Grant. He was disappointed in his ambition to be nominated for president in 1876, and in 1880 he was one of the leaders of the unsuccessful movement to nominate Grant for a third presidential term.

Here also is the famous Oneida stone of the Oneida Indians on which the warriors used to have their ears slit to prepare them for battle, and on which, too, they used to place the scalps of their enemies. The stone was brought here from Oneida Castle.

Utica has varied and extensive manufactures (17,000 employees), with a total annual output of about $60,000,000. Among its products are hosiery and knit goods, cotton goods, men's clothing, foundry products, plumbing and heating apparatus lumber products, food preparation, boots and shoes, and brick, tile and pottery, as well as a number of others. Utica is the shipping point for a rich agricultural region, from which are shipped dairy products (especially cheese), nursery products, flowers (especially roses), small fruits and vegetables, honey and hops.

We pass on the right, a short distance north of the river, the picturesque Deerfield Hills, a beginning of the scenic highlands which stretch away towards the Adirondack Mts. Fifteen miles north of Utica on West Canada Creek, are Trenton Falls,* which descend 312 feet in two miles through a sandstone chasm, in a series of cataracts, some of them having an 80-foot fall. The falls are reached on the branch line of the New York Central leading from Utica to the Adirondacks.

North America as It Was Known in 1768

North America as It Was Known in 1768

This map was first printed in the First Edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica in 1768. Note that all of Canada west of Hudson's Bay (including Alaska) and a section of the United States west of Lake Superior and as far south as the present states of South Dakota, Wyoming, Idaho and Oregon were then "Parts Undiscovered." The central part of the continent was New France, and the extreme southwest was New Spain. Considering the meagre geographical knowledge of the day, the map was remarkably accurate.

244 M. ORISKANY, Pop. 1,101.

(Train 51 passes 1:30; No. 3, 2:39; No. 41, 6:56; No. 25, 7:49; No. 25, 11:17. Eastbound No. 6 passes 3:36; No. 26, 4:21; No. 16, 9:36; No. 22, 11:32.)

The battle of Oriskany, an important minor engagement of the Revolutionary War, was fought in a little ravine about 2 M. west of Oriskany, Aug. 6, 1777. Two days before, Gen. Nicholas Herkimer had gathered about 800 militiamen at Ft. Dayton (on the site of the present city of Herkimer) for the relief of Ft. Schuyler which was being besieged by British and Indians under Col. Barry St. Leger and Joseph Brant. [73]On the 6th, Herkimer's force, on its march to Ft. Schuyler, was ambushed by a force of 650 British under Sir John Johnson and 800 Indians under Joseph Brant, in the ravine west of the village. The rear portion of Herkimer's troops escaped from the trap, but were pursued by the Indians, and many of them were overtaken and killed. Between the remainder and the British and Indians there was a desperate hand-to-hand conflict, interrupted by a violent thunderstorm, with no quarter shown by either side. About this time a sortie was made from Ft. Schuyler and the British withdrew, after about 200 Americans had been killed and as many taken prisoner. The loss of the British was about the same. Gen. Herkimer, though his leg had been broken by a shot at the beginning of the action, continued to direct the fighting on [74]the American side, but died on Aug. 16 as a result of the clumsy amputation of his leg.

Before the engagement, Gen. Herkimer, realizing that the British had a superior force, pleaded for delay, hoping for a signal that the American forces at Ft. Schuyler were ready to co-operate in the battle. His subordinate officers, however, retorted that they "came to fight, not to see others fight" and finally accused Herkimer of being a "Tory and a coward." Gen. Herkimer, thoroughly enraged, gave the order to march.

The battle, though indecisive, had an important influence in preventing St. Leger from effecting a junction with Gen. Burgoyne, which would have materially assisted the latter's intention to cut off New England from the rest of the colonies. An obelisk on the hill to the left marks the spot where the battle took place.

251 M. ROME. Pop. 26,341.

(Train 51 passes 1:37; No. 3, 2:47; No. 41, 7:07; No. 25, 7:57; No. 19, 11:23. Eastbound: No. 6 passes 3:28; No. 26, 4:15; No. 16, 9:28; No. 22, 11:24.)

The portage at this place, between the Mohawk River and Wood Creek (to the northwest), which are about a mile apart, gave the site its Indian name, De-i-wain-sta, "place where canoes are carried from one stream to another," and its earliest English name, "The Great (or Oneida) Carrying Place." Its location made it of strategic value as a key between the Mohawk Valley and Lake Ontario. Wood Creek flows into Oneida Lake, and thus formed part of a nearly continuous waterway from the Hudson to the Great Lakes. Two primitive forts were built in 1725 to protect the carrying place, but these were superseded by Ft. Stanwix, erected about 1760 by Gen. John Stanwix, at an expense of £60,000. The first permanent settlement dates from this time. In Oct. and Nov. of 1768, Sir William Johnson and representatives of Virginia and Pennsylvania met 3,200 Indians of the Six Nations here and made a treaty with them, under which, for £10,460 in money and provisions, they surrendered to the crown their claims to what is now Kentucky, West Virginia and the western part of Pennsylvania.

This treaty, the last great act of Sir William Johnson, probably averted another Indian war. Great preparations were made for feasting the Indians who attended the council. It is said that 60 barrels of flour, 50 barrels of port, 6 barrels of rice and 70 barrels of other provisions were sent to the meeting place. There was a prolonged period of speech making, but the treaty was finally signed on Nov. 5, 1768. One of the features of this treaty was the sale to Thomas Penn (1702-1775) and Richard Penn (1706-1771), second and third sons [75]of William Penn (founder of Pa.), of the remaining land in the province of Pa., to which they claimed title. This transaction involved £2,000 of the total payment made to the Indians.

The fort was immediately dismantled, but was repaired by the Continentals after 1776 and renamed Ft. Schuyler, in honor of Gen. Philip Schuyler and so is sometimes confused with Old Ft. Schuyler at Utica. The 3rd Regiment of New York line troops under Col. Peter Gansevoort, occupied the fort in 1777. The first U.S. flag made according to the law of June 14, 1777, was raised over Ft. Schuyler on Aug. 3rd of that same year, one month before the official announcement by Congress of the design of the flag, and was almost immediately used in action. The first fight under the colors was the battle of Oriskany in which the soldiers of the fort became involved.

The basic idea of the present flag was evolved by a committee composed of George Washington, Robert Morris, and Col. George Ross with the assistance of Betsy Ross. The flag made by Mrs. Ross, though it is sometimes referred to as the first U.S. flag, was actually prepared as a tentative design or pattern for submission to Congress. On the 14th of June, 1777, Congress resolved "that the flag of the U.S. be thirteen stripes, alternates red and white, that the Union be thirteen stars, white in a blue field, representing a new constellation." This was the original of the national flag. The flag at Ft. Stanwix was a hasty makeshift put together under direction of Col. Marinus Willet, who found it difficult to obtain materials because the fort was hemmed in by the British. In his diary Col. Willet relates that "white stripes were cut out of an ammunition shirt; the blue out of a camlet cloak taken from the enemy at Peekskill, while the red stripes were made of different pieces of stuff procured from one and another of the garrison."

After the War of Independence, three commissioners for the U.S. made a new treaty with the chiefs of the Six Nations at Ft. Schuyler (1784). In 1796 a canal was built across the old portage between Wood Creek and the Mohawk. In the same year the township of Rome was formed, receiving its name, says Schoolcraft, "from the heroic defence of the republic made here." The country surrounding Rome is devoted largely to farming, especially vegetables, gardening and to dairying. Among the manufactures are brass and copper products, wire for electrical uses, foundry and machine-shop products, locomotives, knit goods, tin cans and canned goods (especially vegetables).

264 M. ONEIDA, Pop. 10,541.

(Train 51 passes 1:53; No. 3, 3:05; No. 41, 7:25; No. 25, 8:12; No. 19, 11:42. Eastbound: No. 6 passes 3:15; No. 26, 4:02; No. 16, 9:11; No. 22, 11:10.)

The city of Oneida is comparatively modern, but the [76]village of Oneida Castle across the river to the south dates back to the time when this was the chief settlement of the Oneida Indians, who moved here about 1600 from the site of what is now Stockbridge in the same county.

Samuel de Champlain

Samuel de Champlain

Samuel de Champlain (1567-1635), born at the little port Brouage in the Bay of Biscay, made his first trip to Canada in 1603, and five years later established the first white settlement at Quebec. In the spring he joined a war party of Algonquins and Hurons, discovered the great lake that bears his name, and with his arquebus took an important part in the victory which his savage friends obtained over the Iroquois. In 1615, with another expedition of Indians, he crossed the eastern ends of Lakes Huron and Ontario and made a fierce but unsuccessful attack on an Onondaga town near Lake Oneida. Parkman says: "In Champlain alone was the life of New France. By instinct and temperament he was more impelled to the adventurous toils of exploration than to the duller task of building colonies. The profits of trade had value in his eyes only as a means to these ends, and settlements were important chiefly as a base of discovery. Two great objects eclipsed all others—to find a route to the Indies and to bring the heathen tribes into the embrace of the Church, since, while he cared little for their bodies, his solicitude for their souls knew no bounds."

The name Oneida is a corruption of the name Oneyotka-ono or "people of Stone," in allusion to the Oneida stone, a granite boulder near Oneida Castle which was held sacred by this tribe of the Iroquois. An early traveler who visited the castle in 1677 wrote that the "Onyades have but one town, doubly stockaded, of about one hundred houses." The rest of the tribe lived around Oneida Lake, in the region southward to the Susquehanna. They were not loyal to the Iroquois League's policy of friendliness to the English, but inclined towards the French, and were practically the only Iroquois who fought for the Americans in the War of Independence. As a consequence they were attacked by others of the Iroquois under Joseph Brant and took refuge within the American settlements till the war ended, when the majority returned to their former home, while some migrated to the Thames River district, Ontario. Early in the 19th century they sold their lands, and most of them settled on a reservation at Green Bay, Wis., some few remaining in N.Y. State. The tribe now numbers more than 3,000, of whom about two-thirds are in Wisconsin, a few hundred in N.Y. State and about 800 in Ontario. They are civilized and prosperous.

The history of the modern city of Oneida goes back to 1829, when the present site was purchased by Sands Higinbotham, who is regarded as the founder of the town and in [77]honor of whom one of the municipal parks is named. In the southeastern part of the city is the headquarters of the Oneida Community, originally a communistic society but now a business corporation, which controls important industries here, at Niagara Falls and elsewhere.

The Oneida Community was founded in 1847 by John Humphrey Noyes (1811-1866), and attracted wide interest because of its pecuniary success and its peculiar religious and social principles. Noyes was originally a clergyman, but broke away from orthodox religion to found a sect of his own in Putney, Vt., where he lived. This sect was known as the "Association of Perfectionists" and formed the nucleus of the community which Noyes later established at Oneida. The principles of the new community were based on the idea that true Christianity was incompatible with individual property, either in things or in persons. Consequently the new community held all its property in common. Marriage in the conventional sense of the word was abolished. The community was much interested in the question of race improvement by scientific means, and maintained that at least as much scientific attention should be given to the physical improvement of human beings as is given to the improvement of domestic animals. The members claimed to have solved among themselves the labor question by regarding all kinds of service as equally honorable, and respecting every person in accordance with the development of his character.

The members had some peculiarities of dress, mostly confined, however, to the women, whose costumes included a short dress and pantalets, which were appreciated for their convenience if not for their beauty. The women also adopted the practice of wearing short hair, which it was claimed saved time and vanity. Tobacco, intoxicants, profanity, obscenity, found no place in the community. The diet consisted largely of vegetables and fruits, while meat, tea and coffee were served only occasionally.

For good order and the improvement of the members, the community placed much reliance upon a very peculiar system of plain speaking they termed mutual criticism. Under Mr. Noyes' supervision it became in the Oneida Community a principal means of discipline and government.

The community had its first financial success when it undertook the manufacture of a steel trap invented by one of its members. Later the community engaged in a number of other enterprises, both agricultural and manufacturing. In the meantime they were subjected to bitter attacks on account of the radical beliefs of its members, especially regarding marriage. Noyes, the founder, recognized that in deference to public opinion it would be necessary to recede from their social principles, and accordingly the community was transformed into a commercial corporation in 1881.

Among the manufactures of Oneida are furniture, silver-plated ware, engines and machinery, pulley, steel vaults and hosiery. About 6 M. to the northwest is Oneida Lake, a small lake of considerable beauty, 18 M. long and 5 M. wide.


Syracuse to Buffalo

290 M. SYRACUSE, Pop. 171,717.

(Train 51 passes 2:31; No. 3, 3:45; No. 41, 8:10; No. 25, 8:50; No. 19, 12:25. Eastbound: No. 6 passes 2:40; No. 26, 3:28; No. 16, 8:30; No. 22, 10:35.)

The Syracuse region first became known to Europeans through its salt deposits along the shore of Onondaga Lake which had been discovered and used by the Indians.

Champlain's Attack on an Iroquois Fort

Champlain's Attack on an Iroquois Fort
(From Champlain's "Nouvelle France," 1619)

Of this Indian fort which stood near Lake Oneida, Champlain says: "Their village was enclosed with strong quadruple palisades of large timber, 30 ft. high, interlocked the one with the other, with an interval of not more than half a foot between them; with galleries in the form of parapets, defended with double pieces of timber, proof against our Arquebuses, and on one side they had a pond with a never-failing supply of water, from which proceeded a number of gutters which they had laid along the intermediate space, throwing the water without and rendering it effectual inside for extinguishing fire."

Syracuse lies within the ancient tribal headquarters of the Onondaga Indians, one of the six tribes forming the League of the [79]Iroquois. Their territory extended northward to Lake Ontario and southward to the Susquehanna River. They were the official guardians of the council fire of the Iroquois, and their chief town, near the site of the present Onondaga (a few miles south of Syracuse) consisted of some 140 houses. This was in the middle of the 17th century, when the tribe was estimated as numbering between 1,500 and 1,700. Later the tribe divided, some of them migrating to the Catholic Iroquois settlements in Canada. About 500 Onondagas still live on a reservation south of Syracuse.

Although situated in a favorable trading location at the foot of the valley of Onondaga Creek where the latter joins Onondaga Lake, no settlement was made here until several years after the close of the War of Independence. The first white settler was Ephraim Webster, who built a trading post near the mouth of the creek in 1786. The village grew slowly. Between 1800 and 1805 a dozen families settled here, and the place received the name of Bogardus's Corners from the name of the proprietor of a local inn. In order to obtain money for the construction of a public road, the state government, which had assumed control of the salt fields, sold in 1809 some 250 acres embracing the district now occupied by Syracuse's business centre to Abraham Walton of Albany for $6,550—about $26.50 an acre. The town went under various names—Milan, South Saline, Cossitt's Corner, etc.—until 1824 when the present name was adopted. In 1818 Joshua Forman bought an interest in the Walton tract, had a village plotted and became the "founder" of the city.

Several political events of national importance have occurred in Syracuse. The Free Soil movement in N.Y. began at the Democratic State convention held here in 1847, when the split occurred between the "Barnburner" and "Hunker", factions of the Democratic party.

These factions grew out of a dispute over questions involving the Erie Canal. The "Barnburners" were the radical element, determined to oust the "reactionaries" in office no matter at what cost to the party, and were given their name from the old instance of the Pennsylvania farmer who burned his barns to get rid of the rats. The "Barnburners" opposed the extension of the Erie Canal and, after 1846, the extension of slavery in the Territories. The "Hunkers," conservative and influential, were so called from the Dutch "honk," which signifies "station" or "home." Thus, "honker" or "hunker" meant one who "stayed put," and was opposed to progress.

The famous "Jerry Rescue," manifesting the strong anti-slavery sentiment in Syracuse, took place in 1851, following the enactment of the Fugitive Slave Law in 1850.

In the winter of 1849-50 an intelligent slave arrived in Syracuse traveling from Mississippi to Canada. He decided to remain, and after having for a while worked under Charles F. Williston, a cabinet [80]maker, he opened a little shop of his own. On Oct. 1, 1851, the slave-hunters pounced on him and shut him up in a building then standing on the site of what is now known as the Jerry Rescue Block. When, later in the day he was taken before William H. Sabine, the United States Commissioner, the room was so crowded that Jerry, taking advantage of the fact, succeeded in making a break for freedom. Running eastward, he was pursued, captured in a hole near the railway tunnel, and taken back to the police office. By the time evening came, the fever of the mob was high, and Democrats and Whigs joined in planning the slave's rescue. A crowd gathered and soon upon walls and doors fell the blows of stones, axes, and timbers until the unhappy captors in the police office were concerned not for Jerry's retention, but for their own safety. One of them jumped from a window on the north side of the building, and broke his arm in the fall. Finally the official who had immediate charge of Jerry, pushed him out into the arms of the rescuers, saying: "Get out of here, you damned nigger, if you are making all this muss." The slave was safely hidden in the city for ten days, and then driven on the first stage of his journey to Canada, where he found at length a haven. The act was in bold defiance of the law, and 18 of the Jerry rescue party were indicted, though never convicted. For some years, Jerry's rescue was celebrated annually in Syracuse.

Present day Syracuse is built on high ground in an amphitheatre of hills surrounding Onondaga Lake—a beautiful body of clear water 5 M. long and 1½ M, wide at its broadest point. James St. in the northeastern part of the city is a fine residence street, and the principal business thoroughfare is Saline St. The most noteworthy parks in Syracuse are Barnet Park (100 acres) on high land in the western part of the city, and Lincoln Park, occupying a heavily wooded ridge to the east.

Syracuse University, with a campus of 100 acres, is situated on the highlands in the southeastern part of the city where it commands a fine view of Onondaga Lake. The university was opened in 1871, when the faculty and students of Genesee College (1850) removed from Lima, N.Y., to Syracuse; one year later the Geneva medical college likewise removed to Syracuse and became part of the university. The university has a number of excellent buildings and a fine athletic field. It is a co-educational institution under control of the Methodist Episcopal Church. There are about 4,000 students. The N.Y. State Fair, a civic event of considerable importance, takes place yearly (in Sept.) in grounds situated on the western border of the city. The "plant" covers 100 acres and there is an excellent race track where famous horses are run.

Salt works were established in Syracuse as early as 1788 [81]and the production of salt and sodium derivatives still constitutes an important industry.

For many years Syracuse was the principal seat of the salt industry in the United States, but the development of salt deposits in other parts of N.Y. State and in Michigan caused a decline in the Onondaga product, though Syracuse still produced 2,000,000 bushels of salt a year. The Onondaga deposits were mentioned in the journal of the French Jesuit Lemoyne in 1653, and before the Revolutionary War the Indians marketed salt at Albany and Quebec. In 1788 the state undertook, by treaty with the Onondaga Indians, to care for the salt springs and manage them for the benefit of both the whites and the Indians. By another treaty (1795) the state bought the salt lands, covering about 10 Sq. M., paying the Indians $1,000 outright, supplemented by an annual payment of $700 and 150 bushels of salt. Subsequently the state leased the lands, charging at various times a royalty of 4 to 12½ cents a bushel. It was stipulated in 1797 that the lessees should not sell the product for more than 60 cents a bushel. In 1898, after the royalty had been reduced to 1 cent a bushel, the state ordered the sale of the salt lands because the revenue was less than the expense of keeping up the works. The actual sale, however, did not take place till 1908. Annual production reached its highest point in 1862, with 9,000,000 bushels.

The salt deposits supplied the basis for the manufacture of soda-ash, and at the village of Solvay, adjoining Syracuse on the west, is one of the largest factories for this purpose in the world. Besides soda-ash it produces bicarbonate of soda, caustic soda and crystals, the total output being about 1,000 tons daily. Syracuse ranks among the leading cities of the state in the number and variety of its manufactures. There are 760 establishments employing 25,000 workers, with an annual output of the value of about $75,000,000. The manufacture of typewriters is an important industry (annual production $10,000,000). Other products include automobiles and accessories, tool steel, candles, farm implements, clothing, chinaware, cement, chemicals and mining machinery.

348 M. PALMYRA, Pop. 2,480.

(Train 51 passes 3:38; No. 3, 4:57; No. 41, 9:30; No. 25, 9:56; No. 19, 1:42. Eastbound No. 6 passes 1:25; No. 26, 2:17; No. 16, 6:46; No. 22, 9:14.)

The town of Palmyra is intimately connected with the early history of the Mormons or "Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints." Joseph Smith (1805-1844), the founder, lived a few miles south of Palmyra at the village of Manchester near which, in the "hill of Cumorah," he said he found the plates of gold upon which was inscribed the book of Mormon. Smith had the book printed in 1830 in Palmyra.

Joseph Smith Preaching

Joseph Smith Preaching
(From an old Mormon print)

Joseph Smith (1805-1877) early began to gather his proselytes about him, and even succeeded in interesting a few bewildered Indians, but the new sect had great difficulties, aggravated, it is said, by the licentiousness of the founder. Persecuted in N.Y. State, Smith sought to found his New Jerusalem in Ohio, where, however, the natives objected with such definiteness to his way of salvation that he and one of his followers were tarred and feathered in Hiram, O. Missouri was chosen as the next place of refuge, but here, too, Smith's profligacy aroused the hostility of the Missourians, which was increased by propaganda among the Mormons for a "war of extermination against the Gentiles." In Illinois, whither many of the "Saints" now removed, Smith had a revelation approving polygamy, which pleased him very much, but which roused opposition among his followers as well as his persecutors. In 1844 he and his brother Hyrum were arrested on a charge of treason in the town of Nauvoo which they had founded and imprisoned at Carthage. On the night of June 27, a mob, with the collusion of the militia guard, broke into the jail and shot the two men dead. In the meantime there had arisen a leader of considerable genius, Brigham Young (1801-1877), who probably saved the sect from dissolution, and led them to Salt Lake City in 1844.

Joseph Smith was born at Sharon, Vt., Dec. 23, 1805, from which place in 1815 his parents removed to N.Y. State, settling first [82]near Palmyra and later at Manchester. Both his parents and grandparents were superstitious, neurotic, seers of visions, and believers in miraculous cures, heavenly voices and direct revelation. The boy's father was a digger for hidden treasure, and used a divining rod to find the proper place to dig wells. He taught his son crystal gazing and the use of the "peepstone" to discover hidden treasure. Young Joseph was good-natured and lazy. Early in life he began to have visions which were accompanied by epileptic "seizures." One night in 1823, according to his story, the angel Moroni appeared to him three times, and told him that the Bible of the western continent, the supplement to the New Testament, was buried on a hill called Cumorah, now commonly known as Mormon Hill. It was not until 1827, however, that he discovered this new Bible. Smith's story was that on the 22nd of September of that year, he dug up on the hill near Manchester a stone box in which was a volume 6 inches thick made of thin gold plates, 8 inches by 8 inches, fastened together by three gold rings. The plates were covered with small writing in characters of the "reformed Egyptian tongue." With the golden book Smith claimed he found a breastplate of gold and a pair of supernatural spectacles, consisting of two crystals set in a silver bow, by [83]the aid of which he could read the mystic characters. Being himself unable to read or write fluently, Smith dictated a translation of the book from behind a screen. Soon afterwards, according to Smith, the plates were taken away by the angel Moroni.

370 M. ROCHESTER, Pop. 295,750.

(Train 51 passes 4:05; No. 3, 5:25; No. 41, 9:56; No. 25, 10:23; No. 19, 2:11. Eastbound: No. 6 passes 12:59; No. 26, 1:51; No. 16, 6:18; No. 22, 8:47.)

Rochester is built around the Falls of the Genesee River, about 7 M. above the place where the river empties into Lake Ontario.

Rochester in 1812

Rochester in 1812

Settlers from New England made a clearing at the site of Rochester about 1810, but growth was slow until the railroad—now the New York Central—was built connecting it with Albany and Buffalo.

The Genesee River rises in Pennsylvania and flows nearly 200 miles in a northerly direction through western New York. Within a distance of 7 M. between Rochester and Lake Ontario the river has a fall of 263 ft. The principal falls consist of three cataracts, 96, 26 and 83 ft., respectively. The banks of the first fall, which is in the heart of the city, rise to a height of 200 ft. above the river. The river, in fact, cuts through the center of the city in a deep gorge, the banks of which vary in height from 50 to 200 ft. The Genesee Valley south of Rochester is a very fertile and beautiful stretch of country where the river flows between meadows that rise gradually to high hills. The appearance of the country here, with its immense pasture-land dotted with oak and elm, is distinctly English. Besides being exceedingly productive both for crops and pasturage, the Genesee [84]Valley is famous as riding country, although the hunting interest has of late somewhat waned. But foxes are still found, and the flats along the river give wonderful opportunities for the chase.

The modern city, however, has spread north until it now embraces the large village of Charlotte on the western side of the mouth of the river. The region about Rochester was visited about 1650 by Jesuit missionaries who worked among the Seneca Indians in the neighborhood, and in 1687 the Marquis de Denonville fought a battle with the Iroquois near the Falls.

The Senecas were members of the League of the Iroquois and eventually became one of the most important tribes of that league. Their territory lay between the Seneca Lake and the Genesee River and they were the official guardians of the league's western frontier. At the height of their power they extended their range to the country west of Lake Erie and south along the Alleghany River to Pennsylvania They fought on the English side in the War of Independence. About 2,800 are now on reservations in New York State.

Jacques René de Bresay, marquis of Denonville, succeeded La Barre, who succeeded Frontenac, as governor of Canada in 1689. La Barre, an inefficient leader against the insurgent Iroquois, held the administration for only one year. Denonville was of great courage and ability, but in his campaign against the Indians treated them so cruelly that they were angered, not intimidated. The terrible massacre of the French by the Iroquois at Lachine, Quebec, in 1689, must be regarded as one of the results of his expedition. In 1687 he built Fort Denonville, which was abandoned during the following year when an epidemic wiped out its garrison.

Although by 1710 the French had established a post on Irondequoit Bay not far from the mouth of the Genesee, it was not until Ebenezer Allan (called "Indian Allan") built a small saw and grist mill near the falls that a settlement began to grow up. In 1802 three Maryland proprietors, Charles Carroll, William Fitzhugh and Nathaniel Rochester acquired a large tract of land which included the site of the present city. Rochester, from whom the city took its name, established a settlement, largely of New Englanders, at the falls in 1810-12, but growth was slow, as it was not at that time on the direct road between Albany and Buffalo, and the region was malarial.

Nathaniel Rochester (1752-1831) was a native of Virginia. He had been a manufacturer of Hagerstown, Md., and after settling in Rochester in 1818 was elected to the N.Y. Assembly (1822).

The completion of the Rochester and Lockport section of the Erie Canal gave Rochester the impetus which made it a city, and the building of the railroad a few years later placed it on the direct route between the Hudson and Lake Erie.

The course of the old Erie Canal lay through the heart of the city. It crossed the Genesee River by means of an aqueduct of seven [85] arches, 850 ft. long, with a channel 45 ft. wide. The aqueduct cost $600,000. The new barge canal passes through the city about three miles south of the old canal, and has a harbor in connection with the Genesee River, which is dammed for that purpose.

Rochester, between 1828 and 1830, was the centre of the anti-Masonic movement and here Thurlow Weed published his Anti-Masonic Enquirer.

The Anti-Masonic party arose after the disappearance in 1826 of William Morgan (1776-1826), a Freemason of Batavia, N.Y., who had become dissatisfied with the order and had planned to publish its secrets. When his purpose became known, Morgan was subjected to frequent annoyances, and finally in September, 1826, he was seized and conveyed by stealth to Ft. Niagara, where he disappeared. His ultimate fate was never known, though it was believed at the time that he had been murdered. The event created great excitement, and furnished the occasion for the formation of a new party in N.Y. This new party was in fact a rehabilitation of the Adams wing of the Democratic-Republican party, a feeble organization, into which shrewd political leaders breathed new life by utilizing the Anti-Masonic feeling. The party spread into other middle states and into New England; in 1827 the N.Y. leaders tried, unsuccessfully, to persuade Henry Clay, though a Mason, to renounce the order and become the party's candidate for president. In 1831 the Anti-Masons nominated William Wirt of Maryland, and in the election they secured the seven electoral votes of Vermont. In the following year the organization grew moribund, most of its members joining the Whigs. Its last act in national politics was to nominate William Henry Harrison for president in Nov. 1838.

Subsequently, Rochester became the centre of the Abolitionist movement in New York State and for many years before the Civil War it was a busy station on the "Underground railroad," by which fugitive slaves were assisted in escaping to Canada. The fervor of the movement gave prominence to Frederick Douglass (1817-1895), the mulatto orator and editor, who established a newspaper in Rochester in 1847, and to whom a monument has been erected near the approach of the New York Central Station. The city was a gathering place for suffragists from the time when Susan B. Anthony settled here in 1846.

Susan Brownell Anthony (1820-1906), born at Adams, Mass., was the daughter of Quaker parents. Her family moved to N.Y. State where, from the time she was 17 until she was 32, she taught school. She took a prominent part in the Anti-slavery and Temperance movements in New York, and after 1854 devoted herself almost exclusively to the agitation for women's rights. She was vice-president-at-large of the National Women's Suffragist Association from 1869-1892, when she became president. She was arrested and fined $100 (which she never paid) for casting a vote at the presidential election in 1872. She contended that the 14th Amendment entitled her to vote, and when she told the court she would not pay her fine, the judge simply let her go. The case created much comment.

[86]In Rochester also lived the famous Fox Sisters, Margaret (1836-1893) and Katharine, whose spiritualistic "demonstrations" became known in 1850 as the "Rochester Rappings." The city has been a centre for American spiritualists ever since.

Kate Fox

Kate Fox
(From a daguerreotype)

The demonstrations of the famous Fox sisters began in the following way: in 1847 the Fox family moved to a house near Rochester believed to be haunted, from which tenant after tenant had moved out, alarmed by mysterious rappings. The Foxes did not hear these sounds until 1848, and then Kate, hardly more than a child, began questioning the rappings, and having opened what seemed to be intelligent communication, suggested the use of the alphabet. That was the beginning of what spiritualists call the "science of materialization." The exhibitions consisted of the usual phenomena, table turning, spirit rapping and the moving of large bodies by invisible means. The two young women gave public séances throughout the country, arousing an interest that spread to England. In 1888 Margaret made a confession of imposture which she later retracted. Claiming to be the wife of Dr. Elisha Kent Kane, the Arctic explorer, she published a book of his letters under the "Love Life of Dr. Kane." He had met her between voyages of exploration, fallen in love with her, and in one of the published letters addressed her as "my wife," but even she admits that there never was a formal wedding. He died at Havana in 1857.

Modern spiritualism is generally dated from the "demonstrations" produced by the Fox Sisters. These exhibitions consisted of the usual spiritualistic phenomena: table turning, spirit rapping and the moving of large bodies by invisible means. The sisters gave public séances through the country, and interest in spiritualism spread to England. In 1888 Margaret made a confession of imposture, which she later retracted. She claimed to be the wife of Dr. Elisha Kent Kane, the Arctic explorer, and published a book of his letters under the title of the "Love Life of Dr. Kane." Kane had begun his career as an explorer when he was appointed surgeon and naturalist for the Grinnell expedition in 1850, which set out to search for Sir John Franklin, who was lost somewhere in the North. After spending 16 fruitless months of search, they returned, but Kane fitted out a new expedition of which he was given command, and spent two winters in polar exploration and collection of scientific data. The voyage lasted years and brought him fame. It was between these voyages that he met Margaret Fox, and in one of the published letters he addressed her as "my wife," though there seems never to have been a formal wedding. He died in 1857 at Havana.

[87]Rochester is an attractive city, with a park system comprising 1,649 acres. The largest parks are the Durand-Eastman, the Genesee Valley, Seneca, Maplewood and Highland. The Durand-Eastman Park occupies a beautiful tract of wooded ground on Lake Ontario.

The University of Rochester, founded 1851 as a Baptist institution, but now non-sectarian, occupies a tract of 24 acres on University Ave. in the eastern part of the city. Notable men who have been connected with the university include Henry Augustus Ward, professor of natural history from 1860 to 1875; Martin Brewer Anderson, president from 1854 to 1888, and David Jayne Hill, president from 1888 to 1896.

David Jayne Hill was born at Plainfield, N.J., June 16, 1850. After obtaining his first degree at the University of Bucknell, Pa., he studied for his A.M. in Berlin and Paris. He was president of the University of Rochester from 1888 to 1896, then spent 3 years in the study of the public law of Europe. As one peculiarly fitted by education and training for a diplomatic career, he was minister first to Switzerland (1903-1905), then to the Netherlands (1905) and from 1908 to 1911 ambassador to Germany. His numerous writings cover a wide field in biography, rhetoric, diplomacy, history and philosophy.

Falls of the Genesee River at Rochester About 1850

Falls of the Genesee River at Rochester About 1850
(From a print in the N.Y. Public Library)

For many years Rochester was the most important flour milling centre in the country, owing to the valuable water power furnished by the falls and the fertility of the wheat fields of the Genesee Valley.

[88]Rochester Theological Seminary prepares students for the ministry of the Baptist Church, and has no organic connection with the university. The Mechanics' Institute, founded in 1885 by Henry Lomb of the Bausch-Lomb Optical Co., is an unusually successful school of trades and handicrafts. It occupies a large building, the gift of George Eastman of the Eastman Kodak Co.

For many years Rochester was the most important flour milling centre in the country, owing to the valuable water furnished by the falls and the fertility of the wheat fields of the Genesee Valley. Flour milling is no longer so important an industry here—Minneapolis having taken first rank in this respect—but Rochester ranks high among the great manufacturing cities of the country. Its total output is valued at more than $250,000,000 annually. It leads the world in the manufacture of cameras, lenses, and photographic materials, and it is one of the principal cities of the country in the distribution of seeds, bulbs and plants, and in the manufacture of clothing and shoes. Other important products are machinery of various kinds, lubricating oil, candied fruits, syrups and confectionery clothing, tobacco and cigars, enameled tanks and filing devices.

403 M. BATAVIA, Pop. 13,541.

(Train 51 passes 4:45; No. 3, 6:18; No. 41, 10:45; No. 25, 11:04; No. 19, 3:03. Eastbound: No. 6 passes 12:17; No. 26, 1:12; No. 16, 5:32; No. 22, 8:04.)

Batavia, situated on Tonawanda Creek, was laid out in 1801 by Joseph Ellicott (1760-1826), the engineer who had been engaged in surveying the land known as the "Holland Purchase" of which Batavia was a part.

The so-called "Holland Purchase" comprised nearly all the land in Western N.Y. west of the Genesee River. Its history is associated with Robert Morris (1734-1806), the Revolutionary merchant and banker whose financial assistance had been invaluable to the Colonies during the War of Independence. Morris acquired the Holland Purchase from the Indians in 1791, after having obtained permission from the State of Mass. which then claimed sovereignty over this territory. The following year, however, he began to be involved in financial misfortunes and was compelled to sell this property to a group of Dutch capitalists, who undertook to dispose of the land to settlers. It thus became known as the Holland Purchase, and the Holland Land Office in Batavia was one of the centers from which the operations of the Dutch Land company were directed. The slow development of Morris's other property and the failure of a London bank in which he had funds invested, finally drove him into bankruptcy, and he was confined in a debtor's prison for more than three years (1798-1801). The old Holland Land Office was dedicated as a memorial to Robert Morris in 1894.

[89]Here lived William Morgan whose supposed murder in 1826 by Freemasons led to the organization of the Anti-Masonic party. Batavia was the home of Dean Richmond (1804-1866), a capitalist, successful shipper and wholesale dealer in farm produce, who became vice-president (1853-1864) and later president (1864-1866) of the New York Central Lines. He was likewise a prominent leader of the Democratic party in N.Y. State. In 1899 his widow, Mary E. Richmond, erected here in memory of a son a library which contains about 15,000 volumes.

Among the education institutions here are the N.Y. State School for the Blind and St. Joseph's Academy (Roman Catholic). The historical museum in the old Holland Land Office* contains a good collection of early state relics. The two old guns in front were cast in the N.Y. State Arsenal, which manufactured arms for use in the War of 1812.

Among the manufactures are harvesters, ploughs, threshers and other agricultural implements, firearms, rubber tires, shoes, shell goods, paper-boxes, and inside woodwork.

We now approach Buffalo, beyond which our route closely parallels Lake Erie. We thus get our first view of one of America's great inland seas in this part of the route, although at certain points between Syracuse and Buffalo (notably at Rochester) our train has passed only a few miles south of Lake Ontario.

The five Great Lakes—Superior, Michigan, Huron, Erie and Ontario—lie between the U.S. and Canada and form the headwaters of the St. Lawrence River system. They cover an area of 94,000 Sq. M. The Great Lakes date back to Glacial period or before, but it is probable that a "warping" of the earth's crust and a consequent reversal of drainage areas have been among the most potent causes of the formation of these great inland seas. Some of the most salient facts about the Great Lakes are given in the following table:

The Great Lakes
  Superior Michigan Huron Erie Ontario
Greatest Length (M.)360307206241193
Greatest Breadth (M.)1601181015753
Deepest Soundings (Ft.)1,012870750210738
Area (Sq. M.)32,06022,33622,9789,9687,243
Above sea level (Ft.)602581581572246
U.S. shore line (M.)7351,200470350230

The population of the states and provinces bordering on the Great Lakes is estimated to be 50,000,000 or more. In Pennsylvania and Ohio, south of Lake Erie, there are large coal fields. Surrounding Lake Michigan and west of Lake Superior are vast grain growing plains, and the prairies of the Canadian northwest are constantly [90] increasing the area and quantity of wheat grown; while both north and south of Lake Superior are the most extensive iron mines in the world, from which approximately 55,000,000 tons of ore are shipped annually. The Great Lakes provide a natural highway for the shipment of all these products.

Buffalo to Cleveland

439 M. BUFFALO, Pop. 506,775.

(Train 51 arrives 5:30; No. 3, passes 7:15; No. 41, 11:45; No. 25, 11:51; No. 19, 3:55. Eastbound: No. 6 passes 11:31; No. 26, 12:27; No. 16, 4:35; No. 22, 7:15.)

French trappers and Jesuit missionaries were the first white men to visit the site of Buffalo, and near here, on the east bank of the Niagara River at the mouth of Cayuga Creek, La Salle in 1679 built the "Griffin," with which he sailed up the Great Lakes to Green Bay, Wis. He also built Ft. Conti at the mouth of the river, but this was burned in the following year. Seven years later the marquis of Denonville in behalf of the French built here another fort, the predecessor of the various fortifications in this locality which were subsequently called Ft. Niagara.

Port of Buffalo on Lake Erie, 1815

Port of Buffalo on Lake Erie, 1815

Although the neighborhood was the scene of various operations during the War of Independence, not a single white settler was living on the site of the present city when the federal constitution was adopted in 1787, and the town was [91]not laid out till after the second presidency of Washington. In 1801 Joseph Ellicott, sometimes called the "Father of Buffalo," plotted the site for a town, calling it New Amsterdam but the name of Buffalo Creek or Buffalo proved more popular. Ellicott was the agent of a group of Dutch capitalists called the Holland Land Co., who purchased a large tract of land for speculative purposes in the neighborhood of Buffalo (1792).

At an early period (1784) the present site of the city of Buffalo had come to be known as the "Buffalo Creek region," either from the herds of buffalo or bison, which, according to Indian tradition, had frequented the salt licks of the creek, or more probably for some Indian chief.

During the War of 1812 Buffalo was a frontier town, and, owing to its position on Lake Erie, very close to an important theater of operations. The first gun of the war is said to have been fired on Aug. 13, by a battery at Black Rock, then a rival, now a suburb of Buffalo, and shortly afterwards British soldiers from the Canadian garrison at Ft. Erie (directly across the Niagara River from Buffalo) made a raid into Buffalo harbour and captured the schooner "Connecticut." The Americans replied with a brilliant exploit in which Lieut. Jesse D. Elliott (1782-1845) crossed the river and captured the "Detroit" and the "Caledonia" under the guns of Ft. Erie.

The ruins of Ft. Erie are among the most picturesque features of the region about Buffalo. The fort was captured in 1814 by an American force under Gen. Winfield Scott, and was held by the Americans till the end of the war, despite the efforts of a British besieging force to dislodge them. At the close of hostilities the Americans blew up the fort.

In the following spring (1812) five of the gunboats used by Capt. Perry at the Battle of Lake Erie were fitted out in the harbour at Buffalo. Perry's victory, however, did not save the little settlement from an attack in Dec. of that year in which Gen. Sir Phineas Riall and a force of 1,200 British and Indians captured the town and almost completely destroyed it. After the war the town was rebuilt, and grew rapidly. In 1818, near where La Salle in 1679 built his little sailing vessel, the "Griffin," a group of N.Y. capitalists completed the "Walk-in-the-Water," the first steamboat on the Great Lakes. The completion of the Erie Canal, seven years later, with Buffalo as its western terminus, greatly increased the city's importance. At Buffalo in 1848 met the Free Soil convention that nominated Martin Van Buren for the presidency and Charles Francis Adams for the vice-presidency. [92]Grover Cleveland lived in Buffalo from 1855 until 1884, when he was elected president.

Stephen Grover Cleveland (1837-1908) was born, fifth in a family of nine children, in the town of Caldwell, Essex County, N.J. He came of good colonial stock, but the death of his father prevented his receiving a college education. About 1855 he drifted westward with $25 in his pocket, and not long afterward began to read law in a law office in Buffalo, where he was admitted to the bar in 1859. He was assistant district attorney of Erie County, of which Buffalo is the chief city, in 1863, was elected sheriff on the Democratic ticket in 1869, and mayor of Buffalo in 1881, although the city was normally Republican. As mayor he attracted wide attention by his independence and business-like methods—qualities which distinguished his entire career. After his election as governor in the following year, the Democratic party chose him as their candidate against James G. Blaine. He was the first Democrat to be elected president for 24 years. His administration was marked by firmness and justice; he stood staunchly by the new civil service law, and during his first term vetoed 413 bills, more than two-thirds of which were private pension bills. He vigorously attacked the high tariff laws then in effect, but the administration tariff bill was blocked by his Republican opponents. In 1888 Cleveland was defeated for re-election by Benjamin Harrison, but in 1892 he was again nominated and defeated President Harrison by a large majority. The most important event of his second administration was the repeal of the silver legislation which had been a growing menace for 15 years. The panic of 1893 was accompanied by an outbreak of labor troubles, the most serious of which was the Pullman strike at Chicago (1894). When Gov. Altgeld of Illinois failed to act, President Cleveland sent troops to Chicago to clear the way for mail trains, and the strike was settled within a week. He also acted decisively in the Venezuela affair, with the result that Great Britain agreed to arbitrate on terms which safeguarded the national dignity on both sides. At the end of his term, Cleveland retired to Princeton, N.J.

The Pan-American Exposition in celebration of the progress of the Western Hemisphere in the 19th century, was held here May 1-Nov. 2, 1901. It was during a reception in the Temple of Music on the Exposition grounds that President McKinley was assassinated on Sept. 6. He died at the home of John A. Milburn, the president of the exposition.

President McKinley's assassin was Leon Czolgosz, a young man of Polish parentage, who shot the president with a revolver at close range. For a while it was thought that the president would recover, but he collapsed and died on Sept. 14, 1901. Czolgosz professed to belong to the school of anarchists who believe in violence. He was executed in October, 1901.

Buffalo today has broad and spacious streets and a park system (1,229 acres) of unusual beauty. The largest park is Delaware Park (362 acres), on the north side of the city. This park is adjoined on the south by the Forest Lawn Cemetery which contains monuments to Millard Fillmore and the Indian chief "Red Jacket."


Millard Fillmore (1800-1874), 13th president of the U.S., was born in East Aurora, a little village 14 M. from Buffalo, and practiced law in Buffalo. He served several terms as member of Congress and in 1848 was elected vice-president on the Whig ticket, with Zachery Taylor as president. President Taylor died July 9, 1850, and on the next day Fillmore took the oath of office as his successor. He favored the "Compromise Measures," designed to pacify the South, and signed the Fugitive Slave Law. In 1852 he was an unsuccessful candidate for nomination for the presidency at the Whig National Convention.

Red Jacket (1751-1830) was a famous Seneca chief and friend of the whites. He was faithful to the whites when approached by Tecumseh and the "Prophet" in their scheme to combine all of the Indians from Canada to Florida in a great Confederacy. In the War of 1812, he assisted the Americans. By many he was considered the greatest orator of his race.

To the west of the park are the grounds of the Buffalo State Hospital for the Insane. Overlooking the lake on a cliff 60 ft. high, is the park known as "The Front," the site of Ft. Porter, which has a garrison of U.S. Soldiers.

The University of Buffalo, organized in 1845, has about 1,000 students and comprises schools of medicine, law, dentistry and pharmacy. Other educational institutions of Buffalo are the Canisius College, a Roman Catholic (Jesuit) institution for men, and the Martin Luther Seminary, a [94]Theological seminary of the Evangelical Lutheran Church. Buffalo has several fine public buildings, including the Albright Art Gallery (white marble), the Buffalo Historical Society Building (in Delaware Park), the Public Library (valued at $1,000,000), and the City Hall and County Building ($1,500,000). Since 1914 Buffalo has been under the commission form of government.

Almost equidistant from Chicago and N.Y.C., the city of Buffalo, by reason of its favorable location in respect to lake transportation and its position on the principal northern trade route between the East and the West, has become one of the important commercial and industrial centres in the Union. Originally, the harbour was only the shallow mouth of the Buffalo River, but it has been greatly enlarged and improved by extensive federal work. The Welland Canal, about 25 M. west of Buffalo, connects Lake Erie with the St. Lawrence River. The annual tonnage of the port of Buffalo is upwards of 20,000,000 tons. The total export trade is close to $100,000,000. Besides being the first port in the country in handling horses, sheep, cattle and hogs, it receives immense quantities of lumber, pig iron and ore and has more than a score of huge grain elevators with a capacity of about 30,000,000 bushels.

In the manufacturing field it has two great advantages: a supply of natural gas and almost unlimited electric power from Niagara Falls. Its total annual output is valued at approximately $400,000,000, and its manufactures include meat packing, foundry and machine shop products, flour, steel, linseed oil, railroad cars, clothing, chemicals, furniture, automobiles, jewelry, confectionery and tobacco.

Buffalo is connected with the Canadian shore by ferry and by the International Bridge, completed in 1873 at a cost of $1,500,000.

Niagara Falls, while it is not on the main route to Chicago is best reached from Buffalo, from which it is only 32 miles distant, and travellers so easily can stop over to make the little side trip that it is virtually a part of the journey westward.

The fall of Niagara in the Province of New York.

A Colonial Print (1762) in the N.Y. Public Library

Niagara Falls.

Of the seven natural wonders of the American world, which are given as Yellowstone Park, Garden of the Gods, Mammoth Cave, Niagara Falls, the Natural Bridge, Yosemite Valley, and the Giant Trees of California, by far the greatest spectacle is Niagara. The name means "thunder of the waters," and was given by the early Indians [95] who regarded the falls with a quite comprehensible religious awe. Today there are more than a million and a half visitors annually.

Probably the first white man to discover the Falls was Etienne Brulé, an associate and trusted comrade of Champlain; but the first chronicler and the man to whom honour of discovery is usually given, is Father Hennepin, founder of the monastery at Ft. Frontenac in Quebec, who in 1678 joined La Salle's Mississippi expedition, and pushing on a few days journey ahead of his commander, came upon the wonderful waters described in his Louisiane Nouvelle (1698). The French built some trading posts here and their influence prevailed until 1759, when the British, driving the French northward overthrew their fortifications and took possession of the land. When the Revolution broke out some years later, the Indians, terrible and unscrupulous wagers of guerilla warfare, fought on the British side.

The Niagara River, upon which the Falls are situated, 22 M. from its head in Lake Erie, and 14 M. from its mouth in Lake Ontario, forms the outlet of four of the five Great Lakes (Erie, Huron, Michigan and Superior). It descends about 330 ft. in its course of 36 M. About 15 M. from Lake Erie the river narrows and the rapids begin. In the last three quarters of a mile above the falls, the water descends 55 ft. and the velocity is enormous. The basin of the Falls has a depth of from 100 to 192 ft. During cold winters the spray covers the grass and trees in the park along the cliff with a delicate veneer of ice, while below the Falls it is tossed up and frozen into a solid arch. Adjoining the left (Canadian) bank is the greater division, Horseshoe Fall, 155 ft. high and curving to a breadth of 2,600 ft. The American Fall, adjoining the right bank, is 162 ft. high and about 1,400 ft. broad. In recognition of their æsthetic value the province of Ontario and the State of New York have reserved the adjacent land as public parks. In the midst of the Rapids lies a little group of islands, among them the famous Goat Island. Besides the wonderful view it affords, its western end gives a unique example of absolutely virgin forest.

The Indians used to fish and hunt, crossing the Rapids on foot and supporting their steps with tall wooden poles spiked with iron. The necessity, on one occasion, of saving two marooned comrades on the island, taught them this means of crossing, which they had never before attempted.

The Niagara River runs half its length on an upper plain, then drops at the falls into a narrow gorge through which [96]it courses seven miles to the escarpment, the crest of which is a bed of limestone—60 ft. thick at the falls. The water plunges into a deep basin hollowed out of soft shale, which, as well as the escarpment, is being constantly worn away. The site of the cataract retreats upstream and the gorge is lengthened at a rate of about five ft. a year. It is evident that the whole gorge has been dug out by the river, and many attempts have been made to determine the time consumed in the work. The solution of the problem would aid in establishing a relation between the periods and ages of geologic time and the centuries of human chronology. The Horseshoe Fall wore its cliff back 335 ft. in about 63 years. Geologists have computed 25,000 years as a lower limit for plausible estimates of the river, but have been able to set no upper limit.

The Canadian and American shores are connected by three bridges, one of which a suspension carrying all classes of traffic, is 1,240 ft. long. The flow of water in the river averages 222,000 cubic ft. per second, though it sometimes falls as low as 176,000 cubic ft.

On March 29, 1848, Niagara ran dry, and persons walked in the rocky channel bed of the American Rapids between Goat Island and the mainland. This phenomenon, never known before or since, was due to these facts. Lake Erie was full of floating ice flowing to its outlet, the source of Niagara River. During the previous afternoon a heavy northeast wind had driven the ice back into the lake, and during the night the wind, suddenly veering, blew a gale from the west which forced the ice floe sharply into a mass in the narrow channel of the river, where it froze. Thus, when the water on the lower side of the barrier drained off, the Niagara River and the American Fall were dry, and the Canadian Fall a mere trickle. This extraordinary condition lasted for a whole day.

Thus the descent of this stream at the Falls and in the Rapids just above them gives in theory a water-power of nearly 4,000,000 lip., three-fourths of which is estimated as available.

This maximum could be obtained only by sacrificing the beauty of the Falls—in fact diverting the river from its channel so that the cataract as a scenic feature would be destroyed. To combat this commercial vandalism an association for the protection of the Falls has been formed.

There were before 1918 several companies with power-producing plants, the largest of which was the Niagara Falls Hydraulic Power and Manufacturing Company.

This company had made an extensive beginning in utilization of the water fall by a tunnel 29 ft. deep and 18 ft. wide, passing about 200 ft.. below the surface of the city from a point 1¼ M. above the Falls to the upper steel arch bridge.

[97]In 1918, when added power was needed for the more rapid production of war materials, the various companies consolidated with the Niagara Falls Power Company. In May of that year the intake from the Niagara River and the hydraulic canal were deepened, and three hydro-electric units—the largest in the world today—were installed, with the result that an extension of 100,000 hp. was developed, making the total of the station 250,000 hp.

510 M. DUNKIRK, Pop. 19,366.

(Train 3 passes 8:23; No. 41, 1:00; No. 25, 12:45; No. 19, 4:57. Eastbound: No. 6 passes 10:24; No. 26, 11:26; No. 16, 3:10; No. 22, 6:08.)

Dunkirk, settled about 1805, has a fine harbour and extensive lake trade, and lies, moreover, in fertile agricultural and grape-growing country. The property of the town, assessed at $10,000,000 is chiefly in factories producing locomotives, radiators and other steel and iron products, wagons, silk gloves, and concrete blocks. There are several pleasant parks, of which Gratiot and Washington are the largest. Brocton (519 M.) and Westfield (526 M.) are junctions for travellers bound for Chautauqua (about 20 M. south of Brocton on Chautauqua Lake), the principal seat of the Chautauqua educational movement.

The Chautauqua movement, instituted more than 46 years ago in the west, has here its largest station. Each summer 15,000 or 20,000 people from all over the country assemble here to take courses in a great variety of subjects, from Italian Primitivism to Camp Cookery. Chautauqua makes its chief appeal, perhaps, to the middle-aged and elderly who in their youth were working too hard to have had any opportunities for study.

Just beyond Ripley (534 M.) we cross the state line into Pennsylvania.

557 M. ERIE, Pop. 93,372.

(Train 3 passes 9:30; No. 41, 2:06; No. 25, 1:36; No. 19, 5:59. Eastbound No. 6 passes 9:25; No. 26, 10:30; No. 16, 2:03; No. 22, 5:08.)

Erie stands on the site of the old French fort Presque Isle, built in 1753 and surrounded by a village of a few hundred inhabitants. Although Washington protested on behalf of the Governor of Va. against the French occupation of this territory, it remained in French hands until 1758 when an epidemic of small-pox broke out, making the fort untenable. Two years later the British seized it, and three years after the Indians, rising against their white rulers in the Conspiracy of Pontiac, took possession. In 1765 the British recaptured the fort and kept it until 1785, when it passed into the possession of the U.S. Gen. Anthony Wayne, who was given the task of occupying [98]the lake posts delivered up by the English, came here soon after to negotiate the famous treaty of Greenville with the Indians in 1795. He died in 1796 at Erie.

Old Block House At Erie

Certain hostile tribes in northwest of Ohio who had defeated Gen. St. Clair in 1791, sent away in scorn a mission asking permission for white men to settle beyond the Ohio (1793). Wayne, angry at this insolence, gathered together some troops of the recently organized American army and after having given the Indians one more chance of a peaceable settlement, defeated them thoroughly in the battle of Fallen Timbers, 80 miles north of Cincinnati. By the resulting treaty of Greenville, he opened up the northwest to civilization.

In spite of the necessary severity of the punishment meted out to the Indians by the new government through the agency of Wayne, no part of Washington's administration, domestic or foreign, was more original or more benign than the policy he constantly urged toward them. To save them from the frauds of traders a national system of trade was adopted, and a number of laws were passed to protect them from the aggressions of borderers, as well as to secure them in the rights allowed them in their treaties.

The battle of Lake Erie (1813) was closely associated with the city. Here were Perry's headquarters during the War of 1812, and here he built in less than six months many of the vessels with which he won his naval victory over the British.

Erie is now an important manufacturing centre, the products of which are valued at between $40,000,000 and $50,000,000. A large branch of the General Electric Co. is here, besides important factories for flour and grist mill products, paper and wood pulp, organs, petroleum, etc. The leading articles of shipment are lumber, coal, grain and iron ore. Over 1,400 ships a year enter and clear the broad, landlocked harbour. On a bluff overlooking lake and city, is the State Soldiers' and Sailors' Home, and nearby, a monument to Gen. Wayne. Between Springfield (577 M.) and Conneaut we cross the state line into Ohio.

584 M. CONNEAUT, Pop. 9,000.

(Train 3 passes 10:08; No. 41, 2:39; No. 25, 2:04; No. 19, 6:34. [99]Eastbound: No. 6 passes 8:50; No. 26, 9:59; No. 16, 1:20; No. 22, 4:32.)

The first permanent settlement was made here in 1799 though a preliminary surveying party composed of Moses Cleaveland, the founder of the city of Cleveland, and 50 associates, two of whom were women, had arrived in 1796 and found 20 or 30 cabins of the Massauga tribe.

In his journal Cleaveland gives a description of the arrival here, "on the creek Conneaugh, in New Connecticut Land," July 4, 1796. "We gave three cheers," he continues, "and christened the place Ft. Independence, and, after many difficulties, perplexities and hardships were surmounted and we were on the good and promised land, felt that a just tribute of respect to the day ought to be paid. There were in all, including women and children, 50 in number. The men under Capt. Tinker, ranged themselves on the beach and fired a Federal Salute of 15 rounds, and then the 16th in honor of New Conn. Drank several toasts. Closed with three cheers. Drank several pints of grog. Supped and returned in good order."

After the whites had established themselves, the Indians were driven out for having murdered a settler. The country of Ashtabula in which Conneaut stands was not only the first settled on the Western Reserve, but the first in Northern Ohio, and the town is sometimes called the "Plymouth" of the Western Reserve.

Conneaut, which means in the Seneca language "many fish," is built at the mouth of Conneaut Creek in what is now a thriving agricultural and dairying region on Lake Erie. Besides being an excellent harbour to which coal and ore are shipped, the city has flour and planing mills, tanneries, canneries, and other factories.

595 M. ASHTABULA, Pop. 22,082.

(Train 3 passes 10:29; No. 41, 3:06; No. 25, 2:19; No. 19, 6:50. Eastbound: No. 6 passes 8:34; No. 26, 9:44; No. 16, 1:00; No. 22, 4:16.)

Settlers were attracted to the site of the present town of Ashtabula (an Indian word said to mean "fish river") in 1801 by the excellent harbour here, formed by the mouth of the Ashtabula River. The city is built on the high bank of the river about 75 ft. above the lake and commands some fine views. There are large green-houses under glass from which forced fruit and vegetables are shipped to Pittsburgh and other large cities. It is the centre of a prosperous agricultural and dairying region which has been largely settled by Finns.

Ashtabula is one of the most important ports in America for the shipment of iron ore and coal. Iron ore especially, is brought here in enormous quantities by boat and trans-shipped to Pittsburgh. The shipyards and drydocks in the harbour, and the huge machines for loading coal and unloading [100]ore are of great interest. The city has large manufactories of leather, worsted goods, agricultural implements, foundry and machine shop products; and the total value of its output is close to $10,000,000 annually.

602 M. GENEVA, Pop. 3,081.

(Train 3 passes, 10:42; No. 41, 3:18; No. 25, 2:29; No. 19, 7:03. Eastbound: No. 6 passes 8:22; No. 26, 9:32; No. 16, 12:39; No. 22, 4:02.)

Geneva is built close to the site of the early Indian village Kanadasaga, burnt in 1779.

In that year Gen. Sullivan was despatched at the head of an expedition against the Indians of Western N.Y., who had taken up arms for the British and had been guilty of the terrible Wyoming and Cherry Valley massacres. Kanadasaga was one of the Indian "council hearths" destroyed, and tribes in this region were driven westward, never to recover their old power.

In addition to the lake, there are good mineral springs. According to Duncan Ingraham, a Massachusetts traveller who wrote an account of a journey in 1792, the town then consisted "of about 20 log houses, three or four frame buildings, and as many idle persons as can live in them." Some of these old houses along the main street are of pure Colonial type, and really beautiful. Hobart College, founded 1822, is situated here. Malt, tinware, flour, stoves, wall-paper, etc., are manufactured, and there are also extensive nurseries.

622 M. PAINESVILLE, Pop. 7,272.

(Train 3 passes, 11:06; No. 41, 3:40; No. 25, 2:46; No. 19, 7:27. Eastbound: No. 6 passes 8:05; No. 26, 9:16; No. 16, 12:18; No. 22, 3:43.)

Painesville was founded in 1800 by settlers from Conn. and N.Y., the chief among whom was Gen. Edward Paine (1745-1841), an ex-officer of the Continental Army. It contains one of the early women's colleges of the country—Lake Erie College, founded in 1859 as the successor to Willoughby Seminary at Willoughby, Ohio, the buildings of which were burned in 1846.

The history of this part of the State includes early episodes of Mormonism. In Painesville was published a book by E.D. Howe purporting to show that "the historical p(art?) of the book of Mormon" was plagiarized from a romance called The Manuscript Found written by Solomon Spalding of Conneaut (about 1809). This claim has not been fully verified by later research.

Nine miles southwest of Painesville at Kirtland was (one?) of the early settlements made by Joseph Smith and his [101]Mormon followers. They built here a $40,000 temple (still standing), a teacher's seminary and a bank. The bank failed and Smith had to leave the state to avoid the sheriff. Most of his disciples followed him to Missouri. At Mentor (which we now pass 4 M. west of Painesville) lived Sidney Rigdon, who later became one of the Mormon leaders.

Rigdon (1793-1876) began his preaching career as a Baptist, then helped in establishing a society called the "reformers," and before being converted to Mormonism was pastor of a church in Mentor. He became a Mormon leader, and published a new translation of the Bible, with inserted prophecies of the coming of Joseph Smith. With Hyrum and Joseph Smith and Brigham Young, he moved westward in 1831 preaching, being "persecuted" and establishing an occasional temple. At Far West, a town in Missouri where the Mormons established themselves in 1838, Rigdon preached his "salt sermon," from the Matt. V. 13, urging his hearer to wage a "war of extermination" against all who disturbed them. Following his advice, the Mormons involved themselves in such broils with the "gentiles" that the state militia was called out against them. Smith and Rigdon were arrested, but the former escaped custody and with 15,000 followers, fled to Illinois. When the latter was freed, he joined the "Saints" in the city of Nauvoo which they had founded and was made a professor at their university. After Smith's arrest and murder by a mob in 1849 and the breaking up of Nauvoo, Rigdon disputed with Young for Smith's place. Not only failing to secure it, but being in addition tried for treason in wanting it, the disciple of Mormon returned to the East and spent his last days at Friendship, N.Y. Howe, in the book mentioned above, asserted that Sidney Rigdon was the original "author and proprietor of the Mormon conspiracy."

Near Mentor, also is Lawnfield, the former home of James A. Garfield.

James Abram Garfield (1831-1881), 20th president of the U.S., was born in a log cabin at Orange, Ohio, and began life as a farm hand. He attended for a time the Western Reserve Eclectic Institute, afterwards Hiram College, finally entering Williams College from which he graduated, becoming a teacher of ancient languages and literature. Entering politics as a Republican, he was elected to the Ohio Senate in 1859. His Civil War record was striking, and he was made major-general for gallantry at the battle of Chickamauga. He was elected to Congress in 1863, where he attracted attention as a hard worker and ready speaker, and where later he became leader of the Republican party in the House. He was an advocate of drastic measures against the South and considered Lincoln's policies too lenient. At the presidential convention of the Republican Party in 1880, he was nominated on the 36th ballot as a compromise candidate, and in the same year was elected president. On the 2d of July, 1881, while on his way to attend commencement exercises at Williams College, he was shot by Charles G. Giteau, a disappointed office seeker who waylaid him in the Washington Railroad Station. He died Sept. 19, 1881, at Elberon, N.J.


Cleveland to Chicago

623 M. CLEVELAND, Pop. 796,836.

(Train 3 passes 11:55; No. 41, 4:35; No. 25,3:30; No. 19, 8:20. Eastbound: No. 6 passes 7:20; No. 26, 8:35; No. 16, 11:30; No. 22, 2:56.)

A trading post was established on the present site of Cleveland as early as 1785 and ten years later Capt. Moses Cleaveland, leader of a small band of pioneers and agent of the Connecticut Land Co., surveyed the ground and planted the nucleus of the present thriving city—now fifth in size in the country. Capt. Cleaveland, in travelling from Connecticut into the Northwest, followed closely the present route of the New York Central Lines, crossing N.Y. State to Buffalo and then from Buffalo along the shore of Lake Erie.

Moses Cleaveland

Moses Cleaveland

Moses Cleaveland (1754-1806) was born at Canterbury, Conn., and graduated from Yale. After serving in the U.S. Army, where he attained the rank of captain, he practiced law and entered the Connecticut legislature. Later, he organized the Connecticut Land Co., which in 1795 purchased a large portion of the Western Reserve.

At that time the southern shore of Lake Erie was part of the famous Western Reserve territory, consisting of 3,250,000 acres of land, certain parts of which Connecticut ceded to her citizens as compensation for their losses from "fire and damage" at the hands of the British during the Revolutionary War. These lands were sometimes known as "Fire Lands."

The Western Reserve was a part of the territory immediately west of the Pennsylvania line, and extending westward therefrom 120 M. Connecticut held and "reserved" this territory to herself in 1780, when she ceded to the general government all her rights and claims to the other lands in the West. Later Conn. ceded the Reserve itself, but not before she had sold much of it to the Conn. Land Co., and the latter had begun the sale and disposition of all the lands so acquired, east of the Cuyahoga River. Until after 1815 [103]no lands west of that river were open to entrance or survey, and settlers ventured there at their own risk. This was the Indian Boundary Line, established in 1795, and beyond it the aborigines had exclusive right of occupancy.

It was for the purpose of surveying and developing these lands that Capt. Cleaveland undertook his expeditions into the Western Reserve. The first of these expeditions (1795) was composed of 50 men, women and children who arrived at Ft. Independence (now Conneaut) on Lake Erie, July 4, 1796. Pushing on further, they arrived at the present site of Cleveland, and in a few days the first log cabin was erected at the mouth of the Cuyahoga River.

City of Cleveland from Reservoir Walk (1873)

City of Cleveland from Reservoir Walk (1873)

To keep the commissary supplied was no easy problem in the new settlement. Sometimes they ate boiled rattlesnake in default of anything better. On one occasion, while the little band of settlers was assembled in prayer in one of the log cabins, someone espied a bear swimming across the Cuyahoga River. The coming of the bear was looked upon as providential, and the congregation suspended the prayer-meeting, killed the bear, and then returned to their devotions.

Capt. Cleaveland's plans for his new settlement were ambitious, and he built a number of substantial roads through the forests, usually following the old Indian trails, now the right of way of the New York Central and other lines. With the opening of the Ohio Canal to the Ohio River (1832), Cleveland became the natural outlet on Lake Erie for Ohio's [104]extensive agricultural and mineral products. The discovery and commercial exploitation (beginning about 1840) of large deposits of iron ore in the Lake Superior region placed Cleveland in a strategic position between these vast ore fields and the coal and oil resources of Ohio, Pa., and W. Va., and it is from this time that the city's great commercial importance really dates.

In 1836 Cleveland had been chartered as a city. The name, though chosen in honour of Capt. Cleaveland, had been abbreviated to its present form some years before. Tradition credits the changed form to a newspaper which left out the letter "a" in order to make the word fit a headline.

The building of the railways during the decade 1850-1860, and the stimulus to industry during the Civil War, when Cleveland supplied large quantities of iron products and clothing to the government, gave impetus to the city's growth. With a population of only 1,076 in 1830 and 6,071 in 1840, Cleveland had become in 1870 a city of 92,829 (more than double its population in 1860). Thirty years later (1900) the population had grown to 381,768 and in 1920 it was 796,836, an increase of 42 per cent over 1910.

The later history of Cleveland has been distinguished for some notable experiments in city planning, popular education and municipal ownership (particularly with respect to street railways). The street railway situation had been a source of trouble ever since 1899, when a strike of serious proportions occurred. Mobs attacked the cars, some of which were blown up with dynamite. In 1901 Tom Johnson was first elected mayor, and, largely as a result of his advocacy, municipal ownership became a greater issue in Cleveland than in any other great city in the country.

Tom Johnson (1854-1911) was a successful business man who entered politics on a reform platform. He was an ardent single-taxer, and in spite of the fact that he was financially interested in street railways, steel plants and other industries, a staunch advocate of municipal ownership. He served as mayor of Cleveland for 4 successive terms (from 1901 to 1909) and was later elected to Congress. Single Taxers were much pleased by his strategy in getting an entire book—Henry George's Progress and Poverty—printed in the Congressional Record.

Johnson and his followers demanded a 3-cent fare on the street railways and in 1906 it was actually put into effect. The private owners were compelled in 1908 to lease their property to a municipal holding company, but in 1910 (after Johnson's defeat for re-election in the preceding year), the street railway system was leased to a new corporation, the [105]rate of fare under the new arrangement to be based on an adequate return to the investors.

Cleveland was the home of Mark Hanna who became famous in national Republican politics.

Marcus A. Hanna was born in Lisbon, Ohio, in 1837, removed with his father in 1852 to Cleveland, where he graduated from Western Reserve University, and in 1867 entered into partnership with his father-in-law (Daniel P. Rhodes) in the coal and iron business. Under Hanna's guidance the business prospered enormously, but it was not till somewhat late in life that he became prominent in Republican affairs in Cleveland. As chairman of the National Republican Committee in 1896 he managed with great skill the campaign against Bryan and free silver, and came to be acknowledged as a leader of great adroitness, tact, and resource. He entered the U.S. Senate from Ohio in 1898, and was one of the principal advisers of the McKinley administration. He took a vital interest in problems affecting labor and capital and was one of the organizers in 1901 and first president of the National Civic Federation. He died in 1904 at Washington.

The Cleveland Chamber of Commerce has done much in the betterment of local politics. It was also instrumental in 1902 in securing the adoption of the "Group Plan" by which some of the principal public buildings are arranged in a quadrangle on the bluff overlooking Lake Erie. Cleveland appropriated $25,000,000 to promote the plan. On one side of the quadrangle (nearest the lake) are the courthouse and city hall; on the opposite side and 2,000 ft. south are the post office and library ($2,500,000). There is to be a Mall 600 ft. wide, with public buildings on either side, connecting the court-house and city hall with the post office and library. The granite buildings forming this quadrangle were designed under the supervision of Arnold Brunner, John M. Carrere and D.H. Burnham.

In education the city has made an innovation known as the "Cleveland plan" which seeks to minimize school routine, red tape and frequent examinations. Great stress is put on domestic and manual training courses, and promotion in the grammar schools is made dependent on the general knowledge and development of the pupil as estimated by a teacher who is supposed to make a careful study of the individual. There are in Cleveland 120 public schools and 44 public libraries. The principal institutions of higher education are the Western Reserve University with 2,800 students, St. Ignatius College (Roman Catholic), and the Case School of Applied Science.

With its 12 M. of shore line on Lake Erie, a fine park system (1,500 acres), and wide residential streets, well shaded [106]by maples and elms, Cleveland possesses many aspects of unusual beauty. The city is situated on bluffs rising from 74 to 200 ft. above the water and commands pleasant views of Lake Erie, while the surface of the plateau upon which the town is built is deeply cut by the Cuyahoga River, which here pursues a meandering course through a valley half a mile wide. Other streams, notably Dean Brook on the east border, add to the picturesque character of the municipal setting. A chain of parks* connected by driveways follows the valley of the Dean Brook, at the mouth of which, on the lake front, is the beautiful Gordon Park, formerly the private estate of William J. Gordon, but given by him to the city in 1893; from this extends up the Dean Valley the large Rockefeller Park, given to the city in 1896 by John D. Rockefeller and others. It adjoins Wade Park, where are a zoological garden and a lake.

L The First Automobile (1798)

C The First Automobile (1798)

R The First Automobile (1798)

The First Automobile (1798)

"By means of wheels," says the Third Edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica (1798), from which this illustration was taken, "some people have contrived carriages to go without horses. One of these [the vehicle to the left] is moved by the footman behind it; and the forewheels, which act as a rudder, are guided by the person who sits in the carriage. Between the hind-wheels is placed a box, in which is concealed the machinery that moves the carriage. A machine of this kind will afford a salutary recreation in a garden or park, or on any plain ground; but in a rough or deep road must be attended with more pain than pleasure.... Another contrivance for being carried without draught, is by means of a sailing chariot or boat fixed on four wheels, as A/B [the figure to the right], which is driven before the wind by the sails C/D and guided by the rudder E. Its velocity with a strong wind is said to be so great that it would carry eight or ten persons from Scheveling to Putten, which is 42 English miles distant, in two hours." The figure in the centre represents a modified sailing vehicle designed to sail against the wind as well as with it.

Of the several cemeteries in Cleveland, Lake View (300 acres), on an elevated site on the east border of the city is [107]the most noteworthy; here are buried President Garfield (the Garfield memorial is a sandstone tower 165 ft. high with a chapel and crypt at its base), Mark Hanna and John Hay.

John Hay (1838-1905) was a native of Salem, Ind., and a graduate of Brown University. He studied law in the office of Abraham Lincoln, and, after being admitted to the bar at Springfield, Ill., became one of Lincoln's private secretaries, serving until the president's death. He then acted as secretary to various U.S. Legations abroad—Paris, Vienna, Madrid—and on returning to America became assistant secretary of State under W. M. Evarts. President McKinley appointed him ambassador to Great Britain in 1897, and the following year Secretary of State. Hay was prominent in many important international negotiations, such as the treaty with Spain (1898), the "open door" in China, and the Russo-Japanese peace settlement. He negotiated the Hay-Pauncefote treaty concerning the Panama Canal; also settled difficulties with Germany over the Samoan question and with Great Britain over the Alaskan boundary. As an author, Hay is best known for his Pike County Ballads, in which Little Breeches first appeared, and for the monumental life of Lincoln written by Nicolay and himself.

Other notable monuments in Cleveland are a statue of Senator Hanna by Saint Gaudens (in University Circle), a marble statue of Commodore Perry in commemoration of the battle of Lake Erie (in Wade Park), a soldiers' and sailors' monument—a granite shaft rising from a memorial room to a height of 125 ft. (in the Public Square), and a bronze statue of Moses Cleaveland, the founder of the city (likewise in the Public Square). This latter monument is said to stand on the very spot selected by Cleaveland for the centre of his new settlement.

The Public Square, or Monumental Park, is in the business centre of the city, about ½ M. from the lake and the same distance east of the Cuyahoga River. From this park the principal thoroughfares radiate. Euclid Ave., once famous for its private residences, but now the chief retail street of the city, begins at the southeast corner of the square. Cleveland's newest residence district is on the heights in the eastern part of the city.

Cleveland sometimes has been called the "Sheffield of America." Its prosperity is founded chiefly on its accessibility to oil, coal and iron. It is the largest ore market in the world. Forty million tons of iron ore valued at $125,000,000 are received annually in the Cleveland district, and the ore docks where much of this ore is handled, are of great interest. Cleveland also has extensive docking facilities,* said to be the finest in the country, for handling its immense trade in coal and grain. Cleveland's oil refineries, among the largest [108]in the world, receive enormous quantities of crude oil by pipe line, rail and water.

The city has 2,500 manufacturing plants with 125,000 workers, producing annually goods worth about $375,000,000, of which $100,000,000 represents the products of its foundries and machine shops. Cleveland is the first city in America in the making of wire products and automobile parts, second in the manufacture of clothing and sewing machines and one of the leading cities in the production of complete automobiles. Shipbuilding (there are five large shipyards* here) is likewise an important industry, and Cleveland controls the larger share of the tonnage on the Great Lakes.

673 M. ELYRIA, Pop. 20,474.

(Train 3 passes 12:52; No. 41, 5:27; No. 25, 4:07; No. 19, 9:12. Eastbound: No. 6 passes 6:22; No. 26, 7:57; No. 16, 10:34; No. 22, 2:04.)

Elyria was founded about 1819 by Herman Ely in whose honour it was named. Ely came from West Springfield, Mass., built a cabin on the site of the present town, and later erected the [109]first frame house in the township. The city lies at the junction of the two forks of the Black River, each of which falls about 50 feet here, furnishing considerable water-power. There are sandstone quarries about the town. The chief manufactures of the city are automobile supplies, telephones, electric apparatus, flour, feed, canned goods, machine parts and iron pipe; the annual output is valued at about $10,000,000. Eight miles to the southwest is Oberlin (Pop. 5,000), the seat of Oberlin College.

“Slab Hall,” Oberlin College (1832)

“Slab Hall,” Oberlin College (1832)

Oberlin College was founded in 1832 "to give equal advantages to whites and blacks, and to give education to women as well as to men." Other objects were "to establish universal liberty by the abolition of every form of sin" and "to avoid the debasing association of the heathen classics and make the Bible a text book in all departments of education." The traditions of Oberlin are strongly religious, and from Charles Grandison Finney, revivalist and president of the college from 1851 to 1866, sprang what is called the "Oberlin Theology," a compound of free-will and Calvinism. Before the Civil War the village was a station on the "underground railway," and the influence of the college made it a centre of extreme abolitionist sentiment.

704 M. SANDUSKY, Pop. 22,897.

(Train 3 passes 1:35; No. 41, 6:12; No. 25, 4:44; No. 19, 9:55. Eastbound: No. 6 passes 5:38; No. 26, 7:13; No. 16, 9:45; No. 22, 1:16.)

English traders visited Sandusky Bay, upon which the city of Sandusky is situated, as early as 1748, and by 1763 a fort had been erected for protection against the French and Indians. On May 16th of that year, during the Pontiac rising, the Wyandot Indians burned the fort. A permanent settlement was established in 1817.

At the entrance to Sandusky Bay is Cedar Point, with a beach for bathing. This is an attractive summer resort. Outside Sandusky Bay are a number of islands, most of which belong to Ohio, but the largest, Point Pelee, is British. At the mouth of the harbour is Johnson's Island, where many Confederate prisoners were confined during the Civil War. There is a soldiers' and sailors' home here with accommodations for 1,600 persons. A few miles farther north are several fishing resorts, among them Lakeside and Put-in-Bay (South Bass Island), where the government maintains a fish hatchery. Out of this bay Oliver Hazard Perry and his fleet sailed on the morning of Sept. 10, 1813, for the battle of Lake Erie.

Having worked up in the U.S. Navy from midshipman to captain during which time he saw service against the Barbary pirates, Capt. Oliver Hazard Perry (1785-1819) was at the beginning of the War of 1812 placed in command of a flotilla at Newport, but soon transferred to the lakes. There, with the help of a strong detachment of officers and men from the Atlantic coast, he equipped a squadron of a brig, six schooners, and a sloop. In July 1813 he concentrated the Lake Erie fleet at Presque Isle (now Erie). In Aug. he took his squadron to Put-in-Bay, in South Bass Island.

On Sept. 10, Perry met the British squadron, under Capt. Barclay off Amherstburg, Ont., in the Battle of Lake Erie. Capt. Barclay, after a hot engagement in which Perry's flagship, the "Lawrence," was so severely shattered that he had to leave her, was completely defeated. "The important fact," says Theodore Roosevelt "was that though we had nine guns less [than the enemy] yet at a broadside, they threw half as much metal again as our antagonist. With such odds in our favor, it would have been a disgrace to have [110]been beaten. The chief merit of the American Commander and his followers were indomitable courage and determination not to be beaten. This is no slight merit; but it may well be doubted if it would have insured victory had Barclay's force been as strong as Perry's.... It must always be remembered that when Perry fought this battle he was but 27 years old; and the commanders of his other vessels were younger still." Another distinction which Perry won on this occasion is that he enriched our diction when in writing to Gen. Harrison to announce his victory, he said, "We have met the enemy, and they are ours."

Perry commanded the "Java" in the Mediterranean expedition of 1815-16 and died of yellow fever at Trinidad in 1819.

An American Cartoon (1813)

An American Cartoon (1813)

Queen Charlotte is represented as saying, "Johnny, won't you take some more Perry?" while "Johnny Bull" replies: "Oh! Perry!!! Curse that Perry! One disaster after another. I have not half recovered of the Bloody Nose I got at the Boxing Match." In a ballad of the day the verse occurs:

"On Erie's wave, while Barclay brave,
With Charlotte making merry,
He chanced to take the belly-ache,
We drenched him so with Perry."

"Perry" was a kind of indigestible drink made from pear-juice. The "boxing-match" refers to the capture of the "Boxer" by the American schooner "Enterprise."

Sandusky had a spacious landlocked harbour, much improved by government works and its trade in coal, lumber, stone, cement, fish, ice, fruit and grape juice is extensive. Its manufactures include tools, iron and steel products, chemicals, paper, agricultural implements, lumber products, gasoline engines, dynamos, glass and cement, with a total value annually of some $20,000,000.

757 M. TOLEDO, Pop. 243,109.

(Train 3 passes 2:45; No. 41, 7:25; No. 25, 5:45; No. 19, 11:05. Eastbound: No. 6 passes 3:35; No. 26, 5:15; No. 16, 7:30; No. 22, 11:08.)[2]

[2. Note that westbound trains here change to Central time; while eastbound trains change to Eastern time at next station (Sandusky).]

Toledo was built on the site of Ft. Industry, erected in 1800. It lies within an immense tract of land, constituting several reservations bought by the U.S. government from several Indian tribes in 1795. Upon that part of the tract farthest upstream the town of Port Lawrence was laid out in 1807. In 1832 a rival company laid out the town of Vistula immediately below and a year later the two united and were named Toledo.

This district was the storm-centre for the more or less ridiculous episodes of the "Toledo War" in 1835, a dispute over the boundary line between Ohio and Michigan. This boundary, named the "Harris Line" (1817) after its surveyor, left in dispute a strip of land from 5 to 8 M. wide, a rich agricultural region within which lay Toledo. Gov. Lucas of Ohio, by authority of the State Legislature (1835), sent three commissioners out to re-mark the Harris line so as to include the bone of contention. When Gov. Mason, appointed by President Jackson as administrator of the territory of Michigan heard about this, he dispatched a division of militia to occupy Toledo.

Gov. Mason over-ran all the watermelon patches, stole the chickens, burst in the front door of a certain Maj. Stickney's house, and proudly carried him off as a prisoner of war, after demolishing his ice house.

[111]Lucas responded by sending out the Ohio militia who occupied a post at Perrysburg, 10 M. to the south. No fighting took place in this most genteel of wars, although there were several arrests and much confusion.

A Dr. Russ, who was with Mason's forces on their march to Toledo gives a description of the soldiers' jumpy nerves. Various jokers had circulated dark stories of the number of sharp-shooting Buckeyes waiting for them at Toledo, which so alarmed this amateur legion that nearly one half of those who had marched boldly from Monroe availed themselves of the road-side bushes to withdraw from such a dangerous enterprise.

President Jackson put an end to the dispute by requesting Michigan to stop interfering with the re-marking of the boundary line, but slight outbreaks continued until he presently [112] removed Gov. Mason from office, and until Congress in 1836 decided in favor of Ohio.

The city administration became famous for its efficient honesty after 1897, when Samuel Milton Jones (1846-1904) a manufacturer of oil machinery, was elected mayor by the Republican party. The Independent movement which he began was carried on by Brand Whitlock.

Mayor Jones was re-elected on the non-partisan ticket in 1(899?), 1901 and 1903, and introduced business methods into the city government. His integrity in business and politics gained him the nickname "Golden Rule Jones."

Brand Whitlock was born in Urbana, Ohio, in 1869. He began his career as a journalist, but decided to practice law instead. After four years of study in Springfield, Ohio, he was admitted (to?) the bar in 1897, when he removed to Toledo. In 1905 he was elected mayor of that city as an Independent, running against four other candidates, and was re-elected in 1907-1909 and 1911 under similar conditions. President Wilson in 1913 sent him as minister to Belgium where he made a distinguished record during the War. In 1919 he was appointed ambassador to that country. His Memoires of Belgium under the German Occupation, published in 1918, gives an excellent description of "frightfulness" in actual operation.

The park system includes about 1,000 acres, connected by a boulevard 18 M. long. Toledo University (2,100 students), which include Toledo Medical College, was founded in 1880.

The advantages of Toledo as a lake port have always been recognized, and its growth has been rapid. It is situated about 4 M. from Lake Erie, and is connected with it by a channel 400 ft. wide and 21 ft. deep—sufficient to admit the largest vessels from the lake to the 25 M. of docks. Toledo is a shipping point for the iron and copper ores and lumber of the Lake Superior and Michigan regions, and for petroleum, coal, fruit, grain and clover seed. There are factories for motor-cars, plate and cut-glass, tobacco, spices, and beverages, also lumber and planing-mills, flour and grist mills, etc., with products of an annual value of $200,000,000 or more. At Butler (367 M.) we enter Indiana.

880 M. GOSHEN, Pop. 9,525.

(Train 3 passes 4:4(9?); No. 41, 9:45; No. 25, 2:07; No. 19, 12:52. Eastbound; No. 6 passes 1:06; No. 26, 2:59; No. 16, 4:28; No. 22, 8:32.)

Situated on the Elkhart River, Goshen was first settled about 1828 by pioneers from New England. It is the seat of Goshen College, the only Mennonite institution of higher education in the U.S. The college was founded as Elkhart Institute in Elkhart in 1895, and was removed to Goshen in 1903.


The Mennonites are a religious body who nominally follow the teaching of Menno Simons (born in Friesland, a province of Holland, 1492; died 1559), a religious leader, who insisted that true Christianity can recognize no authority outside of the Bible and an enlightened conscience. There are Mennonite colonies in Holland, France, Russia and Germany, as well as in the U.S. The American Mennonites have been largely emigrants from Holland and Prussia. The principal American colony is at Germantown, Pa. (first settled 1683).

There is a Carnegie library, a city hospital and a fine high school building in the town. Goshen is an important agricultural and lumber market. Its manufactures include flour, lumber goods, ladders, iron, wagons, steel tanks, underwear, machinery, furniture and farm implements.

900 M. ELKHART, Pop. 24,277.

(Train 3 passes 5:00; No. 41, 10:05; No. 25, 7:21; No. 19, 1:10. Eastbound: No. 6 passes at 12:50; No. 26, 2:45; No. 16, 4:10; No. 22, 8:15.)

Elkhart, originally "Elkheart" (the translation of an Indian word), is so named by the Indians from the shape of an island, near the centre of the city, formed by the junction of the two rivers, the St. Joe and the Elkhart, which make many turns and windings here. There are several parks, in one of which, McNaughton Park, a Chautauqua assembly is held annually.

La Salle (1643-1687)

La Salle (1643-1687)

René Robert Cavelier, Sieur de La Salle, was born at Rouen, France, and began his explorations from Montreal in 1669. Discovering the Ohio River, he travelled down possibly as far as (its?) junction with the Mississippi and then returned. The winter of 1679 La Salle passed at a post above Niagra Falls, where he built his famous (ship?), the "Griffin," in which he sailed the Great Lakes to Lake Michigan, (and?) which he sent back laden with (furs?) in the hope of satisfying the loans of his creditors, while he himself proceeded westward. In 1682, (after?) many adventures, he floated down (to?) the mouth of the Mississippi, where he erected a monument and cross, took possession of the region in the name of Louis XIV and named it Louisiana. When he returned there two years (later?) with four vessels he mistook the waters of Matagorda Bay, in the present state of Texas, for the mouth of a branch of the Mississippi and landed there. Fruitlessly wandering through the wilderness in search of the Mississippi River, the Illinois country and Canada, he was killed by his followers in March, 1687.

[114]Elkhart is a city of factories. Band instruments, furniture, telephone supplies, drugs, carriages, and many other products are included among its manufactures, which have an annual value of more than $15,000,000. Two Mennonite papers are published here.

915 M. SOUTH BEND, Pop. 70,983.

(Train 3 passes 5:30; No. 41, 10:38; No. 25, 7:45; No. 19, 1:43. Eastbound: No. 6 passes 12:20; No. 26, 2:22; No. 16, 3:32; No. 22, 7:45.)

South Bend is situated on the St. Joseph River. Just north of the city is the portage between the St. Joseph and the Kankakee Rivers, by means of which Père Marquette in 1675 and La Salle in 1679 made their way into what is now the state of Illinois.

This portage was part of the long land and water highway by which the mound-builders in pre-historic times conveyed copper from the Lake Superior to points as distant as Mexico and South America.

As there is no place in the U.S. but the south shore of Lake Superior where native copper can be mined, its presence in the mounds, at remote points is an infallible guide in tracing the commercial intercourse of the Mound-builders. Copper boulders are also found on the shore, and even as far south as Indiana and Illinois. That the whole extent of the copper-bearing region was mined in remote times by a race of whom the Indians preserve no tradition there is abundant evidence, such as numerous excavations in the solid rock, heaps of rubble and dirt along the courses of the veins, copper utensils such as knives, chisels, spears, arrowheads, stone hammers creased for the attachment of withes, wooden bowls for boiling water from the mines, wooden shovels, ladders, and levers for raising and supporting masses of copper. The high antiquity of this mining is inferred from these facts: that the trenches and pits were filled level with the surrounding surface so that their existence was not suspected; that on the piles of rubbish were found growing trees of great age, such as hemlock trees having annual rings showing that they began before the coming of Columbus. Copper wrought into utensils is found in the mounds all the way from Wisconsin to the Gulf Coast, and the supply is too abundant to authorize the supposition that it was derived from boulder drift. So expert were these miners that on the site of the Minnesota mine they lifted a copper mass weighing 6 tons, supporting on a frame of wood 5 ft. high.

The earliest white settler was Pierre Navarre, one of the fraternity of the coureurs de bois—a wild, rascally, fearless crew of half-breeds and renegade whites, who were the first to invade this famous hunting country. The succession of sheltered prairies, rounded sand-hills, and reedy marches cut by sluggish streams widening into lakes, made a good haunt for all game, especially beaver. Now the water is [115]mostly drained away and the land reclaimed, but at one time much of the region could be passed over in canoes.

Pierre Navarre (1785-1874) was the son of a French army officer. Besides Canadian French, he could speak the Pottowattomie Indian dialect, and had some knowledge of woodcraft and nature signs. In his calling of fur trader he made friends with the Miamis and their chief, Little Turtle, and when the War of 1812 broke out, offered the services of the tribe to Gen. Hull, as well as his own. The offers were declined, so the flouted Miamis transferred their allegiance to the British under Gen. Proctor. So good a scout was Navarre that a reward of $1,000 for his head or scalp was promised by Proctor. "He used to say," writes an old chronicler who knew him, "that the worst night he ever spent was as bearer of a despatch from Gen. Harrison, then at Ft. Meigs, to Ft. Stephenson (now Fremont). Amid a thunderstorm of great fury and fall of water, he made the trip of thirty miles through the unbroken wilderness and the morning following delivered to Gen. Harrison a reply." He died in his 89th year at East Toledo.

The University of Notre Dame, in South Bend, with 1,200 students, is the largest Catholic school for boys and young men in the country, and the American headquarters of the worldwide Order of the Holy Cross. Notre Dame was founded in 1842 by Father Sorin, a Frenchman, who accomplished his object under great difficulties.

Jacques Marquette

Jacques Marquette

Jacques Marquette was born at Laon, France, and as a Jesuit priest went to Canada in 1666, where he was chosen to explore the Mississippi River with Joliet, a young Canadian explorer, in 1673, the French having begun to gain knowledge of the prairies from the Indians. Following a route through Green Bay and up the Fox River to a point where they made a portage to the Wisconsin, Marquette and Joliet finally reached the Mississippi. On their return to Michigan, Marquette fell ill, and his attempt in the following year to found a mission among the Indians of the Illinois River proved too much for his broken strength. On the way home he died beside a little stream which enters Marquette Bay on Lake Michigan.

When Father Sorin arrived in Indiana in 1841, leaving behind a comfortable life in France for missionary work among the Indians, he found on the present site of Notre Dame only waste land covered [116]with snow, and only one building, a tumble down log hut. With $5 to begin work of erecting a school, he started in courageously, and spent five days repairing the hut and fitting it up so that one half served as a chapel and the other as a dwelling for himself and 6 lay-brothers. In 1844 his little college was chartered as a university by the legislature of Indiana. Father Sorin was elected superior-general of the Order of the Holy Cross for life. Besides Notre Dame, he founded many other schools and colleges in the United States and Canada. He died at South Bend in 1893. His co-worker, Father Badin, was the first priest consecrated in the United States.

The mural frescoes of the main university building are by Luigi Gregori, who was sent from the Vatican for this purpose, and who spent twenty years on this work and on the adjacent Church of the Sacred Heart. The latter is famous for its decoration, especially the beautiful altar. St. Mary's, a large girls' school conducted by the Sisters of the Holy Cross, has also fine buildings of more modern type than Notre Dame.

Schuyler Colfax at one time vice-president of the U.S. and for years an intimate and trusted friend of Lincoln's, lived here in his youth, as did the late James Whitcomb Riley. The soldier who, during the Great War, fired the first gun of the American army in France against the Germans was Alex Arch, a native of this city.

Though born in N.Y., Schuyler Colfax (1823-1885) passed his early years first in New Carlisle, Ind., then in South Bend, where his step-father was county auditor. After doing some journalistic work, he began his public career by making campaign speeches for Henry Clay in 1844. In 1852 he joined the newly formed Republican party, and served in Congress from 1854 to 1869. His name was widely mentioned for the office of postmaster-general in Lincoln's cabinet, but the president selected another man on the ground that Colfax "was a young man, running a brilliant career, and sure of a bright future in any event." In 1863 Colfax was elected Speaker of the House, and in 1868 vice-president. Four years later Colfax was implicated in a corruption charge, which though found groundless by the Senate Judiciary Committee, cast a shadow over the latter part of his life.

James Whitcomb Riley was born in 1853 in Greenfield, Ind. He spent several years as a strolling sign-painter, actor, and musician, during which time he revised plays and composed songs, and grew closely in touch with the life of the Indiana farmer. About 1873 he first contributed verses, especially in the Hoosier dialect, to the papers, and before long had attained a recognized position as poet-laureate of the Western country folk. His materials are the incidents and aspects of village life, especially of the Indiana villages. These he interprets in a manner as acceptable to the naïve as to the sophisticated, which is saying a good deal for this type of verse. Some of his best known books are The Rubaiyat of Doc Sifers, Home Folks, A Defective Santa Claus, The Old Swimmin' Hole, An Old Sweetheart of Mine, and Out to Old Aunt Mary's.

[117]Among the important manufactories of South Bend are plows, sewing-machines, underwear, and motor-cars. The annual value of the combined output is around $60,000,000.

942 M. LA PORTE, Pop. 15,158.

(Train 3 passes 6:06; No. 41, 11:22; No. 25, 8:17; No. 19, 2:22. Eastbound: No. 6 passes 11:46; No. 26, 1:53; No. 16, 2:57; No. 22, 7:07.)

The name La Porte, which in French means "door" or "gate," took its origin from a natural opening through the timber that here interrupted the wide stretch of prairie. The main street of the town is built on an old Indian trail between Detroit and points in Illinois. La Porte was first settled in 1830. It is situated in the heart of a region of beautiful lakes—Clear, Pine, Stone and others—which have given it a wide reputation as a summer resort. The lakes furnish a large supply of natural ice which is shipped to Chicago. The soil about La Porte consists of sandy "timber" loam and vegetable mold, especially adapted to growing potatoes, wheat and corn. Farm and orchard products were early sources of the town's prosperity. There are now numerous manufactures—woolen goods, agricultural engines and implements, lumber and furniture, foundry products, musical instruments, radiators, pianos, blankets, bicycles and flour.

975 M. GARY, Pop. 55,378.

(Train 3 passes 6:47; No. 41, 12:06; No. 25, 8:55; No. 19, 3:08. Eastbound: No. 6 passes 11:06; No. 26, 1:17; No. 16, 2:12; No. 22, 6:23.)

The city of Gary was built to order. Fifteen years ago the site of the present town was nothing but a waste of sand-dunes and swamps intersected from east to west by the Grand Calumet and Little Calumet Rivers. In 1906 the United States Steel Corporation broke ground here for a series of enormous foundries and factories, first laying sewers, water mains, gas pipes and conduits for electric wires, as well as providing other improvements necessary for life of the city. The Steel Corporation had chosen this site partly because of its direct connection by water with the Lake Superior ore region, partly because of its proximity to Chicago, and partly because it was accessible to Virginia coal and Michigan limestone. The town was named Gary in honour of Elbert H. Gary (b. 1846), chairman of the Board of Directors of the Steel Corporation, and in succeeding years there came an influx of inhabitants which has made Gary the largest city in Northern Indiana. In 1906 the city was non-existent; in 1910 it had a population of 16,802; in 1916, 40,000; and the Federal census of 1920 showed that Gary now has more than 55,000 inhabitants.

[118]Gary lies 30 ft. above Lake Michigan on a deep layer of sand, once the bed of the lake, which in prehistoric time extended several miles farther inland. The city has a splendid harbour which has been extended by the use of the two rivers—the Grand and the Little Calumet—both of which have been dredged and enlarged. The heart of the town is at the intersection of Broadway and Fifth Ave., which are lined with handsome buildings, and it is said that within radius of 10 M. of this point, there is a population of 125,000 people, most of whom are engaged in the industries of the Calumet region surrounding Gary.

The early growth of the town was so rapid that facilities for taking care of the new population were inadequate. The congestion was extreme, and real estate speculators did thriving business. Today it is said that Gary has constructed public utilities and other improvements adequate for a city of a quarter of a million people, and there is little doubt that the population will reach that figure before many years have passed. The city has fine public schools (the Gary system has become famous throughout the United States), a Y.M.C.A. (costing $250,000), and an excellent library. The City Hall and the Union station are likewise notable for the scale on which they are built.

Although Gary was built to order by the Steel Corporation, its officials did not undertake to control or direct the civic affairs of the town. Thus, the development of the Gary system of education was a natural, rather than an artificial one. There was every opportunity for an altogether new departure, in view of the inadequacy of school facilities for the fast growing population. The new system was introduced into the Gary schools by William Wirt, who had already made some experiments in this direction before 1907 (when he was called to Gary) at Bluffton, Ind., where he had been in charge of the public schools. Some of the fundamental principles of Mr. Wirt's plan are that "students learn best by doing" and that "all knowledge can be applied." Latin, for example, is not studied for mental discipline, but for actual use. The system also involves keeping the school buildings in use for entertainment or instruction throughout the entire day and evening, and numerous courses are provided for adults. It has been said that in Gary "every third person goes to school." The overcrowded condition in the N.Y.C. Schools led to an invitation to Mr. Wirt to introduce the Gary plan into several school districts in the boroughs of Bronx and Brooklyn in 1914-15. The experiment aroused bitter opposition on the part of those who suspected it was a sort of "conspiracy" to educate the poorer children for mechanical rather than clerical occupations in the interest of "capitalistic industry," and a year or two later N.Y. returned to the old methods of education.

The plant of the United States Steel Corporation, located between the Grand Calumet River and the Lake, have [119]the most complete system of steel mills west of Pittsburgh. Within the first ten years after the founding of Gary the Steel Corporation had spent $85,000,000 in building furnaces, ovens, various foundries and shops, pumping stations, electric power plants, benzol plants, Portland cement works, and ore docks. Since that time the Steel Corporation's investment here has practically been doubled, and a number of subsidiary companies have built up great industries in Gary. The Universal Portland Cement here, for example, is said to be the largest plant of its kind in the world (daily capacity 30,000 barrels).

The United States Steel Corporation, organized in 1901 with a capitalization of about $1,400,000, was an amalgamation of ten independent companies, of which the Carnegie Steel Co. and the Federal Steel Co. (of which Elbert H. Gary was president) were perhaps the most important. The consolidation was effected under the auspices of the late J. Pierpont Morgan, who negotiated the purchase of Andrew Carnegie's properties for $303,450,000 in 5 per cent steel corporation bonds and $188,556,160 in common and preferred stock. "The Value of the Carnegie Steel Co.," says A. Cotter in The Authentic History of the U.S. Steel Corporation, "was $75,000,000, though as a going concern it was worth $250,000,000. Its earnings in a single year had been as much as $40,000,000." Mr. Carnegie thereupon retired from business.

On Jan. 1, 1920, the corporation had a surplus of $493,048,000, and the book value of the tangible assets was $1,917,730,000. There were then outstanding $568,728,000 in bonds and $868,583,000 in common and preferred stock. In 1919 strikes and other causes reduced the production of finished steel to about 75 per cent of capacity, and at the beginning of 1920 the corporation had unfilled orders amounting to more than 8,000,000 tons. The gross business of the corporation amounted to $1,448,557,835 in 1919 as against $1,744,312,163 the year before. The corporation's income for 1919, less operating expenses and taxes, was in the neighborhood of $150,000,000.

Statistics of production for 1918 and 1919 are given below:

 Production in Tons
  1919 1918
Iron ore mined25,423,00028,332,000
Pig iron13,481,73815,700,561
Steel ingots17,200,00019,583,000
Finished steel11,997,00013,849,483
No. of employees252,106268,710
Total wages$479,548,040$452,663,524

The average wage per day (excluding general administration and selling force) was $6.12 in 1919 and $5.33 the year before. In 1919 the corporation spent $1,131,446 for safety work and the like, and (1?)5 hospitals, with a staff of 162 physicians and surgeons, were maintained.


The various works controlled by the Steel Corporation include the Carnegie Steel Co, the Illinois Steel Co., the Universal Portland Cement Co., the Indiana Steel Co., the Minnesota Steel Co., the Lorain Steel Co., the National Tube Co., the American Steel and Wire Co., the American Sheet and Tin Plate Co., the Sharon Tin Plate Co., the American Bridge Co., the Union Steel Co., the Clairton Steel Co., the Clairton By-Product Co., the Canadian Steel Corporation, the Tennessee Coal, Iron & Railroad Co., the Fairfield Steel Co. and the Chickasaw Shipbuilding & Car Co.

Chicago in 1820

Chicago in 1820

1001 M. CHICAGO, Pop. 2,701,705.

(Train 3 arrives 7:40; No. 41, 1:00; No. 25, 9:45; No. 19, 4:00. Eastbound: No. 6 leaves 10:25; No. 26, 12:40; No. 16, 1:30; No. 22, 5:30.)

The old Chicago portage was used by the Indians in travelling by canoe from the Great Lakes to the Mississippi and then to the Gulf of Mexico, long before any white man had visited the site of the present city on the shore of Lake Michigan. The portage connected the Chicago River, then flowing into Lake Michigan, with the Des Plaines River, flowing into the Illinois River, which in turn discharges into the Mississippi opposite a point not far from St. Louis. It is probable that the first white men to visit the city of Chicago were Father Marquette (1637-1675) and Louis Joliet, though La Salle may have used the portage at an earlier date in the course of one of his journeys of exploration. It is certain, however, that La Salle established a fort at Starved Rock, some miles south of the present city of Chicago, in 1682; and it is in the journal of one of La Salle's followers, Joutel, that we find the first explanation of the name "Chicago." Joutel says that Chicago took its name from the profusion of garlic growing in the surrounding woods.


Joutel and his party were in Chicago in March, 1688, when lack of provision forced them to rely on whatever they could find in the woods. It appears that Providence furnished them with a "kind of manna" to eat with their meal. This seems to have been maple sap. They also procured in the woods garlic and other plants. The name Chicago may have come from the Indian word ske-kog-ong, wild onion place.

After the departure of Father Marquette several other mission settlements were attempted at Chicago, but these were all abandoned in 1700 and for almost a century Chicago ceased to be a place of residence for white men.

The strategic value of Chicago as a centre of control for the regions of the Great Lakes and the Mississippi River had long been recognized, but it was not until after the Battle of Fallen Timbers (1794), that the government took active steps to establish a fort here. The treaty made by Gen. Wayne with the Indians after that battle provided for the cession to the American government of a tract of land at the southern end of Lake Michigan including the site of the present city. In 1803 Ft. Dearborn, a block-house and stockade, was constructed by the government on the southern bank of the Chicago River near the present site of the Michigan bridge.

In 1812, during the Indian War of Tecumseh, the Ft. Dearborn massacre occurred. The garrison, 93 persons in all, including several women and children, were attempting to escape to Ft. Wayne, when they were set upon by some 500 Indians about a mile and a half south of the fort (southern part of the present Grant Park). The Americans killed included 39 soldiers, 2 women and 12 children. The survivors were captured by the Indians and though some were tortured and put to death, the majority finally escaped to civilization A tablet now marks the site of the old fort and a monument has been erected near Grant Park commemorating the massacre. In 1816 the fort was rebuilt and a settlement rapidly grew up around it. By 1837 the Federal government had begun the improvement of the harbor and had started the Illinois and Michigan Canal. The lake trade grew to enormous proportions, and the building of the railways, especially the New York Central Lines connecting Chicago with the East, as well as other lines connecting it with the Northwest, and the South, gave the city an extraordinary impetus.

At the Republican convention held at Chicago in 1860, Abraham Lincoln was nominated for the presidency and during the Civil War, Camp Douglas, a large prison camp for Confederate prisoners, was maintained here.


The Republican national convention, which made "extension of slavery" the essential plank of the party platform, met at Chicago on the 26th of May, 1860. At this time William H. Seward was the most conspicuous Republican in national politics; Salmon P. Chase also had long been in the forefront of the political contest against slavery. Both had won greater fame than Lincoln, and each hoped to be nominated for president. Chase, however, had little chance, and the contest was virtually between Seward and Lincoln, who by many was considered more "available" because he could, and Seward could not, carry the votes of certain doubtful states. Lincoln's name was presented by Illinois and seconded by Indiana. At first Seward had the stronger support, but on the fourth ballot Lincoln was given 334 (233 being necessary) and the nomination was then made unanimous. The convention was singularly tumultuous and noisy: large claques were hired by both Lincoln's and Seward's managers.

Block House at Chicago in 1856

Block House at Chicago in 1856

The great fire in 1871 was the most serious check to the city's constantly increasing prosperity, but recovery from this disaster was rapid. The solidity of this prosperity was demonstrated during the financial panic of 1873, when Chicago banks alone among those of the large cities of the country continued steadily to pay out current funds.

The precise cause of the great fire is not known, but it is popularly attributed to Mrs. O'Leary's cow, which according to tradition "kicked over the lamp" and started the flames. The fire spread over an area of 3-1/3 Sq. M., and destroyed 1,700 buildings and property valued at $196,000,000. Almost 100,000 people were made homeless, and 250 lost their lives. The relief contributions from the United States and abroad amounted to nearly $5,000,000, of which [123]about $500,000 was contributed in England. The fire at least gave an opportunity to rebuild the old wooden city with brick and stone.

The later history has been marked on the one hand by serious labor troubles and on the other by the remarkable achievement of the World's Columbian Exposition (1893). The labor outbreaks included several strikes in the packing industry, the Haymarket Riot in 1886, and the Pullman Strike in 1894.

The Haymarket Riot grew out of a strike in the McCormick harvester works. Hostility against the employers had been fomented by a group of so-called International Anarchists and the struggle culminated at the Anarchist meeting at the Haymarket Square. When the authorities said that the speeches were too revolutionary to be allowed to continue and the police undertook to disperse the meeting, a bomb was thrown and seven policemen were killed. Seven anarchists were ultimately convicted as being conspirators and accomplices and were condemned to death. Four were hanged, one committed suicide, two had their death sentences commuted to life imprisonment, and eight anarchists were sentenced to imprisonment for 15 years. In 1893 Gov. Altgeld pardoned those still in prison.

The leader of the Pullman strike, which began in the Pullman car works, was Eugene Debs (1855), who was the Socialist candidate for President in the election of 1920, although he was then in the penitentiary at Atlanta for violating the Espionage Act during the World War. The strike spread to the railways, and caused great disorder until President Cleveland dispatched federal troops to Chicago.

The exposition was an artistic and educational triumph, and its influence on the progress of the city cannot be overestimated The exposition gave Chicago an artistic conscience one of the direct results of which was the organization of the City Plan Commission, a body which is at work reshaping the city in the interests of greater beauty and utility.

The exposition commemorated the 400th anniversary of the discovery of America by Columbus. It was held in Jackson Park, on the south side of the city, and covered an area of 686 acres. The buildings (planned by a commission of architects of which D.H. Burnham was the chief) formed a collection of remarkable beauty, to which the grounds (planned by F.L. Olmsted), intersected by lagoons and bordered by a lake, lent an appropriate setting. The fair was opened to the public May 1, 1893, and the total number of admissions was 27,500,000. The total cost was more than $33,000,000.

Owing largely to its central position and to its excellent railroad facilities, Chicago has been a favorite city for national political conventions ever since the nomination of Lincoln Others nominated here have been Grant (1866 and 1872), Garfield (1880), Cleveland (1884 and 1892). Harrison (1888), Roosevelt (1904), Taft (1908) and Harding (1920); [124]and in addition a number of candidates who were unsuccessful including Blaine (1884), Harrison (1892), Bryan (1896), Taft (1912), Roosevelt (1912), and Hughes (1916).

To most foreign visitors and even to many Americans the growth of Chicago is its most impressive feature. Within a little more than 100 years Chicago has grown from a settlement of 14 houses, a frontier military post among the Indians to a great metropolis, the second city in America and fourth in size among the cities of the world. In 1829 what is now the business centre was fenced in as a pasture; in 1831 the Chicago mail was deposited in a dry goods box; the tax levy of 1834 was $48.90, and a well that constituted the city's water-system was sunk at a cost of $95.50. In 1843 hogs were by ordinance barred from the streets.

There are residents of Chicago still living who can remember the early days when the first village school stood on the ground now occupied by the Boston Store at Dearborn and Madison Sts. Some even insist they remember when wolves were trapped on the site of the present Tribune building. In the early period the streets of the little town were thick with mire in the rainy season, and it is said that signs were placed at appropriate points with inscriptions such as "No Bottom Here," "Stage Dropped Here," etc. The first improvement of note in Chicago was an inclined plank road in Lake St., arranged with a gutter in the center for drainage. It was the only safe route over which stage coaches from the west could enter the town.

In 1830 with a population of less than 100, in 1840 with 4,479, the increase by percentages in succeeding decades was as follows: 507, 265, 174, 68, 119, 54, 29, and (1910 to 1920) 23. Approximately 75 per cent of Chicago's population is of foreign birth or parentage. This foreign population is made up principally of Germans, about 50 per cent, Irish 12, Austrian 13, Russian 10, Swedish 6, Italian 4, Canadian, including French Canadians, 4, and English 4.

It has been said that Chicago is "the second largest Bohemian city in the world, the third Swedish, the fourth Norwegian, the fifth Polish and the fifth German (New York being the fourth)." This ought not to be construed, however, as a reflection on the fundamental Americanism of Chicago's citizens.

The growth in area has kept pace with the growth in population. As originally plotted in 1830, the town had an area of a little less than half a square mile; today it covers an area of practically 200 Sq.M. Its greatest length (north and south) is 26 M., and the greatest width (east and west) is 9 M.

[125]The Chicago River with its three, branches divides the city into three sections—the North, South and West sides. Technically the downtown or "loop" district (so-called because of the elevated railway which encircles the central business section) belongs to the south side, though usually it is classified separately.

The Chicago River formerly flowed into Lake Michigan. It was then an exceedingly dirty stream and a menace to health. In order to improve the character of the river and also to give the Chicago adequate sanitary drainage, dredging operations to reverse the direction of flow of the river were undertaken, and canals were constructed connecting it with the Illinois River. This great engineering feat was begun in 1892 and completed in 1900. The total expenditure on the drainage canals since 1892 has been more than $100,000,000.

In no other great city is the business district so concentrated as is the case in Chicago. Within an area of a little more than 1 Sq. M. are located the principal office buildings, department stores, shops, hotels and theatres. Not far from the centre of this district is the new City Hall and County Building, an 11-story structure costing $5,000,000.

Chicago is generally credited with being the original home of the steel frame sky-scraper, though there are now many higher buildings in New York and elsewhere. The height of buildings in Chicago is limited by city ordinance to about 22 stories.

At La Salle St., where it is crossed by the southern arm of the elevated "loop" is the New York Central Station, an impressive building which stands closer to heart of Chicago's financial and business section than any other railway station in the city.

Michigan Ave., just to the east of the business centre, possesses a truly noble aspect, and the visitor could not select a better place to begin his tour of the city. Due to the monotonous regularity of the streets and the all-pervading soft coal smoke, Chicago presents on the whole a somewhat drab appearance, but the view from Grant Park or from the lake front (with Michigan Ave. in the foreground) is nearly, if not quite, as fine as anything N.Y. has to offer. In Michigan Ave. are the Public Library (with a beautiful interior), the Art Institute (with fine collections of pictures and one of the largest art schools in the country), Orchestra Hall (the home of the Chicago Symphony Orchestra), the "Blackstone" Hotel and a number of fine shops.

Michigan Ave., by way of Lake Shore Drive on the north, and by way of Midway Plaisance on the south, connects [126]with Chicago's fine park system. The principal parks are joined by beautiful boulevards encircling the entire city, and a delightful two hours' motor trip (45 M.) will enable the tourist to visit Lincoln Park on the north, Humboldt, Garfield and Douglas parks on the west, and Washington and Jackson parks on the south.

Chicago Fire (1871): Randolph Street Bridge

Chicago Fire (1871): Randolph Street Bridge

For reference a general summary of Chicago's "points of interest" exclusive of those already mentioned is here given.


North Side

Lincoln Park: Academy of Sciences Museum; botanical conservatories and a zoological garden with a splendid Lion House. Also the fine Saint Gaudens Statue of Lincoln at the entrance and other monuments in the park.

Chicago Historical Society Library and Collection, Dearborn Ave. and Ontario St.; an interesting collection of historic relics and documents.

The Municipal pier, at the foot of Grand Ave., built by the city at a cost of $4,000,000; devoted to recreational activities as well as to commercial purposes. Excursion steamers may be taken here to various points on the lake.

The Newberry Library, a free reference library, Clark St. and Walton Place.

Northwestern University, in Evanston (at the extreme North of the city—actually outside the city limits). Northwestern University is a Methodist-Episcopal institution of about 5,000 students.

Ft. Sheridan. A U.S. military post north of Evanston.

Lake Forest, a fashionable suburb north of Ft. Sheridan.

South Side

Life Saving Station at the mouth of the Chicago River.

Tablet marking site of Ft. Dearborn, River St., opposite the old Rush St. Bridge.

Crerar Library, East Randolph St., a reference library devoted chiefly to scientific subjects; open to the public.

Board of Trade, La Salle and Jackson Sts.; visitors may obtain admission to gallery overlooking the famous wheat pit.

Auditorium hotel and theatre building, Michigan Ave. at Congress St.; view of city from tower.

The Coliseum building, 16th St. and Wabash Ave.; all the national Republican conventions of recent years have been held here.

Field Museum of Natural History (founded by Marshall Field), in Grant Park; a fine anthropological and historical collection. The Museum, originally housed in a temporary building in Jackson Park, was made possible by the gift of $1,000,000 by Marshall Field, who on his death (1906) bequeathed a further $8,000,000 of which $4,000,000 has been used for the new building.

Ft. Dearborn Massacre Monument, 18th St., near the lake.

[128]Armour Institute of Technology, founded by the Armour family, 3300 Federal St.

Douglas Monument, 35th St. near Lake Michigan; Stephen A. Douglas is buried here.

Stephen A. Douglas (1813-1861) was born in Vermont, but in 1833 he went west and settled in Jacksonville, Ill., where he was admitted to the bar in 1834. He identified himself with the Jackson Democrats and his political rise was rapid even for the west. Among other offices, he held those of Judge of the Supreme Court of Illinois, representative in Congress and senator from Illinois. Although he did more perhaps than other men, except Henry Clay, to secure the adoption of the Compromise Measures of 1850, he seems never to have had any moral antipathy against slavery. His wife and children were by inheritance owners of slaves. In 1858 he engaged in a close and exciting contest for the senatorship with Abraham Lincoln, the Republican Candidate, whom he met in a series of debates over slavery that soon became famous and brought Lincoln prominently into public favor, though he was defeated in this particular contest.

The Stockyards, Halsted and Root St. In area the yards exceed 400 acres; they have facilities for taking care of 50,000 cattle, 20,000 hogs, 30,000 sheep and 5,000 horses. The great packing plants are clustered around the stockyards.

The University of Chicago, Ellis Ave., south of 51st St. This university was established under Baptist auspices and opened in 1892. The words "founded by John D. Rockefeller" (whose donations to the institution form the largest part of its endowment) follow the title of the university on all its letter heads and official documents. Mr. Rockefeller's benefactions to the university have been very large. The grounds, however, were given in part by Marshall Field. The buildings are mostly of grey limestone, in Gothic style and grouped in quadrangles. With the exception of the divinity school, the institution is non-sectarian and has about 8,700 students of both sexes.

West Side

The "Ghetto" District on South Canal, Jefferson, and Maxwell Sts.; Fish Market on Jefferson St. from 12th St. to Maxwell.

Hull House, 800 South Halsted St. This famous settlement house was established in 1899 by Miss Jane Addams; who became head resident, and Miss Ellen Gates Starr. It includes a gymnasium, a crêche and a diet kitchen, and supports classes, lectures and concerts.

Haymarket Square, Randolph and Des Plaines Sts.; scene of the anarchist riots.

[129]Sears, Roebuck & Co., a great mail order house which does a business of over $250,000,000 a year retail. Guides are provided to show visitors around the establishment, which is easily reached on the elevated railway.

Western Electric Co., 22nd St. and Forty-eighth Ave. This company supplies the chief part of the equipment of the Bell telephone companies of the U.S. and has about 17,000 employees.

McCormick Harvester Works of the International Harvester Co. This is one of the 23 plants of the greatest manufacturers of agricultural machinery in the world.

Chicago's position at the head of the most southwestern of the Great Lakes was the primary factor in determining its remarkable growth and prosperity. But with the decline of water transportation the city has not suffered, for it stands at one of the natural cross roads of trade and travel. Today it is the chief railroad centre not only in the U.S. but in the world. Not counting subsidiary divisions there are 27 railroads entering Chicago, which is the western terminus of the great New York Central System.

Chicago is thus the focus of the activities of half a continent. It is the financial centre of the west and the metropolis of the richest agricultural section in the country. These circumstances have contributed to make it the greatest grain and live stock market in the world. But its accessibility to the raw materials of industrial development has also made it a great manufacturing city. Chicago has more than 10,000 factories and the output of its manufacturing zone is probably more than $3,000,000,000 annually. The principal industries and manufactures are meat packing, foundry and machine shop products, clothing, cars and railway construction, agricultural implements, furniture, and (formerly) malt liquors.

Facts About The New York Central Railroad Company

The New York Central Lines comprise 14,242 miles of track. As part of the track equipment, there are 40,000,000 wooden ties, worth about $1 each. On these ties are 1,727,000 tons of steel rail, worth $96,000,000. There [130]are 32 tunnels, costing $10,000,000, and 19,000 bridges and culverts, costing $60,000,000. In the principal cities the New York Central's terminals cover about 4,800 acres, assessed at more than $100,000,000. The deeds for right-of-way for the section east of Buffalo alone number more than 30,000.

Passengers carried annually66,063,480
Freight carried annually (tons)113,534,840
No. of employees (1919)95,340
No. of locomotives3,840
No. of passenger cars3,500
No. of dining cars70
No. of freight cars144,840
Operating Revenues, 1910$ 153,383,590
Amount paid employees (1919)148,244,390
Taxes paid17,376,120
Funded debt (bonds)748,354,470
Stock issued249,849,360
Actual investment1,134,500,940
Excess of investment over outstanding securities136,297,110
Operating Revenues, 188051,925,370
Operating Revenues, 189059,484,870
Operating Revenues, 190081,029,460
Operating Revenues, 1910153,383,590
Operating Revenues, 1920338,624,450


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