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Title: A Concise Anglo-Saxon Dictionary

Author: J. R. Clark Hall

Release date: March 7, 2010 [eBook #31543]
Most recently updated: April 11, 2021

Language: English

Credits: Louise Hope, Zoran Stefanovic, the Germanic Lexicon Project, and the Online Distributed Proofreading Team


In the original book, shorter entries—chiefly cross-references—were printed two or three to a line. They have been separated for this e-text. To avoid empty cross-references, a few entries, clearly identified, were restored from the first edition.

All [brackets], asterisks* and question marks? are in the original.

For general information on using the Dictionary, and an explanation of the different types of underlining, see the Transcriber’s Notes at the end of this file. In the body of the Dictionary, italics and boldface are as in the original. The New English Dictionary (NED) is now known as the Oxford English Dictionary (OED).


List of Abbreviations

Additions and Corrections

Transcriber’s Notes

Dictionary A (including Æ)   B   C   D   E   F   G   H   I   K   L   M   N   O   P   Q   R   S   T   Ð   U   W   Y







C. F. CLAY, Manager


Edinburgh: 100 PRINCES STREET

Publisher’s Device

Bombay, Calcutta and Madras: MACMILLAN AND CO., Ltd.

Toronto: J. M. DENT AND SONS, Ltd.



All rights reserved












New York:
The Macmillan Company







The first edition of this dictionary having been exhausted, it has been extensively revised, and certain new features and alterations have been introduced into it.

1. The principle of arranging all words according to their actual spelling has been to a considerable extent abandoned. It was admittedly an unscientific one, and opened the door to a good many errors and inconsistencies. The head form in this edition may be either a normalised form or one which actually occurs.

2. Words beginning with ge- have been distributed among the letters of the alphabet which follow that prefix, and the sign + has been employed instead of ge- in order to make the break in alphabetical continuity as little apparent to the eye as possible. The sign ± has been used where a word occurs both with and without the prefix.

3. References to Cook’s translation of Sievers’ Anglo-Saxon Grammar, and to the Grammatical Introduction to Sweet’s Reader have been taken out, as Wright’s or Wyatt’s Old English Grammar will have taken their place with most English students.

4. A new feature which, it is hoped, will prove widely useful, is the introduction of references to all, or nearly all, the headings in the New English Dictionary under which quotations from Anglo-Saxon texts are to be found. A vast mass of valuable information as to the etymology, meaning and occurrence of Old English words is contained in that Dictionary, but is to a very large extent overlooked because it is to be found under the head of words which are now obsolete, so that unless one happens to know what was the last form which they had in Middle English, one does not know how to get at it. This information will be made readily available by the references in the present work, which will form a practically complete index to the Anglo-Saxon material in the larger dictionary and will at the same time put the student on the track of interesting Middle English examples of the use of Old English words. Besides directing the reader (by means of quotation marks) to the heading in the New English Dictionary where the relevant matter may be found, an indication has been given of the vi texts from which quotations are made therein, when these do not exceed four or five1.

5. There have been many valuable contributions to Anglo-Saxon lexicography (by Napier, Swaen, Schlütter, Förster, Wülfing and others) since the first edition of this Dictionary appeared, and these have been made use of, but (as before) unglossaried matter has not been systematically searched for words not hitherto recorded in Anglo-Saxon Dictionaries2.

6. The number of references to passages has been very largely increased. All words occurring only in poetical texts have been marked. If they occur more than once they bear the sign †, if only once, a reference to the passage is generally given. If not they are marked ‡. As regards prose texts, the rule has been only to give references to particular passages in the case of rare words,—more especially ἅπαξ λεγόμενα. The references to AO, CP and Æ which were given in the earlier edition have been retained, as a useful indication that the word occurs in Early West Saxon or Late West Saxon prose, as the case may be.

7. By various devices it has been found possible, while much increasing the amount of matter in the book, to add very slightly to the number of pages, and at the same time to reduce the number of columns on a page from three to two. Most of these devices are more or less mechanical, but one method of saving space may be mentioned. Certain compound words, descriptive of places, which, as far as I know, occur only in charters and which may often be more correctly regarded as proper nouns, have not been separately inserted. Their meaning can however always be ascertained by referring to their components, and where the abbreviation Mdf is inserted the reader will understand that examples of words so compounded, or of the components, or of both, will be found in Birch’s Cartularium Saxonicum, or in Earle’s Land Charters, and that references to those examples are given in Middendorff’s Altenglisches Flurnamenbuch.

8. In the List of Abbreviations, etc. at the commencement of the book, editions of texts which are furnished with a glossary have been specially indicated.

J. R. C. H.

January, 1916.

1. As regards the letter W and some small parts of other letters which have not yet appeared in the NED, a reference has been given to its abridgement (The Concise Oxford Dictionary).

2. The part of the Supplement to ‘Bosworth-Toller’ which has already appeared shows that Professor Toller is examining such matter with great care and thoroughness.



Note 1. Where references are in italic type, quotations from the texts indicated will be found in the New English Dictionary, under the head of the English word which is distinguished in the article by quotation marks (see Preface). In references to special passages volumes have been marked off from pages by an inverted full stop, and lines or verses have been shown, where they follow other numerals, by small superior figures. Occasionally where lines have not been given, the mark ´ has been inserted to show that the quotation is in the lower half of a page.

Note 2. In the following list the number (1) after an edition of a text indicates that the edition is supplied with a complete referenced glossary or word-index, (2) that it has a complete glossary, but without references and (3) that it has a partial glossary or word-index.

Note 3. Some of the abbreviations given below are used in combination. Examples: MtLR = the Lindisfarne and Rushworth MSS of St Matthew; BJPs = the Bosworth and the Junius Psalters; asf. = accusative singular feminine. EK = Early Kentish.

Sources and Grammatical Terms:
A   B   C   DE   FG   HIJ   KL   M   NO   PQR   STU   VWZ

‘ ’ Quotation marks are used to enclose the English words which should be looked up in the NED in order to find etymological information as to, and examples of the use of, the Anglo-Saxon words to which the articles in this Dictionary relate, see Note 1 above. If they enclose Latin words, they indicate the lemmata of Anglo-Saxon words in glosses or glossaries etc., or the Latin equivalent of such words in the Latin texts from which they are translated. The Latin is especially so given when the Ags. word seems to be merely a blindly mechanical and literal equivalent.

* is prefixed or affixed to hypothetical forms. Normalised forms of Ags. words which actually exist are not usually so marked.

´ See Note 1 above.

+ = ge-.

± indicates that the Ags. word to which it is prefixed is found both with and without the prefix ge-.

† = occurs in poetical texts only.

‡ = occurs in a poetical text, and once only.

== This sign is used to indicate that the words which it follows, and its compounds, are to be found in the Dictionary under the heading given after it, thus meht == miht is equivalent to meht = miht and meht- = miht-.

The printed book used the symbol [symbol]. Since this is not readily available, a doubled equals sign == has been substituted.

a. = accusative.

A = Anglian, or, if followed by numerals, Anglia, Zeitschrift für Englische Philologie, Halle, 1877 etc. AB = Anglia Beiblatt.

Æ = Ælfric. (References followed by numerals in parentheses refer to certain Homilies attributed to Ælfric in HL.) If followed by a book of the Bible the reference is to that book in Ælfric de vetere et novo Testamento (Bibl. der Ags. Prosa, vol. 1).

ÆGr = Ælfric’s Grammatik und Glossar, ed. J. Zupitza, Berlin, 1880.

ÆH = Ælfric’s Homilies, ed. by B. Thorpe, London, 1844-6. (Quoted by vol., page and line.)

ÆL = Ælfric’s Metrical Lives of Saints, ed. W. W. Skeat (EETS), 1881-1900 (3).

ÆP = Ælfric’s Hirtenbriefe (Ælfric’s Pastoral Letters), ed. B. Fehr, Hamburg, 1914 (Bibl. der Ags. Prosa, vol. 9).

AF = Anglistische Forschungen, ed. J. Hoops, Heidelberg.

Alm = the poem on Alms, in Gr.

An = the poem of Andreas, in Gr; or ed. G. P. Krapp, Boston, U.S.A., 1905 (1).

Andr = the prose legend of St Andrew, in J. W. Bright’s Anglo-Saxon Reader, London, 1892 (1).

ANS = Herrig’s Archiv für das Studium der neueren Sprachen, Brunswick, 1846-1914.

AnT = Analecta Anglo-saxonica by B. Thorpe, London, 1846 (2).

anv. = anomalous verb.


AO = Alfred’s translation of Orosius, ed. H. Sweet (EETS), 1883. (v. also Wfg.)

Ap = the poem of the Fate of the Apostles, in Gr; or included with Andreas in Krapp’s edition (v. An).

APs = the Arundel Psalter, ed. G. Oess (AF vol. 30), Heidelberg, 1910.

ApT = Anglo-Saxon version of Apollonius of Tyre, ed. B. Thorpe, London, 1834.

AS = King Alfred’s version of Augustine’s Soliloquies, ed. H. L. Hargrove (Yale Studies in Old English), Boston, U.S.A., 1912 (1). See also Shr.

Az = the poem of Azarias, in Gr.

B = the poem of Beowulf, in Gr; also ed. A. J. Wyatt and R. W. Chambers, Cambridge, 1914 (1); or ed. W. J. Sedgefield, Manchester, 1912 (1); or ed. Harrison and Sharp, Boston, U.S.A., 1888 (1).

Bas = The Admonition of St Basil, ed. H. W. Norman, London, 1840.

BB = Bonner Beiträge zur Anglistik, ed. M. Trautmann.

BC = Cartularium Saxonicum, ed. W. de Gray Birch, London, 1883 etc., 3 vols.

Bd = Bede.

BDS = Beiträge zur Geschichte der deutschen Sprache, ed. E. Sievers, Leipzig, 1874-1914.

BH = the Anglo-Saxon version of Bede’s Ecclesiastical History, 2 vols., ed. T. Miller (EETS), 1891-6. (Reference is usually made to the pages in vol. 1 as regards the various readings recorded in vol. 2—not to the pages in the latter vol.)

Bk = Texte und Untersuchungen zur AE Literatur, etc., by R. Brotanek, Halle, 1913.

Bl = The Blickling Homilies, ed. R. Morris (EETS), 1874-80 (1).

BlPs = Blickling Glosses to the Psalms, at the end of Bl.

Bo = King Alfred’s translation of Boethius, with the Metres of Boethius, ed. W. J. Sedgefield, Oxford, 1899 (1).

BPs = die AE Glossen im Bosworth-Psalter, ed. U. Lindelöf (Mémoires de la Soc. néo-philologique à Helsingfors, tom. 5), 1909 (3).

BR = An Anglo-Saxon Reader, ed. J. W. Bright, New York, 1913 or London, 1910 (1).

Br = the poem of Brunanburh, in Gr or †Chr.

BT = An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary, by J. Bosworth and T. N. Toller, Oxford, 1882-98. BTSup. = the Supplement to the above, Part I (A-EORÐ), 1908.

CC = The Crawford Charters, ed. by A. S. Napier and W. H. Stevenson (Anecdota Oxoniensia), Oxford, 1895.

CD = the Codex Diplomaticus, ed. Kemble.

This citation occurs a few times in error for the author’s normal form, KC.

Chr = Two of the Saxon Chronicles Parallel, ed. J. Earle and C. Plummer, Oxford, 1892 (1). The poetical passages are marked †Chr.

CM = the tract ‘de Consuetudine Monachorum,’ in Anglia, vol. 13, pp. 365-454.

Cos = Altwestsächsische Grammatik, by P. J. Cosijn, Haag, 1888.

cp. = compare.

CP = King Alfred’s trans. of Gregory’s Pastoral Care, ed. H. Sweet (EETS), London, 1871.

Cp = the Corpus Glossary, in OET, or in WW (cols. 1-54) or (if the numbers are followed by a letter), in A Latin-Anglo-Saxon Glossary, ed. by J. H. Hessels, Cambridge, 1890 (1).

CPs = Der Cambridge-Psalter, ed. K. Wildhagen, Bibl. der Ags. Prosa, vol. 7, Hamburg, 1910. (CHy = Cambridge Hymns in the same vol.) (3)

Cr = the poem of Crist, in Gr.

Cra = the poem of Men’s Crafts, in Gr.

Creat = the poem of the Creation, in Gr.

Ct = Charters, wills and other like documents, as contained in BC, CC, EC, KC and TC.

d. = dative.   dp. = dat. pl.   ds. = dat. singular; etc.

Da = the poem of Daniel, in Gr; or ed. T. W. Hunt (Exodus and Daniel), Boston, 1885.

DD = the poem ‘Be Dōmes Dæge’ (‘de die judiciæ’), ed. J. R. Lumby (EETS), London, 1876 (1); or in Gr (vol. 2, pp. 250-272).

Deor = the poem of Deor’s Complaint, in Gr and Kl.

DHy = the Durham Hymnarium, ed. J. Stevenson (Surtees Society, vol. 23), London, 1851. (Gl, by H. W. Chapman, Yale Studies, No. 24, Boston, 1905.)

Dom = the poem ‘Be Dōmes Dæge’ from the Exeter Book, in Gr (Vol. 3, pp. 171-4).

DR = the Durham Ritual, ed. T. Stevenson (Surtees Society), London, 1840. Lines of Anglo-Saxon only counted. [Gl by Uno Lindelöf, Bonn, 1901 (BB vol. 9).]

Du. = Dutch.

E = Early.

EC = Land Charters and other Saxonic Documents, ed. John Earle, Oxford, 1888 (3).

EETS = Early English Text Society’s Publications.

EK = Early Kentish.

El = the poem of Elene, in Gr; or ed. Kent, Boston, 1889.


Ep = the Epinal Gloss., in OET.

EPs = Eadwine’s Canterbury Psalter, ed. F. Harsley, EETS, London, 1889. (EHy = Hymns in the same vol.)

Erf = the Erfurt Gloss., in OET.

ES = Englische Studien, Heilbronn and Leipzig, 1876-1914.

EWS = Early West Saxon.

Ex = the poem of Exodus, in Gr or in Hunt’s edition (v. Da). If followed by two kinds of numerals = Exodus in Ælfric de vetere et novo Testamento in the Bibl. der Ags. Prosa, Vol. 1, Cassel, 1872.

exc. = except.

f. = feminine.   fp. = fem. plural.

FAp = the poem ‘Fata Apostolorum,’ in Gr.

FBO = Das Benediktiner Offizium, ed. E. Feiler (AF vol. 4), Heidelberg, 1901.

Fin = the poem of Finnsburg, in Gr, and most editions of Beowulf.

FM = The Furnivall Miscellany, Oxford, 1901.

FT = the poem ‘A Father’s Teachings,’ in Gr.

g. = genitive.   gs. = gen. singular.   gp. = gen. pl.; etc.

G = the Anglo-Saxon Gospels, ed. W. W. Skeat, Cambridge, 1871-87. See also LG, NG, RG, WG. (Gl to WG by M. A. Harris, Yale Studies, vol. 6, Boston, 1899.)

GD = Die Dialoge Gregors den Grossen, ed. Hans Hecht (Bibl. der Ags. Prosa, vol. 5), Cassel, 1900-1907.

Gen = the poem of Genesis, in Gr. If followed by two kinds of numerals = Genesis in Ælfric de vetere et novo testamento (Bibl. der Ags. Prosa, vol. 1, Cassel, 1872).

Ger. = German.

GK = Grein’s Sprachschatz der Ags. Dichter, revised by Köhler and Holthausen, Heidelberg, 1912. (A complete referenced glossary to Gr.)

Gl = Glossary. Used also as a comprehensive sign for all or any of the extant Anglo-Saxon glosses or glossaries: Cp, Ep, Erf, GPH, HGl, KGl, Ln, OEG, WW etc.

Gn = The Gnomic Verses in Gr. GnE = those in the Exeter Book and GnC those in the Cotton MS. Separate edition also by B. C. Williams, New York, 1914 (1).

GPH = Prudentius Glosses, contributed by A. Holder to Germania, Vierteljahrsschrift für deutsche Altertumskunde, vol. 11 (ns).

Gr = Bibliothek der Angelsächs. Poesie, ed. C. W. M. Grein and revised by R. P. Wülker, Cassel, 1883-98.

Gu = the poem of St Guthlac, in Gr.

Guth = the (prose) Life of St Guthlac, ed. C. W. Goodwin, London, 1848 (pp. 8-98), or ed. P. Gonser (AF vol. 27), Heidelberg, 1909 (pp. 100-176).

Hell = the poem of Hell, in Gr.

Hept = The Heptateuchus, etc., Anglo-Saxonice, ed. Edw. Thwaites, Oxford, 1698.

Hex = The Hexameron of St Basil, ed. H. W. Norman, London, 1849.

HGl = Glosses in (Haupt’s) Zeitschrift für deutsches Altertum, vol. 9 (1853).

HL = Homilien und Heiligendleben, ed. B. Assmann, Bibl. der Ags. Prosa, vol. 3, Cassel, 1889. v. also Æ and Shr, (3).

Hu = the poem ‘The Husband’s Message,’ in Gr.

Hy = the collection of ‘Hymns’ at the end of most of the Ags. versions of the Psalms. v. the various Psalters (Ps). [The numbering of verses etc. usually follows that in Wildhagen’s Cambridge Psalter (CPs).]

i. = instrumental (case).

IM = ‘Indicia Monasterialia,’ ed. F. Kluge, in Techmer’s Internationale Zeitschrift für allgemeine Sprachwissenschaft, vol. 2, Leipzig, 1885.

intr. = intransitive.

JAW = Eigentümlichkeiten des Anglischen Wortschatzes, by R. Jordan (AF vol. 17), Heidelberg, 1906

JGPh = Journal of (English and) Germanic Philology, Urbana, Ill.

Jn = the Gospel of St John. v. G and NG (JnL = Lindisfarne MS; JnR = Rushworth MS, v. LG, RG).

JPs = der Junius-Psalter, ed. E. Brenner (AF vol. 23), Heidelberg, 1909 (JHy = the Hymns in the same vol.).

Jud = the poem of Judith, in Gr, or ed. A. S. Cook, Boston, 1889 (1).

Jul = the poem of Juliana, in Gr.

K = Kentish.

KC = Codex Diplomaticus Aevi Saxonici, ed. J. M. Kemble, 6 vols., London, 1839-48.

KGl = Kentish Glosses to the Proverbs of Solomon (= WW 55-88, or, if quoted by number, in Kl).

Kl = Angelsächsisches Lesebuch, by F. Kluge, 3rd edition, Halle, 1902 (2).

KlED = F. Kluge’s Etymologisches Wörterbuch, 7th edition, 1910, or J. F. Davis’ translation, London, 1891.

L. = Latin.

Lcd = Leechdoms, Wortcunning and Starcraft of the Anglo-Saxons, ed. O. Cockayne, London, 3 vols., Rolls Series, 1864-66 (vol. 2, and pp. 1-80 of vol. 3 are referred to by the folio of the MS, so that the references may x also be available for G. Leonhardi’s edition of that part of the Lcd, in the Bibl. der Ags. Prosa, vol. 6) (3).

Leas = the poem ‘Be manna lease,’ in Gr.

Leo = Leo’s Angelsächsiches Glossar. Halle, 1877.

Listing added by transcriber; used only in first edition.

LG = the Lindisfarne Gospels, in Skeat’s ed. of the Anglo-Saxon Gospels (v. G). (Glossary by A. S. Cook, Halle, 1894.) LRG = Lindisfarne and Rushworth Gospels. v. RG.

Lieb. = F. Liebermann (v. LL).

Lk = the Gospel of St Luke. v. G and NG (LkL = Lindisfarne MS; LkR = Rushworth MS; v. LG, RG).

LL = the Anglo-Saxon Laws, as contained in Liebermann, Schmid or Thorpe. If followed by numerals not in parentheses, or only partially in parentheses, the reference is to ‘Die Gesetze der Angelsachsen,’ by F. Liebermann, 2 vols., Halle, 1903-12 (1); if by numerals entirely in parentheses, to vol. 2 of ‘Ancient Laws and Institutes,’ by B. Thorpe, 2 vols., London, 1840 (3).

Ln = the Leiden Glossary, ed. J. H. Hessels, Cambridge, 1906 (1).

Lor = the Lorica Hymn, in Kleinere angelsächsische Denkmäler, by G. Leonhardi (Bibl. der Ags. Prosa, vol. 6), Hamburg, 1905.

LPs = Der Lambeth-Psalter, ed. U. Lindelöf, Acta Soc. Sc. Fennicae, vol. 35, Helsingfors, 1909 (1). (LHy = the Hymns in the same vol.)

LWS = Late West Saxon.

LV = Leofric’s Vision, ed. A. S. Napier, in the Transactions of the Philological Society for 1907-10, pp. 180-188.

M = Mercian.

m. = masculine.   ms., mp., etc. = masc. sing., masc. plur., etc.

Ma = the poem of the Battle of Maldon, in Gr, also in Br, Kl or Sweet’s Anglo-Saxon Reader, Oxford.

Mdf = Altenglisches Flurnamenbuch, by H. Middendorff, Halle, 1902. [See Preface.]

Men = the Menologium, at the end of Chr.

Met = the Metres of Boethius; v. Bo.

MF = Festschrift für L. Morsbach (Studien zur Eng. Philologie, vol. 50), Halle, 1913.

MFH = Homilies in MF, ed. Max Förster.

MH = An Old English Martyrology, ed. G. Herzfeld (EETS), London, 1900. See also Shr.

MHG. = Middle High German.

Listing added by transcriber.

Mk = the Gospel of St Mark; v. G and NG. (MkL = Lindisfarne MS; MkR = Rushworth MS of St Mark; v. LG, RG.)

MLA = Publications of the Modern Language Association of America, Baltimore.

MLN = Modern Language Notes, Baltimore, 1886-1914.

Mod = the poem ‘Bi Manna Mōd,’ in Gr.

MP = Modern Philology, Chicago, 1903-1914.

Mt = the Gospel of St Matthew; v. G and NG. (MtL = Lindisfarne MS; MtR = Rushworth MS of St Matthew; v. LG, RG.)

n. = nominative, or neuter, or note. (np., nap., etc. = nom. plural, nom. and acc. plur., etc.)

N = Northumbrian.

Nar = Narratiunculae, ed. O. Cockayne, London, 1861.

NC = Contributions to Old English Lexicography by A. Napier, in the Philological Society’s Transactions for 1903-1906, London (mostly late texts).

NED = the New English Dictionary, ed. Sir J. A. H. Murray and others, Oxford, 1888-1915. (See Preface, and Note 1.)

neg. = negative.

NG = the Northumbrian Gospels, contained in Skeat’s edition (v. G, LG, RG).

Nic = the Gospel of Nicodemus, in Hept; or in MLA 13·456-541. (The references to passages are always to the latter edition.)

NR = The Legend of the Cross (Rood-tree), ed. A. S. Napier, EETS, London, 1894.

obl. = oblique.

occl. = occasional, occasionally.

OEG = Old English Glosses, ed. A. Napier (Anecdota Oxoniensia), Oxford, 1900 (1).

OET = The Oldest English Texts, ed. H. Sweet, EETS, 1885 (1).

OF. = Old French.

Rare, but always “OFr.” in text.

OHG. = Old High German.

ON. = Old Norse.

OS. = Old Saxon.

p. = page, or plural.

Pa = the poem of the Panther, in Gr.

Part = the poem of the Partridge, in Gr.

Ph = the poem of the Phoenix, in Gr or BR.

pl. = plural.

PPs = the Paris Psalter, ed. B. Thorpe, London, 1835. The prose portion (Psalms 1-50) also ed. Bright and Ramsay, Belles Lettres Series, Boston, 1907, and the remainder (verse portion) in Gr.

Ps = any one or more of the Anglo-Saxon Psalters. [NB. In the numbering of the Psalms, the Authorised Version is usually one ahead of the MSS.] v. A, B, C, E, J, L, R, S and VPs; also Hy.

The occasional form Pss was retained. It may be either an error for Ps or short for “several Psalters”. In the one OED reference, two Psalters are quoted.


PST = Philological Society’s Transactions (v. also LV and NC).

QF = Mone, Quellen u. Forschungen zur Geschichte der teutschen Lit. u. Sprache, Aachen und Leipzig, 1830.

RB = der Benedictinregel, ed. A. Schröer, Bibl. der Ags. Prosa, vol. 2, Cassel, 1885-8 (3).

RBL = the Anglo-Saxon and Latin Rule of St Benet (Interlinear Glosses), ed. H. Logeman, EETS, London, 1888.

Rd = The Riddles of the Exeter Book, in Gr, or ed. F. Tupper Junr., Boston, 1910 (1).

RG = the Rushworth Gospels, in Skeat’s ed. of the Anglo-Saxon Gospels (v. G). Mt (all), Mk 1-215 and Jn 181-3 are in a Mercian dialect, and are usually known as R1; the rest (R2) is in a Northumbrian dialect (v. also LG). Glossary to R1 by Ernst Schulte, Bonn, 1904; to R2 by U. Lindelöf, Helsingfors, 1897.

Rim = the Riming Poem, in Gr.

Listing added by transcriber. The Riming Poem is included in Grein along with many other texts from its original source, the Exeter MS.

Rood = the poem ‘Dream of the Rood,’ in Gr.

RPs = der Regius-Psalter, ed. F. Roeder (Studien in Eng. Philologie, vol. 18), Halle, 1904. (RHy = the Hymns in the same vol.)

RSL = Transactions of the Royal Society of Literature, London.

Ruin = the poem of the Ruin, in Gr.

Run = the Rune-poem, in Gr.

s. = strong; also = singular.   sv. = strong verb.   swv. = strong-weak verb.

Sat = the poem ‘Christ and Satan,’ in Gr.

sb. = substantive.

Sc = Defensor’s Liber Scintillarum, ed. E. Rhodes, EETS, London, 1889 (3).

Seaf = the poem of the Seafarer, in Gr.

sg. = singular.

Shr = the Shrine by O. Cockayne, London, 1864-70 [pp. 29-33 and 46-156 = MH; pp. 35-44 = HL pp. 199-207; pp. 163-204 = AS].

SHy = Surtees Hymnarium = DHy.

SkED = An Etymological English Dictionary by W. W. Skeat, Oxford, 1910.

Sol = the poem Solomon and Saturn, in Gr (if in italics, the reference is sometimes to the prose version, ed. J. M. Kemble).

Soul = the poem of the Soul, in Gr.

SPs = Psalterium Davidis Latino-Saxonicum, ed. J. Spelman, London, 1640. (Stowe MS, but includes marginal readings from APs, CPs and EPs.)

Swt. = The Student’s Dictionary of Anglo-Saxon by H. Sweet, Oxford, 1897.

TC = Diplomatarium Ævi Saxonici, ed. B. Thorpe, London, 1865 (3).

tr. = transitive.

usu. = usual, usually.

v. = vide, or very.

v.l. = varia lectio.

VPs = the Vespasian Psalter, as contained in OET (1). [VHy = Hymns at the end of the Psalter.] Glossary also by Conrad Grimm (AF, vol. 18), Heidelberg, 1906.

V2Ps = Psalter-Glosses in Cotton Vitellius E 18 (noted by Wildhagen in CPs).

w. = with.

W = (I) Wulfstan’s Homilies, ed. A. Napier, Berlin, 1883. Glossary by L. H. Dodd, New York, 1908. (II) West Saxon.

Wa = the poem of the Wanderer, in Gr.

Wald = the poem of Waldhere, in Gr.

Wfg = die Syntax in den Werken Alfreds, by J. E. Wülfing, Bonn, 1894-1901 (copious material, and indexes to words in AO, BH, Bo, CP, AS, PPs, etc.).

WG = West Saxon Gospels (v. G).

Whale = the poem of the Whale, in Gr.

Wid = the poem of Widsith, in Gr, or ed. R. F. Chambers, Cambridge, 1912.

Wif = the poem of ‘the Wife’s Complaint,’ in Gr.

WS = West Saxon.

Wt = An Old English Grammar by J. and E. M. Wright, 2nd edition, Oxford, 1914.

WW = Old English Vocabularies, ed. by T. Wright and R. P. Wülker, London, 1884. Cols. 1-54 = Cp; 55-88 = KGl; pp. 89-103 = Colloq. Monast. in NED.

Wy = the poem ‘Be manna wyrdum’ in Gr.

ZDA = Zeitschrift für deutsches Altertum, Leipzig and Berlin, 1853-1914.

ZDPh = Zeitschrift für deutsche Philologie, Halle, 1869-1914.



This section is included for completeness. All changes have been made in the text. Corrections are marked with mouse-hover popups, while additions are shown as outlined words or paragraphs.

ābrytan...SPs should be ābrȳtan...EPs.

ācweorran: for SPs read ELPs.

æfest: for Ei read El.

æfgerefa: for LkL 1242 read LkL 1258.

æfterlēan: add Gen 76.

ælmesfeoh: add LL.

ærendung: add RB.

æscwiga: forread †.

āfaran: add Da 6.

āgniend: possession should be possessor.

āgniendlīc should be āgniendlic.

āgryndan: add Men 111.

āhwylfan: add to roll to MP 1·592.

antemnere, antifonere (ÆP 1546) = antefnere.

āsanian: add LV 57.

āsprēadan: for CSPs read EPs.

āstīgnes: for SPs read EPs.

ātilian should be ātillan.

ātlēag: add EC 4489.

ātorgeblǣd n. swelling caused by poison, Lcd 162b.

āðecgan: add oppress? (Tupper) Rd 12,7.

āðynnian: for VHy read DHy 810.

āwarnian: read (APs) = āswārnian.

+bearded having a beard, GD 27914.

besārgung: strike out sorrowing, VHy.

besceawere: for VHy read DHy 2415.

besencan: add plunge into (fire), GD 317.

bīegan: add +bȳged bowed down, infirm, Nic 47129.

blīðe: add (+b. occurs at Guth 1619).

crūc: add LV 74.

cwēme- = cwēm-

+dal n. part, GD 31111.

dalmatice: omit ? and add GD 32934.

+drēog II.: add gentle (horse), GD 7812.

ēðian should be ±ēðian.

+fadung: add rule, dominion.

fǣmne(n)dlic (GD) = fǣmnhādlic

fǣrærning f. quick marching, GD 1424.

fæsting f. read commendation, trust, guardianship, GD 23915; LL 58[17].

fæstnung: add exhortation, MkL p25: monument, MtL p54; Mk 55.

fantbletsung f. consecration of water for baptism, ÆP 18812.

feohtling: add MP 1·610.

ferhtlic: add PPs 9510.

feriend: add Sol 80.

flogettan: substitute to fly, flutter, Sc; GD 10019.

folclic: add worldly, secular, GD 20913.

fordēmednes: add GD 3453.

forecweden aforesaid, GD 12; 344.

forehūs: add LV 33.

forewītung should be forewitung.

forlætednes (GD 22716) = forlætennes

forrǣda? m. traitor, plotter, MP 1·592.

forsegenlic (GD 23321) = forsewenlic

forðfromung: for CSVPs read CVPs.

forðman: add NC 289.

forððēon to profit (‘proficere’), GD 200.

fullfremed: add -līce after adv.

fullhāl thoroughly well, GD 2481.

fyrdgestealla, fyrdgetrum: add †.

+gang: add passage (lapse) of time, GD 17910.

geadrung f. text, MtL p817.

geancyme: delete second line of article.

gearowyrdig: add Mod 51.

gēodæd: add †.

geondflōwende ebbing and flowing, OEG 2363.

geondlācan: add Ph 70.

geondsendan: omit †.

gest-: for gǣst- read gæst-

giestran: add Rd 4144.

glæsfæt: add GD 1016.

glōmung: for VHy read DHy; GD.

godwebben: add GD 1761.

hæftnīednes: add GD 34622.

±hæftnīedan should be +hæftnīedan.

hālettan should be ±hālettan.

heals-iendlic, -igendlic: for SPs 8913 read APs 8913: imploring, GD 1723.

hellegæst: strike out †.

hellegeat: add MP 1·610.

hellestōw f. infernal region, hell, GD 33210.

hīwcuðlic: add familiar, GD 32.

hnep (GD 18627) = hnæpp

horsðegn: add muleteer, GD 19123.

hrēðnes: add ÆP 13623.

hūselbox receptacle of the host, ÆP 1786.

hwīlsticce: add GD 25424.

+hyldelic secure, safe, GD 34810.

+īeðan: add compassionate, GD 216(ȳ).

Additional references to the NED:—bebodbibod’; belūcanbelouke’; cempakemp’; cennanken’; clipungcleping’; cnæppknap’; dihteredighter’; dracadrake’; dysgiandizzy’; fǣcnefaken’; forhogianforhow’; forwiernanforwarn’; gafolgavel’; glēawglew’; heononhen’; hlēolee’; hliehhanlaugh’; hrēofreof’; hryrerure’; huruhure’; ierreirre’; lūtanlout

Transcriber’s Notes:


Underlining in the Dictionary

All underlining was added by the transcriber. You will see the following forms:

errors noted by transcriber

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Errors and Inconsistencies

For errors corrected by the author, see the Additions and Corrections section; for errors in cross-references, see below.

Errors in Anglo-Saxon words were treated more conservatively than those in the modern text. The most common change was adding or removing a macron in cross-references:

Printed text
mēs (K) = mȳs, v. mus.

Cross-referenced entry
mūs f. gs. mūs, mūse, nap. mȳs ‘mouse,’ ...

Since both headwords have a long vowel, the cross-reference was changed to match.

Most errors are trivial, such as missing or incorrect punctuation or misplaced italics. The word “invisible” in corrections means that there is an appropriately sized blank space in the printed text. Punctuation at the end of entries was silently regularized, and missing or invisible periods (full stops) after standard abbreviations such as “m.” or “pl.” were silently supplied. Other errors are shown in the text with mouse-hover popups.

Alphabetization in the Dictionary

Unless otherwise noted, words are spelled and alphabetized as originally printed. Note in particular:

The letter æ is alphabetized as ae.

The letter ð (eth) is alphabetized separately after t.

The letters j and v are not used.

When two words are otherwise identical, the one containing a macron is generally alphabetized second.


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Cross-references are shown as printed. When there is an error or ambiguity, correc­tions are shown in mouse-hover popups with these standard wordings:

under “mūs”
The referenced word is either a secondary entry or a parenthesized alternative spelling in the form “mūs (ȳ)”

headword spelled “mūs”
Minor difference, generally an added or omitted macron or a predictable vowel variation such as ī for ȳ.

form of “mūs”
The referenced word is an inflected form. A few very common patterns such as adverbs in “-līce” listed under adjectives in “-lic” are not individually noted.

redirected to “mūs”
The cross-referenced form leads to further cross-references.

Most errors are minor lapses in editing. More complicated errors, such as references to words that could not be found in the Dictionary, are explained in separate paragraphs immediately following the entry.

Technical Note

Anchors of Dictionary headwords are in the form word_entry (lower case) with these modifications:

— The letters æ and ð have been “unpacked” to ae and th: æfðanc = word_aefthanc

— Long vowels are written with q, since this letter does not otherwise occur: ham, hām = word_ham, word_haqm. Long ǣ is aeq (aē does not occur).

— Medial hyphens were omitted. Entries with final hyphen, for spelling variations, are generally not linked; when necessary, the final hyphen was changed to a line _.

— When necessary to resolve ambiguity, initial + or ± is included in the anchor as ge_.

— Headwords with multiple definitions are identified by Roman numeral matching the text: ham ... II. ... III. = word_ham_ii, word_ham_iii.


In references to the OED (“New English Dictionary”), printed as italicized English words in ‘single quotes’, hyphen­ization does not always correspond to the OED form. These incon­sistencies were left as printed; words split at line-end were not generally checked against their OED form.

Beginning of these notes
Beginning of this file

a prep. [= on] on, at, in, to, for.

ā I. (āwa, ō) adv. always, ever, at all, continuously, for ever, Æ, AO, CP. ā on ēcnisse; ā butan ende world without end: at any time: in any degree. [ON. ei, ey]

II. f. = ǣ

ā- (unemphatic verbal prefix); I. orig. = forth, away, but as a rule only intensitive in meaning.

II. = on-

III. ym(b)-

IV. = ā (I.) in pronouns and participles, and gives a sense of indefiniteness.

V. = ǣ-

āǣlan = onǣlan

āǣðan = āīeðan

āb = ōweb

ābacan6 to bake, ÆH 2·2689.

ābǣdan to compel, restrain, ward off: exact, take toll: force out, extract.

ābæligan = ǣbylgan

ābǣran to disclose, bring to light, DD 41.

ābære (W 27424) = ǣbære

ābærnan = onbærnan

abal (Gen 500) = afol

ābannan7 to summon, convoke, command: announce, proclaim. ā. ūt call out, assemble, Chr. [‘abanne’]

ābarian to lay bare, disclose.

abbad, abbod, abbot == abbud

abbud (a, o) m. ‘abbot,’ BH, Chr; Æ. [L. abbatem]

abbuddōm m. abbatial jurisdiction, BH.

abbudesse f. abbess, Chr.

abbudhād m. abbatial rank, dignity, LL.

abbudlēast f. lack of an abbot, BC 1·155´.

abbudrīce (o) n. abbey, abbacy, office or jurisdiction of an abbot (used even of a convent of nuns).

ābēatan7 to beat, strike, break to pieces, make to fall, Cr. [‘abeat’]

ābēcēdē f. ABC, alphabet.

ābedecian (eðe-) to get by begging or asking, Bo 7112.

abedisse = abbudesse

ābēgan = ābȳgan

ābelgan3 to make angry, irritate, offend, Sol; Æ, AO, CP: hurt, distress: be angry with. [‘abelgen’]

ābēodan2 to order, proclaim, bid, command, direct: summon, call out: announce, relate, declare, present, offer, AO; Æ. hǣl ā. to wish one good luck, greet, bid farewell to. [‘abede’]


ābeofian = ābifian

ābēogan = ābūgan

ābeornan3 to take fire, PPs 10516.

ābēowan (WW 21746) = ābȳwan

āberan4 to bear, carry: endure, suffer, Mt, Bo; Æ, CP: bear (a child), Æ: take away, remove: reveal: (refl.) restrain oneself: do without, NC 268.

ā-berd, -bered crafty, cunning.

āberendlic bearable.

ābernan (N) = ābeornan

āberstan3 to burst out, break out, Æ, CP: break away, escape. ūt ā. break out.

ābeðecian = ābedecian

ābicgan = ābycgan

ābīdan1 toabide,’ wait, remain, delay, remain behind, AO: survive: wait for, await, Æ: expect, Mt 113.

ābiddan5 to ask for, request, require, demand, pray, pray to, pray for, Æ: get by asking, obtain, Æ, AO, CP: call out (an army).

ābifian (eo) to tremble, quake, shake.

ābilgð, ābilhð = ǣbylgð

ābiran = āberan

ābiring = ābyrging

ābisg-, ābiseg- = ābysg-

ābītan1 to bite in pieces, tear to pieces, devour, gnaw, Æ, AO: taste, partake of, consume.

ābit(e)rian to turn bitter, CP 34124: embitter.

ābitt = ābit

ābītt = ābīt

The first edition gives “ābit” as a form of ābiddan, “ābīt” as a form of ābīdan or ābītan.

āblācian to become pale, grow faint: become tarnished, CP 1352.

āblǣcan to bleach, whiten, BJPs 509.

āblǣcnes f. pallor, gloom, Lcd 1·294.

āblǣcung f. pallor, HGl 518.

āblǣst inspired, furious.

āblāwan1 to blow, blow away, breathe upon, Æ: puff up, swell, Lcd 93b. [‘ablow’]

āblāw-nes, -ung f. inflation, Lcd.

āblegned ulcerated, Lcd.

āblendan to blind, put out the eyes of, Æ, CP: dazzle, deceive, delude, Æ. [‘ablend’]

āblēred bare, uncovered, bald. [blēre]

āblīcan1 to shine, glitter.

āblicgan = āblycgan

āblignes = ǣbylgnes

āblindan to make blind, Bl 1514.

āblindian = āblendan

āblinnan3 to cease, leave off, desist, Æ, AO, CP.

āblinnednes f. cessation, interruption, A 5·465.

āblinnendlīce indefatigably, HGl 42932.

āblinnendnes = āblinnednes

āblisian (Æ) = āblysian


āblissian to make glad, please, GD 335n.

āblongen = ābolgen, pp. of ābelgan.

āblycgan (i) to grow pale, Æ: make afraid.

āblynnan = āblinnan

āblysian to blush.

āblysung f. blushing, shame, RB 13311.

ābodian to announce, proclaim, LkR 123.

ābolgennes f. irritation, WW 23019.

āborgian to be surety for, LL: (w. æt) borrow.

āborian = ābarian

ābracian to engrave, emboss.

ābrǣdan I. to spread out, dilate: stretch out, Æ.

II. bake, Lcd 44a.

ābraslian to crash, crackle, GD 23612.

ābrēac pret. 3 sg. of ābrūcan.

ābrēat pret. 3 sg. of ābrēotan.

ābrecan4 to break, break to pieces, break down, conquer, capture, violate, destroy, Æ, AO, CP: break away from.

ābrēdan3 to move quickly, draw, unsheath, wench, pull out, Mt: withdraw, take away, draw back, free from, Æ, AO. ūp ābroden drawn up, raised up: start up, awake. [‘abraid’]

ābredwian to lay low, kill, B 2619.

ābrēgan to alarm, terrify.

ābregdan = ābrēdan

ābrēotan2 to destroy, kill.

ābrēotnes f. extermination, OET 182.

ābrēoðan2 (intr.) to fail, decay, deteriorate, perish, be destroyed, Ma; Æ. ābroðen (pp.) degenerate, reprobate, ÆGr. (tr. and wk.) destroy. [v. ‘brethe’]

ābrerd- = onbryrd-

ābroðennes f. baseness, cowardice, W.

ābrūcan3 to eat, A 11·117.

ābryrd- = onbryrd-

ābrȳtan to destroy, EPs 369.

ābūfan (= on-) adv. above, Chr 1090e.

ābūgan2 (= on-) to bow, incline, bend, submit, do reverence, B, ChrL; Æ: swerve, turn (to or from), deviate, CP: withdraw, retire: be bent or turned, turn one’s self. [‘abow’]

ābunden unimpeded.

ābūrod not inhabited, TC 16228.

ābūtan, -būten, -būton. I. prep. acc. on, about, around, on the outside, round about, CP, ChrL, Æ.

II. adv. about, nearly, ChrC. [= onbūtan; ‘about’]

ābycgan to buy, pay for, requite: redeem: perform, execute.

ābyffan to mutter, WW 44724.

ābȳgan (ē) to bend, deflect: subdue, bring low: convert.

ābȳgendlic v. un-ā.

ābylg-, ābylig- = ǣbylg-

ā-byrgan, -byrian to taste, eat.

ābyrging (-iri-) f. taste.

ābysgian to busy, occupy, employ: engage in, undertake: take up, fill, GD.

ābysgung f. occupation: trouble.

ābȳwan (ēo) to rub off, polish, cleanse, purify.

ac I. conj. but: but also, moreover, nevertheless, however: because, for (?): and (?), An 569. ac gif unless, except, Bl 151. [Goth. 2b ak]

II. interrog. particle, why, wherefore, whether: in direct questions = L. nonne, numquid.

āc f. gds. and np. ǣc ‘oak,’ Æ, Ct, Lcd; Mdf: (‡) ship of oak: (w. nap. ācas) name of the rune for a. [OHG. eih]

ācǣgan = ācīgan

ācǣglodserratus,’ Nar 2026.

ācænn- = ācenn-

ācærran = ācirran

ācalan6 to become frost-bitten, Lcd 2b.

acan6 toache,’ suffer pain, Æ.

acas, acase f. (NG) = æcs

ācbēam m. oak-tree.

accent m. accent. [L.]

accutian ?= ācunnian

āccynn n. a kind of oak, WW 4306.

ācdrenc m. oak drink, drink made from acorns?, WW.

ace = ece

ācealdian to become cold, Æ, CP. [‘acold’]

ācēapian to buy off, buy out.

ācēlan to cool off, still, quiet, Met. [‘akele’]

ācelma = ǣcelma

ācen = ǣcen

ācennan to bring forth, produce, renew, Bo, WG; Æ: attribute to. [‘akenne(d)’]

ācennedlicgenuinus,’ native, OEG.

ācennednes (WG; Æ), -cennes (CP, NG; AO) f. birth. [‘akenn(ed)nes’]

ācennend m. parent, DR 19711.

ācennicge f. mother, DR.

ācenning f. birth, Bk 16.

ācēocian (tr.) to choke: (intr.) burn out.

ācēocung f. ‘ruminatio,’ WW 1792.

āceorfan3 to cut off, hew down, AO, CP. onweg ā. to cut away. of ā. to cut off, AO.

ācēosan2 to choose, AO, CP.

acer = æcer

ācerr- = ācirr-

ācīgan to call, summon.

ācirran (e, y) (tr.) to turn, turn away or aside: (intr.) turn oneself, go, return.

ācirrednes v. onweg-ā.

ācl = ācol

āclǣc == āglǣc

āclǣnsian to cleanse, purify, Æ.

āclēaf n. oak leaf, Lcd.

āclēofan2 to cleave, EC 35110.

ācleopian to call out, WW 3785.

+āclianto frighten, excite. [ācol]

āclungen contracted, WW 23937. [clingan]

ācmelu n. acorn meal, Lcd.

ācmistel f. mistletoe, Lcd.

ācn- = ēacn-

ācnāwan1 to know, recognise, understand.

ācnyssan to drive out, expel, SPs 3513.

ācofrian to recover, Lcd. [‘acover’]

ācolaffrighted, dismayed.

ācōlian to grow cold, CP.

ācolitus m. acolyte, LL [L.].

ācolmōdfearful minded, timid.

+ācolmōdian to cast down, sadden, WW 20916. [ācol]

ācordian to make terms, reconcile, Chr 1120.

ācorenlic eligible, worthy of choice, CP 40936.

ācostnian to try, test, prove, CM, WW.

ācræftan to think out, devise, AO 4629.

ācrammian to cram, WW 23610.

ācrēopian to creep, crawl, Æ.


ācrimman3 (y) to cram, stuff, WW.

ācrind f. oak bark, Lcd.

ācrummen pp. of ācrimman.

acs = æx

ācs- = āsc-

acse = asce

āctān m. oak-twig, Lcd.

āctrēo n. oak-tree, Wif 2836.

ācucian (Æ) = ācwician

ācul = ācol

ācuma (Æ) = ācumba

ācuman4 to come, come forth (from), Æ: bear, bring: endure, withstand, Æ: get to or from, reach, Gen. [‘acome’]

ācum-ba m., -be fn. ‘oakum,’ hards, tow, Lcd, OEG, WW: ashes of oakum: parings, clippings. [cemban]

ācumendlic tolerable, Æ: possible.

ācumendlīcnes f. possibility.

ācunnan (NG) = oncunnan

ācunnian to try, test, prove: experience, CP.

ācunnung f. experience, trial, GD.

ācusan to accuse, MtL 1210 [L.].

ācwacian to tremble.

ācwæncan = ācwencan

ācweccan (tr.) to move, swing, shake, vibrate, Ma; Æ: (intr.) quiver, Æ. [‘aquetch’]

ācwelan4 to die, perish, Æ, AO, CP.

ācwellan to kill, destroy, JnL; Æ, AO, CP. [‘aquell’]

ācwellednes (eæ2) f. slaughter, EPs 4322.

ācwencan to quench, extinguish, Mt; AO. [‘aquench’]

ācweorna m. squirrel, Gl. [‘aquerne’]

ācweorran3 to guzzle, gorge, ELPs 7771.

ācwern = ācweorna

ācwerren = ācworren pp. of ācweorran.

ācweðan5 to say, speak out, declare, utter, express, answer, Gen: reject, banish, Gen 304. [‘acweath’]

ācwician (tr.) to quicken, vivify, Ps: (intr.) revive, BH. [‘aquick’]

ācwīnan1 to dwindle away, disappear, go out (of fire), BH, LPs.

ācwincan3 to vanish, be extinguished or eclipsed.

ā-cwucian, -cwycian = ācwician

ācwudu m. an oak wood, KC 6·21819.

ācwylan = ācwelan

ācwylman to kill, slay.

ācwylmian to be tormented, W 2205.

ācwyncan = ācwencan

ācynned = ācenned pp. of ācennan.

ācyrr- = ācirr-

ācȳðan to show, proclaim, reveal, announce, confirm, prove.

ād mn. heap, funeral pile, pyre: fire, flame. [OHG. eit]

ādǣlan to divide, separate.

ādēadian to fail, decay, mortify, become torpid or callous, Æ.

ādēafian to became deaf, WW 17925.

ādēafung f. deafening, making deaf, Lcd. [v. ‘adeave’]

ādel I. = ādl

II. = ādela

ādela m. mud, dirt, filth, filthy place, Æ. [‘addle’]


ādelfan3 to delve, dig, excavate, Æ, AO, CP.

ādeliht filthy, WW.

ādelsēað m. sewer, sink, Æ.

ādēman to judge, try, deprive of or exclude from by a legal decision: try, afflict.

ādeorcian to become dull, obscure, tarnished, CP: grow dark, W.

āderian to hurt, GD 21919.

adesa m., adese f. ‘adze,’ hatchet, BH, W.

ādexe = āðexe

ād-faru f. ds. -fære way or path to the funeral pile, B 3010.

ādfini n. limit? ash-heap of a beacon? EC 3545.

ādfȳr n. sacrificial fire, Ex 398.

+ādgian = +ēadgian

ādihtan to compose, write.

ādihtian to regulate, arrange, order, CP.

ā-dīlegian, -dīl(i)gian (ȳ) to destroy, blot out, annihilate, devastate, CP.

ādimmian to become dim or dull, to darken, obscure, CP.

ādl fn., ādle f. disease, infirmity, sickness, AO, CP.

ādlēg m. flame of the funeral pile, Ph 222.

±ādlian to be diseased or ill, languish, Æ: cause disease, DR.

ādlig sick, diseased, Æ.

ādliga m. sick person

ādliht = ādeliht

ādloma m. one crippled by fire, Gu 884. [lama?]

ādlsēoc sick of a contagious disease, ES 39·322.

ādl-ðracu ‡ f. gs. -ðræce force of disease.

ādlung f. illness, ÆH 1·12231.

ādlwērig weary from illness, Gu 981.

ādōn (for conj. v. dōn) to take away, send away: cast out, expel, destroy: (w. preps. to, on, from, etc.) put, place, take, remove, set free, AO, CP.

adosa = adesa

ādrǣdan = ondrǣdan

ādrǣfan to drive away, shut out, expel, AO, CP. [‘adreve’]

ādrǣnct = ādrenced pp. of ādrencan.

ādragan6 to draw (sword), HL 15356.

ādrēfan = ādrǣfan

adreminte f. feverfew.

ādrencan to submerge, immerse, drown, AO. [‘adrench’]

ādrēogan2 to act, perform, do, practise, Æ: bear, suffer, endure, An; CP: pass time, live, Æ. [‘adree’]

ādrēogendlic bearable.

ādrēohan = ādrēogan

ādrēopan2 to drip, drop, An.

ādrēosan2 to fall to pieces, decline, vanish, fail.

ādrīfan1 to drive, drive away, drive out, pursue, follow up, LL; Æ, AO, CP: stake out (a ford): chase (metal), Æ. [‘adrive’]

ādrīgan = ādrȳgan

ādrincan3 be drowned, extinguished, BH; AO. [‘adrink’]

ādrūgian, ādrūwian (Mt, Æ) to dry up. [‘adroughe’]


ādrȳgan (ī) to become dry, dry up, wither, CP: dry, wipe dry.

ādrysnan to extinguish, repress, NG.

adsa = adesa

adulsēað = adelsēað

ādumbian to become dumb, keep silence, Mk; Æ. [v. ‘dumb’ vb.]

a-dūn, -dūna, -dūne adv. down, downward, Æ. [= ofdūne]

adūne(ā)stīgan to descend, CPs.

adūnfeallan to fall down, EPs 14414.

adūnweard adv. downwards, ChrL. [‘a-downward’]

ādūstrigan = andūstrian

ādwǣscan (ē) to put out, quench, extinguish, blot out, destroy, AO: suppress, Æ, CP.

ā-dwelian to wander, stray.

ādwellan, pret. 3 sg. -dwealde to seduce, lead astray: hinder, Æ.

ādwēscan = ādwǣscan

ādwīnan1 to dwindle or waste away.

ādȳdan to destroy, mortify, kill, Æ. [‘adeaden’]

ādȳfan to overpower with sound.

ādylf = ādealf pret. of ādelfan.

ādȳlgian, ādȳlegian = ādīlegian

ādymman = ādimmian

ādysgian to make foolish, W 18512.

ǣ- accented verbal prefix, = (1) without; (2) ā-.

ǣ I. f. also ǣw f. (and m. or n.? in NG) law (divine or human), custom, covenant, AO, CP; WG, NG. butan ǣ outlaw: (esp. in pl.) rite, ceremony: faith, religion. unrihte ǣ false religion. Crīstes ǣ gospel: scriptures, revelation: marriage, Æ: (lawful) wife. For some comps. v. ǣw-. [‘æ’]

II. = ēa I.

III. interj. oh! alas!

ǣa I. = ēa I.

II. gp. of ǣ.

æal- = eal-

ǣalā interj. = ēalā

ǣar- = ēar-

āeargian to become remiss, AO 21220.

ǣbǣreLL) manifest, notorious, public, open, evident, clear. [‘eber’]

āebbian to ebb away, recede, Chr.

æbbung (= ebb-) f. ‘ebbing.’ sǣ æ. gulf, bay, WW 154

ǣbebod n. injunction of the law, command, PPs 118102.

ǣbēc fp. books of the law, WW 43915.

ǣbēre = ǣbǣre

ǣbesn = ǣfesn

ǣbilg-, -bili(g)- = ǣbylg-

ǣblǣc- = āblǣc-

ǣblǣce lustreless, pale, pallid.

ǣbod m. business, Æ: statute.

ǣboda m. messenger, preacher, Gu 909.

ǣbræce = ǣwbræce

ǣbreca = ǣwbreca

ǣbrecð f. sacrilege, LPs.

ǣbrucol sacrilegious, GPH 402.

æbs f? fir-tree, Æ. [L. abies]

ǣbylg n. = ǣbylgð

ǣbylga m. anger, LPs 7749.

±ǣbylgan, -byli(g)an to make angry, offend, Æ.

ǣbylgnes f. anger, offence, Æ.

ǣbylgð, -bylgðu f. anger, AO.

ǣbylig- = ǣbylg-

ǣ-bylð, -bylygð = ǣbylgð

ǣc I. f. = āc

II. (N) = ēac


ǣcambe f. = ācumbe

ǣcan = īecan

æccyrn = æcern

æce = ece

ǣce = ēce

æced = eced

æcedwīn n. wine mingled with myrrh, MkL 1523.

ǣcēlan = ācēlan

ǣcelma m. chilblain, OEG, WW.

ǣcelmehte (ecil-) having chilblains, OEG 1523.

ǣcen I. a wood of oaks.

II. oaken, WW 27014.

III. = ēacen pp. of ēacan.

æcer nap. æcras m. field, sown land, cultivated land, Mt; Æ, AO, CP; Mdf: a certain quantity of land, ‘acre,’ Æ; v. LL 2·267: crop.

æcerceorl m. countryman, farmer, NC 268.

æceren = æcern

æcerhege m. hedge of a field, KC 3·332.

æcermǣlum by acres, KC 6·985.

æcermann m. farmer, WW. [‘acreman’]

æcern n. nut, mast of tree, Æ (i2): ‘acorn,’ WW.

æcernspranca m. ‘ilex,’ oak sapling? ÆGr 6915.

æcersǣd n. seed enough for an acre? Chr 1124.

æcerteoðung f. tithe of the produce of the soil, W 31024.

æcertȳning f. fencing, EC 3779.

æcerweorc n. field-work, GPH 391.

æces = æx

æcest, æceð pres. 2 and 3 sg. of acan.

ǣcilma = ǣcelma

æcirn = æcern

ǣclǣca = āglǣca

ǣclēaw = ǣglēaw

ǣcnōsle degenerate, not noble, WW.

+ǣcnōsliende degenerating, WW 21812.

ǣcræft † m. knowledge of law or ordinances, religion.

ǣcræftig learned in the law; as sb. = lawyer, scribe, Pharisee.

æcras v. æcer.

æcren = æcern

æcs f. ‘axe,’ pickaxe, hatchet, CP; Mt (æx).

æcst, æcð pres. 2 and 3 sg. of acan.

ǣcumba = ācumba

æcur = æcer

æcyrf m. (wood-)choppings, BH 22415.

æd (NG) = æt

æd- = ed-

ædderseax (WW) = ǣdreseax

æddre, ǣdr = ǣdre

ǣdre I. f. artery, vein, pulse, nerve, sinew, B; AO: pl. veins, kidneys: runlet of water, fountain, spring, stream. [‘eddre’]

II. adv. at once, directly, instantly, quickly: (†) fully, entirely. [OS. ādro]

ǣdreseax (der) n. lancet, WW 41010.

ǣdreweg m. artery, vein.

ǣdrīfan = ādrīfan

ædwist = edwist

æfæst = æfest

ǣfæst = ǣwfæst

æfdæll -dell (NG) = ofdæle

æfdȳne m. declivity, Gl.

ǣfelle without skin, peeled, WW 19031.

æfen = efen

ǣfen (ē) nm. ‘even,’ evening, eventide, B, MkL, Gu (ēfn). tō ǣfenes till evening: eve, RB.


ǣfencollatio thecollatioread before compline, NC 268.

ǣfendrēam m. even-song, RB.

ǣfengebed n. evening service, WW 12934.

ǣfengereord n. evening meal, supper (often used in pl. of one meal).

ǣfengereordian to sup, give supper to, CM 1030.

ǣfengereordung f. supper, NC 269.

ǣfengeweorc n. evening work, Lcd 70b.

ǣfen-giefl, -gifl n. evening repast, supper, AO, CP.

ǣfen-glōm, -glōma m., -glōmung (omm-, eom-) f. gloaming, twilight.

ǣfengrom fierce at eve, B 2074.

æfenian = æfnian

ǣfenlāc n. evening sacrifice, evening prayer, PPs 1403.

ǣfenlǣcan to grow towards evening, Lk 2429.

ǣfenlēoht n. evening light, B 403.

ǣfenleoð † n. evening song.

ǣfenlic of the evening; adv. -līce.

ǣfenlof n. lauds (service), CM 1035.

ǣfenmete m. supper.

ǣfenoffrung f. evening sacrifice, NC 269.

ǣfenrǣding f. reading (during the evening meal at a monastery), ‘collatio,’ CM.

ǣfenrepsung f. nightfall, Æ.

ǣfen-rest, -ræst † f. evening rest.

ǣfensang m. ‘evensong,’ Æ, RB.

ǣfensceop m. evening singer, bard, Rd 95. [scop]

ǣfenscīma m. evening splendour, Gen 2448.

ǣfensprǣc f. evening talk, B 759.

ǣfensteorra m. the evening star, Hesperus, Bo; Æ. [‘evenstar’]

ǣfen-tīd f., -tima m. eventide, Æ.

ǣfenðēnung f. evening service: evening repast, supper.

ǣfenðēowdōm m. evening service or office, WW 12934.

ǣfenung = ǣfnung

ǣfer = ǣfre

æferðe f. name of a plant, Lcd.

æfes- = efes-

æfesa ? m., æfese (m.) f. = æfesn

æfesn, æfesen f. relish, dainty, special pasturage, pannage; the charge for special pasturage, LL.

æfesne ?= æpsen?

æfest mf. envy, hatred, malice, spite, CP; El, Ps: zeal, rivalry. [‘evest’]

ǣfest == ǣwfæst

æfestful full of envy.

±æfestian -igian to be or become envious.

æfestig envious: zealous.

æfestlīce = ofostlīce

æfgælð f. superstition, OEG.

æfgerefa (-groefa) ‘exactor,’ LkL 1258.

æfgrynde n. abyss, PPs 356.

æfhynde = ofhende

æfian (-an?) to be in a miserable condition, Cr 1357 (or æfnan? Gollancz).

æfisc (EC 291) = efesc

æflāst m. a wandering from the way? Ex 473.


±æfnan (e) to carry out, do, perform, fulfil: cause: endure, suffer: (+) hold, sustain. [ON. efna]

æfne = efne

±ǣfnian to grow towards evening, Æ.

ǣfnung f. ‘evening,’ sunset, Æ.

ǣfre adv. ‘ever,’ at any time, Sat, Mt: always, constantly, perpetually, Cr, RB; Æ, CP: henceforth: ne ǣ.; ǣ. ne (= nǣfre) never; ǣ. tō aldre for ever. ǣ. ǣlc, W, Chr. ǣ. ǣnig any at all, KC.

æfreda m. what is taken or separated from, OEG (Napier). [æf; *hreda (hreddan)]: tow, oakum (BT).

ǣfremmende pious, religious, Jul 648.

æfse I. = efes

II. = æbs

æfsecgan to confute, ES 42163.

æfst == æfest

æfsweorc n. pasturage, WW 41012 (= *æfesweorc).

æft = eft

æftan adv. from behind, behind, in the rear, Ma. [‘aft’]

æftanweard adj. behind, in the rear, following, Rd 635.

æftemest adj. last, hindmost, Æ, AO.

æfter I. prep. (w. d., i. and—chiefly N.—a.) (local and temporal) after, along, behind, through, throughout, during: (causal) following, in consequence of, according to, for the purpose of: (object) after, about, in pursuit of, for.

II. adv. after, then, afterwards, thereafter: thereupon, later, back (= in return). æ. ðon, ðæm, ðisum; æ. ðæm (ðon, ðan) ðe; afterwards, thereafter.

æftera = æfterra

æfterǣ f. the book Deuteronomy, Æ.

æfterboren adj. ‘afterborn,’ posthumous, ÆGr.

æftercweðan5 to speak after, repeat. æftercweðendra lof praise from posterity: to renounce, abjure, Chr 1094.

æftercyning m. later king, BH 14024 B.

æfterealu n. small beer, WW 1294.

æfterfilian = æfterfylgan

æfterfiligend = æfterfylgend

æfterfolgere m. follower, AO 14223.

æfter-folgian, -fylgan (AO) to follow after, succeed, pursue.

æfterfylgednes f. sequel, ÆL 23b365.

æfterfylgend m. follower, successor, AO, -līce in succession.

æfterfylgendnes f. succession, SHy 11.

æfterfylgung (eft-) f. pursuit.

æfterfylig- = æfterfylg-

æfter-genga, -gengea m. follower, successor: descendant, Æ.

æftergengel m. successor, KC.

æftergengnes f. succession, Æ: posterity: inferiority.

æftergyld n. further payment, LL.

æfterhǣðe f? autumn drought, AO 1027.

æfterhyrigan to imitate, BH.


æfterlēan n. reward, recompense, restitution, retribution, Gen 76.

æfterlic second, WW 50519.

æfterra (comp.) second, following, next, latter, lower, CP.

æfter-rāp (Æ) -ræpe m. crupper.

æfterrīdan1 to ride after.

æfterrōwan7 to row after, ES 41325.

æfterryne m. ‘occursus,’ CPs 187.

æftersang m. (after-song), matins, CM 449.

æftersingallic (= -sanglic) of matins, CM 476.

æftersingend m. succentor, WW 12923.

æftersona soon, afterwards, again, NG.

æfterspræc f. after-claim, LL 3987.

æftersprecan5 to claim, LL 226[9,4].

æfterspyrian to track out, search, inquire into, examine, CP.

æfterweard adj. after, following, further, behind, in the rear, later, Æ.

æfterweardnes f. posterity, WW 46418.

æfterwriten written afterwards, Lcd 69b.

æfterwyrcan to cause, effect.

æfter-yld, -yldo f. †advanced age, old age: after age, later time, BH. [ield(o)]

æfteweard = æfterweard

æftewearde adv. behind.

æftra = æfterra

æftresta superl. last.

æftum adv. after, MtR 2421.

æftyr = æfter

æfðanc, æfðanca (o, u) m. insult, offence: grudge, displeasure, anger.

æf-weard (CP) -ward absent.

æfweardnes f. absence, Bo, GD.

æfwela f. decrease of wealth, Lcd 3·17013.

æfwendla (WW 2231) = æfwyrdla

æf-werdelsa, -wyrdelsa m. injury, damage, loss.

æfwyrdla, m. injury, damage, loss: fine for injury or loss.

æfwyrð(u) ? f. degradation, disgrace, RB.

ǣfyllende fulfilling the law, pious, Cr 704.

ǣfyn = ǣfen

ǣfyrmða fp. sweepings, rubbish. [feormian]

ǣg n. (nap. ǣgru) ‘egg,’ Lcd, Lk, OET, Met.

ǣg = īeg

ǣgan = āgan

æge = ege

ǣgen = āgen

ǣgera (K) dp. of ǣg.

ǣgerfelma f. egg-skin, Lcd 20b.

ǣgergelu n. yolk of egg, Gl. [ǣg, geolu]

ǣgflota m. seafarer, sailor, An 258. [īeg]

ǣggemang n. egg-mixture, WW.

ǣg-hwā mf., -hwæt, n. pron. each one, every one, everything, who or whatever. ǣghwǣt neut. anything. [ǣg = āgi]

ǣghwǣr everywhere, in every direction, Mk; Æ: in every case, in every respect: anywhere. [‘aywhere’]

ǣghwæs (gs. of ǣghwā) altogether, in every way, entirely, wholly, throughout, in general.

ǣghwæt v. ǣghwā.

ǣghwæðer (ǣgðer, āðer). I. pron. each or every one (of two or more), ‘either,’ both, 6b AO, Mt (gð).

II. conj. ǣghwæðer (ge); ǣgðer...and both...and; as

ǣg-hwanan, -hwanon(e), -hwannon, -hwanum, from all parts, everywhere, on every side, in every way.

ǣg-hwār, -hwēr = ǣghwǣr

ǣghwelc = ǣghwilc

ǣghweðer = ǣghwæðer

ǣghwider on every side, in all directions: in any direction, anywhere.

ǣghwilc adj. each, every, whosoever, whatsoever, all, every one, Bo, Met. ǣ. ānra each. ǣ. ōðer each other, Ma. ǣghwilces in every way. [v. ‘each’]

ǣg-hwonan, -hwonon (CP), -hwonene = ǣghwanan

ǣghwyder = ǣghwider

ǣghwylc = ǣghwilc

ǣgift f. (m? n?) restitution, repayment.

ǣgilde adv. receiving nowergildas compensation, LL.

ǣgilt = ǣgylt

ǣglǣc == āglǣc

ǣglēaw learned in the law.

ǣglēca = āglǣca

ǣglīm m. white of egg. [līm]

ǣgmang (WW 489) = ǣggemang

ǣgmore f. root of the eye, socket? Lcd 3·985. [ēage]

ægnan sb. pl. awns, sweepings, chaff, Gl. [v. egenu]

ǣgnes = āgnes, v. āgen.

ǣgnian = āgnian

ǣgru v. ǣg.

ægsa = egsa

ǣgscill (y) f. eggshell, Lcd.

ǣgðer = ǣghwæðer

ǣgweard f. watch on the shore, B 241. [īeg]

ǣgwern = ǣghwǣr

ǣgwyrt f. dandelion, Lcd 158b.

ǣgylde = ǣgilde

ǣgylt m. sin, offence. [ǣw, gylt]

ǣgype without skill or cunning (BT), PPs 10610.

æhher (MkR 428) = ēar

ǣhīw n. pallor, OEG 4897.

ǣhīwe pallid: deformed.

ǣhīwnes f. pallor, Lcd 1·2943.

ǣhlȳp m. breach of the peace, assault, LL. [cp. æthlȳp]

æht == eaht

ǣht I. f. (rare in sg.) possessions, goods, lands, wealth, cattle, Mk; AO: ownership, control. [āgan: ‘aught’ sb.]

II. = ōht

āēhtan to persecute, LkL 2112.

ǣhtboren born in bondage, RB 1120.

ǣhte = āhte pret. sg. of āgan.

ǣhteland n. territory, BH 35814.

æhtemann m. tiller of the soil, serf, farmer, Æ.

ǣhteswān m. swineherd who was a chattel on an estate, LL 4497.

ǣhtgesteald n. possession, Jul 115.

ǣhtgestrēon n. possessions, Ph 506.

ǣtgeweald † mn. power, control.

æhtian = eahtian

+æhtle f. esteem, B 369.

æhtowe (LkR 221) = eahta


ǣhtspēd f. wealth, riches, LPs 10324.

ǣhtspēdig rich.

ǣhtwela † m. wealth, riches.

ǣhtwelig wealthy, rich, Jul 18.

ǣhwænne = āhwænne

ǣhwǣr, -hwār = āhwǣr

Printed on one line:
ǣhwænne, ǣhwǣr, -hwār = āhwænne, āhwær

ǣhwyrfan = āhwierfan

æhx = æcs

æig = æg

æl- prefix = I. eal(l)-

II. el(e)-

æl m. piercer, ‘awl,’ Æ.

ǣl m. ‘eel,’ WW; Mdf.

ǣlā = ēalā

ǣlǣdend m. legislator, SPs 921.

ǣlǣrende m. teacher of the law, instructor in religion, El 506.

ǣlǣte I. n. desert place.

II. desert, empty, W 4721.

III. f. divorced woman.

ǣlǣten I. = ālǣten pp. of ālǣtan.

II. = ǣlǣte II.

ǣlagol lawgiving, GPH 397363.

ǣlan to kindle, light, set on fire, burn, Æ, CP.

ǣlārēow (-lārua) m. teacher of the law, Pharisee, NG.

ælað = ealað

ælbeorht = eallbeorht

ælbitu (Gl) = ilfetu

ǣlc [ēlc, ylc (VPs); v. ‘each’] I. (pron. subst.) any, all, every, each (one), Æ, AO, CP. ǣlc...ōðrum the one...the other.

II. (adj. pron.) each, Lcd: any, CP.

ǣlcealdaltogether cold, very cold.

ælcor = elcor

ælcra = elcra

ælcræftigalmighty, all-powerful.

ǣlcuht (AO) ælcwuht n. everything.

æld = æled

æld- = ield-

ældewuta (NG) = ealdwita

ǣlecung = ōleccung

ǣled † m. gs. ǣldes fire, firebrand. ǣ. weccan to kindle a fire, Whale 21. [ON. eldr]

ǣledfȳr n. flame of fire, Ph 366?

ǣledlēoma m. fire-brand, B 3125.

ælegrǣdig greedy, ÆL 18213. [eall-]

ælegrēne (RPs 1273) = eallgrēne

ælelendisc = elelendisc

ælemidde f. exact middle, Æ.

ǣlenge I. lengthy, tedious, vexatious, CP. [‘elenge’]

II. weariness.

ǣlengnes f. tediousness, Sc, WW.

ælepe ? ‘origanum,’ wild marjoram, WW 29919. [ælene? BT]

ǣlepūte f. ‘eel-pout,’ burbot, WW.

æleð pres. 3 sg. of alan.

ǣleð, ǣlð = ǣled

ælewealdend = eallwealdend

ælf mf. (pl. ielfe, ylfe) ‘elf,’ sprite, fairy, goblin, incubus, B, Lcd.

ælfādl f. nightmare, Lcd 123b.

ælfæle = ealfelo

æl-faru, -fær f. whole army, host, Ex 66.

ælfcynn n. elfin race, Lcd 123a.

ælfer = ælfaru

ǣl-fisc, -fix m. eel, TC 24211.

ælfitu = ylfetu

æl-fremed, -fremd, (el-) strange, foreign, Æ: (+) estranged, LPs 574: (w. fram) free, separated from, Æ.


ælfremeda (el-) m. stranger, foreigner.

ælfremedung f. ‘alienatio,’ RHy 514.

ælf-scīene2ȳ2) † bright as an elf or fairy, beautiful, radiant.

ælfsiden f. elvish influence, nightmare, Lcd 120b.

ælfsogoða m. hiccough (thought to have been caused by elves), Lcd 124b.

ælfðēodlīce = elðēodiglīce

ælfðone f. nightshade, Lcd 123b.

ælfylce (= el-) † n. I. strange land.

II. foreign band, enemy.

ǣlhyd f. eel receptacle? eel-skin? (BT) LL 45517.

ǣlic (of the law), legal, lawful, Æ. adv. -līce.

ælifn f. sustenance, Gl? (v. ES 42·166)

ǣling f. burning, Æ: ardour.

ǣling- = ǣleng-

æll- = æl-, eal(l)-, el(l)-

ælmes = ælmesse

ælmesæcer m. ground of which the yield was given as alms, first-fruits, A 11·369.

ælmesbæð n. gratuitous bath, W 1712.

ælmesdæd f. almsdeed, Æ.

ælmesdōnde giving alms, NC 269.

ælmesfeoh n. alms: Peter’s pence, Romescot, LL [‘almsfee’]

ælmesfull charitable.

ælmesgedāl n. distribution of alms.

ælmesgeorn charitable, Æ.

ælmesgifa (y3) m. giver of alms, W 724.

ælmesgifu f. alms, charity, W 15920.

ælmeshlāf m. dole of bread, TC 47423.

ælmeslāc giving of alms, NC 269.

ælmeslēoht n. a light in church provided at the expense of a pious layman.

ælmeslic charitable: depending on alms, poor, -līce, adv. charitably, OET. (Ct.)

ælmeslond m. land granted in frankalmoigne. [almes-]

ælmesmann m. ‘almsman,’ bedesman, beggar, Lcd; Æ.

ælmespening m. alms-penny.

ælmesriht n. right of receiving alms.

ælmesse f. ‘alms,’ almsgiving, Da, Mt; Æ, CP. [L. eleēmosyna]

ælmessylen (e3) f. almsgiving.

ælmesweorc n. almsdeed, Bl 2517.

ælmidde = ælemidde

ælmiehtig = ælmihtig

ælmihtig (ea2, e2) adj. ‘almighty,’ B, Ps, TC; AO, CP: m. the Almighty.

ælmihtignes f. omnipotence, AS 5913.

ælmyrca m. one entirely black, Ethiopian, An 432.

ælmysse = ælmesse

ǣlnet n. eel net, BH.

ǣlpig = ānlīpig

ælren adj. of an alder tree, KC 7·316. [‘aldern’]

ælreord = elreord

ælsyndrig separately, LkR 23.

æltǣwe (ēo, ō) complete, entire, perfect, healthy, sound, true, Æ, AO, CP: noted, Æ. [Goth. tēwa]. -līce adv.


ælðēod (ælðied-) == elðēod

æl-walda, -wealda = ealwealda

ælwiht † m. strange creature, monster [= *elwiht]; (in pl.) = eallwihta

æmbern = embren

ǣmelle insipid, WW 42930.

ǣmelnes f. slackness, sloth, Æ: weariness, disgust, WW.

ǣmen, ǣmenne (AO) uninhabited, desolate, desert.

ǣmenne solitude, AS 411 (v. Wfg 3).

ǣmerge f. embers, ashes, dust, Lcd; Æ. [‘ember’]

ǣmet- = ǣmett-

ǣmetbed n. ant-hill, Lcd 121b.

ǣmethwīl f. leisure, Æ.

ǣmethyll m. ant-hill, CP 19125.

ǣmetian = ǣmtian

ǣmetta m. leisure, rest, CP. [mōt]

ǣmette f. ‘emmet,’ ant, Lcd, WW; Æ.

ǣmettig (CP), -m(e)tig (Æ) ‘empty,’ vacant, Bl, Æ: unoccupied, without employment, Æ: unmarried, CP.

ǣmettigian = ǣmtian

ǣminde n. forgetfulness, Lcd 1·384´.

ǣmōd dismayed, disheartened, Æ, AO.

ǣmt- = ǣmett-

±ǣmtian toempty,’ Æ: to be at leisure, have time for, Æ, CP.

ǣmtignes f. emptiness, GD 3517.

ǣmūða m. ‘cæcum intestinum,’ WW 16011.

ǣmynde = ǣminde

ǣmyrce excellent, WW 39338.

ǣmyrie = ǣmerge

ǣmytte = ǣmette

ǣn == ān

+æn- = +en-

ænbrece = unbrece

ænd- = end-

ǣne (āne) once, at some time, Æ, B: at any time: at once. [‘ene’]

æned = ened

ǣnes adv. once.

ǣnetre = ānwintre

ǣnett, ǣnetnes = ānet

ǣnga = ānga

ǣngancundes in a unique way? (BT), Lcd 162b.

ænge = enge

ængel = engel

Ænglisc = Englisc

ænid = ened

ǣnig adj. pron. and sb. ‘any,’ any one, Mk, Jn. ǣnige ðinga somehow, anyhow. [ān]

ǣnigge = ānēage

ǣnigmon any one, some one, NG.

ǣniht = āwuht

ǣninga = ānunga

ænlǣnan = onlǣnan

ǣnlefan = endlufon

ǣnlēp- = ānlēp-

ǣnlic one, ‘only,’ singular, solitary, Ps; Lk: unique, glorious, noble, splendid, excellent, Bo; Æ, AO. adv. -līce.

ǣnlīpig (Æ) = ānlīpig

ǣnne (AO, CP) v. ān.

ǣnote useless, LL 254[3,34].

ǣnrǣdnis = ānrǣdnes

ǣnyge = ānēage

ǣnytte = ǣnette

æpl == æppel

æpled = æppled

æppel m. (nap. æpplas, rarely ap(p)la, 8b æppla) any kind of fruit, fruit in general: ‘apple,’ CP, Gen: apple of the eye, ball, anything round, Bo, CP, Sol.

æppelbǣrefruit-bearing: apple-bearing.

æppelbearu m. orchard, PPs 782.

æppelberende apple-bearing, DR 9816.

æppelcynn n. kind of apple, Lcd 67a.

æppelcyrnel n. apple pip, WW 44023.

æppelfæt n. apple-vessel, ZDA 31·15401.

æppelfealu apple-yellow, bay, B 2165.

æppelhūs n. fruit storehouse, WW.

æppelscealu f. apple-core, WW 3711.

æppelscrēad n. (only in pl.) apple-parings, WW 1181.

æppeltrēow n. ‘apple-tree,’ WW.

æppeltūn m. apple or fruit garden, orchard, Æ, CP.

æppelðorn m. crab-apple tree, BC 3·93´.

æppelwīn n. cider, WW 4309.

æppledshaped like an apple, round, embossed, El. [‘appled’]

æppul- = apul-

æps == æsp, æbs

æpsen shameless, OEG 7301.

æpsenes f. disgrace.

ǣr I. adv. comp. ǣror; sup. ǣrost, ǣr(e)st ‘ere,’ before that, soon, formerly, beforehand, previously, already, lately, till; (comp.) sooner, earlier; (sup.) just now, first of all, OET, Jn, El: early, prematurely, Gu, Mk. on ǣr; ǣr ðissum previously, formerly, beforehand, CP. tō ǣr too soon. ǣr oððe æfter sooner or later. hwonne ǣr how soon? when? hwēne ǣr just before. on ealne ǣrne mergen very early in the morning. ne ǣr ne siððan neither sooner nor later. ǣr and sið at all times.

II. conj. ‘ere,’ before that, until, Æ, AO, CP. ǣr ðam(ðe) before, B.

III. prep. (w. d.) before.

IV. adj. only in comp. and sup. (ǣrra, ǣrest) q.v.

V. f. = ār f.

VI. n. = ār n.

ǣr- = I. early, former.

II. intensitive prefix.

ǣra I. m. scraper, strigil, Gl.

II. = ǣrra

ǣrǣt m. excessive (or too early?) eating.

ærbe- = yrfe-, ierfe-

ǣrbeðoht premeditated.

ǣrboren earlier born, first-born (or ? two words), Gen 973.

ærc = earc

ærce == arce

ǣrcwide m. prophecy? Mod 4.

ǣrdǣd f. former deed.

ǣrdæg m. (nap. ǣrdagas) early day, early morn, dawn: in pl. former days, past times, AO.

ǣrdēað m. premature death, Ex 539.

ærdian = eardian

ærdon = ærndon? from ærnan (Grein), Ma 191.

ærdung = eardung

ǣre I. = ȳre

II. in comp. = -oared.

ǣrēafe (= ǣ2) detected, TC 23016.

ǣreldoanteritus,’ WW 34712.

ǣren made of brass, brazen, Æ, AO, CP: tinkling? [ār; cp. Ger. ehern]

ǣrendbōc f. message, letter.


ǣrenddraca (AO, CP) = ǣrendraca

ǣrende n. ‘errand,’ message, BH, Gu; AO: mission, An, Chr: answer, news, tidings, Æ.

ǣrendfæst commissioned with an errand, ÆL 26221.

ǣrendgāst m. angel, Gen 2296.

ǣrendgewrit n. written message, letter, Æ, CP.

±ǣrendian to go on an errand, carry a message, send word to, CP: intercede, BH; Æ: (+)speed, succeed, W 2389. [‘ernde’]

ǣrendraca m. messenger, apostle, ambassador, angel, Æ, AO: representative, substitute, proxy, BH 27619.

ǣrendscip n. skiff, small boat.

ǣrendsecg m. messenger, Gen 658.

ǣrendsprǣc f. message, Rd 6115.

ǣrendung f. errand: errand-going, RB. [‘ernding’]

ǣrend-wraca (AO) -wreca, (CP) = ǣrendraca

ǣrendwrit = ǣrendgewrit

ǣrenscip = ǣrendscip

ǣrer = ǣror

ǣrest I. adv. and superl. adj. first, at first, before all, Æ, CP. ðā, ðonne, siððan ǣ. as soon as. ǣ. ðinga first of all.

II. = ǣrist

ǣrfæder m. forefather, B 2622.

ǣrfæst == ārfæst

ærfe == ierfe, yrfe

ǣrgedōn done before, CP.

ǣrgefremed before committed.

ǣrgelēred previously instructed, MtL 148.

ǣrgenemned, -gesæd = ǣrnemned

ǣrgestrēon † n. ancient treasure.

ǣrgeweorc † n. ancient work, work of olden times.

ǣrgewinn n. former strife or trouble, old warfare, Cross 19.

ǣrgewyrht † n. former work, deed of old.

ǣrglæd very bright, Ex 293.

ǣrgōdgood from old times?, very good.

ǣrhwīlumerewhile, formerly.

ærian = erian

ærig (OET) = earh

ǣriht † n. code of law or faith.

ǣring f. day-break, early morning (A).

ǣrisc = ēarisc

ǣrist I. (ē) mfn. rising, VPs: resurrection, awakening, Jn; CP. [‘arist’]

II. = ǣrest

ǣrlēof? very dear, OEG 56296.

ǣrlēst = ārlēast

ǣrlic(ā) adj.; -līce adv. ‘early,’ Jn.

ǣrlyft f. early morning air, WW 41513.

ærm = earm

ǣrmorgen (a1, a2, e2) m. early morning, dawn, day-break.

ǣrmorgenlic of early morning, DR.

ærn n. dwelling, habitation, house, building, closet.

ǣrn = ǣren

ærnan torun,’ ride, gallop, BH: (+) to ride, run to, reach, gain by running or riding, AO: = +iernan

ærndian = ærendian

ǣrne-mergen, -merigen (Æ) = ǣrmorgen


ǣrnemergenlic matutinal, CM 277.

ǣrnemned aforementioned.

ærneweg m. road for riding on, race-course. [iernan]

ærnian = earnian

ærning f. ‘running,’ riding, racing, Bo, GD: flow of blood, MtL 920. (iorn-)

ærnð = ernð

ærnðegen (?) m. house-officer, Gl.

ærnung = earnung

ǣron = ǣrran

ǣror I. adv. earlier, before, beforehand, formerly, Æ, AO: rather.

II. prep. (w. d.) before.

ǣrost = ǣrest

ǣrra m. ǣrre fn. adj. earlier, former, Bo, El; CP. on ǣrran dæg the day before yesterday. [‘ere,’ ‘erer’]

ǣrror = ǣror

ærs = ears

ǣrsceaft ‡ f. old work, ancient building.

ærschen, ærshen = erschen

ǣrst = ǣrest

ǣrstæf = ārstæf

ǣr-ðam, -ðon, -ðamðe v. ǣr.

ærð- = yrð-

ǣrwacol early awake, Æ.

+ærwe depraved, wicked, EPs 1004.

ǣrwela m. ancient wealth, B 2747.

ǣrworuld f. ancient world, Cr 937.

ǣrynd = ǣrend

ǣryr = ǣror

ǣryst I. = ǣrist

II. = ǣrest

ǣs n. food, meat, carrion: bait. [OHG. ās]

æsc I. m. nap. ascas ‘ash’-tree, Gl, KC; Mdf: name of the rune for æ: (†) spear, lance: ship, Æ.

II. = æcs

ǣscære unshorn, untrimmed. [scieran]

ǣscan to demand (legally), LL 177´.

ǣscapo (WW 27336) = ǣsceapa

æscberend † m., -bora † m. spear-bearer, soldier.

æscberende spear-bearing, Gen 2041.

æsce = asce

ǣsce f. asking, inquiry, search, LL: claim (to insurance money for theft of cattle), LL 1752. [‘ask’ sb.]

ǣsceap1) n. remnant, patch.

æsceda fpl. refuse? WW 14833.

æscegeswāp n. cinders, ashes, TC 31833.

æscen I. fm. vessel of ash-wood, bucket, pail, bottle, cup.

II. adj. made of ash-wood, ashen, Lcd.

æscfealu ashy-hued, WW 20423.

æscgræg ashy gray, WW 20424.

æschere m. naval force, Ma 69.

æscholt † n. spear of ash-wood, spear-shaft, lance (v. also Mdf).

ǣscian = ācsian

æscmann m. ship-man, sailor, pirate. [æsc]

æscplega m. play of spears, battle, Jud 217.

æscrind f. bark of the ash-tree, Lcd.

æscrōfbrave in battle.

æscstede m. place of battle, Mod 17; Mdf.

æscstederōd f. cross marking a battlefield? Ct (BT).

æsctīr m. glory in war, Gen 2069.

æscðracu f. battle, Gen 2153.


æsc-ðrote, -ðrotu f. a plant, ferula? vervain?

ǣsmæl smallness of the eye, Lcd.

ǣsmogu np. slough (of snake) Lcd 88a. [ā-smūgan]

æscwert = æscwyrt

æscwiga m. (spear-) warrior.


æscwyrt f. verbena, vervain.

ǣscyldiandelinquere,’ PPs.

ǣsellend (y2) m. lawgiver.

æsil = hæsel

æslitend m. law-breaker, LPs.

æsne- = esne-

æsp = æspe I.

æspe I. f. aspen-tree, white poplar, Gl; Mdf. [‘asp1’]

II. = æbs

æspen adj. aspen.

ǣspreng, ǣspring(e) = ǣspryng

æsprind (ps) f. aspen, bark, Lcd. [‘asp’]

ǣspringnes = āsprungenes

ǣspryng nf. spring, fountain, CP. [ēa]: departure, Creat 77.

ǣst I. = ǣrest

II. = ēst

ǣstǣnan = āstǣnan

ǣstan = ēastan

æstel m. book-marker, CP 9. [L. hastula]

æsul = esol

ǣswǣpe sbpl. sweepings, rubbish.

ǣswic m. offence, stumbling-block, infamy, seduction, deceit.

ǣswica, ǣswicend m. offender, deceiver, hypocrite, traitor.

ǣswice m. violation of God’s laws (or? adultery), W 1643.

±ǣswician to offend, deceive, Æ: apostatize, WW 34212: desert, Æ.

ǣswicnes f. stumbling-block, LPs 10536.

ǣswicung f. offence, stumbling-block, Æ: deceit, Æ: sedition.

ǣswind idle, slothful, WW 42213. [swīð]

ǣsyllend = ǣsellend

æt I. prep. (w. d. and, more rarely, a.) (local) ‘at,’ near, by, in, on, upon, with, before, next to, as far as, up to, into, toward: (temporal) at, at the time of, near, in, on, to, until: (causal) at, to, through: (source) from: (instrumental) by. æt fēawum wordum in few words, BH: in respect to, as to.

II. adv. at, to, near. æt nehstan, æt siðestan finally. æt- in composition = at, to, from.

ǣt I. mfn. eatables, food, meat, flesh, Gu; Æ, AO. ǣt and wǣt food and drink, Æ: the act of feeding, eating, PPs; MkL (ē). [‘eat’ sb.]

II. pret. 3 sg. of etan.

ǣt- = āte-

-ǣta v. self-ǣta.

ætǣwian = ætīewan

āetan5 to eat, devour, AS 1716; 375.

ætbēon anv. to be present.

ætberan4 to carry to, bring, produce, show, Da: carry off, B. [‘atbear’]

ætberstan3 to break out, or away, escape from, Æ. [‘atburst’]

ætbrēdan = ætbregdan

ætbrēdendlic ablative, ÆGr 237.

æt-bregdan, -brēdan3 to take away, carry off, 10b deprive of, snatch away, draw off, withdraw, Mt; Æ: release, rescue, enlarge: prevent, ÆL 31126. [‘atbraid’]

ætclifian to adhere, BJPs 1016.

ætclīðan to adhere, OET 181.

ætdēman to refuse, give judgment against, EC 202.

ætdōn anv. to take away, deprive.

ǣte = āte

ætēaca (eth-) m. ‘appendix,’ OEG 5318.

ætēacnes = ætȳcnes

ætealdod too old, Æ (2159).

ætēaw- = ætīew-, ætȳw-

ætēcan = ætȳcan

ætegār = ætgār

æteglan to harm, PPs 8819.

ætēode pret. 3 sg. of *ætgān he came.

ǣteorian = āteorian

ætēow- = ætīew-, ætȳw-

ætercyn = atorcyn

ǣtere1) m. ‘eater,’ glutton, Prov; NG.

ǣtern I. (NG) viper.

II. = ǣtren

ætēw- = ætīew-, ætȳw-

ætfæstan (= oð-) to inflict on, afflict with: fasten to, drive into, impart to, CP 11519: commit, entrust: marry to.

ætfæstnian to fasten? entrust? AS 2119.

ætfaran6 to escape, Shr 1423.

ætfeallan7 to fall, fall out: fall away, fail, be reduced, LL; Æ: happen. [‘atfall’]

ætfele m. adhesion, PPs 7223.

ætfeng m. attaching, distraint v. LL 2·279.

ætfeohtan2to grope about.

ætfēolan3 to stick to: adhere, apply oneself to, continue in, CP.

ætfeorrian to take from, Sc 1607.

ætferian to carry away, bear off.

ætfīlan = ætfēolan

ætflēon2 to flee away, escape by flight, Æ. [‘atflee’]

ætflōwan7 to flow together, accumulate, SPs 6110.

ætfōn7 to seize upon, lay claim to, LL. [‘atfong’]

ætforan I. prep. w. d. before, in the presence of, in front of, close by, Jn; Æ. [‘atfore’].

II. adv. beforehand (time).

ætfyligan, -fylgan to adhere, cling to.

æt-gædere (AO), -gæddre (CP), -gædre, -gæderum adv. together, united, at the same time. [gadrian]

æt-gǣre n., -gār m. spear, dart, javelin, Gl.

ætgangan7 to go to, approach, Az 183. [‘atgo’]

ætgeddre, -gedre = ætgædere

ætgenumen removed, taken away, WW 52939.

ǣtgiefa † (eo, i) m. food-giver, feeder.

ætgifan5 to render, give, B 2878.

ætglīdan1 to slip away, disappear, OEG 7132.

ætgrǣpe seizing. æ. weorðan seize, B 1268.

æthabban to retain, Æ.

æthealdan7 to keep back, Sc 10918.

æthebban6 to take away, take out, hold back, Æ: exalt oneself, CP 11313.


æthindan prep. w. d. behind, after, Chr; Æ. [‘athinden’]

æthlēapan7 to run away, flee, escape, W 1625.

æthlȳp m. assault. [cp. ǣhlȳp]

æthrīnan1 to touch, move, Mt; Æ. [‘atrine’]

æthrine m. touch.

æthwā each, every one.

æthwāre somewhat, HGl 42137.

æt-hwega, -hwæga, -hweg(u) adv. somewhat, tolerably, a little: how.

æthweorfan3 to return, go back, B 2299.

æthwōn adv. almost, nearly.

æthȳdeviscerata,’ (skinned? BT), WW 392´.

ætiernan3 to run away, Æ. [‘atrin’]

ætīewan (oð-; ē, ēa, ēo, ī, ȳ) pret. sg. -īe(w)de, (tr.) to show, reveal, display, disclose, manifest, Mt (ȳ), CP: (intr.) show oneself, become visible, appear, Mt (ȳ). [‘atew’]

ǣting f. eating, Sc 17045 (ē): pasture? Mdf.

ǣtinge (y2) speechless, OEG 4645.

ætis pres. 3 sg. of ætwesan, ætbēon.

ætīw- = ætīew-, ætȳw-

ætlǣdan (= oð-) to drive away, Æ. [‘atlead’]

ǣtlic adj. eatable, WW, LkL (ē).

ætlicgan5 to lie idle, ÆGr 222. [‘atlie’]

ætlimpan3 to fall away from, escape, be lost, Æ.

ætlūtian to lurk, hide, Æ. [‘atlutien’]

ætnēhstan (ȳ) adv. at last.

ætnes f. edibility, WW 22611.

ætniman4 to take away, deprive of, Ex 414.

ætol = etol

ǣton pret. pl. of etan.

ǣtor = ātor

ǣtorcynn = ātorcynn

ǣtran = ǣtrian

ætreccan w. d. and a. to declare forfeit, deprive of, Lcd.

ǣtren poisoned, poisonous, MtL (-ern). [‘attern’]

ǣtrenmōd of venomous spirit, malignant (or? two words), GnE 163.

ǣtrennes f. poisonous nature, Lcd 55a.

±ǣtrian to poison, AO: become poisonous. [‘atter’]

ætrig poisonous, Lcd; Æ. [‘attery’]

ætrihte (y) I. adj. right at, near, present, at hand.

II. adv. almost, nearly.

ætsacan6 to deny, Lk; Æ: renounce, Mk. [‘atsake’]

ætsamne (æ, e, o) adv. united, together, at once, AO.

ætscēotan2 to escape, disappear, MF (Vesp. D xiv).

ætscūfan2 to shove away.

ætsittan5 to sit by, remain, stay, Chr. [‘atsit’]

ætslāpan7 to sleep beside, Lcd 83a.

ætslīdan1 to slip, glide, fall, Æ.

ætsomne (Æ) = ætsamne

ætspornan3 (u) to strike against, stumble, go wrong, CP: rebel (æt).

ætspornung f. offence, stumbling-block, misfortune, CM 230.


ætspringan3 to rush forth, spurt out, B 1121. [‘atspring’]

ætspringnes, -sprung(en)nes f. defection.

ætspurnan = ætspornan

ætspyrning = ætspornung

ætst = itst pres. 2 sg. of etan.

ætst- = oðst-

ætstæl m. aid, assistance (GK); = ætsteall (BT), Gu 150.

ætstæppan6 to step up to, B 745.

ætstandan6 to stand still, stand at, near, in or by, Æ: remain, stand up: check, resist, Æ: cease, Lk; Æ. [‘atstand’]

ætstandend m. bystander, attendant, Æ.

ætstandende standing by, GD 28421.

ætsteall m. assistance, meeting with hostile intent (GK): station, camp station (BT), Wald 121.

ætstent v. ætstandan.

ætstente v. ætstyntan.

ætstillan to still, Lcd 25b.

ætstrengan to withhold wrongfully, LL 206´.

ætstyntan to blunt, dull, weaken.

ætswerian6 to deny on oath, LL.

ætswīgan to keep silence about (be) GD 21718.

ætswimman3 to escape by swimming, swim out, Chr 918.

āettan (āyttan) to eat up.

ǣtter, ǣttor = ātor

ǣttr- = ætr-

ætðringan3 to take away from, deprive of.

ætweaxan1 to increase (Swt.).

ætwegan5 to bear away, carry off, B 1198.

ǣtwela abundance of food, feast, Soul 123.

ætwenian to wean from, LL 368´.

ætwesan anv. to be at hand.

ætwesende at hand, imminent, WW.

ætwindan3 to escape, Æ. [‘atwind’]

ætwist I. † f. presence.

II. = edwist

ætwītan6 to reproach (with), censure, taunt, Met, Ps; CP. [‘atwite’]

ætwrencan to seize by fraud.

ætȳcan to add to, increase, BH. [īecan]

ætȳcnes f. increase, BH.

ǣtȳnan = ontȳnan

ǣtynge = ǣtinge

ætys = ætis pres. 3 sg. of ætwesan.

æt-ȳwan, -ȳwian = ætīewan

ætȳwednes f. showing, appearance, manifestation, revelation, GD.

ætȳwigendlic demonstrative, ÆGr.

ætȳwnes f. showing, manifestation, revelation: apparition, Æ: Epiphany.

ætȳwung f. manifestation, Epiphany, CM 531.

ǣðan I. (±)to make oath, swear. [āð]

II. = īðan

æðel = æðele

ǣðel == ēðel

æðelboren of noble birth, distinguished, Æ: free-born, Æ: inborn, natural.

æðelborennes f. nobility of birth or nature, Æ: inborn nature, OEG 4518.

æðelcund of noble birth.

æðelcundnes f. nobleness, Bo 4613.

æðelcyning m. noble king (Christ), Æ.

æðelduguð f. noble retinue, Cr 1012.


æðele noble, aristocratic, excellent, famous, glorious, Ex, Gen; Æ, AO, CP: splendid, fine, costly, valuable: lusty, young: pleasant, sweet-smelling, Gen: (+)natural, congenial, suitable. [‘athel’]

æðel-ferðingwyrt, -fyrdingwyrt f. stitch-wort (plant), Lcd.

+æðelianto make noble or renowned, Hy. [‘i-athele’]

æðelic = æðellic

āðelic = ēaðelic

æðeling m. man of royal blood, nobleman, chief, prince, AO, Chr (v. LL 2·274): †king, Christ, God, Cr: †man, hero, saint; in pl. men, people, Gen. [‘atheling’]

æðelinghād n. princely state, Lcd 3·4385.

æðellic noble, excellent. adv. -līce.

æðelnes f. nobility, excellence.

æðelo = æðelu

æðelstenc m. sweet smell, Ph 195.

æðeltungol † n. noble star.

æðelu fn. nobility, family, descent, origin, CP: nature: noble qualities, genius, talents, pre-eminence, Bo: produce, growth. [‘athel’]

ǣð- = ēð-

ǣðm (ē) m. air, breath, breathing, CP; Sat. (ē): vapour, B: blast, Æ. [‘ethem’]

ǣðmian to fume, exhale, emit a smell.

ǣðre = ǣdre

ǣðreclic terrible, RPs 954.

ǣðret- = āðryt-

ǣðrot n. disgust, weariness. [āðrēotan]

ǣðryt I. troublesome, wearisome, disgusting.

II. n. weariness, disgust, tediousness, Æ.

ǣðryte = ǣðryt I.

ǣðrytnes f. tedium, v. OEG 4582.

ǣðryttan to weary, Æ.

æðða (Bd, Death-song) = oððe

ǣw I. = ǣ.

II. = ǣwe

ǣwǣde without clothes, WW 23038.

ǣwan to despise, scorn, Ps.

ǣwbrǣce despising the law, Æ: adulterous, LL.

ǣwbreca (i, y) m. adulterer, LL (y). [‘eaubruche2’]

ǣwbryce m. adultery, Æ; LL. [‘eaubruche1’]

ǣwda, æwdamann m. witness, compurgator, LL.

ǣwe I. fn. married woman, Æ: married people.

II. lawful: married: born of the same marriage.

ǣwelm = ǣwielm

ǣwenbrōðor m. brother by the same marriage, WW 41329.

ǣwēne doubtful, uncertain.

ǣwerd adj.? religious, or sb.? regular priest, ANS 128·298. [cp. ǣweweard]

æwerdla = æfwyrdla

ǣweweard m. priest, Bl 16127.

ǣwfæst upright, pious, devout, religious, Æ, CP: married, Æ.

ǣwfæsten n. legal or public fast.

ǣwfæstlic lawful: religious, CP (ǣf-). adv. -līce.

ǣwfæstnes f. religion, piety.


ǣwicnes f. eternity, RPs 10217 (v. p. 303).

ǣwielm (e, i, y), -wielme m. source, fount, spring, beginning, AO, CP. [= ēawylm]

ǣwintre = ānwintre

ǣwis- = ǣwisc-

ǣwisc I. nf. offence, shame, disgrace, dishonour, AO. [Goth. aiwisks]

II. disgraced, shameless, indecent.

ǣwiscberende disgraceful, shameful, WW 26442.

ǣwisce = ǣwisc I.

ǣwisc-ferinend (Gl), -firina (NG) m. shameless sinner, publican.

ǣwisclic disgraceful, infamous, OEG.

ǣwiscmōd ashamed, abashed, cowed.

ǣwiscnes f. shameless conduct: reverence.

ǣwita m. counsellor, El 455.

ǣwlic legal, lawful. adv. -līce.

±ǣwnian to marry, Æ.

ǣwnung f. wedlock, OEG.

ǣwul basket with a narrow neck for catching fish, WW 18111. [?= cawl, BT]

ǣwumboren lawfully born, LL 76´.

ǣwung = ǣwnung

ǣwunge = ēawunge

ǣwyll m. stream, BC 1·542.

ǣ-wylm, -wylme = ǣwielm

æwyrdla = æfwyrdla

ǣwyrp m. throwing away: what is cast away: an abortion. [āweorpan]

ǣwysc- = æwisc-

æx == æcs, eax

æxe = asce

æxeȳr f. axe-head, Chr 1012e. [ȳr]

æxfaru f. ‘apparatus,’ naval expedition? (= æsc-? v. ES 37·184), Gl.

æxian = ascian

æxl = eaxl

æxs = æcs

āfǣdan = āfēdan

āfǣgan to depict, figure, BH. [fāg]

āfǣgrian (æ) to ornament, adorn, BH.

ā-fælan, -fællan = āfyllan II.

āfǣman to foam out, PPs 118131.

āfǣran to frighten, PPs, Mk, Chr; AO, CP. [‘afear,’ ‘afeared’]

āfæst = ǣwfæst

āfæstan I. to fast, LL, W.

II. to let out on hire, MkR 121.

āfæstla interj. certainly! assuredly! Æ.

āfæstnian (e) to fix upon, fasten, make firm, confirm, AO: enter, inscribe, Æ: build.

āfǣttian to fatten, anoint, APs 226; LPs 1405.

āfandelic = āfandodlic

āfandian to try, test, prove, tempt, Lk, Lcd; Æ, CP: find out, experience, Æ. āfandod (and āfanden?) approved, excellent, Æ.

āfand-igendlic, -odlic proved, approved, laudable. adv. -odlīce.

āfandung f. trial, Æ.

āfangennes f. reception, acceptance.

afara = eafora

āfaran to go out, depart, march, travel, Æ, AO; Da 6. [‘afare’]

āfeallan7 to fall down, fall in battle, Lk; CP: fall off, decay. [‘afalle’]

āfeallan = āfyllan

āfēdan to feed, nourish, bring up, maintain, support, Æ; AO: bring forth, produce. [‘afede’]


āfēgan to join, DR (oe).

āfehtan (DR) = āfeohtan

āfellan = āfyllan

āfelle = ǣfelle

āfeohtan3 to fight, fight against, attack, AO: tear out, destroy.

āfēonodisse,’ PPs.

āfeormian to cleanse, purge, purify.

āfeormung f. scouring, cleansing, purging, Sc.

ā-feorran, -feorrian (CP) = āfierran

āfeorsian to remove, do away, expel, dispel, Æ: go away.

āfer = āfor

afera = eafora

āfēran = āfǣran

aferian to provide horses for team work (as service for a lord), v. ANS 109·73f.

ā-ferian (Gl), -ferran = āfierran

āferscan to become fresh, Bo 8620.

āfersian = āfeorsian

āfestnian (WW 498) = āfæstnian

afetigan = hafetian

āfierran (eo, i, y) to remove, withdraw, depart: estrange from, take away, expel, drive away, CP. [feorr]

āfierrednes (y) f. removal, NC 270.

āfīgen fried, Gl.

āfilgan to pursue, Gen 1415.

āfindan3 (= on-) to find, find out, discover, detect, Jn; Æ: experience, feel, Æ. [‘afind’]

āfir- = āfierr-, āfeor-, āfyr-

āfirðan (= y) to remove, Lcd 1·294n.

āflægen pp. of āflēan.

āflǣman = āflīeman

āflēan6 to strip off, flay, GD.

āflēgan (DR) = āflīegan

āflēman = āflīeman

āflēon2, -flēogan to fly, flee away, Gu: fly from, escape. [‘aflee’]

āflēotan2 to skim, Lcd.

āflīan = āflīegan

āflīegan (ī, ȳ) to put to flight, expel, Æ (ī). [‘afley’]

āflīeman (ȳ) to put to flight, expel, scatter, disperse, rout, Chr; CP: banish. [‘afleme’]

āflīgan = āflīegan

āflīgung f. attack? Lcd 1·33812.

-āflīung v. mete-ā.

āflōwan7 to flow, flow away or from, pass away, AO, CP.

āflȳg-, āflȳh- = āflīeg-

āflygennes f. attack (BT), Lcd 1·3667.

āflȳman = āflīeman

āfōgian = āwōgian

afol n. power, might, LL (30422).

āfōn (= on-) to receive, take in, take, Mk, Ps: lay hold of, seize, MtR, Jul: hold up support. [‘afong’]

āfondian = āfandian

āfor bitter, acid, sour, sharp: dire, fierce severe, harsh, impetuous. [OHG. eivar, eibar]

afora = eafora

āforhtian to be frightened, take fright, wonder at, Æ.

ā-frēfran, -frēfrian to comfort, console, make glad, CP. [frōfor]

āfrem-dan, -dian to alienate, Æ: become alienated.


āfremðan (VPs) = āfremdan

āfremðung f. alienation, VHy.

āfrēoðan2 to froth, Lcd 45b.

āfrēon (-ia, N) to deliver, free.

afslōg = ofslōg

after = æfter

āfūlian to become foul, putrefy, rot, be corrupt, defiled.

afulic perverse. v. ES 42·162.

āfulliend m. fuller, MkR 93.

āfunde rare wk. pret. 3 sg. of āfindan.

āfundennes f. invention, device, discovery, Æ.

āfȳlan to foul, stain, defile, corrupt, CP; Æ. [‘afile’]

āfyllan I. (w. g. or d.) to fill, fill up, replenish, satisfy, Æ; AO: complete, fulfil. [‘afill’].

II. (y = ie) to cause to fall, fell, beat down, overturn, subvert, demolish, abolish, Lk; Æ: slay, kill. [‘afelle’]

āfyndan = āfindan

āfyr- = āfierr-

āfȳran to emasculate. āfȳred (CP), āfȳrd pp. as sb. eunuch.

āfyrhtan to frighten, terrify, Æ, AO.

āfȳrida = āfȳred

āfyrran = āfierran

āfyrsian = āfeorsian

āfȳsan (intr.) to hasten: inspire with longing, Bl: (tr.) urge, impel, excite: drive away. [fūs]

āga m. proprietor, owner, GD 23011.

āgǣlan to hinder, keep back, preoccupy, detain, hold back, retard, delay, AO: neglect, CP: profane.

āgǣlwan to terrify, astonish, AO.

āgalan6 to sound forth, sing, chant.

āgald = āgeald pret. 3 sg. of āgieldan.

āgālian to become slack, CP 6518.

āgan I. (conj. Wt 546) to own, possess, have, obtain, An, Bo, Ma, Mt; AO, CP: give, give up, deliver, restore: have to pay, ‘owe,’ Mt, Lk: have to do, ANS 123·417. ā. ūt find out, discover.

II. pret. 3 sg. of āginnan (onginnan).

āgān (conj. v. gān) to go, go by, pass (of time), Mk. of ā. go away: occur, befal, Æ: come forth, grow, Ps: approach: lose strength. [‘ago’]

āgangan = āgān

āge f. possessions, property. [ON. eiga]

agēan == ongēan

āgehwǣr = ǣhwǣr

āgeldan punish.

II. = āgieldan

āgēlwan = āgǣlwan

āgēman = āgȳman

āgen I.own,’ proper, peculiar, BH, Sat, Mt; AO, CP, Chr, Æ. ā. cyre freewill. āgnes ðonces voluntarily, spontaneously: proper (gram.), ÆGr.

II. n. property, LL: own country.

III. pp. of āgan.

āgēn == ongēan

agēnbewendan to return.

āgēncuman4 to return, Lk 840.

āgend m. owner, possessor, master, lord. se ā. the Lord.

āgendfrēa I. m. lord, owner.

II. f. mistress? Gen 2237.

āgendfrēo = āgendfrēa


āgendlīce properly, as one’s own: imperiously, CP 1455.

āgen-friga, -frige = āgendfrēa

āgēngehweorfan3 to return.

āgēnhwyrfan to return.

āgēniernan3 to run against, meet.

āgēnlǣdan to lead back, WW 919.

āgenlic own: owed, due, DR.

āgennama m. proper name, ÆGr 2516.

āgennes f. property, Æ.

āgēnsendan to send back, Lk.

āgenslaga m. slayer of oneself, suicide, Æ.

āgēnstandan6 to press, urge, Lk.

āgenung = āgnung

āgēode = āēode pret. 3 sg. of āgān.

āgeolwian to become yellow.

āgēomrian to mourn, grieve, GD.

āgeornan = āgyrnan

āgēotan2 to pour out, pour forth, shed, MtL; CP: melt, found (of images): destroy: deprive (of), Jud 32. [‘ageten’]

āgētan = āgītan

āgiefan5 (eo, i, y) to give, impart, deliver, give up, yield, relinquish, Mt (y): restore, return, repay, pay, AO. eft ā. give back, return. [‘agive’]

āgieldan3 (e, i, y) to pay, repay, compensate, yield, restore, reward, AO: offer oneself, offer up (as a sacrifice): perform (an office), Æ (y): allow: to punish? Ph 408.

āgīemelēasian (i, y) to neglect, despise, CP. āgīmelēasod neglectful, careless, NC 337.

āgīeta = āgīta

āgifan (AO, CP) = āgiefan

āgifian to bestow, grant, DR 12419.

āgift = ǣgift

āgildan (CP) = āgieldan

āgilde = ǣgilde

āgilpan3 to exult in (w. d.), Soul 165.

āgiltan = āgyltan

āgīmelēasian (C) = āgīemelēasian

āgimmed set with precious stones, Æ.

āginnan = onginnan

āgīta m. prodigal, spendthrift, CP.

āgitan = ongietan

āgītan I. to waste, destroy, Chr. [‘aget’]

II. = āgēotan

āglāchād m. state of misery, Rd 545.

āg-lǣc, -lāc † n. trouble, distress, oppression, misery, grief.

āglǣca † (ē) m. wretch, monster, demon, fierce enemy.

āglǣccræft (āc-) m. evil art, An 1364.

āglǣcwīf n. female monster, B 1259.

āglǣdan? to cause to slip. v. AB 19·163.

āglēca = āglǣca

āglīdan1 to glide, slip, stumble.

agn- = angn-

āgnere m. owner, ÆGr 11019.

āgnes = āgenes gmn. of āgen adj.

āgnett n. interest, usury, LkL 1923.

āgnettan to appropriate, Gl.

āgnettung f. ‘usurpatura’? Lk 1923 (ES 42·163).

±āgnian toown,’ Rd: claim: appropriate, usurp, Bo, Mt; CP: make over (to), Æ.


āgnīdan1 to rub off, WW 38616.

āgniden I. f. rubbing, Gl? (v. A 31·533).

II. used, threadbare, WW 22024.

āgniend (āh) m. owner, possessor.

±āgniendlic possessive, genitive (case), ÆGr.

+āgnod own, CP 26223.

āgnung f. owning, ownership, possession: claim, declaration or proof of ownership.

āgotenes f. effusion, shedding.

āgrafan6 to curve, hew, sculpture, Æ: engrave, inscribe, Æ.

āgrafenlic sculptured, ARSPs 10519.

āgrāpian to grasp tightly, ÆL 8121.

āgrētan (oe) to attack, LkLR 942.

āgrimetian (y) to rage, GD.

āgrīsan1 to quake, fear, LL. [‘agrise’]

āgrōwen overgrown.

āgryndan to descend, Men 111.

āgrȳsan = āgrīsan

agu f. magpie, WW 13211.

Agustus m. August.

āgyf- = āgief-

āgyld- = āgield-, ǣgild-

āgylpan = āgilpan

āgyltan to offend, sin, do wrong, Æ; CP. [‘aguilt’]

āgyltend m. debtor.

āgylting f. guilt, offence, DR.

āgyltnes f. guilt, NC 270.

āgȳman (ē) to regard, contemplate, AS: heal, cure.

āgȳmelēasian = āgīemelēasian

āgymmed = āgimmed

agynnan = onginnan

āgyrnan to desire, be eager for, GD 20519 (eo).

āgytan = ongietan

ah (AO, CP) = ac (conj. and adv.)

āh pres. 3 sg. of āgan.

āh- = āg-

āhabban to restrain: (refl.) abstain (fram): support.

āhaccian to pick out, ÆL 2378.

āhæbban = āhebban

āhældan = āhildan

āhafennes f. rising, lifting up: elevation, pride.

āhalsian to implore.

āhangian to hang, LkL 2339.

āhātan to name, MtL 2716.

āhātian to become hot, WW 21431.

āhealdan7 (= on-) to hold, keep, DR, JnL.

āhealtian to limp, crawl, LPs 1746.

āheardian to be or become hard, grow hard or inured, CP: endure.

āheardung f. hardening, Lcd.

āhēawan7 to cut off, out or down, Æ, CP: cut wood into planks.

āhebban6 (occl. wk. pret. āhefde and pp. āhefed) (often w. ūp) to lift up, stir up, raise, exalt, erect, Lk; CP: take away, remove: support, uphold: leaven. [‘aheave’]

āhebbian = āebbian

āhefednes = āhafennes

āhefegian (CP), -hef(i)gian (æ) to make heavy, oppress.

āheld (VPs) = āhyld pp. of āhyldan.

āhellian? to cover over, conceal, hide, OEG 5410.


āhelpan3 to help, support (w. g.).

āhēnan to humble, LkL: accuse, NG. [hīenan; hēan]

āheolorian to weigh, consider, Gl.

āhēran = āhȳran

āherian to praise, DR.

āhērian = āhȳrian

āherstan (BPs) = āhyrstan

āheten pp. of āhatan.

āhicgan = āhycgan

āhīenan v. āhēnan.

āhierdan (i, y) to make hard, harden, CP: encourage, animate. [heard]

āhīeðan = āhȳðan

āhildan (æ, e, y) to bend, incline, Æ: rest, lay down (tr. and intr.): turn away, avert: cast down, destroy.

āhirdan (CP) = āhierdan

āhīðan = āhȳðan

āhladan6 to draw out, lead out, draw forth, Æ: exclude, Bk 18.

āhlǣca = āglǣca

āhlǣnan to set oneself up, Mod 53.

āhlǣnsian to become lean, Æ.

āhlēapan7 to leap, spring up, AO.

āhlēfan (oe) to pull out, DR 5510.

āhlēoðrian to sound, resound, GD.

āhlīehhan6 to laugh at, deride: laugh out, exult.

āhlin-ian, -nan = ālinnan

āhlocian to dig out, Gl, MtR 529. [?= *ālocian, cp. lucan (BT) and v. ES 42·165]

āhlōwan to roar again, WW 49211.

āhlūttrian to cleanse, purify.

āhlyhhan = āhliehhan

āhlȳttrian = āhlūttrian

āhn- = āgn-

āhnēopan2 to pluck off, Gu 819.

āhnescian to become soft or effeminate, AO: weaken. [hnesce]

āhnīgan1 to fall down: bow down.

āhogian to think out, be anxious about, GD.

āholan = āholian

āholian to hollow, scoop out, CP. ūt ā. to root out, pluck out: engrave, emboss.

āhōn7 to hang, suspend, crucify, MkLR; AO, CP. [‘ahang’]

āhopian to hope for (tō), Bl 1723.

āhrǣcan to spit out, Lcd 9a.

āhræscian to shake off? (BT), LPs 10813.

āhreddan to set free, save, rescue, re-capture, AO; Æ. [‘aredde’]

āhredding f. salvation, deliverance, HL 9281, EC 230.

āhrēofian to become leprous, MH 17412.

āhrēosan2 to rush: fall, fall down, Æ: be destroyed.

āhrepian to treat, FBO 805.

āhrēran (= on-) to move, shake, make to tremble, CP.

āhrīnan1 (= on-) to touch, handle, Lk. [‘arine’]

āhrisian (y) to shake, stir up, CP: shake off. [‘arese’]

āhrȳnan = āhrīnan

āhrȳran to cause to fall, destroy, Gl.


āhrysian = āhrisian

ahse = asce

āhsian = āscian

aht = eaht

āht = āwiht

ahta = eahta

āhte, āhton pret. 3 sg. and pl. of āgan.

āhtes (= g. of āht) of any account or value.

āhtlīce stoutly, manfully, Chr (E).

āhwā pron. any one.

āhwǣnan to vex, grieve, afflict, Lcd; Æ. [‘awhene’]

āhwænne adv. when, whenever: at sometime, any time, RB: at all times.

āhwǣr (ā, ē) anywhere, Bo, LL, Æ: at any time, ever, in any way. [‘owhere’]

āhwǣrgen anywhere: in any case.

āhwæt n. anything.

āhwæðer (āwðer, āðer, āðor) I. pron. some one, something; any one: anything.

II. adv. and conj. either, AO, CP. āðer...oððe = either...or, AO, LL. [‘outher’]

āhwanon = āhwonan

āhwār = āhwǣr

āhwelfan = āhwylfan

āhweorfan3 (tr.) to turn, turn away, convert: (intr.) turn aside, turn away, Gen: avert. [‘ahwerf’]

āhwēr == āhwǣr

āhwerfan = āhwierfan

āhwettan to whet, excite, kindle, AO: hold out to, provide: reject.

āhwider in any direction, from any source, Æ.

āhwierfan to turn away, turn from, avert, CP.

āhwilc = ǣghwilc

āhwistlian v. āwistlian.

āhwītian to whiten, BJPs 509.

āhwonan from any source, anywhere.

āhwonne = āhwænne

āhwyder = āhwider

āhwylfan to cover over, submerge, subvert, Æ: to roll to, MP 1·592. up ā. pull up, loosen.

āhwyrfan = āhwierfan

āhycganto think out, devise.

āhȳdan to hide, conceal.

āhyldan = āhildan

āhyldendlic enclitic, ÆGr 2651. [āhildan]

āhyltan to trip up, PPs 1395.

āhȳran (ē) to hire.

āhyrdan = āhierdan

āhyrdung f. hardening, Sc 23219.

āhȳrian = āhȳran

āhyrstan (= ie) to roast, fry, Lcd 33b; BPs 1014 (e).

āhyspan to reproach, LPs 1019.

āhȳðan (īe, ī) to plunder, destroy, devour. [hūð]

āīdan (ȳ)? ‘eliminare,’ v. OEG 7109n; BT.

ā-īdlian, -īdlan, -īdelian to be or make useless, frustrate, empty, annul, Æ, CP: profane: be free from: deprive (of). [īdel]

āiernan3 to run away, run out, go over: pass by, go.

āīeðan (ǣ, ī, ȳ) to lay low, demolish, destroy, cast out.

al = eall, æl

āl n. fire, burning, OEG 4389; 4470. [cp. ǣlan]

ālādian to excuse, Bo 1445. ālādiendra ‘excussorum,’ BPs 1264.

ālæccan to catch, take, Chr 1123.


ālǣdan (tr.) to lead, lead away, carry off, withdraw, conduct, bring, Æ: (intr.) be produced, grow, come forth.

ālænan to lend, Æ: grant, lease. [‘alene’]

ālær = alor

ālǣran to teach, PPs 118108.

ālǣson pret. pl. of ālesan.

ālǣtan7 to let go, give up, leave, lose, resign, lay aside, Jn; AO, CP: let, allow: release, pardon, forgive: deliver, Æ. [‘alet’]

ālǣtnes f. loss: remission (of sins).

alan6 to nourish, produce. [Goth. alan]

ālangian (impers.) to affect with longing, Soul 154. [‘along’]

ālatian to grow sluggish or dull, Gl.

alað I. = ealað (v. ealu).

II. pres. 3 sg. of alan.

ālāðian1 (Gl) to be hateful: hate: threaten.

alb f. while garment, ‘alb,’ LL. [L.]

ald (EWS, EK, A) == eald

āld = ādl

ālecgan to put, place, lay down, lay aside, give up, cease from, abandon, LL; Æ, AO, CP. ālecgende word, ālecgendlic word deponent verb: put down, allay, suppress, abolish, conquer, destroy, overcome, refute, Æ, LL: lay upon, inflict: diminish, lessen, withhold, Æ. [‘allay’]

ālēd I. pp. of ālecgan.

II. = ālǣd pp. of ālǣdan.

ālēfan = ālīefan

ālēfednes f. infirmity, ÆL 2199.

ālēfian to injure, maim; enfeeble, Æ. pp. ill, Æ. [lēf]

ālenian (K) = ālynnan

ālēodan2to spring up, grow.

āleofian = ālifian

ālēogan2 to lie, deny, deceive, be false to, leave unfulfilled, Æ, AO.

ālēon1 (= on-) to lend, give up, DR.

āleonian = ālynnan

ālēoran to depart, flee away, VPs 517.

āleoðian = āliðian

aler == alor

ālēs- = ālīes-

ālesan5 to pick out, choose.

ālet (Da 254) = ǣled

ālētan = ālǣtan

ālēðran = ālȳðran

alewe, al(u)we f. ‘aloe,’ Jn, Lcd.

ālēwed ptc. feeble, weak, ill. [lēf]

alexandre f. horse-parsley, Lcd. [‘alexanders’]

alfæle (An 770) = ealfelo

ālfæt n. cooking vessel, cauldron. [ǣlan]

ālgeweorc n. fire-making, tinder, Gl.

algian = ealgian

alh == ealh

ālibban to live, pass one’s life, AO.

ālibbende everlasting.

ālicgan5 to be subdued, fail, cease, yield, perish, AO.

ālīefan (ē, ī, ȳ) to allow, give leave to, grant, AO, CP: hand over, yield up.

ālīefedlic lawful, permissible. adv. -līce (CP, Æ).

ālīefednes (ȳ) f. permission.

ālīesan (ē, ī, ȳ) to loosen, let loose, free, 16b redeem, release, absolve, Mt (ȳ), AO, CP. [‘alese’]

ālīes-ednes, -(e)nes (ē, ȳ) f. redemption, ransom, MtWLR: remission (of sins), ERHy 977.

ālīesend (ē, ī, ȳ) m. liberator, deliverer, Redeemer, CP.

ālīesendlic (ȳ) loosing, liberating, BH.

ālīesing, -līesnes (ȳ) = ālīesednes

ālīf n. eternal life, MFH 108160.

ālīfan = ālīefan

ālifian = ālibban

ālīh (DR) imperat. sg. of ālēon.

ālīhtan to lighten, relieve, alleviate, take off, take away: ‘alight,’ ÆGr: (= onlīhtan) light up, Æ.

ālimpan3to occur, happen.

ālinnan = ālynnan

ālīsend = ālīesend

āliðian (eo) to detach, separate, Gen: set free. [‘alithe’]

all (strictly Anglian, but found in AO, CP) == eal, eall

almes- = ælmes-

aln- = ealn-

alo- = ealu-

āloccian to entice, AO.

alor, al(e)r m. ‘alder,’ Gl, KC, Lcd; Mdf.

alordrenc m. drink made of alder sap? Lcd 40a.

alorholt nm. alder-wood, WW.

alorrind m. alder-bark, Lcd 12b.

aloð = ealu

alr == alor

alswā = ealswā

alter, altar(e), altre m. ‘altar,’ Æ; CP. [L. altare]

ālūcan2 to pluck up, pull out, separate, take away.

ālutan2 (= onl-) to bend, incline, bend or bow down, Æ. āloten pp. submissive.

aluwe, alwe = alewe

alwald- = eal(l)weald-

ālybban = ālibban

ālȳfan (Æ) = ālīefan

ālȳfed I. = ālīefed pp. of ālīefan.

II. = ālēfed pp. of ālēfian.

ālȳfed- = ālīefed-

ālȳht- = onlīht-

ālyhtan = ālihtan

ālȳman to come forth, shew forth.

ālynnan, -lynnian (e, eo, i) to deliver, let go, release, loosen, Æ.

ālȳs- = ālīes-

ālȳðran (ē) to lather, Lcd. [lēaðor]

am (NG) = eom

ām m. reed or slay of a loom, Rd 368.

āmællian = āmeallian

āmǣnsumian = āmānsumian

āmǣran I. to extol, GD 20624.

II. (usu. ūtāmǣr(i)an) to exterminate, BH.

āmæstan to feed with mast, fatten, feed up, CP.

āmagian (hamacgian) to revive, be restored to health, Lcd 3·18421.

āman = onman

āmang prep. w. d. among, amongst: while, whilst, during. ā. ðām, ðissum meanwhile. [= gemang]

āmanian to exact, require, LL.

āmānsian = āmānsumian

āmānsung = āmānsumung

āmānsumian to excommunicate, anathematize, curse, proscribe, outlaw, BH; Æ, AO. [‘amanse’]


āmān-sumung, -sumnung f. excommunication, curse, Æ. [‘amansing’]

āmarod disturbed, troubled, confounded. [cp. āmyrred]

āmasian to amaze, confound.

āmāwan7 to cut down, PPs 1014.

āmb (A 9·265) = ām

ambeht == ambiht

amber (e1, o1, æ2, o2, u2) mfn. vessel, pail, pitcher, tankard: cask, dry or liquid measure (? four bushels). [L. amphora]

ambiht (e1, o1, y1, e2) I. n. office, service: commission, command, message.

II. m. attendant, messenger, officer.

+ambihtan (embe-) to minister, serve, NG.

ambihtere (embe-) m. servant, LkL 2226.

ambihthēra obedient servant, Gu 571 (o1).

ambihthūs n. workshop, ‘officina,’ CM 1087.

ambihtmann m. manservant.

ambihtmecg † (o1, e2, y2) m. servant.

ambihtnes, -sumnes (emb-) f. service, NG.

ambihtscealc † m. functionary, retainer.

ambihtsecg sm. minister, Gen 582.

ambihtsmið m. court smith or carpenter, LL 3[7].

ambihtðegn (omb-) † m. attendant, servant.

ambyht = ambiht

ambyre favourable, fair, AO. [and, byre]

ambyrian (OEG 11142) = onbyrgan II.

āmeallian (æ) to become insipid, v. OEG 614.

āmeareian to mark out, delineate, define, describe: destine, assign, appoint.

amel m. sacred vessel, WW 348. [L.]

āmelcan3 to milk, Lcd.

āmeldian to let out, make known, betray, Æ, AO.

ameosammeos,’ bishop-weed, Lcd 71b. [Gk.]

amerian = hamorian

āmerian to test, examine: purify, refine.

āmerran = āmierran

āmetan5 to measure, estimate: mete out, assign, grant, bestow, Æ.

āmētan to paint, depict, CP: adorn, Æ.

āmetendlic compendious, measurable, limited. adv. -līce.

āmethwīl = ǣmethwīl

āmetsian to provision, Chr 1006e.

āmiddan = onmiddan

āmidian to be foolish, RHy 66.

āmīdlod unbridled, WW 22638.

āmierran (e, i, y) to hinder, obstruct, prevent, delay, CP: mar, injure, disturb, scatter, consume, waste, spoil, destroy, Lk, Bo; AO, CP: lose. [‘amar’]

āmigdal m. almond, Lcd. [Gk.]

āmōd = ǣmōd

āmolcen pp. of āmelcan.

āmolsnian to decay, weaken, W 14729.

āmolten molten, ÆL 5234.

amore f. a kind of bird, yellow-hammer? [cp. emer]

Defined under omer.

am-pella, -pulla m. flask, vessel. [L.]

ampre I.varix,’ tumour, swelling, Gl. [‘amper’]

II. f. dock, sorrel, Lcd.


āmundian to protect, defend, Æ.

āmyltan (tr.) to melt, Æ.

āmyrdrian (LL 348, 56a) = āmyrðrian

āmyrgan to delight, cheer, Sol 240.

āmyrian = āmerian

āmyrran = (1) āmierran; (2) (LL 348, 56g,b) āmyrðran

ā-myrðran, -myrðrian to murder, kill, LL; Chr 1049c. [‘amurder’]

an I. adv. and prep. = on

II. pres. 1 sg. of unnan.

an- in composition represents (1) and-; (2) un-; (3) in-; (4) on-.

ān I. adj. strong mfn. (asm. ānne, ǣnne) ‘one,’ Mt, Æ. in plur. each, every one, all. ān and (æfter) ān one by one. ānes hwæt some single thing, a part, B: a, an: alone, sole, only; in this sense it is used also in the weak form (sē āna; hē āna, AO, CP) and with a pl.: singular, unique: single, each, every one, all (gp. ānra): any.

II. adv. (also wk. āna) alone, only. on ān continually, continuously, ever, in one, once for all, immediately. ðæt ān only that.

ana = heonu

āna v. ān.

ānad, ānæd † n. waste, desert, solitude. [Ger. einöde]

ānæglian to nail, Nar 425.

anǣl- = onǣl-

anæðelian to degrade, Bo, Met.

+ānan to unite, BH 2143.

ananbēam m. spindle-tree, Lcd 29b.

anawyrm m. intestinal worm, Lcd 43b.

anbærnes = onbærnes

anbestingan3 to thrust in, insert, CP.

anbid (= on-) n. waiting, expectation, hope; AO, CP: interval, AO.

±an-bidian (on-) intr. to wait, stay: tr. w. g. wait for, expect.

anbidstōw (on-) f. place of meeting, LL.

anbidung m. waiting for, expectation: delay, OEG 3396.

anbiht = ambiht

anbindan = onbindan

anbiscopod = unbiscopod

ānboren † ptc. only-begotten.

anbringelle = onbringelle

anbrōce (El 1029) = unbrǣce?

anbrucol (= on-) rugged, GPH 402.

anbryrd- = onbryrd-

ānbūend m. hermit, anchorite, Gu 59.

anbūgan (AO, CP) = onbūgan

anbyhtscealc = ambihtscealc

ānbȳme made of one trunk, dug-out (ship), WW 18133.

±anbyrdan (and-) to strive against, resist, oppose, attack.

anbyrdnes f. resistance, LL 214[14].

anbyrignes (= on-) f. tasting, taste, WW.

ān-cenned2), -cend, only-begotten, Æ.

ancer == ancor

an-clēow n., -clēowe f. ‘ankle,’ Lcd, Æ.

ancnāwan = oncnāwan

ancor m. ‘anchor,’ B, Bo; CP. [L. ancora; from Gk.]


ān-cor, -cora m. anchorite, hermit, Æ. [L. anachoreta; from Gk.]

ancorbend (oncer-) m. cable, B 1918.

āncorlic like a hermit, WW 4637.

āncorlīf n. solitary life, BH.

ancorman m. man in charge of the anchor, WW 1667.

ancorrāp m. anchor rope, cable.

ancorsetl n. prow of a ship.

āncorsetl n. hermitage, Æ.

āncorsetla m. hermit, Æ.

āncorstōw f. solitary place, BH 42412.

ancorstreng (ancer-) m. cable.

ancra = ancor

āncra (a1?) m. anchorite, hermit, monk, WW; Æ. [‘anchor’]

ancsum == angsum

ancuman4 to arrive, Gen 1884.

āncummum one by one, singly, NG.

āncyn adj. only, A 2·358; LPs 2121.

and conj. ‘and,’ but. gelīce and... like as if... AO.

and- = an-, on-, ond- (opposition, negation. Ger. ent-): and occasionally a-.

anda m. grudge, enmity, envy, anger, vexation, Mt; Æ: zeal, Æ, CP: injury, mischief: fear, horror, NG. [‘ande,’ ‘onde’]

āndægefor one day, lasting a day.

andæt- = andet-

āndaga m. appointed day, Æ.

±āndagian to fix a day for appearance: adjourn, EC 163.

andb- = anb-, onb-

andbēcnian to make signs to, WW.

andbita m. feast (of unleavened bread).

andclēow = anclēow

andcweðancontradicere, frustrari,’ HGl 491.

andcwiss f. answer, Gu 992.

andcȳðnes f. evidence, BH 1585.

andd- = and-, ond-

ande == ende

andēages (æ) eye to eye, in the face, openly? B 1935.

andēaw arrogant, ostentatious, Sc.

andefn, -efen f. measure, quantity, amount, AO: capacity, nature, CP.

andel-bær, -bǣre reversed, OEG.

andergilde at little cost? (BT).

andet- = andett-

andetla m. declaration, confession, LL 18[22].

±andetnes (ond- CP) f. confession, Æ: thanksgiving, praise.

andetta m. one who confesses. a. bēon to acknowledge.

±andettan to confess, acknowledge, Æ, CP: give thanks or praise: promise, vow. [and, hātan]

andett-end, -ere m. confessor.

andettian = andettan

andettung m. confession, profession, CP.

andfang m. acceptance.

andfangolsusceptor,’ LPs 4512.

āndfealdlīce = ānfealdlīce

andfeax bald, W 461.


andfeng (on-) m. seizing, receiving, taking, Æ, RB: defence: defender: attack, assault: revenue, means, Lk 1428, Bk 10: illegal occupation of (land).

andfenga m. receiver, defender, undertaker, Ps.

andfenge I. acceptable, agreeable, approved, fit, suitable, Æ, CP: that can receive: taken.

II. m. undertaker: receptacle.

andfengend m. defender, Ps: receiver. gafoles a. tax collector.

andfengestōw f. receptacle, WW 21343.

andfengnes f. acceptance, receiving: receptacle: acceptableness, W 25321.

andfex = andfeax

andgelōman = andlōman

andget == andgit

andgete † adj. plain, manifest. [andgiete]

andgiet (ond-; e, i, y) n., andgiete f. understanding, intellect, Mt; Æ, CP: knowledge, perception, CP: sense, meaning, Æ, CP: one of the five senses: plan, purpose. [‘angit’]

andgiet- = andgit-

andgitful intelligent, sensible.

andgitfullic intelligible, clear. adv. -līce.

andgitlēas foolish, senseless, Æ.

andgitlēast f. want of understanding, Æ.

andgitlic = andgitfullic

andgitol intelligent, sensible.

andgittācen ‡ (ie2) n. sensible token, sign.

andgyt = andgiet

andgyt- = andgit-

Printed on one line:
andgyt == andgiet, -git

andhēafod n. heading, unploughed headland of a field, EC.

andhetan, andhettan = andettan

andhweorfan3 to move against, blow against, B 548. [or ? onhweorfan]

andian to be envious or jealous.

andig envious, jealous, OEG.

andlāman = andlōman

andlang (o1, o2) I. adj. entire, continuous, extended. andlangne dæg, niht all day (night) long, An, Gu. [‘along’]

II. prep. w. g. ‘along,’ by the side of, Æ, Chr, KC; AO.

andlangcempa (anl-) soldier fighting in line, WW 45018.

andlata (Cr 1436) = andwlita

andlēan † n. retribution, retaliation.

and-leofen (ie, i, y) f., -leofa m. sustenance, nourishment, food: money, wages. [libban]

andlīcnes = onlīcnes

andliefen (AO, CP), andlifen = andleofen

andlōman2, u2) m. pl. utensils, implements, vessels.

andlong = andlang

andlyfen = andleofen

andmitta = anmitta

andrecefæt? n. wine or oil press, WW 12337.

andriesne = ondrysne

an-drysen-, -drysn- = ondrys(e)n-

and-rysno f. respect, reverence: etiquette.

andsaca m. adversary: denier, apostate.

andsacian to dispute, deny, CP.

andsæc m. denial, oath of purgation, El, LL: refusal: strife, resistance. [‘andsech’]


andsǣte adj. hateful, odious, repugnant, Æ: hostile. [‘andsete’]

andslyht † m. blow.

andspeornan3 to stumble against, NG.

andspyrnes f. offence, MtR 1623.

āndstreces = ānstreces

and-sumnes, -sundnes (= on-) f. purity, chastity, virginity. v. OEG 1696.

±andswarian toanswer,’ Lk; Æ, CP.

andswaru f. ‘answer,’ reply, B, Jn; CP.

and-swerian (VPs), -sworian = andswarian

andsȳn = ansīen

and-timber, -tymber = ontimber

andðracian = onðracian

andðræce = onðræce

andung f. jealousy, LPs 7758.

andūstriandetestari,’ MtR 2674.

andūstrung f. ‘abominatio,’ MtR 2415.

andwǣscan = ādwǣscan

andwǣt moist.

andward- = andweard-

andweal- = onweal-

andweard (+ at AS 6314) present, actual, existing, Æ, CP: opposite to.

±andweardian to present, bring before one. (+andweardian also = andwyrdian.)

andweardlic present, actual. adv. -līce.

andweardnes f. presence, CP: present time.

andwendednes = onwendednes

andweorc n. matter, substance, material, CP: cause.

andwerd == and-weard, -wyrd

andwīg m. resistance, Gu 147.

andwille = ānwille

andwirdan = andwyrdan

andwīs expert, skilful, Jul 244.

andwīsnes f. experience, WW 205.

andwist f. support? station? An 1542.

andwlata = andwlita

+andwlatodfrontosus,’ OEG 8365.

andwlita (a, eo) m. face, forehead, countenance, form, B, MtR; AO, CP. [‘anleth’]

andwlite n. = andwlita

andwlitefulvultuosus,’ GPH 393.

andwrāð hostile, enraged, Pa 17.

and-wurd, -wyrd == andweard

±and-wyrdan, -wyrdian (e, i) to answer, Æ, Mt; AO, CP: (+an-) ‘conspirare,’ WW 20942. [‘andwurde’]

andwyrde n. answer, AO.

andwyrding f. ‘conspiratio,’ WW 37311.

andȳde pret. of andōn (ondōn).

andytt- = andett-

āne (1) = ǣne, (2) heonu.

ān-ēage, -ē(a)gede (ÆL) ‘one-eyed,’ blind of one eye.

ānecge adj. having one edge, Æ.

+āned v. ānian.

ānēge, ānēgede = ānēage

ānēhst = ānīhst

ānemnan to announce, declare, Gu. [‘aname’]

ānerian to deliver, rescue, LPs 2415; EPs 4922.

ānes = ǣnes

ānescian = āhnescian

ānett mn., ānetnes f. solitude, seclusion, CP.


anf- = onf-

ān-feald, -fald, -fealdlic single, unmixed, singular, unique, superior, Æ; CP: simple, modest, honest, sincere, Mt; CP: fixed, invariable. ā. gerecednes or sprǣc prose. [‘afald’] adv. -līce.

ānfealdnes f. unity, concord, AO: simplicity, CP.

anfealt f. anvil, OEG 1167 and n. [cp. anfilte]

anfeng == andfeng

ānfēte one-footed, Rd 591.

an-filt (Æ), -filte (Gl), n. ‘anvil.’

anfindan = onfindan

ānfloga m. lonely flier, Seaf 62.

anfōn (AO) == onfōn

anforht fearful, Cross 117.

ānforlǣtan7 to let go, lose, relinquish, abandon, surrender, CP: omit, neglect.

ānforlǣtnes f. loss, desertion, Bl 8531: intermission.

anforngean in front of, MF (Vesp. D xiv).

anga (o) m. stimulus, sting, goad, CP.

ānga (ǣ, ē) sole, only: solitary.

angbrēost n. tightness of the chest, asthma, Lcd.

ange = enge

angeald pret. 3 sg. of angildan.

angēan == ongēan

angel I. m. ‘angle,’ hook, fish-hook, Bo, MtL (ongul).

II. m. = engel

Angel n. Anglen, a district in Schleswig, from which the Angles came, AO.

Angelcynn n. the English people: England, AO.

āngeld = āngilde

angelic like, similar, Bo 4418.

angeltwicce fm. a certain worm used as bait, earthworm? WW, Lcd. [‘angletwitch’]

Angelðeod f. the English people: England.

āngenga I. solitary, isolated, Æ.

II. m. solitary goer, isolated one, B.

angerǣd = ungerād

āngetrum n. illustrious company, Ex 334.

angeweald = onweald

±angian to be in anguish, RPs 603; 1424.

angien = anginn

angil = angel I.

angildan = ongieldan

āngilde (e, y) I. n. single payment or rate of compensation for damage, LL: the fixed price at which cattle and other goods were received as currency, LL. [‘angild’]

II. adj. to be compensated for.

III. adv. simply, only, LL.

āngildes = āngilde III.

anginn n. beginning, Æ; AO, CP: intention, design, enterprise, undertaking, CP: action, onset, attack: rising (of sun). [‘angin’]

anginnan (AO) = onginnan

angitan = ongietan

angitful = andgitful

Angle mp. the Angles or English (who came from Anglen; v. Angel, Engle).

angmōd sad, sorrowful.

angmōdnes f. sadness, sorrow, W 1886.

angnægl m. corn, ‘agnail,’ Lcd 30b.


angnere (on-) m. corner of the eye, WW 42334.

angnes f. anxiety, uneasiness, trouble, pain, anguish, fear.

angol- = angel-, ongol-

angrisla (y) m. terror, Bl 2037.

angrislic (y2) grisly, terrible. adv. -(en)līce.

ang-set, -seta m. eruption, pustule, carbuncle, WW.

angsum narrow, hard, difficult.

±angsumian to vex, afflict, Æ.

angsumlic troublesome, anxious, painful. adv. -līce Æ.

angsumnes f. pain, Æ: sorrow, trouble: difficulty, perplexity.

āngum = ǣnigum dat. of ǣnig.

āngyld, āngylde = āngilde

angyn = onginn

angytan = ongietan

anh- = onh-

ānhaga (o2) † m. solitary being, recluse.

anhende (= on-) on hand, requiring attention, AO 8824.

ānhende one-handed, lame, weak, Æ.

ānhīweuniformis,’ OEG 1046.

anhoga m. care, anxiety, Gu 970.

ānhoga = ānhaga

ānhorn, ānhorna m. unicorn, Ps.

ānhrǣdlīce = ānrǣdlīce

ānhundwintre a hundred years old.

ānhȳdigresolute, firm, constant, stubborn, brave.

ānhyrne I. one-horned, having one horn.

II. m. unicorn.

ānhyrn-ed, -e(n)de having one horn, Ps.

+ānian to unite, BH 214. [‘one’ vb.]

ānīdan (ē, ȳ) to restrain, repel: force. ūt a. expel, drive out. [nīed]

ānig = ǣnig

ān-īge, -īgge = ānēage

anihstlast, in the last place.

āniman4 (y) to take, GD: take away or from, deprive of, Mt (y); CP. [‘anim’]

āninga = ānunga

āniðrian to cast down, Chr 675e.

anl- = andl-, onl-

anlǣc = anlēc

±ānlǣcan to unite, Æ.

ānlaga acting alone, WW 49123.

anlang- = andlang-

ānlāp- (NG) = ānlīp-

anlēc m. respect, regard.

ānlegere consorting with one man, WW 17115.

ān-lēp- = ānlīp-

ānlic only, unique: solitary: catholic: beautiful. [cp. ǣnlic]

ānlīepig = ānlīpig

ān-līpe (CP), -līpig (Chr), -līpie (æn-; ē, ȳ) I. adj. single, separate, solitary, private, individual, special, PPs 132, BH, MtR. [‘anlepi’]

II. adv. alone, only, severally.

ānlīpnes f. loneliness.

ānlīpum (ēp) singly, MtR 2622.

ānlȳp- = ānlīp-

ānmēde n. unanimity, concord, PPs 5413.

anmēdla m. pomp, glory: pride, presumption, arrogance: courage. [mōd]

+anmettan to encourage, AO. [mōd]


anmitta m. weight, balance, scales, Gl. [and, mitta]

anmōd steadfast, resolute, eager, bold, brave, fierce, proud, CP. adv. -līce.

ānmōd of one mind, unanimous, El; Æ. [‘anmod’] adv. -līce.

anmōdnes f. steadfastness, resolution, Lcd 3·17022.

ānmōdnes f. unity, unanimity, CP.

ann pres. 3 sg. of unnan.

anna = heonu

ānne (AO, CP) v. ān.

ānnes f. oneness, unity, BH; Æ: agreement, covenant, Chr: solitude, Gu. [‘annesse’]

ānnihte adv. one day old, Lcd.

anoða = anda

ānpæð † m. narrow path.

anpolle f. (Æ) = ampella

anr- = onr-

ānrǣd of one mind, unanimous: constant, firm, persevering, resolute, Æ. [‘anred’]

ānrǣdlic constant, resolute: undoubting, Bl 1313. adv. -līce unanimously: resolutely, persistently, constantly, earnestly, Æ: definitely, decidedly.

ānrǣdnes f. unanimity, agreement: constancy, firmness, diligence, AO; Æ. [‘anrednesse’]

ānreces (Chr 1010cde) = ānstreces

ānrēd- = ānrǣd-

ans- = ands-, ons-, uns-

an-scēatan (Cp), -scēotan (Erf) = onscēotan

ānseld m. lonely dwelling, hermitage, Gu 1214.

ānsetl n. hermitage, RB 1359.

ansetla m. anchorite, hermit, GD, RB.

ansīen I. (on-; ē, ī, ȳ) fn. countenance, face, CP, Lk: form, figure, presence: view, aspect, sight, thing seen, AO: surface. [‘onsene’]

II. † f. lack, want.

anspel n. conjecture.

anspilde salutary, Lcd 11b.

ānsprǣce speaking as one, PPs 407.

ānstandende ptc. standing alone, RB 97. as sb. hermit, Æ.

ānstapa m. lonely wanderer, Pa 15.

ānstelede one-stalked, having one stem, Lcd.

ānstīg f. narrow path? Gl.

ānstonde = ānstandende

ānstræc (ǣ?) resolute, determined, CP.

ānstreces (ē?) at one stretch, continuously, continually, Chr 894a.

ansund sound, whole, entire, perfect, healthy, Æ (on-).

an-sundnes, -sumnes f. soundness, wholeness, integrity.

ānsunu m. only son.

ānswēge harmonious, accordant.

ansȳn = ansīen

ant- = and-, ont-, unt-

Antecrist m. Antichrist. [L.]

antefn m. antiphon, ‘anthem,’ BH; Æ.

antefnere m. book of antiphons, antiphonary, CM.

antemnere, antifonere (ÆP 1546) = antefnere

āntīd f. similar time (i.e. the corresponding time of a following day)? B 219.

antre f. radish, Lcd.

ānum alone, solely, Æ.

anunder = onunder


anung f. zeal, NG.

ānunga at once, forthwith: entirely, altogether, throughout, by all means, uninterruptedly, B: necessarily, certainly.

anw- = andw-, onw-, unw-

ānwedd n. security, pledge, TC 20116.

ānwīg n. single combat, duel, Æ, AO.

ānwīglīce in single combat, WW 51221.

ānwiht = āwuht

ānwille I. adj. wilful, obstinate, CP, WW; Æ. [‘onwill’]

II. adv. wilfully, obstinately.

ānwillīce obstinately, CP.

ānwilnes f. self-will, obstinacy, persistence, CP. mid ānwilnesse wantonly, wilfully.

ānwintre adj. one year old, yearling.

ānwīte n. single fine, LL 64, 31, 1.

anwlōh (Dan 585) = onwealg?

ānwuht = āwuht

ānwunung f. solitary abode, RB 13412.

ānwylnes = ānwilnes

anxsum- = angsum-

ānȳdan = ānīdan

anȳhst = anīhst

ānyman = āniman

anȳwan = onȳwan

apa m. ‘ape,’ Gl, Lcd.

āpǣcan to seduce, lead astray.

āpǣran to avert, pervert.

āparian to discover, apprehend, EC 164.

apelder- = apuldor-

āpinsian to weigh, estimate, ponder, recount, CP. [L. pensare]

āpinsung f. weighing, OEG 1757.

apl = appel

āplantian to plant, Æ.

āplatod plated with metal? resplendent? OEG. [v. ‘plate’]

āpluccian to pluck off, ÆGr 17014.

apostata m. apostate, LL (32214).

apostol (Chr), apostel m. ‘apostle,’ MtR: disciple, ÆH 1520. [L. apostolus; from Gk.]

apostolhād m. apostleship.

apostolic apostolic, BH; Æ. [‘apostly’]

appel, apple == æppel

Aprelis m. April, Men 56.

āpriccan to prick, W 14621.

aprotane f. southernwood, wormwood, Lcd 22a. [L. abrotonum; from Gk.]

apulder, apuldor fm. apple-tree.

apuldorrind f. bark of apple-tree, Lcd.

apuldortūn m. apple-orchard, WW (e3).

apuldre, apuldur = apulder

āpullian to pull, Lcd 1·36210.

āpundrian? to measure out, requite? El 580 (GK).

āpyffan to exhale, breathe out, Gl.

āpyndrian to weigh, HGl 51278? (BT).

āpȳtan to put out (eyes), NC 338.

ār m. I.messenger, servant, herald, apostle, angel. [Got. airus]

II. f. ‘oar,’ Chr, Gn.

III. f. honour, worth, dignity, glory, respect, reverence, BH, Gen, JnLR, Ph; AO, CP: grace, favour, prosperity, benefit, help, B: mercy, pity, An: landed property, possessions, revenue, Æ, AO: ecclesiastical living, benefice: ownership, LL: privilege, LL, 76, 42, 2. 21b [‘are,’ ‘ore’]

IV. n. ore, brass, copper, Æ, AO, CP.

V. (NG) = ǣr

āracsian = ārāsian

ārǣcan wv. to reach, get at, Chr: hold forth, reach out, Æ: get (a thing for a person), Æ, Gr. [‘areach’]

ārǣd I. (ē) m. welfare, LL 184n.

II. prepared?, resolute? Wa 5; GnE 192?

III. = ānrǣd

āræda (Bo 4622) = āroda? v. ārod.

ārǣdan1 (but usu. wk.) to appoint, prepare: arrange, settle, decide, BH: guess, prophesy, interpret, utter, Lk, Bo, Da, CP: read, read out, read to (any one), CP. [‘aread’]

ārǣdnes f. condition, stipulation, BH.

ārǣfan to set free, unwrap, WW.

āræfnan, -ian to carry out, accomplish: endure, suffer, Æ, AO: keep in mind, ponder, Æ. [æfnan]

āræfniendlic endurable, possible.

ārǣman to raise, elevate (oneself), Æ: (†) rise, stand up.

āræpsan (*-ræf-) to intercept, Gl.

ārǣran to lift up, raise, set up, create, establish, Chr, An, Jn: build, erect, Jn: rear (swine), LL 449: spread, disseminate: disturb, upset. ūp ā. bring up, raise up, exalt. [‘arear’]

ārǣrend m. one who arouses.

ārǣrnes f. raising, elevation, AO.

ārǣsan to rush, ÆH 14013.

ārāfian to unravel, disentangle, CP.

ārāsian to lay open, search out, test, detect, discover: reprove, correct, CP. ārāsod skilled.

ārblæd n. oar-blade, Æ.

arblast m. cross-bow, Chr 1079d. [OFr. arbaleste]

arc mf. (also earc, earce) ark, coffer, chest, box, Æ. [L. arca]

arce (æ, e) m. archiepiscopal pallium.

arcebisceop1, e1, y3, eo4) m. ‘archbishop,’ CP, Chr, KC.

arcebiscopdōm m. post of archbishop.

arcebiscophād (eo) m. post of archbishop, BH 4923.

arcebiscoprīce n. post of archbishop, Chr.

arcebiscopstōl m. archiepiscopal see.

arcedīacon m. ‘archdeacon,’ WW.

arcehād (e) m. post of archbishop.

arcerīce n. archbishopric.

arcestōl1) m. archiepiscopal see, Chr.

ārcræftig respected, honourable, Da 551.

ārdǣde merciful, Bl 1312.

ārdagas mp. festival days, WW 20631.

ardlic = arodlic

āre f. = ār III.

ārēafian to separate, divide, Ex 290.

āreccan to spread out, put forth, stretch out: lift up, erect, build up: say, relate, declare, speak out, explain, expound, translate, MtR; CP: astonish: adorn? deck? Rim 10. [‘arecche’]

ārēcelēasian to be negligent, A 9·10268.

ared = arod


ārēd I. = ārǣd I.

II. (strong) pret. 3 sg. of ārǣdan.

āreddan = āhreddan

ārēdian to make ready, devise, provide, arrange, carry out, CP: find, find one’s way, reach: find out, understand. [rǣde]

ārēdnes = ārǣdnes

ārēfnan = ārǣfnan

ārencan to make proud, exalt, A 11·11732? (BT).

ārendan to tear off, Lcd 101a.

ārēodian to redden, blush, BPs.

ārēosan = āhrēosan

ārēran = ārǣran

ārētan to cheer, gladden, Æ. [rot]

arewe = arwe

ārfæst respected, honest, pious, virtuous, Æ, CP: merciful, gracious, compassionate, Æ: respectful.

ārfæstlic pious. adv. -līce.

ārfæstnes f. virtue, honour, grace, goodness, piety: pity, mercy, Æ.

ārfæt nap. -fatu, n. brazen vessel, Æ.

ārfest = ārfæst

ārful respected, venerable: favourable, kind, merciful: respectful. adv. -līce graciously, Æ.

arg (NG) = earg

argang = earsgang

ārgeblond m. tumult of the sea, An 383.

argentille f. argentilla (plant), Gl. [L.]

ārgēotere m. brass-founder, AO 5420.

ārgesweorf n. brass filings, Lcd 30b.

ārgeweorc n. brass-work, WW 39824.

ārgifa m. giver of benefits, Cra 11.

arhlīce = earhlīce

ārhwæt eager for glory, †Chr 937a.

±ārian to honour, respect, Æ, CP: endow: regard, care for, favour, be merciful to, spare, pardon, Æ; CP. [‘are’]

ārīdan1 to ride, AO 11833.

āriddan = āhreddan

ārigend mf. benefactor, benefactress.

ārihtaright,’ properly, LL.

ārīman to number, count, enumerate, CP; AO: relate. [‘arime’]

ārinnan3 to run out, pass away, Sol 479.

ārīsan I. (sv1) toarise,’ get up, CP, Æ, MtL: rise, Mk: spring from, originate: spring up, ascend, El.

II. = +rīsan I.

ārist = ǣrist

ārlēas dishonourable, base, impious, wicked, Æ, CP: cruel, Jul 4. [Ger. ehrlos] adv. -līce Æ.

ārlēasnes f. wickedness, BH, Bo.

ārlēast f. disgraceful deed, Met.

ārlic honourable: fitting, agreeable, proper, AO: delicious.

ārlīce adv. I. honourably, becomingly, graciously, kindly, pleasantly, mercifully, CP.

II. (N) = ǣrlīce

ārloc n. ‘oarlock,’ rowlock, WW 2886.

arm = earm

armeluharmala,’ wild rue, Lcd.

ārmorgen = ǣrmorgen

arn pret. 3 sg. of iernan.

arnian = earnian


+arnung = +earnung

arod I. quick, bold, ready, CP.

II. m? a kind of plant, arum?

ārod pp. of ārian.

arodlic quick. adv. -līce quickly: vigorously, Æ, CP.

arodnes f. spirit, boldness, CP 4117.

arodscipe m. energy, dexterity, CP.

aron (NG) used as pres. pl. of wesan.

ārsāpe f. verdigris. [sāpe]

ārscamu f. shame, modesty, PPs 6819.

ārsmið m. coppersmith.

ārstæf † m. (often in pl.) support, assistance, kindness, benefit, grace.

art, arð (NG) = eart, pres. 2 sg. of wesan.

ārðegn m. servant, BH 37811.

ārðing n. a thing of value, LkR 211.

arud == arod

ārung f. honour, respect, reverence, AO: pardon.

ārunnen = āurnen, pp. of ārinnan.

arwe (rew-, ruw-) f. ‘arrow,’ LL, Chr.

ārwela † m. watery realm, An 855. [ēar]

ār-weorð, -weorðe honourable, venerable, revering, pious, CP. adv. -weorðe.

ārweorðful honourable, Æ (u2).

±ārweorðian to honour, reverence, worship, extol.

ārweorðlic venerable, honourable. adv. -līce honourably, reverentially, solemnly, kindly, Æ. [‘arworthly’]

ārweorðnes f. reverence, honour, CP.

ārweorðung f. honour. Ps.

ārwesa respected, RB 11520.

ārwierðe == ārweorð

ārwiððe f. oar-thong, rowlock, Æ.

arwunga, arwunge (A) = earwunga

ārwurð, -wyrð == ārweorð

āryddan, -rydran, -rytran to strip, plunder, Gl, WW.

ārȳderian to blush, BRPs 694.

ārȳpan to tear off, strip, Rd 767.

ārȳð f. wave of the sea, An 532. [ēar]

āsadian to satiate, surfeit, MF (Vesp. D xiv).

āsæcgan = āsecgan

āsægdnes = onsægednes

āsǣlanto bind, fetter, ensnare.

āsændan = āsendan

asal, asald (NG) = esol

āsānian to droop, flag, Gu 1148, LV 57.

āsāwan7 to sow, sow with, Æ.

asca (NG) m. = asce

āscacan = āsceacan

āscādan = āscēadan

āscæcan = āsceacan

āscæfen pp. of āsceafan.

āscǣre = ǣscǣre

āscafan = āsceafan

āscamelic shameful, HGl 500.

āscamian (ea) to feel shame, Ps, Cr. [‘ashame’]

ascas nap. of æsc.

ascbacen (ax-) baked on ashes, GD 8630.

asce (æ, cs, x) f. (burnt) ‘ash,’ Lcd: dust (of the ground), MtL.

āsceacan6 (a) to shake off, remove, Mt: depart, flee, desert, forsake, Æ: shake, brandish. [‘ashake’]


āscēadan7 (ā) to separate, hold aloof or asunder, exclude, CP: make clear, cleanse, purify.

āsceafan (a) to shave off, Lcd.

āscealian to peel off, WW.

āsceamian = āscamian

āscearpan = āscirpan

āscellan = āscillan, āscilian

āscēofan = āscūfan

āsceon- = onscun-

āsceortian = āscortian

āscēotan2 to shoot, shoot out, Æ, AO: drop out, fall, Æ: lance (surgery), ÆL 2063: eviscerate, OEG 4647.

āsceppan = āscieppan

āsceran = āsciran

āscerian = āscirian

āscerpan (VPs) = āscirpan

āscian (ācs-, āhs-, āx-) toask,’ inquire, seek for, demand, Æ, KC, WG, etc.; CP: call, summon, B, Gen: (+) learn by inquiry, discover, hear of, Chr: (†) announce.

āsciendlic (āx-) interrogative, ÆGr 26014.

āscieppan6 to make, create, Ex: appoint, determine, assign, AO. [‘ashape’]

āscihhan = āscyhhan

ascildan to protect, DR.

āscilian to separate, divide, v. OEG 1367n.; FM 100.

āscīmian to shine, Lcd 2·232.

āscīnan1 to flash or shine forth, beam, radiate, be clear, GD.

āsciranto cut off, cut away.

āscirian to cut off, separate, divide, remove, Æ: set free, deprive of: arrange, destine.

āscirigendlic disjunctive, ÆGr 25914 (y2).

āscirpan to sharpen, make acute, CP.

āscortian (eo) to become short, fail, Æ: pass away, elapse.

āscrēadian to prune, lop.

āscrencan to displace, trip up, cause to stumble, CP. [‘aschrench’]

āscrepan5 to scrape, clear away.

āscrincan3 to shrink up.

āscrūdnian (ūtn) to investigate, examine.

āscūfan2 to drive out, remove, expel, banish, Æ: push (away), give up (to).

ascun- = onscun-

±āscung f. ‘asking,’ questioning, inquiring, question, Met, Bo; Æ, CP.

āscyhhan to scare away, reject, RPs 5013.

āscylfan to destroy, GPH 39349.

āscylian, āscyllan = āscilian

āscyndan to separate, part (from): drive away (from), Æ.

āscyr- = āscir-

āscȳran to make clear, Æ. [scīr]

āsealcan (Gen 2167) = āseolcan

āsēarian to wither, dry up, Lcd; CP. [‘asear’]

āsēcan to seek out, select: search out, examine, explore: seek for, require, ask, PPs: search through, penetrate. [‘aseek’]

āsecgan I. to say out, express, tell, utter, narrate, explain, announce, AO.

II. = onsecgan

āsecgendlic utterable, Æ.


āsēdan (œ̄) to satiate, Gl. [sæd]

āsegendnes f. an offering, Nar 2417.

āsellan to give up, hand over, deliver: expel, banish.

āsencan to sink, immerse, OEG 829.

āsendan to send away, send off, send, give up, Mt; Æ. [‘asend’]

āsengan (Jul 313) = āsecgan

āseolcan3 to become slack, remiss, relaxed, weak, Æ, CP.

āsēon I. sv5 to look upon, behold, HL 16255.

II. sv1 to strain, Lcd.

āseonod relaxed, WW 22825. [seonu]

āsēoðan2 to seethe, boil, CP: refine, purify: examine.

āsēowan to sew, Cp 421p (io).

āsetnes f. institute, law, LL.

asettan = onsettan

āsettan to set, put, place, fix, establish, appoint, set up or in, erect, build, plant, AO, Mt; Æ: transport oneself over, cross (the sea, etc.): take away, LL 11[12]. sīð or sīðas ā. to perform a journey, travel.

āsēðan to affirm, confirm, Æ. [sōð]

āsīcan I. sv1 to sigh, Sc.

II. to wean, CPs 1302.

āsiftan to sift, Lcd 13b.

āsīgan1 to sink, sink down, decline, fall down, Chr; CP. [‘asye’]

āsincan3 to sink down, fall to pieces, Æ.

āsingan3 to sing out, sing, deliver (a speech), compose (verse), BH.

āsittan5 to dwell together, settle, El: apprehend, fear: run aground. ūt a. starve out. [‘asit’]

āslacian to become slack, decline, diminish, Æ, CP: grow tired: make slack, loosen, relax, dissolve.

āslacigendlic remissive, ÆGr 2285.

āslæccan to slacken, loosen, WW.

āslæcian = āslacian

āslǣpan7 (ā) to slumber, dream: be paralysed, Lcd.

āslǣwan to blunt, weaken, make dull, OEG 18b, 65.

āslāpan = āslǣpan

āslāwian to become sluggish, be torpid, CP. [slāw]

āslēan6 to strike, beat, cut, Æ: erect: make way: paralyse. of ā. strike off, behead, MtL; AO. [‘aslay’]

āslēpen = āslēopen pret. opt. 3 pl. of āslūpan.

āslīdan1 to slide, slip, fall, Ps; Æ, CP. [‘aslide’]

āslīding f. slipping, GPH 38862.

āslītan1 (ȳ) to slit, cleave, cut off, destroy, CP.

āslūpan2 to slip off, escape, disappear (of), Ps. [‘aslip’]

āslȳtan = āslītan

āsmēagan to consider, examine, investigate, devise, elicit, treat of, think, Æ: look for, demand.

āsmēagung f. scrutiny, consideration.

āsmēan = āsmēagan


±āsmir-ian, -wan to smear, anoint.

āsmiðian to do smith’s work, fashion, forge, fabricate, Æ.

āsmorian to smother, strangle, AO, CP.

āsmorung f. choking, suffocation, Lcd 18a.

āsmūgan = āsmēagan

āsnǣsan2) to spit, impale, stab, LL 68, 36. [‘asnese’]

asnīðan1 to cut off, Lcd.

āsoden (WW 2044) pp. of āsēoðan.

āsolcen (pp. of āseolcan) sluggish, idle, indifferent, dissolute, Æ.

āsolcennes f. sleepiness, sloth, laziness, W; Æ. [‘aswolkeness’]

āsolian to become dirty, A 2·374.

āspanan6 to allure, seduce, persuade, urge, insinuate, AO.

āspannan7 to unbind, unclasp, GD 21424.

āsparian to preserve, GD 15924.

āspeaft (JnL 96) = āspeoft

āspēdan to survive, escape, An 1628.

āspelian to be substitute for, represent, take the place of, LL, RB. ā. fram be exempt from.

āspendan to spend (money), expend, distribute, squander, consume, AO; Æ. [‘aspend’]

āspeoft pret. 3 sg. spit out, JnR 96. [v. speoft]

āsperian = āspyrian

aspide m. asp, adder, serpent, viper, Ps; Æ. [‘aspide’]

āspillan to destroy, JnL 1210.

āspinnan3 to spin, WW.

āspirian = āspyrian

āspīwan1 (ȳ) to spew up, vomit, Æ, CP.

āsplǣtan ?to split. v. ES 49·156.

āspornan to cast down, EPs 1457. [spurnan]

āsprēadan to stretch out, extend, EPs 3511.

āsprecan to speak out, speak, PPs.

āsprengan to cause to spring, fling out, ÆL 8213.

āsprettan = āspryttan

āsprindlad ripped up, Lcd 80b.

āspringan3 (y) to spring up or forth, break forth, spread, Æ; AO: arise, originate, be born, Æ: dwindle, diminish, fail, cease. āsprungen dead. [‘aspring’]

āspringung f. failing, VPs 1414.

āspritan = āspryttan

āsproten pp. of āsprūtan.

ā-sprungennes, -sprungnes f. failing, exhaustion, death: eclipse.

āsprūtan2 (= ēo) to sprout forth, PPs 1409.

āspryngan = āspringan

āspryttan1 (e, i) to sprout out, bring forth, Æ.

āspylian to wash oneself, Bo 1157.

āspyrgend m. tracker, investigator, VHy.

āspyrging f. ‘adinventio,’ WW 51315.

āspyrian (i) to track, trace out, investigate, explore, discover.

āspȳwan = āspīwan

assa m. he-ass, Mt, Jn, Æ; CP. [‘ass’]

assen f. she-ass.

assmyre f. she-ass, Æ.

āst f. kiln, WW 18530; A 9·265. [‘oast’]


āstǣgan to go up, embark, MkR 632.

āstǣlan to lay to one’s charge, LL (26415).

āstǣnan1 to adorn with precious stones.

āstærfan (MtR) = āstyrfan

āstandan6 to stand up, stand forth, rise up, arise, B; Æ: continue, endure, Lk; CP. [‘astand’]

āstandennes f. perseverance, ÆL 23b272: existence, subsistence.

āstēapan = āstȳpan

āstellan I. to set forth, set, put, afford, supply, display, appoint, AO, CP: set up, establish, confirm, institute, ordain, undertake, start, AO; Æ: undergo, Æ.

II. to fly off, rush.

āstemnian to build.

āstemped engraved, stamped, WW 20327.

āstencan to scatter, GD 4233.

āstēopan = āstȳpan

āsteorfan3 to die, MH 6227.

āstēp- = āstȳp-

āsterian = āstyrian

asterionasterion,’ pellitory, Lcd 1·164.

āstīfian to become stiff, Æ.

āstīfician = āstȳfecian

āstīgan1 to proceed, go, Æ: (usu. w. ūp, niðer, etc.) rise, mount, ascend, descend, Jn; Æ, CP: be puffed up, AO 2648. [‘astye’]

āstīgend m. rider.

āstigian to ascend, mount.

āstīgnes f. ascent, EPs 1034.

āstihtan to determine on, decree, Chr 998.

āstihting (OEG) = ātihting

āstillian to still, quiet, MF (Vesp. D xiv).

āstingan3 to bore out, pierce out, Chr: stab.

āstintan = āstyntan

āstirian = āstyrian

āstīðian to become hard, dry tip, wither: grow up, come of age, TC 20320.

āstondnes = āstandennes

āstrǣlian to cast forth, RPs 759.

āstreccan to stretch out, stretch forth, extend, lay low, Æ: prostrate oneself, bow down, CP. [‘astretch’]

āstregdan to sprinkle.

āstregdnes? f. sprinkling, DR.

āstrenged (made strong), malleable, WW.

āstrīenan (ēo, ȳ) to beget.

āstrogden pp. of āstregdan.

āstrowenes f. length, HGl 443.

āstrȳnan = āstrīenan

āstundian to take upon oneself, Æ.

āstȳfecian to suppress, eradicate, CP.

āstyllan = āstellan

āstyltan to be astonished, LkLR.

āstyntan (i) to blunt, repress, restrain, stop, overcome, Gl. [‘astint’]

āstȳpan (ē, ēa, ēo) to deprive, bereave, GD. āstȳpte orphans. [stēop]

Printed as shown, but reference may be to “stēop-” as word element.

āstȳp(ed)nes2) f. privation, bereavement.

āstȳran to guide, control, AS 916.

āstyrfan (æ, e) to kill, destroy, Cr, Mt (e). [‘asterve’]

āstyrian to stir up, excite, move, move forward, raise, Jn, Mk; Æ: be roused, become angry, Æ. āstyred weorðan be or become anxious, Æ. [‘astir’]


āstyriendlic v. un-ā.

āstyrigend m. ‘ventilator,’ GPH 39378.

āstyrred starry, Sc.

āstyrung f. motion, Lcd.

ā-sūcan2 -sūgan to suck, suck out, drain.

ā-sundran, -sundron = onsundran

āsundrian = āsyndrian

āsūrian to be or become sour, WW.

āswǣman to roam, wander about: pine, grieve, Æ.

āswǣrn- = āswarn-

āswǣtan to burst out in perspiration, MH 2012.

āswāmian to die away, Gen 376: cease.

āswāpan7 (but pp. āswōpen) to sweep away, remove, clean, CP.

āswārcan to languish, LPs 3812.

āswārcian to confound, BSPs 7024.

āswārnian to be confounded, Ps.

āswārnung f. shame, confusion, LPs 4316.

āswaðian to investigate, OEG 511.

āsweartian to turn livid, become ashy or black, CP.

āswebbanto lull, soothe, set at rest: put to death, destroy, Jud. [‘asweve’]

āswellan3 to swell, CP.

āsweltan3 to die, Chr.

āswencan to afflict, DR.

āswengan to swing off, shake off, cast forth.

āsweorcan3 to droop, Æ.

āsweorfan3 to file off, polish, GPH.

āswēpa = ǣswǣpe

āswerian6 to swear, PPs.

āswīcan1 to desert, abandon, betray, deceive, Mt: offend, irritate, provoke. [‘aswike’]

±āswician to offend.

āswicung f. scandal, offence.

āswīfan1 to wander, stray, WW.

āswind = ǣswind

āswindan3 to become weak, shrink, fade away, perish, decay, dissolve, Bo; Æ, CP. [‘aswind’]

āswingan3 to scourge, DR.

āswōgan7 to cover over, choke, CP 41117.

āsworettan to sigh, grieve, GD.

āswornian (NC 271) = āswarnian

āswundennes f. idleness, BH 16025.

āsynderlic remote, OEG 2514.

±āsynd-ran, -rian to separate, divide, disjoin, sever, CP, Æ: distinguish, except. [‘asunder’]

āsyndrung f. division, WW.

at == æt

ātǣfran (CP 46719) = ātīefran

ātǣsan to wear out, injure, strike, smite, Æ: wound, CP 29618.

atāwian = ætīewan

āte (æ) f. ‘oats,’ Lcd: wild oats, tares, Gl, WW.

āteallan = ātellan

ātēfran = ātīefran

ategār = ætgār

atel == atol

ātellan to reckon up, count, Bo; AO. ā. wið balance against: tell, enumerate, CP: explain, interpret. [‘atell’]

ātemian to tame, subdue, render quiet, CP.

ātendan to set on fire, kindle, inflame, Chr: trouble, perplex, A 8·31248. [‘atend’]


ātending f. incentive, Sc 22117.

ātēon2 to draw up, out, off or from, remove, pull out, lead out, draw, B, BH; AO, CP. ūp ā. draw up, move away: protract, Æ: move, journey, roam: deal with, dispose of, apply, use, Mt; Æ, CP. [‘atee’]

ātēorian to fail, become exhausted, weary, cease, Ps; Æ: be defective, ÆGr. [‘atire’]

ātēori(g)endlic transitory, perishable, Æ: failing: defective, ÆGr.

ātēorodnes f. cessation, exhaustion, HL 3495; BPs 11853.

ātēorung f. failing, weariness, Æ.

ātēowan = ōðīewan

āter == ātor

ātēran4 to tear away, CP 35920.

āteriendlic = āteoriendlic

āterima (ētr-) oat-bran, Lcd 3·292´.

ātertānum dp. with poisoned twigs (or? -tearum with poison drops) B 1460.

āteshwōn adv. at all, CM 987. [āwiht]

athēd (Gl) = æthȳd

ātīdrian to grow weak, GD 5926 (ydd).

ātīefran (ǣ, ē, ī, ȳ) to draw, depict, CP.

atīewan = ōðīewan

ātiht- = ātyht-

ātillan to touch, reach.

ātimbr-an, -ian to erect, build, AO, CP.

ātimplian to provide with spikes, NC 271.

ātīwan = ōðīewan

ātlēag m. oat-field?, EC 4489.

atol I. dire, terrible, ugly, deformed, repulsive, unchaste, B. [‘atel’]

II. † n. horror, evil.

atolic, atollic dire, terrible, deformed, repulsive, Æ. adv. -līce.

atoliende disfiguring, WW 22026.

ātor, āt(to)r, (ǣ) n. poison, venom, Lcd; AO, CP: gall, Gl. [‘atter’]

ātorbǣre poisonous, ÆH 1·7222.

ātorberende poisonous, venomous.

ātorcoppe f. spider, Lcd. [‘attercop’]

ātorcræft (āttor-) m. art of poisoning, W.

ātorcyn (ǣ) n. poison, Sol 219.

ātordrinca m. poisonous draught, MH.

ātorgeblǣd n. swelling caused by poison, Lcd 162b.

ātorlāðe f. plant used as antidote to poison, betonica? Lcd, WW. [‘atterlothe’]

ātorlic poison-like, bitter, WW. [‘atterlich’]

ātorsceaða † m. poisonous enemy.

ātorspere n. poisoned spear, Rd 189.

ātorðigen (ātt-) f. taking of poison, Lcd 1·45.

ātr = ātor

ātrahtnian to treat, discuss.

ātredan5 to extract, extort, LL.

ātreddan to search out, examine, investigate, PPs.

ātrendlian to roll, Met 517. [v. ‘trendle’]

ātres gs. of ātor.

atrum n. ink, A 13·2815. [L. atramentum]

atter, attor == ātor

attres gs. of attor, ātor.

attrum = atrum

atul = atol

ātur = ātor

ātwēonian to cause doubt, A 8·3336.

ātyddrian = ātīdrian

ātȳdran to beget, create, El 1279. [tūdor]

ātȳfran = ātīefran


ātyhtan (i) to entice, allure, incite: be attentive: produce, Rd 513: stretch, extend, turn.

ātyhting (i) f. intention, aim: instigation, OEG 2304.

ātymbran = ātimbran

ātȳnan I. to shut off, exclude. [tūn]

II. = ontȳnan

ātyndan = ātendan

ātȳrian = ātēorian

atȳwan = oðīewan

āð m. ‘oath,’ B, Mt; AO.

āð- = ōð-

aðamans m. adamant, CP 2712. [L.]

āðbryce m. perjury, W 1647.

āðecgan to take food, consume?: oppress? (Tupper) Rd 12,7.

āðegehāt = āðgehāt

āðegen distended, WW.

āðencan to think out, devise, contrive, invent, AO: intend.

āðenenes f. extension, VHy.

ā-ðennan, -ðenian to stretch out, extend, draw out, expand, AO: apply (the mind) CP: prostrate.

āðenung f. extension, distension.

āðēodan = āðīedan

āðēostrian (ē, īe, ī) to become dark, obscured, eclipsed, Bo; CP, VPs. [‘athester’]

āðer = āhwæðer

āðerscan to thresh out, ÆL 311217.

āðēstrian = āðēostrian

āðēwan = āðȳwan

āðexe f. lizard, OET.

āðfultum m. confirmation (confirmers) of an oath, LL.

āðgehāt (āðe-) n. promise on oath, oath, WW.

āðiddan to thrust, push, OEG 503.

āðīedan to separate, CP.

āðierran to clean, CP.

āðīestrian (CP) = āðēostrian

āðindan3 to swell, puff up, inflate, increase, CP: melt, pass away. (cp. ðindan)

āðindung f. swelling, Lcd 93a.

ā-ðīstrian, -ðisðrigan (CP) = āðēostrian

āðl (VPs) = ādl

āðloga m. perjurer, Cr 165.

āðol = ādl

āðollan to hold out, endure, suffer, Æ.

āðolware mp. citizens, GnE 201.

āðor = āhwæðer

āðrācian to dread: frighten.

āðrǣstan to twist out, wrest out, Gl.

āðrāwan7 to curl, twist, twine, Æ.

āðrēatian to weary, be irksome: force away, CP 29310.

āðrēotan2 (pers. and impers.) to tire of, weary, be tiresome to, displease, disgust, Æ, AO, CP.

āðrescan = āðerscan

āðrīetan to weary, Æ, AO (ȳ); Bo.

āðringan3 to crowd or press out: rush forth, break out. ūt ā. emboss.

āðrīstian to be bold, presume, GD 7030.

āðrotennes f. wearisomeness, WW 40922.

āðrotsum irksome, WW 51012.

āðrōwian to suffer, Lcd 68b.

āðroxen pp. of āðerscan.


āðrunten (pp. of *āðrintan) swollen, Rd 382. (or ? aðrūten)

āðrūten pp. (of *āðrūtan) swollen, Lcd.

āðryccan to press, oppress.

āðrȳn to rob? drive out? Gl, (ES 43·331).

ā-ðrysemian, -ðrysman (AO) to suffocate, smother. [‘athrysm’]

āðrytnes f. weariness.

āðstæf m. oath, CPs 1049.

āðswara m? = āðswaru

āðswaring = āðswerung

āðswaru f. oath-swearing, oath, Æ.

āðswerian? to vow with an oath, WW 3879.

āðswerung f. oath-swearing, Chr, RSPs 1049.

āðswyrd (eo) n. oath-swearing, EPs 10491); B 2064.

āðum m. son-in-law, Æ; AO: brother-in-law. [‘odam’]

āðumswerian mp. son-in-law and father-in-law, B 84.

āðundennes f. swelling, tumour, Lcd: contumacy, WW 8717.

āðwǣnan to diminish, soften, Lcd.

āðwēan6 to wash, wash off, cleanse, baptize, anoint, Æ, CP.

āðwedd n. promise on oath, WW 11516.

āðweran4 to stir up, churn, Lcd.

āðwīnan to vanish, NC 338.

āðwītan1 to disappoint, SPs 13111.

āðwyrðe worthy of credit. v. LL 2·376.

āðȳan = āðȳwan

āðylgian to bear up, ARSPs.

āðȳn = āðȳwan

āðynnian (i) to make thin, DHy 810.

āðȳstrian (Æ) = āðīestrian

āðȳtan sound, blow (a horn).

II. to expel, WW 1912.

āðȳwan to drive away, AO: press out or into, squeeze out.

āuht = āwiht

āuðer = āhwæðer

āw = ǣ

āwa = ā

āwacan6 (on-) to awake, Æ: arise, originate, spring forth, be born. [‘awake(n)’]

āwacian to awake, Æ.

āwācian to grow weak, decline, fall, belittle, Æ, CP: fall away, lapse, desist from, abstain, Æ.

āwacnian = āwæcnian

āwæc- = āwec-

āwǣcan to weaken, weary.

āwæc-nian, -nan (on-; a, e) to awaken, revive, Æ: arise, originate, spring from, AO. [‘awake(n)’]

āwǣgan to deceive: destroy, annul, make nugatory, Æ.

āwǣlan to roll, roll from: harass, afflict, NG.

āwæltan = āwyltan

āwæmmian = āwemman

āwænd- = āwend-, onwend-

āwænian = āwenian

āwærd pp. of āwierdan.

āwærged = āwierged

āwærian to avoid, DR 3913.

āwæscan = āwascan

āwǣstan = āwēstan

āwandian to fear, hesitate, ÆGr 1622.


āwanian to diminish, lessen.

āwannian to become livid or black and blue, GD 2032 (v. NC 332).

āwansian to diminish, KC 4·2436.

āwār = āhwǣr

āwārnian (APs) = āswārnian

Entry before author’s corrections:
āwārnian to be confounded, SPs.

āwascan6 (æ) to wash, bathe, immerse, Lcd.

āweallan7 to well up, flow out, break forth, issue, swarm, CP: be hot, burn.

āweardian to guard, defend.

āweaxan6 to grow, grow up, arise, come forth, CP.

āweb = ōweb

āwec- = āwæc-

āweccan to awake, rouse, incite, excite, Mk, Lk; Æ, CP: raise up, beget. [‘awecche’]

āwecenes (æ) f. incitement, GD 1997.

āwecgan to undermine, shake, move, Æ.

āwēdan to be or become mad, rage, Æ; AO. [‘awede’; wōd]

āwefan5 to weave, weave together, Æ.

āweg (= on-) ‘away,’ forth, out, Chr, Mt; CP.

āwegan5 to lift up, carry away: weigh, weigh out, Æ: estimate, consider. [‘aweigh’]

āwegāworpnes f. abortion, LL (15434).

āwegcuman4 to escape, Æ.

āwegēade went away, JnL 450 [v. ‘away’; ēode]

āwegflēon2 to fly or flee away, OEG 2169.

āweggān to go away, BH 32610.

āweggewītan1 to depart, AO 7426.

āweggewitenes f. departure, Æ: aberration (of mind), JPs 11511.

āwehtnes f. arousing, BH 42220.

āwel m. hook, fork, Gl.

āwellan = āwyllan

āwemman to disfigure, corrupt.

āwemmendnes f. corruption.

āwēnan to consider.

āwendan (= on-) to avert, turn aside, remove, upset, Ps: change, exchange, alter, pervert, Æ; CP: translate, Æ, CP: turn from, go, depart, Ps; AO: return: subdue. [‘awend’]

āwendedlic = āwendendlic

āwendednes f. change, alteration, Æ.

āwendendlic that can be changed, changeable, Æ.

āwendendlīcnes f. mutability, Æ.

āwendennes f. change, OEG 191.

āwending f. subversion, change, ES 39·322.

āwen-nan, -ian to disaccustom, wean.

āwēodian to root out, extirpate.

āweorpan3 to throw, throw away, cast down, cast out, cast aside, degrade, depose, Mt; Æ, AO, CP. āworpen divorced, rejected, destroyed, apostate. of, ūt ā. to throw out. [‘awarp’]

āweorpnes = āworpennes

āweorðan3 to pass away, vanish, become worthless, Mt; (NG) = +weorðan. [‘aworth’]

āweosung f. ‘subsistentia,’ WW 5164.

āwer = āhwǣr

āwerdan = āwierdan

āwerde2) m. worthless fellow, WW 11129.


āwerg- = āwierg-, āweri-

āwerian I. to defend, AO: hinder, restrain, Chr: protect, cover, surround, enclose: ward off from oneself, spurn from oneself.

II. to wear, wear out (clothes), RB.

āwerpan = āweorpan

āwescnes (VPs) = ǣwiscnes

āwēstan to lay waste, ravage, destroy, AO; Æ. [‘awest’]

āwēst(ed)nes f. desolation, destruction.

āwēstend m. devastator, W 20019.

āwexen = āweaxen pp. of āweaxan.

+āwian (AS 429) = +ēawian

āwīdlian to profane, defile.

āwierdan (e, y) to spoil, injure, hurt, corrupt, seduce, destroy, kill, CP.

āwierding (y) f. corruption, blemish, HGl 42157.

āwierg-an, -ian (æ, e, i, y) I. to curse, damn, denounce, outlaw, Æ, Mt, CP; VPs. sē āwier(ge)da fiend, devil. [‘awarie’]

II. = āwyrgan

āwiht I. n. ‘aught,’ anything, something, Ps.

II. adv. at all, by any means. tō āhte at all.

III. good, of value, Æ.

āwildian to become wild, Æ, LL.

āwillan = āwyllan

āwille (WW) = ānwille II.

āwindan3 to wind, bend, plait: slip from, withdraw, escape, CP: become relaxed? W 1483.

āwindwian (y) to winnow, blow away, disperse, Ps.

āwinnan3 to labour, strive, JnL: gain, overcome, endure, Da. [‘awin’]

āwirgan = I. āwyrgan.

II. āwyrgian

āwirgnes = āwyrgednes

āwisc- = ǣwisc-

āwisnian to become dry, wither.

āwistlian to hiss, W 14737. [hwistlian]

āwlacian to be or become lukewarm.

āwlǣtan to befoul, make loathsome, defile, Æ.

āwlancian to exult, to be proud, OEG 1159.

āwlencan to make proud, enrich, DR 591.

āwlyspian tolisp,’ MLN 4·279 (NC 338).

āwo = ā (āwa)

āwoffian to become proud, insolent: rave, be delirious, insane, Æ.

āwōgian to woo, Æ.

āwōh (crookedly), wrongfully, unjustly, LL. [= on wōh]

āwol = āwel

āwolfigan = āwoffian

āwonian (DR) = āwanian

āwor = āfor

āwordennes f. degeneration, WW 8721.

āworpednes (EPs 217) = āworpennes

āworpenlic worthy of condemnation, CP. adv. -līce vilely.

ā-worpennes, -worpnes f. rejection, what is cast away: exposure (of children).

āwrǣnan to make wanton, Lcd 54b.

āwrǣstan to wrest from, extort, WW 39737.

āwrecan5 to thrust out, drive away: strike, pierce: utter, sing, relate, recite: punish, avenge, LL, ChrL. [‘awreak’]

āwreccan to arouse, awake, Æ.


āwregennes = onwrigenes

āwrēon1,2 (= on-) to disclose, discover, reveal: cover, NG.

āwreðian to support, uphold, CP.

āwrīdian to originate, spring from.

āwrigenes = onwrigennes

āwringan3 to wring, squeeze out, Æ.

āwrit n. a writing.

āwrītan1 to write, write down, describe, compose, CP; Æ, AO, Chr: mark, inscribe, draw, carve, copy. [‘awrite’]

āwrīðan1 I. to turn, wind, bind up, bind, wreathe.

II. = onwrīðan

awrygenes = onwrigenes

āwðer, āwðor = āhwæðer

āwuht = āwiht

āwul = āwel

āwuldrian to glorify (N).

āwundrian to wonder, wonder at, admire.

āwunian to remain, continue, BH.

āwunigende ptc. continual.

āwurt-walian, -warian = āwyrtwalian

āwurðan = āweorðan

āwyht = āwiht

āwylian to roll, Æ.

āwyllan to bring into commotion, boil, Æ.

āwylm = ǣwielm

āwyltan, āwylwan to roll, roll away, Æ: harass, DR (æ).

āwyndwian = āwindwian

āwyrcan to do.

āwyrd- (Æ) = āwierd-

āwyrdla = æfwyrdla

āwyrdnes hurt, harm, destruction, Æ: defilement.

āwyrg- = āwierg-

āwyrgan (i, ie) to strangle, suffocate, AO (i), Æ. [‘aworry’]

āwyrgedlic, āwyrgendlic detestable, shameful, abominable.

āwyrgednes f. wickedness, Æ: curse, cursing. [wearg]

āwyrgodnes = āwyrgednes

āwyrigende accursed, Æ.

āwyrigung f. a curse, Æ.

āwyrn (Men 101) = āhwærgen

āwyrpan (= ie) to recover (from illness), ÆH 1·53428.

āwyrtlian = āwyrtwalian

āwyrtwalian to root out, CP.

āwyrðung f. stain, aspersion, HGl 421.

ax- = asc-, ox-

āx- = āsc-

axe = æcs

āȳdan (OEG 8108) = āīdan

āȳdlian = āīdlian

āyldan to delay, GD 2122. [ieldan]

āyrnan = āiernan

āȳtan to drive out. [ūt]

āyttan = āettan


nafn. and am. of bēgen both.

bac- v. bæc.

bacan6 tobake,’ Æ.

bacas nap. of bæc II.

bacca m. ridge, BC (bacce f. Mdf).

bacu nap. of bæc I.


bād I. f. forced contribution, impost, pledge, LL: expectation. [bīdan]

II. (±) pret. 3 sg. of bīdan.

-bādere v. nīed-b.

bādian to take a pledge or fine, LL.

bæ- = ba-, be-, bea-

bæc I. n. ‘back,’ Bo, MtL, Ps; CP. on b. backwards, behind, ‘aback.’ on b. settan, lǣtan to neglect. ofer b. backwards, back. under b. behind, backwards, back. ofer b. būgan to turn back, flee. clǣne b. habban to be straightforward, honest, LL 128[5].

II. mfn. beck, brook. v. ES 29·411.

bæcbord n. left side of a ship, larboard, AO.

bæce = bæc II.

bǣce = bēce

bǣcen- = bēacen-

bæcere I. m. ‘baker,’ Æ.

II. = bæzere

bæcering m. gridiron, WW.

bæcern n. bakery, bakehouse, Æ.

bæcestre fm. baker, Æ. [‘baxter’]

bæceð, bæcð, pres. 3 sg. of bacan.

bæcistre = bæcestre

bæcling, bæclinga (on) adv. backwards, behind. on b. gewend having one’s back turned, Æ.

bæcslitol adj. backbiting, W 7216.

bæcðearm m. rectum; pl. bowels, entrails, Æ.

+bæcu np. back parts, LPs.

bæd I. pret. 3 sg. of biddan.

II. = bed

bǣdan to urge on, impel, CP: solicit, require: afflict, oppress.

bædan to defile, EPs 781.

bædd == bedd

bæddægepiphania,’ DR.

bǣddel m. effeminate person, hermaphrodite, WW. [v. ‘bad’]

bæddryda = bedrida

bædend m. inciter, WW.

bǣdewēg n. drinking vessel. [wǣge]

bǣdling m. effeminate or impure male person, WW. [‘badling’]

bǣdon pret. pl. of biddan.

bædryda = bedrida

bædzere = bæzere

bæfta, bæftan (Mt; Æ) = beæftan

bæftansittende idle, ÆGr 522.

-bæftian (ea1, a2) v. hand-b.

bǣg = bēag

bǣgen = bēgen

bǣh = bēag

bǣl n. fire, flame, B: funeral pyre, bonfire. [‘bale’]

bǣlblys, -blyse, -blæse † f. blaze of a fire, funereal blaze.

bælc I. † m. pride, arrogance.

II. m. covering, cloud? Ex 73.

bælcanto cry out.

+bælcan to root up, CPs 7914.

bældan = bieldan

bældo (CP), bældu = bieldo

bǣlegsa m. terror of fire, Ex 121.

bǣlfȳr n. ‘bale-fire,’ funeral or sacrificial fire, B.

bælg, bælig (NG) == belg

bǣlstede m. place of a funeral pile, B 3097.

bǣl-ðracu f. (ds. -ðræce) violence of fire, Ph 270.


bǣlwudu m. wood for a funeral pile, B 3112.

bǣlwylm m. flames of a funeral-fire, Jul 336.

bǣm = bām (v. bēgen)

bænd == bend

+bǣne? bones, NC 292.

bǣnen made of bone, Æ.

bær I. gsmn. bares ‘bare,’ uncovered, Bo: naked, unclothed, Gen.

II. pret. 3 sg. of beran.

bǣr I. f. ‘bier,’ El; Æ: handbarrow, litter, bed, BH, JnR. [beran]

II. a pasture? KC (BT).

III. = bār (AB 14·233).

+bǣran to behave, conduct oneself, CP: fare, B 2824: ‘exultare,’ PPs. [‘i-bere’]

bærbær barbarous, EPs 1131.

bǣrdisc m. tray, WW. [beran]

bære = bere pres. 1 sing. of beran.

bære- = bere-

-bǣre suffix (from beran); forms derivatives from substantives, as in cwealmbǣre. [Ger. -bar]

bǣre == bǣr

+bǣre n. manner, behaviour, El: gesture, cry: action. [‘i-bere’; beran]

bærfōt barefoot.

bærhtm (A) = bearhtm

bærlic I. adj. of barley, KC 6·7910.

II. open, clear, public. adv. -līce.

bǣrmann m. bearer, porter, Æ. [‘berman’]

bærn = bereærn

±bærnan (e) to cause to burn, kindle, burn, consume, Sol; AO, VPs. [v. ‘burn’]

bærnelāc (e) n. burnt-offering, PPs.

+bǣrnes f. bearing, manner, WW 52913.

bærnett (y2) n. burning, burn, cautery, Æ: arson, LL.

bærning f. burning: burnt offering, BPs 5018.

bærnīsen n. branding-iron, OEG 7113.

bærnnes, bærnes f. burning.

bæro = bearu

bǣron pret. pl. of beran.

bærs m. a fish, perch, Gl. [Ger. barsch]

+bǣrscipe (LkL) = +bēorscipe

bærst pret. 3 sg. of berstan.

bærstl- = brastl-

bærsynnig m. notoriously wicked person, publican, NG.

+bǣru v. +bǣre.

bærwe = bearwe

bæst mn.? inner bark of trees, ‘bast,’ Æ, OET.

bæsten made of bast.

bæstere = bæzere

bǣtan I. to bait, hunt, worry, Æ. [v. ‘bait’]: (BT) make fast? (Sedgef. = III.)

II. to beat against the wind? Bo 14431. [ON. beita]

III. to furnish with a bit or bridle, saddle, curb.

+bǣte, +bǣtel n. bit, bridle, pl. trappings, BH.

bætera, bættra = betera

bǣtung (ē) f. beating (against the wind?) (BT), cable (Sedgef.), Bo 14431.

bæð n. nap. baðu ‘bath,’ action of bathing, Lcd: laver, AO: liquid in which one bathes, medicinal spring, BH, KC. ganotes b. gannet’s bath (i.e. the sea), B.


bæðcere m. bather.

bæðere = bæzere

bæðern n. bath-house, NC 272.

bæðfæt n. bathing-tub, LL 455[17].

bæðhūs n. bathing-place, Æ.

bæðian = baðian

bæðsealf f. bathing-salve, Lcd.

bæðstede m., bæðstōw f. bathing-place, WW.

bæðweg † m. sea.

bæzere m. baptiser, baptist. [= L. baptista]

bal- = beal-

balc, balca m. bank, ridge, Bo, WW. [‘balk’]

ballīce (NG) = bealdlīce

bal-sam, -samum n. ‘balsam,’ balm, BH.

balsmēðe f. bergamot, Lcd 3·9023.

balsminte f. balsam-mint, water-mint, WW 1366.

balzam n., balzame f. = balsam

bām dmfn. of bēgen.

+ban = +bann

±bān n. ‘bone,’ tusk, Jn, Æ, Gl; AO, CP: the bone of a limb.

bana (o) m. killer, slayer, murderer, B; Chr: the devil: (f.) murderess, A 10·155. [‘bane’]

bānbeorge f. leg-armour, greaves, WW.

bānbryce m. fracture of a bone, Lcd.

bāncofa † m. the bodily frame.

ban-coða m., -coðu f. baneful disease.

band pret. 3 sg. of bindan.

bānece in pain in the thigh, Lcd.

bān-fæt † n. nap. -fatu body, corpse.

bānfāg adorned with bonework (deer antlers?), B 781.

bangār (o) m. murdering spear, B 2031.

bāngeberg n. = bānbeorge

bāngebrec n. fracture of a bone, An 1439.

bānhelm m. helmet, shield? Fin 30 (v. also bārhelm).

bānhring † m. vertebra, joint.

bānhūs † n. body, chest, breast. bānhūses weard the mind, Ex 523.

bānlēas boneless, Rd 463.

bānloca † m. joint, limb.

+bann n. proclamation, summons, command, Æ, CP: indiction (cycle of 15 years).

±bannan7 to summon, command, proclaim. b. ūt call out, Chr.

bannend m. summoner, Gl.

+banngēar (-gēr) n. indiction, year of the indiction.

bannuc m. a sort of cake, OEG.

bānrift (y) n. leggings, leg-armour, greaves, Gl, WW (-rist).

bānsealf f. salve for pain in the bones, Lcd 138b.

bānsele ‡ m. (bone-house), body.

bānwærc m. pain in the bones, WW 20012.

banweorc n. homicide, murder, LL 244, 32, 4d.

bānwyrt f. violet? small knapweed? Lcd.

bār (ǣ) m. ‘boar,’ ÆGr.

bara, bare wk. forms of bær, adj.

barda m. beaked ship, WW 28912.

bārhelm m. helmet with the image of a boar? Fin 30 (v. also bānhelm).


barian to lay bare, uncover: depopulate, W 3105. [bær I.]

barice = bearrige

barm = bearm

barn I. pret. 3 sg. of biernan.

II. = bearn

barrige = bearrige

bārspere n. boar spear.

bārsprēot m. boar spear.

barstlung = brastlung

barð m. barque, ‘dromo,’ WW 18129.

barða = barda

baru napn. of bær adj.

basilisca m. basilisk, PPs 9013.

basing m. cloak, Æ.

±bāsnian to await, expect.

bāsnung f. expectation (N).

bastard m. bastard, Chr 1066d. [OFr.]

basu (e, ea, eo) gsmn. baswes purple, scarlet, crimson. baswa stān topaz.

basuhǣwen purple.

+baswian to stain red, ES 33·177.

bāt I. fm. ‘boat’, ship, vessel, Chr.

II. pret. 3 sg. of bītan.

batian to batten, fatten, CP 17320: heal: grow better, Æ.

bātswegen m. boatman, EC 254.

batt bat, cudgel, club, OEG 18b18.

bātwā = būtū

bātweard m. ship’s watchman, B 1900.

bað = bæð

±baðian to wash, lave, ‘bathe’ (tr. and intr.), give baths (to others), Lcd; Æ, AO.

baðu v. bæð.

be- prefix. 1. specializes the meaning of a tr. vb. (as in behōn, besettan). 2. makes an intr. vb. transitive (beswīcan, beðencan). 3. is privative (bedǣlan, belīðan). 4. does not alter the meaning (becuman).

be prep. w. d. and instr. (of place) ‘by,’ near, in, on, upon, with, along, at, to. be eallum altogether. be fullan in full: (of time) in, about, by, before, while, during: for, because of, in consideration of, by, by means of, through, in conformity with, in comparison with: about, concerning, in reference to: on penalty of. be āwihte in any respect. be fullan in excess. be sumum dǣle partly. be ānfealdum single. be twīfealdum two-fold. be fullan fully, perfectly. be ðām mǣstan at the most. be ðām (ðān) ðe because, as, according as, how. be norðan, sūðan to the north, south of.... be æftan = beæftan

bēacen (ē) n. ‘beacon,’ sign, token, phenomenon, portent, apparition, JnL (ē): standard, banner, B.

bēacenfȳr n. beacon fire, lighthouse, OET 1807 (ǣ).

bēacenstān m. stone on which to light a beacon fire, WW.

bēacn- = bīecn-, bīcn-

bead = bed

bēad I. pret. 3 sg. of bēodan.

II. (NG) = bēod

beado == beadu

beadowig = bǣdewēg


beadu † f. gds. beaduwe, beadowe war, battle, fighting, strife.

beaducāf bold in battle, Rd 111.

beaducræft m. skill in war, An 219.


beaducwealm m. violent death, An 1704.

beadufolm f. battle-hand, B 990.

beadugrīma m. war-mask, helmet, B 2257.

beaduhrægl † n. coat of mail.

beadulāc † n. war-play, battle.

beadulēoma m. (battle-light), sword, B 1523.

beadumægen n. battle strength, force, Ex 329.

beadumēce m. battle-sword, B 1454.

beadurǣs m. rush of battle, Ma 111.

beadurinc † m. warrior, soldier.

beadurōfstrong in battle, renowned in war.

beadurūn f. secret of a quarrel, B 501.

beaduscearp keen in battle (sword), B 2704.

beaduscrūd n. coat of mail, B 453; 2660?

beadusearo n. war equipment, Ex 572.

beaduserce f. coat of mail, B 2755.

beaduðrēat m. war-band, army, El 31.

beaduwǣpen † n. weapon of war.

beaduwang † m. battlefield.

beaduweorc † n. work of battle, warlike operation.

beaduwraǣd (o2) m. fighting company, Lcd 125b.

beæftan I. adv. after, hereafter, afterwards, behind, AO; CP (bi-). [‘baft’]

II. prep. w. d. after, behind.

beǣwnian to join in marriage, marry, Chr 1052d. [ǣw]

beaftan to lament, MtL 1117. [= be-hafetian; ‘beft’]

bēag I. (ǣ, ē) m. ring (as ornament or as money), coil, bracelet, collar, crown, garland, Æ; CP. [‘bee’; būgan]

II. pret. 3 sg. of būgan.

bēag-gifa, -gyfa † m. ring-giver, lord, king, generous chief.

bēaggifu (bēah-) † f. ring-giving.

bēaghord (h) † n. ring-hoard.

bēaghrodendiademed, adorned with rings or armlets.

bēaghyrne (h) f. corner of the eye, WW 15641.

bēagian (ē) to crown.

bēag-sel n., -sele † m. hall in which rings are distributed.

bēagðegu (h) f. receiving of rings, B 2176.

bēagwīse n. round shape, GD 34315.

bēagwriða (h) m. armlet, B 2018.

bēah I. = bēag

II. pret. 3 sg. of būgan.

beāh- = bēag-

beāhsian to ask advice, Bl 19929; 20528.

bealanīð = bealunīð

bealcan, bealcettan tobelch,’ utter, bring up, splutter out, give forth, emit, Ps; Æ: come forth.

beald (a) ‘bold,’ brave, confident, strong, Ps; AO, CP: impudent.

bealde adv. boldly, courageously, confidently: without hesitation, immediately.

bealdian to be bold, B 2177. [‘bold’]


bealdlīceboldly,’ Jul.

bealdnes (a) f. boldness.

bealdor † m. lord, master, hero.

bealdwyrde bold of speech, Æ.

beale- = bealu-

bealg, bealh pret. 3 sg. of belgan.

beallucas mp. ‘testiculi,’ Gl. [‘ballock’]

bealo = bealu

bealo- = bealu-

bealu I. † gs. b(e)al(u)wes n. ‘bale,’ harm, injury, destruction, ruin, evil, mischief, Sat, Ps, Chr: wickedness, malice: a noxious thing, Æ.

II. adj. baleful, deadly, dangerous, wicked, evil.

bealubend m. pernicious bond, W 1782.

bealubenn f. mortal wound, Ex 238.

bealublonden pernicious, GnE 198.

bealuclomm mf. oppressive bond, Hell 65.

bealucræft m. magic art, Met 2675.

bealucwealm m. violent death, B 2265.

bealudǣd † f. evil deed, sin.

bealufulbaleful,’ dire, wicked, cruel, Cr.

bealufūs prone to sin, Rim 50.

bealu-hycgende ‡, -hȳdig ‡ meditating mischief.

bealuinwit n. deceit, treachery, PPs 5424.

bealulēasharmless, innocent, Chr, Gn. [‘baleless’]

bealunīð † m. malice, wickedness.

bealurāp m. oppressive fetter, Cr 365.

bealusearu n. wicked machination, Jul 473.

bealusīð † m. hurt, adversity: death.

bealusorg f. dire sorrow, Ph 409.

bealuspell n. baleful message, Ex 510.

bealuðonc m. evil thought, Jul 469.

bealuwes, bealwes v. bealu.

bēam I. m. tree, KC, Rd: ‘beam,’ rafter, piece of wood, Chr, Mt; CP, Mdf: cross, gallows, Cr: (†) ship, Rd: column, pillar: sunbeam, Chr, Ps: metal girder, AO.

II. (NG) = bȳme

bēamere (Mt) = bȳmere

bēamsceadu † f. shade of a tree.

bēamtelg ‡ m. wood-dye, carbonaceous ink.

bēamweg m. road made with logs, BC 1·417´.

bēamwer m. wooden weir? BC 2·242´.

bēan (īe) f. ‘bean,’ pea, legume, Lcd; Mdf.

bēan-belgas, -coddas (Lk) mp. bean-pods, husks or cods. [v. ‘cod’]

bēancynn n. a kind of bean, WW 2053.

bēanen adj. of beans, Lcd 1·2829.

bēanlēag f. land where beans grow, KC 5·265. [v. ‘bean’]

bēanmelu n. bean meal, Lcd 31b.

bēansǣd n. bean seed.

bēanscalu f. bean-pod, OEG 608.

bēar (NG) = bēor

bearce (æ) f. barking, Gl.

beard m. ‘beard,’ VPs; Æ.

+bearded having a beard, GD 27914.

beardlēas beardless, youthful.

bearg I. m. ‘barrowpig, hog, Mt (e), Rd.

II. pret. 3 sg. of beorgan.

bearh = bearg I. and II.

bearht == beorht

bearhtm I. (br-, e, eo, y) m. brightness, flash: twinkling (of an eye), instant.

II. == breahtm

bearhtme adv. instantly.


bearhtmhwæt swift as the twinkling of an eye, momentary, Az 107 (br-).

bearhtmhwīl f. moment, twinkling of an eye, point of time, GD.

bearm I. (a) m. lap, bosom, breast, Lk: middle, inside: (†) possession.

II. emotion, excitement? PPs 118.

III. = beorma

bearmclāð n. apron.

bearmrægl n. apron. [hrægl]

bearmtēag yeast-box, LL 455[17].

bearn I. (a, eo) n. child, son, descendant, offspring, issue, B, Mt, TC; AO, CP. lēoda b. children of men. [‘bairn’]

II. = barn pret. 3 sg. of biernan.

III. pret. 3 sg. of beiernan.

IV. = bereærn

bearnan (N) = biernan

bearncennicge mother, DR.

bearn-ēaca (CP, Æ), -ēacen (CP), -eacnod, -ēacnigende (Æ) pregnant.

bearnende (NG) = biernende ptc. of biernan.

bearngebyrda fp. child-bearing, B 946.

bearngestrēon n. procreation of children, Rd 2127.

bearnlēas childless, Æ.

bearnlēast2) f. childlessness.

bearnlufe affection (for a child), adoption, BH 45411.

bearn-myrðra m., -myrðre f. murderer or murderess of a child.

bearntēam m. offspring, posterity, AO: procreation of children, HL. [‘bairnteam’]

bearo == bearu

bearrige f? ‘braugina,’ ‘baruina,’ Gl.

bears == bærs

bēarscipe = bēorscipe

±bearu gs. bearwes m. grove, wood, BH; CP; Mdf. [berwe]

bearug = bearg

bearunæs m. woody shore, Rd 585.

bearwe (æ) f. basket, wheelbarrow, LL 45515.

bearwes v. bearu.

beasu = basu I.

+bēat n. scourging, Æ.

±bēatan7 pret. bēot and (rarely) beoft (ES 38·28) tobeat,’ strike, thrust, dash, Bo, Bl, Ps: hurt, injure, Da 265: tramp, tread, B.

bēatere m. beater, boxer, Æ.

bēaw m. gad-fly, WW.

bebaðian to bathe, wash (tr. intr. and refl.).

bebēodan2 to offer, commit, entrust, CP: bid, enjoin, instruct, command, require, Æ, Lk; AO, CP: announce, proclaim. [‘bibede’]

bebēodend m. commander, master, CP.

bebēodendlic commanding, imperative, ÆGr.

bebeorgan3 to be on one’s guard, defend, protect, B. [‘bibergh’]

beber (WW 1114) = befer

beberan4 to carry to, supply with.

bebindan3 to bind about, bind fast, Æ.

be-birgan, -birigan = bebyrgan

bebītan (bibī-) to bite, Cp 251m.

beblāwan to blow upon.

bebod n. command, injunction, order, decree, Mt; Æ, AO, CP. ðā bebodu the (ten) commandments. [‘bibod’]


beboddæg m. appointed day, A 11·10267.

bebodian wv. = bebēodan

bebodrǣden f. command, authority, LPs 118110.

bebrǣdan to spread, cover, MH 4419.

bebrecan4 to break to pieces, Sol 295.

bebregdan3 to pretend, LkL 2020.

bebrūcan2 to practise: consume (food).

bebūgan2 to flow round, surround, enclose: turn from, shun, avoid, El: reach, extend. [‘bibugh’]

bebycgan (A) to sell.

bebycgung f. selling, WW.

bebyrdan to fringe, border, WW 37541.

be-byrgan (AO) -byrian I. to raise a mound to, bury, inter, Æ. [‘bebury’]

II. = bebeorgan

be-byrgednes, -byrig(ed)nes f. burial, burying.

bebyrig- = bebyrg-

bebyrwan (?= -bȳwan, BT) to rub over, GD 3183.

bec = bæc

bēc v. bōc.

becæfian to ornament, WW 13722.

+bēcan to make over in writing, grant by charter, EC 202´.

becc = bæc II.

becca m. pick, mattock, WW; Æ. [‘beck’; and v. Indog. Forschungen 24]

beccen m. buyer, WW (KGl) 7536. [= bycgend]

bece m. = bæc II.

bēce (oe) f. ‘beech’ (tree), Gl. (v. also bōc.)

becēapian1 to sell, Æ: buy, Æ.

becefed = becæfed, pp. of becæfian.

bēcen I.beechen,’ made of beechwood, Lcd, WW.

II. (NG) = bēacen

beceorfan3 to cut, cut off, separate, Æ. hēafde b. to behead.

beceorian to murmur at, complain of.

becēowan2 to gnaw in pieces, Soul 111.

becēpan I. to take notice of, LPs.

II. = becȳpan

beceð pres. 3 sg. of bacan.

becīdan to complain of, ÆH 2·4706.

becierran (e, y) to turn, turn round, pass by, avoid, Met; CP: wind, twist: pervert, Chr: give up, betray. [‘bicharre’]

beclǣman to plaster over, poultice, Lcd.

beclǣnsian to cleanse, SPs 1814.

beclemman to bind, enclose, Sol 71.

beclencan to hold fast, LPs 10418.

beclēsung = beclȳsung

beclingan3 enclose, bind, El 696.

beclipð (CP) = beclypð pres. 3 sg. of beclyppan.

beclīsung = beclȳsung

beclypian (eo) to accuse, challenge, sue at law, LL. [‘beclepe’]

beclyppan to clasp, embrace, encompass, hold, Æ.

beclypping f. embrace, OEG.

beclȳsan to close, shut up, enclose, confine, imprison, Æ. [clūse]

beclȳsung f. enclosure, cell, OEG 1522: period, syllogism, OEG.


bēcn = bēacen(e)n

becnāwan7 to know, RB.

becnedan5 to knead up, Lcd 93a.

bēcnydlic = bȳcnendlic

becnyttan to knit, tie, bind, Æ, CP.

becol-a? m., -e? f. spectre, WW 53033.

bēcrǣding = bōcrǣding

becrēopan2 to creep into, crawl, AO: be hidden, Æ.

becst pres. 2 sg. of bacan.

bēctrēow = bōctrēow

becuman4 to happen, befall, Æ: come, approach, arrive, enter, meet with, fall in with, B; Æ, AO, CP: happen, befall, Bo, Æ: (impers.) befit, MkL 1431. [‘become’]

bēcun (NG) = bēacan

becwelan4 to die, LL 400 (1).

becweðan5 to say: speak to, address, exhort, admonish, blame, Ps: ‘bequeath,’ leave by will, KC; Æ.

becweðere m. interpreter, translator, EHy 16 (proem.).

becwyddod bespoken, deposited, WW 11539.

becwylman? to torment (BT).

becyme m. event, result, BH 37219.

becȳpan to sell.

becyrran = becierran

±bed I. n. prayer, supplication, Æ, CP: religious ordinance, service, Æ.

II. = bedd

III. = bæd pret. 3 sg. of biddan.

bedǣlan to deprive, strip, bereave of, rob, Æ: release, free from. [‘bedeal’]

bēdan = bēodan

+bēdan = +bædan

bedbǣr (ē) f. portable bed, NG.

+bedbigen f. payment for prayers, LL 258 (51). [bycgan]

bedbolster m. bolster, pillow, WW 12420.

bedbūr n. bed-chamber, HGl 481.

±bedcleofa (e, i, y) m. bedroom, chamber: lair, Ps.

bed-cofa m., -cofe f. bedchamber.

bedd n. ‘bed,’ couch, resting-place, Jn, KC; CP: garden-bed, plot, Lcd; Mdf.

+bedda f. consort, wife, B. [‘i-bedde’]

±beddagas mpl. rogation days.

beddclāð m. bed-covering; pl. bed-clothes.

beddclyfa = bedcleofa

beddgemāna m. cohabitation, CP 9925.

beddian to make abed,’ WW: provide one with a bed, LL.

bedding f. ‘bedding,’ bed-covering, LPs, WW; Æ: bed.

beddrēaf = bedrēaf

beddreda (i, y) = bedreda

beddrest † f. bed.

beddstōw f. bed, BH 41012.

be-dēaglian (-dēahl) = bedīglian

bedecian to beg, Æ, CP.

bedēglian = bedīglian

bedēlan = bedǣlan

bedelfan3 to dig round, Lk: bury, Rood; AO. [‘bedelve’]

bedelfung f. digging round, WW 14911.

beden pp. of biddan.

bedēpan (VPs) = bedīpan

bedeppan = bedyppan

bedfelt mn. bed-covering, RB 9116.


bedgerid n. (ant’s) nest, Lcd 118a.

+bedgiht f. evening, WW 1178.

±bedhūs n. chapel, oratory, Æ.

+bedian to pray, worship, BH 40829.

bedīcian to surround with a dyke, embank, fortify, Chr 1016e.

bedidrian = bedydrian

bedīeglan = bedīglian

be-dīglian (-dīhl-; ēa, ē, īe) to conceal, hide, obscure, keep secret, Æ: be concealed, lie hid.

bedīgling f. secret place, RPs 808.

beding = bedding

bedīolan (K) = bedīeglan

bedīpan (ē, ȳ) to dip, immerse: anoint, CPs 1405.

+bedmann m. worshipper, priest.

bedōn to shut, PPs 1472. [‘bedo’]

bedol = bedul

±bedrǣden f. prayer, intercession, Æ.

bedragan v. pp. bedrōg.

bedrēaf n. bed-clothes, bedding, Æ.

bedreda (i, y) m. (and adj.) ‘bedridden’ (man), Æ.

bedrēf = bedrēaf

bedrēosan2 to overcome, deceive? Gen 528, 823: deprive of, bereave, despoil.

bedrest = beddrest

bedrida = bedreda

bedrīfan1 to drive, beat, strike, assail, AO: follow up, pursue: surround, cover.

bedrincan3 to drink up, absorb, Lcd.

bedrīp n. compulsory service rendered to a landowner at harvest time, LL. [‘bedrip’]

bedrōg beguiled, Gen 602.

bedrūgian to dry up, Lcd 1·3364.

bedryda = bedreda

bedrȳpan to moisten, GPH 39118.

+bedscipe † m. cohabitation, wedlock.

+bedstōw f. place of prayer, oratory.

bedstrēaw n. straw for bedding, ÆL 31572.

bedtīd f. bed-time, WW 1762.

+bedtīd time of prayer, MH 12618.

bed-ðegn, -ðen, m. chamber-servant, chamberlain, WW.

bedu f. asking, prayer, CP. [Goth. bida]

bedūfan2 immerse, submerge, drown, Æ. [‘bedove’]

bedul suppliant, WW 18012.

bedwāhrift n. bed-curtain, Ct.

bedydrian to conceal from, Æ: deceive, Æ.

bedȳfan to immerse, GD 7324; CPs 6816.

bedȳglan = bedīeglan

bedȳpan = bedīpan

be-dyppan (e), to dip, immerse, Æ, Mt. [‘bedip’]

bedyrnan to conceal. [dierne]

beēastan to the east of, AO, Chr.

beēastannorðan to the north-east of, AO.

beebbian to leave aground by the ebb tide, strand, Chr 897a.

beefesian to cut off the hair, ÆL 3384.

beerf- = beyrf-

befædman = befæðman

befǣlon pret. 3 pl. of befēolan.

befæstan to fasten, fix, ground, establish, make safe, put in safe keeping, Æ, CP: apply, utilize: commend, entrust to, Æ, CP.


befæstnian (ea) to fix, Æ: pledge, betroth.

befættian to fatten, anoint, LPs 1405.

befæðman, -mian to encircle, Æ.

befaran6 to go, go round or among, traverse, encompass, surround, AO: come upon, surprise, catch, LL 230, 13, 1.

befealdan7 to fold, roll up, envelop, clasp, surround, involve, cover, Æ, CP: attach.

befeallan I. (sv7) to fall, Mt, CP; Æ: deprive of, bereave of: fall to, be assigned to: ‘befall,’ ÆGr.

II. = befyllan

befeastnian (NG) = befæstan

befēgan to join, ÆL 23425.

befelgan = befylgan

befellan = befyllan

befelðrǣd = hefeldðrǣd (HGl 489)

befeohtan3 to take by fighting, Rd 432. [‘befight’]

befēolan3 to put away, bury: deliver, grant, consign, entrust to, Ps: betake oneself to, apply oneself, devote oneself to, persist, persevere, CP: importune: put up with, be pleased with. [‘bifele’]

befeolhan = befēolan

befēon to deprive of property, OEG 3157.

befer (eo, y) m. ‘beaver,’ ÆGr (eo); Mdf.

befēran to surround, Æ: come upon, overtake, pass by: go about: fall among, NG.

befician to deceive, LL (32024).

befīlan = befȳlan

befilgan = befylgan

befiod (HGl 480) pp. of befēon.

beflēan6 to peel, skin, flay, WW. beflagen flǣsc entrails. [‘beflay’]

beflēogan2 to fly upon, BH. [‘befly’]

beflēon2 (w. a.) to flee from, flee, escape, avoid, Ps; CP. [‘beflee’]

beflōwan7 to flow round, over, Wif. [‘beflow’]

befōn7 to surround, clasp, include, envelop, encase, clothe, Bl; Æ, AO, CP: comprehend, seize, attach (at law), lay hold of, catch, ensnare, Gen: contain, receive, conceive: explain, CP. wordum b. tell, relate. on b. have to do with, engage in. [‘befong’]

befor = befer

beforan I. prep. α. (w. d.) (local) ‘before,’ in front of, in the presence of: (temporal) before, prior to, sooner than. β. (w. a.) before.

II. adv. (local) before, in front: (temporal) before, formerly, in former times, earlier, sooner: at hand, openly.

beforhtian to dread, Æ 23b525.

befōtian to cut off one’s feet, Æ 25117.

befrēogan to free, liberate, Ps.

be-frīnan, -frignan3 to question, ask, learn, Æ.

befrīnung f. inquiry, investigation, OEG 2309.

befrȳnan = befrīnan

beftan = beæftan

befullan entirely, completely, perfectly, CP 520.

befȳlan (ī) to befoul, defile, Lcd; Æ. [‘befile’]

befylgan to follow after, pursue, persevere with, Lcd.

befyllan I. to fell, lay low, strike down: (†) take by killing, bereave, rob. [feallan]

II. to fill up. [full]


bēg = bēag

bēga gmfn. of bēgen.

begalan6 to sing incantations over, enchant, Lcd; Æ. [‘bigale’]

begān to go over, traverse, Æ: get to, come by, fall into: go to, visit, care for, cultivate, AO: occupy, Æ, BH, Lcd: surround, Chr. ūtan b. besiege: practise, do, engage in, perform, attend to, be diligent about, Æ, CP: honour, serve, worship: profess. on borh b. pledge oneself, CP. [‘bego’]

bēgan = bīegan

begang m. †way, course, circuit, extent: district, region: business, undertaking, practice, exercise, service, reverence, worship: cultivation, GD. [= bīgeng]

beganga = bīgenga

begangan = begān

begangol (bigeong-) m.? cultivator, LkR: worship, DR.

be-gānnes, -gangnes f. ‘calendæ,’ celebration.

begbēam m. bramble, thorn-bush.

bēge = bēgen

bēgea = bēga

bēgean = bīegan

begēat I. m. attainment, Æ: acquisitions, property, Æ.

II. pret. 3 sg. of begēotan.

begēm- = begīm-

begēmen (KGl) = begīmen

bēgen nm. (but where one thing is m. and the other f. or n., the nom. is bā, bū), nf. bā, nn. bū; gmfn. bēg(e)a, bēgra; dimfn. bǣm, bām; am. bū; af. bā; an. bū both. v. also būtū. [‘bo’]

begenga = bīgenga

begēomerian to lament, W 7515.

begeondan (AO, CP), begeonde, -geonan, prep. w. a. d.; and adv. ‘beyond,’ on the other side, Æ, Chr, Jn.

begeotan = begietan

begēotan2 to pour over or upon, anoint, infuse, flood (with), sprinkle, cover with fluid, Chr; Æ. [‘bigeten’; Ger. begiessen]

beger n. berry, Gl.

beget = begeat pret. 3 sg. of begietan.

begeten pp. of (1) begēotan, (2) begietan.

bēgian = bēagian

begiellan3 to sing, celebrate, Seaf 24.

begietan5 (e, i, y) to get, find, acquire, attain, receive, take, seize, AO, CP: happen: beget.

begietend (e) m. one who gets, WW 21425.

begīman (ȳ) to look after, take care of: do service, attend: take heed, observe.

begīmen f. attention, observation.

begīming f. invention, device: observance: care, regard, OEG (ȳ).

begīnan1 to open the mouth wide, swallow.

beginnan3 tobegin,’ Æ; AO, CP: attempt, undertake, Æ: attack, AO.

begir = beger

begirdan = begyrdan

begitan (AO, CP) = begietan

begleddian to befoul, pollute, Æ: stain, dye, Æ.

beglīdan1 to leave, desert, PPs 561.

begnagan6 to gnaw.

begneorð? attentive, BH 3702 (?= *becneord, BT).


begnīdan1 to rub thoroughly, Lcd 50a.

begnornian to mourn for, B 3179.

begong = begang

bēgra gmfn. of bēgen.

begrǣtan = begrētan

begrafan5 to bury, El 835. [‘begrave’]

begrētan to lament, PPs 7763.

begrindan3to grind, polish, sharpen: deprive of, rob.

begrīpan1 to grip, seize: chide, Ps. [‘begripe’]

begriwen ptc. steeped in, Æ.

begroren overwhelmed, Sat 52.

begrornian = begnornian

begrynian to ensnare, entrap. [grīn]

begȳm- = begīm-

begyrdan to gird, clothe, Æ: surround, fortify, CP.

begytan = begietan

bēh = bēag, bēah

behabban to include, hold, surround, comprehend, contain, AO, CP: detain, withhold.

behādian to unfrock (a priest), LL.

behæfednes f. restraint, temperance.

behæpsian to fasten a door, ÆL 31214.

behǣs f. promise, vow, Chr 1093. [v. ‘behest’]

behættian to scalp, Æ: make bald.

behaldan = behealdan

behamelian to mutilate, hamstring, Æ: strip naked?

behammenclavatus,’ (of shoe) patched (BT), studded with nails (Napier), GD 3713.

behāt n. promise, vow, Æ: threat.

behātan7 (often w. d. pers.) to promise, vow, pledge oneself, Æ; CP: threaten. [‘behight’]

behātland n. promised land, GD 20412.

behāwian to see clearly, take care, consider, Mt. [‘bihowe’]

behēafdian tobehead,’ Mt; Æ, AO.

behēafdung f. beheading, Æ.

behēafodlic capital (punishment), OEG 4042.

behealdan7 to hold, have, occupy, possess, guard, preserve, KC; CP: contain: keep, observe, consider, Bl, Ps; AO, CP: tobehold,’ look at, gaze on, observe, see, Gen; Æ, CP: signify, Æ: avail, effect: take care, beware, be cautious, CP: act, behave.

behealdend m. beholder, spectator, BH 2623.

behealdennes f. observance, DR: continence, DR.

behealdnes f. regard, observation, Æ.

behēawan7 to cut, chip, chop, beat, CP: cut off from, deprive of.

behēdan (KGl) = behȳdan

be-hēfe, -hēf(e)lic suitable, proper, necessary, Æ.

behēfnes f. convenience, utility.

behelan4 to cover over, hide.

beheldan = behealdan

behelian to cover over, conceal, bury, CP.

behelmian to cover over, Sol 104.

behēofian to lament.

be-heonan, -heonon prep. (w. d.) and adv. on this side of, close by.


be-hēot, -hēt, pret. 3 sg. of behātan.

behicgan = behycgan

behīdan = behȳdan

behīdiglīce = behȳdiglīce

behienan (Chr) = beheonan

behildan to depart, EPs 13819.

behindan I. prep. (w. d., a.), adv. ‘behind,’ after, Chr, etc.; CP.

be-hinon, -hionan = beheonan

behīring = behȳrung

behīwian to dissimulate, RBL 167.

behlæmman = behlemman

behlǣnan to surround.

behlāf f. remainder, Æ. [= *belāf]

behlēapan7 to leap upon, settle on, fix upon, devote oneself to, CP.

behlehhan = behlyhhan

behlemmanto dash together.

behlīdan1 to close, cover over, Æ, AO.

behliden = beliden, pp. of belīðan.

behlyhhan6 (e) † to deride, exult over, Gu. [‘bilaugh’]

behlȳðan to rob, deprive of, Rd 1510.

behōf n. behoof, profit: need, want, OEG 2734.

behōfian (abs. and w. g.) to have need of, require, want, BH, Lcd; CP, Æ: (impers.) it behoves, concerns, belongs, is needful or necessary, MtL, Jn. [‘behove’]

behōflic necessary, MkL. [‘behovely’]

behogadnes f. practice, WW 42737.

behogian to care for, RB. [‘bihogien’]

behogod careful, prudent, DR. adv. -līce.

behōn7 to hang round, CP. [‘behung’]

behorsian to deprive of horses, Chr.

behrēosan2 to fall: cover, shelter. behroren pp. divested of.

behrēowsian to rue, repent of, make amends, Æ: compassionate, Æ. [‘bireusy’]

behrēowsung f. repentance, penitence, Æ. [‘bireusing’]

behrēowsungtīd f. time of repentance, Septuagesima, Æ.

behrīman to cover with hoarfrost, Wif 48.

behringan to surround, CP.

behrōpan7 to plague, importune, Lk 185.

behrūmian to besmirch, WW.

behrūmig sooty, MH 5227.

bēhð f. witness, sign, Jud 174.

behwearf I. (eo) pret. 3 sg. of behweorfan.

II. (EPs) = behwearft

behwearft m. exchange, LPs 4313.

behweolfan (A) = behwylfan

behweorfan3 to turn, change, spread about: see to, arrange, prepare, treat, Æ: bury, Æ.

behwerfan = behwirfan

behwirfan (e, y) to turn, change, convert, CP: exchange: prepare, instruct, exercise.

behwon whence, BH.

behwylfan to cover, vault over, Ex 426.

behwyrfan (Æ) = behwirfan

behycgan to consider, bear in mind: confide, trust (on).

behȳdan (ī) to conceal, shelter, Mt; Æ. [‘behide’]


be-hȳdednes, -hȳdnes f. concealment, secret place.

behȳdig careful, watchful, anxious, Æ. adv. -hȳdiglīce, -hȳdelīce.

behȳdignes f. solicitude, care, anxiety. [hygdig] v. MP 1·393.

behygd- = behȳd-

behyhtan to trust, W 488.

behyldan to flay, skin, AO.

behylian to cover, veil, ÆL 33237.

behȳpan (ē) to surround, BH 18814. [hȳpe]

behȳpian to hang up, OEG 3322.

behȳran to let on hire, WW.

behȳrung f. letting, loan, WW.

behȳðelīce sumptuously, WW 5136.

beiernan3 (i, y) to run up to, over, or into, incur: occur to.

beigbēam = begbēam

beinnan = binnan

beinsiglian to seal up, RHy 634.

beirnan = beiernan

beiundane = begeondan

belācan7 to inclose, Rd 617.

belādian to excuse, clear, Æ, AO, CP.

belādiendlic apologetic, that can be excused, OEG.

belādigend m. apologist, WW 3322.

belādung f. apology, excuse, WW.

belǣdan to lead astray, RB. [‘belead’]

belǣfan to leave, spare: be left, remain, survive, Ps; Æ. [‘beleave’]

belændan = belandian

belǣðan to make hateful, pervert, W 477.

be-lǣwa (Æ), -lǣwend, m. betrayer.

belǣwan to betray, Æ.

belǣwung f. betrayal, treachery, Æ.

belāf I. pret. 3 sg. of belīfan.

II. v. behlāf.

belandian to deprive of lands, Chr.

belcedswēora adj. having an inflated neck, Rd 791. [bælc]

belcentan, belcettan = bealcettan

beld, beldo = bieldo

+beldan I. to cover, bind (a book)? JnL p1883.

II. = +bieldan

belēan6 to censure, reprove: charge with: dissuade, forbid, prevent, CP.

belē- (NG) = belǣ-

belecgan to cover, invest, surround, afflict, An; AO: attribute to, charge with, accuse. [‘belay’]

belēfan = belȳfan

belendan = belandian

belene f. henbane.

belēogan2 to deceive by lying, GD: (impers.) be mistaken. [‘belie’]

beleoran (A) to pass by, pass over.

beleorendlic past, DR.

belēosan2to be deprived of, lose.

belēweda (LL 4385) = belǣwend

belewit = bilewit

belflȳs n. bell-wether’s fleece, LL 451 (14).

belg (æ, i, y) m. bag, purse, leathern bottle, pair of bellows, pod, husk. [v. ‘belly’]

+belg m. anger: arrogance, RB 6920.

belgan3 (intr., refl.) to be or become angry, CP, Æ: (+) offend, provoke.


belgnes f. injustice, MtL 2013 (bælig-).

+belh = +belg

belhring m. bell-ringing, RB.

belhūs = bellhūs

belibban to deprive of life.

belicgan5 to lie round, surround, hedge in, encompass, Æ, AO.

belīfan1 to remain over, be left, Æ; AO. [‘belive’]

belīfend m. survivor, OEG.

belīfian = belibban

belig = belg

belīman to glue together, Sc 9619.

belimp n. event, occurrence, affair.

belimpan3 to concern, regard, belong to, conduce to, Bo; CP: happen, B; Æ: become: (impers.) befit. [‘belimp’]

be-lisnian, -listnian to castrate, Æ. belisnod, -listnod pp. as sbm. eunuch. wæs b. ‘stupratur,’ HGl 507.

belīðan1to deprive of. pp. beliden departed, dead, An 1087.

bell = belle

bellan3 to bellow, bark, grunt, roar, Rd. [‘bell’]

belle f. ‘bell,’ KC; Æ, CP.

bellhūs n. ‘bell-house,’ belfry, LL, WW.

belltācen n. indication (sounding of the hour) by a bell, HL 1165.

belltīd f. a canonical hour marked by the ringing of a bell. (cp. belltācen)

belōcianintendere,’ RPs 445.

belone = belene

belt m. ‘belt,’ girdle, WW.

belūcan2 to lock, shut up, close, surround, enclose, embody, Bl, CP, Mt, VPs; AO: stop, impede, block up, choke, Æ: preserve, protect: shut out, exclude, Æ. [‘belouke’]

belune = belene

belūtian to lie hid, GD 29315.

belȳfan (ē) to believe, Æ. pp. belȳfed having belief.

belympan = belimpan

belyrtan (N) to deceive, cheat, MtL 216. [‘belirt’]

belytegian to allure, seduce, AO 11226. [lytig]

bemǣnan tobemoan,’ bewail, mourn over, lament, Æ.

bemancian to maim, Lcd 3·21420.

bēmare = bȳmere

bēme = bīeme

bemeldian to disclose, reveal, denounce.

bēmere = bȳmere

bemetan5 to estimate, account, consider, AO. [‘bemete’]

bemīðan1 to hide, conceal, CP: lie hid.

be-murcian, -murcnian, to murmur at, grumble over, AO 4817.

bemurnan3 (also wk.) to mourn, bewail, deplore, be sorry for: care for, take heed for.

bemūtian to change, exchange for, Gu 42. [L. mutare]

bemyldan to bury, WW. [molde]

ben = benn

bēn I. f. (±) prayer, request, Lk; AO, 36b CP: compulsory service, LL 447 (v. 2·418, Fron.). [‘bene’]

II. pret. 3 sg. of bannan.

bēna m., bēne f. suitor, petitioner, AO.

benacian to lay bare. [nacod]

benǣman (ē) to take away, deprive of, rob of, Æ, AO. [niman]

benc f. ‘bench,’ B.

bencian to make benches, LL 455 (13).

bencsittend † m. one who sits on a bench.

bencswēg ‡ m. bench-rejoicing, sound of revelry, B 1161.

bencðel † n. bench-board, wainscotted space where benches stand, B. [v. ‘theal’]

bend mfn. (+b. MtL) bond, chain, fetter, BH, Bl, Mt, Ps; CP: band, ribbon, ornament, chaplet, crown, WW. [‘bend’]

bēndagas mpl. days of prayer, ‘dies rogationum,’ A 8·32926.

±bendan to bend (a bow), Ps: bind, fetter, Chr. [‘bend’]

bendfeorm = bēnfeorm

beneah (pret. pres. vb.) pl. benugon, pret. benohte to have at one’s disposal, possess, enjoy: require.

beneced = benacod pp. of benacian.

benēman = benǣman

benemnan to name: stipulate, settle, declare, asseverate.

benēotan2to deprive of, rob.

beneoðan (i, y) prep. w. d. ‘beneath,’ under, below.

bēnfeorm f. harvest feast? bean-feast? food required from a tenant? (BT), LL 452´.

bengeat n. wound-gash, B 1121.

benīdan to compel? A 9·110.

beniman4 to take, assume, obtain, AO: take away from, deprive of, bereave, rob, BH, Bo, Gen; AO, CP: contain: catch, apprehend. [‘benim’]

beniming f. deprival, WW (bi-).

beniðan = beneoðan

bēnlic (oe) that may be entreated, DR. adv. -līce beseechingly, DR.

benn † f. wound, mortal injury. [bana]

bēnn pret. 3 sg. of bannan.

benne f. reed-grass, BC (Mdf).

±bennianto wound.

benohte v. beneah.

benorðan in the north, northwards (of).

benoten pp. of benēotan.

benotian to use, consume, ChrB. [‘benote’]

bēnrīp n. compulsory service rendered to a landowner at harvest time, LL 448. [cp. bedrīp]

±bēnsian to pray, supplicate, BH.

benst pres. 2 sg. of bannan.

bēntīd f. prayer time, rogation days, Men 75.

bēntigðe, bēntīð(ig)e granting requests, gracious, LPs: obtaining requests, successful, Chr.

benð pres. 3 sg. of bannan.

benugon v. beneah.

bēnyrð f. ploughing required from a tenant, LL 448 (5,2).


benyðan = beneoðan

bēo I. f. nap. bēon; dp. bēo(u)m ‘bee,’ Ps; Æ.

II. pres. 1 sg. of bēon.

bēobrēad n. honey with the comb.

bēoce = bēce

bēoceorl m. bee-master, bee-keeper, LL 448[5].

bēocere m. bee-keeper, LL. [MHG. bīkar]

+beod = +bed

bēod m. table, Mt: bowl, dish. [‘beod’]

bēodærn n. refectory, dining-room, Æ (-ern). on bēoderne at table.

beodan = bidon pret. pl. of bīdan.

±bēodan2 to command, decree, summon, Æ, AO, CP. b. ūt call out (an army), banish: declare, inform, announce, proclaim, Gu, LL: threaten: offer, proffer, give, grant, surrender, Æ, Gen; AO: (refl.) show oneself, behave: exact, collect. [‘bid,’ ‘i-bede’]

bēodbolle f. table-bowl, Gl.

bēodclāð m. ‘gausape,’ table-cloth, carpet, ÆGr 348.

bēoddern = bēodærn

bēoddian to do joiner’s work, LL 455 (13).

bēodend m. preceptor, CM 967.

bēodendlic = bebēodendlic

bēodern (Æ) = bēodærn

bēodfæt n. table-vessel, cup, WW 20425.

bēodfers n. grace at meal-time.

bēodgæst m. table-companion, An 1090.

bēodgenēat † m. table-companion.

bēodgereordu np. feast, Gen 1518.

bēod(h)rægl n. table-cloth, WW 12633.

bēodlāfa fp. table-leavings, Bl 5313.

bēodland n. land from which the table of monasteries, etc., was supplied, glebe-land, Ct.

bēodlēs f. table-allowance, TC 4746.

bēodrēaf n. table-cloth, TC 53036.

bēod-scēat n., -scȳte m. table-napkin, towel, WW 44922.

bēodwyst f. a table with food on it, LPs 225. [wist]

beofer = beofor

beofian = bifian

beofor (e, y) m. beaver.

beoft redupl. pret. of bēatan; beoftadon is from a later wk. *beoftian (ES 38·28).

beofung = bifung

bēogang m. swarm of bees, WW.

+bēogol (ȳ) submissive, obedient: forgiving, Æ. [būgan]

bēohāta m. chief? prince? Ex 253?

beolone = belene

bēom I. dp. of bēo I.

II. = bēam

III. = bēo pres. 1 sg. of bēon.

bēomōder f. queen-bee, OEG.

bēon I. anv. [conj. in full (WS and A) Wt 548] to be, exist, become, happen. b. ymbe to have to do with. b. of to be gone. (v. also eom, wesan.)

II. nap. of bēo I.

bēona gp. of bēo I.

bēonbrēad = bēobrēad

bēonbroð n. mead? (or? bēanbroð ES 38·302).

bēonnon pret. pl. of bannan.


bēor n. strong drink, ‘beer,’ mead, Lk (v. A 27·495). [bēow]

+bēor m. pot-companion, guest, Æ.

beora = bearu

±beoran = beran

bēorbyden f. beer-barrel, LL 455 (17).

beorc I. (e, i, y) f. birch, Mdf: name of the rune for b.

II. (±) n. barking.

beorcan3 (tr.) tobark,’ CP: (intr.) bark at, Lcd.

beorce = beorc

beorcen (i, y) of birch.

beorcragu (e1) f. lichen from a birch-tree, Lcd 99b.

beorcrind (e1) f. birch-bark, Lcd 119b.

beord (BH 39227) = bord

bēordræst(e) f. dregs of beer, Lcd.

beorg m. mountain, hill, Lk, AO; Mdf: mound, tumulus, ‘barrow,’ burial place, Æ, Lcd.

+beorg n. protection, defence, refuge, W.

beorgælfen f. orcad.

±beorgan I. sv3 (w. d.) to save, deliver, preserve, guard, defend, fortify, spare, An, Ps; AO, CP: (w. refl. d.) beware of, avoid, guard against. [‘bergh’]

II. = byrgan II.

beorg-hlið n. nap. -hleoðu mountain-height, mountain-slope.

+beorglic fitting, profitable, LL, W: safe, prudent, Æ.

beorgseðel n. mountain dwelling. [setl]

beorgstede m. mound.

±beorh I. == beorg

II. imperat. of beorgan.

beorhlēode (WW 17841) = burglēode

+beorhnes f. refuge, CPs 303.

+beorhstōw f. place of refuge, PPs 318.

beorht (e, y) I.bright,’ shining, brilliant, light, clear, Bo, El, Gu: clear-sounding, loud, Cra: excellent, distinguished, remarkable, beautiful, magnificent, noble, glorious, PPs: pure, sublime, holy, divine.

II. n. brightness, gleam, light. ēagan b. twinkling of an eye: sight.

beorhtan = bierhtan

beorhtblōwende bright-blooming, Lcd 1·4049.

beorhte brightly, brilliantly, splendidly: clearly, lucidly, distinctly, CP.

beorhthwīl (OEG) = bearhtmhwīl

beorhtian to glisten, shine, BH, Ps: to sound clearly, B: to make bright, VPs. [‘bright’]

+beorhtian = +beorhtnian

beorhtlic brilliant, clear, shining, splendid. adv. -līce, Mk; Æ. [‘brightly’]

beorhtm = bearhtm

beorhtnes f. ‘brightness,’ clearness, splendour, beauty, JnL, Lk; CP.

±beorhtnian (e) to grow bright, OEG 534: glorify.

beorhtrodor m. shining heavens, Ex 94.

beorhtte (= *beorgihte) pl. mountainous, AO 1025.

beorhtu = bierhtu

beorhtword (y1) clear-voiced, Sat 238.

bēorhyrde m. cellarer, butler, Cra 75.

beorm- = bearm-


beorma m. ‘barm,’ yeast, leaven, Mt.

+beormad leavened, MtR 1333.

beorn I. † m. man: noble, hero, chief, prince, warrior, B, Ma: rich man, Run 12. [‘berne’]

II. = barn pret. 3 sg. of biernan.

III. = bearn

beornan (VPs) = biernan

beorncyning m. lord of heroes, B 2148.

beorne = byrne

Beornice mp. Bernicians, inhabitants of part of Northumbria.

beorning (= ie) f. incense, LkL 111.

beornðrēat m. troop of men, Pa 50.

beornwiga m. †warrior, hero.

bēorscealc reveller, feaster, B 1240.

±bēorscipe, m. feast, banquet, revel, Æ, CP.

bēorsele † m. beer-hall, banqueting hall.

bēorsetl n. ale-bench, Jul 687.

beorswinig (NG) = bærsynnig

beorð fn? birth: the thing born.

Entry supplied from first edition.

bēorðegu † f. beer-drinking.

-beorðling (ie) v. hyse-b.

±beorðor (e, o, u, y) n. child-bearing, child-birth: what is born, foetus, offspring.

beorðorcwelm m. abortion, WW 34823.

beoruh = beorg

beosmrian = bismrian

bēost m. beestings, the first milk of a cow after calving, WW: swelling (of the ground)? v. Mdf. [‘beest’]

beosu = basu

±bēot I. n. boastful speech, boast, threat, Æ, Gen. on b. boastfully: promise, vow, AO: command: peril, danger, Da 265. [= behāt; ‘beot,’ ‘i-beot’]

II. pret. 3 sg. of bēatan.

beotian = botian

±bēotian to threaten, Jul: boast, vow, promise, AO. [‘beoten’]

±bēotlic arrogant, exulting, boastful, threatening, Æ. adv. -līce.

bēotmæcg m. leader, Da 265.

bēoton pret. pl. of bēatan.

bēotung f. threatening.

bēotword † n. boast: threat.

bēoðēof m. bee-thief, LL 54[9,2].

bēoum dp. of bēo.

bēow n. barley, Gl.

bēowan = bȳwan

bēowyrt f. bee-wort, sweet flag, Lcd.

bepǣcan to deceive, cheat, seduce, Mt; Æ. [‘bipeche’]

bepǣcend m. deceiver, Æ.

bepǣcestre f. whore, ÆGr 1759.

bepǣcung f. deception, OEG.

beprīwan (ē) to wink, Bo, W.

bēr (NG) = bǣr

bera m. ‘bear,’ Æ.

beræccan = bereccan

berǣdan to deprive, take by treachery, rob: betray, Æ: deliberate on: get the better of.

berǣsan to rush upon or into, Æ, CP.

±beran (eo) tobear,’ carry, bring, take away, carry out, extend, B; Æ, AO, CP: bring forth, produce, Bl, Mt, Gen (and v. ‘ibere’). berende fruitful. +boren born, own (by birth): (with ūp) set forth, open 38b (a case), Chr 1052e: wear, AO: endure, support, sustain, LL, Mt; CP.

berascin n. bear-skin, EC 250.

+berbed vermiculated, DR 43.

ber-bēne, -bīne f. verbena, Lcd.

berc == beorc

+berd- = +byrd-

+bēre = +bǣre

bere m. barley, JnLR; Æ. [‘bear’]

bereærn n. ‘barn,’ LkL. [bere, ærn]

berēafere m. despoiler, OEG 4636.

berēafian tobereave,’ deprive of, take away, seize, rob, despoil, Bo; Æ, AO.

berēafigend m. despoiler, robber.

berebrytta m. barn-keeper, LL 451 (17).

berēcan to cause to smoke, smoke (tr.), Lcd 1·10616.

bereccan to relate: excuse or justify oneself, CP.

berecorn n. barley-corn.

+bered crushed, WW: harassed, oppressed, NG.

berēfian (KGl) = berēafian

bereflōr m. barn-floor, threshing-floor, LkL. [v. ‘bear’]

beregafol n. rent paid in barley, LL 116 (591). [cp. gafolbære]

beregræs n. barley-grass, fodder, WW 14826.

berehalm n. barley haulm, straw, Lcd 157a.

bereland (ber-) barley land, KC 3·3679.

beren I. of barley, Æ.

II. = biren

III. = bereærn

berend m. bearer, carrier, Gl.

berendan to peel, take off husk, Lcd.

berende v. beran.

berendlīce with fecundity, DR 328.

berendnes f. fertility, DR 10811.

berenhulu f. barley-husk, Sc 9519.

berēnian to bring about, Ex 147: ornament, mount (with silver), KC 6·10122.

berēocan2 to fumigate, LL (1645).

berēofan2to bereave, deprive, rob of.

berēotan2 to bewail, Hell 6.

berēowsian = behrēowsian

-berere v. wæter-b.

berern (NG) = bereærn

beresǣd n. barley, BH 36627.

beretūn m. barley-inclosure, threshing-floor, barn, MtL; Æ. [‘barton’]

berewæstm m. barley-crop, Lcd 1·4026.

berewīc f. barley-yard, demesne farm, TC. [‘berewick’]

berg = (1) bearg, (2) beorg

berg- = beri-, byrg-

berh = bearh pret. 3 sg. of beorgan.

berht = beorht

berht- = beorht-, bierht-

berhtm- = breahtm-

berian I. to make bare, clear, B 1239. [bær]

II. = byrgan II.

+berian = +byrian

bericge = bearrige

berīdan1 to ride round, surround, besiege, LL: overtake, seize, capture, occupy, Chr. [‘beride’]

berie f. ‘berry,’ Lcd: grape, Æ.


berig I. n. berry, RPs 7747.

II. = byrig, ds. of burg.

berigdrenc m. drink made of mulberries, WW 11422.

berige = berie

berigea = byrga

be-rindan, -rindran to strip off bark, peel.

berinnan3 to run upon, run over, wet, bedew, Cr 1176. [‘berun’]

berland = bereland

bern = bereærn

bern- = bærn-, biern-

bernan (VPs) = bærnan

bernhus n. barn, GD 6822. [= beren-]

berōfon (pret. pl. of *berafan or *berebban) despoiled, Gen 2078.

berōwan7 to row round, Chr 897a.

berst = byrst

+berst n. bursting, eruption, W 1867.

±berstan3 intr. (tr. at Rd 28) to break, ‘burst,’ fail, fall, B, Lcd, Ma; Æ, AO: break away from, escape: break to pieces, crash, resound.

berthwīl = beorhthwīl

bertūn = beretūn

berð- = beorð-, byrð-

+bēru = +bǣru

berūmod = behrūmod, pp. of behrūmian.

berunnen pp. of berinnan.

berwe ds. of bearu.

berwinde f. ‘bearbind,’ navel-wort, WW 30019.

berȳfan to deprive, Mod 63. [rēaf]

berȳpan despoil of, strip, spoil, plunder, rob, Æ.

besǣgan to sink, GPH 38885.

besæncan = besencan

besǣtian to lay wait for, AO 14611.

besārgian to lament, bewail, be sorry for, pity, Æ. [sārig]

besārgung f. compassion, Æ.

Entry before author’s corrections:
besārgung f. sorrowing, VHy: compassion, Æ.

besāwan7 to sow, Æ.

bescēad (bi-) n. distinction.

bescēadan7 to separate, discriminate: scatter, sprinkle over, Lcd 20b.

besceadian (Sol 339) = besceaduwian

besceaduwian, to overshadow, RPs 1398. [‘beshade’]

besceafan6 to scrape thoroughly, Lcd 143b.

bescēan pret. 3 sg. of bescīnan.

besceatwyrpandespondi,’ v. OEG 14555; 2346; ES 42·170.

bescēawere m. observer, DHy 2415.

bescēawian to look round upon, survey, contemplate, consider, watch, Æ, AO: look to, care for. bescēawod cautious, careful, Lcd 3·43611.

besceawiendlic contemplative, OEG 991.

bescēawodnes f. vision, sight.

bescēawung f. contemplation.

besceddan = besceadan

bescencan to give to drink, Gu 596.

besceofan = bescūfan

besceoren (WW 21724) = bescoren pp. of bescieran.


bescēotan2 to shoot into, plunge into, implant: happen, occur, AO.

be-sceran, -scerwan = bescieran

bescerian = bescierian

bescieran4 to shear, shave, cut hair, give the tonsure, Æ, AO. [‘beshear’]

bescierednes (y2) f. deprivation, WW 35113.

bescierian to separate from, deprive of, Chr: defraud.

bescīnan1 to shine upon, light up, illuminate, Rd; Æ. [‘beshine’]

besciran = bescieran

bescirian = bescierian

bescītan1 to befoul, WW 50728.

bescrēadian to scrape off, clean off, ES 42·171.

bescrepan5 to scrape, Lcd 101a.

bescūfan2 to shove, impel, thrust down, hurl, throw, Æ, AO: force, Æ.

bescȳlan to look askance, Bo 12130. [sceol]

bescyr- = bescier-

besēcan to beseech, beg urgently, MF (Vesp. D xiv).

besecgan to announce, introduce: defend, excuse oneself: (w. on) accuse, Æ.

beselian = besylian

besellan to surround, cover (over): hand over.

besema = besma

besencan to cause to sink, submerge, immerse, drown, Bl, Mt; AO, CP: plunge into (fire), GD 317. [‘besench’]

besendan to send, Æ.

besengan to singe, burn, AO.

besēon I. sv5 (tr., intr. and refl.) to see, look, look round, behold, Æ, Mk, Ps; AO: look after, go to see, visit: provide for. b. tō look upon, have regard to, CP. [‘besee’]

II. sv1 to suffuse, Cr 1088.

besēoðan to boil down, Lcd.

besēowian (ī, ȳ) to sew together, sew up, Ep. [‘besew’]

be-serian, -serwan = besierwan

besettan to put, place, set near, appoint, Æ: own, keep, occupy: ‘beset,’ cover, surround with, adorn, B; CP, Æ: besiege, invest, An: institute, set going.

besīdian to regulate the size of anything, RB 8918. [sīd]

besierwan to ensnare, surprise, deceive, defraud, oppress, AO. [searu]

besīgan (on) to rush, v. OEG 4126.

besilfran to silver, VPs 6714.

besincan3 (intr.) to sink, AO. [‘besink’]

besingan3 to sing of, bewail: sing charms, enchant, Æ.

besirwan (AO, CP) = besierwan

besittan5 to sit round, surround, beset, besiege, Chr; AO: hold council: occupy, possess. [‘besit’]

besīwian = besēowian

beslǣpan7 to sleep, LL (2843).

beslēan6 to strike, beat, cut off, take away, deprive by violence, Æ.

beslēpan to slip on, cover, impose, put on, clothe.

beslītan1to slit, tear.

besma m. ‘besom,’ broom, rod, AO, Mt.


besmēagan to consider about, inquire into, ÆL 23b633.

+bēsmed curved, WW 5159. [bōsm]

bēsming f. curve, curvature, WW. [bōsm]

besmirwan tobesmear,’ WW.

besmītan1 to soil, defile, pollute, dishonour, Bl; Æ, CP. [‘besmit’]

besmitenes f. soil, stain, defilement, degradation, dirtiness, Æ.

besmittian to defile.

besmiðian to work (in metal), forge, surround with forged work.

besmocian to smoke, envelop with incense, ANS 84·3.

besmyred = besmirwed pp. of besmirwan.

besnǣdanto cut, mutilate.

besnīwian to cover with snow, WW. [‘besnow’]

be-snyðian, -snyððan † to rob, deprive of.

besolcen stupefied, dull, sluggish, inactive, slow, CP.

besorg dear, beloved, Æ.

besorgian to regret: be anxious about, dread, shrink from, Æ.

besorh = besorg

bespǣtan to spit upon, ÆH 2·24824.

bespanan6 to lead astray, entice, incite, urge, persuade, AO.

besparrian to bar, shut, Gl.

bespirian = bespyrigan

besprecan5 to speak about, AO: speak against, accuse of, Ps: claim at law, LL: complain. [‘bespeak’]

besprengan to besprinkle, Lcd. [‘bespreng’]

bespyrigan to track, trace, LL.

best adv. (used as superl. of wel) best, most.

besta, beste wk. forms of superl. adj. betst.

bestǣlan (ē) to lay a charge against, convict.

bestæppan6 to tread upon, step, go, enter, Æ.

bestandan6 to stand round or about, beset, surround, Æ: attend to, Æ: beset, harass, Jn. [‘bestand’]

bestealcian to move stealthily, steal, ‘stalk,’ ÆL 3240. [stealc]

bestefnod ptc. provided with a fringe, WW 37541.

bestelan4 to move stealthily, steal away, steal upon, AO, LL; Æ, CP: (†) deprive. [‘besteal’]

bestēlan = bestǣlan

bestēman = bestȳman

bestēpan (= i) to deprive of (children), GD 7618.

bestingan3 to thrust in, push, Æ.

bestrēdan to bestrew, cover, BH 15427 (b).

bestrēowian tobestrew,’ besprinkle, Æ.

bestreððan to bestrew, cover over.

bestrīcan1 to make a stroke, Lcd 186b. [strīca]

bestrīdan1 tobestride,’ mount, Æ.

bestrīpan to strip, plunder, despoil.

bestrūdan7 to spoil, plunder, rob.

bestrȳpan = bestrīpan

bestryððan = bestreððan

bestuddian to be careful for, trouble about, Kl 146.

bestȳman (e) to bedew, wet, flood, B 486. [stēam]


bestyrian to heap up, BH. [‘bestir’]

bestyrman to agitate, Bo 911.

besu = basu

besūpan2 to sup up, swallow, Lcd 113b.

besūtian to besmirch, GPH 40326.

besūðan = be sūðan

beswǣlan to burn, singe, scorch, Æ.

beswǣpan = beswāpan

beswǣtan to sweat, toil, Sc 11114.

beswāpan7 to clothe, cover over, veil, protect, CP: persuade, BH. [‘beswape’]

beswelgan to swallow up, EPs 10627; 1233.

beswemman to make to bathe, Bo 1158.

beswencan to afflict, CPs 6818.

besweðian to swathe, wrap up, wind round.

beswic n. treachery, deceit, AO (bī-), CP: snare.

beswica (bī-) m. deceiver.

beswican1 to deceive, seduce, betray, circumvent, frustrate, Bl, Mt; AO, CP: to overcome, supplant, AO. [‘beswike’]

beswīcend m. deceiver, seducer, Gl.

beswicenes f. deception: surrender.

beswicfalle f. trap, Gl.

beswician to escape, be free from, BH.

beswicol deceitful, CP 23816. (bi-)

beswīcung f. deception, WW.

beswincan3 to toil, exert oneself, make with toil, Jn: till, plough, Æ. beswuncen exhausted, tired out. [‘beswink’]

beswingan3 to flog, scourge, beat, strike, Æ; CP. [‘beswinge’]

beswylian to drench, flood, Rood 23. [swilian]

besyftan to sprinkle, ÆL 23165. [siftan]

besylfran = besilfran

besylian to sully, defile, stain, Æ.

besyr-ewian, -i(a)n = besierwan

bet adv. better, Bo. [‘bet’]

-bēta v. dǣd-b.

betācnian tobetoken,’ designate.

betǣcan (w. d.) to make over, give up to, impart, deliver, entrust, commend to, Æ, Lk; AO, CP: appoint (for), set apart as, dedicate: show, point out, Lk: give orders, RB 1304: pursue, hunt, WW 9228. [‘beteach’]

±bētan to amend, repair, restore, cure, CP: make good, make amends, remedy, compensate, atone, pay ‘bōt’ for an offence, Æ, Mt, Lcd; AO, CP: attend to (fire or light), AO. ðurst b. quench thirst. [bōt; ‘beet’ vb.]

betast = betst

betboren of higher birth, LL.

bēte f. ‘beet,’ beetroot, Lcd. [L. beta]

-bēte v. twi-b.

bētel = (1) bīetl; (2) bītol

beteldan3to cover, hem in, surround: overload, oppress.

betellan to speak about, answer, defend oneself (against a charge), exculpate oneself, Chr; Æ.

bētend m. restorer, Ruin 28.

+bētendnes f. amendment, OEG 586.

betēon1,2 to cover, surround, enclose, AO; Æ, CP: dispose of, bestow, bequeath: impeach, accuse. [‘betee’]


beterabetter,’ AO, Mk. followed by g. = better in respect of....

-bētere v. dǣd-b.

±beterian tobetter,’ improve, CP: trim (lamp), GD.

beterring f. improvement, Æ.

betest = betst

betiēnan = betȳnan

betihtlian to accuse, LL.

betillan = betyllan

betimbran to construct, build, B. [‘betimber’]

betīnan = betȳnan

bēting = bǣtung

bētl = bīetl

betlicgrand, excellent.

bētnes f. reparation, atonement, LL (26416).

betoce = betonice

betogenes f. accusation, LL.

betolden pp. of beteldan.

betonice f. ‘betony,’ Lcd.

betost = betst

betr- = beter-

betræppan = betreppan

betredan5 to tread upon, cover, CPs 13810.

betrendan to roll, ES 37·180.

betreppan to entrap, catch, Chr. [‘betrap’]

be-trymman, -trymian to enclose, surround, besiege.

betst I. superl. adj. ‘best,’ first, AO, Chr, Cr; CP. as sb. people of position, WW, Chr.

II. adv. in the best manner, most.

betstboren best-born, eldest.

bett == bet

be-tuh, -tuoxn (CP), -tux = betwux

betuldon pret. pl. of beteldan.

+bētung f. repair, maintenance, LL.

betwēnan = betwēonan

betweoh, betweohs = betwux

betwēonan, betwēonum I. prep. w. g. d. a. between, among, amid, in the midst, Ps, Bl.

II. adv. ‘between,’ BH: in the meantime, meanwhile: in turn, by turns, CM (-twȳn-).

betweox, betweoxn, betwih(s) = betwux

betwīn- = betwēon-

betwīnforlētnes f. intermission, DR.

betwux (Æ, AO, CP) betwuht, betwix, betwux(t), betwisc prep. w. d. a. between, among, amongst, amidst, during. b. ðisum meanwhile. b. ðǣm ðe whilst. [‘betwixt’]

betwuxālegednes f. interjection, ÆGr 2782.

betwuxāworpennes f. interjection, ÆGr 1020.

betwuxblinnes (twih) f. intermission, DR 123.

betwuxfæc (yx) internal, OEG 3861.

betwuxgangan7 (twih) to go between, VPs 287.

betwuxgangende (twih) separating.

betwuxgesett interposed.

betwuxlicgan5 (twih) to lie between, BH 7210.

betwuxsendan to send between.

betwuxt, -twyh, -twyx(t) = betwux

betȳhtlian = betīhtlian

betyllan to allure, decoy, BH 3584.

betȳnan (ī, īe) to hedge in, enclose, shut, bury, AO, CP: end, BH. [tūn]

betȳnung f. conclusion, OEG 3210.

betyran to pitch, stain a dark colour. [teoru]

betyrnan to turn round: prostrate oneself, RB.


beð I. = bið pres. 3 sg. of bēon.

II. = bæð

beðæncan = beðencan

beðan = beðian

beðearfende needy, indigent, KGl 708.

beðearflic profitable, ÆL 23b242.

beðearfod needy, ES 8·47450.

beðeccan to cover, protect, cover over, conceal.

beðen = beðung

beðencan to consider, remember, take thought for, take care of, care for, Gu: (refl.) reflect, ‘bethinkoneself, Lk; Æ: trust, confide in, entrust to, AO.

be-ðenian, -ðennan to cover, stretch on or upon, spread over.

beðēodan to be joined (to), adhere (to), RB 13420.

beðerscan to winnow, thrash, PPs 437.

beðettan to bathe, Lcd 3·9015 (A 30·397).

±beðian to heat, warm, foment, Lcd; Æ: cherish. [‘beath’]

beðrāwan7 to twist, GPH 39116.

beðridian to circumvent, overcome, force, AO.

beðringan3to encircle, encompass: beset, oppress, burden.

beðryccan to press down, Cr 1446.

beðrydian, beðryððan = beðridian

beðrȳn to press, NC 273.

beðuncan (Rd 497) = beðencan

beðung f. bathing, bath, fomentation, cataplasm, Lcd; CP, Æ. [‘beathing’; bæð]

be-ðurfan swv. pres., 3 sg. -ðearf, pl. -ðurfon, pret. -ðorfte. (w. g. or a.) to need, have need of, want, Æ, CP.

beððan = beðian

beðwēan6 to moisten, wet, LPs 67.

beðwyrian to deprave, WW 3867. [ðweorh]

beðȳn to thrust, AO 1586.

beufan = bufan

beūtan = būtan

bewacian to watch, guard, Æ.

bewadan6 to emerge, Rd 8824.

bewǣfan to enfold, wrap round, cover over, clothe, Æ, CP.

bewǣgan to deceive, frustrate, BVPs.

bewægnan to offer, proffer, B 1193.

bewǣlan to oppress, afflict, An 1363.

bewǣpnian to disarm, Æ.

bewærlan to pass by: be free from, DR.

bewarenian to guard against, be on one’s guard, CP.

bewarian to keep watch, guard, preserve, ward off, CP.

bewarnian = bewarenian

bewāwan7 to blow upon, Wa 76. (biwāune = biwāwene)

beweallan7 to boil away, Lcd.

bewealwian to wallow, Bo 1159.

beweardian to guard, protect: observe closely.

beweaxan7 to grow over, cover over, surround, Æ.

beweddendlic relating to marriage, OEG 1122.

beweddian to betroth, marry, Æ: give security. [‘bewed’]

beweddung f. betrothal, LL 442Ha.

bewefan5 to cover over, Lcd 3·1464.


bewegan5 to cover.

bewēled2) poisoned, polluted, ES 38344. [wōl]

bewellan to knead, mix together.

bewendan to turn, turn round, Æ; (refl.) Mt 922: turn one’s attention, convert, Æ. [‘bewend’]

bewenianto entertain, take care of, attend upon.

beweorcan = bewyrcan

beweorpan3 to cast, cast down, plunge, throw, Æ, AO: beat, Æ: surround.

beweorðian to adorn, DD 118.

beweotian = bewitian

bewēpan7 to weep over, mourn, bewail, Æ; AO. [‘beweep’]

bewēpendlic lamentable.

bewēpnian = bewǣpnian

bewerenes f. prohibition, BH 8613.

bewerian to guard, protect, defend, Æ, AO: check, prevent, forbid, Æ.

bewerigend m. protector, Æ.

bewerung f. defence, fortification.

bewestan prep. w. d. or adv. to the west of, Chr. [‘bewest’]

bewīcian to encamp, Chr 894w.

bewindan3 to wind round, clasp, entwine, envelop, encircle, surround, B, Mt; AO, CP: brandish (a sword). hēafe b. bewail: turn, wind, revolve.

bewindla (bi-) m. hedge, border, BC (Mdf).

bewitan swv., pres. 3 sg. -wāt, pret. 3 sg. -wiste to keep, care for, watch over, superintend, administer, lead, guide, Æ, AO.

bewitian (eo) to observe, attend to, care for, administer: perform.

bewlātian to look at, behold, LPs 3214.

bewlītan1 to look round, Gen 2925.

bewōpen (pp. of bewēpan) lamented: tearful, weeping.

bewrecan5to drive: drive away, banish: drive round, beat round.

bewrencan to deceive.

bewrēon1,2 to cover, hide, cover over, enwrap, protect, clothe, Sol, Met; CP. [‘bewry’]

bewreðian to sustain, support, Rd 8121.

bewrītan1 to record? Creat 19: score round.

bewrīðan1to bind, wind about, surround, envelop.

bewrixl-an, -ian to change: exchange, sell, PPs.

bewuna adj. indecl. accustomed, wont, AO.

bewyddian = beweddian

bewȳled = bewēled

bewyllan (= ie) to boil away, Lcd.

bewylwian to roll down, roll together.

bewȳpð = bewēpð pres. 3 sg. of bewēpan.

bewyrcan to work, construct, surround with, enclose, cover, B; AO, Æ: work in, insert, adorn, Lcd. [‘bework’]

bewyrpan = beweorpan

beyrfeweardian to disinherit, A 13·321.

beyrnan = beiernan

bezera = bæzere

bi, bī (1) = be (prep.); (2) f. = bēo

bi- v. also be-

bīad = bēod


biblioðēce f. biblioðeoco (AO) bibliðeca m. library: bible, Æ. [‘bibliotheca’ (L.)]

bībrēad = bēobrēad

bicce, bice f. ‘bitch,’ Lcd, WW.

biccen = byccen

bicgan (Æ) = bycgan

bicge = bicce

±bīcn-an, -ian (ē, ēa, īe, ȳ) to make a sign, ‘beckon,’ wink, nod, Lk; CP: signify: summon. [bēacn]

+bīcnend (ē), ±bicni(g)end m. indicator, discloser: forefinger.

bīcnendlic, +bīcni(g)endlic allegorical; (gram.) indicative, ÆGr 12414.

bīcnol indicating, indicative, GPH 398193.

±bīcnung (ēa, ē) f. beckoning, nodding: token, symbol, figure, Æ: figurative speech.

bīcwide m. byword, proverb, fable, tale, Æ. [‘bequeath’]

bīd n. lingering, hesitation, delay, halt, Rd. [‘bide’]

±bīdan1 (intr.) to stay, continue, live, remain, delay, AO, Ps: (tr. usu. w. g.) wait for, await, expect, Bl, Mt; AO, CP: endure, experience, find: attain, obtain. [‘bide’]

biddan5 to ask, entreat, pray, beseech, AO, Bl. b. and bēodan, hālsian to beg and pray: order, command, require, AO, CP. [‘bid’]

+biddan5 (often refl.) to beg, ask, pray, Bl, Mt; Æ, CP: worship, Æ, AO. [‘i-bid’]

biddere m. petitioner.

bidenfæt = bydenfæt

biderīp = bedrīp

bideð (CP) pres. 3 sg. of biddan.

bīdfæstfirm, forced to stand out.

bīding f. abiding place, abode, Gu 180.

bīdsteall † m. halt, stand.

bīe = bēo pres. 1 sg. of bēon.

bīecn = bēacen

bīecn- = bīcn-

bīegan (ē, ī, ȳ) to bend, turn, turn back, incline, Bo, Mk: depress, abase, humiliate: subject: persuade, convert: +bȳged bowed down, infirm, Nic 47129. [‘bey,’ būgan]

bieldan (æ, e, i, y) to encourage, excite, impel, exhort, confirm, CP, Ma; Æ, AO. [‘bield’; beald]

bieldo (y2) f. boldness, courage, arrogance, confidence, BH; CP. [‘bield’]

bielg = belg

bielw- = bilew-

bīeme (ē, i, ȳ) f. trumpet, CP, WW: tablet, billet. [‘beme’]

bīen = bēan

bīencoddas = bēancoddas

+bierde = +byrde

+bierhtan (e, y) to brighten, be or make bright, illuminate, enlighten, CP: make clear: celebrate. [beorht]

bierhtu (e, eo, i, y) f. brightness, effulgence, brilliance, CP. [beorht]

bierm = bearm

biernan3 (ea, eo, i, y) toburn,’ be on fire, give light, Æ, Lk, Ex, VPs.

biersteð, bierst pres. 3 sg. of berstan.

bierð pres. 3 sg. of beran.

biesen = bisen

biesgian = bysgian

bieter- = biter-


bīetl (ē, ī, ȳ) m. ‘beetle,’ mallet, hammer, CP, Jud (y).

bietr- = biter-

bīeð = bēoð pres. pl. of bēon.

bīfēran to feed, ES 41324.

bifian to tremble, be moved, shake, quake, Bo, Ps; Æ. [‘bive’]

bifigendlic (byfg-) terrible, NC 274.

bifung f. trembling, shaking, Æ.

-bifung (eo1) v. eorð-b.

bīfylce n. neighbouring people. [folc]

big = be

big- = be-, bī-, bycg-

bīg- = bīeg-

bige = byge

+bīgednes f. inflection, declension, case, ÆGr.

bīgegnes = bīgengnes

bīgels m. arch, vault, Æ: inclination.

+bīgendlic inflectional, ÆGr 918.

+bīgendnes = +bīgednes

bīgeng f. practice, exercise, observance, worship, Æ: cultivation, Æ. [‘bigeng’]

bīgenga m. inhabitant: cultivator, Æ: worshipper, Æ: benefactor.

bīgenge n. practice, worship.

bīgengere m. worker: worshipper.

bīgengestre f. handmaiden, attendant, worshipper, Gl.

bīgengnes, f. application, study.

+bigeð = +bygeð pres. 3 sg. of +bycgan.

bīging f. bending, WW 21638.

bigleaf- (eo, i) = bīleof-

bīgnes f. power of bending, bending. [bīegan]

+bīgnes (ȳ) f. frequented place, assembly? EPs 11727.

+bigð = +bigeð

bīgyrdel m. girdle, belt, purse, Æ, Mt: treasury. [‘bygirdle’]

bigytan = begietan

bihianda (MtL 527) = behindan

bīhst = bȳhst pres. 2 sg. of būgan.

+bihð f. abode? Gu 346. [cp. byht]

bil = bill

bilcettan = bealcettan

bildan = bieldan

+bilde bold, brave, Æ. [beald]

bile m. ‘bill,’ beak, trunk (of an elephant), WW: prow.

bīle = bȳle

bīlefa = bīleofa

bilehwīt == bilewit

bīleofa (i2) m., bīleofen f. support, sustenance, food, nourishment, Æ, WW: money, pay. [‘bylive’; libban]

bilēofian to support, feed upon, Guth 347.

bilewet == bilewit

bilewit innocent, pure, simple, sincere, honest, BH, Mt; Æ, CP: calm, gentle, merciful, gracious: plausible. [‘bilewhit’], adv. -līce.

bilewitnes f. mildness, simplicity, innocence, purity, Æ, CP.

bilgesleht = billgesliht

bilgst, bilhst pres. 2 sg. of belgan.

bilgð pres. 3 sg. of belgan.

bilherge = billere

bīlibb-, bīlif- = bīleof-

bilig = belg

biliw- = bilew-


bill n. ‘bill,’ chopper, battle-axe, falchion, sword, B, WW.

billere m. ‘bibulta’ (plant), WW.

billgesliht n. clashing of swords, battle, †Chr 937.

billhete m. murderous hate, strife, An 78.

+bilod having a bill or beak. [bile]

bil-swæð n. (nap. -swaðu) sword track, wound, Ex 329.

bilw- = bilew-

bīlyht = bȳliht

bīma (m.?), bīme = bīeme

bin = binn

bīnama m. pronoun, A 8·313.

+bind n. binding, fetter: costiveness.

±bindan sv3 to tie, ‘bind,’ fetter, fasten, restrain, Æ, Bl, Mt, Jn; AO, CP: adorn.

binde f. head-band? KC 6·133. [‘bind’]

bindele, -elle f. binding: bandage.

bindere m. ‘binder,’ Rd 286.

binding f. binding, OEG 324b.

binn, binne f. ‘bin,’ basket, crib, manger, Bl, LkL.

binnan I. prep. (w. d. a.) within, in, inside of, into.

II. adv. inside, within, less than, during, whilst. [‘bin’]

binne = binn

bint pres. 3 sg. of bindan.

bio- = beo-, bi-

biosmrung = bismrung

birce = beorc, beorce

bird (LkLR) = bridd

+bird = +byrd

birele = byrele

biren f. she-bear, OET (Ct).

birg == byrg

birgð, birhð pres. 3 sg. of beorgan.

birht- = bierht-

birig = byrig

birig- = byrg-

birihte (y) prep. w. d. near, beside, An 850.

birihto = bierhtu

birle = byrele

birnan = beornan

birst, birsteð pres. 3 sg. of berstan.

birst pres. 2 sg., bir(e)ð pres. 3 sg. of beran.

biryhte = birihte

bisæc n? m? wallet, MtR 1010. [L. bisaccium]

bīsæc contested, disputed, LL.

bīsǣc f. visit, Gu 188.

bisceop (o2) m. ‘bishop,’ CP: high-priest, chief priest (of the Jews), heathen priest, AO, MkL.

bisceopcyn (o2) n. episcopal (high-priestly) stock.

bisceopdōm m. episcopate, bishopric: ex-communication.

bisceopealder m. high priest, HL.

bisceopfolgoð m. episcopate, GD 6531.

bisceopgegyrelan mpl. episcopal robes, BH 902.

bisceophād m. ‘bishophood,’ office of bishop, ordination as bishop, episcopate, bishopric, CPPs.

bisceophādung f. episcopal ordination, ÆL 31286.

bisceophām m. bishop’s estate, EC 365.

bisceophēafodlīn (o2) n. head ornament worn by bishops, WW 15223.

bisceophīred (o) m. clergy subject to a bishop.


bisceopian to confirm, LL. [‘bishop’]

bisceopland (o) n. episcopal or diocesan land, LL 17310.

bisceoplicbishoply,’ episcopal, BH.

bisceoprīce n. ‘bishopric,’ diocese, province of a bishop, BH.

bisceoprocc m. bishop’s rochet, dalmatic, Lcd 3·20226.

bisceoprōd f. bishop’s cross.

bisceopscīr, -scȳr f. diocese: episcopate.

bisceop-seld, -setl, -seðl n. bishop’s seat or see, bishopric.

bisceopseonoð m. synod of bishops, A 11·81.

bisceopstōl m. episcopal see, bishopric, KC. [‘bishopstool’]

bisceopsunu m. godson at abishopingor confirmation.

bisceopðēnung f. office of a bishop, BH.

bisceopung f. confirmation, Æ.

bisceopwīte n. fine payable to a bishop? (BT), forced entertaining of a bishop? (Lieb: v. LL 2·667).

bisceopwyrt f. bishop’s-wort, betony, vervain, marshmallow.

bisceopwyrtil (o2) vervain, WW 13441.

biscep == bisceop

bisceran = bescieran

biscerian (i2, y2) = bescierian

biscop == bisceop

biscup = bisceop

bisegu = bysgu

bisen, bisene (y) fn. example, pattern, model, JnLR; Æ, AO, CP: similitude, parable, parallel: rule, command, precept. [‘bysen’]

bīsene (y) blind, MtL; NC 274; JAW 22. [‘bisson’?]

±bisenian (ie, y) to give, set an example, instruct by example, Bo: follow an example or pattern, CP: express figuratively. [‘byen’ vb.]

bisenung f. example, pattern, Æ (y).

bises m. the extra day intercalated in leap year, Men 32. [L. bissextus]

±bisgian to occupy, employ, Æ, Bo; CP: trouble, afflict, Lcd, Met. [‘busy’]

bisgu, bisigu f. occupation, labour, CP, Æ (yse): affliction, trouble.

bisgung f. business, occupation, care, CP.

bisig (y) ‘busy,’ occupied, diligent, Ma, Sol.

bisignes f. ‘business,’ MtL (Cont. p. xx).

bismær- = bismer-

bisme = besma

bismer (y) nmf. disgrace, scandal, shame, mockery, insult, reproach, scorn, AO, Bl; CP: filthiness, defilement, Æ (y). tō bismere ignominiously, shamefully: blasphemy: infamous deed, AO. [‘bismer’]

bismerful infamous, disgraceful, ignominious, shameful, Æ (y).

bismerglēow (y) n. shameful lust, Æ.

±bismerian (y) to mock, revile, illtreat, blaspheme, Mk; AO. [‘bismer’ vb.]

bismeriend m. mocker, KGl 298.

bismerlēas blameless, Cr 1326 (y).

bismerlēoð n. scurrilous song, Gl.


bismerlic shameful, ignominious, contemptuous, AO: ridiculous, frivolous. adv. -līce.

bismernes f. pollution; insult; contemptibleness.

bismer-sprǣc, -spǣc f. blasphemy, G.

±bismerung (y) mockery, scorn: blasphemy: infamy, disrepute, AO.

bismerword2) n. reproach, insult, LL 1011.

bismor = bismer

bism(o)r- = bismer-

bisn- = bisen-

+bisnere f. imitator, DR 457.

bīspell (big-) n. example, proverb, Æ: parable, fable, allegory, story, MtL; CP. [‘byspel’]

bīspellbōc (big-) f. book of Proverbs, Æ.

bissextus, gen. -te the intercalary day of leap year: leap year. [L.]

bist pres. 2 sg. of bēon.

bīst = bīdst, pres. 2 sg. of bīdan.

biswic = beswic

bit pres. 3 sg. of biddan.

bīt pres. 3 sg. of (1) bīdan; (2) bītan.

bita m. I.bit,’ morsel, piece, Jn; Æ.

II. biter, wild beast.

±bītan1 tobite,’ tear, B, Rd; Æ: cut, wound: (+) dash down, MkL 918.

bite m. ‘bite,’ sting, AO, Lcd: sword-cut, Ap, B: cancer.

bitela m. ‘beetle,’ Gl.

biterbitter,’ sharp, cutting, Gu; Æ: stinging, PPs 11712: exasperated, angry, embittered: painful, disastrous, virulent, cruel, B, Bl. adv. -līce, Mt.

bitere = bitre

±biterian to be or become bitter, CP: make bitter. [‘bitter’ vb.]

biternes f. ‘bitterness,’ grief, El; Æ, CP.

biterwyrde bitter in speech, Æ.

biterwyrtdrenc m. drink of bitter herbs, WW 11418.

bītl = bīetl

bitmǣlum piecemeal, bit by bit, ÆGr 23910.

bitol n. bridle.

bītol m. beetle (insect). [bītan]

Entry supplied from first edition.

bitor = biter

bitre bitterly, sharply, painfully, severely: very.

bitres, bittres gsmn. of biter.

bitst pres. 2 sg. of biddan.

bītst pres. 2 sg. of bīdan and bītan.

bitt I. pres. 3 sg. of (1) biddan; (2) beodan.

II. = bytt

bītt pres. 3 sg. of bītan.

+bitt n. biting, gnashing, Æ.

bitter == biter

bittor = biter

bittre = bitre

bitula = bitela

bið pres. 3 sg. of bēon.

biwāune v. bewāwan.

bīwist fm. sustenance, food, provision, necessaries, Bo, Æ. [‘bewiste’]

bīword (u) n. proverb, household word: adverb, A 8·3137.

bīwyrde n. ‘byword,’ proverb, WW.

bixen = byxen

bizant m. bezant (a gold coin). [L. byzanteum]


blāc I. (ǣ) bright, shining, glittering, flashing, Rd: pale, pallid, wan, AO, CP. [blīcan; ‘bleak,’ tobleach’]

II. pret. 3 sg. of blīcan.

blac = blæc

blācern n. lamp, candle, light, CP (ǣ).

blāchlēorwith pale cheeks.

blācian to turn pale, Æ.

blācung f. a turning pale, pallor, Æ.

bladesian to flame, blaze, be hot: emit an odour, OEG 554.

bladesnung (at-) f. odour, WW 4051.

bladesung (at-, æt-) f. shining, lightning, EPs 7619.

blæc (a) I.blackdark, B, BH, Æ.

II. n. ink, LL, WW. [‘bleck’]

blǣc == blāc

blǣcan to bleach, whiten. [blāc]

blæcce f. black matter, OEG 652.

blǣce n.? irritation of the skin, leprosy, Lcd.

blǣcernleoht (ā) n. lantern-light.

blæcfexede black-haired, ÆH 1·45616. [feax]

blæcgymm m. jet, BH 2616.

blæchorn (e) n. ink-horn, IM 12818.

blǣco f. pallor, Lcd.

blæcpytt m. bleaching-pit? EC 383´.

blǣcðrustfel n. leprosy, Cp 103b.

blæd n. (nap. bladu) ‘blade,’ WW: leaf, Gen.

blǣd (ē) I. m. blowing, blast: inspiration, Æ: breath, spirit, Æ: life, mind: glory, dignity, splendour: prosperity, riches, success.

II. = blēd I.

blǣdāgende renowned, B 1013.

blǣdbylig m. bellows, WW 24133.

blǣddæg † m. day of prosperity.

blædderwærc m. pain in the bladder, Lcd.

blæddre = blǣdre

±blǣdfæstglorious, prosperous.

+blǣdfæstnes f. provision, sustenance, ÆL 23b492.

blǣdgifa † m. giver of prosperity.

blǣdhorn m. trumpet, Æ.

blǣdnes f. blossom, fruit, A 8·311. [blēd]

blǣdre (ē) f. blister, pimple, AO: ‘bladder,’ Lcd. [blāwan]

blǣdwela m. abundant riches, Cr 1392.

blǣge f. gudgeon, bleak, WW. [‘blay’]

blægettan (a) to cry, GD 27812.

blǣhǣwen light blue.

blǣs = blǣst

blǣsbelg (OET 28) = blǣstbelg

blæse (a) f. firebrand, torch, lamp, Æ, Jn. [‘blaze’]

blæsere m. incendiary, LL.

blǣshorn m. blowing-horn, trumpet, LL 194 (8).

blǣst m. blowing, ‘blast’ (of wind), breeze, Ex: flame.

blǣstan to blow, Andr 12330: rush? (v. BT).

blǣstbelg m. bellows, Gl.

blǣstm m? flame, blaze, MFH 907.

blǣtan tobleat,’ ÆGr, Rd.

blætesung = bladesung

blǣts- = blēts-

blǣwen = blǣhǣwen


blǣwest, blǣwst pres. 2 sg., blǣw(e)ð pres. 3 sg. of blāwan.

blagettan = blægettan

blan pret. 3 sg. of blinnan.

blanca † m. (white?) horse, B. [‘blonk’]

±bland n. blending, mixture, confusion, turmoil.

±blandan7to blend, mix, mingle, Rd. [‘bland’]

blandenfeaxgrizzly-haired, grey-haired, old. [blandan]

blann pret. 3 sg. of blinnan.

blase = blæse

blasere = blæsere

blāstbelg = blǣstbelg

blaster = plaster

blātlivid, pale, wan, ghastly: low, hoarse (sound)? An 1279. [cp. blēat]

blātan to be livid, pale.

Entry supplied from first edition.

blātelividly, pallidly, Met.

blatesnung = bladesnung

blātian to be livid, pale, Gen 981 (GK).

±blāwan7 (ō) (tr. or intr.) toblow,’ breathe, Mt, Lk, Jn: be blown, sound: inflate: (+) kindle, inflame, WW 20814: (+) spit, MkLR 733.

blāwend m. inspirer, ÆH 2·4788.

blāwere m. ‘blower,’ CP.

blāwung f. ‘blowing,’ blast, Æ: inflation.

bleac = blæc

blēat miserable? Gu 963. [‘blete’]. adv. blēate, B 2824.

blēað gentle, shy, cowardly, timid, Rd: slothful, inactive, effeminate, AO. [‘blethe’; Ger. blöde]

blec == blæc

blēce = blǣce

blēcðavitiligo,’ WW 5328.

bled = blæd

blēd- = blēt-

blēd I. (ǣ) f. shoot, branch, flower, blossom, leaf, foliage, fruit, Mt, Lcd; CP: harvest, crops. [‘blede’; blōwan]

II. = blǣd I.

blēdan tobleed,’ let blood, Sol.

blēdhwæt growing quickly or profusely? Rd 29.

blēdre = blǣdre

bledu f. dish, bowl, goblet, Æ.

blegen, blegne f. ‘blain,’ boil, blister, ulcer, Lcd.

blencan to deceive, cheat, Mod. [‘blench’]

blēnd (e) pret. 3 sg. of blandan.

blend-an, -ian to blind, deprive of sight, Bo: deceive. [‘blend’]

blendnes f. blindness, DR 385.

blent pres. 3 sg. of (1) blendan, (2) blandan.

±blēo n. gs. blēos, ds. blēo, gp. blēo(na), dip. blēom, blēo(w)um colour, Bo; CP: appearance, form, Sol. [‘blee’]

blēobord † n. coloured board, chess-board.

blēobrygd n? combination of colours, scintillation, Ph 292. [bregdan]

blēocræft m. art of embroidery, WW 3549.

+blēod beautiful, Cr 909.

bleodu = bledu

blēofæstnes f. ‘deliciæ,’ RPs 13811.

blēofāg variegated, Gl.

blēoh = blēo

blēomete m. dainty food, GD 9918.


blēona gp. of blēo.

blēorēad purple, WW.

blēostǣning f. tesselated pavement, WW 44410.

blēot pret. 3 sg. of (1) blātan, (2) blōtan.

bleoum dip. of blēo.

blēow pret. 3 sg. of (1) blāwan, (2) blōwan.

blēowum dp. of blēo.

blere, blerig bald, WW.

blese = blæse

blēt pret. 3 sg. of (1) blātan, (2) blōtan.

blētan = blǣtan

±blētsian to consecrate, ordain, Mt, JnL (oe): ‘bless,’ give thanks, adore, extol, Da, Ps, Lk: sign with the cross, Æ: pronounce or make happy, Æ. [blōd]

blētsingbōc f. blessing-book, benedictional, EC 250.

blētsingsealm m. the Benedicite, RB 3618.

blētst pres. 2 sg. of blōtan.

blētsung f. consecration, Chr: ‘blessing,’ benediction, Chr; Æ: favour (of God), Bl, VPs.

blēw = blēow pret. 3 sg. of blāwan.

blēwð pres. 3 sg. of blōwan.

blīcan1 to glitter, shine, gleam, sparkle, dazzle, Sol: appear, Sol 144. [‘blik’]

bliccettan to glitter, quiver, Gl.

bliccettung f. glittering, shining, VPs.

blice m. exposure, LL 5[34].

blicgan = blycgan

blīcian to shine, OEG 1499.

blīcð pres. 3 sg. of blīcan.

blīds = bliss

blin imperat. of blinnan.

blindblind,’ Mk; CP, Æ: dark, obscure, opaque, DD; Æ: internal, not showing outwardly: unintelligent: not stinging, WW 32229. adv. -līce blindly, rashly, AO.

blindboren born blind, JnL 932.

+blinfellian to blind, blindfold, HL 276.

-blindian v. of-b.

blindnes f. blindness, Æ.

blinn † n? cessation.

±blinnan3 to cease, leave off, rest from, Mt; CP: lose, forfeit: be vacant (bishopric). [‘blin’; be, linnan]

blinnes f. cessation, intermission, LL.

blis (CP) = bliss

blisa = blysa

bliscan = blyscan

blisgere m. incendiary. [blysige]

bliss m. ‘bliss,’ merriment, happiness, Bl; CP: kindness, friendship, grace, favour, Met: cause of happiness, Ps. [blīðe]

±blissian (intr.) to be glad, rejoice, exult, CP, Lk; Æ: (tr.) make happy, gladden, endow, †Hy: applaud, ANS 109·306. [‘bliss’]

blissig joyful, RPs 1129.

blissigendlic exulting, ÆH 1·35411.

blissung f. exultation, EPs 6413.

blīð == blīðe

blīðe I.blithe,’ joyous, cheerful, pleasant, Æ, AO, CP: gracious, well-disposed, friendly, 46b kind, El: agreeable, willing: quiet, peaceful, gentle, Ps: (+b. occurs at Guth 1619).

II. adv. Ps.

blīðelic gentle, pleasant, glad. adv. -līce (Lk). [‘blithely’]

blīðemōd glad, cheerful: well-wishing, friendly.

blīðheorthappy, joyful: gracious.

+blīðian to make glad, RPs 914.

blīðnes f. joy, gladness, pleasure, Lcd; AO. [‘blitheness’]

blīðs == bliss

blīwum = blēo(w)um, dp. of blēo.

blod = bold

blōd n. ‘blood,’ Æ, G, Lcd; AO, CP: vein.

blōd-dolg, -dolh n. bleeding wound, Lcd.

blōddryne m. bloodshed, AO 1623.

blōdegesa m. bloody horror, Ex 477.

+blōdegian = blōdgian

blōden bloody, WW 21735?

blōdfāgblood-stained, bloody.

blōdgemang n. a blood-mixture, WW 2207.

blōdgemenged blood-stained, W 18211.

blōdgēot = blōdgȳte

blōdgēotend m. shedder of blood, LPs 5016.

blōdgēotende bloody, LPs 58.

±blōdgian to be bloodthirsty, WW 21543: make bloody.

blōdgyte m. bloodshed, AO.

blōdhrǣcung f. spitting of blood, WW 1136.

blōdhrēow sanguinary, cruel, Ps.

blōdigbloody,’ WW; AO.

blōdigtōð bloody-toothed, B 2083.

blōd-lǣs, -læswu f. blood-letting, bleeding.

blōdlǣstīd f. time for blood-letting, Lcd 55a.

blōdlǣtere m. blood-letter, WW.

blōdlēas bloodless, ÆGr 5614.

blōd-orc, -mōnað = blōtorc, etc.

blōdrēad blood-red.

blōdrēow = blōdhrēow

blōdryne m. issue of blood, bloody flux: bursting of a blood-vessel, AO 28827.

blōdsæx (e) n. lancet, Gl.

blodscēawung f. supply of blood? (BT) Lcd 83a.

blōdseten something to stop bleeding, Lcd.

blōdsihte f. flowing of blood, Lcd 64a.

blōdðigen f. tasting of blood, LL.

blōdwīte n. blood-offering, LPs 154.

blōdyrnende having an issue of blood, BH 7816b.

blōma m. lump of metal, mass, Gl.

blon pret. 3 sg. of blinnan.

blonca = blanca

blond- = bland-

blonn pret. 3 sg. of blinnan.

blōsa, blōsma = blōstma

blōstbǣre = blōstmbǣre

blōstm (Æ), blōstma mf. ‘blossom,’ flower, fruit, Bl, Lcd.

blōstmbǣre (Æ), -bǣrende flower-bearing.

blōstmfrēols m. floral festival, OEG 4720.

blōstmian toblossom,’ bloom, BH.

±blōt n. sacrifice, AO. [blōd]

blōt- = blōd-


blōtan7 (and ? wv) to sacrifice, kill for sacrifice, AO, CP.

blōtere m. sacrificer, GPH 39899.

blōtmōnað m. month of sacrifice (8 Oct.-8 Nov.), November.

blōtorc m. sacrificial vessel, GPH 397.

blōtspīung f. spitting of blood, WW 1137.

blōtung f. sacrifice, AO 10216.

±blōwan I. sv7 toblow,’ flower, flourish, blossom, Lcd.

II. = blāwan

blōwendlic blooming, WW 24028.

blunnen pp., blunnon pret. pl. of blinnan.

-blycgan v. ā-b.

blys, blyss = bliss

blysa m. firebrand, torch, Æ.

blyscanrutilare,’ HGl 43475 (v. OEG 1196 and ‘blush’).

blyse f. = blysa

blysere = blæsere

blysian to burn, blaze, PPs 178.

blysige = blyse

blyssian (Æ) = blissian

blȳðe = blīðe

blȳðelīce = blīðelīce

= bā, nafn. of bēgen.

bōc I. fn. ds. and nap. bēc ‘beech’-tree, WW; Mdf: beech-nut, NC 274: ‘book,’ writing, Bible, Bl, Jn, CP; AO, Æ. Crīstes b. gospel: deed, charter, conveyance, LL.

II. pret. 3 sg. of bacan.

bōcæceras mpl. freehold lands.

bōcblæc (e) n. ink, W 2251.

bōcce = bēce

bōc-cest, -cist(e) f. book-chest.

bōccræft m. learning, Bo. [‘bookcraft’]

bōccræftig book-learned.

bōcere m. scholar, scribe, writer, Æ.

bōcfell n. parchment, vellum, LL. [‘bookfell’]

bōcfōdder n. bookcase, WW 19413.

bōcgesamnung f. library, WW 20316.

bōcgestrēon n. library, BH.

bōchord n. library, WW. [‘bookhoard’]

bōchūs n. library, WW 18535.

±bōcian to grant by charter: supply with books.

bōclæden n. literary Latin, learned language.

bōcland n. land held by written title, LL; Æ, AO. v. LL 2·323. [‘bookland’]

bōclār f. book-lore, learning.

bōcleden = bōclæden

bōclic of or belonging to a book, Æ: biblical, scriptural. b. stæf ‘ars liberalis,’ HGl 503.

bōcon pret. pl. of bacan.

bōcrǣdere m. reader of books, WW 43925.

bōcrǣding f. reading of books, WW.

bōcrēad red colour used in illuminating manuscripts, vermilion, WW.

bōcrēde f. reading of books, A 10·143101.

bōcriht n. right given by will or charter, LL 444 (1).

bōcscyld m. beech-wood shield, TC 5615.

bōcstæf m. nap. -stafas letter, character, El. [‘bocstaff’; Ger. buchstabe]

bōcstigel f. beech-wood stile, KC 5·7025.

bōc-tǣcung, -talu f. teaching or narrative, written in books, LL.

bōctrēow n. beech-tree, Æ.

bōcweorc n. study of books, LL (31418).


bōcwudu m. beech-wood, Rd 41106.

±bod (+ exc. N) n. command, message, precept, Bo, Hy; Æ: preaching. [‘bode,’ ‘i-bod’; Ger. gebot]

boda m. messenger, herald, apostle, angel, Æ, CP: prophet. [‘bode’; Ger. bote]

bodan = botm

bode pret. of bōgan.

bodeg = bodig

boden pp. of bēodan.

bodere m. teacher, NG.

±bodian to tell, proclaim, announce, †Hy; AO, CP: preach, Mt; Æ, CP: foretell, El: boast. [‘bode’]

bodiend m. proclaimer, teacher, preacher.

bodig n. ‘body,’ trunk, frame, bodily presence, Æ, BH, etc., CP: main part, Lcd.

bodigendlic to be celebrated, ÆL 7·232.

bodlāc n. decree, ordinance, Chr 1129.

±bodscipe † m. command: message.

bodung f. message, recital, preaching, Æ: interpretation: assertiveness, RB 13622.

bodungdæg m. Annunciation Day, ÆH 1·20026.

bōg m. arm, shoulder, Æ; CP: ‘bough,’ twig, branch, Mt; CP: offspring. [būgan]

boga m. ‘bow,’ (weapon), Gn; Æ: arch, arched place, vault, B: rainbow, Æ: folded parchment. [cp. Ger. bogen]

bōga = bōg

bōgan to boast, RB.

boganet = bogenett

bogefōdder m. quiver, WW 14319.

bogen I. name of a plant, Lcd.

II. pp. of būgan.

bogenett n. wicker basket with a narrow neck for catching fish, WW.

bogetung f. curve, WW 35515.

bōgh = bōg

bōgian I. ±(intr.) to dwell, Æ: (tr.) to inhabit.

II. = bōgan

bogiht full of bends, MtL 714.

bōgincel n. small bough, OEG.

bōgung (bōung) f. boastfulness, arrogance, display, Æ.

bōh = bōg

bōhscyld m. shoulder shield, EC 226´.

bohte pret. 3 sg. of bycgan.

bōhtimber n. building timber, AS 13. [bōgian, ES 42·172]

bōlan = bōgan

bol? m. bole, trunk, Lcd 143a.

bolca m. gangway of a ship.

bold (= botl) n. house, dwelling-place, mansion, hall, castle, B: temple. [‘bold’]

boldāgend † m. homestead-owner.

boldgestrēon (botl) † household goods.

boldgetæl collection of houses: (political) district, county, province, GD.

boldgetimbru † npl. houses.

boldweard (botl-) m. housekeeper, steward, Æ.

boldwela † m. wealth: splendid dwelling, paradise, heaven: village, Gen 1799. (botl-)


bolgen pp. of belgan.


bolla m., bolle f. ‘bowl,’ cup, pot, beaker, measure, ÆL, Jn, Lcd.

bolster mn. ‘bolster,’ head-pillow, cushion, B; CP.

+bolstrian to support with pillows, prop up, A 8·308.

bolt m. ‘bolt’: cross-bow for throwing bolts or arrows, WW.

bolttimber n. building timber, AS 13. [botl; v. ES 42172]

bōn I. f. ornament, Chr 1063d.

II. = bōgan

bon- = ban-

bond- = band-

bōnda m. householder, LL: freeman, plebeian; husband. [‘bond’]

bōndeland n. land held by a bōnda, Chr 777e. [ON. bōndi]

bōne = bēn

+bōnian to polish, burnish, TC. [Ger. bohnen]

bonn == bann

bor borer, gimlet, Gl: lancet, scalpel, graving tool, Gl. [borian]

bora m. ruler, Sat 500. [? rǣdbora]

borcen pret. 3 sg. of beorcan.

borcian to bark.

bord n. ‘board,’ plank, Æ, Gen: table, Ps: side of a ship, Gen: ship, El, Gn: shield, El.

borda m. embroidery, ornament, Gl.

bordclāð m. table-cloth, OEG 5622.

bordgelāc n. weapon, dart, Cr 769.

bordhæbbende shield-bearing, B 2895.

bordhaga m. cover of shields, El 652.

bordhrēoða (ē) † m. shield-ornament: phalanx.

bordrand m. shield, B 2559.

bordrima m. rim, edge.

bordriðig a stream running in a channel made of planks? (BT), EC 45011.

bordstæð n. sea-shore, An 442.

bordðaca m. shield-covering, testudo, Gl: board for roofing, WW.

bordweall m. wall of shields, phalanx: buckler, shield: side of ship, Rd 346.

bordwudu m. shield, B 1243.

boren pp. of beran.

borettan to brandish, Gl.

borg m. pledge, security, bail, debt, obligation, LL (v. 2·331; 641); CP: bondsman: debtor. [‘borrow’ sb.]

borgbryce m. breach of surety, LL.

borgen pp. of beorgan.

borggelda m. borrower: lender.

borgian toborrow,’ Mt, Ps: lend: be surety for, OEG 3812.

borgiend m. lender, usurer.

borg-sorg (burg-) f. trouble on account of lending or security, Rim 63.

borgwedd n. pledge, WW 27916.

borh == borg

borhfæst fast bound, HL 18254.

±borhfæstan to bind by pledge or surety.

borhhand fm. security, surety (person), Æ.


borhlēas without a pledge, without security, LL 230[5].

borian to bore, perforate.

borlīce very, extremely, fitly, excellently, A 8·302, 307, 329.

born = barn, pret. 3 sg. of biernan.

+borsnung = +brosnung

borsten pp. of berstan.

borðor = beorðor

bōsig m? n? stall, crib, LkLR. [‘boosy’]

bōsm (CP), bōsum m. ‘bosom,’ breast, womb, Æ: surface, An: ship’s hold, Gen.

bōsmig sinuous, OEG 82.

bōt f. help, relief, advantage, remedy, An, Da, Lcd; AO: compensation for an injury or wrong, LL (v. 2·336): (peace) offering, recompense, amends, atonement, reformation, penance, repentance, Bl; CP. tō bōte toboot,’ besides, moreover. [Ger. busse]

bōtan = bētan

bōtettan to improve, repair.

botian to get better.

±botl (CP, Æ) == bold

bōtlēas unpardonable, not to be atoned for by bōt.

botm m. ‘bottom,’ ground, foundation, B, WW: abyss, Gen.

bōtwyrðe pardonable, that can be atoned for by bōt. [cp. bōtlēas]

bōð = bōgeð pres. 3 sg. of bōgan.

boðen mn? rosemary: darnel, Æ: thyme, GPH 390.

bōung = bōgung

box mn. box-tree, WW: ‘box,’ case, Mt. [L. buxus]

boxtrēow n. box-tree, ÆGr 2019.

braccas mp. breeches, Lcd 3·19828. [L.]

bracce (Mdf) = bræc I.

brachwīl f. moment, A 8·318.

-bracian v. ā-b.

brād I. comp. brādra, brǣdra ‘broad,’ flat, open, extended, spacious, wide, Gen, Chr; Æ, AO, CP: ample, copious, B; El.

II. n. breadth, Rim 13?

brādæx f. broad axe, Gl.

brādbrim † n. wide sea.

brāde far and wide, broadly, widely.

brādelēac n. leek, Gl.

brādhand f. palm of the hand, WW 26434.

brādian to extend, reach, AO 23410.

brādlāstæx f. broad axe, Gl.

brādlinga flatly, with the hand open.

brādnes sf. breadth, greatness, extent, surface, Æ: liberality.

brādpanne = brǣdepanne

bræc I. a strip of unfilled land? (BT), KC.

II. = pret. 3 sg. of brecan.

brǣc I. (±) n. catarrh, cough.

II. f. breaking, destruction, ÆL 5292.

III. = brēc nap. of brōc I.

bræcce breeches, OET. [L.]

brǣccoðu f. falling sickness, epilepsy, WW 11227.

+brǣceo = brǣc I.


brǣcdrenc (ē) cough medicine, WW 35188.

bræclian to cackle, make a noise, GD 23612.

brǣcon pret. pl. of brecan.

±brǣcsēoc epileptic, lunatic.

brǣd I. f. breadth, width, AO. [brād]

II. f. flesh, Ph 240. [OHG. brāt]

III. m. trick, fraud, deceit, craft. [= *brægd; ‘braid’]

IV. pret. 3 sg. of brēdan, bregdan.

V. pres. 3 sg. and pp. of brǣdan.

brǣd- = brægd- (bregd-)

±brǣdan (e) I. to make broad, extend, spread, stretch out, BH; AO: be extended, rise, grow. [‘brede’; brād]

II. to roast, toast, bake, broil, cook, WW. [‘brede’; Ger. braten]

brǣde m. roast meat, WW. [‘brede’; Ger. braten]

-brǣdels v. ofer-b.

brǣdepanne f. frying-pan (v. WW 363n3).

brǣding I. f. extension, Bo 466: bedding, bed, DR.

II. f. roast meat, OEG 3760.

brǣdingpanne = brǣdepanne

brǣdīsen n. ‘scalpellum,’ Gl, WW.

brǣdra v. brād.

brǣdu, brǣdo f. breadth, width, extent, Ps. [‘brede’]

+brægd = brǣd III.

brægdan = bregdan

brægdboga m. deceitful bow, Cr 765.

brægden (e) I. (±) deceitful, crafty, AO. adv. -līce. [bregdan]

II. fraud.

brægdnes (ǣd-) f. fraud, cunning.

brægdwīs crafty, Gu 58. [bregd]

brægen (a, c) n. ‘brain,’ Lcd, Ps; Æ, CP.

brægenpanne f. brain-pan, skull, OEG 2815.

brægensēoc brain-sick, mad, OEG.

brægn = brægen

brægnloca (brægn-) m. brain-house, head, Rd 7221.

brægpanne = brægenpanne

bræhtm (A) = breahtm

bræmbel, brǣmel == brēmel

brǣme (NG) = brēme

brǣr (ē) = brēr

bræs n. ‘brass,’ bronze, Æ.

bræsenbrazen,’ of brass, LPs; Æ.

bræsian to do work in brass, make of brass, ÆGr 21517.

bræsne = bresne

brǣð m. odour, scent, stink, exhalation, vapour, AO. [‘breath’]

brǣw (ēa) m. eye-brow, eye-lid, BH, Lcd, Ps, WW; CP. [‘bree’]

bragen = brægen

brahtan = brohton pret. pl. of bringan.

brand (ō) m. fire, flame, B; Æ: ‘brand,’ torch, JnL, Da; Æ: sword, B.

brandhātburning hot, ardent.

brandhord (o1) n? treasure exciting ardent desires (BT); care, anxiety (GK), Rim 46.

brand-īren, -īsen n. fire-dog, trivet, grate, WW. [‘brandise’]

brandōm (o1) m. ‘rubigo,’ WW 4414.

brandrād (o2, e2) f. fire-dog, trivet, Gl.

brandrida m. fire-grate, WW 26626.

brandstæfn (o1) high-prowed? An 504. [= brant- ?]


brang pret. 3 sg. of bringan.

brant † (o) deep, steep, high, An, El. [‘brant’]

branwyrt f. whortleberry plant, WW 13323.

brasian = bræsian

+brastl (-sl) n. crackling (of flames), DD, W.

brastlian (-sl) to roar, rustle, crackle, Æ. [‘brastle’; Ger. prasseln]

brastlung f. crackling, rustling, crashing, Æ.

bratt m. cloak, MtL 540. [‘bratt’]

brēac pret. 3 sg. of brūcan.

brēad n. bit, crumb, morsel: ‘bread,’ JnL.

+breadian = +bredian

brēag = brǣw

breahtm I. (bearhtm; æ, e, eo, y) m. cry, noise, revelry.

II. = bearhtm

breahtmian (earht) to creak, resound.

breahtmung f. ‘convolatus,’ WW 3763.

breahtumhwæt = bearhtmhwæt

breard = brerd

brēat- = brēot-

brēað brittle, Lcd 1·2607.

brēaw = brǣw

brēawern n. brew-house, WW 14529.

brēc fp. breeches, Lcd, RB. [‘breech’; v. ES 38·345]

+brec n. noise, sound, CP.

±brēc = ±brǣc I.

±brecan I. sv4 tobreak,’ shatter, burst, tear, B, Bl, Ps: curtail, injure, violate, destroy, oppress, B, Da, KC; AO, CP: break into, rush into, storm, capture (city), Ma; CP: press, force: break or crash through, burst forth, spring out, An, Ph: subdue, tame, CP.

II. to roar? Cr 951. [ON. braka]

brēchrægl n. breeches, PPs 10828.

brecmǣlum = brytmǣlum

±brecnes f. breach, EPs.

-brecð v. ǣ-, eodor-b.

brecða m. broken condition. mōdes b. sorrow of heart, B 171.

brecung f. ‘breaking,’ LkR.

bred n. surface: board, plank, CP: tablet, Æ. [‘bred’]

brēd = (1) brȳd, (2) brād, (3) brǣd III.

brēdan I. to produce, or cherish, a brood, Æ. [‘breed’]

II. (±) = bregdan

III. (±) = brǣdan I. and II.

breden (i, y) of boards, wooden, Æ.

brēdende deceitful, cunning, AO. [bregdan]

brēdettan = brogdettan

+bredian † (ea) to regenerate, restore.

brēdi(ng)panne = brǣdepanne

brēdīsern = brǣdīsen

bredweall m. wall of boards, palisade, ES 20·148.

bredwian (eo) to strike down, trample.

+brēfan to write down, A 8·30811. [cp. Ger. brief]

brēg (VPs) = brǣw

brega (Æ) = brego

brēgan to alarm, frighten, terrify, Lk; Æ, CP. [‘bree’; brōga]

bregd = brǣd III.

+bregd I. n. movement, change, Ph 57.

II. = brǣd III.

bregdan3 (brēd-) to move quickly, pull, shake, swing, throw (wrestling), draw (sword), drag, 50 B, Ma: bend, weave, ‘braid,’ knit, join together, ÆGr: change colour, vary, be transformed, Ex, Sol, Gu: bind, knot: (intr.) move, be pulled: flash, Æ. up b. bring up (a charge): (+) scheme, feign, pretend: (+) draw breath, breathe.

bregden = brægden

+bregdnes f. trouble, affliction, MF 162.

+bregdstafas mp. learned arts, Sol 2.

bregen = brægen

brēgendlic terrible, RPs 463.

brēgh = brǣw

brēgnes f. fear, terror.

brego † (eo) m. ruler, chief, king, Lord. b. engla, mancynnes God.

bregorīce n. kingdom, Gen 1633.

bregorōf majestic, mighty, B 1925.

bregostōl † m. ruler’s seat, throne: rule, dominion.

bregoweard † m. ruler, prince, lord.

bregu = brego

breht- = breaht-, beorht-, bierht-

brehtniende = bearhtmiende

brēman I. (±) to honour, extol. [brēme]

II. (oe) to rage, NG.

brembel (Æ), brember == brēmel

brēme (oe, ȳ) I. adj. famous, glorious, noble, PPs; AO. [‘breme’]

II. adv.

brēmel (ǣ) m. brier, ‘bramble,’ blackberry bush, Æ, Lcd; Mdf. [brōm]

brēmelæppel m. blackberry, Lcd.

brēmelberie f. blackberry, Lcd.

brēmelbrǣr † m. bramble-brier.

brēmellēaf n. bramble-leaf, Lcd.

brēmelrind f. bramble-bark, Lcd.

brēmelðyrne f. bramble-bush, Æ.

brēmen = brēme I.

brēmendlic noted, OEG.

brēmer == brēmel

brēmlas nap. of brēmel.

bremman to rage, roar. [Ger. brummen]

bremung f. roaring, WW 24239.

brencð pres. 3 sg. of brengan.

brene = bryne

brēneð pres. 3 sg. of *brēnan to make or dye brown? (GK; BT reads breneð = berneð pres. 3 sg. of bernan) Run 15.

±brengan (AO, CP) = bringan

brengnes f. oblation: (+) food, support, MkL 1244. [*bringnes]

brenting m. ship, B 2807. [brant]

breo- = bre-

brēo- = brē-

brēod (NG) = brēad

breodian to cry out, Mod 28.

breoht- = bearht-, beorht-

brēosa (īo) m. gadfly, WW. [‘breeze’]

brēost nmf. (usu. in pl.) ‘breast,’ bosom, B, Lk, Lcd; AO, CP: stomach, womb: mind, thought, disposition, Gen; CP: ‘ubertas,’ CPs 359.

brēostbān n. ‘breast-bone,’ WW 158.

brēostbeorg = brēostgebeorh

brēostbyden (e2) f. breast, Gl.

brēostcearu † f. heart-care, anxiety.


brēostcofa † m. heart, affections.

brēostgebeorh m. bulwark, WW 46614.

brēostgehygd †, -hȳd † fn. thought.

brēostgeðanc † m. mind, thought.

brēostgewǣdu † np. corslet.

brēostgyrd f. sceptre? OEG 3303; 2188.

brēosthord † n. thought, mind.

brēostlīn n. stomacher, WW 4078.

brēostloca † m. mind, soul.

brēostnet † n. coat of mail.

brēostnyrwet n. tightness of chest, Lcd 189b.

brēostrocc m. chest-clothing, WW 15139.

brēostsefa † m. mind, heart.

brēosttoga m. chieftain, Sol 184.

brēostðing n. region of the heart, Lcd 3·14618.

brēostwærc m. pain in the chest, Lcd.

brēostweall m. breastwork, rampart, WW 49013.

brēostweorðung † f. breast-ornament.

brēostwylm (e2) m. breast-fountain, teat: emotion, sorrow.

Breot- = Bryt-

brēotan2to break in pieces, hew down, demolish, destroy, kill.

Breotas = Brittas

Breoten, Breoton = Briten

brēoton = (1) bryten; (2) pret. pl. of brēatan.

brēoðan2 to decay, waste away, Lcd 63a.

±brēowan2 tobrew,’ AO.

brēowlāc n. brewing, ÆL 17103.

brēr (ǣ) f. ‘brier,’ bramble, Lcd, WW.

brerd (ea, eo) m. brim, margin, border, surface, Jn, WW: shore, bank, Æ. [‘brerd’]

brerdful brim-full, ÆL 6282. [‘brerdful’]

brērhlǣw m. brier-hillock, EC 4509.

brērðyrne f. brier-bush, KC 6·22113.

brēsan = brȳsan

bresen = bræsen

bresne (æ) † mighty, strong.

brēt pres. 3 sg. of brēdan, bregdan.

bret- = brit-, bryt-

brēð = brǣð

brēðer ds. of brōðor.

brēw (KGl) = brǣw

bric- = bryc-

brīc- = brȳc-

briceð pres. 3 sg. of brecan.

bricst pres. 2 sg. of brecan.

brid = bridd

brīd = brȳd

bridd m. youngbird,’ chicken, Lk; Æ, CP, Mdf.

brīdel, brīdels (ȳ) m. ‘bridle,’ rein, curb, restraint, Run; Æ, CP.

brīdelshring m. bridle-ring, El 1194.

brīdelðwangas mp. reins.

briden = breden

brīd-gift = brȳdgift

brīdgifu = brȳdgifu

±brīdlian tobridle,’ curb, Bo; CP.

briengan = bringan

brig = brycg

brīg = brīw

brigd n. change or play of colours, Pa 26. [bregdan]

brigdils (Gl) = brīdels

brihtan = bierhtan

brihtlīce = beorhtlīce

brim † nm. surf, flood, wave, sea, ocean, water, B: sea-edge, shore. [‘brim’]



brimclif n. cliff by the sea, B 222.

brimfaroð n. sea-shore (BT) Da 322 (or ? 2 words).

brimflōd m. flood, sea.

brimfugol m. sea-bird, gull, Wa 47.

brimgiest m. sailor, Rd 425.

brimhengest † m. (sea-horse), ship.

brimhlæst † f. sea-produce, (fish).

brimlād † f. flood-way, sea-way.

brimlīðend m. sailor: pirate.

brimmann † m. sailor: pirate.

brimrād † f. (sea-road), sea.

brimsa? gadfly? (v. NC 354).

brimstæð n. sea-shore, An 496.

brimstrēam † m. current, sea: rapid, river.

brimðyssa † m. ship.

brimwīsa m. sea-king, captain, B 2930.

brimwudu † m. (sea-wood), ship.

brimwylf f. (she-)wolf of the sea or lake, B 1507.

brimwylm m. ocean surge, sea-wave, B 1494.

bring m. offering, CPs 5020.

±bringan3 (e, y) (and wv) tobring,’ lead, bring forth, carry, adduce, produce, present, offer, B, Bo, JnL; AO, CP.

-bringelle v. on-b.

brīosa = brēosa

brīst, brītst, pres. 2 sg., brīt pres. 3 sg. of bregdan.

Brit- = Bryt-

brit- = bryt-

brīw m. pottage, porridge, ÆGr, Lcd. [‘bree’; Ger. brei]

±brīwan to prepare food, cook.

brīwðicce as thick as pottage, Lcd 190a.

broc I. n. affliction, misery, care, toil, adversity, Bl, Bo; Æ, AO, CP: disease, sickness, Æ: fragment. [‘broke’; brecan]

II. n. use, benefit.

III. a kind of locust? WW. [‘brock’]

IV. = brocc

brōc I. f. (? only in pl. brēc, q.v.).

II. m. ‘brook,’ torrent, Bo, WW; Mdf.

brocc m. badger, Lcd. [‘brock’]

broccen of badger’s skin, WW 1521.

brocchol n. badger’s hole, EC 23912.

broccian to tremble, GD 156.

brōce = brȳce

brocen pp. of (1) brecan, (2) bruqcan.

±brocian to crush, hurt, afflict, molest, Æ, AO, CP: blame. [broc]

broclic full of hardship, W 2481.

brōcminte f. brookmint, horsemint.

brōcsēoc = brǣcsēoc

brocung f. affliction, sickness, ÆH 1·4727.

brod shoot, sprout, LHy 63.

brōd f. ‘brood,’ Æ: foetus: breeding, hatching.

broddetan = brogdettan

broddian = brōdian

brōden pp. of brēdan.

brōdenmǣl † n. damascened sword.

brōder = brōðor

brōdet- = brogdet-

brōdian to glitter, shine, OEG.

brōdig adj. broody, A 8·309.

brōga m. terror, dread, danger, CP: prodigy.

brogden pp. of bregdan. [‘browden’]


brogdenmǣl = brōdenmǣl

brogdettan to shake, brandish: tremble, quake.

brogdettung f. trembling, shaking: figment, pretence.

±brogn bough, bush, branch, NG (v. ES 38·340 and JAW).

brohtviscellum,’ WW 541.

brōht pp., brōhton pret. pl. of bringan.

brōhðrēa m. dire calamity, Gen 1813. [brōga]

brōm m. ‘broom,’ brushwood, Lcd; Mdf.

brōmfæsten n. enclosure of broom, WW 4147.

brōmig broomy, Bl 20727?

bron- = bran-

brond == brand, brant

brord m. prick, point: blade (e.g., of grass or corn).

±brosnian to crumble, decay, fall to pieces, rot, wither, be corrupted, AO, CP.

brosniendlic (Æ), +brosnodlic (Bl, W) corruptible, perishable, transitory.

±brosnung f. decay, corruption, ruin, Æ.

+brot n. fragment, G. [breotan]

Broten = Bryten

broten pp. of brēotan.

brotettan to burst forth, shoot, sprout? (Napier) = brogdettan? (BT), v. OEG 1218n.

broð n. ‘broth,’ Lcd. [brēowan]

brōðar, brōðer == brōðor

broðhund (WW 32938; 54819) = roðhund?

brōðor m. ds. brēðer ‘brother,’ Chr, Mt, Lk. nap. (±) brōðor, brōðru, Gen, Jn: fellow-man, Ps: co-religionist, Mt: monk.

brōðorbana m. fratricide (person), Gen 1526.

brōðorcwealm m. fratricide (act), Gen 1030.

brōðordohter f. niece, WW 17330.

brōðorgyld n. vengeance for brothers? Ex 199.

brōðorlēas brotherless, Rd 8516.

brōðorlicbrotherly,’ ÆGr.

brōðorlīcnes f. brotherliness, BH.

brōðorlufu (-er) love, DR.

brōðorrǣden f. fellowship, brotherhood, Æ: membership of a brotherhood.

brōðorscipe m. brotherliness, love, MtL: (+) brotherhood, fraternity, AO. [‘brothership’]

brōðorsibb f. kinship of brothers: brotherly love.

brōðorslaga m. brother-slayer.

brōðorslege m. fratricide (act), CP.

brōðorsunu m. brother’s son, nephew.

brōðorsybb = brōðorsibb

broðor-ðīnen, -ðīnenu f. midwife, Æ. [beorðor]

brōðorwīf n. brother’s wife, sister-in-law.

brōðorwyrt (e2) f. ‘pulegium,’ penny-royal, WW 30024.

+brōð-ru, -ra mp. brothers, brethren, Mt. [‘i-brotheren’]

brōður = brōðor

+browen pp. of brēowan.

brū f. nap. brū(w)a, gp. brūna ‘brow,’ eye-brow, eye-lid, eye-lash, Rd, WW.

±brūcan2 tobrook,’ use, enjoy, possess, partake of, spend, B. brocen cyrtel a coat which has been worn, Æ: eat, JnL; Æ: 52 execute an office: cohabit with. [Ger. brauchen]

brūcendlīce serviceably, OEG 531.

brūcung f. function, occupation, BC 1·15413.

brūdon, brugdon pret. pl. of brēdan, bregdan.

brūnbrown,’ dark, dusky, Bo, Ex: having metallic lustre, shining (v. NED).

brūna gp. of brū.

brūn-basu, -be(o)su brownish-purple, OEG.

brūnecgwith gleaming blade.

brūneða m. itch, erysipelas, Lcd 18a.

brūnewyrt = brūnwyrt

brūnfāg burnished? brown-hued? B 2615.

brungen pp., brungon pret. pl. of bringan.

brūnian to become brown, Lcd 106b.

brunna = burna

brūnwann dusky, An 1308.

brūnwyrt f. ‘brownwort,’ water-betony, wood-betony, Lcd.

bruðon pret. pl. of brēoðan.

brūwa nap. of brū.

±bryce (i) I. m. ‘breach’ (‘bruche’), fracture, breaking, Æ (i), Gu, LL: fragment, OEG. [brecan]

II. fragile, brittle, worthless, fleeting. [‘bryche’]

III. m. use, enjoyment, service, exercise, advantage, gain, profit, fruit, Æ (i), CP. [Ger. brauch]

brȳce useful, profitable. [brūcan]

-brycel v. hūs-b.

bryceð pres. 3 sg. of brecan.

brycg f. ‘bridge,’ Æ; AO, Mdf.

brycgbōt (i) f. repairing of bridges, LL.

brycggeweorc (i1) n. work of building or repairing bridges.

brycgian tobridge,’ make a causeway, pave, An.

brycgweard (i1) m. keeper or defender of a bridge, Ma 85.

brycgwyrcendepontifex’! DR 19416.

±brȳc-ian, -sian to use, enjoy, DR: profit, benefit.

brycð pres. 3 sg. of brecan.

brȳcð pres. 3 sg. of brūcan.

brȳd I. (ē, ī) f. ‘bride,’ betrothed or newly-married woman, wife, consort, CP, Æ. brȳdes wǣde wedding garment: (†) (young) woman.

II. = brygd

bryd- = bred-

brȳd- = brīd-

brȳdbedd n. bridal bed, Æ.

brȳdbletsung (ī) f. marriage blessing, LL 72, 38, 1.

brȳdboda m. paranymph, bridesman, OEG 18b71.

brȳdbūr n., brȳdcofa m. bride-chamber, bed-chamber.

+bryddan to frighten, terrify, Sol 16.

-brȳde v. un-b.

brȳdeala, brȳdealo(ð) n. bride-ale, marriage-feast, Chr. [‘bridal’]

brȳdelic = brȳdlic

brȳdgifta fpl. betrothal, espousals.

brȳdgifu f. dowry: (pl.) espousals, Æ.

brȳdguma (Æ, CP), brȳdiguma (Æ) m. ‘bridegroom,’ Jn: suitor.


brȳdhlōp n. ceremony on conducting a bride to her new home, bridal, wedding, Chr, MtL. [‘bridelope’]

+brȳdian to marry.

brȳdlāc n. bridal, wedded condition, Æ; (pl.) marriage ceremony, Æ. [‘bridelock’]

brȳdlēoð n. epithalamium, OEG.

brȳdlic bridal. b. gewrit Song of Solomon, WW 38830.

brȳdloca m. bride-chamber, Bl.

brȳdlōp = brȳdhlōp

brȳdlufe f. love of a bride, Jul 114.

brȳdniht f. wedding-night, MH 1428.

brȳdræst f. bridal bed.

brȳdrēaf n. wedding garment, MtL 2211.

brȳdsang m. epithalamium, WW.

brȳdðing np. nuptials, Bl. [‘brydthing’]

brygc = brycg

brygd I. (bryd) m. drawing out, unsheathing, brandishing, LL.

II. = brǣd III.

bryht == beorht

bryhtan = bierhtan

±bryidan to seize property improperly held by another, LL. [= *brigdan? BT]

brym, brymm == brim

brȳm- = brēm-

bryne m. burning, conflagration, BH: fire, flame, heat, MtL; AO: inflammation, burn, scald, Lcd: torch: fervour, passion. [‘brine,’ ‘brune’; beornan]

brȳne f. ‘brine,’ WW; Æ.

brynēadl f. fever, WW 23826.

brynebrōga m. fire-terror, Az 161.

brynegield † (i3) m. burnt-offering.

brynehāt burning hot, Dom 51.

brynelēoma m. fire-gleam, flame, B 2313.

brynenes f. hard, fiery trial, HGl 469.

brynetēar m. hot tear, Cr 152.

bryne-wylm, -welm † m. wave of fire, flame, burning heat.

bryngan = bringan

brynigfiery, burning.

brynstān m. brimstone, NC 275.

bryrd = brerd

bryrdan to urge on, incite, encourage, Met 133. [brord]

bryrdnes f. incitement, instigation.

±brȳs-an, -ian tobruise,’ crush, pound, BH, DD: season, Sc 2020.

+brȳsednes f. bruising, crushing, WW 21123.

brȳsewyrt f. daisy, soap-wort, Lcd 1·374. [‘bruisewort’]

brystmian = brytsnian

brȳt pres. 3 sg. of brēotan.

Bryt m. Briton: Breton.

bryta = brytta

brytan = bryttian

±brȳtan to crush, pound: (+) break up, destroy.

-brytednes v. for-b.

Bryten (e, eo, i, o) f. Britain.

bryten (eo) spacious, roomy, Sat 687.

brytencyning † m. powerful king.

brytengrūnd m. broad earth, Cr 357.

Brytenlond n. Britain: Wales.

brytenrīce (eo) n. I. spacious kingdom, Az 107.

II. kingdom of Britain.


Brytenwealda m. wielder of Britain, Bretwalda, chief king.

brytenwongas mp. spacious plains, the world, Cr 380.

brȳtest pres. 2 sg. of brēotan.

brytian = bryttian

Bryt-land, -lond = Brytenlond

brytmǣlum piecemeal, OEG 1553n.

brytnere m. steward, CP 45911.

±brytnian (i) to divide, distribute, dispense, administer, B. [‘britten’]

brytnung f. distribution, WW 22243.

brȳtofta pl. espousals, WW 1715. [brȳd, ðoft]

Bryton = Bryten, Briten

±brytsen f. fragment, FM, G.

brytsnian to parcel out, distribute, OEG 2195: (+) enjoy, possess, ES 8·47333.

brȳtst pres. 2 sg. of brēotan.

Brytt == Bryt

brytta † (e) m. dispenser, giver, author, governor, prince, lord. sinces b. treasure-giver, lord. [brēotan]

+bryttan = +brȳtan

±bryttian (i) to divide, dispense, distribute, CP: rule over, possess, enjoy the use of.

BryttiscBritish,’ Chr.

Bryttwealas, Brytwalas mp. Britons of Wales.

Brytwylisc British, Welsh.

bryðen f. brewing, drink, Gu, Lcd. [‘burthen’; broð]

brȳwlāc (Æ) = brēowlāc

I. n. nap. bȳ dwelling. [Ger. bau]

II. v. , bēgen.

±būan anv. (intr.) to stay, dwell, live, AO: (tr.) inhabit, occupy: cultivate. [Ger. bauen]

būc, bucc m. belly, stomach, Æ: pitcher, Æ: beaver (of helmet)? [‘bouk’; Ger. bauch]

bucca m. ‘buck,’ he-goat, male deer, Æ, Lcd; CP.

budda m. beetle, WW 54310.

būde 3 sg., būdon pl. pret. of būan.

budon pret. pl. of bēodan.

būend m. dweller, inhabitant.

bufan (Æ; AO, CP) I. prep. (w. d.) over, ‘above’: (w. a.) on, upon.

II. adv. above, overhead, before.

bufan-cweden, -nemd, -sprecen above mentioned, GD.

bufon = bufan

būg- = bū-

±būgan I. (sv2) tobow,’ bow down, turn, bend, stoop, sink, Æ, AO, Rood: submit, give way, Æ, B, Chr: depart, flee, retire, Æ, AO: join, go over to, Æ: convert, Æ.

II. = būan

būh imperative of būgan.

būian = būan

bul = bula I.

bula m. I. ornament. [L.]

II. bull? EC 44922.

bulberende wearing an ornament, WW 19537; OEG 8318.

bulentse f. a plant, Lcd 44b.

bulgon pret. pl. of belgan.


bulluc m. male calf, ‘bullock,’ Sc.

bulot, bulut ragged robin, cuckoo-flower, Lcd.

būn = būan

bund f? bundle, MtL 1330.

būnda = bōnda

bunden pp., bundon pret. pl. of bindan.

bundenheord with bounden tresses, B 3151.

+bundennes f. obligation.

bundenstefna adj. (ship) with an ornamented prow, B 1911.

bune I. f. cup, beaker, drinking vessel.

II. reed, cane? WW 19812. [‘bun’]

būnes f. dwelling, NC 292.

būr n. ‘bower,’ apartment, chamber, Gen, WW: storehouse, cottage, dwelling, KC; Æ. [būan]

±būr (usu. +; but būr at LL 92, 6, 3) m. free-holder of the lowest class, peasant, farmer. [‘gebur’]

būrbyrde2) of peasant birth, Ct.

būrcniht n. chamberlain, eunuch.

būrcot n. bed-chamber, CP.

burg (burh) f. (gds. and nap. byrig) any important dwelling within a walled enclosure, fort, castle, Chr, WW; CP: ‘borough,’ walled town, AO, Mt; Æ. [v. Mdf]

burg- v. also burh-.

burgāgend m. city-owner, El 1175.

burgat = burggeat

burgbryce m. breaking into a (fortified) dwelling, LL: penalty for that offence, LL.

burgen = byrgen

būrgerihta np. peasant’s rights or dues, LL 446 (4).

burgeteld † n. pavilion, tent.

burgfæsten n. fortress, Gen 1680.

burgfolc n. townspeople, B 2220.

burggeat n. castle-gate.

burghege m. fence of aburg,’ Ct.

burg-hlið † n. nap. -hleoðu fortress-height (or ?= beorg-hlīð).

burglagu f. civil law, GPH 388.

burglēod, -lēoda m. citizen, AO.

burgloca † m. fortified inclosure, walled town.

burglond n. native city, Cr 51.

burgon pret. pl. of beorgan.

burgræced n. fortress, Ruin 22.

burgrūn f. sorceress; pl. fates, furies, Gl.

burg-sæl † n. nap. -salu city-hall, house.

burgsǣta2) m. denizen of a town, citizen, WW.

burgscipe m. borough, WW 49718.

burgsele m. castle-hall, house, Rim 30.

burgsittende † mpl. city-dwellers.

burgsorg = borgsorg

burgsteall m. citadel? city? WW 20536.

burgstede † m. city, castle.

burgtūn m. city, Wif 31. [‘borough-town’]

burgðelu f. castle floor, Fin 30 (burh-). [v. ‘theal’]

burg-waran, -waru fp., -ware (AO, CP), -waras, mp. inhabitants of a ‘burg,’ burghers, citizens.

burgweall m. city-wall, Æ.


burgweg m. road, street.

burgwīgend m. warrior, El 34.

burh == burg

burhbiscop m. bishop of a city.

burhbōt f. liability for repair of the walls of a town or fortress, LL.

burhealdor m. burgomaster, mayor, Æ.

burhgeard m. castle yard, EC 328.

burhgeatsetl n. jurisdiction over those belonging to the ‘burg’? seat in a court at the city gate? (BT; or ? two words, v. LL 456, 2).

burhgemet n. measure used in a town, LL 477 (6).

burhgemōt n. town’s meeting, LL.

burhgerēfa m. chief magistrate of a town, provost, mayor, WW. [‘borough-reeve’]

burhgeðingð f. town council, LL 228, 1, 2.

burhmann m. citizen, WW. [‘borough-man’]

burhrǣdden f. citizenship, WW 44110.

burhrest f. chamber-couch, IM 12586. [?= *būrrest, ES 38·347]

burhriht n. town right, law in a town, LL 477 (6).

burh-rūn, -rūne f. fury, sorceress, WW 24516.

±burhscipe m. township, civil district.

burhscīr f. city limits, city, township, Æ.

burhsprǣc f. courtly speech, Gl.

burhstaðol m. foundation of the wall of a ‘burg,’ Lcd 1·32823.

burhðegn m. living in a ‘burg’; or ?= būrðegn

burhwarumann m. burgess, BH 4031.

burhwealda m. burgess, BH 4031b.

burhweard † m. city defender.

burhwela m. treasure of a city, B 3100.

burhwelle f. spring that supplies a town? BT.

burhwerod n. townsfolk.

burhwita m. town councillor.

būrland n. land occupied by peasants, EC 384´.

burn f., burna (CP) m., burne f. brook, small stream, Jn; Mdf: spring or well water, CP, WW. [‘burn’; Ger. brunnen]

burnon pret. pl. of biernan.

burnsele m. bath-house, Ruin 22.

burnstōw f? bathing-place, KC.

būrrēaf n. tapestry, TC 53036.

būrscipe = burhscipe

burston pret. pl. of berstan.

būr-ðegn, -ðēn m. page, chamberlain.

burðre = byrðere

buruh = burg

būst pres. 2 sg. of būan.

būt m. a vessel, LL 455´ (?= būc; BT).

būta = (1) būtan, (2) būtū

būtan I. prep. w. d. and (rarely) a. out of, outside of, off, round about: except, without, all but, but only; besides, in addition to: in spite of.

II. conj. (w. ind.) except, except that, but, only. b. ðæt except: (w. subj.) unless, save that: (w. subst.) except, but, besides, if only, provided that.

III. adv. without, outside, Chr. [‘bout,’ ‘but’]

būte = (1) būtan, (2) būtū

butere f. ‘butter,’ Lcd; Æ. [L.]

buter-flēoge, -flēge f. ‘butterfly,’ WW.


butergeðweor n. butter-curd, butter.

+buterian to butter, Lcd 121a.

buter-ic, -uc = butruc

buterstoppa m. butter-vessel, WW 28025.

būton = būtan

butre = butere

butruc m. (leather) bottle, Æ.

butsecarl m. boatman, mariner, Chr. [‘buscarl’]

buttorflēoge = buterflēoge

buttuc m. end, small piece of land.

būtū (būtwu, būta, būte) both (neuter). v. also bēgen.

butueoh (Chr) v. betwux.

būtun = būtan

buturuc = butruc

būtwū = būtū

būwan = būan


bȳan (N) = būan

byccen (i) of a goat, goat’s, NC 275.

bȳcera m. = bēocere

±bycgan (i) tobuy,’ pay for, acquire, Mt, Jn: redeem, ransom: procure, get done: sell, LL. [Goth. bugjan]

bycgend v. beccen.

bȳcn- = bēacn-, bīecn-

byd- = bed-, bid-

bȳd- = bīd-

Printed on one line:
byd-, bȳd- = bed-, bid-, bīd-

bydel m. ‘beadle,’ apparitor, warrant officer, Lk; Æ: herald, forerunner, Æ: preacher, Æ. [bēodan]

bydelæcer m. land of a ‘bydel,’ KC 6·15229.

byden f. measure, bushel: bucket, barrel, vat, tub. [Low L. butina; Ger. bütte]

bydenbotm m. bottom of a vessel, WW 1234.

bydenfæt n. bushel, barrel.

bȳdla m. worshipper, NG.

bȳencg (DR) = bȳing

bȳend = būend

-byffan v. ā-b.

byfgendlic = bifigendlic

byfian (Æ) = bifian

byfor = beofor

byg- = big-

bȳg- = bī-, bē-, bīg-

Printed on one line:
byg-, bȳg- = big-, bī, bē-, bīg-

bȳgan = bīegan

byge (ȳ?; i) m. curve, bend, corner, angle, cone (of a helmet), AO, CP: traffic, commerce, LL 128, 5.

bȳgel = bēogol

bygen f. purchase, LL (32811).

bygendlic easily bent, flexible, BH.

bygeð pres. 3 sg. of bycgan.

bȳgeð pres. 3 sg. of būan.

byht m. I. (±) bend, angle, corner, Ct: bay, ‘bight.’ [būgan]

II. † n? dwelling. [būan]

bȳhð pres. 3 sg. of būgan.

bȳing = bū I.

bȳl m? bȳle f? ‘boil,’ carbuncle, WW.

bylcettan = bealcettan

±byld f. constancy, confidence, boldness. [beald]

bylda m. builder? householder? Cra 75. [bold]

byldan I. to build, construct, KC.

II. = bieldan

byldu, byldo = bieldo

bȳle = bȳl

byledbrēost (= bylged- ?) puff-breasted, Rd 811.

bylewit = bilewit

bylg = belg

bylgan tobellow,’ MH.

bylgð pres. 3 sg. of belgan.

bylig = belg


bȳliht (īly-) ulcerous, Lcd 63b.

bylwet, byl(y)wit == bilewit

bȳme (Æ) = bīeme

bȳmere (WW), bȳmesangere m. trumpeter, Æ. [‘bemer’]

bȳmian to blow the trumpet, Ps, WW. [‘beme’]

bynd = bind

byndele, byndelle = bindele

bȳne cultivated, inhabited, occupied, AO. [būan]

byrc = beorc

byrce = beorce

byrcholt n. birch wood, WW.

byrcð pres. 3 sg. of beorcan.

byrd I. (i) f. birth (pl. w. sg. meaning).

II. f. burden, GD 2151.

+byrd I. fn.; +byrdo, -u f. birth, Cr: descent, parentage, race, BH: nature, quality, rank, Æ, AO: (†) fate. [‘birde’; beran]

II. burdened, MtR 1128.

III. = +byrded

+byrdan to beard, fringe, embroider.

-byrdan v. +ed-b.

+byrdboda m. herald of a birth.

+byrddæg m. birthday, Mt 146.

byrde of high rank, well-born, noble, rich, AO.

+byrde I. innate, natural.

II. = +byrd I.

+byrdelīce energetically, zealously, CP 16019.

byrden = byrðen

byrdicge f. embroideress, WW 26218.

byrdinenu = byrððinenu

byrding f. embroidering, WW 29410.

-byrding v. hyse-b.

byrdistre embroiderer (v. ANS 123·418).

+byrdlic (AS 513) = +byredlic

byrdling tortoise, OEG 2321.

-byrdling v. in-, frum-b.

byrdscype m. child-bearing, Cr 182.

+byrd-tīd f., -tīma m. time of birth.

+byrdu = +byrd I.

+byrdwiglere m. birth-diviner, astrologer.

+byrdwītega m. astrologer.

byre I. † m. (nap. byras, byre) child, son, descendant: young man, youth. [beran]

II. m. mound.

III. (±) m. time, opportunity, Æ: occurrence, AS 6213.

IV. m. strong wind, storm, GPH 400.

bȳre n. stall, shed, hut, Gl. [‘byre’]

+byredlic suitable, fitting, convenient, congenial, DR. adv. -līce.

byrele mf. cup-bearer, butler, steward, B. [‘birle’]

byrelian to give to drink, serve with drink, Gu. [‘birle’ vb.]

+byrelic = +byredlic

byren I. (and byrene) f. she-bear, Æ. [bera]

II. = beren

-bȳren v. nēahge-b.

byres f. borer, graving tool, awl, chisel, Gl. [borian]

byreð I. = bierð pres. 3 sg. of beran.

II. = pres. 3 sg. of byrian I.

byrg gds. and nap. of burg.

byrg- v. also byrig-.

+byrg I. (i) n. taste, DR 1163.

II. bēon on gebyrge (w. d.) to help, protect. [beorgan]


byrga m. security, surety, bail, one who gives bail, Gl. [Ger. bürge]

±byrgan I. (i) to raise a mound, hide, ‘bury,’ inter, †Hy; AO.

II. † (e, eo) to taste, eat.

III. = beorgan

byrgels (e, i) m. tomb, Æ, Ct. [‘buriels’]

byrgelslēoð (e1) n. epitaph, HGl 427.

byrgelssang m. dirge: epitaph.

byrgen (i, u) f. burying-place, grave, sepulchre, El; Æ, AO, CP: burial. [‘burian’; beorgan]

+byrgen f. caul? Lcd 185a.

byrgend m. grave-digger, PPs 783.

byrgenlēoð n. epitaph, BH 9412.

byrgensang m. dirge, OEG.

byrgenstōw f. burying-place.

byrgere m. corpse-bearer, WW. [‘burier’]

byrgian = byrgan

byrging I. f. burial.

II. f. taste.

byrglēoð n. dirge, epitaph, Gl.

byrht = beorht

byrht- = beorht-, bierht-

byrhtm = breahtm

±byrian I. (impers.) to happen, pertain to, belong to, befit, Æ, Mk, MtR; AO, CP. [‘bir’; ‘i-bure’]

II. = byrgan I. and II.

byric = beorc

byrig = burg, and gds. of burg.

byrig- = byrg-, burh-

byrigberge f. mulberry, Lcd 86a.

+byrigednes f. burial.

byrignes I. f. burial, BH. [‘buriness’]

II. f. tasting, taste.

-bȳrild v. nēah-geb.

byris = byres

byrisang (i) m. dirge, HGl 48857.

byrl- = byrel-

byrla m. trunk (of body), Lcd 58b.

+byrman to ferment, leaven: swell up, be proud. [beorma]

+byrmed n. leavened bread.

byrnan (Æ) = biernan

byrne I. f. corslet, WW; CP. [‘burne’]

II. = burne, burn.

III. = bryne

byrnete f. barnacle, NC 275.

byrn-ham, -hama † m. corslet.

+byrnod corsleted, ÆGr 25616. [‘i-burned’]

byrnsweord n. flaming sword, Bl 10934.

byrnwiga m. corsleted warrior.

byrn-wīgend, -wiggend † m. corsleted warrior.

byrs, byrse = byres

byrst I. (e) m. loss, calamity, injury, damage, defect, Æ. [berstan]

II. n. (land-)slip, KC 3·529 (v. also KC 5·11219 and Mdf).

III. f. ‘bristle,’ Ep, Lcd; Æ. [‘brise,’ ‘brust’]

IV. pres. 3 sg. of berstan.

V. pres. 2 sg. of beran.

+byrsted furnished with bristles, OEG 233.

byrstful disastrous, Chr 1116.

byrstig broken, rugged: afflicted. [berstan]

+byrtīd = +byrdtīd

byrð I. pres. 3 sg. of beran.

II. = beorð

byrðen f. ‘burden,’ load, weight, Bl, WW; Æ, CP: charge, duty. [beran]

byrðenmǣlum a heap at a time, ÆH 1·52622.

byrðenmǣte3) burdensome, KGl 1011


byrðenstan m. millstone.

byrðenstrang strong at carrying burdens, ÆH 1·20813.

byrðere I. m. bearer, supporter, Æ. [beran]

II. f. child-bearer, mother.

byrðestre (e) f. female carrier, HGl 49818.

byrðling (e) m. carrier, OEG 4922.

byrðor = beorðor

+byrðtid = +byrdtīd

byrððīnenu f. midwife, GPH 392.

bysceop == bisceop

bysegu = bysgu

bysen == bisen

bysig-, bysg- = bisg-

bysmer = bismer

bysmer- = bismr-

bysmerglēow n. shameful lust, Æ 23b451.

bysmor = bismer

bysmr- = bismr-

bysn == bysen

byst = bist pres. 2 sg. of bēon.

bȳsting f. beestings, WW 1292. [bēost]

byt I. = bit pres. 3 sg. of biddan.

II. = bytt

bȳt pres. 3 sg. of (1) bēodan, (2) bēatan.

bȳtel, bȳtl = bīetl

byter = biter

bytla † = bylda

bytlan, ±bytlian to build, erect, Æ, CP. [botl]

+bytle n. building, dwelling, Æ.

±bytlung f. building, Æ.

bytme f? keel: head of a dale.

bytming f. hulk, keel of ship, Æ.

bytne = bytme

bȳtst pres. 2 sg. of bēatan and bēodan.

bytt I. f. bottle, flagon, Mt, WW; Æ: cask [‘bit’]

II. small piece of land, KC 3·8511.

III. pres. 3 sg. of biddan.

bytte = bytt I.

byttehlid n. butt-lid, WW 21323.

byttfylling f. filling of casks, LL 178, 8, 1.

byð = bið pres. 3 sg. of bēon.

bȳð pres. 3 sg. of būan.

byðme = bytme

bȳwan (ēo, ī) to rub, brighten, furbish up, adorn.

byxen made of boxwood, WW. [box]


cæb- = cæf-

cǣc- = cēac-

cæderbēam = cederbēam

cæf == ceaf

cæfertūn = cafortūn

cæfester (cæb-) n. halter, Gl. [L. capistrum]

-cæfian v. be-, ofer-, ymb-c.

cæfing f. hair-ornament, Gl.

cæfl m. halter, muzzle, WW.

cǣg f., cǣga m. ‘key’ (lit. and fig.), Ex, LL, Rd: solution, explanation, CP.

cǣgbora m. key-bearer, jailor.

cǣghiorde m. keeper of the keys, steward, WW.

cǣgloca m. locked depository, LL 362, 76, 1.

-cǣglod v. ā-c.

cæh- = ceah-

cæl- = cel-, ceal-, ciel-

cælð pres. 3 sg. of calan.

cæm- = cem-

cæn- = cen-, cyn-

cǣpehūs = cīepehūs

cæppe f. ‘cap,’ WW: cope, hood. [Lat. cappa]


cæpse f. box, NC 276. [L. capsa]

cær- = car-, cear-, cer-, cier-

cærse (e) f. ‘cress,’ water-cress, Lcd; Mdf.

cærsiht full of cress, KC 3·12118.

cærte = carte

cǣs = cēas pret. 3 sg. of cēosan.

cǣse = cīse

cæstel = castel

cæster (NG) == ceaster

cāf quick, active, prompt, Æ: bold, brave. adv. cāfe.

cāflic bold. adv. -līce promptly: boldly, Æ.

caflwyrt = cawlwyrt

See separate entries for cawl II. and wyrt.

cāfnes f. energy, ÆH 2·2824.

cafortūn (æ, ea1, e2) m. vestibule, court, court-yard, Æ: hall, residence, Æ.

cāfscipe m. alacrity, boldness.

+cafstrian to bridle, curb, CP. [cæfester]

cahhetan = ceahhetan

cāl = cawl

cāl- = cawel-

Printed on one line:
cāl == cawl, cawel

calan6 to grow cool or cold.

calc I. m. shoe, sandal. [L. calceus]

II. = cealc

calcatrippe = coltetræppe

calcrond shod (of horses), GnE 143.

cald (A) == ceald

cālend m. the beginning of a month, AO: month, Men: (†) span of life. [‘calends’]

cālendcwide m. tale of days, Sol 479.

calf == cealf

calfur (VPs) nap. of cealf.

calic m. ‘chalice,’ Lcd, Lk, Mt, VPs. [L. calicem]

-calla (ZDA 10·345) v. hilde-c.

calu (cal(e)w- in obl. cases) ‘callow,’ bare, bald, Rd. [Ger. kahl]

calwer = cealer

calwer-clīm, -clympe curds? WW.

cāma m. muzzle, collar, bit, PPs 3111.

camb (o) m. ‘comb,’ crest, Ep, WW: honey-comb, LPs.

cambiht combed, crested, WW.

cambol = cumbol

camel m. ‘camel,’ Mt, Mk.

cammoc (u2) nm? ‘cammock,’ rest-harrow, Lcd, WW.

±camp (o) I. m. combat, battle, struggle, warfare, B, Rd. [‘camp’]

II. field, plain? EC 1832. [L. campus]

campdōm m. military service, warfare, Æ.

campealdor m. commander, OEG 4433.

campgefēra m. fellow-soldier, Gl.

camphād m. warfare, BH.

±campian (o) to strive, fight, Gu; Æ. [‘camp’]

camplic military, Æ.

camprǣden f. war, warfare, An 4.

campstede † m. battle-field.

campung f. fighting, warfare.

campwǣpen (o1) n. weapon, Rd 219.

campweorod (e2, ea2, e3) n. army, host.

campwīg † (comp-) n. battle, combat.

campwīsa m. director of public games, HGl 405.

campwudu m. shield? El 51.

can pres. 1 and 3 sg. of cunnan.

cān m. germ, sprout? PPs 7910. [OS. cīnan]


±canc n. jeering, scorn, derision, Gl.

canceler m. chancellor, Chr 1093. [Low L. canceliarium]

cancer m. cancer, Æ. [L.]

cancerādl f. cancer, Lcd 41a.

cancerwund f. cancerous wound.

canc-etan, -ettan to cry out, mock, deride.

cancetung f. boisterous laughter, WW 38236.

cancor = cancer

candel fn. lamp, lantern, ‘candle,’ WW; Æ. [L. candela]

candelbora m. acolyte.

candelbryd (?= bred; BT) flat candlestick, IM 120.

candellēoht n. ‘candle-light,’ RB.

candelmæsse f. ‘candlemas,’ the feast of the Purification, Chr.

candelmæsseæfen n. Candlemas eve.

candelmæssedæg m. Candlemas day, NC 276.

candelsnȳtels m. candle-snuffers, WW 12628.

candelstæf m. candlestick, Mt. [‘candlestaff’]

candelsticca m. ‘candlestick,’ EC 250´.

candeltrēow n. candelabrum, MtR 515.

candeltwist m. pair of snuffers, Gl.

candelweoce f. ‘candle-wick,’ torch, WW.

candelwyrt f. candlewort, WW 1379.

candol = candel

cann I. f. cognizance, averment, asseveration, clearance, LL.

II. (±) pres. 3 sg. of cunnan.

canne f. ‘can,’ cup, WW.

canon m. canon, rule. canones bēc canonical books. [L. canon]

canonic I. m. canon.

II. canonical, Æ.

canoniclic canonical.

cans = canst pres. 2 sg. of cunnan.

cantel m? n? buttress, support, A 8·32410.

cantelcāp m. cope, Chr 1070e.

cantercæppe f. cope (vestment).

cantere m. singer, CM 904.

canterstæf m. chanter’s staff, EC 250.

cantic (Æ), canticsang m. canticle, song. [L.]

-cāp v. cantel-c.

capellan m. chaplain, EC, Chr (late). [L.]

capian to look. ūp c. to look up, lie on its back (of the moon), Lcd 3·26623. capiende ‘supinus,’ GPH 393a.

capitel = capitol

capitelhūs n. chapter-house, IM 1224.

capit-ol, -ul, -ula m. chapter (cathedral or monastic): chapter (division of a book), lesson, LL: anthem. [v. ‘chapitle’]

capitolmæsse f. early mass, first mass.

+capitulod divided into chapters, LL (2042).

cappa = cæppe

capun m. ‘capon,’ WW. [L. capōnem]

carbunculus m. carbuncle, CP. [L.]

carc-ern (AO, CP), -ærn n. prison, jail. [L. carcer]

carcernðystru f. prison darkness, LL.

carcernweard m. jailor, MH 2415,19.

cārclife = gārclife

care- = car-

carful (ea) anxious, sad, Gu, Soul: ‘careful,’ attentive, painstaking, Ps, WW: troublesome. adv. -līce, LL.


carfulnes f. care, anxiety: ‘carefulness,’ Lcd.

cargealdor n. sorrowful song, Jul 618.

cargēst m. sad spirit, devil, Gu 365.

carian to care for, be anxious.

caricum dp. of sb. with dried figs, ÆL 23b661. [L. carica]

carig (ea, e) † sorrowful, anxious, Cr, Soul: grievous, DD. [‘chary’]

carl m. man. [ON. karl]

carlēascareless,’ free from care, RB.

carlēasnes, carlēast f. freedom from care, security, WW. [‘carelessness’]

carlfugol (ea1, e3) m. male bird, cock.

carlīce (ea) wretchedly.

carlmann m. male, man, Chr.

carr m. stone, rock, NG. [Celtic]

carseld (ea) n. home of care, Seaf 5.

carsīð (ea) painful journey, B 2396.

carsorg f. sad anxiety, Gen 1114.

carte (æ) f. paper for writing on, Æ: document, deed. [L. charta]

caru (ea) f. ‘care,’ concern, anxiety, sorrow, B, Lk; AO.

carwylm2, e2) † m. welling sorrow.

casebill n. club, GPH 394 (v. A 31·66).

cāserdom m. imperial sway.

Cāsere (Cāser, JnL) m. Cæsar, emperor, Bo; Æ, AO. [‘Kaser’]

cāsering f. coin with Cæsar’s head on it, drachma, didrachma, NG.

cāserlic imperial, WW 42740.

cāsern f. empress, AO 26614.

cassuc m. hassock, sedge, Lcd.

cassuclēaf np. hassock or sedge leaves, Lcd 170a.

castel I. m. ‘castle,’ fort, Chr.

II. n. town, village, Mt, Mk, Lk.

castelmann m. townsman, Chr.

castelweall m. city wall, rampart.

castelweorc n. castle-building, Chr 1137.

castenere m. cabinet, chest, TC 5317.

casul m. over-garment, ‘birrus,’ cloak, WW. [‘chasuble’]

cāsus m. (grammatical) case, ÆGr.

catt m., catte f. ‘cat,’ Gl; Mdf.

caul [S 6n1] = cawl I. and II.

cawellēaf n. cabbage-leaf, Lcd.

cawelsǣd n. cabbage-seed, Lcd.

cawelstela m. cabbage-stalk, Lcd.

cawelstoc (cāl-) m. cabbage-stalk, Lcd 1·3788.

cawelwurm m. caterpillar, WW 12129.

cawl I. (e, ea, eo) m. basket, AO. [‘cawl’]

II. m. ‘cole’ (‘caul,’ ‘cawel’), kale, cabbage, Lcd.

cēac sm. basin, pitcher, jug, Æ, CP: kettle, cauldron, LL 24; 104; 116.

cēacādl (ēo) f. jaw-ache, Lcd 109a, 113a.

cēacbān n. ‘cheek-bone,’ jaw, WW.

cēacbora m. yoke for buckets, Gl.

ceace f. cake? (BT) WW 50510?

cēace (ē, ei, ēo) f. ‘cheek,’ jaw, jawbone, Lcd, WW.

ceacga m. broom, furze, BC, KC.

ceacl = ceafl


ceaf (e) n. nap. ceafu ‘chaff,’ Mt, Lk, WW; Æ, CP.

ceaf- = caf-, ceaf-, cief-

ceaffinc m. chaffinch, ANS 76·206.

ceafl m. jaw, cheek, jaw-bone, cheek-bone, Æ, Whale. [‘jowl’]

ceaflādl (cealf-) f. disease of the jaws, Lcd 90b.

ceafor (e) m. cock-chafer,’ beetle, Ps, WW; Æ.

ceahhe f. daw, KC 3·4826.

ceahhetan to laugh loudly.

ceahhetung f. laughter, jesting, Æ.

cealc (a) m. ‘chalk,’ lime, plaster, AO; Mdf: chalkstone, pebble, Ep, WW.

+cealcian (æ) to whiten, MtL 2327.

cealcstān m. limestone, chalk.

ceald I. adj. ‘cold’ (‘cheald’), cool, Mt, Jn; AO, CP. adv. cealde.

II. n. coldness, cold.

cealdheort cruel, An 138 (cald-).

cealdian to become cold, Rim. [‘cold’]

cealdnes f. coldness, cold, Æ.

cealer m. pressed curds, jelly of curds or whey. [L. galmaria]

cealerbrīw m. pottage of curds, Lcd.

cealf I. (æ, e) nm. (nap. cealfru) ‘calf,’ Æ.

II. = ceafl

+cealf (e) great with calf.

cealfādl = ceaflādl

cealfian to calve, Æ.

cealfloca m. calf-pen.

cealfre = cealre, cealer

cealfwyrt (a) ‘eruca,’ WW 13617.

ceallian tocall,’ shout, Ma 91. [ON. kalla]

cealre = cealer and das. of cealer.

cealwa = calwa

cēap (ē, ȳ) m. cattle, CP: purchase, sale, traffic, bargain, gain, B; CP: price, LL. dēop c. high price. būtan cēape gratis: goods, possessions, property, Chr; AO: market, Æ. [‘cheap’]

cēapcniht m. bought servant, slave, Gl.

cēapdæg m. market-day, WW.

cēapēadig? rich, wealthy, Gn 108.

cēapealeðel n. alehouse (v. BT).

cēapgyld n. purchase money, market price: compensation, v. LL 2·338.

cēapian to bargain, trade, Mt: buy, Jn, Cr; AO: endeavour to bribe, Da 739. [‘cheap’; Ger. kaufen]

cēapman m. ‘chapman,’ trader, BH, LL.

cēapsceamul m. seat of custom or toll, treasury, G.

cēapscip n. trading vessel, AO 1164.

cēapsetl (e1) n. toll-booth, G.

cēapstōw f. market-place, market, CP.

cēapstrǣt (ē, ȳ) f. market-place.

cēapung f. traffic, trade, LL. [‘cheaping’]

cēapunggemōt n. market, WW 4501.

cear == car

cearcetung f. gnashing, grinding, W 20018.

cearcian to creak, gnash, Æ. [‘chark’]

cearde = cierde pret. 3 sg. of cierran.

+cearfan to cut off, kill, NG.


cearm = cirm

cear-rige, -ruce a vehicle? Gl.

ceart wild common land, KC.

cearwund badly wounded? LL 6[63].

cēas I. = cēast

II. pret. 3 sg. of cēosan.

-cēasega v. wæl-c.

cēaslunger contentious, v. NC 276.

cēast (ǣ, ē) f. strife, quarrelling, contention, WW: reproof.

ceastel = castel

ceaster (æ, e) f. castle, fort, town, CP: †heaven, hell.

ceasteræsc m. black hellebore, Lcd.

ceasterbūend m. citizen, B 768.

ceastergewar- = ceasterwar-

ceasterherpað high road? (BT), KC 5·2171.

ceasterhlid n. city gate, Cr 314.

ceasterhof n. house in a city, An 1239.

ceaster-lēod f. np. -lēode citizens, NC 276.

ceasternisc (æ) urban, municipal, TC 24413.

ceaster-sǣtan, -sǣte mp. citizens, TC.

±ceaster-waran mp., -ware, -waru f. burghers, citizens.

ceasterweall (e1) m. city wall.

ceasterwīc f. village, Bl 6935.

ceasterwyrt f. black hellebore, Lcd.

cēastful contentious.

cēaw pret. 3 sg. of cēowan.

ceawl (MtL) = cawl I.

cēce (VPs) = cēace

cēcel (coecil) cake, Gl.

cēde (VPs) = cīegde pret. 3 sg. of cīegan.

cedelc f. the herb mercury.

ceder nmf. cedar. [L. cedrus]

ceder-bēam mn., -trēow (ȳ) n. cedar-tree.

cedor- = ceder-

cēdrisc of cedar, DR.

cef (Æ) = ceaf

cef- = cæf-, ceaf-, cif-

cēgan (VHy), cēgian = cīegan

cehhettung = ceahhetung

ceīce (MtLR) = cēace

ceig- (N) = cīg-

ceir cry, clamour, DR.

cel = cawl

cēlan (ǣ) to cool, become cold, be cold, MH, VPs (oe): (+) quench (thirst), refresh. [‘keel’]

celc I. (M) m. chalice, cup. [= calic]

II. = cealc

celde † f. copious spring? [cp. Ger. quelle]

celdre = ceoldre

cele = (1) ceole; (2) ciele

celen-dre f., -der n. ‘coliander,’ coriander, Lcd.

cele-ðonie, -ðenie, cileðonie f. celandine, swallow-wort, Lcd.

celf (A) = cealf

celic = calic

cēling f. cooling, Æ: cool place, Æ.

celispeditis,’ foot-covering, A 37·45.

celiwearte = cielewearte

cell m. (monastic) cell, Chr 1129.

cellender n., cellendre f. = celendre

cellod (ē?) † part. round? hollow? embossed? beaked? Fin 29; Ma 283.

celmertmonn m. hireling, NG (v. ES 42·172).

±cēlnes f. coolness, cool air, breeze, CP. [cōl]


celod v. cellod.

celras = ceallras, nap. of cealer.

±cemban (æ) to comb, Æ. [‘kemb’]

cemes f. shirt. [L. camisia]

cempa (æ) m. warrior, champion, Gl, Ma; Æ, AO, CP. [camp] [‘kemp’]

cempestre f. female warrior, OEG.

cēn † m. pine-torch, pine: name of the rune for c. [Ger. kien]

cendlic = cynlic

cēne bold, brave, fierce, CP, Lcd, Ma; Æ, AO: powerful, VPs: learned, clever, Met 1051. [‘keen’; Ger. kühn] also adv.

cenep m. moustache: bit (of a bridle). [ON. kanpr]

cenlic = cynlic

cēnlīce boldly, Æ. [‘keenly’]

±cennan to conceive, bring forth: beget, create, produce, Mt, VPs; CP: nominate, choose out, Æ: assign, attribute, give: declare, show oneself, clear oneself, make a declaration in court (v. LL 2·32; 279 ‘cennan,’ ‘Anefang’), B, LL, Ps. [‘ken’]

cennend m. parent, Bl.

cennendlic genital.

cennes f. produce, what is produced, EHy 622: childbirth: birthday.

cennestre f. mother, Æ.

cenning f. procreation, CP: parturition, birth, Æ: declaration in court (v. cennan).

cenningstān (y1) m. testing-stone.

cenningstow f. birthplace, Æ.

cenningtīd f. time of bringing forth, Æ.

cennystre = cennestre

Cent, Centescīr f. Kent. [L. Cantia]

centaur m. centaur.

centaurie f. centaury (plant).

Centingas mp. inhabitants of Kent, Kentish men. Chr.

Centisc Kentish.

Cent-land, -lond (AO) n. Kent.

Centrīce n. kingdom of Kent.

Centware mp. inhabitants of Kent, Chr.

cēnðu f. boldness, B 2696.

cēo f. chough, jay, jackdaw, Æ.

cēoce (WW) = cēace

-cēocian v. ā-c.

ceod? ceode? bag, pouch, CP, LL.

ceodor- = ceder-

ceofl, ceol (NG) = cawl I.

cēol m. ship.

ceolas mp. cold winds, cold, Az 103. [ciele?]

ceolbor- = cilfor-

ceoldre = cealre

ceole (e) f. throat: gorge, chasm: beak of ship, Gl. [Ger. kehle]

ceolor m. throat.

cēol-ðel n., -ðelu? f. deck of a ship, Hu 8.

ceolwærc m. pain in the throat, Lcd 113a.

ceorcing f. complaining, GPH 398.

±ceorfan3 to cut, cut down, slay, Mk, Æ; LkL: carve, cut out, engrave: tear.

ceorfæx f. axe, AO 16015.

ceorfingīsen n. branding iron, Sc.

ceorfsæx n. surgeon’s knife, scalpel, Æ.

±ceorian to murmur, complain, Æ, AO.

ceorig querulous, complaining, OEG.


ceorl m. ‘churl,’ layman, peasant, husbandman, CP: freeman of the lowest class, LL; AO, CP: man: husband, Jn, WW; CP: hero, noble man.

ceorlǣs (= ceorllēas) unmarried (of women), LL 360, 73b.

ceorlboren low-born, not noble, LL.

ceorlfolc n. common people, Æ.

±ceorlian to marry (of the woman), LL, Mt; Æ. [‘churl’]

ceorlic = ceorllic

ceorlisc (ie) of a ‘ceorl,’ ‘churlish,’ common, rustic, LL, WW. adv. -lisce.

ceorliscnes f. rudeness, vulgarity.

ceorllic common, belonging to the people generally. adv. -līce commonly, vulgarly.

ceorlman m. freeman, LL 73; 463.

ceorlstrang strong as a man, WW 10818.

ceorm = cirm

ceorran I. (sv3) to creak, Lcd 160a.

II. (+) = cierran

ceorung f. murmuring, Æ.

±cēosan2 tochoose,’ (‘i-cheose’), seek out, select, AO; Æ: decide, test: accept, approve, B, Gen.

ceosel (i, y) m. gravel, sand, shingle, Ep, Mt; Æ. [‘chesil’]

ceoselbǣre gravelly, shingly.

ceoselstān m. sand-stone, gravel, WW.

ceoslen (OEG 7161), ceoslig (440) gravelly.

ceosol I. m? n? gullet, maw.

II. = ceosel

±cēowan2 tochew,’ gnaw, Æ, Soul: eat, consume, Æ.

ceowl (NG) = cawl

cēowung (ī, ȳ) f. ‘chewing,’ WW (ī).

cēp = cēap

cēp- = cēap-, cȳp-

Printed on one line:
cēp; cēp- = cēap; cēap-, cȳp-

cēpan I. tokeep,’ guard, observe, attend, look out for, take heed, Æ, Lcd, Ps: take, Æ: avail oneself of, betake oneself to, take to, bear: seek after, desire, Æ: meditate: regulate by: seize, Æ.

II. = cȳpan

cēpnian to await eagerly, NC 276.

cer = cierr

ceren I. (æ, y) n? new wine, sweet wine. [L. carenum]

II. = cyrn

cer-felle, -fille f. ‘chervil,’ Lcd, WW. [L. cerefolium]

cerge = carig

cerlic = cirlic

cerm = cirm

cerr == cierr

cers- = cærs-

cert- = ceart-, cyrt-

certare charioteer, ÆL 18295.

ceruphīn cherubim, El 750.

ces- = ceos-

cēs- = cīs-, cȳs-

cēs = cēas pret. 3 sg. of cēosan.

Cēsar (AO) = Cāsere

cester == ceaster

cestian = cystian

cēte = cȳte

cetel, cetil = citel

cēðan = cȳðan

cewl (NG) = cawl

chor, chora m. dance, choir (singers), CP: church-choir (place). [L. chorus]

chorglēo n. dance, LPs.

cīan sbpl. gills, Gl. [Ger. kieme]

cicel = cycel

cicen (y) n. ‘chicken,’ Mt, WW.


cicene (Æ) = cycene

cicropisc cyclopean? WW 21713.

+cīd n. altercation, CP, DR, GD.

±cīdan (w. d. or wið) contend, quarrel, Æ, WW: complain: ‘chide,’ blame, Mk; Æ, CP.

cīdde I. pret. 3 sg. of cīdan.

II. = cȳðde pret. 3 sg. of cȳðan.

cīdung (ȳ) f. chiding, rebuke, AO.

ciefes = cifes

±cīegan (ē, ī, ȳ) (tr.) to call, name, Æ (i): call upon, invoke, summon, convene, CP: (intr.) call out.

cield (o) f. cold. [ceald]

ciele (e, i, y) m. coolness, cold, ‘chill,’ frost, Bl; AO, CP. [ceald]

cielegicel † (y1) m. icicle.

cielewearte (e1, y1) f. goose-skin, WW.

cielewyrt (y) f. sorrel.

cielf = cealf

cielle (i, y) f. fire-pan, lamp. [OHG. kella]

cīepa (e, i, y) m. merchant, trader, Æ.

cīepe = cīpe

cīepehūs1) n. storehouse, WW 18611.

cīepemann (CP), cīepmann (LL) m. merchant.

cīepeðing (ē, ȳ) np. goods, merchandise.

cīeplic (ȳ) for sale, vendible, Sc 9817.

cīepung (ē, ī, ȳ) f. marketing, trading, CP: market-place, market: merchandise: market dues.

cierice = cirice

cierlisc = ceorlisc

cierm = cirm

cierr (e, i, y) m. turn, change, time, occasion, Æ, CP, Lk, Lcd: affair, business. æt sumum cierrc at some time, once. [‘chare’]

±cierran (eo, i, y) (tr. and intr.) turn, change, Ps, Sat: (intr.) turn oneself, go, proceed, turn back, return, Mt; Æ: convert, be converted, CP: submit, Chr, W: make to submit, reduce. [‘chare,’ ‘i-cherre’]

+cierrednes (y) conversion, Æ: entrance, admission, RB.

±cierring (e, y) f. conversion, NC 341.

cīese = cīse

cīest, cīesð pres. 3 sg. of cēosan.

cifes (ie, e, y) f. concubine, harlot, AO. [Ger. kebse]

cifesboren adj. bastard, OEG 5042.

cifesdōm m. fornication, OEG 5042.

cifesgemāna m. fornication.

cifeshād m. fornication, WW.

cīgan = cīegan

+cīgednes f. calling.

+cīgendlic calling, vocative, ÆGr 232.

cīgere (ei) one who calls, DR 1941.

+cīgnes f. calling, invocation, entreaty: name, A 10·14379.

±cīgung f. calling, invocation, NC 292.

cild (y) (nap. cild, cild-ra, -ru; gp. -ra) n. ‘child,’ infant, Mt, Lcd, etc.; Æ, AO, CP: a youth of gentle birth, KC.

cildamæssedæg m. Childermas, Innocents’ Day (Dec. 28).

cildatrog = cildtrog


cildclāðas mp. swaddling-clothes.

cildcradol m. cradle, Æ.

cildfēdende nursing, MtR 2419.

cild-fōstre, -fēstre f. nurse, LL. [v. ‘foster’]

cildgeogoð f. childhood, ÆL 30320.

cildgeong youthful, infant.

cildhād m. ‘childhood,’ MkL.

cildhama m. womb, Æ: after-birth.

cildiscchildish,’ Gen.

cildiugoð = cildgeogoð

cildlic childish, young, BH; Æ. [‘childly’]

cildru v. cild.

cildsung f. childishness, LL.

cildtrog (cilt-, cilda-) m. cradle, Gl.

cile (AO) = ciele

cilforlamb n. ewe-lamb, Æ, WW.

cilian to be cold. [ciele]

cilic m. sack-cloth of hair, NG. [L. cilicium]

cille = cyll

cim- = cym-

cimbal, cimbala m. ‘cymbal,’ Lcd, VPs. [L. cymbalum]

cimbalglīwere m. cymbal-player.

cimbing f. commissure, joining, WW 155; 20612.

cimbīren n. edge-iron? (joining-iron, clamp? BT), LL 455[15].

cimbstān m. base, pedestal, Sc 2262. [v. ‘chimb’]

cin = (1) cinn; (2) cynn n.

cin- = cyn

cīnan1 to gape, yawn, crack.

cinbān n. chin-bone, jaw-bone, Æ.

cinberg f. defence of the chin or cheek, cheek-guard, Ex 175. [beorg]

cincung f. boisterous laughter, WW 17139.

cind = cynd

cine I. f. sheet of parchment, folded, ‘diploma,’ Æ.

II. f. chink, fissure, cavern.

cine- = cyn(e)-

cineht (io) chinky, cracked, WW 4337.

cing, cining = cyning

cinn I. n. ‘chin,’ WW.

II. = cynn n.

cinnan to gape, yawn? Rim 52.

cintōð m. front tooth, grinder, Gl.

cinu f. chink, fissure, Æ, Bo, WW. [‘chine’]

cio- = ceo-

cīo == cēo

cip = cipp

cīp- = cēap-, cīep-, cȳp-

cīpe (īe) f. onion. [L. cepa]

cīpelēac n. leek, WW 38029.

cipersealf f. henna-ointment, WW 20511. [L. cypros]

cipp (y) m. log, trunk: coulter, ploughshare: weaver’s beam, A 9·263.

cir = cierr

circ- = ciric-

circian to roar, Lcd 1·39011 (v. A 31·56).

circolwyrde m. computer, mathematician, A 8·306.

circul m. circle: cycle, zodiac. [L. circulum]

circulādl f. the shingles, Lcd.

cirebald (An 171) = cynebeald?

ciricǣw nf. marriage to the church (as when one takes orders), LL.

ciricbelle f. ‘church-bell,’ Lcd.

ciricbōc f. ‘church-book,’ manual of the church services, W.


ciricbōt f. repair of churches.

ciric-brǣc f., -bryce m. sacrilege, Æ.

ciric-dor n., -duru church-door, LL.

cirice (ie, y) f. ‘church,’ religious community, Æ, BH, Mt; CP: church (building), temple, AO; CP, Mdf: congregation (non-Christian), Ps.

ciricend m. an ecclesiastic.

ciricfrið mn. right of sanctuary: penalty for breach of the right, v. LL 2·537.

ciricfultum m. support from the church.

ciricgang (y) m. going to church, LL 473[7]: churching, purification (of the B.V.M.), CM 484.

ciricgemāna (y) m. church-membership, W 10323.

ciricgeorn zealous in church-going.

ciricgeriht n. church-due.

ciricgrið (y) n. church-peace, right of sanctuary, LL: penalty for breach of the right, LL 263[3]; v. 2·537. [‘church-grith’]

cirichād m. an order of the church, LL.

cirichālgung f. consecration of a church.

cirichata m. church-tormentor, persecutor, W.

ciricland (y) n. land of the church, GD.

ciriclic ecclesiastical, BH, Chr. [‘churchly’]

ciricmǣrsung (y) f. dedication of a church, W 27710.

ciricmangung f. simony, LL.

ciricmitta m. church measure (of ale), TC 14433.

ciricnēod f. requirements of the church.

ciricnytt f. church service, Cra 91.

ciricragu f. church-lichen or moss, Lcd 51b.

ciricrēn (y1) n. sacrilege, LL 254k. [rān]

ciricsang m. hymn: church-singing.

ciricsangere m. church-singer, BH 46617.

ciricsceat m. ‘church-scot,’ church-due at Martinmas, BH, W.

ciricsceatweorc n. work connected with the grain given as church-scot, KC.

ciricsōcn (y1) f. church-privilege, sanctuary, LL: territory of a church: attendance at church.

cirictīd f. service-time, LL.

cirictūn m. churchyard, LL.

ciricðēn m. minister of a church, LL.

ciricðēnung f. church-duty or service.

ciricðing n. object belonging to a church, LL 381[27].

ciricðingere m. priest, WW 15529 (yrc).

ciricwæcce f. vigil, LL.

ciricwǣd f. vestment, LL 258[51].

ciricwāg m. wall of a church, LL.

ciricwaru f. congregation, LL 400´; 2·539.

ciricweard (e2, y2) m. churchwarden, sexton, Æ.

cirisbēam m. cherry-tree, Gl. [L. cerasum]

cirlic I. (e, y) charlock.

II. = ciriclic

cirlisc = ceorlisc

cirm (e, ea, eo, ie, y) m. cry, shout, outcry, uproar, MtR, WW. [‘chirm’]

cirman (e, y) to cry, cry out, call, shriek, Gu, Jud. [‘chirm’]

cirnel (Gl) = cyrnel


cirps (y) curly. [‘crisp’]

±cirpsian to crisp, curl.

cirr == cierr

cīs fastidious. [cēosan]

cīse (ǣ, ē, ȳ) m. ‘cheese,’ WW. [For compounds, v. also cȳs-]

cisel, cisil == ceosel

ciseræppel m. dried fig, WW 3672. [= ciris-?, cherry (BT)]

ciser-bēam, cisir- = cirisbēam

cīsnes f. fastidiousness.

cist (e, y) I. f. ‘chest,’ casket, Gl, JnR: coffin, BH, Lk: rush basket, WW: horn (as receptacle?), WW.

II. = cyst I.

cīst pres. 3 sg. of cēosan.

ciste = cist I.

cistenbēam m. chestnut-tree, Gl. [L. castanea]

cīstmēlum earnestly, OEG 432. [cēast]

citel m. ‘kettle,’ cauldron, Ep (e), Lcd (y).

citelhrum (e1) m. kettle-soot.

citelian v. to tickle.

citelung f. tickling, WW 2786. [‘kittling’]

citere, citre (y) f. cithara, CJVPs.

cīð m. seed, germ, shoot, Æ: mote, CP. [‘chithe’]

cīðfæst well-rooted, ÆH 30426.

cīwung = cēowung

clā = clēa, clawu

clābre (Gl) = clǣfre

clac- = clæc-, cleac-

clacu f. injury, W 8610.

+clāded (MkL 515) pp. of +clāðian.

cladersticca m. rattle-stick, Gl.

clæclēas harmless.

clædur (ea) rattle, Gl. [clader]

clǣferwyrt f. clover, Lcd.

clǣfre f. ‘clovertrefoil, Lcd, WW; Mdf.

clǣg m. ‘clay,’ WW.

clǣigclayey,’ Ct.

±clǣman to smear, caulk, plaster, anoint, Æ, Lcd. [‘cleam’]

clǣming f. blotting, smearing, ÆGr 2564.

clæmman (= clem-) to press, GD.

clæmnes f. torture, BH 2902.

clǣne (ā, ē) I.clean,’ CP, Lk, Æ: pure, chaste, innocent, Æ, Bl: clear, open, El, Lcd, Ps. on clǣnum felda in the open field (of battle), CP 22725: honourable, true: acute, sagacious, intellectual.

II. adv. clean, clearly, fully, purely, entirely, Æ, Ct; AO, CP.

clǣngeorn yearning after purity, celibate.

clǣnheort pure in heart, Æ.

clǣnlic (‘cleanly’), pure, Bo, Met: excellent. adv. -līce = clǣne

clǣnnes f. (moral) ‘cleanness,’ purity, chastity, BH; Æ, CP.

clǣnsere (e) m. priest, CP 13915; W 726.

±clǣnsian (sn-) tocleanse,’ purify, chasten, CP: clear out, purge, Lcd: (w a. and g.) justify, clear oneself.

clǣnsnian = clǣnsian

clǣnsung f. ‘cleansing,’ purifying, chastening, castigation, expiation, Mk; Æ: purity, chastity.


clǣnsungdæg m. day for purging, Lcd 1·3308.

clǣnsungdrenc (sn) m. purgative, MH 7227.

clæppettan to palpitate.

clæppetung f. clapping; pulsation, pulse, Æ.

clæppian (a1) to clap, beat, throb.

clǣsn- = clǣns-

clǣð == clāð

clæweða = cleweða

clāf pret. 3 sg. of clīfan.

clāfre (Gl) = clǣfre

clām I. m. paste, mortar, mud, clay, Æ, Lcd: poultice. [‘cloam’]

II. = clēam dp. of clēa.

clamb pret. 3 sg. of climban.

clamm m. band, bond, fetter, chain, An, Bl, Rd: grip, grasp. [v. ‘clam’]

clān- = clǣn-

clang pret. 3 sg. of clingan.

clappian = clæppian

clāsnian (VPs) = clǣnsian

clātacrop = clāte

clāte f. bur, burdock, clivers, Gl, Lcd. [‘clote’; Ger. klette]

clatrung i. clattering, noise.

clāð m. ‘cloth,’ ‘clothes,’ covering, sail, BH, Chr, Jn, Lcd; AO, CP. under Crīstes clāðum in baptismal garments, Chr 688e.

+clāðian (clǣðan) toclothe,’ NG.

clāðwēoce f. wick of cloth, GPH 391.

clauster = clūstor

clāwan7 to claw, Æ.

clāwian to scratch, ‘claw,’ ÆGr 17011n.

clawu f. nap. clawe ‘claw,’ Æ, Gl, Ph: hoof, Æ: hook, Æ: (pl.) pincers?

clāwung f. griping pain, Lcd.

clea- = clæ-, cleo-

clēa = clawu

cleac f. stepping-stone, KC 4·36. [Celtic]

cleacian to hurry, Æ.

clēaf pret. 3 sg. of clēofan.

clēm- = clǣm-

clēn- = clǣn-

-clencan v. be-c.

clengan to adhere, Rd 298. [‘clenge’]

cleo- = cli-

clēo- = clīe-, clū-

clēo = clēa, clawu

cleofa (ea, i, y) m. cave, den: cell, chamber, cellar, Æ, BH. [‘cleve’]

clēofan2 tocleave,’ split, separate, A, Br, Ct, GPH.

cleofian = clifian

cleofu = nap. of clif.

clēofung f. ‘cleaving,’ WW.

clēone = clēowene, ds. of clēowen, clīewen.

cleop- = clip-

clep- = clæp-, cleop-, clip-

clerc == cleric

cler-ic (-ec, -oc; clerus, PPs 6713) m. ‘clerkin holy orders, WW: clerk in minor orders, LL. [L. clericus]

clerichād m. condition of a (secular) clerk, clerical order, priesthood.

cleweða1) m. itch, CP 7119. [clāwan]

clib- = clif-

clibbor clinging, Men 245. [clifian]

+clibs (e; cleps; clæsp, y) clamour, CP.

clid-ren, -rin f. clatter.

cliepian = clipian

clīewen, cliewen? (eo, io, i, y) n. sphere, ball, 62b ball of thread or yarn, skein, Æ, CP, Ph, WW: mass, group. [‘clue’]

clif n. (nap. cleofu, clifu) ‘cliff,’ rock, promontory, An, B, Ct; Æ, CP.

clifa = cleofa

clifæhtig = clifihtig

clīfan1 tocleave,’ adhere, Æ, CP.

clife f. ‘clivers,’ burdock, Lcd, WW.

clifeht = clifiht

clifer m. nap. clifras claw, Æ.

cliferfēte cloven-footed, ÆL 2579.

clif-hlēp, -hlȳp m. a cliff-leap, plunge to ruin? (BT), Gl.

clifian (eo, y) to adhere, Æ, CP.

clifig, clif-iht, -ihtig steep, Gl.

clifr- v. clifer.

clifrian to scarify, scratch, Æ.

clifrung f. clawing, talon, GPH 398.

clifstān m. rock, WW 37123.

clifwyrt f. cliff-wort, water-wort, foxglove, WW 1343 and n.

+cliht pp. of +*cliccan, clyccan.

-clīm v. calwer-c.

climban3 (y) toclimb,’ Sol.

climpre = clympre

clincig rough.

clingan3 to stick together, An: shrink, wither, pine, Æ. [‘cling’]

clipian (e, eo, y) (tr. and intr.) to speak, cry out, call, Mt, Jn, Ps; CP: (±) summon, invoke, Æ; (w. d.) cry to, implore. [‘clepe’]

clipigendlic (y) vocalic, ÆGr 5: vocative (gram.), ÆGr 23.

clipol sounding, vocal: vocalic.

clipung (e, eo, y) f. cry, crying, clamour, MtR: (±) prayer, Ps: call, claim, Chr, 1129. ðā clypunga kalends. [‘cleping’]

clipur m. bell-clapper.

cliroc = cleric

+clistre = +clystre

clite f. coltsfoot, Lcd 146a.

cliða (eo, y) m. poultice.

-clīðan v. æt-c.

cliðe f. burdock.

cliðwyrt f. ‘rubea minor,’ clivers, Lcd 173b.

clīwe, clīwen = clīewen

cloccettan to palpitate, Lcd.

cloccian to cluck, make a noise, rumble, A 8·309.

clodhamer m. fieldfare, WW 28717. [v. ‘clod,’ and Mdf]

clof- = cluf-

+clofa m. counterpart (of a document), CC 80. [clēofan]

clofe f. buckle, Gl.

clofen pp. of clēofan.

clomm I. m. = clamm

II. pret. 3 sg. of climban.

clop m? rock? v. Mdf.

clott lump, mass, HGl 488. [‘clot’]

clucge f. bell, BH 3406.

clūd m. mass of stone, rock, Æ, AO: hill, ES 38·18. [‘cloud’]

clūdig rocky, hilly, AO. [‘cloudy’]

clufeht (i2) bulbous, Lcd.

clufon pret. pl. of clēofan.


clufðung, clufðunge f. crowfoot: a vegetable poison, v. OEG 896.

clufu f. clove (of garlic, etc.), bulb, tuber. [clēofan]

clufwyrt f. ‘batrachion,’ buttercup, Lcd. [‘clovewort’]

clugge = clucge

clumben pp. of climban.

clumian, clummian to murmur, mumble, mutter.

clungen pp. of clingan.

clūs, clūse f. bar, bolt: enclosure: cell, prison. [L. clausum]

cluster = clyster

clūster = clūstor

clūstor n. lock, bar, barrier: enclosure, cloister, cell, prison. [L. claustrum]

clūstorcleofa m. prison-cell, An 1023.

clūstorloc n. prison, Gl.

clūt m. ‘clout,’ patch, cloth, Ep: piece of metal, plate, Æ.

+clūtodclouted,’ patched, Æ.

±clyccan toclutch,’ clench, IM, Sc.

clyf = clif

clyf- = clif-, cleof-

+clyfte adj. cleft, GPH 393. [clēofan]

clymmian to climb, ascend, Sol 414.

-clympe v. calwer-c.

clympre m. lump of metal.

clyne n. lump of metal.

clynian I. to roll up, enfold, GPH.

II. = clynnan

clynnan (intr.) to resound, ring, El 51: (tr.) knock, NG.

clyp- = clip-

clypnes f. embrace, BH 2383.

clypp m., clypping f. embracing.

±clyppan to embrace, clasp: surround, enclose, VPs: grip, Gen: prize, honour, cherish, Æ, MkLR (io), CP. [‘clip’]

-clȳsan v. be-c. [clūse]

+clysp = +clibs

clyster, +clystre n. ‘cluster,’ bunch, branch, Æ, Cp, WW.

clȳsung f. enclosure, apartment, Æ: closing, period, conclusion of a sentence, clause.

clyða = cliða

clȳwen = clīewen

cnæht (NG) = cniht

cnæpling m. youth, Æ. [cnapa]

cnæpp (e) m. top, summit, Æ, Lk: fibula, button, WW. [‘knap’]

+cnǣwe (w. g.) conscious of, acknowledging, Æ: known, notorious, manifest, Æ.

cnæwð pres. 3 sg. of cnāwan.

cnafa, cnapa m. child, youth, Æ, Sc: servant, Æ, Mt, Ps. [‘knape,’ ‘knave’]

±cnāwan7 (usu. +) to know, perceive, Æ, B, Jul, OEG.

cnāwelǣcing f. acknowledgement, KC 4·19312.

cnāwlǣc2) knowledge, ES 42·176.

+cnāwnes f. acknowledgement, EC 2652.

cnēa gp. of cnēo(w).

cnearr m. small ship, galley (of the ships of the Northmen), †Chr. [ON. knorr]

±cnēatian to argue, dispute.

cnēatung f. inquisition, investigation: dispute, debate.


cnedan5 to knead, Lcd, LkL.

cneht = cniht

cnēo == cnēow

cnēodan = cnōdan

cneoht = cniht

+cneord eager, zealous, diligent.

±cneordlǣcan to be diligent, Æ.

cneordlic diligent, earnest, zealous, Æ. adv. -līce.

±cneordnes f. zeal, diligence, study, Gl.

cnēordnes = +cnēorenes

+cnēor-enes, -ednes f. generation, race.

cnēores = cnēoriss

cnēorift n? napkin (BT). kneehose? (Kluge), Gl.

cnēorisbōc f. Genesis, WW 41429.

cnēorisn (Bl), cneoris(s), cneornis(s) f. generation, posterity, family, tribe, nation, race.

cneorðlǣcan = cneordlǣcan

cnēow I. (ēo) n. ‘knee,’ AO, Bl, El, Mt: step in a pedigree, generation, Æ.

II. pret. 3 sg. of cnāwan.

cnēowbīgung f. kneeling, genuflection.

cnēow-ede, -ade having big knees, WW.

cnēowgebed n. prayer on one’s knees, Æ.

cnēowholen m. ‘knee-holly,’ butcher’s broom, Lcd.

cnēowian (±) to kneel, Æ: know carnally, ÆL 127. [‘knee’]

cnēowlian tokneel,’ LL.

cnēowmǣg m. nap. -mǣgas, -māgas kinsman, relation, ancestor.

cnēowrīm † n. progeny, family.

cnēowsibb f. generation, race (BDS 8·527).

cnēowung f. kneeling, genuflection, CM.

cnēowwærc m. pain in the knees, Lcd.

cnēowwyrst f. knee-joint, WW.

cnepp = cnæpp

cnēw == cnēow

cnīdan1 to beat, MtR 2135.

cnieht = cniht

cnīf m. knife, WW.

cniht (e, eo, ie, y) m. boy, youth, AO, Bl, LL: servant, attendant, retainer, disciple, warrior, Chr, Mt, Met: boyhood, ÆGr. [‘knight’]

cnihtcild (eo1) n. male child, boy.

cnihtgebeorðor n. child-birth, child-bearing, Bl.

cnihtgeong youthful, El 640.

cnihthād m. puberty, ‘youth,’ boyhood, Æ, Bo; AO: (male) virginity. [‘knighthood’]

cnihtiugoð f. youth, A 8·299.

cnihtlēas without an attendant, Æ.

cnihtlic boyish, childish, Guth. [‘knightly’]

cnihtðēawas mp. boyish ways, GD 1119.

cnihtwesendewhen a boy, as a youth.

cnihtwīse f. boyishness.

cnissan = cnyssan

cnītian to dispute, Sc 5112.

cnittan = cnyttan

cnocian = cnucian

±cnōdan (ēo) to attribute to, assign to, load with, CP.

cnoll m. ‘knoll,’ Ps; Mdf: summit, Æ, Bo.

cnopballationes,’ WW 828; 35732.

-cnoppa v. wull-c.

+cnos n. collision, WW 3762. [cnyssan]


cnōsl n. stock, progeny, kin, family: native country.

cnossian to strike, hit upon, Seaf 8.

cnotmǣlumstrictim,’ A 13·35201.

cnotta m. ‘knot,’ fastening, Æ: knotty point, puzzle, Æ.

±cnucian toknock’ (door), Æ, Mt: beat, pound, IM, Lcd (o).

cnūian, cnūwian to pound.

+cnycc n. bond, DR.

±cnyccan pret. 3 sg. cnycte, cnyhte to tie.

+cnycled bent, crooked, WW 45833.

cnyht = cniht

cnyll m. sound or signal of a bell, RB, WW. [‘knell’]

±cnyllan to toll a bell: strike, knock, LkR, MtL. [‘knell’]

cnyllsian (LkL) = cnyllan

cnyrd- = cneord-

±cnyssan to press, toss, strike, hew to pieces, dash, crash (together), beat, Æ, AO, CP: overcome, overwhelm, oppress, CP.

cnyssung f. striking, stroke, ÆGr.

±cnyttan to fasten, tie, bind, ‘knit’ (‘i-knit,’ Mt, WW), Æ, Lcd; CP. [cnotta]

cnyttels m. string, sinew, OEG 2935.

coc = cocc

cōc m. ‘cook,’ Æ, Ps; CP. [L. coquus]

cocc m. cock, male bird, Æ, Lcd, Mt; CP, Mdf.

coccel m. ‘cockle,’ darnel, tares, Mt.

cocer m. quiver, case, sheath: sword, spear.

cocerflā f. ‘framea,’ APs 1613.

cōcerpanne f. cooking-pan, frying-pan.

+cōcnian (cōca-) to season food.

cōcnung f. seasoning, Lcd.

cocor = cocer

cōcormete m. seasoned food, WW 2816.

+cōcsian to cook, roast, RPs 1014.

cōcunung = cōcnung

cocur (Æ) = cocer

codd m. ‘cod,’ husk, Lcd: bag, Mt: scrotum.

coddæppel m. quince, WW 41115.

codic (coydic) ‘lapsana,’ charlock? A 37·47.

coe- = ce-

cōe- (N) = cē-

cofa m. closet, chamber: ark: cave, den. [‘cove’]

cofgodas mp. household gods, Gl.

cofincel n. little chamber, WW.

-cofrian v. ā-c.

cohhetan to make a noise, cough? Jud 270.

col n., nap. colu, cola ‘coal,’ live coal, Æ, CP, Lcd, VPs.

cōl,’ cold, B, Bo, Lcd: tranquil, calm.

II. pret. 3 sg. of calan.

-colc v. ōden-, wīn-c.

cōlcwyld f. ‘frigida pestis,’ ague? WW 24311.

cōlian tocool,’ grow cold, be cold, An, Gu, Lcd.

coliandre f. coriander, Lcd.

cōll = cōl

-colla v. morgen-c.

collecta f. collect, CM, LL.

+collenferhtan to make empty, exhaust.

collen-ferhð, -fyrhð, -ferð † proud, elated, bold. [*cwellan (to swell)?]

colloncrog m. water-lily, nymphæa.

colmāse f. ‘coal-mouse,’ tit-mouse, WW.

cōlnes f. ‘coolness,’ Ps.


colpytt m. (char-)coal pit, Ct.

colsweart coal-black, NC 277.

colt m. ‘colt,’ Æ.

coltetræppe f. a plant, ‘caltrop,’ WW.

coltgræg f? colt’s-foot, WW 13618.

coltræppe = coltetræppe

col-ðrǣd, -ðrēd m. plumb-line, Gl.

columne f. column.

cōm pret. 3 sg. of cuman.

coman (AO 7024) = cuman

comb = camb

combol = cumbol

comēta m. comet, †Chr 975. [L.]

commuc = cammoc

cōmon pret. pl. of cuman.

comp == camp

con = can pres. 1, 3 sg. of cunnan.

condel = candel

conn = cann pres. 1, 3 sg. of cunnan.

consolde f. comfrey. [L.]

const = canst pres. 2 sg. of cunnan.

consul m. consul, AO. [L.]

coorte f. cohort, AO. [L.]

cop = copp

cōp m? ‘ependytes,’ cope, vestment.

+cōp proper, fitting, CP.

copel unsteady, rocking? (BT), BC 3·624.

cōpenere m. lover, CP.

coper, copor n. ‘copper,’ Lcd. [L. cuprum]

copian to plunder, steal, WW 37917.

+cōplic proper, fitting. adv. -līce.

copp I. m. top, summit, HGl. [‘cop’]

II. m. cup, NG. [‘cop’]

-coppe v. ātor-c.

copped polled, lopped, pollard, Ct.

cops (WW) == cosp

+cor n. decision. [cēosan]

corcīð m. increase? choice growth? Lcd 3·2129 (v. A 31·56).

cordewānere m. ‘cordwainer,’ shoemaker, EC. [OFr.]

±coren (pp. of cēosan) chosen, elect, choice, fit, Æ: precious, dear.

corenbēg m. crown, A 9·172. [L. corona]

±corenes f. choice, election: (+) goodness.

+corenlic elegant. adv. -līce, WW.

±corenscipe m. election, excellence.

corfen pp. of ceorfan.

corflian to mince. [ceorfan]

corn n. ‘corn,’ grain, Chr, CP; Æ, AO: seed, berry, CP, Jn, Lcd; Æ: a corn-like pimple, corn.

cornæsceda fp. chaff, WW 1181.

cornappla np. pomegranates, OEG.

corn-bǣre, -berende corn-bearing.

corngebrot n. corn dropped in carrying to barn, LL 451[17].

corngesǣlig rich in corn, Lcd.

corngesceot n. payment in corn, Ct.

cornhūs n. granary, WW 18528.

cornhwicce f. corn-bin, Æ.

cornlād f. leading of corn, LL 453[21,4].

cornsǣd n. a grain of corn, GD 2531.

corntēoðung f. tithe of corn, W.

corntrēow n. cornel-tree, WW.


corntrog m. corn-bin, WW 1071.

cornuc, cornuch = cranoc

cornwurma m. scarlet dye, Gl.

corōna m. crown. [L.]

+corōnian to crown, PPs 513.

corsnǣd f. piece of consecrated bread which an accused person swallowed as a test of innocence, LL.

corðor †, corðer † fn. troop, band, multitude, throng, retinue: pomp.

corwurma = cornwurma

cos = coss

cosp m. fetter, bond, Bo. [‘cops’]

+cospende, +cosped fettered, LPs.

coss m. ‘kiss,’ embrace, Æ, Lk, WW.

cossetung f. kissing, NG.

cossian tokiss,’ Æ.

cost I. m. option, choice, possibility: manner, way, DR: condition. ðæs costes ðe on condition that. [‘cost’; v. NC 341]

II. (±) †tried, chosen, excellent. [cēosan]

III. m? costmary, tansy, Lcd. [‘cost’]

costere I. m? spade, shovel, WW 10618.

II. = costnere

±costian (w. g. or a., also intr.) to tempt, try, prove, examine, AO, CP. [Ger. kosten]

costigend m. tempter.

costnere m. tempter, Æ.

+costnes f. proving, temptation, trial, BH 21810.

costnian = costian

costnigend = costigend

costnungstōw f. place of temptation.

±costung, costnung f. temptation, testing, trial, tribulation, Mt; Æ, CP. [‘costnung’]

cot (AO) n. (nap. cotu); cote f. ‘cot,’ cottage, bedchamber, den, AO, Lk, Mt; Mdf.

cotesetla = cotsetla

cotlīf n. hamlet, village, manor, Chr: dwelling. [‘cotlif’]

cotsetla m. cottager, LL. [‘cotsetla’]

cott = cot

cottuc, cotuc m. mallow, Gl.

coða m., coðe f. = coðu

coðig diseased.

coðlīce ill, miserably, Met 2536.

cōðon (AO) = cūðon pret. pl. of cunnan.

coðu f. disease, sickness, Æ, Chr, Lcd. [‘cothe’]

+cow n. thing to be chewed, food, NC 292.

cowen pp. of cēowan.

crā n? croaking, WW 20810.

crabba m. ‘crab,’ WW: Cancer (sign of the zodiac), Lcd.

cracelung? ‘crepacula,’ OEG 56249.

crācettan = crǣcettan

cracian to resound, ‘crack,’ Ps.

cradol, cradel m. ‘cradle,’ cot, WW.

cradolcild n. child in the cradle, infant, W 15814.

crǣ = crāwe

crǣcettan to croak, GD 11825. [crā]

crǣcetung f. croaking.

cræf- = craf-

cræft m. physical strength, might, courage, A, AO, Sol: science, skill, art, ability, talent, virtue, excellence, Bo; Æ, CP: trade, handicraft, 65b calling, BH, CP, RB; Æ: work or product of art, Hex: trick, fraud, deceit, Bl: machine, instrument. [‘craft’]

cræfta = cræftiga

±cræftan to exercise a craft, build: bring about, contrive, Æ.

cræftelīce = cræftlīce

+cræftgian to strengthen, render powerful, AO.

cræftglēaw skilful, wise, †Chr 975.

cræf-t(i)ca, -t(e)ga = cræftiga

cræftig strong, powerful, AO: skilful, cunning, ingenious, Bl: learned, instructive, A 8·321: knowing a craft, scientific: virtuous. [‘crafty’]

cræftiga m. craftsman, artificer, workman, architect, Æ, CP.

cræftiglīce skilfully.

cræftlēas artless, unskilful.

cræftlic artificial, A 8·317: skilful. adv. -līce.

cræftwyrc n. clever workmanship.

cræt n. nap. cratu, creatu cart, waggon, chariot, Æ.

crætehors n. cart-horse, WW 10824.

crætwǣn m. chariot, AO.

crætwīsa m. charioteer, ÆL 18295.

crǣwð pres. 3 sg. of crāwan.

crafian (æ) tocrave,’ ask, implore, demand, Chr, LL: summon, Lcd.

crafing (æ) f. claim, demand, TC 644.

±crammian tocram,’ stuff, ÆGr.

crammingpohha m. ‘viscarium,’ NC.

crampul m. crane-pool. [= cran, pōl]

cran m. ‘crane,’ WW.

crancstæf m. weaving implement, crank, LL 455[15].

crang pret. 3 sg. of cringan.

cranic m. record, chronicle. [L.]

cranicwrītere m. chronicler, OEG 724.

cranoc m. crane. [Ger. kranich]

crās f. food, dainty, Nar 1114.

crat (WW 14031) = cræt

cratu v. cræt.

crāwa m., crāwe f. ‘crow,’ raven, Gl, Ps.

±crāwan7 tocrow,’ Mt; CP.

crāwan-lēac (crāw-) n. crow-garlic.

crēac- = crēc-

crēad pret. 3 sg. of crūdan.

creaft- = cræft-

crēap pret. 3 sg, of crēopan.

crēas fine, elegant, NC 277.

crēaslic dainty, rich. v. NC 277.

crēasnes f. elegance: presumption, elation, OEG 1108.

creat = cræt

Crēcas mp. theGreeks,’ AO, BH.

Crēce = Crēcas

Crēcisc Grecian, Greek, AO.

crēda m. creed, belief, confession of faith, Æ. [L. credo]

credic? a bowl, OEG 293.

creft (AS) == cræft

crencestre f. female weaver, spinster. [cranc]

±crēopan2 (occly. refl.) to creep, crawl, Æ, Bo; AO, CP.


creopel = crypel

crēopere m. cripple. [‘creeper’]

crēopung f. ‘creeping,’ Gl.

crēow pret. 3 sg. of crāwan.

crepel = crypel

cressa m. (Gl), cresse f. = cærse

cribb (y) f. ‘crib,’ stall, Cr 1426.

cricc = crycc

crīde pret. 3 sg. of crīgan.

crīgan? to bubble up. v. OEG 7·101.

±crimman3 to cram, put in, insert: crumble.

crinccothurnus,’ ZDA 33·2502.

crincan = cringan

cring (gr-) downfall, slaughter. El 115.

±cringan3 to yield, fall (in battle), die.

cringwracu (gr-) f. torment, Jul 265.

crippan = cryppan

crīpð pres. 3 sg of crēopan.

crisma m. chrism, holy oil: chrisome-cloth: anointing.

crismal m? n? chrismale, W 3617.

crismhālgung f. consecration of the chrism.

crismlīsing2) f. chrism-loosing, loosing of the chrismale, confirmation, Chr.

crisp (BH) = cirps [‘crisp’]

Crīst m. anointed one, Christ, Æ, CP.

cristalla m. crystal, Æ.

cristallisc of crystal, A 4·143.

crīstelmǣl = crīstesmǣl

crīstelmǣlbēam m. tree surmounted by a cross? upright shaft of a cross? EC 385´.

crīstenChristian,’ AO, BH; Æ. ðā crīstnan = the English as opposed to the Danes, Chr 894.

crīsten m. crīst(e)na f.Christian,’ AO.

crīstendōm m. ‘Christendom,’ the church, Christianity, AO; Æ.

crīstenlic Christian, DR.

crīstenmann m. a Christian, MH 17025.

crīstennes f. Christianity: Christian baptism, LL 412[1]; 413[13a].

crīstes-mǣl (Chr), -mēl mn. (Christ’s mark), the cross. wyrcan c. to make the sign of the cross.

crīstlic Christian, LL.

crīstmæsse f. Christmas, Chr 1021d.

crīstna = crīsten

crīstnere m. catechist.

crīstnes = crīstennes

±crīstnian to anoint with chrism (as a catechumen), ‘christen,’ baptize, catechize, BH.

crīstnung f. christening, anointing with chrism or holy oil, W 3316.

crīð = crīgeð (v. crīgan)?

crocc f., crocca m. ‘crock,’ pot, vessel, Lcd.

crocchwer? m. earthen pot, OEG 4672.

crōced = crōged

+crōcod crooked, bent, NC 292.

crocsceard n. potsherd, Æ.

crocwyrhta m. potter, ÆGr.

+crod n. crowd, throng.

croden pp. of crūdan.

croft m. croft, small field.

crōg m. crock, pitcher, vessel, Gl.


crōgcynn n. kind of vessel, wine-jar, WW 21039.

+crōged (ōc) ‘croceus, coccineus,’ OEG 5204.

croh m. saffron.

crōh I. m. shoot, twig, tendril.

II. = crōg

crohha = crocca

croma = cruma

crompehtplacenta,’ a flat cake, ES 42·174; A 37·48.

crong = crang, pret. 3 sg. of cringan.

crop = cropp

cropen pp. of crēopan.

crop-lēac, -lēc n. garlic.

cropp, croppa m. cluster, bunch: sprout, flower, berry, ear of corn, Ep, LkL, WW: ‘crop’ (of a bird), Æ: kidney; pebble.

croppiht clustered, Lcd 38b.

crūc m. cross, Lcd, LV 74. [‘crouch’]

crūce f. pot, pitcher, Gl.

crucethūs n. torture-chamber, Chr 1137.

crūdan2to press, hasten, drive.

cruft m? crufte f. crypt. [L.]

cruma (o) m. ‘crumb,’ fragment, Mt, WW.

crumb, crump crooked, bent, stooping, Gl. [‘crump’; Ger. krumm]

crumen (crumm-) pp. of crimman.

cruncon pret. pl. of crincan.

crundel mn. ravine, Mdf.

crungen pp. of cringan.

crupon pret. pl. of crēopan.

crūse f? cruse, A 37·50.

crūsene, crūsne f. fur coat, Gl. [cp. Ger. kürschner]

crybb = cribb

crycc f. ‘crutch,’ staff, BH; Æ.

cryccen made of clay, GPH 398.

crȳdeð pres. 3 sg. of crūdan.

crymbing f. curvature, bend, inclination, WW 3822. [crumb]

+crymian, +crymman (tr.) to crumble.

+crympan to curl.

crypel I. m. ‘cripple,’ LkL.

II. crippled.

III. m. narrow passage, burrow, drain, OEG; v. Mdf.

crypelgeat n. narrow opening in a wall or fence? BC 2·3991.

crypelnes f. paralysis.

crȳpeð, crȳpð pres. 3 sg. of crēopan.

±cryppan to crook (finger), close (hand), bend.

cryps = cirps

crysm- = crism-

crȳt = crȳdeð pres. 3 sg. of crūdan.

f. gs. cū(e), cȳ, cūs; ds. cȳ; nap. cȳ, cȳe; gp. cū(n)a, cȳna; dp. cūm; ‘cow,’ Æ, Lk, VPs; Mdf.

cūbutere f. butter, Lcd. []

cūbȳre m. cow-byre, cow-shed, Ct.

cuc == cwic

cūcealf (æ) n. calf, Erf, LL. [‘cowcalf’]

cuceler, cuce(le)re = cucler(e)

cucelerecapo,’ WW 38025.

cucler, cuculer, cuclere m. spoon, spoonful. [cp. L. cochlear]

cuclermǣl n. spoonful, Lcd.

cucu (Æ, AO, CP) v. cwic.

cucurbite f. gourd, Lcd 92a. [L.]


cudele f. cuttlefish, WW 1817.

cudu (Æ) = cwudu

cūēage f. eye of a cow, LL 116bn.

cueðan = cweðan

cufel f. ‘cowl,’ hood (v. NED 2 p. viii).

cūfel = cȳfl

cufle, cuffie = cufel

cugle, cug(e)le, cuhle f. cap, ‘cowl,’ hood, head-covering, RB (v. ‘cowl’).

cūhorn m. cow’s horn, LL 116.

cūhyrde m. cowherd.

cūle = cugle

culfer, cul(e)fre f. ‘culver,’ pigeon, dove, Gen, VPs, WW.

culmille f. small centaury, Lcd 22a.

culpan as. of *culpa? m. or *culpe? f. fault, sin, Cr 177.

culpian to humble oneself, cringe, Bo 7124.

culter m. ‘coulter,’ WW: dagger, knife, WW. [L. culter]

culufre = culfre

cūm v. .

cuma mf. stranger, guest, Æ, AO, CP. cumena hūs, inn, wīcung inn, guestchamber.

cuman4 tocome,’ approach, get to, attain, Lk, VPs; Æ, AO, CP. c. ūp land, be born: (±) go, depart, Æ, AO: come to oneself, recover: become: happen (also c. forð): put: (+)come together, arrive, assemble, Æ: (†) w. inf. of verbs of motion, forming a sort of periphrastic conjugation for such verbs. cōm gangan he came. cōm swimman he swam, etc.

cumb I. m. valley, BC; Mdf. [‘coomb’]

II. m. liquid measure, BC. [v. ‘comb’]

cumbelgehnād = cumbolgehnāst

cumbl = (1) cumbol; (2) cumul

cumbol † n. sign, standard, banner.

cumbolgebrec ‡, -gehnāst ‡ n. crash of banners, battle.

cumbolhaga m. compact rank, phalanx, Jul 395.

cumbolhete m. warlike hate, Jul 637.

cumbolwīga † m. warrior.

cumbor, cumbul == cumbol

cumen pp. of cuman.

cumendre f. godmother. [*cumædre A 37·52]

cūmeoluc f. cow’s milk, Lcd 15a.

Cumere? -eras? np. Cumbrians, Æ.

cumfeorm f. entertainment for travellers, Ct. [cuma, feorm]

cū-micge f. -migoða m. cow’s urine, Lcd.

cuml = cumbl

cumlīðe hospitable. [cuma]

cumlīðian to be a guest.

cumlīðnes f. hospitality, Æ: sojourn as guest.

cummāse f. a kind of bird, ‘parra,’ WW 26019.

cumpæder m. godfather, Chr 894a. [L. compater]

cumul, cuml n. swelling, Lcd 1·60.

cūna v. .

cund == cynd

-cund adjectival suffix denoting derivation, origin or likeness. (-kind) as in deofol-cund, god-cund.


cuneglæsse f. hound’s tongue, Lcd 41b. [L. cynoglossum]

cunele, cunelle, cunille f. wild thyme. [Ger. quendel]

cuning = cyning

±cunnan pres. 1 and 3 sg. can(n), pl. cunnon; pret. cūðe, pp. cūð swv. to be or become acquainted with, be thoroughly conversant with, know, AO, B, Lcd; CP, Æ: know how to, have power to, be able to, can, Æ, CP: express (thanks), Chr 1092. [‘can,’ ‘con’]

cunnere m. tempter, NG.

±cunnian (w. g. or a.) to search into, try, test, seek for, explore, investigate, B, Bo, Sol; Æ, CP: experience: have experience of, to make trial of. [‘cun’]

cunnung f. knowledge: trial, probation, experience.

cuopel f? small boat, MtL. [‘coble’]

cuppe f. ‘cup,’ Lcd, WW; Æ.

curfon pret. pl. of ceorfan.

curmealle (e, i) f. centaury.

curnstān = cweornstān

curon pret. pl. of cēosan.

curs m. malediction, ‘curse,’ Ct, LL, Sc.

cursian I. tocurse,’ Ps.

II. to plait? MkR 1517.

cursumbor incense, MtL 211.

cursung f. ‘cursing,’ damnation, LkL: place of torment, MtL.

cūs v. .

cūsc chaste, modest, virtuous, Gen 618. [Ger. keusch]

cūscote (eo, u) f. ‘cushatdove, wood-pigeon, Gl.

cūself f. cow’s fat, suet, GPH 392. [sealf]

cū-sloppe, -slyppe f. ‘cowslip,’ Lcd, WW.

cūsnes = cīsnes

cūtægl m. tail of a cow, LL 169[59b].

cūð known, plain, manifest, certain, Da, Ps, Rd; Æ, AO, CP: well known, usual: noted, excellent, famous, Ex: intimate, familiar, friendly, related. [‘couth’]

cūða m. acquaintance, relative, CP.

cūðe I. clearly, plainly. [‘couth’]

II. pret. 3 sg. of cunnan.

cūðelic = cūðlic

cūðian to become known.

cūðice = cūðlīce

±cūðlǣcan to make known: make friends with, ÆL.

cūðlic known, certain, evident. adv. -līce clearly, evidently, certainly, openly, BH; CP, Æ: familiarly, kindly, affably, An, BH; Æ: therefore, to be sure, hence.

cūðnes f. acquaintance, knowledge.

cūðnoma m. surname, NG.

cūðon pret. pl. of cunnan.

cūwearm warm from the cow (milk), Lcd 126a.

cuwon pret. pl. of cēowan.

cwacian toquake,’ tremble, chatter (of teeth), Æ, AO, Cr, LkL, VPs.


cwacung f. ‘quaking,’ trembling, Æ, VPs; AO.

cwæc- = cwac-

cwǣdon pret. pl. of cweðan.

cwæl pret. 3 sg., cwǣlon pret. pl., of cwelan.

cwæl- = cwal-, cwiel-, cwil-

cwǣman = cwēman

cwǣn = cwēn

cwærtern = cweartern

cwæð pret. 3 sg. of cweðan.

cwal- = cweal-

cwalstōw (LL 556[10,2]) = cwealmstōw

cwalu f. killing, murder, violent death, destruction, Æ, CP. [cwelan]

cwānian † (tr. and intr.) to lament, bewail, deplore, mourn. [Goth. kwainon]

cwānig sad, sorrowful, El 377.

cwānung f. lamentation, NC 279.

cwartern = cweartern

cwatern the number four at dice, Gl. [L.]

cwēad n. dung, dirt, filth. [Ger. kot]

cweaht pp. of cweccan.

cweald pp. of cwellan.

cwealm (e) mn. death, murder, slaughter: torment, pain: plague, pestilence, ÆH; AO. [‘qualm’; cwelan]

+cwealmbǣran to torture.

cwealmbǣre deadly, murderous, bloodthirsty, Æ.

cwealmbǣrnes (e) f. mortality, destruction, ruin, Æ.

cwealmbealu n. death, B 1940.

cwealmberendlic (y1) pestilent, deadly, NC 279.

cwealmcuma m. death-bringer, B 792.

cwealmdrēor m. blood shed in death, Gen 985.

+cwealmful (y1) pernicious, HGl 428.

cwealmnes f. pain, torment, BH.

cwealmstede m. death-place.

cwealmstōw f. place of execution, BH 386 (b).

cwealmðrēa m. deadly terror, Gen 2507.

cwearn = cweornstān

cweartern (a, æ, e) n. prison, Æ.

cwearternlic of a prison.

±cweccan to shake, swing, move, vibrate, Mt, VPs; Æ. [‘quetch’; cwacian]

cweccung f. moving, shaking, wagging.

cwecesand m. quicksand, WW 3576.

+cwed n. declaration, WW 42322.

cweddian = cwiddian

cwedel = cwedol

cweden pp. of cweðan.

+cwedfæsten f. appointed fast, A 11·99; ES 43·162.

+cwednes f. name, HGl 441.

cwedol talkative, eloquent.

+cwedrǣden (i, y) f. agreement, AO: conspiracy.

+cwedrædnes (y) f. agreement, covenant, NC 292.

+cwedstōw f. appointed place, place of meeting, GD 1837.

cwehte pret. sg. of cweccan.

cwelan4 to die, Æ, CP.

cweldeht corrupted, mortified, Lcd 47b. [= *cwildeht]


cwelderǣde1)? evening rider? bat, Shr 298. [ON. kveld]

±cwellan to kill, murder, execute, CP; Æ, AO. [‘quell’]

cwellend m. killer, slayer, GPH 400.

cwellere m. murderer, executioner, BH, Mk; Æ. [‘queller’]

cwelm = cwealm (but v. MFH 106), cwielm-

cwelmere, cwelre = cwellere

±cwēman (w. d.) to gratify, please, satisfy, propitiate, Æ, AO, CP: comply with, be obedient to, serve. [‘queme’; ‘i-queme’]

±cwēme pleasant, agreeable, acceptable, NG, WG. [‘i-queme’]

cwēme- = cwēm-

cwēmed- = cwēm-

±cwēming f. pleasing, satisfaction, complaisance, CP.

cwēmlic pleasing, satisfying, DR. adv. -līce graciously, kindly, humbly.

±cwēmnes f. pleasure, satisfaction, mitigation.

cwēn (ǣ) f. woman, Sc; Æ: wife, consort, AO, Chr, Gen: ‘queen,’ empress, royal princess, Æ, AO, Chr, Cr, VPs. [Goth. kwēns]

cwene f. woman, Rd, W: female serf, ‘quean,’ prostitute, AO. [Goth. kwinō]

cwenfugol hen-bird.

cwēnhirde m. eunuch, MtL 1912.

cwēnlic womanly? queenly? B 1940.

cweodu = cwudu

cweorn f. ‘quern,’ handmill, mill, MtL; CP.

cweornbilllapidaria,’ a stone chisel for dressing querns (BT), WW 43818.

cweornburna m. mill-stream, Ct.

cweorne = cweorn

cweornstān m. mill-stone, Mt. [‘quernstone’]

cweorntēð mp. molars, grinders, Gl.

-cweorra v. mete-c.

-cweorran v. ā-c.

cweorð name of the rune for cw (q).

cwern (NG) == cweorn

cwertern = cweartern

±cweðan6 to say, speak, name, call, proclaim, summon, declare, Bl, VPs; Æ, AO, CP: (+) order, give orders: ± c. (tō) agree, settle, resolve: (+) consider, regard, ÆL 1117. c. on hwone assign to one. cwyst ðū lā sayest thou?numquid.’ cweðe gē think you? [‘quethe’]

cwic [cuc, cucu (this last form is archaic, and has an occasional asm. cucone, cucune)] ‘quick,’ living, alive, BH, Bl, Bo, CP, Lcd; AO.

cwicǣht f. live stock, LL 60[18,1].

cwicbēam m. aspen, juniper, Gl, Lcd. [‘quick-beam’]

cwicbeamen of aspen, Lcd.

cwicbēamrind f. aspen bark, Lcd.

cwiccliende moving rapidly? tottering? OEG 2234.

cwice fm. ‘couch’ (‘quitch’)-grass, Gl, Lcd.

cwicfȳr n. sulphur, LkR 1729.

cwichrērende living and moving, Creat 5.

±cwician to quicken, create, JnL: come to life, come to one’s self, Æ, Lcd. [‘quick’]

cwiclāc n. a living sacrifice, NG.

cwiclic living, vital, DR. adv. -līce vigorously.



cwicrind = cwicbēamrind

cwicseolfor n. ‘quicksilver,’ Lcd.

cwicsūsl nf. hell torment, punishment, torture, Æ.

cwicsūslen purgatorial, ApT 26.

cwictrēow n. aspen, WW.

cwicu == cwic

+cwicung f. restoration to life, GD 21817.

cwicwelle living (of water), JnR.

cwid- = cwed-, cwud-

cwidbōc f. Book of Proverbs, CP: book of homilies, MF (Vesp. D xiv).

cwiddian (e, y) to talk, speak, say, discuss, report: make a claim against, LL 400[3,1].

cwiddung (y) f. speech, saying, report, Æ.

cwide (y) m. speech, saying, word, sentence, phrase, proverb, argument, proposal, discourse, homily, Bo; Æ, CP: testament, will, enactment, decree, decision, judgment, TC; Æ. [‘quide’; cweðan]

+cwide n. sentence, decree, fate.

cwidegiedd (i) n. speech, song, Wa 55.

cwidelēas speechless, Æ (y): intestate, EC 212.

cwielman (æ, e, i, y) to torment, afflict, mortify, destroy, kill, Bl, VPs; AO, CP. [‘quelm’] For compounds v. cwylm-.

cwiferlīce zealously, RB 1222.

cwild (y) mfn. destruction, death, pestilence, murrain. [cwelan]

cwildbǣre deadly, dangerous, pestiferous. adv. -bǣrlīce.

cwildberendlic (y) deadly, NC 279.

cwildeflōd nm. deluge, CPs 2810.

±cwildful (y) deadly, OEG.

cwildrōf deadly, savage, Ex 166.

cwilman = cwielman

cwilð pres. 3 sg. of cwelan.

-cwīnan v. ā-c.

-cwincan v. ā-c.

cwine = cwene

+cwis conspiracy, OEG 4955.

-cwisse v. un-c.

cwist pres. 2 sg. of cweðan.

cwið I. (also cwiða) m. belly, womb. [Goth. kwiðus]

II. pres. 3 sg. of cweðan.

cwīðan to bewail: accuse, LL.

cwiðe = cwide

cwiðenlic natural, WW 41230.

cwīðnes f. complaint, lament, GD.

cwiðst pres. 2 sg. of cweðan.

cwīðung (qu-) f. complaint, WW 48837.

cwolen pp. of cwelan.

-cwolstan v. for-c.

cwōm pret. 3 sg. of cuman.

cwuc, cwucu = cwic

cwudu (eo, i) n. what is chewed, cud, Æ: resin of trees. hwīt c. chewing gum, mastic.

cwyc == cwic

cwyd- = cwed-, cwid-, cwidd-

cwydele f. pustule, tumour, boil.

cwyld == cwild

cwyldseten f. first hours of night, Gl.

cwyldtīd m. evening, WW. [ON. kveld]

cwylla m. well, spring, KC 2·26530. [Ger. quelle]


cwylm = cwealm

cwylm- = cwielm-

Printed on one line:
cwylm = cwealm, cwielm-

cwylmend m. tormentor, destroyer, GD.

cwylmende excruciating, deadly.

+cwylmful pernicious, HGl 428.

cwylmian (intr.) to suffer: (tr.) torment, kill, crucify, Æ. [cwealm]

cwylming f. suffering, tribulation, Æ: (metaph.) cross: death.

cwylmnes f. pain, torment.

cwylseten = cwyldseten

cwyltīd = cwyldtīd

cwylð pres. 3 sg. of cwelan.

cwyne = cwene

cwyrn == cweorn

±cwȳsan to squeeze, dash against, bruise, Æ.

cwyst pres. 2 sg. of cweðan.

cwyð pres. 3 sg. of cweðan.

cwȳðan = cwīðan

cwyðe = cwide

cwyðst pres. 2 sg. of cweðan.

v. .

cycel (i) m. small cake, Gl.

cycen = cicen

cycene f. ‘kitchen,’ Æ, WW. [L. coquina]

cycenðēnung f. service in the kitchen, NC 279.

cycgel m. ‘cudgel,’ BDS, CP.

cȳdde pret. 3 sg. of cȳðan.

cȳdung = cīdung

cȳe I. v. .

II. = cēo

cȳf f. tub, vat, cask, bushel, Æ. [‘keeve’]

cyfes == ciefes

cȳfl m. tub, bucket.

cȳgan = cīegan

cȳgling = cȳðling

+cygd = +cīd

+cȳgednes = +cīgednes

cylcanructare,’ OEG 202.

cyld = (1) cild; (2) ceald

cyldfaru f. carrying of children, Æ.

cyle == ciele

cylen f. ‘kiln,’ oven, Cp, WW.

cyleðenie = celeðonie

cylew = cylu

cylin = cylen

cyll f. skin, leather bottle, flagon, vessel, censer, Æ, AO, CP.

cylle I. mf. = cyll

II. = cielle

cyllfylling f. act of filling a bottle, GD 25027.

cyln = cylen

cylu spotted, speckled, WW 16329.

cym imperat. of cuman.

cymbala = cimbala

cyme (i) m. coming, arrival, advent, approach, Bo, MtR; AO, CP. [‘come’]

cȳme (ī) comely, lovely, glorious, splendid.

cymed n. germander, Lcd.

cymen I. mn. ‘cumin,’ CP, Mt. [L.]

II. pp. of cuman.

III. (and cymin) = cinimin

Referenced word could not be identified.

cȳmlic † ‘comely,’ lovely, splendid, Ps. adv. -līce, B.

cȳmnes f. fastidiousness, daintiness, Gl.

cymst pres. 2 sg., cym(e)ð pres. 3 sg. of cuman.

cyn = (1) cynn; (2) cinn

cȳna gp. of .

cyncan as. of sb. small bundle, bunch? (BT) Lcd 2·5822.

±cynd (usu.+) nf. nature, ‘kind,’ (‘i-cunde’) property, quality, Bl, Gu, Met: character, Bo: gender, Ph: (+) race, species, Bl, Bo, El: (+) 70 origin, generation, birth, +Hy: (+) offspring: (+) ‘genitalia,’ Æ.

+cyndbōc f. book of Genesis.

+cynde natural, native, innate, B, Bo, WW; Æ, AO, CP: proper, fitting, Met: lawful, rightful, Chr, Met. [‘kind,’ ‘i-cunde’]

cyndelickindly,’ natural, innate, Bo, Lcd: generative, of generation, LL 7[64]: proper, suitable, Bo: lawful, BH. adv. -līce, Bo.

+cyndlim n. womb: pl. ‘genitalia.’

+cyndnes f. nation: produce, increase, RHy 622.

+cynd-o, -u f. = cynd

cyne = cine II.

cȳne = cēne

cynebænd m. diadem, NC 279.

cynebealdroyally bold, very brave.

cynebearn (a3) n. royal child, Christ.

cyneboren royally born, Æ.

cynebōt f. king’s compensation, LL.

cynebotl n. palace, Æ.

cynecynn n. royal race, pedigree or family, Æ, AO.

cynedōm (cyning-, Da) m. royal dignity, kingly rule, government, Chr, Gl; AO: royal ordinance or law: ‘kingdom’ (‘kindom’), royal possessions.

cyneg = cyning

cyne-geard, -gerd = cynegyrd

cynegewǣdu np. royal robes, BH 3225.

cynegierela m. royal robe, Met 2523 (e3).

cynegild n. king’s compensation, LL 462.

cynegōdnoble, well-born, excellent.

cynegold † n. regal gold, crown.

cyne-gyrd, -ge(a)rd f. sceptre, Æ.

cynehād m. kingly honour, state, or dignity, CP.

cynehām m. royal manor, EC.

cyne-helm, -healm m. diadem, royal crown, Æ: royal power.

cynehelmian to crown, ZDA 20·37.

cynehlāford m. liege lord, king.

cynehof n. king’s palace, GPH 391.

cynelic I. kingly, royal, CP: public. adv. -līce.

II. = cynlic

cynelicnes f. kingliness, BH 19434.

cynemann m. royal personage, NG.

cyneren = cynren

cynerīce (cyning-) n. rule, sovereignty, Chr, Ct; CP: region, nation, AO. [‘kinrick,’ ‘kingrick’]

cyneriht n. royal prerogative, EC 20218.

cynerōfnoble, renowned.

cynescipe m. royalty, majesty, kingly power, Æ.

cynesetl n. throne, capital city, AO.

cynestōl m. throne, royal dwelling, city, Æ, AO, CP.

cynestrǣt f. public road, WW 716.

cyneðrymlic very glorious, NC 279.

cyneðrymm † m. royal glory, majesty, power: kingly host, Da 706.

cynewāðen [-wāden?] of royal purple, TC 538.

cynewīse f. state, commonwealth.


cynewiððe f. royal diadem, Gl.

cyneword n. fitting word, Rd 4416. [cynn]

cynewyrðe noble, kingly, A 8·308, MF 157.

cyng, cynig == cyning

cyning m. ‘king,’ ruler, Bo, Bl, Chr; Æ, AO, CP: God, Christ, Bl, OET: (†) Satan.

cyning- = cyne-

cyningǣðe man entitled to take oath as a king’s thane, LL 112[54bh].

cyninge f. queen, Bl 131.

cyningeswyrt f. marjoram, WW 30117.

cyningfeorm f. king’s sustenance, provision for the king’s household.

cyninggenīðla m. great feud, El 610.

cyninggereordu np. royal banquet, WW 41128.

cynlic fitting, proper, convenient, becoming, sufficient. adv. -līce.

cynn I. (i) n. kind, sort, rank, quality: family, generation, offspring, pedigree, kin, race, people, Æ, Bl, CP, Chr: gender, sex, Æ, Lcd: propriety, etiquette.

II. adj. becoming, proper, suitable, CP.

+cynn = +cynd

cynn- = cenn-

cynnig noble, of good family, OEG.

cynnreccenes f. genealogy, NG.

cynren, cynrēd (EPs) n. kindred, family, generation, posterity, stock, CP: kind, species.

cynresu a generation, Mt (pref.).

cynryn = cynren

cȳo = cēo

cyp = cypp

cȳp- = cīep-

cȳpa m. I. (also cȳpe) f. vessel, basket, Lk, OEG. [‘kipe’]

II. (ē, ī) m. chapman, trader, merchant, Æ.

±cȳpan (ī) to traffic, buy, sell, barter. [Ger. kaufen]

+cȳpe adj. for sale, Æ.

cȳpe- = cēap-, cīepe-

cȳpedæg m. market day, OEG.

cȳpend m. one who sells, merchant.

cypera m. spawning salmon, Met 1912.

cyperen (Æ) = cypren

cypp = cipp

cypren made of copper, copper, AO. [copor]

cypresse f. cypress, Lcd 3·11821. [L.]

cypsan = cyspan

cyr- = cer-, cier-, cir-

cyre m. choice, free will, Æ. [‘cure’]

cyreāð m. oath sworn by an accused man and by other chosen persons. v. LL 2·293.

cyrelīf n. state of dependence on a lord whom a person has chosen?: person in such a state (v. BT and NC 279).

cyren = (1) ceren, (2) cyrn

cyrf m. cutting, cutting off, Æ: what is cut off. [‘kerf’]

cyrfæt = cyrfet

cyrfel m. little stake, peg, WW 12618.

cyrfet m. gourd. [Ger. kürbis]

cyrfð pres. 3 sg. of ceorfan.

cyrige v. wæl-c.

cyrin, cyrn (e) f. ‘churn,’ WW.

cyrnel (i) mn. (nap. cyrnlu) seed, ‘kernel,’ pip, Æ, Lcd: (enlarged) gland, swelling, Lcd. [corn]


+cyrnod, +cyrnlod granulated, rough, OEG.

cyrps = cirps

cyrriol the Kyrie Eleeson, A 8·320.

cyrs- = cærs-, cris-

cyrstrēow n. cherry-tree, WW 138. [ciris; L.]

+cyrtan to shorten.

cyrtel m. (man’s) tunic, coat, Æ, AO: (woman’s) gown, Ct. [‘kirtle’]

cyrten I. fair, comely, Æ: intelligent. adv. -līce (and cyrtelīce) elegantly, neatly, fairly, well, exactly.

II. ornament? WW 2167.

cyrtenes (e1) f. elegance, beauty.

±cyrtenlǣcan (e1) to beautify, make elegant, Æ.

cyrð pres. 3 sg. of cyrran.

cys- = cyse-, ceos-

cȳs- = cīs-

Printed on one line:
cys-, cȳs- = cyse-, ceos-, cīs-

cȳsefæt n. cheese vat, WW 37927.

cȳsehwǣg n. whey, Lcd 119b.

cȳsfæt (LL 45517) = cȳsefæt

cȳsgerunn n. rennet.

cysirbēam = cirisbēam

cȳslybb n. rennet, Lcd. [‘cheeselip’]

±cyspan to fetter, bind. [cosp]

±cyssan tokiss,’ Æ, BH, Mt. [coss]

cȳssticce n. piece of cheese.

cyst I. fm. free-will, choice, election: (w. gp.) the best of anything, the choicest, Æ: picked host: moral excellence, virtue, goodness, CP, Æ: generosity, munificence, CP. [cēosan]

II. = cist I.

cȳst pres. 3 sg. of cēosan.

cystan to spend, lay out, get the value of, Chr 1124.

cystbēam = cistenbēam

cystel (= cist-) f. chestnut-tree.

cystelīce = cystiglīce

cystian (e) to put in a coffin, W. [cest]

cystig charitable, liberal, generous, CP; Æ: virtuous, good. [‘custi’] adv. -līce.

cystignes, cystines f. liberality, bounty, goodness, Æ: abundance.

cystlēas worthless, bad, Gen 1004.

cystlic = cystig

cystnes = cystignes

cȳsð = cīesð pres. 3 sg. of cēosan.

cȳswucu f. the last week in which cheese was allowed to be eaten before Lent.

cȳswyrhte f. (female) cheese-maker, LL 451[16].

cȳta m. ‘kite,’ bittern, Cp.

cȳte (ē) f. cottage, hut, cabin, Æ: cell, cubicle, Æ.

cytel = citel

cytere = citere

cytwer m. weir for catching fish.

cȳð = (1) cȳðð, (2) cīð

±cȳðan to proclaim, utter, make known, show forth, tell, relate, Cp, Cr, Jn; CP: prove, show, testify, confess, Mt, VPs: exercise, perform, practise, B: (+) confirm, LL: (+) make celebrated. wundor c. perform a miracle. [‘kithe’; cūð]

+cȳðednes f. testimony, LPs 1214.

cȳðere m. witness, martyr, Æ.

cȳðig known: (+) knowing, aware of, DR.

cȳðing f. statement, narration, GD 8614.


±cȳðlǣcan to become known.

cȳðling = cȳðing

±cȳðnes f. testimony: testament (often of Old and New Test.), Æ: knowledge, acquaintance.

cȳðð, cȳððu f. kinship, relationship: ‘kith,’ kinsfolk, fellow-countrymen, neighbours, Lk: acquaintance, friendship: (±) native land, home, Bo; AO, CP: knowledge, familiarity, Æ, BH.

cywes- = cyfes-

cȳwð pres. 3 sg. of cēowan.

cȳwung = cēowung


f. doe (female deer), Æ.

dǣd I. (ē) f. (nap. dǣda, dǣde) ‘deed,’ action, transaction, event, Æ, B, Bl, VPs.

II. = dēad

dǣdbana m. murderer, LL 266[23].

dǣd-bēta (Æ), -bētere m. a penitent.

dǣdbētan to atone for, make amends, be penitent, repent, Æ. [dǣdbōt]

dǣdbētnes f. penitence.

dǣdbōt f. amends, atonement, repentance, penitence, Mt; AO. [‘deedbote’]

dǣdbōtlihting f. mitigation of penance.

dǣdbōtnes = dǣdbētnes

dǣdcēne bold in deed, B 1645.

dǣdfrom energetic, PPs 1098.

dǣdfruma † m. doer of deeds (good or bad), worker.

dǣdhata m. ravager, B 275.

dǣdhwætenergetic, bold.

dǣdlata m. sluggard.

dǣdlēan n. recompense, Ex 263.

dǣdlic active, ÆGr.

dǣdon = dydon pret. pl. of dōn.

dǣdrōfbold in deeds, valiant.

dǣdscūa (Cr 257) = dēaðscūa?

dǣdweorc n. mighty work, Ex 575.

dæf- = daf-

±dæftan to put in order, arrange, Æ, CP.

+dæfte mild, gentle, meek, Mt. [‘daft’; gedafen]

+dæftelīce, +dæftlīce fitly, in moderation, in season, CP.

dæg m. gs. dæges; nap. dagas day, lifetime, Æ, Mt, Mk; AO, CP. andlangne d. all day long. dæges, or on d. by day. tō d., tō dæge to-day. d. ǣr the day before. sume dæge one day. ofer midne d. afternoon. on his dæge in his time. dæges and nihtes by day and by night. lange on d. far on, late in the day. emnihtes d. equinox. ealle dagas always, Mt: Last Day, Bl: name of the rune for d.

dægcandel (o2) † f. sun.

dægcūð open, clear as the day.

dǣge f. (female) bread maker.

dæge- = dæg-

dægehwelc daily.


dægenlic of this day.

dæges adv. v. dæg.

dæges-ēage, -ēge n. ‘daisy,’ Lcd, WW.

+dægeð pres. 3 sg. dares? braves? W 22028.

dægfæsten n. a day’s fast.

dægfeorm f. day’s provision, EC 2262.

dæghluttre adv. clearly, as day, Gu 665.

dæghryne = dægryne

dæghwām adv. daily.

dæghwāmlic of day, daily, Æ. adv. -līce, Æ, AO.

dæghwīl f. (pl.) days, lifetime, B 2726.

dæghwonlīce = dæghwāmlīce

dæglang (o2) lasting a day, Sol 501.

dæglanges adv. during a day, Æ.

dæglic = dæghwāmlic

dægmǣl nm. horologe, dial.

dægmǣlspīlu f. gnomon of a dial, WW 12631.

dægmēlscēawere m. horoscope-observer, astrologer, WW.

dægmete m. breakfast, dinner, WW 26713.

dǣgol = dīgol

dæg-rēd (or ? dægred) (Æ, CP) -rǣd n. daybreak, dawn, Lk. [‘dayred’]

dægrēdlēoma m. light of dawn, NC 280.

dægrēdlic belonging to morning, early.

dægrēdsang m. matins, RB, CM.

dægrēdwōma † m. dawn.

dægrīm † n. number of days.

dægrima m. dawn, daybreak, morning, Æ. [day-rim]

dægryne daily, of a day, WW 22429.

dægsang m. daily service, W 29022.

dægsceald m? (shield by day?) sun, Ex 79.

dægsteorra m. ‘daystar,’ morning star, Æ, Lcd.

dægswǣsendo np. a day’s food, LL (22030).

dægtīd f. day-time, time, period.

dægtīdum by day, in the day-time.

dægtīma m. day-time, day, LPs 1206.

dægðerlic of the day, of to-day, daily, present, Æ.

dægðern f. interval of a day, Lcd.

dægðerne adj. for use by day, every-day, CM.

dægwæccan fp. day-watches, WW 11024.

dægweard m. day-watchman, WW 11025.

dægweorc n. work of a day, fixed or stated service, Ex: day-time. [‘daywork’]

dægweorðung f. feast day, El 1234.

dægwilla wished for day, Gen 2776.

dægwine n? day’s pay, Gl.

dægwist f. food, meal, Æ.

dægwōma † = dægrēdwōma

dæl I. nap. dalu n. ‘dale,’ valley, gorge, abyss, AO.

II. pret. 3 sg. of delan.

dǣl (ā) mn. (p. dæl-as, -e) portion, part, share, lot, Cp, Bl, Gu (ā), VPs; AO, CP: division, separation, Æ (ā): quantity, amount, Lcd: region, district, AO. d. wintra a good number of years. be dǣle in part, partly. be healfum dǣle by half. be ǣnigum dǣle at all, to any extent. be ðǣm dǣle to that extent. cȳðan be dǣle to make a partial orex partestatement. 72b sume dǣle, be sumum dǣle partly: part of speech, word, ÆGr. [‘deal’]

±dǣlan to divide, part, separate, share, Da; Æ, CP: bestow, distribute, dispense, spend, hand over to, An, Mk: take part in, share with, Gen: be divided. †hilde, earfoðe dǣlan to fight, contend. [‘deal’]

+dǣledlīce separately.

dǣlend m. divider, Lk 124.

dǣlere m. divider, distributor, WW: agent, negociator, Æ: almsgiver, Æ. [‘dealer’]

dæling f. dividing, sharing, HGl 423.

+dǣlland = +dālland

dǣllēas deficient, unskilled: destitute of, without.

dǣlmǣlum adv. by parts or pieces, Æ.

dǣl-neom-, -nym- = dǣlnim-

dǣlnes f. sharing out.

dǣlnimend m. sharer, participator, Æ: participle, ÆGr. [Ger. teilnehmend]

dǣlnimendnes f. participation, BJPs 1212.

dǣlnimung f. participation, portion, share.

dǣlnumelnes = dǣlnimendnes

dǣm- = dēm-

dæn- = den-

dǣp = dēop

dære v. daru.

dærne = dierne

dærst, dærste (e) f. leaven, NG, DR: (pl.) dregs, refuse, Lcd (e), Ps. [‘drast’]

+dærsted leavened, fermented, NG.

dǣð = dēað

dǣwig = dēawig

+dafen I. n. what is fitting, GD 846.

II. becoming, suitable, fit, proper.

+dafenian (often impers.) to beseem, befit, be right, Æ.

+dafenlic fit, becoming, proper, suitable, right. adv. -līce.

dafenlīcnes f. fit time, opportunity.

+daflic = +dafenlic

dafn- = dafen-

+dafniendlic = +dafenlic

dāg m? (dāh) ‘dough,’ Lcd: mass of metal.

dagas, dages v. dæg.

dagian to dawn, be day, BH; Æ. [‘daw’]

dagung f. day-break, dawn, BH. on dagunge at daybreak.

dāh = dāg

dāl = dǣl

+dal n. part, GD 31111.

dalc m. bracelet, brooch.

dalf (NG) = dealf pret. 3 sg. of delfan.

dalisc (? for *dedalisc) ‘dedaleus,’ WW 2213.

+dālland n. land under joint ownership, common land divided into strips. v. LL 2·443.

dālmǣd f. meadow-land held in common and apportioned between the holders, KC 3·2603.

dalmatice f. dalmatic (vestment), ANS 84·13; GD 32934.

dalu v. dæl.

darað, dareð = daroð

darian to lurk, be hidden, ÆL 23322.

daroð † m. dart, spear, javelin. daroða lāf those left by spears, survivors of a battle.

daroðhæbbende spear-bearing, Jul 68.

daroðlācende (eð) mp. spear-warriors.

daroðsceaft (deoreð-) m. javelin-shaft, Gen 1984.

daru f. gds. dære injury, hurt, damage, calamity, Æ.


datārum m. (indecl.) date.

daðbloma,’ mass of metal, WW 14136.

Davītic adj. of David (psalms).

dēacon = dīacon

dēad (±) ‘dead,’ Æ, B, Mt; AO, CP: torpid, dull. d. blōd congealed blood.

dēad- = dēað-

dēadboren still-born, Lcd 1·206.

±dēadian to die, JnL. [‘dead’]

dēadlic subject to death, mortal, perishable, Æ: causing death, ‘deadly,’ fatal, AO: about to die. adv. -līce.

dēadrægel n. shroud, WW 376. [hrægl]

dēadspring m. ulcer, Lcd.

dēadwylle barren, AO 2616.

dēaf I.deaf,’ Mt, Jul; VPs: empty, barren, CP 41120.

II. pret. 3 sg. of dūfan.

-dēafian v. ā-d.

dēaflic = dēfelic

dēafu f. deafness, Lcd.

deag = dæg

dēag I. hue, tinge, Æ, WW: ‘dye,’ WW.

II. pres. 3 sg. of dugan.

dēagel = dī(e)gol

dēagan to discolour, dye, colour (Earle); to conceal oneself, hide (Leo). B 851.

Entry supplied from first edition.

dēaggede gouty, WW 16131. [dēaw]

±dēagian todye,’ OEG.

dēagol = dīegol

dēagol- = dīgol-

dēagung f. ‘dying,’ colouring, Æ.

dēagwyrmede gouty, WW 16131. [dēaw]

dēah = dēag I. and II.

dēahl = dīgol

deal = deall

dealf pret. 3 sg. of delfan.

deallproud, exulting, bold, renowned.

dear pres. 3 sg. of *durran.

dearc = deorc

deareð = daroð

dearf I. pret. 3 sg. of deorfan.

II. bold, NG.

dearflic bold, presumptuous, NG.

dearfscipe m. boldness, presumption, NG.

dearn-unga, -unge (e2, i2) secretly, privately, insidiously, Æ, AO, CP.

dearoð = daroð

dearr pres. 3 sg. of *durran.

dearste (VPs) = dærste

dēað (ēo) m. ‘death,’ dying, An, Bo, Mt; CP: cause of death, Bl: in pl. ‘manes,’ ghosts.

dēað- = dēad- (v. ES 39·324).

dēaðbǣre deadly, CP.

dēaðbǣrlic (dēad-) deadly.

dēaðbēacnigende boding death.

dēaðbēam m. death-bringing tree, Gen 638.

dēaðbedd † n. bed of death, grave.

dēaðberende fatal, deadly, CP.

dēaðbērnes f. deadliness, destructiveness, LkL 2111.

dēaðcwalu † f. deadly throe, agony: death by violence.

dēaðcwealm m. death by violence, B 1670.

dēaðcwylmende killed.

dēaðdæg † m. death-day.

dēaðdenu † f. valley of death.

dēaðdrepe m. death-blow, Ex 495.

dēaðfǣge doomed to death, B 850.

dēaðfiren f. deadly sin, Cr 1207.

dēaðgedāl n. separation of body and soul by death, Gu 936.


dēaðgodas mp. infernal deities, WW 44719.

+dēaðian to kill.

dēaðlēg m. deadly flame, Gr 983.

dēaðlicdeathly,’ mortal, Bl: deadly: dead.

dēaðlicnes f. mortality, mortal state: deadliness.

dēaðmægen n. deadly band, Gu 867.

dēaðræced (= e2) n. sepulchre, Ph 48.

dēaðrǣs m. sudden death, An 997.

dēaðrēaf n. clothing taken from the dead, spoils, WW 39722.

dēaðrēow murderous, fierce, An 1316.

dēað-scūa, -scufa m. death-shadow, spirit of death, devil.

dēaðscyld f. crime worthy of death, LL 130´.

dēaðscyldig (LL), dēadsynnig (NG) condemned to death.

dēaðsele † m. death-hall, hell.

dēaðslege m. death-stroke, Rd 614.

dēaðspere n. deadly spear, Rd 453.

dēaðstede m. place of death, Ex 589.

dēaðsynnignes f. guiltiness of death, DR.

dēaððēnung f. exequies, last offices to the dead, funeral.

dēaðwang m. plain of death, An 1005.

dēaðwēge n. deadly cup, Gu 964. [wǣge]

dēaðwērig dead, B 2125.

dēaðwīc n. dwelling of death, B 1275.

dēaðwyrd f. fate, death, WW 40823.

dēaw mn. ‘dew,’ Æ, CP, VPs.

+dēaw dewy.

dēawdrīas m. fall of dew? Da 277. [drēosan]

dēawig (ǣ, ē) ‘dewy,’ Ex.

dēawigendlīc? dewy, HGl 408.


dēawung f. dew, EHy 764.

dēawwyrm m. ‘dew-worm,’ ring-worm, tetter, Lcd.

decan m. one who has charge of ten monks.

±dēcan to smear, plaster.

decanhād m. office of a ‘decan.’

decanon = decan

Decembris m. December.

declīnian to decline, ÆGr.

declīnigendlic subject to inflection, ÆGr.

declīnung f. declension, A 8·3135.

dēd I.. (A) = dǣd

II. = dēad

dēde (KGl) = dyde pret. 3 sg. of dōn.

+dēfe (doefe once, in NG) befitting, suitable, proper: meek, gentle, kindly. also adv.

+dēfelic fit, becoming, proper. adv. -līce, BH.

defen- = dafen-

dēflic = dēfelic

+dēfnes f. mildness, gentleness, LPs 8910.

+deftlīce = +dæftlīce

deg = dæg

dēg (NG) = dēag pres. 3 sg. of dugan.

dēg- = dēag-, dīeg-, dīg-

degn = ðegn

dehter ds. of dohtor.

dehtnung (KGl) = dihtnung

del = dæl

dela nap. of delu.

delan4 to fall, decay? (Grein) to be arrogant, proud, boastful (Leo). Gen 23.

Entry supplied from first edition.

dēlan = dǣlan

+delf n. digging, excavation, Æ, AO: what is dug, trench, quarry, canal, Mdf.

delfan3 todelve,’ dig, dig out, burrow, Æ, Bo, G; AO: bury.


delfere m. digger, Bo 14013.

delfīn dolphin, WW 29313. [L.]

delfīsen n. spade, WW.

delfung f. digging, WW 14910.

+delgian = +telgian

dell nm. dell, hollow, dale, BH; Mdf.

delu f. teat, nipple, CP 4051. [OHG. tili]

dem = demm

dēma m. judge, ruler, Æ, CP.

±dēman todeem’ (‘i-deme’), consider, think, estimate, compute, Æ, BH: judge, determine, decide, decree, sentence, condemn, BH, G, El; CP: assign: (†) praise, glorify: (†) tell, declare, FAp.

dēmedlic that may be judged, GD 33620.

dēmend † n. judge, arbiter.

dēmere m. judge, MtL (oe). [‘deemer’]

demm m. damage, injury, loss, misfortune, AO, CP.

-demman v. for-d.

dēmon demon, devil, DR.

den = denn

dēn = dōn pp. of dōn.

Denalagu, f. theDane law,’ law for the part of England occupied by the Danes, LL.

den-bǣre, -berende n. swine-pasture, Mdf.

dene = denu

Dene mp. theDanes,’ Chr; AO.

deneland (æ) valley.

Denemearc1, a3, e3) Denm-, f. Denmark.

dengan (ncg) to beat, strike, NC 281.

denge = dyncge

DeniscDanish,’ Chr. wk. nap. ðā Deniscan the Danes.

denn n. ‘den,’ lair, cave, Æ; WW: swine-pasture, v. Mdf.

dennian (æ) to become slippery? †Chr 937.

denstōw f. place of pasture, BC 3·14421.

denu f. valley, vale, dale, Æ, Lk, VPs; Mdf. [‘dean’]

dēof = dēaf pret. 3 sg. of dūfan.

dēofel-, dēofl- = dēofol-

deofenian = dafenian

dēofol mn. gs. dēofles, nap. dēoflu, dēofol, adevil,’ demon, false god, B, Mt, VPs; AO: the devil, CP, Jn, Jul; Æ: diabolical person, JnLR. [L. diabolus]

dēofolcræft m. witchcraft, AO.

dēofolcund fiendish, Jud 61.

dēofoldǣd f. fiendish deed, Da 18.

dēofol-gield (AO, CP), -gild, -geld (AO, VHy), -gyld (Æ) n. devil-worship, idolatry: idol, image of the devil, Æ.

dēofolgielda (y3) m. devil-worshipper, idolater, ÆH 1·7023.

dēofolgieldhūs n. idol temple, AO 2849.

dēofolgītsung (dīwl-) f. unrighteous mammon, LkL 1611.

dēofollic devilish, diabolical, of the devil, Æ. [‘devilly’] adv. -līce.

dēofolscīn n. evil spirit, demon.

dēofolscīpe m. idolatry, NC 286.

dēofolsēoc possessed by devils, lunatic, Æ.

dēofolsēocnes f. demoniacal possession.

dēofolwītga m. wizard, magician, Da 128.


dēoful == dēofol

dēog pret. 3 sg. of dēagan.

dēohl, dēogol = dīegol

±dēon (A) to suck, JAW 19.

dēop I.deep,’ profound, Ps: awful, mysterious, CP: (†) heinous, Gu, Jul: serious, solemn, earnest, Ex. d. cēap high price, great price.

II. n. depth, abyss, Ex, Mt: the deep, sea, Lk.

dēope adv. deeply, thoroughly, entirely, earnestly, solemnly, Ps.

dēophycgende † dēophȳdig † deeply meditating, pensive.

dēopian to get deep, Lcd 125b.

dēoplic deep, profound, thorough, fundamental, Æ, CP: grievous. adv. -līce ‘deeply,’ Bo, WW.

dēopnes f. depth, abyss, LPs, Nic: profundity, mystery, subtlety, Æ. [‘deepness’]

dēopðancol contemplative, very thoughtful, W 2487; A 8·329. adv. -līce.

dēor I. n. animal, beast (usu. wild), Lk, Met, WW; Æ, CP: ‘deer,’ reindeer, AO.

II. brave, bold, An, Sol: ferocious, B: grievous, severe, violent, Da, Sol. [‘dear’]

III. = dēore

dēoran = dȳran

dēorboren of noble birth, LL 104[34,1].

deorcdark,’ obscure, gloomy, B, Ps: sad, cheerless: sinister, wicked, Lk, Sat. adv. deorce.

deorcegrǣg dark grey, WW.

deorcful dark, gloomy, Sc. [‘darkfull’]

deorclīcedarkly,’ horribly, foully, GPH 39122.

deorcnes f. ‘darkness,’ Sc 2283.

deorcung f. gloaming, twilight, Æ.

dēorcynn n. race of animals, Æ.

dēore I.dear,’ beloved, Jul: precious, costly, valuable, Bo: noble, excellent.

II. adv. dearly, at great cost, Met, WW.

III. adv. fiercely, cruelly. [dēor II.]

dēoren of a wild animal.

deoreðsceaft = daroðsceaft

±deorf n. labour: difficulty, hardship, trouble, danger, Æ.

dēorfald m. enclosure for wild beasts, WW 20134.

±deorfan3 to exert oneself, labour, Æ: be in peril, perish, be wrecked, AO. [‘derve’]

dēorfellen made of hides, WW 32818.

+deorflēas free from trouble, Gl.

+deorfnes f. trouble, tribulation, LPs 452.

dēorfrið n. preservation of game, deer-protection, Chr 1086.

+deorfsum troublesome, grievous, Chr 1103; 1005 (y).

dēorgēat n. gate for animals, Ct.

dēorhege m. deer-fence, LL.

deorian (Chr) = derian

dēorlic brave, renowned, B 585.

dēorlīcedearly,’ preciously, richly, El: sincerely, acceptably, AS 419.

dēorling (ī, ȳ) m. ‘darling,’ favourite, minion, Æ, Bo, CP: household god.


dēormōdcourageous, bold.

dēornett n. hunting-net, WW 18312.

deornunga = dearnunga

deorsterlīce = dyrstelīce

dēortūn m. park, Gl.

dēor-wierðe (CP), -wurðe (Æ), -wyrðe precious, dear, valuable, costly, Bl, Bo. [‘dearworth’]

dēorwyrðlic (eo2, u2) precious, valuable. adv. -līce splendidly, Æ: as a thing of value, Æ.

dēorwyrðnes (u2) f. treasure.

dēoð (NG) = dēað

dēpan = dȳpan

dēpe = dēop

deppan = dyppan

dēr = dēor

Dēra, Dēre mp. Deirans, inhabitants of Deira.

derian (w. d.) to damage, injure, hurt, Bo; Æ, AO, CP. [‘dere’]

deriendlic injurious, mischievous, noxious, hurtful, Æ.

dērling (NG) = dēorling

derne = dierne

derne- = dyrne-

dernegelegerscipe (derneleger-) m. adultery, fornication, N.

derneleger adulterous, NG. adv. -ere licentiously, NG.

dernunga (NG) = dearnunga

derodine m. scarlet dye, CP 8325.

derste (VPs) = dærste

derung f. injury, GD.

desig = dysig

dēst v. dōn.

dēð I. 3 p. sg. pres. of dōn.

II.manipulus,’ sheaf? EPs 1256.

+dēðian to kill, mortify, DR, NG.

dēðing f. putting to death, DR 7213.

deððan? to suck, LkR.

dēwig = dēawig

dīacon m. ‘deacon,’ minister, levite, Æ, BH, Jn.

dīacongegyrela m. deacon’s robe, BH 902.

dīaconhād m. office of a deacon, Æ.

dīaconrocc m. dalmatic, CM 723.

dīaconðēnung f. office of a deacon, BH 27217.

dīan (A) = dēon (A)

dīc mf. ‘dike,’ trench, ditch, moat, AO, BH, Chr; Æ; Mdf: an earthwork with a trench.

dīcere m. digger, Æ.

±dīcian to make a dyke or bank.

dīcsceard n. breach of a dike, LL 455[13].

dīcung f. construction of a dike, WW. [‘diking’]

dīcwalu f. bank of a ditch? KC 5·33428.

dide, didon = dyde, dydon (v. dōn).

diegan to die, NR 38.

dīegel = dīegol

±dīegellīce (e, eo, i1, o2) secretly, AO, CP.

dīegelnes f. privacy, secrecy, solitude, CP: hiding-place, recess, Æ (ī): secret, secret thought, mystery, AO, CP; Æ (ȳ).

±dīeglan, -lian to hide, cover, conceal, hide oneself, CP.

dīegle = dīegol

dīegol (ǣ, ē, ēa, ēo, ī, ȳ) I. adj. secret, hidden, obscure, unknown, deep. [for compounds 75b v. dīegel-.]

II. adv. secretly.

III. n. concealment, obscurity, secrecy, mystery: hidden place, grave.

dīegolful1) mysterious, Rd 8014.

dielf = dealf pret. 3 sg. of delfan.

dielgian = dilegian

diend m. suckling, NG. [dēon]

dīere (ȳ) ‘dear,’ beloved, Lk: precious, costly, AO: noble, excellent.

±diernan (e, y) to keep secret, hide, restrain, repress, AO; Æ (y). [‘dern’]