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Title: Austral English

Author: Edward Ellis Morris

Release date: February 3, 2009 [eBook #27977]

Language: English

*** START OF THE PROJECT GUTENBERG EBOOK AUSTRAL ENGLISH ***

Produced by Geoffrey Cowling

AUSTRAL ENGLISH

A DICTIONARY OF AUSTRALASIAN WORDS, PHRASES AND USAGES

with those Aboriginal-Australian and Maori words which have become incorporated in the language and the commoner scientific words that have had their origin in Australasia

by Edward E. Morris M.A., Oxon.

Professor of English, French and German Languages and
Literatures in the University of Melbourne.

1898

INTRODUCTION

CONTENTS

I. ORIGIN OF THE WORK
      First undertaken to help O.E.D.
      The Standard Dictionary

II. TITLE AND SCOPE OF THE BOOK
      Not a Slang Dictionary

III. SOURCES OF NEW WORDS:—
      1. Altered English
      2. Words quite new to the language:—
         (a) Aboriginal Australian
         (b) Maori

IV. THE LAW OF HOBSON-JOBSON
       Is Austral English a corruption?

V. CLASSIFICATION OF WORDS
VI. QUOTATIONS. THEIR PURPOSE
VII. BOOKS USED AS AUTHORITIES
VIII.SCIENTIFIC WORDS
IX. ASSISTANCE RECEIVED

X. ABBREVIATIONS:— 1. Of Scientific Names 2. General

I. ORIGIN OF THE WORK.

About a generation ago Mr. Matthew Arnold twitted our nation with the fact that "the journeyman work of literature" was much better done in France—the books of reference, the biographical dictionaries, and the translations from the classics. He did not especially mention dictionaries of the language, because he was speaking in praise of academies, and, as far as France is concerned, the great achievement in that line is Littre and not the Academy's Dictionary. But the reproach has now been rolled away—<i>nous avons change tout cela</i>—and in every branch to which Arnold alluded our journeyman work is quite equal to anything in France.

It is generally allowed that a vast improvement has taken place in translations, whether prose or verse. From quarter to quarter the <i>Dictionary of National Biography</i> continues its stately progress. But the noblest monument of English scholarship is <i>The New English Dictionary on Historical Principles</i>, founded mainly on the materials collected by the Philological Society, edited by Dr. James Murray, and published at the cost of the University of Oxford. The name <i>New</i> will, however, be unsuitable long before the Dictionary is out of date. Its right name is the <i>Oxford English Dictionary</i> (`O.E.D.'). That great dictionary is built up out of quotations specially gathered for it from English books of all kinds and all periods; and Dr. Murray several years ago invited assistance from this end of the world for words and uses of words peculiar to Australasia, or to parts of it. In answer to his call I began to collect; but instances of words must be noted as one comes across them, and of course they do not occur in alphabetical order. The work took time, and when my parcel of quotations had grown into a considerable heap, it occurred to me that the collection, if a little further trouble were expended upon it, might first enjoy an independent existence. Various friends kindly contributed more quotations: and this Book is the result.

In January 1892, having the honour to be President of the
Section of "Literature and the Fine Arts" at the Hobart Meeting
of the Australasian Association for the Advancement of Science,
I alluded to Dr. Murray's request:

A body like this Section, composed of men from different parts of scattered colonies, might render valuable help in organising the work of collecting authorities for our various peculiar words and usages. Twenty or thirty men and women, each undertaking to read certain books with the new dictionary in mind, and to note in a prescribed fashion what is peculiar, could accomplish all that is needed. Something has been done in Melbourne, but the Colonies have different words and uses of words, and this work is of a kind which might well extend beyond the bounds of a single city. At first it may seem as if our words were few, as if in the hundred years of Australian life few special usages have arisen; but a man with a philological turn of mind, who notes what he hears, will soon find the list grow. Some philologers speak, not perhaps very satisfactorily, of being "at the fountains of language": we can all of us testify to the birth of some words within our own memory, but the origin of these, if not noted, will in time be lost. There are many other words which the strictest cannot condemn as slang, though even slang, being the speech of the people, is not undeserving of some scientific study; words, for instance, which have come into the language from the Aborigines, and names of animals, shrubs, and flowers. It might even be possible, with sufficient co-operation, to produce an Australian dictionary on the same lines as the <i>New English Dictionary</i> by way of supplement to it. Organisation might make the labour light, whilst for many it would from its very nature prove a pleasant task.

These suggestions were not carried out. Individuals sent quotations to Oxford, but no organisation was established to make the collection systematic or complete, and at the next meeting of the Association the Section had ceased to exist, or at least had doffed its literary character.

At a somewhat later date, Messrs. Funk and Wagnall of New York invited me to join an "Advisory Committee on disputed spelling and pronunciation." That firm was then preparing its <i>Standard Dictionary</i>, and one part of the scheme was to obtain opinions as to usage from various parts of the English-speaking world, especially from those whose function it is to teach the English Language. Subsequently, at my own suggestion, the firm appointed me to take charge of the Australian terms in their Dictionary, and I forwarded a certain number of words and phrases in use in Australia. But the accident of the letter A, for Australian, coming early in the alphabet gives my name a higher place than it deserves on the published list of those co-operating in the production of this <i>Standard Dictionary</i>; for with my present knowledge I see that my contribution was lamentably incomplete. Moreover, I joined the Editorial Corps too late to be of real use. Only the final proofs were sent to me, and although my corrections were reported to New York without delay, they arrived too late for any alterations to be effected before the sheets went to press. This took the heart out of my work for that Dictionary. For its modernness, for many of its lexicographical features, and for its splendid illustrations, I entertain a cordial admiration for the book, and I greatly regret the unworthiness of my share in it. It is quite evident that others had contributed Australasian words, and I must confess I hardly like to be held responsible for some of their statements. For instance—

"<i>Aabec</i>. An Australian medicinal bark said to promote perspiration."

I have never heard of it, and my ignorance is shared by the greatest Australian botanist, the Baron von Mueller.

"<i>Beauregarde</i>. The Zebra grass-parrakeet of Australia. From F. beau, regarde. See BEAU n. and REGARD."

As a matter of fact, the name is altered out of recognition, but really comes from the aboriginal <i>budgery</i>, good, and <i>gar</i>, parrot.

"<i>Imou-pine</i>. A large New Zealand tree. . . . called <i>red pine</i> by the colonists and <i>rimu</i> by the natives."

I can find no trace of the spelling "Imou." In a circular to New Zealand newspapers I asked whether it was a known variant. The <i>New Zealand Herald</i> made answer—"He may be sure that the good American dictionary has made a misprint. It was scarcely worth the Professor's while to take notice of mere examples of pakeha ignorance of Maori."

"Swagman. [Slang, Austral.] 1. A dealer in cheap trinkets, etc. 2. A swagger."

In twenty-two years of residence in Australia, I have never heard the former sense.

"<i>Taihoa</i>. [Anglo-Tasmanian.] No hurry; wait."

The word is Maori, and Maori is the language of New Zealand, not of Tasmania.

These examples, I know, are not fair specimens of the accuracy of the Standard Dictionary, but they serve as indications of the necessity for a special book on Australasian English.

II. TITLE AND SCOPE OF THE BOOK.

In the present day, when words are more and more abbreviated, a "short title" may be counted necessary to the welfare of a book. For this reason "Austral English" has been selected. In its right place in the dictionary the word <i>Austral</i> will be found with illustrations to show that its primary meaning, "southern," is being more and more limited, so that the word may now be used as equivalent to <i>Australasian</i>.

"Austral" or "Australasian English" means all the new words and the new uses of old words that have been added to the English language by reason of the fact that those who speak English have taken up their abode in Australia, Tasmania, and New Zealand. Hasty inference might lead to the remark that such addition is only slang, but the remark is far from being accurate; probably not one-tenth of the new vocabulary could fairly be so classified. A great deal of slang is used in Australasia, but very much less is generated here than is usually believed. In 1895 a literary policeman in Melbourne brought out a small <i>Australian Slang Dictionary</i>. In spite of the name, however, the compiler confesses that "very few of the terms it contains have been invented by Australians." My estimate is that not one word in fifty in his little book has an Australian origin, or even a specially Australian use.

The phrase "Australasian English" includes something much wider than slang. Those who, speaking the tongue of Shakspeare, of Milton, and of Dr. Johnson, came to various parts of Australasia, found a Flora and a Fauna waiting to be named in English. New birds, beasts and fishes, new trees, bushes and flowers, had to receive names for general use. It is probably not too much to say that there never was an instance in history when so many new names were needed, and that there never will be such an occasion again, for never did settlers come, nor can they ever again come, upon Flora and Fauna so completely different from anything seen by them before. When the offshoots of our race first began to settle in America, they found much that was new, but they were still in the same North Temperate zone. Though there is now a considerable divergence between the American and the English vocabulary, especially in technical terms, it is not largely due to great differences in natural history. An oak in America is still a <i>Quercus</i>, not as in Australia a <i>Casuarina</i>. But with the whole tropical region intervening it was to be expected that in the South Temperate Zone many things would be different, and such expectation was amply fulfilled. In early descriptions of Australia it is a sort of commonplace to dwell on this complete variety, to harp on the trees that shed bark not leaves, and the cherries with the stones outside. Since the days when "Adam gave names to all cattle and to the fowl of the air and to every beast of the field" never were so many new names called for. Unfortunately, names were not given by the best educated in the community, but often by those least qualified to invent satisfactory names: not by a linguist, a botanist, an ornithologist, an ichthyologist, but by the ordinary settler. Even in countries of old civilisation names are frequently conferred or new words invented, at times with good and at times with unsatisfactory results, by the average man, whom it is the modern fashion to call "the man in the street." Much of Australasian nomenclature is due to "the man in the bush" —more precise address not recorded. Givers of new names may be benefactors to their language or violators of its purity and simplicity, but in either case they are nearly always, like the burial-place of Moses, unknown.

III. SOURCES OF NEW WORDS.

Of Australasian additions to the English language there are two main sources, which correspond to the twofold division of them into new words and new uses of old words.

1. Altered English.

The commoner origin of Australasian English words is the turning and twisting of an already existing English name. The settler saw a fruit somewhat like a cherry. Though he knew well that it was not a cherry, he christened it the "native cherry." It may here be remarked that the prefix native is not a satisfactory distinguishing adjective. Native bear, native cherry, may teach the young Australian that the bear and the cherry so named are not as the bear of the Arctic Regions or the cherry of Europe. But in the British Museum the label does not help much. The settler heard a bird laugh in what he thought an extremely ridiculous manner, its opening notes suggesting a donkey's bray—he called it the "laughing jackass." His descendants have dropped the adjective, and it has come to pass that the word "jackass" denotes to an Australian something quite different from its meaning to other speakers of our English tongue. The settler must have had an imagination. Whip-bird, or Coach-whip, from the sound of the note, Lyre-bird from the appearance of the outspread tail, are admirable names.

Another class of name brought the Australian word nearer to its English use. "Robin" for instance is applied to birds of various species not known in Europe. Bird-names, fish-names, plant-names, are sometimes transferred to new species, sometimes to a new genus, sometimes to an entirely different Natural Order, bearing a resemblance to the original, either real or fancied, as for instance "Magpie." It is hardly necessary to dwell longer on this point, for almost every page of the Dictionary bears witness to it.

2. Words new to the Language.

(a) Aboriginal Australian.

Many of the new Australasian words are taken from the languages of the aborigines, often with considerable alteration due to misunderstanding. Such words are either Australian or Maori. Whilst in New Zealand careful attention has been paid by competent scholars to the musical Maori language, it can hardly be claimed that the Australian family of languages has ever been scientifically studied, though there is a heap of printed material—small grammars and lists of words—<i>rudis indigestaque moles</i>. There is no doubt that the vocabularies used in different parts of Australia and Tasmania varied greatly, and equally little doubt that the languages, in structure and perhaps originally in vocabulary, were more or less connected. About the year 1883, Professor Sayce, of Oxford, wrote a letter, which was published in <i>The Argus</i>, pointing out the obligation that lay upon the Australian colonies to make a scientific study of a vanishing speech. The duty would be stronger were it not for the distressing lack of pence that now is vexing public men. Probably a sum of L300 a year would suffice for an educated inquirer, but his full time for several years would be needed. Such an one should be trained at the University as a linguist and an observer, paying especial attention to logic and to Comparative Philology. Whilst the colonies neglect their opportunities, and Sibylla year by year withdraws her offer, perhaps "the inevitable German" will intervene, and in a well-arranged book bring order out of the chaos of vocabularies and small pamphlets on the subject, all that we have to trust to now.

The need of scientific accuracy is strong. For the purposes of this Dictionary I have been investigating the origin of words, more or less naturalised as English, that come from aboriginal Australian, in number between seventy and a hundred. I have received a great deal of kind assistance, many people taking much trouble to inform me. But there is a manifest lack of knowledge. Many supplied me with the meanings of the words as used in English, but though my appeal was scattered far and wide over Australia (chiefly through the kindness of the newspapers), few could really give the origin of the words. Two amongst the best informed went so far as to say that Australian words have no derivation. That doctrine is hard to accept. A word of three syllables does not spring complete from the brain of an aboriginal as Athene rose fully armed from the head of Zeus.

It is beyond all doubt that the vocabularies of the Aborigines differed widely in different parts. Frequently, the English have carried a word known in one district to a district where it was not known, the aboriginals regarding the word as pure English. In several books statements will be found that such and such a word is not Aboriginal, when it really has an aboriginal source but in a different part of the Continent. Mr. Threlkeld, in his <i>Australian Grammar</i>, which is especially concerned with the language of the Hunter River, gives a list of "barbarisms," words that he considers do not belong to the aboriginal tongue. He says with perfect truth-"Barbarisms have crept into use, introduced by sailors, stockmen, and others, in the use of which both blacks and whites labour under the mistaken idea, that each one is conversing in the other's language." And yet with him a "barbarism" has to be qualified as meaning "not belonging to the Hunter District." But Mr. Threlkeld is not the only writer who will not acknowledge as aboriginal sundry words with an undoubted Australian pedigree.

(b) Maori.

The Maori language, the Italian of the South, has received very different treatment from that meted out by fate and indifference to the aboriginal tongues of Australia. It has been studied by competent scholars, and its grammar has been comprehensively arranged and stated. A Maori Dictionary, compiled more than fifty years ago by a missionary, afterwards a bishop, has been issued in a fourth edition by his son, who is now a bishop. Yet, of Maori also, the same thing is said with respect to etymology. A Maori scholar told me that, when he began the study many years ago, he was warned by a very distinguished scholar not to seek for derivations, as the search was full of pitfalls. It was not maintained that words sprang up without an origin, but that the true origin of most of the words was now lost. In spite of this double warning, it may be maintained that some of the origins both of Maori and of Australian words have been found and are in this book recorded.

The pronunciation of Maori words differs so widely from that of Australian aboriginal names that it seems advisable to insert a note on the subject.

Australian aboriginal words have been written down on no system, and very much at hap-hazard. English people have attempted to express the native sounds phonetically according to English pronunciation. No definite rule has been observed, different persons giving totally different values to represent the consonant and vowel sounds. In a language with a spelling so unphonetic as the English, in which the vowels especially have such uncertain and variable values, the results of this want of system have necessarily been very unsatisfactory and often grotesque. Maori words, on the other hand, have been written down on a simple and consistent system, adopted by the missionaries for the purpose of the translation of the Bible. This system consists in giving the Italian sound to the vowels, every letter—vowel and consonant—having a fixed and invariable value. Maori words are often very melodious. In pronunciation the best rule is to pronounce each syllable with a nearly equal accent.

Care has been taken to remember that this is an Australasian <i>English</i> and not a Maori Dictionary; therefore to exclude words that have not passed into the speech of the settlers. But in New Zealand Maori is much more widely used in the matter of vocabulary than the speech of the aborigines is in Australia, or at any rate in the more settled parts of Australia; and the Maori is in a purer form. Though some words and names have been ridiculously corrupted, the language of those who dwell in the bush in New Zealand can hardly be called <i>Pigeon English</i>, and that is the right name for the "lingo" used in Queensland and Western Australia, which, only partly represented in this book, is indeed a falling away from the language of Bacon and Shakspeare.

IV. LAW OF HOBSON-JOBSON.

In many places in the Dictionary, I find I have used the expression "the law of Hobson-Jobson." The name is an adaptation from the expression used by Col. Yule and Mr. Burnell as a name for their interesting Dictionary of Anglo-Indian words. The law is well recognised, though it has lacked the name, such as I now venture to give it. When a word comes from a foreign language, those who use it, not understanding it properly, give a twist to the word or to some part of it from the hospitable desire to make the word at home in its new quarters, no regard, however, being paid to the sense. The most familiar instance in English is <i>crayfish</i> from the French <i>ecrevisse</i>, though it is well known that a crayfish is not a fish at all. Amongst the Mohammedans in India there is a festival at which the names of "Hassan" and "Hosein" are frequently called out by devotees. Tommy Atkins, to whom the names were naught, converted them into "Hobson, Jobson." That the practice of so altering words is not limited to the English is shown by two perhaps not very familiar instances in French, where "Aunt Sally" has become <i>ane sale</i>, "a dirty donkey," and "bowsprit" has become <i>beau pre</i>, though quite unconnected with "a beautiful meadow." The name "Pigeon English" is itself a good example. It has no connection with pigeon, the bird, but is an Oriental's attempt to pronounce the word "business." It hardly, however, seems necessary to alter the spelling to "pidjin."

It may be thought by some precisians that all Australasian English is a corruption of the language. So too is Anglo-Indian, and, <i>pace</i> Mr. Brander Matthews, there are such things as Americanisms, which were not part of the Elizabethan heritage, though it is perfectly true that many of the American phrases most railed at are pure old English, preserved in the States, though obsolete in Modern England; for the Americans, as Lowell says, "could not take with them any better language than that of Shakspeare." When we hear railing at slang phrases, at Americanisms, some of which are admirably expressive, at various flowers of colonial speech, and at words woven into the texture of our speech by those who live far away from London and from Oxford, and who on the outskirts of the British Empire are brought into contact with new natural objects that need new names, we may think for our comfort on the undoubted fact that the noble and dignified language of the poets, authors and preachers, grouped around Lewis XIV., sprang from debased Latin. For it was not the classical Latin that is the origin of French, but the language of the soldiers and the camp-followers who talked slang and picked words up from every quarter. English has certainly a richer vocabulary, a finer variety of words to express delicate distinctions of meaning, than any language that is or that ever was spoken: and this is because it has always been hospitable in the reception of new words. It is too late a day to close the doors against new words. This <i>Austral English Dictionary</i> merely catalogues and records those which at certain doors have already come in.

V. CLASSIFICATION OF THE WORDS.

The Dictionary thus includes the following classes of Words,
Phrases and Usages; viz.—

(1) Old English names of Natural Objects—Birds, Fishes, Animals, Trees, Plants, etc.—applied (in the first instance by the early settlers) either to new Australian species of such objects, or to new objects bearing a real or fancied resemblance to them—as <i>Robin, Magpie, Herring, Cod, Cat, Bear, Oak, Beech, Pine, Cedar, Cherry, Spinach, Hops, Pea, Rose</i>.

(2) English names of objects applied in Australia to others quite different-as <i>Wattle</i>, a hurdle, applied as the name of the tree <i>Wattle</i>, from whose twigs the hurdle was most readily made; <i>Jackass</i>, an animal, used as the name for the bird <i>Jackass</i>; <i>Cockatoo</i>, a birdname, applied to a small farmer.

(3) Aboriginal Australian and Maori words which have been incorporated unchanged in the language, and which still denote the original object—as <i>Kangaroo, Wombat, Boomerang, Whare, Pa, Kauri</i>.

(4) Aboriginal Australian and Maori words which have been similarly adopted, and which have also had their original meaning extended and applied to other things—as <i>Bunyip, Corrobbery, Warrigal</i>.

(5) Anglicised corruptions of such words—as <i>Copper-Maori, Go-ashore, Cock-a-bully, Paddy-melon, Pudding-ball, Tooky-took</i>.

(6) Fanciful, picturesque, or humorous names given to new Australasian Natural Objects—as <i>Forty-spot, Lyre-bird, Parson-bird, and Coach-whip</i> (birds); <i>Wait-a-while</i> (a tangled thicket); <i>Thousand-jacket, Jimmy Low, Jimmy Donnelly, and Roger Gough</i> (trees); <i>Axe-breaker, Cheese-wood, and Raspberry Jam</i> (timbers); <i>Trumpeter, Schnapper and Sergeant Baker</i> (fishes); <i>Umbrella-grass</i> and <i>Spaniard</i> (native plants), and so on.

(7) Words and phrases of quite new coinage, or arising from quite new objects or orders of things—as <i>Larrikin, Swagman, Billy, Free-selector, Boundary-rider, Black-tracker, Back-blocks, Clear-skin, Dummyism, Bushed.</i>

(8) Scientific names arising exclusively from Australasian necessities, chiefly to denote or describe new Natural Orders, Genera, or Species confined or chiefly appertaining to Australia—as <i>Monotreme, Petrogale, Clianthus, Ephthianura, Dinornis, Eucalypt, Boronia, Ornithorhynchus, Banksia</i>.

(9) Slang (of which the element is comparatively small)— as <i>Deepsinker, Duck-shoving, Hoot, Slushy, Boss-cockie, On-the-Wallaby</i>.

VI. QUOTATIONS.

With certain exceptions, this Dictionary is built up, as a Dictionary should be, on quotations, and these are very copious. It may even be thought that their number is too large. It is certainly larger, and in some places the quotations themselves are much longer, than could ever be expected in a general Dictionary of the English Language. This copiousness is, however, the advantage of a special Dictionary. The intention of the quotations is to furnish evidence that a word is used as an English word; and many times the quotation itself furnishes a satisfactory explanation of the meaning. I hope, however, I shall not be held responsible for all the statements in the quotations, even where attention is not drawn to their incorrectness. Sundry Australasian uses of words are given in other dictionaries, as, for instance, in the parts already issued of the <i>Oxford English Dictionary</i> and in <i>The Century</i>, but the space that can be allotted to them in such works is of necessity too small for full explanation. Efforts have been made to select such quotations as should in themselves be interesting, picturesque, and illustrative. In a few cases they may even be humorous.

Moreover, the endeavour has been constant to obtain quotations from all parts of the Australasian Colonies—from books that describe different parts of Australasia, and from newspapers published far and wide. I am conscious that in the latter division Melbourne papers predominate, but this has been due to the accident that living in Melbourne I see more of the Melbourne papers, whilst my friends have sent me more quotations from books and fewer from newspapers.

The quotations, however, are not all explanatory. Many times a quotation is given merely to mark the use of a word at a particular epoch. Quotations are all carefully dated and arranged in their historical order, and thus the exact chronological development of a word has been indicated. The practice of the `O.E.D.' has been followed in this respect and in the matter of quotations generally, though as a rule the titles of books quoted have been more fully expressed here than in that Dictionary. Early quotations have been sought with care, and a very respectable antiquity, about a century, has been thus found for some Australasian words. As far as possible, the spelling, the stops, the capitals, and the italics of the original have been preserved. The result is often a rich variety of spelling the same word in consecutive extracts.

The last decade has been a very active time in Australian science. A great deal of system has been brought into its study, and much rearrangement of classification has followed as the result. Both among birds and plants new species have been distinguished and named: and there has been not a little change in nomenclature. This Dictionary, it must be remembered, is chiefly concerned with vernacular names, but for proper identification, wherever possible, the scientific name is added. In some cases, where there has been a recent change in the latter, both the new and the older names are recorded.

VII. AUTHORITIES.

The less-known birds, fishes, plants, and trees are in many cases not illustrated by quotations, but have moved to their places in the Dictionary from lists of repute. Many books have been written on the Natural History of Australia and New Zealand, and these have been placed under contribution. Under the head of Botany no book has been of greater service than Maiden's <i>Useful Native Plants</i>. Unfortunately many scientific men scorn vernacular names, but Mr. Maiden has taken the utmost pains with them, and has thereby largely increased the utility of his volume. For Tasmania there is Mr. Spicer's <i>Handbook of Tasmanian Plants</i>; for New Zealand, Kirk's <i>Forest Flora</i> and Hooker's <i>Botany</i>.

For Australian animals Lydekker's <i>Marsupials and Monotremes</i> is excellent; especially his section on the Phalanger or Australian <i>Opossum</i>, an animal which has been curiously neglected by all Dictionaries of repute. On New Zealand mammals it is not necessary to quote any book; for when the English came, it is said, New Zealand contained no mammal larger than a rat. Captain Cook turned two pigs loose; but it is stated on authority, that these pigs left no descendants. One was ridden to death by Maori boys, and the other was killed for sacrilege: he rooted in a tapu burial-place. Nevertheless, the settlers still call any wild-pig, especially if lean and bony, a "Captain Cook."

For the scientific nomenclature of Australian Botany the <i>Census of Australian Plants</i> by the Baron von Mueller (1889) is indispensable. It has been strictly followed. For fishes reliance has been placed upon Tenison Woods' <i>Fishes and Fisheries of New South Wales</i> (1882), on W. Macleay's <i>Descriptive Catalogue of Australian Fishes</i> (Proceedings of the Linnaean Society of New South Wales, vols. v. and vi.), and on Dr. Guenther's <i>Study of Fishes</i>. For the scientific nomenclature of Animal Life, the standard of reference has been the <i>Tabular List of all the Australian Birds</i> by E. P. Ramsay of the Australian Museum, Sydney (1888); <i>Catalogue of Australian Mammals</i> by J. O. Ogilby of the Australian Museum, Sydney (1892); <i>Catalogue of Marsupials and Monotremes</i>, British Museum (1888); <i>Prodromus to the Natural History of Victoria</i> by Sir F. McCoy. Constant reference has also been made to Proceedings of the Linnaean Society of New South Wales, Proceedings and Transactions of the Royal Societies of Victoria and Tasmania, and to the journal of the Field Naturalist Club of Victoria.

The birds both in Australia and New Zealand have been handsomely treated by the scientific illustrators. Gould's <i>Birds of Australia</i> and Buller's <i>Birds of New Zealand</i> are indeed monumental works. Neither Gould nor Sir Walter Buller scorns vernacular names. But since the days of the former the number of named species of Australian birds has largely increased, and in January 1895, at the Brisbane Meeting of the Australasian Association for the Advancement of Science, a Committee was appointed to draw up a list of vernacular bird-names. By the kindness of a member of this Committee (Mr. A. J. Campbell of Melbourne) I was allowed the use of a list of such vernacular names drawn up by him and Col. Legge for submission to the Committee.

VIII. SCIENTIFIC WORDS.

The example of <i>The Century</i> has been followed in the inclusion of sundry scientific names, especially those of genera or Natural Orders of purely Australasian objects. Although it is quite true that these can hardly be described as Australasian <i>English</i>, it is believed that the course adopted will be for the general convenience of those who consult this Dictionary.

Some of these "Neo-Latin" and "Neo-Greek" words are extraordinary in themselves and obscure in their origin, though not through antiquity. In his <i>Student's Pastime</i>, at p. 293, Dr. Skeat says "Nowhere can more ignorant etymologies be found than in works on Botany and `scientific' subjects. Too often, all the science is reserved for the subject, so that there is none to spare for explaining the names."

A generous latitude has also been taken in including some words undoubtedly English, but not exclusively Australasian, such as <i>Anabranch</i>, and <i>Antipodes</i>, and some mining and other terms that are also used in the United States. Convenience of readers is the excuse. <i>Anabranch</i> is more frequently used of Australian rivers than of any others, but perhaps a little pride in tracking the origin of the word has had something to do with its inclusion. Some words have been inserted for purposes of explanation, e.g. <i>Snook</i>, in Australasia called <i>Barracouta</i>, which latter is itself an old name applied in Australasia to a different fish; and <i>Cavally</i>, which is needed to explain <i>Trevally</i>.

IX. ASSISTANCE RECEIVED.

There remains the pleasant duty of acknowledging help. Many persons have given me help, whose names can hardly be listed here. A friend, an acquaintance, or sometimes even a stranger, has often sent a single quotation of value, or an explanation of a single word. The Editors of many newspapers have helped not a little by the insertion of a letter or a circular. To all these helpers, and I reckon their number at nearly 200, I tender my hearty thanks.

Various officers of the Melbourne Public Library, and my friend Mr. Edward H. Bromby, the Librarian of this University, have rendered me much assistance. I have often been fortunate enough to obtain information from the greatest living authority on a particular subject: from the Baron von Mueller, from Sir Frederick M'Coy, or from Mr. A. W. Howitt. [Alas! since I penned this sentence, the kind and helpful Baron has been taken from us, and is no longer the greatest living authority on Australian Botany.] My friend and colleague, Professor Baldwin Spencer, a most earnest worker in the field of Australian science, gave many hours of valuable time to set these pages right in the details of scientific explanations. Mr. J. G. Luehmann of Melbourne has kindly answered various questions about Botany, and Mr. A. J. North, of Sydney, in regard to certain birds. Mr. T. S. Hall, of the Biological Department of this University, and Mr. J. J. Fletcher, of Sydney, the Secretary of the Linnaean Society of New South Wales, have rendered me much help. The Rev. John Mathew, of Coburg, near Melbourne, has thrown much light on aboriginal words. The Rev. E. H. Sugden, Master of Queen's College in this University, has furnished a large number of useful quotations. His name is similarly mentioned, <i>honoris causa</i>, in Dr. Murray's Preface to Part I. of the `O. E. D.' Mr. R. T. Elliott of Worcester College, Oxford, has given similar help. The Master himself,—the Master of all who engage in Dictionary work,—Dr. Murray, of Oxford, has kindly forwarded to me a few pithy and valuable comments on my proof-streets. He also made me a strong appeal never to pass on information from any source without acknowledgment. This, the only honest course, I have striven scrupulously to follow; but it is not always easy to trace the sources whence information has been derived.

When gaps in the sequence of quotations were especially apparent on the proofs, Mr. W. Ellis Bird, of Richmond, Victoria, found me many illustrative passages. For New Zealand words a goodly supply of quotations was contributed by Miss Mary Colborne-Veel of Christchurch, author of a volume of poetry called <i>The Fairest of the Angels</i>, by her sister, Miss Gertrude Colborne-Veel, and by Mr. W. H. S. Roberts of Oamaru, author of a little book called <i>Southland in</i> 1856. In the matter of explanation of the origin and meaning of New Zealand terms, Dr. Hocken of Dunedin, Mr. F. R. Chapman of the same city, and Mr. Edward Tregear of Wellington, author of the <i>Maori Polynesian Dictionary</i>, and Secretary of the Polynesian Society, have rendered valuable and material assistance. Dr. Holden of Bellerive, near Hobart, was perhaps my most valued correspondent. After I had failed in one or two quarters to enlist Tasmanian sympathy, he came to the rescue, and gave me much help on Tasmanian words, especially on the Flora and the birds; also on Queensland Flora and on the whole subject of Fishes. Dr. Holden also enlisted later the help of Mr. J. B. Walker, of Hobart, who contributed much to enrich my proofs. But the friend who has given me most help of all has been Mr. J. Lake of St. John's College, Cambridge. When the Dictionary was being prepared for press, he worked with me for some months, very loyally putting my materials into shape. Birds, Animals, and Botany he sub-edited for me, and much of the value of this part of the Book, which is almost an Encyclopaedia rather than a Dictionary, is due to his ready knowledge, his varied attainments, and his willingness to undertake research.

To all who have thus rendered me assistance I tender hearty thanks. It is not their fault if, as is sure to be the case, defects and mistakes are found in this Dictionarv. But should the Book be received with public favour, these shall be corrected in a later edition.

EDWARD E. MORRIS.

The University, Melbourne,
February 23, 1897

LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS OF NAMES

Ait. . . . Aiton.
Andr. . . . Andrews.

B. and L. . Barere and L.
Bail. . . . Baillon.
Bechst. . . Bechstein.
Benth. . . Bentham.
Bl. . . . Bleeker.
Bodd. . . . Boddaert

Bp. )
         ) . Bonaparte.
Bonap. )

R. Br. . . Robert Brown
Brong. . . Brongniart.

Cab. . . . Cabanis.
Carr. . . . Carriere.
Castln. . . Castelnau.
Cav. . . . Cavanilles.
Corr. . . . Correa.

Cunn. )
         ) . A. Cunningham
A. Cunn. )

Cuv. . . . Cuvier.

De C. . . . De Candolle.
Dec. . . . Decaisne.
Desf. . . . Desfontaines.
Desm. . . . Desmarest.
Desv. . . . Desvaux.
De Tarrag. . De Tarragon
Diet. . . . Dietrich.
Donov. . . Donovan.
Drap. . . . Drapiez.
Dryand. . . Dryander.

Endl. . . . Endlicher.

Fab. . . . Fabricius.
Forsk. . . Forskael.
Forst. . . Forster.
F. v. M. . . Ferdinand von Mueller

G. Forst. . G. Forster.
Gaertn. . . Gaertner.
Gaim. . . . Gaimard.
Garn. . . . Garnot.
Gaud. . . Gaudichaud.
Geoff. . . Geoffroy.
Germ. . . Germar.
Gmel. . . Gmelin.
Guich. . . Guichenot.
Gunth. . . Guenther.

Harv. . . Harvey.
Hasselq. . . Hasselquin.
Haw. . . . Haworth.
Hens. . . Henslow.
Herb. . . Herbert.
Homb. . . Hombron.
Hook. . . J. Hooker.
Hook. f. . . Hooker fils.
Horsf. . . Horsfield.

Ill. . . . Illiger.

Jacq. . . . Jacquinot.
Jard. . . . Jardine.

L. and S. . Liddell and Scott.

Lab. )
         ) . Labillardiere.
Labill. )

Lacep. . . Lacepede.
Lath. . . . Latham.
Lehm. . . Lehmann.
Less. . . Lesson.
L'herit. . . L'Heritier.
Licht. . . Lichtenstein.
Lindl. . . Lindley.
Linn. . . . Linnaeus.

Macl. . . . Macleay.
McC. . . . McCoy.
Meissn. . . Meissner.
Menz. . . Menzies.
Milne-Ed. . Milne-Edwards.
Miq. . . . Miquel.

Parlat. . . Parlatore.
Pers. . . . Persoon.

Plan. )
         ) . Planchol.
Planch. )

Poir. . . Poiret.

Q. . . . Quoy.

Rafll. . . Raffles.
Rein. . . . Reinwardt.
Reiss. . . Reisseck.

Rich. )
         ) . Richardson.
Richards.)

Roxb. . . Roxburgh

Sal. . . . Salvadori.
Salisb. . . Salisbury.
Schau. . . Schauer.

Schl. )
         ) . Schlechten
Schlecht.)

Selb. . . . Selby.
Ser. . . . Seringe.
Serv. . . . Serville.
Sieb. . . . Sieber.
Sm. . . . Smith.
Sol. . . . Solander.
Sow. . . . Sowerby.
Sparrm. . . Sparrman.
Steph. . . Stephan.
Sundev. . . Sundevall.

Sw. )
         ) . Swainson.
Swains. )

Temm. . . Temminck.
Thunb. . . Thunberg.
Tul. . . . Tulasne.

V. and H. . Vigors and Horsfield.
Val. . . . Valenciennes.
Vent. . . . Ventenat.
Vieill. . . Vieillot.
Vig. . . . Vigors.

Wagl. . . . Wagler.
Water. . . Waterhouse.
Wedd. . . . Weddell.
Willd. . . Willdenow.

Zimm. . . . Zimmermann.

OTHER ABBREVIATIONS

q.v. <i>quod vide</i>, which see.

i.q. <i>idem quod</i>, the same as.

ibid. <i>ibidem</i>, in the same book.

i.e. <i>id est</i>, that is.

sc. <i>scilicet</i>, that is to say.

s.v. <i>sub voce</i>, under the word.

cf. <i>confer</i>, compare.

n. noun,

adj. adjective.

v. verb.

prep. preposition.

interj. interjection.

<i>sic</i>, "thus," draws attention to some peculiarity of diction or to what is believed to be a mistake.

N.O. Natural Order.

sp. a species,

spp. various species.

A square bracket [ ] shows an addition to a quotation by way of comment.

O.E.D. "Oxford English Dictionary," often formerly quoted
          as "N.E.D." or "New English Dictionary."

AUSTRALASIAN DICTIONARY

A

<hw>Absentee</hw>, <i>n</i>. euphemistic term for a convict. The word has disappeared with the need for it.

1837. Jas. Mudie, `Felonry of New South Wales,' p. vii.:

"The ludicrous and affected philanthropy of the present Governor of the Colony, in advertising runaway convicts under the soft and gentle name of <i>absentees</i>, is really unaccountable, unless we suppose it possible that his Excellency as a native of Ireland, and as having a well-grounded Hibernian antipathy to his absentee countrymen, uses the term as one expressive both of the criminality of the absentee and of his own abhorrence of the crime."

<hw>Acacia</hw>, <i>n</i>. and <i>adj</i>. a genus of shrubs or trees, <i>N.O. Leguminosae</i>. The Australian species often form thickets or scrubs, and are much used for hedges. The species are very numerous, and are called provincially by various names, e.g. "Wattle," "Mulga," "Giddea," and "Sally," an Anglicized form of the aboriginal name <i>Sallee</i> (q.v.). The tree peculiar to Tasmania, <i>Acacia riceana</i>, Hensl., (i>N.O. Leguminosae</i>, is there called the <i>Drooping Acacia</i>.

1827. P. Cunningham, `Two Years in New South Wales,' vol. i. p. 202:

"We possess above a hundred and thirty species of the acacia."

1839. Dr. J. Shotsky, quoted in `Sydney Morning Herald,' Aug. 5, p. 5, col. 2:

"Yet, Australian sky and nature awaits and merits real artists to portray it. Its gigantic gum and acacia trees, 40 ft. in girth, some of them covered with a most smooth bark, externally as white as chalk. .. ."

1844. L. Leichhardt, Letter in `Cooksland,' by J. D. Lang, p. 91:

"Rosewood Acacia, the wood of which has a very agreeable violet scent like the Myal Acacia (<i>A. pendula</i>) in Liverpool Plains."

1846. C. P. Hodgson, `Reminiscences of Australia,' p. 149:

"The Acacias are innumerable, all yielding a famous bark for tanning, and a clean and excellent gum."

1869. Mrs. Meredith, `A Tasmanian Memory,' p. 8:

"Acacias fringed with gold."

1877. F. v. Mueller, `Botanic Teachings,' p. 24:

"The name Acacia, derived from the Greek, and indicative of a thorny plant, was already bestowed by the ancient naturalist and physician Dioscorides on a Gum-Arabic yielding North-African Acacia not dissimilar to some Australian species. This generic name is so familiarly known, that the appellation `Wattle' might well be dispensed with. Indeed the name Acacia is in full use in works on travels and in many popular writings for the numerous Australian species . . . Few of any genera of plants contain more species than Acacia, and in Australia it is the richest of all; about 300 species, as occurring in our continent, have been clearly defined."

<hw>Acrobates</hw>, <i>n</i>. the scientific name of the Australian genus of <i>Pigmy Flying-Phalangers</i>, or, as they are locally called, <i>Opossum-Mice</i>. See <i>Opossum-Mouse, Flying-Mouse, Flying-Phalanger</i>, and <i>Phalanger</i>. The genus was founded by Desmarest in 1817. (Grk. <i>'akrobataes</i>, walking on tiptoe.)

<hw>AEpyprymnus</hw>, <i>n</i>. the scientific name of the genus of the <i>Rufous Kangaroo-Rat</i>. It is the tallest and largest of the Kangaroo-Rats (q.v.). (Grk. <i>'aipus</i>, high, and <i>prumnon</i>, the hinder part.)

<hw>Ailuroedus</hw>, <i>n</i>. scientific name for the genus of Australian birds called <i>Cat-birds</i> (q.v.). From Grk. <i>'ailouros</i>, a cat, and <i>'eidos</i>, species.

<hw>Ake</hw>, <i>n</i>. originally Akeake, Maori name for either of two small trees, (1) <i>Dodonaea viscosa</i>, Linn., in New Zealand; (2) <i>Olearia traversii</i>, F. v. M., in the Chatham Islands. Ake is originally a Maori <i>adv</i>. meaning "onwards, in time." Archdeacon Williams, in his `Dictionary of New Zealand Language,' says <i>Ake</i>, <i>Ake</i>, <i>Ake</i>, means " for ever and ever." (Edition 182.)

1820. `Grammar and Vocabulary of Language of New Zealand' (Church Missionary Society), p.133:

"Akeake, <i>paulo post futurum</i>"

1835. W. Yale, `Some Account of New Zealand,' p. 47:

"Aki, called the <i>Lignum vitae</i> of New Zealand."

1851. Mrs. Wilson, `New Zealand,' p. 43:

"The ake and towai . . . are almost equal, in point of colour, to rosewood."

1883. J. Hector, `Handbook to New Zealand,' p. 131:

"Ake, a small tree, 6 to 12 feet high. Wood very hard, variegated, black and white; used for Maori clubs; abundant in dry woods and forests."

<hw>Alarm-bird</hw>, <i>n</i>. a bird-name no longer used in Australia. There is an African Alarm-bird.

1848. J. Gould, `Birds of Australia,' vol. vi. pl. 9:

"<i>Lobivanellus lobatus</i> (Lath.), Wattled Pewit, Alarm Bird of the Colonists."

<hw>Alectryon</hw>, <i>n</i>. a New Zealand tree and flower, <i>Alectryon excelsum</i>, De C., Maori name <i>Titoki</i> (q.v.); called also the <i>New Zealand Oak</i>, from the resemblance of its leaves to those of an oak. Named by botanists from Grk. <i>'alektruown</i>, a cock.

1872. A. Domett, `Ranolf,' I. 7, p. 16:

"The early season could not yet
Have ripened the alectryon's beads of jet,
Each on its scarlet strawberry set."

<hw>Alexandra Palm</hw>, <i>n</i>. a Queensland tree, <i>Ptychosperma alexandrae</i>, F. v. M. A beautifully marked wood much used for making walking sticks. It grows 70 or 80 feet high.

<hw>Alluvial</hw>, <i>n</i>. the common term in Australia and New Zealand for gold-bearing alluvial soil. The word is also used adjectivally as in England.

1889. Rolf Boldrewood, `Robbery under Arms,' p. 403:

"The whole of the alluvial will be taken up, and the Terrible
Hollow will re-echo with the sound of pick and shovel."

<hw>Ambrite</hw> (generally called <B>ambrit</B>), <i>n</i>. Mineral [from amber + ite, mineral formative, `O.E.D.'], a fossil resin found in masses amidst lignite coals in various parts of New Zealand. Some identify it with the resin of <i>Dammara australis</i>, generally called <i>Kauri gum</i> (q.v.).

1867. F. von Hochstetter, `New Zealand,' p. 79:

"Although originating probably from a coniferous tree related to the Kauri pine, it nevertheless has been erroneously taken for Kauri gum."—[Footnote]: "It is sufficiently characterised to deserve a special name ; but it comes so near to real <i>amber</i> that it deserves the name of <i>Ambrite</i>."

[This is the earliest use of the word.]

<hw>Anabranch</hw>, <i>n</i>. a branch of a river which leaves it and enters it again. The word is not Australian, though it is generally so reckoned. It is not given in the `Century,' nor in the `Imperial,' nor in `Webster,' nor in the `Standard.' The `O.E.D.' treats <i>Ana</i> as an independent word, rightly explaining it as <i>anastomosing</i>, but its quotation from the `Athenaeum' (1871), on which it relies,is a misprint. For the origin and coinage of the word, see quotation 1834. See the aboriginal name <i>Billabong</i>.

1834. Col.Jackson, `Journal of Royal Geographical Society,' p. 79:

"Such branches of a river as after separation re-unite, I would term <i>anastomosing-branches</i>; or, if a word might be coined, <i>ana-branches</i>, and the islands they form, <i>branch-islands</i>. Thus, if we would say, `the river in this part of its course divides into several <i>ana-branches</i>,' we should immediately understand the subsequent re-union of the branches to the main trunk."

Col. Jackson was for a while Secretary and Editor of the Society's Journal. In Feb. 1847 he resigned that position, and in the journal of that year there is the following amusing ignorance of his proposed word—

1847. `Condensed Account of Sturt's Exploration in the Interior of Australia—Journal of the Royal Geographical Society,' p. 87:

"Captain Sturt proposed sending in advance to ascertain the state of the Ana branch of the Darling, discovered by Mr. Eyre on a recent expedition to the North."

No fewer than six times on two pages is the word <i>anabranch</i> printed as two separate words, and as if <i>Ana</i> were a proper name. In the Index volume it appears "Ana, a branch of the Darling."

1847. L. Leichhardt, `Overland Expedition,' p. 35:

"The river itself divided into anabranches which . . . made the whole valley a maze of channels."

1865. W. Howitt, `Discovery in Australia,' vol. i. p. 298:

"What the Major calls, after the learned nomenclature of Colonel Jackson, in the `Journal of the Geographical Society,' anabranches, but which the natives call billibongs, channels coming out of a stream and returning into it again."

1871. `The Athenaeum,' May 27, p. 660 (' O.E.D.'):

"The Loddon district is called the County of Gunbower, which means, it is said, an ana branch [sic]."

1890. Rolf Boldrewood, `Squatter's Dream,' p. 48:

"A plain bordering an ana-branch sufficient for water."

<hw>Anchorwing</hw>, <i>n</i>. a bird-name, <i>Falco melanogenys</i>, Gould. The Black-cheeked Falcon, so called because of the resemblance of the wings outspread in flight to the flukes of an anchor.

<hw>Anguillaria</hw>, <i>n</i>. one of the vernacular names used for the common Australian wild flower, <i>Anguillaraa australis</i>, R. Br., <i>Wurmbsea dioica</i>, F. v. M., N.O. <i>Liliaceae</i>. The name <i>Anguillarea</i> is from the administrator of the Botanic Gardens of Padua, three centuries ago. There are three Australian forms, distinguished by Robert Brown as species. The flower is very common in the meadows in early spring, and is therefore called the <i>Native Snow Drop</i>. In Tasmania it is called <i>Nancy</i>.

1835. Ross, `Hobart Town Almanack,' 67:

"Spotted Anguillaria. Nancy. The little lively white flower with blue spots in the centre, about 2 inches high, that everywhere enlivens our grassy hills in spring, resembling the Star of Bethlehem."

1878. W. R. Guilfoyle, `Australian Botany,' p. 83:

"Native Snowdrop. <i>Anguillaria Australis</i>. The earliest of all our indigenous spring-flowering plants. . . . In early spring our fields are white with the flowers of this pretty little bulbous-rooted plant."

<hw>Ant-eater</hw>, <i>n</i>. (1) i.q. <i>Ant-eating-Porcupine</i>. See <i>Echidna</i>. (2) The <i>Banded Ant-eater</i> (q.v.).

<hw>Ant-eater, Banded</hw>. See <i>Banded Ant-eater</i>.

<hw>Antechinornys</hw>, <i>n</i>. scientific name for the genus with the one species of <i>Long legged Pouched-Mouse</i> (q.v.). (Grk. <i>'anti</i>, opposed to, <i>'echivos</i>, hedgehog, and <i>mus</i>, mouse, sc. a mouse different to the hedgehog.) It is a jumping animal exclusively insectivorous.

<hw>Antipodes</hw>, <i>n</i>. properly a Greek word, the plural of <i>'antipous</i>, lit. "having feet opposed." The ancients, however, had no knowledge of the southern hemisphere. Under the word <i>perioikos</i>, Liddell and Scott explain that <i>'antipodes</i> meant "those who were in opposite parallels and meridians." The word <i>Antipodes</i> was adopted into the Latin language, and occurs in two of the Fathers, Lactantius and Augustine. By the mediaeval church to believe in the antipodes was regarded as heresy. `O.E.D.' quotes two examples of the early use of the word in English.

1398. `Trevisa Barth. De P. R.,' xv. lii. (1495), p. 506:

"Yonde in Ethiopia ben the Antipodes, men that have theyr fete ayenst our fete."

1556. `Recorde Cast. Knowl.,' 93:

"People . . . called of the Greeks and Latines also <i>'antipodes</i>, <i>Antipodes</i>, as you might say Counterfooted, or Counterpasers."

Shakspeare uses the word in five places, but, though he knew that this "pendent world" was spherical, his Antipodes were not Australasian. In three places he means only the fact that it is day in the Eastern hemisphere when it is night in England.

`Midsummer Night's Dream,' III. ii. 55:

                          "I'll believe as soon
This whole earth may be bored, and that the moon
May thro' the centre creep and so displease
His brother's noontide with the Antipodes."

`Merchant of Venice,' V. 127:

"We should hold day with the Antipodes
If you would walk in absence of the sun."

`Richard II.,' III. ii. 49:

"Who all this while hath revell'd in the night,
 Whilst we were wandering with the Antipodes."

In `Henry VI.,' part 3, I. iv. 135, the word more clearly designates the East:

"Thou art as opposite to every good
 As the Antipodes are unto us,
 Or as the South to the Septentrion." [<i>sc</i>. the North.]

But more precise geographical indications are given in `Much
Ado,' II. i. 273, where Benedick is so anxious to avoid
Beatrice that he says—

"I will go on the slightest errand now to the Antipodes that you can devise to send me on. I will fetch you a tooth-picker now from the farthest inch of Asia; bring you the length of Prester John's foot; fetch you a hair of the great Kam's beard; do you any embassage to the Pygmies rather than hold three words conference with this harpy."

Now the Pygmies lived on the Upper Nile, near Khartoum,
Prester John in India, and the great Kam (Khan) in Tartary.

The word <i>Antipodes</i> in modern use is applied rather to places than to people. Geographically, the word means a place exactly opposite on the surface of the globe, as Antipodes Island (Eastward of New Zealand), which is very near the opposite end of the diameter of the globe passing through London. But the word is often used in a wider sense, and the whole of Australasia is regarded as the Antipodes of Great Britain.

The question is often asked whether there is any singular to the word Antipodes, and `O.E.D.' shows that <i>antipode</i> is still used in the sense of the exact opposite of a person. <i>Antipod</i> is also used, especially playfully. The adjectives used are <i>Antipodal</i> and <i>Antipodean</i>.

1640. Richard Brome [Title]:

"The Antipodes; comedy in verse." [Acted in 1638, first printed 4t0. 1640.]

<hw>Ant-orchis</hw>, <i>n</i>. an Australian and Tasmanian orchid, <i>Chiloglottis gunnii</i>, Lind.

<hw>Apple</hw> and <hw>Apple-tree</hw>, <i>n</i>. and <i>adj</i>. The names are applied to various indigenous trees, in some cases from a supposed resemblance to the English fruit, in others to the foliage of the English tree. The varieties are—

Black or Brush Apple—
  <i>Achras australis</i>, R. Br.

Emu A.—
  <i>Owenia acidula</i>, F. v. M.; called also <i>Native
  Nectarine</i> and <i>Native Quince</i>.
  <i>Petalostigma quadriloculare</i>, F. v. M.; called also
  <i>Crab-tree</i>, <i>Native Quince</i>, <i>Quinine-tree</i>
  (q.v.)

Kangaroo A.—
  See <i>Kangaroo Apple</i>.

Mooley A. (West N.S.W. name)—
  <i>Owenia acidula</i>, F. v. M.

Mulga A.—
  The Galls of <i>Acacia aneura</i>, F. v. M.

Oak A.—
  Cones of <i>Casuarina stricta</i>, Ait.

Rose A.—
  <i>Owenia cerasifera</i>, F. v. M.

1820. John Oxley, `Journal of Two Expeditions into the Interior of New South Wales,' p. 187:

"The blue gum trees in the neighbourhood were extremely fine, whilst that species of Eucalyptus, which is vulgarly called the apple-tree . . . again made its appearance. . . ."

1827. Vigors and Horsfield, `Transactions of Linnaean Society,' vol. xv. p. 260:

"It builds its nest of sticks lined with grass in <i>Iron-bark</i> and <i>Apple-trees</i> (a species of <i>Angophora</i>)."

1827. P. Cunningham, `Two Years in New South Wales,' vol. i. p. 200:

"The apple-trees resemble the English apple only in leaf."

1830. R. Dawson, `Present State of Australia,' p. 195:

"In looking down upon the rich flats below, adjoining the stream, I was perpetually reminded of a thriving and rich apple-orchard. The resemblance of what are called apple-trees in Australia to those of the same name at home is so striking at a distance in these situations, that the comparison could not be avoided, although the former bear no fruit, and do not even belong to the same species."

1846. C. P. Hodgson, `Reminiscences of Australia,' p. 52:

"I have heard of men employed in felling whole apple-trees (<i>Angophera lanceolata</i>) for the sheep."

1846. J. L. Stokes, `Discoveries in Australia,' vol. ii. c. iv. p. 132;

"Red Apple, Quonui, affects salt grounds."

1847. J. D. Lang, `Phillipsland,' p. 256:

"The plains, or rather downs, around it (Yass) are thinly but most picturesquely covered with `apple-trees,' as they are called by the colonists, merely from their resemblance to the European apple-tree in their size and outline, for they do not resemble it in producing an edible fruit."

1850. J. B. Clutterbuck, `Port Phillip in 1849,' p. 32:

"The musk-plant, hyacinth, grass-tree, and kangaroo apple-tree are indigenous."

1852. G. C. Mundy, `Our Antipodes' (edition 1855), p. 219:

"Pomona would indignantly disown the apple-tree, for there is not the semblance of a pippin on its tufted branches."

1881. A. C. Grant, `Bush Life in Queensland,' vol. i. p. 113:

"Sandy apple-tree flats, and iron-bark ridges, lined the creek here on either side."

1896. H. Lawson, `When the World was Wide,' p. 158:

"The desolate flats where gaunt apple-trees rot."

<HW>Apple-berry</HW>, <i>n</i>. the fruit of an Australian shrub, <i>Billardiera scandens</i>, Smith, N.O. <i>Pittosporeae</i>, called by children "dumplings."

1793. J. E. Smith, `Specimen of Botany of New Holland,' pp. 1, 3:

"<i>Billardiera scandens</i>. Climbing Apple Berry. . . . The name Billardiera is given it in honour of James Julian la Billardiere, M.D., F.M.L.S., now engaged as botanist on board the French ships sent in search of M. de la Peyrouse."

<hw>Apple-gum</hw>, <i>n</i>. See <i>Gum</i>.

<hw>Apple-scented gum</hw>, <i>n</i>. See <i>Gum</i>.

<hw>Apteryx</hw>, <i>n</i>. [Grk. <i>'a</i> privative and <i>pterux</i>, a wing.] A New Zealand bird about the size of a domestic fowl, with merely rudimentary wings.See <i>Kiwi</i>.

1813. G. Shaw, `Naturalist's Miscellany.' c. xxiv. p. 1058 (`O.E.D.'):

"The Southern Apteryx."

1848. W. Westgarth, `Australia Felix,' p. 137:

"The present Apterix or wingless bird of that country (New
Zealand)."

1851. `Papers and Proceedings of the Royal Society of Van Diemen's Land,' vol. i. p. 300 [Letter from Rev. W. Colenso, Waitangi, Hawke's Bay, New Zealand, Sept. 4, 1850:

"You enquire after an <i>Apteryx</i>. How delighted should I be to succeed in getting you one. Three years ago Owen expressed a similar wish, and I have repeatedly tried, but failed. Yet here they still are in the mountain forests, though, doubtless, fast hastening towards extinction. I saw one in its wild state two years ago in the dense woods of the interior; I saw it clearly. . . . Two living specimens were lately taken by the Acheron, steamer, to Sydney, where they died; these were obtained at the Bay of Islands, where also I once got three at one time. Since then I have not been able to obtain another, although I have offered a great price for one. The fact is, the younger natives do not know how to take them, and the elder ones having but few wants, and those fully supplied, do not care to do so. Further, they can only be captured by night, and the dog must be well trained to be of service."

1874. F. P. Cobbe, in `Littell's Age,' Nov. 7, p. 355 (`Standard'):

"We have clipped the wings of Fancy as close as if she were an Apteryx.'

<hw>Arbutus, Native</hw>, <i>n</i>. See <i>Wax-Cluster</i>.

<hw>Ardoo</hw>, <i>n</i>. See <i>Nardoo</i>.

<hw>Artichoke</hw>, <i>n</i>. name given to the plant <i>Astelia Alpina</i>, R. Br., <i>N.O. Liliaceae</i>.

<hw>Ash</hw>, <i>n</i>. The name, with various epithets, is applied to the following different Australasian trees—

Black Ash—
  <i>Nephelium semiglaucum</i>, F. v. M.,
  <i>N.O. Sapindaceae</i>; called also <i>Wild Quince</i>.

Black Mountain A.— <i>Eucalyptus leucoxylon</i>, F. v. M.,
  <i>N.O. Myrtaceae</i>.

Blue A.—
  <i>Elaeodendron australe</i>, Vent., <i>N.O. Celastrinae</i>.

Blueberry A.— <i>Elaeocarpus holopetalus</i>, F. v. M.,
  <i>N.O. Tiliaceae</i>.

Brush Apple— <i>Acronychia baueri</i>, Schott. (of Illawarra,
  N.S.W.).

Crow's A.—
  <i>Flindersia australis</i>, R. Br., <i>N.O. Meliaceae</i>.

Elderberry A. (of Victoria)—
  <i>Panax sambucifolius</i>, Sieb., <i>N.O. Araliaceae</i>.

Illawarra A.—
  <i>Elaeocarpus kirtonia</i>, F. v. M., <i>N.O. Tiliaceae</i>.

Moreton Bay A.—
  <i>Eucalyptus tessellaris</i>, Hook., <i>N.O. Myrtaceae</i>.

Mountain A. (see <i>Mountain Ash</i>).

New Zealand A. (see <i>Titoki</i>).

Pigeonberry A.—
  <i>Elaeocarpus obovatus</i>, G. Don., <i>N.O. Tiliaceae</i>.

Red A.—
  <i>Alphitonia excelsa</i>, Reiss, <i>N.O. Rhamnaceae</i>.

1847. L. Leichhardt, `Overland Expedition,' p. 75:

"The Moreton Bay Ash (a species of <i>Eucalyptus</i>). ..was here also very plentiful."

<hw>Assigned</hw>, <i>past part</i>. of <i>verb</i> to assign, to allot. Used as <i>adj</i>. of a convict allotted to a settler as a servant. Colloquially often reduced to "signed."

1827. `Captain Robinson's Report,' Dec. 23:

"It was a subject of complaint among the settlers, that their assigned servants could not be known from soldiers, owing to their dress; which very much assisted the crime of `bush-ranging.'"

1837. J. D. Lang, `New South Wales,' vol. ii. p. 31

"The assigned servant of a respectable Scotch family residing near Sydney."

1845. R. Howitt, `Australia,' p. 75:

"Of the first five persons we saw to Van Diemen's Land, four were convicts, and perhaps the fifth. These were the assigned servants of the pilot."

1848. W. Westgarth, `Australia Felix,' p. 324:

"Under the old practice, the convicts, as soon as they arrived from Britain, were assigned among the various applicants. The servant thus assigned was bound to perform diligently, from sunrise till sunset, all usual and reasonable labour."

<hw>Assignee</hw>, <i>n</i>. a convict assigned as a servant. The word is also used in its ordinary English sense.

1843. `Penny Cyclopaedia,' vol. xxv. p. 139, col. 2:

"It is comparatively difficult to obtain another assignee,—easy to obtain a hired servant."

1848. W. Westgarth, `Australia Felix,' p. 324:

"Any instance of gross treatment disqualified him for the future as an assignee of convict labour."

<hw>Assignment</hw>, <i>n</i>. service as above.

1836. C. Darwin, `Journal of Researches' (1890), c. xix. p. 324:

"I believe the years of assignment are passed away with discontent and unhappiness."

1852. John West, `History of Tasmania,' vol. ii. p. 126:

"That form of service, known as assignment, was established by
Governor King in 1804."

1861. T. McCombie, `Australian Sketches,' p. 117:

"The assignment system was then in operation, and such as obtained free grants of land were allowed a certain proportion of convicts to bring it into cultivation."

<hw>Asthma</hw> Herb, Queensland, <i>n. Euphorbia pilulifera</i>, Linn. As the name implies, a remedy for asthma. The herb is collected when in flower and carefully dried.

1889. J. H. Maiden, `Useful Native Plants,' p. 183:

"This plant, having obtained some reputation in Australasia in certain pulmonary complaints, has acquired the appellation to the Colonies of `Queensland Asthma Herb'. Nevertheless, it is by no means endemic in Australasia, for it is a common tropical weed."

<hw>Aua</hw>, <i>n</i>. Maori name for a New Zealand fish, <i>Agonostoma forsteri</i>, Bleek. Another Maori name is <i>Makawhiti</i>; also called <i>Sea-Mullet</i> and sometimes <i>Herring</i>; (q.v.). It is abundant also in Tasmanian estuaries, and is one of the fishes which when dried is called <i>Picton Herring</i> (q.v.). See also <i>Maray</i> and <i>Mullet</i>. <i>Agonostoma</i> is a genus of the family <i>Mugilidae</i> or <i>Grey-Mullets</i>.

<hw>Aurora australis</hw>, <i>n.</i> the Southern equivalent for <i>Aurora borealis</i>.

1790. J. White, `Voyage to New South Wales,' p. 214:

"Sept. 5, 1788. About half after six in the evening, we saw an <i>Aurora Australis</i>, a phenomenon uncommon in the southern hemisphere."

<hw>Austral</hw>, <i>adj</i>. "Belonging to the South, Southern. Lat. <i>Australis</i>, from <i>auster</i>, south-wind." (`O.E.D.') The word is rarely used in Australasia in its primary sense, but now as equivalent to Australian or Australasian.

1823. Wentworth's Cambridge poem on `Australasia':

"And grant that yet an Austral Milton's song,
Pactolus-like, flow deep and rich along,
An Austral Shakespeare rise, whose living page
To Nature true may charm in every age;
And that an Austral Pindar daring soar,
Where not the Theban Eagle reach'd before."

1825. Barron Field, `First Fruits of Australian Poetry,' Motto in Geographical Memoir of New South Wales, p. 485:

"I first adventure. Follow me who list; And be the second Austral harmonist." <i>Adapted from Bishop Hall</i>.

1845. R. Howitt, `Australia,' p. 184:

"For this, midst Austral wilds I waken
  Our British harp, feel whence I come,
Queen of the sea, too long forsaken,
Queen of the soul, my spirit's home."—Alien Song.

1855. W. Howitt, `Two Years in Victoria,' vol. i. p. 43:

"Every servant in this Austral Utopia thinks himself a gentleman."

1868. C. Harpur, `Poems' (ed. 1883), p. 215:

"How oft, in Austral woods, the parting day
Has gone through western golden gates away."

1879. J. B. O'Hara, `Songs of the South,' p. 127:

"What though no weird and legendary lore
Invests our young, our golden Austral shore
With that romance the poet loves too well,
When Inspiration breathes her magic spell."

1894. Ernest Favenc [Title]:

"Tales of the Austral Tropics."

1896. [Title]:

"The Austral Wheel—A Monthly Cycling Magazine, No. 1, Jan."

1896. `The Melburnian,' Aug. 28, p. 53

"Our Austral Spring." [Title of an article describing Spring in
Australia.]

<hw>Australasia</hw>, <i>n</i>. (and its adjectives), name "given originally by De Brosses to one of his three divisions of the alleged <i>Terra australis</i>." (`O.E.D.') Now used as a larger term than Australian, to include the continent of Australia, New Zealand, Tasmania, Fiji and islands. For peculiar use of the name for the Continent in 1793, see <i>Australia</i>.

1756. Charles de Brosses, `Histoire des Navigations aux Terres Australes,' tom. i. p. 80:

"On peut de meme diviser le monde austral inconnu en trois portions. .. .L'une dans l'ocean des Indes au sud de l'Asie que j'appellerai par cette raison australasie."

1766. Callander, `Terra Australis,' i. p. 49 (Translation of de Brosses)(`O.E.D.):

"The first [division] in the Indian Ocean, south of Asia, which for this reason we shall call Australasia."

1802. G. Shaw, `Zoology,' iii. p. 506 (`O.E.D.'):

"Other Australasian snakes."

1823. Subject for English poem at Cambridge University:

`Australasia.'

[The prize (Chancellor's Medal) was won by Winthrop Mackworth Praed. William Charles Wentworth stood second.] The concluding lines of his poem are:

"And Australasia float, with flag unfurl'd,
A new Britannia in another world."

1846. C. P. Hodgson, `Reminiscences of Australia,' p. 77:

"How far had these ideas been acted upon by the Colonists of
Austral Asia?" [sic.]

1852. J. West, `History of Tasmania,' vol. 1. p. 109:

"`The Austral-Asiatic Review,' by Murray, also made its appearance [in Hobart] in February, 1828."

1855. Tennyson, `The Brook,' p. 194:

" Katie walks
By the long wash of Australasian seas
Far off, and holds her head to other stars,
And breathes in converse seasons."

[Altered in Edition of 1894 to "breathes in April-autumns."]

1857. Daniel Bunce [Title]:

"Australasiatic reminiscences."

1864. `The Australasian,' Oct. 1, First Number [Title]:

"The Australasian."

1880. Alfred R. Wallace [Title]:

"Australasia." [In Stanford's `Compendium of Geography and
Travel.']

1881. David Blair [Title]:

"Cyclopaedia of Australasia."

1890. E. W. Hornung, `Bride from the Bush,' p. 29:

"It was neither Cockney nor Yankee, but a nasal blend of both: it was a lingo that declined to let the vowels run alone, but trotted them out in ill-matched couples, with discordant and awful consequences; in a word, it was Australasiatic of the worst description."

1890. `Victorian Consolidated Statutes,' Administration and p.obate Act, Section 39:

"`Australasian Colonies,' shall mean all colonies for the time being on the main land of Australia. ..and shall also include the colonies of New Zealand, Tasmania and Fiji and any other British Colonies or possessions in Australasia now existing or hereafter to be created which the Governor in Council may from time to time declare to be Australasian Colonies within the meaning of this Act."

1895. Edward Jenks [Title]:

"History of the Australasian Colonies."

1896. J. S. Laurie [Title]:

"The Story of Australasia."

<hw>Australia</hw>, <i>n</i>., and <hw>Australian</hw>, <i>adj</i>. As early as the 16th century there was a belief in a <i>Terra australis</i> (to which was often added the epithet <i>incognita</i>), literally "southern land," which was believed to be land lying round and stretching outwards from the South Pole.

In `Proceedings of the Royal Geographical Society of Australasia,' Sydney, Jan. 1892, is printed a paper read at the Geographical Congress at Berne, by E. Delmar Morgan, on the `Early Discovery of Australia.' This paper is illustrated by maps taken from `Nordenskiold's Atlas.' In a map by Orontius Finoeus, a French cosmographer of Provence, dated 1531, the <i>Terra australis</i> is shown as "Terra Australis recenter inventa, sed nondum plene cognita." In Ortelius' Map, 1570, it appears as "Terra Australis nondum cognita." In Gerard Mercator's Map, 1587, as "Terra Australis" simply.

In 1606 the Spaniard Fernandez de Quiros gave the name of <i>Terra Australis del Espiritu Santo</i> to land which he thought formed part of the Great Southland. It is in fact one of the New Hebrides.

The word "<i>Australian</i> " is older than "<i>Australia</i>" (see quotations, 1693 and 1766). The name <i>Australia</i> was adapted from the Latin name <i>Terra Australis</i>. The earliest suggestion of the word is credited to Flinders, who certainly thought that he was inventing the name. (See quotation, 1814.) Twenty-one years earlier, however, the word is found (see quotation, 1793); and the passage containing it is the first known use of the word in print. Shaw may thus be regarded as its inventor. According to its title-page, the book quoted is by two authors, the <i>Zoology</i>, by Shaw and the <i>Botany</i> by Smith. The <i>Botany</i>, however, was not published. Of the two names—<i>Australia</i> and <i>Australasia</i>—suggested in the opening of the quotation, to take the place of New Holland, Shaw evidently favoured <i>Australia</i>, while Smith, in the `Transactions of the Linnaean Society,' vol. iv. p. 213 (1798), uses <i>Australasia</i> for the continent several times. Neither name, however, passed then into general use. In 1814, Robert Brown the Botanist speaks of "<i>Terra Australis</i>," not of "<i>Australia</i>." "Australia" was reinvented by Flinders.

<i>Quotations for " Terra Australis"</i>—

1621. R. Burton, `Anatomy of Melancholy' (edition 1854), p. 56:

"For the site, if you will needs urge me to it, I am not fully resolved, it may be in <i>Terra Australis incognita</i>, there is room enough (for of my knowledge, neither that hungry Spaniard nor Mercurius Britannicus have yet discovered half of it)."

Ibid. p. 314:

"<i>Terra Australis incognita</i>. ..and yet in likelihood it may be so, for without all question, it being extended from the tropic of Capricorn to the circle Antarctic, and lying as it doth in the temperate zone, cannot choose but yield in time some flourishing kingdoms to succeeding ages, as America did unto the Spaniards."

Ibid. p. 619:

"But these are hard-hearted, unnatural, monsters of men, shallow politicians, they do not consider that a great part of the world is not yet inhabited as it ought, how many colonies into America, <i>Terra Australis incognita</i>, Africa may be sent?"

<i>Early quotations for "Australian</i>"

1693. `Nouveau Voyage de la Terre Australe, contenant les Coutumes et les Moeurs des Australiens, etc.' Par Jaques Sadeur [Gabriel de Foigny].

[This is a work of fiction, but interesting as being the first book in which the word <i>Australiens</i> is used. The next quotation is from the English translation.]

1693. `New Discovery, Terra Incognita Australis,' p. 163
      (`O.E.D.'):

"It is easy to judge of the incomparability of the Australians with the people of Europe."

1766. Callander, `Terra Australis' (Translation of De Brosses), c. ii. p. 280:

"One of the Australians, or natives of the Southern World, whom Gonneville had brought into France."

<i>Quotations for "Australia</i>"

1793. G. Shaw and I. E. Smith, `Zoology and Botany of New Holland,' p. 2:

"The vast Island or rather Continent of Australia, Australasia, or New Holland, which has so lately attracted the particular attention of European navigators and naturalists, seems to abound in scenes of peculiar wildness and sterility; while the wretched natives of many of those dreary districts seem less elevated above the inferior animals than in any other part of the known world; Caffraria itself not excepted; as well as less indued with the power of promoting a comfortable existence by an approach towards useful arts and industry. It is in these savage regions however that Nature seems to have poured forth many of her most highly ornamented products with unusual liberality."

1814. M. Flinders, `Voyage to Terra Australis,' Introduction, p. iii. and footnote:

"I have . . . ventured upon the readoption of the <i>original Terra Australis</i>, and of this term I shall hereafter make use, when speaking of New Holland [<i>sc</i>. the West] and New South Wales, in a collective sense; and when using it in the most extensive signification, the adjacent isles, including that of Van Diemen, must be understood to be comprehended." [Footnote]: "Had I permitted myself any innovation upon the original term, it would have been to convert it into Australia; as being more agreeable to the ear, and an assimilation to the names of the other great portions of the earth."

1827. P. Cunningham, `Two Years in New South Wales,' vol. i. p. 9:

"New South Wales (or Australia, as we colonials say)."

1839. C. Darwin, `Naturalist's Voyage' (ed. 1890), p. 328:

"Farewell, Australia! You are a rising child, and doubtless some day will reign a great princess in the South; but you are too great and ambitious for affection, yet not great enough for respect. I leave your shores without sorrow or regret."

1852. A Liverpool Merchant [Title]:

"A Guide to Australia and the Gold Regions."

1873. A. Trollope, `Australia and New Zealand,' c. viii. (new ed.) p. 152:

"The colonies are determined to be separate. Australia is a
term that finds no response in the patriotic feeling of any
Australian. . . . But this will come to an end sooner or later.
The name of Australia will be dearer, if not greater, to
Australian ears than the name of Great Britain."

[Mr. Trollope's prophecy has come true, and the name of
Australia is now dearer to an Australian than the name of his
own separate colony. The word "Colonial" as indicating
Australian nationality is going out of fashion. The word
"Australian" is much preferred.]

1878. F. P. Labilliere, `Early History of the Colony of Victoria,' vol. i. p. 184:

"In a despatch to Lord Bathurst, of April 4th, 1817, Governor Macquarie acknowledges the receipt of Captain Flinders's charts of `Australia.' This is the first time that the name of Australia appears to have been officially employed. The Governor underlines the word. . . . In a private letter to Mr. Secretary Goulbourn, M.P., of December 21st, 1817, [he]says . . . `the Continent of Australia, which, I hope, will be the name given to this country in future, instead of the very erroneous and misapplied name hitherto given it of New Holland, which, properly speaking, only applies to a part of this immense Continent.'"

1883. G. W. Rusden, `History of Australia,' vol. i. p. 64:

"It is pleasant to reflect that the name Australia was selected by the gallant Flinders; though, with his customary modesty, he suggested rather than adopted it."

1895. H. M. Goode, `The Argus,' Oct. 15, p. 7, col. 4:

"Condemning the absurd practice of using the word `Colonial' in connection with our wines, instead of the broader and more federal one, `Australian.' In England our artists, cricketer, scullers, and globe-trotters are all spoken of and acknowledged as Australians, and our produce, with the exception of wine, is classed as follows:—Australian gold and copper, Australian beef and mutton, Australian butter, Australian fruits, &c."

Ibid. p. 14:

"Merops or Bee-Eater. A tribe [of birds] which appears to be peculiarly prevalent in the extensive regions of Australia."

<hw>Australian</hw> flag, <i>n</i>. Hot climate and country work have brought in a fashion among bushmen of wearing a belt or leather strap round the top of trousers instead of braces. This often causes a fold in the shirt protruding all round from under the waistcoat, which is playfully known as "the Australian flag." Slang.

<hw>Australioid</hw> and <hw>Australoid</hw>, <i>adj</i>. like Australian, sc. aboriginal—a term used by ethnologists. See quotations.

1869. J. Lubbock, `Prehistoric Times,' vol. xii. p. 378:

"The Australoid type contains all the inhabitants of Australia and the native races of the Deccan."

1878. E. B. Tylor, `Encyclopaedia Britannica,' vol. ii. p. 112:

"He [Professor Huxley] distinguishes four principal types of mankind, the Australioid, Negroid, Mongoloid, and Xanthochroic, adding a fifth variety, the Melanochroic. The special points of the Australioid are a chocolate-brown skin, dark brown or black eyes, black hair (usually wavy), narrow (dolichocephalic) skull, brow-ridges strongly developed, projecting jaw, coarse lips and broad nose. This type is best represented by the natives of Australia, and next to them by the indigenous tribes of Southern India, the so-called coolies."

<hw>Austral Thrush</hw>, <i>n</i>. See <i>Port-Jackson Thrush</i>.

<hw>Avocet</hw>, <i>n</i>. a well-known European bird-name. The Australian species is the Red-necked A., <i>Recurvirostra nova-hollandiae</i>, Vieill.

<hw>Aweto</hw>, <i>n</i>. Maori name for a vegetable-caterpillar of New Zealand. See quotation.

1889. E. Wakefield, `New Zealand after Fifty Years,' p. 81:

". . . the <i>aweto</i>, or vegetable-caterpillar, called by the naturalists <i>Hipialis virescens</i>. It is a perfect caterpillar in every respect, and a remarkably fine one too, growing to a length in the largest specimens of three and a half inches and the thickness of a finger, but more commonly to about a half or two-thirds of that size. . . . When full-grown, it undergoes a miraculous change. For some inexplicable reason, the spore of a vegetable fungus <i>Sphaeria Robertsii</i>, fixes itself on its neck, or between the head and the first ring of the caterpillar, takes root and grows vigorously . . . exactly like a diminutive bulrush from 6 to 10 inches high without leaves, and consisting solely of a single stem with a dark-brown felt-like head, so familiar in the bulrushes . . . always at the foot of the <i>rata</i>."

1896. A. Bence Jones, in `Pearson's Magazine,' Sept., p. 290:

"The dye in question was a solution of burnt or powdered resin, or wood, or the aweto, the latter a caterpillar, which, burrowing in the vegetable soil, gets a spore of a fungus between the folds of its neck, and unable to free itself, the insect's body nourishes the fungus, which vegetates and occasions the death of the caterpillar by exactly filling the interior of the body with its roots, always preserving its perfect form. When properly charred this material yielded a fine dark dye, much prized for purposes of moko." [See <i>Moko</i>.]

<hw>Axe-breaker</hw>, <i>n</i>. name of a tree, <i>Notelaea longifolia</i>, Vent., <i>N.O. Jasmineae</i>.

1889. J. H. Maiden, `Useful Native Plants,' p. 579:

"Axe-breaker. Wood hard, close-grained and firm. Its vernacular name emphasizes its hardness."

B

<hw>Baal</hw>, or <hw>Bail</hw>, <i>interj</i>. and <i>adv</i>. "An aboriginal expression of disapproval." (Gilbert Parker, Glossary to `Round the Compass in Australia,' 1888.) It was the negative in the Sydney dialect.

1893. J. F. Hogan, `Robert Lowe,' p. 271, quoting from `The Atlas' (circa 1845):

"Traces, however, of the Egyptian language are discoverable among the present inhabitants, with whom, for instance, the word `Bale' or `Baal' is in continual use . . . ." [Evidently a joke.]

<hw>Babbler</hw>, <i>n</i>. a bird-name. In Europe, "name given, on account of their harsh chattering note, to the long-legged thrushes." (`O.E.D.') The group "contains a great number of birds not satisfactorily located elsewhere, and has been called the ornithological waste-basket." (`Century.') The species are—

The Babbler—
  <i>Pomatostomus temporalis</i>, V. and H.

Chestnut-crowned B.—
  <i>P. ruficeps</i>, Hart.

Red-breasted B.—
  <i>P. rubeculus</i>, Gould.

White-browed B.—
  <i>P. superciliosus</i>, V. and H.

<hw>Back-blocks</hw>, <i>n</i>. (1) The far interior of Australia, and away from settled country. Land in Australia is divided on the survey maps into blocks, a word confined, in England and the United States, to town lands.

(2) The parts of a station distant from the <i>frontage</i> (q.v.).

1872. Anon. `Glimpses of Life in Victoria,' p. 31:

". . . we were doomed to see the whole of our river-frontage purchased. . . . The back blocks which were left to us were insufficient for the support of our flocks, and deficient in permanent water-supply. . . ."

1880. J. Mathew, Song—`The Bushman':

"Far, far on the plains of the arid back-blocks
A warm-hearted bushman is tending his flocks.
There's little to cheer in that vast grassy sea:
But oh! he finds pleasure in thinking of me.
How weary, how dreary the stillness must be!
But oh! the lone bushman is dreaming of me."

1890. E. W. Horning, `A Bride from the Bush,' p. 298:

"`Down in Vic' you can carry as many sheep to the acre as acres to the sheep up here in the `backblocks.'"

1893. M. Gaunt, `English Illustrated, `Feb., p. 294:

"The back-blocks are very effectual levellers."

1893. Haddon Chambers, `Thumbnail Sketches of Australian Life,' p. 33

"In the back-blocks of New South Wales he had known both hunger and thirst, and had suffered from sunstroke."

1893. `The Australasian,' Aug. 12, p. 302, col. 1:

"Although Kara is in the back-blocks of New South Wales, the clothes and boots my brother wears come from Bond Street."

<hw>Back-block</hw>, <i>adj</i>. from the interior.

1891. Rolf Boldrewood, `Sydneyside Saxon,' vol. xii. p. 215:

"`What a nice mare that is of yours!' said one of the back-block youngsters."

<hw>Back-blocker</hw>, <i>n</i>. a resident in the back-blocks.

1870. `The Argus,' March 22, p. 7, col. 2

"I am a bushman, a back blocker, to whom it happens about once in two years to visit Melbourne."

1892. E. W. Hornung, `Under Two Skies,' p. 21:

"As for Jim, he made himself very busy indeed, sitting on his heels over the fire in an attitude peculiar to back-blockers."

<hw>Back-slanging</hw>, <i>verbal n</i>. In the back-blocks (q.v.) of Australia, where hotels are naturally scarce and inferior, the traveller asks for hospitality at the <i>stations</i> (q.v.) on his route, where he is always made welcome. There is no idea of anything underhand on the part of the traveller, yet the custom is called <i>back-slanging</i>.

<hw>Badger</hw>, <i>n</i>. This English name has been incorrectly applied in Australia, sometimes to the Bandicoot, sometimes to the Rock-Wallaby, and sometimes to the Wombat. In Tasmania, it is the usual bush-name for the last.

1829. `The Picture of Australia,' p. 173:

"The <i>Parameles</i>, to which the colonists sometimes give the name of badger. . . ."

1831. Ross, `Hobart Town Almanack,' p. 265:

"That delicious animal, the wombat (commonly known at that place [Macquarie Harbour] by the name of <i>badger</i>, hence the little island of that name in the map was so called, from the circumstance of numbers of that animal being at first found upon it)."

1850. James Bennett Clutterbuck, M.D., `Port Phillip in 1849,' p. 37:

"The rock Wallaby, or Badger, also belongs to the family of the Kangaroo; its length from the nose to the end of the tail is three feet; the colour of the fur being grey-brown."

1875. Rev. J. G. Wood, `Natural History,' vol. i. p. 481:

"The Wombat or Australian Badger as it is popularly called by the colonists. . . ."

1891. W. Tilley, `Wild West of Tasmania,' p. 8:

"With the exception of wombats or `badgers,' and an occasional kangaroo . . . the intruder had to rely on the stores he carried with him."

ibid. p. 44:

"Badgers also abound, or did until thinned out by hungry prospectors."

<hw>Badger-box</hw>, <i>n</i>. slang name for a roughly- constructed dwelling.

1875. `Proceedings of the Royal Society of Tasmania,' September, p. 99 [`Port Davey in 1875,' by the Hon. James Reid Scott, M.L.C.]:

"The dwellings occupied by the piners when up the river are of the style known as `Badger-boxes,' in distinction from huts, which have perpendicular walls, while the Badger-box is like an inverted V in section. They are covered with bark, with a thatch of grass along the ridge, and are on an average about 14 x 10 feet at the ground, and 9 or 10 feet high."

<hw>Bail</hw>, <i>n</i>. "A framework for securing the head of a cow while she is milked." (`O.E.D.')

This word, marked in `O.E.D.' and other Dictionaries as
Australian, is provincial English. In the `English Dialect
Dictionary,' edited by Joseph Wright, Part I., the word is
given as used in "Ireland, Northamptonshire, Norfolk, Suffolk,
Hampshire and New Zealand." It is also used in Essex.

1872. C. H. Eden, `My Wife and I in Queensland,' p. 83:

"In every milking yard is an apparatus for confining a cow's head called a `bail.' This consists of an upright standiron, five feet in height, let into a framework, and about six inches from it another fixed at the heel, the upper part working freely in a slit, in which are holes for a peg, so that when the peg is out and the movable standiron is thrown back, there is abundance of room for a cow's head and horns, but when closed, at which time the two standirons are parallel to each other and six inches apart, though her neck can work freely up and down, it is impossible for her to withdraw her head . . ."

1874. W. M. B., `Narrative of Edward Crewe,' p. 225:

"The former bovine female was a brute to manage, whom it would have been impossible to milk without a `bail.' To what man or country the honour of this invention belongs, who can tell? It is in very general use in the Australian colonies; and my advice to any one troubled with a naughty cow, who kicks like fury during the process of milking, is to have a bail constructed in their cow-house."

<hw>Bail up</hw>, <i>v</i>. (1) To secure the head of a cow in a bail for milking.

(2) By transference, to stop travellers in the bush, used of bushrangers. The quotation, 1888, shows the method of transference. It then means generally, to stop. Like the similar verb, <i>to stick up</i> (q.v.), it is often used humorously of a demand for subscriptions, etc.

1844. Mrs. Chas. Meredith, `Notes and Sketches of New South Wales,' p. 132:

"The bushrangers . . . walk quickly in, and `bail up,' i.e. bind with cords, or otherwise secure, the male portion."

1847. Alex. Marjoribanks, `Travels in New South Wales,' p. 72:

". . . there were eight or ten bullock-teams baled up by three mounted bushrangers. Being baled up is the colonial phrase for those who are attacked, who are afterwards all put together, and guarded by one of the party of the bushrangers when the others are plundering."

1855 W. Howitt, `Two Years in Victoria,' vol. ii. p. 309:

"So long as that is wrong, the whole community will be wrong,— in colonial phrase, `bailed up' at the mercy of its own tenants."

1862. G. T. Lloyd, `Thirty-three Years in Tasmania and Victoria,' p. 192:

"`Come, sir, immediately,' rejoined Murphy, rudely and insultingly pushing the master; `bail up in that corner, and prepare to meet the death you have so long deserved.'"

1879. W. J. Barry, `Up and Down,' p. 112:

"She bailed me up and asked me if I was going to keep my promise and marry her."

1880. W. Senior, `Travel and Trout,' p. 36:

"His troutship, having neglected to secure a line of retreat, was, in colonial parlance, `bailed up.'"

1880. G. Walch, `Victoria in 1880,' p.133:

"The Kelly gang . . . bailed up some forty residents in the local public house."

1882. A. J. Boyd, `Old Colonials,' p. 76:

"Did I ever get stuck-up? Never by white men, though I have been bailed up by the niggers."

1885. H. Finch-Hatton, `Advance Australia,' p. 105:

"A little further on the boar `bailed up' on the top of a ridge."

1888. Rolf Boldrewood, `Robbery under Arms,' p. 368:

"One of the young cows was a bit strange with me, so I had to shake a stick at her and sing out `Bail up' pretty rough before she'd put her head in. Aileen smiled something like her old self for a minute, and said, `That comes natural to you now, Dick, doesn't it ?' I stared for a bit and then burst out laughing.It was a rum go, wasn't it? The same talk for cows and Christians. That's how things get stuck into the talk in a new country. Some old hand like father, as had been assigned to a dairy settler, and spent all his mornings in the cow-yard, had taken to the bush and tried his hand at sticking up people. When they came near enough of course he'd pop out from behind a tree, with his old musket or pair of pistols, and when he wanted `em to stop, `Bail up, d— yer,' would come a deal quicker and more natural-like to his tongue than `Stand.' So `bail up' it was from that day to this, and there'll have to be a deal of change in the ways of the colonies, and them as come from `em before anything else takes its place between the man that's got the arms and the man that's got the money."

<hw>Bailing-up Pen</hw>, <i>n</i>. place for fastening up cattle.

1889. R. M. Praed, `Romance of Station,' vol. i. c. ii. [`Eng. Dial. Dict.']:

"Alec was proud of the stockyard and pointed out . . . the superior construction of the `crush,' or branding lane, and the bailing-up pen."

<hw>Bald-Coot</hw>, <i>n</i>. a bird-name, <i>Porphyrio melanotus</i>, Temm.; Blue, <i>P. bellus</i>, Gould. The European bald-coot is <i>Fulica atra</i>.

<hw>Ballahoo</hw>, <i>n</i>. a name applied to the <i>Garfish</i> (q.v.) by Sydney fishermen. The word is West Indian, and is applied there to a fast-sailing schooner; also spelled <i>Bullahoo</i> and <i>Ballahou</i>.

<hw>Balloon-Vine</hw> <i>n</i>. Australian name for the common tropical weed, <i>Cardiospermum halicacabum</i>, Linn., <i>N.O. Sapindaceae</i>: called also <i>Heart-seed, Heart-pea</i>, and <i>Winter-cherry</i>. It is a climbing plant, and has a heart-shaped scar on the seed.

<hw>Balsam of Copaiba Tree</hw>, <i>n</i>. The name is applied to the Australian tree, <i>Geijera salicifolia</i>, Schott, <i>N.O. Rutaceae</i>, because the bark has the odour of the drug of that name.

<hw>Bamboo-grass</hw>, <i>n</i>. an Australian cane-like grass, <i>Glyceria ramigera</i>, F. v. M. ; also called <i>Cane Grass</i>. Largely used for thatching purposes. Stock eat the young shoots freely.

<hw>Banana</hw>, <i>n</i>. There are three species native to Queensland, of which the fruit is said to be worthless—

<i>Musa Banksii</i>, F. v. M. <i>M. Hillii</i>, F. v. M. <i>M. Fitzalani</i>, F. v. M., <i>N.O. Scitamineae</i>.

The <i>Bananas</i> which are cultivated and form a staple export of Queensland are acclimatized varieties.

<hw>Banana-land</hw>, <i>n</i>. slang name for Queensland, where bananas grow in abundance.

<hw>Banana-lander</hw>, <i>n</i>. slang for a Queenslander (see above).

<hw>Banded Ant-eater</hw>, <i>n</i>. name given to a small terrestrial and ant-eating marsupial, <i>Myrmecobius fasciatus</i>, Waterh, found in West and South Australia. It is the only species of the genus, and is regarded as the most closely allied of all living marsupials to the extinct marsupials of the Mesozoic Age in Europe. It receives its name banded from the presence along the back of a well-marked series of dark transverse bands.

1871. G. Krefft, `Mammals of Australia':

"The <i>Myrmecobius</i> is common on the West Coast and in the interior of New South Wales and South Australia: the Murrumbidgee River may be taken as its most eastern boundary."

1893. A. R. Wallace, `Australasia,' p. 340:

"Thus we have here [W. Australia] alone the curious little banded ant-eater (<i>Myrmecobius fasciatus</i>), which presents the nearest approach in its dentition to the most ancient known mammals whose remains are found in the oolite and Trias of the Mesozoic epoch."

<hw>Banded-Kangaroo</hw>, i.q. <i>Banded-Wallaby</i>. See <i>Lagostrophus</i> and <i>Wallaby</i>.

<hw>Banded-Wallaby</hw>, <i>n</i>. sometimes called <i>Banded-Kangaroo</i>. See <i>Lagostrophus</i> and <i>Wallaby</i>.

<hw>Bandicoot</hw>, <i>n</i>. an insect-eating marsupial animal; family, <i>Peramelidae</i>; genus, <i>Perameles</i>. "The animals of this genus, commonly called <i>Bandicoots</i> in Australia, are all small, and live entirely on the ground, making nests composed of dried leaves, grass and sticks, in hollow places. They are rather mixed feeders; but insects, worms, roots and bulbs, constitute their ordinary diet." (`Encyclopaedia Britannica,' 9th edit., vol. xv. p. 381.) The name comes from India, being a corruption of Telugu <i>pandi-kokku</i>, literally "pig-dog," used of a large rat called by naturalists <i>Mus malabaricus</i>, Shaw, <i>Mus giganteus</i>, Hardwicke; <i>Mus bandis coota</i>, Bechstein. The name has spread all over India. The Indian animal is very different from the Australian, and no record is preserved to show how the Anglo-Indian word came to be used in Australia. The Bandicoots are divided into three genera—the <i>True Bandicoots</i> (genus <i>Perameles</i>, q.v.), the <i>Rabbit Bandicoots</i> (genus <i>Peragale</i>, q.v.), and the <i>Pig-footed Bandicoots</i> (q.v.) (genus <i>Choeropus</i>, q.v.). The species are—

Broadbent's Bandicoot—
 <i>Perameles broadbenti</i>, Ramsay.

Cockerell's B.—
  <i>P. cockerelli</i>, Ramsay.

Common Rabbit B.—
  <i>Peragale lagotis</i>, Reid.

Desert B.—
  <i>P. eremiana</i>, Spencer.

Doria's B.—
  <i>Perameles dorerana</i>, Quoy & Gaim.

Golden B.—
  <i>P. aurata</i>, Ramsay.

Gunn's B.—
  <i>P. gunni</i>, Gray.

Less Rabbit B.—
  <i>Peragale minor</i>, Spencer.

Long-nosed B.—
  <i>Perameles nasuta</i>, Geoffr.

Long-tailed B.—
  <i>P. longicauda</i>, Peters & Doria.

North-Australian B.—
  <i>P. macrura</i>, Gould.

Port Moresby B.—
  <i>P. moresbyensis</i>, Ramsay.

Raffray's B.—
  <i>P. rafrayana</i>, Milne-Edw.

Short-nosed B.—
  <i>P. obesula</i>, Shaw.

Striped B.—
  <i>P. bougainvillii</i>, Quoy & Gaim.

White-tailed Rabbit B.—
  <i>P. lesicura</i>. Thomas.

Pig-footed B.—
 <i>Choeropus castanotis</i>, Gray.

1802. D. Collins, `Account of New South Wales', vol. ii. p. 188 (Bass's Diary at the Derwent, January 1799):

"The bones of small animals, such as opossums, squirrels, kangooroo rats, and bandicoots, were numerous round their deserted fire-places."

1820. W. C. Wentworth, `Description o New South Wales,' p. 3:

"The animals are, the kangaroo, native dog (which is a smaller species of the wolf), the wombat, bandicoot, kangaroo-rat, opossum, flying squirrel, flying fox, etc. etc."

1827. P. Cunningham, `Two Years in New South Wales,' vol. i. p. 316

"The bandicoot is about four times he size of a rat, without a tail, and burrows in the ground or in hollow trees."

1832. Bischoff, `Van Diemen's Land,' vol. ii. p. 28:

"The bandicoot is as large as a rabbit. There are two kinds, the rat and the rabbit bandicoot."

1845. R. Howitt, `Australia,' p. 233:

"The common people are not destitute of what Wordsworth calls `the poetry of common speech,' many of their similes being very forcibly and naturally drawn from objects familiarly in sight and quite Australian. `Poor as a bandicoot,' `miserable as a shag on a rock.'"

Ibid. p. 330:

"There is also a rat-like animal with a swinish face, covered with ruddy coarse hair, that burrows in the ground—the bandicoot. It is said to be very fine eating."

1845. J. O. Balfour, `Sketch of New South Wales,' p. 26:

"The bandicoot is the size of a large rat, of a dark brown colour; it feeds upon roots, and its flesh is good eating. This animal burrows in the ground, and it is from this habit, I suppose, that when hungry, cold, or unhappy, the Australian black says that he is as miserable as the bandicoot."

1890. C. Lumholtz, `Among Cannibals, p. 92:

"The bandicoots are good eating even for Europeans, and in my opinion are the only Australian mammals fit to eat. They resemble pigs, and the flesh tastes somewhat like pork."

<hw>Bangalay</hw>, <i>n</i>. a Sydney workmen's name for the timber of <i>Eucalyptus botrioides</i>, Smith. (See <i>Gum</i>.) The name is aboriginal, and by workmen is always pronounced <i>Bang Alley</i>.

<hw>Bangalow</hw>, <i>n</i>. an ornamental feathery-leaved palm, <i>Ptychosperma elegans</i>, Blume, <i>N.O. Palmeae</i>.

1851. J. Henderson, `Excursions in New South Wales,' vol. ii. p.229

"The Bangalo, which is a palm. . . The germ, or roll of young leaves in the centre, and near the top, is eaten by the natives, and occasionally by white men, either raw or boiled. It is of a white colour, sweet and pleasant to the taste."

1884. W. R. Guilfoyle, `Australian Botany,' p. 23:

"The aborigines of New South Wales and Queensland, and occasionally the settlers, eat the young leaves of the cabbage and bangalo palms."

1886. H. C. Kendall, `Poems,' p. 193:

You see he was bred in a bangalow wood,
And bangalow pith was the principal food
His mother served out in her shanty."

1889. J. H. Maiden, `Useful Native Plants,' p. 592:

"Bangalow. . . . The small stems sometimes go under the name of `Moreton Bay Canes.' It is a very ornamental, feathery-leaved palm."

<hw>Bang-tail muster</hw>. See quotation.

1887. W. S. S. Tyrwhitt, `The New Churn in the Queensland Bush,' p. 61:

"Every third or fourth year on a cattle station, they have what is called a `bang tail muster'; that is to say, all the cattle are brought into the yards, and have the long hairs at the end of the tail cut off square, with knives or sheep-shears. . . The object of it is. . .to find out the actual number of cattle on the run, to compare with the number entered on the station books."

<hw>Banker</hw>, <i>n</i>. a river full up to the top of the banks. Compare Shakspeare: "Like a proud river, peering o'er his bounds." (`King John,' III. i. 23.)

1888. Cassell's `Picturesque Australasia,' vol, iii. p. 175

"The Murrumbidgee was running a `banker'—water right up to the banks."

1890. Lyth, `Golden South,' c. vii. p. 52:

"The driver stated that he had heard the river was `a banker.'"

1896. H. Lawson, `When the World was Wide,' p. 45:

"The creeks were bankers, and the flood
 Was forty miles round Bourke."

Ibid. p. 100:

"Till the river runs a banker,
 All stained with yellow mud."

<hw>Banksia</hw>, <i>n</i>. "A genus of Australian shrubs with umbellate flowers,—now cultivated as ornamental shrubs in Europe." (`O.E.D.') Called after Mr. Banks, naturalist of the <i>Endeavour</i>, afterwards Sir Joseph Banks. The so-called <i>Australian Honeysuckle</i> (q.v.). See also <i>Bottle-brush</i>.

1790. J. White, `Voyage to New South Wales,' p. 221:

"The different species of banksia. The finest new genus hitherto found in New Holland has been destined by Linnaeus, with great propriety, to transmit to posterity the name of Sir Joseph Banks, who first discovered it in his celebrated voyage round the world."

1798. D. Collins, `Account of English Colony in New South Wales,' p. 557:

"A few berries, the yam and fern root, the flowers of the different banksia, and at times some honey, make up the whole vegetable catalogue."

1829. Vigors and Horsfield, `Transactions of the Linnaean Society,' vol. xv. p. 312:

"Scrubs where the different species of banksia are found, the flowers of which I (Mr. Caley) have reason to think afford it sustenance during winter."

1833. C. Sturt, `South Australia,' vol. ii. c. ii. p. 30:

"Some sandhills . . . crowned by banksias."

1845. J. Q. Balfour, `Sketch of New South Wales,' p. 39:

"Many different species of banksia grow in great plenty in the neighbourhood of Sydney, and from the density of their foliage are very ornamental."

1846. L. Leichhardt, quoted by J. D. Lang, `Cooksland,' p. 331:

"The table-land is covered by forests of stringy-bark, of melaleuca-gum, and banksia."

1851. `Quarterly Review,' Dec., p. 40:

"In this they will find an extremely rich collection of bottle-brush-flowered, zigzag-leaved, grey-tinted, odd-looking things, to most eyes rather strange than beautiful, notwithstanding that one of them is named <i>Banksia speciosa</i>. They are the `Botany Bays' of old-fashioned gardeners, but are more in the shrub and tree line than that of flowering pots. <i>Banksia Solandei</i> will remind them to turn to their `Cook's Voyages' when they get home, to read how poor Dr. Solander got up a mountain and was heartily glad to get down again."

1877. F. v. Mueller, `Botanic Teachings,' p. 46:

"The banksias are of historic interest, inasmuch as the genus was dedicated already by the younger Linne in 1781 to Sir Joseph Banks, from whom the Swedish naturalist received branchlets of those species, which in Captain Cook's first voyage more than 100 years ago (1770) were gathered by Banks at Botany-Bay and a few other places of the east coast of Australia."

1887. J. Bonwick, `Romance of the Wool Trade,' p. 228:

"A banksia plain, with its collection of bottle-brush-like-flowers, may have its charms for a botanist, but its well-known sandy ground forbids the hope of good grasses."

<hw>Baobab</hw>, <i>n. a</i> tree, native of Africa, <i>Adansonia digitata</i>. The name is Ethiopian. It has been introduced into many tropical countries. The Australian species of the genus is <i>A. gregorii</i>, F. v. M., called also <i>Cream of Tartar</i> or <i>Sour Gourd-tree</i>, <i>Gouty-stem</i> (q.v.), and <i>Bottle-tree</i> (q.v.).

<hw>Barber</hw>, or <hw>Tasmanian Barber</hw>, <i>n</i>. a name for the fish <i>Anthias rasor</i>, Richards., family <i>Percidae</i>; also called <i>Red-Perch</i>. See <i>Perch</i>. It occurs in Tasmania, New Zealand, and Port Jackson. It is called <i>Barber</i> from the shape of the <i>praeoperculum</i>, one of the bones of the head. See quotation.

1841. John Richardson, `Description of Australian Fish,' p. 73:

"<i>Serranus Rasor</i>.— Tasmanian Barber. . . . The serrature of the preoperculum is the most obvious and general character by which the very numerous Serrani are connected with each other . . . The Van Diemen's Land fish, which is described below, is one of the `Barbers,' a fact which the specific appellation <i>rasor</i> is intended to indicate; the more classical word having been previously appropriated to another species. . . Mr. Lempriere states that it is known locally as the `red perch or shad.'"

[Richardson also says that Cuvier founded a subdivision of the <i>Serrani</i> on the characters of the scales of the jaws, under the name of `les Barbiers,' which had been previously grouped by Block under the title <i>Anthias</i>.]

<hw>Barcoo-grass</hw>, <i>n</i>. an Australian grass, <i>Anthistiria membranacea</i>, Lindl. One of the best pasture grasses in Queensland, but growing in other colonies also.

<hw>Barcoo Rot</hw>, <i>n.</i> a disease affecting inhabitants of various parts of the interior of Australia, but chiefly bushmen. It consists of persistent ulceration of the skin, chiefly on the back of the hands, and often originating in abrasions.

It is attributed to monotony of diet and to the cloudless climate, with its alternations of extreme cold at night and burning heat by day. It is said to be maintained and aggravated by the irritation of small flies.

1870. E. B. Kennedy, `Four Years in Queensland,' p. 46:

"Land scurvy is better known in Queensland by local names, which do not sound very pleasant, such as `Barcoo rot,' `Kennedy rot,' according to the district it appears in. There is nothing dangerous about it; it is simply the festering of any cut or scratch on one's legs, arms or hands. . . They take months to heal. . . Want of vegetables is assigned as the cause."

1890. C. Lumholtz, `Among Cannibals,' p. 58:

"In Western Queensland people are also subject to bad sores on the hand, called Barcoo-rot."

<hw>Barcoo Vomit</hw>, <i>n</i>. a sickness occurring in inhabitants of various parts of the high land of the interior of Australia. It is characterized by painless attacks of vomiting, occurring immediately after food is taken, followed by hunger, and recurring as soon as hunger is satisfied.

The name <i>Barcoo</i> is derived from the district traversed by the river Barcoo, or Cooper, in which this complaint and the <i>Barcoo Rot</i> are common. See Dr. E. C. Stirling's `Notes from Central Australia,' in `Intercolonial Quarterly Journal of Medicine and Surgery,' vol. i. p. 218.

<hw>Bargan</hw>, <i>n</i>. a name of the Come-back <i>Boomerang</i> (q.v.). (Spelt also <i>barragan</i>.)

1892. J. Fraser, `Aborigines of New South Wales,' p. 70:

"The `come-back' variety (of boomerang) is not a fighting weapon. A dialect name for it is bargan, which word may be explained in our language to mean `bent like a sickle or crescent moon.'"

<hw>Barking Owl</hw>, <i>n</i>. a bird not identified, and not in Gould (who accompanied Leichhardt).

1847. L. Leichhardt, `Overland Expedition, p. 47:

"The glucking-bird and the barking-owl were heard throughout the moonlight night."

<hw>Barrack</hw>, <i>v</i>. to jeer at opponents, to interrupt noisily, to make a disturbance; with the preposition "for," to support as a partisan, generally with clamour. An Australian football term dating from about 1880. The verb has been ruled unparliamentary by the Speaker in the Victorian Legislative Assembly. It is, however, in very common colloquial use. It is from the aboriginal word <i>borak</i> (q.v.), and the sense of jeering is earlier than that of supporting, but jeering at one side is akin to cheering for the other. Another suggested derivation is from the Irish pronunciation of "Bark," as (according to the usually accepted view) "Larrikin" from "larking." But the former explanation is the more probable. There is no connection with soldiers' "barracks;" nor is it likely that there is any, as has been ingeniously suggested, with the French word <i>baragouin</i>, gibberish.

1890. `Melbourne Punch,' Aug. 14, p. 106, col. 3:

"To use a football phrase, they all to a man `barrack' for the
British Lion."

1893. `The Age,' June 17, p. 15, col. 4:

"[The boy] goes much to football matches, where he barracks, and in a general way makes himself intolerable."

1893. `The Argus,' July 5, p. 9, col. 4, Legislative Assembly:

"<i>Mr. Isaacs</i>:. . . He hoped this `barracking' would not be continued." [Members had been interrupting him.]

1893. `The Herald' (Melbourne), Sept. 9, p. 1, col. 6:

"He noticed with pleasure the decrease of disagreeable barracking by spectators at matches during last season. Good-humoured badinage had prevailed, but the spectators had been very well conducted."

<hw>Barracker</hw>, <i>n</i>. one who barracks (q.v.).

1893. `The Age,' June 27, p. 6, col. 6:

"His worship remarked that the `barracking' that was carried on at football matches was a mean and contemptible system, and was getting worse and worse every day. Actually people were afraid to go to them on account of the conduct of the crowd of `barrackers.' It took all the interest out of the game to see young men acting like a gang of larrikins."

1894. `"The Argus,' Nov. 29, p. 4, col. 9:

"The `most unkindest cut of all' was that the Premier, who was Mr. Rogers's principal barracker during the elections, turned his back upon the prophet and did not deign to discuss his plan."

<hw>Barracks</hw>, <i>n</i>. a building on a station with rooms for bachelors.

1890. Rolf Boldrewood, `A Colonial Reformer,' p. 100

"A roomy, roughly-finished building known as the `barracks.' . . . . Three of the numerous bedrooms were tenanted by young men, . . . neophytes, who were gradually assimilating the love of Bush-land."

<hw>Barracouta</hw>, or <hw>Barracoota</hw>, <i>n</i>. The name, under its original spelling of <i>Barracuda</i>, was coined in the Spanish West Indies, and first applied there to a large voracious fish, <i>Sphyraena pecuda</i>, family <i>Sphyraenidae</i>. In Australia and New Zealand it is applied to a smaller edible fish, <i>Thyrsites atun</i>, Cuv. and Val., family <i>Trichiuridae</i>, called <i>Snook</i> (q.v.) at the Cape of Good Hope. It is found from the Cape of Good Hope to New Zealand.

1845. `Voyage to Port Philip,' p. 40:

"We hook the barracuda fish."

1882. Rev. J. E. Tenison-Woods, `Fishes of New South Wales,' p. 69:

"<i>Sphyrenidae</i>. The first family is the barracudas, or sea-pike." [Footnote]: "This name is no doubt the same as Barracouta and is of Spanish origin. The application of it to <i>Thyrsites atun</i> in the Southern seas was founded on some fancied resemblance to the West Indian fish, which originally bore the name, though of course they are entirely different."

(2) The word is used as a nickname for an inhabitant of Hobart; compare <i>Cornstalk</i>.

<hw>Barramunda</hw>, <i>n</i>. a fish, i.q. <i>Burramundi</i> (q.v.).

<hw>Basket-Fence</hw>, <i>n.</i> Local name for a stake-hedge. See quotation.

1872. G. S. Baden-Powell, `New Homes for the Old Country,' p. 208:

"For sheep, too, is made the `basket fence.' Stakes are driven in, and their pliant `stuff' interwoven, as in a stake hedge in England."

<hw>Bastard Dory</hw> and <hw>John Dory</hw> (q.v.), spelt also <HW>Dorey</HW>, <i>n</i>. an Australian fish, <i>Cyttus australis</i>, family <i>Cyttidae</i>; the Australian representative of <i>Zeus faber</i>, the European "John Dory," and its close relative, is called <i>Bastard Dorey</i> in New Zealand, and also <i>Boar-fish</i> (q.v.).

1880. Guenther, `Study of Fishes,' p. 387:

"<i>Histiopterus</i>. . . .The species figured attains to a length of twenty inches, and is esteemed as food. It is known at Melbourne by the names of `Boar-fish' or `Bastard Dorey' (fig.), <i>Histiopterus recurvirostris</i>."

<hw>Bastard Trumpeter</hw>, <i>n</i>. a fish. See <i>Morwong, Paper-fish</i>, and <i>Trumpeter</i>. In Sydney it is <i>Latris ciliaris</i>, Forst., which is called <i>Moki</i> in New Zealand; in Victoria and Tasmania, <i>L. forsteri</i>, Casteln.

1883. `Royal Commission on the Fisheries of Tasmania,' p. 35:

"The bastard trumpeter (<i>Latris Forsteri</i>). . . .Scarcely inferior to the real trumpeter, and superior to it in abundance all the year round, comes the bastard trumpeter. . . This fish has hitherto been confounded with <i>Latris ciliaris</i> (Forst.); but, although the latter species has been reported as existing in Tasmanian waters, it is most probably a mistake: for the two varieties (the red and the white), found in such abundance here, have the general characters as shown above. . . They must be referred to the <i>Latris Forsteri</i> of Count Castelnau, which appears to be the bastard trumpeter of Victorian waters."

<hw>Bat-fish</hw>, <i>n</i>. The name in England is given to a fish of the family <i>Maltheidae</i>. It is also applied to the Flying Gurnard of the Atlantic and to the Californian Sting-ray. In Australia, and chiefly in New South Wales, it is applied to <i>Psettus argenteus</i>, Linn., family <i>Carangidae</i>, or Horse Mackerels. Guenther says that the "Sea Bats," which belong to the closely allied genus <i>Platax</i>, are called so from the extraordinary length of some portion of their dorsal and anal fins and of their ventrals.

<hw>Bathurst Bur</hw>, <i>n</i>. Explained in quotation.

1855. W. Howitt, `Two Years in Victoria,' vol. i. p. 261:

"The Bathurst bur (<i>Xanthium spinosuzn</i>), a plant with long triple spines like the barbary, and burs which are ruinous to the wool of the sheep—otherwise, itself very like a chenopodium, or good-fat-hen."

<hw>Bats-wing-coral</hw>, <i>n</i>. the Australian wood <i>Erythrina vespertilio</i>, Bentham, <i>N.O. Leguminosae</i>.

1889. J. H. Maiden, `Useful Native Plants,' p. 426:

"Batswing Coral. . . .The wood is soft, and used by the aborigines for making their `heilamans,' or shields. It is exceedingly light and spongy, and of the greatest difficulty to work up to get anything like a surface for polishing."

<hw>Bauera</hw>, <i>n</i>. a shrub, <i>Bauera rubioides</i>, Andr., <i>N.O. Saxifrageae</i>, the <i>Scrub Vine</i>, or <i>Native Rose</i>; commonly called in Tasmania "Bauera,"and celebrated for forming impenetrable thickets in conjunction with "cutting grass," <i>Cladium psittacorum</i>, Labill.

1835. Ross, `Hobart Town Almanack,' p. 70:

"Bauera rubiaefolia. Madder leaved Bauera. A pretty little plant with pink flowers. This genus is named after the celebrated German draughtsman, whose splendid works are yet unrivalled in the art, especially of the Australian plants which he depicted in his voyage round New Holland with Capt. Flinders in the Investigator."

1888. R. M. Johnston, `Geology of Tasmania,' Intro. p. vi.:

"The Bauera scrub . . . is a tiny, beautiful shrub . . . Although the branches are thin and wiry, they are too tough and too much entangled in mass to cut, and the only mode of progress often is to throw one's self high upon the soft branching mass and roll over to the other side. The progress in this way is slow, monotonous, and exhausting."

1891. `The Australasian,' April 4, p. 670, col. 2:

"Cutting-grass swamps and the bauera, where a dog can't hardly
 go,
Stringy-bark country, and blackwood beds, and lots of it broken
 by snow."

1891. W. Tilley, `Wild West of Tasmania,' p. 7:

"Interposing the even more troublesome Bauera shrub; whose gnarled branches have earned for it the local and expressive name of `tangle-foot' or `leg ropes.' [It] has been named by Spicer the `Native Rose.'"

<hw>Beal</hw>, <hw>Bool</hw>, or <hw>Bull</hw>, <i>n</i>. a sweet aboriginal drink.

1827. P. Cunningham, `Two Years in New South Wales,' vol. i.:

"A good jorum of <i>bull</i> (washings of a sugar bag)" [given to aborigines who have been working].

1839. T. L. Mitchell, `Three Expeditions,' vol. ii. p. 288:

"The flowers are gathered, and by steeping them a night in water the natives made a sweet beverage called `bool.'"

1878. R. Brough Smyth, `Aborigines of Victoria,' vol. i. p. 210:

"In the flowers of a dwarf species of banksia (<i>B. ornata</i>) there is a good deal of honey, and this was got out of the flowers by immersing them in water. The water thus sweetened was greedily swallowed by the natives. The drink was named <i>beal</i> by the natives of the west of Victoria, and was much esteemed."

<hw>Beal</hw> (2), <i>n</i>. i.q. <i>Belar</i> (q.v.).

<hw>Bean, Queensland</hw>, or <hw>Leichhardt</hw>, or <hw>Match-box</hw>, <i>n. Entada scandens</i>, Benth., <i>N.O. Leguminosae</i>. Though this bean has two Australian names, it is really widely distributed throughout the tropics. A tall climbing plant; the seeds are used for match-boxes.

1889. J. H. Maiden, `Useful Native Plants,' p. 425:

"The seeds are about two inches across, by half-an-inch thick, and have a hard woody and beautifully polished shell, of a dark brown or purplish colour. These seeds are converted into snuff-boxes, scent-bottles, spoons, etc., and in the Indian bazaars they are used as weights. (`Treasury of Botany.') In the colonies we usually see the beans of this plant mounted with silver, as match-boxes. The wood itself is soft, fibrous, and spongy."

<hw>Bean-Tree</hw>, <i>n</i>. called also <i>Moreton Bay Chestnut, Castanospermum australe</i>, Cunn. and Fraser, <i>N.O. Leguminosae</i>; a tall tree with red flowers and large seed-pods. The timber of young specimens has beautiful dark clouding.

<hw>Bear, Native</hw>, <i>n</i>. the colonists' name for an animal called by the aborigines Koala, Koolah, Kool-la, and Carbora (<i>Phascolarctus cinereus</i>). It is a tree-climbing marsupial, about two feet in length, like a small bear in its heavy build. Its food is the young leaves of the Eucalyptus, and it is said that the Native Bear cannot be taken to England because it would die on board ship, owing to there being no fresh gum leaves. The writers are incorrect who call the animal a sloth.

1827. P. Cunningham, `Two Years in New South Wales,' vol. i. p. 317

"Our coola (sloth or native bear) is about the size of an ordinary poodle dog, with shaggy, dirty-coloured fur, no tail, and claws and feet like a bear, of which it forms a tolerable miniature. It climbs trees readily and feeds upon their leaves."

1846. G. H. Haydon, `Five Years in Australia Felix,' p. 57:

"The bear (phascolomys) of the colonists is in reality a species of sloth, and partakes of all the characteristics of that animal; it is of the marsupial order, and is found chiefly in the neighbourhood of thickly timbered high land; its flesh is used by the aborigines for food, but is tough and unpalatable; its usual weight is from eight to twelve pounds." [Note: <i>Phascolomys</i> is the name of the Wombat, not the Bear.]

1854. G. H. Hayden, `The Australian Emigrant,' p. 126:

"The luckless <i>carbora</i> fell crashing through the branches." [Footnote] "The native name of an animal of the sloth species, but incorrectly called by the colonists a bear."

1855. W. Blandowski, `Transactions of Philosophical Society of Victoria,' vol. i. p. 68:

"The koala or karbor (<i>Phascolarctus cinereus</i>) frequents very high trees, and sits in places where it is most sheltered by the branches. . . . Its fur is of the same colour as the bark . . . like the cat has the power of contracting and expanding the pupil of the eye . . . . Its skin is remarkably thick . . . dense woolly fur . . . . The natives aver that the koala never drinks water."

1865. Rev. J. E. Tenison-Woods, `History of the Discovery and Exploration of Australia,' vol. i. p. 448:

"They were soon entirely out of provisions, but found a sort of substitute by living on the native bear (<i>Phascolarctus cinereus</i>), which was plentiful even in the forests."

1881. A. C. Grant, `Bush Life in Queensland,' vol. i. p. 214:

"Look, high up in the branches of that tall tree is a native bear! It sits motionless. It has something the appearance of a solemn old man. How funny his great ears and Roman nose look! He sits on the branch as if it was a chair, holding with hand-like claws the surrounding twigs."

1890. C. Lumholtz, `Among Cannibals,' p. 9:

"We learned that a koala or native bear (<i>Phascolarctus cinereus</i>) was sitting on a tree near the but of a shepherd . . . not a dangerous animal. It is called `native bear,' but is in no wise related to the bear family. It is an innocent and peaceful marsupial, which is active only at night, and sluggishly climbs the trees, eating leaves and sleeping during the whole day. As soon as the young has left the pouch, the mother carries it with her on her back. The Australian bear is found in considerable numbers throughout the eastern part of the continent, even within the tropical circle."

<hw>Bearded Lizard</hw>, <i>n</i>. See <i>Jew Lizard</i>.

<hw>Beardie</hw>, or <hw>Beardy</hw>, <i>n</i>. a fish. In Scotland the name is applied to the Bearded Loach, <i>Nemachilus barbatus</i>, of Europe; in New South Wales the name is given to the fish <i>Lotella marginata</i>, Macl., of the family <i>Gadidae</i>, or Cod-fishes, which is also called <i>Ling</i> (q.v.).

<hw>Beaver-rat</hw>, <i>n</i>. an aquatic rodent, something like the English water-rat, genus <i>Hydromys</i>.

1864. `Proceedings of the Royal Society of Van Diemen's Land' [paper by Morton Allport], p. 62:

"Common to both fresh and brackish water is the yellow bellied beaver-rat or musk-rat (<i>Hydromys chrysogaster</i>)."

<hw>Beech</hw>, <i>n</i>. There is only one true Beech in Australia, <i>Fagus cunninghamii</i>, Hook, <i>N.O. Cupuliferae</i>; but the name is applied to many other kinds of Australian trees, viz.—

(1) Simply to

<i>Cryptocarya glaucescens</i>, R. Br., <i>N.O. Laurineae</i>, called also Black Sassafras, White Laurel, She Beech, and Black Beech.

<i>Flindersia australis</i>, R. Br., <i>N.O. Meliaceae</i>, called also Flindosa Ash, Crow's Ash, and Rasp-pod, and invariably Myrtle to Tasmania.

Gmelina leichhardtii, F. v. M., <i>N.O. Verbenaceae</i>.

<i>Monotoca elliptica</i>, R. Br., <i>N.O. Epacrideae</i>.

<i>Phyllanthus ferdinandi</i>, Muell. and Arg., <i>N.O. Euphorbiaceae</i>, called also Pencil Cedar in Southern New South Wales.

<i>Schizomeria ovata</i>, D. Don, <i>N.O. Saxifrageae</i>, called also Corkwood, Light-wood, Coachwood, and White Cherry.

<i>Trochocarpa laurina</i>, R. Br., <i>N.O. Epacrideae, called</i> also Brush Cherry, and Brush Myrtle.

(2) With various epithets the name is also used as follows—

Evergreen Beech—

<i>Fagus cunninghamii</i>, Hook, <i>N.O. Cupuliferae</i>, called also Myrtle and Negro-head Beech.

Flindosy B.—

<i>Flindersia schottiana</i>, F. v. M., <i>N.O. Meliaceae</i>, called also Ash and Stave-wood.

Indian B.—

<i>Pongamia glabra</i>, Vent., <i>N.O. Leguminosae</i>, B. Fl.

Mountain B.—

<i>Lomatia longifolia</i>, R. Br., <i>N.O. Proteaceae</i>.

Native B.—

<i>Callicoma serratifolia</i>, Andr., <i>N.O. Saxifragiae</i>, "one of the trees called by the early colonists `Black Wattle,' from the fancied resemblance of the flowers to those of some of the wattles." (Maiden, p. 389.)

Negro-head B., i.q. Evergreen B. (q.v. supra).

Queensland B.—

<i>Gmelina leichhardtii</i> , F. v. M., <i>N.O. Verbenaceae</i>, a tall valuable timber-tree.

Red B.—

<i>Tarrietia trifoliata</i>, F. v. M., <i>N.O. Sterculiaceae</i>.

She B.—

<i>Cryptocazya obovata</i>, R. Br., <i>H.0. Laurineae</i>, B. Fl., called also Bastard Sycamore.

White B.—

<i>Elaeocarpus kirtoni</i>, F. v. M., <i>N.O. Tiliaceae</i>, called also Mountain Ash.

(3) In New Zealand, there are six species of true beeches, which according to Kirk are as follows—

Blair's B.—

<i>Fagus blairii</i>, T. Kirk.

Entire-leaved B.—

<i>F. solandri</i>, Hook. f.

Mountain B.—

<i>F. cliffortioides</i>, Hook. f.

Pointed-leaved B.—

<i>F. apiculata</i>, Colenso.

Silver B.—

<i>F. Menziesii</i>, Hook. f.

Tooth-leaved B.—

<i>F. fusca</i>, Hook. f.

All these, however, are commonly called <i>Birches</i>.

See also the words <i>Ash, Myrtle, Sassafras</i>.

<hw>Bee-eater</hw>, <i>n</i>. a bird-name. The European Bee-eater is <i>Merops apiaster</i>; the Australian species is <i>Merops ornatus</i>, Lath. The bird was called "<i>M. phrygius</i>, the Embroidered Merops," by Shaw.

1793. G. Shaw, `Zoology [and Botany] of New Holland,' p. 14:

"Specific character.—Black Merops varied with yellow. The bird figured in its natural size on the present plate is a species of Merops or Bee-eater; a tribe which appears to be peculiarly prevalent in the extensive regions of Australia, since more birds of this genus have been discovered than of any other, except the very numerous one of Psittacus."

[The birds, however, have been since this date further differentiated, and are now all classed in other genera, except the present species.]

1790. J. White, `Voyage to New South Wales,' p. 144:

"The wattled bee-eater, of which a plate is annexed, fell in our way during the course of the day. . . . Under the eye, on each side, is a kind of wattle of an orange colour. . . This bird seems to be peculiar to New Holland."

Ibid. p. 190:

"We this day shot a knob-fronted bee-eater (see plate annexed).
This is about the size of a black-bird." [Description follows.]

<hw>Beef-wood</hw>, <i>n</i>. the timber of various Australian trees, especially of the genus <i>Casuarina</i>, and some of the Banksias; often used as a synonym of <i>She-oak</i> (q.v.). The name is taken from the redness of the wood.

1826. J. Atkinson, `Agriculture and Grazing in New South Wales,' p. 31:

"The wood is well known in England by the names of Botany Bay wood, or beef wood.The grain is very peculiar, but the wood is thought very little of in the colony; it makes good shingles, splits, in the colonial phrase, from heart to bark . . ."

1833. C. Sturt, `Southern Australia,' vol. i. c. i. p. 22:

"They seemed to be covered with cypresses and beef-wood."

1846. C. Holtzapffel, `Turning,' vol. i. p. 74:

"Beef wood. Red-coloured woods are sometimes thus named, but it is generally applied to the Botany-Bay oak."

1852. G. C. Munday, `Our Antipodes' (edition 1855), p. 219:

"A shingle of the beef-wood looks precisely like a raw beef-steak."

1856. Capt. H. Butler Stoney, `A Residence in Tasmania,' p. 265:

"We now turn our attention to some trees of a very different nature, <i>Casuarina stricta</i> and <i>quadrivalvis</i>, commonly called He and She oak, and sometimes known by the name of beef-wood, from the wood, which is very hard and takes a high polish, exhibiting peculiar maculae spots and veins scattered throughout a finely striated tint . . ."

1868. Paxton's `Botanical Dictionary,' p. 116:

"Casuarinaceae,or Beefwoods. Curious branching, leafless trees or shrubs, with timber of a high order, which is both hard and heavy, and of the colour of raw beef, whence the vulgar name."

1889. J. H. Maiden, `Useful Native Plants.' (See `Index of vernacular names.')

<hw>Belar</hw>, <i>n</i>. (various spellings, <i>Belah, billa, beela, beal</i>), an aboriginal name for the tree <i>Casuarina glauca</i>. The colonists call the tree Bull-oak, probably from this native name.

1862. H. C. Kendall, `Poems,' p. 18:

"A voice in the beela grows wild in its wail."

1868. J. A. B., `Meta,' p. 19:

"With heartfelt glee we hail the camp,
And blazing fire of beal."

[Footnote]: "Aboriginal name of the gum-tree wood."

1874. W. H. L. Ranken, `Dominion of Australia,' c. vi. p. 110:

"These scrubs . . . sometimes crown the watersheds as `belar.'"

<hw>Bell-bird</hw>, <i>n</i>. name given to several birds, from their note, like the tinkling of a bell. In Australia, a Honey-eater, <i>Myzantha melanophrys</i>, Gould ('Birds of Australia,' vol. iv. pl. 80), the `Australian Bell-bird' (the same bird as <i>Myzantha flavirostris</i>, V. and H.), chiefly found in New South Wales; also <i>Oreoica gutturalis</i>, Gould (vol. ii. pl. 81), the `Bell-bird' of Western Australia; and <i>Oreoica cristata</i>, Lewin. In New Zealand, <i>Anthornis melanura</i>, Sparrm., chief Maori names, <i>Korimako</i> (q.v.) in North, and <i>Makomako</i> in South. Buller gives ten Maori names. The settlers call it <i>Moko</i> (q.v.). There is also a Bell-bird in Brazil.

1774. J. Hawkesworth, `Voyages,' vol. ii. p. 390 [Journal of Jan. 17, 1770):

"In the morning we were awakened by the singing of the birds; the number was incredible, and they seemed to strain their throats in emulation of each other. This wild melody was infinitely superior to any that we had ever heard of the same kind; it seemed to be like small bells most exquisitely tuned, and perhaps the distance, and the water between, might be no small advantage to the sound. Upon enquiry we were informed that the birds here always began to sing about two hours after midnight, and continuing their music till sunrise were, like our nightingales, silent the rest of the day."

[This celebrated descriptive passage by Dr. Hawkesworth is based upon the following original from `Banks's Journal,' which now, after an interval of 122 years, has just been published in London, edited by Sir J. D. Hooker.]

1770. J. Banks, `Journal,' Jan. 17 (edition 1896):

"I was awakened by the singing of the birds ashore, from whence we are distant not a quarter of a mile. Their numbers were certainly very great. They seemed to strain their throats with emulation, and made, perhaps, the most melodious wild music I have ever heard, almost imitating small bells, but with the most tunable silver sound imaginable, to which, maybe, the distance was no small addition. On inquiring of our people, I was told that they had observed them ever since we had been here, and that they began to sing about one or two in the morning, and continue till sunrise, after which they are silent all day, like our nightingales."

1802. G. Barrington, `History of New South Wales,' c. viii. p. 84:

"The cry of the bell-bird seems to be unknown here."

1827. Vigors and Horsfield, `Transactions of Linnaean Society,' vol. xv. p. 319:

"Mr. Caley thus observes on this bird: `Dell-bird or Bell-bird. So called by the colonists. It is an inhabitant of bushes, where its disagreeable noise (disagreeable at least to me) [but not to the poets] may be continually heard; but nowhere more so than on going up the harbour to Paramatta, when a little above the Flats.'"

1835. T. B. Wilson, `Voyage Round the World,' p. 259:

"During the night, the bell bird supplied, to us, the place of the wakeful nightingale . . . a pleasing surprise, as we had hitherto supposed that the birds in New Holland were not formed for song."

1839. E. J. Wakefield, `Adventures in New Zealand,' p. 23:

"Every bough seemed to throng with feathered musicians: the melodious chimes of the bell-bird were specially distinct."

1845. R. Howitt, `Australia,' p. 102:

"Look at the bell-bird's nest, admire the two spotted salmon coloured eggs."

Ibid. ('Verses written whilst we lived in tents'), p. 171:

"Through the Eucalyptus shade,
Pleased could watch the bell-bird's flutter,
Blending with soft voice of waters
The delicious tones they utter."

1846. Lady Martin, `Bush journey, 1846, Our Maoris,' p. 93:

"We did hear the birds next morning as Captain Cook had described —first the bell-bird gave its clear, full note, and then came such a jargoning as made one's heart glad."

1848. J. Gould, `Birds of Australia,' vol. ii. pl. 81:

"<i>Oreoica gutturalis</i>, Gould. Crested Oreoica. <i>Bell-bird</i>, Colonists of Swan River [Western Australia]. . . I find the following remarks in my note-book— `Note, a very peculiar piping whistle, sounding like <i>weet-weet-weet-weet-oo</i>, the last syllable fully drawn out and very melodious. . . . In Western Australia, where the real Bell-bird is never found, this species has had that appellation given to it,—a term which must appear ill-applied to those who have heard the note of the true Bell-bird of the brushes of New South Wales, whose tinkling sound so nearly resembles that of a distant sheep-bell as occasionally to deceive the ears of a practised shepherd."

1866. Lady Barker, `Station Life in New Zealand,' p. 93:

"Every now and then we stood, by common consent, silent and almost breathless, to listen to the bell-bird, a dingy little fellow, nearly as large as a thrush with the plumage of a chaffinch, but with such a note! How can I make you hear its wild, sweet, plaintive tone, as a little girl of the party said `just as if it had a bell in its throat;' but indeed it would require a whole peal of silver bells to ring such an exquisite chime."

1868. F. Napier Broome, `Canterbury Rhymes,' second edition, p. 108:

"Where the bell-bird sets solitudes ringing,
Many times I have heard and thrown down
My lyre in despair of all singing."

1881. A. C. Grant, `Bush Life in Queensland,' vol. i. p. 21:

"Listen to the bell-bird. Ping, ping, sounds through the vast hushed temple of nature."

1883. G. W. Rusden, `History of Australia,' vol. i. p. 81:

"The bell-bird, with metallic but mellow pipe, warns the wanderer that he is near water in some sequestered nook."

1886. H. C. Kendall, `Poems,' p. 8:

"And softer than slumber and sweeter than singing,
The notes of the bell-bird are running and ringing."

1888. W. L. Buller, `Birds of New Zealand,' vol. i. p. 85:

"<i>Anthornis melanura</i>. Chatham Island Bell-bird (<i>A. Melanocephala</i>), the Bell-bird—so-called from the fanciful resemblance of one of its notes to the distant tolling of a bell."

1889. Prof. Parker, `Catalogue of New Zealand Exhibition,' p. 119:

"Bell-bird, Korimako,or Makomako (<i>Anthornis melanura</i>), is still common in many parts of the South Island—e.g. in the neighbourhood of Dunedin; but has almost disappeared from the North Island. Its song is remarkably fine."

1893. W. P. Reeves, `The Passing of the Forest,' `Review of Reviews,' Feb. 1893, p. 45:

"Gone are the forest birds, arboreal things,
Eaters of honey, honey-sweet in song;
The tui, and the bell-bird—he who sings
That brief rich music one would fain prolong.'

1896. G. A. Keartland, `Horne Expedition in Central Australia,' Part II., Zoology, <i>Aves</i>, p. 74:

"In the north they [Oreoica] are frequently called `Bell-birds,' but bear no resemblance to <i>Manorhina melanophrys</i> in plumage, shape, or note. The Oreoica is such an accomplished ventriloquist that it is difficult to find."

<hw>Bell-bottomed</hw>, <i>adj</i>. a particular fashion of trouser affected by the <i>larrikin</i> (q.v.).

1891. `The Argus,' Dec. 5, p. 13, col. 2:

"Can it be that the pernicious influence of the House is gradually tingeing the high priests of the bell-bottomed ballottee with conservatism!"

<hw>Bell-Frog, Golden</hw>, <i>n</i>. See <i>Golden Bell-Frog</i>.

<hw>Bell-topper</hw>, <i>n</i>. The ordinary Australian name for the tall silk-hat.

1860. W. Kelly, `Life in Victoria,' p. 268 [Footnote]:

"Bell-topper was the derisive name given by diggers to old style hat, supposed to indicate the dandy swell."

<hw>Benjamin</hw>, <i>n</i>. a husband, in Australian pigeon-English.

1870. Chas. H. Allen, `A Visit to Queensland and her Goldfields,' p. 182:

"There are certain native terms that are used by the whites also as a kind of colonial slang, such as `yabber,' to talk; `budgeree,' good; `bale,' no; `yan,' to go; `cabon,' much; and so on.

"With the black people a husband is now called a `benjamin,' probably because they have no word to their own language to express this relationship."

<hw>Benjamin-Tree</hw>, <i>n</i>. also called <i>Weeping Fig</i> in Queensland, Ficus benjaminea, Linn., <i>N.O. Urticaceae</i>.

<hw>Bent-grass</hw>. <i>n</i>. See <i>Grass</i>.

1835. Ross, `Hobart Town Almanack,' p. 65:

<i>"Agrostis virginica</i>. Virginian Agrostis, or Bent-grass. . . . Many species of this genus go under the general name of Bent-grass. Their roots spread along among light and sandy soil in which they generally grow with joints like the Squitch or Couch grass of England."

<hw>Berigora</hw>, <i>n</i>. aboriginal name for a bird of genus <i>Falco</i>, from <i>beri</i>, claw, and <i>gora</i>, long. See <i>Hawk</i>

1827. Vigors and Horsfield, `Transactions of Linnaean Society,' vol. xv. p. 185:

"The native name of this bird which we have adopted as its specific name, is <i>Berigora</i>. It is called by the settlers <i>Orange-speckled Hawk</i>."

1848. J. Gould, `Birds of Australia,' I. i. pl. 11:

"<i>Hieracidea berigora</i>. Brown Hawk. Berigora, Aborigines of New South Wales. Orange-speckled Hawk of the Colonists."

<hw>Berley</hw>, <i>n</i>. term used by Australian fishermen for ground bait. It is probably of aboriginal origin.

1882. Rev. J. E. Tenison-Woods, `Fish and Fisheries of New South Wales,' p. 75:

"With hook and line along the rocks of our sea-coast these fishes are caught, but the bait should be crabs. It is usual to wrench legs and shell off the back, and cast them out for Berley."

1896. `Badminton Magazine,' August, p. 201:

"I would signal to the sharks by opening and washing out a few of the largest fish at the boat's head, sometimes adding bait chopped small to serve for what Australian fishermen call Berley."

<hw>Betcherrygah</hw>, <i>n</i>. bird-name, <i>Melopsittacus undulatus</i>, Shaw. See Budgerigar.

<hw>Bettongia</hw>, <i>n</i>. the scientific name of the genus of Prehensile-tailed <i>Kangaroo-Rats</i>, whose aboriginal name is <i>Bettong</i>. They are the only ground-dwelling marsupials with prehensile tails, which they use for carrying bunches of grasses and sticks. See <i>Kangaroo-Rat</i>.

<hw>Biddy-biddy</hw>, or <hw>Biddybid</hw>, <i>n</i>. a corruption of Maori name <i>piripiri</i>. It is a kind of bur.

1880. T. H. Potts, `Out in the Open, `New Zealand Country Journal,' vol. xii. p. 95:

"Piri-piri (<i>acaena sanguisorbe</i>) by settlers has been converted or corrupted into biddy-biddy; a verb has been formed on it, which is in very constant use for a good part of the year at least. To biddy, is to rid one of burrs, as `I'll just biddy my clothes before I come in.' Small birds are occasionally found in a wretched state of discomfort in which they appear a moving mass of burrs. Parroquets, pipets, and the little white-eyes, have been found victims suffering from these tenacious burrs of the piri-piri, just moving little brown balls unable to fly till picked up and released from their bonds."

1896. `Otago Witness,' Jan. 23, vol. ii. p. 36:

"Yes, biddybids detract very materially from the value of the wool, and the plant should not be allowed to seed where sheep are depastured. They are not quite so bad as the Bathurst burr, but they are certainly in the same category."

<hw>Biddy</hw>, <i>v</i>. See <i>Biddy-biddy, n</i>.

<hw>Bidgee Widgee</hw>, <i>n</i>. name given to a Tasmanian <i>Bur</i> (q.v.).

<hw>Bidyan Ruffe</hw>, <i>n</i>. a fresh-water fish of New South Wales, <i>Therapon richardsonii</i>, Castln., family <i>Percidae</i>. Mr. J. Douglas Ogilby, Assistant Zoologist at the Australian Museum, Sydney, says in a letter "The Bidyan Ruffe of Sir Thomas Mitchell is our <i>Therapon ellipticus</i>, Richards (<i>T. richardsonii</i>, Castln.). Found in all the rivers of the Murray system, and called <i>Kooberry</i> by the natives." It is also called the <i>Silver Perch</i> and sometimes <i>Bream</i>.

1838. T. L. Mitchell, `Three Expeditions,' vol. i. p. 95 [Note]:

"Bidyan is the aboriginal name."

Ibid. vol. i. p. 135:

"Abundance of that which the men commonly called bream (<i>Cernua bidyana</i>), a very coarse but firm fish, which makes a groaning noise when taken out of the water."

<hw>Big-head</hw>, <i>n</i>. a fish. The name is used locally for various fishes; in Australia it is <i>Eleotris nudiceps</i>, Castln., family <i>Gobiidae</i>, a river fish. Of the genus <i>Eleotris</i>, Guenther says that as regards form they repeat almost all the modifications observed among the Gobies, from which they differ only in having the ventral fins non-coalescent. See <i>Bull-head</i> (2).

<hw>Billabong</hw>, <i>n</i>. an effluent from a river, returning to it, or often ending in the sand, in some cases running only in flood time.

In the Wiradhuri dialect of the centre of New South Wales, East coast, <i>billa</i> means a river and <i>bung</i> dead. See <i>Bung. Billa</i> is also a river in some Queensland dialects, and thus forms part of the name of the river Belyando. In the Moreton Bay dialect it occurs in the form <i>pill</i> , and in the sense of `tidal creek.' In the `Western Australian Almanack' for 1842, quoted in J. Fraser's `Australian Language,' 1892, Appendix, p. 50, <i>Bilo</i> is given for <i>River</i>.

<i> Billabong</i> is often regarded as a synonym for <i>Anabranch</i> (q.v.); but there is a distinction. From the original idea, the <i>Anabranch</i> implies rejoining the river; whilst the <i>Billabong</i> implies continued separation from it; though what are called <i>Billabongs</i> often do rejoin.

1862. W. Landsborough, `Exploration of Australia,' p. 30:

"A dried-up tributary of the Gregory, which I named the
Macadam."

[Footnote]: "In the south, such a creek as the Macadam is termed a <i>billy-bonn</i> [sic], from the circumstance of the water carrier returning from it with his pitcher (<i>billy</i>) empty (<i>bong</i>, literally dead)."

1865. W. Howitt, `Discovery in Australia, vol. i. p. 298:

"What the Major calls, after the learned nomenclature of Colonel Jackson, in the `Journal of the Geographical Society,' anabranches, but which the natives call billibongs, channels coming out of a stream and returning into it again."

1880. P. J. Holdsworth, `Station Hunting on the Warrego:'

"In yon great range may huddle billabongs."

1888. D. Macdonald, `Gum Boughs,' p. 25:

"What a number of swallows skim about the `billabongs' along the rivers in this semi-tropical region."

1893. `The Argus,' April 8, p. 4, col. 1:

"Let's make a start at once, d'ye hear; I want to get over to the billabong by sunrise."

<hw>Billet</hw>, <i>n</i>. an appointment, a position; a very common expression in Australia, but not confined to Australia; adapted from the meaning, "an official order requiring the person to whom it is addressed to provide board and lodging for the soldier bearing it." (`O.E.D.')

1890. E. W. Hornung, `A Bride from the Bush,' p. 267:

"If ever she went back to Australia, she'd remember my young man, and get him a good billet."

<hw>Billy</hw>, <i>n</i>. a tin pot used as a bushman's kettle. The word comes from the proper name, used as abbreviation for William. Compare the common uses of `Jack,' `Long Tom,' `Spinning Jenny.' It came into use about 1850. It is not used in the following.

1830. R. Dawson, `Present State of Australia,' p. 48:

"He then strikes a light and makes a fire to boil his kettle and fry his bacon."

About 1850, the billy superseded the <i>quart-pot</i> (q.v.), chiefly because of its top-handle and its lid. Another suggested derivation is that billy is shortened from <i>billycan</i>, which is said to be bully-can (sc. Fr. <i>bouili</i>). In the early days "<i>boeuf bouilli</i>" was a common label on tins of preserved meat in ship's stores. These tins, called "bully-tins," were used by diggers and others as the modern billy is (see quotation 1835). A third explanation gives as the origin the aboriginal word <i>billa</i> (river or water).

1835. T. B. Wilson, `Voyage Round the World,' p. 238:

"An empty preserved meat-canister serving the double purpose of tea-kettle and tea-pot."

[The word <i>billy</i> is not used, but its origin is described.]

1857. W. Howitt, `Tallangetta,' vol. i. p. 202:

"A tin pan bearing the familiar name of a billy."

1871 J. J. Simpson, `Recitations,' p. 5:

"He can't get a billy full for many a mile round."

1881. A. C. Grant, `Bush Life in Queensland,' vol. i. p. 41:

"A billy (that is a round tin pitcher with a lid) in his hand."

1889. Cassell's `Picturesque Australasia,' vol. iv. p. 69:

"A tin can, which the connoisseurs call for some reason or other a `billy.'"

1890. Rolf Boldrewood, `Squatter's Dream,' p. 24:

"A very black camp-kettle, or billy, of hot tea."

1892. `The Australasian,' April 9, p. 707, col. 4:

"How we praised the simple supper
   (we prepared it each in turn),
And the tea! Ye gods! 'twas nectar.
   Yonder billy was our urn."

<hw>Billy-can</hw>, <i>n.</i> a variation of the above, more used by townsmen than bushmen.

1892. `The Australasian,' April 9, p. 707, col. 4:

"But I said, `Dear friend and brother, yonder billy-can is mine; You may confiscate the washing that is hanging on the line, You may depredate the larder, take your choice of pot and pan; But, I pray thee, kind sundowner, spare, oh spare, my billy-can.'"

<hw>Bingy</hw> [<i>g</i> soft], <i>n</i>. stomach or belly. Aboriginal. The form at Botany Bay was <i>bindi</i>; at Jervis Bay, <i>binji</i>.

1851. Rev. David Mackenzie, `Ten Years in Australia,' p. 140:

"They lay rolling themselves on the ground, heavily groaning in pain, and with their hands rubbing their bellies, exclaiming, `Cabonn buggel along bingee' (that is, I am very sick in the stomach)."

<hw>Birch</hw>, <i>n</i>. In New Zealand, the trees called birches are really <i>beeches</i> (q.v.), but the term birch is used very vaguely; see quotation 1889. In Tasmania, the name is applied to <i>Dodonaea ericifolia</i>, Don., <i>N.O. Sapindaceae</i>.

1853. J. Hector, `Handbook of New Zealand,' p. 125:

"White-birch of Nelson and Otago (from colour of bark), Black-heart Birch of Wellington, <i>Fagus solandri</i>, Hook, a lofty, beautiful ever-green tree, 100 feet high. Black-birch (Tawhai) of Auckland and Otago (from colour of bark), Red-birch of Wellington and Nelson (from colour of timber), <i>Fagus fusca, N.O. Cupuliferae</i>, a noble tree 60 to 90 feet high."

1889. T. Kirk, `Forest Flora of New Zealand,' p. 91:

"Like all small-leaved forest trees it [<i>Fagus solandri</i>, Hook. f.] is termed `birch' by the bushman. . . . It is not too much to say that the blundering use of common names in connection with the New Zealand beeches, when the timber has been employed in bridges and constructive works, has caused waste and loss to the value of many thousands of pounds."

<hw>Bird-catching Plant</hw>, <i>n</i>. a New Zealand shrub or tree, <i>Pisonia brunoniana</i>, Endl., <i>N.O. Nyctagineae</i>; Maori name, <i>Parapara</i>.

1883. R. H. Govett, `Transactions of the New Zealand Institute,' vol. xvi. Art. xxviii. p. 364::

"A Bird-killing Tree. . . . In a shrub growing in my father's garden at New Plymouth, two Silver-eyes (<i>Zosterops</i>) and an English Sparrow had been found with their wings so glued by the sticky seed-vessels that they were unable to move, and could only fly away after having been carefully washed."

1889. T. Kirk, `Forest Flora of New Zealand,' p. 293:

"It is sometimes termed the `birdcatching plant' by settlers and bushmen . . . It will always be a plant of special interest, as small birds are often found captured by its viscid fruits, to which their feathers become attached as effectively as if they were glued."

<hw>Bird's-nest fungus</hw>, <i>n</i>. a small fungus of the genus <i>Cyathus</i>, four species of which occur in Queensland.

<hw>Bitter-Bark</hw>, <i>n</i>. an Australian tree, <i>Petalostigma quadrilo</i> culare, F. v. M., <i>N.O. Euphorbiacea</i>. Called also <i>Crab-tree, Native Quince, Emu apple</i>, and <i>Quinine-tree</i>. The bark contains a powerful bitter essence, which is used medicinally. The name is also applied to <i>Tabernaemontana orientalis</i>, R. Br., <i>N.O. Apocyneae</i>, and to <i>Alstonia constricta</i>, F. v. M., <i>N.O. Aporynacece</i>, which is also called Feverbark.

1889. J. H. Maiden, `Useful Native Plants,' p. 204:

"Bitter Bark. This small tree has an intensely bitter bark, and a decoction of it is sometimes sold as `bitters."

<hw>Bitter-Leaf</hw>, <i>n</i>. a Tasmanian name for the <i>Native Hop</i>. See <i>Hops</i> and <i>Hopbush</i>.

<hw>Bittern</hw>, <i>n</i>. bird-name well known in England. The Australian species are—

The Bittern—

<i>Botaurus paeciloptilus</i>, Wagl.

Black B.—

<i>Butoroides flavicollis</i>, Lath.

Green B.—

<i>B. javanica</i>, Horsfield.

Little B.—

<i>Ardetta pusilla</i>, Vieill.

<hw>Blackberry, Native</hw>, or <hw>Bramble</hw>, <i>n</i>. called also <i>Raspberry</i>. Three species of the genus <i>Rubus</i> occur in Queensland—<i>Rubus moluccanus</i>, Linn., <i>R. parvifolius</i>, Linn., <i>R.

rosifolius</i>, Smith, <i>N.O. Rosaceae</i> See also <i>Lawyer</i>.

<hw>Blackbird</hw>, <i>n</i>. "A cant name for a captive negro, or Polynesian, on board a slave or pirate ship." (`O.E.D.') But no instance is given of its use for a negro.

1871. `Narrative of the Voyage of the Brig Carl' [pamphlet]

"They were going to take a cruise round the islands `black-bird' catching."

1872. `The Argus,' Dec. 21, Supplement, p. 2, col. 1 [Chief Justice's charge in the case of the `Carl Outrage']:

"They were not going pearl-fishing but blackbird-hunting. It is said you should have evidence as to what blackbird-hunting meant. I think it is a grievous mistake to pretend to ignorance of things passing before our eyes everyday. We may know the meaning of slang words, though we do not use them. Is there not a wide distinction between blackbird-hunting and a legitimate labour-trade, if such a thing is to be carried on? What did he allude to? To get labourers honestly if they could, but, if not, any way?"

1881. `Chequered Career,' p.188 (`O.E.D.')

"The white men on board know that if once the `blackbirds' burst the hatches . . . they would soon master the ship."

<hw>Black-birding</hw>, <i>n</i>. kidnapping natives of South Sea islands for service in Queensland plantations.

1871. `Narrative of the Voyage of the Brig Carl' [pamphlet]:

"All the three methods, however, of obtaining labour in the South Seas—that which was just and useful, that which was of suspicious character, and that which was nothing, more or less, than robbery and murder—were in use the same time, and all three went by the same general slang term of `blackbirding,' or `blackbird catching.'"

1872. Rev. H. S. Fagan, `The Dark Blue' (Magazine), June, p. 437:

"Well, you see how it is that C is not safe, even though he is a missionary bishop, after A has made the name of missionary an offence by his ingenious mode of `black-birding.'"

1892. Gilbert Parker, `Round the Compass in Australia,' p. 78:

"In the early days of sugar-planting there may have been black-birding, but it was confined to a very few, and it is done away with altogether now."

<hw>Black-birding</hw>, <i>adj</i>.

1883. `The Academy,' Sept. 8, p. 158 (`O.E.D.')

"[He] slays Bishop Patteson by way of reprisal for the atrocities of some black-birding crew."

<hw>Blackboy</hw>, <i>n</i>. a grass-tree. Name applied to all species of the genus <i>Xanthorroea</i>, but especially to <i>X. preissii</i>, Endl., <i>N.O. Liliaceae</i>. Compare <i>Maori-head</i>.

1846. J. L. Stokes, `Discovery in Australia,' ii. 4, 132:

"Black Boy . . . gum on the spear, resin on the trunk."

Ibid. ii. 12, 280 [Note]

"These trees, called blackboys by the colonists, from the resemblance they bear in the distance to natives."

1873. A. Trollope, `Australia and New Zealand,' vol. ii. p. 92:

"Gas admirably fitted for domestic purposes had been extracted from the shrub called the `blackboy.' I regret to state that the gas . . . is not . . . at present known in the colony."

1886. R. Henty, `Australiana,' p. 15:

"The common grass-tree or `blackboy,' so called from its long dark stem and dark seed head (when dry)."

1896. `The Australasian,' Feb. 15, p. 313 (with an Illustration):

"The Blackboy trees are a species of grass-tree or <i>Xanthorrhoea</i>, exuding a gummy substance used by the blacks for fastening glass and quartz-barbs to their spears. Many years ago, when coal was scarce in Western Australia, an enterprising firm . . . erected a gas-making plant, and successfully lit their premises with gas made from the Blackboy."

1896. Modern:

A story is told of a young lady saying to a naval officer:— "I was this morning watching your ship coming into harbour, and so intently that I rode over a young blackboy." The officer was shocked at her callousness in expressing no contrition.

<hw>Black-Bream</hw>, <i>n</i>. an Australian fish, <i>Chrysophrys australis</i>, Gunth., family <i>Sparidae</i>, or Sea-Breams; called in Tasmania <i>Silver-Bream</i>, the fish there called <i>Black-Bream</i> being another of the <i>Sparidae</i>, <i>Girella tricuspidata</i>, Cuv. and Val. See <i>Tarwhine</i> and <i>Black-fish</i>.

1882. Rev. J. E. Tenison-Woods, `Fish of New South Wales,' p. 42:

"<i>Chrysophrys</i> comprises the tarwhine and black-bream of the Sydney fishermen. . . . We have two species in Australia. . . . The black-bream, <i>C. australis</i>, Gunth., and the tarwhine, <i>C. sarba</i>, Forsk. . . . The Australian bream is as common on the south as on the east coast. It affords excellent sport to anglers in Victoria."

<hw>Blackbutt</hw>, <i>n</i>. <i>Eucalyptus pilularis</i>, Smith, Victoria; <i>E. regnans</i>, F. v. M., New South Wales; a timber tree, a gum. Another name is <i>Flintwood</i>. The lower part of the trunk is black.

1847. L. Leichhardt, `Overland Expedition,' p. 49:

"The range . . . having with the exception of the Blackbutt all the trees . . . of Moreton Bay."

1863. M. K. Beveridge, `Gatherings among Gum-trees,' p. 86:

"'Tis there the `blackbut' rears its head."

1894. `Melbourne Museum Catalogue, Economic Woods,' p. 30:

"A tree of considerable size. . . The bark smooth and falling off in flakes upward, and on the branches."

1897. `The Age,' Feb. 22, p. 5, col. 3:

"Mr. Richards stated that the New South Wales black butt and tallow wood were the most durable and noiseless woods for street-paving, as well as the best from a sanitary point of view."

<hw>Black-Cod</hw>, <i>n</i>. a New Zealand fish, <i>Notothenia angustata</i>.

<hw>Blackfellow</hw>, <i>n</i>. an aboriginal Australian.

1846. J. L. Stokes, `Discovery in Australia,' i. 4, 74:

"The native Miago . . . appeared delighted that these `black fellows,' as he calls them, have no throwing sticks."

1847. L. Leichhardt, `Overland Expedition,' p. 9:

"The well-known tracks of blackfellows are everywhere visible."

1871. Dingo, `Australian Rhymes,' p. 14:

"Wurragaroo loved Wangaraday
 In a blackfellow's own peculiar way."

<hw>Black-Fern</hw>, <i>n</i>. The Tasmanian species so called is <i>Athyrium australe</i>, Presl., <i>N.O. Polypodeae</i>.

<hw>Black-fish</hw>, <i>n</i>. The name is given, especially in Sydney, to the sea-fishes <i>Girella simplex</i>, Richards (see <i>Ludrick</i>), and <i>Girella tricuspidata</i>, Cuv. and Val.; also to a fresh-water fish all over Australia, <i>Gadopsis marmoratus</i>, Richards. <i>G. marmoratus</i> is very common in New South Wales, Victoria, South Australia, and parts of Tasmania. There are local varieties. It is much esteemed as a food fish, but is, like all mud fishes, rich and oily. <i>Girella</i> belongs to the family <i>Sparida</i>, or Sea-Breams, and <i>Gadopsis</i> to the <i>Gadopsidae</i>, a family allied to that containing the Cod fishes. The name was also formerly applied to a whale.

1853. C. St. Julian and E. K. Silvester, `Productions, Industry, and Resources of New South Wales,' p. 115:

"There is a species of whale called by those engaged in the south sea fishing the <i>Black-fish</i> or <i>Black-whale</i>, but known to the naturalist as the Southern Rorqual, which the whalemen usually avoid."

1888. D. Macdonald, `Gum Boughs,' p. 100

"Nothing is better eating than a properly cooked black-fish.
The English trout are annihilating them, however."

<hw>Black-Line</hw>. See <i>Black-War</i>.

<hw>Black-Perch</hw>, <i>n.</i> a river fish of New South Wales. <i>Therapon niger</i>, Castln., family <i>Percidae</i>. A different fish from those to which the name is applied elsewhere. See <i>Perch</i>.

<hw>Black-and-white Ringed Snake</hw>. See under <i>Snake</i>.

<hw>Black Rock-Cod</hw>, <i>n</i>. an Australian fish, chiefly of New South Wales, <i>Serranus daemeli</i>, Gunth.; a different fish from the <i>Rock-Cod</i> of the northern hemisphere. The Serrani belong to the family <i>Percidae</i>, and are commonly called "Sea-perches."

1882. Rev. J. E. Tenison-Woods, `Fish of New South Wales,' p. 33:

"The genus <i>Serranus</i> comprises most of the fishes known as `rock cod.'. . . One only is sufficiently useful as an article of food to merit notice, and that is the `black rock cod' (<i>Serranus damelii</i>, Guenther), without exception the very best of all our fishes."

<hw>Black-Snake.</hw> See under <i>Snake</i>.

<hw>Black-Swan.</hw> See <i>Swan</i>.

<hw>Black Thursday</hw>, the day of a Victorian conflagration, which occurred on Feb. 6, 1851. The thermometer was 112 degrees in the shade. Ashes from the fire at Macedon, 46 miles away, fell in Melbourne. The scene forms the subject of the celebrated picture entitled "Black Thursday," by William Strutt, R.B.A.

1859. Rev. J. D. Mereweather, `Diary of a Working Clergyman in Australia,' p. 81:

"Feb. 21 . . . Dreadful details are reaching us of the great bush fires which took place at Port Phillip on the 6th of this month . . . . Already it would seem that the appellation of `Black Thursday' has been given to the 6th February, 1851, for it was on that day that the fires raged with the greatest fury."

1889. Rev. J. H. Zillman, `Australian Life,' p. 39:

"The old colonists still repeat the most terrible stories of Black Thursday, when the whole country seemed to be on fire. The flames leaped from tree to tree, across creeks, hills, and gullies, and swept everything away. Teams of bullocks in the yoke, mobs of cattle and horses, and even whole families of human beings, in their bush-huts, were completely destroyed, and the charred bones alone found after the wind and fire had subsided."

<hw>Black-Tracker</hw>, <i>n</i>. an aboriginal employed in tracking criminals.

1867. `Australia as it is,' pp. 88-9:

"The native police, or `black trackers,' as they are sometimes called, are a body of aborigines trained to act as policemen, serving under a white commandant—a very clever expedient for coping with the difficulty . . . of hunting down and discovering murderous blacks, and others guilty of spearing cattle and breaking into huts . . ."

1870. `The Argus,' March 26, p. 5, col. 4:

"The troopers, with the assistance of two black trackers, pursued the bushrangers . . ."

1870. Ibid. April 13, p. 6, col. 7:

. . . two members of the police force and a black tracker . . . called at Lima station . . ."

1890. Rolf Boldrewood, `Miner's Right,' c. xvii. p. 165:

"Get the black-trackers on the trail."

1893. `The Argus,' April 8, p. 4, col. 3 .

"Only three weeks before he had waddied his gin to death for answering questions put to her by a blacktracker, and now he advanced to Charlie . . . and said,. . . `What for you come alonga black fella camp?'"

1896. `The Argus,' March 30, p. 6, col. 9:

"About one hundred and fifty horsemen have been out to-day in addition to the local police. The black-trackers arrived by the train last night, and commenced work this morning."

<hw>Black-Trevally</hw>. See <i>Trevally</i>.

<hw>Black-War</hw>, or <hw>Black-Line</hw>, a military operation planned in 1830 by Governor Arthur for the capture of the Tasmanian aborigines. A levy <i>en masse</i> of the colonists was ordered. About 5000 men formed the "black line," which advanced across the island from north to south-east, with the object of driving the tribes into Tasman's Peninsula. The operation proved a complete failure, two blacks only being captured at a cost to the Government of L 30,000.

1835. H. Melville, `History of Van Diemen's Land,' p. 103:

"The parties forming the `black line,' composed, as they were, of a curious melange of masters and servants, took their respective stations at the appointed time. As the several parties advanced, the individuals along the line came closer and closer together —the plan was to keep on advancing slowly towards a certain peninsula, and thus frighten the Aborigines before them, and hem them in."

1852. J. West, `History of Tasmania,' vol, ii. p. 54:

"Thus closed the Black War. This campaign of a month supplied many adventures and many an amusing tale, and, notwithstanding the gravity of his Excellency, much fun and folly . . . . Five thousand men had taken the field. Nearly L 30,000 had been expended, and probably not much less in time and outlay by the settlers, and two persons only were captured."

<hw>Black Wednesday</hw>, <i>n</i>. a political phrase for a day in Victoria (Jan. 9, 1878), when the Government without notice dismissed many Civil Servants, including heads of departments, County Court judges and police magistrates, on the ground that the Legislative Council had not voted the money for their salaries.

1878. `Melbourne Punch,' May 16, vol. xlvi. p. 195 [Title of Cartoon]:

"In Memoriam. Black Wednesday, 9th January 1878."

1896. `The Argus,' [Sydney telegram] Aug. 18, p. 6, col. 4:

"The times in the public service at present reminded him of Black Wednesday in Victoria, which he went through. That caused about a dozen suicides among public servants. Here it had not done so yet, but there was not a head of a department who did not now shake in his shoes."

<hw>Blackwood</hw>, <i>n</i>. an Australian timber, <i>Acacia melanoxylon</i>, R. Br.; often called <i>Lightwood</i>; it is dark in colour but light in weight.

1828. `Report of Van Diemen's Land Company,' Bischoff, `Van Diemen's Land, 1832,' p. 118

"Without a tree except a few stumps of blackwood."

1884. Rolf Boldrewood, `Melbourne Memories,' p. 21:

"Grassy slopes thickly timbered with handsome Blackwood trees."

1889. J. H. Maiden, `Useful Native Plants,' p. 359:

"Called `Blackwood' on account of the very dark colour of the mature wood."

1894. `Melbourne Museum Catalogue, Economic Woods,' p. 4:

"Blackwood, Lightwood—rather frequent on many rich river-flats . . . .It is very close-grained and heavy, and is useful for all purposes where strength and flexibility are required."

<hw>Bladder Saltbush</hw>, <i>n</i>. a Queensland shrub, <i>Atriplex vesicarium</i>, Heward, <i>N.O. Salsolaceae</i>. The Latin and vernacular names both refer to "the bladdery appendage to fruiting perianth." (Bailey.) See <i>Saltbush</i>.

<hw>Blandfordia</hw>, <i>n</i>. the scientific name of the <i>Gordon-Lily</i> (see under <i>Lily</i>). The plant was named after George, Marquis of Blandford, son of the second Duke of Marlborough. The Tasmanian aboriginals called the plant <i>Remine</i>, which name has been given to a small port where it grows in profusion on the west coast.

<hw>Bleeding-Heart</hw>, <i>n</i>. another name for the <i>Kennedya</i> (q.v.).

1896. `The Melburnian,' Aug. 28, p. 53:

"The trailing scarlet kennedyas, aptly called the `bleeding- heart' or `coral-pea,' brighten the greyness of the sandy peaty wastes."

<hw>Blight</hw>. See <i>Sandy-blight</i>.

<hw>Blight-bird</hw>, <i>n</i>. a bird-name in New Zealand for the <i>Zosterops</i> (q.v.). Called also <i>Silver-eye</i> (q.v.), <i>Wax-eye</i>, and <i>White-eye</i> (q.v.). It is called Blight-bird because it eats the blight on trees.

1882. T. H. Potts, `Out in the Open,' p. 130:

"The white-eye or blight-bird, with cheerful note, in crowded flocks, sweeps over the face of the country, and in its progress clears away multitudes of small insect pests."

1885. A. Hamilton, `Native Birds of Petane, Hawke's Bay,' `Transactions of New Zealand Institute,' vol. xviii. p. 125:

"<i>Zosterops lateralis</i>, white-eye, blight-bird. One of our best friends, and abundant in all parts of the district."

1888. W. L. Buller, `Birds of New Zealand,' (2nd ed.) vol. i. p. 82:

"By the settlers it has been variously designated as Ring-eye, Wax-eye, White-eye, or Silver-eye, in allusion to the beautiful circlet of satiny-white feathers which surrounds the eyes; and quite as commonly the `Blightbird' or `Winter-migrant.' . . . It feeds on that disgusting little aphis known as American blight, which so rapidly covers with a fatal cloak of white the stems and branches of our best apple-trees; it clears our early cabbages of a pestilent little insect, that left unchecked would utterly destroy the crop; it visits our gardens and devours another swarming parasite that covers our roses."

<hw>Blind Shark</hw>, or <hw>Sand Shark</hw>, <i>n</i>. i.q. <i>Shovel-nose</i> (q.v.).

1882. Rev. J. E. Tenison-Woods `Fish and Fisheries of New South Wales, p. 97:

"<i>Rhinobatus granulatus</i> or shovel-nose, which is properly speaking a Ray, is called here the blind or sand shark, though, as Mr. Hill remarks, it is not blind. He says `that it attains the length of from 6 to 7 feet, and is also harmless, armed only with teeth resembling small white beads secured closely upon a cord; it however can see tolerably well, and searches on sandy patches for crustaceae and small shell fish.'"

1886. J. Douglas-Ogilby, `Catalogue of the Fishes of New South Wales,' p. 5:

"Rhinobatus Granulatus . . . I have not seen a New South Wales example of this fish, which appears to have been confounded with the following by writers on the Australian fauna. <i>Rhinobatus Bongainvillei</i>, Muell and Heule, <i>Habitat</i> Port Jackson. <i>Shovel-nosed Ray of</i> Sydney fishermen."

<hw>Blind-your-Eyes</hw>, <i>n</i>. another name for the <i>Milky Mangrove</i>. See <i>Mangrove</i>.

, doing the</hw>, <i>v</i>. lounging in the fashionable promenade. In Melbourne, it is Collins Street, between Elizabeth and Swanston Streets. In Sydney, "The Block" is that portion of the city bounded by King, George, Hunter, and Pitt Streets. It is now really two blocks, but was all in one till the Government purchased the land for the present Post Office, and then opened a new street from George to Pitt Street. Since then the Government, having purchased more land, has made the street much wider, and it is now called Martin's Place.

1869. Marcus Clarke, `Peripatetic Philosopher,' (in an Essay on `Doing the Block') (reprint), p. 13:

"If our Victorian youth showed their appreciation for domestic virtues, Victorian womanhood would `do the Block' less frequently."

1872. `Glimpses of Life in Victoria by a Resident,' p. 349:

"A certain portion of Collins street, lined by the best drapers' and jewellers' shops, with here and there a bank or private office intervening, is known as `the Block,' and is the daily resort of the belles and beaux. . . ."

1875. R. and F. Hill, `What We Saw in Australia,' p. 267:

"To `do the block' corresponds in Melbourne to driving in Hyde
Park."

1876. Wm. Brackley Wildey, `Australasia and the Oceanic Region,' p. 234:

"The streets are thronged with handsome women, veritable denizens of the soil, fashionably and really tastefully attired, `doing the block,' patrolling Collins-street, or gracefully reclining in carriages. . . ."

1890. Tasma, `In her Earliest Youth,' p. 126:

"You just do as I tell you, and we'll go straight off to town and `do the block.'"

1894. `The Herald' (Melbourne), Oct. 6, p. 6, col. 1:

"But the people doing the block this morning look very nice."

<hw>Block, on the</hw>.(1) On the promenade above referred to.

1896. `The Argus,' July 17, p. 4. col. 7:

" We may slacken pace a little now and again, just as the busy man, who generally walks quickly, has to go slowly in the crowd on the Block."

(2) Term in mining, fully explained in `The Miner's Right,' chapters vii. and viii.

1890. Rolf Boldrewood, `The Miner's Right,' p. 86:

"I declare the Liberator Lead to be `on the block.'"

`Extract from Mining Regulation 22' (Ibid. p. 77):

"The ground shall be open for taking up claims in the block form."

<hw>Blood-bird</hw>, <i>n</i>. name given to the <i>Sanguineous Honey-eater</i>. See <i>Honey-eater</i>.

1848. J. Gould, `Birds of Australia,' vol. iv. pl. 63:

<i>"Myzomela sanguinolenta</i>, Sanguineous Honey-eater. Blood-bird of the Colonists of New South Wales."

<hw>Blood-sucker</hw>, <i>n</i>. popular name for certain species of Lizards belonging to the genus <i>Amphibolurus (Grammatophora</i>). Especially applied to <i>A. muricata</i>, Shaw.

1852. Mrs. Meredith, `My Home in Tasmania,' vol. ii. p. 37:

"Another description of lizard is here vulgarly called the `bloodsucker.' "

1890. F. McCoy, `Prodromus of the Natural History of Victoria,' Dec. 12, pl. cxi.:

"Why the popular name of `Bloodsucker' should be so universally given to this harmless creature by the Colonists (except on the locus a non lucendo principle) I cannot conceive."

1890. A. H. S. Lucas, `Handbook of the Australasian Association for the Advancement of Science,' Melbourne, p. 70:

"Two species of `blood sucker' so absurdly designated."

<hw>Blood-wood</hw>, or <hw>Blood-tree</hw>, <i>n</i>. a name applied, with various epithets, to many of the <i>Gum-trees</i> (q.v.), especially to—(1) <i>Eucalyptus corymbosa</i>, Smith, sometimes called Rough-barked bloodwood; (2) <i>E. eximia</i>, Schauer, Mountain or Yellow bloodwood; (3) <i>Baloghia lucida</i>, Endl., <i>N.O. Euphorbiaceae</i>, called Brush Bloodwood. The sap is blood-red, running copiously when cut across with a knife.

1827. Vigors and Horsfield, `Transactions of Linnaean Society,' vol. xv. p. 271:

"The natives tell me it breeds in the winter in Mun'ning-trees or Blood-trees of the colonists (a species of <i>Eucalyptus</i>)."

1847. L.Leichhardt,' Overland Expedition,' p. 292:

"The bergue was covered with fine bloodwood trees, stringy-bark, and box."

1892. A. J. North, `Proceedings of Linnaean Society,' New South Wales, vol. vii. series 2, p. 396:

"I traced her to a termite nest in a bloodwood tree (<i>Eucalyptus corymbosa</i>)."

1889. J. H. Maiden, `Useful Native Plants,' 448:

"It [<i>E. eximia</i>] is called `bloodwood,' partly because kino exudes in the concentric circles of the wood . . . partly because its fruits are in shape very similar to those of <i>E. corymbosa</i>."

<hw>Blow</hw>, <i>n</i>. stroke of the shears in sheep-shearing.

1890. `The Argus,' September 20, p. 13, col. 7:

"The shearers must make their clip clean and thorough. If it be done so incompetently that a `second blow' is needed, the fleece is hacked."

<hw>Blow,/2/</hw> <i>n</i>. braggadocio, boasting.

1890. Lyth, `Golden South,' viii. p. 71:

"Is there not very much that the Australian may well be proud of, and may we not commend him for a spice of blow?"

1891. Rolf Boldrewood, `Sydney-Side Saxon,' p. 77:

"He can walk as fast as some horses can trot, cut out any beast that ever stood on a camp, and canter round a cheese-plate. This was a bit of blow."

1893. `The Australasian,' Aug. 12, p. 102, col. 1:

"Now Digby Holland will think it was mere Australian blow."

<hw>Blow</hw>, <i>v</i>. to boast; abbreviated from the phrase "to blow your own trumpet." The word is not Australian though often so regarded. It is common in Scotland and in the United States.

1873. A. Trollope, `Australia and New Zealand,' vol. i. p. 387:

"The blast of the trumpet as heard in Victoria is louder than all the blasts—and the Melbourne blast beats all the other blowing of that proud colony. My first, my constant, my parting advice to my Australian cousins is contained in two words, `don't blow.'"

<hw>Blower</hw>, <i>n</i>. a boaster. (See <i>Blow, v</i>.)

1890. Rolf Boldrewood,' A Colonial Reformer,' p. 411:

"A regular Sydney man thinks all Victorians are blowers and speculators."

<hw>Blowing</hw>, <i>verbal n</i>. boasting.

1873. A. Trollope, `Australia and New Zealand,' vol. i. p. 387:

"A fine art much cultivated in the colonies, for which the colonial phrase of `blowing' has been created."

1881. A. C. Grant, `Bush Life in Queensland,' vol. ii. p. 9:

"Blowing (that is, talking loudly and boastingly on any and every subject)."

1885. R. M. Praed, `Australian Life,' p. 45:

"He was famous for `blowing' in Australian parlance . . . of his exploits."

<hw>Bluebell</hw>, <i>n</i>. The name is given in Tasmania to the flower <i>Wahlenbergia gracilis</i>, De C., <i>N.O. Campanulaceae</i>.

<hw>Blueberry</hw>, <i>n</i>. i.q. <i>Native Currant</i> (q.v.). The name is also given to <i>Dianella longifolia</i>, R. Br., <i>N.O. Liliaceae</i>.

<hw>Blueberry Ash</hw>, <i>n</i>. a Victorian tree, <i>Elaeocarpus holopetalus</i>, F. v. M.

1894. `Melbourne Museum Catalogue, Economic Woods,' p. 15:

"Blueberry Ash or Prickly Fig. A noble tree, attaining a height of 120 feet. Wood pale, fine-grained; exquisite for cabinet work."

<hw>Blue-bush</hw>, <i>n</i>. an Australian forage plant, a kind of Salt-bush, <i>Kochia pyrainidata</i>, Benth, <i>N.O. Chenopodiaceae</i>.

1876. W. Harcus. `South Australia,' p. 124:

"[The country] would do splendidly for sheep, being thickly grassed with short fine grass, salt and blue bush, and geranium and other herbs."

<hw>Blue-Cod</hw>, <i>n</i>. name given to a New Zealand fish, <i>Percis colias</i>, family <i>Trachinidae</i>. Called also in New Zealand <i>Rock-Cod</i> (q.v.). The fish is of a different family from the <i>Cod</i> of the northern hemisphere.

<hw>Blue-creeper</hw>, <i>n</i>. name given to the creeper, <i>Comesperma volubile</i>, Lab., <i>N.O. Campanulaceae</i>.

<hw>Blue-eye</hw>, <i>n</i>. a bird name. <i>The Blue faced Honey-eater</i> (q.v.).

1848. J. Gould, `Birds of Australia,' vol. iv. pl. 68:

"<i>Entomyza cyanotis</i>, Swains. Blue-faced <i>Entomyza</i>. Blue-eye of the colonists."

<hw>Blue-fish</hw>, <i>n</i>. name given in Sydney to <i>Girella cyanea</i>, of the family <i>Sparidae</i>, or Sea-Breams. It is different from the <i>Blue-fish</i> of the American coasts, which is of the family <i>Carangidae</i>.

<hw>Blue-Groper</hw>, <i>n</i>. a fish of New South Wales and Tasmania, <i>Cossyphus gouldii</i>, one of the <i>Labridae</i> or Wrasses, often called <i>Parrot-Fish</i> in Australia. Called also <i>Blue-head</i> in Tasmania. Distinct from the fish called the <i>Groper</i> (q.v).

<hw>Blue-gum</hw>, <i>n</i>. See under <i>Gum</i>. It is an increasing practice to make a single word of this compound, and to pronounce it with accent on the first syllable, as `wiseman,' `goodman.'

<hw>Blue-head</hw>, <i>n</i>. Tasmanian name for the fish called the <i>Blue-Groper</i> (q.v.)

<hw>Blue Lobelia</hw>, <i>n</i>. The indigenous species in Tasmania which receives this name is <i>Lobelia gibbosa</i>, Lab., <i>N.O. Campanulaceae</i>.

<hw>Blue-pointer</hw>, <i>n</i>. a name given in New South
Wales to a species of Shark, <i>Lamna glauca</i>, Mull. and
Heule, family <i>Lamnidae</i>, which is not confined to
Australasia.

1882. Rev. J. E. Tenison-Woods, `Fish of New South Wales,' p. 95:

"On the appearance of a `blue pointer' among boats fishing for schnapper outside, the general cry is raised, `Look out for the blue pointer.' . . . These are high swimming fishes, and may be readily seen when about pushing their pursuits; the beautiful azure tint of their back and sides, and independent manner they have of swimming rapidly and high among the boats in search of prey, are means of easy recognition, and they often drive the fishermen away."

<hw>Bluestone</hw>, <i>n</i>. a kind of dark stone of which many houses and public buildings are built.

1850. `The Australasian' (Quarterly), Oct. [Footnote], p. 138:

"The ancient Roman ways were paved with polygonal blocks of a stone not unlike the trap or bluestone around Melbourne."

1855. R. Brough Smyth, `Transactions of Philosophical Society, Victoria,' vol. i. p. 25:

"The basalt or `bluestone,' which is well adapted to structural purposes, and generally obtains where durability is desired."

1883. J. Hector, `Handbook to New Zealand,' p. 62:

"Basalts, locally called `bluestones,' occur of a quality useful for road-metal, house-blocks, and ordinary rubble masonry."

1890. `Proceedings of the Royal Society of Tasmania,' p. xx. [Letter from Mr. S. H. Wintle]:

"The newer basalts, which in Victoria have filled up so extensively Miocene and Pliocene valleys, and river channels, are chiefly vesicular Zeolitic <i>dolerites</i> and <i>anaemesites</i>, the former being well represented by the light-coloured Malmsbury `bluestone' so extensively employed in buildings in Melbourne."

<hw>Blue-tongued Lizard</hw>, <i>n</i>. name given to <i>Tiliqua nigroluteus</i>, Gray, a common Australian and Tasmanian lizard belonging to the family <i>Scincidae</i>. The name is derived from its blue-coloured tongue, and on account of its sluggish habits it is also often called the Sleepy lizard.

1887. F. McCoy, `Prodromus of the Zoology of Victoria,' Dec. 14, pl. 131:

"Not uncommon about Melbourne, where it is generally called the
`Blue-tongued Lizard,' or `Sleepy Lizard.'"

<hw>Blue-wing</hw>, <i>n</i>. a sportsman's name (as in England) for the bird called the <i>Shoveller</i> (q.v.).

<hw>Bluey</hw>, <i>n</i>. (1) A blue blanket commonly used by swagmen in Australia. He wraps his bundle in it, and the whole is called a <i>Swag</i> (q.v.). <i>To hump bluey</i> means to go on the tramp, carrying a swag on the back.

(2) In the wet wildernesses of Western Tasmania a rough shirt or blouse is made of this material, and is worn over the coat like an English smock-frock. Sailors and fishermen in England call it a "Baltic shirt."

1890. `The Argus,' Aug. 16, p. 13, col. 2:

"We shall have to hump bluey again."

1891. R. Wallace, `Rural Economy and Agriculture of Australia and New Zealand,' p. 73:

"`Humping bluey' is for a workman to walk in search of work."

1891. W. Tilley, `The Wild West of Tasmania,' p. 29:

"Leehan presents an animated scene . . . . Heavily laden drays, pack-horses and mules, form constant processions journeying from Dundas or Trial; miners with their swags, surveyors in their `blueys' . . . all aid effectively in the panorama."

<hw>Board</hw>, <i>n</i>. term used by shearers. See quotation.

1893. `The Herald' (Melbourne), Dec. 23, p. 6, col. 1:

"`The board' is the technical name for the floor on which the sheep are shorn."

<i>With a full board</i>, with a full complement of shearers.

1894. `The Herald,' Oct. 6, p. 1. Col. 2:

"The secretary of the Pastoralists' Association . . . reports that the following stations have started shearing with full boards."

<hw>Boar-fish</hw>, <i>n</i>. a name applied in England to various dissimilar fishes which have projecting snouts. (`Century.') In New Zealand it is given to <i>Cyttus australis</i>, family <i>Cyttidae</i>, which is related to the <i>John Dory</i> (q.v.). This name is sometimes applied to it, and it is also called <i>Bastard Dory</i> (q.v.). In Melbourne the <i>Boar-fish</i> is <i>Histiopterus recurvirostris</i>, family <i>Percidae</i>, and <i>Pentaceropsis recurvirostris</i>, family <i>Pentacerotidae</i>. Mrs. Meredith, in `Tasmanian Friends and Foes,' 1880 (pl. vi.), figures <i>Histiopterus recurvirostris</i> with the vernacular name of <i>Pig-faced Lady</i>. It is a choice edible fish.

<hw>Boil down</hw>, <i>v</i>. to reduce a statement to its simplest form; a constant term amongst pressmen. Over the reporters' table in the old `Daily Telegraph' office (Melbourne) there was a big placard with the words-"Boil it down." The phrase is in use in England. `O.E.D.' quotes `Saturday Review,' 1880. The metaphor is from the numerous boiling-down establishments for rendering fat sheep into tallow. See quotation, 1878.

1878. F. P. Labilliere, `Early History of the Colony of Victoria,' vol. ii. p. 330:

"The first step which turned the tide of ill-fortune was the introduction of the system of boiling down sheep. When stock became almost worthless, it occurred to many people that, when a fleece of wool was worth from half-a-crown to three shillings in England, and a sheep's tallow three or four more, the value of the animal in Australia ought to exceed eighteenpence or two shillings. Accordingly thousands of sheep were annually boiled down after shearing . . . until . . . the gold discovery; and then `boiling down,' which had saved the country, had to be given up. . . . The Messrs. Learmonth at Buninyong . . . found it answered their purpose to have a place of their own, instead of sending their fat stock, as was generally done, to a public `boiling down' establishment."

1895. `The Argus,' Aug. 17, p. 8, col. 2:

"Boiled down, the matter comes to this."

<hw>Bonduc Nuts</hw>, <i>n</i>. a name in Australia for the fruit of the widely distributed plant <i>Caesalpina bonducella</i>, Flem., <i>N.O. Leguminosae</i>. Called <i>Molucca Beans</i> in Scotland and <i>Nicker Nuts</i> elsewhere.

<hw>Bonito</hw>, <i>n</i>. Sir Frederick McCoy says that the <i>Tunny</i>, the same fish as the European species <i>Thynnus thynnus</i>, family <i>Scombridae</i>, or Mackerels, is called <i>Bonito</i>, erroneously, by the colonists and fishermen. The true <i>Bonito</i> is <i>Thynnus pelamys</i>, Linn., though the name is also applied to various other fishes in Europe, the United States, and the West Indies.

<hw>Bony-Bream</hw>, i.q. <i>Sardine</i> (q.v.).

<hw>Boobook</hw>, <i>n</i>. an owl. <i>Ninox boobook</i> (see <i>Owl</i>); <i>Athene boobook</i> (Gould's `Birds of Australia,' vol.i. pl. 32)." From cry or note of bird. In the Mukthang language of Central Gippsland, BawBaw, the mountain in Gippsland, is this word as heard by the English ear." (A. W. Howitt.) In South Australia the word is used for a <i>mopoke</i>.

1827. Vigors and Horsfield, `Transactions of Linnaean Society,' vol. xv. p. 188:

"The native name of this bird, as Mr. Caley informs us, is Buck'buck. It may be heard nearly every night during winter, uttering a cry, corresponding with that word. . . .The lower order of the settlers in New South Wales are led away by the idea that everything is the reverse in that country to what it is in England : and the cuckoo, as they call this bird, singing by night, is one of the instances which they point out."

1894. `The Argus,' June 23, p. 11, col. 4:

"In most cases—it may not be in all—the familiar call, which is supposed to sound like `More-pork,' is not the mopoke (or podargus) at all, but the hooting of a little rusty red feather-legged owl, known as the Boobook. Its double note is the opposite of the curlew, since the first syllable is dwelt upon and the second sharp. An Englishman hearing it for the first time, and not being told that the bird was a `more-pork,' would call it a night cuckoo."

<hw>Booby</hw>, <i>n</i>. English bird-name. Used in Australia for the <i>Brown-Gannet</i>. See <i>Gannet</i>.

<hw>Boobyalla</hw>, or <hw>Boobialla</hw>, <i>n</i>. the aboriginal name for the tree <i>Acacia longifolia</i>, Willd., <i>N.O. Leguminosae</i>, also called <i>Native Willow</i>. A river in Tasmania bears the name of Boobyalla, the tree being plentiful on the coast.

1835. Ross, `Hobart Town Almanack,' p63:

<i>"Acacia sophora</i>. Sophora podded Acacia or Booby-aloe. This species forms a large shrub on the sand-hills of the coast."

1843. J. Backhouse, `Narrative of a Visit to the Australian Colonies,' p. 59:

"The sandbanks at the mouth of Macquarie Harbour are covered with Boobialla, a species of <i>Acacia</i>, the roots of which run far in the sand."

1855. J. Milligan, `Vocabulary of Dialects of the Aboriginal Tribes of Tasmania,' `Proceedings of the Royal Society of Tasmania,' vol. iii. p. 238:

"Wattle tree—seaside. (<i>Acacia Maritinia</i>) Boobyallah."

1861. Mrs. Meredith, `Over the Straits,' vol. ii. p. 62:

"Boobyalla bushes lay within the dash of the ceaseless spray."

1889. J. H. Maiden, `Useful Native Plants,' p. 359:

"Boobyalla . . . an excellent tree for binding coast-sands."

1894. `Melbourne Museum Catalogue, Economic Woods,' p. 4:

"On the coast it is known by the native name, Boobyalla."

<hw>Boomah</hw>, or <hw>Boomer</hw>, <i>n</i>. name of a very large kangaroo, <i>Macropus giganteus</i>, Shaw. The spelling "boomah" seems due to a supposed native origin. See quotation, 1872, the explanation in which is probably erroneous. It is really from the verb to boom, to rush with violence.

1830. Ross, `Hobart Town Almanack,' p. 110:

"Snapped the boomah's haunches, and he turned round to offer battle."

1833. Lieut. Breton, `Excursions in New South Wales, Western Australia, and Van Diemen's Land,' p. 251:

"Boomah. Implies a large kangaroo."

Ibid. p. 254:

"The flying gin (gin is the native word for woman or female) is a boomah, and will leave behind every description of dog."

1852. Mrs. Meredith, `My Home in Tasmania,' vol. i. p. 244:

"The Great or Forest Kangaroo (Macropus giganteus), the `Forester' of the Colonists. . . .The oldest and heaviest male of the herd was called a `Boomer,' probably a native term."

1853. J. West, `History of Tasmania,' vol. i. p. 325:

"The forester (<i>Macropus major</i>, Shaw), the male being known by the name of `boomer,' and the young female by that of `flying doe,' is the largest and only truly gregarious species."

1854. G. H. Haydon, `The Australian Emigrant,' p. 124:

"It was of an old man kangaroo,a regular boomer."

1855. G. C. Mundy, `Our Antipodes,' p. 169:

"An officer from Van Diemen's Land told me that he had once killed in that colony a kangaroo of such magnitude, that, being a long way from home, he was unable, although on horseback, to carry away any portion except the tail, which alone weighed thirty pounds. This species is called the boomah, and stands about seven feet high."

1857. W. Howitt, `Tallangetta,' vol. i. p. 47:

"Sometimes starting a grand boomah, or great red kangaroo."

1862. F. J. Jobson, `Australia,' c. v. p. 124:

"Some of the male kangaroos, called `boomers,' were described as being four or five feet high."

1864. J. Rogers, `New Rush,' p. 55:

"The Boomer starts, and ponders
 What kind of beasts we be."

1867. W. Richardson, `Tasmanian Poems,' p. 26:

"The dogs gather round a `boomer' they've got."

1872. Mrs. E. Millett, `An Australian Parsonage,' p. 195:

"A tall old <i>Booma</i>, as the natives call the male kangaroo, can bring his head on a level with the face of a man on horseback. . . . A kangaroo's feet are, in fact, his weapons of defence with which, when he is brought to bay, he tears his antagonists the dogs most dreadfully, and instances are not wanting of even men having been killed by a large old male. No doubt this peculiar method of disposing of his enemies has earned him the name of <i>Booma</i>, which in the native language signifies to strike."

1888. D. Macdonald, `Gum Boughs,' p. 16:

"As he plunged into the yellow waters, the dogs were once more by his side, and again the `boomer' wheeled, and backed against one of the big trees that stud these hollows."

Applied generally to something very large.

1885. `Australasian Printers' Keepsake,' p. 76:

"When the shades of evening come,
 I choose a boomer of a gum."

<hw>Boomerang</hw>, <i>n</i>. a weapon of the Australian aborigines, described in the quotations. The origin of the word is by no means certain. One explanation is that of Mr. Fraser in quotation, 1892. There may perhaps be an etymological connection with the name <i>woomera</i> (q.v.), which is a different weapon, being a throwing stick, that is, an instrument with which to throw spears, whilst the <i>boomerang</i> is itself thrown; but the idea of throwing is common to both. In many parts the word is pronounced by the blacks bummerang. Others connect it with the aboriginal word for "wind," which at Hunter River was <i>burramaronga</i>, also <i>boomori</i>. In New South Wales and South Queensland there is a close correspondence between the terms for wind and boomerang.

1827. Captain P. P. King, `Survey of Intertropical and West Coasts of Australia,' vol. i. p. 355:

"Boomerang is the Port Jackson term for this weapon, and may be retained for want of a more descriptive name."

1830. R. Dawson, `Present State of Australia,' p. 108:

"We gambolled all the way up, throwing small pieces of bark at each other, after the manner of the native youths, who practise this with a view of strengthening their arms, and fitting them for hurling a curious weapon of war called a `bomering,' which is shaped thus:" \ \ / /

Ibid. p. 280:

"Around their loins was the opossum belt, in one side of which they had placed their waddies, with which they meant to break the heads of their opponents, and on the other was the bomering, or stick, with which they threw their spears."

[This is a confusion between <i>boomerang</i> and <i>woomera</i> (q.v.). Perhaps Mr. Dawson wrote the second word, and this is a misprint.]

1839. Major T. L. `Mitchell, `Three Expeditions into the Interior of Eastern Australia,' vol. ii. p. 348:

"The bommereng, or their usual missile, can be thrown by a skilful hand, so as to rise upon the air, and thus to deviate from the usual path of projectiles, its crooked course being, nevertheless, equally under control."

1845. R. Howitt, `Australia,' p. 186:

"The admirable dexterity with which they fling the bomerangs. To our thinking the thrower was only sending the instrument along the ground, when suddenly, after spinning along it a little way, it sprung up into the air, performing a circle, its crescent shape spinning into a ring, constantly spinning round and round, until it came and fell at his feet."

1845. O. Wendell Holmes, `Modest Request' (in Poems):

"Like the strange missile which the Australian throws,
 Your verbal boomerang slaps you on the nose."

1849. J. P. Townsend, `Rambles in New South Wales,' p. 39:

"This instrument, called a bommereng, is made of wood, and is much like the blade of a scimitar. I believe it has been introduced into England as a plaything for children."

1850. J. B. Clutterbuck, `Port Phillip in 1849,' p. 57:

"The boomerang is an extraordinary missile, formed in the shape of a crescent, and when propelled at an object, apparently <i>point blank</i>, it turns in any direction intended by the thrower, so that it can actually be directed in this manner against a person standing by his side. The consummate art visible in its unnatural-looking progression greatly depends upon the manner in which it is made to rebound from the ground when thrown."

1865. W. Howitt, `Discovery in Australia,' vol. ii. p. 107;

"He [Sir Thomas Mitchell] applied to the screw propeller the revolving principle of the boomerang of the Australian natives."

1867. G. G. McCrae, `Balladeadro,' p. 25:

"While circling thro' the air there sang
 The swift careering boomerang."

1888. A. Seth, `Encyclopaedia Britannica,' vol. xxiv. p. 530, col. 2:

"He [Archbishop Whately] was an adept in various savage sports, more especially in throwing the boomerang."

1889. P. Beveridge, `Aborigines of Victoria and Riverina,' p. 49:

"Boomerang: a thin piece of wood, having the shape of a parabola, about eighteen inches or two feet long from point to point, the curve being on the thin side. Of the broad sides of the missile one is slightly convex, the other is flat. The thin sides are worked down finely to blunt edges. The peculiar curve of the missile gives it the property of returning to the feet of the thrower. It is a dangerous instrument in a melee. Of course the wood from which it is made is highly seasoned by fire. It is therefore nearly as hard as flint."

1890. C. Lumholtz, `Among Cannibals,' p. 49:

[A full description of the use of the boomerang is given, with illustrations.]

"The boomerang is a curved, somewhat flat, and slender weapon, made from a hard and heavy wood, Brigalow (<i>Acacia excelsa</i>), or Myall (<i>Acacia pendula</i>), but the best one I found was made of a lighter kind of wood. The curving of the boomerang, which often approaches a right angle, must be natural, and in the wood itself. One side is perfectly flat, and the other slightly rounded. The ends are pointed."

1890. G. W. Rusden, `Proceedings, Royal Colonial Institute,' vol. xxii. p. 62:

"You hardly ever see an allusion in the English Press to the boomerang which does not refer to it as a weapon of war which returns to the thrower, whereas the returning boomerang is not a weapon of war, and the boomerang which is a weapon of war does not return to the thrower. There are many kinds of boomerang—some for deadly strife, some for throwing at game, and the returning boomerang, which is framed only for amusement. If a native had no other missile at hand, he would dispatch it at a flight of ducks. Its circular course, however, makes it unfit for such a purpose, and there is a special boomerang made for throwing at birds. The latter keeps a straight course, and a native could throw it more than two hundred yards."

1892. J. Fraser, `The Aborigines of New South Wales,' p. 69:

"The name bumarang has always hitherto been written boomerang; but, considered etymologically, that is wrong, for the root of it is buma—strike, fight, kill; and -ara, -arai, -arang, are all of them common formative terminations."

1893. `The Argus,' July 1, p. 8, col. 7:

"`I tell you, sir,' said Mr. Healy at an Irish political meeting, `that there are at the present moment crystallizing in this city precedents which will some day come home to roost like a boomerang.'"

<hw>Boongary</hw>, <i>n</i>. the tree-kangaroo of North Queensland, a marsupial tree-climber, about the size of a large wallaby, <i>Dendrolagus lumholtzii</i>, Collett. A native name. <i>Bangaray</i> = Red Kangaroo, in Governor Hunter's vocabulary of the Port Jackson dialect (1793).

1890. C. Lumholtz, `Among Cannibals,' p. 226:

"The tree-kangaroo is without comparison a better-proportioned animal than the common kangaroo. The fore-feet, which are nearly as perfectly developed as the hind-feet, have large crooked claws, while the hind-feet are somewhat like those of a kangaroo, though not so powerful. The sole of the foot is somewhat broader and more elastic on account of a thick layer of fat under the skin. In soft ground its footprints are very similar to those of a child. The ears are small and erect, and the tail is as long as the body of the animal. The skin is tough, and the fur is very strong and beautiful. . . . Upon the whole the boongary is the most beautiful mammal I have seen in Australia. It is a marsupial, and goes out only in the night. During the day it sleeps in the trees, and feeds on the leaves."

<hw>Bora</hw>, <i>n</i>. a rite amongst the aborigines of eastern Australia; the ceremony of admitting a young black to the rights of manhood. Aboriginal word.

The word <i>bur</i>, given by Ridley, means not only girdle but `circle.' In the man-making ceremonies a large circle is made on the ground, where the ceremonies take place.

1875. W. Ridley, `Kamilaroi,' p. 24:

"Girdle—bor or bur. Hence Bora, the ceremony of initiation into manhood, where the candidate is invested with the belt of manhood."

1885. R. M. Praed, `Australian Life,' p. 24:

"The great mystery of the Blacks is the Bora—a ceremony at which the young men found worthy receive the rank of warriors."

1892. J. Fraser, `Aborigines of New South Wales,' p. 6:

"These ceremonies are . . . called the Bora."

<hw>Borage, Native</hw>, <i>n</i>. a plant, <i>Pollichia zeylanica</i>, F. v. M., <i>N.O. Boragineae</i>. The so-called <i>Native Borage</i> is not endemic to Australia. In India it is used as a cure for snake bites.

1847. L. Leichhardt, `Overland Expedition,' p. 124:

"The native borage (<i>Trichodesina zeylanica</i>, R. Br.)."

<hw>Borak</hw>, <i>n</i>. aboriginal word of New South Wales, meaning banter, chaff, fun at another's expense. (See quotation, 1845.) Prior to 1870 the word was much in use on the stations in New South Wales. About 1870 Victorian farmers' sons took shearing work there, and brought back the word with them. It was subsequently altered to <i>barrack</i> (q.v.).

1845. C. Griffith, `Present State and Prospects of the Port Phillip District of New South Wales,' p. 162:

"The following is a specimen of such eloquence:—`You pilmillally jumbuck, plenty sulky me, plenty boom, borack gammon,' which, being interpreted, means—`If you steal my sheep I shall be very angry, and will shoot you and no mistake.'"

1856. W. W. Dobie, `Recollections of a Visit to Port Phillip, Australia, in 1852-55' p. 93:

". . . he gravely assured me that it was `merrijig' (very good), and that `blackfellow doctor was far better than whitefellow doctor.' In proof of which he would say, `Borak you ever see black fellow with waddie (wooden) leg. Bungalallee white fellow doctor cut him leg, borak black fellow stupid like it that."

1885. `Australasian Printers' Keepsake,' p. 75:

"On telling him my adventures, how Bob in my misery had `poked borack' at me. . . ."

1888. Alfred J.Chandler,' Curley' in `Australian Poets,' 1788-1888, ed. Sladen, p. 100:

"Here broke in Super Scotty, `Stop
 Your borak, give the bloomin' man a show.'"

1893. `The Argus,' Aug. 26, p. 13, col. 1:

"It does not do for a man whose mission it is to wear stuff and a horse-hair wig to `poke borak' at that venerable and eminently respectable institution—the law, and still worse is it for a practising barrister to actually set to work, even in the most kindly spirit, to criticise the judges, before whom at any moment he may be called upon to plead."

<hw>Borboby</hw>, <i>n</i>. i.q. <i>Corrobbery</i> (q.v.), but the word is rare.

1890. Carl Lumholtz, `Among Cannibals' [Title of illustration], p. 122:

"A warrior in great excitement just before Borboby commences."

<hw>Boree</hw>, <i>n</i>. aboriginal name for the tree <i>Acacia pendula</i>, A. Cunn., <i>N.O. Leguminosae</i>; a variety of <i>Myall</i>, probably from Queensland aboriginal word <i>Booreah</i>, fire. It would be preferred by black or white man as firewood over any other timber except <i>giddea</i> (q.v.).

1889. J. H. Maiden, `Useful Native Plants,' p. 363:

"Weeping, or true myall. It is sometimes called bastard gidgee in Western New South Wales. Called boree by aboriginals, and often boree, or silver-leaf boree, by the colonists of Western New South Wales. Nilyah is another New South Wales name."

1890. Rolf Boldrewood, `Squatter's Dream,' iii. p. 30:

"Myall and boree belts of timbers."

1893. `The Times,' [Reprint] `Letters from Queensland,' p. 6o:

"The timber, of course, when seen close at hand is strange. Boree and gidyah, coolibah and whitewood, brigelow, mulgah, and myall are the unfamiliar names by which you learn to recognise the commonest varieties."

<hw>Borer</hw>, <i>n</i>. name applied to an Australian insect. See quotation.

1876. W. Harcus, `South Australia,' p. 110:

"There is another destructive insect called the `borer,' not met with near the sea-coast, but very active and mischievous inland, its attacks being chiefly levelled against timber. This creature is about the size of a large fly."

<hw>Boronia</hw>, <i>n</i>. scientific and vernacular name of a genus of Australian plants, certain species of which are noted for their peculiar fragrance. The genus is especially characteristic of West Australia, to which out of fifty-nine species thirty-three are confined, while only five are known in Tasmania. Boronia belongs to the <i>N.O. Rutaceae</i>.

1835. Ross, `Hobart Town Almanack,' p. 72:

<i>"Boronia variabilis</i>. A beautiful little heath-like plant growing about the Cascade and other hills round about Hobart Town. . . . This genus is named after Borone, an Italian servant of the late Dr. Sibthorp, who perished at Athens. . . .Another species found in Van Diemen's Land is the Lemon plant of the mountains."

1896. `The Melburnian,' vol. xxii., No. 3, August 28, p. 53:

"Winter does not last for ever, and now at each street corner the scent of boronia and the odour of wattle-blossom greet us from baskets of the flower-girl."

<hw>Boss-cockie</hw>, <i>n</i>. a slang name in the bush for a farmer, larger than a Cockatoo (see <i>Cockatoo, n</i>. 2), who employs other labour as well as working himself.

<hw>Botany Bay</hw>, <i>n</i>. lying to the south of the entrance to Port Jackson, New South Wales, the destination of the first two shiploads of convicts from England. As a matter of fact, the settlement at Botany Bay never existed. The "First Fleet," consisting of eleven sail under Governor Phillip, arrived at Botany Bay on January 18, 1788. The Governor finding the place unsuitable for a settlement did not land his people, but on January 25 removed the fleet to Port Jackson. On the next day (January 26) he landed his people at Sydney Cove, and founded the city of Sydney. The name, however, citing to popular imagination, and was used sometimes as the name of Australia. Seventy years after Governor Phillip, English schoolboys used "go to Botany Bay" as an equivalent to "go to Bath." Captain Cook and his naturalists, Banks and Solander, landed at Botany Bay, and the name was given (not at first, when the Bay was marked Stingray, but a little later) from the large number of plants collected there.

1770. `Captain Cook's Original Journal,' ed. by Wharton, 1893, p. 247:

"6 May. . . .The great quantity of plants Mr. Banks and Dr. Solander found in this place occasioned my giving it the Name of Botany Bay."

1789. [Title]:

"The Voyage of Governor Phillip to Botany Bay," published in
London.

1789. Captain Watkin Tench [Title]: "A Narrative of the Expedition to Botany Bay," published in London.

1793 G. Barrington [Title]:

"Voyage to Botany Bay," [published in London.]

This was the popular book on the new settlement, the others being high priced. As Lowndes says, "A work of no authority, but frequently printed." Barrington, the pickpocket, whose name it bears, had nothing to do with it. It was pirated from Phillip, Collins, etc. It went through various editions and enlargements to 1810 or later. After 1795 the name was altered to `Voyage to New South Wales.'

1798. D. Collins, `Account of the English Colony in New South Wales,' vol. i. p. 502:

"The word `Botany Bay' became a term of reproach that was indiscriminately cast on every one who resided in New South Wales."

1840. Thos. Hood, `Tale of a Trumpet:

                      "The very next day
She heard from her husband at Botany Bay."

1851. Rev. David Mackenzie, `Ten Years in Australia,' p. 50:

". . . a pair of artificially black eyes being the Botany Bay coat of arms."

1852. J. West, `History of Tasmania,' Vol. ii. p. 91:

"Some gentlemen, on a visit to a London theatre, to draw the attention of their friends in an opposite box, called out <i>cooey</i>; a voice in the gallery answered `Botany Bay!'"

1894. `Pall Mall Budget,' May 17, p. 20, col. 1:

"The owner of the ship was an ex-convict in Sydney—then called Botany Bay—who had waxed wealthy on the profits of rum, and the `shangai-ing' of drugged sailors."

<hw>Botany-Bay Greens</hw>, <i>n</i>. a vegetable common to all the colonies, <i>Atriplex cinereum</i>, Poir, <i>N.O. Salsolaceae</i>.

1810. G. Barrington, `History of New South Wales,' p. 263:

"Botany Bay greens are abundant; they much resemble sage in appearance; and are esteemed a very good dish by the Europeans."

1834. Ross, `Van Diemen's Land Annual,' p. 134:

"I do not think it necessary to enter upon any description of the Barilla shrubs (<i>Atriplex halimus, Rhagodur billardiera</i>; and <i>Salicornia arbuscula</i>), which, with some others, under the promiscuous name of Botany Bay greens, were boiled and eaten along with some species of seaweed, by the earliest settlers, when in a state of starvation."

1835. Ibid. p. 69:

"Atriplex Halimus. Barrilla. Botany Bay Greens. This is the plant so common on the shores of Cape Barren and other islands of the Straits, from which the alkaline salt is obtained and brought up in boats to the soap manufactory at Hobart Town. It has been set down as the same plant that grows on the coast of Spain and other parts of Europe."

1889. J. H. Maiden, `Useful Native Plants,' p. 9:

"Once used as a pot-herb in New South Wales. Leichhardt used a species of <i>Atriplex</i> as a vegetable, and spoke very highly of it."

<hw>Botany-Bay Oak</hw>, or <hw>Botany-Bay Wood</hw>, <i>n</i>. a trade name in England for the timber of <i>Casuarina</i>. See <i>Beef-wood</i>.

<hw>Bottle-brush</hw>, <i>n</i>. name given to various species of <i>Callistemon</i> and <i>Melaleuca</i>, <i>N.O. Myrtaceae</i>; the <i>Purple Bottle-brush</i> is <i>Melaleuca squamea</i>, Lab. The name is also more rarely given to species of <i>Banksia</i>, or <i>Honeysuckle</i> (q.v.). The name <i>bottle-brush</i> is from the resemblance of the large handsome blossoms to the brush used to clean out wine-bottles.

1889. J. H. Maiden, `Useful Native Plants,' p. 359:

"Red Bottle-brush. The flowers of some species of <i>Callistemon</i> are like bottle-brushes in shape."

<hw>Bottle-Gourd</hw>, <i>n</i>. an Australian plant, <i>Lagenaria vulgaris</i>, Ser., <i>N.O. Cucurbitaceae</i>.

1889. J. H. Maiden, `Useful Native Plants,' p. 192:

"Bottle Gourd. This plant, so plentiful along the tropical coast of Queensland, is said to be a dangerous poison. It is said that some sailors were killed by drinking beer that had been standing for some time in a bottle formed of one of these fruits. (F. M. Bailey.)"

<hw>Bottle-Swallow</hw>, <i>n</i>. a popular name for the bird <i>Lagenoplastis ariel</i>, otherwise called the <i>Fairy Martin</i>. See <i>Martin</i>. The name refers to the bird's peculiar retort shaped nest. <i>Lagenoplashs</i> is from the Greek <i>lagaenos</i>, a flagon, and <i>plautaes</i>, a modeller. The nests are often constructed in clusters under rocks or the eaves of buildings. The bird is widely distributed in Australia, and has occurred in Tasmania.

<hw>Bottle-tree</hw>, <i>n</i>. an Australian tree, various species of <i>Sterculia</i>, i.q. <i>Kurrajong</i> (q.v.). So named from its appearance. See quotations.

1846. C. P. Hodgson, `Reminiscences of Australia,' p. 264:

"The sterculia, or bottle-tree, is a very singular curiosity. It generally varies in shape between a soda-water and port-wine bottle, narrow at the basis, gradually widening at the middle, and tapering towards the neck."

1848. L. Leichhardt, Letter in `Cooksland, by J. D. Lang, p. 91:

"The most interesting tree of this Rosewood Brush is the true bottle-tree, a strange-looking unseemly tree, which swells slightly four to five feet high, and then tapers rapidly into a small diameter; the foliage is thin, the crown scanty and irregular, the leaves lanceolate, of a greyish green; the height of the whole tree is about forty-five feet."

1865. Rev. J. E. Tenison-Woods, `History of the Discovery and Exploration of Australia,' vol. i. p. 127:

"It was on this range (Lat. 26 degrees, 42') that Mitchell saw the bottle-tree for the first time. It grew like an enormous pear-shaped turnip, with only a small portion of the root in the ground."

1889. J. H. Maiden, `Useful Native Plants,' p. 60:

"A `Kurrajong.' The `Bottle-tree' of N.E. Australia, and also called `Gouty-stem,' on account of the extraordinary shape of the trunk. It is the `Binkey' of the aboriginals.

"The stem abounds in a mucilaginous substance resembling pure tragacanth, which is wholesome and nutritious, and is said to be used as an article of food by the aborigines in cases of extreme need. A similar clear jelly is obtainable by pouring boiling water on chips of the wood."

<hw>Bottom</hw>, <i>n</i>. in gold-mining, the old river-bed upon which the wash-dirt rests, and upon which the richest alluvial gold is found; sometimes called the gutter.

1887. H. H. Hayter, `Christmas Adventure,' p. 5:

"We reached the bottom, but did not find gold."

<hw>Bottom</hw>, <i>v</i>. to get to the bedrock, or clay, below which it was useless to sink (gold-mining).

1858. T. McCombie, `History of Victoria,' c. xv. p. 219:

"In their anxiety to bottom their claims, they not seldom threw away the richest stuff."

<hw>Boundary-rider</hw>, <i>n</i>. a man who rides round the fences of a station to see that they are in order.

1890. E. W. Hornung, `A Bride from the Bush,' p. 279:

"A boundary-rider is not a `boss' in the Bush, but he is an important personage in his way. He sees that the sheep in his paddock draw to the water, that there is water for them to draw to, and that the fences and gates are in order. He is paid fairly, and has a fine, free, solitary life."

1892. `Scribner's Magazine,' Feb., p. 147:

"The manager's lieutenants are the `boundary-riders,' whose duty it is to patrol the estate and keep him informed upon every portion of it."

<hw>Bower-bird</hw> <i>n</i>. Australian bird. See quotation, 1891. See <i>Ptilonorhynchinae</i>. The following are the varieties—-

Fawn-breasted Bower-bird— <i>Chlamydoderea cerviniventris</i>, Gould.

Golden B.—

<i>Prionodura newtoniana</i>, De Vis.

Great B.—

<i>Chlambydodera nuchalis</i>, Gould (`Birds of Australia,' vol.iv. pl. 9).

Queensland B.—

<i>C. orientalis</i>, Gould.

Satin B.—

<i>Ptilonorhynchus violaceus</i>, Vieillot.

Spotted B.—

<i>Chlamydodera maculata</i>, Gould (ibid. pl. 8).

Yellow-spotted B.—

<i>C. gutttata</i>, Gould.

And the <i>Regent-bird</i> (q.v.).

1845. R. Howitt, `Australia,' p. 140:

"The same person had the last season found, to his surprise, the playhouse, or bower, of the Australian satin bower-bird."

1888. D. Macdonald, `Gum Boughs,' p. 28:

"Any shred of glass or metal which arrests the eye or reflects the rays of the sun is a gem in the bower-bird's collection, which seems in a sense to parody the art decorations of a modern home."

1891. `Guide to Zoological Gardens, Melbourne':

"In one is a representation of the playing place of the spotted bowerbird. These bowers are quite independent of the birds' nests, which are built on neighbouring trees. They first construct a covered passage or bower about three feet long, and near it they place every white or bright object they can find, such as the bleached bones of animals, pieces of white or coloured stone, feathers, shells, etc., etc.; the feathers they place on end. When these curious playing places were first discovered, they were thought to be made by the native women for the amusement of their children. More than a bushel of small pieces of bleached bones or shells are often found at one of these curious sporting places. Sometimes a dozen or more birds will assemble, and they delight in chasing each other through the bower and playing about it."

<hw>Box</hw>, <hw>Box-tree</hw>, <hw>Box-gum</hw>, <i>n</i>. The name is applied to many <i>Eucalypts</i>, and to a few trees of the genus <i>Tristania</i>, as given below, all of the <i>N.O. Myrtaceae</i>, chiefly from the qualities of their timber, which more or less resembles "Boxwood." Most of these trees also bear other vernacular names, and the same tree is further often described vernacularly as different kinds of <i>Box. China-, Heath</i>-, and <i>Native-Box</i> (q.v. below) are of other Natural Orders and receive their names of <i>Box</i> from other reasons. The following table is compiled from Maiden:—

Bastard Box—
 <i>Eucalyptus goniocalyx</i>, F. v. M.;
 <i>E. largiflorens</i>, F. v. M. (called also <i>Cooburn</i>);
 <i>E. longifolia</i>, Link.; <i>E. microtheca</i>, F. v. M.;
 <i>E. polyanthema</i>, F. v. M.; <i>E. populifolia</i>,
 Hook. (called also Bembil or Bimbil Box and Red Box);
 <i>Tristania conferta</i>, R. Br.;
 <i>T. laurana</i>, R. Br., all of the <i>N.O. Myrtaceae</i>.

Black Box—
 <i>Eucalyptus obliqua</i>, L'Herit.;
 <i>E. largiflorens</i>, F. v. M.;
 <i>E. microtheca</i>, F. v. M.

Brisbane Box—-
 <i>Tristania conferta</i>, R. Br.

Broad-leaved Box—
 <i>Eucalyptus acmenoides</i>, Schau.

Brown Box—
 <i>Eucalyptus polyanthema</i>, Schau.

Brush Box—
 <i>Tristania conferta</i>, R. Br.

China Box— <i>Murraya exotica</i>, Linn., <i>N.O. Rutaceae</i> (not a tree, but a perfume plant, which is found also in India and China).

Dwarf, or Flooded Box— <i>Eucalyptus microtheca</i>, F. v. M. (Also called Swamp Gum, from its habit of growing on land inundated during flood time. An aboriginal name for the same tree is <i>goborro</i>.)

Grey Box—
 <i>Eucalyptus goniocalyx</i>, F. v. M.;
 <i>E. hemiphloia</i>, F. v. M.;
 <i>E. largiflorens</i>, F. v. M.;
 <i>E. polyanthema</i>, Schau.;
 <i>E. saligna</i>, Smith.

Gum-topped Box—
 <i>Eucalyptus hemiphloia</i>, F. v. M.

Heath Box— <i>Alyxia buxifolia</i>, R. Br., <i>N.O. Apocyneae</i> (called also <i>Tonga-beanwood</i>, owing to its scent)

Iron-bark Box—
 <i>Eucalyptus obliqua</i>, L'Herit.

Narrow-leaved Box—
 <i>Eucalyptus microtheca</i>, F. v. M.

Native Box— <i>Bursaria spinosa</i>, Cav.,
 <i>N.O. Pittosporeae</i>. (Called also <i>Box-thorn</i>
 and <i>Native-Olive</i>. It is not a timber-tree but a forage-
plant. See quotation, 1889.)

Poplar Box—
 <i>Eucalyptus populifolia</i>, Hook.

Red Box—
 <i>Eucalyptus populifolia</i>, Hook.;
 <i>E. polyanthema</i>, Schau.;
 <i>Tristania
conferta</i>, R. Br.

Thozet's Box—
 <i>Eucalyptus raveretiana</i>, F. v. M.

White Box—
 <i>Eucalyptus hemiphloia</i>, F. v. M.;
 <i>E. odorata</i>, Behr.;
 <i>E. populifolia</i>, Hook.;
 <i>Tristania conferta</i>, R. Br.

Yellow Box—
 <i>Eucalyptus hemiphloia</i>, F. v. M.
 <i>E. largiflorens</i>, F. v. M.
 <i>E. melliodora</i>, A. Cunn.

1820. John Oxley, `Two Expeditions,' p. 126:

"The country continued open forest land for about three miles, the cypress and the bastard-box being the prevailing timber; of the former many were useful trees."

1838. T. L. Mitchell, `Three Expeditions, vol. ii. p. 55:

"The small kind of tree . . . which Mr. Oxley, I believe, terms the dwarf-box, grows only on plains subject to inundation . . . . It may be observed, however, that all permanent waters are invariably surrounded by the `yarra.' These peculiarities are only ascertained after examining many a hopeless hollow, where grew the `goborro' only; and after I had found my sable guides eagerly scanning the `yarra' from afar, when in search of water, and condemning any view of the `goborro' as hopeless during that dry season."

[See <i>Yarra</i>, a tree.]

1865. W. Howitt, `Discovery in Australia,' vol. ii. p. 6:

"Belts of open forest land, principally composed of the box-tree of the colonists, a species of eucalyptus (in no respect resembling the box of Europe)."

1877. F. v. Mueller, `Botanic Teachings,' p. 15:

"The Honey-Eucalypt (<i>Eucalyptus melliodora</i>). This tree passes by the very unapt vernacular name Yellow Box-tree, though no portion of it is yellow, not even its wood, and though the latter resembles the real boxwood in no way whatever. Its systematic specific name alludes to the odour of its flowers, like that of honey, and as the blossoms exude much nectar, like most eucalypts, sought by bees, it is proposed to call it the small-leaved Honey-Eucalypt, but the Latin name might as easily be conveyed to memory, with the advantage of its being a universal one, understood and used by all nations."

1881. A.C. Grant, `Bush Life in Queensland,' vol. i. p. 46:

"Poor country, covered with ti-tree, box, and iron-bark saplings, with here and there heavy timber growing on sour-looking ridges."

1888. D. Macdonald, `Gum Boughs,' p. 7:

"The clumps of box-gums clinging together for sympathy."

1888. J. Howlett Ross, `Laureate of the Centaurs,' p. 41:

"Box shrubs which were not yet clothed with their creamy-white plumes (so like the English meadowsweet)."

1889. P. Beveridge, `Aborigines of Victoria and Riverina,' p. 59:

"These spears are principally made from a tall-growing box (one of the eucalypts) which often attains to an altitude of over 100 feet; it is indigenous to the north-western portion of the colony, and to Riverina; it has a fine wavy grain, consequently easily worked when in a green state. When well seasoned, however, it is nearly as hard as ebony."

1889. J. H. Maiden, `Useful Native Plants,' p. 121:

"Native box is greedily eaten by sheep, but its thorny character preserves it from extinction upon sheep-runs: usually a small scrub, in congenial localities it developes into a small tree."

<hw>Box</hw>, <i>n</i>. See succeeding <i>verb</i>.

1872. C. H. Eden, `My Wife and I in Queensland,' p. 67:

"Great care must of course be taken that no two flocks come into collision, for a `box,' as it is technically called, causes an infinity of trouble, which is the reason that the stations are so far apart."

<hw>Box</hw>, <i>v</i>. to mix together sheep that ought to be kept separate apparently from "to box" in the sense of to shut up in narrow limits (`O.E.D.' v. i. 5); then to shut up together and so confuse the classification; then the sense of shutting up is lost and that of confusion remains.

1881. A.C. Grant, `Bush Life in Queensland,' vol. i. p. 253:

"All the mobs of different aged lambs which had been hitherto kept apart were boxed up together."

1889. Rolf Boldrewood, `Robbery under Arms,' p. 356:

"After they'd got out twenty or thirty they'd get boxed, like a new hand counting sheep, and have to begin all over again."

1890. Rolf Boldrewood, `A Colonial Reformer,' p. 84:

"At nightfall, the fifteen flocks of sheep were all brought in, and `boxed,' or mixed together, to Ernest's astonishment."

1890. Tasma, `In her Earliest Youth,' p. 166:

"He must keep tally when the sheep are being counted or draughted, I'm not sure which, and swear—no, he needn't swear—when they get boxed."

1896. A. B. Paterson, `Man from Snowy River,' p. 54:

"But the travelling sheep and the Wilga sheep were boxed on the
   Old Man Plain.
 'Twas a full week's work ere they drafted out and hunted them off
   again."

<hw>Boxer</hw>, <i>n</i>. This word means in Australia the stiff, low-crowned, felt hat, called a <i>billy-cock</i> or <i>bowler</i>. The silk-hat is called a <i>bell-topper</i> (q.v.).

1897. `The Argus,' Jan. 9, p. 14, col. 2:

"And will you wear a boxer that is in a battered state ?
 I wonder, will you—now that you're a knight?"

<hw>Box-wood</hw>, <i>n</i>. a New Zealand wood, <i>Olea lanceolata</i>, Hook., <i>N.O. Jasminea</i> (Maori name, <i>Maire</i>). Used by the `Wellington Independent' (April 19, 1845) for woodcuts, and recommended as superior to box-wood for the purpose. See also <i>Box, n</i>.

<hw>Boyla</hw>, <i>n</i>. aboriginal word for a sorcerer.

1865. W. Howitt, `Discovery in Australia,' vol. i. p. 384:

"The absolute power of boylas or evil sorcerers . . . he chanted gloomily:—

  Oh, wherefore would they eat the muscles?
  Now boylas storm and thunder make.
  Oh, wherefore would they eat the muscles ?"

<hw>Bramble, Native</hw>, <i>n</i>. See <i>Blackberry</i>.

<hw>Bread, Native</hw>, <i>n</i>. a kind of fungus. "The sclerotium of <i>Polyporus mylitta</i>, C. et M. Until quite recently the sclerotium was known, but not the fructification. It was thought probable that its fruit would be ascomycetous, and on the authority of Berkeley it was made the type of a genus as <i>Mylitta Australis</i>. It is found throughout Eastern Australia and Tasmania. The aborigines ate it, but to the European palate it is tough and tasteless, and probably as indigestible as leather." (L. Rodway.)

1843. James Backhouse, `Narrative of a Visit to the Australian Colonies,' p. 40:

"Natural Order. Fungi. . . . <i>Mylitta Australis</i>. Native Bread. This species of tuber is often found in the Colony, attaining to the size of a child's head: its taste somewhat resembles boiled rice. Like the heart of the Tree-fern, and the root of the Native Potato, cookery produces little change."

1848. `Papers and Proceedings of the Royal Society of Van Diemen's Land,' vol. i. p. 157:

"11th October, 1848 . . . Specimens of the <i>fungus</i> known as `native bread,' <i>Mylitta Australis</i>, lay upon the table. A member observed that this substance, grated and made into a pudding with milk alone, had been found by him very palatable. Prepared in the same way, and combined with double its weight of rice or sago, it has produced a very superior dish. It has also been eaten with approval in soup, after the manner of <i>truffle</i>, to which it is nearly allied."

1857. Dr. Milligan, in Bishop Nixon's `Cruise of the Beacon,' p. 27:

"But that which afforded the largest amount of solid and substantial nutritious matter was the <i>native bread</i>, a fungus growing in the ground, after the manner of the truffle, and generally so near the roots of trees as to be reputed parasitical."

1896. `Hobart Mercury,' Oct. 30, p. 2, last col.:

"A large specimen of `native bread,' weighing 12 lb., has been unearthed on Crab Tree farm in the Huon district, by Mr. A. Cooper. It has been brought to town, and is being examined with interest by many at the British Hotel. It is one of the fungi tribe that forms hard masses of stored food for future use."

<hw>Breadfruit-tree</hw>, name given by the explorer Leichhardt to the Queensland tree, <i>Gardenia edulis</i>, F. v. M., <i>N.O. Rubiaceae</i>.

<hw>Breakaway</hw>, <i>n</i>.(1) A bullock that leaves the herd.

1893. `The Argus,' April 29, p. 4, col. 4:

"The smartest stock horse that ever brought his rider up within whip distance of a breakaway or dodged the horns of a sulky beast, took the chance."

(2) The panic rush of sheep, cattle, or other animals at the sight or smell of water.

1891: "The Breakaway," title of picture by Tom Roberts at Victorian Artists' Exhibition.

<hw>Bream</hw>, <i>n</i>. The name is applied in Australia to various species of <i>Chrysophrys</i>, family <i>Sparidae</i>, and to other fishes of different families. The <i>Black-Bream</i> (q.v.) is <i>C. australis</i>, Gunth. The <i>Bony-Bream</i> is also called the <i>Sardine</i> (q.v.). The <i>Silver-Bream</i> (q.v.) or <i>White-Bream</i> is <i>Gerres ovatus</i>, Gunth., family <i>Percidae</i>. The <i>Red-Bream</i> is a Schnapper (q.v.) one year old. The popular pronunciation is <i>Brim</i>, and the fishes are all different from the various fishes called <i>Bream</i> in the northern hemisphere. See also <i>Tarwhine</i> and <i>Blue-fish</i>.

<hw>Brickfielder</hw>, <i>n</i>. (1) Originally a Sydney name for a cold wind, blowing from the south and accompanied by blinding clouds of dust; identical with the later name for the wind, the <i>Southerly Buster</i> (q.v.). The brickfields lay to the south of Sydney, and when after a hot wind from the west or north-west, the wind went round to the south, it was accompanied by great clouds of dust, brought up from the brickfields. These brickfields have long been a thing of the past, surviving only in "Brickfield Hill," the hilly part of George Street, between the Cathedral and the Railway Station. The name, as denoting a cold wind, is now almost obsolete, and its meaning has been very curiously changed and extended to other colonies to denote a very hot wind. See below (Nos. 2 and 3), and the notes to the quotations.

1833. Lieut. Breton, R.N., `Excursions in New South Wales and Van Diemen's Land,' p. 293:

"It sometimes happens that a change takes place from a hot wind to a `brickfielder,' on which occasions the thermometer has been known to fall, within half an hour, <i>upwards of fifty degrees</i>! That is to say, from above 100 degrees to 50 degrees! A brickfielder is a southerly wind, and it takes its local name from the circumstances of its blowing over, and bringing into town the flames [sic] of a large brick-field: it is nearly as detestable as a hot wind."

[Lieut. Breton must have had a strong imagination. The brickfields, at that date, were a mile away from the town, and the bringing in of their <i>flames</i> was an impossibility. Perhaps, however, the word is a misprint for <i>fumes</i>; yet even then this earliest quotation indicates part of the source of the subsequent confusion of meaning. The main characteristic of the true brickfielder was neither <i>flames</i> nor <i>fumes</i>,—and certainly not heat,—but choking dust.]

1839. W. H. Leigh, `Reconnoitering Voyages, Travels, and Adventures in the new Colony of South Australia,' etc., p. 184:

"Whirlwinds of sand come rushing upon the traveller, half blinding and choking him,—a miniature sirocco, and decidedly cousin-german to the delightful sandy puffs so frequent at Cape Town. The inhabitants call these miseries `Brickfielders,' but why they do so I am unable to divine; probably because they are in their utmost vigour on a certain hill here, where bricks are made."

[This writer makes no allusion to the temperature of the wind, whether hot or cold, but lays stress on its especial characteristic, the dust. His comparison with the sirocco chiefly suggests the clouds of sand brought by that wind from the Libyan Desert, with its accompanying thick haze and darkness (`half blinding and choking'), rather than its relaxing warmth.]

1844. John Rae, `Sydney Illustrated,' p. 26:

"The `brickfielder' is merely a colonial name for a violent gust of wind, which, succeeding a season of great heat, rushes in to supply the vacuum and equalises the temperature of the atmosphere; and when its baneful progress is marked, sweeping over the city in thick clouds of brick-coloured dust (from the brickfields), it is time for the citizens to close the doors and windows of their dwellings, and for the sailor to take more than half his canvas in, and prepare for a storm."

[Here the characteristic is again <i>dust</i> from the brickfields, as the origin of the name, with cold as an accompaniment.]

1844. Mrs.Meredith, `Notes and Sketches of New South Wales,' p. 44:

"These dust winds are locally named `brickfielders,' from the direction in which they come" [i.e. from neighbouring sandhills, called the brickfields].

[Here <i>dust</i> is the only characteristic observed, with the direction of the wind as the origin of its name.]

1845. J. O. Balfour, `Sketch of New South Wales,' p. 4:

"The greatest peculiarity in the climate is what is called by colonists a brickfielder. This wind has all the characteristics of a sirocco in miniature . . . . Returning home, he discovers that the house is full of sand; that the brickfielder has even insinuated itself between the leaves of his books; at dinner he will probably find that his favourite fish has been spoiled by the brickfielder. Nor is this all; for on retiring to rest he will find that the brickfielder has intruded even within the precincts of his musquito curtains."

[Here again its <i>dust</i> is noted as the distinguishing feature of the wind, just as sand is the distinguishing feature of the `sirocco' in the Libyan Desert, and precipitated sand,—`blood rain' or `red snow,'—a chief character of the sirocco after it reaches Italy.]

1847. Alex. Marjoribanks, `Travels in New South Wales,' p. 61:

"The hot winds which resemble the siroccos in Sicily are, however, a drawback . . . but they are almost invariably succeeded by what is there called a `brickfielder,' which is a strong southerly wind, which soon cools the air, and greatly reduces the temperature."

[Here the cold temperature of the brickfielder is described, but not its <i>dust</i>, and the writer compares the hot wind which precedes the brickfielder with the sirocco. He in fact thinks only of the heat of the sirocco, but the two preceding writers are thinking of its sand, its thick haze, its quality of <i>blackness</i> and its suffocating character,—all which applied accurately to the true <i>brickfielder</i>.]

1853. Rev. H. Berkeley Jones, `Adventures in Australia in 1852 and 1853,' p. 228:

"After the languor, the lassitude, and enervation which some persons experience during these hot blasts, comes the `Brickfielder,' or southerly burster."

[Cold temperature noticed, but not <i>dust</i>.]

1853. `Fraser's Magazine,' 48, p. 515:

"When the wind blows strongly from the southward, it is what the Sydney people call a `brickfielder'; that is, it carries with it dense clouds of red dust or sand, like brick dust, swept from the light soil which adjoins the town on that side, and so thick that the houses and streets are actually hidden; it is a darkness that may be felt."

[Here it is the <i>dust</i>, not the temperature, which determines the name.]

(2) The very opposite to the original meaning,—a severe hot wind. In this inverted sense the word is now used, but not frequently, in Melbourne and in Adelaide, and sometimes even in Sydney, as the following quotations show. It will be noted that one of them (1886) observes the original prime characteristic of the wind, its <i>dust</i>.

1861. T. McCombie,' Australian Sketches,' p. 79:

"She passed a gang of convicts, toiling in a broiling `brickfielder.'"

1862. F. J. Jobson, `Australia with Notes by the Way,' p. 155:

"The `brickfielders' are usually followed, before the day closes, with `south-busters' [sic.]."

1886. F. Cowan, `Australia, a Charcoal Sketch':

"The Buster and Brickfielder: austral red-dust blizzard; and red-hot Simoom."

This curious inversion of meaning (the change from cold to hot) may be traced to several causes. It may arise—

(a) From the name itself. People in Melbourne and Adelaide, catching at the word <i>brickfielder</i> as a name for a <i>dusty</i> wind, and knowing nothing of the origin of the name, would readily adapt it to their own severe hot north winds, which raise clouds of dust all day, and are described accurately as being `like a blast from a furnace,' or `the breath of a brick-kiln.' Even a younger generation in Sydney, having received the word by colloquial tradition, losing its origin, and knowing nothing of the old brickfields, might apply the word to a hot blast in the same way.

(b) From the peculiar phenomenon.—A certain cyclonic change of temperature is a special feature of the Australian coastal districts. A raging hot wind from the interior desert (north wind in Melbourne and Adelaide, west wind in Sydney) will blow for two or three days, raising clouds of dust; it will be suddenly succeeded by a `<i>Southerly Buster'</i> from the ocean, the cloud of dust being greatest at the moment of change, and the thermometer falling sometimes forty or fifty degrees in a few minutes. The Sydney word <i>brickfielder</i> was assigned originally to the latter part—the <i>dusty</i> cold change. Later generations, losing the finer distinction, applied the word to the whole dusty phenomenon,and ultimately specialized it to denote not so much the extreme dustiness of its later period as the more disagreeable extreme heat of its earlier phase.

(c) From the apparent, though not real, confusion of terms, by those who have described it as a `sirocco.'—The word <i>sirocco</i> (spelt earlier <i>schirocco</i>, and in Spanish and other languages with the <i>sh</i> sound, not the <i>s</i>) is the Italian equivalent of the Arabic root <i>sharaga</i>, `it rose.' The name of the wind, <i>sirocco</i>, alludes in its original Arabic form to its rising, with its cloud of sand, in the desert high-lands of North Africa. True, it is defined by Skeat as `a hot wind,' but that is only a part of its definition. Its marked characteristic is that it is <i>sand-laden</i>, densely hazy and black, and therefore `choking,' like the <i>brickfielder</i>. The not unnatural assumption that writers by comparing a <i>brickfielder</i> with a <i>sirocco</i>, thereby imply that a <i>brickfielder</i> is a hot wind, is thus disposed of by this characteristic, and by the notes on the passages quoted. They were dwelling only on its choking <i>dust</i>, and its suffocating qualities,—`a miniature sirocco.' See the following quotations on this character of the sirocco:—

1841. `Penny Magazine,' Dec. 18, p. 494:

"The Islands of Italy, especially Sicily and Corfu, are frequently visited by a wind of a remarkable character, to which the name of sirocco, scirocco, or schirocco, has been applied. The thermometer rises to a great height, but the air is generally thick and heavy . . . . People confine themselves within doors; the windows and doors are shut close, to prevent as much as possible the external air from entering; . . . but a few hours of the <i>tramontane</i>, or north wind which generally succeeds it, soon braces them up again. [Compare this whole phenomenon with (b) above.] There are some peculiar circumstances attending the wind. . . . Dr. Benza, an Italian physician, states:—`When the sirocco has been impetuous and violent, and followed by a shower of rain, the rain has carried with it to the ground an almost impalpable red micaceous sand, which I have collected in large quantities more than once in Sicily. . . . When we direct our attention to the island of Corfu, situated some distance eastward of Sicily, we find the sirocco assuming a somewhat different character. . . . The more eastern sirocco might be called a refreshing breeze [sic]. . . . The genuine or black sirocco (as it is called) blows from a point between south-east and south-south-east.'"

1889. W. Ferrell, `Treatise on Winds,' p. 336:

"The dust raised from the Sahara and carried northward by the sirocco often falls over the countries north of the Mediterranean as `blood rain,' or as `red snow,' the moisture and the sand falling together. . . .The temperature never rises above 95 degrees."

1889. `The Century Dictionary,' s.v. Sirocco:

"(2) A hot, dry, dust-laden wind blowing from the highlands of Africa to the coasts of Malta, Sicily and Naples. . . . During its prevalence the sky is covered with a dense haze."

(3) The illustrative quotations on <i>brickfielder</i>, up to this point, have been in chronological consecutive order. The final three quotations below show that while the original true definition and meaning, (1), are still not quite lost, yet authoritative writers find it necessary to combat the modern popular inversion, (2).

1863. Frank Fowler, `The Athenaeum,' Feb. 21, p. 264, col. 1:

"The `brickfielder' is not the hot wind at all; it is but another name for the cold wind, or southerly buster, which follows the hot breeze, and which, blowing over an extensive sweep of sandhills called the Brickfields, semi-circling Sydney, carries a thick cloud of dust (or `brickfielder') across the city."

[The writer is accusing Dr. Jobson (see quotation 1862, above) of plagiarism from his book `Southern Lights and Shadows.']

1890. Lyth, `Golden South,' vol. ii. p. 11:

"A dust which covered and penetrated everything and everywhere.
This is generally known as a `brickfielder.'"

1896. `Three Essays on Australian Weather,' `On Southerly Buster,' by H. A. Hunt, p. 17:

"In the early days of Australian settlement, when the shores of Port Jackson were occupied by a sparse population, and the region beyond was unknown wilderness and desolation, a great part of the Haymarket was occupied by the brickfields from which Brickfield Hill takes its name. When a `Southerly Burster' struck the infant city, its approach was always heralded by a cloud of reddish dust from this locality, and in consequence the phenomenon gained the local name of `brickfielder.' The brickfields have long since vanished, and with them the name to which they gave rise, but the wind continues to raise clouds of dust as of old under its modern name of `Southerly Burster."

<hw>Bricklow</hw>, <i>n</i>. obsolete form of <i>Brigalow</i> (q.v.).

<hw>Brigalow</hw>, <i>n</i>. and <i>adj</i>. Spellings various. Native name, <i>Buriargalah</i>. In the Namoi dialect in New South Wales, <i>Bri</i> or <i>Buri</i> is the name for <i>Acacia pendula</i>, Cunn.; <i>Buriagal</i>, relating to the <i>buri; Buriagalah</i> == place of the <i>buri</i> tree. Any one of several species of <i>Acacia</i>, especially <i>A. harpophylla</i>, F. v. M., <i>H.O. Leguminosae</i>. J. H. Maiden (`Useful Native Plants,' p. 356, 1889) gives its uses thus:

"Wood brown, hard, heavy, and elastic; used by the natives for spears, boomerangs, and clubs. The wood splits freely, and is used for fancy turnery. Saplings used as stakes in vineyards have lasted twenty years or more. It is used for building purposes, and has a strong odour of violets.'

1846. L. Leichhardt, quoted by J. D. Lang, `Cooksland,' p. 312:

"Almost impassable bricklow scrub, so called from the bricklow (a species of acacia)."

1847. L. Leichhardt, `Overland Expedition,' p. 4:

"The Bricklow Acacia, which seems to be identical with the Rosewood Acacia of Moreton Bay; the latter, however, is a fine tree, 50 to 60 feet high, whereas the former is either a small tree or a shrub. I could not satisfactorily ascertain the origin of the word Bricklow, but as it is well understood and generally adopted by all the squatters between the Severn River and the Boyne, I shall make use of the name. Its long, slightly falcate leaves, being of a silvery green colour, give a peculiar character to the forest, where the tree abounds."—[Footnote]: "<i>Brigaloe</i> Gould."

1862. H. C. Kendall, `Poems,' p. 79:

"Good-bye to the Barwan and brigalow scrubs."

1881. A. C. Grant, `Bush Life in Queensland,' vol. i. p. 190:

"Now they pass through a small patch of Brigalow scrub. Some one has split a piece from a trunk of a small tree. What a scent the dark-grained wood has!"

1889. Cassell's `Picturesque Australasia;' vol. iv. p. 69:

"There exudes from the Brigalow a white gum, in outward appearance like gum-arabic, and even clearer, but as a `sticker' valueless, and as a `chew-gum' disappointing."

1892. Gilbert Parker, `Round the Compass in Australia,' p. 23:

"The glare of a hard and pitiless sky overhead, the infinite vista of saltbush, brigalow, stay-a-while, and mulga, the creeks only stretches of stone, and no shelter from the shadeless gums."

<hw>Brill</hw>, <i>n</i>. a small and very bony rhomboidal fish of New Zealand, <i>Pseudorhombus scaphus</i>, family <i>Pleuronectidae</i>. The true <i>Brill</i> of Europe is <i>Rhombus levis</i>.

<hw>Brisbane Daisy</hw>, <i>n</i>. See <i>Daisy, Brisbane</i>.

<hw>Bristle-bird</hw>, <i>n</i>. a name given to certain Australian Reed-warblers. They are—<i>Sphenura brachyptera</i>, Latham; Long-tailed B.—<i>S. longirostris</i>, Gould; Rufous-headed B.—<i>S. broadbentii</i>, McCoy. See <i>Sphenura</i>.

1827. Vigors and Horsfield, `Transactions of Linnaean Society,' vol. xv. p. 232:

"He (Mr. Caley) calls it in his notes `Bristle Bird.'"

<hw>Broad-leaf</hw>, <i>n</i>. a settlers' name for <i>Griselinia littoralis</i>, Raoul; Maori name, <i>Paukatea</i>.

1879. W. N. Blair, `Building Materials of Otago,' p. 155:

"There are few trees in the [Otago] bush so conspicuous or so well known as the broad-leaf. . . . It grows to a height of fifty or sixty feet, and a diameter of from three to six; the bark is coarse and fibrous, and the leaves a beautiful deep green of great brilliancy."

1879. J. B. Armstrong, `Transactions of New Zealand Institute,' vol. xii. Art. 49, p. 328:

"The broadleaf (<i>Griselinia littoralis</i>) is abundant in the district [of Banks' Peninsula], and produces a hard red wood of a durable nature."

1882. T. H. Potts, `Out in the Open,' p. 103:

"The rough trunks and limbs of the broadleaf."

<hw>Broker</hw>, <i>n</i>. Australian slang for a man completely ruined, stonebroke.

1891. `The Australasian,' Nov. 21, p. 1014:

"We're nearly `dead brokers,' as they say out here. Let's harness up Eclipse and go over to old Yamnibar."

<hw>Bronze-wing</hw>, <i>n</i>. a bird with a lustrous shoulder, <i>Phaps chalcoptera</i>, Lath. Called also <i>Bronze-wing Pigeon</i>.

1790. J. White, `Voyage to New South Wales,' p. 145:

"One of the gold-winged pigeons, of which a plate is annexed. [Under plate, Golden-winged Pigeon.] This bird is a curious and singular species remarkable for having most of the feathers of the wing marked with a brilliant spot of golden yellow, changing, in various reflections of light, to green and copper-bronze, and when the wing is closed, forming two bars of the same across it."

1832. J. Bischoff, `Van Diemen's Land,' vol. ii. p. 31:

"The pigeons are by far the most beautiful birds in the island; they are called bronze-winged pigeons."

1857. W. Howitt, `Tallangetta,' vol. ii. p. 57:

"Mr. Fitzpatrick followed his kangaroo hounds, and shot his emus, his wild turkeys, and his bronze-wings."

1865. `Once a Week.' `The Bulla-Bulla Bunyip.'

"Hours ago the bronze-wing pigeons had taken their evening draught from the coffee-coloured water-hole beyond the butcher's paddock, and then flown back into the bush to roost on `honeysuckle' and in heather."

1872. C. H. Eden, `My Wife and I in Queensland,' p. 122:

"Another most beautiful pigeon is the `bronze-wing,' which is nearly the size of the English wood-pigeon, and has a magnificent purply-bronze speculum on the wings."

1888. D. Macdonald, `Gum Boughs,' p. 33:

"Both the bronze-wing and Wonga-Wonga pigeon are hunted so keenly that in a few years they will have become extinct in Victoria."

1893. `The Argus,' March 25, p. 4, col. 6:

"Those who care for museum studies must have been interested in tracing the Australian quail and pigeon families to a point where they blend their separate identities in the partridge bronze-wing of the Central Australian plains. The eggs mark the converging lines just as clearly as the birds, for the partridge-pigeon lays an egg much more like that of a quail than a pigeon, and lays, quail fashion, on the ground."

<hw>Brook-Lime</hw>, <i>n</i>. English name for an aquatic plant, applied in Australia to the plant <i>Gratiola pedunculata</i>, R. Br., <i>N.O. Scrophularinae</i>. Also called <i>Heartsease</i>.

<hw>Broom</hw>, <i>n</i>. name applied to the plant <i>Calycothrix tetragona</i>, Lab., <i>N.O. Myrtaceae</i>.

<hw>Broom, Native</hw>, <i>n</i>. an Australian timber, <i>Viminaria denudala</i>, Smith, <i>N.O. Leguminosae</i>.

1889. J. H. Maiden, `Useful Native Plants,' p. 612:

"Native broom. Wood soft and spongy."

<hw>Broom, Purple</hw>, <i>n</i>. a Tasmanian name for <i>Comesperma retusum</i>, Lab., <i>N.O. Polygaleae</i>.

<hw>Brown Snake</hw>, <i>n</i>. See under <i>Snake</i>.

<hw>Brown-tail</hw>, <i>n</i>. bird-name for the <i>Tasmanian Tit</i>. See <i>Tit</i>.

1848. J. Gould, `Birds of Australia,' vol. iii, pl. 54:

"<i>Acanthiza Diemenensis</i>, Gould. Brown-tail, colonists of Van Diemen's Land."

<hw>Brown Tree-Lizard</hw>, <i>n</i>. of New Zealand, <i>Naultinus pacificus</i>.

<hw>Browny</hw> or <hw>Brownie</hw>, <i>n</i>. a kind of currant loaf.

1890. E. D. Cleland, `The White kangaroo,' p. 57:

"Cake made of flour, fat and sugar, commonly known as
`Browny.'"

1890. `The Argus,' Sept. 20, p. 13, col. 57:

"Four o'clock. `Smoke O!' again with more bread and brownie (a bread sweetened with sugar and currants)."

1892. Gilbert Parker, `Round the Compass,' p. 36:

"Roast mutton and brownie are given us to eat."

<hw>Brumby, Broombie</hw> (spelling various), <i>n</i>. a wild horse. The origin of this word is very doubtful. Some claim for it an aboriginal, and some an English source. In its present shape it figures in one aboriginal vocabulary, given in Curr's `Australian Race' (1887), vol. iii. p. 259. At p. 284, <i>booramby</i> is given as meaning "wild" on the river Warrego in Queensland. The use of the word seems to have spread from the Warrego and the Balowne about 1864. Before that date, and in other parts of the bush ere the word came to them, wild horses were called <i>clear-skins</i> or <i>scrubbers</i>, whilst <i>Yarraman</i> (q.v.) is the aboriginal word for a quiet or broken horse. A different origin was, however, given by an old resident of New South Wales, to a lady of the name of Brumby, viz. "that in the early days of that colony, a Lieutenant Brumby, who was on the staff of one of the Governors, imported some very good horses, and that some of their descendants being allowed to run wild became the ancestors the wild horses of New South Wales and Queensland." Confirmation of this story is to be desired.

1880. `The Australasian,' Dec. 4, p. 712, col. 3:

"Passing through a belt of mulga, we saw, on reaching its edge, a mob of horses grazing on the plains beyond. These our guide pronounced to be `brumbies,' the bush name here [Queensland] for wild horses."

1888. Cassell's `Picturesque Australasia,' vol. ii. p. 176:

"The wild horses of this continent known all over it by the
Australian name of `brumbies.'"

Ibid. p. 178:

"The untamed and `unyardable' scrub brumby."

1888. R. Kipling, `Plain Tales from the Hills,' p. 160:

"Juggling about the country, with an Australian larrikin; a `brumby' with as much breed as the boy. . . . People who lost money on him called him a `brumby.'"

1888. Rolf Boldrewood, `Robbery under Arms.' p. 67:

"The three-cornered weed he rode that had been a `brumbee.'"

1895. `Chambers' Journal,' Nov. 2, Heading `Australian Brumbie Horses':

"The brumbie horse of Australia, tho' not a distinct equine variety, possesses attributes and qualities peculiar to itself, and, like the wild cattle and wild buffaloes of Australia, is the descendant of runaways of imported stock."

1896. `Sydney Morning Herald,' (Letter from `J. F. G.,' dated Aug. 24):

"Amongst the blacks on the Lower Balonne, Nebine, Warrego, and Bulloo rivers the word used for horse is `baroombie,' the `a' being cut so short that the word sounds as `broombie,' and as far as my experience goes refers more to unbroken horses in distinction to quiet or broken ones (`yarraman')."

1896. H. Lawson, `When the World was Wide,' p. 156:

"Yet at times we long to gallop where the reckless bushman rides
 In the wake of startled brumbies that are flying for their
   hides."

<hw>Brush</hw>, <i>n</i>. at first undergrowth, small trees, as in England; afterwards applied to larger timber growth and forest trees. Its earlier sense survives in the compound words; see below.

1820. Oxley, `New South Wales' (`O.E.D.'):

"The timber standing at wide intervals, without any brush or undergrowth."

1833. C. Sturt, `Southern Australia,' (2nd ed.) vol. i. p. 62:

"We journeyed . . . at one time over good plains, at another through brushes."

1848. J. Gould, `Birds of Australia,' vol. i. Introd. p. 77:

"Jungle, or what in New South Wales would be called brush."

Ibid. vol. v. Pl. 59:

"Those vast primeval forests of New South Wales to which the colonists have applied the name of brushes."

1853. Chas. St. Julian and Edward K. Silvester, `The Productions, Industry, and Resources of New South Wales,' p. 20:

"What the colonists term `brush' lands are those covered with tall trees growing so near each other and being so closely matted together by underwood, parasites, and creepers, as to be wholly impassable."

1883. G. W. Rusden, `History of Australia,' vol. i. p. 67, note:

"Brush was allotted to the growth of large timber on alluvial lands, with other trees intermixed, and tangled vines. The soil was rich, and `brushland' was well understood as a descriptive term. It may die away, but its meaning deserves to be pointed out."

<hw>Brush-Apple</hw>, <i>n</i>. See <i>Apple</i>.

<hw>Brush-Bloodwood</hw>, <i>n</i>. See <i>Bloodwood</i>.

<hw>Brush-Cherry</hw>, <i>n</i>. an Australian tree, <i>Trochocarpa laurina</i>, R. Br., and <i>Eugenia myrtifolia</i>, Simms. Called also <i>Brush-Myrtle</i>.

<hw>Brush-Deal</hw>, <i>n</i>. a slender Queensland tree, <i>Cupania anacardioides</i>, A. Richard. See <i>Brush</i>, above.

<hw>Brusher</hw>, <i>n</i>. a Bushman's name, in certain parts, for a small wallaby which hops about in the bush or scrub with considerable speed. "To give brusher," is a phrase derived from this, and used in many parts, especially of the interior of Australia, and implies that a man has left without paying his debts. In reply to the question "Has so-and-so left the township? "the answer, "Oh yes, he gave them brusher," would be well understood in the above sense.

<hw>Brush-Kangaroo</hw>, <i>n</i>. another name for the <i>Wallaby</i> (q.v.).

1802. G. Barrington, `History of New South Wales,' c. viii. p. 273:

"A place . . . thickly inhabited by the small brush-kangaroo."

1830. `Proceedings of the Royal Geographical Society,' i. 29:

"These dogs . . . are particularly useful in catching the bandicoots, the small brush kangaroo, and the opossum."

1832. J. Bischoff, `Van Diemen's Land,' c. ii. p. 28:

"The brush-kangaroo . . . frequents the scrubs and rocky hills."

1884. Rolf Boldrewood, `Melbourne Memories,' c. iii. p. 24:

"Violet was so fast that she could catch the brush-kangaroo (the wallaby) within sight."

<hw>Brush-Myrtle</hw>, i.q. <i>Brush-Cherry</i> (q.v.)

<hw>Brush-Turkey</hw>, <i>n</i>. See <i>Turkey</i>.

<hw>Brush-Turpentine</hw>, <i>n</i>. another name for the tree <i>Syncarpia leptopetala</i>, F. v. M., <i>N.O. Myrtaceae</i>, called also <i>Myrtle</i> (q.v.).

<hw>Bubrush</hw>, <i>n</i>. See <i>Wonga</i> and <i>Raupo</i>.

<hw>Buck</hw>, <i>v</i>. Used "intransitively of a horse, to leap vertically from the ground, drawing the feet together like a deer, and arching the back. Also transitively to buck off." (`O.E.D.') Some say that this word is not Australian, but all the early quotations of <i>buck</i> and cognate words are connected with Australia. The word is now used freely in the United States; see quotation, 1882.

1870. E. B. Kennedy, `Four Years in Queensland,' p. 193:

"Having gained his seat by a nimble spring, I have seen a man (a Sydney native) so much at his ease, that while the horse has been `bucking a hurricane,' to use a colonial expression, the rider has been cutting up his tobacco and filling his pipe, while several feet in the air, nothing to front of him excepting a small lock of the animal's mane (the head being between its legs), and very little behind him, the stern being down; the horse either giving a turn to the air, or going forward every buck."

1881. A. C. Grant, `Bush Life in Queensland,' vol. i. p. 131:

"`Well,' said one, `that fellow went to market like a bird.' `Yes,' echoed another, `Bucked a blessed hurricane.' `Buck a town down,' cried a third. `Never seed a horse strip himself quicker,' cried a fourth."

1882. Baillie-Grohman, `Camps in the Rockies,' ch. iv. p. 102 ('Standard'):

"There are two ways, I understand, of sitting a bucking horse . . . one is `to follow the buck,' the other `to receive the buck.'"

1885. H. Finch-Hatton, `Advance Australia,' p. 55:

"The performance is quite peculiar to Australian horses, and no one who has not seen them at it would believe the rapid contortions of which they are capable. In bucking, a horse tucks his head right between his fore-legs, sometimes striking his jaw with his hind feet. The back meantime is arched like a boiled prawn's; and in this position the animal makes a series of tremendous bounds, sometimes forwards, sometimes sideways and backwards, keeping it up for several minutes at intervals of a few seconds."

<hw>Buck</hw>, <i>n</i>. See preceding verb.

1868. Lady Barker, `Station Life in New Zealand,' p. 224:

"I never saw such bucks and jumps into the air as she [the mare] performed."

1886. H. C. Kendall, `Poems,' p. 206:

"For, mark me, he can sit a buck
 For hours and hours together;
 And never horse has had the luck
 To pitch him from the leather."

<hw>Bucker</hw>, <hw>Buck-jumper</hw>, <i>n</i>. a horse given to bucking or buck-jumping.

1853. H. Berkeley Jones, `Adventures in Australia in 1852 and 1853,' [Footnote] p. 143:

"A `bucker' is a vicious horse, to be found only in Australia."

1884. `Harper's Magazine,' July, No. 301, p. 1 (`O.E.D.'):

"If we should . . . select a `bucker,' the probabilities are that we will come to grief."

1893. Haddon Chambers, `Thumbnail Sketches of Australian Life,' p. 64:

"No buck jumper could shake him off."

1893. Ibid. p. 187:

"`Were you ever on a buck-jumper?' I was asked by a friend, shortly after my return from Australia."

<hw>Buck-jumping</hw>, <hw>Bucking</hw>, <i>verbal nouns</i>.

1855. W. Howitt, `Two Years in Victoria,' vol. i. p. 43:

"At length it shook off all its holders, and made one of those extraordinary vaults that they call <i>buck-jumping</i>."

1859. H. Kingsley, `Geoffrey Hamlyn,' vol. ii. p. 212:

"That same bucking is just what puzzles me utterly."

1859. Rev. J. D. Mereweather, `Diary of a Working Clergyman in Australia and Tasmania, kept during the years 1850-1853,' p. 177:

"I believe that an inveterate buckjumper can be cured by slinging up one of the four legs, and lunging him about severely in heavy ground on the three legs. The action they must needs make use of on such an occasion somewhat resembles the action of bucking; and after some severe trials of that sort, they take a dislike to the whole style of thing. An Irishman on the Murrumbidgee is very clever at this schooling. It is called here `turning a horse inside out.'"

1885. Forman (Dakota), item 26, May 6, 3 (`O.E.D.'):

"The majority of the horses there [in Australia] are vicious and given to the trick of buck jumping." [It may be worth while to add that this is not strictly accurate.]

1890. Rolf Boldrewood, `A Colonial Reformer,' p. 94:

"`I should say that buck jumping was produced in this country by bad breaking,' said Mr. Neuchamp oracularly. `Don't you believe it, sir. Bucking is like other vices—runs in the blood.'"

<hw>Buck-shot</hw>, <i>n</i>. a settlers' term for a geological formation. See quotation.

1851. `The Australasian Quarterly,' p. 459:

"The plain under our feet was everywhere furrowed by <i>Dead men's graves</i>, and generally covered with the granulated lava, aptly named by the settlers <i>buck-shot</i>, and found throughout the country on these trappean `formations. <i>Buck-shot</i> is always imbedded in a sandy alluvium, sometimes several feet thick."

<hw>Buddawong</hw>, <i>n</i>. a variation of <i>Burrawang</i> (q.v.).

1877. Australie, `The Buddawong's Crown,' `Australian Poets,' 1788-1888, ed. Sladen, p. 39:

"A Buddawong seed-nut fell to earth,
   In a cool and mossy glade,
 And in spring it shot up its barbed green swords,
   Secure 'neath the myrtle's shade.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

 And the poor, poor palm has died indeed.
   But little the strangers care,
 `There are zamias in plenty more,' they say,
   But the crown is a beauty rare."

<hw>Budgeree</hw>, <i>adj</i>. aboriginal word for good, which is common colloquially in the bush. See <i>Budgerigar</i>.

1793. J.Hunter, `Port Jackson,' p. 195:

"They very frequently, at the conclusion of the dance, would apply to us . . . for marks of our approbation . . . which we never failed to give by often repeating the word <i>boojery</i>, good; or <i>boojery caribberie</i>, a good dance."

<hw>Budgerigar</hw>, or <hw>Betcherrygah</hw>, <i>n</i>. aboriginal name for the bird called by Gould the <i>Warbling Grass-parrakeet</i>; called also <i>Shell-parrot</i> and <i>Zebra- Grass-parrakeet</i>. In the Port Jackson dialect <i>budgeri</i>, or <i>boodgeri</i>, means good, excellent. In `Collins' Vocabulary' (1798), boodjer-re = good. In New South Wales <i>gar</i> is common as first syllable of the name for the white cockatoo, as <i>garaweh</i>. See <i>Galah</i>. In the north of New South Wales <i>kaar</i>= white cockatoo. The spelling is very various, but the first of the two above given is the more correct etymologically. In the United States it is spelt <i>beauregarde</i>, derived by `Standard' from French <i>beau</i> and <i>regarde</i>, a manifest instance of the law of <i>Hobson -Jobson</i>.

1847. L. Leichhardt, `Overland Expedition,' p. 297:

"The betshiregah (<i>Melopsittacus Undulatus</i>, Gould) were very numerous."

1848. J. Gould, `Birds of Australia,' vol. v. Pl. 44:

"<i>Melopsittacus Undulatus</i>. Warbling Grass-Parrakeet. Canary Parrot—colonists. <i>Betcherrygah</i>—natives of Liverpool Plains."

1857. Letter, Nov.17, in `Life of Fenton J. A. Hort' (1896), vol. i. p. 388:

"There is also a small green creature like a miniature cockatoo, called a Budgeragar, which was brought from Australia. He is quaint and now and then noisy, but not on the whole a demonstrative being."

1857. W. Howitt, `Tallangetta,' vol. i. p. 48:

"Young paroquets, the green leeks, and the lovely speckled budgregores."

1865. Lady Barker, `Station Life in New Zealand,' p. 7:

"I saw several pairs of those pretty grass or zebra parroquets, which are called here by the very inharmonious name of `budgereghars.'"

2890. Lyth, `Golden South,' c. xiv. p. 127:

"The tiny budgeriegar, sometimes called the shell parrot."

<hw>Bugle</hw>, <i>n</i>. name given to the Australian plant <i>Ajuga australis</i>, R. Br., <i>N.O. Labiatae</i>.

<hw>Bugler</hw>, <i>n</i>. a name given in Tasmania to the fish <i>Centriscus scolopax</i>, family <i>Centriscidae</i>; called in Europe the <i>Trumpet-fish</i>, <i>Bellows-fish</i>, the latter name being also used for it in Tasmania. The structure of the mouth and snout suggests a musical instrument, or, combined with the outline of the body, a pair of bellows. The fish occurs also in Europe.

<hw>Bugong</hw>, or <hw>Bogong</hw>, or <hw>Bougong</hw>, <i>n</i>. an Australian moth, <i>Danais limniace</i>, or<i> Agrotis spina</i>, eaten by the aborigines.

1834. Rev. W. B. Clarke, `Researches in the Southern Gold Fields of New South Wales' (second edition), p. 228:

"These moths have obtained their name from their occurrence on the `Bogongs' or granite mountains. They were described by my friend Dr. Bennett in his interesting work on `New South Wales,' 1832-4, as abundant on the Bogong Mountain, Tumut River. I found them equally abundant, and in full vigour, in December, coming in clouds from the granite peaks of the Muniong Range. The blacks throw them on the fire and eat them."

1859. H. Kingsley, `Geoffrey Hamlyn,' p. 355:

"The westward range is called the Bougongs. The blacks during summer are in the habit of coming thus far to collect and feed on the great grey moths (bougongs) which are found on the rocks."

1871. `The Athenaeum,' May 27, p. 660:

"The Gibbs Land and Murray districts have been divided into the following counties: . . . Bogong (native name of grubs and moths)."

1878. R. Brough Smyth, `The Aborigines of Victoria,' vol. i. p. 207

"The moths—the Bugong moths(<i>Agrolis suffusa</i>) are greedily devoured by the natives; and in former times, when they were in season, they assembled in great numbers to eat there, and they grew fat on this food." [Also a long footnote.]

1890. Richard Helms, `Records of the Australian Museum,' vol. i. No. 1:

"My aim was to obtain some `Boogongs,' the native name for the moths which so abundantly occur on this range, and no doubt have given it its name."

1896. `Sydney Mail,' April 4, Answers to Correspondents:

"It cannot be stated positively, but it is thought that the name of the moth `bogong' is taken from that of the mountain. The meaning of the word is not known, but probably it is an aboriginal word."

<hw>Bull-a-bull</hw>, or <hw>Bullybul</hw>, <i>n</i>. a child's corruption of the Maori word <i>Poroporo</i> (q.v.), a flowering shrub of New Zealand. It is allied to the <i>Kangaroo-Apple</i> (q.v.).

1845. `New Plymouth's National Song,' in Hursthouse's `New Zealand,' p. 217:

"And as for fruit, the place is full
 Of that delicious bull-a-bull."

<hw>Bullahoo</hw>, <i>n</i>. See <i>Ballahoo</i>.

<hw>Bull-ant</hw>, <i>n</i>. contracted and common form of the words <i>Bull-dog Ant</i> (q.v.).

<hw>Bull-dog Ant</hw>, <i>n</i>. (frequently shortened to <i>Bull-dog</i> or <i>Bull-ant</i>), an ant of large size with a fierce bite. The name is applied to various species of the genus <i>Myrmecia</i>, which is common throughout Australia and Tasmania.

1878. Mrs. H. Jones, `Long Years in Australia,' p. 93:

"Busy colonies of ants (which everywhere infest the country). . . One kind is very warlike—the `bull-dog': sentinels stand on the watch, outside the nest, and in case of attack disappear for a moment and return with a whole army of the red-headed monsters, and should they nip you, will give you a remembrance of their sting never to be forgotten."

1888. Alleged `Prize Poem,' Jubilee Exhibition:

"The aborigine is now nearly extinct,
 But the bull-dog-ant and the kangaroo rat
 Are a little too thick—I think."

1896. A. B. Paterson, `Man from Snowy River,' p. 142:

"Where the wily free-selector walks in armour-plated pants,
 And defies the stings of scorpion and the bites of bull-dog
   ants."

<hw>Bull-dog Shark</hw>, i.q. <i>Bull-head</i> (1) (q.v.).

<hw>Bull-head</hw>, <i>n</i>. The name is applied to many fishes of different families in various parts of the world, none of which are the same as the following two. (1) A shark of Tasmania and South Australia of small size and harmless, with teeth formed for crushing shells, <i>Heterodontus phillipi</i> , Lacep., family <i>Cestraciontidae</i>; also called the <i>Bull-dog Shark</i>, and in Sydney, where it is common, the <i>Port-Jackson Shark</i> : the aboriginal name was <i>Tabbigan</i>. (2) A freshwater fish of New Zealand, <i>Eleotris gobioides</i>, Cuv.and Val., family <i>Gobiidae</i>. See <i>Bighead</i>.

<hw>Bulln-Bulln</hw>, <i>n</i>. an aboriginal name for the Lyre-bird (q.v.). This native name is imitative. The most southerly county in Victoria is called <i>Buln-Buln</i>; it is the haunt of the Lyre-bird.

1857. D. Bunce, `Travels with Leichhardt in Australia,' p. 70:

"We afterwards learned that this was the work of the Bullen Bullen, or Lyre-bird, in its search for large worms, its favourite food."

1871. `The Athenaeum,' May 27, p. 660:

"The Gipps Land and Murray districts have been divided into the following counties: . . . Buln Buln (name of Lyre-bird)."

<hw>Bull-Oak</hw>, <i>n</i>. See <i>Oak</i>.

<hw>Bullocky</hw>, <i>n</i>. and <i>adj</i>. a bullockdriver." In the bush all the heavy hauling is done with bullock-drays. It is quite a common sight up the country to see teams of a dozen and upwards." (B. and L.)

1890. Rolf Boldrewood, `Colonial Reformer,' c. xii. p. 121:

"By George, Jack, you're a regular bullocky boy."

<hw>Bull-puncher</hw>, or <hw>Bullock-puncher</hw>, <i>n</i>. slang for a bullockdriver. According to Barrere and Leland's `Slang Dictionary,' the word has a somewhat different meaning in America, where it means a drover. See <i>Punch</i>.

1872. C. N. Eden, `My Wife and I in Queensland,' p. 49:

"The `bull-puncher,' as bullock-drivers are familiarly called."

1873. J. Mathew, song `Hawking,' in `Queenslander,' Oct. 4:

"The stockmen and the bushmen and the shepherds leave the station,
 And the hardy bullock-punchers throw aside their occupation."

1889. Cassell's `Picturesque Australasia,' vol. iv. p. 143:

"These teams would comprise from five to six pairs of bullocks each, and were driven by a man euphoniously termed a `bull-puncher.' Armed with a six-foot thong, fastened to a supple stick seven feet long. . . ."

<hw>Bull-rout</hw>, <i>n</i>. a fish of New South Wales, <i>Centropogon robustus</i>, Guenth., family <i>Scorpaenidae</i>.

1882. Rev. J. E. Tenison-Woods, `Fish of New South Wales,' p. 48:

"It emits a loud and harsh grunting noise when it is caught. . . . The fisherman knows what he has got by the noise before he brings his fish to the surface. . . . When out of the water the noise of the bull-rout is loudest, and it spreads its gills and fins a little, so as to appear very formidable. . . . The blacks held it in great dread, and the name of bull-rout may possibly be a corruption of some native word."

<hw>Bull's-eye</hw>, <i>n</i>. a fish of New South Wales, <i>Priacanthus macracanthus</i>, Cuv.and Val. <i>Priacanthus</i>, says Guenther, is a percoid fish with short snout, lower jaw and chin prominent, and small rough scales all over them and the body generally. The eye large, and the colour red, pink, or silvery.

1884. E. P. Ramsay, `Fisheries Exhibition Literature,' vol. v. p. 311:

"Another good table-fish is the `bull's-eye,' a beautiful salmon-red fish with small scales. . . . At times it enters the harbours in considerable numbers; but the supply is irregular."

<hw>Bulls-wool</hw>, <i>n</i>. colloquial name for the inner portion of the covering of the <i>Stringybark-tree</i> (q.v.). This is a dry finely fibrous substance, easily disintegrated by rubbing between the hands. It forms a valuable tinder for kindling a fire in the bush, and is largely employed for that purpose. It is not unlike the matted hair of a bull, and is reddish in colour, hence perhaps this nickname, which is common in the Tasmanian bush.

<hw>Bully</hw>, <i>n</i>. a Tasmanian fish, <i>Blennius tasmanianus</i>, Richards., family <i>Blennidae</i>.

<hw>Bulrush</hw>, <i>n</i>. See <i>Wonga</i> and <i>Raupo</i>.

<hw>Bung, to go</hw>, <i>v</i>. to fail, to become bankrupt. This phrase of English school-boy slang, meaning to go off with an explosion, to go to smash (also according to Barrere and Leland still in use among American thieves), is in very frequent use in Australia. In Melbourne in the times that followed the collapse of the land-boom it was a common expression to say that Mr. So-and-so had "gone bung," sc. filed his schedule or made a composition with creditors; or that an institution had "gone bung," sc. closed its doors, collapsed. In parts of Australia, in New South Wales and Queensland, the word "bung" is an aboriginal word meaning "dead," and even though the slang word be of English origin, its frequency of use in Australia may be due to the existence of the aboriginal word, which forms the last syllable in <i>Billabong</i> (q.v.), and in the aboriginal word <i>milbung</i> blind, literally, eye-dead.

(a) The aboriginal word.

1847. J. D. Lang, `Cooksland,' p. 430:

"A place called Umpie Bung, or the dead houses."
[It is now a suburb of Brisbane, Humpy-bong.]

1881. A. C. Grant, `Bush Life in Queensland,' vol. ii. p. 175 [in Blacks' pigeon English]:

"Missis bail bong, ony cawbawn prighten. (Missis not dead, only dreadfully frightened.)"

1882. A. J. Boyd, `Old Colonials,' p. 73:

"But just before you hands 'im [the horse] over and gets the money, he goes bong on you" (i.e. he dies).

1885. H. Finch-Hatton, `Advance Australia,' p: 142:

"Their [the blacks'] ordinary creed is very simple. `Directly me bung (die) me jump up white feller,' and this seems to be the height of their ambition."

1895. `The Age,' Dec. 21, p. 13, col. 6:

"`Then soon go bong, mummy,' said Ning, solemnly.

`Die,' corrected Clare. You mustn't talk blacks' language.'

`Suppose you go bong,' pursued Ning reflectively, `then you go to Heaven.'"

(b) The slang word.

1885. `Australian Printers' Keepsake,' p. 40:

"He was importuned to desist, as his musical talent had `gone bung,' probably from over-indulgence in confectionery."

1893. `The Argus,' April 15 (by Oriel), p. 13, col. 2:

"Still change is humanity's lot. It is but the space of a day
 Till cold is the damask cheek, and silent the eloquent tongue,
 All flesh is grass, says the preacher, like grass it is withered
   away,
 And we gaze on a bank in the evening, and lo, in the morn
  'tis bung."

1893. Professor Gosman, `The Argus,' April 24, p. 7, col. 4:

"Banks might fail, but the treasures of thought could never go `bung.'"

1893. `The Herald' (Melbourne), April 25, p. 2, col. 4:

"Perhaps Sydney may supply us with a useful example. One member of the mischief-making brotherhood wrote the words `gone bung' under a notice on the Government Savings Bank, and he was brought before the Police Court charged with damaging the bank's property to the extent of 3d. The offender offered the Bench his views on the bank, but the magistrates bluntly told him his conduct was disgraceful, and fined him L 3 with costs, or two months' imprisonment."

<hw>Bunga</hw> or <hw>Bungy</hw>, <i>n</i>. a New Zealand settlers' corruption of the Maori word <i>punga</i> (q.v.).

<hw>Bunt</hw>, <i>n</i>. a Queensland fungus growing on wheat, fetid when crushed. <i>Tilletia caries</i>, Tul., <i>N.O. Fungi</i>.

<hw>Bunya-Bunya</hw>, <i>n</i>. aboriginal word. [<i>Bunyi</i> at heads of Burnett, Mary, and Brisbane rivers, Queensland; <i>baanya</i>, on the Darling Downs.] An Australian tree, <i>Araucaria bidwillii</i>, Hooker, with fruit somewhat like <i>Bertholletia excelsa</i>, <i>N.O. Coniferae</i>. Widgi-Widgi station on the Mary was the head-quarters for the fruit of this tree, and some thousands of blacks used to assemble there in the season to feast on it; it was at this assembly that they used to indulge in cannibalism ; every third year the trees were said to bear a very abundant crop. The Bunya-Bunya mountains in Queensland derive their name from this tree.

1843. L. Leichhardt, Letter in `Cooksland, by J. D. Lang, p. 82:

"The bunya-bunya tree is noble and gigantic, and its umbrella-like head overtowers all the trees of the bush."

1844. Ibid. p. 89:

"The kernel of the Bunya fruit has a very fine aroma, and it is certainly delicious eating."

1844. `Port Phillip Patriot,' July 25:

"The Bunya-Bunya or <i>Araucaria</i> on the seeds of which numerous tribes of blacks are accustomed to feed."

1879. W. R. Guilfoyle, `First Book of Australian Botany,' p. 58:

"A splendid timber tree of South Queensland, where it forms dense forests, one of the finest of the Araucaria tribe, attaining an approximate height of 200 feet. The Bunya-Bunya withstands drought better than most of the genus, and flourishes luxuriantly in and around Melbourne."

1887. J. Mathew, in Curr's `Australian Race,' vol. iii. p. 161:

[A full account.] "In laying up a store of bunyas, the blacks exhibited an unusual foresight. When the fruit was in season, they filled netted bags with the seeds, and buried them."

1889. Hill, quoted by J. H. Maiden, `Useful Native Plants,' p. 7:

"The cones shed their seeds, which are two to two and a half inches long by three-quarters of an inch broad; they are sweet before being perfectly ripe, and after that resemble roasted chestnuts in taste. They are plentiful once in three years, and when the ripening season arrives, which is generally in the month of January, the aborigina&ls assemble in large numbers from a great distance around, and feast upon them. Each tribe has its own particular set of trees, and of these each family has a certain number allotted, which are handed down from generation to generation with great exactness. The bunya is remarkable as being the only hereditary property which any of the aborigines are known to possess, and it is therefore protected by law. The food seems to have a fattening effect on the aborigines, and they eat large quantities of it after roasting it at the fire."

1889. J. H. Maiden, `Useful Native Plants,' p. 377:

"The `Bunya-bunya' of the aboriginals—a name invariably adopted by the colonists."

1892. J. Fraser, `Aborigines of New South Wales,' p. 50:

"The Bunya-bunya tree, in the proper season, bears a fir cone of great size—six to nine inches long-and this, when roasted, yields a vegetable pulp, pleasant to eat and nutritious."

1893. `Sydney Morning Herald,' Aug. 19, p. 7, col. 1:

"There is a beautiful bunya-bunya in a garden just beyond, its foliage fresh varnished by the rain, and toning from a rich darkness to the very spring tint of tender green."

<hw>Bunyip</hw>, <i>n</i>. (1) the aboriginal name of a fabulous animal. See quotations. For the traditions of the natives on this subject see Brough Smyth, `Aborigines of Victoria,' vol. i. p. 435.

1848. W. Westgarth, `Australia Felix,' p. 391:

"Certain large fossil bones, found in various parts of Australia Felix, have been referred by the natives, when consulted on the subject by the colonists, to a huge animal of extraordinary appearance, called in some districts the Bunyup, in others the Kianpraty, which they assert to be still alive. It is described as of amphibious character, inhabiting deep rivers, and permanent water-holes, having a round head, an elongated neck, with a body and tail resembling an ox. These reports have not been unattended to, and the bunyup is said to have been actually seen by many parties, colonists as well as aborigines. . . .[A skull which the natives said was that of a `piccinini Kianpraty' was found by Professor Owen to be that of a young calf. The Professor] considers it all but impossible that such a large animal as the bunyup of the natives can be now living in the country. [Mr. Westgarth suspects] it is only a tradition of the alligator or crocodile of the north."

1849. W. S. Macleay, `Tasmanian journal,' vol. iii. p. 275:

"On the skull now exhibited at the Colonial Museum of Sydney as that of the Bunyip."

1855. G. C. Mundy, `Our Antipodes,' p. 214:

"Did my reader ever hear of the Bunyip (fearful name to the aboriginal native!) a sort of `half-horse, half-alligator,' haunting the wide rushy swamps and lagoons of the interior?"

1859. H. Kingsley, `Geoffrey Hamlyn,' p. 258:

"The river is too deep, child, and the Bunyip lives in the water under the stones."

1865. `Once a Week,' Dec. 31, p. 45, The Bulla Bulla Bunyip':

"Beyond a doubt, in `Lushy Luke's' belief, a Bunyip had taken temporary lodgings outside the town. This <i>bete noire</i> of the Australian bush Luke asserted he had often seen in bygone times. He described it as being bigger than an elephant, in shape like a `poley' bullock, with eyes like live coals, and with tusks like a walrus's. * * * * * * * * * * * * * * *

"What the Bunyip is, I cannot pretend to say, but I think it is highly probable that the stories told by both old bushmen and blackfellows, of some bush beast bigger and fiercer than any commonly known in Australia, are founded on fact. Fear and the love of the marvellous may have introduced a considerable element of exaggeration into these stories, but I cannot help suspecting that the myths have an historical basis."

1872. C. Gould, `Papers and Proceedings of the Royal Society of Tasmania,' 1872, p. 33:

"The belief in the Bunyip was just as prevalent among the natives in parts hundreds of miles distant from any stream in which alligators occur. . . . Some other animal must be sought for." . . . [Gould then quotes from `The Mercury' of April 26, 1872, an extract from the `Wagga Advertiser']: "There really is a Bunyip or Waa-wee, actually existing not far from us . . . in the Midgeon Lagoon, sixteen miles north of Naraudera . . . I saw a creature coming through the water with tremendous rapidity . . . . The animal was about half as long again as an ordinary retriever dog, the hair all over its body was jet black and shining, its coat was very long." [Gould cites other instances, and concludes that the Bunyip is probably a seal.]

1890. C. Lumholtz, `Among Cannibals,' p. 202:

"In the south-eastern part of Australia the evil spirit of the natives is called <i>Bunjup</i>, a monster which is believed to dwell in the lakes. It has of late been supposed that this is a mammal of considerable size that has not yet been discovered . . . is described as a monster with countless eyes and ears. . . . He has sharp claws, and can run so fast that it is difficult to escape him. He is cruel, and spares no one either young or old."

1894. `The Argus,' June 23, p. 11, col. 4:

"The hollow boom so often heard on the margin of reedy swamps —more hollow and louder by night than day—is the mythical bunyip, the actual bittern."

(2) In a secondary sense, a synonym for an impostor.

1852. G. C. Mundy, `Our Antipodes' (edition 1855), p. 214:

"One advantage arose from the aforesaid long-deferred discovery —a new and strong word was adopted into the Australian vocabulary: Bunyip became, and remains a Sydney synonoyme for <i>impostor, pretender, humbug</i>, and the like. The black fellows, however, unaware of the extinction, by superior authority, of their favourite <i>loup-garou</i>, still continue to cherish the fabulous bunyip in their shuddering imagination."

1853. W. C. Wentworth—Speech in August quoted by Sir Henry Parkes in `Fifty Years of Australian History' (1892), vol. i. p. 41:

"They had been twitted with attempting to create a mushroom, a Brummagem, a bunyip aristocracy; but I need scarcely observe that where argument fails ridicule is generally resorted to for aid."

<hw>Burnet, Native</hw>, <i>n</i>. The name is given in Australia to the plant <i>Acaena ovina</i>, Cunn., <i>N.O. Rosaceae</i>.

<hw>Burnett Salmon</hw>, <i>n</i>. one of the names given to the fish <i>Ceratodus forsteri</i>, Krefft. See <i>Burramundi</i>.

<hw>Burnt-stuff</hw>, <i>n</i>. a geological term used by miners. See quotation.

1853. Mrs. Chas. Clancy, `Lady's Visit to Gold Diggings,' p. 112:

"The top, or surface soil, for which a spade or shovel is used, was of clay. This was succeeded by a strata almost as hard as iron—technically called `burnt-stuff'—which robbed the pick of its points nearly as soon as the blacksmith had steeled them at a charge of 2s. 6d. a point."

<hw>Bur</hw>, <i>n</i>. In Tasmania the name is applied to <i>Acaena rosaceae</i>, Vahl., <i>N.O. Rosaceae</i>.

<hw>Burramundi</hw>, or <hw>Barramunda</hw>, <i>n</i>. a fresh-water fish, <i>Osteoglossum leichhardtii</i>, Guenth., family <i>Osteoglossidae</i>, found in the Dawson and Fitzroy Rivers, Queensland. The name is also incorrectly applied by the colonists to the large tidal perch of the Fitzroy River, Queensland, <i>Lates calcarifer</i>, Guenth., a widely distributed fish in the East Indies, and to <i>Ceratodus forsteri</i>, Krefft, family <i>Sirenidae</i>, of the Mary and Burnett Rivers, Queensland. Burramundi is the aboriginal name for <i>O. leichhardtii</i>. The spelling <i>barramunda</i> is due to the influence of <i>barracouta</i> (q.v.). See <i>Perch</i>.

1873. A. Trollope, `Australia and New Zealand,' vol. i. p. 189:

"There is a fish too at Rockhampton called the burra mundi,—
I hope I spell the name rightly,—which is very commendable."

1880. Guenther, `Study of Fishes,' p. 357:

"<i>Ceratodus</i>. . . . Two species, <i>C. forsteri</i> and <i>C. miolepis</i>, are known from fresh-waters of Queensland. . . . Locally the settlers call it `flathead,' `Burnett or Dawson salmon,' and the aborigines `barramunda,' a name which they apply also to other largescaled fresh-water fishes, as the <i>Osteoglossum leichhardtii</i>. . . . The discovery of <i>Ceratodus</i> does not date farther back than the year 1870."

1882. W. Macleay, `Descriptive Catalogue of Australian fishes' ('Proceedings of the Linnaean Society of New South Wales,' vol. vi. p. 256):

"<i>Osteoglossum leichhardtii</i>, Gunth. Barramundi of the aborigines of the Dawson River."

1892. Baldwin Spencer, `Proceedings of the Royal Society of Victoria,' vol. iv. [Note on the habits of <i>Ceratodus forsterii</i>]

"It has two common names, one of which is the `Burnett Salmon' and the other the `Barramunda" . . . the latter name . . . is properly applied to a very different form, a true teleostean fish (<i>Osteoglossum leichhardtii</i>) which is found . . . further north . . . in the Dawson and Fitzroy . . . Mr. Saville Kent states that the Ceratodus is much prized as food. This is a mistake, for, as a matter of fact, it is only eaten by Chinese and those who can afford to get nothing better."

<hw>Burrawang</hw>, or <hw>Burwan</hw>, <i>n</i>. an Australian nut-tree, <i>Macrozamia spiralis</i>, Miq.

1827. P. Cunningham, `Two Years in New South Wales,' vol. i. p. 221:

"The burwan is a nut much relished by our natives, who prepare it by roasting and immersion in a running stream, to free it from its poisonous qualities."

1851. J. Henderson, `Excursions in New South Wales,' vol. ii. p. 238

"The Burrowan, which grows in a sandy soil, and produces an inedible fruit, resembling the pine-apple in appearance."

1889. J. H. Maiden, `Useful Native Plants,' p. 41:

"Burrawang nut, so called because they used to be, and are to some extent now, very common about Burrawang, N.S.W. The nuts are relished by the aboriginals. An arrowroot of very good quality is obtained from them."

<hw>Bush</hw>, <i>n</i>. Not originally an Australian application. "Recent, and probably a direct adoption of the Dutch <i>Bosch</i>, in colonies originally Dutch" (`O.E.D.'), [quoting (1780) Forster, in `Phil. Trans.' lxxi. 2, "The common Bush-cat of the Cape;" and (1818) Scott, `Tapestr. Chamber,' "When I was in the Bush, as the Virginians call it"]. "Woodland, country more or less covered with natural wood applied to the uncleared or untitled districts in the British Colonies which are still in a state of nature, or largely so, even though not wooded; and by extension to the country as opposed to the towns." (`O.E.D.')

1830. R. Dawson, `Present State of Australia,' p. 48:

"I have spent a good deal of my time in the woods, or bush, as it is called here.'

1836. Ross, `Hobart Town Almanack,' p. 85:

"With the exception of two or three little farms, comprising about 20 or 30 acres of cultivation, all was `bush' as it is colonially called. The undergrowth was mostly clear, being covered only with grass or herbs, with here and there some low shrubs."

1837. J. D. Lang, `New South Wales,' vol. i. p. 253:

"His house was well enough for the bush, as the country is generally termed in the colony."

1855. From a letter quoted in Wathen's `The Golden Colony,' p. 117:

"`The Bush,' when the word is used in the towns, means all the uninclosed and uncultivated country . . . when in the country, `the Bush' means more especially the forest. The word itself has been borrowed from the Cape, and is of Dutch origin."

1857. `The Argus,' Dec. 14, p. 5, col. 7:

"`Give us something to do in or about Melbourne, not away in the bush,' says the deputation of the unemployed."

1861. T. McCombie,' Australian Sketches,' p. 123:

"At first the eternal silence of the bush is oppressive, but a short sojourn is sufficient to accustom a neophyte to the new scene, and he speedily becomes enamoured of it."

1865. J. F. Mortlock, `Experiences of a Convict,' p. 83:

"The `bush,' a generic term synonymous with `forest' or `jungle,' applied to all land in its primaeval condition, whether occupied by herds or not."

1872. A. McFarland, `Illawarra and Manaro,' p. 113:

"All the advantages of civilized life have been surrendered for the bush, its blanket and gunyah."

1873. A. Trollope, `Australia and New Zealand,' vol. i. p. 250:

"The technical meaning of the word `bush.' The bush is the gum-tree forest, with which so great a part of Australia is covered, that folk who follow a country life are invariably said to live in the bush. Squatters who look after their own runs always live in the bush, even though their sheep are pastured on plains. Instead of a town mouse and a country mouse in Australia, there would be a town mouse and a bush mouse; but mice living in the small country towns would still be bush mice."

Ibid. c. xx. p. 299:

"Nearly every place beyond the influence of the big towns is called `bush,' even though there should not be a tree to be seen around."

1883. G. W. Rusden, `History of Australia,' vol. i. p. 67, n.:

"Bush was a general term for the interior. It might be thick bush, open bush, bush forest, or scrubby bushterms which explain themselves."

1885. H. Finch-Hatton, `Advance Australia,' p. 40:

"The first thing that strikes me is the lifeless solitude of the bush. . . . There is a deep fascination about the freedom of the bush."

1890. E. W. Hornung [Title]:

"A Bride from the Bush."

1896. `Otago Daily Times,' Jan. 27, p. 2, col. 5:

"Almost the whole of New South Wales is covered with bush. It is not the bush as known in New Zealand. It is rather a park-like expanse, where the trees stand widely apart, and where there is grass on the soil between them."

<hw>Bush</hw>, <i>adj</i>. or <i>in composition</i>, not always easy to distinguish, the hyphen depending on the fancy of the writer.

1836. Ross, `Hobart Town Almanack,' p. 75:

"The round trundling of our cart wheels, it is well known, does not always improve the labours of Macadam, much less a bush road."

1848. Letter by Mrs. Perry, given in Canon Goodman's `Church in Victoria, during Episcopate of Bishop Perry,'p. 75:

"A hard bush sofa, without back or ends."

1849. J. Sidney, `Emigrants' Journal, and Travellers' Magazine,' p. 40 (Letter from Caroline Chisholm):

"What I would particularly recommend to new settlers is `<i>Bush Partnership'</i>—Let two friends or neighbours agree to work together, until three acres are cropped, dividing the work, the expense, and the produce—this partnership will grow apace; I have made numerous bush agreements of this kind . . . I never knew any quarrel or bad feeling result from these partnerships, on the contrary, I believe them calculated to promote much neighbourly good will; but in the association of a large number of strangers, for an indefinite period, I have no confidence."

1857. W. Westgarth, `Victoria,' c. xi. p. 250:

"The gloomy antithesis of good bushranging and bad bush-roads."

[Bush-road, however, does not usually mean a made-road through the bush, but a road which has not been formed, and is in a state of nature except for the wear of vehicles upon it, and perhaps the clearing of trees and scrub.]

1864. `The Reader,' April 2, p. 40, col. 1 (`O.E.D.'):

"The roads from the nascent metropolis still partook mainly of the random character of `bush tracks.'"

1865. W. Hewitt, `Discovery in Australia,' vol. ii. p. 211:

"Dr. Wills offered to go himself in the absence of any more youthful and, through bush seasoning, qualified person."

1880. `Blackwood's Magazine,' Feb., p. 169 [Title]:

"Bush-Life in Queensland."

1881. R. M. Praed, `Policy and Passion,' c. i. p. 59:

"The driver paused before a bush inn."

[In Australia the word "inn" is now rare. The word "hotel" has supplanted it.]

1889. Cassell's `Picturesque Australasia,' vol. iv.p. 3:

"Not as bush roads go. The Australian habit is here followed of using `bush' for country, though no word could be more ludicrously inapplicable, for there is hardly anything on the way that can really be called a bush."

1894. `Sydney Morning Herald' (exact date lost):

"Canada, Cape Colony, and Australia have preserved the old significance of Bush—Chaucer has it so—as a territory on which there are trees; it is a simple but, after all, a kindly development that when a territory is so unlucky as to have no trees, sometimes, indeed, to be bald of any growth whatever, it should still be spoken of as if it had them."

1896. Rolf Boldrewood, in preface to `The Man from Snowy River':

"It is not easy to write ballads descriptive of the bushland of Australia, as on light consideration would appear."

1896. H. Lawson, `While the Billy boils,' p. 104:

"About Byrock we met the bush liar in all his glory. He was dressed like—like a bush larrikin. His name was Jim."

<hw>Bush-faller</hw>, <i>n</i>. one who cuts down timber in the bush.

1882. `Pall Mall Gazette,' June 29, p. 2, col. 1:

"A broken-down, deserted shanty, inhabited once, perhaps, by rail-splitters or bush-fallers." [`O.E.D.,' from which this quotation is taken, puts (?) before the meaning; but "To fall" is not uncommon in Australia for "to fell."]

<hw>Bush-fire</hw>, <i>n</i>. forests and grass on fire in hot summers.

1868. C. Dilke, `Greater Britain,' vol. ii. part iii. c. iii. p. 32:

"The smoke from these bush-fires extends for hundreds of miles to sea."

1884. Rolf Boldrewood, `Melbourne Memories,' c. xxii. p. 156:

"A reserve in case of bush-fires and bad seasons."

<hw>Bush-lawyer</hw>, <i>n</i>. (1) A Bramble. See <i>Lawyer</i>.

(2) Name often used for a layman who fancies he knows all about the law without consulting a solicitor. He talks a great deal, and `lays down the law.'

1896. H. G. Turner, `Lecture on J. P. Fawkner':

"For some years he cultivated and developed his capacity for rhetorical argument by practising in the minor courts of law in Tasmania as a paid advocate, a position which in those days, and under the exceptional circumstances of the Colony, was not restricted to members of the legal profession, and the term Bush Lawyer probably takes its origin from the practice of this period."

<hw>Bush-magpie</hw>, <i>n</i>. an Australian bird, more commonly called a <i>Magpie</i> (q.v.).

1888. Cassell's `Picturesque Australasia,' vol. ii. p. 235:

". . . the omnipresent bush-magpie. Here he may warble all the day long on the liquid, mellifluous notes of his Doric flute, fit pipe indeed for academic groves . . . sweetest and brightest, most cheery and sociable of all Australian birds."

<hw>Bushman</hw>, <i>n</i>. (1) Settler in the bush. Used to distinguish country residents from townsfolk.

1852. `Blackwood's Magazine,' p. 522 (`O.E.D.'):

"Where the wild bushman eats his loathly fare."

1880. J. Mathew, song, `The Bushman:'

"How weary, how dreary the stillness must be!
 But oh! the lone bushman is dreaming of me."

1886. Frank Cowan: `Australia; a Charcoal Sketch':

"The bushman . . . <i>Gunyah</i>, his bark hovel; <i>Damper</i>, his unleavened bread baked in the ashes; <i>Billy</i>, his tea-kettle, universal pot and pan and bucket; <i>Sugar-bag</i>, his source of saccharine, a bee-tree; <i>Pheasant</i>, his facetious metaphoric euphism for Liar, quasi Lyre-bird; <i>Fit for Woogooroo</i>, for Daft or Idiotic; <i>Brumby</i>, his peculiar term for wild horse; <i>Scrubber</i>, wild ox; <i>Nuggeting</i>, calf-stealing; <i>Jumbuck</i>, sheep, in general; an <i>Old-man</i>, grizzled wallaroo or kangaroo; <i>Station, Run</i>, a sheep- or cattle-ranch; and <i>Kabonboodgery</i>—an echo of the sound diablery for ever in his ears, from dawn to dusk of Laughing Jackass and from dusk to dawn of Dingo—his half-bird -and-beast-like vocal substitute for Very Good. . . ."

1896. H.Lawson, `While the Billy boils,' p. 71:

"He was a typical bushman, . . . and of the old bush school; one of those slight active little fellows, whom we used to see in cabbage-tree hats, Crimean shirts, strapped trousers, and elastic-side boots."

(2) One who has knowledge of the bush, and is skilled in its ways. A "good bushman" is especially used of a man who can find his way where there are no tracks.

1868. J. Bonwick, `John Batman, Founder of Victoria,' pp. 78, 79:

"It is hardly likely that so splendid a bushman as Mr. Batman would venture upon such an expedition had he not been well. In fact a better bushman at this time could not be met with."

1881. A. C. Grant, `Bush Life in Queensland,' vol. ii. p. 3:

"The worst bushman had to undertake the charge of the camp, cook the provisions, and look after the horses, during the absence of the rest on flying excursions."

1885. H. Finch-Hatton, `Advance Australia,' p. 40:

"Very slight landmarks will serve to guide a good bushman, for no two places are really exactly alike."

1891. Rolf Boldrewood, `Sydney-side Saxon,' p. 78:

"One of the best bushmen in that part of the country: the men said he could find his way over it blindfold, or on the darkest night that ever was."

(3) Special sense. See quotation.

1881. A. C. Grant, `Bush Life in Queensland,' vol. i. p. 80:

"Some were what is termed, <i>par excellence</i>, bushmen—that is, men who split rails, get posts, shingles, take contracts for building houses, stockyards, etc.—men, in fact, who work among timber continually, sometimes felling and splitting, sometimes sawing."

<hw>Bushmanship</hw>, <i>n</i>. knowledge of the ways of the bush.

1882. A. J. Boyd, `Old Colonials,' p. 261:

"A good laugh at the bushmanship displayed."

<hw>Bushranger</hw>, <i>n</i>. one who ranges or traverses the bush, far and wide; an Australian highwayman; in the early days usually an escaped convict. Shakspeare uses the verb `to range' in this connection.

"Then thieves and robbers range abroad unseen
 In murders and in outrage, boldly here."
                  (`Richard II.,' III. ii. 39.)

"Ranger" is used in modern English for one who protects and not for one who robs; as `the Ranger' of a Park.

1806. May 4, `Sydney Gazette' or `New South Wales Advertiser, given in `History of New South Wales,' p. 265:

"Yesterday afternoon, William Page, the bushranger repeatedly advertised, was apprehended by three constables."

1820. W. C. Wentworth, `Description of New South Wales,' p. 166:

[The settlements in Van Diemen's Land have] "been infested for many years past by a banditti of runaway convicts, who have endangered the person and property of every one. . . . These wretches, who are known in the colony by the name of bushrangers. . ."

1820. Lieut. Chas. Jeffreys, `Van Dieman's [sic] Land,' p. 15:

"The supposition . . . rests solely on the authority of the Bush Rangers, a species of wandering brigands, who will be elsewhere described."

1838. T. L. `Mitchell, `Three Expeditions,' vol. i. p. 9:

"Bushrangers, a sub-genus in the order banditti, which happily can now only exist there in places inaccessible to the mounted police."

1845. R. Howitt, `Australia,' p. 81:

"This country [Van Diemen's Land] is as much infested as New South Wales with robbers, runaway convicts, or, as they are termed, Bush-rangers."

1861. T. McCombie, `Australian Sketches,' p. 77:

"The whole region was infested by marauding bands of bush-rangers, terrible after nightfall."

1887. J. F. Hogan, `The Irish in Australia, p. 252:

"Whilst he was engaged in this duty in Victoria, a band of outlaws—'bushrangers' as they are colonially termed— who had long defied capture, and had carried on a career of murder and robbery, descended from their haunts in the mountain ranges."

<hw>Bush-ranging</hw>, <i>n</i>. the practice of the Bushranger (q.v.).

1827. `Captain Robinson's Report,' Dec. 23

"It was a subject of complaint among the settlers, that their assigned servants could not be known from soldiers, owing to their dress; which very much assisted the crime of `bush-ranging.'"

<hw>Bush-scrubber</hw>, <i>n</i>. a bushman's word for a boor, bumpkin, or slatternly person. See <i>Scrubber</i>.

1896. Modern. Up-country manservant on seeing his new mistress:

"My word! a real lady! she's no bush-scrubber!"

<hw>Bush-telegraph</hw>, <i>n</i>. Confederates of bushrangers who supply them with secret information of the movements of the police.

1878. `The Australian,' vol. i. p. 507:

"The police are baffled by the false reports of the confederates and the number and activity of the bush telegraphs."

1893. Kenneth Mackay, `Out Back,' p. 74:

"A hint dropped in this town set the bush telegraphs riding in all directions."

<hw>Bushwoman</hw>, <i>n</i>. See quotation.

1892. `The Australasian,' April 9, p. 707, col. 1:

"But who has championed the cause of the woman of the bush— or, would it be more correct to say bushwoman, as well as bushman?—and allowed her also a claim to participate in the founding of a nation?"

<hw>Bush-wren</hw>, <i>n</i>. See <i>Wren</i>.

1888. W. L. Buller, `Birds of New Zealand,' vol. i. p. 108:

[A full description.]

<hw>Bushed</hw>, <i>adj., quasi past participle</i>, lost in the bush; then, lost or at a loss.

1661. T. McCombie, `Australian Sketches,' p. 115:

"I left my seat to reach a shelter, which was so many miles off, that I narrowly escaped being `bushed.'"

1865. W. Howitt, `Discovery in Australia,' vol. i. p. 283:

"The poor youth, new to the wilds, had, in the expressive phrase of the colonials, got bushed, that is, utterly bewildered, and thus lost all idea of the direction that he ought to pursue."

1885. R. M. Praed, `Australian Life,' p. 29:

"I get quite bushed in these streets."

1896. `The Argus,' Jan. 1, p. 4, col. 9:

"The Ministry did not assume its duty of leading the House, and Mr. Higgins graphically described the position of affairs by stating that the House was `bushed;' while Mr. Shiels compared the situation to a rudderless ship drifting hither and thither."

<hw>Bustard</hw>, <i>n</i>. "There are about twenty species, mostly of Africa, several of India, one of Australia, and three properly European." (`Century.') The Australian variety is <i>Eupodotis australis</i>, Gray, called also <i>Wild Turkey</i>, <i>Native Turkey</i>, and <i>Plain Turkey</i>. See <i>Turkey</i>.

<hw>Buster, Southerly</hw>, <i>n</i>. The word is a corruption of `burster,' that which bursts. A sudden and violent squall from the south. The name, used first in Sydney, has been adopted also in other Australian cities. See <i>Brickfielder</i>.

1863. F. Fowler, in `Athenaeum,' Feb. 21, p. 264, col. 1:

"The cold wind or southerly buster which . . . carries a thick cloud of dust . . . across the city."

1878. `The Australian,' vol. i. p. 587:

"<i>Southerly Busters</i> by `Ironbark.'"

1886. F. Cowan, `Australia, a Charcoal Sketch':

"The Buster and Brickfielder: austral red-dust blizzard; and red-hot Simoom."

1889. Rev. J. H. Zillmann, `Australian Life,' p. 40:

"Generally these winds end in what is commonly called a `southerly buster.' This is preceded by a lull in the hot wind; then suddenly (as it has been put) it is as though a bladder of cool air were exploded, and the strong cool southerly air drives up with tremendous force. However pleasant the change of temperature may be it is no mere pastime to be caught in a `southerly buster,' but the drifting rain which always follows soon sets matters right, allays the dust, and then follows the calm fresh bracing wind which is the more delightful by contrast with the misery through which one has passed for three long dreary days and nights."

1893. `The Australasian,' Aug. 12, p. 302, col. 1:

"You should see him with Commodore Jack out in the teeth of the `hard glad weather,' when a southerly buster sweeps up the harbour."

1896. H. A.Hunt, in `Three Essays on Australian Weather' (Sydney), p. 16:

An Essay on Southerly Bursters, . . . with Four Photographs and Five Diagrams."

[Title of an essay which was awarded the prize of L 25 offered by the Hon. Ralph Abercrombie.]

<hw>Butcher</hw>, <i>n</i>. South Australian slang for a long drink of beer, so-called (it is said) because the men of a certain butchery in Adelaide used this refreshment regularly; cf. "porter" in England, after the drink of the old London porters.

<hw>Butcher-bird</hw>, <i>n</i>. The name is in use elsewhere, but in Australia it is applied to the genus <i>Cracticus</i>. The varieties are—

The Butcher-bird—
 <i>Cracticus torquatus</i>, Lath.; formerly
 <i>C. destructor</i>, Gould.

Black B.—
 <i>C. quoyi</i>, Less.

Black-throated B.—
 <i>C. nigrigularis</i>, Gould.

Grey B. (Derwent Jackass)—
 <i>C. cinereus</i>, Gould (see <i>Jackass</i>).

Pied B.—
 <i>C. picatus</i>, Gould.

Rufous B.—
 <i>C. rufescens</i>, De Vis.

Silver-backed B.—
 <i>C. argenteus</i>, Gould.

Spalding's B.—
 <i>C. spaldingi</i>, Masters.

White-winged B.—
 <i>C. leucopterus</i>, Cav.

The bird is sometimes called a <i>Crow-shrike</i>.

1827. Vigors and Horsfield, `Transactions of Linnaean Society,' vol. xv. p. 213:

"Mr. Caley observes—Butcher-bird. This bird used frequently to come into some green wattle-trees near my house, and in wet weather was very noisy; from which circumstance it obtained the name of `Rain-bird.'"

1848. J. Gould, `Birds of Australia,' vol. ii. Pl. 52:

"<i>Cracticus Destructor</i>. Butcher Bird, name given by colonists of Swan River, a permanent resident in New South Wales and South Australia. I scarcely know of any Australian bird so generally dispersed."

1885. H. Finch-Hatton, `Advance Australia,' p. 50:

"Close to the station one or two butcher-birds were piping their morning song, a strange little melody with not many notes, which no one who has heard it will ever forget."

<hw>Buttercup</hw>, <i>n</i>. The familiar English flower is represented in Australia and Tasmania by various species of <i>Ranunculus</i>, such as <i>R. lappaceus</i>, Sm., <i>N.O. Ranunculaceae</i>.

<hw>Butter-fish</hw>, <i>n</i>. a name given in Australia to <i>Oligorus mitchellii</i>, Castln. (see <i>Murray Perch</i>); in Victoria, to <i>Chilodactylus nigricans</i>, Richards. (see <i>Morwong</i>); in New Zealand, to <i>Coridodax pullus</i>, Forst., called also <i>Kelp-fish</i>. The name is in allusion to their slippery coating of mucus. See <i>Kelp-fish</i>.

1850. J. B. Clutterbuck, `Port Phillip,' vol. iii. p. 44:

"In the bay are large quantities of . . . butter-fish."

1880. Guenther, `Study of Fishes,' p. 533:

"The `butter-fish,' or `kelp-fish' of the colonists of New Zealand (<i>C. pullus</i>), is prized as food, and attains to a weight of four or five pounds."

<hw>Butterfly-conch</hw>, <i>n</i>. Tasmanian name for a marine univalve mollusc, <i>Voluta papillosa</i>, Swainson.

<hw>Butterfly-fish</hw>, <i>n</i>. a New Zealand sea-fish, <i>Gasterochisma melampus</i>, Richards., one of the <i>Nomeidae</i>. The ventral fins are exceedingly broad and long, and can be completely concealed in a fold of the abdomen. The New Zealand fish is so named from these fins; the European Butterfly-fish, <i>Blennius ocellaris</i>, derives its name from the spots on its dorsal fin, like the eyes in a peacock's tail or butterfly's wing.

<hw>Butterfly-Lobster</hw>, <i>n</i>. a marine crustacean, so called from the leaf-like expansion of the antennae. It is "the highly specialized macrourous decapod <i>Ibacus Peronii</i>." (W. A. Haswell.)

1880. Mrs. Meredith, `Tasmanian Friends and Foes,' p. 248:

"Those curious crustaceans that I have heard called `butterfly lobsters'. . . the shell of the head and body (properly known as the carapace) expands into something like wing-forms, entirely hiding the legs beneath them."

<hw>Butterfly-Plant</hw>, <i>n</i>. a small flowering plant, <i>Utricularia dichotoma</i>, Lab., <i>N.O. Leutibularina</i>.

<hw>Button-grass</hw>, <i>n</i>. <i>Schaenus sphaerocephalus</i>, Poiret, <i>N.O. Cyperaceae</i>. The grass is found covering barren boggy land in Tasmania, but is not peculiar to Tasmania. So called from the round shaped flower (capitate inflorescence), on a thin stalk four or five feet long, like a button on the end of a foil.

<hw>Buzzard</hw>, <i>n</i>. an English bird-name applied in Australia to <i>Gypoictinia melanosternon</i>, Gould, the Black-breasted Buzzard.

C

<hw>Cabbage Garden</hw>, a name applied to the colony of Victoria by Sir John Robertson, the Premier of New South Wales, in contempt for its size.

1889. Rev. J. H. Zillmann, `Australian Life,' p. 30:

"`The cabbage garden,' old cynical Sir John Robertson, of New South Wales, once called Victoria, but a garden notwithstanding. Better at any rate `the cabbage garden' than the mere sheep run or cattle paddock."

<hw>Cabbage-Palm</hw>, <i>n.</i> same as <i>Cabbage-tree</i> (1) (q.v.).

<hw>Cabbage-tree</hw>, <i>n</i> (1)Name given to various palm trees of which the heart of the young leaves is eaten like the head of a cabbage. In Australia the name is applied to the fan palm, <i>Livistona inermis</i>, R. Br., and more commonly to <i>Livistona australis</i>, Martius. In New Zealand the name is given to various species of Cordyline, especially to <i>Cordyline indivisa</i>. See also <i>Flame-tree</i> (2).

1769. `Capt. Cook's Journal,' ed. Wharton (1893), p. 144:

"We likewise found one Cabage Tree which we cut down for the sake of the cabage."

1802. G.Barrington, `History of New South Wales,' p. 60:

"Even the ships crews helped, except those who brought the cabbage trees."

1846. J. L. Stokes, `Discovery in Australia,' vol. ii. c. iv. p. 132:

"Cabbage-tree . . . grew in abundance."

1847. L. Leichhardt, `Overland Expedition,' p. 72:

"Several of my companions suffered by eating too much of the cabbage-palm."

1865. W. Howitt, `Discovery in Australia,' vol. i. p. 414:

"Clumps of what the people of King George's Sound call cabbage-trees."

1867. F. Hochstetter, `New Zealand,' p. 240:

"There stands an isolated `cabbage-tree' (Ti of the natives; <i>Cordyline Australis</i>) nearly thirty feet high, with ramified branches and a crown of luxuriant growth."

(2) A large, low-crowned, broad-brimmed hat, made out of the leaves of the Cabbage-tree (<i>Livistona</i>).

1802. G. Barrington, `History of New South Wales,' 335:

"This hat, made of white filaments of the cabbage-tree, seemed to excite the attention of the whole party."

1852. G. F. P., `Gold Pen and Pencil Sketches,' xv.:

"With scowl indignant flashing from his eye,
 As though to wither each unshaven wretch,
 Jack jogs along, nor condescends reply,
 As to the price his cabbage-tree might fetch."

1864. `Once a Week,' Dec. 31, p. 45, The Bulla Bulla Bunyip':

"Lushy Luke endeavoured to sober himself by dipping his head in the hollowed tree-trunk which serves for the water-trough of an up-country Australian inn. He forgot, however, to take off his `cabbage-tree' before he ducked, and angry at having made a fool of himself, he gave fierce orders, in a thick voice, for his men to fall in, shoulder arms, and mark time."

1865. Rev. J. E. Tenison-Woods, `History of the Discovery and Exploration of Australia,' vol. i. pp. 160, 161:

"The cabbage-palm was also a new species, called by Mr. Brown the <i>Livistonia inermis</i>. It was abundant; but the cabbage (the heart of the young budding leaves) too small to be useful as an article of food, at least to a ship's company. But the leaves were found useful. These dried and drawn into strips were plaited into hats for the men, and to this day the cabbage-tree hat is very highly esteemed by the Australians, as a protection from the sun, and allowing free ventilation." [Note]: "A good cabbage-tree hat, though it very much resembles a common straw hat, will fetch as much as L3."

1878. `The Australian,' vol. i. p. 527:

". . . trousers, peg-top shaped, and wore a new cabbage-tree hat."

1881. A. C. Grant, `Bush Life in Queensland,' vol. i. p. 33:

"A brand-new cabbage-tree hat protected his head."

<hw>Cabbage-tree Mob</hw>, and <hw>Cabbagites</hw>, obsolete Australian slang for modern <i>Larrikins</i> (q.v)., because wearing cabbage-tree hats.

1852. G. C. Mundy, `Our Antipodes `(edition 1855), p. 17:

"There are to be found round the doors of the Sydney Theatre a sort of `loafers' known as the <i>Cabbage-tree mob</i>,—a class who, in the spirit of the ancient tyrant, one might excusably wish had but one nose in order to make it a bloody one. . . . Unaware of the propensities of the cabbagites he was by them furiously assailed."

<hw>Cad</hw>, <i>n</i>. name in Queensland for the <i>Cicada</i> (q.v.).

1896. `The Australasian,' Jan. 11, p. 76, col. 1:

"From the trees sounds the shrill chirp of large green cicada (native cads as the bushmen call them)."

<hw>Caddie</hw>, <i>n</i>. a bush name for the slouch-hat or wide-awake. In the Australian bush the brim is generally turned down at the back and sometimes all round.

<hw>Cadet</hw>, <i>n</i>. term used in New Zealand, answering to the Australian <i>Colonial Experience</i>, or <i>jackaroo</i> (q.v.).

1866. Lady Barker, `Station Life in New Zealand,' p. 68:

"A cadet, as they are called—he is a clergyman's son learning sheepfarming under our auspices."

1871. C. L. Money, `Knocking About in New Zealand,' p. 6:

"The military designation of cadet was applied to any young fellow who was attached to a sheep or cattle station in the same capacity as myself. He was `neither flesh nor fowl nor good red herring,' neither master nor man. He was sent to work with the men, but not paid."

<hw>Caloprymnus</hw>, <i>n</i>. the scientific name of the genus called the <i>Plain Kangaroo-Rat</i>. (Grk. <i>kalos</i>, beautiful, and <i>prumnon</i>, hinder part.) It has bright flanks. See <i>Kangaroo-Rat</i>.

<hw>Camp</hw>, <i>n</i>. (1) A place to live in, generally temporary; a rest.

1885. H. Finch-Hatton, `Advance Australia,' pp. 46, 47:

" I was shown my camp, which was a slab but about a hundred yards away from the big house. . . . I was rather tired, and not sorry for the prospect of a camp."

(2) A place for mustering cattle.

1885. H. Finch-Hatton, `Advance Australia,' p. 64:

"All about the run, at intervals of fire or six miles, are cattle-camps, and the cattle that belong to the surrounding districts are mustered on their respective camps."

1896. A. B. Paterson, `Man from Snowy River,' p. 26:

"There was never his like in the open bush,
 And never his match on the cattle-camps."

(3) In Australia, frequently used for a camping-out expedition. Often in composition with "out," a <i>camp-out</i>.

1869. `Colonial Monthly,' vol. iv.p. 289:

"A young fellow with even a moderate degree of sensibility must be excited by the novelty of his first `camp-out' in the Australian bush."

1880. R. H. Inglis, `Australian Cousins,' p. 233:

"We're going to have a regular camp; we intend going to Port
Hocking to have some shooting, fishing, and general diversion."

(4) A name for Sydney and for Hobart, now long obsolete, originating when British military forces were stationed there.

1827. P. Cunningham, `Two Years in New South Wales,' vol. ii. p. 70:

"It is the old resident—he who still calls Sydney, with its population of twelve thousand inhabitants, <i>the camp</i>,—that can appreciate these things: he who still recollects the few earth-huts and solitary tents scattered through the forest brush surrounding Sydney Cove (known properly then indeed by the name of `The Camp')."

1852. Mrs. Meredith, `My Home in Tasmania,' vol. i. p. 193:

"Living during the winter in Hobarton, usually called `the camp,' in those days."

<hw>Camp</hw>, <i>v</i>. (1) Generally in composition with "out," to sleep in the open air, usually without any covering. Camping out is exceedingly common in Australia owing to the warmth of the climate and the rarity of rain.

1867. Lady Barker, `Station Life in New Zealand,' p. 125:

"I like to hear of benighted or belated travellers when they have had to `camp out,' as it is technically called."

1875. R. and F. Hill, `What we saw in Australia,' p. 208:

"So the Bishop determined to `camp-out' at once where a good fire could be made."

1881. A. C. Grant, `Bush Life in Queensland,' vol. ii. p. 43:

"There is room here for fifty, rolled up on the floor; and should that fail them, there is no end of other places; or the bush, as a fall back, where, indeed, some of them prefer camping as it is."

1891. `The Australasian,' Nov. 14, p. 963, col. 1: `A Lady in the Kermadecs':

"For three months I `camped out' there alone, shepherding a flock of Angoras."

(2) By extension, to sleep in any unusual place, or at an unusual time.

1893. `Review of Reviews' (Australasian ed. ), March, p. 51:

"The campaign came to an abrupt and somewhat inglorious close,
Sir George Dibbs having to `camp' in a railway carriage, and
Sir Henry Parkes being flood-bound at Quirindi."

1896. Modern:

"Visitor,—`Where's your Mother?' `Oh, she's camping.'" [The lady was enjoying an afternoon nap indoors.]

(3) To stop for a rest in the middle of the day.

1891. Mrs. Cross (Ada Cambridge), `The Three Miss Kings,' p. 180:

"We'll have lunch first before we investigate the caves—if it's agreeable to you. I will take the horses out, and we'll find a nice place to camp before they come."

(4) To floor or prove superior to. <i>Slang</i>.

1886. C. H. Kendall, `Poems,' p. 207:

"At punching oxen you may guess
 There's nothing out can camp him.
 He has, in fact, the slouch and dress,
 Which bullock-driver stamp him."

<hw>Camphor-wood</hw>, <i>n</i>. an Australian timber; the wood of <i>Callitris (Frenea) robusta</i>, Cunn., <i>N.O. Coniferae</i>. Called also <i>Light, Black, White, Dark</i>, and <i>Common Pine</i>, as the wood varies much in its colouring. See <i>Pine</i>.

<hw>Canajong</hw>, <i>n</i>. Tasmanian aboriginal name for the plants called <i>Pig-faces</i> (q.v.).

1889. J. H. Maiden, `Useful Native Plants,' p. 44:

"Pig-faces. It was the <i>canajong</i> of the Tasmanian aboriginal. The fleshy fruit is eaten raw by the aborigines: the leaves are eaten baked."

<hw>Canary</hw>, <i>n</i>. (1) A bird-name used in New Zealand for <i>Clitonyx ochrocephala</i>, called also the <i>Yellow-head</i>. Dwellers in the back-blocks of Australia apply the name to the <i>Orange-fronted Ephthianura (E. aurifrons</i>, Gould), and sometimes to the <i>White-throated Gerygone (Gerygone albigularis</i>).

1888. W. L. Buller, `Birds of New Zealand,' vol. i. p. 56:

"<i>Clitonyx Ochrocephala</i>. Yellow-head. `Canary' of the colonists."

(2) Slang for a convict. See quotations. As early as 1673, `canary-bird' was thieves' English for a gaol-bird.

1827. P. Cunningham, `Two Years in New South Wales,' vol. ii. p. 117:

"Convicts of but recent migration are facetiously known by the name of <i>canaries</i>, by reason of the yellow plumage in which they are fledged at the period of landing."

1870. T. H. Braim, `New Homes,' c. ii. p. 72:

"The prisoners were dressed in yellow-hence called `canary birds.'"

1890. Rolf Boldrewood, `Colonial Reformer,' c. vi. p. 49:

"Can't you get your canaries off the track here for about a quarter of an hour, and let my mob of cattle pass ?"

<hw>Candle-nut</hw>, <i>n</i>. The name is given in Queensland to the fruit of <i>Aleurites moluccana</i>, Willd., <i>N.O. Euphorbiaceae</i>. The nuts are two or more inches diameter. The name is often given to the tree itself, which grows wild in Queensland and is cultivated in gardens there under the name of <i>A. triloba</i>, Forst. It is not endemic in Australia, but the vernacular name of <i>Candle-nut</i> is confined to Australia and the Polynesian Islands.

1883. F. M. Bailey, `Synopsis of Queensland Flora,' p. 472:

"Candle-nut. The kernels when dried and stuck on a reed are used by the Polynesian Islanders as a substitute for candles, and as an article of food in New Georgia. These nuts resemble walnuts somewhat in size and taste. When pressed they yield a large proportion of pure palatable oil, used as a drying-oil for paint, and known as country walnut-oil and artists' oil."

<hw>Cane-grass</hw>, <i>n</i>. i.q. <i>Bamboo-grass</i> (q.v.).

<hw>Cape-Barren Goose</hw>, <i>n</i>. See <i>Goose</i>.

1852. Mrs. Meredith, `My Home in Tasmania,' vol. i. p. 114, [Footnote]:

"The `Cape Barren Goose' frequents the island from which it takes its name, and others in the Straits. It is about the same size as a common goose, the plumage a handsome mottled brown and gray, somewhat owl-like in character."

[Cape Barren Island is in Bass Strait, between Flinders Island and Tasmania. Banks Strait flows between Cape Barren Island and Tasmania. The easternmost point on the island is called Cape Barren.]

<hw>Cape-Barren Tea</hw>, <i>n</i>. a shrub or tree, <i>Correa alba</i>, Andr., <i>N.O. Rutaceae</i>.

1834. Ross, `Van Diemen's Land Annual,' p. 134:

"<i>Leptospermum lanigerum</i>, hoary tea-tree; <i>Acacia decurrens</i>, black wattle; <i>Correa alba</i>, Cape Barren tea. The leaves of these have been used as substitutes for tea in the colony."

<hw>Cape Lilac</hw>, <i>n</i>. See <i>Lilac</i>.

<hw>Cape Weed</hw>, <i>n</i>. In Europe, <i>Roccella tinctoria</i>, a lichen from the Cape de Verde Islands, from which a dye is produced. In New Zealand, name given to the European cats-ear, <i>Hypaechoris radicata</i>. In Australia it is as in quotation below. See `Globe Encyclopaedia,' 1877 (s.v.).

1878. W. R. Guilfoyle, `First Book of Australian Botany,' p. 60:

"Cape Weed. <i>Cryptostemma Calendulaceum</i>. (Natural Order, <i>Compositae</i>.) This weed, which has proved such a pest in many parts of Victoria, was introduced from the Cape of Good Hope, as a fodder plant. It is an annual, flowering in the spring, and giving a bright golden hue to the fields. It proves destructive to other herbs and grasses, and though it affords a nutritious food for stock in the spring, it dies off in the middle of summer, after ripening its seeds, leaving the fields quite bare."

<hw>Caper-tree</hw>, <i>n</i>. The Australian tree of this name is <i>Capparis nobilis</i>, F. v. M., <i>N.O. Capparideae</i>. The <i>Karum</i> of the Queensland aboriginals. The fruit is one to two inches in diameter. Called also <i>Grey Plum</i> or <i>Native Pomegranate</i>. The name is also given to <i>Capparis Mitchelli</i>, Lindl. The European caper is <i>Capparis spinosa</i>, Linn.

1894. `Melbourne Museum Catalogue, Economic Woods,' p. 10:

"Native Caper Tree or Wild Pomegranate. Natural Order, <i>Capparideae.</i> Found in the Mallee Scrub. A small tree. The wood is whitish, hard, close-grained, and suitable for engraving, carving, and similar purposes. Strongly resembles lancewood."

<hw>Captain Cook</hw>, or <hw>Cooker</hw>, <i>n</i>. New Zealand colonists' slang. First applied to the wild pigs of New Zealand, supposed to be descended from those first introduced by Captain Cook; afterwards used as term of reproach for any pig which, like the wild variety, obstinately refused to fatten. See <i>Introduction</i>.

1879. W. Quin, `New Zealand Country Journal,' vol. iii. p. 55:

"Many a rare old tusker finds a home in the mountain gorges. The immense tusks at Brooksdale attest the size of the wild boars or Captain Cooks, as the patriarchs are generally named."

1894. E. Wakefield, `New Zealand after Fifty Years,' p. 85:

"The leanness and roughness of the wild pig gives it quite a different appearance from the domesticated variety; and hence a gaunt, ill-shaped, or sorry-looking pig is everywhere called in derision a `Captain Cook.'"

<hw>Carbora</hw>, <i>n</i>. aboriginal name for (1) the <i>Native Bear</i>. See <i>Bear</i>.

(2) A kind of water worm that eats into timber between high and low water on a tidal river.

<hw>Cardamom</hw>, <i>n</i>. For the Australian tree of this name, see quotation.

1890. C. Lumholtz,' Among Cannibals,' p. 96:

"The Australian cardamom tree." [Footnote]: "This is a fictitious name, as are the names of many Australian plants and animals. The tree belongs to the nutmeg family, and its real name is <i>Myristica insipida</i>. The name owes its existence to the similarity of the fruit to the real cardamom. But the fruit of the <i>Myristica has</i> not so strong and pleasant an odour as the real cardamom, and hence the tree is called <i>insipida</i>."

<hw>Carp</hw>, <i>n</i>. The English fish is of the family <i>Cyprinidae</i>. The name is given to different fishes in Ireland and elsewhere. In Sydney it is <i>Chilodactylus fuscus</i>, Castln., and <i>Chilodactylus macropterus</i>, Richards.; called also <i>Morwong</i> (q.v.). The <i>Murray Carp</i> is <i>Murrayia cyprinoides</i>, Castln., a percoid fish. <i>Chilodactylis</i> belongs to the family <i>Cirrhitidae</i>, in no way allied to <i>Cyprinidae</i>, which contains the European carps. <i>Cirrhitidae</i>, says Guenther, may be readily recognized by their thickened undivided lower pectoral rays, which in some are evidently auxiliary organs of locomotion, in others, probably, organs of touch.

<hw>Carpet-Shark</hw>, <i>n</i>. i.q. <i>Wobbegong</i> (q.v.)

<hw>Carpet-Snake</hw>, <i>n</i>. a large Australian snake with a variegated skin, <i>Python variegata</i>, Gray. In Whitworth's `Anglo-Indian Dictionary,' 1885 (s.v.), we are told that the name is loosely applied (sc. in India) to any kind of snake found in a dwelling-house other than a cobra or a dhaman. In Tasmania, a venomous snake, <i>Hoplocephalus curtus</i>, Schlegel. See under <i>Snake</i>.

<hw>Carrier</hw>, <i>n</i>. a local name for a water-bag.

1893. A. F. Calvert, `English Illustrated,' Feb., p. 321:

"For the water-holders or `carriers' (made to fit the bodies of the horses carrying them, or to `ride easily' on pack-saddles)."

<hw>Carrot, Native</hw>, (1) <i>Daucus brachiatus</i>, Sieb., <i>N.O. Umbelliferae</i>. Not endemic in Australia.

1847. L. Leichhardt, `Overland Expedition,' p. 64:

"The native carrot . . . was here withered and in seed."

1889. J. H. Maiden, `Useful Native Plants,' p. 124:

"Native carrot. Stock are very fond of this plant when young. Sheep thrive wonderfully on it where it is plentiful. It is a small annual herbaceous plant, growing plentifully on sandhills and rich soil; the seeds, locally termed `carrot burrs,' are very injurious to wool, the hooked spines with which the seeds are armed attaching themselves to the fleece, rendering portions of it quite stiff and rigid. The common carrot belongs, of course, to this genus, and the fact that it is descended from an apparently worthless, weedy plant, indicates that the present species is capable of much improvement by cultivation."

(2) In Tasmania <i>Geranium dissectum</i>, Linn., is also called "native carrot."

<hw>Cascarilla, Native</hw>, <i>n</i>. an Australian timber, <i>Croton verreauxii</i>, Baill., <i>N.O. Euphorbiaceae</i>.

1889. J. H. Maiden, `Useful Native Plants,' p. 408:

"Native cascarilla. A small tree; wood of a yellowish colour, close-grained and firm."

<hw>Cassowary</hw>, <i>n</i>. The word is Malay, the genus being found in "the Islands in the Indian Archipelago." (`O.E.D.') The Australian variety is <i>Casuarius australis</i>, Waller. The name is often erroneously applied (as in the first two quotations), to the Emu (q.v.), which is not a Cassowary.

1789. Governor Phillip, `Voyage,' c. xxii. p. 271:

"New Holland Cassowary. [Description given.] This bird is not uncommon to New Holland, as several of them have been seen about Botany Bay, and other parts. . . . Although this bird cannot fly, it runs so swiftly that a greyhound can scarcely overtake it. The flesh is said to be in taste not unlike beef."

1802. G. Barrington, `History of New South Wales,' c. xi. p. 438:

"The cassowary of New South Wales is larger in all respects than the well-known bird called the cassowary."

1869. J. Gould, `Birds of Australia' (Supplement):

"<i>Casuarius Australis</i>, Wall., Australian Cassowary, sometimes called Black Emu."

1890. C. Lumholtz, `Among Cannibals,' p. 73:

"One day an egg of a cassowary was brought to me; this bird, although it is nearly akin to the ostrich and emu, does not, like the latter, frequent the open plains, but the thick brushwood. The Australian cassowary is found in Northern Queensland from Herbert river northwards, in all the large vine-scrubs on the banks of the rivers, and on the high mountains of the coasts."

Ibid. p. 97.

"The proud cassowary, the stateliest bird of Australia . . . this beautiful and comparatively rare creature.'"

1891. `Guide to Zoological Gardens, Melbourne':

"The Australian cassowary. . . . They are somewhat shorter and stouter in build than the emu."

<hw>Casuarina</hw>, <i>n</i>. the scientific name of a large group of trees common to India, and other parts lying between India and Australasia, but more numerous in Australia than elsewhere, and often forming a characteristic feature of the vegetation. They are the so-called <i>She-oaks</i> (q.v.). The word is not, however, Australian, and is much older than the discovery of Australia. Its etymology is contained in the quotation, 1877.

1806. `Naval Chronicles,' c. xv. p. 460:

"Clubs made of the wood of the Casuarina."

1814. R. Brown, `Botany of Terra Australis,' in M. Flinders' `Voyage to Terra Australis,' vol. ii. p. 571:

"Casuarinae. The genus <i>Casuarina</i> is certainly not referable to any order of plants at present established . . . it may be considered a separate order. . . . The maximum of Casuarina appears to exist in Terra Australis, where it forms one of the characteristic features of the vegetation."

1855. G. C. Mundy, `Our Antipodes,' p. 160:

"The dark selvage of casuarinas fringing its bank."

1861. T. McCombie, `Australian Sketches,' p. 10:

"The vegetation assumed a new character, the eucalyptus and casuarina alternating with the wild cherry and honeysuckle."

1877. F. v. Mueller, `Botanic Teachings,' p. 34:

"The scientific name of these well-known plants is as appropriate as their vernacular appellation is odd and unsuited. The former alludes to the cassowary (Casuarius), the plumage of which is comparatively as much reduced among birds, as the foliage of the casuarinas is stringy among trees. Hence more than two centuries ago Rumph already bestowed the name Casuarina on a Java species, led by the Dutch colonists, who call it there the Casuaris-Boom. The Australian vernacular name seems to have arisen from some fancied resemblance of the wood of some casuarinas to that of oaks, notwithstanding the extreme difference of the foliage and fruit; unless, as Dr. Hooker supposes, the popular name of these trees and shrubs arose from the Canadian `Sheack.'"

1889. J. H. Maiden, `Useful Native Plants,' p. 397:

"From a fancied resemblance of the wood of casuarinas to that of oak, these trees are called `oaks,' and the same and different species have various appellations in various parts."

1890. C. Lumholtz; `Among Cannibals,' p. 33:

"Along its banks (the Comet's) my attention was drawn to a number of casuarinas—those leafless, dark trees, which always make a sad impression on the traveller; even a casual observer will notice the dull, depressing sigh which comes from a grove of these trees when there is the least breeze.'"

<hw>Cat-bird</hw>, <i>n</i>. In America the name is given to <i>Mimus carolinensis</i>, a mocking thrush, which like the Australian bird has a cry resembling the mewing of a cat. The Australian species are—

The Cat-bird—
 <i>Ailuraedus viridis</i>, Lath.

Spotted C.—
 <i>Ailuraedus maculosus</i>, Ramsay.
 <i>Pomatostomus rubeculus</i>, Gould.

Tooth-billed C.—
 <i>Scenopaeus dentirostris</i>, Ramsay.

1848. J. Gould, `Birds of Australia,' vol. iv. pl. 11:

"Its loud, harsh and extraordinary note is heard; a note which differs so much from that of all other birds, that having been once heard it can never be mistaken. In comparing it to the nightly concert of the domestic cat, I conceive that I am conveying to my readers a more perfect idea of the note of this species than could be given by pages of description. This concert, like that of the animal whose name it bears, is performed either by a pair or several individuals, and nothing more is required than for the hearer to shut his eyes from the neighbouring foliage to fancy himself surrounded by London grimalkins of house-top celebrity."

1888. D.Macdonald, `Gum Boughs,' p. 36:

"One of the most peculiar of birds' eggs found about the Murray is that of the locally-termed `cat-bird,' the shell of which is veined thickly with dark thin threads as though covered with a spider's web."

1890. C. Lumholtz, `Among Cannibals.' p. 96:

"The cat-bird (<i>AEluraedus maculosus</i>), which makes its appearance towards evening, and has a voice strikingly like the mewing of a cat."

1893. `The Argus,' March 25:

"Another quaint caller of the bush is the cat-bird, and its eggs are of exactly the colour of old ivory."

1896. G. A. Keartland, `Horne Expedition in Central Australia,' pt. ii. Zoology, p. 92:

"Their habit of mewing like a cat has gained for them the local cognomen of cat-birds."

<hw>Cat-fish</hw>, <i>n</i>. The name is applied in the Old World to various fishes of the family <i>Siluridae</i>, and also to the Wolf-fish of Europe and North America. It arises from the resemblance of the teeth in some cases or the projecting "whiskers" in others, to those of a cat. In Victoria and New South Wales it is a fresh-water fish, <i>Copidoglanis tandanus</i>, Mitchell, brought abundantly to Melbourne by railway. It inhabits the rivers of the Murray system, but not of the centre of the continent. Called also <i>Eel-fish</i> and <i>Tandan</i> (q.v.). In Sydney the same name is applied also to <i>Cnidoglanis megastoma</i>, Rich., and in New Zealand <i>Kathetostoma monopterygium</i>. <i>Cnidoglanis</i> and <i>Cnidoglanis</i> are Siluroids, and <i>Kathetostoma</i> is a"stargazer," i.e. a fish having eyes on the upper surface of the head, belonging to the family <i>Trachinidsae</i>.

1851. J. Henderson, `Excursions in New South Wales,' vol. ii. p. 207:

"The Cat-fish, which I have frequently caught in the McLeay, is a large and very ugly animal. Its head is provided with several large tentacatae, and it has altogether a disagreeable appearance. I have eat its flesh, but did not like it."

1880. Mrs. Meredith, `Tasmanian Friends and Foes,' p. 213 [Footnote]:

"Mr. Frank Buckland . . . writing of a species of rock-fish, says—`I found that it had a beautiful contrivance in the conformation of its mouth. It has the power of prolongating both its jaws to nearly the extent of half-an-inch from their natural position. This is done by a most beautiful bit of mechanism, somewhat on the principle of what are called `lazy tongs.' The cat-fish possesses a like feature, but on a much larger scale, the front part of the mouth being capable of being protruded between two and three inches when seizing prey.'"

<hw>Cat, Native</hw>, <i>n</i>. a small carnivorous marsupial, of the genus <i>Dasyurus</i>. The so-called native cat is not a cat at all, but a marsupial which resembles a very large rat or weasel, with rather a bushy tail. It is fawn-coloured or mouse-coloured, or black and covered with little white spots; a very pretty little animal. It only appears at night, when it climbs fences and trees and forms sport for moonlight shooting. Its skin is made into fancy rugs and cloaks or mantles.

The animal is more correctly called a <i>Dasyure</i> (q.v.).
The species are—

Black-tailed Native Cat
 <i>Dasyurus geoffroyi</i>, Gould.

Common N.C. (called also <i>Tiger Cat</i>, q.v.)—
 <i>D. viverrimus</i>, Shaw.

North Australian N.C.—
 <i>D. hallucatus</i>, Gould.

Papuan N.C.—
 <i>D. albopienetatus</i>, Schl.

Slender N.C.—
 <i>D. gracilis</i>, Ramsay.

Spotted-tailed N.C. (called also Tiger Cat)—
 <i>D. maculatus</i>, Kerr.

1880. Mrs. Meredith, `Tasmanian Friends and Foes,' p. 67:

"The native cat is similar [to the Tiger Cat; q.v.] but smaller, and its for is an ashy-grey with white spots. We have seen two or three skins quite black, spotted with white, but these are very rare."

1885. H. H.Hayter, `Carboona,' p. 35:

"A blanket made of the fur-covered skins of the native cat."

1894. `The Argus,' June 23, p. 11, col. 4:

"The voices of most of our night animals are guttural and unpleasing. The 'possum has a throaty half-stifled squeak, the native cat a deep chest-note ending with a hiss and easily imitated." [See <i>Skirr</i>.]

<hw>Catholic Frog</hw>, <i>n</i>. name applied to a frog living in the inland parts of New South Wales, <i>Notaden bennettii</i>, Guenth., which tides over times of drought in burrows, and feeds on ants. Called also "Holy Cross Toad." The names are given in consequence of a large cross-shaped blackish marking on the back.

1801. J. J. Fletcher, `Proceedings of the Linnaean Society, New South Wales,' vol. vi. (2nd series), p. 265:

"<i>Notaden bennettii</i>, the Catholic frog, or as I have heard it called the Holy Cross Toad, I first noticed in January 1885, after a heavy fall of rain lasting ten days, off and on, and succeeding a severe drought."

<hw>Cat's Eyes</hw>, <i>n</i>. Not the true <i>Cat's-eye</i>, but the name given in Australia to the opercula of <i>Turbo smaragdus</i>, Martyn, a marine mollusc. The operculum is the horny or shelly lid which closes the aperture of most spiral shell fish.

<hw>Cat's-head Fern</hw>, <i>n. Aspidium aculeatum</i>, Sw.:

1880. Mrs. Meredith, `Tasmanian Friends and Foes,' p. 220:

"The cat's-head fern; though why that name was given to it I have not the remotest idea. . . . It is full of beauty—the pinnules so exquisitely formed and indented, and gemmed beneath with absolute constellations of <i>Spori Polystichum vestitum</i>."

<hw>Catspaw</hw>, <i>n</i>. a Tasmanian plant, <i>Trichinium spathulatum</i>, Poir., <i>N.O. Amarantaceae</i>.

<hw>Cat's Tail</hw>, <i>n</i>. See <i>Wonga</i>.

<hw>Cattle-bush</hw>, <i>n</i>. a tree, <i>Atalaya hemiglauca</i>, F. v. M., <i>N.O. Sapindacea</i>. It is found in South Australia, New South Wales, and Queensland, and is sometimes called <i>Whitewood</i>.

1889. J. H. Maiden, `Useful Native Plants,' p. 117:

"Cattle-bush . . . The leaves of this tree are eaten by stock, the tree being frequently felled for their use during seasons of drought."

<hw>Cattle-duffer</hw>, <i>n</i>. a man who steals cattle (usually by altering their brands). See also <i>Duffer</i>.

1886. `Melbourne Punch,' July 15, Cartoon Verses:

"Cattle-duffers on a jury may be honest men enough,
 But they're bound to visit lightly sins in those
   who cattle duff."

<hw>Cattle-racket</hw>, <i>n</i>. Explained in quotation.

1852. `Settlers and Convicts; or Recollections of Sixteen Years' Labour in the Australian Backwoods,' p. 294:

"A Cattle-racket. The term at the head of this chapter was originally applied in New South Wales to the agitation of society which took place when some wholesale system of plunder in cattle was brought to light. It is now commonly applied to any circumstance of this sort, whether greater or less, and whether springing from a felonious intent or accidental."

<hw>Caustic-Creeper</hw>, <i>n</i>. name given to <i>Euphorbia drummondii</i>, Boiss., <i>N.O. Euphorbiaceae</i>.

1889. J. H. Maiden, `Useful Native Plants,' p. 127:

"Called `caustic-creeper' in Queensland. Called `milk-plant' and `pox-plant' about Bourke. This weed is unquestionably poisonous to sheep, and has recently (Oct. 1887) been reported as having been fatal to a flock near Bourke, New South Wales. . . . When eaten by sheep in the early morning, before the heat of the sun has dried it up, it is almost certain to be fatal. Its effect on sheep is curious. The head swells to an enormous extent, becoming so heavy that the animal cannot support it, and therefore drags it along the ground; the ears suppurate. (Bailey and Gordon.)"

<hw>Caustic-Plant</hw>, or <hw>Caustic-Vine</hw>, <i>n</i>. <i>Sarcostemma australis</i>, R. Br., <i>N.O. Asclepiadea</i>. Cattle and sheep are poisoned by eating it.

<hw>Cavally</hw>, <i>n</i>. the original form of the Australian fish-name <i>Trevally</i> (q.v.). The form <i>Cavally</i> is used to Europe, but is almost extinct in Australia; the form <i>Trevally</i> is confined to Australia.

<hw>Cedar</hw>,</hw> n</i>. The true Cedar is a Conifer (<i>N.O. Coniferae</i>) of the genus <i>Cedrus</i>, but the name is given locally to many other trees resembling it in appearance, or in the colour or scent of their wood. The New Zealand <i>Cedar</i> is the nearest approach to the true <i>Cedar</i>, and none of the so-called Australian <i>Cedars</i> are of the order <i>Coniferae</i>. The following are the trees to which the name is applied in Australia:—

Bastard Pencil Cedar—
 <i>Dysoxylon rfum</i>, Benth., <i>N.O. Meliaceae</i>.

Brown C.—
 <i>Ehretia acuminata</i>, R. Br., <i>N.O. Asperifoliae</i>.

Ordinary or Red C.— <i>Cedrela australis</i>, F. v. M. <i>Cedrela toona</i>, R. Br., <i>N.O. Meliaceae</i>. [<i>C. toona</i> is the "Toon" tree of India: its timber is known in the English market as Moulmein Cedar; but the Baron von Mueller doubts the identity of the Australian Cedar with the "Toon" tree; hence his name <i>australis</i>.]

Pencil C.—
 <i>Dysoxylon Fraserianum</i>, Benth., <i>N.O. Meliaceae</i>.

Scrub White C.— <i>Pentaceras australis</i>, Hook. and Don.,
 <i>N.O. Rutacea</i>.

White C.—
 <i>Melia composita</i>, Willd., <i>N.O. Meliaceae</i>.

Yellow C.—
 <i>Rhus rhodanthema</i>, F. v. M., <i>N.O. Anacardiacae</i>.

In Tasmania, three species of the genus <i>Arthrotaxis</i> are
called Cedars or Pencil Cedars; namely, <i>A. cupressoides</i>,
Don., known as the King William Pine; <i>A. laxifolza</i>,
Hook., the Mountain Pine; and <i>A. selaginoides</i>, Don., the
Red Pine. All these are peculiar to the island.

In New Zealand, the name of Cedar is applied to <i>Libocedrus bidwillii</i>, Hook., <i>N.O. Coniferae</i>; Maori name, <i>Pahautea</i>.

1838. T. L. Mitchell, `Three Expeditions, vol. i. p. 328:

"The cedar of the colony (<i>Cedrela toona</i>, R. Br.), which is to be found only in some rocky gullies of the coast range."

1883. F. M. Bailey, `Synopsis of Queensland Flora,' p. 63:

"Besides being valuable as a timber-producing tree, this red cedar has many medicinal properties. The bark is spoken of as a powerful astringent, and, though not bitter, said to be a good substitute for Peruvian bark in the cure of remitting and intermitting fevers."

1883. J. Hector, `Handbook of New Zealand,' p. 123:

"Pahautea, Cedar. A handsome conical tree sixty to eighty feet high, two to three feet in diameter. In Otago it produces a dark-red, freeworking timber, rather brittle . . . frequently mistaken for totara."

<hw>Celery, Australian</hw>, or <hw>Native</hw>, <i>n</i>. <i>Apium australe</i>, Thon. Not endemic in Australia. In Tasmania, <i>A. prostratum</i>, Lab., <i>N.O. Umbelliferae</i>.

1889. J. H. Maiden, `Useful Native Plants,' p. 7:

"Australian Celery. This plant may be utilised as a culinary vegetable. (Mueller.) It is not endemic in Australia."

<hw>Celery-topped Pine</hw>. <i>n</i>. See <i>Pine</i>. The tree is so called from the appearance of the upper part of the branchlets, which resemble in shape the leaf of the garden celery.

1889. T. Kirk, `Forest Flora of New Zealand,' p. 9:

"The tanekaha is one of the remarkable `celery-topped pines,' and was discovered by Banks and Solander during Cook's first voyage."

<hw>Centaury, Native</hw>, <i>n</i>. a plant, <i>Erythraea australis</i>, R. Br., <i>N.O. Gentianeae</i>. In New South Wales this Australian Centaury has been found useful in dysentery by Dr. Woolls.

1889. J. H. Maiden, `Useful Native Plants,' p. 175:

"Native centaury . . . is useful as a tonic medicine, especially in diarrhoea and dysentery. The whole plant is used and is pleasantly bitter. It is common enough in grass-land, and appears to be increasing in popularity as a domestic remedy."

<hw>Centralia</hw>, <i>n</i>. a proposed name for the colony <i>South Australia</i> ,(q.v.).

1896. J. S. Laurie, `Story of Australasia,' p. 299:

"For telegraphic, postal, and general purposes one word is desirable for a name—e.g. why not Centralia; for West Australia, Westralia; for New South Wales, Eastralia?"

<hw>Cereopsis</hw>, <i>n</i>. scientific name of the genus of the bird peculiar to Australia, called the <i>Cake Barren Goose</i>. See <i>Goose</i>. The word is from Grk. <i>kaeros</i>, wax, and <i>'opsis</i>, face, and was given from the peculiarities of the bird's beak. The genus is confined to Australia, and <i>Cereopsis novae-hollandiae</i> is the only species known. The bird was noticed by the early voyagers to Australia, and was extraordinarily tame when first discovered.

<hw>Channel-Bill</hw>, <i>n</i>. name given to a bird resembling a large cuckoo, <i>Scythrops novae-hollandiae</i>, Lath. See <i>Scythrops</i>.

<hw>Cheesewood</hw>, <i>n</i>. a tree, so-called in Victoria (it is also called <i>Whitewood</i> and <i>Waddywood</i> in Tasmania), <i>Pittosporum bicolor</i>, Hook., <i>N.O. Pittosporeae</i>.

1889. J. H. Maiden, `Useful Native Plants,' p. 588:

"Cheesewood is yellowish-white, very hard, and of uniform texture and colour. It was once used for clubs by the aboriginals of Tasmania. It turns well, and should be tested for wood engraving. (`Jurors' Reports, London International Exhibition of 1862.') It is much esteemed for axe-handles, billiard-cues, etc."

<hw>Cherry, Herbert River</hw>, <i>n</i>. a Queensland tree, <i>Antidesma dallachyanum</i>, Baill., <i>N.O. Euphorbiaceae</i>. The fruit is equal to a large cherry in size, and has a sharp acid flavour.

<hw>Cherry, Native</hw>, <i>n</i>. an Australian tree, <i>Exocarpus cupressiformis</i>, R. Br., <i>N.O. Santalaceae</i>.

1801. `History of New South Wales' (1818), p. 242:

"Of native fruits, a cherry, insipid in comparison of the European sorts, was found true to the singularity which characterizes every New South Wales production, the stone being on the outside of the fruit."

1830. R. Dawson, `Present State of Australia,' p. 411:

"The shrub which is called the native cherry-tree appears like a species of cyprus, producing its fruit with the stone united to it on the outside, the fruit and the stone being each about the size of a small pea. The fruit, when ripe, is similar in colour to the Mayduke cherry, but of a sweet and somewhat better quality, and slightly astringent to the palate, possessing, upon the whole, an agreeable flavour."

1852. G. C. Mundy, `Our Antipodes' (edition 1851, p. 219:

"The cherry-tree resembles a cypress but is of a tenderer green, bearing a worthless little berry, having its stone or seed outside, whence its scientific name of <i>exocarpus</i>."

1855. W. Howitt, `Two Years in Victoria,' vol. i. p. 33:

"We also ate the Australian cherry, which has its stone, not on the outside, enclosing the fruit, as the usual phrase would indicate, but on the <i>end</i> with the fruit behind it. The stone is only about the size of a sweet-pea, and the fruit only about twice that size, altogether not unlike a yew-berry, but of a very pale red. It grows on a tree just like an arbor vitae, and is well tasted, though not at all like a cherry in flavour."

1877. F. v. Mueller, `Botanic Teachings,' p. 40:

"The principal of these kinds of trees received its generic name first from the French naturalist La Billardiere, during D'Entrecasteaux's Expedition. It was our common <i>Exocarpus cupressiformis</i>, which he described, and which has been mentioned so often in popular works as a cherry-tree, bearing its stone outside of the pulp. That this crude notion of the structure of the fruit is erroneous, must be apparent on thoughtful contemplation, for it is evident at the first glance, that the red edible part of our ordinary exocarpus constitutes merely an enlarged and succulent fruit-stalklet (pedicel), and that the hard dry and greenish portion, strangely compared to a cherry-stone, forms the real fruit, containing the seed."

1889. J. H. `Maiden, `Useful Native Plants,' p. 30:

"The fruit is edible. The nut is seated on the enlarged succulent pedicel. This is the poor little fruit of which so much has been written in English descriptions of the peculiarities of the Australian flora. It has been likened to a cherry with the stone outside (hence the vernacular name) by some imaginative person."

1893. `Sydney Morning Herald,' Aug. 19, p. 7, col. 1:

"Grass-trees and the brown brake-fern, whips of native cherry, and all the threads and tangle of the earth's green russet vestment hide the feet of trees which lean and lounge between us and the water, their leaf heads tinselled by the light."

<hw>Cherry-picker</hw>, <i>n</i>. bird-name. See quotation.

1848. J. Gould, `Birds of Australia,' vol. iv. p. 70:

"<i>Melithreptus Validirostris</i>, Gould. Strong-billed Honey-eater [q.v.]. Cherry-picker, colonists of Van Diemen's Land."

<hw>Chestnut Pine</hw>, <i>n</i>. See <i>Pine</i>.

<hw>Chewgah-bag</hw>, <i>n</i>. Queensland aboriginal pigeon-English for <i>Sugar-bag</i> (q.v.).

<hw>Chinkie</hw>, <i>n</i>. slang for a Chinaman. "John," short for John Chinaman, is commoner.

1882. A. J. Boyd, `Old Colonials,' p. 233:

"The pleasant traits of character in our colonialised `Chinkie,' as he is vulgarly termed (with the single variation `Chow')."

<hw>Chock-and-log</hw>, <i>n</i>. and <i>adj</i>. a particular kind of fence much used on Australian stations. The <i>Chock</i> is a thick short piece of wood laid flat, at right-angles to the line of the fence, with notches in it to receive the <i>Logs</i>, which are laid lengthwise from <i>Chock</i> to <i>Chock</i>, and the fence is raised in four or five layers of this <i>chock-and-log</i> to form, as it were, a wooden wall. Both chocks and logs are rough-hewn or split, not sawn.

1872. G. S. Baden-Powell,'New Homes for the Old Country,' p. 207:

"Another fence, known as `chock and log,' is composed of long logs, resting on piles of chocks, or short blocks of wood."

1890. `The Argus.' Sept. 20, p. 13, col. 5:

"And to finish the Riverine picture, there comes a herd of kangaroos disturbed from their feeding-ground, leaping through the air, bounding over the wire and `chock-and-log' fences like so many india-rubber automatons."

<hw>Choeropus</hw>, <i>n</i>. the scientific name for the genus of Australian marsupial animals with only one known species, called the <i>Pigfooted-Bandicoot</i> (q.v.), and see <i>Bandicoot</i>. (Grk. <i>choiros</i>, a pig, and <i>pous</i>, foot.) The animal is about the size of a rabbit, and is confined to the inland parts of Australia.

<hw>Christmas</hw>, <i>n</i>. and <i>adj</i>. As Christmas falls in Australasia at Midsummer, it has different characteristics from those in England, and the word has therefore a different connotation.

1852. Mrs. Meredith, `My Home in Tasmania,' p. 184:

"Sheep-shearing in November, hot midsummer weather at Christmas, the bed of a river the driest walk, and corn harvest in February, were things strangely at variance with my Old-World notions."

1896. H. Lawson, `When the World was Wide,' p. 164:

"One Christmas time when months of drought
 Had parched the western creeks,
 The bush-fires started in the north
 And travelled south for weeks."

<hw>Christmas-bush</hw>, <i>n</i>. an Australian tree, <i>Ceratopetalum gummiferum</i>, Smith, <i>N.O. Saxifrageae</i>. Called also <i>Christmas-tree</i> (q.v.), and <i>Officer-bush</i>.

1888. Mrs. McCann, `Poetical Works,' p. 226:

"Gorgeous tints adorn the Christmas bush with a crimson blush."

<hw>Christmas-tree</hw>, <i>n</i>. In Australia, it is the same as <i>Christmas-bush</i> (q.v.). In New Zealand, it is <i>Metrosideros tomentosa</i>, Banks, <i>N.O. Myrtaceae</i>; Maori name, <i>Pohutukawa</i> (q.v.).

1867. F. Hochstetter, `New Zealand,' p. 240:

"Some few scattered Pohutukaua trees (<i>Metrosideros tomentosa</i>), the last remains of the beautiful vegetation . . . About Christmas these trees are full of charming purple blossoms; the settler decorates his church and dwelling with its lovely branches, and calls the tree `Christmas-tree'! "

1888. D. Macdonald, `Gum Boughs,' p. 186:

"The Christmas-tree is in a sense the counterpart of the holly of the home countries. As the scarlet berry gives its ruddy colour to Christmas decorations in `the old country,' so here the creamy blossoms of the Christmas-tree are the only shrub flowers that survive the blaze of midsummer."

1889. E. H. and S. Featon, `New Zealand Flora,' p. 163:

"The Pohutukawa blossoms in December, when its profusion of elegant crimson-tasselled flowers imparts a beauty to the rugged coast-line and sheltered bays which may fairly be called enchanting. To the settlers it is known as the `Christmas-tree,' and sprays of its foliage and flowers are used to decorate churches and dwellings during the festive Christmastide. To the Maoris this tree must possess a weird significance, since it is related in their traditions that at the extreme end of New Zealand there grows a Pohutukawa from which a root descends to the beach below. The spirits of the dead are supposed to descend by this to an opening, which is said to be the entrance to `Te Reinga.'"

<hw>Chucky-chucky</hw>, <i>n</i>. aboriginal Australian name for a berry; in Australia and New Zealand, the fruit of species of <i>Gaultheria</i>. See <i>Wax Cluster</i>.

1885. R. M. Praed, `Australian Life,' p. 146:

"To gather chucky-chuckies—as the blacks name that most delicious of native berries."

1891. T. H. Potts, `Out in the Open,' `New Zealand Country Journal,' vol. xv. p. 198:

"When out of breath, hot and thirsty, how one longed for a handful of chuckie-chucks. In their season how good we used to think these fruits of the <i>gaultheria</i>, or rather its thickened calyx. A few handfuls were excellent in quenching one's thirst, and so plentifully did the plant abound that quantities could soon be gathered. In these rude and simple days, when housekeepers in the hills tried to convert carrots and beet-root into apricot and damson preserves, these notable women sometimes encouraged children to collect sufficient chuckie-chucks to make preserve. The result was a jam of a sweet mawkish flavour that gave some idea of a whiff caught in passing a hair-dresser's shop."

<hw>Chum</hw>, <i>n</i>. See <i>New Chum</i>.

<hw>Chy-ack</hw>, <i>v</i>. simply a variation of the English slang verb, <i>to cheek</i>.

1874. Garnet Walch, `Adamanta,' Act ii. sc. ii. p. 27:

"I've learnt to chi-ike peelers."

[Here the Australian pronunciation is also caught. Barere and Leland give "chi-iked (tailors), chaffed unmercifully," but without explanation.]

1878. `The Australian,' vol. i. p. 742 :

"The circle of frivolous youths who were yelping at and chy-acking him."

1894. E. W. Hornung, `Boss of Taroomba,' p. 5:

"It's our way up here, you know, to chi-ak each other and our visitors too."

<hw>Cicada</hw>, <i>n</i>. an insect. See <i>Locust</i>.

1895. G. Metcalfe, `Australian Zoology,' p. 62:

"The Cicada is often erroneously called a locust. . . . It is remarkable for the loud song, or chirruping whirr, of the males in the heat of summer; numbers of them on the hottest days produce an almost deafening sound."

<hw>Cider-Tree</hw>, or </hw>Cider-Gum, <i>n</i>. name given in Tasmania to <i>Eucalyptus gunnii</i>, Hook., <i>N.O. Myrtaceae</i>. See <i>Gum</i>.

1830. Ross, `Hobart Town Almanack,' p. 119:

"Specimens of that species of eucalyptus called the cider-tree, from its exuding a quantity of saccharine liquid resembling molasses. . . . When allowed to remain some time and to ferment, it settles into a coarse sort of wine or cider, rather intoxicating if drank to any excess."

<hw>City</hw>, <i>n</i>. In Great Britain and Ireland the word City denotes "a considerable town that has been, (a) an episcopal seat, (b) a royal burgh, or (c) created to the dignity, like Birmingham, Dundee, and Belfast, by a royal patent. In the United States and Canada, a municipality of the first class, governed by a mayor and aldermen, and created by charter." (`Standard.') In Victoria, by section ix. of the Local Government Act, 1890, 54 Victoria, No. 1112, the Governor-in-Council may make orders, #12:

"To declare any borough, including the city of Melbourne and the town of Geelong, having in the year preceding such declaration a gross revenue of not less than twenty thousand pounds, a city."

<hw>Claim</hw>, <i>n</i>. in mining, a piece of land appropriated for mining purposes: then the mine itself. The word is also used in the United States. See also <i>Reward-claim</i> and <i>Prospecting-claim</i>.

1858. T. McCombie, `History of Victoria,' c. xiv. p. 213:

"A family named Cavanagh . . . entered a half-worked claim."

1863. H. Fawcett, `Political Economy,' pt. iii. c. vi. p. 359 (`O.E.D.'):

"The claim upon which he purchases permission to dig."

1887. H. H. Hayter, `Christmas Adventure,' p. 3:

"I decided . . . a claim to take up."

<hw>Clay-pan</hw>, <i>n</i>. name given, especially in the dry interior of Australia, to a slight depression of the ground varying in size from a few yards to a mile in length, where the deposit of fine silt prevents the water from sinking into the ground as rapidly as it does elsewhere.

1875. John Forrest, `Explorations in Australia,' p. 260:

"We travelled down the road for about thirty-three miles over stony plains; many clay-pans with water but no feed."

1896. Baldwin Spencer, `Horne Expedition in Central Australia,' Narrative, vol. i. p. 17:

"One of the most striking features of the central area and especially amongst the loamy plains and sandhills, is the number of clay-pans. These are shallow depressions, with no outlet, varying in length from a few yards to half a mile, where the surface is covered with a thin clayey material, which seems to prevent the water from sinking as rapidly as it does in other parts."

<hw>Clean-skins</hw>, or <hw>Clear-skins</hw>, <i>n</i>. unbranded cattle or horses.

1881. A. C. Grant, `Bush Life in Queensland,' vol. i. p. 206:

"These clean-skins, as they are often called, to distinguish them from the branded cattle."

1884. Rolf Boldrewood, `Melbourne Memories,' c. xv. p. 109:

"Strangers and pilgrims, calves and clear-skins, are separated at the same time."

1889. Rev. J. H. Zillmann, `Australian Life,' p. 82:

"`Clear-skins,' as unbranded cattle were commonly called, were taken charge of at once."

1893. `The Argus,' April 29, p.4, col. 4:

"As they fed slowly homeward bellowing for their calves, and lowing for their mates, the wondering clean-skins would come up in a compact body, tearing, ripping, kicking, and moaning, working round and round them in awkward, loblolly canter."

<hw>Clearing lease</hw>, <i>n</i>. Explained in quotation.

1846. J. L. Stokes, `Discoveries in Australia,' vol. i. c. x. p. 321:

"[They] held a small piece of land on what is called a clearing lease—that is to say, they were allowed to retain possession of it for so many years for the labour of clearing the land."

<hw>Clematis</hw>, <i>n</i>. the scientific and vernacular name of a genus of plants belonging to the <i>N.O. Ranunculaceae</i>. The common species in Australia is <i>C. aristata</i>, R. Br.

1834. Ross, `Van Diemen's Land Annual,' p. 124:

"The beautiful species of <i>clematis</i> called <i>aristata</i>, which may be seen in the months of November and December, spreading forth its milk-white blossoms over the shrubs . . . in other places rising up to the top of the highest gum-trees."

<hw>Clianthus</hw>, <i>n</i>. scientific name for an Australasian genus of plants, <i>N.O. Leguminosae</i>, containing only two species—in Australia, <i>Sturt's Desert Pea</i> (q.v.), <i>C. dampieri</i>; and in New Zealand, the <i>Kaka-bill</i> (q.v.), <i>C. puniceus</i>. Both species are also called <i>Glory-Pea</i>, from Grk. <i>kleos</i>, glory, and <i>anthos</i>, a flower.

1892. `Otago Witness,' Nov.24, `Native Trees':

"Hooker says the genus <i>Clianthus</i> consists of the Australian and New Zealand species only, the latter is therefore clearly indigenous. `One of the most beautiful plants known' (Hooker). Sir Joseph Banks and Dr. Solandel found it during Cook's first voyage."

<hw>Climbing-fish</hw>, <i>n</i>. i.q. <i>Hopping-fish</i> (q.v.).

<hw>Climbing-Pepper</hw>, <i>n</i>. See <i>Pepper</i>.

<hw>Clitonyx</hw>, <i>n</i>. the scientific name of a genus of New Zealand birds, including the <i>Yellow-head</i> (q.v.) and the <i>White-head</i> (q.v.); from Greek <i>klinein</i>, root <i>klit</i>, to lean, slant, and <i>'onux</i>, claw. The genus was so named by Reichenbach in 1851, to distinguish the New Zealand birds from the Australian birds of the genus <i>Orthonyx</i> (q.v.), which formerly included them both.

<hw>Clock-bird</hw>, <i>n</i>. another name for the <i>Laughing Jachass</i>. See <i>Jackass</i>.

<hw>Clock, Settlers'</hw>, <i>n</i>. i.q. <i>Clock-bird</i>, (q.v.)

<hw>Cloudy-Bay Cod</hw>, <i>n</i>. a New Zealand name for the <i>Ling</i> (q.v.). See also <i>Cod</i>.

<hw>Clover-Fern</hw>, <i>n</i>. another name for the plant called <i>Nardoo</i> (q.v.).

<hw>Clover, Menindie</hw>, <i>n</i>. an Australian fodder plant, <i>Trigonella suavissima</i>, Lind., <i>N.O. Leguminoseae</i>.

1889. J. H. Maiden, `Useful Native Plants,' p. 143:

`From its abundance in the neighbourhood of Menindie, it is often called Menindie-clover.' It is the `Australian shamrock' of Mitchell. This perennial, fragrant, clover-like plant is a good pasture herb."

<hw>Clover-Tree</hw>, <i>n</i>. a Tasmanian tree, called also <i>Native Laburnun</i>. See under <i>Laburnum</i>.

<hw>Coach</hw>, <i>n</i>. a bullock used as a decoy to catch wild cattle. This seems to be from the use of coach as the University term for a private tutor.

1874. W. H. L. Ranken, `Dominion of Australia,' c. vi. p. 110:

"To get them [sc. wild cattle] a party of stockmen take a small herd of quiet cattle, `coaches.'"

<hw>Coach</hw>, <i>v</i>. to decoy wild cattle or horses with tame ones.

1874. W. H. L. Ranken, `Dominion of Australia,' c. vi. p. 121:

"Here he [the wild horse] may be got by `coaching' like wild cattle."

<hw>Coach-whip Bird</hw>, <i>n</i>. <i>Psophodes crepitans</i>, V. and H. (see Gould's `Birds of Australia,' vol. iii. pl. 15); Black-throated C.B., <i>P. nigrogularis</i>, Gould. Called also <i>Whipbird</i> and <i>Coachman</i>.

1827. Vigors and Horsfield, `Transactions of Linnaean Society,' vol. xv. p. 330:

"This bird is more often heard than seen. It inhabits bushes. The loud cracking whip-like noise it makes (from whence the colonists give it the name of coachwhip), may be heard from a great distance."

1827. P. Cunningham, `Two Years in New South Wales,' vol. ii. p. 158:

"If you should hear a coachwhip crack behind, you may instinctively start aside to let <i>the mail</i> pass; but quickly find it is only our native coachman with his spread-out fantail and perked-up crest, whistling and cracking out his whip-like notes as he hops sprucely from branch to branch."

1844. Mrs. Meredith, `Notes and Sketches of New South Wales,' p. 137:

"Another equally singular voice among our feathered friends was that of the `coachman,' than which no title could be more appropriate, his chief note being a long clear whistle, with a smart crack of the whip to finish with."

1845. R. Howitt, `Australia,' p. 177:

"The bell-bird, by the river heard;
 The whip-bird, which surprised I hear,
 In me have powerful memories stirred
 Of other scenes and strains more dear;
 Of sweeter songs than these afford,
 The thrush and blackbird warbling clear."
                       —Old Impressions.

1846. G. H. Haydon, `Five Years in Australia Felix,' p. 71:

"The coach-whip is a small bird about the size of a sparrow, found near rivers. It derives its name from its note, a slow, clear whistle, concluded by a sharp jerking noise like the crack of a whip."

1855. W. Howitt, `Two Years in Victoria,' vol. ii. p. 76:

"The whip-bird, whose sharp wiry notes, even, are far more agreeable than the barking of dogs and the swearing of diggers."

1881. A. C. Grant, `Bush Life in Queensland,' vol. i. p. 24:

"That is the coach-whip bird. There again.
Whew-ew-ew-ew-whit. How sharply the last note sounds."

1887. R. M. Praed, `Longleat of Kooralbyn,' c. vi. p. 54:

"The sharp st—wt of the whip-bird . . . echoed through the gorge."

1888. James Thomas, `May o' the South,' `Australian Poets 1788-1888' (ed. Sladen), p. 552:

"Merrily the wagtail now
 Chatters on the ti-tree bough,
 While the crested coachman bird
`Midst the underwood is heard."

<hw>Coast</hw>, <i>v</i>. to loaf about from station to station.

1890. Rolf Boldrewood, `Squatter's Dream,' xxv. 295:

"I ain't like you, Towney, able to coast about without a job of work from shearin' to shearin'."

<hw>Coaster</hw>, <i>n</i>. a loafer, a <i>Sundowner</i> (q.v.).

1890. Rolf Boldrewood, `Squatter's Dream,' viii. 75:

"A voluble, good-for-nothing, loafing impostor, a regular `coaster.'"

<hw>Cobb</hw>, <i>n</i>. sometimes used as equivalent to a coach. "I am going by Cobb." The word is still used, though no Mr. Cobb has been connected with Australian coaches for many years. See quotation.

1861. T. McCombie, `Australian Sketches,' p. 184:

"Mr. Cobb was an American, and has returned long ago to his native country. He started a line of conveyances from Melbourne to Castlemaine some time after the gold discoveries. Mr. Cobb had spirit to buy good horses, to get first-class American coaches, to employ good Yankee whips, and in a couple of years or so he had been so extensively patronised that he sold out, and retired with a moderate fortune." [But the Coaching Company retained . . . the style of Cobb & Co.]

1879 (about). `Queensland Bush Song':

"Hurrah for the Roma Railway!
   Hurrah for Cobb and Co.!
 Hurrah, hurrah for a good fat horse
   To carry me Westward Ho!"

<hw>Cobbler</hw>, <i>n</i>. (1) The last sheep, an Australian shearing term. (2) Another name for the fish called the <i>Fortescue</i> (q.v.)

1893. `The Herald' (Melbourne), Dec. 23, p. 6, col. 1:

"Every one might not know what a `cobbler' is. It is the last sheep in a catching pen, and consequently a bad one to shear, as the easy ones are picked first. The cobbler must be taken out before `Sheep-ho' will fill up again. In the harvest field English rustics used to say, when picking up the last sheaf, `This is what the cobbler threw at his wife.' `What?' `The last,' with that lusty laugh, which, though it might betray `a vacant mind,' comes from a very healthy organism."

<hw>Cobblers-Awl</hw>, <i>n</i>. bird-name. The word is a provincial English name for the <i>Avocet</i>. In Tasmania, the name is applied to a <i>Spine-Bill</i> (q.v.) from the shape of its beak.

1848. J. Gould, `Birds of Australia,' vol. iv. pl. 61:

"<i>Acanthorhynchus tenuirostris</i>, Lath., Slender-billed Spine-bill. <i>Cobbler's Awl</i>, Colonists of Van Diemen's Land. <i>Spine-bill</i>, Colonists of New South Wales."

<hw>Cobbler's Pegs</hw>, name given to a tall erect annual weed, <i>Erigeron linifolius</i>, Willd., <i>N.O. Compositae</i> and to <i>Bidens pilosus</i>, Linn., <i>N.O. Compositae</i>.

<hw>Cobbra</hw>, <i>n</i>. aboriginal word for head, skull. [<i>Kabura</i> or <i>Kobbera</i>, with such variations as Kobra, Kobbera, Kappara, Kopul, from Malay Kapala, head: one of the words on the East Coast manifestly of Malay origin.—J. Mathew. Much used in pigeon converse with blacks. `Goodway cobra tree' = `Tree very tall.'] Collins, `Port Jackson Vocabulary,' 1798 (p. 611), gives `Kabura, ca-ber-ra.' Mount Cobberas in East Gippsland has its name from huge head-like masses of rock which rise from the summit.

1881. A. C. Grant, `Bush Life in Queensland,' vol. i. p. 31:

"The black fellow who lives in the bush bestows but small attention on his cobra, as the head is usually called in the pigeon-English which they employ."

1890. Rolf Boldrewood, `Colonial Reformer,' c. xiii. p. 134:

"I should be cock-sure that having an empty cobbra, as the blacks say, was on the main track that led to the grog-camp."

<hw>Cock-a-bully</hw>, <i>n</i>. a popular name for the New Zealand fish <i>Galaxias fasciatus</i>, Gray, a corruption of its Maori name <i>Kokopu</i> (q.v.).

1896. `The Australasian,' Aug. 28, p. 407, col. 3:

"During my stay in New Zealand my little girl caught a fish rather larger than an English minnow. Her young companions called it a `cock-a bully.' It was pretty obvious to scent a corruption of a Maori word, for, mark you, cock-a-bully has no meaning. It looks as if it were English and full of meaning. Reflect an instant and it has none. The Maori name for the fish is `kokopu'"

<hw>Cockatiel</hw>, <hw>-eel</hw>, <i>n</i>. an arbitrary diminutive of the word Cockatoo, and used as another name for the Cockatoo-Parrakeet, <i>Calopsitta novae-hollandiae</i>, and generally for any Parrakeet of the genus <i>Calopsitta</i>. (`O.E.D.')

<hw>Cockatoo</hw>, <i>n</i>. (1) Bird-name. The word is Malay, <i>Kakatua</i>. (`O.E.D.') The varieties are—

Banksian Cockatoo—
 <i>Calyptorhynchus banksii</i>, Lath.

Bare-eyed C.—
 <i>Cacatua gymnopis</i>, Sclater.

Black C.—
 <i>Calyptorhynchus funereus</i>, Shaw.

Blood-stained C.—
 <i>Cacatua sanguinea</i>, Gould.

Dampier's C.—
 <i>Licmetis pastinator</i>, Gould.

Gang-gang C.— <i>Callocephalon galeatum</i>, Lath. [See
 <i>Gang-gang</i>.]

Glossy C.—
 <i>Calyptorhynchus viridis</i>, Vieill.

Long-billed C.—
 <i>Licmetis nasicus</i>, Temm. [See <i>Corella</i>.]

Palm C.—
 <i>Microglossus aterrimus</i>, Gmel.

Pink C.—
 <i>Cacatua leadbeateri</i>, V. & H. (Leadbeater, q.v.).

Red-tailed C.—
 <i>Calyptorhynchus stellatus</i>, Wagl.

Rose-breasted C.— <i>Cacatua roseicapilla</i>, Vieill. [See
 <i>Galah</i>. Gould calls it <i>Cocatua eos</i>.

White C.—
 <i>Cacatua galerita</i>, Lath.

White-tailed C.—
 <i>Calyptorhynchus baudinii</i>, Vig.

See also <i>Parrakeet</i>.

1839. T. L. Mitchell, `Three Expeditions, vol. ii. p. 62:

"We saw to-day for the first time on the Kalare, the redtop cockatoo (Plyctolophus Leadbeateri)."

1847. L. Leichhardt, `Overland Expedition,' c. viii. p. 272:

"The rose-breasted cockatoo (<i>Cocatua eos</i>, Gould) visited the patches of fresh burnt grass."

Ibid. p. 275:

"The black cockatoo (<i>Calyptorhynchus Banksii</i>) has been much more frequently observed of late."

1857. Daniel Bunce, `Australasiatic Reminiscences,' p. 175:

"Dr. Leichhardt caught sight of a number of cockatoos; and, by tracking the course of their flight, we, in a short time, reached a creek well supplied with water."

1862. G. Barrington, `History of New South Wales,' c. ix. p. 331:

"White cockatoos and parroquets were now seen."

1890. `Victorian Statutes, Game Act, Third Schedule':

"Black Cockatoos. Gang-gang Cockatoos. [Close season.] From the 1st day of August to the 10th day of December next following in each year."

1893. `The Argus,' March 25, p.4, col. 6:

"The egg of the blood-stained cockatoo has not yet been scientifically described, and the specimen in this collection has an interest chiefly in that it was taken [by Mr. A. J. Campbell] from a tree at Innamincka waterholes, not far from the spot where Burke the explorer died."

(2) A small farmer, called earlier in Tasmania a <i>Cockatooer</i> (q.v.). The name was originally given in contempt (see quotations), but it is now used by farmers themselves. Cocky is a common abbreviation. Some people distinguish between a <i>cockatoo</i> and a <i>ground-parrot</i>, the latter being the farmer on a very small scale. Trollope's etymology (see quotation, 1873) will not hold, for it is not true that the cockatoo scratches the ground. After the gold fever, <i>circa</i> 1860, the selectors swarmed over the country and ate up the substance of the squatters; hence they were called <i>Cockatoos</i>. The word is also used adjectivally.

1863. M. K. Beveridge, `Gatherings among the Gum-trees,' p. 154:

"Oi'm going to be married
 To what is termed a Cockatoo—
 Which manes a farmer."

1867. Lady Barker, `Station Life in New Zealand,' p. 110:

"These small farmers are called cockatoos in Australia by the squatters or sheep-farmers, who dislike them for buying up the best bits on their runs; and say that, like a cockatoo, the small freeholder alights on good ground, extracts all he can from it, and then flies away, to `fresh fields and pastures new.' . . . However, whether the name is just or not, it is a recognised one here; and I have heard a man say in answer to a question about his usual `occupation, `I'm a cockatoo.'"

1873. A. Trollope, `Australia and New Zealand,' vol. ii. p. 135:

"The word cockatoo in the farinaceous colony has become so common as almost to cease to carry with it the intended sarcasm. . . . It signifies that the man does not really till his land, but only scratches it as the bird does."

1882. A. J. Boyd, `Old Colonials,' p. 32:

"It may possibly have been a term of reproach applied to the industrious farmer, who settled or perched on the resumed portions of a squatter's run, so much to the latter's rage and disgust that he contemptuously likened the farmer to the white-coated, yellow-crested screamer that settles or perches on the trees at the edge of his namesake's clearing."

1889. `Cornhill Magazine,' Jan., p. 33:

"`With a cockatoo' [Title]. Cockatoo is the name given to the small, bush farmer in New Zealand."

1890. Rolf Boldrewood, `Miner's Right,' c. xliii. p. 377:

"The governor is a bigoted agriculturist; he has contracted the cockatoo complaint, I'm afraid."

1893, `The Argus,' June 17, p. 13, col. 4:

"Hire yourself out to a dairyman, take a contract with a rail-splitter, sign articles with a cockatoo selector; but don't touch land without knowing something about it."

<hw>Cockatoo</hw>, <i>v. intr</i>. (1) To be a farmer.

1890. Rolf Boldrewood, `Squatter's Dream,' c. xx. p. 245:

"Fancy three hundred acres in Oxfordshire, with a score or two of bullocks,and twice as many black-faced Down sheep. Regular cockatooing."

(2) A special sense—to sit on a fence as the bird sits.

1890. Rolf Boldrewood, `A Colonial Reformer,' c. xviii. p. 224:

"The correct thing, on first arriving at a drafting-yard, is to `cockatoo,' or sit on the rails high above the tossing horn-billows."

<hw>Cockatooer</hw>, <i>n</i>. a variant of <i>Cockatoo</i> (q.v.), quite fallen into disuse, if quotation be not a nonce use.

1852. Mrs. Meredith, `My Home in Tasmania,' vol. ii. p. 137:

"A few wretched-looking huts and hovels, the dwellings of `cockatooers,' who are not, as it might seem, a species of bird, but human beings; who rent portions of this forest . . . on exorbitant terms . . . and vainly endeavour to exist on what they can earn besides, their frequent compulsory abstinence from meat, when they cannot afford to buy it, even in their land of cheap and abundant food, giving them some affinity to the grain-eating white cockatoos."

<hw>Cockatoo Fence</hw>, <i>n</i>. fence erected by small farmers.

1884. Rolf Boldrewood, `Melbourne Memories,' c. xxii. p. 155:

"There would be roads and cockatoo fences . . . in short, all the hostile emblems of agricultural settlement."

1890. Lyth, `Golden South,' c. xiv. p. 120:

"The fields were divided by open rails or cockatoo fences, i.e. branches and logs of trees laid on the ground one across the other with posts and slip-rails in lieu of gates."

<hw>Cockatoo Bush</hw>, <i>n</i>. i.q. <i>Native Currant</i> (q.v).

<hw>Cockatoo Orchis</hw>, <i>n</i>. a Tasmanian name for the Orchid, <i>Caleya major</i>, R. Br.

<hw>Cock-eyed Bob</hw>, a local slang term in Western Australia for a thunderstorm.

1894. `The Age,' Jan. 20, p. 13, col. 4:

"They [the natives of the northwest of Western Australia] are extremely frightened of them [sc. storms called <i>Willy Willy</i>, q.v.], and in some places even on the approach of an ordinary thunderstorm or `Cock-eyed Bob,' they clear off to the highest ground about."

<hw>Cockle</hw>, <i>n</i>. In England the name is given to a species of the familiar marine bivalve mollusc, <i>Cardium</i>. The commonest Australian species is <i>Cardium tenuicostatum</i>, Lamarck, present in all extra-tropical Australia. The name is also commonly applied to members of the genus <i>Chione</i>.

<hw>Cock-Schnapper</hw>, <i>n</i>. a fish; the smallest kind of <i>Schnapper</i> (q.v.). See also <i>Count-fish</i>.

1882. Rev. I. E. Tenison-Woods, `Fish of New South Wales,' p. 41:

"The usual method of estimating quantity for sale by the fisherman is, by the schnapper or count-fish, the school-fish, and squire, among which from its metallic appearance is the copper head or copper colour, and the red bream. Juveniles rank the smallest of the fry, not over an inch or two in length, as the cock-schnapper. The fact, however, is now generally admitted that all these are one and the same genus, merely in different stages of growth."

<hw>Cod</hw>, <i>n</i>. This common English name of the <i>Gadus morrhua</i> is applied to many fishes in Australia of various families, Gadoid and otherwise. In Melbourne it is given to <i>Lotella callarias</i>, Guenth., and in New South Wales to several fishes of the genus <i>Serranus</i>. <i>Lotella</i> is a genus of the family <i>Gadidae</i>, to which the European Cod belongs; <i>Serranus</i> is a Sea perch (q.v.). See <i>Rock Cod, Black Rock Cod, Red Rock Cod, Black Cod, Elite Cod, Red Cod, Murray Cod, Cloudy Bay Cod, Ling, Groper, Hapuku, and Haddock</i>.

<hw>Coffee-Bush</hw>, <i>n</i>. a settlers' name for the New Zealand tree the <i>Karamu</i> (q.v.). Sometimes called also </hw>Coffee-plant.

<hw>Coffer-fish</hw>, <i>n</i>. i.q. <i>Trunk-fish</i> (q.v.).

<hw>Coffee Plant</hw>, or <hw>Coffee Berry</hw>, <i>n</i>. name given in Tasmania to the Tasmanian <i>Native Holly</i> (q.v.).

<hw>Colonial Experience</hw>, <i>n</i>. and used as <i>adj</i>. same as <i>cadet</i> (q.v.) in New Zealand; a young man learning squatting business, gaining his colonial experience. Called also <i>jackaroo</i> (q.v.).

1890. Rolf Boldrewood, `A Colonial Reformer,' p. 95:

"You're the first `colonial experience' young fellow that it ever occurred to within my knowledge."

<hw>Colonial Goose</hw>, <i>n</i>. a boned leg of mutton stuffed with sage and onions. In the early days the sheep was almost the sole animal food. Mutton was then cooked and served in various ways to imitate other dishes.

<hw>Colour</hw>, <i>n</i>. sc. of gold. It is sometimes used with `good,' to mean plenty of gold: more usually, the `colour' means just a little gold, enough to show in the dish.

1860. Kelly, `Life in Victoria,' vol. i. p. 222:

". . . they had not, to use a current phrase, `raised the colour.'"

1890. Rolf Boldrewood. `Miner's Right,' c. xiv. p. 149:

"This is the fifth claim he has been in since he came here, and the first in which he has seen the colour."

1891. W. Lilley, `Wild West of Tasmania,' p. 14:

"After spending a little time there, and not finding more than a few colours of gold, he started for Mount Heemskirk."

<hw>Convictism</hw>, <i>n</i>. the system of transportation of convicts to Australia and Van Diemen's Land, now many years abolished.

1852. J. West, `History of Tasmania,' vol. i. p. 309:

"May it remain nailed to the mast until these colonies are emancipated from convictism."

1864. `Realm,' Feb. 24, p.4 (`O.E.D.'):

"No one who has not lived in Australia can appreciate the profound hatred of convictism that obtains there."

1880. G. Sutherland, `Tales of Goldfields,' p. 16:

"They preferred to let things remain as they were, convictism included."

<hw>Coobah</hw>, <i>n</i>. an aboriginal name for the tree <i>Acacia salicina</i>, Lindl., <i>N.O.Leguminosae</i>. See <i>Acacia</i>. The spellings vary, and sometimes begin with a K.

1890. Rolf Boldrewood, `Squatter's Dream,' v. 46:

"A deep reach of the river, shaded by couba trees and river-oaks."

1890. Rolf Boldrewood, `Colonial Reformer,' c. xxviii. p. 400:

"The willowy coubah weeps over the dying streamlet."

<hw>Coo-ee</hw>, or <hw>Cooey</hw>, <i>n</i>. and <i>interj</i>. spelt in various ways. See quotations. A call borrowed from the aborigines and used in the bush by one wishing to find or to be found by another. In the vocabulary of native words in `Hunter's Journal,' published in 1790, we find "Cow-ee = to come."

1827. P. Cunningham, `New South Wales,' vol. ii. p. 23:

"In calling to each other at a distance, the natives make use of the word <i>Coo-ee</i>, as we do the word <i>Hollo</i>, prolonging the sound of the <i>coo</i>, and closing that of the <i>ee</i> with a shrill jerk. . . . [It has] become of general use throughout the colony; and a newcomer, in desiring an individual to call another back, soon learns to say `<i>Coo-ee'</i> to him, instead of Hollo to him."

1830. R. Dawson, `Present State of Australia,' p. 162:

"He immediately called `coo-oo-oo' to the natives at the fire."

1836. Ross, `Hobart Town Almanack,' p. 84:

"There yet might be heard the significant `<i>cooy'</i> or `quhy,' the true import of which was then unknown to our ears."

1839. T. L. Mitchell, `Three Expeditions,' p. 46:

"Although Mr. Brown made the woods echo with his `cooys.'"
[See also p. 87, note.]

1845. Clement Hodgkinson, `Australia from Port Macquarie to Moreton Bay,' p. 28:

"We suddenly heard the loud shrill <i>couis</i> of the natives."

1846. C. P. Hodgson, `Reminiscences of Australia,' p. 231:

"Their cooieys are not always what we understand by the word, viz., a call in which the first note is low and the second high, uttered after sound of the word cooiey. This is a note which congregates all together and is used only as a simple `Here.'"

1852. J. West, `History of Tasmania,' vol. ii. p. 91:

"Like the natives of New South Wales, they called to each other from a great distance by the <i>cooey</i>; a word meaning `come to me.' The Sydney blacks modulated this cry with successive inflexions; the Tasmanian uttered it with less art. It is a sound of great compass. The English in the bush adopt it: the first syllable is prolonged; the second is raised to a higher key, and is sharp and abrupt."

1862. W. Landsborough, `Exploration of Australia,' [Footnote] p. 24:

"<i>Coo-oo-oo-y</i> is a shrill treble cry much used in the bush by persons wishful to find each other. On a still night it will travel a couple of miles, and it is thus highly serviceable to lost or benighted travellers."

1869. J. F. Townend, `Reminiscences of Australia,' p. 155:

"The jingling of bells round the necks of oxen, the cooey of the black fellow . . . constituted the music of these desolate districts."

1873. J. B. Stephens, `Black Gin,' p. 82:

"Hi! . . . cooey! you fella . . . open 'im lid."

1880. Fison and Howitt, `Kamilaroi and Kurnai,' p. 183:

"A particular `cooee' . . . was made known to the young men when they were initiated."

1880. G. Sutherland, `Tales of the Goldfields,' p. 40:

"From the woods they heard a prolonged cooee, which evidently proceeded from some one lost in the bush."

1885. R. M. Praed, `Australian Life,' p. 276:

"Two long farewell coo-ees, which died away in the silence of the bush."

1890. E. W. Hornung, `A Bride from the Bush,' p. 184:

"The bride encircled her lips with her two gloved palms, and uttered a cry that few of the hundreds who heard it ever forgot—`coo-ee!' That was the startling cry as nearly as it can be written. But no letters can convey the sustained shrillness of the long, penetrating note represented by the first syllable, nor the weird, die-away wail of the second. It is the well-known bushcall,the `jodel' of the black fellow."

<hw>Cooee, within</hw>, <i>adv</i>. within easy distance.

1887. G. L. Apperson, in `All the Year Round,' July 30, p. 67, col. 1 (`O.E.D.'):

"A common mode of expression is to be `within cooey' of a place. . . . Now to be `within cooey' of Sydney is to be at the distance of an easy journey therefrom."

1893. `The Herald' (Melbourne), June 26, p. 2, col. 6:

"Witness said that there was a post-office clock `within coo-ee,' or within less than half-a-mile of the station."

1896. H. Lawson, `When the World was Wide,' p. 80:

"Just to camp within a cooey of the Shanty for the night."

<hw>Cooee</hw>, <i>v.intr</i>. to utter the call.

1830. R. Dawson, `Present State of Australia,' p. 81:

"Our sable guides `cooed' and `cooed' again, in their usual tone of calling to each other at a distance."

1847. L. Leichhardt, `Overland Expedition, p. 115:

"Brown cooyed to him, and by a sign requested him to wait for us."

1847. J. D. Lang, `Phillipsland,' p. 85 [Footnote]:

"Cooey is the aboriginal mode of calling out to any person at a distance, whether visible or not, in the forest. The sound is made by dwelling on the first syllable, and pronouncing the second with a short, sharp, rising inflexion. It is much easier made, and is heard to a much greater distance than the English <i>holla</i>! and is consequently in universal use among the colonists. . . . There is a story current in the colony of a party of native-born colonists being in London, one of whom, a young lady, if I recollect aright, was accidentally separated from the rest, in the endless stream of pedestrians and vehicles of all descriptions, at the intersection of Fleet Street with the broad avenue leading to Blackfriars Bridge. When they were all in great consternation and perplexity at the circumstance, it occurred to one of the party to <i>cooey</i>, and the well-known sound, with its ten thousand Australian associations, being at once recognised and responded to, a reunion of the party took place immediately, doubtless to the great wonderment of the surrounding Londoners, who would probably suppose they were all fit for Bedlam."

1848. W. Westgarth, `Australia Felix,' p. 90:

"They [the aborigines] warily entered scrubs, and called out (cooyed) repeatedly in approaching water-holes, even when yet at a great distance."

1852. J. West, `History of Tasmania,' vol. ii. p. 91:

"A female, born on this division of the globe, once stood at the foot of London Bridge, and cooyed for her husband, of whom she had lost sight, and stopped the passengers by the novelty of the sound; which however is not unknown in certain neighbourhoods of the metropolis. Some gentlemen, on a visit to a London theatre, to draw the attention of their friends in an opposite box, called out cooey; a voice in the gallery answered `Botany Bay!'"

1880 (circa). `Melbourne Punch,' [In the days of long trains]:

"George, there's somebody treading on my dress; cooee to the bottom of the stairs."

<hw>Coo-in-new</hw>, <i>n</i>. aboriginal name for "a useful verbenaceous timber-tree of Australia, <i>Gmelina leichhardtii</i>, F. v. M. The wood has a fine silvery grain, and is much prized for flooring and for the decks of vessels, as it is reputed never to shrink after a moderate seasoning." (`Century.') Usually called <i>Mahogany-tree</i> (q.v.).

<hw>Coolaman</hw> or <hw>Kooliman</hw>, <i>n</i>. an aboriginal word, Kamilaroi Dialect of New South Wales. [W. Ridley, `Kamilaroi,' p. 25, derives it from <i>Kulu</i>, seed, but it is just as likely from <i>Kolle</i>, water.—J. Mathew.] A hollowed knot of a tree, used as a seed vessel, or for holding water. The word is applied to the excrescence on the tree as well as to the vessel; a bush hand has been heard to speak of a hump-backed man as `cooliman-backed.'

1847. L. Leichhardt, `Overland Expedition,' p. 269:

"Three koolimans (vessels of stringy bark) were full of honey water, from one of which I took a hearty draught."

1863. M. K. Beveridge, `Gatherings among the Gum-trees,' p. 37:

"And the beautiful Lubrina
    Fetched a Cooliman of water."

[In Glossary.] Cooliman, a hollow knot of a tree for holding water.

186. W. Howitt, `Discovery in Australia, vol. ii. p. 24:

"Koolimans, water vessels. . . The koolimans were made of the inner layer of the bark of the stringy-bark tree."

1881. A. C. Grant, `Bush Life in Queensland,' vol. ii. p. 185:

"Coolaman, native vessel for holding water."

1885. Mrs. Praed, `Australian Life,' p. 76:

"Cooliman, a vessel for carrying water, made out of the bark which covers an excrescence peculiar to a kind of gum-tree."

<hw>Cooper's-flag</hw>, <i>n</i>. another name in New Zealand for <i>Raupo</i> (q.v.).

<hw>Coopers-wood</hw>, <i>n</i>. the timber of an Australian tree, <i>Alphitonia excelsa</i>, Reiss, <i>N.O. Rhamneae</i>. The wood becomes dark with age, and is used for coopers' staves and various purposes.

1889. J. H. Maiden, `Useful Native Plants,' p. 373:

"Variously called Mountain-ash, Red-ash, Leather-jacket, and Coopers-wood."

<hw>Coordaitcha</hw>. See <i>Kurdaitcha</i>.

<hw>Coot</hw>, <i>n</i>. common English birdname; the Australian species is <i>Fulica australis</i>, Gould. See also <i>Bald-Coot</i>.

<hw>Copper-head</hw>, <i>n</i>. See under <i>Snake</i>.

<hw>Copper Maori</hw>. This spelling has been influenced by the English word <i>Copper</i>, but it is really a corruption of a Maori word. There is a difference of opinion amongst Maori scholars what this word is. Some say <i>Kapura</i>, a common fire used for cooking, in contradistinction to a `chief's fire,' at which he sat, and which would not be allowed to be defiled with food. Others say <i>Kopa</i>. The Maori word <i>Kopa</i> was (1) <i>adj</i>. meaning <i>bent</i>, (2) <i>n</i>. <i>angle</i> or <i>corner</i>, and (3) the native oven, or more strictly the hole scooped out for the oven.

1888. T. Pine, `Transactions of New Zealand Institute,' `A local tradition of Raukawa,' vol. xxi. p. 417:

"So they set to work and dug holes on the flat, each hole about 2 ft. across and about 1 1/2 ft. deep, and shaped something like a Kopa Maori."

1889. H. D. M. Haszard, ibid. `Notes on some Relics of Cannibalism,' vol. xxii. p. 104:

"In two distinct places, about four chains apart, there were a number of <i>Kapura Maori</i>, or native ovens, scattered about within a radius of about forty feet."

<hw>Coprosma</hw>, <i>n</i>. scientific and vernacular name fora large genus of trees and shrubs of the order <i>Rubiaceae</i>. From the Greek <i>kopros</i>, dung, on account of the bad smell of some of the species. See quotation. The Maori name is <i>Karamu</i> (q.v.). Various species receive special vernacular names, which appear in their places in the Dictionary.

1889. T. Kirk, `Forest Flora of New Zealand,' p. 110:

"<i>Corosma</i> comprises about forty species, of which at least thirty are found in New Zealand, all of which are restricted to the colony except <i>C. pumila</i>, which extends to Australia. Five species are found in Australia, one of which is <i>C. pumila</i> mentioned above. A few species occur in the Pacific, Chili, Juan Fernandez, the Sandwich Islands, &c."

<hw>Coral</hw>, <i>n</i>. See <i>Batswing-Coral</i>.

<hw>Coral-Fern</hw>, <i>n</i>. name given in Victoria to <i>Gleichenia circinata</i>, Swartz, called in Bailey's list <i>Parasol-Fern</i>. See <i>Fern</i>.

<hw>Coral-Flower</hw>, <i>n</i>. a plant, <i>Epacris</i> (q.v.), <i>Epacris microphylla</i>, R. Br., <i>N.O. Epacrideae</i>.

<hw>Coral-Pea</hw>, <i>n</i>. another name for the <i>Kennedya</i> (q.v.).

1896. `The Melburnian,' Aug. 28, p. 53:

"The trailing scarlet kennedyas, aptly called the `bleeding-heart' or `coral pea,' brighten the greyness of the sandy, peaty wastes."

<hw>Coranderrk</hw>, <i>n</i>. the aboriginal name for the Victorian <i>Dogwood</i> (q.v.). An "aboriginal station," or asylum and settlement for the remaining members of the aboriginal race of Victoria, is called after this name because the wood grew plentifully there.

<hw>Cordage-tree</hw>, <i>n</i>. name given in Tasmania to a <i>Kurrajong</i> (q.v.). The name <i>Sida pulchella</i> has been superseded by <i>Plagianthus sidoides</i>, Hook.

1835. Ross, `Hobart Town Almanack,' p. 108:

"Sida pulchella. Handsome Sida. Currijong or cordage tree of Hobart Town. . . . The bark used to be taken for tying up post and rail fences, the rafters of huts, in the earlier periods of the colony, before nails could be so easily procured."

<hw>Corella</hw>, <i>n</i>. any parrot of the genus <i>Nymphicus</i>; the word is dim. of late Lat. <i>cora = korh</i>, a girl, doll, etc. The Australian Corella is <i>N. novae-hollandiae</i>, and the name is also given to <i>Licmetus nasicus</i>, Temm, the <i>Long-billed Cockatoo</i> (q.v.). It is often used indiscriminately by bird-fanciers for any pretty little parrot, parrakeet, or cockatoo.

<hw>Cork-tree</hw>, <i>n.</i> See <i>Bat's-wing Coral</i>.

<hw>Corkwood</hw>, <i>n</i>. a New Zealand tree, <i>Entelea arborescens</i>, R. Br., <i>N.O. Tiliaceae</i>. Maori name, <i>Whau</i>.

1889. T. Kirk, `Forest Flora of New Zealand,' p. 45:

"The whau . . . is termed corkwood by the settlers on account of its light specific gravity."

<hw>Cormorant</hw>, <i>n</i>. common English bird-name. In Australia the name is applied to the following birds:—

Black Cormorant—
 <i>Graculus novae-hollandiae</i>, Steph.

Little C.—
 <i>G. melanoleucus</i>, Vieill.

Little-black C.—
 <i>G. stictocephalus</i>, Bp. .

Pied C.—
 <i>G. varius</i>, Gm.

White-breasted Cormorant—
 <i>G. leucogaster</i>, Gould.

White-throated C.—
 <i>G. brevirostris</i>, Gould.

<hw>Cornstalk</hw>, <i>n</i>. a young man or a girl born and bred in New South Wales, especially if tall and big.

1827. P. Cunningham, `Two Years in New South Wales,' vol. ii. p. 116:

"The colonial-born, bearing also the name of cornstalks (Indian corn), from the way in which they shoot up."

1834. Geo. Benett, `Wanderings in New South Wales,' vol. i. p. 341:

"The Australian ladies may compete for personal beauty and elegance with any European, although satirized as `Cornstalks,' from the slenderness of their forms."

1849. J. P. Townsend, `Rambles in New South Wales,' p. 68:

"Our host was surrounded by a little army of `cornstalks.'. . . The designation `cornstalk' is given because the young people run up like the stems of the Indian corn."

1869. W. R. Honey, `Madeline Clifton,' Act III. sc. v. p. 30:

"Look you, there stands young cornstalk."

1878. `The Australian,' vol. i. p. 526:

"If these are the heroes that my cornstalk friends worship so ardently, they must indeed be hard up for heroes."

1893. Haddon Chambers, `Thumbnail Sketches of Australian Life,' p. 217:

"While in the capital I fell in with several jolly cornstalks, with whom I spent a pleasant time in boating, fishing, and sometimes camping out down the harbour."

<hw>Correa</hw>, <i>n</i>. the scientific name of a genus of Australian plants of the <i>N.O. Rutaceae</i>, so named after Correa de Serra, a Portuguese nobleman who wrote on rutaceous plants at the beginning of the century. They bear scarlet or green and sometimes yellowish flowers, and are often called Native Fuchsias (q.v.), especially <i>C. speciosa</i>, Andrews, which bears crimson flowers.

1827. R. Sweet, `Flora Australasica,' p. 2:

"The genus was first named by Sir J. E. Smith in compliment to the late M. Correa de Serra, a celebrated Portuguese botanist."

1859. H. Kingsley, `Geoffrey Hamlyn,' p. 384:

"The scarlet correa lurked among the broken quartz."

1877. F. v. Mueller, `Botanic Teachings,' p. 70:

"With all wish to maintain vernacular names, which are not actually misleading, I cannot call a correa by the common colonial name `native fuchsia,' as not the slightest structural resemblance and but little habitual similarity exists between these plants; they indeed belong to widely different orders."

Ibid.:

"All Correas are geographically restricted to the south-eastern portion of the Australian continent and Tasmania, the genus containing but few species."

1880. Mrs. Meredith, `Tasmanian Friends and Foes,' p. 23:

"I see some pretty red correa and lilac." [Footnote]: "<i>Correa speciosa</i>, native fuchsia of Colonies."

<hw>Corrobbery</hw>, <i>n</i>. This spelling is nearest to the accepted pronunciation, the accent falling on the second syllable. Various spellings, however, occur, viz.—<i>Corobbery, Corrobery, Corroberry, Corroborree, Corrobbory, Corroborry, Corrobboree, Coroboree, Corroboree, Korroboree, Corroborri, Corrobaree</i>, and <i>Caribberie</i>. To these Mr. Fraser adds <i>Karabari</i> (see quotation, 1892), but his spelling has never been accepted in English. The word comes from the Botany Bay dialect.

[The aboriginal verb (see Ridley's `Kamilaroi and other Australian Languages,' p. 107) is korobra, to dance; in the same locality boroya or beria means to sing; probably koro is from a common Australian word for emu.—J. Mathew.]

(1) An aboriginal name for a dance, sacred, festive, or warlike.

1793. Governor Hunter, `Port Jackson, p. 195:

"They very frequently, at the conclusion of the dance, would apply to us . . . for marks of our approbation . . . which we never failed to give by often repeating the word <i>boojery</i>, good; or <i>boojery caribberie</i>, a good dance."

1830. R. Dawson, `Present State of Australia,' p. 280:

"Dancing with their corrobery motion."

Ibid. p. 311:

"With several corrobery or harlequin steps."

1833. C. Sturt, `Southern Australia,' vol. ii. c. iii. p. 55:

"They hold their corrobbores (midnight ceremonies)."

1836. C. Darwin, `Journal of the Voyage of the Beagle' (ed. 1882), c. xix. p. 450:

"A large tribe of natives, called the white cockatoo men, happened to pay a visit to the settlement while we were there. These men as well as those of the tribe belonging to King George's Sound, being tempted by the offer of some tubs of rice and sugar were persuaded to hold a `corrobery' or great dancing party." [Description follows.]

1838. T. L. Mitchell, `Three Expeditions,' vol. ii. p. 4:

"There can be little doubt that the corrobboree is the medium through which the delights of poetry and the drama are enjoyed in a limited degree, even by these primitive savages of New Holland."

1844. Mrs. Meredith. `Notes and Sketches of New South Wales,' p. 91:

"Great preparations were made, as for a grand corrobory, or festival, the men divesting themselves of even the portions of clothing commonly worn, and painting their naked black bodies in a hideous manner with pipe-clay. After dark, they lit their fires, which are small, but kept blazing with constant additions of dry bark and leaves, and the sable gentry assembled by degrees as they completed their evening toilette, full dress being painted nudity. A few began dancing in different parties, preparatory to the grand display, and the women, squatting on the ground, commenced their strange monotonous chant, each beating accurate time with two boomerangs. Then began the grand corrobory, and all the men joined in the dance, leaping, jumping, bounding about in the most violent manner, but always in strict unison with each other, and keeping time with the chorus, accompanying their wild gesticulations with frightful yells, and noises. The whole `tableau' is fearfully grand! The dark wild forest scenery around—the bright fire-light gleaming upon the savage and uncouth figures of the men, their natural dark hue being made absolutely horrible by the paintings bestowed on them, consisting of lines and other marks done in white and red pipe-clay, which gives them an indescribably ghastly and fiendish aspect—their strange attitudes, and violent contortions and movements, and the unearthly sound of their yells, mingled with the wild and monotonous wail-like chant of the women, make altogether a very near approach to the horribly sublime in the estimation of most Europeans who have witnessed an assembly of the kind."

1846. G. H. Haydon, `Five Years in Australia Felix,' p. 103:

"They have no instrument of music, the corobery's song being accompanied by the beating of two sticks together, and by the women thumping their opossum rugs.'"

1847. J. D. Lang, `Cooksland,' p. 447 [Footnote]:

"These words, which were quite as unintelligible to the natives as the corresponding words in the vernacular language of the white men would have been, were learned by the natives, and are now commonly used by them in conversing with Europeans, as English words. Thus <i>corrobbory</i>, the Sydney word for a general assembly of natives, is now commonly used in that sense at Moreton Bay; but the original word there is <i>yanerwille</i>. <i>Cabon</i>, great; <i>narang</i>, little; <i>boodgeree</i>, good; <i>myall</i>, wild native, etc. etc., are all words of this description, supposed by the natives [of Queensland] to be English words, and by the Europeans to be aboriginal words of the language of that district."

[The phrase "general assembly" would rise naturally in the mind of Dr. Lang as a Presbyterian minister; but there is no evidence of anything parliamentary about a corrobbery.]

1848. W. Westgarth, `Australia Felix,' p. 78:

"The exact object or meaning of their famous corrobboree or native dance, beyond mere exercise and patience, has not as yet been properly ascertained; but it seems to be mutually understood and very extensively practised throughout Australia, and is generally a sign of mutual fellowship and good feeling on the part of the various tribes."

1849. J. P. Townsend, `Rambles in New South Wales,' p. 100:

"When our blacks visited Sydney, and saw the military paraded, and heard the bands, they said that was `white fellows' corrobbory.'"

185. E. Stone Parker, `Aborigines of Australia,' p. 21:

"It is a very great mistake to suppose . . . that there is any kind of religious ceremony connected with the ordinary corrobory. . . . I may also remark that the term corrobory is not a native word."

[It is quite certain that it is native, though not known to
Mr. E. Stone Parker.]

1862. G. T. Lloyd, `Thirty-three Years in Tasmania and Victoria,' p. 49:

[In Tasmania] "the assembling of the tribes was always celebrated by a grand <i>corroboree</i>, a species of bestial <i>bal masque</i>. On such occasions they presented a most grotesque and demon-like appearance, their heads, faces, and bodies, liberally greased were besmeared alternately with clay and red ochre; large tufts of bushy twigs were entwined around their ankles, wrists, and waists; and these completed their toilet."

1879. J. D. Woods, `Native Tribes of South Australia,' Introduction, pp. xxxii. and xxxiii.:

"The principal dance is common all over the continent, and `corrobboree' is the name by which it is commonly known. It is not quite clear what a corrobboree is intended to signify. Some think it a war-dance—others that it is a representation of their hunting expeditions—others again, that it is a religious, or pagan, observance; but on this even the blacks themselves give no information."

1890. C. Lumholtz, `Among Cannibals,' p. 41:

"The good fortune to witness a <i>korroboree</i>, that is a festive dance by the natives in the neighbourhood."

1892. J. Fraser, `The Aborigines of New South Wales,' p. 21:

"`Karabari' is an aboriginal name for those dances which our natives often have in the forests at night. Hitherto the name has been written corrobboree, but etymologically it should be karabari, for it comes from the same root as `karaji,' a wizard or medicine-man, and `bari' is a common formative in the native languages. The karabari has been usually regarded as a form of amusement . . . these dances partake of a semi-religious character."

[Mr. Fraser's etymology is regarded as far-fetched.]

(2) The song that accompanied the dance.

1847. L. Leichhardt, `Overland Expedition,' p. 323:

"I feared he might imagine we were afraid of his incantations, for he sang most lamentable corroborris."

1881. A. C. Grant, `Bush Life in Queensland,' vol. i. p. 68:

". . . listen to the new corroborree. Great numbers arrive; the corroborree is danced night after night with the utmost enthusiasm. . . .These corroborrees travel for many hundreds of miles from the place where they originated. . . .These composers [of song and dance] pretend that the Spirit of Evil originally manufactured their corroborree."

1889. Rev. J. H. Zillman, `Australian Life,' p. 132:

"The story was a grand joke among the blacks for many a day. It became, no doubt, the theme for a `corroberee,' and Tommy was always after a hero amongst his countrymen."

(3) By transference, any large social gathering or public meeting.

1892. `Saturday Review,' Feb.' 13, p. 168, col. 2:

"A corrobory of gigantic dimensions is being prepared for
[General Booth's] reception [in Australia]." (`O.E.D.')

1895. Modern:

"There's a big corrobbery on to-night at Government House, and you can't get a cab for love or money."

(4) By natural transference, a noise, disturbance, fuss or trouble.

1874. Garnet Walch, `Adamanta,' Act II. sc. ii. p. 27:

"How can I calm this infantile corroboree?"

1885. H. O. Forbes, `Naturalist's Wanderings,' p. 295:

"Kingfishers . . . in large chattering corrobories in the tops of high trees."

1888. Rolf Boldrewood, `Robbery under Arms,' p. 242:

"The boy raises the most awful corroboree of screams and howls, enough for a whole gang of bushrangers, if they went in for that sort of thing."

1897. `The Herald,' Feb. 15, p. i, col. 1:

"Latest about the Cretan corroboree in our cable messages this evening. The situation at the capital is decidedly disagreeable. A little while ago the Moslems threw the Christians out and took charge. Now the last report is that there is a large force of Christians attacking the city and quite ready, we doubt not, to cut every Moslem throat that comes in the way."

<hw>Corrobbery</hw>, <i>v</i>. (1) To hold a corrobbery.

1830. R. Dawson, `Present State of Australia,' p. 61:

"They began to corrobery or dance.

(p. 206): They `corroberried,' sang, laughed, and screamed."

1885. R. M. Pried, `Australian Life,' p. 22:

"For some time the district where the nut [bunya] abounds is a scene of feasting and corroboreeing."

(2) By transference to animals, birds, insects, etc.

1846. C. P. Hodgson, `Reminiscences of Australia,' p. 257:

"The mosquitoes from the swamps corroboreed with unmitigated ardour."

1871. C. Darwin, `Descent of Man' (2nd ed. 1885), p. 406:

"The <i>Menura Alberti</i> [see <i>Lyrebird</i>] scratches for itself shallow holes, or, as they are called by the natives, corroborying places, where it is believed both sexes assemble."

(3) To boil; to dance as boiling water does.

1881. A. C. Grant, `Bush Life in Queensland,' vol. i. p. 43:

"`Look out there! `he continued; `quart-pot corroborree,' springing up and removing with one hand from the fire one of the quart-pots, which was boiling madly, while with the other he dropped in about as much tea as he could hold between his fingers and thumb."

Ibid. p. 49:

"They had almost finished their meal before the new quart corroborreed, as the stockman phrased it."

<hw>Corypha-palm</hw>, <i>n</i>. an obsolete name for <i>Livistona inermis</i>, now called <i>Cabbage-tree</i> (q.v.).

1847. L. Leichhardt, `Overland Expedition,' p. 49:

"The bottle-tree and the corypha-palm were frequent."

<hw>Cottage</hw>, <i>n</i>. a house in which all the rooms are on the ground-floor. An auctioneer's advertisement often runs—"large weatherboard cottage, twelve rooms, etc.," or "double-fronted brick cottage." The cheapness of land caused nearly all suburban houses in Australia to be built without upper storeys and detached.

<hw>Cotton-bush</hw>, <i>n</i>. name applied to two trees called <i>Salt-bush</i> (q.v.). (1) <i>Bassia bicornis</i>, Lindl. (2) <i>Kochia aphylla</i>, R. Br., <i>N.O. Salsolaceae</i>. S. Dixon (<i>apud</i> Maiden, p. 132) thus describes it—

"All kinds of stock are often largely dependent on it during protracted droughts, and when neither grass nor hay are obtainable I have known the whole bush chopped up and mixed with a little corn, when it proved an excellent fodder for horses."

1876. W. Harcus, `South Australia,' p. 126:

"This is a fine open, hilly district, watered, well grassed, and with plenty of herbage and cotton-bush."

<hw>Cotton-shrub</hw>, <i>n</i>. a name given in Tasmania to the shrub <i>Pimelea nivea</i>, Lab., <i>N.O</i>. Thymeleae.

<hw>Cotton-tree</hw>, <i>n</i>. an Australian tree, <i>Hibiscus teliaceus</i>, Linn., <i>N.O. Malvaceae</i>.

1889. J. H. Maiden, `Useful Native Plants,' p. 624:

"The fibre of the bark [cotton-tree] is used for nets and fishing-lines by the aborigines."

<hw>Cotton-wood</hw>, <i>n</i>. the timber of an Australian tree, <i>Bedfordia salicina</i>, De C., <i>N.O. Compositae</i>. Called <i>Dog-wood</i> (q.v.) in Tasmania.

1889. J. H. Maiden, `Useful Native Plants,' p.386:

"The `dog-wood' of Tasmania, and the `cotton-wood' of Southern
New South Wales, on account of the abundant down on the leaves.
A hard, pale-brown, well-mottled wood, said by some to be good
for furniture. It emits a foetid smell when cut."

<hw>Coucal</hw>, <i>n</i>. a bird-name, "mentioned probably for the first time in Le Vaillant's `Oiseaux d'Afrique,' beginning about 1796; perhaps native African. An African or Indian spear-headed cuckoo: a name first definitely applied by Cuvier in 1817 to the birds of the genus <i>Centropus</i>." (`Century.') The Australian species is <i>Centropus phasianellus</i>, Gould, or <i>Centropus phasianus</i>, Lath. It is called also <i>Swamp-pheasant</i> (q.v.), and <i>Pheasant-cuckoo</i>.

<hw>Count-fish</hw>, <i>n</i>. a large <i>Schnapper</i> (q.v.). See <i>Cock-Schnapper</i>.

1874. `Sydney Mail,' `Fishes and Fishing in New South Wales':

"The ordinary schnapper or count fish implies that all of a certain size are to count as twelve to the dozen, the shoal or school-fish eighteen or twenty-four to the dozen, and the squire, thirty or thirty-six to the dozen—the latter just according to their size, the redbream at per bushel."

<hw>Count-muster</hw>, <i>n</i>. a gathering, especially of sheep or cattle in order to count them.

1891. Rolf Boldrewood, `A Sydney-side Saxon,' p. 1:

"The old man's having a regular count-muster of his sons and daughters, and their children and off side relatives-that is, by marriage."

<hw>Cowdie</hw>, <i>n</i>. an early variant of <i>Kauri</i> (q.v.), with other spellings.

1889. T. Kirk, `Forest Flora of New Zealand,' p. 143:

"The native name `Kauri' is the only common name in general use. When the timber was first introduced into Britain it was termed `cowrie' or `kowdie-pine'; but the name speedily fell into disuse, although it still appears as the common name in some horticultural works."

<hw>Cowshorns</hw>, <i>n</i>. a Tasmanian orchid, <i>Pterostylis nutans</i>, R. Br.

<hw>Cow-tree</hw>, <i>n</i>. a native tree of New Zealand. Maori name, <i>Karaka</i> (q.v.).

1860. G. Bennett, `Gatherings of a Naturalist,' p. 346:

"The karaka-tree of New Zealand (<i>Corynocarpus laevigata</i>), also called kopi by the natives, and cow-tree by Europeans (from that animal being partial to its leaves), grows luxuriantly in Sydney."

<hw>Crab</hw>, <i>n</i>. Of the various Australian species of this marine crustacean, <i>Scylla serrata</i> alone is large enough to be much used as food, and it is seldom caught. In Tasmania and Victoria, <i>Pseudocarcinus gigas</i>, called the King-Crab, which reaches a weight of 20 lbs., is occasionally brought to market. There is only one fresh-water crab known in Australia—<i>Telphusa transversa</i>.

1896. Spencer and Hall, `Horne Expedition in Central Australia,' Zoology, p. 228:

"In the case of <i>Telphusa transversa</i>, the fresh-water crab, the banks of certain water holes are riddled with its burrows."

<hw>Crab-hole</hw>, <i>n</i>. a hole leading into a pit-like burrow, made originally by a burrowing crayfish, and often afterwards increased in size by the draining into it of water. The burrows are made by crayfish belonging to the genera <i>Engaeus</i> and <i>Astacopsis</i>, which are popularly known as land-crabs.

1848. Letter by Mrs. Perry, given in Canon Goodman's `Church in Victoria, during Episcopate of Bishop Perry,' p. 72:

"Full of crab holes, which are exceedingly dangerous for the horses. There are holes varying in depth from one to three feet, and the smallest of them wide enough to admit the foot of a horse: nothing more likely than that a horse should break its leg in one. . . . These holes are formed by a small land-crab and then gradually enlarged by the water draining into them."

1859. H. Kingsley, `Geoffrey Hamlyn,' p. 368:

"This brute put his foot in a crabhole, and came down, rolling on my leg.''

1875. Wood and Lapham, `Waiting for the Mail,' p. 49:

"Across the creek we went . . . now tripping over tussocks, now falling into crab holes."

<hw>Crab-tree</hw>, <i>n</i>. i.q. <i>Bitter-bark</i> (q.v.).

<hw>Cradle</hw>, <i>n</i>. common in Australia, but of Californian origin. "A trough on rockers in which auriferous earth or sand is shaken in water, in order to separate and collect the gold." (`O.E.D.')

1849. `Illustrated London News,' Nov. 17, p. 325, col. 1 (`O.E.D.'): [This applies to California, and is before the Australian diggings began]:

"Two men can keep each other steadily at work, the one digging and carrying the earth in a bucket, and the other washing and rocking the cradle."

1851. Letter by Mrs. Perry, quoted in Canon Goodman's `Church in Victoria during Episcopate of Bishop Perry,' p. 171:

"The streets are full of cradles and drays packed for the journey."

1858. T. McCombie, `History of Victoria,' c. xv. p. 215:

"Cradles and tin dishes to supply the digging parties."

1865. F. H. Nixon, `Peter Perfume,' p. 56:

"They had cradles by dozens and picks by the score."

1884. T. Bracken, `Lays of Maori,' p. 154:

"The music of the puddling mill, the cradle, and the tub."

<hw>Cradle</hw>, <i>v. tr</i>. to wash auriferous gravel in a miner's cradle.

1890. Rolf Boldrewood, `Miner's Right,' c. 21, p. 197:

"The laborious process of washing and `cradling' the ore."

<hw>Crake</hw>, <i>n</i>. common English bird-name. The Australian varieties are—

Little Crake—
 <i>Porzana palustris</i>, Gould.

Spotless C.—
 <i>P. tabuensis</i>, Gmel.

Spotted C.—
 <i>P. fluminea</i>, Gould.

White-browed C.—
 <i>P. cinereus,</i> Vieill.

See also <i>Swamp-crake</i>.

<hw>Cranberry, Native</hw>, <i>n</i>. called also <hw>Ground-berry</hw>; name given to three Australian shrubs. (1) <i>Styphelia</i> (formerly <i>Lissanthe) humifusa</i>, Persoon, <i>N.O. Epacrideae</i>.

1834. J. Ross, `Van Diemen's Land Annual,' p. 133:

"<i>Astroloma humifusum</i>. The native cranberry has a fruit of a green, reddish, or whitish colour, about the size of a black currant, consisting of a viscid apple-flavoured pulp inclosing a large seed; this fruit grows singly on the trailing stems of a small shrub resembling juniper, bearing beautiful scarlet blossoms in autumn."

1889. J. H. Maiden, `Useful Native Plants,' p. 8:

"Commonly called `ground-berry.' In Tasmania the fruits are often called native cranberries. The fruits of these dwarf shrubs are much appreciated by school-boys and aboriginals. They have a viscid, sweetish pulp, with a relatively large stone. The pulp is described by some as being apple-flavoured, though I have always failed to make out any distinct flavour."

(2) <i>Styphelia sapida</i>, F. v. M., <i>N.O. Epacrideae</i>.

1866. `Treasury of Botany,' p. 688 (`O.E.D.'):

<i>"Lissanthe sapida</i>, a native of South-eastern Australia, is called the Australian Cranberry, on account of its resemblance both in size and colour to our European cranberry, <i>Vaccinium Oxyconos</i>."

1889. J. H. Maiden, `Useful Native Plants,' p. 39:

"Native cranberry. The fruit is edible. It is something like the cranberry of Europe both in size and colour, but its flesh is thin, and has been likened to that of the Siberian crab. [Found in] New South Wales."

(3) <i>Pernettya tasmanica</i>, Hook., <i>N.O. Ericeae</i> (peculiar to Tasmania).

<hw>Crane</hw>, <i>n</i>. common English bird-name. In Australia used for (1) the Native-Companion (q.v.), <i>Grus australianus</i>, Gould; (2) various Herons, especially in New Zealand, where the varieties are—Blue Crane (<i>Matuku</i>), <i>Ardea sacra</i>, Gmel.; White Crane (<i>Kotuku</i>), <i>Ardea egretta</i>, Gmel. See <i>Kotuku</i> and <i>Nankeen Crane</i>. The Cranes and the Herons are often popularly confused.

1848. J. Gould, `Birds of Australia,' vol. vi. pl. 53:

"<i>Ardea Novae-Hollandiae</i>, Lath., White-fronted Heron, Blue Crane of the colonists. <i>Herodias Jugularis</i>, Blue Reef Heron, Blue Crane, colonists of Port Essington."

1848. Ibid. pl. 58:

"<i>Herodias Immaculata</i>, Gould [later melanopus], Spotless Egret, White Crane of the colonists."

1890. `Victorian Consolidated Statutes, Game Act,' 3rd Schedule:

"[Close Season.] All Birds known as Cranes such as Herons,
Egrets, &c. From First day of August to Twentieth day of
December following in each year."

<hw>Craw-fish</hw>, <i>n</i>. a variant of <i>Crayfish</i> (q.v.).

<hw>Crawler</hw>, <i>n</i>. that which crawls; used specially in Australia of cattle.

1890. Rolf Boldrewood, `A Colonial Reformer,' p. 217:

"Well-bred station crawlers, as the stockmen term them from their peaceable and orderly habits."

<hw>Cray-fish</hw>, <i>n</i>. The Australasian <i>Cray-fish</i> belong to the family <i>Parastacidae</i>, the members of which are confined to the southern hemisphere, whilst those of the family <i>Potamobiidae</i> are found in the northern hemisphere. The two families are distinguished from one another by, amongst other points of structure, the absence of appendages on the first abdominal segment in the <i>Parastacidae</i>. The Australasian cray-fishes are classified in the following genera—<i>Astacopsis</i>, found in the fresh waters of Tasmania and the whole of Australia; <i>Engaeus</i>, a land-burrowing form, found only in Tasmania and Victoria; <i>Paranephrops</i>, found in the fresh waters of New Zealand; and <i>Palinurus</i>, found on the coasts of Australia and New Zealand. The species are as follows :—

(1) <i>The Yabber or Yabbie Crayfish</i>. Name given to the commonest fresh-water Australian Cray-fish, <i>Astacopsis bicarinatus</i>, Gray. This is found in waterholes, but not usually in running streams, over the greater part of the continent, and often makes burrows in the ground away from water, and may also do great damage by burrowing holes through the banks of dams and reservoirs and water-courses, as at Mildura. It was first described as the <i>Port Essington Crayfish</i>.

1845. Gray, in E. J. Eyre's `Expeditions into Central Australia,' vol. i. p. 410:

"The Port Essington Cray fish. <i>Astacus bicarinatus</i>."

1885. F. McCoy, `Prodromus of the Zoology of Victoria,' Dec. 2, pl. 29:

"They are commonly known about Melbourne by the native name of
Yabber or Yabbie."

(2) <i>The Murray Lobster or the Spiny Cray-fish</i>. Name given to the largest Australian fresh-water Cray-fish, <i>Astacopsis serratus</i>, Shaw, which reaches a length of over twelve inches, and is found in the rivers of the Murray system, and in the southern rivers of Victoria such as the Yarra, the latter being distinguished as a variety of the former and called locally the <i>Yarra Spiny Cray-fish</i>.

1890. F. McCoy, `Prodromus of the Zoology of Victoria,' Dec. 8, pl. 160: "

Our plate 160 illustrates a remarkable variety of the typical <i>A. serratus</i> of the Murray, common in the Yarra and its numerous affluents flowing southwards."

(3) <i>The Tasmanian Cray</i>-fish. Name given to the large fresh-water Cray-fish found in Tasmania, <i>Astacopsis franklinii</i>; Gray.

(4) <i>The Land-crab</i>. Name applied to the burrowing Cray-fish of Tasmania and Victoria, <i>Engaeus fossor</i>, Erich., and other species. This is the smallest of the Australian Cray-fish, and inhabits burrows on land, which it excavates for itself and in which a small store of water is retained. When the burrow, as frequently happens, falls in there is formed a <i>Crab-hole</i> (q.v.).

1892. G. M. Thomson, `Proceedings of the Royal Society of Tasmania,' p. 2:

"Only four of the previously described forms are fresh-water species, namely: <i>Astacopsis franklinii</i> and <i>A. tasmanicus</i>, <i>Engaeus fossor</i> and <i>E. cunicularius</i>, all fresh-water cray fishes."

(5) <i>New Zealand Fresh-water Cray-fish</i>. Name applied to <i>Paranephrops zealandicus</i>, White, which is confined to the fresh water of New Zealand.

1889. T. J. Parker, `Studies in Biology' (Colonial Museum and Geological Survey Department, New Zealand), p. 5:

"Paranephrops which is small and has to be specially collected in rivers, creeks or lakes."

(6) <i>Sydney Cray-fish</i>. Name given to the large salt-water Cray-fish, rarely called Craw-fish, or Spiny Lobster, found along the Sydney coast, <i>Palinurus huegeli</i>, Heller.

1890. F. McCoy, `Prodromus of the Zoology of Victoria,' Dec. 16, pl. 159:

"This species, which is the common Sydney Craw-fish, is easily distinguished from the southern one, the <i>P. Lalandi</i>, which is the common Melbourne Craw-fish."

(7) <i>Southern Rock-Lobster or Melbourne Crayfish</i>. Name given to the large salt-water Cray-fish, sometimes called Craw-fish, found along the southern coast and common in the Melbourne market, <i>Palinurus lalandi</i>, Lam.

1890. F. McCoy, `Prodromus of the Zoology of Victoria,' Dec. 15, pl. 150:

"I suggest the trivial name of Southern Rock Lobster for this species, which abounds in Victoria, Tasmania and New Zealand, as well as the Cape of Good Hope . . . does not appear to have been noticed as far north as Sydney."

The name <i>Craw-fish</i> is merely an ancient variant of <i>Cray-fish</i>, though it is said by Gasc, in his French Dictionary, that the term was invented by the London fishmongers to distinguish the small <i>Spiny Lobster</i>, which has no claws, from the common <i>Lobster</i>, which has claws. The term <i>Lobster</i>, in Australia, is often applied to the <i>Sydney Cray-fish</i> (see 7, above).

<hw>Creadion</hw>, <i>n</i>. scientific name given by Vieillot in 1816 to a genus of birds peculiar to New Zealand, from Greek <i>kreadion</i>, a morsel of flesh, dim. of <i>kreas</i>, flesh. Buller says, "from the angle of the mouth on each side there hangs a fleshy wattle, or caruncle, shaped like a cucumber seed and of a changeable bright yellow colour." ('Birds of New Zealand,' 1886, vol. i. p. 18.) The <i>Jack-bird</i> (q.v.) and <i>Saddle-back</i> (q.v.) are the two species.

1855. Rev. R. Taylor, `Te Ika a Maui,' p. 404:

"Family <i>Sturnidae</i>—Tieki (<i>Creadion Carunculatus</i>). This is a beautiful black bird with a chestnut band across the back and wings; it has also a fleshy lappet on either side of the head. The <i>tieki</i> is considered a bird of omen: if one flies on the right side it is a good sign; if on the left, a bad one."

<hw>Cream of Tartar tree</hw>, <i>n</i>. i.q. <i>Baobab</i> (q.v.).

<hw>Creek</hw>, <i>n</i>. a small river, a brook, a branch of a river. "An application of the word entirely unknown in Great Britain." (`O.E.D.') The `Standard Dictionary' gives, as a use in the United States, "a tidal or valley stream, between a brook and a river in size." In Australia, the name brook is not used. Often pronounced crick, as in the United States.

Dr. J. A.H. Murray kindly sends the following note:—"Creek goes back to the early days of exploration. Men sailing up the Mississippi or other navigable river saw the mouths of tributary streams, but could not tell with out investigation whether they were confluences or mere inlets, creeks. They called them creeks, but many of them turned out to be running streams, many miles long—tributary rivers or rivulets. The name <i>creek</i> stuck to them, however, and thus became synonymous with tributary stream, brook."

1793. Governor Hunter, `Voyage,' p. 516:

"In the afternoon a creek obliged them to leave the banks of the river, and go round its head, as it was too deep to cross: having rounded the head of this creek. . ."

1802. G. Barrington, `History of New South Wales,' p. 228:

"They met with some narrow rivers or creeks."

1809. Aug. 6, `History of New South Wales' (1818), p. 327:

"Through Rickerby's grounds upon the riverside and those of the
Rev. Mr. Marsden on the creek."

1826. Goldie, in Bischoff's `Van Diemen's Land' (1832), p. 162:

"There is a very small creek which I understand is never dry."

1848. W. Westgarth, `Australia Felix,' p. 17:

"The creeks and rivers of Australia have in general a transitory existence, now swollen by the casual shower, and again rapidly subsiding under the general dryness and heat of the climate."

1854. `Bendigo Advertiser,' quoted in `Melbourne Morning Herald,' May 29:

"A Londoner reading of the crossing of a creek would naturally imagine the scene to be in the immediate neighbourhood of the coast, instead of being perhaps some hundreds of miles in the interior, and would dream of salt water, perriwinkles and sea-weed, when he should be thinking of slimy mud-holes, black snakes and gigantic gum-trees."

1861. Mrs. Meredith, `Over the Straits,' c. iv. p. 134:

"The little rivulet, called, with that singular pertinacity for error which I have so often noticed here, `the creek.'"

1865. Lady Barker, `Station Life in, New Zealand,' p. 29:

"The creek, just like a Scotch burn, hurrying and tumbling down the hillside to join the broader stream in the valley."

1870. P. Wentworth, `Amos Thorne,' i. p. 11:

"A thirsty creek-bed marked a line of green."

1872. C. H. Eden, `My Wife and I in Queensland,' p. 39:

"In the rivers, whether large watercourses, and dignified by the name of `river,' or small tributaries called by the less sounding appellation `creeks."

1887. Cassell's `Picturesque Australasia,' vol. i. p. 41:

"Generally where the English language is spoken a creek means a small inlet of the sea, but in Australia a creek is literally what it is etymologically, a crack in the ground. In dry weather there is very little water; perhaps in the height of summer the stream altogether ceases to run, and the creek becomes a string of waterholes; but when the heavens are opened, and the rain falls, it reappears a river."

<hw>Creeklet</hw>, <i>n</i>. diminutive of Creek.

1884. T. Bracken, `Lays of Maori,' p. 91:

"One small creeklet day by day murmurs."

<hw>Creeper</hw>, <i>n</i>. The name (sc. <i>Tree-creeper</i>) is given to several New Zealand birds of the genus <i>Certhiparus</i>, <i>N.O. Passeres</i>. The Maori names are <i>Pipipi, Toitoi</i>, and <i>Mohona</i>.

1888. W. L. Buller, `Birds of New Zealand,' vol. i. p. 51:

"<i>Certhiparus Novae Zelandiae</i>, Finsch. New Zealand Creeper." [A full description.]

<hw>Cronk</hw>, <i>adj</i>. Derived from the German <i>krank</i>—sick or ill.

(1) A racing term used of a horse which is out of order and not "fit" for the contest; hence transferred to a horse whose owner is shamming its illness and making it "run crooked" for the purpose of cheating its backers.

(2) Used more generally as slang, but not recognized in Barere and Leland's `Slang Dictionary.'

1893. `The Herald' (Melbourne), July 4, p. 2, col. 7:

"He said he would dispose of the cloth at a moderate figure because it was `cronk.' The word `cronk,' Mr. Finlayson explained, meant `not honestly come by.'"

<hw>Crow</hw>, <i>n</i>. common English bird-name. The Australian species is—White-eyed, <i>Corvus coronoides</i> V. and H. In New Zealand (Maori name, <i>Kokako</i>) the name is used for the Blue-wattled Crow, <i>Glaucopis wilsoni</i> and for the (N. island) Orange-wattled, <i>G. cinerea</i>, Gmel. (S. island).

<hw>Crow-shrike</hw>, <i>n</i>. Australian amalgamation of two common English bird-names. The <i>Crow-shrikes</i> are of three genera, <i>Strepera, Gymnorrhima</i>, and <i>Cracticus</i>. The varieties of the genus Strepera are—

Black Crow-shrike—
 <i>Strepera fuliginosa</i>, Gould.

Black-winged C.—
 <i>S. melanoptera</i>, Gould.

Grey C.—
 <i>S. cuneicaudata</i>, Vieill.

Hill C.—
 <i>S. arguta</i>, Gould.

Leaden C.—
 <i>S. plumbea</i>, Gould.

Pied C.—
 <i>S. graculina</i>, White.

Birds of the genus <i>Gymnorrhina</i> are called <i>Magpies</i> (q.v.). Those of the genus <i>Cracticus</i> are called <i>Butcher-birds</i> (q.v.).

<hw>Crush</hw>, <i>n</i>. a part of a stockyard. See quotations.

1872. C. H. Eden, `My Wife and I in Queensland,' p. 69:

"A crush, which is an elongated funnel, becoming so narrow at the end that a beast is wedged in and unable to move."

1891. Rolf Boldrewood, `A Sydney-side Saxon,' p. 87:

"There were some small yards, and a `crush,' as they call it, for branding cattle."

<hw>Cuckoo</hw>, <i>n</i>. common English bird-name. The Australian birds to which it is applied are—

Black-eared Cuckoo—
 <i>Mesocalius osculans</i>, Gould.

Bronze C.—
 <i>Chalcoccyx plagosus</i>, Lath.

Brush C.—
 <i>Cacomantis insperatus</i>.
 [Gould, `Birds of Australia,' vol. iv. pl.87.]

Chestnut-breasted C.—
 <i>C. castanei-ventris</i>, Gould.

Fantailed C.—
 <i>C. flabelliformis</i>, Lath.

Little-bronze C.—
 <i>Chalcoccyx malayanus</i>, Raffles.

Narrow-billed bronze C.—
 <i>C. basalis</i>, Hors.

Oriental C.—
 <i>Cuculus intermedius</i>, Vahl.

Pallid C.—
 <i>Cacomantis pallidus</i> and <i>C. canorus</i>, Linn.

Square-tailed C.—
 <i>C. variolosus</i>, Hors.

Whistling-bronze C.—
 <i>Chalcoccyx lucidus</i>, Gmel.

In New Zealand, the name is applied to <i>Eudynamis taitensis</i> (sc. of Tahiti) Sparm., the Long-tailed Cuckoo; and to <i>Chrysococcyx lucidus</i>, Gmel., the Shining Cuckoo. The name <i>Cuckoo</i> has sometimes been applied to the <i>Mopoke</i> (q.v.) and to the <i>Boobook</i> (q.v.). See also <i>Pheasant-cuckoo</i>.

1855. G. W. Rusden, `Moyarra,' Notes, p. 30:

"The Australian cuckoo is a nightjar, and is heard only by night."

1868. W. Carleton, `Australian Nights,' p. 19:

"The Austral cuckoo spoke
 His melancholy note, `Mopoke.'"

1889. Prof. Parker, `Catalogue of New Zealand Exhibition,' p. 118:

"There are two species of the Longtailed Cuckoo (<i>Eudynamis taitensis</i>), and the beautiful Bronze or Shining Cuckoo (<i>Chrysococcyx lucidus</i>). They are both migratory birds. The Long-tailed Cuckoo spends its winter in some of the Pacific islands, the Shining Cuckoo in Australia."

<hw>Cuckoo-shrike</hw>, <i>n</i>. This combination of two common English bird-names is assigned in Australia to the following—

Barred Cuckoo-shrike
 <i>Graucalus lineatus</i>, Swains.

Black-faced C.—
 <i>G. melanops</i>, Lath.

Ground C.—
 <i>Pteropodocys phasianella</i>, Gould.

Little C.—
 <i>Graucalus mentalis</i>, Vig. and Hors.

Small-billed C.—
 <i>G. parvirostris</i>, Gould.

White-bellied C.—
 <i>G. hyperleucus</i>, Gould.

<hw>Cucumber-fish</hw>, <i>n</i>. i.q. <i>Grayling</i> (q.v.).

<hw>Cucumber-Mullet</hw>, <i>n</i>. i.q. <i>Grayling</i> (q.v.).

<hw>Cultivation paddock</hw>, <i>n</i>. a field that has been tilled and not kept for grass.

1853. Chas. St. Julian and Ed. K. Silvester, `The Productions, Industry, and Resources of New South Wales,' p. 170:

"Few stations of any magnitude are without their `cultivation paddocks,' where grain and vegetables are raised . . ."

1860. A Lady, `My Experiences in Australia,' p. 173:

"Besides this large horse paddock, there was a space cleared of trees, some twenty to thirty acres in extent, on the banks of the creek, known as the `Cultivation Paddock,' where in former days my husband had grown a sufficient supply of wheat for home consumption."

1893. `The Argus,' June 17, p. 13, col. 4:

"How any man could have been such an idiot as to attempt to make a cultivation paddock on a bed of clay passed all my knowledge.'

<hw>Curlew</hw>, <i>n</i>. common English bird-name. The Australian species is <i>Numenius cyanopus</i>, Vieill. The name, however, is more generally applied to <i>AEdicnemus grallarius</i>, Lath.

1862. H. C. Kendall, `Poems,' p. 43:

"They rend the air like cries of despair,
 The screams of the wild curlew."

1872. C. H. Eden, `My Wife and I in Queensland,' p. 18:

"Truly the most depressing cry I ever heard is that of the curlew, which you take no notice of in course of time; but which to us, wet, weary, hungry, and strange, sounded most eerie."

1890. `Victorian Statutes, Game Act, Third Schedule':

"Southern Stone Plover or Curlew."

1894. `The Argus,' June 23, p. 11, col. 4:

"The calling of the stone plover. It might as well be a curlew at once, for it will always be a curlew to country people. Its first call, with the pause between, sounds like `Curlew'—that is, if you really want it to sound so, though the blacks get much nearer the real note with `Koo-loo,' the first syllable sharp, the second long drawn out."

1896. Dr. Holden, of Hobart, `Private letter,' Jan.:

"There is a curlew in Australia, closely resembling the English bird, and it calls as that did over the Locksley Hall sand-dunes; but Australians are given to calling <i>AEdicnemus grallarius</i> Latham (our Stone Plover), the `curlew,' which is a misnomer. This also drearily wails, and after dark."

<hw>Currajong</hw> or <hw>Currijong</hw>, i.q. <i>Kurrajong</i> (q.v.).

<hw>Currant, Native</hw>, <i>n</i>. The name is given to various shrubs and trees of the genus <i>Coprosma</i>, especially <i>Coprosma billardieri</i>, Hook., <i>N.O. Rubiare</i>(e; also to <i>Leucopogon richei</i>, Lab., <i>N.O. Epacrideae</i>, various species of <i>Leptomeria</i>, <i>N.O. Santalaceae</i>, and <i>Myoporum serratum</i>, R. Br., <i>N.O. Myoporineae</i>. The names used for <i>M. serratum</i>, chiefly in South Australia, are <i>Blueberry Tree</i>, <i>Native Juniper</i>, <i>Native Myrtle</i>, <i>Palberry</i>, and <i>Cockatoo Bush</i>.

See also <i>Native Plum</i>.

1827. P. Cunningham, `Two Years in New South Wales,' vol. i. p. 220:

"Our native currants are strongly acidulous, like the cranberry, and make an excellent preserve when mixed with the raspberry."

1834. Ross, `Van Diemen's Land Annual,' p. 133:

"<i>Leucopogon lanceolatum</i>. A large bush with numerous harsh leaves, growing along the sea shore, with some other smaller inland shrubs of the same tribe, produces very small white berries of a sweetish and rather herby flavour. These are promiscuously called white or native currants in the colony."

["The insignificant and barely edible berries of this shrub are said to have saved the life of the French botanist Riche, who was lost in the bush on the South Australian coast for three days, at the close of the last century." (Maiden.) The plant is now called <i>L. Richei</i>.]

1889. J. H. Maiden, `Useful Native Plants,' p. 19:

"Native Currant. . . . This plant bears a small round drupe, about the size of a small pea. Mr. Backhouse states that (over half a century ago) when British fruits were scarce, it was made into puddings by some of the settlers of Tasmania, but the size and number of the seeds were objectionable."

<hw>Currant, Plain</hw>, <i>n</i>. See <i>Plain Currant</i>.

<hw>Currency</hw>, <i>n</i>. (1) Name given especially to early paper-money in the Colonies, issued by private traders and of various values, and in general to the various coins of foreign countries, which were current and in circulation. Barrington, in his `History of New South Wales `(1802), gives a table of such specie.

1824. Edward Curr, `Account of the Colony of Van Diemen's Land,' p.5:

"Much of this paper-money is of the most trifling description. To this is often added `payable in dollars at 5s. each.' Some . . . make them payable in Colonial currency."

[p. 69, note]: "25s. currency is about equal to a sovereign."

1826. Act of Geo. IV., No. 3 (Van Diemen's Land):

"All Bills of Exchange, Promissory Notes . . . as also all Contracts and Agreements whatsoever which shall be drawn and circulated or issued, or made and entered into, and shall be therein expressed . . . to be payable in Currency, Current Money, Spanish Dollars . . . shall be . . . Null and Void."

1862. Geo. Thos. Lloyd, `Thirty-three years in Tasmania and Victoria,' p. 9:

"Every man in business . . . issued promissory notes, varying in value from the sum of fourpence to twenty shillings, payable on demand. These notes received the appellation of paper currency. . . . The pound sterling represented twenty-five shillings of the paper-money."

(2) Obsolete name for those colonially-born.

1827. P. Cunningham, `Two Years in New South Wales,' vol. ii. (Table of Contents):

"Letter XXI.—<i>Currency</i> or <i>Colonial-born</i> population."

Ibid. p. 33:

"Our colonial-born brethren are best known here by the name of <i>Currency</i>, in contradistinction to <i>Sterling</i>, or those born in the mother-country. The name was originally given by a facetious paymaster of the 73rd Regiment quartered here—the pound currency being at that time inferior to the pound sterling."

1833. H. W. Parker, `Rise, Progress, and Present State of Van Diemen's Land,' p. 18:

"The Currency lads, as the country born colonists in the facetious nomenclature of the colony are called, in contradistinction to those born in the mother country."

1840. Martin's `Colonial Magazine,' vol. iii. p. 35:

"Currency lady."

1849. J. P. Townsend, `Rambles in New South Wales,' p. 68:

"Whites born in the colony, who are also called `the currency'; and thus the `Currency Lass' is a favourite name for colonial vessels." [And, it may be added, also of Hotels.]

1852. Mrs. Meredith, `My Home in Tasmania,' vol. i. p. 6:

"A singular disinclination to finish any work completely, is a striking characteristic of colonial craftsmen, at least of the `currency' or native-born portion. Many of them who are clever, ingenious and industrious, will begin a new work, be it ship, house, or other erection, and labour at it most assiduously until it be about two-thirds completed, and then their energy seems spent, or they grow weary of the old occupation, and some new affair is set about as busily as the former one."

1890. Rolf Boldrewood, `A Colonial Reformer,' p. 35:

"English girls have such lovely complexions and cut out us poor currency lasses altogether."

Ibid. p. 342:

"You're a regular Currency lass . . . always thinking about horses."

<hw>Cushion-flower</hw>, <i>n</i>. i.q. <i>Hakea laurina</i>, R. Br. See <i>Hakea</i>.

<hw>Cut out</hw>, <i>v</i>. (1) To separate cattle from the rest of the herd in the open.

1873. Marcus Clarke, `Holiday Peak, &c.,' p. 70:

"The other two . . . could cut out a refractory bullock with the best stockman on the plains."

1884. Rolf Boldrewood, `Melbourne Memories,' c. x. p. 72:

"We . . . camped for the purpose of separating our cattle, either by drafting through the yard, or by `cutting out' on horse-back."

1885. H. Finch-Hatton, `Advance Australia,' p. 70:

"Drafting on the camp, or `cutting out' as it is generally called, is a very pretty performance to watch, if it is well done."

1890. Rolf Boldrewood, `Squatter's Dream,' c. ii. p. 13:

"Tell him to get `Mustang,' he's the best cutting-out horse."

1893. `The Argus,' April 29, p. 4. col. 4:

"A Queenslander would have thought it was as simple as going on to a cutting-out camp up North and running out the fats."

(2) To finish shearing.

1890. `The Argus,' Sept. 20, p. 13, col. 6:

"When the stations `cut out,' as the term for finishing is, and the shearers and rouseabout men leave."

<hw>Cutting-grass</hw>, <i>n</i>. <i>Cladium psittacorum</i>, Labill., <i>N.O. Cyperaceae</i>. It grows very long narrow blades whose thin rigid edge will readily cut flesh if incautiously handled; it is often called <i>Sword-grass</i>.

1858. T. McCombie `History of Victoria,' vol. i. p. 8:

"Long grass, known as cutting-grass between four and five feet high, the blade an inch and a half broad, the edges exquisitely sharp."

1891. W. Tilley, `Wild West of Tasmania,' p. 42:

"Travelling would be almost impossible but for the button rush and cutting grass, which grow in big tussocks out of the surrounding bog."

1894. `The Age,' Oct. 19, p. 5, col. 8:

"`Cutting grass' is the technical term for a hard, tough grass about eight or ten inches high, three-edged like a bayonet, which stock cannot eat because in their efforts to bite it off it cuts their mouths."

D

<hw>Dabchick</hw>, <i>n</i>. common English bird-name. The New Zealand species is <i>Podiceps rufipectus</i>. There is no species in Australia.

<hw>Dacelo</hw>, <i>n</i>. Name given by "W. E. Leach, 1816. An anagram or transposition of Lat. <i>Alcedo</i>, a Kingfisher." (`Century.') Scientific name for the <i>Jackass</i> (q.v.).

<hw>Dactylopsila</hw>, <i>n</i>. the scientific name of the Australian genus of the Striped Phalanger, called locally the <i>Striped Opossum</i>; see <i>Opossum</i>. It has a long bare toe. (Grk. <i>daktulos</i>, a finger, and <i>psilos</i>, bare.)

<hw>Daisy, Brisbane</hw>, <i>n</i>. a Queensland and New South Wales plant, <i>Brachycome microcarpa</i>, F. v. M., <i>N.O. Compositae</i>.

<hw>Daisy, Native</hw>, <i>n</i>. a Tasmanian flower, <i>Brachycome decipiens</i>, Hook., <i>N.O. Compositae</i>.

<hw>Daisy Tree</hw>, <i>n</i>. two Tasmanian trees, <i>Astur stellulatus</i>, Lab., and <i>A. glandulosus</i>, Lab., <i>N.O. Compositae</i>. The latter is called the <i>Swamp-Daisy-Tree</i>.

<hw>Dam</hw>, <i>n</i>. In England, the word means a barrier to stop water in Australia, it also means the water so stopped, as `O.E.D.' shows it does in Yorkshire.

1873. Marcus Clarke, `Holiday Peak, &c.,' p. 76:

"The dams were brimming at Quartz-borough, St. Roy reservoir was running over."

1892. `Scribner's Magazine,' Feb., p. 141:

"Dams as he calls his reservoirs scooped out in the hard soil."

1893. `The Leader,' Jan. 14:

"A boundary rider has been drowned in a dam."

1893. `The Times,' [Reprint] `Letters from Queensland,' p. 68:

"At present few stations are subdivided into paddocks smaller than 20,000 acres apiece. If in each of these there is but one waterhole or dam that can be relied upon to hold out in drought, sheep and cattle will destroy as much grass in tramping from the far corners of the grazing to the drinking spot as they will eat. Four paddocks of 5,000 acres each, well supplied with water, ought to carry almost double the number of sheep."

1896. `The Argus,' March 30, p. 6, col. 9:

"[The murderer] has not since been heard of. Dams and waterholes have been dragged . . . but without result."

<hw>Dammara</hw>, <i>n</i>. an old scientific name of the genus, including the <i>Kauri Pine</i> (q.v.). It is from the Hindustani, <i>damar</i>, `resin.' The name was applied to the <i>Kauri Pine</i> by Lambert in 1832, but it was afterwards found that Salisbury, in 1805, had previously constituted the genus <i>Agathis</i> for the reception of the <i>Kauri Pine</i> and the Dammar Pine of Amboyna. This priority of claim necessitated the modern restoration of <i>Agathis</i> as the name of the genus.

<hw>Damper</hw>, <i>n</i>. a large scone of flour and water baked in hot ashes; the bread of the bush, which is always unleavened. [The addition of water to the flour suggests a more likely origin than that given by Dr. Lang. See quotation, 1847.]

1827. P. Cunningham, `Two Years in New South Wales,' vol. ii. p. 190

"The farm-men usually make their flour into flat cakes, which they call <i>damper</i>, and cook these in the ashes . . ."

1833. C. Sturt, `Southern Australia,' vol. ii. c. viii. p. 203:

"I watched the distorted countenances of my humble companions while drinking their tea and eating their damper."

1845. J. O. Balfour, `Sketches of New South Wales,' p. 103:

"Damper (a coarse dark bread)."

1846. G. H. Haydon, `Five Years in Australia Felix,' p. 122:

"I must here enlighten my readers as to what `damper' is. It is the bread of the bush, made with flour and water kneaded together and formed into dough, which is baked in the ashes, and after a few months keeping is a good substitute for bread."

[The last clause contains a most extraordinary statement— perhaps a joke. Damper is not kept for months, but is generally made fresh for each meal. See quotation, 1890, Lumholtz.]

1847. J. D. Lang, `Cooksland,' p. 122:

"A cake baked in the ashes, which in Australia is usually styled a damper." [Footnote]: "This appellation is said to have originated somehow with Dampier, the celebrated navigator."

1867. F. Hochstetter, `New Zealand,' p. 284:

"`Damper' is a dough made from wheat-flour and water without yeast, which is simply pressed flat, and baked in the ashes; according to civilized notions, rather hard of digestion, but quite agreeable to hungry woodmen's stomachs."

1872. C. H. Eden, `My Wife and I in Queensland,' p. 20:

"At first we had rather a horror of eating damper, imagining it to be somewhat like an uncooked crumpet. Experience, however, showed it to be really very good. Its construction is simple, and is as follows. Plain flour and water is mixed on a sheet of bark, and then kneaded into a disc some two or three inches thick to about one or two feet in diameter, great care to avoid cracks being taken in the kneading. This is placed in a hole scraped to its size in the hot ashes, covered over, and there left till small cracks caused by the steam appear on the surface of its covering. This is a sign that it is nearly done, and in a few minutes the skilful chef will sound it over with his "Wedges of damper (or bread baked in hot ashes) were cut from time to time from great circular flat loaves of that palatable and wholesome but somewhat compressed-looking bread."

1890. C. Lumholtz, `Among Cannibals,' p. 32:

"Damper is the name of a kind of bread made of wheat flour and water. The dough is shaped into a flat round cake, which is baked in red-hot ashes. This bread looks very inviting, and tastes very good as long as it is fresh, but it soon becomes hard and dry."

<hw>Damson, Native</hw>, <i>n</i>. called also Native Plum, an Australian shrub, <i>Nageia spinulosa</i>, F. v. M., <i>N.O. Coniferae</i>.

1889. J. H. Maiden, `Useful Native Plants,' p. 53:

"Native Damson or Native Plum. This shrub possesses edible fruit, something like a plum, hence its vernacular names. The Rev. Dr. Woolis tells me that, mixed with jam of the Native Currant (<i>Leptomeria acida</i>), it makes a very good pudding."

<hw>Dandelion, Native</hw>, <i>n</i>. a flowering plant, <i>Podolepis acuminata</i>, R. Br., <i>N.O. Compositae</i>.

<hw>Daphne, Native</hw>, <i>n</i>. an Australian timber, <i>Myoporum viscorum</i>, R. Br., <i>N.O. Myoporineae</i>; called also <i>Dogwood</i> and <i>Waterbush</i>.

1889. J. H. Maiden, `Useful Native Plants,' p. 575:

"Native Daphne. . . . Timber soft and moderately light, yet tough. It is used for building purposes. It dresses well, and is straight in the grain."

<HW>Darling Pea</HW>, <i>n</i>. an Australian plant, <i>Swainsonia galegifolia</i>, R. Br., <i>N.O. Leguminosae</i>; i.q. <i>Indigo Plant</i> (q.v.). See also <i>Poison-bush</i>. The Darling Downs and River were named after General (later Sir Ralph) Darling, who was Governor of New South Wales from Dec. 19, 1825 to Oct. 21, 1831. The "pea" is named from one of these.

<hw>Darling Shower</hw>, <i>n</i>. a local name in the interior of Australia, and especially on the River Darling, for a dust storm, caused by cyclonic winds.

<hw>Dart</hw>, <i>n</i>. (1) Plan, scheme, idea [slang]. It is an extension of the meaning—"sudden motion."

1887. J. Farrell, `How: he died,' p. 20:

"Whose `dart' for the Looard
 Was to appear the justest steward
 That ever hiked a plate round."

1890. `The Argus,' Aug. 9, p. 4, col. 2:

"When I told them of my `dart,' some were contemptuous, others incredulous."

1892. Rolf Boldrewood, `Nevermore,' p. 22:

"Your only dart is to buy a staunch horse with a tip-cart."

(2) Particular fancy or personal taste.

1895. Modern:

"`Fresh strawberries eh!—that's my dart,' says the bushman when he sees the fruit lunch in Collins-street."

<hw>Darter</hw>, <i>n</i>. common English name for birds of the genus <i>Plotus</i>. So called from the way it "darts" upon its prey. The Australian species is <i>Plotus novae- hollandiae</i>, Gould.

<hw>Dasyure</hw>, and <hw>Dasyurus</hw>, <i>n</i>. the scientific name of the genus of Australian animals called <i>Native Cats</i>. See under <i>Cat</i>. The first form is the Anglicized spelling and is scientifically used in preference to the misleading vernacular name. From the Greek <i>dasus</i>, thick with hair, hairy, shaggy, and <i>'oura</i>, tail. They range over Australia, Tasmania, New Guinea, and the adjacent islands. Unlike the <i>Thylacine</i> and <i>Tasmanian Devil</i> (q.v.), which are purely terrestrial, the <i>Dasyurus</i> are arboreal in their habits, while they are both carnivorous and insectivorous.

The Thylacine, Tasmanian Devil, Pouched Mice, and Banded Ant-eater have sometimes been incorrectly classed as <i>Dasyures</i>, but the name is now strictly allotted to the genus <i>Dasyurus</i>, or <i>Native Cat</i>.

<hw>Date, Native</hw>, <i>n</i>. a Queensland fruit, <i>Capparis canescens</i>, Banks, <i>N.O. Capparideae</i>. The fruit is shaped like a pear, and about half an inch in its largest diameter. It is eaten raw by the aborigines.

<hw>Deadbeat</hw>, <i>n</i>. In Australia, it means a man "down on his luck," "stone-broke," beaten by fortune. In America, the word means an impostor, a sponge. Between the two uses the connection is clear, but the Australian usage is logically the earlier.

<hw>Dead-bird</hw>, <i>n</i>. In Australia, a recent slang term, meaning "a certainty." The metaphor is from pigeon-shooting, where the bird being let loose in front of a good shot is as good as dead.

<hw>Dead-finish</hw>, <i>n</i>. a rough scrubtree.

(1)<i>Albizzia basaltica</i>, Benth., <i>N.O. Leguminosae</i>.

(2) <i>Acacia farnesiana</i>, Willd., <i>N.O. Leguminosae</i>. See quotation, 1889.

1885. H. Finch-Hatton, `Advance Australia', p. 272:

"On the eastern face of the coast range are pine, red cedar, and beech, and on the western slopes, rose-wood, myall, dead-finish, plum-tree, iron-wood and sandal-wood, all woods with a fine grain suitable for cabinet-making and fancy work."

1889. J. H. Maiden, `Useful Native Plants,' p. 355:

"Sometimes called by the absurd name of `Dead Finish.' This name given to some species of Acacia and Albizzia, is on account of the trees or shrubs shooting thickly from the bottom, and forming an impenetrable barrier to the traveller, who is thus brought to a `dead finish' (stop)"

1893. `The Times,' [Reprint] `Letters from Queensland,' p. 60:

"The hawthorn is admirably represented by a brush commonly called `dead finish.'" [p. 61]: "Little knolls are crowned with `dead finish' that sheep are always glad to nibble."

<hw>Dead-wood Fence</hw>, <i>n</i>. The Australian fence, so called, is very different from the fence of the same name in England. It is high and big, built of fallen timber, logs and branches. Though still used in Australia for fencing runs, it is now usually superseded by wire fences.

1852. Mrs. Meredith, `My Home in Tasmania,' vol. i. p. 157:

"A `dead-wood fence,' that is, a mass of timber four or five feet thick, and five or six high, the lower part being formed of the enormous trunks of trees, cut into logs six or eight feet long, laid side by side, and the upper portion consisting of the smaller branches skilfully laid over, or stuck down and twisted."

1872. G. Baden-Powell, `New Homes for the Old Country,' p. 207:

"A very common fence is built by felling trees round the space to be enclosed, and then with their stems as a foundation, working up with the branches, a fence of a desirable height."

<hw>Deal, Native</hw>, <i>n</i>. an Australian timber, <i>Nageia elata</i>, F. v. M., <i>N.O. Coniferae</i>. For other vernacular names see quotation.

1869. J. H. Maiden, `Useful Native Plants,' p. 589:

"Pine, white pine, called she-pine in Queensland; native deal, pencil cedar. This tree has an elongated trunk, rarely cylindrical; wood free from knots, soft, close, easily worked, good for joiners' and cabinet-work; some trees afford planks of great beauty. (Macarthur.) Fine specimens of this timber have a peculiar mottled appearance not easily described, and often of surpassing beauty."

[See also <i>Pine</i>.]

<hw>December</hw>, <i>n</i>. a summer month in Australia. See <i>Christmas</i>.

1885. J. Hood, `Land of the Fern,' p. 34:

"Warm December sweeps with burning breath
 Across the bosom of the shrinking earth."

<hw>Deepsinker</hw>, <i>n</i>. (1) The largest sized tumbler; (2) the long drink served in it. The idea is taken from deep-sinking in a mining shaft.

1897. `The Argus,' Jan. 15, p. 6, Col 5:

"As athletes the cocoons can run rings round the beans; they can jump out of a tumbler—whether medium, small, or deepsinker is not recorded."

<hw>Deep Yellow-Wood</hw>, <i>n</i>. <i>Rhus rhodanthema</i>, F. v. M., <i>N.O. Anacardiaceae</i>. A tree with spreading head; timber valuable. See <i>Yellow-Wood</i>.

<hw>Deferred Payment</hw>, <i>n</i>. a legal phrase. "Land on deferred payment"; "Deferred payment settler"; "Pastoral deferred payment." These expressions in New Zealand have reference to the mode of statutory alienation of Crown lands, known in other colonies as conditional sale, etc., i.e. sale on time payment, with conditions binding the settler to erect improvements, ending in his acquiring the fee-simple. The system is obsolete, but many titles are still incomplete.

<hw>Dell-bird</hw>, <i>n</i>. another name for the <i>Bell-bird</i> (q.v.).

<hw>Dendrolagus</hw>, <i>n</i>. the scientific name of the genus of Australian marsupials called <i>Tree-Kangaroos</i> (q.v.). (Grk. <i>dendron</i>, a tree, and <i>lagows</i>, a hare.) Unlike the other kangaroos, their fore limbs are nearly as long as the hinder pair, and thus adapted for arboreal life. There are five species, three belong to New Guinea and two to Queensland; they are the Queensland Tree-Kangaroo, <i>Dendrolagus lumholtzi</i>; Bennett's T.-k., <i>D. bennettianus</i>; Black T.-k., <i>D. ursinus</i> : Brown T.-k., <i>D. inustus</i>; Doria's T.-k., <i>D. dorianus</i>. See <i>Kangaroo</i>.

<hw>Derry</hw>, <i>n</i>. slang. The phrase "to have a down on" (see <i>Down</i>) is often varied to "have a derry on." The connection is probably the comic-song refrain, "Hey derry down derry."

1896. `The Argus,' March 19, p. 5, col. 9:

"Mr. Croker: Certainly. We will tender it as evidence.
(To the witness.) Have you any particular `derry' upon this
Wendouree?—No; not at all. There are worse vessels knocking
about than the Wendouree."

<hw>Dervener</hw>, <i>n</i>. See quotation, and <i>Derwenter</i>.

1896. `The Argus,' Jan. 2, p. 3, col. 4, Letters to the Editor:

"`Dervener.'—An expression used in continental Australia for a man from the Derwent in Tasmania. Common up till 1850 at least.—David Blair."

Ibid. Jan. 3, p. 6, col. 6:

"With respect to `dervener,' the word was in use while the blue shirt race existed [sc. convicts], and these people did not become extinct until after 1860.—Cymro-Victoria."

<hw>Derwenter</hw>, <i>n</i>. a released convict from Hobart Town, Tasmania, which is on the River Derwent.

1884. Rolf Boldrewood, `Melbourne Memories,' c. xx. p. 140:

"An odd pair of sawyers, generally `Derwenters,' as the
Tasmanian expirees were called."

<hw>Desert Lemon</hw>, <i>n</i>. called also <i>Native Kumquat</i>, <i>Atalantia glauca</i>, Hook., <i>N.O. Rutacea</i>.

1889. J. H. Maiden, `Useful Native Plants,' p. 8:

"The native kumquat or desert lemon. The fruit is globular, and about half an inch in diameter. It produces an agreeable beverage from its acid juice."

<hw>Desert-Oak</hw>, <i>n</i>. an Australian tree, <i>Casuarina decaisneana</i>, F. v. M. See <i>Casuarina</i> and <i>Oak</i>.

1896. Baldwin Spencer, `Horne Expedition in Central Australia,' Narrative, p. 49:

"We had now amongst these sandhills come into the region of the `Desert Oak' (<i>Casuarina Decaisneana</i>). Some of the trees reach a height of forty or fifty feet, and growing either singly or in clumps form a striking feature amongst the thin sparse scrub. . . . The younger ones resemble nothing so much as large funeral plumes. Their outlines seen under a blazing sun are indistinct, and they give to the whole scene a curious effect of being `out of focus.'"

<hw>Devil, Tasmanian</hw>, <i>n</i>. an animal, <i>Sarcophilus ursinus</i>, Harris. Formerly, but erroneously, referred to the genus <i>Dasyurus</i> (q.v.), which includes the <i>Native Cat</i> (see under <i>Cat</i>): described in the quotations.

1832. J. Bischoff, `Van Diemen's Land,' vol. ii. p. 29:

"The devil, or as naturalists term it, <i>Dasyurus ursinus</i>, is very properly named."

1853. J. West, `History of Tasmania,' vol. i. p. 323:

"The devil (<i>Dasyurus ursinus</i>, Geoff.), about the size of a bull terrier, is an exceedingly fierce and disgusting-looking animal, of a black colour, usually having one white band across the chest, and another across the back, near the tail. It is a perfect glutton, and most indiscriminate in its feeding."

1862. F. J. Jobson, `Australia,' c. vii. p. 186:

"<i>Dasyurus ursinus</i>—a carnivorous marsupial. Colonists in Tasmania, where only it exists . . . called it the `devil,' from the havoc it made among their sheep and poultry."

1891. `Guide to Zoological Gardens, Melbourne':

"In the next division is a pair of Tasmanian devils (<i>Dasyurus ursinus</i>); these unprepossessing-looking brutes are hated by every one in Tasmania, their habitat, owing to their destructiveness amongst poultry, and even sheep. They are black in colour, having only a white band across the chest, and possess great strength in proportion to their size."

<hw>Devil's Guts</hw>, <i>n</i>. The name is given in Australia to the <i>Dodder-Laurel</i> (see <i>Laurel</i>), <i>Cassytha filiformis</i>, Linn., <i>N.O. Lauraceae</i>. In Tasmania the name is applied to <i>Lyonsia straminea</i>, R. Br., <i>N.O. Apocyneae</i>.

1862. W. Archer, `Products of Tasmania,' p. 41:

"Lyonsia (<i>Lyonsia straminea</i>, Br.). Fibres of the bark fine and strong. The lyonsia is met with, rather sparingly, in dense thickets, with its stems hanging like ropes among the trees."

1889. J. H. Maiden, `useful Native Plants,' p. 14:

"This and other species of Cassythia are called `dodder-laurel.' The emphatic name of `devil's guts' is largely used. It frequently connects bushes and trees by cords, and becomes a nuisance to the traveller." [This plant is used by the Brahmins of Southern India for seasoning their buttermilk. (`Treasury of Botany.')]

Ibid. p. 162:

"It is also used medicinally."

<hw>Devil-on-the-Coals</hw>, <i>n</i>. a Bushman's name for a small and quickly-baked damper.

1862. Rev. A. Polehampton, `Kangaroo Land,' p. 77:

"Instead of damper we occasionally made what is colonially known as `devils on the coals.' . . . They are convenient when there is not time to make damper, as only a minute or so is required to bake them. They are made about the size of a captain's biscuit, and as thin as possible, thrown on the embers and turned quickly with the hand."

<hw>Diamond Bird</hw>, <i>n</i>. a bird-name. In the time of Gould this name was only applied to <i>Pardalotus punctatus</i>, Temm. Since that time it has been extended to all the species of the genus <i>Pardalotus</i> (q.v.). The broken colour of the plumage suggested a sparkling jewel.

1827. Vigors and Horsfield, `Transactions of Linnaean Society,' vol. xv. p. 238:

"We are informed by Mr. Caley that this species is called diamond bird by the settlers, from the spots on its body. By them it is reckoned as valuable on account of its skin."

<hw>Diamond Snake</hw>, <i>n</i>. In Queensland and New South Wales, <i>Pythonon spilotes</i>, Lacep.; in Tasmania, <i>Hoplocephalus superhus</i>, Gray, venomous. See under <i>Snake</i>.

<hw>Digger</hw>, <i>n</i>. a gold-miner. The earliest mines were alluvial. Of course the word is used elsewhere, but in Australia it has this special meaning.

1852. Title:

"Murray's Guide to the Gold Diggings.—The Australian Gold
Diggings; where they are, and how to get at them; with letters
from Settlers and Diggers telling how to work them. London:
Stewart & Murray) 1852."

1853. Valiant, `Letter to Council,' given in McCombie's `History of Victoria' (1853), c. xvi. p. 248:

"It caused the diggers, as a body, to pause in their headlong career."

1855. W. Howitt, `Land, Labour, and Gold,' vol. ii. p. 148, Letter xxx:

"Buckland River, January 29th, 1854. The diggers here are a very quiet and civil race, at the same time that they are a most active and laborious one. . . . The principal part of the diggers here are from the Ovens."

1864. J. Rogers, `New Rush,' pt. ii. p. 31:

"Drink success to the digger's trade,
 And break up to the squatter's."

1896. H. Lawson, `While the Billy boils,' p. 148:

"His Father's Mate had always been a general favourite with the diggers and fossickers, from the days when he used to slip out first thing in the morning and take a run across the frosty flat in his shirt."

<hw>Digger's Delight</hw>, <i>n</i>. a flower, <i>Veronica perfoliata</i>, R. Br., <i>N.O. Scrophularaneae</i>, described in quotations.

1878. W. R. Guilfoyle, `First Book of Australian Botany,' p. 64:

"Digger's Delight, <i>Veronica perfoliata</i>, <i>N.O. Scrophularineae</i>. A pretty, blue-flowering shrub, with smooth stem-clasping leaves; found in the mountainous districts of Victoria and New South Wales, and deriving its common name from a supposition that its presence indicated auriferous country. It is plentiful in the elevated cold regions of Australia."

1888. D. Macdonald, `Gum Boughs,' p. 147:

"Such native flowers as the wild violet, the shepherd's purse, or the blue-flowered `digger's delight.' This latter has come, perhaps, with the seeds from some miner's holding amongst the iron-barks in the gold country, and was once supposed to grow only on auriferous soils. When no one would think of digging for gold in this field, the presence of the flower is, perhaps, as reliable an indication of a golconda underneath as the reports and information on the strength of which many mining companies are floated."

<hw>Diggerdom</hw>, <i>n</i>. collective noun, the diggers.

1855. W. Howitt, `Two Years in Victoria,' vol. i. p. 43:

"Diggerdom is gloriously in the ascendant here."

<hw>Diggeress</hw>, <i>n</i>. a digger's wife.

1855. W. Howitt, `Two Years in Victoria,' vol. i. p. 43:

"The digger marching off, followed by his diggeress, a tall, slim young woman, who strode on like a trooper. . . . Open carriages driving about, crowded with diggers and their diggeresses."

1864. J. Rogers, `New Rush,' pt. ii. p. 36:

"I'm tir'd of being a diggeress,
 And yearn a farmer's home to grace."

<hw>Diggings</hw>, <i>n</i>. a place where gold-mining is carried on. The word is generally regarded as singular. Though common in Australia, it is very old, even in the sense of a place where digging for gold is carried on.

1769. De Foe's `Tour of Great Britain,' i. 39 (`O.E.D.'):

"King Henry VIII. was induced to dig for Gold. He was disappointed, but the Diggings are visible at this Day."

1852. J. Morgan, `Life and Adventures of William Buckley' (published at Hobart), p. 183 [quoting from the `Victoria Commercial Review,' published at Melbourne, by Messrs. Westgarth, Ross, & Co., under date September 1, 1851]:

"The existence of a `goldfield' was not ascertained until May last. . . . Numbers of persons are daily `prospecting' throughout this Colony and New South Wales in search of gold. . . .In Victoria, as well as in New South Wales, regular `diggings' are now established."

1852. Murray, `The Australian Gold Diggings: where they are and how to get at them,' p. 1;

"It cannot but be acceptable to the crowds of intending colonists and gold seekers, to present them with a picture of the `Progress of the Diggins,' [sic] drawn by the diggers."

1858. T. McCombie, `History of Victoria,' c. xv. p. 234:

"Immigrants who had not means to start to the diggings."

1870. J. O. Tucker, `The Mute,' p. 48:

"Ye glorious diggings `neath a southern clime!
 I saw thy dawn."

[`Ye,' `thy.' Is this singular or plural?]

1887. H. H. Hayter, `Christmas Adventure,' p. i:

"Fryer's creek, a diggings more than 90 miles from Melbourne."

1890. Rolf Boldrewood, `Miner's Right,' c. vii. p. 71:

"It was a goldfield and a diggings in far-away Australia."

<hw>Dilli</hw>, later <hw>Dilly-bag</hw>, <i>n</i>. an aboriginal word, coming from Queensland, for a bag made either of grasses or of fur twisted into cord. <i>Dhilla</i> is the term for hair in Kabi dialect, Mary River, Queensland. <i>Dirrang</i> and <i>jirra</i> are corresponding words in the east of New South Wales. The aboriginal word <i>dilli</i> has been tautologically increased to <i>dilly-bag</i>, and the word is used by bushmen for a little bag for odds-and-ends, even though made of calico or holland.

1847. L. Leichhardt, `Overland Expedition,' p. 90:

"In their `dillis' (small baskets) were several roots or tubers."

Ibid. p. 195:

"A basket (dilli) which I examined was made of a species of grass."

1885. R. M. Praed, `Australian Life,' p. 34:

"I learned too at the camp to plait dilly-bags."

1890. Rolf Boldrewood, `Colonial Reformer,' c. xvii. p. 210:

"Mayboy came forward dangling a small dilly-bag."

1896. A.J. North, `Report of Australian Museum,' p. 26:

"Dilly-bag (partly wool and partly grass)."

<hw>Dingle-bird</hw>, <i>n.</i> a poetical name for the Australian <i>Bell-bird</i> (q.v.).

1870. F. S. Wilson, `Australian Songs,' p. 30:

"The bell-like chimings of the distant dingle-bird."

1883. C. Harpur, `Poems,' p. 78:

"I . . . list the tinkling of the dinglebird."

<hw>Dingo</hw>, <i>n</i>. the native dog of Australia, <i>Canis dingo</i>. "The aborigines, before they obtained dogs from Europeans, kept the dingo for hunting, as is still done by coast tribes in Queensland. Name probably not used further south than Shoalhaven, where the wild dog is called Mirigang." (A. W. Howitt.)

1790. J. White, `Voyage to New South Wales,' p. 280:

[A dingo or dog of New South Wales. Plate. Description by J. Hunter.] "It is capable of barking, although not so readily as the European dogs; is very ill-natured and vicious, and snarls, howls, and moans, like dogs in common. Whether this is the only dog in New South Wales, and whether they have it in a wild state, is not mentioned; but I should be inclined to believe they had no other; in which case it will constitute the wolf of that country; and that which is domesticated is only the wild dog tamed, without having yet produced a variety, as in some parts of America."

1798. D. Collins, `Account of English Colony in New South Wales,' p. 614 [Vocab.]:

"Jungo—-Beasts, common name.
 Tein-go—-Din-go.
 Wor-re-gal—-Dog."

1820. W. C. Wentworth, `Description of New South Wales,' p. 62:

"The native dog also, which is a species of the wolf, was proved to be fully equal in this respect [sport] to the fox; but as the pack was not sufficiently numerous to kill these animals at once, they always suffered so severely from their bite that at last the members of the hunt were shy in allowing the dogs to follow them."

1834. L. E. Threlkeld, `Australian Grammar,' p. 55:

"Tigko—-a bitch."

1852. G. C. Mundy, `Our Antipodes `(1855), p. 153:

"I have heard that the dingo, warragal or native dog, does not hunt in packs like the wolf and jackal."

1860. William Story, `Victorian Government Prize Essays,' p. 101:

"The English hart is so greatly superior, as an animal of chase, to that cunning poultry thief the fox, that I trust Mister Reynard will never be allowed to become an Australian immigrant, and that when the last of the dingoes shall have shared the fate of the last English wolf, Australian Nimrods will resuscitate, at the antipodes of England, the sterling old national sport of hart hunting, conjointly with that of African boks, gazelles, and antelopes, and leave the fox to their English cousins, who cannot have Australian choice."

1872. C. H. Eden, `My Wife and I in Queensland,' p. 103:

"In the neighbourhood of Brisbane and other large towns where they have packs, they run the dingoes as you do foxes at home."

1880. Garnet Walch, `Victoria in 1880,' p. 113:

"The arms of the Wimmera should be rabbit and dingo, `rampant,' supporting a sun, `or, inflamed.'"

1881. A. C. Grant, `Bush Life in Queensland,' vol. i. p. 71:

"Dingoes, the Australian name for the wild dogs so destructive to sheep. They were . . . neither more nor less than wolves, but more cowardly and not so ferocious, seldom going in large packs. They hunted kangaroos when in numbers, or driven to it by hunger; but usually preferred smaller and more easily obtained prey, as rats, bandicoots, and 'possums."

1890. C. Lumholtz, `Among Cannibals,' p. 38:

"On the large stations a man is kept whose sole work it is to lay out poison for the dingo. The black variety with white breast generally appears in Western Queensland along with the red."

1891. `Guide to Zoological Gardens, Melbourne':

"The dingo of northern Australia can be distinguished from his brother of the south by his somewhat smaller size and courageous bearing. He always carries his tail curled over his back, and is ever ready to attack any one or anything; whilst the southern dingo carries his tail low, slinks along like a fox, and is easily frightened. The pure dingo, which is now exceedingly rare in a wild state, partly through the agency of poison, but still more from the admixture of foreign breeds, is unable to bark, and can only express its feelings in long-drawn weird howls."

1894. `The Argus,' June 23, p. l1, col. 4:

"Why is the first call of a dingo always apparently miles away, and the answer to it—another quavering note slightly more shrill—so close at hand? Is it delusion or distance?"

<hw>Dinornis</hw>, <i>n</i>. the scientific name given by Professor Owen to the genus of huge struthious birds of the post-Pliocene period, in New Zealand, which survive in the traditions of the Maoris under the name of <i>Moa</i> (q.v.). From the Greek <i>deinos</i>, terrible, and <i>'ornis</i>, bird.

1888. W. L. Buller, `Birds of New Zealand,' vol. i. Intro. p. xviii:

"The specimens [fossil-bones] transmitted . . . were confided to the learned Professor [Owen] for determination; and these materials, scanty as they were, enabled him to define the generic characters of <i>Dinornis</i>, as afforded by the bones of the hind extremity."

Ibid. p. xxiv:

"Professor Owen had well-nigh exhausted the vocabulary of terms expressive of largeness by naming his successive discoveries <i>ingens, giganteus, crassus, robustus</i>, and <i>elephantopus</i>, when he had to employ the superlative <i>Dinornis maximus</i> to distinguish a species far exceeding in stature even the stately <i>Dinornis giganteus</i>. In this colossal bird . . . some of the cervical vertebrae almost equal in size the neck-bones of a horse! The skeleton in the British Museum . . . measures 11 feet in height, and . . . some of these feathered giants attained to a still greater stature."

<hw>Dipper</hw>, <i>n</i>. a vessel with a handle at the top of the side like a big tin mug. That with which one dips. The word is not Australian, but is of long standing in the United States, where it is used as a name for the constellation of the <i>Great Bear</i>.

1893. `Australasian Schoolmaster,' Feb.:

"These answers have not the true colonial ring of the following, which purports to be the remark of the woman of Samaria: `Sir, the well is very deep, and you haven't got a dipper.'"

<hw>Dips</hw>, <i>n</i>. Explained in quotation.

1859. G. Bunce, `Travels with Leichhardt,' p. 161:

". . . Dr. Leichhardt gave the party a quantity of dough boys, or as we called them, dips. . ."

[p. 171]: "In this dilemma, Dr. Leichhardt ordered the cook to mix up a lot of flour, and treated us all to a feed of dips. These were made as follows:—a quantity of flour was mixed up with water, and stirred with a spoon to a certain consistency, and dropped into a pot of boiling water, a spoonful at a time. Five minutes boiling was sufficient, when they were eaten with the water in which they were boiled."

<hw>Dirt</hw>, <i>n</i>. In Australia, any alluvial deposit in which gold is found; properly <i>Wash-dirt</i>. The word is used in the United States. See quotation, 187.

1853. Mrs. Chas. Clancy, `Lady's Visit to the Gold Diggings,' p. 109:

"And after doing this several times, the `dirt,' of course, gradually diminishing, I was overjoyed to see a few bright specks."

1857. Borthwick, `California,' [Bartlett, quoted in `O.E.D.'] p. 120:

"In California, `dirt' is the universal word to signify the substance dug; earth, clay, gravel, or loose slate. The miners talk of rich dirt and poor dirt, and of stripping off so many feet of `top dirt' before getting to `pay-dirt,' the latter meaning dirt with so much gold in it that it will pay to dig it up and wash it."

1870. J. O. Tucker, `The Mute,'p. 40:

"Others to these the precious dirt convey,
 Linger a moment till the panning's through."

1890. Rolf Boldrewood, `Miner's Right,' c. xiv. p. 142:

"We were clean worked out . . . before many of our neighbours at Greenstone Gully, were half done with their dirt."

Ibid. c. xviii. p. 177:

"We must trust in the Oxley `dirt' and a kind Providence."

<hw>Dish</hw>, <i>n</i>. and <i>adj</i>. a small and rough vessel in which gold is washed. The word is used in the United States.

1890. `Goldfields of Victoria,' p. 17:

"I have obtained good dish prospects after crudely crushing up the quartz."

<hw>Dishwasher</hw>, <i>n</i>. an old English bird-name for the Water-Wagtail; applied in Australia to <i>Seisura inquieta</i>, Lath., the <i>Restless Fly-catcher</i> (q.v.). <i>Seisura</i> is from Grk. <i>seiein</i> (to shake), and <i>'oura</i> (a tail), being thus equal in meaning to Wagtail. Also called <i>Dishlick, Grinder</i>, and <i>Razor-grinder</i> (q.v.).

1827. Vigors and Horsfield, `Transactions of the Linnaean Society,' vol. xv. p. 250:

"This bird is called by the colonists Dishwasher. It is very curious in its actions. In alighting on the stump of a tree it makes several semi-circular motions, spreading out its tail, and making a loud noise somewhat like that caused by a razor-grinder when at work."

<hw>Distoechurus</hw>, <i>n</i>. the scientific name of the genus of the New Guinea Pentailed-Phalanger, or so-called <i>Opossum-mouse</i> (q.v.). It has a tail with the long hairs arranged in two opposite rows, like the vanes of a feather.(Grk. <i>distoichos</i>, with two rows, and <i>'oura</i>, a tail.)

<hw>Diver</hw>, <i>n</i>. common bird-name used in Australia for a species of Grebe.

1848. J. Gould, `Birds of Australia,' vol. vii. pl. 80:

"<i>Podiceps australis</i>, Gould; Australian Tippet Grebe; Diver of the Colonists."

<hw>Doctor</hw>, <i>n</i>. word used in the South Australian bush for "the cook."

1896. `The Australasian,' June 13, p. 1133, col. 1:

"`The doctor's in the kitchen, and the boss is in the shed;
   The overseer's out mustering on the plain;
  Sling your bluey down, old boy, for the clouds are overhead,
   You are welcome to a shelter from the rain.'"

<hw>Dodder Laurel</hw>, <i>n</i>. i.q. <i>Devil's Guts</i> (q.v.).

<hw>Dog-fish</hw>, <i>n</i>. The name belongs to various fishes of distinct families, chiefly sharks. In Australia, it is used for the fish <i>Scyllium lima</i>, family <i>Scylliidae</i>. In New South Wales it is <i>Scyllium maculatum</i>, Bl. The <i>Sprite Dog-fish</i> of New Zealand is <i>Acanthias maculatus</i>, family <i>Spinacidae</i>. The <i>Spotted Dog-fish</i> of New South Wales is <i>Scyllium anale</i>. The <i>Dusky Dogfish</i> of New South Wales is <i>Chiloscyllium modestum</i>, Gunth., and there are others in Tasmania and Australia.

<hw>Dogleg</hw>, <i>adj</i>. applied to a primitive kind of fence made of rough timber. Crossed spars, which are the doglegs, placed at intervals, keep in place a low rail resting on short posts, and are themselves fixed by heavy saplings resting in the forks above.

1875. R. and F. Hill, `What we saw in Australia,' p. 61:

". . . we made acquaintance with the `dog's leg' fence. This is formed of bare branches of the gum-tree laid obliquely, several side by side, and the ends overlapping, so that they have somewhat the appearance that might be presented by the stretched-out legs of a crowd of dogs running at full speed. An upright stick at intervals, with a fork at the top, on which some of the cross-branches rest, adds strength to the structure."

1888. D. Macdonald, `Gum Boughs,' p. 13:

"While the primaeval `dog-leg' fence of the Victorian bush, or the latter-day `chock and log' are no impediments in the path of our foresters." [sc. kangaroos; see <i>Forester</i>.]

1888. Rolf Boldrewood, `Robbery under Arms,' p. 71:

"As we rode up we could see a gunyah made out of boughs, and a longish wing of dog leg fence, made light but well put together."

<hw>Dog's Tongue</hw>, <i>n</i>. name given to the plant <i>Cynoglossum suaveolens</i>, R. Br., <i>N.O. Asperifoliae</i>.

<hw>Dogwood</hw>, <i>n</i>. various trees and their wood; none of them the same as those called <i>dogwood</i> in the Northern Hemisphere, but their woods are used for similar purposes, e.g. butchers' skewers, fine pegs, and small pointed wooden instruments. In Australia generally, <i>Jacksonia scoparia</i>, R. Br., also <i>Myoporum platycarpum</i>, R. Br. In Tasmania, <i>Bedfordia salicina</i>, De C., <i>N.O. Compositae</i>, which is also called <i>Honeywood</i>, and in New South Wales, <i>Cottonwood</i> (q.v.), and the two trees <i>Pomaderris elliptica</i>, Lab., and <i>P. apetala</i>, Lab., <i>N.O. Rhamnaceae</i>, which are called respectively <i>Yellow</i> and <i>Bastard Dogwood</i>. See also <i>Coranderrk</i>. In parts of Tasmania, <i>Pomaderris apetala</i>, Lab., <i>N.O. Rhamn/ac?/eae</i>, is also called <i>Dogwood</i>, or <i>Bastard Dogwood</i>.

1836. Ross, `Hobart Town Almanack,' p. 16:

"There is a secluded hollow of this kind near Kangaroo Bottom, near Hobart Town, where the common dogwood of the colony (pomaderris apetala) has sprung up so thick and tall, that Mr. Babington and myself having got into it unawares one day, had the greatest difficulty imaginable to get out after three or four hours' labour. Not one of the plants was more than six inches apart from the others, while they rose from 6 to 12 yards in height, with leaves at the top which almost wholly excluded the light of the sun."

1847. L. Leichhardt, `Overland Expedition,' p. 11:

"Iron-bark ridges here and there, with spotted gum, with dogwood (<i>Jacksonia</i>) on a sandy soil." (p. 20): "A second creek, with running water, which from the number of dogwood shrubs (<i>Jacksonia</i>), in the full glory of their golden blossoms, I called `Dogwood Creek.'"

1894. `Melbourne Museum Catalogue—Economic Woods,' p. 46:

"Native dogwood, a hard, pale-brown, well-mottled wood; good for turnery."

<hw>Dogwood Poison-bush</hw>, <i>n</i>. a New South Wales name; the same as <i>Ellangowan Poison-bush</i> (q.v.).

<hw>Dollar</hw>, <i>n</i>. See <i>Holy Dollar</i>.

<hw>Dollar-bird</hw>, <i>n</i>. name given to the <i>Roller</i> (q.v.). See quotations.

1827. Vigors and Horsfield, `Transactions of Linnaean Society,' vol. xv. p. 202:

"The settlers call it dollar-bird, from the silver-like spot on the wing."

1848. J. Gould, `Birds of Australia;' vol. ii. pl. 17:

"<i>Eurystomus Australis</i>, Swains., Australian Roller. Dollar Bird of the Colonists. During flight the white spot in the centre of each wing, then widely expanded, shows very distinctly, and hence the name of Dollar Bird.'"

1851. I. Henderson, `Excursions in New South Wales,' vol. ii. p. 183:

"The Dollar-bird derives its name from a round white spot the size of a dollar, on its wing. It is very handsome, and flies in rather a peculiar manner. It is the only bird which I have observed to perform regular migrations; and it is strange that in such a climate any one should do so. But it appears that the dollar-bird does not relish even an Australian winter. It is the harbinger of spring and genial weather."

<hw>Dollar-fish</hw> <i>n</i>. a name often given formerly to the <i>John Dory</i> (q.v.), from the mark on its side. See quotation, 1880. The name <i>Dollar-fish</i> is given on the American coasts to a different fish.

1880. Guenther, `Study of Fishes,' p. 451:

"The fishermen of Roman Catholic countries hold this fish in special respect, as they recognize in a black round spot on its side the mark left by the thumb of St. Peter, when he took the piece of money from its mouth."

1882. Rev. J. E. Tenison-Woods, `Fish of New South Wales,' p. 62:

"The dory has been long known, and when the currency of the colony was in Mexican coin it was called a `dollar-fish.'"

<hw>Dorca-Kangaroo</hw>, <i>n</i>. See <i>Dorcopsis</i> and <i>Kangaroo</i>.

<hw>Dorcopsis</hw>, <i>n</i>. the scientific name of a genus of little Kangaroos with pretty gazelle-like faces. (Grk. <i>dorkas</i>, a gazelle, and <i>'opsis</i>, appearance.) They are called <i>Dorca-Kangaroos</i>, and are confined to New Guinea, and form in some respects a connecting link between <i>Macropus</i> and the <i>Tree-Kangaroo</i> (q.v.). There are three species—the Brown Dorca Kangaroo, <i>Dorcopsis muelleri</i>; Grey D., <i>D. luctuosa</i>, Macleay's D., <i>D. macleayi</i>. See <i>Kangaroo</i> (e).

<hw>Dottrel</hw>, <i>n</i>. formerly <i>Dotterel</i>, common English bird-name, applied in Australia to <i>Charadrius australis</i>, Gould.

Black-fronted Dottrel—
 <i>Charadrius nigrifrons</i>, Temm.

Double-banded D.—
 <i>C. bicincta</i>, Jord. and Selb.

Hooded D.—
 <i>C. monacha</i>, Geoff.

Large Sand D.—
 <i>C. (AEgialitis)</i> geoffroyi, Wag.

Mongolian Sand D.—
 <i>C. (AEgialitis) mongolica</i>, Pallas.

Oriental D.—
 <i>C. veredus</i>, Gould.

Red-capped Dottrel— <i>Charadrius ruficapilla</i>, Temm.; called also <i>Sand-lark</i>.

Red-necked D.—
 <i>C. (AEgialitis) mastersi</i>, Ramsay.

Ringed D.—
 <i>C. hiaticula</i>, Linn. [See also Red-knee.]

<hw>Dove</hw>, <i>n</i>. a well-known English bird-name, applied in Australia to the—

Barred-shouldered Dove—
 <i>Geopelia humeralis</i>, Temm.

Ground D.—
 <i>G. tranquilla</i>, Gould.

Little D.—
 <i>G. cuneata</i>, Lath. [See also Ground-dove.]

<hw>Dove-Petrel</hw>, <i>n</i>. a well-known English bird-name. The species in the-Southern Seas are—

<i>Prion turtur</i>, Smith.

Banks D.-P.—
 <i>P. banksii</i>, Smith.

Broad-billed D.-P.—
 <i>P. vittata</i>, Forst.

Fairy D.-P.—
 <i>P. ariel</i>, Gould.

<hw>Dover</hw>, <i>n</i>. a clasp knife, by a maker of that name, once much used in the colonies.

1878. `The Australian,' vol. i. p. 418:

"In plates and knives scant is the shepherd's store,
 `Dover' and pan are all, he wants no more."

1893. April 15, `A Traveller's Note':

"`So much a week and the use of my Dover' men used to say in making a contract of labour."

1894. `Bush Song' [Extract]:

"Tie up the dog beside the log,
 And come and flash your Dover."

<hw>Down</hw>, <i>n</i>. a prejudice against, hostility to; a peculiarly Australian noun made out of the adverb.

1856. W. W. Dobie, `Recollections of a Visit to Port Philip,' p. 84:

". . . the bushranger had been in search of another squatter, on whom `he said he had a down'. . ."

1884. J. W. Bull, `Early Life in South Australia,' p. 179:

"It was explained that Foley had a private `down' on them, as having stolen from him a favourite kangaroo dog."

1889. Cassell's `Picturesque Australasia, vol. iv. p. 180:

"They [diggers] had a `dead down' on all made dishes."

1893. Professor Gosman, `The Argus,' April 24, p. 7, col. 4:

"That old prejudice in the minds of many men to the effect that those who represented the churches or religious people had a regular down upon freedom of thought."

1893. `The Age,' June 24, p. 5, col. 1:

"Mr. M. said it was notorious in the department that one of the commissioners had had `a down' on him."

1893. R. L. Stevenson, `Island Nights' Entertainments,' p. 46:

"`They have a down on you,' says Case. `Taboo a man because they have a down on him'' I cried. `I never heard the like.'"

<hw>Down</hw>, <i>adv</i>. "To come, or be down," is the phrase used in Australian Universities for to be "plucked," or "ploughed," or "spun," i.e., to fail in an examination. It has been in use for a few years, certainly not earlier than 1886. The metaphor is either taken from a fall from a horse, or perhaps from the prize-ring. The use has no connection with being "sent down," or "going down," at Oxford or Cambridge.

<hw>Draft</hw>, <i>v</i>. to separate and sort cattle. An adaptation of the meaning "to select and draw off for particular service," especially used of soldiers.

1884. Rolf Boldrewood, `Melbourne Memories,' c. vi. p. 46:

"I should like to be drafting there again."

1890. Rolf Boldrewood, `The Squatter's Dream,' p. 2:

"There were those cattle to be drafted that had been brought from the Lost Waterhole."

<hw>Draft</hw>, <i>n</i>. a body of cattle separated from the rest of the herd.

1884. Rolf Boldrewood, `Melbourne Memories,' c. ii. p. 22:

"A draft of out-lying cattle rose and galloped off."

<hw>Drafter</hw>, <i>n</i>. a man engaged in drafting cattle.

1890. Rolf Boldrewood, `Colonial Reformer,' c. xviii. p. 227:

"They behave better, though all the while keeping the drafters incessantly popping at the fence by truculent charges."

<hw>Drafting-gate</hw>, <i>n</i>. gate used in separating cattle and sheep into different classes or herds.

1890. `The Argus,' Aug. 16, p. 4, col. 7:

"But the tent-flap seemed to go up and down quick as a drafting-gate."

<hw>Drafting-stick</hw>, <i>n</i>. a stick used in drafting cattle.

1884. Rolf Boldrewood, `Melbourne Memories,' c. x. p. 72:

"We . . . armed ourselves with drafting-sticks and resolutely faced it."

<hw>Drafting-yard</hw>, <i>n</i>. a yard for drafting cattle.

1890. `The Argus,' Aug. 16, p. 13, col. 1:

"There were drafting-yards and a tank a hundred yards off, but no garden."

<hw>Dray</hw>, <i>n</i>. an ordinary cart for goods. See quotation, 1872.

1833. C. Sturt, `Southern Australia,' vol. i. Intro. p. xlix:

"They send their produce to the market . . . receiving supplies for home consumption on the return of their drays or carts from thence."

1872. C. H. Eden, "My Wife and I in Queensland,' p. 31:

"A horse dray, as known in Australia, is by no means the enormous thing its name would signify, but simply an ordinary cart on two wheels without springs." [There are also spring-drays.]

1886. H. C. Kendall, `Poems,' p. 41:

"One told by camp fires when the station drays
 Were housed and hidden, forty years ago."

<hw>Dromicia</hw>, <i>n</i>. the scientific name of the Australian <i>Dormouse Phalangers</i>, or little <i>Opossum</i>- or <i>Flying-Mice</i>, as they are locally called. See <i>Opossum</i>, <i>Opossum-mouse</i>, and <i>Phalanger</i>. They are not really the "Flying"-Mice or Flying-phalanger, as they have only an incipient parachute, but they are nearly related to the <i>Pigmy Petaurists</i> (q.v.) or small <i>Flying-Phalangers</i>. (Grk. <i>dromikos</i>, good at running, or swift.)

<hw>Drongo</hw>, <i>n</i>. This bird-name was "given by Le Vaillant in the form <i>drongeur</i> to a South African bird afterwards known as the Musical Drongo, <i>Dicrurus musicus</i>, then extended to numerous . . . fly-catching, crow-like birds." (`Century.') The name is applied in Australia to <i>Chibia bracteata</i>, Gould, which is called the <i>Spangled Drongo</i>.

1895. W. 0. Legge, `Australasian Association for the Advancement of Science' (Brisbane), p. 448:

"There being but one member of the interesting Asiatic genus <i>Drongo</i> in Australia, it was thought best to characterize it simply as the <i>Drongo</i> without any qualifying term."

<hw>Drop</hw>, <i>n</i>. (Slang.) To "have the drop on" is to forestall, gain advantage over, especially by covering with a revolver.

It is curious that while an American magazine calls this phrase
Australian (see quotation), the `Dictionary of Slang'—one
editor of which is the distinguished American, Godfrey
C. Leland—says it is American. It is in common use in
Australia.

1894. `Atlantic Monthly,' Aug., p. 179.

"His terrible wife, if we may borrow a phrase from Australia, `had the drop on him' in every particular."

<hw>Drooping Acacia</hw>, <i>n</i>. See <i>Acacia</i>.

<hw>Drove</hw>, <i>v</i>. to drive travelling cattle or sheep.

1890. A. J. Vogan, `Black Police,' p. 334:

"I don't know how you'd be able to get on without the `boys' to muster, track, and drove."

1896. A. B. Paterson, `Man from Snowy River' [Poem `In the Droving Days'], p. 95:

"For though lie scarcely a trot can raise,
 He can take me back to the droving days."

<hw>Drum</hw>, <i>n</i>. a bundle; more usually called a <i>swag</i> (q.v.).

1866. Wm. Starner, `Recollections of a Life of Adventure,' vol. i. p. 304

". . . and `humping his drum' start off for the diggings to seek more gold."

1872. C. H. Eden, `My Wife and I in Queensland,' p. 17:

"They all chaffed us about our swags, or donkeys, or drums, as a bundle of things wrapped in a blanket is indifferently called."

1886. Frank Cowan, `Australia, Charcoal Sketch,' p. 31:

"The Swagman: bed and board upon his back—or, having humped his drum and set out on the wallaby . . ."

<hw>Drummer</hw>, <i>n</i>. a New South Wales name for the fish <i>Girella elevata</i>, Macl., of the same family as the <i>Black-fish</i> (q.v.).

<hw>Dry-blowing</hw>, <i>n</i>. a Western Australian term in gold-mining.

1894. `The Argus,' March 28, p. 5, col. 5:

"When water is not available, as unfortunately is the case at Coolgardie, `dry blowing' is resorted to. This is done by placing the pounded stuff in one dish, and pouring it slowly at a certain height into the other. If there is any wind blowing it will carry away the powdered stuff; if there is no wind the breath will have to be used. It is not a pleasant way of saving gold, but it is a case of Hobson's choice. The unhealthiness of the method is apparent."

<hw>Duboisine</hw>, <i>n</i>. an alkaloid derived from the plant <i>Duboisia myoposides</i>, <i>N.O. Sofanaceae</i>, a native of Queensland and New South Wales. It is used in medicine as an application to the eye for the purpose of causing the pupil to dilate, in the same way as atropine, an alkaloid obtained from the belladonna plant in Europe, has long been employed. Duboisine was discovered and introduced into therapeutics by a Brisbane physician.

<hw>Duck</hw>, <i>n</i>. the well-known English name of the birds of the <i>Anatinae, Fuligulinae</i>, and other series, of which there are about 125 species comprised in about 40 genera. The Australian genera and species are—-

Blue-billed Duck—
 <i>Erismatura australis</i>, Gould.

Freckled D.—
 <i>Stictonetta naevosa</i>, Gould.

Mountain D. (the Shel-drake, q.v.).

Musk D. (q.v.)—
 <i>Biziura lobata</i>, Shaw.

Pink-eared D., or Widgeon (q.v.)—
 <i>Malacorhynchus membranaceus</i>, Lath.

Plumed Whistling D.—
 <i>Dendrocygna eytoni</i>, Gould.

Whistling D.—
 <i>D. vagans</i>, Eyton. [Each species of the
 <i>Dendrocygna</i> called also by sportsmen Tree-duck.]

White-eyed D., or Hard-head (q.v.)—
 <i>Nyroca australis</i>, Gould.

Wild D.—
 <i>Anas superciliosa</i>, Gmel.

Wood D. (the Maned Goose; see <i>Goose</i>).

The following is a table of the ducks as compiled by Gould nearly fifty years ago.

1848. J. Gould, `Birds of Australia,' vol. vii:

Plate

<i>Anas superciliosa</i>, Gmel.
 Australian Wild Duck . . . 9

<i>Anas naevosa</i>, Gould,
 Freckled Duck . . . 10

<i>Anas punctata</i>, Cuv.
 Chestnut-breasted Duck . . . 11

<i>Spatula Rhyncotis</i>,
 Australian Shoveller . . . 12

<i>Malacorhynchus membranaceus</i>, . . . 13
 Membranaceous Duck

<i>Dendrocygna arcuata</i>,
 Whistling Duck (q.v.) . . . 14

<i>Leptolarsis Eytoni</i>, Gould,
 Eyton's Duck . . . 15

<i>Nyroca Australis</i>, Gould,
 White-eyed Duck . . . 16

<i>Erismatura Australis</i>,
 Blue-billed Duck . . . 17

<i>Biziura lobata</i>,
 Musk Duck . . . 18

The following is Professor Parker's statement of the New Zealand <i>Ducks</i>.

1889. Prof. Parker, `Catalogue of New Zealand Exhibition,' p. 117:

"There are eleven species of Native Ducks belonging to nine genera, all found elsewhere, except two—the little Flightless Duck of the Auckland Islands (genus <i>Nesonetta</i>) and the Blue Mountain Duck (<i>Hymenolaemus</i>). Among the most interesting of the non-endemic forms, are the Paradise Duck or Sheldrake (<i>Casarca variegata</i>), the Brown Duck (<i>Anas chlorotis</i>), the Shoveller or Spoonbill Duck (<i>Rhynchaspis variegata</i>), and the Scaup or Black Teal (<i>Fuligula Novae-Zealandiae</i>)."

<hw>Duckbill</hw>, <i>n</i>. See <i>Platypus</i>. Sometimes also called <i>Duckmole</i>.

<hw>Duckmole</hw>, <i>n</i>. See <i>Platypus</i>.

1825. Barron Field, `First Fruits of Australian Poetry,' in `Geographical Memoirs of New South Wales,' p. 496:

"When sooty swans are once more rare,
 And duck-moles the museum's care."

[Appendix : "Water or duck-mole."]

1875. Schmidt, `Descent and Darwinism,' p. 237:

"The Ornithorhyncus or duck-mole of Tasmania."

<hw>Duck-shoving</hw>, and <hw>Duckshover</hw>, <i>n</i>. a cabman's phrase.

In Melbourne, before the days of trams, the wagonette-cabs used to run by a time-table from fixed stations at so much (generally 3<i>d</i>.) a passenger. A cabman who did not wait his turn on the station rank, but touted for passengers up and down the street in the neighbourhood of the rank, was termed a <i>Duck-shover</i>.

1870. D. Blair, `Notes and Queries,' Aug. 6, p. 111:

"Duck-shoving is the term used by our Melbourne cabmen to express the unprofessional trick of breaking the rank, in order to push past the cabman on the stand for the purpose of picking up a stray passenger or so."

1896. `Otago Daily Times,' Jan. 25, p. 3, col. 6:

"The case was one of a series of cases of what was technically known as `duck shoving,' a process of getting passengers which operated unfairly against the cabmen who stayed on the licensed stand and obeyed the by-law."

<hw>Dudu</hw>, <i>n</i>. aboriginal name for a pigeon, fat-breasted, and very good eating.

1852. G. C. Mundy, `Our Antipodes' (3rd ed. 1855), c. vii. p. 170:

"In the grassland, a sort of ground pigeon, called the dudu, a very handsome little bird, got up and went off like a partridge, strong and swift, re-alighting on the ground, and returning to cover."

<hw>Duff</hw>, <i>v</i>. to steal cattle by altering the brands.

1869. E. Carton Booth, `Another England,' p. 138:

"He said there was a `duffing paddock' somewhere on the Broken River, into which nobody but the owner had ever found an entrance, and out of which no cattle had ever found their way—at any rate, not to come into their owner's possession. . . . The man who owned the `duffing paddock' was said to have a knack of altering cattle brands . . ."

1890. Rolf Boldrewood, `Squatter's Dream,' c. xiv. p. 162:

"I knew Redcap when he'd think more of duffing a red heifer than all the money in the country."

1891. Rolf Boldrewood, `A Sydneyside Saxon,' p. 95:

"As to the calves I'm a few short myself, as I think that half-caste chap of yours must have `duffed.'"

<hw>Duffer</hw>, <i>n.</i> a cattle stealer, i.q. <i>Cattle-duffer</i> (q.v.).

1890. Rolf Boldrewood, `Colonial Reformer,' c. xxv. p. 352:

"What's a little money . . . if your children grow up duffers and planters?"

<hw>Duffer</hw>2, <i>n</i>. a claim on a mine which turns out unproductive, called also <i>shicer</i> (q.v.). [This is only a special application of the slang English, <i>duffer</i>, an incapable person, or a failure. Old English <i>Daffe</i>, a fool]

1861. T. McCombie, `Australian Sketches,' p. 193:

"It was a terrible duffer anyhow, every ounce of gold got from it cost L 20 I'll swear."

1864. J Rogers, `New Rush,' p. 55:

"Tho' <i>duffers</i> are so common
 And golden gutters rare,
 The mining sons of woman
 Can much ill fortune bear."

1873. A.Trollope, `Australia and New Zealand,' vol. i. p. 291:

"A shaft sunk without any produce from it is a duffer. . . . But of these excavations the majority were duffers. It is the duffering part of the business which makes it all so sad.So much work is done from which there is positively no return."

1885. H. Finch-Hatton, `Advance Australia,' p. 266:

"The place is then declared to be a `duffer,' and abandoned, except by a few fanatics, who stick there for months and years."

1891. `The Australasian,' Nov. 21, p. 1014:

"Another duffer! Rank as ever was bottomed! Seventy-five feet hard delving and not a colour!"

<hw>Duffer out</hw>, <i>v</i>. A mine is said to duffer out, when it has ceased to be productive.

1885. H. Finch-Hatton, `Advance Australia,' p. 279:

"He then reported to the shareholders that the lode had `duffered out,' and that it was useless to continue working."

1889. Cassell's `Picturesque Australasia,' vol. iv. p. 73:

"Cloncurry has, to use the mining parlance, duffered out."

1890. Rolf Boldrewood, `Miner's Right,' c. vi. p. 58:

"`So you're duffered out again, Harry,' she said."

<hw>Dugong Oil</hw>, <i>n</i>. an oil obtained in Australia, from <i>Halicore dugong</i>, Gmel., by boiling the superficial fat. A substitute for cod-liver oil. The dugongs are a genus of marine mammals in the order <i>Sirenia</i>. <i>H. dugong</i> inhabits the waters of North and North-east Australia, the southern shores of Asia, and the east coast of Africa. The word is Malay.

<hw>Dug-out</hw>, <i>n</i>. a name imported into New Zealand from America, but the common name for an ordinary Maori canoe.

<hw>Duke Willy</hw>, <i>n</i>. See <i>Whistling Dick</i>.

<hw>Dummy</hw>, <i>n</i>. (1) In Australia, when land was thrown open for <i>selection</i> (q.v.), the squatters who had previously the use of the land suffered. Each squatter exercised his own right of selection. Many a one also induced others to select nominally for themselves, really for the squatter. Such selector was called a dummy. The law then required the selector to swear that he was selecting the land for his own use and benefit. Some of the dummies did not hesitate to commit perjury. Dictionaries give "dummy, <i>adj</i>. fictitious or sham." The Australian noun is an extension of this idea. Webster gives "(<i>drama</i>) one who plays a merely nominal part in any action, sham character." This brings us near to the original <i>dumby</i>, from <i>dumb</i>, which is radically akin to German <i>dumm</i>, stupid.

1866. D. Rogerson, `Poetical Works, p. 23:

"The good selectors got most of the land,
 The dummies being afraid to stand."

1866. H. Simcox, `Rustic Rambles, p. 21:

"See the dummies and the mediums,
 Bagmen, swagmen, hastening down."

1872. A. McFarland, `Illawarra and Manaro,' p. 125:

"Since free selection was introduced, a good many of the squatters (they say, in self-defence) have, in turn, availed themselves of it, to secure `the eyes' or water-holes of the country, so far as they could by means of `dummies,' and other blinds."

1879. R. Niven, `Fraser's Magazine,' April, p. 516:

"This was the, in the colony, well-known `dummy' system. Its nature may be explained in a moment. It was simply a swindling transaction between the squatter on the one hand and some wretched fellow on the other, often a labourer in the employment of the squatter, in which the former for a consideration induced the latter to personate the character of a free selector, to acquire from the State, for the purpose of transferring to himself, the land he most coveted out of that thrown open for selection adjoining his own property."

1892. `Scribner's Magazine,' Feb. p. 140:

"By this device the squatter himself, all the members of the family, his servants, shepherds, boundary-riders, station-hands and rabbiters, each registered a section, the dummies duly handing their `selection' over to the original holder for a slight consideration."

(2) Colloquial name for the grip-car of the Melbourne trams. Originally the grip-car was not intended to carry passengers: hence the name.

1893. `The Herald' (Melbourne), p. 5, col. 5:

"Linked to the car proper is what is termed a dummy."

1897. `The Argus,' Jan. 2, p. 7, col. 5:

"But on the tramcar, matters were much worse. The front seat of the dummy was occupied by a young Tasmanian lady and her cousin, and, while one portion of the cart struck her a terrible blow on the body, the shaft pinned her by the neck against the front stanchion of the dummy."

<hw>Dummy</hw>, <i>v</i>. to obtain land in the way above described.

1873. A.Trollope, `Australia and New Zealand,' c. vi. p. 101:

"Each partner in the run has purchased his ten thousand, and there have been many Mrs. Harrises. The Mrs. Harris system is generally called dummying—putting up a non-existent free-selector—and is illegal. But I believe no one will deny that it has been carried to a great extent."

1896. `The Champion' (Melbourne), Jan. 11:

"The verb `to dummy' and the noun `dummyism' are purely
Australian, quotations to illustrate the use of which can be
obtained from `Hansard,' the daily papers, and such works as
Epps' monograph on the `Land Tenure Systems of Australasia.'"

<hw>Dummyism</hw>, <i>n</i>. obtaining land by misrepresentation. See <i>Dummy, n</i>.

1875. `The Spectator' (Melbourne), June 19, p. 8, col. 2:

"`Larrikinism' was used as a synonym for `blackguardism,' and `dummyism' for perjury."

1876. `The Argus,' Jan. 26, p. 6, col. 6:

"Mr. Bent thought that a stop should be put to all selection and dummyism till a land law was introduced."

1887. J. F. Hogan, `The Irish in Australia, p. 98:

"This baneful and illegal system of land-grabbing is known throughout the colonies by the expressive name of `dummyism,' the persons professing to be genuine selectors, desirous of establishing themselves on the soil, being actually the agents or the `dummies of the adjoining squatters."

<hw>Dump</hw>, <i>n</i>. a small coin formerly used in Australia and Tasmania. Its history is given in the quotations. In England the word formerly meant a heavy leaden counter; hence the expression, "I don't care a dump." See <i>Holy Dollar</i>.

1822. `Hobart Town Gazette,' December 14:

"Government Public Notice.—The Quarter Dollars, or `Dumps,'
struck from the centre of the Spanish Dollar, and issued by
His Excellency Governor Macquarie, in the year 1813, at One
Shilling and Threepence each, will be exchanged for Treasury
Bills at Par, or Sterling money."

1823. `Sydney Gazette,' Jan. ['Century']:

"The small colonial coin denominated dumps have all been called in. If the dollar passes current for five shillings the dump lays claim to fifteen pence value still in silver money."

1827. P. Cunningham, `Two Years in New South Wales,' vol. i. p. 44

"He only solicits the loan of a `dump,' on pretence of treating his sick gin to a cup of tea."

Ibid. p. 225:

"The genuine name of an Australian coin, in value 1<i>s</i>. 3<i>d</i>."

1852. J. West, `History of Tasmania,' vol. ii. p. 141:

"Tattered promissory notes, of small amount and doubtful parentage, fluttered about the colony; dumps, struck out from dollars, were imitated by a coin prepared without requiring much mechanical ingenuity."

1870. T. H. Braim, `New Homes,' c. iii. p. 131:

"The Spanish dollar was much used. A circular piece was struck out of the centre about the size of a shilling, and it was called a `dump.'"

1879. W. J. Barry, `Up and Down,' p. 5:

"The coin current in those days (1829) consisted of ring- dollars and dumps, the dump being the centre of the dollar punched out to represent a smaller currency."

1893. `The Daily News' (London), May 11, p. 4:

"The metallic currency was then [1819-25] chiefly Spanish dollars, at that time and before and afterwards the most widely disseminated coin in the world, and they had the current value of 5<i>s</i>. But there were too few of them, and therefore the centre of them was cut out and circulated under the name of `dumps' at 1<i>s</i>. 3<i>d</i>. each, the remainder of the coin—called by way of a pun, `holy dollars'—still retaining its currency value of 5<i>s</i>."

<hw>Dump</hw>, <i>v</i>. to press closely; applied to wool. Bales are often marked "not to be dumped."

1872. C. H. Eden, `My Wife and I in Queensland,' p. 98:

"The great object of packing so close is to save carriage through the country, for however well you may do it, it is always re-pressed, or `dumped,' as it is called, by hydraulic pressure on its arrival in port, the force being so great as to crush two bales into one."

1875. R. and F. Hill, `What we saw in Australia,' p. 207:

"From the sorting-tables the fleeces are carried to the packing-shed; there, by the help of machinery, they are pressed into sacks, and the sacks are then themselves heavily pressed and bound with iron bands, till they become hard cubes. This process is called `dumping.'"

<hw>Dumplings</hw>, <i>n</i>. i.q. <i>Apple-berry</i> (q.v.).

<hw>Dundathee</hw>, or <hw>Dundathu Pine</hw>, <i>n</i>. the Queensland species (<i>Agathis robusta</i>, Sal.) of the <i>Kauri Pine</i> (q.v.); and see <i>Pine</i>.

<hw>Dungaree-Settler</hw>, <i>n</i>. Now obsolete. See quotation.

1852. Anon, `Settlers and Convicts; or, Recollections of Sixteen Years' Labour in the Australian Backwoods,' p. 11:

"The poor Australian settler (or, according to colonist phraseology, the Dungaree-settler; so called from their frequently clothing themselves, their wives, and children in that blue Indian manufacture of cotton known as <i>Dungaree</i>) sells his wheat crop."

<hw>Dunite</hw>, <i>n</i>. an ore in New Zealand, so called from Dun mountain, near Nelson.

1883. J. Hector, `Handbook of New Zealand,' p. 56:

"Chrome ore. This ore, which is a mixture of chromic iron and alumina, is chiefly associated with magnesian rock, resembling olivine in composition, named Dunite by Dr. Hochstetter."

<hw>Dust</hw>, <i>n</i>. slang for flour.

1893. Dec. 12, `A Traveller's Note':

"A bush cook said to me to-day, we gave each sundowner a pannikin of dust."

<hw>Dwarf-box</hw>, <i>n</i>. <i>Eucalyptus microtheca</i>, F. v. M. See <i>Box</i>. This tree has also many other names. See Maiden's `Useful Native Plants,' p. 495.

1833. C. Sturt, `Southern Australia,' vol. i. c. i. p. 22:

"Dwarf-box and the acacia pendula prevailed along the plains."

E

<hw>Eagle</hw>, <i>n.</i> There are nine species of the true Eagle, all confined to the genus <i>Haliaetus</i>, such as the <i>Baldheaded Eagle (H. leucocephalus)</i>, the national emblem of the United States. (`Century.') In Australia the name is assigned to—

Little Eagle—
 <i>Aquila morphnoides</i>, Gould.

Wedge-tailed E. (Eagle-hawk)—
 <i>A. audax</i>, Lath.

Whistling E.—
 <i>Haliaetus sphenurus</i>, Vieill.

White-bellied Sea E.—
 <i>H. leucogaster</i>, Gmel.

White-headed Sea E.—
 <i>Haliaster girrenera</i>, Vieill.

<hw>Eaglehawk</hw>, <i>n.</i> an Australian name for the bird <i>Uroaetus</i>, or <i>Aquila audax</i>, Lath. The name was applied to the bird by the early colonists of New South Wales, and has persisted. In `O.E.D.' it is shown that the name was used in Griffith's translation (1829) of Cuvier's `Regne Animal' as a translation of the French <i>aigle-autour</i>, Cuvier's name for a South American bird of prey of the genus <i>Morphnus</i>, called <i>Spizaetus</i> by Vieillot; but it is added that the word never came into English use. See <i>Eagle</i>. There is a town in Victoria called Eaglehawk. The Bendigo cabmen make the name a monosyllable, "Glawk."

1834. L. E. Threlkeld, `Australian Grammar, p. 56:

"The large eaglehawk, which devours young kangaroos, lambs, etc."

1848. J. Gould, `Birds of Australia,' vol. i. pl. 1:

"<i>Aquila Fucosa</i>, Cuv., [now <i>A. audax</i>, Lath.] Wedge-tailed eagle. Eaglehawk, Colonists of New South Wales."

1863. B. A. Heywood, `Vacation Tour at the Antipodes,' p. 106:

"We knew it was dying, as two large eaglehawks were hovering about over it."

1880. Fison and Howitt, `Kamilaroi and Kurnai,' p. 251:

"The hair of a person is tied on the end of the throwing-stick, together with the feathers of the eagle hawk."

1885. H. Finch-Hatton, `Advance Australia', p. 106:

"Since the destruction of native dogs and eagle-hawks by the squatters, who stocked the country with sheep, the kangaroos have not a single natural enemy left."

1888. D. Macdonald, `Gum Boughs,' p. 35:

"On the New South Wales side of the river the eagle-hawk is sometimes so great a pest amongst the lambs that the settlers periodically burn him out by climbing close enough to the nest to put a fire-stick in contact with it."

<hw>Eagle-hawking</hw>, <i>n.</i> bush slang: plucking wool off dead sheep.

<hw>Eagle-Ray</hw>, <i>n.</i> name belonging to any large <i>Ray</i> of the family <i>Myliobatidae</i>; the New Zealand species is <i>Myliobatis nieuhofii</i>.

<hw>Eastralia</hw>, <i>n.</i> recent colloquial name, fashioned on the model of <i>Westralia</i> (q.v.), used in West Australia for the Eastern Colonies. In Adelaide, its application seems confined to New South Wales.

<hw>Ebony</hw>, <i>n.</i> a timber. The name is applied in Australia to two species of <i>Bauhinia</i>, <i>B. carronii</i>, F. v. M., and <i>B. hookeri</i>, F. v. M., N.O. Leguminosae. Both are called Queensland or Mountain Ebony.

<hw>Echidna</hw>, <i>n.</i> a fossorial Monotreme, in general appearance resembling a Porcupine, and often called <i>Spiny Ant-eater</i> or <i>Porcupine</i>, or <i>Porcupine Ant-eater</i>. The body is covered with thick fur from which stiff spines protrude; the muzzle is in the form of a long toothless beak; and the tongue is very long and extensile, and used largely for licking up ants; the feet are short, with strong claws adapted for burrowing. Like the Marsupials, the Echidna is provided with a pouch, but the animal is oviparous, usually laying two eggs at a time, which are carried about in the pouch until the young ones are hatched, when they are fed by a secretion from mammary glands, which do not, however, as in other mammals, open on to a nipple. The five-toed Echidnas (genus <i>Echidna</i>) are found in New Guinea, Australia, and Tasmania, while the three-toed Echidnas (genus <i>Proechidna</i>) are confined to New Guinea. The species are—Common E., <i>Echidna aculeata</i>, Shaw; Bruijn's E., <i>Proechidna bruijni</i>, Peters and Doria; Black-spined E., <i>Proechidna nigro-aculeata</i>, Rothschild. The name is from Grk. <i>'echidna</i>, an adder or viper, from the shape of the long tongue.

1832. J. Bischoff, `Van Diemen's Land,' c. ii. p. 29:

"The native porcupine or echidna is not very common."

1843. J.Backhouse, `Narrative of a Visit to the Australian Colonies,' p. 89:

"The Porcupine of this land, Echidna hystrix, is a squat species of ant-eater, with short quills among its hair: it conceals itself in the day time among dead timber in the hilly forests."

1851. `Papers and Proceedings of the Royal Society of Van Diemen's Land,' vol. i. p. 178:

"Mr. Milligan mentioned that one of the Aborigines of Tasmania reports having often discovered the nest of the <i>Echidna Setosa</i>, porcupine or ant eater, of the colony; that on several occasions <i>one egg</i> had been found in it, and never more: this <i>egg</i> has always been found to contain a <i>foetus</i> or chick, and is said to be round, considerably less than a tennis ball, and without a shell. The mother is said to sit continuously (for a period not ascertained) in the manner of the common fowl over the eggs; she does not leave the young for a considerable time after having hatched it; at length, detaching it from the small teat, she moves out hurriedly and at long intervals in quest of food, the young one becoming, at each successive return, attached to the nipple. . . The Platypus (<i>Ornithorhyncus paradoxus</i>) is said to lay two eggs, having the same external membranous covering, but of an oblong shape."

1860. G. Bennett,' Gatherings of a Naturalist in Australasia,' p. 147:

"The Porcupine Ant-eater of Australia (<i>Echidna hystrix</i>) (the native Porcupine or Hedgehog of the colonists), and the Ornithorhynchus, to which it is allied in internal organization, form the only two genera of the order <i>Monotremata</i>."

1888. Cassell's' Picturesque Australasia,' vol. ii. p. 230:

"Among the gigantic boulders near the top he may capture the burrowing ant-eating porcupine, though if perchance he place it for a moment in the stoniest ground, it will tax all his strength to drag it from the instantaneous burrow in which it will defiantly embed itself."

1892. A.Sutherland, `Elementary Geography of British Colonies,' p. 273:

"The echidna is an animal about a foot or 18 inches long, covered with spines like a hedgehog. It lives chiefly upon ants. With its bill, which is like a duck's but narrower, it burrows into an ant's-hill, and then with its long, whip-like, sticky tongue, draws the ants into its mouth by hundreds."

1894. R. Lydekker, `Marsupialia and Monotremata,' p. 247:

"In order to enable them to procure with facility their food of ants and their larvae, echidnas are provided with very large glands, discharging into the mouth the viscid secretion which causes the ants to adhere to the long worm-like tongue when thrust into a mass of these insects, after being exposed by the digging powers of the claws of the echidna's limbs. . . . When attacked they roll themselves into a ball similar to the hedgehog."

<hw>Echu</hw>, <i>n.</i> the name of an Australian bird which has not been identified. The word does not occur in the ornithological lists.

1862. H. C. Kendall, `Poems—Evening Hymn,' p. 53:

"The echu's songs are dying with the flute-bird's mellow tone."

1896. `The Australasian,' Jan. 11, p. 73, col. 1:

"`Yeldina' (Rochester) writes—While I was on the Murray, a few days before Christmas last, some miles below <i>Echuca</i>, my attention was attracted to the melancholy note, as of a bird which had lost its mate, calling ee-k-o-o, e-e-koo, which was repeated several times, after which a pause, then ee-koo, ee-ko, coolie, coolie, ee-koo. This happened in the scrub at sunset, and came, I think, from a bird smaller than the Australian minah, and of a greenish yellowish hue, larger, but similar to the members of the feathered tribe known to young city `knights of the catapult' as greenies. It was while returning to camp from fishing that I noticed this bird, which appeared of solitary habits."

"`Crossbolt' (Kew) writes—The echu is probably identical with a handsome little bird whose peculiar cry `e-e-choo' is familiar to many bush ramblers. It is the size of a small wood-swallow; black head, back, wings, and tail more or less blue-black; white throat; neck and breast light to rich brown. The female is much plainer, and would scarcely be recognized as the mate of the former. The melodious `e-e-choo' is usually answered from a distance, whether by the female or a rival I cannot say, and is followed by a prolonged warbling."

<hw>Eel</hw>, <i>n.</i> The kinds present in Australia are—

Common Eel—
 <i>Anguilla australis</i>, Richards.

Conger E.—
 <i>Conger labiatus</i>, Castin., and
 <i>Gonorhynchus grayi</i>, Richards.

Green E. (New South Wales)—
 <i>Muroena afra</i>, Bl.

Silver E.—
 <i>Muroenesox cinereus</i>, Forsk.; also called the Sea-eel
  (New South Wales).
 <i>Conger wilsoni</i>, Castln. (Melbourne).

The New Zealand Eels are—

Black Eel—
 <i>Anguilla australis</i>, Richards.

Conger E.—
 <i>Conger vulgaris</i>, Cuv.

Sand E.—
 <i>Gonorynchus grayi</i>, Richards.

Serpent E.—
 <i>Ophichthys serpens</i>, Linn.

Silver E.—
 <i>Congromuroena habenata</i>, Richards.

Tuna E.—
 <i>Anguilla aucklandii</i>, Richards.

The Sand Eel does not belong to the Eel family, and is only called an Eel from its habits.

<hw>Eel-fish</hw>, <i>n</i>. <i>Plotosus tandanus</i>, Mitchell. Called also <i>Catfish</i> (q.v.), and <i>Tandan</i> (q.v.).

1838. T. L. Mitchell, `Three Expeditions,' vol. i. pl. 5, p.. 44 and 95 [Note]:

"<i>Plotosus tandanus</i>, tandan or eel-fish. Tandan is the aboriginal name."

<hw>Egret</hw>, <i>n.</i> an English bird-name. The following species are present in Australia, some being European and others exclusively Australian—

Lesser Egret—
 <i>Herodias melanopus</i>, Wagl.

Little E.—
 <i>H. garzetta</i>, Linn.

Pied E.—
 <i>H. picata</i>, Gould.

Plumed Egret—
 <i>H. intermedia</i>, v. Hasselq.

White E.—
 <i>H. alba</i>, Linn.

<hw>Elder</hw>, <i>n.</i> See next word.

<hw>Elderberry, Native</hw>, <i>n.</i> The two Australian species of the Elder are <i>Sambucus gaudichaudiana</i>, De C., and <i>S. xanthocarpa</i>, F. v. M., <i>N.O. Caprifoliaceae</i>.

1889. J. H. Maiden, `Useful Native Plants,' p. 56:

"Native elderberry. The fruit of these two native elders is fleshy and sweetish, and is used by the aborigines for food."

<hw>Elephant-fish</hw>, <i>n.</i> a fish of New Zealand, South Australian, and Tasmanian waters, <i>Callorhynchus antarcticus</i>, Lacep., family <i>Chimaeridae</i>. "It has a cartilaginous prominence of the snout, ending in a cutaneous flap" (Gunth.), suggesting a comparison with an elephant's trunk. Called also <i>King of the Herrings</i> (q.v.).

1802. G. Barrington, `Voyage to New South Wales,' p. 388:

"The sea affords a much greater plenty, and at least as great a variety as the land; of these the elephant fish were very palatable food."

<hw>Ellangowan Poison-bush</hw>, <i>n.</i> a Queensland name for <i>Myoporum deserti</i>, Cunn., <i>N.O. Myoporinae</i>,; called "Dogwood Poison-bush" in New South Wales. Ellangowan is on the Darling Downs in Queensland. Poisonous to sheep, but only when in fruit.

<hw>Emancipatist</hw>, and <hw>Emancipist</hw>, <i>n</i>. (the latter, the commoner), an ex-convict who has served out his sentence. The words are never used now except historically.

1827. P. Cunningham, `Two Years in New South Wales,' vol. ii. p. 118:

"Emigrants who have come out free from England, and emancipists, who have arrived here as convicts, and have either been pardoned or completed their term of servitude."

1830. R. Dawson, `Present State of Australia,' p. 302:

"Men who had formerly been convicts, but who, after their period of servitude had expired, were called `emancipists.'"

1837. Jas. Mudie, `Felonry of New South Wales,' p. vii:

"The author begs leave to record his protest against the abuse of language to the misapplication of the terms <i>emancipists</i> and <i>absentees</i> to two portions of the colonial felonry. An emancipist could not be understood to mean the emancipated but the emancipator. Mr. Wilberforce may be honoured with the title of emancipist; but it is as absurd to give the same appellation to the emancipated felons of New South Wales as it would be to bestow it upon the emancipated negroes of the West Indies."

1845. J. O. Balfour, `Sketch of New South Wales,' p. 69:

"The same emancipist will, however, besides private charity, be among the first and greatest contributors to a new church."

1852. `Fraser's Magazine,' vol. xlvi. p. 135:

"The convict obtained his ticket-of-leave . . . became an emancipist . . . and found transportation no punishment."

<hw>Emu</hw>, <i>n.</i> an Australian bird, <i>Dromaius novae-hollandiae</i>, Lath. There is a second species, Spotted Emu, <i>Dromaius irroratus</i>, Bartlett. An earlier, but now unusual, spelling is <i>Emeu</i>. <i>Emeus</i> is the scientific name of a New Zealand genus of extinct struthious birds. The word <i>Emu</i> is not Australian, but from the Portuguese <i>Ema</i>, the name first of the Crane, afterwards of the Ostrich. Formerly the word <i>Emu</i> was used in English for the Cassowary, and even for the American Ostrich. Since 1885 an <i>Emu</i> has been the design on the twopenny postage stamp of New South Wales.

1613. `Purchas Pilgrimmage,' pt. I. Vol v. c. xii. p. 430 (`O.E.D.'):

"The bird called Emia or Eme is admirable."

1774. Oliver Goldsmith, `Natural History,' vol. iii. p. 69, Book III. c. v. [Heading]

"The Emu."

1788. `History of New South Wales' (1818), p. 53:

"A bird of the ostrich genus, but of a species very different from any other in the known world, was killed and brought in. Its length was between seven and eight feet; its flesh was good and thought to resemble beef. It has obtained the name of the New South Wales Emu."

1789. Captain W. Tench, `Expedition to Botany Bay,' p. 123:

"The bird which principally claims attention is a species of ostrich, approaching nearer to the emu of South America than any other we know of."

1793 Governor Hunter, `Voyage,' p. 69:

"Some were of opinion that it was the emew, which I think is particularly described by Dr. Goldsmith from Linneus: others imagined it to be the cassowary, but it far exceeds that bird in size . . . two distinct feathers grew out from every quill."

1802. D. Collins, `Account of English Colony in New South Wales,' vol. ii. p. 307:

"These birds have been pronounced by Sir Joseph Banks, of whose judgment none can entertain a doubt, to come nearer to what is known of the American ostrich than to either the emu of India or the ostrich of Africa."

1804. `Rev. R. Knopwood's Diary' (J. J. Shillinglaw— `Historical Records of Port Phillip,' 1879), p. 115:

[At the Derwent] 26 March, 1804—"They caught six young emews [sic], about the size of a turkey, and shot the old mother."

1832. J. Bischof, `Van Diemen's Land,' p. 165:

"We saw an emu track down the side of a hill."

1846. J. L. Stokes, `Discovery in Australia,' vol. i. c. ix. p.276

"The face of the emu bears a most remarkable likeness to that of the aborigines of New South Wales."

1846. C. P. Hodgson, `Reminiscences of Australia,' p. 160:

"They will pick up anything, thimbles, reels of cotton, nails, bullets indiscriminately: and thus the proverb of `having the digestion of an emu' has its origin."

1848. J. Gould, `Birds of Australia,' vol. vi. pl. I:

"<i>Dromaius Novae Hollandiae</i>. The Emu. New Holland Cassowary.—'Governor Phillips' Voyage, 1789.'"

1850. J. B. Clutterbuck, `Port Phillip in 1849,' p. 42:

"The emu strides with such rapidity over the plains as to render its capture very difficult even by the swiftest greyhound."

1872. C. H. Eden, "My Wife and I in Queensland,' p. 52:

"A couple of grave-looking emus. These wobble away at an ungainly but rapid pace directly they sight us, most probably vainly pursued by the dray dogs which join us farther on, weary and unsuccessful—indeed the swiftest dog finds an emu as much as he can manage."

1878. A. Newton, in `Encyclopedia Britannica' (9th edit.), vol. viii. p. 173:

"Next to the ostrich the largest of existing birds, the common emeu. . .''

1881. A.C. Grant, `Bush Life in Queensland,' vol. i. p. 210:

". . . points out two emus to John. . . . They resemble ostriches, but are not so large, and the tail droops more. . . . John can distinguish every point about them, from their black cast-iron looking legs, to the bare neck and small head, with its bright eye and strong flat beak."

1890. `Victorian Statutes—Game Act, Third Schedule':

"Emu. [Close Season.] From the 14th day of June to the 20th day of December following in each year."

1893. `The Argus,' March 25,p. 4, col. 5:

"The chief in size is the egg of the cassowary, exactly like that of the emu except that the colour is pale moss green instead of the dark green of the emu."

<hw>Emu-Apple</hw>, <i>n.</i> See <i>Apple</i>.

<hw>Emu-Bush</hw>, <i>n.</i> an Australian shrub, <i>Eremophila longifolia</i>, F. v. M., <i>N.O. Myoporineae</i>.

1875. T. Laslett, `Timber and Timber Trees,' p. 206:

"Emu-tree. A small Tasmanian tree; found on low marshy ground used for turners' work."

1889. J. H. Maiden, `Useful Native Plants,' p. 317:

"Emu-bush. Owing to emus feeding on the seeds of this and other species. <i>Heterodendron oleaefolium</i>, Desf."

Ibid. p. 132:

"The seeds, which are dry, are eaten by emus."

<hw>Emu-Wren</hw>, <i>n.</i> a bird-name. See <i>Malurus</i>.

1848. J. Gould, `Birds of Australia,' vol. iii. pl. 31:

"<i>Stipituras Malachurus</i>, Less. Emu Wren. The decomposed or loose structure of these [tail] feathers, much resembling those of the emu, has suggested the colonial name of Emu-Wren for this species, an appellation singularly appropriate, inasmuch as it at once indicates the kind of plumage with which the bird is clothed, and the Wren-like nature of its habits."

1860. G. Bennett, `Gatherings of a Naturalist,' p. 213:

"The delicate little emeu wren."

1865. Lady Barker (letter from `Melbourne), `Station Life in New Zealand,' p. 8:

"Then there is the emu-wren, all sad-coloured, but quaint, with the tail-feathers sticking up on end, and exactly like those of an emu, on the very smallest scale, even to the peculiarity of two feathers growing out of the same little quill."

<hw>Eopsaltria</hw>, <i>n.</i> scientific name for the genus of Australian birds called <i>Shrike-Robins</i> (q.v.). (Grk. <i>'aeows</i>, dawn, and <i>psaltria</i>, a female harper.)

<hw>Epacris</hw>, <i>n.</i> scientific name of the typical genus of the order <i>Epacrideae</i>, a heath-like flower of which there are twenty- five species, mostly Australian. From Greek <i>'epi</i>, upon, and <i>'akron</i>, top (the flowers grow in spikes at the top of the plant). In Australia they are frequently confused with and called <i>Ericas</i>.

<hw>Ephthianura</hw>, <i>n.</i> scientific name of a genus of very small Australian birds, anglicized as Ephthianure. For species see quotation, 1848. A fourth species has been discovered since Gould's day, <i>E. crocea</i>, Castln. and Ramsay, which inhabits Northern Australia. The name was first given by Gould, in the `Proceedings of the Zoological Society of 1837,' p. 148, as a <i>genus novum</i>. The origin of the word is not certain, but as the tail is unusually small, it is suggested that the name is from the Greek 'oura, tail, and Homeric imperfect 3rd person sing. <i>'ephthien</i>, wasted away, from <i>phthiow</i> (= <i>phthinow</i>). [The word occurs <i>Iliad</i> xviii. 446.] //phthio is ONLY in Homer!! Iliad AND Odyssey GJC//

1848. J. Gould,' Birds of Australia,' vol. iii. pl. 64:

"<i>Ephthianura Albifrons</i>, White-fronted Ephthianura," pl. 65. "<i>Aurifrons</i>, Gould, Orange-fronted E.," pl. 66. "<i>Tricolor</i>, Gould, Tricoloured E.'"

1890. `Victorian Statutes—Game Act, Third Schedule':

"Close season.—Ephthianuras. The whole year."

<hw>Escapee</hw>, <i>n.</i> one who has escaped. Especially used of French convicts who escape from New Caledonia. The word is formed on the model of <i>absentee, refugee</i>, etc., and is manifestly influenced by Fr. <i>e/chappe/</i>. <i>Escaper</i> is the historical English form. (See Bible, 2 Kings ix. 15, margin.) //He means, of course, the so-called Authorised Version" which reads, ftn. 5: "let no escaper go, etc." Even though the Revised Version was published in 1885. GJC//

1880. `Melbourne Argus,' July 22, p. 2, col. 3 (`O.E.D.'):

"The ten New Caledonia escapees . . . are to be handed over to the French consul."

<hw>Eucalyn</hw>, <i>n.</i> a sugar obtained, together with laevulose, by fermentation of <i>melitose</i> (q.v.) with yeast, or by boiling it with dilute acids.

<hw>Eucalypt</hw>, <i>n.</i> shortened English form of <i>Eucalyptus</i> used especially in the plural, <i>Eucalypts. Eucalypti</i> sounds pedantic.

1880. T. W. Nutt, `Palace of Industry,' p. 11:

"Stems of the soaring eucalypts that rise
 Four hundred friendly feet to glad the skies."

1887. J. F. Hogan, `The Irish in Australia,' p. 126:

"There is no unmixed good, it is said, on this mundane sphere, and the evil that has accompanied the extensive settlement of Gipps Land during recent years is to be found in the widespread destruction of the forests, resulting in a disturbance of the atmospheric conditions and the banishment of an ever-active agent in the preservation of health, for these eucalypts, or gum-trees, as they are generally called, possess the peculiar property of arresting fever-germs and poisonous exhalations. They have been transplanted for this especial purpose to some of the malaria-infested districts of Europe and America, and with pronounced success. Australia, to which they are indigenous, has mercilessly hewn them down in the past, but is now repenting of its folly in that respect, and is replanting them at every seasonable opportunity."

1892. A. Sutherland, `Elementary Geography of British Colonies,' p. 270:

"Throughout the whole of Australia the prevailing trees are eucalypts, known generally as gum-trees on account of the gum which they secrete, and which may be seen standing like big translucent beads on their trunks and branches."

<hw>Eucalyptene</hw>, <i>n.</i> the name given by Cloez to a hydrocarbon obtained by subjecting <i>Eucalyptol</i> (q.v.) to dehydration by phosphorus pentoxide. The same name has also been given by other chemists to a hydrocarbon believed to occur in eucalyptus oil.

<hw>Eucalyptian</hw>, <i>adj</i>. playfully formed; not in common use.

1870. A. L. Gordon, `Bush Ballads,' p. 8:

"Gnarl'd, knotted trunks Eucalyptian
 Seemed carved, like weird columns Egyptian,
 With curious device—quaint inscription
   And hieroglyph strange."

<hw>Eucalyptic</hw>, <i>adj</i>. full of gumtrees.

1873. J. Brunton Stephens, `Black Gin, etc.,' p.6:

"This eucalyptic cloisterdom is anything but gay."

<hw>Eucalyptol</hw>, <i>n.</i> a volatile oil of camphor-like smell, extracted from the oil of <i>Eucalyptus globulus</i>, Labill., <i>E. amygdalina</i>, Labill., etc. Chemically identical with cineol, got from other sources.

<hw>Eucalyptus</hw>, <i>n.</i> the gum tree. There are 120 species, as set forth in Baron von Mueller's `Eucalyptographia, a Descriptive Atlas of the Eucalypts of Australia.' The name was first given in scientific Latin by the French botanist L'Heritier, in his <i>Sertum Anglicum</i>, published in 1788. From the Greek <i>'eu</i>, well, and <i>kaluptein</i>, to cover. See quotation, 1848. <i>N.O. Myrtaceae</i>. The French now say <i>Eucalyptus</i>; earlier they called it <i>l'acajou de la nouvelle Hollande</i>. The Germans call it <i>Schoenmutze</i>. See <i>Gum</i>.

1823. Sidney Smith, `Essays,' p. 440:

"A London thief, clothed in Kangaroo's skins, lodged under the bark of the dwarf eucalyptus, and keeping sheep, fourteen thousand miles from Piccadilly, with a crook bent into the shape of a picklock, is not an uninteresting picture."

1833. C. Sturt, `Southern Australia,' vol. i. c. ii. p. 80:

"A large basin in which there are stunted pines and eucalyptus scrub."

1848. W. Westgarth, `Australia Felix,' p. 132:

"The scientific term Eucalyptus has been derived from the Greek, in allusion to a lid or covering over the blossom, which falls off when the flower expands, exposing a four-celled capsule or seed-vessel."

1851. G. W. Rusden, `Moyarra,' canto i. p. 8:

"The eucalyptus on the hill
 Was silent challenge to his skill."

1879. `Temple Bar,' Oct., p. 23 ('0. E. D.'):

"The sombre eucalypti . . . interspersed here and there by their dead companions."

1886. J. A. Froude, `Oceana,' p. 118:

"At intervals the bush remained untouched, but the universal eucalyptus, which I had expected to find grey and monotonous, was a Proteus it shape and colour, now branching like an oak or a cork tree, now feathered like a birch, or glowing like an arbutus with an endless variety of hue—green, orange, and brown."

1890. Rolf Boldrewood, `Miner's Right, c. v. p. 46:

"A lofty eucalyptus . . . lay with its bared roots sheer athwart a tiny watercourse."

<hw>Euro</hw>, <i>n.</i> one of the aboriginal names for a <i>Kangaroo</i> (q.v.); spelt also <i>Yuro</i>.

1885. Mrs. Praed, `Head Station,' p. 192:

"Above and below . . . were beetling cliffs, with ledges and crannies that afforded foothold only to yuros and rock-wallabies."

<hw>Exclusionist</hw>, <i>n.</i> and <i>adj</i>. See quotation.

1827. P. Cunningham, `Two Years in New South Wales,' vol. ii. pp. 118-19:

". . . one subdivision of the emigrant class alluded to, is termed the <i>exclusionist</i> party, from their strict exclusion of the emancipists from their society."

<hw>Exileism</hw>, <i>n.</i> a word of same period as <i>Exiles</i> (q.v.).

1893. A. P. Martin, `Life of Lord Sherbrooke,' vol. i. p. 381:

"A gentleman who was at this time engaged in pastoral pursuits in New South Wales, and was therefore a supporter of exileism.'"

<hw>Exiles</hw>, <i>n.</i> euphemistic name for convicts. It did not last long.

1847, A. P. Martin, `Life of Lord Sherbrooke' (1893), vol. i. p. 378:

"The cargoes of criminals were no longer to be known as `convicts,' but (such is the virtue in a name!) as `exiles.' It was, as Earl Grey explained in his despatch of Sept 3, 1847, `a scheme of reformatory discipline.'"

1852. G. B. Earp, `Gold Colonies of Australia,' p. 100:

"The convict system ceased in New South Wales in 1839; but `exiles' as they were termed, i.e. men who had passed their probation at home, were forwarded till 1843."

<hw>Expiree</hw>, <i>n.</i> a convict whose term of sentence had expired.

1852. G. C. Mundy, `Our Antipodes' (ed. 1885), p. 107:

"A hireling convict - emancipist, expiree, or ticket of leave."

<hw>Expiree</hw>, <i>adj</i>. See preceding.

1847. J. D. Lang, `Cooksland,' p. 271:

"Very many of their servants, being old hands or expiree convicts from New South Wales and Van Diemen's Land, are thoroughly unprincipled men."

1883. E. M. Curr, `Recollections of Squatting in Victoria' (1841-1351), p. 40:

"Hiring men in Melbourne in 1841 was not by any means an agreeable job, as wages were high, and labourers (almost all old gaol-birds and expiree convicts) exceedingly independent and rowdy."

F

<hw>Fairy Gardens</hw>, <i>n.</i> a miner's term, explained in quotation.

1852. F. Lancelott, `Australia, as it is', vol. ii. p. 221:

"On the south-eastern portion of this county is the world-famed Burra Burra copper mine. . . . Some of the cuttings are through solid blocks of ore, which brilliantly glitter as you pass with a lighted candle, while others are formed in veins of malachite, and from their rich variegated green appearance are not inaptly called by the miners `Fairy gardens.'"

<hw>Fake-mucker</hw>, <i>n.</i> a Tasmanian name for the <i>Dusky Robin</i> (<i>Petroica vittata</i>). See <i>Robin</i>.

<hw>Falcon</hw>, <i>n.</i> English bird-name. The Australian species are—

Black Falcon—
  <i>Falco subniger</i>, Gray.

Black-cheeked F.—
 <i>F. melanogenys</i>, Gould.

Grey F.—
 <i>F. hypoleucus</i>, Gould.

Little F.—
 <i>F. lunulatus</i>, Lath.

See also Nankeen-Hawk.

<hw>Fantail</hw>, <i>n.</i> bird-name applied in England to a pigeon; in Australia and New Zealand, to the little birds of the genus <i>Rhipidura</i> (q.v.). It is a fly-catcher. The Australian species are—

<i>Rhipidura albiscapa</i>, Gould.

Black-and-White Fantail (called also the <i>Wagtail</i>,
  q.v.)—
 <i>R. tricolor</i>, Vieill.

Dusky F.—
 <i>R. diemenensis</i>, Sharpe.

Northern F.—
 <i>R. setosa</i>, Quoy and Gaim.

Pheasant F.—
 <i>Rhipidura phasiana</i>, De Vis.

Rufous F.—
 <i>R. rufifrons</i>, Lath.

Western F.—
 <i>R. preissi</i>, Cab.

White-tailed F.—
 <i>R. albicauda</i>, North.

Wood F.—
 <i>R. dryas</i>, Gould.

The New Zealand species are—

Black F.—
 <i>Rhipidura fuliginosa</i>, Sparrm. (Tiwaiwaka).

Pied F.—
 <i>R. flabellifera</i>, Gmel. (Piwakawaka).

In Tasmania, the <i>R. diemenensis</i> is called the Cranky Fantail, because of its antics.

1847. L. Leichhardt, `Journal,' vol. ii. p. 80:

"We also observed the . . . fantailed fly-catcher (<i>Rhipidura</i>)."

1888. W. L. Buller, `Birds of New Zealand,' vol. i. p. 69:

"The Red Fantail, ever flitting about with broadly expanded tail, and performing all manner of fantastic evolutions, in its diligent pursuit of gnats and flies, is one of the most pleasing and attractive objects in the New Zealand forest. It is very tame and familiar."

<hw>Farinaceous City</hw>, or <hw>Village</hw>, <i>n.</i> a playful name for Adelaide. The allusion is to wheat being the leading export of South Australia.

1873. A. Trollope, `Australia and New Zealand,' vol. ii. p. 184:

"[Adelaide] has also been nicknamed the Farinaceous City. A little gentle ridicule is no doubt intended to be conveyed by the word."

<hw>Fat-cake</hw>, <i>n.</i> ridiculous name sometimes applied to <i>Eucalyptus leucoxylon</i>, F. v. M., according to Maiden (`Useful Native Plants,' p. 471).

<hw>Fat-hen</hw>, <i>n.</i> a kind of wild spinach. In England the name is applied to various plants of thick foliage.

1847. L. Leichhardt, `Overland Expedition,' p. 40:

"The fat-hen (Atriplex) . . ."

1872. C. H. Eden, `My Wife and I in Queensland,' p. 120:

"Another wild vegetable brew in the sandy beds of the rivers and creeks, called `fat-hen.' It was exactly like spinach, and not only most agreeable but also an excellent anti-scorbutic, a useful property, for scurvy is not an unknown thing in the bush by any means."

1881. A.C. Grant, `Bush Life in Queensland,' vol. i. p. 156:

"Boiled salt junk, with <i>fat-hen</i> (a kind of indigenous spinach)."

1889. J. M. Maiden, `Useful Native Plants,' p. 16:

"<i>Chenopodium murale</i>, Linn., Australian spinach. Bentham considers this may have been introduced."

<hw>Felonry</hw>, <i>n.</i> See quotation.

1837. Jas. Mudie, `Felonry of New South Wales,' p. 6:

"The author has ventured to coin the word <i>felonry</i>, as the appellative of an order or class of persons in New South Wales—an order which happily exists in no other country in the world. A legitimate member of the tribe of appellatives . . . as peasantry, tenantry, yeomanry, gentry."

1858. T. McCombie, `History of Victoria,' c. xv. p. 24:

"The inundation of the Australian colonies with British
Felonry."

1888. Sir C. Gavan Duffy, `Contemporary Review,' vol. liii. p.14 [`Century']:

"To shut out the felonry of Great Britain and Ireland."

<hw>Ferns</hw>. The following list of Australian ferns is taken from `The Fern World of Australia,' by F. M. Bailey of Brisbane (1881), omitting from his list all ferns of which the vernacular and scientific names coincide with the names of ferns elsewhere.

Bat's-wing Fern—
 <i>Pteris incisa</i>, Thunb.

Black Tree F. of New Zealand—
 <i>Cyathea medullaris</i>, Sw.

Blanket F.—
 <i>Grammitis rutaefolia</i>, R. Br.

Braid F.—
 <i>Platyzoma microphyllum</i>, R. Br.

Caraway F.—
 <i>Athyrium umbrosum</i>, J. Sm.

Curly F.—
 <i>Cheilanthes tenuifolia</i>, Sw.

Deer's-tongue F.—
 <i>Acrostichum conforme</i>, Sw.

Ear F.—
 <i>Pteris falcata</i>, R. Br.

Elk's-horn F.—
 <i>Platycerium alcicorne</i>, Desv.

Fan F.—
 <i>Gleichenia flabellata</i>, R. Br.

Golden Swamp F.—
 <i>Acrostichum aureum</i>, Linn.

Grass-leaved F. (q.v.)—
 <i>Vittaria elongata</i>, Sw.

*Hare's-foot F.—
 <i>F. Davallia pyxidata</i>, Cav.

Jersey F.—
 <i>Grammitis leptophylla</i>, Sw.

*Lady F.—
 <i>Aspidium aculeatum</i>, Sw.

*Maiden-hair F.—
 <i>Adiantum</i>, spp.

Meadow-rue Water F.—
 <i>Ceratoptoris thalictroides</i>, Brong.

Parasol F.—
 <i>Gleichenia circinata</i>, Sw.

Pickled-cabbage F.—
 <i>Lomaria capensis</i>, Willd.

Potato F. (q.v.)—
 <i>Marattia fraxinea</i>, Sm.

Prickly F. (q.v.)—
 <i>Alsophila australis</i>, R. Br.

Prickly-tree Fern—
 <i>Alsophila leichhardtiana</i>, F. v. M.

Ribbon F.—
 <i>Ophioglossum pendulum</i>, Linn.

Shiny F.—
 <i>Polypodium aspidoides</i>, Bail.

Snake's-tongue F.—
 <i>Lygodium</i>, spp.

The following are not in Baileys List:

Parsley F.—
 <i>Cheilanthes tenuifolia</i>, Sw. (Name Parsley applied to a
  different Fern elsewhere.)

Sword F.—
 <i>Grammitis australis</i>, R. Br.

Umbrella F., Tasmanian name for Fan F. (q.v.).

Other ferns not in this list appear elsewhere. See also <i>Ferntree</i>. ____ * Elsewhere the name is applied to a different species. ——

<hw>Fern-bird</hw>, <i>n.</i> a New Zealand bird of the genus <i>Sphenoecus</i>. Also called <i>Grass-bird</i>, and <i>New Zealand Pipit</i>. There are three species—

The Fern-bird—
 <i>Sphenoecus punctatus</i>, Gray.

Chatham Island F.-b.—
 <i>S. rufescens</i>, Buller.

Fulvous F.-b.—
 <i>S. fulvus</i>, Gray.

1885. `Transactions of the New Zealand Institute,' vol. xviii. p. 125:

"The peculiar chirp of the <i>fern bird</i> is yet to be heard among the tall fern."

1885. A. Hamilton, `Native Birds of Petane, Hawke's Bay':

"Fern-bird. The peculiar chirp of this lively little bird is yet to be heard among the tall fern, though it is not so plentiful as in days gone by."

1888. W. L. Buller, `Birds of New Zealand,' vol. i. p. 59:

"Fern Bird . . . This recluse little species is one of our commonest birds, but is oftener heard than seen. It frequents the dense fern of the open country and the beds of Raupo."

<hw>Fern-tree</hw>, <i>n.</i> Name applied to various species of ferns which grow to a large size, the stem in the fully grown plant reaching often a height of many feet before the leaves are given off. Such Tree-ferns clothe the sides of deep and shady gullies amongst the hills, and give rise to what are known as Fern-tree gullies, which form a very characteristic feature of the moister coastal Ranges of many parts of Australia. The principal <i>Fern-trees</i> or <i>Tree-ferns</i>, as they are indiscriminately called, of Australia and Tasmania are—

<i>Dicksonia antarctica</i>, Lab.; <i>Alsophila australis</i>, R. Br.; <i>Todea africana</i>, Willd.; <i>Cyathea cunninghami</i>, J. Hook.; <i>Alsophila excelsa</i>, R. Br.;

the last named, however, not occurring in Tasmania or Victoria.

1836. Ross, `Hobart Town Almanack,' p. 164:

"We entered a beautiful fern-tree grove, that also concealed the heavens from view, spreading like a plantation or cocoa-nut tree orchard, but with far more elegance and effect."

1839. C. Darwin, `Voyage of Beagle' (ed. 1890), p. 177:

"Tree-ferns thrive luxuriantly in Van Diemen's Land (lat. 45 degrees), and I measured one trunk no less than six feet in circumference. An arborescent fern was found by Forster in New Zealand in 46 degrees, where orchideous plants are parasitical on the trees. In the Auckland Islands, ferns, according to Dr. Dieffenbach, have trunks so thick and high that they may be almost called tree-ferns."

1857. F. R. Nixon (Bishop of Tasmania), `Cruise of the Beacon,' p. 26:

"With these they [i.e. the Tasmanian Aborigines] mingled the core or pith of the fern trees, <i>Cibotium Bollardieri</i> and <i>Alsophila Australis</i> (of which the former is rather astringent and dry for a European palate, and the latter, though more tolerable, is yet scarcely equal to a Swedish turnip.)"

1870. S. H. Wintle, `Fragments of Fern Fronds,' p. 39:

"Where the feet of the mountains are bathed by cool fountains,
 The green, drooping fern trees are seen."

1878. William Sharp, `Australian Ballads,' `Canterbury Poets'
 (Scott, 1888), pp. 180-81:

"The feathery fern-trees make a screen,
 Where through the sun-glare cannot pass—
 Fern, gum, and lofty sassafras."

"Under a feathery fern-tree bough
 A huge iguana lies alow."

1884. R. L. A. Davies, `Poems and Literary Remains,' p. 83:

"There were mossy fern-trees near me,
 With their graceful feathered fronds,
 Which they slowly waved above me,
 Like hoar magicians' wands."

1893. A.R. Wallace, `Australasia,' vol. i. p. 53:

"Here are graceful palms rising to 70 or even 100 feet; the Indian fig with its tortuous branches clothed with a drapery of curious parasites; while graceful tree ferns, 30 feet high, flourish in the damp atmosphere of the sheltered dells."

<hw>Fern-tree Gully</hw>. See <i>Fern-tree</i> and <i>Gully</i>.

<hw>Fever-bark</hw>, <i>n.</i> another name for <i>Bitter-bark</i> (q.v.).

<hw>Fibrous Grass</hw>, <i>n.</i> a Tasmanian grass (see <i>Grass</i>), <i>Stipa semiibarbata</i>, R. Br., <i>N.O. Gramineae</i>.

1862. W. Archer, `Products of Tasmania,' p. 41:

"Fibrous grass (<i>Stipa semibarbata</i>, Br.). After the seed has ripened the upper part of the stem breaks up into fibre, which curls loosely and hangs down waving in the wind."

<hw>Fiddle-back</hw>, <i>n.</i> name given in Australia to the beetle, <i>Schizorrhina australasiae</i>.

<hw>Fiddler</hw>, <i>n.</i> a New South Wales and Victorian name for a species of Ray, <i>Trygonorhina fasciata</i>, Mull. and Heule, family <i>Rhinobatidae</i>.

<hw>Fig-bird</hw>, <i>n.</i> a bird-name. <i>Sphecotheres maxillaris</i>, Lath.; Yellow bellied, <i>S. flaviventris</i>, Gould. <i>S. maxillaris</i> is also called <i>Mulberry-bird</i> (q.v.).

<hw>Fig-eater</hw>, <i>n.</i> a bird, i.q. <i>Grape-eater</i> (q.v.).

<hw>Fig-tree</hw>, <i>n.</i> The name is applied in Australia to the following species:—

Blue Fig—
 <i>Elaeocarpus grandis</i>, F. v. M., <i>N.O. Tiliaceae</i>.

Clustered F.—
 <i>Ficus glomerata</i>, Willd., <i>N.O. Urticaceae</i>.

Moreton Bay F.—
 <i>P. macrophylla</i>, Desf., <i>N.O. Urticaciae</i> //sic. check//.

Prickly F.—
 <i>Elaeocarpus holopetalus</i>, F. v. M.,
 <i>N.O. Tiliaceae</i>.

Purple F., or White F., or Rough-leaved F., or Flooded F.
 [Clarence River]—
 <i>Ficus scabra</i>, G. Forst., <i>N.O. Urticaciae</i>.

Ribbed F.—
 <i>F. pleurocarpa</i>, F. v. M., <i>N.O. Urticaciae</i>.

Rusty F., or Narrow-leaved F. [or Port Jackson]— <i>F. rubiginosa</i>, Desf., <i>N.O. Urticaciae</i>; called also Native Banyan.

1862. H. C. Kendall, `Poems,' p.119:

"And I forget how lone we sit beneath this old fig-tree."

1870. F. S. Wilson, `Australian Songs,' p. 115:

"The fig-tree casts a pleasant shade
 On the straggling ferns below."

1882. J. H. Maiden, `Useful Native Plants,' p. 537:

"Moreton Bay fig. This noble-looking tree has a wood which is sometimes used, though it is very difficult to season."

[It is a handsome evergreen with dark leaves, larger than those of a horse-chestnut, much used as an ornament in street and gardens, especially in Sydney and Adelaide. The fig is not edible.]

1890. Rolf Boldrewood, `Miner's Right, c. 44, p. 380:

"The . . . venerable church with its alleys of araucaria and Moreton Bay fig-trees."

<hw>File-fish</hw>, <i>n.</i> name given in New Zealand to the fish <i>Monacanthus rudis</i>, Richards, family <i>Sclerodermi</i>; in New South Wales to species of the genus <i>Balistes</i>. The first of the spines of the dorsal fin is roughened in front like a file. <i>Balistes maculatus</i> is the "Spotted File-fish" of Sydney. It is closely allied to the genus <i>Monacanthus</i>, called <i>Leather-jacket</i> (q.v.), which is much more numerously represented in Australasia.

<hw>Finch</hw>, <i>n.</i> a bird-name, first applied in
Australia, in 1848, by Gould, to the genus <i>Poephila</i>
(Grass-lover), and since extended to other genera of birds.
The species are—

Banded Finch—
 <i>Stictoptera bichenovii</i>, Vig. and Hors.

Black-ringed F.—
 <i>S. annulosa</i>, Gould.

Black-rumped F.—
 <i>Poephila atropygialis</i>, Diggles.

Black-throated F.—
 <i>P. cincta</i>, Gould.

Chestnut-breasted F.—
 <i>Munia castaneothorax</i>, Gould.

Chestnut-eared F.—
 <i>Taeniopygia castanotis</i>, Gould.

Crimson F.—
 <i>Neochmia phaeton</i>, Homb. and Jacq.

Fire-tailed F.—
 <i>Zonaeginthus bellus</i>, Lath.

Gouldian F.—
 <i>Poephila gouldiae</i>, Gould.

Long-tailed F.—
 <i>P. acuticauda</i>, Gould.

Masked F.—
 <i>P. personata</i>, Gould.

Painted F.—
 <i>Emblema picta</i>, Gould.

Plum-head F.—
 <i>Aidemosyne modesta</i>, Gould.

Red-browed F.—
 <i>AEgintha temporalis</i>, Lath.

Red-eared F.—
 <i>Zonaeginthus oculatus</i>, Quoy and Gaim.

Red-tailed F.—
 <i>Bathilda ruficauda</i>, Gould.

Scarlet-headed F.—
 <i>Poephila mirabilis</i>, Homb. and Jacq.

Spotted-sided F.—
 <i>Staganopleura guttata</i>, Shaw.

White-Breasted F.—
 <i>Munia pectoralis</i>, Gould.

White-eared F.—
 <i>Poephila leucotis</i>, Gould.

Yellow-rumped F.—
 <i>Munia flaviprymna</i>, Gould.

<hw>Fire-stick</hw>, <i>n.</i> name given to the lighted stick which the Australian natives frequently carry about, when moving from camp to camp, so as to be able to light a fire always without the necessity of producing it by friction. The fire-stick may be carried in a smouldering condition for long distances, and when traversing open grass country, such as the porcupine-grass covered districts of the interior, the stick is used for setting fire to the grass, partly to destroy this and partly to drive out the game which is hiding amongst it. The <i>fire-stick </i> (see quotations) is also used as emblematic of the camp-fire in certain ceremonies.

1847. J. D. Lang,' Cooksland,'p. 126, n.:

"When their fire-stick has been extinguished, as is sometimes the case, for their jins or vestal virgins, who have charge of the fire, are not always sufficiently vigilant."

1896. F. J. Gillen, `Horne Expedition in Central Australia,' Anthropology, pt. iv. p. 170:

"Carrying fire-sticks, they place rings, woven of fur and vegetable down, round the boy's neck and arms and sometimes over and under the shoulders; the fire-sticks are then handed to him, the lubras saying: Take care of the fire; keep to your own camp.'"

<hw>Firetail</hw>, <i>n.</i> name applied in Victoria to the bird <i>AEgintha temporalis</i>, Lath.; and in Tasmania to <i>Zonaeginthus (Estrelda) bellus</i>, Lath. In New South Wales, <i>AE. temporalis</i> is known as the Red-head.

1848. J. Gould, `Birds of Australia,' vol. iii. pl. 78:

"<i>Estrelda Bella</i>, Fire-tailed finch. Fire-tail, Colonists of Van Diemen's Land."

<hw>Fire-tree</hw>, <i>n.</i> a tree of New Zealand; another name for <i>Pohutukawa</i> (q.v.). For <i>Queensland Fire-tree</i>, see <i>Tulip-tree</i>.

<hw>Fireweed</hw>, <i>n.</i> a name given to several weeds, such as <i>Senecio lautus</i>, Sol., <i>N.O. Compositae</i>; so called because they spring up in great luxuriance where the forest has been burned off.

<hw>Fish-hawk</hw>, <i>n.</i> English name applied to <i>Pandion leucocephalus</i>, Gould; called also the Osprey.

1848. J. Gould, `Birds of Australia,' vol. i. pl. 6:

"<i>Pandion Leucocephalus</i>, Gould, White-headed osprey. Little fish hawk, Colonists of New South Wales. Fish-hawk, Colonists of Swan River.''

<hw>Fist</hw>, <i>v</i>. to use the hands. The word is not unknown in English in the sense of to grip. (Shakspeare, `Cor.' IV. v. 124)

1846. C. P. Hodgson, `Reminiscences of Australia,' p. 366:

"`Fist it,' a colonial expression, which may convey to the uninitiated the idea that knives, forks, plates, etc., are unknown in the bush; such was formerly the case, but the march of improvement has banished this peculiar simplicity."

<hw>Five-corners</hw>, <i>n.</i> name given to the fruit of an Australian tree and to the tree itself, <i>Syphelia triflora</i>, Andr., N.O. Epacrideae. There are many species of <i>Styphelia</i> (q.v.), the fruit of several being edible.

1889. J. H. Maiden,' Useful Native Plants,' p. 61:

"Five-corners. These fruits have a sweetish pulp with a large stone. They form part of the food of the aboriginals, and are much appreciated by school boys. When from a robust plant they are of the size of a large pea, and not at all bad eating."

1896. H. Lawson, `When the World was Wide,' p. 158:

"Still I see in my fancy the dark-green and blue
 Of the box-covered hills where the five-corners grew."

<hw>Flame-tree</hw>, <i>n.</i> The name is given in India and elsewhere to several trees with bright scarlet, or crimson, flowers. In Australia, two different trees are called <i>Flame-trees</i>—

(1) A tree of Eastern Australia, with profuse bright coral-like flowers, <i>Brachychiton acerifolium</i>, F. v. M., <i>N.O. Sterculiaceae</i>.

(2) A tree of Western Australia, with brilliant orange-coloured flowers, <i>Nuytsia floribunda</i>, <i>N.O. Loranthaceae</i>; which is also called <i>Tree Mistletoe</i>, and, locally, a <i>Cabbage-tree</i>.

1885. R. M. Praed, `Australian Life,' p. 96:

"There are flame-trees showing in spring vivid patches of crimson."

<hw>Flannel Flower</hw>, <i>n.</i> an Australian flower, <i>Actinotus helianthi</i>, Labill., <i>N.O. Compositae</i>. It ranges from Gippsland to Southern Queensland, but is particularly abundant in New South Wales. Sometimes called the <i>Australian Edelweiss</i>. For the reason of the name see quotation.

1895. J. H. Maiden, `Flowering Plants of New South Wales,' p. 9:

"We only know one truly local name for this plant, and that is the `Flannel Flower'—a rather unpoetical designation, but a really descriptive one, and one universally accepted. It is, of course, in allusion to the involucre, which looks as if it were snipped out of white flannel. It is also known to a few by the name of Australian Edelweiss."

<hw>Flathead</hw>, <i>n.</i> name given to several Australian marine fishes, <i>Platycephalus fuscus</i>, Cuv. and Val., and other species of <i>Platycephalus</i>, family <i>Cottidae</i>. The Red Flathead is <i>P. bassensis</i>, Cuv.and Val., and the Rock F. is <i>P. laevigatus</i>, Cuv.and Val. See also <i>Tupong</i> and <i>Maori-chief</i>.

1793. Governor Hunter, `Voyage,' p. 410 (Aboriginal Vocabulary):

"Paddewah, a fish called a flathead."

1832. J. Bischoff, `Van Diemen's Land,' c. ii. p. 32:

"The market of Hobart Town is supplied with small rock cod, flatheads, and a fish called the perch."

<hw>Flat Pea</hw>, <i>n.</i> a genus of Australian flowering plants, <i>Platylobium</i>, <i>N.O. Leguminosae</i>.

1793. `Transactions of Linnaean Society,' vol. ii. p. 350:

"Its name I have deduced from <i>platus</i>, broad, and <i>lobos</i>, a pod."

"P. formosum. Orange flat-pea . . . A figure of this . . . will soon be given in the work I have undertaken on the botany of New Holland."

[The figure referred to will be found at p. 17 of the `Specimen of the Botany of New Holland.']

<hw>Flax, Native</hw>, <i>n.</i> The European flax is <i>Linum usitatissimum</i>, <i>N.O. Liniae</i>. There is a species in Australia, <i>Linum marginale</i>, Cunn., <i>N.O. Linaceae</i>, called <i>Native Flax</i>. In New Zealand, the <i>Phormium</i> is called <i>Native Flax</i>. See next word.

1889. J. M. Maiden, `Useful Native Plants,' p. 626:

"`Native flax.' Although a smaller plant than the true flax, this plant yields fibre of excellent quality. It is used by the blacks for making fishing-nets and cordage."

<hw>Flax, New Zealand</hw>, <i>n</i>. <i>Phormium tenax</i>, <i>N.O. Liliaceae</i>. A plant yielding a strong fibre. Called also, in New Zealand, <i>Native Flax</i>, and <i>Flax Lily</i>.

1807. J. Savage, `Some account of New Zealand,' p. 56:

"Small baskets made of the green native flax."

1845. E. J. Wakefield, `Adventures in New Zealand,' vol. i, p. 63:

"The plant is called <i>Phormium tenax</i> by naturalists. The general native name for the plant, we are told, is `korari,' but each sort, and there are ten or twelve, has its distinctive name. Any portion of the leaf, when gathered, becomes here `kie kie,' or literally, `tying stuff.' The operation of scraping is called `kayo,' the fibre when prepared, `muka.'" [Mr. Tregear says that Wakefield's statements are mistaken.]

1851. Mrs. Wilson, `New Zealand,' p. 23:

"His robe of glossy flax which loosely flows."

1861. C. C. Bowen, `Poems,' p. 57:

"And flax and fern and tutu grew
 In wild luxuriance round."

1870. T. H. Braiui, `New Homes,' c. viii. p. 375:

"The native flax (<i>Phormium tenax</i>) is found in all parts of New Zealand; it grows to the height of about nine feet."

1872. A. Domett, `Ranolf,' v.3, p. 93:

"In flowing vest of silky flax, undyed."

1893. `Murray's Handbook to New Zealand,' p. 29:

"The so-called native flax (<i>phormium tenax</i>)."

<hw>Flax-blade</hw>, <i>n.</i> the leaf of the <i>New Zealand Flax</i> (q.v.).

1872. A. Domett, `Ranolf,' i. 5, p. 11:

"With flax-blades binding to a tree
 The Maid who strove her limbs to free."

<hw>Flax-bush</hw>, <i>n.</i> the bush of the <i>New Zealand Flax</i>.

1854. W. Golder, `Pigeons' Parliament,' Intro. p. v:

"I had . . . to pass a night . . . under the shade of a flax-bush."

1872. A. Domett, `Ranolf,' x. 4, p. 171:

"And the louder flax-bushes
 With their crowding and crossing
 Black stems, darkly studded
 With blossoms red-blooded."

<hw>Flax-flower</hw>, <i>n.</i> the flower of the <i>New Zealand Flax</i> (q.v.).

1872. A. Domett, `Ranolf,' xiv. 3, p. 221:

                              "little isles
Where still the clinging flax-flower smiles."

<hw>Flax-leaf</hw>, <i>n.</i> the blade of the <i>New Zealand Flax</i> (q.v.).

1884. T. Bracken, `Lays of Maori' p. 69:

"Zephyrs stirred the flax-leaves into tune.

<hw>Flax-lily</hw>, <i>n.</i> (1) An Australian fibre plant, <i>Dianella laevis</i>, var. <i>aspera</i>, R. Br., <i>N.O. Liliaceae</i>. (2) <i>Phormium tenax</i>. See <i>Flax, New Zealand</i>.

1889. J. H. Maiden, `Useful Native Plants,' p. 621:

"Flax-lily. The fibre is strong, and of a silky texture.
The aboriginals formerly used it for making baskets, etc.
All the colonies except Western Australia."

<hw>Flindosa</hw>, and <hw>Flindosy</hw>, <i>n.</i> two trees called <i>Beech</i> (q.v.).

<hw>Flintwood</hw>, <i>n.</i> another name for <i>Blackbutt</i> (q.v.), <i>Eucalyptus pillularis</i>.

1889. J. H. Maiden, `Useful Native Plants,' p. 502:

"From the great hardness of the wood it is often known as flintwood."

<hw>Flounder</hw>, <i>n.</i> The Flounders in Australia are—

In Sydney, <i>Pseudorhombus russelli</i>, Gray; in Melbourne, <i>Rhombosolea victoriae</i>, Castln.; in New Zealand and Tasmania, <i>R. monopus</i>, Gunth. Maori name, Patiki; family <i>Pleuronectidae</i>. They are all excellent eating.

1876. P. Thomson, `Transactions of New Zealand Institute,' vol. ix. art. lxvii., p. 487:

"Patiki (flounder). Flounders are in the market all the year."

<hw>Flower-pecker</hw>, <i>n.</i> bird-name used elsewhere, but in Australia assigned to <i>Dicaeum hirundinaceum</i>, Lath.

<hw>Flowering Rush</hw>, <i>n.</i> name given to the rush or reed, <i>Xyris operculata</i>, Lab., <i>N.O. Xyrideae</i>.

<hw>Flute-bird</hw>, <i>n.</i> another name for the bird <i>Gymnorrhina tibicen</i>, Lath. Called also <i>Magpie</i> (q.v.).

1862. H. C. Kendall, `Poems,' p. 53:

"The flute-bird's mellow tone."

<hw>Fly-catcher</hw>, <i>n.</i> bird-name used elsewhere. The Australian species are—

Black-faced Flycatcher—
 <i>Monarcha melanopsis</i>, Vieill.

Blue F.—
 <i>Myiagra concinna</i>, Gould.

Broad-billed F.—
 <i>M. latirostris</i>, Gould.

Brown F. [called also Jacky Winter (q.v.)]
 <i>Micraeca fascinans</i>, Lath.

Leaden F.—
 <i>Myiagra rubecula</i>, Lath.

Lemon-breasted F.—
 <i>Micraeca flavigaster</i>, Gould.

Lesser Brown F.—
 <i>M. assimilis</i>, Gould.

Little F.—
 <i>Seisura nana</i>, Gould.

Pale F.—
 <i>Micraeca pallida</i>.

Pearly F.—
 <i>Monarcha canescens</i>, Salvad.

Pied Fly-catcher—
 <i>Arses kaupi</i>, Gould.

Restless F.—
 <i>Seisura inquieta</i>, Lath. [called also <i>Razor-
 grinder</i>, q.v., and <i>Dishwasher</i>, q.v.]

Satin F.—
 <i>Myiagra nitida</i>, Gould [called <i>Satin-robin</i>, q.v.,
 in Tasmania]

Shining F.—
 <i>Piezorhynchus nitidus</i>, Gould.

Spectacled F.—
 <i>P. gouldi</i>, Gray.

White-bellied F.—
 <i>P. albiventris</i>, Gould.

White-eared F.—
 <i>P. leucotis</i>, Gould.

Yellow-breasted F.—
 <i>Machaerhynchus flaviventer</i>, Gould.

1790. J. White, `Voyage to New South Wales,' p. 161:

"We this day caught a yellow-eared fly-catcher (see annexed plate). This bird is a native of New Holland." [Description follows.]

Fly-eater, <i>n.</i> the new vernacular name for the Australian birds of the genus <i>Gerygone</i> (q.v.), and see <i>Warbler</i>. The species are—

Black-throated Fly-eater—
 <i>Gerygone personata</i>, Gould.

Brown F.—
 <i>G. fusca</i>, Gould.

Buff-breasted F.—
 <i>G. laevigaster</i>, Gould.

Green-backed F.—
 <i>G. chloronota</i>, Gould.

Large-billed F.—
 <i>G. magnirostris</i>, Gould.

Southern F.—
 <i>G. culicivora</i>, Gould.

White-throated F.—
 <i>G. albogularis</i>, Gould.

Yellow-breasted F.—
 <i>G. flavida</i>, Ramsay.

1895. W. O. Legge, `Australasian Association for the Advancement of Science `(Brisbane), p. 447:

"[The habits and habitats of the genus as] applied to <i>Gerygone</i> suggested the term Fly-<i>eater</i>, as distinguished from Fly-<i>catcher</i>, for this aberrant and peculiarly Australasian form of small Fly-catchers, which not only capture their food somewhat after the manner of Fly-catchers, but also seek for it arboreally."

<hw>Flyer</hw>, <i>n.</i> a swift kangaroo.

1866. T. McCombie, `Australian Sketches,' second series, p. 172:

"I may here state that the settlers designate the old kangaroos as `old men' and `old women,' the full-grown animals are named `flyers,' and are swifter than the British hare."

<hw>Flying-Fox</hw>, <i>n.</i> a gigantic Australian bat, <i>Pteropus poliocephalus</i>, Temm. It has a fetid odour and does great damage to fruits, and is especially abundant in New South Wales, though often met with in Victoria. Described, not named, in first extract.

1793. Governor Hunter, `Voyage,' p. 507:

"The head of this bat strongly resembles that of a fox, and the wings of many of them extend three feet ten inches. . . . [Description of one domesticated.] . . . They are very fat, and are reckoned by the natives excellent food. . . . It was supposed more than twenty thousand of them were seen within the space of one mile."

1827. P. Cunningham, `Two Years in New South Wales,' vol. i. p. 315:

"One flying fox is an immense bat, of such a horrific appearance, that no wonder one of Cook's honest tars should take it for the devil when encountering it in the woods."

1830. R. Dawson, `Present State of Australia,' p. 310:

". . . a flying fox, which one of them held in his hand. It was, in fact, a large kind of bat, with the nose resembling in colour and shape that of a fox, and in scent it was exactly similar to it. The wing was that of a common English bat, and as long as that of a crow, to which it was about equal in the length and circumference of its body."

1849. J. P. Townsend, `Rambles in New South Wales,' p. 97:

"Some of the aborigines feed on a large bat popularly called `the flying fox.' . . We found the filthy creatures, hanging by the heels in thousands, from the higher branches of the trees."

1863. B. A. Heywood, `Vacation Tour at the Antipodes,' p. 102:

"The shrill twitter of the flying fox, or vampire bat, in the bush around us."

1871. Gerard Krefft, `Mammals of Australia':

"The food on which the `Foxes' principally live when garden fruit is not in season, consists of honey-bearing blossoms and the small native figs abounding in the coast-range scrubs. . . . These bats are found on the east coast only, but during very dry seasons they occur as far west as the neighbourhood of Melbourne."

1881. A.C. Grant, `Bush Life in Queensland,' vol. ii. p. 20:

"A little further on they came to a camp of flying foxes. The huge trees on both sides of the river are actually black with them. The great bats hang by their hooked wings to every available branch and twig, squealing and quarrelling. The smell is dreadful. The camp extends for a length of three miles. There must be millions upon millions of them."

<hw>Flying-Mouse</hw>, <i>n.</i> See <i>Opossum-mouse</i> and <i>Flying-Phalanger</i>.

<hw>Flying-Phalanger</hw>, <i>n.</i> included in the class of <i>Phalanger</i> (q.v.). The "flying" Phalangers "have developed large parachute-like expansions of skin from the sides of the body, by means of which they are able to take long flying leaps from bough to bough, and thus from tree to tree. While the great majority of the members of the family are purely vegetable feeders, . . . a few feed entirely or partly on insects, while others have taken to a diet of flesh." (R. Lydekker.)

They include the so-called <i>Flying-Squirrel</i>, <i>Flying-Mouse</i>, etc. There are three genera—

 Acrobates (q.v.), called the <i>Flying-Mouse</i>,
 and <i>Opossum-Mouse</i> (q.v.).

 <i>Petauroides</i> commonly called the <i>Taguan</i>, or
 <i>Taguan Flying-Squirrel</i>.

 <i>Petaurus</i> (q.v.), commonly called the <i>Flying
 Squirrel</i>.

The species are—

Lesser F.-Ph.—
 <i>Petaurus breviceps</i>.

Papuan Pigmy F.-Ph.—
 <i>Acrobates pulchellus</i> (confined to Northern Dutch New
 Guinea).

Pigmy F.-Ph.—
 <i>A. pygmaeuss</i>.

Squirrel F.-Ph.—
 <i>Petaurus sciureus</i>.

Taguan F.-Ph.—
 <i>Petauroides volans</i>.

Yellow-bellied F.-Ph.—
 <i>P. australis</i>.

<hw>Flying-Squirrel</hw>, <i>n.</i> popular name for a Flying-Phalanger, <i>Petaurus sciureus</i>, Shaw, a marsupial with a parachute-like fold of skin along the sides by which he skims and floats through the air. The name is applied to entirely different animals in Europe and America.

1789. Governor Phillip, `Voyage to Botany Bay,' c. xv. p. 151:

"Norfolk Island flying squirrel." [With picture.]

1827. P. Cunningham, `Two Years in New South Wales,' vol. i.:

"The flying squirrels are of a beautiful slate colour, with a fur so fine that, although a small animal, the hatters here give a quarter dollar for every skin."

1849. J. P. Townsend, `Rambles in New South Wales,' p. 37:

"The squeal and chirp of the flying squirrel."

1850. R. C. Gunn, `Proceedings of the Royal Society of Van Diemen's Land,' vol. i. p. 253:

"In the year 1845 I drew the attention of the Tasmanian Society to the interesting fact that the <i>Petaurus sciureus</i>, or Flying Squirrel, of Port Phillip, was becoming naturalized in Van Diemen's Land. . . . No species of <i>Petaurus</i> is indigenous to Tasmania. . . . It does not appear from all that I can learn, that any living specimens of the <i>Petaurus schireus</i> were imported into Van Diemen's Land prior to 1834; but immediately after the settlement of Port Phillip, in that year, considerable numbers of the flying squirrel were, from their beauty, brought over as pets by the early visitors."

1851. J. B. Clutterbuck, `Port Phillip in 1849,' p. 78:

"The flying squirrel, another of the opossum species of the marsupial order, is a beautiful little creature, and disposed over the whole of the interior of New South Wales: its fur is of a finer texture than that of the opossum."

1855. W. Blandowski, `Transactions of Philosophical Society of Victoria,' vol. i. p. 70:

"The common flying squirrel (<i>Petaurus sciureus</i>) is very plentiful in the large gum trees near the banks of a creek or river, and appears to entertain a peculiar aversion to the high lands."

1890. C. Lumholtz, `Among Cannibals,' p. 90:

"Flying squirrel."

[Footnote]:

"The marsupial flying phalanger is so called by the
Australians."

<hw>Fly-Orchis</hw>, <i>n.</i> name applied in Tasmania to the orchid, <i>Prasophyllum patens</i>, R. Br.

<hw>Forest</hw>, <i>n.</i> See quotation.

1839. T. L. Mitchell, `Three Expeditions into the Interior of Eastern Australia,' vol i. p. 71 [Footnote]:

"A `forest' means in New South Wales an open wood with grass. The common `bush' or `scrubb' consists of trees and saplings, where little grass is to be found."

[It is questionable whether this fine distinction still exists.]

<hw>Forester</hw>, <i>n.</i> the largest Kangaroo, <i>Macropus giganteus</i>, Zimm.

1832. J. Bischoff, `Van Diemen's Land,' vol. ii. p. 27:

"There are three or four varieties of kangaroos; those most common are denominated the forester and brush kangaroo."

1847. L. Leichhardt, `Overland Expedition,' p. 423:

"I called this river the `Red Kangaroo River,' for in approaching it we first saw the red forester of Port Essington."

1862. H. C. Kendall, `Poems,' p. 67:

"And the forester snuffing the air
 Will bound from his covert so dark."

1880. Mrs. Meredith, `Tasmanian Friends and Foes,' p. 15:

"We have never had one of the largest kind—the Forester Kangaroo (<i>Macropus gigantes</i>)—tame, for they have been so hunted and destroyed that there are very few left in Tasmania, and those are in private preserves, or very remote out-of-the-way places, and rarely seen. . . . The aborigines called the old father of a flock a Boomer. These were often very large: about five feet high in their usual position, but when standing quite up, they were fully six feet . . . and weighing 150 or 200 pounds."

1890. Rolf Boldrewood, `Miner's Right,' c. xix. p. 181:

"The dogs . . . made for them as if they had been a brace of stray foresters from the adjacent ranges."

<hw>Forest-Oak</hw>, <i>n.</i> See <i>Oak</i>.

Forget-me-not, <i>n.</i> The species of this familiar flower is <i>Myosotis australis</i>, R. Br., <i>N.O. Asperifoliae</i>.

<hw>Fortescue</hw>, or <hw>40-skewer</hw>, <i>n.</i> a fish of New South Wales, <i>Pentaroge marmorata</i>, Cuv. and Val., family <i>Scorpaenidae</i>; called also the <i>Scorpion</i>, and the <i>Cobbler</i>. All its names allude to the thorny spines of its fins. The name <i>Fortescue</i> is an adaptation of <i>Forty-skewer</i> by the law of Hobson-Jobson.

1882. Rev. J. E. Tenison-Woods, `Fish of New South Wales,' p. 49:

"Of this fish Mr. Hill says: The scorpion or Fortescue, as these fish are popularly termed by fishermen, have been known for a long time, and bear that name no doubt in memory of the pain they have hitherto inflicted; and for its number and array of prickles it enjoys in this country the <i>alias</i> `Forty-skewer' or `Fortescure.' "

1896. F. G. Aflalo, `Natural History of Australia,' p. 228:

"<i>Fortescue</i> is a terrible pest, lurking among the <i>debris</i> in the nets and all but invisible, its spines standing erect in readiness for the unwary finger. And so intense is the pain inflicted by a stab, that I have seen a strong man roll on the ground crying out like a madman."

<hw>Forty-legs</hw>, <i>n.</i> name given to a millipede, <i>Cermatia smithii</i>.

<hw>Forty-spot</hw>, <i>n.</i> name for a bird, a <i>Pardalote</i> (q.v.). Pardalote itself means spotted "like the pard." See also <i>Diamond-bird</i>.

1848. J. Gould, `Birds of Australia,' vol. ii. pl. 37:

"<i>Pardalotus quadragintus</i>, Gould, Forty-spotted pardalote. Forty-spot, Colonists of Van Diemen's Land."

1896. `The Australasian,' Aug. 28, p. 407, col. 5:

"`Lyre bird' is obvious; so, too, is `forty-spot'; only one wonders why the number 40 was pitched upon. Was it a guess? Or did the namer first shoot the bird and count?"

<hw>Fossick</hw>, <i>v. intrans</i>. to dig, but with special meanings. Derived, like <i>fosse</i>, a ditch, and <i>fossil</i>, through French from Lat. <i>fossus</i>, perfect part. of <i>fodere</i>, to dig. <i>Fossicking</i> as pres. part., or as verbal noun, is commoner than the other parts of the verb.

(1) To pick out gold.

1852. W. H. Hall, `Practical Experiences at the Diggings in Victoria,' p. 16:

"Or fossicking (picking out the nuggets from the interstices of the slate formation) with knives and trowels."

(2) To dig for gold on abandoned claims or in waste-heaps.

1865. F. H. Nixon, `Peter Perfume,' p. 59:

"They'll find it not quite so `welly good'
 As their fossicking freak at the Buckland."

1873. A.Trollope, `Australia and New Zealand,' c. xix. p. 286:

"Here we found about a dozen Chinamen `fossicking' after gold amidst the dirt of the river, which had already been washed by the first gold-seekers."

1880. G. Sutherland, `Tales of Goldfields,' p. 22:

"He commenced working along with several companions at surface digging and fossicking."

1894. `The Argus,' March 14, p. 4, col. 6:

"The easiest and simplest of all methods is `fossicking.' An old diggings is the place for this work, because there you will learn the kind of country, formation, and spots to look for gold when you want to break new ground. `Fossicking' means going over old workings, turning up boulders, and taking the clay from beneath them, exploring fissures in the rock, and scraping out the stuff with your table knife, using your pick to help matters. Pulling up of trees, and clearing all soil from the roots, scraping the bottoms of deserted holes, and generally keeping your eye about for little bits of ground left between workings by earlier miners who were in too great a hurry looking after the big fish to attend much to small fry."

(3) To search for gold generally, even by stealing.

1861. T. McCombie, `Australian Sketches,' p. 60:

"A number of idle and disorderly fellows had introduced a practice which was termed `fossicking.' . . . In the dead hours of midnight they issued forth, provided with wax tapers, and, entering upon the ground, stole the auriferous earth."

(4) To search about for anything, to rummage.

1870. S. Lemaitre, `Songs of Goldfields,' p. 14:

"He ran from the flat with an awful shout
 Without waiting to fossick the coffin lid out."

1890. `The Argus,' Aug. 2, p. 4, col. 3:

"Half the time was spent in fossicking for sticks."

1891. `The Argus,' Dec. 19, p. 4, col. 2:

"I was . . . a boy fossicking for birds' nests in the gullies."

1893. `The Australasian,' Jan. 14:

"The dog was fossicking about."

<hw>Fossicker</hw>, <i>n.</i> one who fossicks, sc. works among the tailings of old gold-mines for what may be left.

1853. C. Rudston Read, `What I heard, saw, and did at the Australian Gold Fields,' p. 150:

"The man was what they called a <i>night fossicker</i>, who slept, or did nothing during the day, and then went round at night to where he knew the claims to be rich, and stole the stuff by candle-light."

1861. T. McCombie, `Australian Sketches,' p. 87:

"I can at once recognize the experienced `fossickers,' who know well how to go to work with every chance in their favour."

1864. J. Rogers, `New Rush,' pt. ii. p. 32:

"Steady old <i>fossickers</i> often get more
 Than the first who open'd the ground."

1869. R. Brough Smyth, `Goldfields of Victoria,' p. 612:

"A fossicker is to the miner as is the gleaner to the reaper; he picks the crevices and pockets of the rocks."

1891. `The Australasian,' Nov. 21, p. 1015:

"We had heard that, on this same field, years after its total abandonment, a two hundred ounce nugget had been found by a solitary fossicker in a pillar left in an old claim."

1891. `The Argus,' Dec. 19, p. 4, col. 2:

"The fossickers sluiced and cradled with wonderful cradles of their own building."

<hw>Four-o'clock</hw>, <i>n.</i> another name for the <i>Friar-bird</i> (q.v.).

<hw>Free-select</hw>, <i>v</i>. to take up land under the Land Laws. See <i>Free-selector</i>. This composite verb, derived from the noun, is very unusual. The word generally used is <i>to select</i>.

1884. Rolf Boldrewood, `Melbourne Memories,' c. xix. p. 134:

"Everything which he could have needed had he proceeded to free-select an uninhabited island."

<hw>Free-selection</hw>, <i>n.</i> (1) The process of selecting or choosing land under the Land Laws, or the right to choose. Abbreviated often into <i>Selection</i>. See <i>Free-selector</i>.

1865. `Ararat Advertiser' [exact date lost]:

"He was told that the areas open for selection were not on the Geelong side, and one of the obliging officials placed a plan before him, showing the lands on which he was free to choose a future home. The selector looked vacantly at the map, but at length became attracted by a bright green allotment, which at once won his capricious fancy, indicating as it did such luxurious herbage; but, much to his disgust, he found that `the green lot' had already been selected. At length he fixed on a yellow section, and declared his intention of resting satisfied with the choice. The description and area of land chosen were called out, and he was requested t0 move further over and pay his money. `Pay?' queried the fuddled but startled <i>bona fide</i>, `I got no money (hic), old `un, thought it was free selection, you know.'"

1870. T. H. Braim, `New Homes,' ii. 87:

"A man can now go and make his free selection before survey of any quantity of land not less than 40 nor more than 320 acres, at twenty shillings an acre."

1878. `The Australian,' vol. i. p. 743:

"You may go to nine stations out of ten now without hearing any talk but `bullock and free-selection.'"

1880. G. Sutherland, `Tales of Goldfields,' p. 82:

"His intention . . . was to take up a small piece of land under the system of `free-selection.'"

1884. Rolf Boldrewood, `Melbourne Memories,' c. xx. p. 162:

"This was years before the free-selection discovery."

(2) Used for the land itself, but generally in the abbreviated form, <i>Selection</i>.

1887. R. M. Praed, `Longleat of Kooralbyn,' vol. vi, p. 56:

"I've only seen three females on my selection since I took it up four years last November."

<hw>Free-selector</hw>, <i>n.</i> (abbreviated often to <i>Selector</i>), one who takes up a block of Crown land under the Land Laws and by annual payments acquires the freehold. [320 acres to Victoria, 640 in New South Wales.]

1864. J. Rogers, `New Rush,' pt. i. p. 21:

"Free selectors we shall be
 When our journey's end we see."

1866. `Sydney Morning Herald,' Aug. 9:

"The very law which the free selector puts in force against the squatter, the squatter puts in force against him; he selected upon the squatter's run, and the squatter selects upon his grazing right."

1873. Ibid. p. 33:

"Men who select small portions of the Crown lands by means of land orders or by gradual purchase, and who become freeholders and then permanently wedded to the colony."

1873. A. Trollope, `Australia and New Zealand,' vol. i. p. 33:

"The condition of the free-selector—that of ownership of a piece of land to be tilled by the owner—is the one which the best class of immigrants desire."

1875. `Melbourne Spectator,' June 12, p. 70, col. 2:

"A public meeting of non-resident selectors has been held at
Rushworth."

1884. Marcus Clarke, `Memorial Volume,' p. 85:

"A burly free selector pitched his tent in my Home-Station paddock and turned my dam into a wash."

1890. Rolf Boldrewood, `Colonial Reformer,' c. xii. p. 116:

"No, no; I've kept free-selectors out all these years, and as long as I live here I'll do so still."

<hw>Freezer</hw>, <i>n.</i> a sheep bred and raised in order that its mutton may be frozen and exported.

1893. J. Hotson, Lecture in `Age,' Nov.30, p. 7, col. 2:

"In the breeding of what are in New Zealand known as `freezers' there lies a ready means of largely increasing the returns from our land."

<hw>Fresh-water Herring</hw>, <i>n.</i> In Sydney, the fish is <i>Clupea richmondia</i>, Macl. Elsewhere in Australia, and in Tasmania, it is another name for the <i>Grayling</i> (q.v.).

<hw>Fresh-water Perch</hw>, <i>n.</i> name given in Tasmania to the fish <i>Microperca tasmaniae</i>.

<hw>Friar-bird</hw>, <i>n.</i> an Australian bird, of the genus called <i>Philemon</i>, but originally named <i>Tropidorhynchus</i> (q.v.). It is a honey-eater, and is also called <i>Poor Soldier</i> and other names; see quotation, 1848. The species are—

Friar-Bird—
 <i>Philemon corniculatus</i>, Lath. [Called also
 <i>Leather-head</i>, q.v.]

Helmeted F.—
 <i>P. buceroides</i>, Swains.

Little F.—
 <i>P. sordidus</i>, Gould.

Silvery-crowned F.—
 <i>P. argenticeps</i>, Gould.

Yellow-throated F.-
 <i>P. citreogularis</i>, Gould.

Western F.—
 <i>P. occidentalis</i>, Ramsay.

1798. D. Collins, `Account of English Colony in New South Wales,' p. 615 (Vocab.):

"Wirgan,—bird named by us the friar."

1827. Vigors and Horsfield, `Transactions of Linnaean Society,' vol. xv. p. 324:

"<i>Friar</i>,—a very common bird about Paramatta, called by the natives `<i>coldong</i>:' It repeats the words `poor soldier' and `four o'clock' very distinctly."

1845. `Voyage to Port Phillip,' p. 53:

"The cheerful sedge-wren and the bald-head friar,
 The merry forest-pie with joyous song."

1848. J. Gould, `Birds of Australia,' vol. iv. pl. 58:

"<i>Tropidorhynchus Corniculatus</i>, Vig. and Hors.

"From the fancied resemblance of its notes to those words, it has obtained from the Colonists the various names of `Poor Soldier,' `Pimlico,' `Four o'clock,' etc. Its bare head and neck have also suggested the names of `Friar Bird,' `Monk,' `Leather Head,' etc."

1855. W. Blandowski, `Transactions of the Philosophical Society of Victoria,' vol. i. p. 64:

"The <i>Tropidorhynchus corniculatus</i> is well known to the colonists by the names `poor soldier,' `leather-headed jackass,' `friar-bird,' etc. This curious bird, in common with several other varieties of honey-eaters, is remarkable on account of its extreme liveliness and the singular resemblance of its notes to the human voice."

<hw>Frilled-Lizard</hw>, <i>n.</i> See quotation.

1875, G. Bennett, `Proceedings of Royal Society of Tasmania,' p. 56:

"Notes on the <i>Chlamydosaurus</i> or frilled-lizard of
Queensland (C. Kingii.) "

<hw>Frogsmouth</hw>, <i>n.</i> an Australian bird; genus <i>Podargus</i>, commonly called <i>Mopoke</i> (q.v.). The mouth and expression of the face resemble the appearance of a frog. The species are—

Freckled Frogsmouth—
 <i>Podargus phaloenoides</i>, Gould.

Marbled F.—
 <i>P. marmoratus</i>, Gould.

Plumed F.—
 <i>P. papuensis</i>, Quoy and Gaim.

Tawney F.—
 <i>P. strigoides</i>, Lath.

1895. W. O. Legge, `Australasian Association for the
 Advancement of Science' (Brisbane), p. 447:

"The term `Frogsmouth' is used in order to get rid of that very objectionable name <i>Podargus</i>, and as being allied to the other genera <i>Batrachostomus</i> and <i>Otothrix</i> of the family <i>Steatorninae</i> in India. It is a name well suited to the singular structure of the mouth, and presumably better than the mythical title of `Goatsucker.' `Night-hawk,' sometimes applied to the <i>Caprimulginae</i>, does not accord with the mode of flight of the genus <i>Podargus</i>."

<hw>Frontage</hw>, <i>n.</i> land along a river or creek, of great importance to a station. A use common in Australia, not peculiar to it.

1844. `Port Phillip Patriot,' July i8, p. 3, col. 7:

". . . has four miles frontage to the Yarra Yarra."

1890. Rolf Boldrewood, `Squatter's Dream,' c. iii. p. 29:

"Jack was piloted by Mr. Hawkesbury through the `frontage' and a considerable portion of the `back' regions of Gondaree."

<hw>Frost-fish</hw>, <i>n.</i> name given in Australia and New Zealand to the European <i>Scabbard-fish</i>, <i>Lepidopus caudatus</i>, White. The name is said to be derived from the circumstance that the fish is found alive on New Zealand sea-beaches on frosty nights. It is called the <i>Scabbard-fish</i> in Europe, because it is like the shining white metal sheath of a long sword. <i>Lepidopus</i> belongs to the family <i>Trichiuridae</i>, it reaches a length of five or six feet, but is so thin that it hardly weighs as many pounds. It is considered a delicacy in New Zealand.

1888. W. L. Buller, `Birds of New Zealand,' vol. ii. p. 51:

"The frost-fish . . . the most delicately flavoured of all New Zealand fishes, is an inhabitant of deep water, and on frosty nights, owing probably to its air-bladders becoming choked, it is cast up by the surf on the ocean-beach."

<hw>Fruit-Pigeon</hw>, <i>n.</i> The name is given to numerous pigeons of the genera <i>Ptilinopus</i> and <i>Carpophaga</i>. In Australia it is assigned to the following birds:—

Allied Fruit-Pigeon—
 <i>Ptilinopus assimilis</i>, Gould.

Purple-breasted F.-P.—
 <i>P. magnifica</i>, Temm.

Purple-crowned F.-P.—
 <i>P. superbus</i>, Temm.

Red-crowned F.-P.—
 <i>P. swainsonii</i>, Gould.

Rose-crowned F.-P.—
 <i>P. ewingii</i> Gould.

White-headed F.-P.—
 <i>Columba leucomela</i>, Temm.

And in New Zealand to <i>Carpophaga novae-zealandiae</i>, Gmel.
(Maori name, <i>Kereru Kuku</i>, or <i>Kukupa</i>.)

<hw>Fryingpan-Brand</hw>, <i>n.</i> a large brand used by cattle-stealers to cover the owner's brand. See <i>Duffer</i> and <i>Cattle-Duffer</i>.

1857. Frederic De Brebant Cooper, `Wild Adventures in Australia,' p. 104:

". . . This person was an `old hand,' and got into some trouble on the other side (i.e. the Bathurst side) by using a `frying-pan brand.' He was stock-keeping in that quarter, and was rather given to `gulley-raking.' One fine day it appears he ran in three bullocks belonging to a neighbouring squatter, and clapt his brand on the top of the other so as to efface it."

<hw>Fuchsia, Native</hw>, <i>n.</i> The name is applied to several native plants.

(1) In Australia and Tasmania, to various species of <i>Correa</i> (q.v.), especially to <i>Correa speciosa</i>, And., <i>N.O. Rutaceae</i>.

(2) In Queensland, to <i>Eremophila maculata</i>, F. v. M., <i>N.O</i>. <i>Myoporineae</i>.

(3) In New Zealand, to <i>Fuchsia excorticata</i>, Linn., <i>N.O. Onagrariae</i>. (Maori name, <i>Kotukutuktu</i>, q.v.). See also <i>Tooky-took</i> and <i>Konini</i>.

1860. Geo. Bennett, `Gatherings of a Naturalist in Australasia,' pp. 371-2:

"The Correa virens, with its pretty pendulous blossoms (from which it has been named the `Native Fuchsia'), and the Scarlet Grevillea (G. coccinea) are gay amidst the bush flowers."

1880. Mrs.Meredith, `Tasmanian Friends and Foes,' p. 23:

"I see some pretty red correa and lilac."
[Footnote]: "Correa speciosa—native fuchsia of Colonies."

1883. F. M. Bailey, `Synopsis of Queensland Flora,' p. 374:

"<i>E. maculata</i>. A . . . shrub called native fuchsia, and by some considered poisonous, by others a good fodder bush."

1889. J. H. Maiden, `Useful Native Plants,' p. 126:

"<i>E. maculata</i>. . . . Called `Native Fuchsia' in parts of Queensland."

1892. `Otago Witness,' Nov. 24, `Native Trees':

"A species of native fuchsia that is coming greatly into favour is called [Fuchsia] Procumbens. It is a lovely pot plant, with large pink fruit and upright flowers."

<hw>Full up of</hw>, <i>adj</i>. (slang), sick and tired of. "Full on," and "full of," are other forms.

1890. Rolf Boldrewood, `Miner's Right,' c. xxiii. p. 213:

"She was `full up' of the Oxley, which was a rowdy, disagreeable goldfield as ever she was on."

<hw>Furze, Native</hw>, <i>n.</i> a shrub, <i>Hakea ulcina</i>, R. Br. See <i>Hakea</i>.

<hw>Futtah</hw>, <i>n.</i> a settlers' corruption of the Maori word <i>Whata</i> (q.v.).

1895. W.S. Roberts, `Southland in 1856,'p. 28:

"These stores were called by the Europeans <i>futters</i>,—but the Maori name was Whata."

1896. `Southland Daily News,' Feb. 3:

"`Futtah is familiar as `household words.' There were always rats in New Zealand—that is, since any traditions of its <i>fauna</i> existed. The original ones were good to eat. They were black and smooth in the hair as the mole of the Old Country, and were esteemed delicacies. They were always mischievous, but the Norway rat that came with the white man was worse. He began by killing and eating his aboriginal congener, and then made it more difficult than ever to keep anything eatable out of reach of his teeth. Human ingenuity, however, is superior to that of most of the lower animals, and so the `futtah' came to be—a storehouse on four posts, each of them so bevelled as to render it impossible for the cleverest rat to climb them. The same expedient is to-day in use on Stewart Island and the West Coast —in fact, wherever properly constructed buildings are not available for the storage of things eatable or destructible by the rodents in question."

G

<hw>Galah</hw>, <i>n.</i> a bird.(The accent is now placed on the second syllable.) Aboriginal name for the <i>Cacatua roseicapilla</i>, Vieill., the <i>Rose-breasted Cockatoo</i>. See <i>Cockatoo</i>. With the first syllable compare last syllable of <i>Budgerigar</i> (q.v.)

1890. `The Argus,' Sept. 20, p. 13, col. 5:

"They can afford to screech and be merry, as also the grey, pink-crested galahs, which tint with the colours of the evening sky a spot of grass in the distance."

1890. Lyth, `Golden South,' c. xiv. p. 127:

"The galahs, with their delicate grey and rose-pink plumage, are the prettiest parrots."

1891. Francis Adams, `John Webb's End,' p. 191:

"A shrieking flock of galahs, on their final flight before they settled to roost, passed over and around him, and lifting up his head, he saw how all their grey feathers were flushed with the sunset light, their coloured breasts deepening into darkest ruby, they seemed like loosed spirits."

<hw>Gallows</hw>, <i>n.</i> Explained in quotation. Common at all stations, where of course the butchering is done on the premises.

1866. Lady Barker, `Station Life in New Zealand,' p. 64:

"The gallows, a high wooden frame from which the carcases of the butchered sheep dangle."

<hw>Gang-gang</hw>, or <hw>Gan-gan</hw>, <i>n.</i> the aboriginal word for the bird <i>Callocephalon galeatum</i>, Lath., so called from its note; a kind of cockatoo, grey with a red head, called also <i>Gang-gang Cockatoo</i>. See <i>Cockatoo</i>.

1833. C. Sturt, `Southern Australia,' vol. i. Intro. p. xxxviii:

"Upon the branches the satin-bird, the gangan, and various kinds of pigeons were feeding."

1848. J. Gould, `Birds of Australia,' vol. v. pl. 14:

"<i>Callocephalon Galeatum</i>, Gang-gang Cockatoo, Colonists of New South Wales."

<hw>Gannet</hw>, <i>n.</i> the English name for the <i>Solan Goose</i> and its tribe. The Australian species are—

The Gannet—
 <i>Sula serrator</i>, Banks.

Brown G. (called also <i>Booby</i>)—
 <i>S. leucogastra</i>, Bodd.

Masked G.—
 <i>S. cyanops</i>, Sunder.

Red-legged G.—
 <i>S. piscator</i>, Linn.

The species in New Zealand is <i>Dysporus serrator</i>, Grey;
 Maori name, <i>Takapu</i>.

<hw>Garfish</hw>, <i>n.</i> In England the name is applied to any fish of the family <i>Belonidae</i>. The name was originally used for the common European <i>Belone vulgaris</i>. In Melbourne the Garfish is a true one, <i>Belone ferox</i>, Gunth., called in Sydney "Long Tom." In Sydney, Tasmania, and New Zealand it is <i>Hemirhamphus intermedius</i>, Cantor.; and in New South Wales, generally, it is the river-fish <i>H. regularis</i>, Gunth., family <i>Sombresocidae</i>. Some say that the name was originally "Guard-fish," and it is still sometimes so spelt. But the word is derived from x<i>Gar</i>, in Anglo-Saxon, which meant spear, dart, javelin, and the allusion is to the long spear-like projection of the fish's jaws. Called by the Sydney fishermen <i>Ballahoo</i>, and in Auckland the <i>Piper</i> (q.v.).

1847. L. Leichhardt, `Overland Expedition,' p. 288:

"Charley brought me . . . the head bones of a large guard-fish."

1849. Anon., `New South Wales: its Past, Present, and Future Condition,' p. 99:

"The best kinds of fish are guard, mullet, and schnapper."

1850. Clutterbuck, `Port Phillip,' c. iii. p. 44:

"In the bay are large quantities of guard-fish."

1875. `Spectator' (Melbourne), June I9, p. 81, col.1:

"Common fish, such as trout, ruffies, mullet, garfish."

1882. Rev. J. E. Tenison-Woods, `Fish of New South Wales,' p. 83:

"Of the garfishes we have four species known to be found on our coasts. One, <i>Hemirhamphus regularis</i>, is the favourite breakfast fish of the citizens of Sydney. <i>H. melanochir</i>, or `river garfish,' is a still better fish, but has become very scarce. <i>H. argentcus</i>, the common Brisbane species . . . and <i>H. commersoni</i>."

<hw>Gastrolobium</hw>, <i>n.</i> scientific name of a genus of Australian shrubs, <i>N.O. Leguminosae</i>, commonly known as <i>Poison Bushes</i> (q.v.). The species are—

<i>Gastrolobium bilobum</i>, R. Br. <i>G. callistachys</i>, Meissn. <i>G. calycium</i>, Benth. <i>G. obovatum</i>, Benth. <i>G. oxylobioides</i>, Benth. <i>G. spinosum</i>, Benth. <i>G. trilobum</i>, Benth.

All of which are confined to Western Australia. The species <i>Gastrolobium grandiflorum</i>, F. v. M. (also called <i>Wall-flower</i>), is the only species found out of Western Australia, and extends across Central Australia to Queensland. All the species have pretty yellow and purple flowers. The name is from the Greek <i>gastaer, gastros</i>, the belly, and <i>lobion</i>, dim. of <i>lobos</i>, "the capsule or pod of leguminous plants." (`L. & S.')

<hw>Geebung</hw>, or <hw>Geebong</hw>, <i>n.</i> aboriginal name for the fruit of various species of the tree <i>Persoonia</i>, and also for the tree itself, <i>N.O. Proteaceae</i>.

1827. P. Cunningham, `Two Years in New South Wales,' vol. i. p. 221:

"The jibbong is another tasteless fruit, as well as the five corners, much relished by children."

1847. L. Leichhardt, `Overland Expedition, p. 478:

"We gathered and ate a great quantity of gibong (the ripe fruit of Persoonia falcata)."

1852. G. C. Mundy, `Our Antipodes,' c. vi,. p. 176, 3rd edition 1855:

"The geebung, a native plum, very woolly and tasteless."

1885. R. M. Praed, `Australian Life,' p. 113:

"We gathered the wild raspberries, and mingling them with geebongs and scrub berries, set forth a dessert."

1885. Rolf Boldrewood, `Robbery under Arms,' p. 255:

"You won't turn a five-corner into a quince, or a geebung into an orange."

1889. J. M. Maiden, `Useful Native Plants,' p. 584:

"A `geebung' (the name given to the fruits of <i>Persoonias</i>, and hence to the trees themselves)."

<hw>Gerygone</hw>, <i>n.</i> scientific and vernacular name of a genus of small warblers of Australia and New Zealand; the new name for them is <i>Fly-eater</i> (q.v.). In New Zealand they are called <i>Bush-warblers</i>, <i>Grey-warblers</i>, etc., and they also go there by their Maori name of <i>Riro-riro</i>. For the species, see <i>Fly-eater</i> and <i>Warbler</i>. The name is from the Greek <i>gerugonae</i>, "born of sound," a word used by Theocritus.

1895. W. O. Legge, `Australasian Association for the Advancement of Science' (Brisbane), p. 447:

"[The habits and habitats of the genus] <i>Gerygone</i> suggested the term Fly-<i>eater</i>, as distinguished from Fly-<i>catcher</i>, for this aberrant and peculiarly Australasian form of small Fly-catchers, which not only capture their food somewhat after the manner of Fly-catchers, but also seek for it arboreally."

<hw>Ghilgai</hw>, <i>n.</i> an aboriginal word used by white men in the neighbourhood of Bourke, New South Wales, to denote a saucer-shaped depression in the ground which forms a natural reservoir for rainwater. <i>Ghilgais</i> vary from 20 to 100 yards in diameter, and are from five to ten feet deep. They differ from <i>Claypans</i> (q.v.), in being more regular in outline and deeper towards the centre, whereas <i>Claypans</i> are generally flat-bottomed. Their formation is probably due to subsidence.

<hw>Giant-Lily</hw>, <i>n.</i> See under <i>Lily</i>.

<hw>Giant-Nettle</hw>, i.q. <i>Nettle-tree</i> (q.v.).

<hw>Gibber</hw>, <i>n.</i> an aboriginal word for a stone. Used both of loose stones and of rocks. The <i>G</i> is hard.

1834. L. E. Threlkeld, `Australian Grammar,' p. x. [In a list of `barbarisms']:

"Gibber, a stone."

[<i>Pace</i> Mr. Threlkeld, the word is aboriginal, though not of the dialect of the Hunter District, of which he is speaking.]

1852. `Settlers and Convicts; or Recollections of Sixteen Years' Labour in the Australian Backwoods,' p. 159:

"Of a rainy night like this he did not object to stow himself by the fireside of any house he might be near, or under the `gibbers' (overhanging rocks) of the river. . . ."

1890. A .J. Vogan, `Black Police,' p. 338:

"He struck right on top of them gibbers (stones)."

1894. Baldwin Spencer, in `The Argus,' Sept. 1, p. 4, col. 2:

"At first and for more than a hundred miles [from Oodnadatta northwards], our track led across what is called the gibber country, where the plains are covered with a thin layer of stones—the gibbers—of various sizes, derived from the breaking down of a hard rock which forms the top of endless low, table-topped hills belonging to the desert sandstone formation."

<hw>Gibber-gunyah</hw>, <i>n.</i> an aboriginal cave-dwelling. See <i>Gibber</i> and <i>Gunyah</i>, also <i>Rock-shelter</i>.

1852. `Settlers and Convicts; or, Recollections of Sixteen Years' Labour in the Australian Backwoods,' p. 211:

"I coincided in his opinion that it would be best for us to camp for the night in one of the ghibber-gunyahs. These are the hollows under overhanging rocks."

1863. Rev. R. W. Vanderkiste, `Lost, but not for Ever,' p. 210:

"Our home is the gibber-gunyah,
  Where hill joins hill on high,
 Where the turrama and berrambo
  Like sleeping serpents lie."

1891. R. Etheridge, jun., `Records of the Australian Museum,' vol. i. no. viii. p. 171:

"Notes on Rock Shelters or Gibba-gunyahs at Deewhy Lagoon."

<hw>Giddea</hw>, <hw>Gidya</hw>, or <hw>Gidgee</hw>, <i>adj</i>. aboriginal word of New South Wales and Queensland for—

(1) a species of <i>Acacia, A. homalophylla</i>, Cunn. The original meaning is probably <i>small</i>, cf. <i>gidju</i>, Warrego, Queensland, and <i>kutyo</i>, Adelaide, both meaning small.

(2) A long spear made, from this wood.

1878. `Catalogue of Objects of Ethno-typical Art in National Gallery, Melbourne,' p. 46:

"<i>Gid-jee</i>. Hardwood spear, with fragments of quartz set in gum on two sides and grass-tree stem. Total length, 7 feet 8 inches."

1885. R. M. Praed, `Australian Life,' p. 51:

"Gidya scrubs."

1889. J. H. Maiden, `Useful Native Plants,' p. 357:

"<i>A. homalophylla</i>. A `Spearwood.' Called `Myall' in Victoria. . . . Aboriginal names are . . . Gidya, Gidia, or Gidgee (with other spellings in New South Wales and Queensland). This is the commonest colonial name . . . much sought after for turner's work on account of its solidity and fragrance. . . . The smell of the tree when in flower is abominable, and just before rain almost unbearable."

1890. Rolf Boldrewood, `Colonial Reformer,' c. xvii. p. 211:

"I sat . . . watching the shadows of the gydya trees lengthen, ah! so slowly."

1890. C. Lumholtz, `Among Cannibals,' p. 37:

"Kind of scrub, called by the colonists gydya-scrub, which manifests itself even at a distance by a very characteristic, but not agreeable odour, being especially pungent after rain."

1896. Baldwin Spencer, `Home Expedition in Central Australia,' Narrative, p. 22:

"We camped beside a water-pool on the Adminga Creek, which is bordered for the main part by a belt of the stinking acacia, or giddea (<i>A. homalophylla</i>). When the branches are freshly cut it well deserves the former name, as they have a most objectionable smell."

<hw>Gill-bird</hw>, <i>n.</i> an occasional name for the <i>Wattle-bird</i> (q.v.).

1896. `Menu' for October 15:

"Gill-bird on Toast."

<hw>Gin</hw>, <i>n.</i> a native word for an aboriginal woman, and used, though rarely, even for a female kangaroo. See quotation 1833. The form <i>gun</i> (see quotation 1865) looks as if it had been altered to meet <i>gunae</i>, and of course generate is not derived from <i>gunae</i>, though it may be a distant relative. In `Collins's Vocabulary' occurs "din, a woman." If such a phonetic spelling as <i>djin</i> had been adopted, as it well might have been, to express the native sound, where would the <i>gunae</i> theory have been?

1798. D. Collins, `Account of English Colony in New South Wales,' Vocabulary, p. 612:

"Din—a woman."

1830. R. Dawson, `Present State of Australia,' p. 152:

"A proposition was made by one of my natives to go and steal a gin (wife)."

Ibid. p. 153:

"She agrees to become his gin."

1833. Lieut. Breton, R.N., `Excursions in New South Wales,' p. 254:

"The flying gin (gin is the native word for woman or female) is a boomall, and will leave behind every description of dog."

1834. L. E. Threlkeld, `Australian Grammar,' p. x:

"As a barbarism [sc. not used on the Hunter], jin—a wife."

1845. J. O. Balfour, `Sketch of New South Wales,' p. 8:

"A gin (the aboriginal for a married woman)."

1846. C. P. Hodgson, `Reminiscences of Australia,' p. 367:

"Gin, the term applied to the native female blacks; not from any attachment to the spirit of that name, but from some (to me) unknown derivation."

1846. J. L. Stokes, `Discovery in Australia,' vol. I. c. iv. p. 74:

"Though very anxious to . . . carry off one of their `gins,' or wives . . . he yet evidently holds these north men in great dread."

1847. J. D. Lang, `Cooksland,'p. 126, n.:

"When their fire-stick has been extinguished, as is sometimes the case, for their jins or vestal virgins, who have charge of the fire, are not always sufficiently vigilant."

1852. G. C. Mundy, `Our Antipodes' (edition 1855), p. 98:

"Gins—native women—from <i>gune</i>, mulier, evidently!"

1864. J. Rogers, `New Rush,' pt. 2, p. 46:

"The females would be comely looking gins,
 Were not their limbs so much like rolling-pins."

1865. S. Bennett, `Australian Discovery,' p. 250:

"Gin or gun, a woman. Greek <i>gunae</i> and derivative words in English, such as generate, generation, and the like."

1872. C. H. Eden, `MY Wife and I in Queensland,' p. 118:

"The gins are captives of their bow and spear, and are brought home before the captor on his saddle. This seems the orthodox way of wooing the coy forest maidens. . . . All blacks are cruel to their gins."

1880. J. Brunton Stephens, `Poems' [Title]:

"To a black gin."

1885. R. M. Praed, `Australian Life,' p. 23:

"Certain stout young gins or lubras, set apart for the purpose, were sacrificed."

<hw>Ginger, Native</hw>, <i>n.</i> an Australian tree, <i>Alpinia caerulea</i>, Benth., <i>N.O. Scitamineae</i>. The globular fruit is eaten by the natives.

1890. C. Lumholtz, `Among Cannibals,' p. 296:

"Fresh green leaves, especially of the so-called native ginger (<i>Alpinia caerulea</i>)."

<hw>Give Best</hw>, <i>v</i>. Australian slang, meaning to acknowledge superiority, or to give up trying at anything.

1883. Keighley, `Who are You?' p. 87:

"But then—the fact had better be confessed, I went to work and gave the schooling best."

1887. J. Farrell, `How he Died,' p. 80:

"Charley gave life best and died of grief."

1890. Rolf Boldrewood, `Miner's Right,' c. xviii. p. 174:

"It's not like an Englishman to jack up and give these fellows best."

<hw>Globe-fish</hw>, <i>n.</i> name given to the fish <i>Tetrodon hamiltoni</i>, Richards., family <i>Gymnodontes</i>. The <i>Spiny Globe-fish</i> is <i>Diodon</i>. These are also called <i>Toad-fish</i> (q.v.), and <i>Porcupine-fish</i> (q.v.). The name is applied to other fish elsewhere.

<hw>Glory Flower</hw>, or <hw>Glory Pea</hw>, i.q. <i>Clianthus</i> (q.v.).

<hw>Glory Pea</hw>, i.q. <i>Clianthus</i> (q.v.).

<hw>Glucking-bird</hw>, <i>n.</i> a bird so named by Leichhardt, but not identified. Probably the <i>Boobook</i> (q.v.), and see its quotation 1827; see also under <i>Mopoke</i> quotation, <i>Owl</i>, 1846.

1847. L. Leichhardt, `Overland Expedition,' p. 23:

"The musical note of an unknown bird, sounding like `gluck gluck' frequently repeated, and ending in a shake . . . are heard from the neighbourhood of the scrub."

Ibid. p. 29:

"The glucking bird—by which name, in consequence of its note, the bird may be distinguished—was heard through the night."

Ibid. p. 47:

"The glucking-bird and the barking owl were heard throughout the moonlight nights."

Ibid. pp. 398, 399:

"During the night, we heard the well-known note of what we called the `Glucking bird,' when we first met with it in the Cypress-pine country at the early part of our expedition. Its re-appearance with the Cypress-pine corroborated my supposition, that the bird lived on the seeds of that tree."

<hw>Glue-pot</hw>, <i>n.</i> part of a road so bad that the coach or buggy sticks in it.

1892. `Daily News,' London (exact date lost):

"The Bishop of Manchester [Dr. Moorhouse, formerly Bishop of Melbourne], whose authority on missionary subjects will not be disputed, assures us that no one can possibly understand the difficulties and the troubles attendant upon the work of a Colonial bishop or clergyman until he has driven across almost pathless wastes or through almost inaccessible forests, has struggled through what they used to call `glue-pots,' until he has been shaken to pieces by `corduroy roads,' and has been in the midst of forests with the branches of trees falling around on all sides, knowing full well that if one fell upon him he would be killed."

<hw>Goai</hw>, <i>n.</i> common name in southern island of New Zealand for <i>Kowhai</i> (q.v.), of which it is a corruption. It is especially used of the timber of this tree, which is valuable for fencing. The change from <i>K</i> to <i>G</i> also took place in the name Otago, formerly spelt Otakou.

1860. John Blair, `New Zealand for Me,':

"The land of the <i>goai</i> tree, mapu, and pine,
 The stately <i>totara</i>, and blooming wild vine."

1863. S. Butler, `First Year in Canterbury Settlement,' p. 104:

"I remember nothing but a rather curiously shaped gowai-tree."

<hw>Goanna</hw>, <hw>Guana</hw>, and <hw>Guano</hw>, <i>n.</i> popular corruptions for <i>Iguana</i>, the large Lace-lizard (q.v.), <i>Varanus varius</i>, Shaw. In New Zealand, the word <i>Guano</i> is applied to the lizard-like reptile <i>Sphenodon punctatum</i>. See <i>Tuatara</i>. In Tasmania, the name is given to <i>Taliqua schincoides</i>, White, and throughout Australia any lizard of a large size is popularly called a <i>Guana</i>, or in the bush, more commonly, a <i>Goanna</i>. See also <i>Lace-lizard</i>.

1802. G. Barrington, `History of New South Wales,' c. viii. p. 285:

"Among other reptiles were found . . . some brown guanoes."

1830. R. Dawson, `Present state of Australia,' p. 118:

"At length an animal called a guana (a very large species of lizard) jumped out of the grass, and with amazing rapidity ran, as they always do when disturbed, up a high tree."

1864. J. Ropers, `New Rush,' p. 6:

"The shy guana climbs a tree in fear."

1891. Rolf Boldrewood, `A Sydney-side Saxon,' p. 99:

"A goanna startled him, and he set to and kicked the front of the buggy in."

1896. H. Lawson, `When the World was Wide,' p. 139:

"And the sinister `gohanna,' and the lizard, and the snake."

<hw>Go-ashore</hw>, <i>n.</i> an iron pot or cauldron, with three iron feet, and two ears, from which it was suspended by a wire handle over the fire. It is a corruption of the Maori word <i>Kohua</i> (q.v.), by the law of Hobson-Jobson.

1849. W. Tyrone Power, `Sketches in New Zealand with Pen and Pencil,' p. 160:

"Engaged in the superintendence of a Maori oven, or a huge gipsy-looking cauldron, called a `go-ashore.'"

1877. An Old Colonist, `Colonial Experiences,' p. 124:

"A large go-ashore, or three-legged pot, of the size and shape of the cauldron usually introduced in the witch scene in Macbeth."

1879. C. L. Innes, `Canterbury Sketches,' p. 23:

"There was another pot, called by the euphonious name of a
`Go-ashore,' which used to hang by a chain over the fire.
This was used for boiling."

<hw>Goborro</hw>, <i>n.</i> aboriginal name for <i>Eucalyptus microtheca</i>, F. v. M. See <i>Dwarf-box</i>, under <i>Box</i>.

<hw>Goburra</hw>, and <hw>Gogobera</hw>, <i>n.</i> variants of <i>Kookaburra</i> (q.v.).

<hw>Goditcha</hw>. See <i>Kurdaitcha</i>.

<hw>Godwit</hw>, <i>n.</i> the English name for birds of the genus <i>Limosa</i>. The Australian species are—

Black-tailed G.,—
 <i>Limosa melanuroides</i>, Gould;

Barred-rumped G.,—
 <i>L. uropygialis</i>, Gould.

<hw>Gogobera</hw>, and <hw>Goburra</hw>, <i>n.</i> variants of <i>Kookaburra</i> (q.v.).

<hw>Gold</hw>-. The following words and phrases compounded with "gold" are Australian in use, though probably some are used elsewhere.

<hw>Gold-bearing</hw>, <i>verbal adj</i>. auriferous.

1890. `Goldfields of Victoria,' p. 13:

"A new line of gold-bearing quartz."

<hw>Gold-digging</hw>, <i>verbal n.</i> mining or digging for gold.

1880. G. Sutherland, `Tales of Gold. fields,' p. 36:

"There were over forty miners thus playing at gold-digging in Hiscock's Gully."

<hw>Gold-digger</hw>, <i>n.</i>

1852. J. Bonwick [Title]:

"Notes of a Gold-digger."

<hw>Gold-fever</hw>, <i>n.</i> the desire to obtain gold by digging. The word is more especially applied to the period between 1851 and 1857, the early Australian discovery of gold. The term had been previously applied in a similar way to the Californian excitement in 1848-49. Called also <i>Yellow fever</i>.

1888. A. J. Barbour, `Clara,' c. ix. p. 13:

"The gold fever coursed through every vein."

<hw>Gold-field</hw>, <i>n.</i> district where mining for gold is carried on.

1858. T. McCombie, `History of Victoria, c. xv. p. 215:

"All were anxious to get away for the gold fields."

1880. G. Sutherland, [Title] `Tales of Goldfields,' p. 19:

"Edward Hargreaves, the discoverer of the Australian goldfields . . . received L15,000 as his reward."

<hw>Gold-founded</hw>, <i>part. adj</i>. founded as the result of the discovery of gold.

1890. Rolf Boldrewood, `Miner's Right,' c. ix. p. 91:

"I rode up the narrow street, serpentine in construction, as in all gold-founded townships."

<hw>Gold-hunter</hw>, <i>n.</i> searcher after gold.

1852. G. S. Rutter [Title]:

"Hints to Gold-hunters."

1890. Rolf Boldrewood, `Miner's Right,' c. v. p. 48:

"I was not as one of the reckless gold-hunters with which the camp was thronged."

<hw>Gold-mining</hw>, <i>verbal n.</i>

1852. J. A.Phillips [Title]:

"Gold-mining; a Scientific Guide for Australian Emigrants."

1880. G. Sutherland, `Tales of Goldfields,' p. 23:

"He had already had quite enough of gold-mining."

<hw>Gold-seeking</hw>, <i>adj</i>.

1890. Rolf Boldrewood, `Miner's Right,' c. xv. p. 150:

"The great gold-seeking multitude had swelled . . . to the population of a province."

<hw>Golden Bell-Frog</hw>, <i>n.</i> name applied to a large gold and green frog, <i>Hyla aurea</i>, Less., which, unlike the great majority of the family <i>Hylidae</i> to which it belongs, is terrestrial and not arboreal in its habits, being found in and about water-holes in many parts of Australia.

1881. F. McCoy, `Prodromus of the Zoology of Victoria,' Dec. 6, pl. 53:

"So completely alike was the sound of the Bell-frogs in an adjoining pond at night to the noise of the men by day."

<hw>Golden-chain</hw>, <i>n.</i> another name for the <i>Laburnum</i> (q.v.).

<hw>Golden-eye</hw>, <i>n.</i> the bird <i>Certhia lunulatu</i>, Shaw; now called <i>Melithreptus lunulatus</i>, Shaw, and classed as <i>White-naped Honey-eater</i> (q.v.).

1827. Vigors and Horsfield, `Transactions of Linnaean Society,' vol. xv. p. 315:

"`This bird,' Mr. Caley says, `is called Golden-eye by the settlers. I shot it at Iron Cove, seven miles from Sydney, on the Paramatta road.'"

<hw>Golden-Perch</hw>, <i>n.</i> a fresh-water fish of Australia, <i>Ctenolates ambiguus</i>, Richards., family <i>Percidae</i>, and <i>C. christyi</i>, Castln.; also called the <i>Yellow-belly</i>. <i>C. ambiguus</i> is common in the rivers and lagoons of the Murray system.

<hw>Golden-Rosemary</hw>, <i>n.</i> See <i>Rosemary</i>.

<hw>Golden-Wattle</hw>, <i>n.</i> See <i>Wattle</i>.

1896. `The Argus,' July 20, p. 5, col. 8:

"Many persons who had been lured into gathering armfuls of early wattle had cause to regret their devotion to the Australian national bloom, for the golden wattle blossoms produced unpleasant associations in the minds of the wearers of the green, and there were blows and curses in plenty. In political botany the wattle and blackthorn cannot grow side by side."

1896. `The Melburnian,' Aug. 28, p. 53:

"The last two weeks have been alive with signs and tokens, saying `Spring is coming, Spring is here.' And though this may not be the `merry month of May,' yet it is the time of glorious Golden Wattle,—wattle waving by the river's bank, nodding aloft its soft plumes of yellow and its gleaming golden oriflamme, or bending low to kiss its own image in the brown waters which it loves."

<hw>Goodenia</hw>, <i>n.</i> the scientific and popular name of a genus of Australian plants, closely resembling the <i>Gentians</i>; there are many species. The name was given by Sir James Smith, president of the Linnaean Society, in 1793. See quotation.

1793. `Transactions of the Linn.can Society,' vol. ii. p. 346:

"I [Smith] have given to this . . . genus the name of Goodenia, in honour of . . . Rev. Dr. <i>Goodenough</i>, treasurer of this Society, of whose botanical merits . . . example of Tournefort, who formed Gundelia from Gundelscheimer."

[Dr. Goodenough became Bishop of Carlisle; he was the grandfather of Commodore Goodenough.]

1889. J. H. Maiden, `Useful Native Plants,' p. 188:

"A species of <i>Goodenia</i> is supposed to be used by the native gins to cause their children to sleep on long journeys, but it is not clear which is used."

<hw>Goodletite</hw>, <i>n.</i> scientific name for a matrix in which rubies are found. So named by Professor Black of Dunedin, in honour of his assistant, William Goodlet, who was the first to discover the rubies in the matrix, on the west coast.

1894. `Grey River Argus,' September:

"Several sapphires of good size and colour have been found, also rubies in the matrix—Goodletite."

<hw>Goondie</hw>, <i>n.</i> a native hut. <i>Gundai</i> = a shelter in the Wiradhuri dialect. It is the same word as <i>Gunyah</i> (q.v.).

1890. Rolf Boldrewood, `Colonial Reformer,' c. xvii. p. 204:

"There were a dozen `goondies' to be visited, and the inmates started to their work."

<hw>Goose</hw>, <i>n.</i> English bird-name. The Australian species are—

Cape Barren Goose—
 <i>Cereopsis novae-hollandiae</i>, Lath. [Gould (`Birds of
Australia,' vol. vii. pl. 1) calls it the Cereopsis Goose, or
Cape Barren Goose of the Colonists.]

Maned G. (or Wood-duck, q.v.)—
 <i>Branta jubata</i>, Lath.

Pied G.—
 <i>Anseranus melanoleuca</i>, Lath.
  Called also Magpie-Goose and Swan-Goose.

1843. J. Backhouse, `Narrative of a Visit to the Australian
 Colonies,' p. 75:

"Five pelicans and some Cape Barren Geese were upon the beach of Preservation Island [Bass Strait]."

<hw>Goose-teal</hw>, <i>n.</i> the English name for a very small goose of the genus <i>Nettapus</i>. The Australian species are—

Green,—
 <i> Nettapus pulchellus</i>, Gould;

White-quilled,—
 <i>N. albipennis</i>, Gould.

<hw>Gooseberry-tree</hw>, Little, <i>n.</i> name given to the Australian tree <i>Buchanania mangoides</i>, F. v. M., <i>N.O. Anacardiaceae</i>.

1847. L. Leichhardt, `Overland Expedition, p. 479:

"My companions had, for several days past, gathered the unripe fruits of <i>Coniogeton arborescens</i>, R. Br., which, when boiled, imparted an agreeable acidity to the water. . . . When ripe, they became sweet and pulpy, like gooseberries. . . . This resemblance induced us to call the tree `the little gooseberry-tree.' "

<hw>Gordon Lily</hw>, <i>n.</i> See under <i>Lily</i>.

<hw>Gouty-stem</hw>, <i>n.</i> the Australian <i>Baobab-tree</i> (q.v.), <i>Adansonia gregori</i>, F. v. M. According to Maiden (p. 60), <i>Sterculia rupestris</i>, Benth., is also called Gouty-stem, on account of the extraordinary shape of the trunk. Other names of this tree are the <i>Sour-gourd</i>, and the <i>Cream-of-tartar</i> tree.

1846. J. L. Stokes, `Discovery in Australia,' vol. II. c. iii. p. 115:

"The gouty-stem tree . . . bears a very fragrant white flower, not unlike the jasmine." [Illustration given at p. 116.]

1865. Rev. J. E. Tenison-Woods, `History of the Discovery and Exploration of Australia,' vol. i. p. 2S9 [Note]:

"This tree is distinguished by the extraordinary swollen appearance of the stem, which looks as though the tree were diseased or the result of a freak of nature. The youngest as well as the oldest trees have the same deformed appearance, and inside the bark is a soft juicy pulp instead of wood, which is said to be serviceable as an article of food. The stem of the largest tree at Careening Bay was twenty-nine feet in girth; it is named the <i>Adansonia digitata</i>. A species is found in Africa. In Australia it occurs only on the north coast."

<hw>Government</hw>, <i>n.</i> a not unusual contraction of "Government service," used by contractors and working men.

<hw>Government men</hw>, <i>n.</i> an obsolete euphemistic name for convicts, especially for assigned servants (q.v.).

1846. G. H. Haydon, `Five Years in Australia Felix,' p. 122:

"Three government men or convicts."

1852. J. West, `History of Tasmania,' vol. ii. p. 127:

"Government men, as assigned servants were called."

<hw>Government stroke</hw>, <i>n.</i> a lazy style of doing work, explained in quotations. The phrase is not dead.

1856. W. W. Dobie, `Recollections of a Visit to Port Phillip,' p. 47:

"Government labourers, at ten shillings a-day, were breaking stones with what is called `the Government stroke,' which is a slow-going, anti-sweating kind of motion. . . ."

1873. A. Trollope, `Australia and New Zealand,' c. ix. [near end] p. 163:

"In colonial parlance the government stroke is that light and easy mode of labour—perhaps that semblance of labour—which no other master will endure, though government is forced to put up with it."

1893. `Otago Witness,' December 2r, p. 9, col. 1:

"The government stroke is good enough for this kind of job."

1897. `The Argus,' Feb. 22, p. 4, col. 9:

"Like the poor the unemployed are always with us, but they have a penchant for public works in Melbourne, with a good daily pay and the `Government stroke' combined."

<hw>Grab-all</hw>, <i>n.</i> a kind of net used for marine fishing near the shore. It is moored to a piece of floating wood, and by the Tasmanian Government regulations must have a mesh of 2 1/4 inches.

1883. Edward O. Cotton, `Evidence before Royal Commission on the Fisheries of Tasmania,' p. 82:

"Put a graball down where you will in `bell-rope' kelp, more silver trumpeter will get in than any other fish."

1883. Ibid. p. xvii:

"Between sunrise and sunset, nets, known as `graballs,' may be used."

<hw>Grammatophore</hw>, <i>n.</i> scientific name for "an Australian agamoid lizard, genus <i>Grammatophora</i>." (`Standard.')

<hw>Grape, Gippsland</hw>, <i>n.</i> called also <i>Native
Grape</i>. An Australian fruit tree, <i>Vitis hypoglauca</i>,
F. v. M., <i>N.O. Viniferae</i>; called Gippsland Grape in
Victoria.

1889. J. H. Maiden, `Useful Native Plants,' p. 66:

"Native grape; Gippsland grape. This evergreen climber yields black edible fruits of the size of cherries. This grape would perhaps be greatly improved by culture. (Mueller.)"

<hw>Grape, Macquarie Harbour</hw>, or <hw>Macquarie Harbour Vine</hw> (q.v.), <i>n</i>. name given to the climbing shrub <i>Muehlenbeckia adpressra</i>, Meissn. <i>N.O. Polygonaceae</i>. Called <i>Native Ivy</i> in Australia. See under <i>Ivy</i>.

<hw>Grape-eater</hw>, <i>n.</i> a bird, called formerly <i>Fig-eater</i>, now known as the <i>Green-backed White-eye</i> (q.v.), <i>Zosterops gouldi</i>, Bp.

1848. J. Gould, `Birds of Australia,' vol. iv. pl. 82:

"<i>Zosterops chloronotus</i>, Gould, Green-backed Z.; Grape and Fig-eater, Colonists of Swan River."

<hw>Grass</hw>, <i>n.</i> In Australia, as elsewhere, the name <i>Grass</i> is sometimes given to plants which are not of the natural order <i>Gramineae</i>, yet everywhere it is chiefly to this natural order that the name is applied. A fair proportion of the true <i>Grasses</i> common to many other countries in the world, or confined, on the one hand to temperate zones, or on the other to tropical or sub-tropical regions, are also indigenous to Australia, or Tasmania, or New Zealand, or sometimes to all three countries. In most cases such grasses retain their Old World names, as, for instance, <i>Barnyard</i>- or <i>Cock-spur Grass</i> (<i>Panicum crus-galli</i>, Linn.); in others they receive new Australian names, as <i>Ditch Millet</i> (<i>Paspalum scrobitulatum</i>, F. v. M.), the `Koda Millet' of India; and still again certain grasses named in Latin by scientific botanists have been distinguished by a vernacular English name for the first time in Australia, as <i>Kangaroo Grass</i> (<i>Anhistiria ciliata</i>, Linn.), which was "long known before Australia became colonized, in South Asia and all Africa" (von Muller), but not by the name of the <i>Kangaroo</i>.

Beyond these considerations, the settlers of Australia, whose wealth depends chiefly on its pastoral occupation, have introduced many of the best Old-World pasture grasses (chiefly of the genera <i>Poa</i> and <i>Festuca</i>), and many thousands of acres are said to be "laid down with English grass." Some of these are now so wide-spread in their acclimatization, that the botanists are at variance as to whether they are indigenous to Australia or not; the <i>Couch Grass</i>, for instance (<i>Cynodon dactylon</i>, Pers.), or <i>Indian Doub Grass</i>, is generally considered to be an introduced grass, yet Maiden regards it as indigenous.

There remain, "from the vast assemblage of our grasses, even some hundred indigenous to Australia" (von Muller), and a like number indigenous to New Zealand, the greater proportion of which are endemic. Many of these, accurately named in Latin and described by the botanists, have not yet found their vernacular equivalents; for the bushman and the settler do not draw fine botanical distinctions. Maiden has classified and fully described 158 species as "Forage Plants," of which over ninety have never been christened in English. Mr. John Buchanan, the botanist and draughtsman to the Geographical Survey of New Zealand, has prepared for his Government a `Manual of the Indigenous Grasses of New Zealand,' which enumerates eighty species, many of them unnamed in English, and many of them common also to Australia and Tasmania. These two descriptive works, with the assistance of Guilfoyle's Botany and Travellers' notes, have been made the basis of the following list of all the common Australian names applied to the true <i>Grasses</i> of the <i>N.O. Gramineae</i>. Some of them of very special Australian character appear also elsewhere in the Dictionary in their alphabetical places, while a few other plants, which are grasses by name and not by nature, stand in such alphabetical place alone, and not in this list. For facility of comparison and reference the range and habitat of each species is indicated in brackets after its name; the more minute limitation of such ranges is not within the scope of this work. The species of <i>Grass</i> present in Australia, Tasmania, and New Zealand are—

1. Alpine Rice Grass—
 <i>Ehrharta colensoi</i>, Cook. (N.Z.)

2. Alpine Whorl G.—
 <i>Catabrosa antarctica</i>, Hook. f. (N.Z.)

3. Bamboo G.—
 <i>Glyceria ramigera</i>, F. v. M. (A.)
  Called also <i>Cane Grass</i>.
 <i>Stipa verticillata</i>, Nees.(A.)

4. Barcoo G. (of Queensland)—
 <i>Anthistiria membranacea</i>, Lindl. (A.)
  Called also <i>Landsborough Grass</i>.

5. Barnyard G.—
 <i>Panicum crus-galli</i>, Linn. (A., not endemic.)
  Called also <i>Cockspur Grass</i>.

6. Bayonet G.—
  <i>Aciphylla colensoi</i>.(N.Z.)
   Called also <i>Spear-Grass</i> (see 112), and
  <i>Spaniard</i> (q.v.).

7. Bent G.—Alpine—
 <i>Agrostis muellerii</i>, Benth. (A., N.Z., not endemic.)
 <i>Deyeuxia setifolia</i>, Hook. f. (N.Z.)

8. Bent G.—Australian—
 <i>Deyeuxia scabra</i>, Benth. (A., T., N.Z.)

9. Bent G.—Billardiere's—
 <i>D. billardierii</i>, R. Br. (A., T., N.Z.)

10. Bent G.—Brown—
 <i>Agrostis carina</i>, Linn. (N.Z.)

11. Bent G.—Campbell Island—
 <i>A. antarctica</i>, Hook. f. (N.Z.)

12. Bent G.—Dwarf Mountain—
 <i>A. subululata</i>, Hook. f. (N.Z.)

13. Bent G.—Oat-like—
 <i>Deyeuxia avenoides</i>, Hook. f. (N.Z.)

14. Bent G.—Pilose—
 <i>D. pilosa</i>, Rich. (N.Z.)

15. Bent G.—Slender—
 <i>Agrostis scabra</i>, Willd. (A., T., N.Z.)

16. Bent G.—Spiked— <i>Deyeuxia quadriseta</i>, R. Br. (A., T., N.Z.) Called also <i>Reed Grass</i>.

17. Bent G.—Toothea—
 <i>D. forsteri</i>, Kunth. (A., T., N.Z.)

18. Bent G.—Young's—
 <i>D. youngii</i>, Hook. f. (N.Z.)

19. Blady G.—
 <i>Ipperata arundinacea</i>, Cyr. (A.)

20. Blue G.—
 <i>Andropogon annulatus</i>, Forst. (A.)
 <i>A. pertusus</i>, Willd. (A.)
 <i>A. sericeus</i>, R. Br. (A.)

21. Brome G.—Seaside.—
 <i>8romus arenarius</i>, Labill. (A., N.Z.)
  Called also <i>Wild Oats</i>.

22. Canary G.—
 <i>Phalaris canariensis</i>. (A.)

23. Cane G.—
 (i.q. <i>Bamboo Grass</i>. See 3.)

24. Chilian G.—
 (i.q. <i>Rat—tailed Grass</i>. See 97.)

25. Cockspur G.—
 (i.q. <i>Barnyard Grass</i>. See 5.)

26. Couch G.—
 <i>Cynodon dactylon</i>, Pers. (A., not endemic.)
  Called also <i>Indian Doub Grass</i>.

27. Couch G.—Native—
 <i>Distichlys maritima</i>, Raffinesque. (A.)

28. Couch G.—Water—
 <i>(i.q</i>. Seaside Millet. See 50.)

29. Feather G.—
 <i>(Several species</i> of Stipa. See 101.)

30. Fescue G.—Hard—
 <i>Festuca duriuscula</i>, Linn. (Australasia, not endemic.)

31. Fescue G.—Poa-like—
 <i>F. scoparia</i>, Hook. f. (N.Z.)

32. Fescue G.—Sandhill—
 <i>F. littoralis</i>, R. Br., var. <i>triticoides</i>,
 Benth. (A., T., N.Z.)

33. Fescue G.—Sheeps'—
 <i>F. ovina</i>, Linn. (A., T.)

34. Finger G.—Cocksfoot—
 <i>Panicum sanguinale</i>, Linn. (A., not endemic.)
  Called also <i>Hairy Finger Grass</i>, and <i>Reddish Panic
  Grass</i>.

35. Finger G.—Egyptian—
 <i>Eleusine aegyptica</i>, Pers. (A., not endemic.)

36. Finger G.—Hairy—
 <i>(i.q</i> .Cocksfoot Finger Grass. See 33.)

37. Foxtail G.—
 <i>(i.q</i>. Knee jointed Foxtazl Grass. See 42.)

38. Hair G.—Crested—
 <i>Koeleria cristata</i>, Pers. (A., T., N.Z.)

39. Hair G.—Turfy—
 <i>Deschampia caespitosa</i>, Beavo. (N.Z., not endemic.)

40. Holy G.—
 <i>Hierochloe alpina</i>, Roem. & Schult. (Australasia, not
  endemic.)

41. Indian Doub G.—
 (i.q. <i>Couch Grass</i>. See 26.)

42. Kangaroo G. (A., T., not endemic)—
 <i>Andropogon refractus</i>, R. Br.
 <i>Anthistiria avenacea</i>, F. v. M. (Called also <i>Oat
 Grass</i>.)
 <i>A. ciliata</i>, Linn. (Common K.G.)
 <i>A. frondosa</i>, R. Br. (Broad-leaved K.G.)

43. Knee-jointed Fox-tail G.— <i>Alopecurus geniculatus</i>, Linn. (Australasia, not endemic.)

44. Landsborough G.—
 (i.q. Barcoo Grass. See 4.)

45. Love G.—Australian—
 <i>Eragrostis brownii</i>, Nees. (A.)

46. Manna G.—
 <i>Glyceria fluitans</i>, R. Br. (A.,T.)

47. Millet—Australian—
 <i>Panicum decompositum</i>, R. Br. (A., not endemic.)
  Called also <i>Umbrella Grass</i>.

48. Millet—Ditch—
 <i>Paspalum scrobitulatum</i>, F. v. M. (A., N.Z., not endemic.)
  The <i>Koda Millet</i> of India.

49. Millet—Equal-glumed—
 <i>Isachne australis</i>, R. Br. (A., N.Z., not endemic.)

50. Millet-Seaside—
 <i>Paspalum distichum</i>, Burmann. (A., N.Z., not endemic.)
  Called also <i>Silt Grass</i>, and <i>Water Couch Grass</i>.

51. Mitchell G.—
 <i>Astrebla elymoides</i>, F. v. M. (A., <i>True Mitchell
   Grass</i>.)
 <i>A. pectinata</i>, F. v. M. (A.)
 <i>A. tritzcoides</i>, F. v. M. (A.)

52. Mouse G.—
 (i.q.) <i>Longhaired Plume Grass</i>. See 72.)

53. Mulga G.—
 <i>Danthonia racemosa</i>, R. Br. (A.)
 <i>Neurachnea Mitchelliana</i>, Nees. (A.)

54. New Zealand Wind G.—
 <i>Apera arundinacea</i>, Palisot. (N.Z., not endemic.)

55. Oat G.—
 <i>Anthistiria avenacea</i>, F. v. M. (Called also <i>Kangaroo
  Grass</i>. See 41.)

56. Oat G.—Alpine—
 <i>Danthonia semi</i>-annularis, R. Br., var. <i>alpina</i>.
  (N.Z.)

57. Oat G.—Buchanan's—
 <i>D. buchanii</i>; Hook. f. (N.Z.)

58. Oat G.—Few-flowered—
 <i>D. pauciflora</i>, R. Br. (A., T., N.Z.)

59. Oat G.—Hard—
 <i>D. pilosa</i>, R. Br., var. stricta. (N.Z.)

60. Oat G.—Naked—
 <i>D. nuda</i>, Hook. f. (N.Z.)

61. Oat G.—New Zealand—
 <i>D. semi</i>-annularis, R. Br. (A., T., N.Z.)

62. Oat G.—Purple-awned—
 <i>D. pilosa</i>, R. Br. (A., T., N.Z.)

63. Oat G.—Racemed—
 <i>D. pilosa</i>, R. Br., var. racemosa. (N.Z.)

64. Oat G.—Shining—
 <i>Trisetum antarcticum</i>, Hook. f. (N.Z.)

65. Oat G.—Sheep—
 <i>Danthonia semi</i>-annularis, R. Br., var. gracilis.(N.Z.)

66. Oat G.—Spiked—
 <i>Trisetum subspicatum</i>, Beauv. (Australasia, not
 endemic.)

67. Oat G.—Thompson's Naked—
 <i>Danthonia thomsonii</i> (new species).

68. Oat G.—Wiry-leaved—
 <i>D. raoulii</i>, Steud, var. Australis, Buchanan. (N.Z.)

69. Oat G.—Young's—
 <i> Trisetum youngii</I>, Hook. f. (N.Z.)

<i>70. Panic</i> G.—Reddish—
 (i.q. <i>Cocksfoot Finger-Grass</i>. See 34.)

71. Panic G.—Slender—
 <i>Oplismenus salarius</i>, var. Roem. and Schult. (A., N.Z.,
  not endemic.)

72. Paper G.—Native—
 <i>Poa caespitosa</i>, Forst. (A., T., N.Z.)
  Called also <i>Wiry Grass</i>, <i>Weeping Polly</i>,
  and <i>Tussock Poa Grass</i>; and, in New Zealand,
  <i>Snow Grass</i>.

73. Plume G.—Long-haired—
 <i>Dichelachne crinita</i>, Hook. f. (A., T., N.Z.)

74. Plume G.—Short-haired—
 <i>D. sciurea</i>, Hook. f. (A., T., N.Z.)

75. Poa G.—Auckland Island—
 <i>Poa foliosa</i>, Hook. f., var. <i>a</i>. (N.Z.)

76. Poa G.—Brown-flowered—
 <i>P. lindsayi</i>, Hook. f. (N.Z.)

77. Poa G.—Brown Mountain
 <i>P. mackayi</i> (new species). (N.Z.)

78. Poa G.—Colenso's—
 <i>P. colensoi</i>, Hook. f.(N.Z.) 79.

79. Poa G.—Common Field—
 <i>P. anceps</i>, Forst., var. <i>b</i>, foliosa, Hook. f.
  (N.Z.)

80. Pea G.—Dense-flowered
 <i>P. anceps</i>, Forst., var. <i>d, densiflora</i>,
  Hook. f. (N.Z.)

81. Poa G.—Dwarf—
 <i>P. pigmaea</i> (new species). (N.Z.)

82. Pea G.—Hard short-stemmed—
 <i>P. anceps</i>, Forst., var. <i>c, brevicalmis</i>,
  Hook. f. (N.Z.)

83. Poa G.—Kirk's—
 <i>P. kirkii</i> (new species). (N.Z.)

84. Poa G.—Large-flowered—
 <i>P. foliosa</i>, Hook. f., var. <i>B</i>. (N.Z.)

85. Poa G.—Little—
 <i>P. exigua</i>, Hook. f. (N.Z.)

86. Poa G.—Minute—
 <i>P, foliosa</i>, Hook. f., var. <i>C</i>. (N.Z.)

87. Poa G.—Minute Creeping—
 <i>P. pusilla</i>, Berggren. (N.Z.)

88. Pea G.—Nodding Plumed—
 <i>P. anceps</i>, Forst., var. <i>A, elata</i>,
  Hook. f. (N.Z.)

89. Poa G.—One-flowered—
 <i>P. unifora</i> (new species). (N.Z.)

90. Poa G.—Short-glumed—
 <i>P. breviglumus</i>, Hook. f.(N.Z.)

91. Poa G.—Slender—
 <i>P. anceps</i>, Forst., var. <i>E, debilis</i>, Kirk,
  Ms. (N.Z.)

92. Poa G.—Small Tussock—
 <i>P. intemedia</i> (new species). (N.Z.)

93. Poa G.—Tussock—
 <i>P. caespitosa</i>, Forst. (A., T., N.Z. See 71.)

94. Poa G.—Weak-stemmed—
 <i>Eragrostis imbebecilla</i>, Benth. (A., N.Z.)

95. Poa G.—White-flowered—
 <i>Poa sclerophylla</i>, Berggren. (N.Z.)

96. Porcupine G. (q.v.)—
 <i>Triodia (various</i> species).

97. Rat-tailed G.—
 <i>Sporobulus indicus</i>, R. Br. (A., N.Z., not endemic.)
    Called also <i>Chilian Grass</i>.
 <i>Ischaeum laxum</i>, R. Br. (A.)

98. Reed G.—
 <i>Pragmites communis</i>, Trin. (N.Z. See 16.)

99. Rice G.—
 <i>Leersia hexandria</i>, Swartz. (A.)

100. Rice G.—Bush—
 <i>Microtaena avenacea</i>, Hook. f. (N.Z.)

101. Rice G.—Knot-jointed—
 <i>M. polynoda</i>, Hook. f. (N.Z.)

102. Rice G.—Meadow—
 <i>M. stipoides</i>, R. Br. (A.,T., N.Z.)
  Called also <i>Weeping Grass</i>.

103. Roly-Poly G.—
 <i>Panicum macractinum</i>, Benth. (A.)

104. Rough-bearded G.—
 <i>Echinopogon ovatus</i>, Palisot. (A., T., N.Z.)

105. Sacred G.—
 <i>Hierochloe redolens</i>, R. Br. (Australasia, not endemic.)
   Called also <i>Scented Grass</i>, and <i>Sweet-scented</i>
   Grass.

106. Scented G.—
 <i>Chrysopogon parviforus</i>, Benth. (A.) See also 105.

107. Seaside Brome G.—
 <i>(i.q</i>. Brome Grass. See 21.)

108. Silt G.—
 <i>(i.q</i>. Seaside Millet. See 50.)

109. Seaside Glumeless G.—
 <i>Gymnostychum gracile</i>, Hook. f. (N.Z.)

110. Snow G. (q.v.)—
 <i>(i.q</i>. Paper Grass. See 72.) (N.Z.)

111. Spear G. (q.v.)—
 <i>Aciphylla colensoi</i>. (N.Z.)
  Called also <i>Spaniard</i> (q.v.).
 <i>Heteropogon contortus</i>, Roem. and Shult. (N.Z.),
  and all species of <i>Stipa</i> (A., T.).

112. Spider G.—
 <i>Panicum divaricatissimum</i>, R. Br. (A.)

113. Spinifex G. (q.v.)—
 <i>Spinifex hirsutus</i>, Labill. (A., T., N.Z., not endemic.)
  Called also <i>Spiny Rolling Grass</i>.

114. Star G.—Blue—
 <i>Chloris ventricosa</i>, R. Br. (A.)

115. Star G.—Dog's Tooth—
 <i>C. divaricata</i>, R. Br. (A.)

116. Star G.—Lesser—
 <i>C. acicularis</i>, Lindl. (A.)

117. Sugar G.—
 <i>Pollinia fulva</i>, Benth.(A.)

118. Summer G.—
 (i.q. <i>Hairy-Finger Grass</i>. See 36.)

119. Sweet G.—
 <i>Glyceria stricta</i>, Hook. f. (A., T., N.Z.)

120. Sweet-scented G.—
 (i.q. <i>Sacred Grass</i>. See 105.)

121. Traveller's G. (<i>N.O. Aroideae</i>).—
 (i.q. <i>Settlers' Twine</i>, q.v.)

122. Tussock G.—
 (See 93 and 72.)

123. Tussock G.— Broad-leaved Oat—
 <i>Danthonia flavescens</i>, Hook. f. (N.Z.)

124. Tussock G.—Erect Plumed—
 <i>Arundo fulvida</i>, Buchanan. (N.Z.) Maori name,
  <i>Tot-toi</i> (q.v.).

125. Tussock G.—Narrow-leaved Oat— <i>Danthonia raoulii</i>, Steud. (N.Z.)

126. Tussock G.—Plumed— <i>Arundo conspicua</i>, A. Cunn. (N.Z.) Maori name, <i>Toi-toi</i> (q.v.).

127. Tussock G.—Small-flowered Oat—
 <i>Danthonia cunninghamii</i>, Hook. f. (N.Z.)

128. Petrie's Stipa G.—
 <i>Stipa petriei</i> (new species). See 101. /?111?/ (N.Z.)

129. Umbrella G.—
 (i.q. <i>Australian Millet</i>. See 47.)

130. Wallaby G.—
 <i>Danthonia penicileata</i>, F. v. M. (A., N.Z.)

131. Weeping G.—
 (i.q. <i>Meadow Rice</i> Grass. See 102.)

132. Weeping Polly G.—
 (i.q. <i>Paper Grass</i>. See 72.)

133. Wheat G.—Blue—
 <i>Agropyrum scabrum</i>, Beauv. (A., T., N.Z.)

134. Wheat G.—Short-awned—
 <i>Triticum multiflorum</i>, Banks and Sol. (N.Z.)

135. White-topped G.—
 <i>Danthonia longifolia</i>, R. Br. (A.)

136. Windmill G.—
 <i>Chloris truncata</i>, R. Br. (A.)

137. Wire G.—
 <i>Ehrharta juncea</i>, Sprengel; a rush-like grass of hilly
  country. (A., T., N.Z.)
 <i>Cynodon dactylum</i>, Pers.; so called from its knotted,
  creeping, wiry roots, so difficult to eradicate in gardens
  and other cultivated land. (Not endemic.) See 26.

138. Wiry G.—.
 (i.q. <i>Paper Grass</i>. See 72.)

139. Wiry Dichelachne G.—
 <i>Stipa teretefolia</i>, Steud. (A., T., N.Z.)

140. Woolly-headed G.—
 <i>Andropogon bombycinus</i>, R. Br. (A.)

141. Vandyke G.—
 <i>Panicum flavidum</i>, Retz. (A.)

<hw>Grass-bird</hw>, <i>n.</i> In New Zealand, <i>Sphenoeacus //sic. otherwhere Sphenaeacus GJC// punctatus</i>, Gray, the same as <i>Fern-bird</i> (q.v.); in Australia, <i>Megalurus (Sphenaeacus) gramineus</i>, Gould.

<hw>Grass-leaved Fern</hw>, <i>n. Vittaria elongata</i>, Swartz, <i>N.O. Filices</i>.

1883. F. M. Bailey, `Synopsis of Queensland Flora,' p. 693:

"Grass-leaved fern. . . . Frond varying in length from a few inches to several feet, and with a breadth of from one to five lines. . . . This curious grass-like fern may be frequently seen fringing the stems of the trees in the scrubs of tropical Queensland, in which situation the fronds are usually very long."

<hw>Grass-Parrakeet</hw>, <i>n.</i> a bird of the genus <i>Euphema</i>. The Australian species are—

Blue-winged Parrakeet
 <i>Euphema aurantia</i>, Gould.

Bourke's P.—
 <i>E. bourkii</i>, Gould.

Grass-P.—
 <i>E. elegans</i>, Gould.

Orange-bellied P.—
 <i>E. chrysogastra</i>, Lath.

Orange-throated P.—
 <i>E. splendida</i>, Gould.

Red-shouldered P.—
 <i>E. pulchella</i>, Shaw.

Warbling Grass-P.—
  Gould's name for <i>Budgerigar</i> (q.v.).

See also <i>Rock-Parrakeet (Euphema petrophila</i>, Gould), which is sometimes classed as a <i>Grass-Parrakeet</i>.

<hw>Grass-tree</hw>, <i>n.</i> (2) The name applied to trees of the genus <i>Xanthorrhoea, N.O. Liliaceae</i>, of which thirteen species are known in Australia. See also <i>Richea</i>.

(2) In New Zealand <i>Pseudopanax crassifolium</i>, Seemann, <i>N.O. Araleaceae</i>. When young, this is the same as <i>Umbrella-tree</i>, so called from its appearance like the ribs of an umbrella. When older, it grows more straight and is called <i>Lancewood</i> (q.v.).

(3) In Tasmania, besides two species of <i>Xanthorrhoea</i> the <i>Grass-tree</i> of the mainland, the <i>Richea dracophylla</i>, R. Br., <i>N.O. Epacrideae</i>, found on Mount Wellington, near Hobart, is also known by that name, whilst the <i>Richea pandanifolia</i>, Hook., found in the South-west forests, is called the <i>Giant Grass-tree</i>. Both these are peculiar to the island.

(4) An obsolete name for <i>Cordyline australis</i>, Hook., <i>N.O. Liliaceae</i>, now more usually called <i>Cabbage- tree</i> (q.v.).

1802. D. Collins, `Account of New South Wales,' vol. ii. p. 153:

"A grass tree grows here, similar in every respect to that about Port Jackson."

1830. R. Dawson, `Present State of Australia,' p. 347:

"Yielding frequently a very weak and sour kind of grass, interspersed with a species of bulrush called grass-trees, which are universal signs of poverty.":

1833. C. Sturt, `Southern Australia,' Vol II. c. iii. p. 54:

"The grass-tree is not found westward of the mountains."

1839. T. L. Mitchell, `Three Expeditions,' vol. ii. p. 303:

"We approached a range of barren hills of clay slate, on which grew the grass-tree (<i>Xanthorhoea</i>) and stunted eucalypti."

1862. H. C. Kendall, `Poems,' p. 74:

"The shimmering sunlight fell and kissed
 The grass-tree's golden sheaves."

1867. F. Hochstetter, `New Zealand,' p. 132:

"Here and there, in moist places, arises isolated the `grass-tree' or `cabbage-tree' (Ti of the natives; <i>Cordyline Australis</i>)."

1874. Garnet Walch, `Head over Heels,' p. 80:

"The grass-trees in front, blame my eyes,
 Seemed like plumes on the top of a hearse."

1877. F. v. Mueller, `Botanic Teachings,' p. 119:

"How strikingly different the external features of plants may be, though floral structure may draw them into congruity, is well demonstrated by our so-called grass-trees, which pertain truly to the liliaceous order. These scientifically defined as Xanthorhoeas from the exudation of yellowish sap, which indurates into resinous masses, have all the essential notes of the order, so far as structure of flowers and fruits is concerned, but their palm-like habit, together with cylindric spikes on long and simple stalks, is quite peculiar, and impresses on landscapes, when these plants in masses are occuring, a singular feature."

1879. A. R. Wallace, `Australasia' (ed. 1893), p. 52:

"The grass trees (<i>Xanthorrhoea</i>) are a peculiar feature to the Australian landscape. From a rugged stem, varying from two to ten or twelve feet in height, springs a tuft of drooping wiry foliage, from the centre of which rises a spike not unlike a huge bulrush. When it flowers in winter, this spike becomes covered with white stars, and a heath covered with grass trees then has an appearance at once singular and beautiful."

1882. A. Tolmer, `Reminiscences,' vol, ii. p. 102:

"The root of the grass-tree is pleasant enough to eat, and tastes something like the meat of the almond-tree; but being unaccustomed to the kind of fare, and probably owing to the empty state of our stomachs, we suffered severely from diarrhoea."

1885. H. Finch-Hatton, `Advance Australia,' p. 43:

"Grass-trees are most comical-looking objects. They have a black bare stem, from one to eight feet high, surmounted by a tuft of half rushes and half grass, out of which, again, grows a long thing exactly like a huge bullrush. A lot of them always grow together, and a little way off they are not unlike the illustrations of Red-Indian chiefs in Fenimore Cooper's novels."

1889. T. Kirk, `Forest Flora of New Zealand,' p. 59:

"It [<i>Pseudopanax crassifolium</i>, the <i>Horoeka</i>] is commonly called lance-wood by the settlers in the North Island, and grass-tree by those in the South. This species was discovered during Cook's first voyage, and it need cause no surprise to learn that the remarkable difference between the young and mature states led so able a botanist as Dr. Solander to consider them distinct plants."

1896. Baldwin Spencer. `Horne Expedition in Central Australia,' Narrative, p. 98:

"As soon as the came upon the Plains we found ourselves in a belt of grass trees belonging to a species not hitherto described (<i>X. Thorntoni</i>). . . . The larger specimens have a stem some five or six feet high, with a crown of long wiry leaves and a flowering stalk, the top of which is fully twelve feet above the ground."

[Compare <i>Blackboy</i> and <i>Maori-head</i>.

<hw>Grayling</hw>, <i>n.</i> The Australian fish of that name is <i>Prototroctes maroena</i>, Gunth. It is called also the <i>Fresh-water Herring</i>, <i>Yarra Herring</i> (in Melbourne), <i>Cucumber-Fish</i>, and <i>Cucumber-Mullet</i>. The last two names are given to it from its smell. It closely resembles the English Grayling.

1880. W. Senior, `Travel and Trout,' p. 93:

"These must be the long-looked-for cucumber mullet, or fresh- water herring. . . . `The cucumber mullet,' I explain, `I have long suspected to be a grayling.'"

1882. Rev._I. E. Tenison-Woods, `Fish of New South Wales,' p. 109:

"Though not a fish of New South Wales, it may be as well to mention here the Australian grayling, which in character, habits, and the manner of its capture is almost identical with the English fish of that name. In shape there is some difference between the two fish. . . . A newly caught fish smells exactly like a dish of fresh-sliced cucumber. It is widely distributed in Victoria, and very abundant in all the fresh-water streams of Tasmania. . . . In Melbourne it goes by the name of the Yarra herring. There is another species in New Zealand."

1889. Cassell's `Picturesque Australasia,' vol. iv. p. 206:

"The river abounds in delicious grayling or cucumber fish, rather absurdly designated the `herring' in this [Deloraine] and some other parts of the colony [Tasmania]."

<hw>Grebe</hw>, <i>n.</i> common English bird-name, of the genus <i>Podiceps</i>. The species known in Australia are—

Black-throated Grebe—
 <i>Podiceps novae-hollandiae</i>, Gould.

Hoary-headed G.—
 <i>P. nestor</i>, Gould.

Tippet G.—
 <i>P. cristataes</i>, Linn.

But Buller sees no reason for separating <i>P. cristatus</i> from the well-known <i>P. cristatus</i> of Europe. Some of the <i>Grebes</i> are sometimes called <i>Dabchicks</i> (q.v.).

1888. W. L. Buller, `Birds of New Zealand,' vol. ii. p. 285:

"The Crested Grebe is generally-speaking a rare bird in both islands."

<hw>Greenhide</hw>, <i>n.</i> See quotation. <i>Greenhide</i> is an English tannery term for the hide with the hair on before scouring.

1881. A. C. Grant, `Bush Life in Queensland,' vol. i. p. 27:

"Drivers, who walked beside their teams carrying over their shoulders a long-handled whip with thong of raw salted hide, called in the colony `greenhide.'"

<hw>Greenie</hw>, <i>n.</i> a school-boys' name for <i>Ptilotis penicillata</i>, Gould, the White-plumed Honey-eater.

1896. `The Australasian,' Jan. 11, p. 73, col. 1:

"A bird smaller than the Australian minah, and of a greenish yellowish hue, larger, but similar to the members of the feathered tribe known to young city `knights of the catapult' as greenies."

1897. A. J. Campbell (in `The Australasian,'Jan. 23), p. 180, col. 5:

"Every schoolboy about Melbourne knows what the `greenie' is—the white-plumed honey-eater (P. penicillata). The upper-surface is yellowish-grey, and the under-surface brownish in tone. The white-plumed honey-eater is common in Victoria, where it appears to be one of the few native birds that is not driven back by civilisation. In fact, its numbers have increased in the parks and gardens in the vicinity of Melbourne."

<hw>Green-leek</hw>, <i>n.</i> an Australian Parrakeet. See quotation.

1848. J. Gould, `Birds of Australia,' vol. v. pl. 15:

"<i>Polytelis Barrabandi</i>, Wagl., Barraband's Parrakeet; Green-leek of the colonists of New South Wales."

1855. R. Howitt, `Two Years in Victoria,' vol. i. p. 123:

"We observed m the hollow trees several nests of the little green paroquet,—here, from its colour, called the leek."

<hw>Green Lizard</hw>, <i>n.</i> sometimes called the <i>Spotted Green Lizard</i>, a New Zealand reptile, <i>Naultinus elegans</i>, Gray.

<hw>Green Oyster</hw>, <i>n.</i> name given in Queensland to the sea-weed <i>Ulva lactuca</i>, Linn., <i>N.O. Algae</i>. From being frequently found attached to oysters, this is sometimes called "Green Oyster." (Bailey.) See <i>Oyster</i>.

<hw>Greenstone</hw>, <i>n.</i> popular name of <i>Nephrite</i> (q.v.). Maori name, <i>Pounamu</i> (q.v.).

1859. A.S. Thomson, `Story of New Zealand,' p. 140:

"The greenstone composing these implements of war is called nephrite by mineralogists, and is found in the Middle Island of New Zealand, in the Hartz, Corsica, China and Egypt. The most valuable kind is clear as glass with a slight green tinge."

1889. Dr. Hocken, `Catalogue of New Zealand Exhibition,' p. 181:

"This valued stone—pounamu of the natives—nephrite, is found on the west coast of the South Island. Indeed, on Captain Cook's chart this island is called `T'Avai Poenammoo'—Te wai pounamu, the water of the greenstone."

1892. F. R. Chapman, `The Working of Greenstone by the Maoris' (New Zealand Institute), p. 4:

"In the title of this paper the word `greenstone' occurs, and this word is used throughout the text. I am quite conscious that the term is not geologically or mineralogically correct; but the stone of which I am writing is known by that name throughout New Zealand, and, though here as elsewhere the scientific man employs that word to describe a totally different class of rock, I should run the risk of being misunderstood were I to use any other word for what is under that name an article of commerce and manufacture in New Zealand. It is called `pounamu' or `poenamu' by the Maoris, and `jade,' `jadeite,' or `nephrite' by various writers, while old books refer to the `green talc' of the Maoris."

<hw>Green-tops</hw>, <i>n.</i> Tasmanian name for the Orchid, <i>Pterostylis pedunculata</i>, R. Br.

<hw>Green-tree Ant</hw>, <i>n.</i> common Queensland Ant.

1847. L. Leichhardt, `Overland Expedition,' p. 294:

"It was at the lower part of the Lynd that we first saw the green-tree ant; which seemed to live in small societies in rude nests between the green leaves of shady trees."

<hw>Green Tree-snake</hw>, <i>n.</i> See under <i>Snake</i>.

<hw>Grevillea</hw>, <i>n.</i> a large genus of trees of Australia and Tasmania, <i>N.O. Proteaceae</i>, named in honour of the Right Hon. Charles Francis Greville, Vice-President of the Royal Society of London. The name was given by Robert Brown in 1809. The `Century' Dictionary gives Professor Greville as the origin of the name but "Professor Robert K. Greville of Edinburgh was born on the 14th Dec., 1794, he was therefore only just fourteen years old when the genus <i>Grevillea</i> was established." (`Private letter from Baron F. von Mueller.')

1851. `Quarterly Review,' Dec., p. 40:

"Whether <i>Dryandra, Grevillea, Hakea</i>, or the other <i>Proteaceae</i>, all may take part in the same glee—

"It was a shrub of orders grey
 Stretched forth to show his leaves."

1888. Cassell's `Picturesque Australasia, vol. iii. p. 138:

"Graceful grevilleas, which in the spring are gorgeous with orange-coloured blossoms."

<hw>Grey-jumper</hw>, <i>n.</i> name given to an Australian genus of sparrow-like birds, of which the only species is <i>Struthidea cinerea</i>, Gould; also called <i>Brachystoma</i> and <i>Brachyporus</i>.

<hw>Grey Nurse</hw>, <i>n.</i> a New South Wales name for a species of Shark, <i>Odontaspis americanus</i>, Mitchell, family <i>Lamnidae</i>, which is not confined to Australasia.

<hw>Gridironing</hw>, <i>v</i. a term used in the province of Canterbury, New Zealand. A man purchased land in the shape of a gridiron, knowing that nobody would take the intermediate strips, which later he could purchase at his leisure. In other provinces free-selection (q.v.) was only allowed after survey.

<hw>Grinder</hw>, <i>n.</i> See <i>Razor-grinder</i> and <i>Dishwasher</i>.

<hw>Groper</hw>, <i>n.</i> a fish. In Queensland, <i>Oligorus terrae-reginae</i>, Ramsay; in New Zealand, <i>O. gigas</i>, "called by the Maoris and colonists `<i>Hapuku</i>,'" (Guenther)—a large marine species. <i>Oligorus</i> is a genus of the family <i>Percidae</i>, and the <i>Murray-Cod</i> (q.v.) and <i>Murray Perch</i> (q.v.) belong to it. There is a fish called the Grouper or <i>Groper</i> of warm seas quite distinct from this one. See <i>Cod, Perch, Blue-Groper</i> and <i>Hapuku</i>.

<hw>Ground-berry</hw>, i.q. <i>Cranberry</i> (q.v.).:

<hw>Ground-bird</hw>, <i>n.</i> name given in Australia to any bird of the genus <i>Cinclosoma</i>. The species are—

Chestnut-backed Ground-bird—
 <i>Cinclosoma castaneonotum</i>, Gould.

Chestnut-breasted G.-b.—
 <i>C. castaneothorax</i>, Gould.

Cinnamon G.-b.—
 <i>C. cinnamomeum</i>, Gould.

Northern, or Black-vented G.-b.—
 <i>C. marginatum</i>, Sharpe.

Spotted G.-b.—
 <i>C. punctatum</i>, Lath., called by Gould <i>Ground-Dove</i>
 (q.v.).

<hw>Ground-Dove</hw>, <i>n.</i> (1) Tasmanian name for the <i>Spotted Ground-bird</i> (q.v.).

1848. J. Gould, `Birds of Australia,' vol. iv. pl. 4:

"<i>Cinclosoma punctatum</i>, Vig. and Horsf., Spotted Ground-thrush. In Hobart Town it is frequently exposed for sale in the markets with bronze-wing pigeons and wattle-birds, where it is known by the name of ground-dove . . . very delicate eating."

(2) The name is given by Gould to three species of <i>Geopelia</i>.

1848. J. Gould, `Birds of Australia,' vol. v. pls. 72, 73, 74:

"<i>Geopelia humeralis</i>, Barred-shouldered Ground-dove" (pl. 72);

"<i>G. tranquilla</i>" (pl. 73);

"<i>G. cuneata</i>, Graceful Ground-dove" (pl. 74).

<hw>Ground-Lark</hw>, <i>n.</i> (1) In New Zealand, a bird also called by the Maori names, <i>Pihoihoi</i> and <i>Hioi</i>.

1888. W. L. Buller, `Birds of New Zealand,' vol. i. p. 63:

"<i>Anthus Novae Zelandiae</i>, Gray, New Zealand Pipit; Ground-Lark of the Colonists."

(2) In Australia, the Australian Pipit (<i>Anthus australis</i>) is also called a <i>Ground-lark</i>.

1848. J. Gould, `Birds of Australia,' vol. iii. pl. 73:

"<i>Anthus Australis</i>, Vig. and Horsf., Australian Pipit. The Pipits, like many other of the Australian birds, are exceedingly perplexing."

<hw>Ground-Parrakeet</hw>, <i>n.</i> See <i>Parrakeet</i> and <i>Pezoporus</i>.

<hw>Ground-Parrot</hw>, <i>n.</i> (1) The bird <i>Psittacus pulchellus</i>, Shaw. For the Ground Parrot of New Zealand, see <i>Kakapo</i>.

1793. G. Shaw, `Zoology [and Botany] of New Holland,' p. 10:

"Long-tailed green Parrot, spotted with black and yellow,. . . the Ground Parrot."

1827. Vigors and Horsfield, `Transactions of Linnaean Society,' vol. xv. p. 278:

"The settlers call it ground-parrot. It feeds upon the ground."

Ibid. p. 286:

"What is called the ground-parrot at Sydney inhabits the scrub in that neighbourhood."

1859. H. Kingsley, `Geoffrey Hamlyn,' p. 298:

"The ground-parrot, green, with mottlings of gold and black, rose like a partridge from the heather, and flew low."

(2) Slang name for a small farmer. See <i>Cockatoo</i>, <i>n.</i> (2).

<hw>Ground-Thrush</hw>, <i>n.</i> name of birds found all over the world. The Australian species are—

<i>Geocincla lunulata</i>, Lath.

Broadbent Ground-Thrush—
 <i>G. cuneata</i>.

Large-billed G.—
 <i>G. macrorhyncha</i>, Gould.

Russet-tailed G.—
 <i>G. heinii</i>, Cab.

<hw>Grub</hw>, <i>v</i>. to clear (ground) of the roots. To grub has long been English for to dig up by the roots. It is Australian to apply the word not to the tree but to the land.

1852. Mrs. Meredith, `My Home in Tasmania,' vol. i. p. 185:

"Employed with others in `grubbing' a piece of new land which was heavily timbered."

1868. Mrs. Meredith, `Tasmanian Memory of 1834,' p. 10:

"A bit of land all grubbed and clear'd too."

<hw>Guana</hw>, or <hw>Guano</hw>, <i>n.</i> i.q. <i>Goanna</i> (q.v.).

<hw>Guard-fish</hw>, <i>n.</i> Erroneous spelling of <i>Garfish</i> (q.v.).

<hw>Gudgeon</hw>, <i>n.</i> The name is given in New South Wales to the fish <i>Eleotris coxii</i>, Krefft, of the family of the Gobies.

<hw>Guitar Plant</hw>, a Tasmanian shrub, <i>Lomatia tinctoria</i>, R. Br., <i>N.O. Proteaceae</i>.

<hw>Gull</hw>, <i>n.</i> common English name for a sea-bird. The Australian species are—

Long-billed Gull—
 <i>Larus longirostris</i>, Masters.

Pacific G.—
 <i>L. pacificus</i>, Lath.

Silver G.—
 <i>L. novae-hollandiae</i>, Steph.

Torres-straits G.—
 <i>L. gouldi</i>, Bp.

<hw>Gully</hw>, <i>n.</i> a narrow valley. The word is very common in Australia, and is frequently used as a place name. It is not, however, Australian. Dr.Skeat (`Etymological Dictionary') says, "a channel worn by water." Curiously enough, his first quotation is from `Capt. Cook's Third Voyage,' b. iv. c. 4. Skeat adds, "formerly written <i>gullet</i>: `It meeteth afterward with another gullet,' i.e. small stream. Holinshed, `Description of Britain,' c. 11: F. goulet, `a gullet . . . a narrow brook or deep gutter of water.' (Cotgrave.) Thus the word is the same as gullet." F. <i>goulet</i> is from Latin <i>gula. Gulch</i> is the word used in the Pacific States, especially in California.

1773. `Hawkesworth's Voyages,' vol. iii. p. 532—Captain Cook's First Voyage, May 30, 1770:

"The deep gullies, which were worn by torrents from the hills."

1802. D. Collins, `Account of New South Wales,' vol. ii. p. 214:

"A man, in crossing a gully between Sydney and Parramatta, was, in attempting to ford it, carried away by the violence of the torrent, and drowned."

1862. H. C. Kendall, `Poems,' p. 17:

"The gums in the gully stand gloomy and stark."

1867. A.L. Gordon, `Sea-spray, etc.,' p. 134:

"The gullies are deep and the uplands are steep."

1875. Wood and Lapham, `Waiting for the Mail,' p. 16:

"The terrible blasts that rushed down the narrow gully, as if through a funnel."

<hw>Gully-raker</hw>, <i>n.</i> a long whip.

1881. A. C. Grant, `Bush Life in Queensland,' vol. i. p. 40:

"The driver appealing occasionally to some bullock or other by name, following up his admonition by a sweeping cut of his `gully-raker,' and a report like a musket-shot."

<hw>Gum</hw>, or <hw>Gum-tree</hw>, <i>n.</i> the popular name for any tree of the various species of <i>Eucalyptus</i>. The word <i>Gum</i> is also used in its ordinary English sense of exuded sap of certain trees and shrubs, as e.g. <i>Wattle-gum</i> (q.v.) in Australia, and <i>Kauri-gum</i> (q.v.) in New Zealand. In America, the gum-tree usually means "the <i>Liquidambar styraciflua</i>, favourite haunt of the opossum and the racoon, whence the proverbial <i>possum up a gum-tree</i>." (`Current Americanisms,' s.v. <i>Gum</i>)

The names of the various Australian Gum-trees are as follows—

Apple Gum, or Apple-scented Gum—
 <i>Eucalyptus stuartiana</i>, F. v. M.

Bastard G.—
 <i>Eucalyptus gunnii</i>, Hook.

Bastard Blue G.—
 <i>E. leucoxylon</i>, F. v. M. (South Australia).

Bastard White G.—
 <i>E. gunnii</i>, Hook. (South Australia);
 <i>E. radiata</i> (Tasmania).

Black G.—
 <i>E. stellulata</i>, Sieb.

Black-butted G.—
 <i>E. pillularis</i>, Smith (Victoria);
 <i>E. regnans</i>, F. v. M. (New South Wales).
   See <i>Blackbutt</i>.

Blue G. [see also Blue-Gum] <i>E. botryoides</i>, Smith (New South Wales); <i>E. diversicolor</i>, F. v. M. [Karri]; <i>E. globulus</i>, Labill.; <i>E. goniocalyx</i>, F. v. M.; <i>E. leucoxylon</i>, F. v. M. (South Australia) [Ironbark]; <i>E. saligna</i>, Smith; <i>E. tereticornis</i>, Smith; <i>E. viminalis</i>, Labill. (West New South Wales).

Botany Bay G,—
 <i>E. resinifera</i>, Smith.

Brittle G.—
 <i>E. haemastonza</i>, Smith;
 <i>E. micrantha</i>, Smith.

Brown G.—
 <i>E. robusta</i>, Smith.

Cabbage G.—
 <i>E. sieberiana</i>, F. v. M. (Braidwood, New South Wales).

Cider G.—
 <i>E. gunnii</i>, Hook. (Tasmania).

Citron-scented G.—
 <i>E. maculata</i>, Hook.

Creek G.—
 <i>E. rostrata</i>, Schlecht (West New South Wales).

Curly White G.—
 <i>E. radiata</i> (Tasmania).

Dark Red G.—
 <i>E. rostrata</i>, Schlecht.

Desert G.—
 <i>E. eudesmoides</i>, F. v. M. (Central Australia);
 <i>E. gracilis</i>, F. v. M.

 Drooping G.—
 <i>E. pauciflora</i>, Sieb. (Drooping Gum in Tasmania is
 <i>E. risdoni</i>, Hook., <i>N.O. Myrtaceae</i>; the tree is
  peculiar to Tasmania);
 <i>E. viminalis</i>, Labill. (New South Wales).

Flood, or Flooded G.—
 <i>E. gunnii</i>, Hook. (Bombala, New South Wales);
 <i>E. microtheca</i>, F. v. M. (Carpentaria and Central
  Australia);
 <i>E. rostrata</i>, Schlecht;
 <i>E. saligna</i>, Smith;
 <i>E. tereticornis</i>, Smith (New South Wales).

Fluted G.-
 <i>E. salubris</i>, F. v. M.

Forest G.—
 <i>E. rostrata</i>, Schlecht (South Australia).

Giant G.—
 <i>E. amygdalina</i>, Labill.

Gimlet G.—
 <i>E. salubris</i>, F. v. M.

Green G.—
 <i>E. stellulata</i>, Sieb. (East Gippsland).

Grey G.—
 <i>E. crebra</i>, F. v. M.;
 <i>E. goniocalyx</i>, F. v. M. (New South Wales, east of
   Dividing range);
 <i>E. punctata</i>, De C. (South Coast of New South Wales);
 <i>E. raveretiana</i>, F.v.M;
 <i>E. resinifera</i>, Smith;
 <i>E. saligna</i>, Smith (New South Wales);
 <i>E. tereticornis</i>, Smith (New South Wales);
 <i>E. viminalis</i>, Labill (Sydney);

Honey-scented G.—
 <i>E. melliodora</i>, Cunn.

Iron G.—
 <i>E. raveretiana</i>, F. v. M.

Lemon-scented, or Lemon G.—
 <i>E. citriodora</i>, Hook. f.

Lead G.—
 <i>E. stellulata</i>, Cunn.

Mallee G.—
 <i>E. dumosa</i> (generally called simply Mallee, q.v.).

Mountain G.—
 <i>E. tereticornis</i>, Smith (South New South Wales).

Mountain White G.—
 <i>E. pauciflora</i>, Sieb. (Blue Mountains).

Nankeen G.—
 <i>E. populifolia</i>, Hook. (Northern Australia).

Olive Green G.—
 <i>E. stellulata</i>, Cunn. (Leichhardt's name).

Pale Red G.—
 <i>E. rostrata</i>, Schlecht.

Peppermint G.—
 <i>E. viminalis</i>, Labill.

Poplar-leaved G.—
 <i>E. polyanthema</i>, Schau.

Red G.—
 <i>E. amygdalina</i>, Labill. (Victoria);
 <i>E. calophylla</i>, R. Br.;
 <i>E. gunnii</i>, Hook. (Bombala);
 <i>E. melliodora</i>, Cunn. (Victoria);
 <i>E. odorata</i>, Behr (South Australia);
 <i>E. punctata</i>, De C.;
 <i>E. resinifera</i>, Smith;
 <i>E. rostrata</i>, Schlecht;
 <i>E. stuartiana</i>, F. v. M. (Tasmania);
 <i>E. tereticornis</i>, Smith (New South Wales).

Ribbon G.—
 <i>E. amygdalina</i>, Labill. Ribbony G.
 <i>E. viminalis</i>, Labill.

Risdon G.—
 <i>E. amygdalina</i>, Labill.

River G.—
 <i>E. rostrata</i>, Schlecht (New South Wales, Queensland,
  and Central Australia).

River White G.—
 <i>E. radiata</i>.

Rough-barked, or Rough G.—
 <i>E. botryoides</i>, Smith (Illawarra).

Rusty G.—
 <i>E. eximia</i>, Schau.

Scribbly G.—
 <i>E. haemastoma</i>, Smith.

Scribbly Blue G.—
 <i>E. leucoxylon</i>, F. v. M. (South Australia).

Scrub G.—
 <i>E. cosmophylla</i>, F. v. M.

Slaty G.—
 <i>E. saligna</i>, Smith (New South Wales);
 <i>E. tereticornis</i>, Smith (New South Wales and
  Queensland);
 <i>E. largiflorens</i>, F. v. M.

Spotted G.—
 <i>E. capitellata</i>, Smith (New England);
 <i>E. goniocalyx</i>, F. v. M.;
 <i>E. haemastonza</i>, Smith;
 <i>E. maculata</i>, Hook.

Sugar G.—
 <i>E. corynocalyx</i>, F. v. M.;
 <i>E. gunnii</i>, Hook.

Swamp G.—
 <i>E. gunnii</i>, Hook.;
 <i>E. microtheca</i>, F. v. M.;
 <i>E. pauciflora</i>, Sieb.;
 <i>E. viminalis</i>, Labill. (Tasmania).

Weeping G.—
 <i>E. pauciflora</i>, Sieb. (Tasmania);
 <i>E. viminalis</i>, Labill. (New South Wales).

White G.—
 <i>E. amygdalina</i>, Labill.;
 <i>E. gomphocephala</i>, De C. (Western Australia);
 <i>E. goniocalyx</i>, F. v. M. ; E. haemastoma, Smith;
 <i>E. hemiphloia</i>, F. v. M. (Sydney);
 <i>E. leucoxylon</i>, F. v. M. (South Australia);
 <i>E. pauciflora</i>, Sieb.;
 <i>E. populifolia</i>, Hook. (Queensland);
 <i>E. radiata</i> (New South Wales);
 <i>E. redunca</i>, Schau. (Western Australia);
 <i>E. robusta</i>, Schlecht. (South Australia);
 <i>E. saligna</i>, Smith (New South Wales);
 <i>E. stellulata</i>, Cunn.;
 <i>E. stuartiana</i>, F. v. M. (Victoria);
 <i>E. viminalis</i>, Labill.

White Swamp G.—
 <i>E. gunnii</i>, Hook. (South Australia).

Yellow G.—
 <i>E. punctata</i>, De C.

York G.—
 <i>E. foecunda</i>, Schau. (Western Australia).

This list has been compiled by collating many authorities. But the following note on <i>Eucalyptus amygdalina</i> (from Maiden's `Useful Native Plants,' p. 429) will illustrate the difficulty of assigning the vernacular names with absolute accuracy to the multitudinous species of <i>Eucalyptus</i>—

"<i>Eucalyptus amygdalina</i>, Labill., Syn. <i>E. fissilis</i>, F. v. M.; <i>E. radiata</i>, Sieb.; <i>E. elata</i>, Dehn.; <i>E. tenuiramis</i>, Miq.; <i>E. nitida</i>, Hook, f.; <i>E. longifolia</i>, Lindl. ; <i>E. Lindleyana</i>, DC.; and perhaps <i>E. Risdoni</i>, Hook, f.; <i>E. dives</i>, Schauer.—This Eucalypt has even more vernacular names than botanical synonyms. It is one of the `Peppermint Trees' (and variously `Narrow-leaved Peppermint,' `Brown Peppermint,' `White Peppermint,' and sometimes `Dandenong Peppermint'), and `Mountain Ashes' of the Dandenong Ranges of Victoria, and also of Tasmania and Southern New South Wales. It is also called `Giant Gum' and `White Gum.' In Victoria it is one of the `Red Gums.' It is one of the New South Wales `Stringybarks,' and a `Manna Gum.' Because it is allied to, or associated with, `Stringybark,' it is also known by the name of `Messmate.' . . . A variety of this gum (<i>E. radiata</i>) is called in New South Wales `White Gum' or `River White Gum.' . . . A variety of <i>E. amygdalina</i> growing in the south coast district of New South Wales, goes by the name of `Ribbon Gum,' in allusion to the very thin, easily detachable, smooth bark. This is also E. radiata probably. A further New South Wales variety goes by the name of `Cut-tail' in the Braidwood district. The author has been unable to ascertain the meaning of this absurd designation. These varieties are, several of them, quite different in leaves, bark, and timber, and there is no species better than the present one to illustrate the danger in attempting to fit botanical names on Eucalypts when only the vernacular names are known."

Various other trees not of the genus Eucalyptus are also sometimes popularly called <i>Gums</i>, such as, for instance—

Broad-leaved Water Gum—
 <i>Tristania suavolens</i>, Smith.

Orange G.—
 <i>Angophora lanceolata</i>, Cave.

Water G.—
 <i>Callistemon lanceolatus</i>, DeC.
 <i>Tristania laurina</i>, R. Br.
 <i>T. neriifolia</i>, R. Br.

And others.

In addition to this, poets and descriptive writers sometimes apply epithets, chiefly denoting colour or other outward appearance, which are not names of distinct species, such as <i>Cinnamon, Morrell, Salmon, Cable, Silver</i>, etc. [See quotation under <i>Silver Gum</i>.]

1642. Abel Tasman, `Journal of the Voyage to the Unknown Southland' (Translation by J. B. Walker in `Abel J. Tasman: His Life, etc.' 1896)

[Under date Dec. 2, 1642, after describing the trees at Fredrik Hendrik's Bay (now Blackman's Bay, Forestier's Peninsula, Tasmania) 2 to 21/2 fathoms thick, 60 to 65 feet to the first branch, and with steps 5 feet apart cut in them, Tasman says that they found] "a little gum, fine in appearance, which drops out of the trees, and has a resemblance to gum lac (gomma lacca)."

1770. `Captain Cook's Journal' (ed. Wharton, 1893), p. 245:

"May 1st.—We found two sorts of gum, one sort of which is like gum dragon, and is the same, I suppose, Tasman took for gum lac; it is extracted from the largest tree in the woods.

"May 6th.—The biggest trees are as large or larger than our oaks in England, and grow a good deal like them, and yield a reddish gum; the wood itself is heavy, hard, and black like <i>Lignum vitae</i>."

1788. Governor Phillip (Despatch, May 15) in `Historical Records of New South Wales', vol. i. pt. ii. p. 128:

"What seeds could be collected are sent to Sir Joseph Banks, as likewise the red gum taken from the large gum-tree by tapping, and the yellow gum which is found on the dwarf palm-tree."

1789. Captain Watkin Tench, `Narrative of the Expedition to Botany Bay,' p. 119:

"The species of trees are few, and . . . the wood universally of so bad a grain, as almost to preclude the possibility of using it. . . . These trees yield a profusion of thick red gum (not unlike the <i>Sanguis draconis</i>)."

1790. J. White, `Voyage to New South Wales,' p. 231:

"The red gum-tree, <i>Eucalyptus resinifera</i>. This is a very large and lofty tree, much exceeding the English oak in size."

1793. Governor Hunter, `Voyage,' p. 69:

"I have likewise seen trees bearing three different kinds of leaves, and frequently have found others, bearing the leaf of the gum-tree, with the gum exuding from it, and covered with bark of a very different kind."

1820. W. C. Wentworth, `Description of New South Wales,' p. 66:

"Full-sized gums and iron barks, alongside of which the loftiest trees in this country would appear as pigmies, with the beefwood tree, or, as it is generally termed, the forest oak, which is of much humbler growth, are the usual timber."

1827. P. Cunningham, `Two Years in New South Wales,' vol. i. p. 200:

"The gum-trees are so designated as a body from producing a gummy resinous matter, while the peculiarities of the bark usually fix the particular names of the species—thus the blue, spotted, black-butted, and woolly gums are so nominated from the corresponding appearance of their respective barks; the red and white gums, from their wood; and the flooded gums from growing in flooded land."

1846. J. L. Stokes, `Discoveries in Australia,' vol. II. c. iii. p. 108:

"The silvery stems of the never-failing gum-trees."

1857. H. Parkes, `Murmurs of Stream,' p. 56:

"Where now the hermit gum-tree stands on the plain's heart."

1864. J. S. Moore, `Spring Life Lyrics,' p. 114:

"Amid grand old gums, dark cedars and pines."

1873. A.Trollope, `Australia and New Zealand,' c. xiii. p. 209:

"The eternal gum-tree has become to me an Australian crest, giving evidence of Australian ugliness. The gum-tree is ubiquitous, and is not the loveliest, though neither is it by any means the ugliest, of trees."

1877. F. v. Muller, `Botanic Teachings,' p. 7:

"The vernacular name of gum-trees for the eucalypts is as unaptly given as that of most others of our native plants, on which popular appellations have been bestowed. Indeed our wattles might far more appropriately be called gum-trees than the eucalypts, because the former exude a real gum (in the chemical meaning of the word); whereas the main exudation from the stems and branches of all eucalypts hardens to a kino-like substance, contains a large proportion of a particular tannin (kino-tannic acid), and is to a great extent or entirely soluble in alcohol, thus very different from genuine gum."

1884. R. L. A. Davies, `Poems and Literary Remains,' p. 176:

"Golden, 'mid a sunlit forest,
  Stood the grand Titanic forms
  Of the conquerors of storms;
 Stood the gums, as if inspired,
 Every branch and leaflet fired
  With the glory of the sun,
 In golden robes attired,
  A grand priesthood of the sun."

1889. P. Beveridge, `Aborigines of Victoria and Riverina,' p. 61:

"Nearly all the eucalyptus species exude gum, which the natives utilise in the fabrication of their various weapons as Europeans do glue. The myall and mimosa also exude gum; these the natives prefer before all other kinds when obtainable, they being less brittle and more adhesive than any of the others."

i891. `Guide to Zoological Gardens, Melbourne':

"This is an exact representation of the camps which were scattered over the country not more than fifty years ago, and inhabited by the original lords of the soil. The beautiful she-oak and red-gum forest that used to clothe the slopes of Royal Park was a very favourite camping-ground of theirs, as the gum-tree was their most regular source of food supply. The hollows of this tree contained the sleek and sleepy opossum, waiting to be dragged forth to the light of day and despatched by a blow on the head. It was to the honey-laden blossoms of this tree that the noisy cockatoos and parrots used to flock. Let the kangaroo be wary and waterfowl shy, but whilst he had his beloved gum-tree, little cared the light-hearted black."

1892. `The Times,' [Reprint] `Letters from Queensland,' p. 2:

"The immense extent of gum-trees stretches indefinitely, blotting out the conception of anything but its own lightly-timbered pasture. It has not even the gloom and impressiveness which we associate in England with the name of forest land, for the trees are thinly scattered, their long leaves hang vertically from the branches, and sunlight filters through with sufficient force to promote the growth of the tussocked grass beneath. The whole would be indescribably commonplace, but that the vastness becomes at last by its own force impressive."

The following quotations illustrate special uses of the word in composition.

<i>Apple Gum</i>—

1847. L. Leichhardt, `Overland Expedition,' p. 283:

"On the small flats the apple-gum grew."

Ibid. c. viii. p. 264:

"Another Eucalyptus with a scaly butt . . . but with smooth upper trunk and cordate ovate leaves, which was also new to me; we called it the Apple-gum."

<i>Blue Gum</i>—

1802. D.Collins, `Account of New South Wales,' vol. ii. p. 235:

"The blue gum, she-oak, and cherry-tree of Port Jackson were common here."

1832. J. Bischoff, `Van Diemen's Land,' p. 22:

"The Blue Gum is found in greater abundance; it is a loose-grained heavy wood."

1851. James Mitchell, `Proceedings of the Royal Society of Van Diemen's Land,' p. 125:

"The name blue gum appears to have been derived from the bluish gray colour of the whole plant in the earliest stages of its growth, which is occasioned by a covering of dust or bloom similar to that upon the sloe or damson."

1884. R. L. A. Davies, `Poems and Literary Remains,' p. 199:

"I love to see the blue gums stand Majestically tall;
 The giants of our southern woods,
  The loftiest of all."

<i>Black-butted Gum</i>—

1833. C. Sturt, `Southern Australia,' vol. II. c. viii. p. 236:

"One species . . . resembling strongly the black-butted gum."

<i>Cable Gum</i>—

1846. J. L. Stokes, `Discoveries in Australia,' vol. II. c. iv. p. 132:

"Cable-gum . . . like several stems twisted together, abundant in interior."

<i>Cider Gum</i> (or <i>Cider Tree</i>)—

1830. Ross, `Hobart Town Almanack,' p. 119:

"That species of eucalyptus called the <i>cider tree</i>, from its exuding a quantity of saccharine liquid resembling molasses. Streaks of it were to be seen dripping down the bark in various parts, which we tasted, and found very palatable. The natives have a method at the proper season of grinding holes in the tree, from which the sweet juice flows plentifully, and is collected in a hole at the root. We saw some of these covered up with a flat stone, doubtless to prevent the wild animals from coming to drink it. When allowed to remain some time, and to ferment, it settles into a coarse sort of wine or cider, rather intoxicating."

<i>Cinnamon Gum</i>—

1893. `Sydney Morning Herald,' Aug. 19, p. 7, col. 1:

"A forest only fit for urban gnomes these twisted trunks. Here are no straight and lofty trees, but sprawling cinnamon gums, their skin an unpleasing livid red, pock-marked; saplings in white and chilly grey, bleeding gum in ruddy stains, and fire-black boles and stumps to throw the greenery into bright relief."

<i>Drooping Gum</i>—

1846. J. L. Stokes, `Discoveries in Australia,' vol. II. c. xii. p. 387:

"The trees, which grew only in the valleys, were small kinds of banksia, wattles and drooping gums."

<i>Flooded Gum</i>—

1847. L. Leichhardt, `Overland Expedition,' p. 7:

"Large flooded gum-trees (but no casuarinas) at the low banks of the lagoons."

<i>Lemon-scented Gum</i>—

1860. G. Bennett, `Gatherings of a Naturalist,' p. 265:

"Among the <i>Eucalypti</i> or gum-trees growing in New South Wales, a species named the lemon-scented gum-tree, <i>Eucalyptus citriodora</i>, is peculiar to the Wide Bay district, in the northern part of the colony."

<i>Mountain Gum</i>—

1833. C. Sturt, `Southern Australia,' vol. I. c. iii, p. 118:

"The cypresses became mixed with casuarina, box and mountain-gum."

<i>Red Gum</i> [see also <i>Red-gum</i>]—

1802. G. Barrington, `History of New South Wales,' c. xi. p. 461:

"The red gum-tree. This is a very large and lofty tree, much exceeding the English oak in size."

1846. G. H. Haydon, `Five Years in Australia Felix,' p. 33:

"Red gum, a wood which has of late years been exported to England in great quantities; it has all the properties of mahogany."

1868. W. Carleton, `Australian Nights,' p. 14:

"While she, the younger, went to fill
 Her red-gum pitcher at the rill."

1870. J. O. Tucker, `The Mute,' etc., p. 85:

"Then the dark savage `neath the red gum's shade
 Told o'er his deeds."

1890. `The Argus,' June 14, p. 4, col. I

"Those of the leaden hue are red gums."

<i>Rough Gum</i>—

1833. C. Sturt, `Southern Australia,' vol. I. c. iii. p. 118:

"The rough-gum abounded near the creek."

<i>Rusty Gum</i>—

1847. L. Leichhardt, `Overland Expedition,' p. 48:

"The range was openly timbered with white gum, spotted gum,
Iron-bark, rusty gum and the cypress pine."

<i>Salmon Gum</i>—

1893. `The Australasian,' Aug. 3, p. 252, col. 4:

"The chief descriptions are salmon, morrel and white gums, and gimlet-wood. The bark of the salmon gum approaches in colour to a rich golden brown, but the satin-like sheen on it has the effect of making it several shades lighter, and in the full glare of the sun it is sufficiently near a rich salmon tint to justify its name."

<i>Silver Gum</i>—

1888. D. Macdonald, `Gum Boughs,' p. 113:

"When so many of our Australian trees were named `gums,' a distinguishing prefix for each variety was clearly necessary, and so the words red, blue, yellow, white and scarlet, as marking some particular trait in the tree, have come into everyday use. Had the pioneer bush botanist seen at least one of those trees at a certain stage in its growth, the term `silver gum' would have found expression."

<i>Spotted Gum</i>—

1847. L. Leichhardt, `Overland Expedition,' p. 11:

"Ironbark ridges here and there with spotted gum . . . diversified the sameness."

<i>Swamp Gum</i>—

1853. `Papers and Proceedings of the Royal Society of Van Diemen's Land,' vol. ii, p. 132 [James Mitchell, <i>On the Strength of Timber</i>, etc., read Nov.12, 1851]:

"The Swamp Gum grows to the largest size of any of this family in Van Diemen's Land. Its growth is nearly twice as rapid as that of the Blue Gum: the annular layers are sometimes very large; but the bark, and the whole tree indeed, is so like the Blue Gum, as not to be easily distinguished from it in outward appearance. It grows best in moist places, which may probably have given rise to its name. Some extraordinary dimensions have been recorded of trees of this species. I lately measured an apparently sound one, and found it 21 feet in circumference at 8 feet from the ground and 87 feet to the first branches. Another was 18 1/2 feet in circumference at 10 feet from the ground, and 213 feet to the highest branch or extreme top. A third reached the height of 251 feet to the highest branch: but I am told that these are pigmies compared to the giants of even the Blue Gum species found in the southern districts."

1880. Garnet Watch, `Victoria in 1880,' p. 100:

"Groups of native trees, including the black wattle, silver box, messmate, stringy bark, and the picturesque but less useful swamp gum."

<i>Water Gum</i>—

1847. L. Leichhhardt, `Overland Expedition,' p. 387:

"Long hollows surrounded with drooping tea-trees and the white watergums."

<i>Weeping Gum</i>—

1852. Mrs. Meredith, `My Home in Tasmania,' vol. i. p. 169:

"A kind of <i>Eucalyptus</i>, with long drooping leaves, called the `Weeping Gum,' is the most elegant of the family."

<i>White Gum</i>—

1827. Vigors and Horsfield, `Transactions of Linnaean Society,' vol. xv. p, 278:

"The natives tell me that it [the ground-parrot] chiefly breeds in a stump of a small White Gum-tree."

1847. L. Leichhardt, `Overland Expedition,' p. 48:

"The range was openly timbered with white gum."

1889. J. H. Maiden, `Useful Native Plants,' p. 471:

"<i>E. leucoxylon</i>, F. v. M. The `blue or white gum' of South Australia and Victoria is a gum-tree with smooth bark and light-coloured wood (hence the specific name). The flowers and fruit of <i>E. leucoxylon</i> are very similar to those of <i>E. sideroxylon</i>, and in this way two trees have been placed under one name which are really quite distinct. Baron Mueller points out that there are two well-marked varieties of <i>E. leucoxylon</i> in Victoria. That known as `white-gum' has the greater portion of the stem pale and smooth through the outer layers of the bark falling off. The variety known chiefly as the `Victorian Ironbark,' retains the whole bark on the stem, thus becoming deeply fissured and furrowed, and very hard and dark coloured."

<i>Yellow Gum</i>—

1848. T. L. Mitchell, `Tropical Australia,' p. 107:

"We this day passed a small group of trees of the yellow gum, a species of eucalyptus growing only on the poor sandy soil near Botany Bay, and other parts of the sea-coast near Sydney."

<i>York Gum</i>—

1846. J. L. Stokes, `Discoveries in Australia,' vol. II. c. iv. p. 132:

"York gum . . . abundant in York on good soil."

<hw>Gum-</hw> (<i>In Composition</i>). See <i>Gum</i>.

1862. H. C. Kendall, `Poems,' p. 134:

"I said to myself in the gum-shadowed glen."

1868. W. L. Carleton, `Australian Nights,' p. 1:

"To see the gum-log flaming bright
 Its welcome beacon through the night."

1890. `The Argus,' August 2, p. 4, col. 3:

"Make a bit of a shelter also. You can always do it with easily-got gum-boughs."

1890. Rolf Boldrewood, `Colonial Reformer,' c. xvii. p. 201:

"The edge of the long, black, gum-shrouded lagoon."

<hw>Gummy</hw>, <i>n.</i> name given to a shark of Victorian and Tasmanian waters, <i>Mustelus antarcticus</i>, Gunth., and called <i>Hound</i> (q.v.) in New South Wales, Victoria, and New Zealand. The word <i>Gummy</i> is said to come from the small numerous teeth, arranged like a pavement, so different from the sharp erect teeth of most other sharks. The word <i>Hound</i> is the Old World name for all the species of the genus <i>Mustelus</i>. This fish, says Hutton, is much eaten by the Maoris.

<hw>Gum-sucker</hw>, <i>n.</i> slang for Victorian-born, not now much used; but it is not always limited to Victorians.

1827. P. Cunningham, `Two Years in New South Wales,' vol. i. p. 201:

"The acacias are the common wattles of this country; from their trunks and branches clear transparent beads of the purest Arabian gum are seen suspended in the dry spring weather, which our young currency bantlings eagerly search after and regale themselves with."

[The practice of `gum-sucking' is here noticed, though the word does not occur.]

1855. W. Howitt, `Two Years in Victoria,' vol. i. p. 24:

"If he had not been too 'cute to be bitten twice by the over-'cute `gumsuckers,' as the native Victorians are called."

1890. `Quiz `(Adelaide), Dec. 26:

"Quiz will take good care that the innocent Australians are not fooled without a warning. Really L. and his accomplices must look upon gumsuckers as being pretty soft."

<hw>Gunyah</hw>, <i>n.</i> aboriginal name for a black-fellow's hut, roughly constructed of boughs and bark; applied also to other forms of shelter. The spelling varies greatly: in Col. Mundy's book (1855) there are no fewer than four forms. See <i>Humpy</i> and <i>Gibber</i>. What Leichhardt saw (see quotation 1847) was very remarkable.

1798. D. Collins, `Account of English Colony in New South Wales,' in an aboriginal vocabulary of Port Jackson, p. 610:

"Go-nie—a hut."

1830. R.Dawson, `Present State of Australia,' p. 70:

"One of their gunyers (bark huts)."

Ibid. p. 171:

"A native encampment, consisting of eight or ten `gunyers.' This is the native term for small huts, which are supported by three forked sticks (about three feet long) brought together at the top in a triangular form: the two sides towards the wind are covered by long sheets of bark, the third is always left open to the wind."

1833. C. Sturt, `Southern Australia,' vol. I. c. ii. p. 78:

"We observed a fresh-made gunneah (or native hut)."

1839. T. L. Mitchell, `Three Expeditions into the Interior of Eastern Australia,' c. ii. p. 35:

"Three huts, or gunyahs, consisted of a few green boughs, which had just been put up for shelter from the rain then falling."

1845. J. O. Balfour, `Sketch of New South Wales,' p. 10:

"Their only habitation . . . is formed by two sheets of bark stripped from the nearest tree, at the first appearance of a storm, and joined together at an angle of 45 degrees. This, which they call a gunnya, is cut up for firewood when the storm has passed."

1846. C. P. Hodgson, `Reminiscences of Australia,' p. 238:

"Behind appears a large piece of wood hooded like a `gunnya' or `umpee.'"

1847. L. Leichhardt, `Overland Expedition,' p. 290:

"We saw a very interesting camping place of the natives, containing several two-storied gunyas."

1852. `Settlers and Convicts; or, Recollections of Sixteen Years' Labour in the Australian Backwoods,' p. 211:

"I coincided in his opinion that it would be best for us to camp for the night in one of the ghibber-gunyahs. These are the hollows under overhanging rocks."

1852. G. C. Mundy, `Our Antipodes,' ed. 1855, p. 164:

"A sloping sheet of bark turned from the wind—in bush lingo, a break-weather—or in guneeahs of boughs thatched with grass." [p. 200]: "Guneah." [p. 558]: "Gunneah." [p. 606]: "Gunyah."

1860. G.Bennett, `Gatherings of a Naturalist,' p. 114 [Footnote]:

"The name given by the natives to the burrow or habitation of any animals is `guniar,' and the same word is applied to our houses."

1880. P. J. Holdsworth, `Station, Hunting':

"hunger clung Beneath the bough-piled gunyah."

1885. R. M. Praed, `Australian Life,' p. 19:

"The sleepy blacks came out of their gunyahs." [p. 52]:
"A gunya of branches."

1890. Lyth, `Golden South,' c. ii. p. 16:

"Where this beautiful building now stands, there were only the gunyahs or homes of the poor savages."

1890. A. J. Vogan, `Black Police,' p. 98:

"One of the gunyahs on the hill. . . . The hut, which is exactly like all the others in the group,—and for the matter of that all within two or three hundred miles,—is built of sticks, which have been stuck into the ground at the radius of a common centre, and then bent over so as to form an egg-shaped cage, which is substantially thatched on top and sides with herbage and mud."

<hw>Gunyang</hw>, <i>n.</i> the aboriginal word for the <i>Kangaroo Apple</i> (q.v.), though the name is more strictly applied not to <i>Solanum aviculare</i>, but to <i>S. vescum</i>.

1877. F. von Muller, `Botanic Teachings,' p. 106:

"The similarity of both [<i>S. vescum</i> and <i>S. aviculare</i>] to each other forbids to recommend the fruit of the Gunyang as edible."

1878. W. R. Guilfoyle, `Australian Botany,' p. 73:

"Kangaroo Apple, <i>Solanum aviculare</i>. . . . The Gunyang (<i>Solanum vescum</i>) is another variety found in Victoria."

1888. D. Macdonald, `Gum Boughs,' p. 222:

"A couple of tiny streams trickle across the plains to the sea, a dwarfed ti-tree, clinging low about the ground, like the gunyang or kangaroo apple, borders the banks."

<hw>Gurnard</hw>, <i>n.</i> i.q. <i>Gurnet</i> (q.v.).

<hw>Gurnet</hw>, <i>n.</i> The species of <i>Trigla</i> found in British waters, called <i>Gurnards</i> are of the family of <i>Cottidae</i>. The word <i>Gurnet</i> is an obsolete or provincial form of Gurnard, revived in Australia, and applied to the fish <i>Centropogon scorpoenoides</i>, Guich., family <i>Scorpoenidae</i>. The original word <i>Gurnard</i> is retained in New Zealand, and applied to the new species <i>Trigla kumu</i> (<i>kumu</i> being the Maori name), family <i>Cottidae</i>. The <i>Flying Gurnet</i> is <i>Trigla polyommata</i>, Richards., found on all the Australian coasts from New South Wales to Western Australia, family <i>Cottidae</i>. It is a distinct species, not included in the British species. They have large pectoral fins, but are not known to possess the power of supporting themselves in the air like the "flying fish" which belong to other genera. Sir Fredk. McCoy says that <i>Sebastes Percoides</i>, Richards., is called Gurnet, or Garnet-perch, by the fishermen and dealers, as well as the more common <i>Neosebastes scorpoenoides</i>, Guich., and <i>Scorpoena panda</i>, Richards.

<hw>Gutter</hw>, <i>n.</i> in Australian goldmining, "the lower and auriferous part of the channel of an old river of the Tertiary period " (`Century'). "The lowest portion of a lead. A gutter is filled with auriferous drift or <i>washdirt</i>, which rests on the palaeozoic bed-rock." (Brough Smyth, `Glossary of Mining Terms.')

1864. J. Rogers, `New Rush,' p. 55:

"Duffers are so common And golden gutters rare."

1871. J. J. Simpson, `Recitations,' p. 23:

"Privations and hardships you all have to suffer
 Ere you can expect to get on to the gutter."

1890. Rolf Boldrewood, `Miner's Right,' c. viii. p. 81:

"If we happened to drop right down on the `gutter' or main course of the lead, we were all right."

1890. `Goldfields of Victoria,' p.23:

"The Company . . . are putting in a drive to strike the old
Shakspeare gutter."

1891. `The Australasian,' Nov. 21, p. 1015:

"Evidently both claims had been driving for a `gutter.' One of them had got to the end of its tether before reaching it."

<hw>Gutter-flags</hw>, <i>n.</i> Flags fixed on the surface to denote where the course of a gutter or lead underground has been discovered." (Brough Smyth, `Glossary of Mining Terms.')

<hw>Gweeon</hw>, <i>n.</i> a stone tomahawk of the aborigines. <i>Gweh-un</i>, in Mukthang language, Gippsland. Apparently a remnant of a term occurring along the east side of Australia; <i>Burgoin</i>, New South Wales; <i>bulgoon</i> and <i>balgon</i>, Burdekin River, Queensland; related to <i>balgoungo</i>, to chop.

<hw>Gymnobelideus</hw>, <i>n.</i> the scientific name of the genus confined to Australia of <i>Squirrel Phalangers</i>, or <i>Squirrel Opossums</i>, as they have been called. See <i>Opossum</i>. The name was given by Sir Frederick McCoy in 1867. Only two specimens have been found, and they are in the Melbourne Museum of Natural History. There is only one species, <i>G. leadbeateri</i>, M'Coy. In general form they resemble the so-called <i>Australian Flying Squirrel</i> (q.v.), save for the absence of the parachute. They have large naked ears. (Grk. <i>gymnos</i>, naked, and Latin, <i>belideus</i>, the Flying-Phalanger or Squirrel.)

<hw>Gymnorrhina</hw>, <i>n.</i> the scientific name of the Australian genus of <i>Piping Crow-Shrikes</i>, called locally by the vernacular name of <i>Magpies</i> (q.v.). They have the nostrils and beak unfeathered. (Grk. <i>gymnos</i>, naked, and <i>rhis</i>, nose.) For the species see under <i>Magpie</i>.

H

<hw>Haddock</hw>, <i>n.</i> The New Zealand <i>Haddock</i> is <i>Gadus australis</i>, Hutton, <i>Pseudophycis barbatus</i>, Gunth., and <i>Merlucius gayi</i>, Guich., or <i>australis</i>, Hutton, all belonging to the family <i>Gadidae</i> or Cod-fishes. The European species of <i>Merlucius</i> is known as the "Hake."

<hw>Haeremai</hw>, <i>interj</i>. Maori term of welcome, lit. come hither; <i>haere</i> is the verb. It has been colloquially adopted.

1769. J. Hawkesworth, `Voyages,' vol. iii. p. 229 (ed. 1785):

"When they came near enough to be heard, they waved their hands, and called out `Horomai.' These ceremonies we were told were certain signs of their friendly disposition."

1832. `Henry Williams' Journal,' in H. Carleton's `Life of Henry Williams,' p. 112:

"After breakfast we went to them all; they were very glad to see us, and gave us the usual welcome, `Haeremai! Haeremai!'"

1845. E. J. Wakefield, `Adventures in New Zealand,' p. 249:

"As I ascended the steep hill with my train, scarcely any greeting was addressed to me, no shouts of haeremai, so universal a welcome to the stranger, were to be heard."

1863. F. E. Maning (<i>The Pakeha-Maori</i> ), `Old New Zealand,' p. 14:

"The boat nears the shore, and now arises from a hundred voices the call of welcome, `Haere mai! haere mai! hoe mai!' Mats, hands, and certain ragged petticoats all waving in the air in sign of welcome. Then a pause. Then, as the boat came nearer, another burst of haere mai! But unaccustomed as I was then to the Maori salute, I disliked the sound. There was a wailing, melancholy cadence that did not strike me as being the appropriate note of welcome."

1867. F. Hochstetter, `New Zealand,' (English edition) p. 438:

"Rev. Mr. Chapman received me at his garden gate with a hearty welcome, the natives shouted their friendly `haeremai,' and ere long we were all in comfortable shelter beneath the missionary's roof."

1883. F. S. Renwick, `Betrayed,' p. 34:

"Haire mai ho! 'tis the welcome song
 Rings far on the summer air."

<hw>Hair-trigger</hw>, <i>n.</i> a Tasmanian name for any plant of genus <i>Stylidium</i>. Called also <i>Trigger-plant</i>, and <i>Jack in a Box</i> (q.v.).

1852. Mrs. Meredith, `My Home in Tasmania,' vol. ii. p. 71:

"The <i>Stylidium</i>, or as we named it, the `Hair-trigger,' is common all over the colony."

<hw>Haka</hw>, <i>n.</i> Maori word for a dance.

1845. E. J. Wakefield, `Adventures in New Zealand,' p. 198:

"A haka was now performed by about one hundred and fifty men and women. They seated themselves in ranks in one of the courtyards of the pa, stripped to the waist. An old chieftainess, who moved along the ranks with regular steps, brandishing an ornamental spear in time to her movements, now recited the first verse of a song in a monotonous, dirge-like measure. This was joined in by the others, who also kept time by quivering their hands and arms, nodding their heads and bending their bodies in accordance with each emphasis and pause."

1852. G. C. Mundy, `Our Antipodes,' c. xvi. p. 409 (3rd ed. 1855):

"I witnessed a national spectacle which was new to me—a sort of incantation performed by women alone—the haka, I think it is called."

1872. A.Domett, `Ranolf,' XV. c. vi. p. 242:

"The <i>haka</i>-dances, where she shone supreme."

1873. `Appendix to Journal of House of Representatives,' G. I, B., p. 8:

"Thursday was passed by them [the natives] in feasting and hakas."

1883. F. S. Renwick, `Betrayed,' p. 34:

"A rushing throng in the furious haka share."

1896. `Otago Witness,' Jan. 23, p. 50, col. 5:

"He also received a visit from three or four hostile natives, who, with blood-curdling yells, duly performed the indispensable haka."

<hw>Hakea</hw>, <i>n.</i> the scientific name given, in honour of Baron Hake of Hanover, to "a large Australian genus of plants belonging to the follicular section of the <i>Proteaceae</i>, tribe <i>Grevilleae</i>, and distinguished from Grevillea by its axillary inflorescence and samaroid seeds. The species, nearly 100 in number [Maiden's index to `Useful Native Plants' gives sixteen], are all evergreen shrubs, or small trees, with alternate coriaceous, variously lobed, often spiny leaves. They are ornamental in cultivation, and several have acquired special names—<i>H. ulicina</i>, Native Furze; <i>H. laurina</i>, Cushion-flower; <i>H. acicularis</i> (<i>Lissosperma</i>), Native Pear; <i>H. flexilis</i>, Twine-bush." (`Century.')

1877. F. v. Muller, `Botanic Teachings,' p. 50:

"<i>Proteaceae</i> are more extensively still represented in Victoria by the well known genera Grevillea and Hakea, the former dedicated to the Right Hon. C. F. Greville, of Paddington, the latter genus named in honour of Baron Hake, of Hanover, both having been alike patrons of horticulture at the end of the last century."

1897. `The Australasian,' Jan. 30, p. 226, col. 3:

"Recently, according to `Nature,' Mr. G. M. Thomson, an eminent authority on New Zealand botany, has shown that one of the genera, namely Hakea, though absent at present from the islands [of New Zealand], formerly existed there. Plant remains were found at St. Bathans, in a bed of clay, which have been identified by him as Hakea. The question of the identification of fossil plants is always a difficult one, but as Mr. Thomson announces that he has obtained fruit capsules and leaves there can be but little doubt as to the correctness of his determinations. Hitherto the genus has been regarded as Australian only, and about 100 species are known, of which no less than 65 are West Australian. It would seem then that the Hakeas had obtained a footing in Eastern Australia before the connection with New Zealand had disappeared, and that probably the genus is a far older one than had been anticipated. Why, after finding its way to New Zealand, it should have died out there is a question to which no answer can as yet be supplied."

<hw>Hand-fish</hw>, <i>n.</i> a Tasmanian fish, <i>Brachionichthys hirsutus</i>, Lacep., family <i>Pediculati</i>. The name is used in the northern hemisphere for a different fish, which is also called there the <i>Frog-fish</i> and <i>Toad-fish</i>. The name arises from a fancied resemblance of the profile of the fish to a human hand. It is also called <i>Frog-fish</i> and <i>Tortoise-shell fish</i>. Mrs. Meredith calls it <i>Tortoise-shell Fish</i> from its colour, when figuring it in `Tasmanian Friends and Foes' under its former scientific name of <i>Cheironectes Politus</i>. The surface of its skin is hirsute with minute spines, and the lobe at the end of the detached filament of the dorsal fin—called the fintacle—hangs loose. The scientific names of the genus are derived from Grk. <i>brachiown</i>, "the arm," and <i>cheir</i>, "the hand." The armlike pectoral fins are used for holding on to stones or seaweed.

1850. `Papers and Proceedings of the Royal Society of Van Diemen's Land,' Jan. 9, vol. i. p. 268:

"A little spotted fish belonging to the genus <i>Chironectes</i> . . . Mr. Champ writes thus respecting the frog fish:— `It was found in the sea at Port Arthur by a person who was with me, and when caught had all the appearance of having four legs, from the position and shape of the fins; the two longest of which, from the sort of elbow in them, and the division into (rays) what resemble fingers, seem to form a connecting link between fins and legs or arms.'"

1880. Mrs.'Meredith, `Tasmanian Friends and Foes,' p. 249:

"It has fins like feet; one small pair where pectoral fins usually are, and a larger pair, with absolute elbows to them, and apparently shoulder-blades too, only those do not belong to the fore pair of feet! A very antipodean arrangement truly! The markings on the body and on the delicate pellucid fins are like tortoise-shell."

<hw>Hand, Old</hw>, <i>n.</i> one who has been a convict.

1861. T. McCombie, `Australian Sketches,' p. 141:

"The men who have been convicts are termed `old hands'; they are mostly rude, rough men, with no moral principle or religious feeling, and who have little sympathy for humanity."

1865. J. O. Tucker, `Australian Story,' c. i. p. 85:

"Reformed convicts, or, in the language of their proverbial cant, `old hands.'"

1865. F. H. Nixon, `Peter Perfume,' p. 102:

"`Boshman' in the old-hand vernacular signifies a fiddler."
["Bosh in gypsy means music and also violin." -Barrere and
Leland.]

1885. J. Rae, `Chirps by an Australian Sparrow,' p. 99:

"The old hands were quite tidy too
 With hats of cabbage-tree."

<hw>Hang up</hw>, v. to tie up a horse.

1860. W. Kelly, `Life in Victoria,' p. 49 [Footnote]:

"In Melbourne there are posts sunk in the ground almost opposite every door. . . . Fastening your horse to one of these posts is called `hanging him up.'"

1885. H. Finch-Hatton, `Advance Australia,' p. 32:

"We got off, hung our horses up to a tree."

1890. E. W. Hornung, `Bride from the Bush,' p. 296:

"The mail-boy is waiting impatiently in the verandah, with his horse `hung up' to one of the posts."

<hw>Hapalote</hw>, <i>n.</i> Anglicized form of Hapalotis (Grk. <i>hapalos</i>, soft, and <i>'ous, 'owtis</i>) ear), a peculiar Australian genus of rodents of the mouse family. They are called <i>Jumping Mice</i>, and have soft ears, and enlarged hind limbs like the jerboa, but are not marsupial like the kangaroo. There are many species.

<hw>Hapu</hw>, <i>n.</i> Maori word for sub-tribe; sometimes even, family.

1857. C. Hursthouse, `New Zealand, the Britain of the South,' vol. i. p. 162:

"The 70,000 semi-civilised natives now in New Zealand are divided into some dozen chief tribes, and into numerous sub-tribes and `harpu.'"

1873. `Appendix to Journals of House of Representatives,' vol. iii. G. 7, p. 87:

"Were not all your hapu present when the money was paid? My hapu, through whom the land Nvas claimed, were present: we filled the room."

1882. T. H. Potts, `Out in the Open,' p. 171:

"An important structure that engaged the united labours of the hapu."

1887. J. White, `Ancient History of the Maori,' vol. i. p. 290:

"Each of which is subdivided again into <i>Hapu</i>, or smaller communities."

1891. Rev. J. Stacks, `Report of Australasian Association for the Advancement of Science,' vol. iii. sect. G. p. 378:

"On arriving in New Zealand, or Ao-tea-roa, the crews of the colonizing fleet dispersed themselves over the length and breadth of these islands, and formed independent tribes or nations, each of which was divided into hapus and the hapus into families."

<hw>Hapuku</hw>, <i>n.</i> Maori name for a fish, <i>Oligorus gigas</i>, Gunth., called later <i>Polyprion prognathus</i> (see quotation, 1895), pronounced <i>hapuka</i>, frequently corrupted into <i>habuka</i>, the <i>Groper</i> (q.v.). It is variously called a <i>Cod</i>, a <i>Perch</i> and a <i>Sea-Perch</i>. See quotations.

1845 (about). `New Plymouth's National Song,' Hursthouse's `New Zealand,' p 217:

"Lowing herds on every side,
 Hapuka in every tide."

1855. Rev. R. Taylor, `Te Ika a Maui, p. 411:

"Hapuku, or whapuku, commonly called the cod, but a much richer fish in flavour: externally it more resembles the salmon, and is known in New Holland as the dew or Jew-fish. It attains a large size and is considered the best fish of New Zealand."

1862. Anon., `From the Black Rocks on Friday,' `All the Year Round,' May 17, 1862, No. 160:

"A kind of codfish called by the natives whapuku or hahpuka."

1878. P. Thomson, `Transactions of New Zealand Institute,' vol. XI. art. lii. p. 383:

"The hapuka, or groper, was in pretty regular supply."

1880. Guenther, `Study of Fishes,' p. 392:

"The second (Oligorus gigas) is found in the sea, on the coast of New Zealand, and called by the Maoris and colonists `Hapuku' . . . Dr. Hector, who has had opportunities of examining it in a fresh state, has pointed out anatomical differences from the Murray Cod."

1880. W. Colenso, `Transactions of the New Zealand Institute,' vol. XIII. art. ii. p. 46:

"A feast of good things prepared—eels, and hapuku (codfish), and taro."

1884. W. D. Hay, in the `Field,' May 10, p. 637, col. 1:

"The pakirikiri(<i>Percis colias</i>) is the fish to which settlers in the north of New Zealand generally give the name of whapuka."

1895. `Oxford English Dictionary' (s.v.Cod):

"In New Zealand, a serranoid fish <i>Polyprion prognathus</i>, called by the Maories hapuku."

<hw>Hardhead</hw>, n, the English sportsman's name for the ruddy duck <i>(Erismatura rubida</i>). Applied by sportsmen in Australia to the White-eyed Duck, <i>Nyroca australis</i>, Gould. See <i>Duck</i>.

<hw>Hardwood</hw>, <i>n.</i> The name is applied to many Australian timbers something like teak, but especially to <i>Backhousia bancroftii</i>, F. v. M. and Bailey, N.O. Myrtaceae. In Tasmania, it means any gum-timber (<i>Eucalyptus</i>). It is in constant and universal use for building and fencing in Australia.

1888. Candish, `Whispering Voices,' p. 108:

"Sitting on a block of hardwood . . . is the gray-haired forest feller."

1890. Rolf Boldrewood, `Miner's Right,' c. iii. p. 24:

"It was a hammer-like piece of hardwood above a plate of tin."

1891. Rolf Boldrewood, `Sydney-side Saxon,' p. 93:

"A hardwood slab-door weighs a goodish deal, as any one may find out that has to hump it a hundred yards."

Hardyhead, <i>n.</i> name given in Sydney to the fish <i>Atherina pinguis</i>, Lacep., family <i>Atherinidae</i>.

<hw>Hare-Kangaroo</hw>, <i>n.</i> a small Kangaroo, resembling the British hare. Called also <i>Hare-Wallaby</i>. The scientific name is <i>Lagorchestes</i> (q.v.).

1871. G. Krefft, `Mammals of Australia':

"The Hare-kangaroos, so called from their resemblance to that well known rodent, are the fleetest of the whole tribe, and though they do not exceed a common hare in bulk, they can make clear jumps of eight and ten feet high."

<hw>Hare-Wallaby</hw>, <i>n.</i> See <i>Hare-Kangaroo, Wallaby</i>, and <i>Lagorchestes</i>.

<hw>Harlequin-Pigeon</hw>, <i>n.</i> formerly referred to the genus <i>Peristera</i>, but now to the genus <i>Phaps</i>. It is commonly called in the interior the "flock" pigeon.

1847. L. Leichhardt, `Overland Expedition,' p. 296:

"Large flocks of <i>Peristera histrionica</i> (the harlequin- pigeon) were lying on the patches of burnt grass on the plains."

<hw>Harmonic Thrush</hw>, <i>n.</i> See <i>Port Jackson Thrush</i>.

<hw>Harpagornis</hw>, <i>n.</i> a scientific name for a partly fossilised, huge raptorial bird of New Zealand. From Greek HARPA? <i>harpax</i> robbing, and <i>'ornis</i>, a bird.

1878. A. Newton, `Encyclopaedia Britannica,' vol. iii. p. 731:

"There is a harpagornis, a bird of prey of stature sufficient to have made the largest dinornis its quarry."

<hw>Harrier</hw>, <i>n.</i> English bird-name (that which harries), assigned in New Zealand to <i>Circus gouldii</i>, Bonap. (also called <i>Swamp-hawk</i>), and in Australia to <i>C. assimilis</i>, Jard. and Selb., or <i>C. approximans</i>, Bonap., called <i>Spotted Harrier</i>.

1888. W. L. Buller, `Birds of New Zealand,' vol. i. p. 206:

"<i>Circus Gouldi</i>, Bonap., New Zealand harrier, or Gould's harrier."

<hw>Hat, Black</hw>, <i>n.</i> slang for a new immigrant.

1887. R. M. Praed, `Longleat of Kooralbyn,' c. xxviii. p. 277:

"Lord! if I were Mr. Dyson Maddox, I'd never let it be said that a black hat had cut me out sweetheartin'."

1890. Rolf Boldrewood, `Colonial Reformer,' c. iii. p. 21:

"A `black hat' in Australian parlance means a new arrival."

<hw>Hat, Old</hw>. See <i>Old-hat</i>.

<hw>Hatter</hw>. (1) A solitary miner—miner who works without a mate partner: sc. one who has everything under his own hat.

1869. Brough Smyth, `Goldfields of Victoria,' p. 613 (`Glossary of Mining Terms'):

"One who works alone. He differs from the fossicker who rifles old workings, or spends his time in trying abandoned washdirt. The hatter leads an independent life, and nearly always holds a claim under the bye-laws."

1884. R. L. A.Davies, `Poems and Literary Remains,' p. 267:

"Oh, a regular rum old stick; . . . he mostly works a `hatter.' He has worked with mates at times, and leaves them when the claim is done, and comes up a `hatter' again. He's a regular old miser."

1890. Rolf Boldrewood, `The Miner's Right,' p. 37:

"Instead of having to take to fossicking like so many `hatters' —solitary miners."

(2) By extension to other professions.

1893. `The Herald' (Melbourne), Aug. 28, p. i. col. 7:

"He had been a burglar of the kind known among the criminal classes as `a hatter.' That is to say, he burgled `on his own hook,' never in a gang. He had never, he told me, burgled with a companion."

<hw>Hatteria</hw>, <i>n.</i> scientific name for a genus of reptiles containing a Lizard peculiar to New Zealand, the only living representative of the order <i>Rhynchocephalinae</i>. See <i>Tuatara</i>.

<hw>Hatting</hw>, <i>quasi pres. partic</i>., solitary mining. See <i>Hatter</i>.

1891. `The Age,' Nov. 25, p. 6, col. 7:

"Two old miners have been hatting for gold amongst the old alluvial gullies."

<hw>Hat-tree</hw>, <i>n.</i> name given to a species of <i>Sterculia</i>, the Bottle-trees (q.v.).

<hw>Hau-hau</hw>, <i>n.</i> a Maori superstition. This superstition arose in Taranaki in 1864, through the crazy fancies of the chief Te Ua, who communed with angels and interpreted the Bible. The meaning of the word is obscure, but it probably referred to the wind which wafted the angels to the worshippers whilst dancing round an erect pole. Pai Marire was another name for the superstition, and signifies "good and peaceful." (See Gudgeon's `War in New Zealand,' p. 23 sq.; also Colenso's pamphlet on `Kereopa,' p. 4.)

<hw>Hawk</hw>, <i>n.</i> This common English bird-name is applied in Australia to many species—

Brown-Hawk—
 <i>Hieracadiea orientalis</i>, Sehl.

Crested-H.—
 <i>Baza subcristata</i>, Gould.

Eagle-H.—
 <i>Another name</i> for Wedge-tailed Eagle. (See <i>Eagle</i>
 and <i>Eagle-hawk</i>.)

Fish-H.—
 Another name for <i>Osprey</i>. (See <i>Fish-hawk</i>.)

Gos-H.—
 <i>Astur approximans</i>, V. and H.

Grey Gos-H.—
 <i>A. cinereus</i>, Vieill.

Lesser Gos-H.—
 <i>A. cruentus</i>, Gould.

Lesser White Gos-H.—
 <i>A. leucosomus</i>, Sharpe.

Red Gos-H.—
 <i>A. radiatus</i>, Lath.

Sparrow-H.—
 <i>Accipiter cirrhocephalus</i>, Vieill.

Striped Brown-H.—
 <i>Hieracidea berigora</i>, V. and H. [See <i>Berigora</i>.]

Swamp-H. [See <i>Harrier</i>.]

White Gos-H.— <i>Astur novae-hollandiae</i>, Gm.

See also <i>Nankeen-Hawk</i>, and <i>Night-Hawk</i>.

In New Zealand, the varieties appear in the quotation, 1889.

1888. W. L. Buller, `Birds of New Zealand,' vol. i. p. 206:
 [A complete description.]

1889. Prof. Parker, `Catalogue of New Zealand Exhibition,' p. 117:

"Of the three species recognized, two, the quail-hawk (<i>Harpa Novae Zealandiae</i>) and the bush-hawk (<i>H. ferox</i>) [or sparrow-hawk], belong to a genus peculiar to New Zealand." [The third is the New Zealand harrier, <i>Circus Gouldi</i>, also found in Australia.]

<hw>Hazel</hw>, <i>n.</i> name applied in Victoria to the tree <i>Pomaderris apetala</i>, Labill., <i>N.O. Rhamnaceae</i>.

1889. J. H. Maiden. `Useful Native Plants,' p. 590:

"Called `hazel' in `Victoria. A tall shrub, or small tree. The wood is excellent, of a beautiful satiny texture, and adapted for carvers' and turners' work. [Grows in] all the colonies except Western Australia and Queensland."

<hw>Head</hw>, <i>n.</i> the rammer for crushing quartz in gold-mining.

1890. `Goldfields of Victoria,' p.7:

"Forty additional heads will be shortly added to the crushing power, bringing the battery up to sixty heads."

<hw>Head-Station</hw>, <i>n.</i> the principal buildings, including the owner's or manager's house, the hut, store, etc., of a sheep or cattle run.

1885. Mrs. Campbell Praed [Title]:

"The Head Station."

<hw>Heart-Pea</hw>, <i>n.</i> i.q. <i>Balloon-Vine</i> (q.v.).

<hw>Heartsease</hw>, <i>n.</i> i.q. <i>Brooklime</i>, (q.v.).

<hw>Heartseed</hw>, <i>n.</i> i.q. <i>Balloon-Vine</i> (q.v.)

<hw>Heartwood</hw>. <i>n.</i> See <i>Ironwood</i>.

<hw>Heath</hw>, <i>n.</i> In Tasmania, where the Epacris is of very beautiful colour, this name is popularly used for <i>Epacris impressa</i>, Labill., <i>N.O. Epacrideae</i>. See <i>Epacris</i>.

<hw>Hedgehog-Fruit</hw>, <i>n.</i> Popular name applied to the fruit of <i>Echinocarpus australis</i>, Benth., <i>N.O. Tiliaceae</i>. The tree is also called <i>Maiden's Blush</i> (q.v.).

<hw>Hedge-Laurel</hw>, <i>n.</i> a name given to the tree <i>Mapau</i> (q.v.), an evergreen shrub of New Zealand, of the genus <i>Pittosporum</i> (q.v.). It has dark glossy foliage and handsome flowers, and is planted and cultivated in the form of tall garden hedges. See also <i>Laurel</i>.

<hw>Hei-tiki</hw>, <i>n.</i> Maori name for a neck ornament made of greenstone (q.v.).

1835. W. Yate, `Account of New Zealand,' p. 151:

"The latter idea [that they are representatives of gods] was conceived from the hei-tiki being taken off the neck, laid down . . . and then wept and sung over."

1889. Dr. Hocken, `Catalogue of New Zealand Exhibition,' p. 81:

"Hei means ornament for the neck. Tiki was the creator of man, and these are the representations of him. By a sort of license, they are occasionally taken to represent some renowned ancestor of the possessor; but wooden Tikis, some of immense size, usually represented the ancestors, and were supposed to be visited by their spirits. These might be erected in various parts of a pa, or to mark boundaries, etc. The Maories cling to them as sacred heirlooms of past generations, and with some superstitious reverence."

<hw>Helmet-Orchis</hw>, <i>n.</i> This English name is applied in Australia to the orchid <i>Pterostylis cucullata</i>, R. Br.

1852. Mrs. Meredith, `My Home in Tasmania,' vol. ii. p. 168:

"I also found three varieties of a singular green orchis, of a helmet shape, growing singly, on rather tall slender footstalks."

<hw>Hemp, Queensland</hw>, <i>n.</i> name given to the common tropical weed <i>Sida rhombifolia</i>, Linn., <i>N.O. Malvaceae</i>. Called also <i>Paddy Lucerne</i>, and in other colonies <i>Native Lucerne</i>, and <i>Jelly Leaf</i>. It is not endemic in Australia.

<hw>Hemp-bush, <i>n.</i></hw> the plant <i>Plagianthus pulchellus</i>, A. Gray, N.O. Halvaceae, native of Australia and New Zealand. Though not true hemp (<i>cannabis</i>), it yields a fibre commercially resembling it.

<hw>He-Oak</hw>, <i>n.</i> See <i>Oak</i> and <i>She-Oak</i>.

Heron, <i>n.</i> common English bird-name. The species present in Australia are—

Ashy Reef H.—
 <i>Demiegretta asha</i>, Sykes.

Great-billed H.—
 <i>Ardea sumatrana</i>, Rafll.

Grey H.—
 <i>A. cinerea</i>, Linn.

Night H.—
 <i>Nycticorax caledonicus</i>, Lath.

Reef H.—
 <i>Demiegretta sacra</i>, Gmel.

White-fronted H.—
 <i>Ardea novae-hollandiae</i>, Lath.

White-necked H.—
 A. pacifica, Lath.

The Cranes and the Herons are often popularly confused.

1884. Rolf Boldrewood, `Melbourne Memories,' p. 11:

"There did I shoot . . . a blue crane—the Australian heron."

<hw>Herring</hw>, <i>n.</i> Various species of <i>Clupeidae</i>, to which the European Herring belongs, are known by this name in Australasia, and the word is also applied to an entirely different fish, <i>Prototroctes maraena</i>, Gunth., the <i>Yarra Herring</i>, <i>Freshwater Herring</i>, <i>Grayling</i> (q.v.), or <i>Cucumber-Mullet</i>, found in the rivers of Victoria or Tasmania. The <i>Clupeidae</i> are <i>Clupea sagax</i> (called also <i>Maray</i>, q.v., and <i>Pilchard</i>), <i>C. sundaica</i>, <i>C. hypselosoma</i> Bleek., <i>C. novae-hollandiae</i>, Cuv, and Val., <i>C. vittata</i>, Castln, (called the <i>Smelt</i>, q.v.), and others. In Western Australia <i>Chatoessus erebi</i>, Richards., is called the <i>Perth Herring</i>. See also <i>Picton Herring</i>, <i>Aua</i>, and <i>Sardine</i>.

<hw>Herring-cale</hw>, <i>n.</i> name given in New South Wales to the fish Olistherops brunneus, Macl., family Labridae, or Wrasses.

<hw>Hickory</hw>, <i>n.</i> The name <i>Hickory</i> is originally American, and is derived from the North-American Indian; its earliest form was <i>Pohickery</i>. The tree belongs to the genus <i>Carya</i>. The wood is excellent for gig-shafts, carriage-poles, fishing-rods, etc. The name is applied in Australia to various trees whose wood is suitable for similar purposes. In Tasmania, the name <i>Hickory</i> is given to <i>Eriostemon squameus</i>, Labill., <i>N.O. Rutacea</i>. <i>Native Hickory</i>, or Hickory-Acacia, is <i>Acacia leprosa</i>, Sieb., <i>N.O. Leguminosae</i>, and in the southern part of New South Wales, <i>Acacia melanoxylon</i>. (Maiden, `Useful Native Plants,' p. 358.)

1884. Rolf Boldrewood, `Melbourne Memories,' c. v. p. 35:

"The beautiful umbrageous blackwood, or native hickory, one of the handsomest trees in Australia."

<hw>Hickory-Eucalypt</hw>, <i>n.</i> one of the names for the tree <i>Eucalyptus punctata</i>, DeC., <i>N.O. Myrtaceae</i>. Called also <i>Leather-jacket</i> (q.v.).

<hw>Hickory-Wattle</hw>, <i>n.</i> a Queensland name for <i>Acacia aulacocarpa</i>, Cunn., <i>N.O. Leguminosae</i>; called <i>Hickory</i> about Brisbane.

<hw>Hielaman</hw>, <i>n.</i> a word of Sydney and neighbourhood. The initial <i>h</i>, now frequently used by the natives, is not found in the earliest forms. The termination <i>man</i> is also English. Elimang (Hunter), e-lee-mong (Collins), hilaman (Ridley). A narrow shield of an aboriginal, made of bark or wood. Notice Mr. Grant's remarkable plural (1881 quotation).

1798. D. Collins, `Account of English Colony in New South Wales,' p. 612:

"E-lee-mong-shield made of bark."

1834. L. E. Threlkeld, `Australian Grammar,' p. 5:

"As an initial, <i>h</i> occurs in only a few words, such as hilaman, a `shield.'"

Ibid. p. 10:

"As a barbarism, `hillimung-a shield.'"

[A barbarism means with Mr. Threlkeld little more than "not belonging to the Hunter district."]

1839. T. L. Mitchell, `Three Expeditions into the Interior of Eastern Australia,' vol. ii. p. 349:

"There is much originality in the shield or hieleman of these people. It is merely a piece of wood, of little thickness, and two feet, eight inches long, tapering to each end, cut to an edge outwards, and having a handle or hole in the middle, behind the thickest part."

1852. G. C. Mundy, `Our Antipodes' (edition 1355), p. 102:

"The hieleman or shield is a piece of wood, about two and a half feet long, tapering to the ends, with a bevelled face not more than four inches wide at the broadest part, behind which the left hand passing through a hole is perfectly guarded."

1865. S. Bennett, `Australian Discovery,' p. 251:

"Hieleman, a shield. Saxon, heilan; English, helm or helmet (a little shield for the head)."

[This is a remarkable contribution to philological lore. In no dictionary is the Saxon "heilan" to be found, and a misprint may charitably be suspected. There is no doubt that the <i>h</i> is an English Cockney addition to the aboriginal word. It would need an ingenious fancy to connect "e-leemong" with "helm."]

1873. J. B. Stephens, `Black Gin, etc.,' p. 26:

"No faint far hearing of the waddies banging
 Of club and heelaman together clanging,
 War shouts and universal boomeranging."

1881. A. C. Grant, `Bush Life in Queensland,' vol. i. p. 66:

"Nullah-nullahs, paddy-melon sticks, boomerangs, tomahawks, and <i>heelimen</i> or shields lay about in every direction."

<hw>Hielaman-tree</hw>, <i>n.</i> another name for the <i>Bats-wing Coral</i> (q.v.), <i>Erythrina vespertilio</i>, Benth., <i>N.O. Leguminosae</i>.

1889. J. H. Maiden, `Useful Native Plants,' p. 426:

"`Heilaman [sic] tree.' The wood is soft, and used by the aborigines for making their `heilamans' or shields."

<hw>Hinau</hw>, <i>n.</i> Maori name for the New Zealand tree, <i>Elaeocarpus dentatus</i>, Vahl., <i>N.O. Tiliaceae</i>.

1845. E. J. Wakefield, `Adventures in New Zealand,' vol. ii. p. 317:

"Another export was much talked of. This was the bark of the hinau, a large forest tree which abounds all over the country near Cook's Strait. The natives extract from this bark the black dye for their mats."

1873. `Catalogue of Vienna Exhibition':

"Hinau—a white wood used for turner's work."

Ibid.:

"The natives produce the black dye for their flax-work, for which purpose the bark is first bruised and boiled for a short time. When cold the flax is put into the mixture . . . it is then steeped thoroughly for two days in red swamp mud, rich in peroxide of iron."

1883. J. Hector, `Handbook of New Zealand,' p. 130:

"Hinau, a small tree about fifty feet high and eighteen inches thick in stem, with brown bark which yields a permanent blue-black dye, used for tanning . . . used by Maoris for colouring mats and baskets. Wood a yellowish brown colour and close-grained; very durable for fencing and piles."

<hw>Hoki</hw>, <i>n.</i> a New Zealand fish, <i>Coryphaenoides novae-zelandiae</i>. <i>Coryphaenoides</i> belongs to the family <i>Macruridae</i>, which are deep-sea Gadoids. See <i>Tasmanian Whip-tail</i>.

<hw>Holly, Native</hw>, <i>n.</i> name given in Australia to the tree <i>Lomatia ilicifolia</i>, R. Br., <i>N.O. Proteaceae</i>, and in Tasmania to <i>Coprosma hirtella</i>, Labill., <i>N.O. Rubiaceae</i>; called also <i>Coffee Plant</i>.

<hw>Holly, Smooth</hw>, <i>n.</i> name given to the tree <i>Hedycarya angustifolia</i>, A. Cunn., <i>N.O. Monimiaceae</i>; called also <i>Native Mulberry</i>.

<hw>Hollyhock-tree</hw>, <i>n.</i> name given to <i>Hibiscus splendens</i>, Fraser, <i>N.O. Malvaceae</i>.

<hw>Holy City</hw>, <i>n.</i> a nickname for Adelaide. See <i>Farinaceous City</i>.

1875. R. and F. Hill, `What we Saw in Australia,' p. 264:

". . . including so many churches that we are at a loss to understand why Adelaide should, in virtue of her supposed superabundance, be nicknamed by her neighbours the Holy City."

<hw>Holy-cross Toad</hw>, <i>n.</i> See <i>Catholic Frog</i>.

<hw>Holy-Dollar</hw>, <i>n.</i> punning name for a dollar out of which a <i>Dump</i> (q.v.) had been punched.

1822. `Hobart Town Gazette,' Aug. 10 [Proclamation by Sir Thomas Brisbane, Governor-in-Chief of New South Wales and its dependencies, then including Van Diemen's Land]

"Whereas in the Year of our Lord 1813, it was deemed expedient to send a Quantity of Spanish Dollars to the Colony. . . . And whereas His Excellency, the then Governor, thought proper to direct, that every such Dollar, with a small circular Piece of Silver, struck out of its Centre, should be current within this Territory, and every part thereof, for the Sum of Five Shillings."

[These were called <i>holy (holey) dollars</i>, or ring dollars, though the name does not occur in the above quotation.]

1857. D. Bunce, `Australasiatic Reminiscences,' p. 59:

"We were more particularly struck with the character and various kinds of currency [in Tasmania in 1833]. Our first change for a pound consisted of two dumps, two holy dollars, one Spanish dollar, one French coin, one half-crown, one shilling, and one sixpence."

<hw>Honey-Ant</hw>, n. name given to various species of Ants, in which the body of certain individuals becomes enormously distended by sweet food with which they are fed by the worker ants, for whom this store of honey serves as a food supply. When the side of the distended abdomen is tapped, the ant passes the `honey' out of its mouth, and it is then eaten. Three species are known in Australia, <i>Camponotus inflatus</i>, Lubbock; <i>C. cowlei</i>, Froggatt; and <i>C. midas</i>, Froggatt. The aboriginal name of the first is `Yarumpa.'

1896. W. W. Froggatt, `Horne Expedition in Central Australia,' pt. ii. p. 386:

"Our Australian honey ants belong to the genus Camponotus, members of which are found to all parts of the world, and are known as `sugar-ants,' from their fondness for all kinds of sweets."

<hw>Honey-bird</hw>, <i>n</i>. See next word.

<hw>Honey-eater</hw>, <i>n</i>. an Australian bird, with a tongue specially adapted for being formed into a tube for the absorption of honey from flowers. The name is applied to the following species—

Banded Honey-eater—
 <i>Myzomela pectoralis</i>, Gould.

Black H.—
 <i>M. nigra</i>, Gould.

Black-chinned H.—
 <i>Melithreptus gularis</i>, Gould.

Black-headed H.—
 <i>M. melanocephalus</i>, Gould.

Blue-faced H.—
 <i>Entomyza cyanotis</i>, Swain. [See Blue-eye.]

Bridled H.—
 <i>Ptilotis frenata</i>, Ramsay.

Broadbent H.—
 <i>Stigmatops alboauricularis</i>, Ramsay.

Brown H.—
 <i>S. ocularis</i>, Gould.

Brown-backed H.—
 <i>Glyciphila modesta</i>, Gray.

Brown-headed H.—
 <i>Melithreptus brevirostrus</i>.

Cockerill H.-
 <i>Ptilotis cockerelli</i>, Gould.

Crescent H.—
 <i>Meliornis australasiana</i>, Shaw.

Dusky H.—
 <i>Myzomela obscura</i>, Gould.

Fasciated H.—
 <i>Ptilotis fasciogularis</i>, Gould.

Fuscous H.—
 <i>P. fusca</i>, Gould.

Gay H.—
 <i>Melithreptus vinitinatus</i>, Gould.

Golden-backed H.—
 <i>M. latior</i>, Gould.

Helmeted H.—
 <i>Ptilotis cassidix</i>, Jard.

Least H.—
 <i>Stigmatops subocularis</i>,

Long-billed H.—
 <i>Meliornis longirostris</i>, Gould.

Moustached H.—
 <i>M. mystacalis</i>, Gould.

New Holland H.—
 <i>M. novae</i>-hollandiae, Lath.

Painted H.—
 <i>Entomophila picta</i>, Gould.

Pied H.—
 <i>Certhionyx leucomelas</i>, Cuv.

Red-headed Honey-eater—
 <i>Myzomela erythrocephala</i>, Gould.

Red-throated H.—
 <i>Entomophila rufigularis</i>,

Rufous-breasted H.—
 <i>E. albigularis</i>, Gould.

Sanguineous H.—
 <i>Myzomela sanguineolenta</i>, Lath. [See Blood-bird.]

Singing H.—
 <i>Ptilotis vittata</i>, Cuv.

Spiny-cheeked H.—
 <i>Acanthochaea rufigularis</i>, Gould.

Streak-naped H.—
 <i>Ptilotis filigera</i>, Gould.

Striped H.—
 <i>Plectorhyncha lanceolata</i>, Gould.

Strong-billed H.— <i>Melithreptus validirostris</i>, Gould. [See also Cherry picker.]

Tawny-crowned H.—
 <i>Glyciphila fulvifrons</i>, Lewin.

Varied H.—
 <i>Ptilotis versicolor</i>, Gould.

Warty-faced H.— <i>Meliphaga phrygia</i>, Lath. (Called also the Mock Regent-bird, q.v.)

Wattle-cheeked H.—
 <i>Ptilotis cratitia</i>, Gould.

White-breasted H.—
 <i>Glyciphila fasciata</i>, Gould.

White-cheeked H.—
 <i>Meliornis sericea</i>, Gould.

White-eared H.—
 <i>Ptilotis leucotis</i>, Lath.

White-fronted H.—
 <i>Glyciphila albifrons</i>, Gould.

White-gaped H.—
 <i>Stomiopora unicolor</i>, Gould.

White-naped H.—
 <i>Melithreptus lunulatus</i>, Shaw. [See also Golden-Eye.]

White-plumed H.—
 <i>Ptilotis penicillata</i>, Gould.

White-quilled H.—
 <i>Entomyza albipennis</i>, Gould.

White-throated H.—
 <i>Melithreptus albogularis</i>, Gould.

Yellow H.—
 <i>Ptilotis flavescens</i>, Gould.

Yellow-eared H.—
 <i>P. lewini</i>, Swains.

Yellow-faced H.—
 <i>P. chrysops</i>, Lath.

Yellow-fronted H.—
 <i>P. plumula</i>, Gould.

Yellow-plumed H.—
 <i>P. ornata</i>, Gould.

Yellow-spotted H.—
 <i>P. gracilis</i>, Gould.

Yellow-streaked H.—
 <i>P. macleayana</i>, Ramsay.

Yellow-throated H.—
 <i>P. flavicollis</i>, Vieill.

Yellow-tinted H.—
 <i>P. flava</i>, Gould.

Yellow-tufted H.—
 <i>P. auricomis</i>, Lath.

Gould enumerated the species, nearly fifty years ago, in his `<i>Birds of</i> Australia' (vol. iv.) as follows:—

Plate

<i>Meliphaga Novae-Hollandiae</i>, Vig. and Horsf, New Holland Honey-eater … … … … 23

<i>M. longirostris</i>, Gould, Long-billed H. … 24

<i>M. sericea</i>, Gould, White-cheeked H. … … 25

<i>M. mystacalis</i>, Gould, Moustached H. … … 26

<i>M. Australasiana</i>, Vig. and Horsf, Tasmanian H. 27

<i>Glyciphila fulvifrons</i>, Swains., Fulvous-fronted H. … … 28

<i>G. albifrons</i>, Gould, White-fronted H. … 29

<i>G. fasciata</i>, Gould, Fasciated H. … … 30

<i>G. ocularis</i>, Gould, Brown H. … … 31

<i>Ptilotis chrysotis</i>, Yellow-eared H…. … 32

<i>P. sonorus</i>, Gould, Singing H. … … 33

<i>P. versicolor</i>, Gould, Varied H. … … 34

<i>P. flavigula</i>, Gould, Yellow-throated H. … 35

<i>P. leucotis</i>, White-eared H. … … 36

<i>P. auricomis</i>, Yellow-tufted H. … … 37

<i>P. cratilius</i>, Gould, Wattle-cheeked H. … 38

<i>P. ornatus</i>, Gould, Graceful Ptilotis … 39

<i>P. plumulus</i>, Gould, Plumed P. … … 40

<i>P. flavescens</i>, Gould, Yellow-tinted H. … 41

<i>P. flava</i>, Gould, Yellow H. … … 42

<i>P. penicillatus</i>, Gould, White-plumed H. … 43

<i>P. fuscus</i>, Gould, Fuscous H. … … 44

<i>P. chrysops</i>, Yellow-faced H. … … 45

<i>P. unicolor</i>, Gould, Uniform H. … … 46

<i>Plectorhyncha lanceolata</i>, Gould, Lanceolate H. 47

<i>Zanthomyza Phrygia</i>, Swains., Warty-faced H. .. 48

<i>Melicophila picata</i>, Gould, Pied H. … … 49

<i>Entomophila pitta</i>, Gould, Painted H. … 50

<i>E. albogularis</i>, Gould, White-throated H. … 51

<i>E. rufogularis</i>, Gould, Red-throated H. … 52

<i>Acanthogenys rufogularis</i>, Gould, Spiny-cheeked H. … 53

<i>Anthochaera inauris</i></i>, Wattled H. … … 54

<i>A. Carunculata</i>, Wattled H. … … 55 [Buller, `Birds of New Zealand,' vol. i. p. 106.]

<i>Myzomela sanguinolenta</i>, Sanguineous H. … 63

<i>M. erythrocephala</i>, Gould, Red-headed H. … 64

<i>M. pectoralis</i>, Gould, Banded H. … … 65

<i>M. nigra</i>, Gould, Black H. … … 66

<i>M. obscura</i>, Gould, Obscure H. … … 67

<i>Entomyza cyanotis</i>, Swains., Blue-faced Entomyza 68

<i>E. albipennis</i>, Gould, White-pinioned H. … 69

<i>Melithreptus validirostris</i>, Gould, Strong-billed H. … … 70

<i>M. gularis</i>, Gould, Black-throated H. … 71

<i>M. lunulatus</i>, Lunulated H. … … 72

<i>M. brevirostris</i>, Gould,

<i>M. chloropsis</i>, Gould, Swan River H. … 73

<i>M. albogularis</i>, Gould, White-throated H. (as well as pl. 51) … … 74

<i>M. melanocephalus</i>, Gould, Black-headed H. … 75

<i>Myzantha garrula</i>, Vig. and Horsf, Garrulous H. 76

<i>M. obscura</i>, Gould, Sombre H. … … 77

<i>M. lutea</i>, Gould, Luteous H. … … 78

In the Supplement of 1869 Gould adds—

Plate

<i>Ptilotis cassidix</i>, Jard., Helmeted H. … 39

<i>P. fasciogularis</i>, Gould, Fasciated H. … 40

<i>P. notata</i>, Gould, Yellow-spotted H. … 41

<i>P. filigera</i>, Gould, Streaked H. … 42

<i>P. Cockerelli</i>, Gould, Cockerell's H. … 43

<i>Tropidorhynchus buceroides</i>, Helmeted H. … 44

[Note.—The Brush Wattle-birds, Friar-birds, Spine-bills, and the Yellow-throated Minah, are known as Honey-eaters, and the whole series are sometimes called Honey-birds.]

1897. A. J. Campbell (in `The Australasian,' Jan. 23), p. 180, col. i:

"The honey-eaters or meliphagous birds are a peculiar and striking feature in Australian ornithology. As Gould points out, they are to the fauna what the eucalypts, banksias, and melaleucas are to the flora of Australia. They are closely adapted to feeding on these trees. That great author asks:— `What can be more plain than that the brushlike tongue is especially formed for gathering the honey from the flower-cups of the eucalypti, or that their diminutive stomachs are especially formed for this kind of food, and the peculiar insects which constitute a portion of it?'"

<hw>Honey-Eucalypt</hw>, <i>n</i>. See <i>Box-tree, Yellow</i>.

<hw>Honey-flower</hw>, <i>n</i>. <i>Lambertia formosa</i>, Smith, <i>N.O. Proteaceae</i>.

1802. G. Barrington, `History of New South Wales,' c. iv. p. 101:

"They . . . returned . . . dreadfully exhausted, having existed chiefly by sucking the wild honey-flower and shrubs."

1889. J. H. Maiden, `Useful Native Plants,' p. 37:

"`Honey-flower' or `honeysuckle,' a plant as well known to small boys about Sydney as to birds and insects. It obtains its vernacular name on account of the large quantity of a clear honey-like liquid the flowers contain. After sucking some quantity the liquid generally produces nausea and headache."

<hw>Honey-plant</hw>, <i>n</i>. name given in Tasmania to <i>Richea scoparia</i> Hook., <i>N.O. Epacris</i>.

<hw>Honeysuckle</hw>, <i>n</i>. name given to the <i>Banksias</i> (q.v.); also called <i>Bottle-brush</i> (q.v.). The species are—

Coast Honeysuckle—
 <i>Banksia integrifolia</i>, Linn.

Common H.—
 <i>B. marginata</i>, Cav.

Heath H.—
 <i>B. serrata</i>, Linn.

New Zealand H.—
 <i>Knightia excelsa</i>, R.Br.

Silvery H.—
 <i>Grevillea striata</i>, R.Br.

Tasmanian H.—
 <i>Banksia margirata</i>, Cav. /sic. Probably marginata/

1834. Ross, `Van Diemen's Land Annual,' p. 125:

"Some scattered honeysuckles, as they, are called, but which, being specimens of a ligneous evergreen shrub (<i>Banksia Australis</i>), my English reader will please not to assimilate in his mind's eye in any respect with the woodbine."

1846. G. H. Haydon, `Five Years in Australia Felix,' p. 84:

"The honeysuckle (<i>Banksia integrifolia</i>) will greatly disappoint those who, from its name, expect to see anything similar to the sweet-scented climbers of English hedges and gardens—this being a tree attaining to thirty or forty feet in height, with spiral yellow flowers. The blossoms at the proper seasons yield a great quantity of honey, which on a dewy morning may be observed dropping from the flowers."

1848. Letter by Mrs. Perry, given in Goodman's `Church in Victoria during Episcopate of Bishop Perry,' p. 83:

"In the course of our journey today we passed through a thin wood of honeysuckle trees, for, I should think, about three miles. They take their name from the quantity of honey contained in the yellow cone-shaped flower, which is much prized and sucked by the natives—the aborigines, I mean."

1852. Mrs. Meredith, 'My Home in Tasmania,' vol. i. p. 164:

"The honeysuckle-tree (<i>Banksia latifolia</i>) is so unreasonably named . . . so very unlike any sort or species of the sweet old flower whose name it so unfittingly bears. . . . The blossoms form cones, which when in full bloom, are much the size and shape of a large English teazel, and are of a greenish yellow. . . . The honeysuckle trees grow to about thirty feet in height."

1889. J. H. Maiden, `Useful Native Plants,' p. 10:

"<i>Banksia</i>, spp., <i>N.O. Proteaceae</i>. The name `honeysuckle' was applied to this genus by the early settlers, from the fact that the flowers, when in full bloom, contain, in a greater or lesser quantity, a sweet, honey-like liquid, which is secreted in considerable quantities, especially after a dewy night, and is eagerly sucked out by the aborigines."

1892. A. Sutherland, `Elementary Geography of British Colonies,' p. 271:

"It [banksia] is called the `honeysuckle' by the people of Australia, though it has no resemblance to an English honeysuckle. Many of the banksias grow into stately trees."

<hw>Honeywood</hw>, <i>n</i>. name given in Tasmania to the tree <i>Bedfordia salicina</i>, DeC., <i>N.O. Compositae</i>; also there called <i>Dogwood</i> (q.v.).

<hw>Hoop-Pine</hw>, <i>n</i>. another name for the tree <i>Araucaria cunninghami</i> or <i>Moreton-Bay Pine</i>. See <i>Pine</i>.

<hw>Hoot</hw>, <i>n</i>. slang term for compensation, payment, money; characteristic corruption of Maori <i>Utu</i> (q.v.)

1896. `Truth' (Sydney), Jan. 12:

"There are several specimens of bush slang transplanted from the Maori language. `Hoot' is a very frequent synonym for money or wage. I have heard a shearer at the Pastoralist Union office in Sydney when he sought to ascertain the scale of remuneration, enquire of the gilt-edged clerk behind the barrier, `What's the hoot, mate?' The Maori equivalent for money is <i>utu</i>, pronounced by the Ngapuhi and other northern tribes with the last syllable clipped, and the word is very largely used by the kauri-gum diggers and station hands in the North Island. The original meaning of <i>utu</i> in Maori is `revenge.' When the missionaries first settled in New Zealand, they found that the savage inhabitants had no conception of any recompense except the grim recompense of blood. Under Christianizing influences the natives were induced to forego the blood-revenge for injuries, on receiving a solatium in goods or land, and so <i>utu</i> came to have the double meaning of revenge and recompense, and eventually became recognized as the Maori word for money."

<hw>Hop-bush</hw>, <i>n</i>. "the name for all species of <i>Dodonaea</i>" (Maiden, p. 417), <i>N.O. Sapindaceae</i>.

1883. F. M. Bailey, `Queensland Flora,' Synopsis, p. 82:

"The capsules of many <i>Dodonaeas</i> are used for hops, and thus the shrubs are known as hop-bushes in Queensland."

1889. J. H. Maiden, `Useful Native Plants,' p. 621:

"`Hop-bush,' called `switch-sorrel' in Jamaica, and according to Dr. Bennett, `apiri' in Tahiti. Found in all the colonies."

<hw>Hopping-fish</hw>, or <hw>Climbing-fish</hw>, <i>n</i>. a fish of the north of New South Wales and of Queensland, P<i>eriophthalmus australis</i>, Castln., family <i>Gobiidae</i>. Called also <i>Skipper</i>.

1882. Rev. J. E. Tenison-Woods, `Fish of New South Wales,' p. 27:

"On the confines of the northern boundaries of New South Wales may be seen a very remarkable Goby called the `Hopping-fish.' The pectoral fins are developed into regular legs, with which the fish hops or leaps along the mud flats . . . The eyes are on the top of the head, and very prominent, and moreover they can be thrust very far out of their sockets, and moved independently of one another, thus the fish can see long distances around, and overtake the small crabs in spite of the long stalks to their optics. It is a tropical form, yet it is said to be found on the mud-flats of the Richmond River."

<hw>Hops, Native</hw>, or <hw>Wild</hw>, <i>n</i>. In Australia, the fruit of the <i>Hop-bush</i> (see above), <i>Dodonaea</i> spp. In Tasmania, <i>Daviesia latifolia</i>, R.Br., <i>N.O. Leguminosae</i>, and called also there <i>Bitter-Leaf</i>.

1889. J. H. Maiden, `Useful Native Plants,' p. 23:

"`Native hops,' on account of the capsules bearing some resemblance to hops, both in appearance and taste. In the early days of settlement the fruits of these trees were extensively used, yeast and beer of excellent quality being prepared from them. They are still so used to a small extent. <i>D. attenuata</i>, A. Cunn., for instance, was largely used in the Western District. In times of drought cattle and sheep eat them."

1896. A. B. Paterson, `Man from Snowy River,' p. 7:

"The wild-hop scrub grew thickly, and the hidden ground was full
 Of wombat-holes, and any slip was death."

<hw>Horizontal</hw>, <i>n</i>. a Tasmanian shrub, <i>Anodopetalum biglandulosum</i>, Cunn., <i>N.O. Saxifrageae</i>. Horizontal Scrub, peculiar to the island, occurs in the western forests; it derives its name from the direction of the growth of its lower stems, and constitutes a tedious obstacle to the progress of the traveller.

1888. R. M. Johnston, `Geology of Tasmania' [Introd. p. vii:

"The Horizontal is a tall shrub or tree. . . . Its peculiar habit—to which it owes its name and fame—is for the main stem to assume a horizontal and drooping position after attaining a considerable height, from which ascend secondary branches which in turn assume the same horizontal habit. From these spring tertiary branchlets, all of which interlock, and form . . . an almost impenetrable mass of vegetation."

1891. `The Australasian,' April 4: "That stuff as they calls horizontal, a mess of branches and root."

<hw>Hornerah</hw>, <i>n</i>. aboriginal name for a throwing-stick; a dialectic variation of Woomera (q.v.). a nonce-use.

1830. R. Dawson, `Present State of Australia,' p. 20:

"I observed, too, that they used a stick, shaped thus __, \ called the hornerah (which assists them in throwing the spear)."

<hw>Horn-Ray</hw>, <i>n</i>. a New Zealand and Australian <i>Ray</i>, the fish <i>Rhinobatus banksii</i>, Mull and Heule. In this genus of Rays the cranial cartilage is produced into a long rostral process (Guenther): hence the name.

<hw>Horopito</hw>, <i>n</i>. Maori name for the New Zealand shrub, <i>Drimys axillaris</i>, Forst., <i>N.O. Magnoliaceae</i>; called also <i>Pepper-tree</i> (q.v.).

1847. G. F. Angas, `Savage Life and Scenes in Australia and New Zealand,' vol. ii. p. 17:

A delicious fragrance, like that of hyacinth and jessamine mingled, filled the warm still air with its perfume. It arose from the petals of a straggling shrub, with bright green shining leaves resembling those of the nutmeg-tree; and a profusion of rich and delicate blossoms, looking like waxwork, and hanging in clusters of trumpet-shaped bells: I observed every shade of colour amongst them, from pinkish white to the deepest crimson, and the edges of the petals were irregularly jagged all round. The natives call this plant horopito."

Ibid. p. 75:

"The fuchsia and the <i>horopito</i> were also abundant."

1883. J. Hector, `Handbook of New Zealand, p. 129:

"Horopito, pepper-tree, winter's bark. A small slender evergreen tree, very handsome. Whole plant aromatic and stimulant; used by the Maoris for various diseases. Wood very ornamental in cabinet-work."

1889. T. Kirk, `Forest Flora of New Zealand,' p. 1:

"The Horopito, or pepper-tree of the settlers, is an ornamental shrub or small tree occurring in woods, on the margin of which it is sometimes found in great abundance."

<hw>Horse-Mackerel</hw>, <i>n</i>. The name is applied in Sydney to the fish <i>Auxis ramsayi</i>, Castln., family <i>Scombridae</i>. In New Zealand it is <i>Caranx</i> (or <i>Trachurus) trachurus</i>, Cuv. and Val., which is the same fish as the Horse-Mackerel of England. This is called <i>Yellow-tail</i> on the Australian coasts. See <i>Trevally</i>.

<hw>Horseradish-tree</hw>, <i>n</i>. name given to <i>Codonocarpus cotinifolius</i>, F. v. M., <i>N.O. Phytolaceae</i>.

1889. J. H. Maiden, `Useful Native Plants,' p. 164:

"`Quinine-tree,' `medicine-tree' of the interior. Called also `horse-radish tree' owing to the taste of the leaves. The bark contains a peculiar bitter, and no doubt possesses medicinal properties. The taste is, however, quite distinct from quinine."

<hw>Horseshoe-Fern</hw>, <i>n</i>. name given in New Zealand to the fern <i>Marattia fraxinia</i>, Sm., called in Australia the <i>Potato-Fern</i>. See under <i>Fern</i>.

<hw>Hot Wind</hw>, <i>n</i>. an Australian meteorological phenomenon. See quotations, especially 1879, A. R. Wallace. The phrase is of course used elsewhere, but its Australian use is peculiar. The hot wind blows from the North. Mr. H. C. Russell, the Government Astronomer of New South Wales, writes—"The hot wind of Australia is a circulation of wind about the anticyclone in the rear of which, as it moves to the east, there is a strong force of wind from north to north- west, which blowing over the heated plains of the interior gathers up its excessive temperature and carries it to the southern colonies. They seldom last more than two or three days in Sydney, and the great heat by which they are remembered never lasts more than a few hours of one day, and is always a sign of the end, which is an inrush of southerly wind, the circulation forming the front of the new incoming anticyclone."

1833. C. Sturt, `Southern Australia,' Vol. II. c. iii. p. 66:

"This was the only occasion upon which we felt the hot winds in the interior."

1846. J. L. Stokes, `Discoveries in Australia,' Vol. II. c. vi. p. 243:

"These squalls generally succeed the hot winds that prevail at this season in South Australia, coming from the interior."

Footnote—"During the hot winds we observed the thermometer, in the direct rays of the sun, to be 135 degrees."

1846. Ibid. c. xii. p. 403:

"A hot wind set in; . . . at one time the thermometer at the public offices [Adelaide] was 158 degrees."

1849. C. Sturt, `Expedition into Central Australia,' vol. ii. p. 90:

"I sought shelter behind a large gum tree, but the blasts of heat were so terrific that I wondered the very grass did not take fire. . . . Everything, both animate and inanimate, gave way before it: the horses stood with their backs to the wind, and their noses to the ground, without the muscular strength to raise their heads; the birds were mute, and the leaves of the trees, under which we were sitting, fell like a snow shower around us. At noon I took a thermometer, graduated to 127 degrees, out of my box, and observed that the mercury was up to 125 degrees. Thinking that it had been unduly influenced, I put it in the fork of a tree close to me, sheltered alike from the wind and the sun. In this position I went to examine it about an hour afterwards, when I found that the mercury had risen to the top of the instrument, and that its further expansion had burst the bulb. . . . We had reached our destination, however, before the worst of the hot wind set in."

1850. J. B. Clutterbuck, `Port Phillip in 1849,' p. 25:

"The immediate cause of the hot winds has given rise to much speculation. . . . The favourite theory is that they are generated in the sandy plains of the interior, which becoming powerfully heated, pour their glowing breath upon the fertile regions of the south."

1871. Dingo, `Australian Rhymes,' p. 7:

"A hot wind swift envelopes me
 In dust from foot to head."

1879. A. R. Wallace, `Australasia,' (1893) vol. i. p. 39:

"They are evidently produced by the sinking down to the surface of that north-westerly current of heated air which . . . is always passing overhead. The exact causes which bring it down cannot be determined, though it evidently depends on the comparative pressure of the atmosphere on the coast and in the interior. Where from any causes the north-west wind becomes more extensive and more powerful, or the sea breezes diminish, the former will displace the latter and produce a hot wind till an equilibrium is restored. It is the same wind passing constantly overhead which prevents the condensation of vapour, and is the cause of the almost uninterrupted sunny skies of the Australian summer."

1879. Rev. J. H. Zillmann, `Australian Life,' p. 40:

"Scientific men, however, tell us that those hot winds are just what make Australia so healthy a climate—that they act as scavengers, and without them the death-rate of the colonies would be alarmingly great."

<hw>Hot-windy</hw>,<i> adj</i>. See above.

1871. Dingo, `Australian Rhymes,' p. 18:

"A spell that still makes me forget
 The dust and the hot-windy weather."

<hw>Houhere</hw>, or <hw>Hohere</hw>, <i>n</i>. Maori name for a New Zealand tree, <i>Hoheria populnea</i>, A. Cunn., <i>N.O. Malvaceae</i>; called also <i>Lacebark</i> (q.v.) and xeRibbonwood (q.v.).

1883. J. Hector, `Handbook of New Zealand,' p. 130:

"Houhere, ribbonwood of Dunedin. [The name is now more general.] An ornamental shrub-tree ten to thirty feet high. Bark fibrous and used for cordage, and affords a demulcent drink. Wood splits freely for shingles, but is not durable. . . . Bark used for making a tapa cloth by the Maoris in olden times."

1889. T. Kirk, `Forest Flora of New Zealand,' p. 87:

"In one or other of its varied forms the `houhere' is found in nearly every district in N.Z. It is everywhere admired for its handsome foliage, and the beauty of its pure white flowers, which are produced in vast profusion during the early winter months. . . . The bark is capable of division into a number of layers. . . . By settlers all forms are termed `ribbonwood,' or less frequently `lace-bark'—names which are applied to other plants; they are also termed `thousand-jacket.'"

1895. `Longman's Geography Reader for New Zealand,' p. 231:

"The houhere is a small tree with beautiful white flowers, and the bark splits up into thin layers which look like delicate lace; hence the plant is called lace-bark or ribbon-wood by the colonists."

<hw>Houi</hw>, <i>n</i>. Maori name for New Zealand tree, Ribbonwood (q.v.), <i>N.O. Malvaceae</i>, kindred to <i>Hoheria, Plagianthus Betulinus</i>, sometimes called <i>Howi</i>. In Maori, the verb <i>houwere</i> means to tie, to bind: the outer bark was used for tying.

<hw>Hound</hw>, <i>n</i>. (sometimes <hw>Smooth Hound</hw>), the Old World name for all the sharks of the genus <i>Mustelus</i> ("the Hell-hound of the Deep"); applied specially in New South Wales and New Zealand to the species <i>Mustelus antarcticus</i>, Guenth., also called <i>Gummy</i> (q.v.).

<hw>Hovea</hw>, <i>n</i>. scientific name for a genus of shrubs. "After Anthony Pantaleon Hove, a Polish botanist. A small genus of highly ornamental leguminous shrubs, from Australia, having blue or purple flowers in axillary clusters, or very short racemes, alternate simple leaves, and short turgid pods." (`Century.')

<hw>Huia</hw>, <i>n</i>. Maori name for a New Zealand bird, like a starling, <i>Heteralocha acutirostris</i>, Gould, of limited occurrence, chiefly found in North Island; having beak straight and short in the male, long and curved in female. The tail feathers are highly prized for ornament by the Maoris.

1845. E. J. Wakefield, `Adventures in New Zealand,' vol. i. p. 91:

"The huia is a black bird about as large as a thrush, with long thin legs and a slender semi-circular beak, which he uses in seeking in holes of trees for the insects on which he feeds. In the tail are four long black feathers tipt with white. These feathers are much valued by the natives as ornaments for the hair on great occasions. . . . The natives attracted the birds by imitating the peculiar whistle, from which it takes the name of huia."

1883. F. S. Renwick, `Betrayed,' p. 36:

"One snow-tipped hui feather graced his hair."

1888. W. L. Buller, `Birds of New Zealand,' vol. i. p. 7:

[A full description.]

<hw>Hump, to</hw>, <i>v</i>. to shoulder, carry on the back; especially, to <i>hump the swag</i>, or <i>bluey</i>, or <i>drum</i>. See <i>Swag, Bluey, Drum</i>.

1855. W. Howitt, `Two Years in Victoria,' vol. i. p. 226:

"He `humped his swag,' in digger's phrase, that is, shouldered his pack and disappeared in the woods."

1857. `Geelong Advertiser,' quoted in `Argus,' Oct. 23, p. 5, col. 3:

"The despised old chum bought his swag, `humped it,' grumbled of course."

1891. Rolf Boldrewood, `Sydney-side Saxon,' p. 93:

"A hardwood slab-door weighs a goodish deal, as any one may find out that has to hump it a hundred yards."

1893. Haddon Chambers, `Thumbnail Sketches of Australian Life,' p. 224:

"I `humped my swag'—i.e. tied my worldly possessions, consisting of a blanket, a pannikin, and an odd pair of boots, upon my back-and `footed it' for the capital."

1896. H. Lawson, `When the World was Wide,' p. 134:

"But Bill preferred to hump his drum
 A-paddin' of the hoof."

<hw>Hump</hw>, <i>n</i>. a long walk with a swag on one's back.

1890. Rolf Boldrewood, `Miner's Right,' c. 3, p. 46:

"We get a fair share of exercise without a twenty-mile hump on
Sundays."

<hw>Humpy</hw>, <i>n</i>. (1) a native hut. The aboriginal word is Oompi; the initial h is a Cockney addition, and the word has been given an English look, the appearance of the huts suggesting the English word <i>hump</i>. [The forms <i>himbing</i> and <i>yamba</i> occur along the East coast of Australia. Probably it is kindred with <i>koombar</i>, bark, in Kabi dialect, Mary River, Queensland.] The old convict settlement in Moreton Bay, now broken up, was called Humpy Bong (see <i>Bung</i>), sc. <i>Oompi Bong</i>, a dead or deserted settlement. The aboriginal names for hut may be thus tabulated

Gunyah )
                 . . . New South Wales.
Goondie )

Humpy (Oompi) . . . Queensland.

Mia-mia . . . Victoria and Western Australia.

Wurley (Oorla) . . . South Australia.

Whare . . . New Zealand.

1846. C. P. Hodgson, `Reminiscences of Australia,' p. 228:

"A `gunyia' or `umpee.'"

1873. J. Brunton Stephens, `Black Gin,' p. 16:

"Lo, by the `humpy' door, a smockless Venus."

(2) Applied to a settler's house, very small and primitive.

1881. A. C. Grant, `Bush Life in Queensland,' vol. i. p. 133:

"To dwell in the familiar old bark `humpy,' so full of happy memories. The roof was covered with sheets of bark held down by large wooden riders pegged in the form of a square to one another."

1885. R. M. Praed, `Australian Life,' p. 57:

"A lonely hut . . . and a kitchen—a smaller humpey—at the back."

1890. Rolf Boldrewood, `Squatter's Dream,' p. 247:

"He's to bed in the humpy."

1893. Gilbert Parker, `Pierre and his People,' p. 135:

"Shon McGann was lying on a pile of buffalo robes in a mountain hut,—an Australian would call it a humpey."

<hw>Hungry Quartz</hw>, <i>n</i>. a miner's term for unpromising <i>Quartz</i> (q.v.)

<hw>Huon-Pine</hw>, <i>n</i>. a large Tasmanian evergreen tree, <i>Dacrydium franklinii</i>, Hook, <i>N.O. Coniferae</i>. The timber is prized in cabinet-work, being repellent to insects, durable, and fairly easy to work; certain pieces are beautifully marked, and resemble bird's-eye maple. The Huon is a river in the south of Tasmania, called after a French officer. See Pine.

1800. J. J. Labillardiere, `Voyage a la Recherche de la Perouse,' tom. i., Introd. p. xi:

"Ces deux flutes recurent des noms analogues au but de l'entreprise. Celle que montoit le general, Dentrecasteaux, fut nommee la Recherche, et l'autre, commandee par le major de vaisseau, Huon Kermadec, recut le nom de l'Esperance. . . . Bruny Dentrecasteaux [fut le] commandant de l'expedition, [et] Labillardiere [fut le] naturaliste."

[Of these gentlemen of France and their voyage the names Bruni
Island, D'Entrecasteaux Channel, Recherche Bay, Port Esperance,
Kermandie [sic] River, Huon Island, Huon River, perpetuate the
memory in Southern Tasmania, and the Kermadec Islands in the
Southern Ocean.]

1820. C. Jeffreys, R.N., `Geographical and Descriptive Delineations of the Island of Van Diemen's Land,' p. 28:

"On the banks of these newly discovered rivers, and the harbour, grows the Huon Pine (so called from the river of that name, where it was first found)."

1829. `The Tasmanian Almanack,' p. 87:

"1816. Huon pine and coal discovered at Port Davey and Macquarie Harbour."

1832. J. Bischoff, `Van Diemen's Land,' Vol. ii. p. 23:

"Huon-pine is by far the most beautiful wood found in the island."

1852. G. C. Mundy, `Our Antipodes,' (edition 1855) p. 515:

"Knots of the beautiful Huon pine, finer than bird's-eye maple for ornamental furniture."

1865. Rev. J. E. Tenison-Woods, `History of the Discovery and Exploration of Australia,' vol. i. p. 71:

"The river was named the Huon, and has since become celebrated for the production which yields the pretty cabinet-wood known as Huon pine."

1890. Lyth, `Golden South,' c. xii. p. 102:

"The huon-pine is of immense height and girth."

<hw>Hut</hw>, <i>n</i>. the cottage of a shepherd or a miner. The word is English but is especially common in Australia, and does not there connote squalor or meanness. The "Men's Hut" on a station is the building occupied by the male employees.

1844. `Port Phillip Patriot,' July 11, pt. 1, c. 3:

"At the head station are a three-roomed hut, large kitchen, wool-shed, etc."

1862. G. T. Lloyd, `Thirty-three Years in Tasmania,' p. 21:

"If a slab or log hut was required to be erected . . . a cart-load of wool was pitchforked from the wasting heap, wherewith to caulk the crevices of the rough-hewn timber walls."

1884. Rolf Boldrewood, `Melbourne Memories,' c. vi. p. 42:

"`The hut,' a substantial and commodious structure, arose in all its grandeur."

1890. Id. `Miner's Right,' c. vi. p. 62:

"Entering such a hut, as it is uniformly, but in no sense of contempt, termed—a hut being simply lower in the scale than a cottage—you will find there nothing to shock the eye or displease the taste."

1891. W. Tilley, `Wild West of Tasmania,' p. 29:

"Bark and weatherboard huts alternating with imposing hotels and stores."

<hw>Hut-keep</hw>, <i>v</i>. to act as hut-keeper.

1865. S. Sidney, `Three Colonies of Australia,' p. 380

"At this, as well as at every other station I have called at, a woman `hutkeeps,' while the husband is minding the sheep."

1890. `Melbourne Argus,' June 14th, p. 4, col. 2:

"`Did you go hut-keeping then?' `Wrong again. Did I go hut-keeping? Did you ever know a hut-keeper cook for sixty shearers?'"

<hw>Hut-keeper</hw>, <i>n</i>. Explained in quotations.

1802. D. Collins, `Account of New South Wales,' vol. ii. p. 285:

"Old men, unfit for anything but to be hut-keepers who were to remain at home to prevent robbery, while the other inhabitants of the hut were at labour."

1846. J. L. Stokes, `Discoveries in Australia,' vol. II. c. iii. p. 458

"My object was to obtain these heads, which the . . . hut-keeper instantly gave."

1853. G. Butler Earp, `What we Did in Australia,' p. 17:

"The lowest industrial occupation in Australia, viz. a hut-keeper in the bush . . . a station from which many of the wealthiest flockmasters in Australia have risen."

1883. E. M. Curr, `Recollections of Squatting in Victoria' (1841-1851), p. 21:

"A bush hut-keeper, who baked our damper, fried our chops."

<hw>Hyacinth, Native</hw>, <i>n</i>. a Tasmanian flower, <i>Thelymitra longifolia</i>, R. and G. Forst., <i>N.O. Orchideae</i>.

<hw>Hyaena</hw>, <i>n</i>. See <i>Thylacine</i>, and <i>Tasmanian Tiger</i>.

<hw>Hypsiprymnodon</hw>, <i>n</i>. the scientific name of the genus of the Australian animal called <i>Musk Kangaroo</i>. (Grk. hupsiprumnos, with a high stern.) A very small, rat-like, arboreal kangaroo, about ten inches long. The strong musky odour from which it takes its vernacular name is perceptible in both sexes.

1874. R. Lydekker, `Marsupialia,' p. 73:

"The third and last subfamily (Hypsiprymnodontidae) of the Macropodidae is represented solely by the remarkable creature known, from its strong scent, as the Musk-kangaroo."

I

<hw>Ibis</hw>, <i>n</i>. There are twenty-four species of this bird distributed over all the warmer parts of the globe. Those present in Australasia are—

Glossy (Black, or Bay) Ibis—
 <i>Ibis falcinellus</i>, Linn.

Straw-necked I.—
 <i>Geronticus spinnicollis</i>, Jameson.

White I.—
 <i>Threskiornis strictipennis</i>, Gould.

Of these the last two are confined to Australia, the first is cosmopolitan.

1847. L. Leichhardt, `Overland Expedition,' p. 155:

"All they had for supper and breakfast were a straw-coloured ibis, a duck and a crow."

Ibid. p. 300:

"Crows were feasting on the remains of a black Ibis."

1848. J. Gould, `Birds of Australia,' vol. vi.:

"<i>Geronticus spinicollis</i>, straw-necked ibis (pl. 45). This beautiful ibis has never yet been discovered out of Australia, over the whole of which immense country it is probably distributed."

"<i>Threskiornis strictipennis</i>, white ibis" (pl. 46).

"<i>Ibis falcinellus</i>, Linn., glossy ibis" (pl. 47).

1892. `The Australasian,' April 9, p. 707, col. 4:

"When the hoarse-voiced jackass mocked us, and the white-winged
  ibis flew
 Past lagoons and through the rushes, far away into the blue."

<hw>Ice-Plant</hw>, <i>n</i>. Tasmanian name for <i>Tetragonia implexicoma</i>, Hook., <i>N.O. Ficoideae</i>, B. Fl. Various species of <i>Tetragonia</i> are cultivated as <i>Spinach</i> (q.v.).

1889. J. H. Maiden, `Useful Native Plants,' p. 63:

"Called `ice-plant' in Tasmania. Baron Mueller suggests that this plant be cultivated for spinach. [Found in] all the colonies except Queensland."

<hw>Identity, Old</hw>, <i>n</i>. phrase denoting a person well known in a place. a term invented in Dunedin, New Zealand, in 1862, in a popular topical song, by Mr. R. Thatcher, an improvisator. In the song the "Old Identity," the former resident of Dunedin, was distinguished from the "New Iniquity," as the people were termed who came from Australia.

1879. W. J. Barry, `Up and Down,' p. 197:

"The old identities were beginning to be alive to the situation."

1894. `Sydney Morning Herald,' Oct.:

"It is permissible to wonder about the origin of the phrase `an old identity.' Surely no man, however old, can be an identity? An entity he is, or a nonentity; an individual, a centenarian, or an oldest inhabitant; but identity is a condition of sameness, of being identical with something. One can establish one's identity with that of some one who is being sought or sued, but once established it escapes us."

<hw>Inaka</hw>, <i>n</i>. a fish. See <i>Inanga</i>.

<hw>Inanga</hw> or <hw>Inaka</hw>, <i>n</i>. (the <i>ng</i> as in the word <i>singer</i>, not as in <i>finger</i>), a New Zealand fish, <i>Galaxias attenuatus</i>, or <i>Retropinna richardsoni</i>. It is often called the <i>Whitebait</i> and <i>Minnow</i>, and in Tasmania the larger variety is called <i>Jolly-tail</i>. The change from <i>Inanga</i> to <i>Inaka</i> is a dialectal Maori variation, answering exactly to the change from North Island Kainga to South Island Kaik (q.v.).

1845. E. J. Wakefield, `Adventures in New Zealand,' vol. ii. p. 100:

"This fish is called hinanga [sic.], and resembles Blackwall white-bait in size and flavour. Its colour is a pinkish white, spotted with black."

1896. `The Australasian,' Aug. 28, p. 407, col. 3:

"About the same size as this fish [the cockabully] is the `inaka' much used for bait. Indeed, it is called the New Zealand whitebait. A friend from Victoria having used this bait, I asked him to spell the name of the fish, and he wanted to make it like the patriarch who `walked with God' —Enoch-a. The more correct shape of the Maori word is inanga; but in the South Island `k' often takes the place of that distinctive Maori letter `ng,' as `kainga' becomes kaik; ngaio, kaio."

<hw>Inchman</hw>, <i>n</i>. a Tasmanian name for the <i>Bull-dog Ant</i> (q.v.), from its length, which is sometimes nearly an inch.

<hw>Indians</hw>, pl. <i>n</i>. early and now obsolete name for the Aboriginals in Australia and even for the Maoris.

1769. J. Banks, `Journal,' Oct. 21 (Sir J. D. Hooker edition), p. 191:

"We applied to our friends the Indians for a passage in one of their canoes."

[These were Maoris.]

1770. Ibid. April 28:

"During this time, a few of the Indians who had not followed the boat remained on the rock opposite the ship, threatening and menacing with their pikes and swords."

[These were Australian Aboriginals.]

1825. Barron Field, `Geographical Memoirs of New South Wales,' p. 437:

"Some of the Indians have also seriously applied to be allowed convict labourers, as the settlers are, although they have not patience to remain in the huts which our Government has built for them, till the maize and cabbage that have been planted to their hands are fit to gather."

1830. `The Friend of Australia,' p. 244:

"It is the observation of some writers, that the system pursued in Australia for educating the children of the Indians is not attended with success. The black children will never do any good there, until some other plan is commenced . . ."

<hw>Indigo, Native</hw>, <i>n</i>. all the species of <i>Swainsonia</i>, <i>N.O. Leguminosae</i>, are called "Native Indigos." See <i>Indigo-plant</i>. In Tasmania, the Native Indigo is <i>Indigofera australis</i>, Willd., <i>N.O</i>. <i>Leguminosae</i>. The plants are also called <i>Indigo-plant</i> and <i>Darling-pea</i> (q.v.). <i>Swainsonia</i> belongs to the same N.O. as <i>Indigofera tinctoria</i>, which furnishes the Indigo of commerce.

1826. J. Atkinson, `Agriculture and Grazing in New South Wales,' p. 24:

"Indigo brushes are not very common; the timber in these is generally white or blackbutted gum; the ground beneath is covered with the native indigo, a very beautiful plant, with a light purple flower."

1889. J. H. Maiden, `Useful Native Plants,' p. 140:

"The `darling-pea' or `indigo-plant' is a dreaded plant from the great amount of loss it has inflicted on stockowners. Its effect on sheep is well known; they separate from the flock, wander about listlessly, and are known to the shepherds as ` pea-eaters,' or `indigo-eaters.' When once a sheep takes to eating this plant it seldom or never fattens, and may be said to be lost to its owner. The late Mr. Charles Thorn, of Queensland, placed a lamb which had become an `indigo-eater' in a small paddock, where it refused to eat grass. It, however, ate the indigo plant greedily, and followed Mr. Thorn all over the paddock for some indigo he held in his hand."

<hw>Indented Servants</hw>, <i>n</i>. same as <i>Assigned</i> (q.v.) Servants.

1810. `History of New South Wales' (1818), p. 352:

"Public Notice. Secretary's Office, Sydney, July 21, 1810. A ship being daily expected to arrive here from England with female convicts, whom it is His Excellency the Governor's intention to distribute among the settlers, as indented servants. . . ."

<hw>Ink-plant</hw>, <i>n</i>. another name for the "toot," a New Zealand shrub, <i>Coriaria thymifolia</i>, <i>N.O. Coriarieae</i>. Called Ink-plant on account of its juice, which soon turns to black. There is also an European Ink-plant, <i>Coriaria myrtifolia</i>, so that this is only a different species.

<hw>Ironbark</hw>, <i>n</i>. Early settlers gave this name to several large Eucalypts, from the hardness of their bark, especially to <i>E. leucoxylon</i>, F. v. M., and <i>E. resinifera</i>, Smith. In Queensland it is applied to <i>E. siderophloia</i>, Benth. See also Leguminous Ironbark, and Lemon-scented Ironbark.

1802. G. Barrington, `History of New South Wales,' c. viii. p. 263:

"A species of gum-tree, the bark of which on the trunk is that of the ironbark of Port Jackson."

1830. R. Dawson, `Present State of Australia,' p. 183:

"It was made out of a piece of bark from a tree called ironbark (nearly as hard when dry as an English elm-board)."

1865. Rev. J. E. Tenison-Woods, `History of the Discovery and Exploration of Australia,' vol. ii. p. 45:

"But this gradually changed to an ironbark (<i>Eucalyptus resinifera</i>) and cypress-pine forest."

187. T. Laslett, `Timber and Timber Trees', p. 199:

"The Ironbark-tree (<i>Eucalyptus resinifera</i>) is . . . widely spread over a large part of Australia. . . . A lofty forest tree of moderate circumference. . . . It is believed to have been named as above by some of the earliest Australian settlers on account of the extreme hardness of its bark; but it might with equal reason have been called ironwood. The wood is of a deep red colour, very hard, heavy, strong, extremely rigid, and rather difficult to work . . . used extensively in shipbuilding and engineering works in Australia; and in this country (England) it is employed in the mercantile navy for beams, keelsons, and . . . below the line of flotation."

1883. G. W. Rusden, `History of Australia,' vol. i. p. 77:

"The ironbark (<i>Eucalyptus sideroxylon</i>) became from its durability a synonym for toughness."

1890. Rolf Boldrewood, `Miner's Right,' c. xxvii. p. 248:

"The corrugated stems of the great ironbark trees stood black and columnar."

1893. `The Age,' May 11, p. 7, col. 3, (advt.):

"Monday, 15th May.—Supply in one or more contracts of not less than 20 beams of 400 ironbark or box beams for cattle pits, delivered at any station. Particulars at the office of the Engineer for Existing Lines."

With qualifications. <i>Silver-leaved</i>—

1847. L. Leichhardt, `Overland Expedition,' p. 65:

"The silver-leaved ironbark (<i>Eucalyptus pulverulentus</i>) was here coming into blossom."

<i>Narrow-leaved</i>—

1847. Ibid. p. 154:

"The narrow-leaved ironbark [grew] on a lighter sandy soil."

<hw>Iron hand</hw>, a term of Victorian politics. It was a new
Standing Order introducing what has since been called the
Closure, and was first moved in the Victorian Legislative
Assembly on Jan. 27, 1876.

1876. `Victorian Hansard,' Jan. 20, vol. xxiii. p. 2002:

"They [the Government] have dealt with the Opposition with a velvet glove; but the iron hand is beneath, and they shall feel it."

1884. G. W. Rusden, `History of Australia,' vol. iii. p. 406:

"The <i>cloture</i>, or the `iron hand,' as McCulloch's resolution was called, was adopted in Victoria, for one session."

<hw>Ironheart</hw>, <i>n</i>. a New Zealand tree, <i>Metrosideros tomentosa</i>, <i>N.O. Myrtaceae</i>; native name, <i>Pohutukawa</i>.

1872. A. Domett, `Ranolf,' p. 311:

"It was the `downy ironheart'
    That from the cliffs o'erhanging grew,
 And o'er the alcove, every part,
   Such beauteous leaves and blossoms threw."

"<i>Note</i>.—This most lovely tree is common about the northern coasts and cliffs of the North Island and the banks of Lake Tarawera."

<hw>Ironwood</hw>, <i>n</i>. The name is used of many hard-wooded trees in various parts of the world. The Australian varieties are—

Ironwood (Queensland)—
 <i>Acacia excelsa</i>, Benth., <i>N.O. Leguminosae</i>;
 <i>Melaleuca genistifolia</i>, Smith, <i>N.O. Myrtaceae</i>.

Ironwood (North Queensland)—
 <i>Myrtus gonoclada</i>, F. v. M., <i>N.O. Myrtaceae</i>.

Ironwood (North New South Wales)—
 <i>Olea paniculata</i>, R.Br., <i>N.O. Jasmineae</i>.

Ironwood (Tasmania)—
 <i>Notelaea ligustrina</i>, Vent., <i>N.O. Jasmineae</i>.

Scrub Ironwood—
 <i>Myrtus hillii</i>, Benth., <i>N.O. Myrtaceae</i>.

For <i>Ironwood</i> of New Zealand, see <i>Puriri</i>.

1802. G. Barrington, `History of New South Wales,' c. xii. p. 479:

"A club of iron-wood, which the cannibals had left in the boat."

1823. W. B. Cramp, `Narrative of a Voyage to India,' p. 17:

". . . they have a short club made of iron wood, called a waday, and a scimeter made of the same wood."

1889. J. H. Maiden, `Useful Native Plants,' p. 579:

"`Ironwood' and `Heartwood' of Tasmania; `Spurious Olive,' `White Plum' of Gippsland. An exceedingly hard, close-grained wood, used for mallets, sheaves of blocks, turnery, etc. The heartwood yields a very peculiar figure ; it is a very fair substitute for lignum-vitae."

<hw>Irriakura</hw>, <i>n</i>. an aboriginal name for the tubers of <i>Cyperus rotundus</i>, Linn., <i>N.O. Cyperaceae</i>, adopted by white men in Central Australia.

1896. E. C. Stirling, `Home Expedition in Central Australia,' Anthropology, p. 60:

"<i>Cyperus rotundus</i>. In almost every camp we saw large quantities of the tunicated tubes of this plant, which are generally called `Erriakura' or `Irriakura' by the Arunta natives. . . Even raw they are pleasant to the taste, having an agreeable nutty flavour, which is much improved by the slight roasting."

<hw>Ivory-wood</hw>, <i>n</i>. an Australian timber, <i>Siphonodon australe</i>, Benth., <i>N.O. Celastrinae</i>.

<hw>Ivy</hw>, <i>n</i>. a child's name for the ivy-leaf geraniums, especially the double pink-flowered one called Madame Kruse. In Australia the warm climate makes these all evergreens, and they are trained over fences and walls, sometimes to the height of twenty or thirty feet, supplanting the English ivy in this use, and covered with masses of flowers.

<hw>Ivy, Native</hw>, an Australian plant, <i>Muehlenbeckia adpressa</i>, Meissn., <i>N.O. Polygonaceae</i>; called also <i>Macquarie Harbour Vine</i>, or <i>Grape</i>. The name is widely applied also to the acclimatised Cape Ivy, or German Ivy (<i>Senecio scandens</i>).

1889. J. H. Maiden, `Useful Native Plants,' p. 46:

"`Native Ivy,' Macquarie Harbour Vine or Grape of Tasmania. The currant-like fruits are sub-acid, and were, and perhaps still are, used for tarts, puddings, and preserves; the leaves taste like sorrel."

<hw>Ivy, Wild</hw>, <i>n</i>. an Australian creeper, <i>Platylobium triangulare</i>, R. Br., <i>N.O. Leguminosae</i>.

<hw>Ivy-tree</hw>, <i>n</i>. New Zealand tree, genus <i>Panax</i>, <i>N.O. Araliacae</i>; Maori name, <i>Horoeka</i>. It is also called <i>Lancewood</i> (q.v.).

1883. J. Hector, `Handbook of New' Zealand,' p. 127:

"Horoeka, ivy-tree. an ornamental, slender, and sparingly-branched tree. Wood close-grained and tough."

J

<hw>Jabiru</hw>, <i>n</i>. The word comes from Brazil, and was first given there to the large stork <i>Mycteria (Xenorhynchus) Americana</i>. The Australian species is <i>M. australis</i>, Lath. It has the back and neck dark grey, changing on the neck to scarlet. There is a black-necked stork in Australia (<i>Xenorhynchus asiaticus</i>), which is also called the <i>Jabiru</i>.

1847. L. Leichhardt, `Overland Expedition,' p. 194:

"We saw a Tabiroo [sic] (<i>Mycteria</i>)."

1860. G. Bennett, `Gatherings of a Naturalist,' p. 195:

"In October, 1858, I succeeded in purchasing a fine living specimen of the New Holland Jabiru, or Gigantic Crane of the colonists (<i>Mycteria Australis</i>)"

1890. C. Lumholtz, `Among Cannibals,' p. 323:

"The splendid Australian jabiru (<i>Mycteria Australis</i>), and I had the good fortune to shoot on the wing a specimen of this beautiful variety of the stork family."

<hw>Jacana</hw>, <i>n</i>. a Brazilian word for a bird of the genus <i>Parra</i> (q.v.). The Australian species is the Comb-crested Jacana, <i>Parra gallinacea</i>, Temm. It is also called the <i>Lotus-bird</i> (q.v.).

<hw>Jack in a Box</hw>, i.q. <i>Hair-trigger</i> (q.v.).

1854. `The Home Companion,' p. 554:

"When previously mentioning the elegant <i>Stylidium graminifolium</i> (grass-leaved Jack-in-a-box), which may be easily known by its numerous grassy-like radical leaves, and pretty pink flowers, on a long naked stem, we omitted to mention a peculiarity in it, which is said to afford much amusement to the aborigines, who are, generally speaking, fond of, and have a name for, many of the plants common in their own territories. The stigma lies at the apex of a long column, surrounded and concealed by the anthers. This column is exceedingly irritable, and hangs down on one side of the flower, until it is touched, when it suddenly springs up and shifts to the opposite side of the blossom or calyx."

1859. D. Bunce, `Australasiatic Reminiscences,' p. 26:

"<i>Stylidium</i> (native Jack in a box). This genus is remarkable for the singular elasticity of the column stylis, which support the anthers, and which being irritable, will spring up if pricked with a pin, or other little substance, below the joint, before the pollen, a small powder, is shed, throwing itself suddenly over, like a reflex arm, to the opposite side of the flower. Hence the colonial designation of Jack in a box."

<hw>Jack the Painter</hw>, <i>n</i>. very strong bush-tea, so called from the mark it leaves round the drinker's mouth.

1855. G. C. Mundy, `Our Antipodes,' p. 163:

"Another notorious ration tea of the bush is called Jack the Painter—a very green tea indeed, its viridity evidently produced by a discreet use of the copper drying-pans in its manufacture."

1878. `The Australian,' vol. i. p. 418:

"The billy wins, and `Jack the Painter' tea
 Steams on the hob, from aught like fragrance free."

1880. Garnet Walch, `Victoria in 1880,' p. 113

"Special huts had to be provided for them [the sundowners], where they enjoyed eleemosynary rations of mutton, damper, and `Jack the Painter.'"

<hw>Jackaroo</hw>, <i>n</i>. a name for a Colonial Experience (q.v.), a young man fresh from England, learning squatting; called in New Zealand a Cadet (q.v.). Compare the American "tenderfoot." A verse definition runs:

"To do all sorts and kinds of jobs,
 Help all the men Jacks, Bills or Bobs,
      As well as he is able.
 To be neither boss, overseer, nor man,
 But a little of all as well as he can,
     And eat at the master's table."

The word is generally supposed to be a corruption (in imitation of the word Kangaroo) of the words "Johnny Raw." Mr. Meston, in the `Sydney Bulletin,' April 18, 1896, says it comes from the old Brisbane blacks, who called the pied crow shrike (<i>Strepera graculina</i>) "tchaceroo," a gabbling and garrulous bird. They called the German missionaries of 1838 "jackeroo," a gabbler, because they were always talking. Afterwards they applied it to all white men.

1880. W. Senior, `Travel and Trout,' p. 19:

"Jackaroos—the name given to young gentlemen newly arrived from home to gather colonial experiences."

1881. A. C. Grant `Bush Life in Queensland,' vol. i. p. 53:

"The young jackaroo woke early next morning."

[Footnote]: "The name by which young men who go to the Australian colonies to pick up colonial experience are designated."

1885. H. Finch-Hatton, `Advance Australia,' p. 85:

"Of course before starting on their own account to work a station they go into the bush to gain colonial experience, during which process they are known in the colony as `jackaroos.'"

1891. Rolf Boldrewood, `A Sydneyside Saxon,' p. 74:

"We went most of the way by rail and coach, and then a jackaroo met us with a fine pair of horses in a waggonette. I expected to see a first cousin to a kangaroo, when the coachdriver told us, instead of a young gentleman learning squatting."

1894. `Sydney Morning Herald' (date lost):

"`Jack-a-roo' is of the same class of slang; but the unlucky fellow—often gentle and soft-handed—who does the oddwork of a sheep or cattle station, if he finds time and heart for letters to any who love him, probably writes his rue with a difference."

<hw>Jackaroo</hw>, <i>v</i>. to lead the life of a Jackaroo.

1890. Tasma, `In her Earliest Youth,' p. 152:

"I've seen such a lot of those new chums, one way and another.
They knock down all their money at the first go-off, and then
there's nothing for them to do but to go and jackaroo up in
Queensland."

1890. Rolf Boldrewood, `Squatter's Dream,' c. xix. p. 239:

"A year or two more Jackerooing would only mean the consumption of so many more figs of negro-head, in my case."

<hw>Jackass-fish</hw>, <i>n</i>. another Sydney name for the <i>Morwong</i> (q.v.).

<hw>Jackass, Laughing</hw>, <i>n</i>. (1) The popular name of an Australian bird, <i>Dacelo gigas</i>, Bodd, the Great Brown Kingfisher of Australia; see <i>Dacelo</i>. To an Australian who has heard the ludicrous note of the bird and seen its comical, half-stupid appearance, the origin of the name seems obvious. It utters a prolonged rollicking laugh, often preceded by an introductory stave resembling the opening passage of a donkey's bray.

But the name has been erroneously derived from the French <i>jacasse</i>, as to which Littre gives "<i>terme populaire. Femme, fille qui parle beaucoup</i>." He adds, that the word <i>jacasse</i> appears to come from <i>jacquot</i>, a name popularly given to parrots and magpies, our "Poll." The verb <i>jacasser</i> means to chatter, said of a magpie. The quotation from Collins (1798) seems to dispose of this suggested French origin, by proving the early use of the name <i>Laughing Jackass</i>. As a matter of fact, the French name had already in 1776 been assigned to the bird, viz. <i>Grand Martin-pecheur de la Nouvelle Guinee</i>. [See Pierre Sonnerat, <i>`Voyage a la Nouvelle Guinee</i>' (Paris, 1776), p. 171.] The only possibility of French origin would be from the sailors of La Perouse. But La Perouse arrived in Botany Bay on January 26, 1788, and found Captain Phillip's ships leaving for Sydney Cove. The intercourse between them was very slight. The French formed a most unfavourable idea of the country, and sailed away on March 10. If from their short intercourse, the English had accepted the word <i>Jackass</i>, would not mention of the fact have been made by Governor Phillip, or Surgeon White, who mention the bird but by a different name (see quotations 1789, 1790), or by Captain Watkin Tench, or Judge Advocate Collins, who both mention the incident of the French ships?

The epithet "laughing" is now often omitted; the bird is generally called only a <i>Jackass</i>, and this is becoming contracted into the simple abbreviation of Jack. A common popular name for it is the <i>Settlers'-Clock</i>. (See quotations—1827, Cunningham; 1846, Haydon; and 1847, Leichhardt.) The aboriginal name of the bird is <i>Kookaburra</i> (q.v.), and by this name it is generally called in Sydney; another spelling is <i>Gogobera</i>.

There is another bird called a <i>Laughing Jackass</i> in New Zealand which is not a Kingfisher, but an <i>Owl, Sceloglaux albifacies</i>, Kaup. (Maori name, <i>Whekau</i>). The New Zealand bird is rare, the Australian bird very common. The so-called <i>Derwent Jackass</i> of Tasmania is a <i>Shrike (Cracticus cinereus</i>, Gould), and is more properly called the <i>Grey Butcher-bird</i>. See <i>Butcher-bird</i>.

1789. Governor Phillip, `Voyage,' p. 287:

Description given with picture, but under name "Great Brown
Kingsfisher" [sic].

Ibid. p. 156:

Similar bird, with description and picture, under name "Sacred
King's Fisher."

1790. J. White, `Voyage to New South Wales,' p. 137:

"We not long after discovered the Great Brown King's Fisher, of which a plate is annexed. This bird has been described by Mr. Latham in his `General Synopsis of Birds,' vol. ii. p. 603.

Ibid. p. 193:

"We this day shot the Sacred King's-Fisher (see plate annexed)."

1798. Collins, `Account of English Colony in New South Wales,' p. 615, (Vocabulary):

"Gi-gan-ne-gine. Bird named by us the Laughing Jackass.
Go-con-de—inland name for it."

1827. P. Cunningham, `Two Years in New South Wales,' vol. i. p. 232:

"The loud and discordant noise of the laughing jackass (or settler's-clock, as he is called), as he takes up his roost on the withered bough of one of our tallest trees, acquaints us that the sun has just dipped behind the hills."

1827. Vigors and Horsfield, `Transactions of Linnaean Society,' vol. xv. p. 204:

"The settlers call this bird the Laughing Jackass. I have also heard it called the Hawkesbury-Clock (clocks being at the period of my residence scarce articles in the colony, there not being one perhaps in the whole Hawkesbury settlement), for it is among the first of the feathered tribes which announce the approach of day."

1846. G. H. Haydon, `Five Years in Australia Felix,' p. 71:

"The laughing jackass, or settler's-clock is an uncouth looking creature of an ashen brown colour . . . This bird is the first to indicate by its note the approach of day, and thus it has received its other name, the settler's clock."

1847. L. Leichhardt, `Overland Expedition,' p. 234:

"I usually rise when I hear the merry laugh of the laughing- jackass (<i>Dacelo gigantea</i>), which, from its regularity, has not been unaptly named the settlers'-clock."

1848. J. Gould, `Birds of Australia,' vol. ii. pl. 18:

"<i>Dacelo Gigantea</i>, Leach, Great Brown King Fisher; Laughing Jackass of the Colonists."

1855. W. Howitt, `Two Years in Victoria,' vol. i. p. 58:

"You are startled by a loud, sudden cackling, like flocks of geese, followed by an obstreperous hoo! hoo! ha! ha! of the laughing jackass (<i>Dacelo gigantea</i>) a species of jay."

[Howitt's comparison with the jay is evidently due to the azure iridescent markings on the upper part of the wings, in colour like the blue feathers on the jay.]

1862. F. J. Jobson, `Australia,' c. vi. p. 145:

"The odd medley of cackling, bray, and chuckle notes from the `Laughing Jackass.'"

1872. C. H. Eden, `My Wife and I in Queensland,' p. 18:

"At daylight came a hideous chorus of fiendish laughter, as if the infernal regions had been broken loose—this was the song of another feathered innocent, the laughing jackass—not half a bad sort of fellow when you come to know him, for he kills snakes, and is an infallible sign of the vicinity of fresh-water."

1880. T. W. Nutt, `Palace of Industry,' p. 15:

"Where clock-bird laughed and sweet wildflowers throve."

[Footnote] "The familiar laughing jackass."

1880. Garnet Walch, `Victoria in 1880,' p. 13:

"Dense forests, where the prolonged cacchinations of that cynic of the woods, as A. P. Martin calls the laughing jackass, seemed to mock us for our pains."

1881. A. C. Grant, `Bush Life in Queensland,' vol. i. p. 37:

"The harsh-voiced, big-headed, laughing jackass."

1881. D. Blair, `Cyclopaedia of Australasia,' p. 202:

"The name it vulgarly bears is a corruption of the French word
Jacasser, `to chatter,' and the correct form is the `Laughing
Jacasse.'"

[No. See above.]

1885. `Australasian Printers' Keepsake,' p. 76:

"Magpies chatter, and the jackass
 Laughs Good-morrow like a Bacchus."

1889. Rev. J. H. Zillmann, `Australian Life,' [telling an old story] p. 155:

"The Archbishop inquired the name of a curious bird which had attracted his attention. `Your grace, we call that the laughing jackass in this country, but I don't know the botanical [sic] name of the bird."

1890. C. Lumholtz, `Among Cannibals, p. 27:

"Few of the birds of Australia have pleased me as much as this curious laughing jackass, though it is both clumsy and unattractive in colour. Far from deserving its name jackass, it is on the contrary very wise and also very courageous. It boldly attacks venomous snakes and large lizards, and is consequently the friend of the colonist."

1890. Tasma, `In her Earliest Youth,' p. 265:

"`There's a jackass—a real laughing jackass on that dead branch. They have such a queer note; like this,, you know—' and upon her companion's startled ears there rang forth, all of a sudden, the most curious, inimitable, guttural, diabolical tremolo it had ever befallen them to hear."

1890. `Victorian Statutes-Game Act, Third Schedule':

"[Close season.] Great Kingfisher or Laughing Jackass.
The whole year. all Kingfishers other than the Laughing Jackass.
From the 1st day of August to the 20th day of December next
following in each year."

(2) The next quotations refer to the New Zealand bird.

1882. T. H. Potts, `Out in the Open,' p. 122:

"<i>Athene Albifacies</i>, wekau of the Maoris, is known by some up-country settlers as the big owl or <i>laughing jackass</i>."

"The cry of the laughing jackass . . . Why it should share with one of our petrels and the great <i>Dacelo</i> of Australia the trivial name of laughing jackass, we know not; if its cry resembles laughter at all, it is the uncontrollable outburst, the convulsive shout of insanity; we have never been able to trace the faintest approach to mirthful sound in the unearthly yells of this once mysterious night-bird."

1888. W. L. Buller, `Birds of New Zealand,' vol. i. p. 198:

"<i>Sceloglaux albifacies</i>, Kaup., Laughing Owl; Laughing Jackass of the Colonists."

[The following quotation refers to the <i>Derwent Jackass</i>.]

1880. Mrs. Meredith, `Tasmanian Friends and Foes,' p. 110:

"You have heard of . . . the laughing jackass. We, too, have a `jackass,' a smaller bird, and not in any way remarkable, except for its merry gabbling sort of song, which when several pipe up together, always gives one the idea of a party of very talkative people all chattering against time, and all at once."

<hw>Jack-bird</hw>, <i>n</i>. a bird of the South Island of New Zealand, <i>Creadion cinereus</i>, Buller. See also <i>Saddle-back</i> and <i>Creadion</i>.

1888. W. L. Buller, `Birds of New Zealand,' vol. i. p. 23:

"It has become the habit to speak of this bird as the Brown Saddle-back; but this is a misnomer, inasmuch as the absence of the `saddle' is its distinguishing feature. I have accordingly adopted the name of Jack-bird, by which it is known among the settlers in the South Island. Why it should be so called I cannot say, unless this is an adaptation of the native name <i>Tieke</i>, the same word being the equivalent, in the Maori vernacular, of our Jack."

<hw>Jack Shay</hw>, or Jackshea, <i>n</i>. a tin quart-pot.

1881. A. C. Grant, `Bush Life in Queensland,' vol. i. p. 209:

"Hobbles and Jack Shays hang from the saddle dees."

[Footnote]: "A tin quart-pot, used for boiling water for tea, and contrived so as to hold within it a tin pint-pot."

1890. `The Argus,' June14, p. 4, col. 1:

"Some of his clothes, with his saddle, serve for a pillow; his ration bags are beside his head, and his jackshea (quart-pot) stands by the fire."

<hw>Jacky Winter</hw>, <i>n</i>. the vernacular name in New South Wales of the Brown Flycatcher, <i>Microeca fascinans</i>, a common little bird about Sydney. The name has been ascribed to the fact that it is a resident species, very common, and that it sings all through the winter, when nearly every other species is silent. See Flycatcher.

<hw>Jade</hw>, <i>n</i>. See <i>Greenstone</i>.

<hw>Jarrah</hw>, <i>n</i>. anglicised form of <i>Jerryhl</i>, the native name of a certain species of Eucalyptus, which grows in the south of Western Australia, east and south-east of Perth. In Sir George Grey's Glossary (1840), Djar-rail; Mr. G. F. Moore's (1884), Djarryl. (<i>Eucalyptus marginata</i>, Donn.) The name <i>Bastard-Jarrah</i> is given to <i>E. botryoides</i>, Smith, which bears many other names. It is the <i>Blue-Gum</i> of New South Wales coast-districts, the <i>Bastard-Mahogany</i> of Gippsland and New South Wales, and also <i>Swamp Mahogany</i> in Victoria and New South Wales, and occasionally <i>Woolly-Butt</i>.

1873. A. Trollope, `Australia and New Zealand,' vol. ii. p. 102:

"It may be that after all the hopes of the West-Australian
Micawbers will be realised in jarrah-wood."

1875. T. Laslett, `Timber and Timber Trees,' p. 189:

"The Jarrah or Mahogany-tree is also found in Western Australia. The wood is red in colour, hard, heavy, close in texture, slightly wavy in the grain, and with occasionally enough figure to give it value for ornamental purposes; it works up quite smoothly and takes a good polish."

188. G. W. Rusden, `History of Australia, vol. i. p. 77:

"The jarrah of Western Australia (<i>Eucalyptus marginata</i>) has a peculiar reputation for its power to defy decay when submerged and exposed to the attacks of the dreaded teredo, and has been largely exported to India."

1888. R. Kipling, `Plain Tales from the Hills,' p. 163

". . . the awful butchery . . . of the Maribyrnong Plate. The walls were colonial ramparts—logs of <i>jarrah</i> spiked into masonry—with wings as strong as Church buttresses."

[Jarrah is not a Victorian, but a West-Australian timber, and
imported logs are not used by the V.R.C., but white or red gum.
For making "jumps," no logs are "spiked into masonry," and the
Maribyrnong Plate is not a "jump-race."]

1892. Gilbert Parker, `Round the Compass in Australia,' p. 415:

"Mr. W. H. Knight, twenty years ago, gave evidence as to the value of the jarrah. . . . It is found that piles driven down in the Swan River were, after being exposed to the action of wind, water, and weather for forty years, as sound and firm as when put into the water. . . . It completely resists the attacks of the white ants, where stringy-bark, blue-gum, white-gum, and black-wood are eaten through, or rendered useless, in from six to twelve years."

1896. `The Times' (weekly edition), Dec. 4, p. 822, col. 1:

"The jarrah, <i>Eucalyptus marginata</i>, stands pre-eminent as the leading timber tree of the Western Australian forests. For constructive work necessitating contact with soil and water jarrahwood has no native equal. A jarrah forest is dull, sombre, and uninteresting to the eye. In first-class forests the trees attain a height of from 90 ft. to 120 ft., with good stems 3 ft. to 5 ft. in diameter. The tree is practically confined to the south-western division of the colony, where the heaviest rains of the season fall. As a rule, jarrah is found either intermixed with the karri tree or in close proximity to it."

<hw>Jasmine, Native</hw>, <i>n</i>. an Australian plant, <i>Ricinocarpus pinifolius</i>, Desf., <i>N.O. Euphorbiaceae</i>.

1889. J. H. Maiden, `Useful Native Plants,' p. 286:

"Native Jasmine. This plant yields abundance of seeds, like small castor oil seeds. They yield an oil."

<hw>Jelly-leaf</hw>, <i>n</i>. i.q. <i>Queensland Hemp</i> (q.v.).

<hw>Jelly-plant</hw>, a sea-weed, <i>Eucheuma speciosum</i>, J. Agardh, <i>N.O. Algae</i>.

1889. J. H. Maiden, `Useful Native Plants,' p. 28:

"Jelly-plant of Western Australia. This is a remarkable sea-weed of a very gelatinous character [used by] the people of Western Australia for making jelly, blanc-mange, etc. Size and cement can also be made from it. It is cast ashore from deep water."

<hw>Jemmy Donnelly</hw>, <i>n</i>. a ridiculous name given to three trees, <i>Euroschinus falcatus</i>, Hook, <i>N.O. Anacardiaceae</i>; <i>Myrsine variabilis</i>, R. Br., <i>N.O. Myrsinaceae</i>; and <i>Eucalyptus resinifera</i>, Sm., <i>N.O. Myrtaceae</i>. They are large timber trees, highly valued in Queensland.

<hw>Jerrawicke</hw>, <i>n</i>. obsolete name for Colonial beer.

1857. J. Askew, `A Voyage to Australia and New Zealand,' p. 272:

"There were always a number of natives roaming about. There might be about 150 in all, of the Newcastle tribe. They were more wretched and filthy, and if possible, uglier than those of Adelaide. . . . All the earnings of the tribe were spent in tobacco and jerrawicke (colonist-made ale)."

1857. Ibid. p. 273:

"A more hideous looking spectacle can hardly be imagined than that presented by these savages around the blazing fire, carousing among jerrawicke and the offal of slaughtered animals.'"

<hw>Jew-fish</hw>, <i>n</i>. a name applied in New South Wales to two or more different species, <i>Sciaena antarctica</i>, Castln., and <i>Glaucosoma hebraicum</i>, Richards. <i>Sciaena antarctica</i>, Castln., is the King-fish of the Melbourne market. <i>Sciaena</i> is called Dew-fish in Brisbane. It belongs to the family <i>Sciaenidae</i>. The Australian species is distinct from <i>S. aquila</i>, the European "Maigre" or "Meagre," but closely resembles it. <i>Glaucosoma</i> belongs to the <i>Percidae</i>. The Silver Jew-fish of New South Wales is thought to be the same as the <i>Teraglin</i> (q.v.), <i>Otolithus atelodus</i>, Guenth., also of the family <i>Sciaeidae</i>. Tenison Woods (in `Fish and Fisheries of New South Wales,' 1882, p. 34) says the Jew-fish of New South Wales is sometimes <i>Glaucosoma scapulare</i>, Ramsay; and <i>Glaucosoma hebraicum</i>, Richards., is the Jew-fish of Western Australia (a marine fish). Fishes on the American coasts, different from these, are there called <i>Jew-fishes</i>.

1847. L. Leichhardt, `Overland Expedition,' p. 40:

"The water-holes abounded with jew-fish and eels."

<hw>Jew-Lizard</hw>, <i>n</i>. a large Australian lizard, <i>Amiphibolurus barbatus</i>, Cuv.; called also <i>Bearded Lizard</i>.

1847. L. Leichhardt, `Overland Expedition,' p. 89:

"A small <i>Chlamydophorus</i> (Jew-lizard of the Hunter) was also seen." [The Hunter is a river of New South Wales.]

1890. F. McCoy, `Prodromus of the Natural History of Victoria,' Decade xiii. pl. 121:

"This is commonly called the Jew Lizard by colonists, and is easily distinguished by the beard-like growth of long slender spires round the throat . . . when irritated, it inflates the body to a considerably increased size, and hisses like a snake exciting alarm; but rarely biting."

1893. `The Argus,' July 22, p. 4, col. 5:

"The great Jew-lizards that lay and laughed horribly to themselves in the pungent dust on the untrodden floors."

<hw>Jil-crow-a-berry</hw>, <i>n</i>. the Anglicised pronunciation and spelling of the aboriginal name for the indigenous <i>Rat-tail Grass</i>, <i>Sporobolus indicus</i>, R. Br.

<hw>Jimmy</hw>, <i>n</i>. obsolete name for an immigrant, a word which was jocularly changed into Jimmy Grant. The word `immigrant' is as familiar in Australia as `emigrant' in England.

1859. H. Kingsley, `Geoffrey Hamlyn,' p. 211:

"`What are these men that we are going to see?' `Why one,' said Lee, is a young Jimmy—I beg your pardon, sir, an emigrant, the other two are old prisoners.'"

1867. `Cassell's Magazine,' p. 440:

"`I never wanted to leave England,' I have heard an old
Vandemonian observe boastfully. `I wasn't like one of these
`Jemmy Grants' (cant term for `emigrants'); I could always earn
a good living; it was the Government as took and sent me out."

[The writers probably used the word <i>immigrant</i>, which, not being familiar to the English compositor, was misprinted <i>emigrant</i>. The "old Vandemonian" must certainly have said <i>immigrant</i>.]

<hw>Jimmy Low</hw>, <i>n</i>. one of the many names of a Timber-tree, <i>Eucalyptus resinifera</i>, Smith, <i>N.O. Myrtaceae</i>.

1889. J. H. Maiden, `Useful Native Plants,' p. 208:

"The `Red,' or `Forest Mahogany,' of the neighbourhood of Sydney. These are bad names, as the wood bears no real resemblance to the true mahogany. Because the product of this tree first brought Australian kino into medical notice, it is often in old books called `Botany Bay Gum-tree.' Other names for it are Red gum, Grey gum, Hickory, and it perpetuates the memory of an individual by being called `Jimmy Low.'"

<hw>Jingle</hw>, <i>n</i>. a two-wheeled vehicle, like an Irish car, once common in Melbourne, still used in Brisbane and some other towns: so called from the rattle made by it when in motion. The word is not Australian, as is generally supposed; the `Century' gives "a covered two-wheeled car used in the south of Ireland."

1862. Clara Aspinall, `Three Years in Melbourne,' p. 122:

"An omnibus may be chartered at much less cost (gentlemen who have lived in India <i>will</i> persist in calling this vehicle a <i>jingle</i>, which perhaps sounds better); it is a kind of dos-a-dos conveyance, holding three in front and three behind: it has a waterproof top to it supported by four iron rods, and oilskin curtains to draw all round as a protection from the rain and dust."

1863. B. A. Heywood, `Vacation Tour at the Antipodes,' p. 44:

"During my stay in Melbourne I took a jingle, or car, and drove to St. Kilda."

1865. Lady Barker, writing from Melbourne, `Station Life in New Zealand,' p. 12:

"A vehicle which was quite new to me—a sort of light car with a canopy and curtains, holding four, two on each seat, dos-a-dos, and called a jingle—of American parentage, I fancy. One drive in this carriage was quite enough, however."

1869. Marcus Clarke, `Peripatetic Philosopher,' p. 14:

"Some folks prefer to travel
 Over stones and rocks and gravel;
 And smile at dust and jolting fit to dislocate each bone.
 To see 'em driving in a jingle,
 It would make your senses tingle,
 For you couldn't put a sixpence 'twixt the wheel and the
    kerb-stone."

1887. Cassell's 'Picturesque Australasia,' vol. i. p. 64:

"In former days the Melbourne cab was a kind of Irish car, popularly known as a jingle. . . . The jingle has been ousted by the one-horse waggonette."

1887. R. M. Praed, `Longleat of Kooralbyn,' c. iv. p. 30:

"The Premier hailed a passing jingle."

[This was in Brisbane.]

<hw>Jinkers</hw>, <i>n</i>. a contrivance much used in the bush for moving heavy logs and trunks of trees. It consists of two pairs of wheels, with their axle-trees joined by a long beam, under which the trunks are suspended by chains. Its structure is varied in town for moving wooden houses. Called in England a "whim."

1894. `The Argus,' July 7, p. 8, col. 4:

"A rather novel spectacle was to be seen to-day on the Ballan road in the shape of a five-roomed cottage on jinkers. . . . Mr. Scottney, carrier of Fitzroy, on whose jinkers the removal is being made . . ."

Jirrand, <i>adj</i>. an aboriginal word in the dialect of Botany Bay, signifying "afraid." Ridley, in his vocabulary, spells it jerron, and there are other spellings.

1827. P. Cunningham, `Two Years in New South Wales,' vol. ii. p. 59:

"The native word <i>jirrand</i> (afraid) has become in some measure an adopted child, and may probably puzzle our future Johnsons with its <i>unde derivatur</i>."

1889. Rolf Boldrewood, `Robbery under Arms,' p. 316:

"When I saw the mob there was I didn't see so much to be jerran about, as it was fifty to one in favour of any one that was wanted."

<hw>Jo-Jo</hw>, <i>n</i>. name used by Melbourne larrikins for a man with a good deal of hair on his face. So called from a hairy-faced Russian "<i>dog man</i>" exhibited in Melbourne about 1880, who was advertised by that name.

<hw>Job's</hw> Tears. The seeds of <i>Coix lachryma</i>, which are used for necklace-making by the native tribes on the Cape York peninsula, are there called <i>Job's tears</i>.

<hw>Joe, Joe-Joe, Joey</hw>, interjection, then a <i>verb</i>, now obsolete. Explained in quotations.

1855. W. Howitt, `Two Years in Victoria,' vol. i. p. 400:

"The well-known cry of `Joe! Joe!'—a cry which means one of the myrmidons of Charley Joe, as they familiarly style Mr. [Charles Joseph] La Trobe,—a cry which on all the diggings resounds on all sides on the appearance of any of the hated officials."

1861. T. McCombie, `Australian Sketches,' p. 135:

"The cry of `Joey' would rise everywhere against them."

[Footnote]: "To `Joey' or `Joe' a person on the diggings, or anywhere else in Australia, is to grossly insult and ridicule him."

1863. B. A. Heywood, `Vacation Tour at the Antipodes,' p. 165:

"In the early days of the Australian diggings `Joe' was the warning word shouted out when the police or gold commissioners were seen approaching, but is now the chaff for new chums."

1865. F. H. Nixon, `Peter Perfume,' p. 58:

"And Joe joed them out, Tom toed them out."

1891. `The Argus,' Dec. 5, p. 13, col. 4:

"`The diggers,' he says, `were up in arms against the Government officials, and whenever a policeman or any other Government servant was seen they raised the cry of "Joe-Joe."' The term was familiar to every man in the fifties. In the earliest days of the diggings proclamations were issued on diverse subjects, but mostly in the direction of curtailing the privileges of the miners. These were signed, `C. Joseph La Trobe,' and became known by the irreverent—not to say flippant —description of `Joes.' By an easy transition, the corruption of the second name of the Governor was applied to his officers, between whom and the spirited diggers no love was lost, and accordingly the appearance of a policeman on a lead was signalled to every tent and hole by the cry of `Joe-Joe.'"

<hw>Joey</hw>, <i>n</i>. (1) A young kangaroo.

1839. W. H. Leigh, `Reconnoitring Voyages in South Australia' pp. 93-4:

"Here [in Kangaroo Island] is also the wallaba . . . The young of the animal is called by the islanders a joe."

1861. T. McCombie, I`Australian Sketches,' p. 172:

"The young kangaroos are termed joeys. The female carries the latter in her pouch, but when hard pressed by dogs, and likely to be sacrificed, she throws them down, which usually distracts the attention of the pack and affords the mother sufficient time to escape."

1888. D. Macdonald, `Gum Boughs,' p. 10:

"Sometimes when the flying doe throws her `joey' from her pouch the dogs turn upon the little one."

1896. F. G. Aflalo, `Natural History of Australia,' p. 29:

"At length the actual fact of the Kangaroo's birth, which is much as that of other mammals, was carefully observed at the London Zoo, and the budding fiction joined the myths that were. It was there proved that the little `joey' is brought into the world in the usual way, and forthwith conveyed to the comfortable receptacle and affixed to the teat by the dam, which held the lifeless-looking little thing tenderly in her cloven lips."

(2) Also slang used for a baby or little child, or even a young animal, such as a little guinea-pig. Compare "kid."

(3) A hewer of wood and drawer of water.

1845. J. A. Moore, `Tasmanian Rhymings,' p. 15:

"He was a `joey,' which, in truth,
 Means nothing more than that youth
 Who claims a kangaroo descent
 Is by that nomenclature meant."

1888. Rolf Boldrewood, `Robbery under Arms,' p. 198:

"I'm not going to be wood-and-water Joey, I can tell ye."

<hw>John Dory</hw>, or <hw>Dorey</hw>, <i>n</i>. a fish. This name is applied in New South Wales and Tasmania to <i>Cyttus (Zeus) australis</i>, Richards., family <i>Cyttidae</i>, which is nearly the same as <i>Zeus faber</i>, the "John Dory" of Europe. Others call <i>C. australis</i> the <i>Bastard Dorey</i> (q.v.), and it is also called the <i>Boar-fish</i> (q.v.) and <i>Dollar-fish</i> (q.v.).

1880. Guenther, `Study of Fishes,' p. 451:

"`John Dorys' are found in the Mediterranean, on the eastern temperate shores of the Atlantic, on the coasts of Japan and Australia. Six species are known, all of which are highly esteemed for the table. The English name given to one of the European species (<i>Zeus Faber</i>) seems to be partly a corruption of the Gascon `Jau,' which signifies cock, `Dory' being derived from the French <i>Doree</i>, so that the entire name means Gilt-cock. Indeed, in some other localities of southern Europe it bears the name of <i>Gallo</i>. The same species occurs also on the coasts of South Australia and New Zealand."

<hw>Johnny</hw>-cake. <i>n</i>. The name is of American origin, originally given by the negroes to a cake made of Indian corn (maize). In Australia it is a cake baked on the ashes or cooked in a frying-pan. (See quotations.) The name is used in the United States for a slightly different cake, viz. made with Indian meal and toasted before a fire.

1861. Mrs. Meredith, `Over the Straits,' p. 154:

"The dough-cakes fried in fat, called `Johnny-cakes.'"

1872. C. H. Eden, `My Wife and I in Queensland,' p. 20:

"Johnny-cakes, though they are smaller and very thin, and made in a similar way [sc. to dampers: see <i>Damper</i>]; when eaten hot they are excellent, but if allowed to get cold they become leathery."

1885. H. Finch-Hatton, `Advance of Australia,' p. 3:

"Johnny-cakes are made with nothing but flour, but there is a great art in mixing them. If it is done properly they are about the lightest and nicest sort of bread that can be made; but the efforts of an amateur generally result in a wet heavy pulp that sticks round one's teeth like bird-lime."

1890. `The Argus,' Aug. 16, p. 13, col. 1:

"Here I, a new chum, could, with flour and water and a pinch of baking-powder, make a sweet and wholesome johnny cake."

1892. Mrs. Russell, `Too Easily Jealous,' p. 273 :

"Bread was not, and existed only in the shape of johnny-cakes —flat scones of flour and water, baked in the hot ashes."

1894. `The Argus,' March 10, p. 4, col. 6:

"It is also useful to make your damper or `Johnny-cake,' which serves you in place of yeast bread. A Johnny-cake is made thus:—Put a couple of handfuls of flour into your dish, with a good pinch of salt and baking soda. Add water till it works to a stiff paste. Divide it into three parts and flatten out into cakes about half an inch thick. Dust a little flour into your frying-pan and put the cake in. Cook it slowly over the fire, taking care it does not burn, and tossing it over again and again. When nearly done stand it against a stick in front of the fire, and let it finish baking while you cook the other two. These, with a piece of wallaby and a billy of tea, are a sweet meal enough after a hard day's work."

<hw>Jolly-tail</hw>, <i>n</i>. a Tasmanian name for the larger variety of the fish <i>Galaxias attenuatus</i>, Jenyns, and other species of <i>Galaxias</i> called <i>Inanga</i> (q.v.) in New Zealand. <i>Galaxias weedoni</i> is called the <i>Mersey Jolly-tail</i>, and <i>Galaxias atkinsoni</i>, the <i>Pieman Jolly-tail</i>. Pieman and Mersey are two Tasmanian rivers. See <i>Mountain-Trout</i>.

<hw>July</hw>, <i>n</i>. a winter month in Australia. See <i>Christmas</i>.

1888. Mrs. M'Cann, `Poetical Works,' p. 235:

"Scarce has July with frigid visage flown."

<hw>Jumbuck</hw>, <i>n</i>. aboriginal pigeon-English for sheep. Often used in the bush. The origin of this word was long unknown. It is thus explained by Mr. Meston, in the `Sydney Bulletin,' April 18, 1896: "The word `jumbuck' for sheep appears originally as <i>jimba, jombock, dombock</i>, and <i>dumbog</i>. In each case it meant the white mist preceding a shower, to which a flock of sheep bore a strong resemblance. It seemed the only thing the aboriginal mind could compare it to."

1845. C. Griffith, `Present State and Prospects of the Port Phillip District of New South Wales,' p. 162:

"The following is a specimen of such eloquence: `You pilmillally jumbuck plenty sulky me, plenty boom, borack gammon,' which being interpreted means, `If you shoot my sheep I shall be very angry, and will shoot you and no mistake.'"

1855. W. Ridley, `Transactions of Philological Society,' p. 77:

"When they adopt English words ending in mutes, the blacks drop the mute or add a vowel: thus, <i>jimbugg</i>, a slang name for sheep, they sound <i>jimbu</i>." [It was not English slang but an aboriginal word.]

1893. `The Argus,' April 8, p. 4, col. 1:

"Mister Charlie, jumbuck go along of grass, blood all there, big dog catch him there, big jumbuck, m'me word, neck torn."

1896. `The Australasian,' June 6, p. 1085, col. 1:

"Jumbuck (a sheep) has been in use from the earliest days, but its origin is not known."

<hw>Jump</hw>, to, <i>v</i>. to take possession of a claim (mining) on land, on the ground that a former possessor has abandoned it, or has not fulfilled the conditions of the grant. The word is also used in the United States, but it is very common in Australia. Instead of "you have taken my seat," you have <i>jumped</i> it. So even with a pew. a man in England, to whom was said, "you have jumped my pew," would look astonished, as did that other who was informed, "Excuse me, sir, but you are occupewing my py."

1861. T. McCombie, `Australian Sketches,' p. 31:

". . . on condition that he occupies it within twenty-four hours: should this rule not be observed, the right of the original holder is lost, and it may be occupied (or `jumped' as it is termed) by any other person as a deserted claim."

1861. `Victorian Hansard,' vol. vii. p. 942 (May 21):

"<i>Mr. Wood</i>: Some of the evils spoken of seemed indeed only to exist in the imagination of the hon. and learned gentleman, as, for instance, that of `jumping,' for which a remedy was already given by the 77th section of the present Act.

"<i>Mr. Ireland</i>: Yes; after the claim is `jumped.'"

1890. Rolf Boldrewood, `The Miner's Right,' p. 37:

"If such work were not commenced within three days, any other miners might summarily take possession of or jump the claim."

ibid. p. 52:

"Let us have the melancholy satisfaction of seeing Gus's pegs, and noting whether they are all <i>en regle</i>. If not, we'll `jump' him."

Ibid. p. 76:

"In default of such advertisement, for the general benefit, they were liable, according to custom and practice, to have their claim `jumped,' or taken forcible possession of by any party of miners who could prove that they were concealing the golden reality."

1875. `Melbourne Spectator,' August 21, p. 189, col. 3:

"Jumping selections . . . is said to be very common now in the Winmera district."

<hw>Jumpable</hw>, <i>adj</i>. open to another to take. See <i>Jump</i>.

1884. Rolf Boldrewood, Melbourne Memories,' c. xvi. p. 114:

"The heifer station was what would be called in mining parlance `an abandoned claim' and possibly `jumpable.'"

Jumper, <i>n</i>. one who <i>jumps</i> a claim. See <i>Jump</i>.

1890. Rolf Boldrewood, `Miner's Right,' c. xii. p. 127:

"Come along, my noble jumper, you've served your injunction."

<hw>Jumping-mouse</hw>, <i>n</i>. See <i>Hapalote</i>.

<hw>June</hw>, <i>n</i>. a winter month in Australia. See <i>Christmas</i>.

1886. H. C. Kendall, `Poems,' p. 132:

"Twenty white-haired Junes have left us
 Grey with frost and bleak with gale."

<hw>Jungle-hen</hw>, <i>n</i>. name given to a mound-building bird, <i>Megapodius tumulus</i>, Gould. See also <i>Megapode</i>. The Indian Jungle-fowl is a different bird.

1890. Carl Lumholtz, `Among Cannibals,' p. 97:

"But what especially gives life and character to these woods are the jungle-hens (mound-builders) . . . The bird is of a brownish hue, with yellow legs and immensely large feet; hence its name <i>Megapodius</i>."

<hw>Juniper, Native</hw>, <i>n</i>. i.q. <i>Native Currant</i> (q.v.).

K

<hw>Kahawai</hw>, <i>n</i>. Maori name for the fish <i>Arripis salar</i>, Richards.; called in Australia and New Zealand <i>Salmon</i> (q.v.).

<hw>Kahikatea</hw>, <i>n</i>. Maori name for a New Zealand tree, <i>Podocarpus dacrydioides</i>, A. Rich., <i>N.O. Coniferae</i>. Also called <i>White-Pine</i>. See <i>Pine</i>. The settlers' pronunciation is often <i>Kackatea</i>. There is a Maori word Kahika, meaning ancient.

1855. Rev. R. Taylor. `Te Ika a Maui,' p. 439:

"White-pine, <i>Podocarpus dacrydioides</i>—Kahikatea, kahika, korol. This tree is generally called the white-pine, from the colour of its wood. The kahikatea may be considered as nearly the loftiest tree in the New Zealand forest; it often attains a height of little less than two hundred feet, and in that respect rivals the noble kauri, but the general appearance is not very pleasing."

1875.