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Title: The International Auxiliary Language Esperanto: Grammar & Commentary

Author: George Cox

Release date: April 10, 2011 [eBook #35815]
Most recently updated: October 4, 2014

Language: English

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Major-General George Cox
B.A. (Cantab.)


B.E.A. Publications Fund, No. 14


[All rights reserved]

Reprinted, January, 1939

Printed in Great Britain


In this Fourth Edition of a work which, since its first appearance in August, 1906, has had a very favourable reception among English-speaking Esperantists in all parts of the world, advantage has been taken of the necessity for reprinting the work, to make a thorough revision of the text, and to introduce some other improvements.

Major-General Cox, born 1838, the author of the Commentary, died on 27th October, 1909, and the revision of the work has been carried out under the direction of the British Esperanto Association (Incorporated).

Footnotes to the Preface to the First Edition have been introduced to record facts not known to the author at the time.


Esperanto is the International Auxiliary Language created by Dr. L. L. Zamenhof, a doctor of medicine, residing at Warsaw, Poland. It is now hardly necessary to mention this fact, but there was a time, not very long ago, when many people thought that Esperanto was a patent medicine, or new kind of soap, or, in fact, anything except a language!

Its aim is not to displace existing languages, but to be a second language for the world, and its merits are now recognized by many eminent men of all nationalities.[1]

If we consider the enormous advantages of a common language, understood by all, we shall at once confess what a blessing Dr. Zamenhof has conferred upon mankind, for:—

Firstly.—It enables anyone to correspond on any topic, social, commercial, or scientific, with persons of all nationalities.[2]

Secondly.—Books of all descriptions can at once be translated into this common language, and sold all over the world; consequently, scientific and medical men will not have to wait, perhaps years, before some important treatise appears in their own language.

Lovers of fiction would also have at command the works of all the best foreign novelists.[3]

Thirdly.—At international congresses the speeches and discussions could be in Esperanto, and understood by all present, the aid of interpreters being unnecessary, by which great saving of time would be effected.[4]

Fourthly.—Treaties and Conventions with foreign Powers could be drawn up in the international language, and there would be no difficulty in determining their exact signification.[5]

Esperanto was first introduced into Great Britain by Mr. Joseph Rhodes, of Keighley, Yorkshire, who formed the first group in that town in 1902. Shortly afterwards, in January, 1903, a group was formed in London, under the auspices of Mr. W. T. Stead, Editor of the "Review of Reviews," Miss E. A. Lawrence, and Mr. J. C. O’Connor, M.A., Ph.D., which resulted in the foundation of the present London Esperanto Club. The first English-Esperanto Gazette was founded by Mr. H. Bolingbroke Mudie, in November, 1903; this was followed in January, 1905, by "The British Esperantist," the official organ of the British Esperanto Association, which was then founded as the official organization of the Esperantists of the British Empire. Progress in the language was at first slow, but it is now advancing by leaps and bounds, and there are at present, in England, Ireland, and Scotland, some 60[6] societies, groups, and clubs, affiliated to the British Esperanto Association. There is also now an American Esperanto Association, with already a large number of energetic groups.[7]

I hope that those who take up this Commentary on Esperanto will not think it necessary to wade through all its pages before they can read and write the language. All that is necessary for this purpose is to read the 16 simple rules, written by Dr. Zamenhof himself (par. 94), and a few paragraphs and examples on the Formation of Words (par. 40), and on the Parts of Speech (pars. 103, 107, 125, 149, 159, 238, 249, 262). This can easily be done in two or three hours; and then, with the aid of a small English Dictionary, you will be able to write a letter in Esperanto, which will be readily understood by any Esperantist.

Or, you can buy for a few pence various primers, first lessons, or instruction books, most of which contain a small vocabulary of common words. A tiny book, costing 1d., called the "Esperanto Key," weighing 1⁄5th of an ounce, containing a vocabulary of over 1,500 roots, with explanations of the suffixes, formation of words, etc., gives you the language in a nutshell. This little book is already published in nineteen different languages. If you wish to correspond with anyone of a different nation, all you have to do is to write your letter in Esperanto, enclose the "Esperanto Key" in the language of the person you are writing to, and he will understand your letter. This, you may say, is pure nonsense, but I assure you it is true, for on several occasions I have done this myself. In all cases my letters were thoroughly understood, and in two cases I received replies written in Esperanto, within three days of my writing, from persons who had never previously read a word in the language; these replies were in perfectly good Esperanto, with only one or two trifling errors, and I was quite amazed when I got them.

But then you will say, "What is the use of this Commentary?" Well, it is compiled for the use of those who wish to go deeper into the study of this delightful, logical, flexible, and sonorous language, and who wish to write and speak it, not merely sufficiently well to be understood, but to write and speak it in good style. Esperanto, although so extraordinarily easy to learn, has, like every national language, a certain style and elegance of expression of its own. If we translate French, or any other foreign language, literally into English, we see how bald and strange it reads, and probably some sentences would be unintelligible. A language literally translated into Esperanto would be quite intelligible to persons of all nationalities, owing to the fact that Esperanto is a purely logical, clear, and unidiomatic language, and to the use of the accusative case; but the literal translation might be wanting in style, grace, and smoothness, for the order of the words, although perfectly correct grammatically, might, in some cases, entail harshness of sound, and so the easy flow and euphony of the language would be lost.

The standard book for good style in the language is the "Fundamenta Krestomatio" (Fundamental Chrestomathy), or book of extracts for studying a language. This book, containing 458 pages of prose and verse on numerous subjects, was published by Dr. Zamenhof in 1903, and all the articles in it were either written by himself or, if written, as many were, by others, were corrected by him to such a degree that they do not too widely differ from the Doctor’s own style.

The more the student studies this language, the more he will wonder how it could have been created by the brain of one man; for we must remember that Esperanto was not devised by a group of learned men of different nationalities, bringing the knowledge of their own language to bear upon the construction of an entirely new language, but that it was born of one individual after years of intense thought and labour, and it is marvellous how he has discarded the illogical, and introduced the logical and best points of all the European and dead languages into Esperanto. How this result was obtained can best be shown by a short history of the language, taken generally from the Doctor’s article on the subject in the "Krestomatio," page 241, and also from a letter he wrote to a friend, which was first printed by his consent in 1896, and reproduced in "Esperantaj Prozaĵoj," page 239.


[1] The Third Assembly of the League of Nations, held at Geneva in September, 1922, unanimously adopted an exhaustive Report favourable to Esperanto.

[2] The Universala Esperanto-Asocio (U.E.A.), with headquarters at 12, Boulevard du Théâtre, Geneva, has a world-wide organization with delegates (or consuls, as they are sometimes called) in over 1000 towns in thirty-nine countries who render important international services.

[3] A book list containing titles of hundreds of translations and original works in Esperanto may be had from the British Esperanto Association (Incorporated).

[4] International Congresses, at which Esperanto was the only language used, have been held at Boulogne-sur-Mer (1905), Geneva (1906), Cambridge (1907), Dresden (1908), Barcelona (1909), Washington (1910), Antwerp (1911), Cracow (1912), Berne (1913), Paris (1914), San Francisco (1915), The Hague (1920), Prague (1921), Helsingfors (1922), and Nurnberg (1923). A Conference of educationists was held in 1922 at the Secretariat of the League of Nations in Geneva, at which twenty-eight countries and sixteen governments were represented; and in 1923 a Commercial Conference was held at Venice, to which over 200 commercial and touring associations from twenty-three countries sent delegates. At both of these conferences, Esperanto was the only language used.

[5] The most notable example of a modern treaty was the Treaty of Peace signed at Versailles in 1919. It was executed in French and English; but not long afterwards questions of the interpretation of certain parts of it were raised, based upon alleged divergencies of meaning in the two texts.

[6] In 1923 more than 100.

[7] The Esperanto Association of North America (Inc.), 507, Pierce Buildings, Copley Square, Boston 17 (Mass.), U.S.A., incorporates the English-speaking Esperantists of North America. There are also similar associations in the British Colonies.

The Origin of Esperanto.

Doctor Ludovic Zamenhof, Doctor of Medicine, the inventor of Esperanto, was born on December 3rd (15th N.S.), 1859, at Bialystok (Bjelostok), in the Government of Grodno, West Russia, where he spent his boyhood.[8] The inhabitants of Bjelostok were of four different nationalities, Russians, Poles, Germans, and Jews, all speaking different languages, and generally on bad terms with each other. The boy’s impressionable nature caused him to reflect that this animosity was occasioned by diversity of language, and thus the first seeds of the idea of an International Language were sown. Even at an early age Dr. Zamenhof came to the conclusion that an international language was possible only if it were neutral, belonging to no nationality in particular. When he passed from the Bjelostok gymnasium to the second classical school at Warsaw he was for some time allured by the dead languages, and dreamed of travelling through the world to revive one of them for common use, but he was eventually convinced that this was impracticable owing to the mass of grammatical forms and ponderous dictionaries of those languages.


[8] Dr. Zamenhof died at Warsaw on April 14th, 1917.

In his boyhood he learnt French and German, and began to work out the idea of his new language, but when, in the 5th Class of the Gymnasium, he began to study English, the simplicity of its grammar was a revelation to him, and his own grammar soon melted down to a few pages without causing any loss to the language. But his giant vocabularies left him no peace of mind.

He tried to use similar economy in his dictionary as in the grammar, thinking that it did not matter what form a word took if it had a given meaning; so he began to invent words, taking care only that they should be as short as possible. For instance, he argued that the word "conversation" has 12 letters; why should not the same idea be conveyed by two, say, "pa"? He tried this by simply writing the shortest and most easily pronounced mathematical series of joined letters, and these he gave a defined meaning, e.g., ab, ac, ad, ... ba, ca, da, ... eb, ec, ed, ... etc. He, however, soon abandoned this idea, as he found these invented words very difficult to learn, and hard to remember, and thus he came to the conclusion that the word material for the dictionary must be Romance-Teutonic, changed only as regularity and other important conditions of the language required. He soon remarked that the present spoken languages possessed an immense store of ready-made international words known by all nations, and he commenced at once to make use of this unlimited supply.

One day, when he was in the 6th or 7th Class at the Gymnasium he, by chance, observed that the signs over shops had certain terminations, as we might notice in England, for instance, "Surgery," "Bakery," etc., and it then struck him for the first time that these terminations had certain meanings, and that by using a number of suffixes, each always having the same meaning, he might make out of one word many others that need not be separately learnt. This thought shed a ray of light upon his great and terrible vocabularies, and he cried out "The problem is solved!" He at once understood how important it was to make use of this power, which, in the national languages, plays only a blind, irregular and incomplete rôle. So he began to compare words, and to search out the constant and defined relationship between them. He cast out of his vocabularies a vast series of words, substituting for each huge mass a single suffix, which had always a certain fixed relationship to a root-word. He next remarked that certain words, which he had hitherto regarded as purely roots, might easily become formed words and disappear from the dictionary, such as patr-ino (mother), mal-larĝa (narrow), tranĉ-ilo (knife). Soon after this the Doctor had in manuscript the whole grammar and a small vocabulary.

In 1878, when he was in the 8th Class at the Gymnasium, the language was more or less ready, and his fellow students commenced to study it. On December 17th, 1878, they celebrated the birth of the language by a banquet, at which a hymn was sung, the commencing words being as follows:—

Malamikete de las nacjes
Kadó, kadó, jam temp’ está!
La tot’ homoze in familje
Konunigare so debá.

The language then was very different from what it is now, as the following translation will show:—

Malamikeco de la nacioj
Falu, falu, jam tempo estas!
La tuta homaro en familion
Unuiĝi devas.

"Let the enmity of nations fall, fall, for the hour is come. All mankind must be united in one family."

On the table, in addition to the grammar and dictionary, were some translations in the new language.

The Doctor’s fellow students were at first enthusiastic, but meeting with ridicule when they tried to discuss the language with their elders, they soon renounced it, and the Doctor hid his work from all eyes.

After he left school and was at the University, for five years and a half he never spoke of it to anyone. This secrecy tormented him. Compelled to conceal his thoughts and plans, he went scarcely anywhere, took part in nothing, and the best period of his life, his student years, were, for him, his saddest. Occasionally, he sought society, but it failed to enliven him, and he then tried to tranquillize his mind by writing poems in the language he was elaborating.

For six years he worked at perfecting and testing it. This gave him plenty of work, notwithstanding he had considered it ready in 1878; but severe trials showed him that, although it might be ready in theory, it was not so in practice. He had much to cut out, alter, and radically transform. Words, forms, principles, and postulates opposed one another in practice, although each, taken separately, appeared in theory right. Such things as the universal preposition je, the elastic verb meti (to put), the neutral, but definite, ending , would probably never have entered his head had he proceeded only on theory. Some forms, which appeared to him to possess a mine of wealth, were shown in practice to be useless ballast, and, on this account, he discarded several unnecessary suffixes.

He had thought, in the year 1878, that it was sufficient for the language to have a grammar and vocabulary; the heaviness and want of grace of the language he ascribed to his not knowing it sufficiently well; but practice always kept convincing him that the language required an indescribable "something," a uniting element, giving it life and soul. He therefore avoided all literal translations, and commenced to think in the language.

He soon noticed that his new language was not a mere shadowy reflection of the language he happened to be translating, but was becoming imbued with a life and spirit of its own, and was now no mere lifeless mixture of words, It flowed of itself as flexibly, gracefully, and freely as his own native tongue.

However, another circumstance delayed for a long time its public appearance. He knew that everyone would say, "Your language will be useful to me only when the whole world accepts it, therefore I shall not learn it until I find everyone else is adopting it." This problem gave him much thought till at last it struck him that correspondence was carried on in cipher by means of a key possessed by both parties. This gave him his great idea, namely, to construct his language in the fashion of such a key by inserting in it not only the vocabulary, but the whole grammar in its separate elements. Such a key, alphabetically arranged, would enable anyone possessing the key, giving the meaning of the elements in his own language, to understand without further ado a letter written in Esperanto.

Dr. Zamenhof illustrates this in the "Krestomatio," page 249, by the following sentence:—"I do not know where I left my stick; did you not see it?" Now supposing that a German wished to write this to an Englishman or person of any other nationality, he would translate it from the German into Esperanto as follows, dividing the words into their elements by hyphens:—

Mi ne sci-as, kie mi las-is mi-a-n baston-o-n; ĉu vi ĝi-n ne vid-is?

The Englishman, on receiving the letter, turns to his Esperanto dictionary, or to the Ĉefeĉ Key, if it be enclosed, and reads as follows:—

 NE= no, notnot
SCI-= knowknow
-AS= ending of present tense of verb
 KIE= Wherewhere
LAS-= leaveleft or have left
-IS= ending of past tense of verb
MI= Imy
-A-= ending of an adjective (nom. case)
-N= ending of the objective case
BASTON-= stickstick
-O-= ending of noun (nom case)
-N= ending for the objective case
 ĈU= whether; asks a questionwhether
 VI= youyou
ĜI-= it (nom case)it
-N= ending for the objective case
 NE= no, notnot
VID-= seesaw, or did see, or have seen
-IS= ending of past tense of verb

The above, therefore, in bald English is "I not know where I left my stick; whether you it not have seen (or, did see)?" Now this is perfectly comprehensible to any Englishman. But some may say, "But if the German had written in his own language, and I had found a German dictionary, I could quite as easily have made out his meaning." Now the following is the German for this sentence:—Ich weiss nicht wo ich meinen Stock gelassen habe; haben Sie ihn nicht gesehen?

On referring to the German dictionary, and looking out the words, he would find:—ICH=I, WEISS=white, NICHT=not, WO=where, ICH=I, MEINEN=to think, STOCK=stick, GELASSEN=composed, calm, HABE=property, goods, HABEN=to have, SIE=she, her, it, they, them, you, IHN=(not in the dictionary), NICHT=not, GESEHEN=(not in the dictionary). Therefore the sentence would read:—I white not where I to think stick composed property; to have she (blank) not (blank).

It would be rather difficult to gather the meaning of this!

On leaving the university, Dr. Zamenhof commenced his medical practice, and began to consider the publication of his language. He prepared the manuscript of his first brochure, "An International Language, by Dr. Esperanto, Preface and Full Manual," and sought out a publisher. For two years he sought in vain, the financial question meeting him at every turn; but, at length, after strenuous efforts, he succeeded in publishing the brochure himself, in 1887. He had "crossed the Rubicon," and Esperanto was given to the World!

Before concluding this preface let me give a word of advice to learners. Do not think, after a few days’ study, as many do, that you can improve the language. If you have such thoughts, put down on a piece of paper your youthful would-be improvements, and think no more of them till you have a really good knowledge of the language. Then read them over, and they will go at once into the waste-paper basket! or, perhaps, be preserved as curiosities! The most skilled Esperantists have had these thoughts, and have wasted valuable time in thinking them out, only to find at last that the more they studied Esperanto, the less they found it needed alteration. This is what Dr. Zamenhof himself says on the point:—"As the author of the language, I naturally, more than anyone else, would wish that it should be as perfect as possible; it is more difficult for me than others to hold back from fancied improvements, and I have at times been tempted to propose to Esperantists some slight alterations, but I bore in mind the great danger of this step and abandoned my intention." Copy the Doctor in this, and whatever you do, do not attempt to put your crude ideas of improvement into print.

In compiling this Commentary, my thanks are due to the following works I have consulted:—

As regards personal assistance, Mr. Bolingbroke Mudie very kindly looked over the MS. before its completion.

In preparing the manuscript for publication, my warmest thanks are due to Mr. E. A. Millidge, F.B.E.A., who took infinite pains in correcting errors of all kinds. And I must take occasion here to say that any points of grammar that may be found incorrect, or failure in making explanations clear to learners, are, in all probability, due to my not strictly following his suggestions.

George Cox.
August 21st, 1906.


In this Second Edition of the "Grammar and Commentary" the press and other errors which appeared in the first edition have been corrected, and the book has been revised throughout; the text also has been altered, where explanations were not quite clear.

In Part I an attempt has been made to give a nearer approach to the proper pronunciation of the vowels which differ in sound from those in English. In Part II the use of some of the pronouns, correlative words, and adverbs has been more fully explained, and fresh pages have been added to the verb section, showing, by numerous examples, the rendering of the common English verbs "can, could, may, might, shall, will, should, would, must, ought." In Part V, additions have been made in the list of useful words and expressions.

My thanks, for their kind assistance in the revision of the book, are especially due to Mr. E. A. Millidge, Mr. A. E. Wackrill, Mr. J. M. Warden (President of the Edinburgh Group), Mr. M. C. Butler, Mr. G. W. Bullen, Dr. R. Legge, Mr. W. Bailey, Mr. C. P. Blackham, Mr. P. J. Cameron, Mr. H. Clegg, Mr. W. Morrison, Mr. G. Ledger, and many other kind Esperantists, who have written to me pointing out errors and giving useful suggestions.

Even in this second edition I fear that some errors will be found, and I shall, therefore, be extremely obliged if Esperantists will kindly point out to me any they may meet with.

George Cox.
April 12th, 1907.


In this Third Edition of the "Grammar and Commentary" I have again to thank many kind Esperantist friends for assisting me in correcting errors, and for their advice in pointing out desirable alterations and improvements.

The book has been carefully revised, and a few additions have been made, which I trust will be found useful.

George Cox.


En la mondon venis nova sento,
Tra la mondo iras forta voko;
Per flugiloj de facila vento
Nun de loko flugu ĝi al loko.
Ne al glavo sangon soifanta
Ĝi la homan tiras familion:
Al la mond’ eterne militanta
Ĝi promesas sanktan harmonion.
Sub la sankta signo de l’ espero
Kolektiĝas pacaj batalantoj,
Kaj rapide kreskas la afero
Per laboro de la esperantoj.
Forte staras muroj de miljaroj
Inter la popoloj dividitaj;
Sed dissaltos la obstinaj baroj,
Per la sankta amo disbatitaj.
Sur neŭtrala lingva fundamento,
Komprenante unu la alian,
La popoloj faros en konsento
Unu grandan rondon familian.
Nia diligenta kolegaro
En laboro paca ne laciĝos,
Ĝis la bela sonĝo de l’ homaro
Por eterna ben’ efektiviĝos.
L. L. Zamenhof.
El Fundamenta Krestomatio.


Literal Translation.

A new sentiment has come into the world,
A mighty call is passing through the world;
On wings of a light breeze
From place to place now let it fly.
Not to the sword thirsting for blood
Does it draw the family of mankind:
To the ever-warring world
It promises holy harmony.
Under the sacred sign of hope
Peaceful combatants are gathering,
And the cause is rapidly growing
Through the labour of the hopeful.
Strongly stand the walls of thousands of years
Between the divided peoples;
But the obstinate barriers shall leap asunder,
Beaten down by sacred love.
On a neutral lingual foundation,
Understanding one another,
The peoples shall form in agreement
One great family circle.
Our diligent colleagues
Will not weary of their peaceful labour,
Until the beautiful dream of mankind
For eternal blessing shall be realized.


Tra densa mallumo briletas la celo,
Al kiu kuraĝe ni iras,
Simile al stelo en nokta ĉielo,
Al ni la direkton ĝi diras.
Kaj nin ne timigas la noktaj fantomoj,
Nek batoj de l’ sorto, nek mokoj de l’ homoj,
Ĉar klara kaj rekta kaj tre difinita
Ĝi estas, la voj’ elektita.
Ni semas kaj semas, neniam laciĝas,
Pri l’ tempoj estontaj pensante,
Cent semoj perdiĝas, mil semoj perdiĝas,—
Ni semas kaj semas konstante.
"Ho, ĉesu!" mokante la homoj admonas,
"Ne ĉesu, ne ĉesu!" en kor’ al ni sonas:
"Obstine antaŭen! La nepoj vin benos
Se vi pacience eltenos."
Se longa sekeco aŭ ventoj subitaj
Velkantajn foliojn deŝiras,
Ni dankas la venton kaj, repurigitaj,
Ni forton pli freŝan akiras.
Ne mortos jam nia bravega anaro,
Ĝin jam ne timigas la vento, nek staro:
Obstine ĝi paŝas, provita, hardita,
Al cel’ unu fojon signita
Nur rekte, kuraĝe kaj ne flankiĝante
Ni iru la vojon celitan!
Eĉ guto malgranda, konstante frapante,
Traboras la monton granitan.
L’ espero, l’ obstino kaj la pacienco—
Jen estas la signoj, per kies potenco
Ni paŝo post paŝo, post longa laboro,
Atingos la celon en gloro.

L. L. Zamenhof.


Alphabet.Pronunciation.Syntax.Formation of Words.Definitions.Primary Words.Foreign Words.Grammatical Terminations.List of Suffixes.List of Prefixes.Elision.Interrogation.Negation.Affirmation.The Accusative.Capital Letters.Punctuation.Order of Words 1–58
Grammar and Commentary.
Rules.Parts of Speech.The Article.Nouns.Adjectives.Numerals.Pronouns.Correlative Words.Verbs.Adverbs.Prepositions.Conjunctions.Interjections.Remarks on the Suffixes and Prefixes 59–258
Exercises 259–316
Phrases.Conversation.Correspondence 317–333
List of Primary Words.List of Adverbs, Adjectives, Conjunctions, Prepositions, and Adverbial and Prepositional Expressions 334–362
Hints To Learners 363–364
Index 365–371


ALPHABET (Alfabeto).

1. The Alphabet (la alfabeto) consists of 28 letters, viz.:—5 vowels (vokaloj) and 23 consonants (konsonantoj).


2. The Characters are written as in English, the marks over the letters requiring them being added as printed. In telegrams ĉ, ĝ, ĥ, ĵ, ŝ, ŭ, may be written ch, gh, hh, jh, sh, u.

3. Typewriting.—If the letters ĉ, ĝ, ĥ, ĵ, ŝ, ŭ, are not on the machine, type the plain letters and add the supersigns afterwards with the pen; most makers, however, supply a machine with the necessary characters, or they can be added to any machine on a "dead key" at the cost of a few shillings.

4. The Names given to the letters are different from those of other languages. For instance, in English we add E to some of the consonants to name the letter, but in Esperanto O is added to all the 23 consonants, and the alphabet runs thus:—A, Bo, Co, Ĉo, Do, E, Fo, Go, Ĝo, Ho, Ĥo, I, Jo, Ĵo, Ko, Lo, Mo, No, O, Po, Ro, So, Ŝo, To, U, Ŭo, Vo, Zo. Note particularly the pronunciation of the 12 consonants, given in the next paragraph.

See "Hints to Learners," page 363.


5. The Consonants are pronounced as in English, with the following exceptions:—

C pronounced tso like ts in pits, Tsar.
Ĉ pronounced cho like ch in choke or church.
G pronounced go like g in get or go, always hard.
Ĝ pronounced djo like j in Joe, or G in George.
Ĥ pronounced hHo like ch in loch (is a very strong guttural aspirate).
J pronounced yo like y in yoke.
Ĵ pronounced zho like s in pleasure, leisure.
R pronounced ro like rr in terror.
S pronounced so like s in so (never has the sound of z).
Ŝ pronounced sho like sh in show.
Ŭ pronounced oo-o or wo like w in cow.
Z pronounced zo like z in zone.

For the pronunciation of the vowels, see pars. 8 and 9.

6. In spelling a word use the Esperanto name, thus:—A, No, To, A, Wo, spells antaŭ (before). E, Wo, Ro, O, Po, O, spells Eŭropo (Europe). U, No, U, spells unu (one).

7. Consonants. Note the following:—

(a). C and J are the only consonants which have a different sound than in English.

(b). C, Ĉ and Ŝ are the equivalents of the English combinations ts, ch (soft) and sh.

(c). G has always the English hard sound.

(d). Ĝ is like the English J.

(e). J is like the English Y.

(f). H is always aspirated.

(g). Ĥ is a guttural aspirate similar to the Spanish J as heard in mujer (a woman), or like the Scotch ch in "loch," or the Irish gh in "lough." If the learner cannot catch this sound it will be sufficient to aspirate the character strongly, as if it were a double letter hH, laying stress on the last H.

(h). S never has the sound of Z, as it has in the English words "rose, has, was," etc.

(i). ĵ, the small letter, does not require the dot in addition to the circumflex.

(j). Ŭ is a consonant, and is used in the combinations AŬ and EŬ (see par. 10).

8. Vowels.—There are no short vowels in Esperanto, as heard in the words bat, bet, bit, pot, but. All vowels should be of medium length, but it is well to begin by sounding them long (see note, page 12).

9. The vowel A is sounded like "ah!" or the a in "father"; I like ee in "seen"; U like oo in "fool."

As regards the vowels E and O, we have no words in English exactly expressing their true sounds. The correct sound of E is something midway between the vowels heard in "bale" and "bell," and that of O something midway between those heard in "dole" and "doll," viz., "eh!" (cut short) and "oh!" (cut short), but without the prolonged sound heard in these words. In the vowel E there should be no trace of the ee sound heard in "cake"; its true sound is much nearer to the e in "bell." The vowel O approaches to the sound of o in "for," or of aw in "law."

In the scheme of pronunciation (par. 19) we have therefore used ah for A; eh for E; ee for I; o for O; oo for U.

N.B.—Do not clip or drag the vowels.

10. Combinations, Vowel and Consonant.—The following 6 combinations resemble diphthongs, but are not so, since a diphthong consists of 2 vowels and j and ŭ are both consonants:—

AJ pronounced ahye or i something like ai in aisle.
AŬ pronounced ahoo or ow something like ow in cow.
EJ pronounced ehye or ae something like aye in cayenne.
EŬ pronounced ehoo or ew something like ayw in wayward.
OJ pronounced oye or oi something like oy in joy.
UJ pronounced ooye or ooe something like uj in Hallelujah.

It will be observed that if these double sounds be rapidly made the pronunciation will resemble the English words given, but remember they are each pronounced as one syllable, so the examples "cayenne," "wayward," "Hallelujah," are not strictly correct. AJ, EJ, OJ, UJ, resemble the sound heard in the French words "paille," "oseille," "boyard," "fouille," and AŬ is heard in the German word "Haus."

N.B.—It is difficult to explain the exact sound of EŬ. Pronounce our word "ewe," and then give the sound of eh (cut short) to the first letter, thus ehwe, pronouncing the word as one syllable. In the scheme of pronunciation at page 10 we have given it as ehw. It occurs very rarely.

11. Combinations of Consonants.—There are a few which do not occur in English, and the attention of the student is therefore called to the following:—

12. GV, KN KV, SV. When these letters commence a word, both must be clearly pronounced.

13. Ŝ, being the same as our Sh, must be distinctly pronounced, when followed by one or two consonants. Ŝm = shm, Ŝn = shn, Ŝp = shp, Ŝt = sht, Ŝtr = shtr, Ŝv = shv. If the sh sound be not clearly given, mistakes might occur in a few words, as, for instance, Ŝtupo is a step (of a ladder), but Stupo is tow; Ŝtalo is steel, but Stalo a stall.

14. SC. This combination may at first be found difficult, especially when it commences a word, since it represents STS, which, with a following vowel, form but one syllable. There are very few words commencing with SC, viz.:—The five given in the list of words (par. 19) and their derivatives, the word scii (to know) being the only one in common use. First the sound of S has to be given, then T, and lastly S. Since every letter has to be sounded, it is not sufficient to pronounce scii as tsee-e, for then the initial S is omitted; we must therefore mentally pronounce it estsee-e, the "es" being uttered very rapidly (as if it were merely a short sibilant) before the voice reaches the TS, on which the stress is made. When SC is not preceded by a comma or other stop, or is in the middle of a word, the pronunciation can be easily effected by joining the sound of the preceding letter to the S. Thus mi scias = I know can be pronounced meest-see-ahs. Mi vidis brunan sciuron = I saw a brown squirrelmee-vee-dees broo-nahnst-see-oo-ron. But when the preceding word ends in S, the full sound of both of the letters S must be given, as mi havas sciuron = I have a squirrelmee hahvahs (e)stsee-oo-ron (the initial e very short to help to give the sound of the first s) . [By repeating the sentence: "You at least see as well as I do," and then detaching the words "least see," the student will readily arrive at the proper pronunciation of "sc" in "Li scias."]

15. KZ. In pronouncing this combination, do not follow the English pronunciation of words like "exempt," etc., which our dictionaries give as "egzempt." Be careful not to turn the K into G in such words as ekzemplo = example, ekzameni = to examine. The full sound should be given to every letter in the three syllables, ek-zem-plo.

16. Pronunciation of Words.—Every vowel and consonant in a word is pronounced distinctly, and the sound never varies, whether the letters are initial, medial, or final; there is no mute letter in Esperanto. Each syllable must be distinct, and it must be remembered that when two vowels come together, such as ai, ae, ee, ii, oi, etc., or two similar consonants, as kk, ll, mm, etc., each letter always belongs to a different syllable, and must be given its full sound.

17. Tonic Accent.—The stress of the voice, or the tonic accent, is always on the penultimate (last syllable but one). Even in words of two syllables the tonic accent must be strongly perceived in the first syllable. The euphony and beauty of the language would in a great measure be destroyed by non-observance of this rule.

(a). In compound words, as in others, the accent must very distinctly fall on the penultimate of the whole word; but when a compound word consists of four syllables, or more, the meaning of the prefixed word, or words, may be shown by laying a certain stress on those syllables which would be accented if they were complete independent words. It will be noticed how much easier it is to grasp the meaning of a prefixed word if a slight stress of the voice be given to that syllable on which we are accustomed to hear the accent fall when the word stands alone, as:—Du-be-ni-gra = Blackish. An-taŭ-vi-di = To foresee. Gas-o-me-tro = Gasometer. Arm-il-far-ist-o = Gunsmith. Ĝar-den-la-bor-ad-o = Gardening. In-ter-ri-lat-o = Intercourse. Sen-la-bor-of-ic-o = Sinecure. Le-ter-pa-per-o = Note-paper.

18. Beginners should read aloud daily; at first slowly and slightly exaggerating the sounds, making free use of the organs of speech. It will then be found that in more rapid utterance the exaggeration will gradually disappear, and a good, bold, free pronunciation be attained. (See "Hints to Learners," page 363.)

19. It is advisable that the student, before proceeding to the grammar, should get a thorough knowledge of the sounds of letters, syllables, and words; he should, therefore, read over the following list of words, which gives most of the combinations of sounds in the language. The italics denote where the tonic accent falls.


A = ah is used to represent the a in father.
E = eh (see par. 9).
I = ee is used to represent the ee in seen.
O = o (see par. 9).
U = oo is used to represent the oo in fool.
Ŭ = w is used to represent the w in wet.
G = g is used to represent the g in go.
Ĝ = dj is used to represent the g in George.
Ĥ = hH is used to represent a very strong guttural aspirate
J = y is used to represent the y in yes.
Ĵ = zh is used to represent the s in pleasure.
A abatoah-bah-toabbot.
a-a la aferolah ah-feh-rothe affair.
a-e aeroah-eh-roair.
a-i trairitrah-ee-reeto traverse.
 balaibah-lah-eeto sweep.
aj ajloahy-lo (sound "y" short, 
    as ye) (dissyllable)garlic.
 ajnahyn (sound "y" short, 
     as ye) (monosyllable)ever.
  palajpah-lahy (sound "y" short, 
     as ye) (dissyllable)pale (adj., pl.)
a-o la ondolah on-dothe wave.
a-u la ungolah oon-gothe nail.
B BiblioBee-blee-oBible.
C centtsehnthundred.
  cititsee-teeto cite, quote.
Ĉ ĉarchahrbecause, for.
  ĉielochee-eh-loheaven, sky.
  senĉesasehn-cheh-sahincessant, ceaseless.
E elementoeh-leh-mehn-toelement.
e-a oceanoo-tseh-ah-noocean.
e-e treegetreh-eh-gehexceedingly.
e-i feinofeh-ee-nofairy.
  pereipeh-reh-eeto perish.
ej plejplehy (sound "y" short, 
     as ye) (monosyllable)most.
  malplejmahl-plehy (sound "y" short, 
     as ye) (dissyllable)least.
  hejmohehy-mo (sound "y" short, 
     as ye) (dissyllable)home.
e-o neoneh-onegative.
e-u pereupeh-reh-ooperish (imperative).
G gentogehn-totribe.
gv gvidigvee-deeto guide.
g-u guanogoo-ah-noguano.
Ĝ ĝuidjoo-eeto enjoy.
H harohah-rohair.
Ĥ ĥemiohHeh-mee-o (guttural aspirate)chemistry.
  eĥoeh-hHo (do.)echo.
I idilioee-dee-lee-oidyll.
i-a ialee-ahlfor any cause.
i-e tieltee-ehlthus.
i-i diigidee-ee-geeto deify.
i-o tiomtee-omas much.
i-u ĉiuchee-ooeach.
i-uj tiujtee-ooy (dissyllable)those.
J justayoos-tahjust.
Ĵ ĵuszhoosjust (adv.).
K konkurikon-koo-reeto compete.
kn knedikneh-deeto knead.
kv kvankamkvahn-kahmalthough.
k-z ekzemploehk-zehm-ploexample.
L mallumiĝomahl-loo-mee-djoeclipse.
  ellaboriehl-lah-bo-reeto achieve.
O ondoon-doa wave.
o-a boatobo-ah-toboat.
o-e troetro-ehexcessively.
o-i foirofo-ee-roa fair.
oj vojojvo-yoyroads (plur.).
o-o zoologiozo-o-lo-gee-ozoology.
o-u trouzitro-oo-zeeto abuse.
R rimarkiree-mahr-keeto remark.
rr forrampifor-rahm-peeto creep away
S sekcisehk-tseeto dissect.
sc sceno(e)stseh-no (imagine 
     a very short e to 
     help to give the 
     sound of the first s)scene.
  scii(e)stsee-eeto know.
sf sferosfeh-rosphere.
sv svenisveh-neeto swoon.
skl sklavosklah-voslave.
skv skvamoskvah-moscale (of fish).
Ŝ ŝaŭmoshahw-mofroth.
  malŝarĝimahl-shahr-djeeto unload (a cart).
ŝl ŝlosishlo-seeto lock.
ŝm ŝmirishmee-reeto smear.
ŝpr ŝprucishproo-tseeto spurt (intrans.).
ŝtr ŝtrumposhtroom-postocking.
ŝv ŝvelishveh-leeto swell (intrans.).
ŝt poŝtmarkoposht-mahr-kopostage stamp
T trajtotrahy-to (dissyllable)trait, feature.
U unuoo-nooone.
u-a unuaoo-noo-ahfirst.
u-e duelodoo-eh-loduel.
u-i kuirejokoo-ee-reh-yokitchen.
  detruideh-troo-eeto destroy.
uj monujomo-noo-yopurse.
  tujtooy (monosyllable)immediately.
  prujnoprooy-no (dissyllable)white frost.
  unujoo-nooy (dissyllable)some (plural of unu).
u-o duobladoo-o-blahdouble.
u-u detruudeh-troo-oodestroy (imperative).
V envolviehn-vol-veeto envelop, wrap.
Z edzinoehd-zee-nowife.

Note.—Esperanto vowels are very similar in sound to those in German and Spanish, and in the Italian do, re, mi, fa.

SYNTAX (Sintakso).

20. Syntax (sintakso) treats of the connection, dependence, and arrangement of words to form intelligible speech.

21. Speech (parolo) consists of propositions.

22. A Proposition (propozicio) is a collection of words by which we assert, or question, the act, state, or quality of some person or thing. A complete proposition consists of two chief parts, viz., the Subject and Predicate.

23. The Subject (subjekto) is the name of the person or thing spoken of.

24. The Predicate (predikato) is what is said about the subject.

25. The Subject of a proposition is always:—

(a). One or more nouns.

(b). Some word used as a noun, e.g., (1), a pronoun, mi = I; (2), an adjective, mia kara estas bona filino = my dear (one) is a good daughter; (3), an infinitive, mensogi estas honte = to lie (or, lying) is shameful; (4), a phrase. Estas agrable por (or, al) mi, ke vi aĉetis tiun domon (here "ke vi aĉetis" is the subject) = I am glad (it is agreeable to me) that you bought that house.

26. The subject is always in the nominative case. When the subject is a noun, it must, therefore, always end in -O, if the noun is singular, or in -OJ, if the noun is in the plural. The subject of any verb can always be determined by putting the word "who?" or "what?" before the verb, and the word giving the reply is the subject, as:—La riĉulo havas multe da mono = The rich man has much (of) money. (Who has much money? The rich man = la riĉulo is the subject.) La papero estas blanka = The paper is white. (What is white? The paper = la papero is the subject.) De timo paliĝis Antono = Antony grew pale from fear. (Who grew pale? Antony = Antono is the subject.) Miaj fratoj batis min = My brothers beat me. (Who beat me? My brothers = miaj fratoj is the subject.)

27. Subject omitted.—Sometimes the subject is omitted, as:—Pluvas = it rains. Fulmis = It lightened. (See remarks on impersonal verbs, par. 164.)

28. The Object is the person or thing acted upon by the subject, hence the term objective (or accusative) case, as:—Johano batas la knabon = John beats the boy. Knabon = the boy is acted upon by Johano, the subject, therefore knabon is the object, and has the accusative termination N.

29. The Direct Complement (rekta komplemento).—The noun or pronoun (not governed by a preposition), which is the direct complement of a transitive verb, must have the accusative form -N in the singular, or -JN in the plural. The direct complement of a verb can be determined by asking the question "whom?" or "what?" after such verb, and the word giving the reply is the direct complement, as:—Diru al mi vian nomon = Tell me your name. (Tell what? Your name = vian nomon is the direct complement.) Johano min amas = John loves me. (Loves whom? Me = min is the direct complement.)

30. The direct complement of an active verb becomes the subject if the verb is put in the passive voice, as:—Mia patro amas min = My father loves me. Here min = me is the direct complement; but Mi estas amata de mia patro = I am loved by my father. Here mi = I is the subject of the verb. Note, that intransitive verbs cannot have a direct complement, for they have no passive voice (par. 162).

31. The Indirect Complement (nerekta komplemento) is formed with a preposition and a noun or pronoun in the nominative, as:—Donu al la birdoj akvon = Give (to) the birds water, or Give water to the birds. (Here "akvon" is the direct, and la birdoj the indirect, complement.) Venu kune kun la patro = Come together with (the) father. But if direction towards something be implied, and the preposition of itself does not denote movement, the noun, or pronoun, will then be in the accusative case (see pars. 67, 256), as:—Li eniris en la domon = He went into the house.

32. The Circumstantial Complement.—A word or phrase is termed a circumstantial complement (cirkonstanca komplemento) when it marks the time, place, manner, cause, etc., of an action, as:—En printempo floroj aperas, or Printempe floroj aperas = In Spring flowers appear. Li agas pro ĵaluzo = He acts from (owing to) jealousy.

The Predicate (Predikato).

33. The Predicate is what is said about the subject.

(a). A predicative verb is one which, of itself, shows in a definite manner some act, state, or quality, as:—Arbo kreskas = A tree grows. La arbo verdiĝis = The tree became green.

(b) A non-predicative verb is one which does not, of itself, show an act, but is accompanied by some adjective, participle or predicative noun, defining and describing the subject, as:—La urbo estas belega = The city is magnificent. Kolombo estas birdo = A pigeon is a bird. This is called a "Disjoined predicate" (disigita predikato).

34. The Predicate can furthermore be precisely defined by an adverb or a noun (or a word used as a noun) governed by a preposition. This serves to show the object of the act and circumstances surrounding it, as:—Arturo batis Georgon per sia pugno = Arthur struck George with his fist.

35. A noun can be more precisely defined by the addition of another noun or word used as a noun, as:—Eduardo, reĝo de Anglujo = Edward, King of England. This is called "apposition" (apozicio).

36. To every noun can be added adjectives or participles, which also can be defined by other nouns, as:—Homo mortiginta sian patrinon estas granda krimulo = A man who has murdered (having murdered) his mother is a great criminal. An adjective added, without any intervening word, to a noun is termed "qualifying," in order to distinguish it from an adjective (called a "predicative" adjective) having the verb esti (expressed or understood) between it and the noun, as:—Homo bona = A good man (qualifying). La homo estas bona = The man is good (predicative). (See remarks on adjectives, par. 108.)


37. A word consists of one or more syllables or distinct sounds, and has a definite meaning.

38. A root is an incomplete word conveying only an idea. It may consist of one or more syllables, but requires one or more letters to form it into a word.

39. Words in Esperanto may be divided into four classes: Primary, Simple, Compound, and Foreign.

(a). A Primary word is one which requires no additional letters to give it a distinct meaning (see list of Primary Words, Part V).

(b). A Simple word is one formed by adding a grammatical termination to a single root, or to a primary word (which then becomes a root), with or without suffixes or prefixes.

Examples.Bon-a = Good. Ĉirkaŭ-i = To surround. Antaŭ-ul-o = A predecessor. Dis-sem-i = To scatter. Mal-san-ul-ejo = An infirmary.

(c). A Compound word is one formed by adding a grammatical termination to two or more roots, or to a primary word and a root, with or without suffixes or prefixes. Any of the component parts may be complete words, if euphony requires it.

Examples.Bon-intenc-a = Well-meaning. Super-natur-a = Supernatural. Antaŭ-vid-i = To foresee. Ĉas-o-ŝtel-ist-o = A poacher. Ĉas-gard-ist-o = A gamekeeper. Vapor-ŝipo = A steamship. Griz-har-a = Grey-haired. Super-akv-eg-o = A deluge.

(d). A Foreign word is one common to most languages, being derived from the same root.

Examples.Teatr-o = Theatre. Teatr-a = Theatrical. Geologi-o = Geology. Geologi-a = Geological.


40. To show the manner in which words are formed in Esperanto, it will perhaps be better first to do so in Dr. Zamenhof’s own words, as given on page 248 of his "Fundamenta Krestomatio." He says:—

"I arranged a complete dismemberment of ideas into independent words, so that the whole language, instead of being words in various grammatical forms, consists solely of unchangeable words. If you will take a work written in my language, you will find that each word is always in one constant form, namely, in that form in which it is printed in the dictionary, and that the various grammatical forms, reciprocal relation between words, etc., etc., are expressed by the union of unchanging words. But, because such a construction of language is quite strange to Europeans, I adapted this dismemberment of the language to the spirit of the European languages, so that anyone learning mine from a manual would not suppose that it differed in construction from his own. Take, for example, the word fratino, which in reality consists of three words, frat, in, o. Frat gives the idea of the offspring[9] of one’s parents, in the idea of the female sex, and o the idea of existence (person or thing), hence a noun. These three ideas combined, in Esperanto, make fratino = a sister. The first and last make frato = a brother. The instruction book shows this in the following manner:—Brother = frat-, but because every substantive in the nominative ends in o, therefore frato = brother. For the formation of the feminine, the little word -in- is inserted, therefore fratino = sister. In this way, the dismemberment of the language in no way embarrasses the learner; he does not even suspect that that which he calls a prefix, or suffix, or termination, is really an independent word, which always preserves its meaning, no matter whether it be used at the beginning, middle, or end of a word, or independently, and that every word, with equal right, can be used as a root word or grammatical particle."


[9] It must be remembered that all roots or root-words in Esperanto are either sexless, or have only the sex naturally belonging to the root, unless the feminine suffix—IN—be added. For instance, vir- gives the idea of "man" (male), therefore viro = a man; and we always speak of viro as li = he, because we are sure the noun refers to the male sex. But the root infan- gives only the idea of a "child" (neuter), so, unless we actually know the child is a male, we speak of infano = child as ĝi = it, just as we do in English. When a suffix denoting a person, such as -estr-, -ist-, -ul-, is added to a root, the noun is sexless, or may be presumed to be masculine, unless the feminine -in- be also added.

41. With reference to the above, it will be observed that Dr. Zamenhof calls all combinations of letters,[10] which convey an idea, a "word," as for instance frat, in, o, but in practice the student may find it helpful to use the terms which are defined in pars. 37–39, and (with the exception of the primary words in the list, Part V.) to call no combination a "word" until it receives a grammatical termination.


[10] Not only combinations of letters, but each vowel (as already shown in the case of O), conveys an idea, and is therefore, technically speaking, a word; for instance—

In the table of Correlative Words, Dr. Zamenhof carries out the idea of indefiniteness in the I series, ia, ial, iam, etc.; all, however, be it noted, independent indivisible roots (see par. 147). In fact ia, ie, io, might be considered as adjective, adverb, and noun, regularly formed from the indefinite word (or grammatical termination as we call it) "i."

42. Grammatical Terminations (gramatikaj finiĝoj).—Every word in Esperanto, except the primary words, has a grammatical termination which shows:—

(a). The part of speech.

(b). Whether the word is singular or plural.

(c). Whether in the nominative or accusative case.

(d). The mood, tense, and participles of a verb.

A list of the grammatical terminations will be found in par. 53.

43. Suffixes.—Suffixes are syllables placed between the root and grammatical termination, adding to the word the idea contained in the suffix as well as that in the root.

A list of suffixes will be found in par. 54.

44. Prefixes.—A prefix is a syllable placed before the root, adding to the root the idea contained in the prefix.

A list of prefixes will be found in par. 55.

45. From the foregoing definitions we see that words in Esperanto are either primary words, or words composed of:—

(a). Roots and grammatical terminations.

(b). Roots, suffixes, and grammatical terminations.

(c). Prefixes, roots, and grammatical terminations.

(d). Prefixes, roots, suffixes, and grammatical terminations.

46. Order of Suffixes.—The grammatical terminations, A, E, I, O, U, AS, IS, OS, US, showing the part of speech and mood and tense of verbs, must end all words (except some of the primary words), the accusative N or plural J being added if required. Suffixes precede this termination in their natural order. For instance, if we want to say "a tiny female kitten," we commence with the root kat-, giving the idea only of "cat" ; then add -id- (suffix for "offspring of") kat-id- = kitten; then -in- (female suffix) kat-id-in- = kitten female; then -et- (diminutive suffix) kat-id-in-et- = kitten female tiny; we have now got the root and all the suffixes, and we might make the word an adjective by adding A, but we want a noun, so add O; kat-id-in-et-o = a tiny female kitten. If we place -et- after kat-, we commence by speaking of a "tiny cat," for kateto has that meaning, so katetidino would be the "female offspring of a tiny cat." If we reversed the three suffixes, we should get kat-in-et-id-o = offspring of a tiny female cat. This exaggerated example of building up suffixes will show the importance of placing them in their natural order. The student cannot make a mistake if he commences with the root and forms a word of each suffix in succession; for instance, hund-o = a dog, hund-id-o = a puppy, hundid-in-o = a female puppy, hundidin-eg-o = a huge female puppy.

47. Order of Prefixes.—In like manner prefixes must come in their natural order, as:—Sano = health, mal-sano = illness, re-mal-sano = a return of illness, a relapse.

48. Order of roots in compound words.—The principal root is always placed last, and receives the grammatical termination, with or without a suffix. The root of a subordinate word is sufficient without any suffix.

Examples.Ĉas-gard-ist-o = A gamekeeper, (ĉasi = to hunt, ĉas-aĵo = a thing hunted, game; but it is unnecessary to add the suffix -aĵ- to the subordinate root). Roz-kolora = Rose coloured. Skrib-tablo = Writing table. Lerno-libro = Instruction book, manual (lern-o, the root, made a full word for euphony). Compare: librolerno, book-learning. Tir-kesto = A drawer (tir-i = to draw, kesto = a chest). Lum-turo = Lighthouse (lum-i = to shine, turo = a tower). Lip-haroj = Moustache (lip-o = a lip, haroj = hairs). Vang-haroj = Whiskers (vang-o = a cheek).

49. When the root should be a noun, adjective, or adverb.—When the joining of the root alone makes the compound word difficult to pronounce, the root is generally made a noun by adding O for the sake of euphony, as:—Lerno-libro = manual, instruction book. If the prefixed root alone would not give the required meaning, the suitable grammatical ending must be added. Estis unu-taga laboro = it was one day’s work. Estis la unua-taga laboro = it was the first day’s work. La supre-citita paragrafo = the above-quoted paragraph. In case of adverbs, N to form the accusative is also added, if direction is implied, as:—Li supren-iris la monton = he ascended the mountain (see 67 (b)).

N.B.—The hyphens are not necessary.

50. The idea conveyed by the root.—In forming a word, the first thing is to find out the exact primary idea contained in the root. Do not think, for instance, that because you happen to know that one of the meanings of cel-o is end, that cel-i will mean to finish or end. The primary idea of cel- is aim, or purpose, therefore cel-i is to aim, to purpose. Do not, in the case of a word with one or more suffixes, think that because you know one of its meanings, you know also the idea conveyed in its root. For instance, kresk-aĵ-o is a plant, but do not at once say that kresk-i is to plant; kreskaĵo comes quite logically from kreski = to grow, therefore kreskaĵo is a thing grown, a growth, a plant. In other words, make certain that you understand the exact meaning of the Esperanto root; and be careful not to be misled by the fact that many English words have a number of different meanings.

PRIMARY WORDS (Vortoj fundamentaj).

51. The Primary words are 158 in number, and must be carefully learnt (see list, page 334). They are not only complete words in themselves with a definite meaning, but they can be treated as root-words and receive prefixes, suffixes, and grammatical terminations. There is no rule to prevent any of these words, ending in a vowel, from receiving, if logically allowable, the accusative N or the plural J (see par. 142).

Examples.Jen (behold), jene = As follows. Ne (no, not), nei = To deny. Tie (there), tieulo = A man from there (that place). Ĉirkaŭ (around, round), ĉirkaŭi = To surround. Jes (yes), jeso = An affirmation. Tiaj esprimoj = Such expressions. Tiuj ĉevaloj = Those horses. Li aĉetis ĉiujn ĉevalojn = He bought all the horses. Faru al mi ian respondon = Make me some (kind of) reply. Venu tien ĉi = Come hither. Diru al mi tion, kion vi faris = Tell me what (that which) you did (have done). Unuj faris tion ĉi, aliaj tion = Some did this, others that.

Among the Primary Words are found all the personal and demonstrative pronouns, all the cardinal numbers and prepositions, and also many common adverbs and conjunctions. It is important, therefore, that the student should thoroughly master their meaning.

FOREIGN WORDS (Vortoj fremdaj).

52. Foreign words are those which in most languages are derived from the same source, and, being consequently much alike in formation, are easily understood by most nations, there being only a slight difference in spelling and that difference of termination which occurs in all languages. Dr. Zamenhof wisely lays down that they should undergo no change, beyond conforming to Esperanto orthography and its grammatical terminations.

In order to show their change from English spelling, the following examples are given, not only of words which may be called "foreign," but of others that are a near approach to English in formation. It must be borne in mind that these changes of letters by no means invariably take place; they are only general.

52 (a).—Initial and Medial Letters.

C (hard) = K generally, as:—Declare = deklari, economy = ekonomio, decameter = dekametro, hectogram = hektogramo. In a few cases C becomes Ĉ, as:—Dedicate = dediĉi, carpenter = ĉarpentisto (probably from the French charpentier).

C (soft) generally undergoes no change, so remains C with its sound of TS, as:—Cipher = cifero, cigar = cigaro, glycerine = glicerino, grimace = grimaco, spice = spico. Some few words change to Z, as:—Price = prezo.

Ch (soft) = Ĉ generally, as:—Chamber = ĉambro, charming = ĉarma, chaste = ĉasta, chief = ĉefo.

Ch (hard) = Ĥ generally, as:—Chameleon = ĥameleono, chaos = ĥaoso, chemistry = ĥemio, cholera = ĥolero, hypochondria = hipoĥondrio, chorister = ĥoristo. It will be seen that these words are mostly derived from the Greek.

G (soft or hard) = G generally, as:—Geology = geologio, elegant = eleganta, general (officer) = generalo. The exceptions in which Ĝ is used are mostly words following the French pronunciation, as:—Danger = danĝero, garden = ĝardeno, general (adjective) = ĝenerala, germ = ĝermo, giraffe = ĝirafo, etc.

PH = F, as:—Elephantiasis = elefantiazo, sphere = sfero, etc.

QU = KV, as:—Equivalent = ekvivalenta, eloquent = elokventa, inquisition = inkvizicio, quantity = kvanto, quadratic = kvadrata.

S = S, but in a few instances it becomes Ŝ (probably following German pronunciation) as:—Slime = ŝlimo, smear = ŝmiri, spare = ŝpari, spin = ŝpini, etc.

S (sounded like Z) = Z generally, as:—Desert = dezerto, rose = rozo, present = prezenti, preside = prezidi, etc.

Sh = Ŝ generally, as:—Shark = ŝarko, ship = ŝipo, shoe = ŝuo.

Th = T, as:—Theatre = teatro, mythology = mitologio.

X = KS or KZ, generally, as:—Example = ekzemplo, exercise = ekzerco, dispatch = ekspedi, excite = eksciti, exposition = ekspozicio, exist = ekzisti. In a few instances X becomes S, as:—Extinguish = estingi, explore = esplori, express = esprimi. Occasionally L is used for X, as:—Expel = elpeli, excrescence = elkreskaĵo, etc. When L is substituted it will be observed that the English prefix EX means "out of," and that, therefore, Esperanto logically uses the preposition EL, meaning "out of," as the prefix.

52 (b).—Terminal Letters.

Terminal Letters.—If the last syllable ends in the sound of a consonant, it is generally right to add O to the last consonant of the English word, to form a noun, as:—Diadem = diademo, diagonal = diagonalo, granite = granito, dialogue = dialogo, debate = debato. There are, of course, exceptions. Beginners should always consult an Esperanto Dictionary if they have any doubt as to internationality or spelling. Note the following terminations, which have a peculiarity of their own:—

-ER. = RO generally, for a noun, as:—December = Decembro, diameter = diametro. Words like "centre," "theatre," etc., sometimes spelt "center," "theater," follow the rule, as:—Centro, teatro.

-IC and -ICAL. = A or IA. These terminations are English suffixes for adjectives. Esperanto, however, discards them and gives its own adjectival suffix A, as Galvanic = galvana, hypnotic = hipnota, theatrical = teatra, identical = identa, theoretic = teoria, geographical = geografia. (See remarks on -OGY and -ISM).

-ICS. = KO. The English termination -ICS has a plural form, but in Esperanto -CS is generally represented by -KO, and not the plural -KOJ, as:—Mathematics = matematiko, etc.

-INE. The I in this termination is occasionally turned into E, as:—Gelatine = gelateno. More commonly it is retained, as:—Glycerine = glicerino.

-ISH. = DUBE (doubtful) may be prefixed to colours to form the adjective in -ish, as:—Dubenigra = blackish, dubeblanka = whitish, dubeverda = greenish. It is, however, better to use the suffix -et, thus: nigreta, verdeta.

-ISM. In many cases the ending -ISM forms part of an international root, and is thus used in Esperanto also; e.g., paroksismo = paroxysm, sofismo = a sophism, fallacy, aforismo = an aphorism, are simple words, for there are no roots paroks, sof (in this sense), afor. In the majority of cases the English suffix -ism and the Esperanto suffix -ism coincide, thus: komunismo = communism, vegetarismo = vegetarianism. Sometimes the English -ism has the meaning -ec, thus: heroeco = heroism, fanatikeco = fanaticism. Catholicism may mean katolikismo or katolikeco.

-IST. Esperanto words ending in -ism often have companion forms in -ist, to which similar remarks apply, as:—sofisto = a sophist, komunisto = a communist.

-MENT. When this is the English termination of a noun derived from a root not ending in -MENT, it becomes O, as:—Embarrass = embarasi, embarrassment = embaraso, rebate = rabati, rebatement = rabato. But when -MENT is part of the English root it is retained, as:—Element = elemento, experiment = eksperimento, fundament = fundamento.

-OGY. Words derived from the Greek change Y into IO, as:—Geology = geologio, theology = teologio. The adjectives of these words end in -IC and -ICAL, and, as their Esperanto root ends in -I, A must be added to this to form the adjectives geologia, teologia.

-SIS. = ZO generally, as:—Apotheosis = apoteozo, hypothesis = hipotezo, oasis = oazo, synthesis = sintezo.

-TH. = T, as:—Hyacinth = hiacinto.

-TION. = CIO occasionally, as:—Declaration = deklaracio, exposition = ekspozicio, arbitration = arbitracio, generation = generacio, situation = situacio. Usually, however, English -tion corresponds to Esperanto -o, -ado, or -aĵo, as:—information = inform-o, -ado, -aĵo; and such forms are often used even when an alternative form in -cio exists, thus: deklar-o, -aĵo.

-UM. = O generally, as:—Epithalamium = epitalamio, gymnasium (college) = gimnazio, geranium = geranio.

-Y. = IO generally in words derived from Latin or Greek, as:—Philosophy = filozofio, astronomy = astronomio, sympathy (liking) = simpatio, industry = industrio.


(Gramatikaj Finiĝoj).

A final denotes an Adjective. Patra, paternal.
E final denotes an Adverb. Patre, paternally.
I final denotes the Infinitive Mood. Fari, to do.
O final denotes a Noun. Patro, a father.
U final denotes the Imperative Mood. Faru, do.
Li faru, let him do.
Diru, ke li faru tion, say he is to do that.
J final denotes the Plural. Patroj, fathers.
N final denotes the Accusative Case. Patron.
Mi vidis mian patron, I saw my father.
AS final denotes the Present Tense.
Mi faras, I do, or, I am doing.
IS final denotes the Past Tense.
Li faris, he did, or, he has done.
OS final denotes the Future Tense. Ni faros, we shall do.
US final denotes the Conditional Mood.
Vi farus, you should, or would, do.
ANTA final denotes Present Participle Active.
Faranta, doing.
INTA final denotes Past Participle Active.
Farinta, having done.
ONTA final denotes Future Participle Active.
Faronta, about to do.
ATA final denotes Present Participle Passive.
Farata, being done.
ITA final denotes Past Participle Passive.
Farita, having been done.
OTA final denotes Future Participle Passive.
Farota, about to be done.

N.B.—There are three forms of participles, the adjectival, substantival, and adverbial. The one given above is the adjectival. In the adverbial form the final A is changed into E. Farante tion, li ... = By (in, or through) doing that, he ... To form the substantive, change A into O. La faranto = The doer (the person doing). These three forms are applicable to all the three participles in both the active and passive voices (see pars. 208–210).


54. The following lists of suffixes (31) and prefixes (7 in number) should be carefully studied, since innumerable words of the finest shade of meaning can be formed by their aid, in fact, they are the ground-work of the language. In cases where a suffix can be used as a root, the word it helps to form is given. The hyphens are used only to show the root, suffix, and grammatical termination of the examples. The student should form other words himself, and study the works of the best authors. (For remarks on suffixes and prefixes, see pars. 270–290.)

55. LIST OF PREFIXES (Prefiksoj).


On reference to par. 254, it will be seen that prepositions are frequently used as prefixes. A good many other particles also are used in the same way, e.g.:—

ELISION (Elizio).

56. Elision is not common in Esperanto, except in poetry, where it is used, when required, for the purpose of rhythm. Some prose writers use it, but it is better to avoid its use.

57. The letter A in the article la may be elided when the article is preceded by a preposition ending in a vowel, for then the L of the article can be sounded with the preposition and the full pronunciation given to the first letter of the following word, e.g., de l’ kreo de l’ mondo (for de la) = since the creation of the world. (Pronounce de l’ as del).

In poetry the letter A of the article is occasionally elided before a word beginning with a vowel.

The final O of the substantive may also be elided, e.g., kant’ (for kanto) = a song. The tonic accent (par. 17) remains on the same syllable on which it would fall if no elision had taken place.

Note that kant’ may not be used as an abbreviation of anything else but kanto. Thus, it cannot represent kanton, kantoj, kante, kantas, etc.

The dropped letter is in all cases noted by an apostrophe.

Ĝis la bela sonĝo de l’ homaro (de l’ for de la)
Por eterna ben’ efektiviĝos (ben’ for beno).
Till the beautiful dream of humanity
Shall be realized for an eternal blessing.
Pri l’ tempoj estontaj pensante (pri l’ for pri la)
Thinking of times to be.
L’ espero, l’ obstino kaj la pacienco.
Hope, tenacity, and patience.


58. Questions are asked in two ways, viz.—either by the interrogative adverb ĉu = whether, or by one of the interrogative words kia = what kind of, kial = why, kiam = when, kie = where, kiel = how, kies = whose, kio = what, kiom = how much, or how many, kiu = who, which.

(a). Ĉu is used when none of the other words in a sentence are used in an interrogative sense. It is, in fact, the general word for interrogations answerable by "yes" or "no."

Examples.Ĉu vi komprenas? = Do you understand? Ĉu li legas? = Does he read? Ĉu vi havas mian libron? = Have you my book? Ĉu vi havas tion, kion mi bezonas? = Have you what (that which) I want? Ĉu Johano iris lernejon? (or, al lernejo?) = Did John go (or, has John gone) to school? Ĉu vi pruntos al mi krajonon? = Will you lend me a pencil? Ĉu li estos foririnta, antaŭ ol vi alvenos? = Will he have gone away before you (will) arrive? Ĉu vi estus tion farinta, se mi estus tie? = Would you have done that if I had been there?

When the verb following ĉu is in the Imperative mood, it shows the ellipsis of some other verb expressing "wish, desire, etc." (see pars. 200, 237 (m)).

Examples.Ĉu mi iru kaj kunpremu la gorĝon de tiu ĉi hundo...? (Zamenhof, "La Rabistoj") = Shall I go and squeeze the throat of this dog...? Here the full phrase would be, Ĉu vi volas, ke mi iru...? = Do you wish me to go...? Ĉu mi aĉetu por vi libron? = Shall I buy you a book? Ĉu ni luu fiakron? = Shall we take a cab?

The verb is sometimes omitted when a question is preceded by an assertion.

Examples.Hodiaŭ estas merkredo, ĉu ne? (or, ĉu ne vere?) = To-day is Wednesday, isn’t it? Ili diris al vi la veron, ĉu ne? = They told you the truth, didn’t they? Ili ne diris al vi la veron, ĉu? = They didn’t tell you the truth, did they?

(b). The following examples show the use of the nine interrogatives kia, kial, kiam, etc.

Examples.Kian leteron vi skribis? = What kind of letter did you write? Kial vi ne respondis? Why did you not answer? Kiam li alvenos? = When will he come? Kie estas la poŝtoficejo? = Where is the post-office? Kiel vi faris tion? = How did you do that? Kies domo estas tiu? = Whose house is that? Kion vi konsilas al mi fari? = What do you advise me to do? Kiom da ĉevaloj estas tie? = How many horses are there? (at that place)? Kiom kostas tio? = How much does that cost? Kiu estas en la ĝardeno? = Who is in the garden? Kiun vi vidis en la preĝejo? = Whom did you see in the church? Kiu estas tie? = Who is there?

(c). Of the above, those ending in a consonant are invariable. Those ending in a vowel can take the accusative N, but kia and kiu are the only words which take the plural J (par. 142).

Examples.Kien vi iras? = Whither are you going? Kiajn tranĉilojn vi bezonas? = What kind of knives do you need? Kiujn librojn vi aĉetis? = Which books did you buy? Kiuj estas la tagoj de la semajno? = Which are the days of the week?

(d). From kiom the adjective kioma = how much, how many’th is formed, and this also may be used as an interrogative.

Example.Je kioma horo vi venos? = At what o’clock (hour) will you come?

(See correlative words, pars. 147–157. For further examples see pars. 64, 170. For place of interrogative see par. 91.)


59. Double negatives are hardly ever used in Esperanto, for, if employed, they would, as in English, have an affirmative meaning.

(a). Ne = no, not, is the word in general use to imply negation. It immediately precedes the word or words it modifies.

Examples.Ĉu vi ne vidis lin? = Did you not see him? Mi devas ne iri = I must not go.[11] Mi ne devas iri = I am not obliged to go.[11] Ne mi, sed li, havas katon = It is not I, but he, who has a cat. Mi ne havas katon = I have not (got) a cat.


[11] This distinction, however, is not observed by all writers.

(b). The nine correlative words, nenia, nenial, neniam, nenie, neniel, nenies, nenio, neniom, neniu, also imply negation.

Examples.Li havas nenian sperton = He has no kind of experience. Li ne havas ian sperton = He has not any kind of experience. Nenial li subite foriris de Londono = For no reason he suddenly left London. Mi nenion trovis = I found nothing. Mi ne trovis ion (ion, not nenion, here) = I did not find anything. (See correlative words, pars. 147–157).

(c). Nek = nor and nek ... nek = neither ... nor have also a negative meaning.

Examples.Nek mi nek li estis tie = Neither I nor he was there. Mi vidis nek Johanon nek Georgon = I saw neither John nor George.

Nek is generally used in the second clause of a sentence, although the first is negative.

Examples.Mi ne scias la francan lingvon, nek la anglan, nek la turkan = I do not know the French language, or (nor) English, or (nor) Turkish. Nenio estas al mi pli kara, nek dolĉa, ol vi = Nothing is dearer to me or (nor) sweeter than you. Mi ne renkontis lin, nek lian fraton = I did not meet him or (nor) his brother.

(d). Compound words with ne, sen, mal, have also a negative signification, and such words are often employed with a negative to express an affirmative assertion. (See par. 289.)

Examples.La okazo ne estis neatendita = The event was not unexpected. Lia riĉeco ne estis senlima = His fortune was not unlimited. Li ne estis malhonesta = He was not dishonest.

60. Double Negative.—Occasionally a double negative is used to give strong force to a negation. Dr. Zamenhof, in his translation of Hamlet, Act I., Scene 5, renders "Lay your hands again upon my sword: swear by my sword, never to speak of this that you have heard" by Metu viajn manojn denove sur la glavon, kaj ripetu, ke vi neniam al neniu diros pri la apero de la nokto, lit. = Lay your hands again upon the sword, and repeat, that you never, to no one, will speak of the apparition of the night.

Some Esperantists do not consider this a double negative, but it undoubtedly is, according to the literal English translation. Another explanation of the passage is to supply mentally an omitted kaj after the word neniam.

61. Of course, when two negatives refer to different verbs, expressed or unexpressed, this is not a double negative.

Examples.Mi ne volis, ne skribi al vi = I did not wish, not to write to you. Ne nur ne malamiko, sed kunbatalanto li estis = (He was) not only not an enemy, but he was a comrade in arms (fellow combatant).

62. Two negatives may be used in such an expression as "could not help," etc.

Example.Li ne povis ne kisi la malgrandulon = He could not help kissing the little one. Lit.:—He could not not kiss the little one.

QUESTIONS AND REPLIES (Demandoj kaj Respondoj).

63. Jes = yes is the word used to answer a question affirmatively.

Examples.Ĉu vi vidis mian patron? Jes! = Did you see my father? Yes. Jes, with the conjunction ke, is also used for "it is so," as, mi vin certigas, ke jes = I assure you that it is so.

Ne = no, not, is used in a similar way to answer a question negatively.

Example.Mi vin certigas, ke ne = I assure you that it is not so.

64. To give force to affirmative or negative replies one can add to ne or jes any suitable adverb, as certe = certainly, ja = indeed, kompreneble = of course, etc., etc., or repeat the verb of the interrogation without its complement, in the same way as in English we often repeat the auxiliary of the verb.

Examples.Ĉu vi faris tion? = Did you do that? Jes! Jes! Mi faris, or Ne! Ne! Mi ne faris = Yes, yes, I did, or No, no! I did not. Ĉu vi finis vian laboron? = Have you finished your work? Jes! mi finis, or Ne, mi ne (finis) = Yes, I have, or, No, I have not. Ĉu vi mortigis tiun birdon? = Did you kill that bird? Jes! Certe mi mortigis, or, Certe jes! or, Ne, kompreneble, mi ne mortigis, or, Kompreneble ne! = Yes! Certainly I did, or, No! Of course, I didn’t! Ĉu vi deziras kafon? = Do you want coffee? Jes, mi deziras, or Ne, mi ne deziras; mi jam havas = Yes, I do, or, No, I do not; I have (some) already.

64 (a). When the verb is omitted in the reply, the case must be used which would have been used had the verb been expressed.

Examples.Kiom kostis la ĉapelo? Naŭ ŝilingojn (aŭ, ĝi kostis naŭ ŝilingojn) = What did the hat cost? Nine shillings (or, it cost nine shillings). Kien vi iras? En la ĝardenon (aŭ, mi iras en la ĝardenon) = Where (whither) are you going? Into the garden (or, I am going into the garden). Kiom pezas la kesto? Dek naŭ funtojn = What does the chest weigh? Nineteen pounds; but, Kiom estas la pezo de la kesto? Dek naŭ funtoj = what is the weight of the chest? Nineteen pounds.

THE ACCUSATIVE (La Akuzativo).

65. Accusative: when used.—The accusative is used in Esperanto:—

(1). To show the direct object of a verb.

(2). To show motion towards something (Rule 13, par. 94).

(3). To show a preposition has been omitted (Rules 8 and 14, par. 94).

The following are examples of these three uses:—

66 (1). To show the direct object of a verb.

(a). After transitive verbs the accusative is used to show the direct object.

Examples.Johano vidas la knabon = John sees the boy. Georgo aĉetis bonan ĉevalon = George bought a good horse. Now in either of these sentences the order of the words can be changed without altering the meaning. La knabon vidas Johano would still mean "John sees the boy," because Johano, being in the nominative, is clearly the subject, and knabon, being in the accusative, is clearly the object. But if we inverted the words in English, the sense would be entirely changed (see order of words, pars. 73–93).

(b). After participles.—The accusative is also used after active participles (adjectival or adverbial) to denote the object.

Examples.Johano estis rigardanta la knabon, kiam mi lin vidis = John was looking at the boy, when I saw him. Johano, vidante la knabon, donas al li pomon = John, seeing the boy, gives him an apple. Georgo estis aĉetinta ĉevalon = George had bought a horse. Georgo, aĉetinte ĉevalon, donis ĝin al sia frato = George, having bought (or, after buying) a horse, gave it to his brother (par. 212 (d)).

(c). When a verb is omitted.—The accusative is also used in exclamations and in expressions in which some verb expressing "wish" or "desire" is understood (see par. 64 (a)).

Examples.Peston al la tranĉilo: Mi tranĉis al mi la fingron! = Plague on the knife! I have cut my finger! Bonan tagon, Sinjoro = Good day, sir. Saluton al vi, sinjorino = (lit.) Salutation to you, madam. In reply to a question the accusative is used whenever the verb in the reply, which is omitted, governs the accusative, as:—Kiom kostas tiu ĉi krajono? (Ĝi kostas) du pencojn = How much does this pencil cost? (It costs) twopence. Kiom estas la kosto de tiu ĉi krajono? (Ĝi estas) du pencoj = What is the price of this pencil? (It is) twopence.

67 (2). To show motion towards something.

(a). Accusative of direction.—To show direction towards which movement (physical or otherwise) is made the accusative is used, and this is generally called "the accusative of direction." It will be observed, however, that we can also use a preposition to show the motion, and, if such preposition in itself shows movement, its complement must be in the nominative, since all prepositions govern that case; but if the preposition does not in itself denote movement, then its complement must be in the accusative.

Examples.Mi iras Romon (aŭ, al Romo) = I am going to Rome. Li kuris en la ĝardenon = He ran into the garden. The preposition en does not show movement, therefore ĝardenon is in the accusative, but Li kuris en la ĝardeno = He ran in the garden. This means he was already in the garden, and was running in it. Sur la danan tronon mi havas rajtojn = On the Danish throne I have rights.

(b). Adverbs also take the accusative of direction.

Examples.Kien vi iras? Mi iras nenien hodiaŭ = Where (whither) are you going? I am going nowhere to-day. Ĝi falis teren (or, sur la teron) = It fell to the ground (or, on to the ground; lit., earthwards). Li iris hejmen kaj restis hejme = He went home and remained at home.

68. (3). To show that a preposition has been omitted.

As stated in Rule 8, par. 94, every preposition in Esperanto governs the nominative case.

By Rule 14 we are told that every preposition has a defined and constant meaning, but that if we must use some preposition, and the direct sense does not show what special preposition we are to take, we can then either use the indefinite preposition je, or the accusative without a preposition. The following are examples under this head in which the accusative may be used:—

(a). After doubtful verbs.—From the foregoing remarks it follows that if we do not know whether a verb governs the accusative or not, we can always use the accusative, if no ambiguity is occasioned thereby. Otherwise some preposition should be employed instead.

For instance, we can say:—Obeu vian patron, or, Obeu je via patro, or, Obeu al via patro = Obey your father. Ŝi helpis al sia frato, or, Ŝi helpis sian fraton = She helped her brother. Li pardonis sian filon, or, Li pardonis al sia filo = He forgave his son. But in phrases where doubt as to meaning may arise we must always use a preposition, as:—Li pardonis al sia filo lian kulpon = He forgave his son his fault. Not Li pardonis sian filon lian kulpon, for the two accusatives here would create confusion. Li legis tion en la dua de Marto, or, Li legis pri tio la duan de Marto = He read that on the 2nd of March.

(b). Duration or any point of time.

Examples.Mi restis tie kvar semajnojn (or, dum or tra, kvar semajnoj) = I remained there (during) four weeks. La proksiman lundon (or, en la proksima lundo) mi veturos Londonon (or, al Londono) = Next Monday I shall go to London. Printempon (or, en printempo) floroj aperas = In spring flowers appear. Li venos dimanĉon (or, en dimanĉo) = He will come on a Sunday. Similarly the accusative may be used for dates, as:—Washington (pronounced Ŭaŝington) estis naskita la dudek-duan (or, en la dudek-dua) de Februaro = Washington was born on the 22nd of February. La 23an Marton, 1906a, or Je la 23a de Marto, 1906 = 23rd of March, 1906.

(c). Price, weight, measure.

Examples.La libroj kostis dek ŝilingojn (or, po dek ŝilingoj) por dekduo = The books cost ten shillings (or, at the rate of ten shillings) a dozen. La ĉambro estas alta dek du futojn (or, je dek du futoj) = The room is twelve feet high. La kesto pezas tridek funtojn (or, je tridek funtoj) = The chest weighs thirty pounds.

69. General Remarks on the Accusative.

From the foregoing examples we see the important part the accusative N plays in the construction of Esperanto, the clearness it gives to the meaning of a sentence, and the advantage it affords in permitting words to be placed in almost any order, The following examples will further illustrate this.

(a). Qualifying and Predicative Adjectives.—An adjective is termed "qualifying" when its noun or pronoun actually possesses the quality which the adjective denotes; and the adjective then agrees with the noun or pronoun both in case and number. But a "predicative" adjective, although it agrees in number, is always in the nominative (pars. 36, 108).

Examples.Mi trovis la belajn rozojn (or, rozojn belajn) = I found the beautiful roses. Mi trovis la rozojn belaj = I found the roses beautiful. In the first example the assertion is that beautiful roses were found; but in the second you assert only that you found, or discovered, that they were beautiful; they might, in someone else’s opinion, have been the contrary.

(b). Qualifying Adverbs are invariable.

Examples.Li skribis al mi tute malveran raporton pri la afero = He wrote me an entirely false statement of the matter. Mi pensis, ke ŝi estas treege bela = I thought (that) she was (is) extremely beautiful.

(c). Nouns and Pronouns in apposition have like cases and numbers.

Examples.Vi serĉas la princon, Hamleton = You seek the Prince, Hamlet. La diablo lin prenu, la sentaŭgulon = The devil take him, the wretch!

N.B.—Note the difference in case of two nouns in the following sentences:—Kuracisto havis du infanojn, filon kaj filinon; li nomis sian filon Johano, kaj sian filinon Mario. Kiam li parolis pri ili kun mi, li ĉiam nomis sian filon Johanon kun voĉo de amo, sed sian filinon Marion antipatie = A doctor had two children, a son and a daughter; he named his son, John, and his daughter, Mary. When he spoke to me about them, he always named his son, John, in voice of affection, but his daughter, Mary, with antipathy.

N.B.—In this example, when the nouns (Johano and Mario) are in the nominative, they express what is predicated or said about the objects (filon and filinon). But when they agree in case with the objects (filon and filinon), this shows they are nouns in apposition (see pars. 108, 109).

(d). Proper names.—In the case of non-Esperanto names it is possible to indicate the accusative, where desired, by the addition of N after a vowel, or ON after a consonant. This is the plan adopted by Zamenhof in La Malnova Testamento. Or the name may be regarded as a foreign word and left unchanged for the accusative.

Examples.David, Davidon. Noa, Noan. Sara, Saran. Robinson, Robinsonon. Smith, Smithon (or simply Smith). Of course, proper names which have been converted by use into Esperanto are treated like other nouns in O, as, Londono, Londonon; Berlino, Berlinon. Jones iris Berlinon, kaj renkontis Arturon Brown = Jones went to Berlin and met Arthur Brown.


70. Capital Letters (Majuskloj) may be used as they are in English, but as their use varies in different languages, it is as well to follow the majority of Esperanto writers. We, therefore, advise the student to—

Use capital letters, as in English, except:—

(a). For words derived from the names of places, as:—La angla nacio = The English nation. Li estas franco kaj loĝas en Francujo = He is a Frenchman and lives in France. Sur la danan tronon mi havas rajtojn = On the Danish throne I have rights.

(b). For the names of the days of the week, as:—Mi alvenos lundon = I shall arrive on a Monday.[12]

(c). For the pronoun "I" = mi.

In the Fundamento, Zamenhof used capital letters to begin the names of months. In his mature style he also used capitals for nouns and adjectives of nationality, e.g. Angla, Anglo, Dana, Franco.


[12] Note that lundon means "on a (or, some) Monday." If we wish to say "on Monday," meaning "next Monday," the full translation would be Mi alvenos la proksiman lundon = I shall arrive on (the next) Monday (see par. 68 (b)). Mi venas lunde = I come on Mondays.

PUNCTUATION (Interpunkcio).

71. Punctuation is only necessary to make clear the sense we wish to convey in writing. Happily it is not so important in Esperanto as in English, where a simple comma may make a great difference in the meaning of a sentence. Hence the verbosity of law documents in which stops are not used.

Every writer is free to use in Esperanto his own national or individual method of punctuation. Nevertheless, Zamenhof and the best writers follow a definite international usage, and the student is strongly advised to study and imitate their writings in this respect.

It is the custom, for instance, to separate every clause in a sentence by a punctuation mark. Accordingly, words like ke, por ke, ĉu, kiu, when they introduce a secondary sentence within the main sentence, are usually preceded by a comma. This aids the reader, and helps in the formation of a uniform international style.

When two verbs joined by kaj have the same subject, no comma is needed; but a comma is used if the subjects are different. Li staras kaj parolas (one subject). Li staras, kaj mi parolas al li (two subjects).

Use a comma after ho when it is part of an exclamation, but not in naming the person spoken to. Ho Dio! Ho, tute ne!

With abbreviations like S-ro, S-ino, D-ro, it is usual to insert a hyphen, but no following stop, thus: F-ino Jones.

72. The following is what Dr. Zamenhof has written on the subject in the "Esperantisto." We give it in Esperanto, so that the student can see the punctuation for himself:—

La reguloj pri la uzado de la interpunkcioj estas en nia lingvo pli-malpli tiaj samaj, kiel en ĉiuj aliaj lingvoj; sekve ĉiu povas uzadi en Esperanto la interpunkciojn tiel, kiel li uzas ilin en sia nacia lingvo. Estas vere, ke en diversaj detaloj la uzado de la interpunkcioj estas malegala en diversaj lingvoj; sed ĉar la objekto ne estas tre grava, tial ni pensas, ke ne venis ankoraŭ la tempo por difini en nia lingvo severajn regulojn por tiuj ĉi detaloj. En tiuj ĉi dubaj detaloj ĉiu povas uzi en Esperanto la interpunkciojn tiel, kiel li uzas ilin en sia nacia lingvo, kaj nur la uzo iom post iom ellaboros por tiuj ĉi negravaj detaloj difinitajn regulojn.

Translation.—The rules regarding the use of stops are in our language more or less the same as in all other languages, therefore everyone can continue using in Esperanto stops in such a manner as he uses them in his national language. It is true that in several details the use of stops is different in various languages, but since the matter is not very important, we think the time has not yet come to lay down in our language strict rules for these details. In these doubtful details everyone can use in Esperanto the stops he uses in his national language, and only custom, little by little, will work out for these unimportant details definite rules.

ORDER OF WORDS. (Ordigo de Vortoj).

The hints in this chapter should be considered not as hard and fast rules to be learned by heart, but simply as an endeavour to state the usual practice of good writers. The best guide for the student is the study of the best authors, coupled with obedience to his own common sense and feeling for beauty of style and clarity of expression. (See par. 93.)

73. Since Esperanto has eliminated the defects of other languages, and embraced only the good points of each, its flexibility as regards the order of words in a sentence is great. This is principally owing to the fact that the accusative N clearly distinguishes the object from the subject, to the agreement in case and number of the adjective with the noun it qualifies, and to the fact that prepositions and conjunctions do not interfere with the proper functions of other words. In English the accusative case is distinguished only in the pronouns he (him), she (her), etc. It is true that English has a possessive case, which in Esperanto is applied only to the correlative group of words ending in -ES, viz., ies, kies, etc. (see pars. 106 (b), 154); but even this doubtful advantage is lessened by the fact that the apostrophe S in English is useless in speech in the plural when the word ends in S. For instance, when one says, "That is my brothers’ house," does one mean it belongs to one brother or more? Certainly, as written, with the apostrophe after the S, the meaning is two or more, but, as spoken, one would naturally suppose it belonged to one brother only. So, to be clear, we should have to fall back on the Esperanto mode of expression, and say, That is the house of my brothers = Tio estas la domo de miaj fratoj; even then Esperanto is clearer than English, for the pronoun (miaj) is a plural form, whereas in English my is the same for both numbers.

74. Owing to the above advantages, words may be arranged in almost any order in Esperanto, and yet be intelligible; but of course it is advisable that they should follow one another in the natural sequence of our thoughts. The first point is, that the meaning of a sentence should be absolutely clear, and the second, that the sounds should be as harmonious as they can be, combined with clearness of expression. The student is advised to read the "Fundamenta Krestomatio," by Dr. Zamenhof, which will familiarize him with the construction of the language, and he will then rapidly acquire a knowledge as to the best order for words.

75. Place of the subject and object.—The subject is usually placed before and the object after the verb.

Examples.Mia fratino aĉetis libron = My sister bought a book. Rikardo manĝas kukon = Richard is eating a cake. Kukon manĝas Rikardo means exactly the same, and would he quite intelligible, but the mind would not grasp the meaning so rapidly, and it would be absurd, without a reason, to place words in such an unnatural order.

76. Position for emphasis.—Words are often placed out of the usual order, as they are in English, to give emphasis, or for the sake of contrast.

Examples.Lin mi renkontis, ne ŝin = Him I met, not her. Belon mi trovis ĉie, bonon nenie = Beauty I found everywhere, good nowhere.

77. Place of the predicate.—The predicate, or what is said about the subject, is usually placed after the verb.

Examples.Li estos kontenta (or Li kontentiĝos) se vi donos al li ŝilingon = He will be satisfied if you (will) give him a shilling. Ŝi fariĝus pli sana, se la vetero estus pli varma, or Ŝi pli saniĝus, se la vetero pli varmiĝus = She would get better if the weather became warmer. But after the word kiel it is preferable to put the predicate before the verb, as:—Kiel malsana li ŝajnas! = How ill he seems! Kiel li ŝajnas malsana would be quite possible and correct, but Esperanto inclines to follow the English order of words here, as also in many other cases where in other languages the construction is quite different.

78. Place of the direct complement.—We have stated that the object is placed usually after the verb, but it may equally correctly precede it.

Examples.Mi lin malamas, or, Mi malamas lin = I detest him. If, however, the object be followed by an explanatory phrase, it is better to place it after the verb, as:—Mi vidis lin kuŝantan sur la lito = I saw him lying on the bed. Mi renkontis ŝin, ĝuste kiam ŝi estis eliranta = I met her just as she was going out (see par. 29).

79. Place of the indirect complement.—The complement is said to be indirect when it is governed by a preposition (see Syntax, par. 31). It is usually placed after the verb.

Examples.Zorgu pri tio = Take care of (about) that. Alkonduku lin al mi = Bring him to me. La domo estas konstruata de mia patro = The house is being built by my father. Mi ĝin donis (or, donis ĝin) al li por lia nepino = I gave it to him for his granddaughter. Of course, we can place it before the verb if we wish, just as we can in English, and as we probably should in the following phrase:—El la dirita regulo sekvas, ke.... = From the said rule, it follows that....

80. Place of circumstantial complements (see Syntax, par. 32).—These complements, which mark the time, place, manner, cause, etc., of an action, are usually placed first or last in a sentence.

Examples.En printempo floroj aperas = In spring flowers appear. Nur kelke da knaboj ludadis sur la kampo = Only a few boys were playing in the field; or, Sur la kampo ludadis nur kelke da knaboj. In a sentence like the following the complement might be placed last, as:—Mi kriegis pro la dolorego = I howled with the intense pain. But in one like the following, where there are two or more circumstantial complements, they naturally should come first in the sentence, as:—Kun la haroj malordigitaj, kaj la okuloj eksaltantaj el la kapo de (or, pro) teruro, ŝi kuregis laŭ la strato = With dishevelled hair, and eyes starting out of her (the) head with terror, she rushed down the street.

81. The complements of nouns, adjectives, or participial adjectives, usually follow them.

Examples.La amo al (or, por) Dio = Love to (for) God. Mirigita de liaj vortoj, mi eliris el la domo = Astonished at his words, I left (went out of) the house.

82. Place of the infinitive.—The infinitive being really a noun, takes its place, according as it is the subject, predicate, or complement. When it is the subject, it generally precedes the verb, unless one wishes to place it otherwise for the sake of emphasis.

Examples.Scii estas utile = Knowledge (to know) is useful. Honte estas mensogi = It is shameful to lie. If the predicate, it usually follows the verb, as:—Tion fari estas agi malsaĝe = To do that is to act foolishly. If the complement, it follows the word of which it is the complement, as:—Mi tre deziras paroli kun vi = I want very much to speak with you. Ni trinkas por sensoifiĝi, kaj ni manĝas por satigi nin (or, por satiĝi) = We drink to allay thirst (to become without thirst), and we eat to allay hunger (to be satiated). Mi devas iri hejmen = I must go home. La elekto tion fari restas ĉe vi = The option of doing that rests with you. Li estos tre feliĉa vin vidi morgaŭ = He will be very glad to see you to-morrow. La deziro kontraŭdiri = The desire of contradicting (to contradict).

83. Place of the noun.—The noun is placed according as it is the subject, predicate, complement (direct, indirect, or circumstantial), (see pars. 76–80).

84. Place of the adjective.—The position of the adjective varies in national languages. In English it is nearly always placed before the word it qualifies, and we may say that this is generally its place in Esperanto. The following remarks and examples of the four classes of adjectives, "qualifying," "predicative," "possessive," and "demonstrative," will give an idea of its position, in accordance with the sense or emphasis wished to be conveyed.

(a). A qualifying adjective may either precede or follow the word it qualifies.

(In either position the meaning is precisely the same grammatically. It is considered by some that it throws a shade of emphasis on the adjective to place it after the noun it qualifies, especially when the adjective is the last word in the sentence.)

Examples.La malfeliĉa knabo (or, knabo malfeliĉa) perdis sian monujon = The unfortunate boy lost his purse. Li renkontis maljunan virinon (or, maljunulinon), tre grasan, kiu portis grandan korbon, plenan de maturaj pomoj = He met an old woman, very fat, who was carrying a large basket, full of ripe apples.

(b). A predicative adjective is usually placed after the verb, and noun or pronoun, to which it relates.

Examples.La papero estas blanka = The paper is white. Ili trovis la manĝaĵojn bonaj = They found the eatables good. Mi pensis, ke mi vidas ilin mortigantaj la homon = I thought (that) I saw (see) them killing (that they are killing) the man.

N.B.—A predicative adjective does not agree in case, when its noun or pronoun is in the accusative (pars. 69 (a), and 108 (b)).

(c). A possessive adjective usually precedes the word to which it relates. If we wish to speak in an affectionate strain, we can place it after the noun.

Examples.Mia patrino kaj miaj gefratoj donis al mi donacon en mia naskotago = My mother and my brothers and sisters gave me a present on my birthday. Ne ploru, patrino mia! = Do not weep, mother dear! (or, mother mine!). Johano mia, ne faru tion! = John dear, do not do that.

(d). A demonstrative adjective usually precedes the word to which it relates.

Examples.Tiu sinjorino estas mia fratino = That lady is my sister. Du ŝilingoj ne sufiĉos por aĉeti tiun libron = Two shillings will not buy that book.

(e). To show emphasis, adjectives can, as in English, be placed first in phrases.

Examples.Bona, malavara kaj ĝentila, li estas estimata de ĉiuj = Kind, generous and courteous, he was esteemed by all. Feliĉa estas la homo, kiu ne havas malamikojn = Happy is the man who has no enemies.

85. Place of the pronoun.—As in English, a personal pronoun may follow or precede the verb.

Examples."Jes," diris li (or, li diris), "vi estas prava" = "Yes," said he, "you are right." "Kial," ekkriis la homo, "vi faris tion?" = "Why," cried the man, "did you do that?"

86. Place of the verb.—The verb is, as a rule, placed after the subject, but this does not mean that it must follow it immediately, for it can be separated by predicates, complements, and adverbs.

Examples.La lingvo Esperanto, kreita de doktoro Zamenhof, estas jam uzata en la tuta mondo civilizita = The language Esperanto, created by Dr. Zamenhof, is already used in the whole civilized world. In sentences like the following it is, as in English, often placed before the subject. "Kien ni iros," diris mi al li, "kiam via amiko alvenos?" = "Where shall we go," said I to him, "when your friend arrives (shall arrive)?" Nun alvenas la horo de la sukceso por la lingvo internacia = Now comes the hour of (the) success for the international language. Aperis sur la monteto la figuro de rajdanto = There appeared on the hill the figure of a horseman. (For the place of the Infinitive, see par. 82.)

87. Place of the participle varies as follows:—

(a). When forming the compound tenses of verbs, the participle usually follows the auxiliary verb esti, though not necessarily immediately after it (see (d)).

Examples.Mi estos fininta mian leteron, antaŭ ol li alvenos = I shall have finished my letter before he arrives (will arrive). Ŝi estas tre amata de ĉiuj = She is very much loved by all.

(b). In a qualifying or predicative sense participles generally follow their noun or pronoun.

Examples.Mi vidis lin riproĉeganta kaj batanta la knabon = I saw him (that he is) rebuking and beating the boy. Ĉu tio estas mia hundo ĉasanta ŝafon? = Is that my dog chasing a sheep? La fraŭlino leganta la ĵurnalon estas tre bela = The young lady reading the newspaper is very beautiful. La konstruata domo (or, domo konstruata) = The house under construction (being constructed). Mi imagis, ke mi vidas la homon kisanta la virinon = I fancied (that) I saw the man kissing (that he is kissing) the woman.

(c). An adverbial participle generally precedes its noun or pronoun.

Examples.Vidante sian amikon, li haltis = (On) seeing his friend, he stopped. Leginte la libron, ŝi ekdormis = After reading (or, having read) the book, she fell asleep (par. 212 (d)).

(d). For emphasis the participle may be put first in a sentence.

Examples.Tedita de vojaĝado, mi decidis reveni hejmen = Tired of travelling, I decided to return home. Amataj kaj estimataj de ĉiuj, la fratoj havis multajn amikojn = Loved and esteemed by all, the brothers had many friends.

Note.—If qualifying and predicative participles are not placed in their natural position, viz., after their nouns or pronouns, the sense may be entirely changed. For instance, in the following two sentences the words are the same, but the sense varies with their positions:—Ŝi, kuranta en la ĉambron, vidis mian hundon = She, (who is) running into the room, saw my dog (here kuranta is the qualifying participle of ŝi). Ŝi vidis mian hundon kuranta en la ĉambron = She saw my dog (that he is) running into the room (here kuranta is the predicative participle of hundon, and, being predicative, does not take the accusative (see pars. 69 (a) and 108 (b)). The above two sentences might be altered as follows, showing different meanings, by using in the first an adverbial participle, and in the second a qualifying participle, as:—Kurante en la ĉambron, ŝi vidis mian hundon = (While) running into the room, she saw my dog. Ŝi vidis mian hundon kurantan = She saw my running dog. A phrase is often clearer if the conjunction ke be used instead of a predicative participle. For instance, instead of Ŝi vidis mian hundon kuranta en la ĉambron, we can say Ŝi vidis, ke mia hundo kuras en la ĉambron = She saw that my dog was (is) running into the room; or, Ŝi vidis mian hundon kuri en la ĉambron = She saw my dog run into the room.

88. Place of the adverb.—The adverb, as a rule, immediately precedes or follows the word to which it refers, or which it qualifies.

Examples.Li rapide kuras, or, Li kuras rapide = He runs rapidly. La virino zorge legis (or, legis zorge) la leteron = The woman read the letter carefully. Li ĝentile demetis la ĉapelon = He politely took off his hat.

N.B.—In this last example it is more elegant to place the adverb, as in English, before the verb.

(a). To avoid ambiguity, care, however, must be taken not to place the adverb in a position where it might be taken to refer either to the word which precedes or the word which follows it. For instance, if an adverb be placed between two verbs, it sometimes happens that we cannot tell to which it refers, and the sense is thus materially altered.

Example.Li ekstreme deziris saĝiĝi = He desired extremely to become wise. Li deziris saĝiĝi ekstreme = He desired to become extremely wise. In this example, if we place the adverb between the two verbs, and say Li deziris ekstreme saĝiĝi, the sentence might be translated in either of the above two ways. See also remarks on the use of ne (par. 59 (a)). The word nur, also, similarly modifies the word it precedes.

(b). Adverbs of comparison, such as: iom, multe, kiel, plej, pli, sufiĉe, tiel, tiom, tre, tro, are usually placed before the words to which they refer.

Examples.Li iom laciĝis kaj multe senkuraĝiĝis = He became somewhat fatigued and much discouraged. Kiel malavare li agis, donante al sia frato tiom da mono, kiom li bezonis! = How generously he acted in giving his brother as much money as he needed! Li venos pli aŭ malpli frue = He will come sooner or later (lit., more or less early). Vi agis plej saĝe, farante tion = You acted most wisely in doing that. Kio ajn okazos, li estis sufiĉe saĝa por tion fari = At all events he was wise enough to do that. Ŝi tre amis sian fraton = She loved her brother very much. Li tro manĝadas = He eats too much.

(c). To give emphasis, adverbs and adverbial participles may commence a sentence.

Examples.Ĉarme, bele kaj kortuŝe estis vidi la birdon zorgi pri sia ido = Charming, beautiful and touching it was to see the bird take care of its offspring. Starante kun la brakoj etenditaj, li paroladis al la popolamaso = Standing with arms outstretched, he harangued the populace (see par. 245 (a)).

89. Place of the preposition.—The preposition always immediately precedes its complement.

Examples.Skribu al mi = Write to me. Li venis al mia domo kune kun la du hundoj je la tria (horo) = He came to my house (to me) along with the two dogs at 3 o’clock.

90. Place of the conjunction.—The conjunction always precedes the verb to which it refers, but separated from it by the words which logically intervene.

Example.Se iu hodiaŭ matene deziros min vidi, diru al ĝi, ke mi estas tre okupita = If anyone (someone), this morning, should desire to see me, tell him (or her) I am very busy.

N.B.—Note that iu does not give the sex, therefore ĝi is rightly used; but, as in English, the sense would be clear without the words al ĝi.

91. Place of the interrogative.—In direct questions the subject usually precedes the verb.

Examples.Ĉu vi havas mian libron? = Have you my book? In English, in many cases, we place the subject first; for instance, in the present tense we often commence a question with "Do"; in the past, with "Have" or "Did"; in the future, with "Shall" or "Will." If we substitute Ĉu for any of these words, we have the Esperanto construction, as:—Ĉu vi bezonas tiun plumon? = Do you want that pen? Ĉu vi faris tion? = Did you do that? Ĉu li venos tien ĉi? = Will he come here?

92. Place of the negative.—The negative ne = not, when it relates directly to a verb, is placed immediately before such verb, but otherwise in its natural position in the clause; i.e., it negatives the word or words it precedes. The negative correlatives nenia, nenial, etc., may be placed in almost any position, according to the emphasis we wish to give to the word.

Examples.Mi lin ne vidis, or, Mi ne vidis lin = I did not see him. Ĉu vi ne vidis lin? or, Ĉu vi lin ne vidis? = Did you not see him? Mi neniam renkontis ŝin, or, Neniam mi renkontis ŝin, or, Mi ŝin renkontis neniam = I never met her. Mi volas renkonti ne nur Johanon, sed ankaŭ Georgon = I want to meet not only John, but also George.

93. Order very similar to English.—The foregoing remarks show that the order of words in Esperanto is very similar to the English construction of sentences, and we can hardly do wrong if we follow it nearly word for word. A slightly different order in Esperanto sometimes makes an expression more elegant but this is generally owing to harmony of sound rather than grammatical construction.

[In writing original work in Esperanto it is well to cultivate a style as international as possible, and use the normal, simple, and logical order of words. In translation work, when it is desired to reproduce as far as possible the national or individual atmosphere of the original, it is legitimate intentionally to reproduce in the translation—so long as intelligibility is ensured, and as far as the structure of the language permits—the characteristic order of words in the original text. The wonderful flexibility of Esperanto is one of the reasons why Esperanto is such an admirable language for translation purposes.]



94. The following is the Complete Grammar of Esperanto, as given by Dr. Zamenhof at page 254 of his "Fundamenta Krestomatio de la Lingvo Esperanto," which he says is "a book that should be in the hands of every earnest student who desires to acquire a correct Esperanto style." This book contains a series of Exercises, Fables, Legends, Stories, Extracts from Scientific Articles, Articles on Esperanto, Poetry, Translations from Hamlet and The Iliad, showing how well Esperanto is adapted for every kind of subject.

It will be seen that the whole Grammar consists of sixteen short Rules, which can be learnt in less than an hour. The Esperanto is given alongside the translation. Remarks on the Rules, with examples, will be found by referring to the paragraphs given after each Rule.



The twenty-eight letters and their pronunciation are given in pars. 1–4.

N.B.—Printing offices which do not possess the letters ĉ, ĝ, ĥ, ĵ, ŝ, ŭ, can use instead of them ch, gh, hh, jh, sh, u.



Aa, Bb, Cc, Ĉĉ, Dd, Ee, Ff, Gg, Ĝĝ, Hh, Ĥĥ, Ii, Jj, Ĵĵ, Kk, Ll, Mm, Nn, Oo, Pp, Rr, Ss, Ŝŝ, Tt, Uu, Ŭŭ, Vv, Zz.

Rimarko.—Presejoj, kiuj ne posedas la literojn ĉ, ĝ, ĥ, ĵ, ŝ, ŭ, povas anstataŭ ili uzi ch, gh, hh, jh, sh, u.



The Article.—There is no indefinite article; there is only a definite article (la), alike for all sexes, cases, and numbers.

N.B.—The use of the article is the same as in other languages. People to whom the use of the article presents a difficulty need not at first use it at all.

(See pars. 96–102.)



Artikolo nedifinita ne ekzistas; ekzistas nur artikolo difinita (la), egala por ĉiuj seksoj, kazoj kaj nombroj.

Rimarko.—La uzado de la artikolo estas tia sama, kiel en la aliaj lingvoj. La personoj, por kiuj la uzado de la artikolo prezentas malfacilaĵon, povas en la unua tempo tute ĝin ne uzi.


The Substantive.—Substantives have the termination o. For the formation of the plural the termination j is added. There are only two cases: nominative and accusative; the latter is obtained from the nominative by the addition of the termination n. The other cases are expressed by the help of prepositions (the genitive by de, the dative by al, the ablative by per or other prepositions according to sense).

(See pars. 103–106.)


La substantivoj havas la finiĝon o. Por la formado de la multenombro oni aldonas la finiĝon j. Kazoj ekzistas nur du: nominativo kaj akuzativo; la lasta estas ricevata el la nominativo per la aldono de la finiĝo n. La ceteraj kazoj estas esprimataj per helpo de prepozicioj (la genitivo per de, la dativo per al, la ablativo per per aŭ aliaj prepozicioj laŭ la senco).


The Adjective.—The adjective ends in a. Cases and numbers as with the substantive. The comparative is made by means of the word pli, the superlative by plej; with the comparative the conjunction ol is used.

(See pars 107–114.)


La adjektivo finiĝas per a. Kazoj kaj nombroj kiel ĉe la substantivo. La komparativo estas farata per la vorto pli, la superlativo per plej; ĉe la komparativo oni uzas la konjunkcion ol.


The Numerals.—The cardinal numerals (they are not declined) are: unu, du, tri, kvar, kvin, ses, sep, ok, naŭ, dek, cent, mil. The tens and hundreds are formed by the simple junction of the numerals. For the signification of ordinal numerals, the termination of the adjective is added; for the multiple—the suffix -obl, for the fractional—on, for the collective—op, for the distributive—the word po. Besides these, substantival and adverbial numerals can be used.

(See pars. 115–124.)


La numeraloj fundamentaj (ne estas deklinaciataj) estas: unu, du, tri, kvar, kvin, ses, sep, ok, naŭ, dek, cent, mil. La dekoj kaj centoj estas formataj per simpla kunigo de la numeraloj. Por la signado de numeraloj ordaj oni aldonas la finiĝon de la adjektivo; por la multoblaj—la sufikson -obl, por la nombronaj—on, por la kolektaj—op, por la disdividaj—la vorton po. Krom tio povas esti uzataj numeraloj substantivaj kaj adverbaj.


The Pronouns.—Personal pronouns = mi, vi, li, ŝi, ĝi (referring to thing or animal), si, ni, vi, ili, oni; the possessive pronouns are formed by the addition of the adjectival termination. Declension is as with the substantives.

(See pars. 125–138.)


Pronomoj personaj: mi, vi, li, ŝi, ĝi (pri objekto aŭ besto), si, ni, vi, ili, oni; la pronomoj posedaj estas formataj per la aldono de la finiĝo adjektiva. La deklinacio estas kiel ĉe la substantivoj.


The Verb.—The verb is not changed in person or number. Forms of the verb: the present tense (the time being) takes the termination -as; the past tense (the time been, or having been) -is; the future tense (the time about to be, or going to be) -os; the Conditional mood -us; the Imperative (ordering) mood -u; the Indefinite (infinitive) mood -i. Participles (with an adjectival or adverbial sense): active present -ant; active past -int; active future -ont; passive present -at; passive past -it; passive future -ot. All forms of the passive are formed by help of a corresponding form of the verb esti and a passive participle of the required verb. The preposition with the passive is de.

(See pars. 159–237.)


La verbo ne estas ŝanĝata laŭ personoj nek nombroj. Formoj de la verbo: la tempo estanta akceptas la finiĝon -as; la tempo estinta -is; la tempo estonta -os; la modo kondiĉa -us; la modo ordona -u; la modo sendifina -i. Participoj (kun senco adjektiva aŭ adverba): aktiva estanta -ant; aktiva estinta -int; aktiva estonta -ont; pasiva estanta -at; pasiva estinta -it; pasiva estonta -ot. Ĉiuj formoj de la pasivo estas formataj per helpo de responda formo de la verbo esti kaj participo pasiva de la bezonata verbo; la prepozicio ĉe la pasivo estas de.


The Adverb.—Adverbs end in e; degrees of comparison as with adjectives.

(See pars. 238–248.)


La adverboj finiĝas per e; gradoj de komparado kiel ĉe la adjektivoj.


The Preposition.—All prepositions require the nominative.

(See pars. 249–261.)


Ĉiuj prepozicioj postulas la nominativon.


Pronunciation.—Every word is read as it is written.

(See pars. 5–19.)


Ĉiu vorto estas legata, kiel ĝi estas skribita.


Accent.—The accent is always on the penultimate syllable.

(See par. 17.)


La akcento estas ĉiam sur la antaŭlasta silabo.


Compound Words.—Compound words are formed by the simple junction of words (the chief word stands at the end); the grammatical terminations are also regarded as independent words.

(See pars. 3950.)


Vortoj kunmetitaj estas formataj per simpla kunigo de la vortoj (la ĉefa vorto staras en la fino); la gramatikaj finiĝoj estas rigardataj ankaŭ kiel memstaraj vortoj.


Negation.—When another negative word is present the word ne is omitted.

(See pars. 59–62.)


Ĉe alia nea vorto la vorto ne estas forlasata.


Direction.—In order to show direction, words take the termination of the accusative.

(See par. 67.)


Por montri direkton, la vortoj ricevas la finiĝon de la akuzativo.


Use of Prepositions.—Every preposition has a definite and constant meaning; but if we have to use some preposition and the direct sense does not indicate to us what special preposition we are to take, then we use the preposition je, which has no meaning of its own. Instead of the preposition je we can also use the accusative without a preposition.

(See par. 251.)


Ĉiu prepozicio havas difinitan kaj konstantan signifon; sed se ni devas uzi ian prepozicion kaj la rekta senco ne montras al ni, kian nome prepozicion ni devas preni, tiam ni uzas la prepozicion je, kiu memstaran signifon ne havas. Anstataŭ la prepozicio je oni povas ankaŭ uzi la akuzativon sen prepozicio.


Foreign Words.—The so-called foreign words, that is, those which the majority of languages have taken from one source, are used in the Esperanto language without change, receiving only the orthography of the latter language; but with various words from one root it is better to use unchanged only the fundamental word, and to form the rest from this latter in accordance with the rules of the Esperanto language.

(See pars. 39, 52.)


La tiel nomataj vortoj fremdaj, t.e., tiuj, kiujn la plimulto de la lingvoj prenis el unu fonto, estas uzataj en la lingvo Esperanto sen ŝanĝo, ricevante nur la ortografion de tiu ĉi lingvo; sed ĉe diversaj vortoj de unu radiko estas pli bone uzi senŝanĝe nur la vorton fundamentan kaj la ceterajn formi el tiu ĉi lasta laŭ la reguloj de la lingvo Esperanto.


Elision.—The final vowel of the substantive and the article can be dropped and replaced by an apostrophe.

(See pars. 56, 57.)


La fina vokalo de la substantivo kaj de la artikolo povas esti forlasata kaj anstataŭigata de apostrofo.


PARTS OF SPEECH (Parolpartoj).

95. There are nine parts of speech in Esperanto, as found in most other languages, viz., the Article (Artikolo), Noun (Substantivo), Pronoun (Pronomo), Adjective (Adjektivo), Verb (Verbo), Adverb (Adverbo), Preposition (Prepozicio), Conjunction (Konjunkcio), Interjection (Interjekcio).

Nouns, derived adjectives and adverbs, and verbs have distinctive terminations. If a word ends in -O, it is a noun; if in -A, an adjective; if in -E, an adverb; if in -I, -U, -AS, -IS, -OS, or -US, a verb. If it ends in -N, it is in the accusative case, and if in -J, it is plural.

Examples.Domo = a house. Facila = easy. Feliĉe = happily. Doni = to give (Infinitive). Batu lin = beat him (Imperative and Accusative). Mi vidas la homojn = I see the men (Present tense and Accusative plural). Vi diris = you said (Past tense). Ni iros = we shall go (Future tense). Se ili estus bonaj = If they were good (Conditional mood and plural adjective).

THE ARTICLE (La Artikolo).

96. There is no word in Esperanto for the Indefinite Article. It is, as in Latin, implied in the noun, if the sense in English requires it.

Examples.Tio estas floro = That is a flower. Patrino kaj filo = Mother and son. Ĉu vi vidas birdon sur tiu arbo? = Do you see a bird on that tree?

97. The definite article is la = the. It is, as in English, the same for all genders, numbers, and cases.

Examples.La patro = The father. La patrino = The mother. Donu al mi la libron = Give me the book. Ili estas la lernantoj diligentaj = They are the diligent scholars.

98. As regards its use, la is used very nearly as the definite article "the" in English, namely, to show that one is speaking of something known or definite, as opposed to what is indefinite.

Examples.En la mezo de la korto mi vidis du infanojn el la apuda vilaĝo = In the middle of the yard I saw two children of the neighbouring village. In this sentence the yard and village are each defined by the article la, as they are also in English by "the." But if we omit the article the sentence runs:—En la mezo de korto mi vidis du infanojn el apuda vilaĝo = In the middle of a yard I saw two children of a neighbouring village. In this case the children might have been in any yard, and have belonged to any village in the neighbourhood of the speaker.

99. There are, however, cases in which the article is often used in Esperanto, though omitted in English, and also vice versa.

(a). It is usually used before nouns denoting the totality of persons or things.

Examples.La homo estas mortema = Man is mortal. La homoj estas mortemaj = Men are mortal. La medicino estas scienco kaj la pentrado arto = Medicine is a science and painting an art. Kelkaj kuracistoj pretendas, ke la vino estas malutila al la sano = Some doctors maintain that wine is hurtful to health. Sen la akvo nia terglobo rapide fariĝus dezerto = Without water our earth would rapidly become a desert. La nokto estis tiel nigra, kiel la peĉo = The night was as dark as pitch. La azenoj amas la kardojn = Donkeys love thistles. La vento kaŭzas ofte teruran detruon en kelkaj landoj = Wind often causes terrible ruin in some countries. (In this case la vento means wind in general, spoken of as a whole, but "To-day we shall have wind" (meaning some wind) would be: Hodiaŭ ni havos venton.) Hajlo falas = Hail is falling (viz., some hail), but La hajlo estas tre malutila al la vinbero = Hail is very injurious to grapes (to the grape), means hail in general.

(b). It is not used before proper names, for the simple reason that they cannot be more definite than they are in themselves. In English it is sometimes used and sometimes not.[13]

Examples.Danubo = The Danube. Tibro = The Tiber. Mediteraneo = The Mediterranean. Alpoj = The Alps. Unuiĝintaj Ŝtatoj Amerikaj (or, Usono) = The United States of America.


[13] This is too strict. In practice the definite article is often used before proper names, and one can say (e.g.) la Alpoj, la Mediteraneo, etc.

(c). If, however, a proper name is preceded by a qualifying word, the article is used.

Examples. La glora poeto, Dante = The famous poet, Dante. La imperiestro de Japanujo = The Emperor of Japan. La bona reĝino Viktorio = The good Queen Victoria.

100. The article may be used sometimes where, in English, we use a possessive pronoun.

Examples.Li havas doloron en la kapo = He has a pain in his (the) head. Ŝi prezentis al mi la manon = She offered me her hand. Mi malkovris la okulojn = I uncovered my eyes (see also par. 134(a)).

(a). It is also frequently used instead of a possessive pronoun in speaking of one’s own relatives, or when there is no doubt as to the person to whom the article la refers.

Examples.Mi amas la patron = I love my (the) father. Iru al la patrino = Go to your (the) mother. Kie estas la kuzo? = Where is your (the) cousin? La patro staras apud la filo = The father stands by (at the side of) his (the) son.

101. The article is almost always used before numeral adjectives showing the day, hour, month, etc., when these nouns are understood.

Example.Hodiaŭ estas la dudek-sepa (tago) de Marto = To-day is the 27th of March.

(a). Its use is optional before the names of the seasons, and also before each separate noun or adjective.

Examples.En la vintro, or, En vintro = In the winter. En la somero, or, En somero = In the summer. La arboj, la floroj kaj la kreskaĵoj de la ĝardeno (or, La arboj, floroj kaj kreskaĵoj) = The trees, (the) flowers and (the) plants of the garden.

(b). It is not generally used after ĉiuj = all, or, all the.

Example.Mi ne vidis ĉiujn arbojn en la ĝardeno = I did not see all the trees in the garden.

(c). It is not used after da (see par. 259).

N.B.—From the foregoing remarks it will be seen that the English student will have no difficulty in the use of the article, if he be careful to use it with words defining a class or the totality of persons or things. He will get a good idea of its use if he will carefully study the first few exercises in the "Ekzercaro," or Exercises 1 to 4 in Part III.

In case of doubt whether the article should be used or not, it is better to omit it.

102. Elision.—The final A of the article may be omitted in certain cases (see par. 56 and Rule 16, par. 94).

THE NOUN (La Substantivo).

103. A noun (in the singular number) in all its cases, except the accusative, ends in -O. The accusative is formed by the addition of N. In the plural it ends in -OJ, and the accusative plural is formed by adding N to these letters. Thus the root arb- is made into a noun with its numbers and cases as follows:—

Examples.Domo = A house. La domo = The house. La domoj = The houses. Rigardu la domojn = Look at the houses. Knabo = A boy. La knabo = The boy. Mi vidis la knabon = I saw the boy. Knabino = A girl. La knabino = The girl.

Declension of Nouns, Adjectives, and Pronouns.

104. There are but two cases in Esperanto (Rule 2, par. 94), viz., the nominative and the accusative (or objective); the latter is obtained from the nominative by adding N to the singular or plural. Other cases are expressed by the aid of prepositions, as:—

NominativeMia bona patro= My good father.
AccusativeMian bonan patron= My good father.
Genitive or PossessiveDe mia bona patro= Of my good father, or, My good father’s.
DativeAl mia bona patro= To my good father.
AblativeDe mia bona patro= From (by, see par. 259 (9)) my good father.
Kun mia bona patro= With my good father.
Per bona glavo= With (by means of) a good sword.

Note that per = by is the instrumental ablative, meaning "by means, or aid, or use, of," and that kun = with means "in company with," but not in an instrumental sense, as it is sometimes in English, e.g., I held him with both hands = Mi lin tenis per ambaŭ manoj, not kun ambaŭ manoj (see par. 259 (22)).


(a). In the plural the declension is the same, with the addition of the plural termination J, as:—

GenitiveDe miaj bonaj filoj= Of my good sons.
AccusativeMiajn bonajn filojn= My good sons.

Examples.La frato skribas, kaj la fratino legas = The brother is writing and the sister reading. La patro donis la libron al sia filo = The father gave the book to his son. Tiu ĉi kaŭĉuka ringo (or, ringo el kaŭĉuko) estas por la infaneto = This india-rubber ring is for the baby. Mi vidis Jozefon kun lia kuzo = I saw Joseph with his cousin. Venu, ni atendas Vin (Cin), Savinto de la mondo = Come, we await You (Thee), O Saviour of the world. Mi lin salutis per la mano = I saluted him by the hand. La domo estas kovrita per ardezoj = The house is covered with slates. Mi vidis vian patron kun liaj du filoj = I saw your father with his two sons. Kie estas la domo de via patro? = Where is your father’s house?

105. Ellipsis.—The case (nominative or accusative) of words in Esperanto often depends upon the verb omitted when ellipsis occurs in a phrase, and unless we write the sentence in full, or think what the ellipsis is, we may not at first know what case to use to express our meaning. A glance at the following examples will show how easy it is to determine the case. The words in brackets show the ellipsis:—

N.B.—In the above sentences we cannot, in English, tell the meaning until the ellipsis is supplied, whereas, in Esperanto, the meaning is at once clear from the case of the noun or pronoun (par. 112).

105 (a). Elision.—The final O of a noun may be omitted (par. 57, and Rule 16, par. 94).

106. Possession is (a) expressed by help of the preposition de.

Examples.La domo de la patro = The father’s house, or, the house of the father. La libro de mia patrino = My mother’s book, or, the book of my mother. La tranĉilo de Georgo = George’s knife. Tio estas la domo de miaj fratoj = That is my brothers’ house (the house of my brothers). (See par. 73.)

(b). Possession is also denoted by the correlative words ending in ES, viz.:—ies = someone’s, somebody’s, ĉies = everyone’s, kies = whose, nenies = nobody’s, ties = that one’s, of those (see par. 154).

Examples.Ĉies ideo estis diversa = Everyone’s idea was different. Kies domo estas tiu? = Whose house is that? Ĝi estas nenies domo = It is nobody’s house. Ĉu ĉi tio estas ies tranĉilo? = Is this anyone’s (someone’s) knife? (see par. 154).

(c). An adjective is sometimes conveniently used when in English we employ an apostrophe.

Examples.Unutaga laboro (for, la laboro de unu tago) = One day’s work. La unuataga laboro (for, la laboro de la unua tago) = The first day’s work. Lia unuataga laboro estis en la ĝardeno, kaj poste li faris unutagan laboron en la domo = His first day’s work was in the garden, and then (afterwards) he did one day’s work in the house. Mi atendis la kapitanan respondon = I awaited the captain’s reply.

(d). In speaking of places, the English preposition "of" is not translated.

Examples.La urbo Londono = The City of London. La Kolonio Natalo = The Colony of Natal (see par. 253 (a)).

For numeral nouns, see par. 118; for participial, pars. 208, 209; for predicative, par. 109; for compound nouns, par. 49; for form of accusative with proper names, par. 69 (d); for the infinitive used as a noun, par. 180.

THE ADJECTIVE (La Adjektivo).

107. The Adjective always ends in -A in the singular. J is added to A to form the plural. The accusative case is formed by the addition of N to the singular or plural termination.

Examples.Forta = Strong. Saĝa = Wise. Brava = Brave. Forta homo = A strong man. Saĝa patro = A wise father. Saĝaj patroj = Wise fathers. La brava filo = The brave son. La bravaj filoj = The brave sons.

108. There are two kinds of adjectives, viz.:—(a) Qualifying or attributive (apudmetita = put adjacent), and (b) Predicative (predikateca).

(a). A qualifying adjective is one placed before or after its noun, with which it agrees both in number and case (par. 36).

Examples.Johano havas bonan panon = John has good bread. Vilhelmo akrigis la tranĉilojn malakrajn = William sharpened the blunt knives.

(b). A predicative adjective, usually placed after the verb, denotes what is said about the noun or pronoun to which it refers, or denotes their state, condition, appearance, etc. It agrees with them in number, but is never in the accusative case (par. 36).

Examples.La pomo estas bona = The apple is good. Vilhelmo trovis la tranĉilojn malakraj = William found the knives blunt. If the adjective were in this sentence in the accusative, the meaning would be quite altered, for, Vilhelmo trovis la tranĉilojn malakrajn would mean, "William found the blunt knives," that is to say, he was looking for blunt knives, and he found them. A predicative adjective shows that ellipsis has taken place, and the omitted verb is generally esti. For instance, the ellipsis in the above sentence might be as follows:—William found (that) the knives (are) blunt—Vilhelmo trovis, ke la tranĉiloj estas malakraj. If we elide ke and estas, the substantive takes the accusative (tranĉilojn) and the adjective (malakraj) remains in the nominative. Other examples are:—La kutimo faris lin (ke li estu) indiferenta por tio ĉi (Hamleto V., 1) = Habit made him (to be, lit., that he be) indifferent to this. Kion vi intencas nun fari, por vin montri (ke vi estas) inda filo de via kara patro? (Hamleto IV.,7) = What do you now intend to do to show yourself (that you are) a worthy son of your dear father? (see par. 105 on ellipsis).

109. Predicative Noun.—A noun also can be predicative (see par. 35).

Examples.La patro nomis sian filon Johano = The father named his son John. Now in English it is not clear whether the father gave the name of "John" to his son, or whether he made mention of his son whose name was John. In Esperanto it is quite clear that he gave the name, for otherwise "John" would be in the accusative (Johanon, so:—La patro nomis sian filon Johanon = The father named (made mention of) his son John. Ili nomis lin Adolfo = They called him (gave him the name of) Adolphus.

110. Nominative or Accusative.—The rule, therefore, for qualifying and predicative adjectives or nouns is:—

(a). The word will be in the accusative if the object already possesses the quality in question.

(b). The word will be in the nominative if that quality, which it did not before possess, or was not known to possess, is being given to the object.

111. Participial Adjectives.—Participles are often used in Esperanto to qualify nouns and pronouns, and they are then in reality true adjectives. To distinguish them from other adjectives they are called "Participial Adjectives" (Participaj adjektivoj).

Examples.Johano kaj Georgo estis perditaj = John and George were lost. Ni trovis ilin mortantajn = We found them (who were) dying. Ni estis finintaj, kiam vi alvenis = We had finished when you arrived (see par. 209 (b)).

112. Comparison of Adjectives.

(a). The comparative of equality is tiel ... kiel = as, so ... as.

Johano estas tiel forta, kiel Georgo = John is as strong as George.

(b). The comparative of superiority is pli ... ol = more ... than.

Johano estas pli forta, ol Georgo = John is stronger than George.

(c). The comparative of inferiority is malpli ... ol = less ... than.

Johano estas malpli forta, ol Georgo = John is less strong (weaker) than George.

(d). The other modes of expressing comparison are:—

Examples.Tia domo, kia tiu, estas malofte vidata = Such a house as that is rarely seen. Mia bastono estas tia sama, kia via, or, Mia bastono estas same, kiel via = My stick is the same as yours. Ju pli mi lin konas, des pli mi lin estimas = The more I know him, the more I esteem him. Ju malpli mi dormas, des malpli mi sentas la bezonon dormi = The less I sleep, the less I feel the want (need) to sleep. Ju pli mi lin vidas, des malpli li plaĉas al mi = The more I see him, the less he pleases me. Ju malpli mi manĝas, des pli mi trinkas = The less I eat, the more I drink.

Be careful to note that the second term in a comparison is in the nominative or accusative, according as it is the subject or complement, e.g., Mi amas mian fraton pli, ol mia fratino = I love my brother more than my sister (loves him). Mia fratino is in the nominative, amas lin being understood. But Mi amas mian fraton pli, ol mian fratinon = I love my brother more than my sister. Here fratinon is in the accusative, and the meaning is perfectly clear. In English we should have to add "does" to the first example to make the phrase clear: "I love my brother more than my sister does" (see par. 105).

113. Superlatives (Superlativoj).

(a). The superlative of superiority is la plej = the most.

(b). The superlative of inferiority is la malplej = the least.

The preposition el = out of, of, is used with the superlative when it relates to numbers, or something collective, as a "group," "society," etc. But when the superlative relates to the place or position where the superiority is or was, then some other appropriate preposition is used.

Examples.Johano estas la plej forta el la knaboj = John is the strongest of the boys. Petro estis la plej malforta el ĉiuj = Peter was the weakest of (out of) all. Georgo estas la malplej kuraĝa knabo en la domo = George is the least courageous boy in the house. Ŝi estis la plej bela virino, kiun mi iam vidis = She was the most beautiful woman whom I ever saw. Tiuj ĉi estas la plej grandaj arboj en la arbaro = These are the largest trees in the wood. Li estis la plej bona Esperantisto el la grupo (klubo, societo) = He was the best Esperantist of the group (club, society). Metu la plej grandajn glasojn sur la tablon = Put the largest glasses upon the table. Ne ĵetu la plej grandajn ŝtonojn en la puton, sed la plej malgrandajn (malplej grandajn) = Do not throw the largest stones into the well, but the smallest (the least large).

(c). The superlative absolute is indicated by tre = very, or treege = exceedingly, or troe = excessively, or some other suitable adverb.

Example.Tiu virino estas tre malbela kaj treege grasa = That woman is very ugly and exceedingly fat.

114. Degrees of intensity of adjectives can also be shown by the aid of the suffixes -EG- and -ET- with or without an adverb. The suffix -EG- is stronger in its application than the adverb tre = very. For instance, take the adjective bela = beautiful, or fine. Tre bela = very beautiful, or very fine; but belega = magnificent, or superb. So, the diminutive -ET- shows more diminution than the adjective malgranda = small, or little, would show when qualifying a noun. For instance, malgranda rivero = a small river, but rivereto = a brook, or stream. The following list shows how twelve adjectives of varying shades of intensity can be formed from the root varm-, between the extremes tre varmega = broiling hot and tre malvarmega = intensely cold, supposing we were speaking of the weather:—

Tre varmega = Broiling hot.Tre malvarmega = Intensely cold.
Varmega = Hot.Malvarmega = Bitterly cold.
Tre varma = Very warm.Tre malvarma = Very cold.
Varma = Warm.Malvarma = Cold.
Iom varma = Warmish.Iom malvarma = Coldish.
Varmeta = Mild.Malvarmeta = Cool.

See remarks on the suffixes -EG- and -ET-, par. 277.


Cardinal Numbers (Numeraloj fundamentaj).

115. The cardinal numbers are:—

(1) unu, (2) du, (3) tri, (4) kvar, (5) kvin, (6) ses, (7) sep, (8) ok, (9) naŭ, (10) dek, (100) cent, (1,000) mil, (0) (zero, naught) = nulo.

Miliono (million) is a noun, the root being milion-.

(a). The numbers 11 to 19 are formed by simply placing (10) dek before the first nine, as:—(11) dek unu, (12) dek du, (13) dek tri, (14) dek kvar, (15) dek kvin, (16) dek ses, (17) dek sep, (18) dek ok, (19) dek naŭ.

(b). The numbers (101 to 119), or (1,001 to 1,019), are formed by the addition cent, or mil, as:—(101) cent unu, (102) cent du, (110) cent dek, (116) cent dek ses, (1,001) mil unu, (1,006) mil ses, (1,114) mil cent dek kvar.

(c). The tens, hundreds, and thousands are formed by prefixing one of the numbers 2 to 9 before dek, cent, or mil, as:—(20) dudek, (30) tridek, (40) kvardek, (200) ducent, (500) kvincent, (900) naŭcent, (2,000) dumil, (4,000) kvarmil, (8,000) okmil.

(d). The intermediate numbers (21 to 29), (31 to 39), etc., are formed by adding the required number to the tens, as:—(21) dudek unu, (22) dudek du, (33) tridek tri, (96) naŭdek ses, (121) cent dudek unu, (342) tricent kvardek du, (1,021) mil dudek unu, (8,754) okmil sepcent kvindek kvar.

(e). The cardinal numbers never change their forms for case or number.

Examples.La du infanoj dividis inter si sep pomojn = The two children divided between themselves seven apples. Unu prenis tri kaj la alia prenis kvar el la pomoj = One took three and the other took four of the apples. Kvin kaj sep faras (or, estas) dek du = 5 and 7 make (are) 12.

(f). Unu is sometimes used in the plural, and unuj then means some. It is used generally in relation with aliaj = others.

Examples.El ŝiaj multaj infanoj, unuj estas bonaj kaj aliaj malbonaj = Among (out of) her many children, some are good and others bad. Li ekzamenis la pomojn, kaj trovis unujn bonaj kaj aliajn malbonaj = He examined the apples, and found some good and others bad. Note that bonaj and malbonaj are predicative adjectives, and therefore in the nominative (see pars. 36, 108 (b)).

(g). Unu is sometimes used when our indefinite article is employed as a numeral.[14]

Example.Ĉar ĉiu el ni havas unu vortaron, prenu vian kaj lasu mian = Since we have each a dictionary, take yours and leave mine.


[14] This use of unu is not recommended.

Ordinal Numbers (Numeraloj ordaj).

116. Ordinal numbers, being really adjectives, are, in Esperanto, made such in the usual way by adding A to the cardinals, as:—unua = first, dua = second, tria = third, kvara = fourth, kvina = fifth, sesa = sixth, sepa = seventh, oka = eighth, naŭa = ninth, deka = tenth.

(a). If the cardinal is composed of two or more numbers, A is added to the last only, as:—dek-unua = eleventh, dek-dua = twelfth, dek-naŭa = nineteenth, dudeka = twentieth, dudek-unua = twenty-first, cent-tridek-naŭa = hundred and thirty-ninth.

N.B.—Note that the ordinal numbers are linked by hyphens.

(b). The Ordinals follow all the rules of adjectives as to case and number.

Examples.Donu al li la trian, kaj prenu la kvaran = Give him the third, and take the fourth. La kvinaj etaĝoj de tiuj domoj estas tre altaj = The fifth stories of those houses are very high.

(c). The Ordinals are usually used in speaking of pages, hours, days, months, years, kings, etc.

Examples.Paĝo trideka = Page thirty. Vidu paĝon kvardekan (or, 40an) = See page forty (40). Henriko kvara = Henry IV. La dek-unua horo = 11 o’clock. En la dek-sesa (tago) de Aprilo = On the 16th of April. En la jaro mil-okcent-naŭdek-naŭa = In 1899. Mil-naŭcent-kvara = 1904.

In asking questions about the above, the adjective kioma is often used.

Examples.Sur kioma paĝo vi vidis tion? = On what page did you see that? Kioma paĝo estas? = What page is it? Kioma horo estas? = What o’clock is it? Estas la dua = It is two o’clock. Kiun daton ni havas? = What is the date (or, day of the month)? Hodiaŭ estas la dudek-sepa (or, 27a) de Marto = To-day is the 27th of March.

117. Ordinal adverbs are formed by adding E to the cardinals, as:—unue, firstly, due, secondly, sepe, seventhly, etc.

118. Substantives are formed from the cardinals by adding O. They have various meanings, as:—Unuo = a unit, or a one. Duo = a duet, or a two (of cards). Trio = a trio, or triplet, or a three (of cards). Kvaro, etc. = a four, etc. (of cards, etc., up to ten). Dek-duo = a dozen. Deko = half a score. Dudeko = a score. Cento = a hundred. Milo = a thousand. Miliono = a million.

Examples.Li havas dudekojn da ĉevaloj, centojn da ŝafoj, kaj milojn da birdoj = He has scores of horses, hundreds of sheep, and thousands of birds. Tiuj ludkartoj estas la kvaro pika kaj la seso kera = Those cards are the four of spades and the six of hearts. Tiu cifero estas oko = That figure is an eight.

Multiples (Numeraloj multoblaj).

119. Multiples are formed by the addition of the suffix -OBL- to the cardinals, and then adding A, E, or O to mark the adjective, adverb, or noun. They can also be formed into transitive verbs by the suffix -IGI-, or intransitive by the suffix -IĜI-.

Examples.Unuobla = Single. Unuoble = Singly. Duobla = Double, twofold. Duoble = Doubly. La duoblo = The double. Duobligi = To double, to duplicate. Duobliĝi = To become double. Triobla = Triple, threefold. Trioble = Trebly. La trioblo = The treble (of). Triobligi = To treble, to triplicate. Kvarobla = Fourfold, quadruple. Kvaroble = Quadruply. Kvaroblo = A quadruple. Kvarobligi = To quadruple, to make fourfold. Kvarobliĝi = To become quadruple. Sepobla = Sevenfold, septuple. Centoblo = A centuple. Kvinoble sep estas tridek kvin = Five times (fivefold) 7 is 35. Naŭoble ok estas sepdek du = Nine times (ninefold) 8 is 72. Kvaroble kvar estas dek ses = Four times four is 16. Dudek estas la kvaroblo de kvin = Twenty is the quadruple of five. Duobla fadeno estas pli forta ol unuobla = A double thread is stronger than a single (one). Kvarobligante sepdek kvin vi ricevas la centoblon de tri = By quadrupling 75 you get the centuple of 3.

Fractional Numbers (Numeraloj nombronaj).

120. Fractional numbers are formed by the addition of the suffix -ON- to the cardinals, and then adding A, E, or O to mark the adjective, adverb, or noun, as:—Duona = half, duone = by halves, duono = a half (1⁄2), triona = third, trione = by thirds, triono = a third (1⁄3).

Examples.La kvarona parto de dudek kvar estas la duono de dek du, tio estas ses = The fourth part of 24 is the half of 12, that is 6. Unu triono = One third (1⁄3). Tri okonoj = Three eighths (3⁄8). Neniam faru ion poduone = Never do anything by halves. Duone ses estas tri = half of six is three.

The Collectives (Numeraloj kolektaj).

121. The collectives are formed by the addition of the suffix -OP- to the cardinals, and then adding A or E to mark adjectives or adverbs, as:—Duopa = double, two together, duope = by twos, in pairs, triope = in threes, in triplets, dekope = by tens.

Example.Kvinope ili sin ĵetis sur min = Five together (five at a time) they threw themselves upon me.

Reiteratives (Numeraloj ripetaj).

122. Reiteratives are formed by adding the adverb foje to the cardinals, as:—Unufoje = once, dufoje = twice, trifoje = thrice, kvarfoje = four times.

Examples.Hieraŭ mi renkontis lin unufoje (or, unu fojon), sed hodiaŭ dufoje (or, du fojojn) = Yesterday I met him once, but to-day twice.

N.B.—Note that when the substantive fojo is used, it is in the accusative, as denoting point of time (par. 68 (b)).

Distributives (Numeraloj disdividaj).

123. Distributives are marked by the preposition po placed before the cardinals, meaning at the rate of, in the proportion of.

Examples.Al ĉiu el la laborantoj mi pagis po kvin ŝilingoj = I paid each of the workmen at the rate of five shillings. Tiu ĉi libro enhavas sesdek paĝojn; tial, se mi legos en ĉiu tago po dek kvin paĝoj, mi finos la tutan libron en kvar tagoj = This book contains 60 pages, therefore if I (shall) read (in) each day at the rate of 15 pages, I shall finish the whole book in 4 days (see "po" in list of prepositions, par. 259 (22)).

The Time of Day (La horo).

124. There are several possible ways of expressing the time of day. "A quarter to three" (2.45) may be either:—

(a). Tri kvaronoj de la tria = three-quarters of the 3rd (hour).

(b). La dua kaj tri kvaronoj = the 2nd (hour) and three-quarters.

(c). Kvarono antaŭ la tria = a quarter before the 3rd (hour).

The last example is the only one which would be easily understood by an Englishman. Other nations use one or two of these methods, hence we find a diversity of methods used in Esperanto also. There is, however, one way used by nearly all nations, namely, that in railway time tables, and it is to be hoped that this will come into general use. Therefore to the question:—Kioma horo estas? = What time (hour) is it? we might simply say as follows:—

2.0=La dua (horo).
2.15=La dua (horo) kaj dek kvin (minutoj).
3.5=La tria (horo) kvin.
10.2=La deka (horo) du.
11.45=La dek-unua (horo) kvardek kvin.

In Italy, Belgium, etc., where the hours are numbered from one to twenty-four, this system is equally applicable, as:—4.10 p.m. in Italy = 16.10 = La dek-sesa (horo) dek.

PRONOUNS (Pronomoj).

125. There are seven classes of Pronouns:—(1) Personal, (2) Possessive, (3) Relative, (4) Interrogative, (5) Demonstrative, (6) Distributive or Collective, (7) Indefinite.

As, however, the last five classes are so intimately connected with other parts of speech, and as some of the pronouns represent two classes, and some two parts of speech, it is better to treat them as correlative words (see pars. 139–157), so under the head of "Pronouns" we give only the personal and possessive.

Personal Pronouns (personaj pronomoj).

126. The personal pronouns are:—


Singular.1st Person.Mi = I.
"2nd Person.Vi = you, thou. (Ci = thou is rarely used).
"3rd Person.Li = he, Ŝi = she, Ĝi = it.
Plural.1st Person.Ni = we.
"2nd Person.Vi = you, ye.
"3rd Person.Ili = they.


Singular.1st Person.Min = me.
"2nd Person.Vin = you, thee. (Cin = thee is rarely used).
"3rd Person.Lin = him, Ŝin = her, Ĝin = it.
Plural.1st Person.Nin = us.
"2nd Person.Vin = you.
"3rd Person.Ilin = them.

Oni = one, people, they, we (like the French "on"), is an indefinite pronoun of the 3rd person. Oni may be deemed singular or plural.

Owing to the fact that in most languages the word corresponding to oni is invariable, Esperanto authors have generally avoided the accusative and possessive forms onin and onia, although they are occasionally met with. These forms are, however, perfectly regular, and may be used without hesitation if desired.

Si = self, selves, oneself, is a reflexive pronoun of the 3rd person, singular or plural.

Vi, like "you" in English, represents both the singular and plural, but when it refers to more than one person, words depending on it take the plural form.

Ĝi, like "it" in English, is used to represent things, and also persons and animals when the name does not reveal the sex.

Examples.Mi lin amas = I love him. Li min vidas = He sees me. Ili trovis lin kaj min en la ĝardeno = They found him and me in the garden. Vi ne vidis nin = You did not see us. Vi (plural) estas pli saĝaj, ol ili (estas) = You are wiser than they are. Ŝi vidis ilin en la dormoĉambro = She saw them in the bedroom. Oni diras, "Per mono oni povas aĉeti ĉion" = They (people) say (it is said), "With money one (or, we) can buy everything. Mi vidis la domon, sed ĝi estis tro malgranda = I saw the house, but it was too small. Se oni estus riĉa, or riĉaj = If one were rich.

(a).—In words like infano = child, persono = person, individuo = individual, etc., the sex is not revealed; neither is it in the general name of an animal, as:—leono = a lion, hundo = a dog, birdo = a bird, etc., unless we add the feminine suffix -ino. In all such cases, when we do not know the sex, we use the pronoun ĝi. If, however, the sex is known, and we wish to demonstrate it, we can use the pronouns li or ŝi respectively. Zamenhof advises the use of li and ŝi for human beings only, and of ĝi for all other animals, even when the sex of the animal is known and indicated; the use of li or ŝi in such cases is nevertheless legitimate if desired.

Examples.La infano forkuris, kiam mi parolis al ĝi (or li if we know the sex) = The child ran away when I spoke to it. Tio estas bela ĉevalino, ĝi (or, ŝi) trotas bone = That is a fine mare, she trots well. Se iu vizitos min dum mi forestas, diru al ĝi, ke ĝi revenu morgaŭ = If anyone (someone) should call upon (visit) me whilst I am away, tell him or her (it) to come again to-morrow.[15]


[15] This use of ĝi for a person is not recommended, and li (or tiu) would be better in a case where there is doubt as to the sex.

127. The word mem = self or selves is sometimes used with a personal pronoun or noun to give emphasis.

Examples.Mi mem ĝin vidis = I myself saw it. Ni mem ĝin trovis, or, Ni ĝin trovis mem = We found it ourselves. Vi venu mem = Come yourself. Ŝi mem parolos = She herself will speak. Li mem respondu = Let him answer (for) himself. La virinoj venu mem = Let the women come themselves.

128. Si is a reflexive pronoun of the 3rd person, and therefore cannot refer to the pronouns of the 1st and 2nd persons.[16] We cannot say Mi lavas sin, or Ni, or Vi lavas sin, for "I wash myself," "We wash ourselves," "You wash yourself." We must, in each of these cases, use the pronoun which is the subject of the verb, as:—Mi lavas minNi lavas ninVi lavas vin = I wash myselfWe wash ourselvesYou wash yourself (or if vi = you is plural), You wash yourselves. Si, therefore, is used for the 3rd person, singular or plural, when it refers to the subject of the verb. It takes the accusative termination N when necessary, and then represents "himself, herself, itself, oneself, themselves."

Examples.Li razis sin = He shaved himself. Petro razis sin = Peter shaved himself (Petro razis lin would mean Peter shaved him, viz., some other man referred to in the sentence). Ŝi diris al si = She said to herself (Ŝi diris al ŝi would mean "She said to her," viz., some other woman). Ĝi vundis sin = It wounded itself (Ĝi vundis ĝin would mean "It wounded it," viz., some other animal). Ili mortigis sin = They killed themselves. Li pensis en si mem, ke ... = He thought to (in) himself that ... La du fratoj renkontas la rabistojn: la fratoj atakas kaj vundas ilin, sed, tiel farante, ili vundas sin (or, sin mem) = The two brothers meet the robbers: the brothers attack and wound them, but, in so doing, they wound themselves. Mia fratino havas amikinon, kiu faras ĉion por si, kaj nenion por ŝi = My sister has a friend, who does everything for herself, and nothing for her. Oni kelkfoje tro laŭdas sin = One (or people) sometimes praises oneself (or praise themselves) too much (see conjugation of a reflexive verb, par. 170).


[16] The reason for the use of si is the avoidance of ambiguity. Si is not used with the 1st and 2nd persons, because there is no possibility of ambiguity in these cases.

129. The pronoun "it" is not expressed with impersonal verbs (see par. 164).

Examples.Kiu estas tie? Estas mi = Who is there? It is I. Neĝas = It snows. Pluvis = It rained. Necesas, ke oni manĝu = It is necessary to eat.

Possessive Pronouns (Pronomoj posedaj).

130. Possessive Pronouns are formed by adding the adjectival A to the personal pronouns. They are essentially adjectives, and follow the adjectival rules as to the formation of the plural and the accusative.

131. They are mia = my, mine, via = your, yours, thy, thine (cia = thy, thine, like its personal pronoun, ci, is rarely used), lia = his, ŝia = her, hers, ĝia = its, nia = our, ours, ilia = their, theirs, sia = his (own), her (own), hers, its (own), their (own), theirs, one’s (own).

Examples.Mia patro, via frato, lia fratino, ŝia onklo, kaj iliaj onklinoj, estas en la domo = My father, your brother, his sister, her uncle, and their aunts are in the house. Mi vidis vian libron, lian bastonon, ŝian ombrelon, kaj ilian keston en la stacidomo = I saw your book, his stick, her umbrella, and their box in the station. Mi havas viajn librojn = I have your books. Ĝia koloro estas ruĝa = Its colour is red. Mia fratino renkontis vian fraton kaj viajn amikojn = My sister met your brother and your friends.

132. When a possessive pronoun stands alone, as in sentences like the following, it may or may not be preceded by the article la, at the writer’s option, but many authors prefer to omit the article on the ground that it is superfluous.

Examples.Ĉar ni ĉiuj havas (or, ĉar ĉiu el ni havas) unu vortaron, prenu (la) vian kaj lasu (la) mian = Since we have each a dictionary, take yours and leave mine. Ŝiaj infanoj estas pli grandaj, ol (la) viaj = Her children are bigger than yours.

Note in the first example that ĉiuj is in the plural because it is in apposition to ni (see par. 69 (c)).

133. Mia is sometimes placed after a noun to denote affection.

Examples.Patrino mia = Mother mine, or Mother dear. Fratino mia = Sister dear.

134. When a possessive pronoun refers to two or more nouns, it may, as in English, be repeated or not, but if it is not repeated the possessive pronoun is usually put in the plural.

Example.Lia patro, lia patrino, kaj lia fratino, or, liaj patro, patrino, kaj fratino, estis en la domo = His father, his mother, and his sister were in the house.

134 (a). Personal pronouns, preceded by the preposition al, are sometimes used in a possessive sense.

Examples.Mi kovris al mi la orelojn = I covered my (to myself the) ears. Li fermis al si la okulojn = He closed his (to himself the) eyes (see also par. 100).

135. Sia, Lia, etc.—Great care must be taken not to use sia, when the sense requires one of the other possessives of the 3rd person, or vice versâ. Sia can only refer to the subject of the sentence or proposition in which it occurs, and being reflexive, it can never form part of the subject of a sentence, as:—Li diris al ni, ke lia (not, sia) hundo ĵus mortis = He told us that his dog had just died. Like its root si, it is used for the 3rd person, singular or plural, and may represent "his (own), her (own), hers, its (own), their (own), theirs, or one’s (own)."

Since sia, being reflexive, can never form part of the subject of a sentence, we cannot say Li kaj sia edzino iris Parizon, because li and edzino are equally subjects of the same clause. But if we substitute kun for kaj, then li becomes the sole subject, and we can correctly say, Li kun sia edzino iris Parizon, or, Li iris Parizon kun sia edzino = He went to Paris with his wife. If we use kaj we must say, Li kaj lia edzino iris Parizon = He and his wife went to Paris.

136. In the four following examples sia refers to the subject of the sentence:—

Mia patrino forgesis sian libron = My mother forgot (or, has forgotten) her book. Tiuj infanoj perdis siajn gepatrojn = Those children have lost their parents. La hundo amas sian mastron = The dog loves its master. Oni devas ami sian najbaron, kiel sin mem = One must love one’s neighbour as oneself. N.B.—Sin is here in the accusative owing to ellipsis, the words oni amas after kiel being understood (see par. 105).

137. In the following three sentences the possessive pronoun does not refer to the subject of the sentence, and therefore we use lia, ŝia, ĝia, or ilia, as the case may be:—

Li vidis mian amikon kaj lian edzinon = He saw my friend and his (his friend’s) wife. Ŝi venis al mi hieraŭ, por ke mi redonu ŝiajn leterojn al ŝi = She came to me yesterday in order that I might return her letters to her. La reĝo amas Johanon kaj lian filon = The king loves John and his son.

N.B.—Here the English does not show whether it is John’s son or his own son whom the king loves, but in Esperanto it is clear it is John’s son, otherwise it would be sian filon; lian filon is in the accusative here, because the conjunction kaj connects like cases (see par. 266).

(a). Note in the following examples how the possessive varies in accordance with the construction of the sentence.

El ĉiuj siaj amikinoj, ŝi plej amas Marion = Of all her friends (female), she loves Mary best. (Here siaj refers to ŝi).

El ĉiuj ŝiaj amikinoj, Mario estas le plej amata = Of all her friends, Mary is the most loved. (Here ŝiaj refers to some woman not mentioned.)

Leginte sian libron, li ekdormis = After reading (having read) his book, he fell asleep. (Here sian refers to li, understood in leginte = When he had read his book, he ...). Leginte lian libron, li ekdormis = After reading his book, he fell asleep. (Here lian refers to some man not mentioned, who might have lent him the book.)

Johano, legante sian libron, venkiĝis de dormo = John, while reading his book, was (became) overcome by sleep.

138. The following are sentences more complicated, showing the advantage of Esperanto over English, or indeed over most national languages, in respect of its great clearness of expression:—

Petro skribis al Paŭlo, ke li konduku al li sian hundon = Peter wrote to Paul to bring him his dog (sian refers to Paul because li = he (Paul) becomes the subject, and sia always, as we have said, refers to the subject of its own particular clause; if, therefore, lian had been the possessive, it would have been Peter’s dog.)

Post kiam la reĝo mortis, lia filo edziĝis kun sia/lia kuzino = After the king died, his son married his cousin. Here sia would refer to filo, the son’s cousin, but lia to reĝo, the king’s cousin.

Mia patrino petis sian filinon, ke ŝi donu al sia/ŝia fratino sian/ŝian libron. This sentence in English, whichever of the possessives be used, would be "My mother requested her daughter to give (that she give) to her sister her book." Now the mother is the first subject in this sentence, therefore sian filinon is the mother’s daughter (ŝian would mean someone else’s daughter). But afterwards ŝi (the daughter) becomes the subject, therefore sia fratino would be the daughter’s sister, and ŝia fratino the mother’s. For the remainder of the sentence ŝi (the daughter) still remains the subject, therefore sian libron would be the daughter’s book, and ŝian libron the sister’s or the mother’s book. Ties libron would definitely specify it as the sister’s book.

138 (a). From the examples given in paragraphs 128, 135, 136, and 138, we see that the reflexive pronoun si and the possessive sia always refer to the subject (noun or pronoun) of their own clause.

(b). Si and sia are likewise used when the noun or pronoun to which they refer is not expressed, but only understood.

Example.Tio estas nova metodo brosi sian (or, la) ĉapelon! = That is a new method of brushing one’s hat!

(c). Phrases introduced by an infinitive or a participle may be regarded as new sentences, the subject of which is mentally supplied: i.e., the infinitive or the participle may be expanded to make the full sentence implied.

Examples of Infinitive.Estas bone ne trompi (ke oni ne trompu) sin = It is well not to deceive oneself. La patrino lasis Marion legi (ke ŝi legu) sian libron (Mary’s book); ŝian libron (the mother’s book). La oficiro petis Aŭguston rigardi (ke li rigardu) lin (him) sin (himself). La patro petis sian filon, helpi (ke la filo helpu) sian (the son’s) amikon; lian (the father’s) amikon.

Examples of Participle.La reĝo ordonis, ke ĉiuj renkontante (kiam ili renkontis) lin, eliru. La princo montris viron, starantan post li. La knabo vidis siajn fratinojn, ludantajn (kiuj ludas) per sia (their own) pupoper lia (with his) pupo. La reĝo forveturis, ne sciiginte (kaj ne sciigis) sian ministron pri sia (the king’s) devopri lia (the minister’s) devo.

(d). Boirac names lia, ŝia, ĝia, etc., the direct or normal form of the pronoun, "La rekta formo," and sia the secondary or accessory form, "flanka kaj akcesora." He points out that where the use of the normal form could cause no possible ambiguity, the use of the reflexive form, though always advisable if justified by rule, is nevertheless not obligatory. It is even possible, as shown by Millidge, that the non-use of si may in some cases be felt to be somewhat clearer than its use, e.g., "La Ĥino legas siajn skribajn signojn en sia dialekto, kaj la aliaj popoloj de Azio legas tiujn samajn signojn en ilia (instead of sia) lingvo (F.K., p. 258). In any case it is better, in case of doubt, to use the normal form. It is worse to use the reflexive form when it should not be used, than to omit it when it might be used.

CORRELATIVE WORDS. (Korelativaj Vortoj.)

139. The 45 correlative words (see table, par. 147) form a very important part in the construction of the Esperanto language. Their uses and meanings are very easily learnt and remembered, since they have been exceedingly cleverly devised on a simple and uniform plan. They are all to be found in the list of Primary Words given in Part V.

140. They consist of nouns, adjectives, pronouns, and adverbs. Many of them can be applied to denote not only one word, but also expressions which require several English words to define clearly.

141. The words in the table (par. 147) are placed in series horizontally and vertically. All the words in each of the vertical series commence with the same letter, and all in each horizontal series have the same termination. It will be seen that the letter I is the first letter in the first vertical series, and that this is a central letter in each of the other words in the table. The first letter of a word conveys an idea of its meaning, and the terminal letters following I show how that idea is applied, and consequently the full meaning of the word.

(a). The initial letters convey the following ideas:—

(b). The terminal letters following I denote that the idea is to be applied, in accordance with the termination, as follows:—

142. The correlative words are all complete in themselves, but some of them can be used as root-words, taking grammatical terminations when required by the sense to be conveyed. Those ending in the vowels A, E, O, U, must not necessarily be presumed to be the parts of speech these letters indicate; the letters are not grammatical terminations, they simply show, as before stated, how the idea conveyed in the preceding letters is to be applied. Those ending in a vowel all take the accusative N, and those ending in A and U also take the plural J.

Theoretically it is possible for the words ending in O also to take the plural J; but in practice this is seldom useful.

143. The demonstrative pronouns, tio = that (thing), tiu = that one, the former, and sometimes ĉio, are followed by the separate word ĉi = near, to express the demonstrative pronoun, "this." Ĉi is invariable, but tio and tiu can be inflected as before stated. Thus tio = that (thing), tio ĉi = this (thing) (lit., "that here"), tion ĉi (accusative) = this (thing). Tiu = that one, the former, tiu ĉi = this one, the latter. Tiuj = those, tiuj ĉi = these (lit., "those here"). Often ĉi is placed first, as:—Ĉi tiu = this one. In fact, other things being equal, it is preferable to place ĉi before rather than after the t- word, though both forms are equally correct. Ĉio ĉi = all this.

144. The adverb, tie = there, is also followed by ĉi to denote "here." Thus tie = there, tie ĉi = here, tien (accusative) = thither, tien ĉi = hither. Occasionally ĉi is placed first, thus: ĉi tie, ĉi tien.

145. The interrogative or relative series (viz., those commencing with K) may be followed by the word ajn = ever, as kia ajn = whatever kind of, kial ajn = for whatever reason, kiam ajn = whenever, kie ajn = wherever, kiel ajn = however, kies ajn = whosesoever, kio ajn = whatever, kiom ajn = however much, whatever quantity, kiu ajn = whoever, whichever.

Some writers use ajn after other correlatives, but Dr. Zamenhof himself has rarely used it except after the series kia, kial, etc. However, he does not say it is wrong to extend its use, for when asked the question whether it could be employed after the series ia, ial, etc., he replied that it could, because, in Esperanto, any word could be combined with any other. See par. 158 (c) (d).

146. Grammatical terminations and suffixes may be added to the correlatives if required, thus making them nouns, adjectives, verbs, adverbs, etc., as shown in the following examples. The hyphens are given to show the construction of the words, but should not be used in writing.

Ĉiam-a = Everlasting, continual. Ĉiam-e = Everlastingly, forever. Ĉie-a = Of everywhere. Ĉi-tie-a (ĉi tiea) = Of here. Tie-a = Of there. Ĉi-tie-ulo (ĉi tieulo) = A man of this place. Tie-ulo = A man of that place. Kiom-a = Of what quantity. Kioma horo estas? = What time is it? Neni-igi = To reduce to nothing, to destroy completely. Neni-iĝi = To become nothing, to vanish. Tiam-a = Of then, of that time. Tiam-ulo = A man of that time, a contemporary. La kial-o = The why and wherefore, the reason (cause). Tiel-e = In that way.


Indefinite.Distributive, General or Collective. Interrogative and Relative.Negative.Demonstrative.
Kind of
some (any) kind or sort of
some (any)
of some kind
every kind of
of every kind
what kind of?
of what kind?
what a!
... as
no kind of
no, no such
of no kind
(not any kind of)
that kind of
such a
of that kind
Reason for
for some (any) reason or cause
for every reason/cause
for all reasons
for what reason/cause
why? wherefore
for no reason/cause
for that reason/cause
at some (any) time
every time
for all time
at what time?
at no time
at that time
in some (any) place
in every place
in what place
in no place
(not anywhere)
in that place
in some manner/way
somehow (anyhow)
(in any manner)
(in) every manner/way
(in) every way
all ways
in what manner/way
... as
in no manner/way
by no means
not at all
in that manner/way
thus, so, like (that)
as ...
in such a manner
each one’s
of each, of all
of which
no one’s
of none
that one’s
of that
of those
(not specified)
(substantival or pronominal)
all things
what (thing)
not anything
that (thing)
some quantity
rather, some
a little, at all
every quantity
all, the whole
all of it
what quantity
how much
how many
no quantity
none at all
that quantity
so much/many
as much/many
Person or thing
(pronominal or adjectival)
some one
each one, each
all the ...
which one
who, he who
which, that
no one
that one
the former

Examples of the Use of Correlative Words.

148. In the following examples (pars. 149–157) we have taken the correlative words in the table in the nine horizontal series, since in this way we can best show how some of the words are used in pairs.

149. Series ending in A (quality, kind of), adjectival.

Examples.Ĉu vi ne havas ian libron, kiu klarigos tion? = Have you not some book which will explain that?

Mi havas ian ideon kiel ĝin fari = I have some (or, an) idea how to do it.

Ekster ĉia dubo = Beyond any (every sort of) doubt.

Tiaj frazoj troviĝas en ĉiaj libroj = Such (kind of) phrases are found in all kinds (sorts) of (or, in any) books.

Ni ne scias, kiel ili fariĝis tiaj, kiaj ili estas = We do not know how they became what (such as) they are.

Nenia antaŭa sperto estas necesa = No (kind of) previous experience is necessary.

Tian virinon oni ĉiam estimas = Such a woman one always esteems.

Mi donis al li la libron tian, kia ĝi estas = I gave him the book such as it was.

Kiun aĝon li havas? = How old is he? (what age has he?)

Kia estas la vetero? = How (what kind) is the weather?

Komencante de (k)ia ajn momento = Commencing at any (whatever) moment.

Kia bela domo! = What a beautiful house!

Kiaj estas la kondiĉoj? = What are the stipulations (or terms)?

Ili estas fieraj, ni ne estas tiaj = They are proud, we are not so.

Ŝi eksentis ion tian, kion ŝi mem komence ne povis kompreni = She began to feel something such as she herself at first could not understand.

Mi ĵus eksciis iajn aferojn, kiuj ne plaĉas al mi = I have just learnt some things that do not please me (that I do not like).

Jen estas la monumento tia, kian oni priskribis = Here is the monument such as they described.

Via aĝo estas tia sama, kiel tiu de via frato = Your age is the same as your brother’s.

N.B.—Do not confuse the series ending in A with that ending in U.

Examples.Kian libron vi bezonas? = What (sort of) book do you want? Kiun libron vi bezonas? = What (or which) book do you want? Tia homo = Such a man, that sort of man. Tiu homo = That man. Ĉiaj libroj = All (kinds of) books. Ĉiuj libroj = All (or, all the) books. Mi ĝin prenos, kia ajn ĝi estas = I shall take it whatever (sort of thing) it is.

150. Series ending in AL (motive, reason for), adverbial.

Examples.Ial li subite forlasis Londonon = For some reason he suddenly left London.

Ĉial tio estas la plej bona = For every reason that is the best.

Kial vi ne respondis? = Why did you not answer?

Li nenial ĉesis skribi al mi = He for no reason ceased writing to me.

Ŝi neniam volis sekvi mian konsilon, tial mi forlasis ŝin = She never would follow my advice, therefore I forsook her.

Mi ne povas imagi kial ajn li ĝin faris = I cannot imagine why ever he did it.

151. Series ending in AM (time), adverbial.

Examples.Se iam mi venos = If ever I come (shall come).

Ĉiam skribu legeble = Always write legibly.

En tiaj okazoj ĉiam mankas io = On such occasions something is always wanting.

Kiam vi skribis tiel? = When did you write like that (thus)?

Kiam la pastro venos, diru al li la veron = When the priest comes (shall come), tell him the truth.

Tiam, kiam mi estis riĉa, mi ne estis feliĉa, or, Kiam mi estis riĉa, tiam mi ne estis feliĉa = At that time when (or, when) I was rich I was not happy, or, When I was rich then I was not happy, or the sentence might be simply Kiam mi estis riĉa, mi ne estis feliĉa = When I was rich I was not happy.

Mi neniam skribas longajn leterojn = I never write long letters.

Mi neniam aŭdis tion = I never heard that.

Sendu lin al mi, kiam ajn li venos = Send him to me whenever he comes.

Kiam ajn li venos? = Whenever will he come?

N.B.—Kiam is used after tiam, and any word denoting "time" except antaŭ = before, when ol is generally used, though kiam is used occasionally after antaŭ also (see par. 259 (3)).

Examples.Unutage, kiam = One day, when. Iun tagon, kiam = On a day, when. Tuj kiam = As soon as, immediately when. Samtempe, kiam = At the same time, when. De l’ tempo kiam = From the time when, since. Post kiam = After. Antaŭ ol li venis = Before he came.

152. Series ending in E (place), adverbial.

Examples.Mi ne povis trovi mian libron ie en la ĉambro = I could not find my book anywhere in the room.

Ĉu vi metis ĝin ien? = Did you put it anywhere (somewhere)?

Ĉie mi trovis amikojn = Everywhere I found friends.

Tion oni povas aĉeti ĉie = That can be bought (one can buy) anywhere (everywhere).

Kien vi iras? = Where are you going?

Mi iras nenien = I am going nowhere.

Kie estas la poŝtoficejo? = Where is the post office?

Ĝi estas tie, kie staras tiu domo = It is there where that house stands.

Kien vi iras? = Whither are you going?

Mi iras tien = I am going thither.

Ĉu vi estas ĉi tie? = Are you here?

Li venas ĉi tien = He is coming here.

Kie ajn li estas? = Wherever is he?

Kie ajn li estas, li ne estas tie ĉi = Wherever he is, he is not here.

153. Series in EL (manner), adverbial.

Examples.Iel li ĉiel sukcesas = Somehow he succeeds in every way.

Mi havis nenian ideon, kiel ĝin fari = I had no idea how to do it.

Kiel vi fartas? = How do you do? or, How are you?

Ŝi neniel povis lin kompreni tiel longe, kiel li parolis la lingvon francan = She could nohow (or, not at all) understand him as long as he spoke in the French language.

Same kiel la prudento estas donita al la homo, tiel la instinkto estas donita al la besto = Just as reason has been given to man, so instinct has been given to beasts.

Kaj tiel plu (often written k.t.p.) = And so on, and so forth.

Kiel eble plej baldaŭ (k.e.p.b.) = As soon as possible.

Li estas tiel forta, kiel vi = He is as strong as you.

Kiel ajn malmulte = However little.

154. Series ending in ES (possession), pronominal; relate to thing or person, singular or plural.

Examples.Ĉies devo estas nenies = Anybody’s (everybody’s) duty is nobody’s.

Ies perdo ne estas ĉiam ies gajno = Someone’s loss is not always somebody’s gain.

Ĉies ideo estis diversa = Everyone’s idea was different.

Kies libro estas tiu ĉi? = Whose book is this?

Kies plumon vi uzas? = Whose pen are you using?

La domo, kies tegmenton vi vidas, apartenas al mia patro = The house the roof of which you see belongs to my father.

El kies ĉiuj paŝoj, oni povas konkludi, ke ili estas lacaj = From all of whose steps we can conclude that they are tired.

Tiu libro estas tre malpura, kies ajn ĝi estas = That book is very dirty, whosesoever it is.

Ties opinio ne multe valoras = That one’s opinion is not worth much.

Mi neniam sekvas ties konsilon = I never take (follow) that one’s (his, her, their) advice.

N.B.—Be careful not to use kies for "of which," when these words do not mean possession. We cannot say La afero kies ni parolis for "The affair of which we spoke"; we must say La afero, pri kiu ni parolis.

155. Series ending in O (thing (not specified) indefinite), substantival or pronominal.

Examples.Kio estas tio, kion vi skribas? = What is that (or, that which) you are writing?

Io estis sub la tablo, sed mi ne povis vidi ion tie = Something was under the table, but I could not see anything (something) there.

Li vidis ion, kion li tre amis = He saw something he liked very much.

Estas tempo por ĉio = There is a time for everything.

Ĉio (tio) ĉi montras, ke ... = All this shows that ...

Ĉio, kion mi havas, estas (la) via = All I have is yours.

Kio estas tio ĉi, kion mi vidas? = What is this that I see?

Nenio estas preta = Nothing is ready.

Mi nenion trovis = I found nothing.

Tio havas malbonan odoron, kio ajn ĝi estas = It (that) has a bad smell, whatever it is.

Li ne diris eĉ unu vorton pri ĉio tio ĉi (or, ĉio ĉi) al iu = He did not say even one word about all this to anyone.

156. Series ending in OM (quantity), adverbial.

Examples.La vetero estas iom pli varma = The weather is somewhat (a little) warmer.

Jen estas sukero, prenu iom, sed ne ĉiom = Here is sugar, take some, but not all (the whole).

Kiom da ĉevaloj vi havas? = How many horses have you?

Mi havas neniom = I have none (none at all).

Tiom pli bone = So much the better.

Tiom estas malfacile memori = So much is difficult to remember.

Donu al mi tiom da akvo, kiom da vino = Give me as much water as wine.

Kiom vi scias = As far (much) as you know.

Kiom eble = As far (much) (many) as possible.

Kiom ajn da teo tiu kesto povas enhavi, tiu ĉi povas enhavi duoble tiom = Whatever quantity (however much) of tea that chest will (can) hold, this one will hold twice as much.

157. Series ending in U (persons or specified things), pronominal or adjectival.

Examples.Iu estas tie = Someone is there.

Mi ne vidis iun = I did not see anyone (someone).

Ĉiu aĝo havas siajn devojn = Each age has its duties.

Ŝi legis ĉiun libron, kiun ŝi povis ricevi = She read every book she could get.

Kiu estas en la ĝardeno? = Who is in the garden?

Mi konis ĉiun viron, kiun mi renkontis = I knew every man whom I met.

Mi legis ĉiujn librojn, kiujn vi pruntis al mi = I read all the books that you lent to me.

Tiu pano estas freŝa, sed tiu ĉi estas pli freŝa = That bread is new, but this is newer.

Tiu, kiu havas la harojn nigrajn = He who has the black hair.

Neniu estis tie, tial mi vidis neniun = No one was there, therefore I saw nobody.

Tiu homo, kiu ajn li estas, ne estas malsaĝulo = That man, whoever he is, is not a fool.

Ŝi fariĝis edzino de iu bankiero, kiun ŝi konis pli bone, ol ĉiun alian = She became wife of a certain (someone, a) banker, whom she knew better than anyone (everyone) else.

Ĉiu vorto povas esti kombinata kun ĉiu alia = Any (each) word can be combined with any (each) other word.

Li pli sincere malĝojis je li, ol (k)iu ajn el liaj parencoj = He was more sincerely sorry for him, than any of his relations.

La pafilo povos en ĉiu tempo (ĉiam) esti ŝargita = The gun can be (will be able to be) loaded at any time.

Li ne permesos al (k)iu ajn tion fari = He will not allow anyone (whatever) to do that (see par. 158 (d)).

158. General Remarks.—The foregoing remarks on the correlative words show the importance of a correct knowledge of their true meanings. Twenty or more of them will be found in nearly every page of the "Krestomatio." Note the following difference in meaning of those ending in:—

(a). -AL and -EL. It will be noticed that the series AL represent phrases in English commencing with "for," as:—"for some reason," "for every reason," etc.; whereas in the series EL the phrases commence with "in," as:—"in some way," "in every way." Bear in mind that -AL relates to motive, and -EL to manner. Note the difference of meaning in tial and tiel when followed by ke. Tial, ke = for the reason that, forasmuch as, because that. Tiel, ke = in such a manner that, so that. Some beginners seem to think that kial and kiel have no difference in meaning, which is equivalent to using "why" and "how" indiscriminately. Kial li faras tion? = Why (for what reason) is he doing that? Kiel li faras tion? = How (in what way) is he doing that?

(b). -O and -U. The series O is rarely used in the plural; it relates to things which are not mentioned by name or referred to by a personal pronoun. Examples.—Kio estas tio? = What is that? Kiu estas tiu? = Who is that? Tiu estas mia frato, kiu promenadas kun sia edzino = That is my brother who is walking with his wife. Tio estas, kion mi bezonis = That is what I wanted. Tio, kio kreskas en mia ĝardeno, estas arbo = That which is growing in my garden is a tree. Tiu arbo, kiu kreskas en mia ĝardeno, estas kverko = That tree, which is growing in my garden, is an oak.

Tio is sometimes used for "it," relating to both persons and things, as:—Tio (or, ĝi) estis mi, kiu lin vidis = It was I who saw him. Tio estas ponto = It (that) is a bridge.

(c). -I: "ANY" (= SOME). It will be seen from the table of Correlative Words on pages 98, 99, that the words in the column commencing with I have as their main idea indefiniteness, corresponding to the English some (or other). Thus: Li estas ie = he is somewhere (or other). Mi manĝos ion = I shall eat something (or other). Iu faris tion = Someone (or other) did that.

In English, especially in a sentence which is negative, interrogative, or suppositional, the word any is often used in this sense instead of the word some. In such cases (as shown in brackets in the table) the i- words may be translated with any; thus: Ĉu vi manĝis ion? = Did you eat anything (something)? Mi ne manĝos ion = I shall not eat anything. Se li estus ie en la ĉambro = If he were anywhere (somewhere) in the room. Ĉu iu faris tion? = Did anyone (someone) do that? Mi ne konas iun, kiu povus = I do not know anyone who could. Se iu faris tion = If anyone did that....

(d). "ANY" (= ANY WHATEVER). Sometimes, however, the word any is used not with the meaning of some (as in the preceding paragraph), but with the meaning any whatever. Take, for example, the questions: What will you eat for breakfast? Where shall we go? The answers might be: Oh, anything (you like, it doesn’t matter what); and Anywhere (you like). This meaning of any (any whatever) may be expressed in various ways: (1) By a k-word followed by ajn, thus: Kion ajn, Kien ajn (the words vi volas or similar words being understood). (2) By an i-word followed by ajn, thus: Ion ajn, Ien ajn. Method 1 is usually adopted by Zamenhof, but method 2 is increasingly used. (3) Sometimes a ĉ-word may be used. Thus, the sentence: Anyone could do that, may be translated: Kiu ajn (or, Iu ajn, or, Ĉiu) povus tion fari.

(e). AJN. The word ajn is used not only as shown in the preceding paragraph, but also after the k-series, to correspond to the English -ever (see par. 248 (b)). It is also occasionally used with the ĉ-series and the nen-series, thus: Mi serĉis lin ĉie ajn = I looked for him absolutely everywhere. Li estas nenie ajn = He was nowhere at all, absolutely nowhere.

THE VERB (La Verbo).

159. There are no irregular verbs in Esperanto. Every verb is conjugated exactly the same.

160. The following are the grammatical terminations of all verbs, from which it will be seen that there are only three tenses (see pars. 214–236), three moods (see pars. 171–202), and six participles (see pars. 203–213).

TENSES. (Indicative Mood.)

-AS,Present, as:Mi faras = I do, or, make.
-IS,Past, as:Vi faris = you did, or, have (or, had) done.
-OS,Future, as:Ili faros = they will do.


-US, as: Se mi farus = if I did, or, should (or, would) do, or, were to do.


-U, as: Diru al li, ke li tion faru = tell him to do that (lit., that he do that).
Ni faru tion = let us do that.


-I, as: Fari = to do.


-ANTA,Active, Present, as:Faranta = doing.
Farante (adv.) = in (when, or, other prep.) doing.
-INTA,Active, Past, as:Farinta = having done.
Farinte (adv.) = in having done.
-ONTA,Active, Future, as:Faronta = (being) about to do.
Faronte (adv.) = on being about to do.
-ATA,Passive, Present, as:Farata = being done, or, done.
Farate (adv.) = on being done.
-ITA,Passive, Past, as:Farita = been done, or, having been done.
Farite (adv.) = on having been done.
-OTA,Passive, Future, as:Farota = (being) about to be done.
Farote (adv.) = on being about to be done.

N.B.—For examples of the noun-participles see par. 209.


There are two classes of verbs—transitive and intransitive.

Transitive Verbs (transitivaj verboj).

161. A transitive verb has two forms or voices, the active and the passive.

(a). A verb is in the active voice when the subject is acting upon the object. The object then, being governed by the verb, must be in the accusative case; as:—Johano batis la hundon = John beat the dog. Here Johano is the subject acting upon hundon, the object; therefore hundon is in the accusative.

(b). A transitive verb is in the passive voice when the subject is acted upon; as:—La hundo estis batata de Johano = The dog was (being) beaten by John. The preposition "by" or "with," preceding the complement of a verb in the passive voice, is de or per. De is used for the agent, and per for the means or manner, as:—La domo konstruita de mia patro estas kovrita per ardezoj = The house built by my father is (having been) covered with slates.

Intransitive Verbs (netransitivaj verboj).

162. An intransitive verb expresses an action confined to the actor, as:—Johano dormas = John sleeps, or, is sleeping. Intransitive verbs have therefore no object and no passive voice.

Auxiliary Verb (helpa verbo).

163. There is but one auxiliary verb in Esperanto, esti = to be. This verb is used to form the passive voice, and also all the compound tenses of the active voice. The verb havi = to have is in no sense an auxiliary, but is an ordinary active verb denoting ownership, and governing the accusative case, as: Mi havas libron = I have a book.

In Esperanto the following and other verbs are often used where English would usually employ "to be," viz., kuŝi = to lie; sidi = to be situate; sin trovi = to find oneself; troviĝi = to be found; stari = to stand; farti, or, stati = to be (well or ill).

Examples.La krajono kuŝas (estas) sur la tablo = The pencil is (lies) on the table. Sur la kameno staris (estis) fera kaldrono, en kiu sin trovis (estis) bolanta akvo; tra la fenestro, kiu sin trovis (estis) apud la pordo, la vaporo iris sur la korton = On the hearth was (stood) an iron kettle, in which was (found itself) boiling water; through the window, which was near the door, steam went out into (on to) the yard. Kiel statas via tuso? = How is your cough?

Impersonal Use of Verbs.

164. Verbs used impersonally (senpersone) express a fact or action without indicating any person as the subject or actor. In English they are used only in the third person singular, preceded by "it," but in Esperanto they are entirely impersonal. The following are cases of their impersonal use:—

(a). Verbs which relate to the weather.

Examples.Pluvas = It rains. Pluvos = It will rain. Fulmis = It lightened. Neĝus = It would snow. Hajlis = It hailed.

(b). Verbs which are generally used with the subject expressed, but occasionally without.

Examples.Okazas = It happens. Ŝajnos = It will seem. Prosperis al mi trovi = It was my fortune to find.

(c). The verb esti = to be, when used with an adjective-adverb, or passive participle-adverb.

Examples.Estas pli bone forkuri = It is better to run away. Estas dirite, ke ... = It is said that ...

(d). In the compound tenses the participle takes the adverbial form, since there is no noun or pronoun with which it can agree (see par. 245).

Examples.Se estus pluvinte hieraŭ, ni ne estus povintaj eliri = If it had (should have) rained yesterday, we should not have been able to go out. Mi tondigos la herbon, kiam estos pluvinte = I shall get the grass cut, when it has (will have) rained.

Reflexive Verbs (refleksivaj verboj).

165. Reflexive verbs show the action of the subject on itself. They are used only when the subject really acts on itself, and not, as in many other languages, on other occasions (see par. 128 on the use of the reflexive pronoun si, and par. 170, conjugation of a reflexive verb).

Examples.Mi lavas min = I wash myself. Li lavis sin = He washed himself. Vi razos vin = You will shave yourself. Ili vestis sin = They dressed themselves.

166. When there are more subjects than one, and the act goes from one to another of the subjects, the word reciproke, or the expression unu la alian, may be used. With the latter the personal pronoun is not repeated.

Examples.Ili batis sin reciproke, or, Ili batis unu la alian = They beat one another. Ili ĵetis terbulojn al la kapo unu de la alia = They threw clods (lumps of earth) at one another’s heads.


The following are the simple tenses and moods of esti, by the aid of which all the compound tenses in the active voice and all the tenses in the passive voice of every verb in Esperanto are formed. The compound tenses of esti, such as mi estas estanta = I am being, etc., are very rarely used.


Esti = to be.


Present,Estanta= being.
Past,Estinta= been, or, having been.
Future,Estonta= about to be, or, going to be.

Note that participles take the plural J and accusative N if required (see par. 207); also the adverbial E (see par. 209 (c)).



Miestas= I am.
Vi, ciestas= You (thou) are (art).
Li, ŝi, ĝi, oniestas= He, she, it, one is.
Niestas= We are.
Viestas= You are.
Iliestas= They are.

N.B.—The pronoun ci = thou is rarely used.


Miestis= I was.
Viestis= You were.
Li, etc.estis= He was.
Niestis= We were.
Viestis= You were.
Iliestis= They were.


Singular.Miestos= I shall be.
Viestos= You will be.
Li, etc.estos= He will be.
Plural.Niestos= We shall be.
Viestos= You will be.
Iliestos= They will be.


The Conditional or US mood has no tenses (see par. 192). We can show its meaning best by using the conjunction se, which frequently introduces it. It has no time value in itself, and may relate to the past, present, or future.

Sing.(Se)Miestus= (If) I should be, were, had been.
(Se)Viestus= (If) you would, were, had been.
(Se)Li, etc.estus= (If) he would, were, had been.
Plural.(Se)Niestus= (If) we would, were, had been.
(Se)Viestus= (If) you would, were, had been.
(Se)Iliestus= (If) they would, were, had been.


The imperative or U mood has no tenses.

The following is its form and meaning in a chief proposition (see par. 199).

Singular.Mi estu= Let me be.
Estu= Be, or, be you, or, be thou.
Li, ŝi, ĝi, estu= Let him, her, it be.
Plural.Ni estu= Let us be.
Estu= Be, or, be you, or, be ye.
Ili estu= Let them be.

The following is its meaning in a dependent proposition, which is usually introduced by the conjunction ke = that (par. 200).

Sing.(Ke) Miestu= (That) I (may, might, should) be.
(Ke) Viestu= (That) you
(Ke)Li, etc.estu= (That) he
Plural.(Ke)Niestu= (That) we
(Ke)Viestu= (That) you
(Ke)Iliestu= (That) they


The conjugation of the compound forms is given in par. 169. When simple forms sufficiently convey the meaning, they are preferable to the compound forms.


SimplePresent,Teni= To hold.
CompoundPresent,Esti tenanta= To be holding.
CompoundPast,Esti teninta= To have held.
CompoundFuture,Esti tenonta= To be about (or, going) to hold.


Present,Tenanta= Holding.
Past,Teninta= Having held.
Future,Tenonta= About (or, going) to hold.


Present (Simple).

Sing.Mitenas= I hold, am holding, do hold.
Vi (or, ci)tenas= You hold, are holding, do hold.
Li, ŝi, ĝitenas= He, she, it holds, is holding, does hold.
Plural.Nitenas= We hold, are holding, do hold.
Vitenas= You (or, ye) hold, are holding, do hold.
Ilitenas= They hold, are holding, do hold.

N.B.—Ci = thou is rarely used. Vi = you is used, as in English, for both singular and plural; but when vi is plural, the participle in compound tenses takes the plural J.

Past (Simple).

Mi, vi, etc., tenis = I, you, etc., held, have (or, had) held, was holding, did hold.

Future (Simple).

Mi, vi, etc., tenos = I, you, etc., shall hold, or, shall be holding.


The translation of this mood into English depends upon the context, viz., whether we use the auxiliaries "should," "would," "were," "had," or simply the English past tense. It is frequently introduced by the conjunction se = if (see pars. 190–194).

(Se) mi tenus = (If) I held, or, should hold, or, should be holding, or, were holding, or, were to hold, or, had held.


Singular.Mi tenu= Let me hold.
Tenu= Hold.
Li, ŝi, ĝi, tenu= Let him, her, it hold.
Plural.Ni tenu= Let us hold.
Tenu= Hold.
Ili tenu= Let them hold.
Sing.(Ke) mi tenu = (That) I may, might, should hold.
(Ke) vi (or, ci) tenu= (That) you (or, thou)
(Ke) li tenu= (That) he
Plural.(Ke) ni tenu= (That) we
(Ke) vi tenu= (That) you (or, ye)
(Ke) ili tenu= (That) they

(See remarks on the Imperative mood, pars. 195–202).


169. The following shows the compound tenses in the active and passive voices, and the compound forms of the conditional and imperative moods:—For the three persons of the plural add J to the participle (see pars. 173, 174, 235, 236).

The Present in thePresent Mi estas tenanta= I am holding.
Mi estas tenata= I am (being) held.
Past Mi estis tenanta= I was holding.
Mi estis tenata= I was (being) held.
Future Mi estos tenanta= I shall be holding.
Mi estos tenata= I shall be (being) held.
The Past in thePresent Mi estas teninta= I have held.
Mi estas tenita= I have been, or, was held.
Past Mi estis teninta= I had held.
Mi estis tenita= I had been held, or, was held, if the action is completed.
Future Mi estos teninta= I shall have held.
Mi estos tenita= I shall have been held.
The Future in thePresent Mi estas tenonta= I am about (or, going) to hold.
Mi estas tenota= I am about (or, going) to be held.
Past Mi estis tenonta= I was about (or, going) to hold.
Mi estis tenota= I was about (or, going) to be held.
Future Mi estos tenonta= I shall be about to hold.
Mi estos tenota= I shall be about to be held.


Active Voice (Compound Form) and the Passive Voice.

Se mi estus tenanta= If I should be, or, were, holding.
Se mi estus tenata= If I should be or, were (being) held, or, if I be held.
Se mi estus teninta= If I should have held, or, if I had held.
Se mi estus tenita= If I should have been held, or, if I had been, or, were, held.
Se mi estus tenonta= If I should be, or, were, about to hold.
Se mi estus tenota= If I should be about to be held.

N.B.—In the active voice use the simple form instead of the present and past participle, unless the compound form is necessary to emphasize the meaning. For instance, in the sentence "He would not have struck me if you had held him," we use the past participle to show the anteriority, but we need not use it for the first clause; so we say:—Li ne frapus min, se vi estus teninta lin. If we use the simple form, Li ne frapus min, se vi tenus lin, it would be read:—"He would not strike me if you held him," unless the context clearly showed the action was completed. We could, however, use the adverb antaŭe instead of the compound form, and say:—Li ne frapus min, se vi antaŭe tenus lin = He would not have struck me if you had held him (lit., if you beforehand held him) (see par. 226 (a) and remarks on the Conditional mood, pars. 190–194).


Active Voice (Compound Form) and the Passive Voice.

(Por ke) mi estu tenanta= (In order that) I may be holding.
(Por ke) mi estu tenata= (In order that) I may be held.
(Por ke) mi estu teninta= (In order that) I may have held, or, might hold.
(Por ke) mi estu tenita= (In order that) I may have been held, or, might be held.
(Por ke) mi estu tenonta= (In order that) I may be about to hold.
(Por ke) mi estu tenota= (In order that) I may be about to be held.

(See remarks on the Imperative mood, pars. 195–202.)



Present (Simple).

Singular.Mi lavas min= I wash myself.
Vi lavas vin= You wash yourself.
Li, ŝi, ĝi, lavas sin= He, she, it washes himself, herself, itself.
Plural.Ni lavas nin= We wash ourselves.
Vi lavas vin= You, ye wash yourselves.
Ili lavas sin= They wash themselves.

Present (Compound), with the Three Participles.

Ili ne estas lavantaj sin= They are not washing themselves.
Ĉu ni estas lavintaj nin?= Have we washed ourselves? (lit., are we having washed ourselves?)
Mi estas lavonta min= I am about (or, going) to wash myself.

Past (Simple).

Ŝi ne lavis sin= She did not wash herself.
Ĉu ni lavis nin?= Did we wash ourselves?
Ĉu ili ne lavis sin?= Did they not wash themselves?

Past (Compound), with the Three Participles.

Kiam vi estis lavantaj vin?= When were you washing yourselves?
Ni estis lavintaj nin= We had washed ourselves.
Kiam li estis lavonta sin?= When was he about (or, going) to wash himself?

Future (Simple).

Ĉu ni lavos nin?= Shall we wash ourselves?
Li ne lavos sin= He will not wash himself.

Future (Compound), with the Three Participles.

Ŝi estos lavanta sin= She will be washing herself.
Kiam li estos lavinta sin?= When will he have washed himself?
Mi estos lavonta min= I shall be about (or, going) to wash myself.


Se li lavus sin= If he should wash himself.
Ĉu ŝi lavus sin, se...?= Would she wash herself, if...?

Conditional (Compound), with the Three Participles.

Se ni estus lavantaj nin kiam....= If we should be washing ourselves when....
Ĉu ili estus lavintaj sin, se....= Would they have washed themselves if...?
Se li estus lavonta sin kiam....= If he should be about to wash himself when....

IMPERATIVE, OR "U" MOOD (Simple Form).

Singular. Mi lavu min= Let me wash myself.
Mi ne lavu min= Let me not wash myself.
Lavu vin= Wash yourself.
Ne lavu vin= Do not wash yourself.
Li lavu sin= Let him wash himself.
Li ne lavu sin= Let him not wash himself.
Plural.Ni lavu nin= Let us wash ourselves.
Ni ne lavu nin= Let us not wash ourselves.
Lavu vin= Wash yourselves.
Ne lavu vin= Do not wash yourselves.
Ili lavu sin= Let them wash themselves.
Ili ne lavu sin= Let them not wash themselves.

MOODS (Modoj).

171 (a). The moods in Esperanto differ from those in English. They are three in number, the Conditional, Imperative, and Infinitive. Dr. Zamenhof makes no mention of any other mood. In Rule 6 (see par. 94) he mentions only the three tenses:—Present, ending in -AS, Past, in -IS, Future, in -OS; the Conditional (kondiĉa) mood in -US, the Imperative (ordona) mood in -U, and the Infinitive (sendifina) mood in -I; the three Active Participles:—Present, -ANT-, Past, -INT-, Future, -ONT-, and the three Passive Participles:—Present, -AT-, Past, -IT-, Future, -OT-. These twelve forms serve amply to represent all the various tenses and moods in English. However, to make the forms of the verb clearer to the student accustomed to the use of our indicative mood, we have called the tenses -AS, -IS, -OS, by that name.

(b). There is no Subjunctive mood, and it is not required. This mood has been defined as one governed by conjunctions, but since conjunctions have no bearing on any mood in Esperanto, it is clear that a mood, under the name of "subjunctive," is not required (see remarks on ke, par. 198).

The English Subjunctive, in the Present and Perfect, is represented by the Esperanto Imperative, and in the Pluperfect, Future, and Future Perfect, by the Esperanto Conditional mood. The auxiliaries "may" and "might" of the English Subjunctive are often rendered by the aid of such verbs as permesi, povi, or some word expressing possibility, as eble (see par. 237 (m)).

172. The mood to be used in Esperanto is determined solely by the meaning the speaker wishes to convey, and as Esperanto is a purely logical language, we must be careful not to pedantically copy our own, but to use the logical mood and tense required by the ideas we wish to convey. If, therefore, we translate English literally into Esperanto, we may, in some points, be misunderstood by a foreigner, although our translation might be perfectly clear to an Englishman. For instance, our verbs in the present and past tenses of the Indicative and Subjunctive moods have the same inflection in the first person singular and in the three persons of the plural. In Esperanto there is no such ambiguity. In such a phrase as "If they were rich, they would be happy," we must be careful to use the proper mood. Both the first and second propositions are conditional or suppositive, therefore in Esperanto the Conditional mood is logically employed, as:—Se ili estus riĉaj, ili estus feliĉaj = If they were rich, they would be happy. There is nothing of the past in the first proposition; the idea to be conveyed is of something that has not occurred, but which might occur.


173. The Infinitive mood in the active voice is formed by adding -I to the root of the verb for the simple tense, and by the auxiliary verb esti = to be with one of the active participles -ANTA, -INTA, -ONTA of the verb for the compound tenses, as:—

Present (simple), Skribi= To write.
Present (compound), Esti skribanta= To be writing (lit., to be being-writing).
Past (compound), Esti skribinta= To have written (lit., to be having-written).
Future (compound), Esti skribonta= To be about to write (lit., to be being-about-to-write).

174. The passive voice is formed by the verb esti and one of the passive participles, -ATA, -ITA, -OTA.

Present, Esti skribata = To be written (lit., to be being-written).

Past, Esti skribita = To have been written (lit., to be having-been-written).

Future, Esti skribota = To be about to be written.

175. The Infinitive mood expresses the state of action denoted by the verb.

176. In Esperanto the infinitive is almost always used without a preposition, whereas in English the preposition "to" nearly always precedes the verb.

Examples.Mi volas lerni danci = I wish to learn to dance. Li devigis min kuri = He compelled me to run. Mi hontas esti laŭdata de li = I am ashamed to be praised by him. Mi devas peni atingi tiun rezultaton = I must try to attain that result.

177. The only prepositions that can be used before the infinitive are:—(a). Por = To, or, in order to. (b). Anstataŭ = Instead of. (c). Antaŭ ol = Before. (d). Krom = Except, or, besides.

178. Por is used before the infinitive, when in English for the word "to" we could substitute the words "in order to" or "for to"; or, in some cases, when we could use "for" or "of" with a participle instead of the infinitive (par. 259 (24)).

Examples.La plej bonaj metodoj por ricevi ĝin.... = The best methods to (in order to) obtain it (or, for, or, of obtaining it).... Mi havas ion por diri al vi = I have something to (for to) say to you. Kion vi havas ankoraŭ por skribi? = What have you still to (for to) write? La tempo por legi = The time to read (for reading). Tio estas malfacila por kompreni = That is difficult (for to) understand.

179. Anstataŭ, Antaŭ ol and Krom are used before the infinitive, when in English we use the participle or a simple tense.

Examples.Anstataŭ trinki = Instead of drinking. Anstataŭ agi honeste, li fariĝis ŝtelisto = Instead of acting honestly, he became a thief. Antaŭ ol manĝi = Before eating. Antaŭ ol foriri, ili surmetis la ĉapelojn = Before going away (before they went away), they put on their (the) hats. Ne ekzistas alia bono por la homo krom manĝi kaj trinki = There is nothing better for a man, than that he should eat and drink (than eating and drinking) (Pred. II, 14; III, 12).

180. As in English, the infinitive is used:—

(a). As the subject when the act demonstrated is general.

Examples.Erari estas home = To err is human. Bone pensi kaj bone agi sufiĉas por vivi bone kaj feliĉe = To think well and to act well suffice for living well and happily.

(b). As the complement to explain an idea.

Examples.Vivi estas agi; kiu ne agas, tiu ne vivas = To live is to act; he who acts not, lives not. Li ĉesis kuri = He ceased to run (running, or, from running).

181. The infinitive, used thus as the subject, resembles a noun, but, of course, never takes the article before it. The qualifying word, used as its predicate, takes the adverbial -E. The infinitive, when used as the subject, can always be changed into the noun by substituting -O or -ADO for -I; the noun then takes the article, since it is used in a general sense (see 99 (a)).

Examples.Scii estas utile = To know (or, to have knowledge) is useful; or, La scio estas utila = Knowledge is useful. Legi estas agrabla okupo, or, La legado estas agrabla okupo = Reading is an agreeable occupation.

182. The infinitive, or its noun, is used for the gerund, or a gerundial phrase in English.

Examples.Promenadi estas sanige, or, La promenado estas saniga = Walking is healthy. Instrui infanojn diligentajn (or, La instruado al infanoj diligentaj) estas agrabla okupo = Teaching diligent children is an agreeable occupation.

183. Occasionally another mood, a participle, or the suffix -EBLA is used for our infinitive (par. 275 (c)).

Examples.Vi bone faris, ke vi venis (or, venante) = You did well to come (that you came). Diru do al li, ke li al mi respondu = Tell him, then, to answer me. Estos pli saĝe, se ni ne piediros domen = It will be wiser not to walk (go on foot) home (lit., if we shall not walk). Estus malfacile renkontebla sindonemo pli plena, ol lia = It would be difficult to meet with more complete devotion than his. Ŝi ŝajnis (esti) forgesinta, ke ŝi estas maljunulino = She seemed to have forgotten that she was (is) an old woman.

184. Sometimes the infinitive is used when we use another mood or the participle.

Examples.Mi prenos miajn glitilojn kaj iros por gliti = I shall take my skates and go skating. Mi ĉesos kanti, se vi farados tiom de bruo = I shall cease singing if you go on making so much noise. Mi kredis vidi ŝipon = I thought I saw a ship.

185. In the following examples it will be seen that the infinitive (present or past) is used in Esperanto after a noun, adjective, or participle, when in English a participial form is usually employed, as:—

La deziro morti = The desire of dying (to die). La ĝojo esti venkinta = The joy of having conquered. Tro laca marŝi = Too tired for walking. Lerta paroli = Clever in speaking. Bona por manĝi = Good for eating.


186. As stated in par. 171 (a), the indicative is not an Esperanto mood, but we use the name in order to explain more clearly to the English student the present, past, and future tenses of Esperanto verbs.

The Indicative mood, in the Active Voice, has three terminations, viz., -AS for the Present, -IS for the Past, and -OS for the Future simple tenses. For the Compound tenses the auxiliary verb esti = to be, is used with one of the three Active participles of the verb, -ANTA, -INTA, -ONTA.

187. The Passive Voice is formed by the auxiliary esti with one of the Passive participles, -ATA, -ITA, -OTA.

188. By the Indicative mood we express something as actually true, either affirmatively, or negatively, or interrogatively. It is therefore the mood of certainty.

Examples.La patro venas = Father comes, or, is coming. Patrino venis = Mother came, has come, or, did come. Kiam mia frato venos, ni foriros = When my brother comes (shall come), we will go away. Se li estas malsana, mi senkulpigas lin = If he is ill, I excuse him. Li estis juste rekompencita = He had been justly rewarded. Oni devas pardoni al li = One must pardon him. Li estis amata de ĉiuj = He was (being) loved by all. Mi estas vestita du horojn = I have been dressed for two hours (lit., I am having-been-dressed two hours).

189. The Indicative is therefore obligatory in Esperanto after verbs, adjectives, participles, and nouns expressing in a positive manner what one thinks or feels about an act presented as certain.

Examples.Mi esperas, ke li venos hodiaŭ = I hope that he will come to-day. Ŝi ne estas certa, ĉu Petro sukcesis = She is not sure whether Peter succeeded (or, has succeeded). Mi ne dubas, ke li venos = I do not doubt that he will come. Mi timas, ke la respondo alvenos, dum mi estos promenanta = I fear that the answer will arrive whilst I am (shall be) taking a walk. Mi timas, ke li venos, kaj eble difektos la ĝardenon = I fear that he will come, and possibly (perhaps) damage (or, and may damage) the garden. Mi ne dubas, ke ŝi estos vestita kiam mi alvenos = I do not doubt that she will be (will have been) dressed when I arrive. Ĉu vi opinias, ke li estas juste rekompencita? = Do you think that he has been justly rewarded?


190. In the Active Voice the Conditional mood is formed by adding -US to the root of the verb for the simple form, and by ESTUS and one of the participles -ANTA, -INTA, -ONTA for the compound forms. These compound forms are not often used.

191. In the Passive Voice it is formed by ESTUS and one of the participles -ATA, -ITA, -OTA.

192. It shows that the matter spoken of is conditional, namely, that it depends on supposition; that an act had not taken place (past), and was not taking place (present), but that it might happen or have happened if something else actually occurred. In English the pluperfect, future, and future perfect tenses of the Subjunctive mood represent the Conditional mood in Esperanto.

193. After the conjunction "if," expressing a supposition, both the chief and dependent propositions are in the Conditional mood in Esperanto, when the act is conditional.

Examples.Se li estus riĉa, li havus multajn amikojn = If he were rich, he would have many friends. Se vi volus, vi estus feliĉa = If you wished, you would be happy. Se ni estus avertitaj, ni estus defendintaj vin = If we had been (should have been) warned, we should have defended you. Se li forirus, li riskus, ke la patrino ne trovus lin = If he went (should go) away he would risk that his (the) mother would not find him.

193. (a). Note the various ways in which estus may be translated with the present and past passive participles in the following two sentences:—

(1). Se li estus sendata Berlinon, li estus devigata lasi sian edzinon hejme.

(2). Se li estus sendita Berlinon, li estus devigita lasi sian edzinon hejme.

(1). If he were (should be) sent to Berlin he would be compelled to leave his wife at home.

(2). If he had (should have) been sent to Berlin he would have been compelled to leave his wife at home.

194. As in other languages, the Conditional is used in Esperanto to attenuate or soften an expression that would be harsh or imperative, if the verb were in the Indicative; in fact, such attenuation implies some unexpressed condition.

Example.Mi volus, ke tiu laboro estu finita hodiaŭ vespere = I should like that work (to be) finished this evening. Here the condition might be, "if you possibly can do it" (see par. 202 as to estu, Imperative mood, for the Infinitive).

THE IMPERATIVE or "U" MOOD (Ordona Modo).

195. In the Active Voice the Imperative (or "U") mood is formed by adding -U to the root of the verb, or by estu and one of the participles -ANTA, -INTA, or -ONTA for the compound forms; but the latter are very rarely used.

196. In the Passive Voice it is formed by estu and one of the participles, -ATA, -ITA, or -OTA.

197. The "U" mood implies order (ordono), purpose (celo), entreaty (peto), wish (volo), obligation (devo), fitness (konveno), necessity (neceso), merit (merito), intention (intenco), etc. It will be seen that the Esperanto u has a wider application than what is usually understood by the "Imperative" mood, for it may indicate not only a direct command or order, but also desire or expediency of any degree, expressed or understood.

198. The ending u is used not only in a chief but also in a dependent proposition, and in the latter case it is usually introduced by the conjunction ke = that; but it must be borne in mind that conjunctions have no more influence in the Imperative than they have in other moods (pars. 171, 263), although when ke is followed by the Imperative we translate the phrase into English either by some tense of the Subjunctive mood, or, perhaps, more frequently, by the Infinitive.

199. In a chief proposition it is used to command or entreat, and when the verb of a chief proposition is in the Imperative, if the dependent proposition also contains an order of entreaty, its verb will, naturally, likewise be in the Imperative.

Examples.Venu tien ĉi = Come here. Donu al mi tiun libron = Give me that book. Li venu tien ĉi tuj = Let him come here at once. Ni iru Parizon morgaŭ = Let us go to Paris to-morrow. Do ne maltrankviligu vin (or, Vi do ne maltrankviliĝu) pri la afero = Do not then trouble yourself about the matter. Ordonu, ke li venu = Order him to come (that he come). Diru al ŝi, ke ŝi foriru = Tell her to go away (that she go away). Atentu, ke vi ne falu = Take care not to fall (or, lest you fall). Ni ne toleru, ke li tiamaniere kontraŭstaru al ni = Let us not suffer him in that way to oppose us (or, Let us not tolerate that he oppose us in that manner). Ni zorgu, ke li nenion povu difekti = Let us take care that he can damage nothing. Diru al li, ke mi deziras, ke li estu silenta = Tell him that I desire him to be silent (that he be silent). For other examples see par. 237 (m).

200. In a dependent proposition the ending u is also used when the verb in the chief proposition, although not in the Imperative, implies order, entreaty, wish, etc., as mentioned in par. 197. And also after such verbs as, to advise, invite, write, etc., etc., when the idea to be conveyed is in the nature of an order, wish, etc. (pars. 58 (a), 237 (m) (3)).

Examples.Mi ordonis al li, ke li donu al mi la libron = I ordered him to give me the book. Mi petas, ke vi sendu al mi la hundon = I beg you to send me the dog. Li ne postulis, ke mi fermu la fenestron = He did not require me to shut the window. Mi volas, ke vi skribu al via frato = I wish you to write to your brother. Estas necese, ke ni tien iru = It is necessary for us to go thither. Vi meritas, ke oni pendigu vin = You deserve to be hanged (that they hang you). Mi bezonas, ke li venu = I want him to come (I have need that he come). Mi ne volis, ke li venu = I did not wish him to come (that he should come). Ŝi konsilis, ke mi ne sendu la leteron = She advised me not to send the letter (she advised "do not send the letter"). Mi lin tien ĉi invitis, ke li klarigu la aferon = I invited him here to explain (that he might explain) the matter. Ili skribis, ke mi ne venu hodiaŭ = They wrote to me not to come to-day (They wrote that I should not come to-day, or, They wrote "do not come to-day").

201. The expression por ke = in order that, to the end that, so that, etc., is always followed by the Imperative, because this expression implies "order."

Examples.Por ke vi povu pagi tiun ĉi ŝuldon, estas necese, ke vi kunportu sufiĉe grandan sumon da mono = In order to be able to pay (in order that you may be able to pay) this debt it is necessary for you to bring (that you bring) a sufficient large sum of money. Por ke vi estu elektata, vi bezonas batali kun ekstrema energio = In order to be elected (that you may be elected), you need to fight with extreme energy. Por ke oni rekompencu vin, konvenas, ke vi tion meritu = In order that they may reward you, it is fitting that you merit it. Mi volas ĉion fari, por ke vi estu kontenta pri mi = I wish to do everything to satisfy you (so that you may be satisfied with me). Respondu al mi antaŭ morgaŭ, por ke mi sciu, kion mi devos diri al li = Answer me before to-morrow, so that I may know what I must (shall have to) say to him. Mi volas, ke li estu ordonata atendi mian alvenon = I wish that he may be ordered to await my arrival, or, I wish him to be ordered to await my arrival.

201 (a). The compound forms of the Imperative in the active voice are very rarely used, but they are occasionally useful to give exactitude to an expression.

Examples.Mi deziras, ke li estu min atendanta en la stacidomo je la dua horo morgaŭ posttagmeze = I desire that he be awaiting me in the station at 2 o’clock to-morrow afternoon. Estas necese, ke li estu fininta sian laboron, je la tria horo = It is necessary that he have (for him to have) finished his work at 3 o’clock. Mi ne volas, ke li estu fininta sian laboron, kiam mi alvenos, sed ke li estu finonta ĝin = I do not wish that he shall have finished his work when I (shall) come, but that he be about to finish it.

202. From the examples given of the use of the Imperative mood, we see that in Esperanto the verb in a dependent proposition is almost always preceded by the conjunction ke = that, and that the English rendering generally puts the verb in the Infinitive, the conjunction being omitted, or if it be retained, that the verb is in the Subjunctive mood. It is not generally advisable to translate this infinitive rendering literally into Esperanto, except when the actor of the first verb is also the actor of the second.

Examples.Mi volas lin vidi morgaŭ = I wish to see him to-morrow. La lernejestro deziris rekompenci la knabon = The schoolmaster desired to reward the boy. Ni bezonos forte labori, se ni deziras fini la falĉadon hodiaŭ vespere = We shall need to work hard if we wish to finish the mowing this evening.


There are three forms of the participle, viz.:—The adjectival in -A, the adverbial in -E, and the substantival in -O.

203. In the active voice the adjectival is formed by adding -ANTA, -INTA, -ONTA to the root of the verb, as:—

204. In the passive voice by adding -ATA, -ITA, -OTA, as:—

205. The active participles, preceded by the auxiliary verb esti = to be, in its various moods and tenses, form the compound tenses of the active voice.

206. The passive participles, with the verb esti, form all the moods and tenses in the passive voice.

207. Participles, like adjectives, agree in number and case with the nouns or pronouns to which they refer.

Examples. Ni estas vidintaj la viron = We have seen the man. Ŝi vidis la virojn legantajn = She saw the men who were reading (the reading men). Ni vidas la krimojn elfaratajn ĉiutage sur la stratoj = We see the crimes being perpetrated daily in the streets.

208. All the participles can be used as adjectives and also as nouns and adverbs, by substituting -O for -A for a noun, and -E for -A for an adverb. The words still retain the signification of the tense of the participle. Participial adjectives and adverbs in the active voice govern the accusative.

209. Examples in the active voice.

(a). Participial nouns, as:—La leganto = The reader (person now reading). La leginto = The reader (person who has been reading). La legonto = The reader (person about to read).

Examples.La leganto havas bonan voĉon, sed la leginto havis pli bonan; mi kredas, tamen, ke la legonto havos la plej bonan voĉon el ĉiuj = The (present) reader has a good voice, but the (previous) reader had a better; I believe, however, that the (coming) reader will have the best voice of all. Ĉi tiu (or, tiu ĉi) ideo okupis la grandan pensanton ĝis la fino de lia vivo = This idea occupied the great thinker up to the end of his life.

(b). Participial adjectives agree with their nouns in number and case, but when predicative they agree in number only (see remarks on adjectives, pars. 36, 108, 110, also par. 87 (d)).

Examples.La mortanta viro vidis mortintan virinon sur la apuda lito = The dying man saw a dead woman in the next bed. Ŝi paliĝis kaj aspektis kiel virino mortonta = She grew pale and appeared like a woman about to die. In the above sentences participial nouns might be used when the translation in English would be word for word the same, as:—La mortanto vidis mortintinon sur la apuda lito. Ŝi paliĝis, kaj aspektis kiel mortontino. This shows the wonderful flexibility of Esperanto!

(c). Participial adverbs are invariable.

Examples.Legante ni lernas = In reading we learn. Fininte sian laboron, li iris hejmen = Having finished his work, he went home. Aĉetonte libron, li petas, ke mi pruntu al li tri ŝilingojn = Being about to buy a book, he begs me to lend him (that I lend him) three shillings.

210. Examples in the passive voice.

(a). Participial nouns, as:—La aludato = The person being spoken of, or, the person in question. La aludito = The aforesaid (person). La aludoto = The person about to be spoken of.

Examples.La pendigotino nun aperis sur la eŝafodo = The woman about to be hanged now appeared on the scaffold. La batito tute meritis la punon, kiun la batinto donis al li = The beaten one quite deserved the punishment that the beater gave him.

(b). Participial adjectives and adverbs. La konstruata domo = The house under construction. La konstruita domo = The (actually) constructed house. La konstruota domo = The house (about) to be constructed. Konstruota does not show obligation to construct, but simply that it is intended to build the house, and that it will be eventually built.

Examples.Li venis al mi tute ne atendite = He came to me quite unexpectedly. Ne estas atendate ke li venos = It is not expected (being expected) that he will come. La domo estas vendota morgaŭ = The house is to be sold to-morrow.

N.B.—Note that when the subject is not expressed, the participle takes the adverbial form (see par. 245).

211. Relation of the participle to the subject.

(a). When a participle, relating to the subject of a sentence, but not qualifying it, expresses the circumstances, manner, time, occasion, etc., of an act, it takes the adverbial form. Zamenhof states that the "ablative absolute" does not exist in Esperanto, as its use would be against the spirit of the language.

Examples.Promenante sur la strato, mi falis = (While) walking in the street, I fell. Trovinte pomon, mi ĝin manĝis = Having found an apple, I ate it (see par. 245 (a)).

(b). If, however, the participle does not relate to the subject of the sentence, we must either change the construction so as to make the participial portion of the sentence relate to the subject, or else use another mood with a conjunction, adverb, etc.

For instance, we might say in English, "The enemy having run away, we crossed the bridge," but we cannot translate this literally into Esperanto, because "having run away" does not relate to those who crossed the bridge; therefore it would be wrong to say La malamiko forkurinte, ni transiris la ponton. So we must change the construction, thus:—"Having put to flight (made to run away) the enemy, we crossed the bridge" = Forkuriginte la malamikon, ni transiris la ponton. Or, another construction would be:—"After the enemy ran away, we crossed the bridge" = Post kiam la malamiko forkuris, ni transiris la ponton. In the sentence, "Swimming in the lake, the man saw a large swan," it is not clear whether the man or the swan was swimming, but in Esperanto there is no ambiguity. In the sentence, Naĝante sur la lago, la homo vidis grandan cignon, the participle, naĝante, relates to the man, the subject of vidis. If we wish it to relate to the swan, we make it agree with cignon, and say, Naĝantan sur la lago, etc. But it would be better to alter the order, thus: La homo vidis grandan cignon naĝantan (kiu naĝis) sur la lago.

212. Participial expressions with prepositions.

(a). Without can be rendered by the negative ne and an adverbial participle, or by sen followed by a noun.

Examples.Li alvenis, ne avertinte min (or, sen averto al mi) = He arrived without (not) having warned me. Mi ne povos tion ĉi fari, ne estante subtenata (or, ne subtenate, or, sen subteno) = I shall not be able to do this without being supported. Ni iru al la danĝero, ne timante la morton (or, sen timo pri la morto) = Let us go to the danger without fearing death.

(b). For can be rendered by ke = that (or, pro tio, ke or, tial, ke) and the indicative.

Examples.Mi estas al vi danka, ke vi avertis min = I am thankful to you for having (that you) warned me. Pardonu al mi, ke mi tiel faras = Pardon me for so doing. Pardonu al mi pro tio, ke mi tiel faris = Pardon me for having done so (that I so did).

(c). Of, by por and the infinitive.

Example.Mi pripensis pri rimedo por deturni lin de lia projekto = I reflected on a means of turning him from his project.

(d). After, by an adverbial past participle.

Example."Kion ni faros?" li diris, sidinte momenton silente = "What shall we do?" he said, after sitting (having sat) for a moment in silence.

(e). Before, by antaŭ ol and the infinitive.

Example.Li ludis antaŭ ol labori = He played before working.

213. The participle for the adjective.

(a). Be careful not to use the participle terminations -ANTA, -INTA for simple adjectives that have a form of their own. Some English words ending in "ing" and "ed" may be used either as participles or as simple adjectives. Note that the participle denotes action, whilst the adjective denotes quality, state, etc.

(b). Such words have, in Esperanto, an adjectival as well as a participial form, and we must be careful to use the right one in accordance with the sense.

Examples..—Laboranta and labora = Working. Ĉarmanta and ĉarma = Charming. Interesanta and interesa = Interesting. Sufokanta and sufoka = Suffocating. Kontentigita and kontenta = Satisfied; pleased, content.

(c). Observe the difference in meaning of the following:—

Rigardu tiun homon, laborantan (kiu laboras) sur la kampo! = Look at that man, working in the field! Rigardu tiun homon laboran (better, tiun laboriston) sur la kampo! = Look at that working-man in the field! In the first sentence, laborantan, the participle, denotes the action of the man: in the second, laboran, the adjective, denotes his state, condition, etc. Ŝi estas ĉarmanta nin per sia kantado = She is charming us with her singing. Ŝi estas ĉarma, kiam ŝi kantas = She is charming when she sings. It would be better, instead of using the participle ĉarmanta, to say, Ŝi ĉarmas nin per sia kantado. Mi ne estas kontentigita per liaj respondoj = I have not been satisfied with his replies. Mi ne estas kontenta je li = I am not pleased with him.

THE TENSES (La Tempoj).

The Tenses, Active Voice.

214. The Tenses indicate the time of action, and its state of completeness or incompleteness. They are either simple or compound. The simple tenses are formed by adding -AS, -IS or -OS to the root of the verb, and the terminations remain the same for all persons and numbers. The compound tenses are formed by the auxiliary verb esti = to be, and one of the participles of the verb which must agree in number with its subject. Esti is conjugated in exactly the same way as all other verbs.

215. The three Tenses used in Esperanto are the Present, Past, and Future.

216. Duration of action of the verb.—(a). In English, to express the continuance of an action, the present participle of a transitive verb is used after the verb "to be" in all the moods and tenses—as "I am loving," or "I was (have been, shall be, should be) loving"; imperative, "Be thou loving." If great exactness as regards time be necessary, these forms can be represented in Esperanto word for word as they are in English, viz., by the compound forms, mi estas (estis, estos, estus) amanta, estu amanta.

(a). To show that an action is continuous or habitual, the suffix -AD- may be added to the verb (see remarks on suffix -AD-, par. 270 (1)).

Examples.Ŝi kantadas la tutan tagon = She keeps on singing the whole day. La birdoj flugadis de arbo al arbo = The birds were (kept on) flying from tree to tree.

(b). The commencement of an action, or a sudden action, is shown by adding the prefix EK-.

Examples.Ŝi ekkantis = She began to sing. La lumo brilis = The light shone. La lumo ekbrilis = The light flashed (see remarks on prefix EK-, par. 288).

217. Emphatic form of verb.—In English this form consists of the verb, preceded by "do" or "did," and is confined to the present and past tenses of the indicative and subjunctive moods, and the imperative mood of the active voice, as:—"I do love," "He does love," "I did love," "Do love." This form in Esperanto can be represented by the adverb ja = indeed, or by suitable adverbs, such as tre, tre multe, vere, certe, efektive, etc.

Examples.Mi ja lin amas = I do love him. Mi tiel multe amis ŝin = I did so love her.

The Present.

218. The Present tense (simple) ends in -AS. It is used to express not only what is happening at the moment, but also what happens in all time, or what is understood to be present.

Examples.Mi kuras = I run, or am running. La vero ĉiam venkas = Truth always conquers. La aŭtoro diras en sia verko, ke .... = The author says in his book that.... Kiun vi vidas? = Whom do you see? Mi vidas neniun = I see nobody. Mi foriras, ĉar mia patro min atendas = I am going away, for my father awaits (or expects) me. Mi ĉiam leviĝas tre frue = I always get up (rise) very early. Nenion oni faras sen peno = One does nothing without effort.

219. The Present in place of the Past or Future.—In Esperanto, as in other languages, the Present is often used for the Past or Future, to give vividness to an expression.

Examples.Mi haltas, perdante la spiron, kiam subite mi aŭdas post mi voĉon = I stop, losing breath, when suddenly I hear behind me a voice. Hodiaŭ plenaj de vivo, ni estas morgaŭ la akiro de la tombo = To-day full of life, to-morrow we shall be (are) the prey (acquirement) of the tomb.

220. Esperanto logically always employs the Present, even in a phrase relating to what has past, if the action is present relatively to the time in question.

Example.Ĉiuj, kiuj ŝin vidis povis pensi, ke ili vidas la patrinon = All who saw her could think that they saw (see) her (the) mother. In this sentence, what did they think? Their thought was, "We see her mother," not "We saw her mother." The sight was present to them, hence ili vidas.

221. Present in place of the Past.—If it is a question of the truth of all time, or of a fact existing at the moment spoken of, English generally uses the Past tense, but in Esperanto the Present is always employed.

Examples.Ni eksciis, ke vi estas en Londono ok tagojn = We learnt that you were (are) in London for eight days. Ni kredis, ke vi estas kuracisto = We believed that you were (are) a doctor. Li instruis nin, he ĉiam oni devas esti indulga = He taught us that one must always be forbearing (merciful).

222. The Present tense (compound) is formed by the auxiliary esti = to be and one of the three participles, -ANTA, -INTA, -ONTA. The compound tenses are seldom used in Esperanto, and their use is to be avoided if the simple tenses suffice to convey our meaning. Their use, therefore, is confined to giving exactitude to the time of an action or to an idea (see par. 169).

Examples.Li estas vojaĝanta = He is travelling. The simple form, Li vojaĝas, might mean that he travels generally, but possibly is not at this moment on his way to any place. If, therefore, we wish to convey that he is actually on his way to some place, we use the compound form, or some additional word, as nun, e.g., li nun vojaĝas. Kiam la abeloj estas forflugontaj, ili zumadas laŭte = When bees are about to fly away, they (are accustomed to) hum loudly (see par. 216 (a)). Esti skribanta = To be writing.

The Past.

223. The Past tense (simple) ends in -IS. It expresses something that has passed. It is used for the three tenses in English; the past, imperfect, and perfect; and sometimes for the pluperfect, if its use does not cause ambiguity.

Examples.Mi skribis = I wrote, I was writing, or, I have written. Li venis antaŭ du horoj = He came two hours ago. Pluvis hieraŭ = It rained yesterday. Se li estis malsana, li ne povis veni = If he was ill, he could not come. Ĉu vi lin vidis? = Did you see (or, have you seen) him? Li foriris, antaŭ ol mi alvenis = He had left before I arrived. Mi promenis hieraŭ, kaj renkontis vian amikon = I took a walk (or, I was walking, better promenadis) yesterday, and met your friend.

224. The Past tense (compound) is formed by the auxiliary verb esti = to be and one of the three participles, -ANTA, -INTA, -ONTA. This form should not be used when the simple form suffices to convey the required meaning. It is better employed only when we wish to give to an expression more exactitude as regards the state of the subject at the time of the principal action than is conveyed by the simple form (see pars. 169, 226 (a)).

Examples.Kiam li estis fininta sian laboron, li iris hejmen = When he had finished his work, he went home. Mi estis skribanta leteron, kiam okazis tertremo = I was writing a letter when an earthquake took place. Ili interkonsentis kaj estis enirontaj la landon, sed io okazis, kio ilin malhelpis = They mutually agreed, and were about to enter the country, but something happened which prevented them.

225. To show that something has just happened, or is very soon going to happen, the words ĵus = just, or tuj = immediately, are often used respectively.

Examples.Mi ĵus vidis tre belan pentraĵon = I have just seen a very beautiful picture. Ni estis tuj elirontaj, kiam ekpluvis = We were on the point of (or, just) going out when it began to rain.

226. The past tense of esti (estis) and the past participle (-INTA) of the verb correspond with the pluperfect in English. It denotes an action that was completed at a time now past. As before stated, it need not be employed when the simple past tense in -IS sufficiently expresses the meaning wished to be conveyed.

Examples.Kiam ŝi estis rakontinta ĉion, kio okazis, ŝi ekploris = When she had related everything that happened, she began to weep. Here, in English, we should probably say "everything that had happened," but "ĉion, kio estis okazinta" is unnecessary in Esperanto, as the meaning is quite clear with "okazis." Li ne estis parolinta du sekundojn, kiam mi diris al li "Silentu!" = He had not spoken for two seconds when I said to him, "Be silent!"

226 (a). The adverb antaŭe = beforehand (or jam, or jam antaŭe) is sometimes used with the past and future simple tenses, or with the simple forms of the Conditional or Imperative mood, instead of the compound tenses or forms (see Part III, Exercise 8).

Examples.Kiam vi eniris en la ĉambron, la gastoj jam antaŭe foriris (or, estis foririntaj) = When you entered the room, the guests had departed (lit., already beforehand departed). Kiam vi venos al mi, mi jam antaŭe finos (or, estos fininta) la laboron = When you have (will) come to me, I shall have finished the work. Li ne aĉetus la libron, se vi antaŭe ne donus (or, estus doninta) al li la monon = He would not have bought the book unless you had given him the money (lit., if you beforehand should not give him the money).

The Future.

227. The Future (simple) ends in -OS. The future (compound) is formed by the auxiliary esti and one of the three participles, -ANTA, -INTA, -ONTA, but the compound form should be used only when we wish to express anteriority, that is to say, action taking place previous to that of the principal action.

228. The future denotes an action yet to take place.

Examples.La patro venos post du tagoj = Father will come in two days. Ĉu vi pruntos al mi la libron? = Will you lend me the book? Kiam li alvenos? = When will he arrive? Li venos la lundon proksiman = He will come next Monday.

229. If we wish to mark a near future, we can use with the verb the adverbs tuj = immediately, baldaŭ = soon, tre baldaŭ = very soon.

Examples.Li tuj alvenos = He will arrive immediately. Li tre baldaŭ estos tie ĉi = He will very soon be here.

230. The future compound with the present participle is used when we wish to mark that an action will be going on at some particular time in the future.

Example.Je la deka morgaŭ matene mi estos veturanta Parizon = At 10 o’clock to-morrow morning I shall be travelling to Paris.

231. The future compound with the past participle is used when we wish to mark that an action will be finished at some particular time in the future (see par. 226 (a)).

Example.Mi estos fininta mian laboron je la sesa horo morgaŭ vespere = I shall have finished my work at six o’clock to-morrow evening.

232. The future for the present indicative or subjunctive.—Be careful not to imitate English in using the present or subjunctive for the future.

Examples.Se pluvos, li ne venos = If it rains, he will not come. Kion vi faros, kiam mi estos en la tombo? = What will you do when I am in the grave? Mi skribos la leteron dum vi ripozos = I shall write the letter whilst you are resting. Ŝi skribis al ni, ke ŝi estos tie ĉi morgaŭ = She wrote to us that she would (will) be here to-morrow (she wrote what? not "that she would," but "that she will," so the future is the correct tense).

The Tenses, Passive Voice.

233. The tenses of the passive voice are formed by the simple tenses of the auxiliary verb esti and the passive participles, -ATA, -ITA, -OTA. All the tenses are therefore compound. As with the active participles, J is added to the three persons of the plural in all the tenses.

234. The signification of the tenses is the same as in the active voice, except, of course, that the subject of a passive verb is acted upon. Since esti is the only auxiliary verb used in Esperanto, it represents the two English auxiliaries, "to be" and "to have"; we must, therefore, translate it accordingly.

235. Care must be taken in the use of these participles. For instance, the participles of skribi = to write used alone mean—

Present, Skribata = Written, or, being written (action going on).

Past, Skribita = Written, or, been written (lit., having been written) (action completed).

Future, Skribota = About to be, or, going to be, written (action about to occur).

236. The various tenses of the verb esti show the time of the action, and the three participles the state of the subject at that time. Note carefully the various shades of meaning in the following examples:—

La pordego estas fermata, ĉar la ludo estas ludota = The gate is being shut, for the game is about to be played.

La pordego estas fermita, ĉar la ludo estas ludata = The gate is (or, has been) shut, for the game is being played.

La pordego estis fermita, dum la ludo estis ludata = The gate was (or, had been) shut whilst the game was being played.

Kiam estos pendigata la homo? = When will the man be (being) hanged?

Li estis pendigota morgaŭ, sed oni diras, ke li ne estos pendigata ĝis mardo = He was to have been (was about to be) hanged to-morrow, but they say he will not be hanged till Tuesday.

Kaj kiam li estos pendigita, kie li estos enterigota? = And when he is (has been) hanged, where is he to be buried? (lit., and when he shall have been hanged, where will he be about to be buried?). Note that after the interrogative kiam the English present tense is often future in Esperanto, as:—Kiam li venos? When is he coming? or, When will he come?

Pasero estis kaptita kaj enmetita en kaĝon, sed kiam la pordeto de la kaĝo estis malfermata, ĝi forflugis = A sparrow was (or, had been) caught and put into a cage, but when the door of the cage was being opened it flew away.

N.B.—In the above sentence we see that the sparrow was (estis) first in the state of having been caught (kaptita); then in the state of having been put (enmetita) into a cage; then that the door was in the state of being opened (malfermata), and that during this action the bird flew away (forflugis).

(For examples of the passive conditional mood see par. 193.)

(For examples of the rare use of the passive imperative mood see par. 201.)



237 (a). Devi = to be obliged to, to have to, means to be physically or morally obliged to do something, as:—Vi devas fari tion = You must (have to, are to) do that. Vi ne devas fari tion = You are not obliged to do that. If, however, the action is not immediate, the future tense is used for "must," as:—Vi devos fari tion morgaŭ = You must (will have to) do that to-morrow. In its Conditional form devi may be used, like other verbs, to soften an expression, and then it can be translated by "ought," as:—Vi devus ne fari tion = You ought not to (should not) do that. Here devus is used instead of the more peremptory form, devas; Vi devas ne fari tion would mean You must not (are not to) do that (see par. 194, also pars. 237 (o), (p), on "should," "must," "ought," and par. 59 (a)).

Examples.Mi devas vin forlasi, ĉar oni atendas min = I must (have to) leave you, for they are waiting for me. Ĉu mi devas fari tion tuj? = Must I (am I to) do that at once? Ĉu mi devos veni morgaŭ = Must I (shall I have to, am I to) come to-morrow? Mi devis skribi leteron = I had (have had) to write a letter. Li devis min vidi hodiaŭ, sed li ne povas veni = He was to see me to-day, but he cannot come. Ili devis vidi min hieraŭ, sed ili ne povis veni = They were to have seen me yesterday, but they could not come. Li estis kolera hieraŭ, ĉar li devis iri lernejon = He was angry yesterday, because he was obliged to (had to) go to school. Sed por tio ĉi mi devos atendi iom da tempo = But for this I shall have to (I must) wait some time. Se mi lin vidus, mi devus paroli kun li = If I saw him, I should have to speak to him. Se mi lin vidus, mi estus devinta paroli kun li = If I had seen (saw) him, I should have been obliged (have had) to speak to him. La celo de ĉiu estas, aŭ devus esti, bonfaradi = The aim of everyone is, or ought to (should) be, to do good. Li devus kolekti kaj aranĝi siajn faktojn = He ought to (should) collect and arrange his facts. Kiam vi estas tie, vi devus vidi la kastelon = When you are there, you ought to see the castle. Kiam vi estis tie, vi devus vidi (or, vi devus esti vidinta) la kastelon = When you were there, you ought to have seen the castle. Mi devus tute ne aŭskulti ŝin = I ought not to listen to her at all.

From these examples we see that the following is the meaning of devi in its moods and tenses. The compound forms should not be used unless absolutely necessary to render the meaning clear.





Conditional (softened sense).

N.B.—Do not use devi for "were to," when no obligation is implied. Note the difference in meaning in the following sentences:—Se ili venus, mi vidus ilin = If (supposing) they were to come (if they came), I would see them. Ili devis veni la lastan semajnon, sed io malhelpis ilin = They were to (have) come last week, but something prevented them.

Also do not use devi for "am to," "was to," etc., when these words express not "obligation," but "purpose" or "intention." For instance, "Are you to speak at the meeting?" may mean either (1) "Do you intend to (Shall you) speak?" or, (2) "Have you to (Must you) speak?" So we translate (1) Ĉu vi intencas paroli (Ĉu vi parolos) ĉe la kunveno? or, (2) Ĉu vi devos paroli ĉe la kunveno? In such a phrase as "You are to do that" the obligation is clear, so we say Vi devas tion fari.

Further, do not use devi in translating such a sentence as "The man must be a fool," which is La viro sendube estas malsaĝulo, not, devas esti ...


237 (b). Kuŝi = to lie, to be situated, is sometimes used to denote anything in a state of rest, or in a recumbent position. It has, therefore, also the meaning of "to be."

Examples.La krajono kuŝas sur la libro = The pencil lies (is) on the book. La libroj kuŝas sur la breto = The books are (lie) on the shelf.

Koni and Scii.

237 (c). Koni and scii are used in the same sense as the French verbs connaître and savoir.

Koni means to know, to be acquainted with, to know a person, or, thing.

Examples.Mi konas vian fraton = I know your brother. Li konas la hundon, sed li ne konas ĝian posedanton = He knows the dog, but he does not know its owner.

N.B.—It is never followed by the conjunction KE; Mi konas, ke, is wrong. Mi scias, ke vi ... = I know that you ...

Scii means to know, to be aware of, to know something is or was happening, etc.

N.B.—It is never used of persons.

Examples.Mi scias, ke li estas prava = I know that he is right. Mi sciis, ke li estis tie hieraŭ = I knew he was there yesterday. Mi ne sciis, ke vi konas lin = I did not know that you knew him. Mi konas la francan lingvon, sed mi ne scias ĝin = I know (recognize) the French language (when I see it), but I do not know it.


237 (d). Lasi, like the English verb "to leave," has various meanings.

(1). To let remain, as:—Li lasis la libron sur la tablo = He left the book on the table.

(2). To leave in a place, not to take with one, as:—Li lasis sian edzinon en la domo = He left his wife in the house. Lasu vian bastonon tie ĉi = Leave your stick here.

(3). To lose restraint upon something, as:—Li lasis fali la libron = He let the book fall.

(4). To leave in a certain state, as:—Li lasis min en la plej granda embaraso = He left me in the greatest embarrassment. Li lasis la domon tre malpura = He left the house very dirty.

(5). To leave to the care of someone, as:—La juĝisto lasis la infanojn al la patro = The judge left the children to the father.

(6). To have remaining at death, to leave behind one, as:—Kiam li mortis, li lasis (or, postlasis) grandan riĉaĵon, kiun li testamentis al diversaj bonfaraj institucioj = When he died, he left great wealth, which he left to various charitable institutions (note that to "leave," "bequeath," is testamenti).

(7). Lasi, followed by the preposition en, means to "leave in," or to "let into," according as the complement is in the nominative or accusative, e.g.:—Mi lasis la hundon en la domo = I left the dog in the house. Mi lasis la hundon en la domon = I let the dog into the house.

(8). In the "Krestomatio," page 25, it is used in the sense to "leave off," "cease," as:—Aleksandro lasis sian paroladon pri batalo kaj petis de ili panon = Alexander left off talking of battle, and asked them for bread.

(9). Lasi, followed by an infinitive, means to "let," or, "allow," as:—Lasu al mi ĝin fari = Let me do it, or, Leave it to me to do. Sometimes we find it used in the sense "allow to be," as:—Neniu volis lasi rimarki, ke li nenion vidas = No one wished to let it be noticed that he saw (sees) nothing. This imitates the idiom of some national languages. It can be explained as an omission of onin or some other pronoun, thus:—Neniu volis lasi onin (nin) rimarki, ke ... = No one wished to let people (us) notice that ...

(10). Allasi = to admit (own the truth), as:—Li allasis, ke li estas malprava = He admitted he was (is) wrong.

(11). Delasi = to allow to leave, as:—Li delasis lin de la domo = He let him leave the house.

(12). Enlasi (like lasi en) = to let go in, as:—Enlasu min! = Let me in!

(13). Forlasi = to abandon, as:—Li forlasis sian postenon = He abandoned his post.

(14). Preterlasi = to let pass, as:—Li preterlasis la okazon = He let the opportunity pass, or, He missed the opportunity. Li ne povis uzi sian bileton, ĉar ĝia limtempo preterlasiĝis = He could not use his ticket because its time limit had expired.

(15). Tralasi = to allow to pass through, as:—Li tralasis la homon tra la pordo = He let the man pass through the door. Kiam ŝi atingis la pordegon, ili ŝin tralasis = When she reached the gate, they let her through.

Pesi and Pezi.

237 (e). Pesi = to weigh, to examine by balance (transitive).

From the above words we see that the roots pes- and pez- both signify "weight," and care must be taken to use the words in their transitive or intransitive sense.

Examples. Tiuj ĉi tabloj estas de granda pezo: mi kredas, ke ilia pezo estas pli ol cent okdek funtoj = These tables are a great weight; I believe that their weight is more than a hundred and eighty pounds. Tiu kesto estas tre peza; mi estas certa ke ĝi pezas almenaŭ naŭdek funtojn; metu ĝin sur la pesilon, alportu la pezilojn, pesu ĝin, kaj diru al mi la ĝustan pezon = That chest is very weighty (heavy); I am certain that it weighs at least ninety pounds; put it on the scales (weighing machine), bring the weights, weigh it, and tell me the exact weight.


237 (f). Povi = to be able. Beginners sometimes find a difficulty in dealing with this verb, owing to the irregularity of the English equivalents. For instance, the beginner may say, "How can ‘can’ be both present and future, or ‘could’ both past and conditional?" The following examples giving translations of povi in its various tenses should be helpful in removing the difficulty.

Examples.Ĉu vi povas tion fari? Jes, mi povas = Are you able to (can you) do that? Yes, I can. Mi ne povas vidi la arbon, kiun vi montras = I cannot see the tree which you point out. Mi povis fari tion, kion vi volis = I was (have been) able to do what you wished. Mi ne povis fari tion, kion vi postulis = I was not (have not been) able to do (I could not do) what you required. Mi povos tion fari morgaŭ = I shall be able to (I can) do that to-morrow. Se vi povus veni mardon, mi povus vin vidi = If you should be able to (if you could) come on a Tuesday, I could see you. Mi povus tion fari morgaŭ, se.... = I could (should be able to) do that to-morrow if.... Ĉu li estos povinta plenumi la laboraĵon, kiam vi lin vidos morgaŭ? = Will he have been able to complete the work when you (will) see him to-morrow? Se vi venus hieraŭ, mi estus povinta vin vidi = If you had come yesterday, I could have seen you. Li povus veni, se li volus = He might (would be able to) come if he wished (see pars. 237 (l), (m)).


237 (g). Sidi = to sit, to be sitting. Sidi has sometimes the signification "to be" in some defined place.

Examples.En la ĉambro sidis nur kelke da homoj = In the room were (sat) only a few (some) men. La kuiristo sidas en la kuirejo = The cook is (sits) in the kitchen. En la kandelingo sidis brulanta kandelo = In the candlestick was (sat) a burning candle.

Sin trovi.

237 (h). Sin trovi = to find oneself. This expression (or, troviĝi = to be found, to find oneself, to be, or, to be situated) is often used for the English verb "to be."

Examples.Sur la arbo sin trovis multe da birdoj = On the tree were (found themselves) many birds. Super la tero troviĝas aero = Over the earth is air.

Ĉesi, Daŭri, Pasi, Fini, Komenci.[17]

237 (i). In English the following and many other verbs are used in both a transitive and intransitive sense:—to stop, to continue, to pass, to finish, to commence. In Esperanto ĉesi, daŭri, pasi are intransitive; so, to make them transitive, we must add IGI. On the other hand, fini and komenci are transitive; therefore, to make them intransitive, we must add IĜI (par. 280).

Ĉesigu tiun bruon = Cease (stop) that noise. La pluvo ĉesis fali = The rain ceased to fall (stopped).
Li daŭrigis sian rakonton = He continued his story. La ventego daŭris unu horon = The storm lasted an hour.
Li pasigis du horojn en la budo = He passed two hours in the booth. La tempo pasas rapide = Time passes rapidly.
Li finis sian laboron = He finished his work. La monato finiĝos morgaŭ = The month will finish to-morrow.
Ŝi komencos sian vojaĝon morgaŭ = She will commence her journey tomorrow. La semajno komenciĝis hieraŭ = The week commenced yesterday.


[17] The following is a list of the chief Esperanto verb roots whose English equivalents are used both transitively and intransitively. (E.g., wakes, in he wakes her, is transitive; in she wakes it is intransitive.) Esperanto follows international usage in giving such verbs one meaning only, either transitive or intransitive.

Transitive Verbs (can be used in the passive, and with -ebla, -inda; may be used intransitively with -iĝ-):—

Aplik, balanc, ban, ĉagren, etend, fend, ferm, fin, flar, fleks, izol, klin, kolekt, komenc, lev, mezur, montr, mov, nask, paŝt, renvers, romp, rul, renkont, sku, sving, sufok, ŝancel, ŝanĝ, ŝir, tren, turn, vek, verŝ.

Intransitive Verbs (cannot be used in the passive, nor with -ebla, -inda, unless made transitive by -ig-):—

Bol, brul, ĉes, daŭr, degel, dolor, dron, eksplod, fal, glit, halt, kresk, krev, kuŝ, lum, odor, pas, pend, sid, son, sonor, ŝpruc, ŝrump, ŝvel, velk.

Do, Did.

237 (j). The English verb "to do" is represented as follows:—

(1). In the sense of to "perform," "make," "commit," "execute," etc., it is represented by fari or agi.

Examples.Ne faru tion = Don’t do that. Batante la knabon, li faris (or, agis) malprave = He did wrong in beating the boy. La ĉambristino faris tion, kion mi ordonis = The chambermaid did what I ordered.

(2). In interrogation and negation it is represented by the present and past tenses (pars. 58, 63, 64).

Examples.Ĉu vi pensas, ke li venos? = Do you think that he will come? Ĉu vi lin vidis hieraŭ? = Did you see him yesterday? Mi ne konas lin = I do not know him.

(3). As an emphatic auxiliary, it may be represented by ja = indeed, in fact, or other similar adverb: e.g., sincere (par. 217).

Example.Mi ja esperas, ke li venos = I do hope he will come.

(4). As an inquiry after health.

Example.Kiel vi fartas? or, Kia estas via sano? or, Kiel vi statas? = How do you do? or, How are you?

(5). To "do," in the sense of "to cheat," by trompi or friponi. In the sense of "to suffice" by sufiĉi.

Examples.Li friponis min = He did (cheated) me. Tio sufiĉos = That will do.

(6). Followed by prepositions, it must be translated in accordance with the sense of the phrases.



237 (k). The English verb to "get" must be translated in accordance with its numerous meanings. For instance:—

(1). To "get," in the sense of to "become," may be rendered by iĝi = to become, or the suffix -IĜ-.

Examples.Edziĝi = To get married (man). Edziniĝi = To get married (woman). Leviĝi = To get up. Alproksimiĝi = To get near. Laciĝi = To get tired. Tediĝi = To get bored. Ĉu vi pretiĝas = Are you getting ready? Mi malsatiĝas = I am getting hungry. Mi kutimiĝas je tio = I am getting accustomed (used) to that. Mallumiĝas (or, Iĝas mallume) = It is getting dark. La tagoj pli mallongiĝas = The days are getting shorter. La infanoj kuŝiĝis = The children got into bed (lit., lay down). La vespermanĝo malvarmiĝas = The dinner is getting cold; but malvarmumi = to get (or catch) a cold.

(2). To "get," in the sense of to "make," to "cause," is rendered by igi = to make, or the suffix -IG- added to a verb.

Examples.Igu ŝin veni al nia dancado = Get her to come to our dance. Mi presigos la libron baldaŭ = I shall get the book printed soon.

(3). To "get," in the sense of to "have got," or to "possess," is not translated.

Examples.Mi havas (or, posedas) du ĉevalojn = I have got two horses. Kion vi havas? = What have you got?

(4). To "get," in the sense of to "procure," "fetch," is rendered by havigi, or, venigi.

Examples.Mi havigos al mi tiom, kiom mi povos = I shall get as much as I can. Venigu al mi veturilon = Get me a carriage. Venigu la kuraciston = Send for (get) the doctor.

(5). "Get" is translated in various other ways according to its meaning. Note the following examples:—

(6). To "get," followed by prepositions, etc., must be translated in accordance with the sense of the phrase.


Can and Could.

237 (l). "Can" and "could" are translated by povi = to be able, except when "can" has the permissive sense of "may" (see par. 237 (m) (3)).

Examples.Mi ne povas lin vidi nuntempe = I cannot see him at present. Li ne povis iri hieraŭ = He could not go yesterday. Li povus iri hodiaŭ, se li volus = He could (would be able to) go to day, if he would.

For other examples of "can" and "could," see povi, par. 237 (f).

May and Might.

237 (m). These verbs are used (1) as auxiliaries in the English Subjunctive mood; also to express (2) wish, (3) permission, (4) possibility, (5) power or ability.

(1). When used as auxiliary verbs, they can be expressed by the Esperanto Imperative mood.

Examples.Li rapidas, por ke li alvenu ĝustatempe = He hastens that he may arrive in time. Li kuris rapide, por ke li ne maltrafu la vagonaron = He ran quickly that he might not miss the train.

(2). When they express "wish," the Esperanto Imperative is also used.

Examples.Vi estu feliĉa! = May you be happy! Via deziro efektiviĝu! = May your wish be realized! Ĉielo vin benu! = May Heaven bless you! Nenio difektu vian feliĉon! = May nothing mar your happiness! Ĉia beno estu via! = May every blessing be yours!

In the above examples ellipsis takes place both in Esperanto and English, some such words as mi deziras, ke ... = I wish that..., being omitted (par. 66 (c)). Ke vi prosperu, estas mia fervora deziro! = That you may succeed, is my fervent desire! Ke li vivu, estis mia ĉiutaga preĝo! = That he might live, was my daily prayer! Mi mortu, se mi iom mensogas! = May I die, if I am lying at all!

(3). When they express "permission," some word denoting this must be used, or the imperative may be used, the verb expressing permission being omitted (par. 58 (a)). The English verb "can" is sometimes employed to express the permissive sense of "may"; in that case it is better to avoid the use of povi = to be able.

Examples.Ĉu vi (oni) permesas, ke mi parolu kun vi? = May (can) I speak to you? (lit., Do you permit that I speak to you?) Ĉu oni permesas, (or, ĉu estas permesate), ke mi vidu la kastelon? = May (can) I see the castle? Mi permesas, ke vi tion faru, se vi volas, or, Vi faru tion, se vi volas = You may (I permit that you) do that, if you like. Se mi estus permesita tion diri (or, se estus permesite, or, se oni permesus, ke mi tion diru) = If I might (were permitted to) say so (that).

The above questions may be shortened thus:—Ĉu mi parolu kun vi? Ĉu mi vidu la kastelon? in this sense. The ellipsis understood here might, however, equally well be Ĉu (vi volas, ĉu necesas, ĉu estas bone, ke) mi parolu? vidu la kastelon? = Shall I (Am I to) speak (see the castle)?

(4). When they express "possibility," some word showing that the action is more or less a matter of doubt must be used, as eble = possibly, kredeble = probably, etc.

Examples.Eble li venos = He may come, or, Maybe (possibly) he will come. Eble li tranĉos la fingron, se vi donos al li tranĉilon = He may (possibly he will) cut his finger, if you (will) give him a knife. Eble li venus, se vi lin invitus = He might (possibly he would) come, if you invited (were to invite) him. Se vi tien irus, eble (kredeble) vi lin vidus = If you went (were to go) there, you might (possibly, probably would) see him.

Note that the possibility of something happening varies with the adverb used. "May" rendered by eble throws greater doubt on the contingency than kredeble.

(5). When they express "power," or "ability," povi = to be able can be used.

Examples.La malsano povas konduki el komplikaĵoj = The illness may lead to complications. Li povus tion fari, se li antaŭe volus (or, estus volinta) ĝin fari = He might (could) have done that, if he had wished to do it.

Shall and Will.

237 (n). These verbs are used in English to denote:—

As they are sometimes misplaced, it would be well for the student, not thoroughly conversant with their proper use, to consult some good English Grammar.

(1). Futurity. As the auxiliary for the Future tense, "shall," in direct speech, is generally used for the first person, and "will" for the second and third persons, as "I, or we, shall go," "He, you, or they will go," except in interrogation, when "shall" is generally used for the second person, as "Shall you go?" But in indirect speech "shall" is used for all three persons, as, "He says he shall come." "You say you shall write." In any of these cases they are translated by the future in -os.

(2). Determination or Will. When the meaning is not futurity, but determination on the part of the speaker, then, in direct speech, "will" is used for the first person, and "shall" for the second and third persons, as, "I will do it, you cannot stop me." "You shall not kill that bird." "Thou shalt not steal." But in indirect speech "will" is used for all the persons, as, "He says he will go" (it is his determination to go). "You say you will try it" (you are determined to try it). In such cases one must, in Esperanto, use not the future, but the imperative, or some word expressing "will" or "determination."

N.B.—In some cases it is difficult to tell in which of the above senses "shall" or "will" is used, unless the context makes it clear; so, in writing, we have to underline the words, or, in speaking, to emphasize them strongly when they mean "determination." Note carefully their meaning in the following sentences. The number prefixed to each example denotes the heading under which it comes.

Examples.—(1). Mi revenos, kiam ili foriros = I shall come back when they go away. (2). Mi intencas ĝin fari, ĉu vi konsentos, aŭ ne = I will (intend to) do it whether you consent or not. (1). Vi mortigos tiun birdon, se vi rekte pafos = You will kill that bird if you shoot straight. (2). Mi ne permesas, ke vi mortigu tiun birdon = You shall not (I do not allow you to) kill that bird. (1). Mi scias, ke vi ĝin faros = I know that you will do it. (2). Mi scias, ke vi povas ĝin fari, se vi volos = I know you can do it if you will.

Note the difference in meaning of "shall" and "will" in the following sentences:—I shall/will not see you to-morrow unless you come early. If "shall" be used, it means that something will prevent the speaker from seeing the individual; the speaker may be out, or engaged; therefore, since the reason is unimportant, we can translate the sentence, as in English, by the future, as:—(1). Mi ne vidos vin morgaŭ, se vi ne (or, krom se vi) venos frue. But if "will" be used, determination on the part of the speaker is implied; nothing prevents him; he could see you if he wished, but he will not (won’t). Therefore, in Esperanto, we must express this determination, and say (2). Mi ne volas (or, mi ne intencas) vin vidi morgaŭ, krom se vi venos frue = I will not (I do not intend to) see you to-morrow unless you come early. (1). Mi ne mortos sola = I shall not die alone. (2). Mi ne volas (or, mi certe ne intencas) morti sola = I will not (I certainly do not intend to) die alone. (1). Ĉu vi estos (or, ĉeestos) tie ĉi morgaŭ? = Will you be here to-morrow? (1). Jes, mi estos = Yes, I will. Note that "will" here repeats the verb in the question, and is used instead of "shall." (1). Li diras, ke li venos, sed (1) ĉu li venos? or, (2) ĉu li volos? = He says he will come, but will he? Here the words "but will he?" must be translated in accordance with the sense to be conveyed, viz.:—(1) will something prevent him? (2) will he have the will?

The phrase "Shall I do that?" can be translated by the future, Ĉu mi tion faros? = Is it a fact that I shall do that? or, Ĉu estos plej bone tion fari = Is it best to do that? or, Ĉu estos profite, saĝe, k.c. = Will it be expedient, wise, etc., or, Ĉu decos, ke mi tion faru? = Will it be proper (right) to do that? or, Ĉu vi volas (or, deziras), ke mi tion faru, or, Ĉu mi faru tion? = Shall I (do you wish me to, Am I to) do that? (1). Ĉu vi iros? = Shall you go? (2). Ĉu vi volas iri? = Will you go? Ĉu vi volas, ke mi iru? or, Ĉu mi iru? = Shall I go? Am I to go? (pars. 58 (a), 237 (m) (3)). "Will I go" is bad English, and untranslatable!

Should and Would.

237 (o). "Should" and "would" follow the rules of "shall" and "will" when employed in parallel circumstances. They express:—

(1). Supposition, or a future that is doubtful, conditional, or merely supposed (par. 192), as "I should do it if I knew how."

(2). Duty or obligation (par. 237 (a)) as "He should not do that."

(3). Determination, as "Nothing could influence him, he would do it."

(4). The softening of an expression (par. 194), as "Would you object to do that?"

(5). The future in indirect speech (par. 232), as "She said she would (will) come."

(6). Would, when it signifies custom or habit, is sometimes translated by adding the suffix -AD- to the verb.

The following sentences will show how these various meanings may be expressed in Esperanto. The number before each example shows under which class of meanings it comes.

Examples.—(1). Mi ĝin farus, se vi min permesus = I should do it if you would permit me. (1). Li min frapus, se li ne timus = He would strike me if he were not afraid. (3). Li insistis ĝin fari malgraŭ la danĝero = He would do it in spite of the danger. (4). Ĉu vi donus al mi tiun libron? = Would you give me that book? (1). Se vi vidus Johanon morgaŭ (2) vi devus diri al li, ke li ne aĉetu tiun domon = If you should see John to-morrow, you should tell him not to buy that house. (5). Ŝi diris al mi, ke ŝi venos = She told me that she would (will) come. (1). Mi iomete suspektis, ke ili venos = I had a slight suspicion that they would come. (6). Ili ofte rajdadis tra la arbaroj, kie la branĉoj tuŝadis iliajn ŝultrojn, kaj la birdoj kantadis inter la freŝaj folioj = They would often ride through the woods, where the branches would touch their shoulders, and the birds would sing amid the fresh leaves.

Must, Ought.

237 (p). "Must" and "Have to" always signify physical or moral obligation, and are stronger terms than "ought," which implies moral obligation or duty. Compare "You must (have to, are to) go" with "You ought to go." The former can be rendered by devi, and the latter, "ought," by deci, or some word implying moral obligation. Devi is also used for "ought" in the Conditional mood; devus, in this case, being the softened form of the Conditional mood (see par. 194). Care must be taken not to translate "must" when it signifies "have to" or "am to" by havi or esti (see par. 237 (a) on devi).

Examples.Li devas labori = He must (has to) work. Mi devas havi tiun libron = I must have that book. Ĉio, kio troviĝas en tiu ĉi libro, devas esti rigardata kiel deviga por ĉiuj = Everything which is in this book must be regarded as obligatory for all. La "Fundamento de Esperanto" devas resti severe netuŝebla = The "Fundamento de Esperanto" must remain strictly unalterable (untouchable). Vi devus ne fari tion, or, Ne decas, ke vi tion faru = You ought not to (it is not proper, right that you should) do that. Vi devus viziti (Decas, ke vi vizitu) la patron = You ought to see (it is proper that you should see) your father. Li devus ne forgesi (or, esti forgesinta) = He ought not to have forgotten. Decas, ke mi alportu miajn servojn al la reĝo = I ought to offer my services to the king. Kiam vi devos vidi la homon? = When must you (will you have to) see the man? Mi devus vidi lin hieraŭ, sed li malsaniĝis, tial nun mi devos atendi ĝis morgaŭ = I ought to have seen him yesterday, but he fell ill, so now I must wait till to-morrow.

N.B.—Note, in the last example, that the adverb hieraŭ = yesterday, clearly shows the action is past; it is therefore unnecessary to use the past infinitive esti vidinta.

ADVERBS (Adverboj).

238. Adverbs are more widely used in Esperanto than in any other language. The root of every word, and any grammatical termination or affix, the sense of which permits this, can be made into an adverb by adding the adverbial termination E. This facility enables the Esperantist to express in one word, to an unlimited extent, what in other languages often takes two, three, or more words to express adequately. E.g., Tiamaniere = In such a manner. Matene = In the morning. Vespere = In the evening.

239. An adverb answers to a preposition accompanied by a complement.

Example.Li parolas saĝe = "He speaks wisely," has the same signification as Li parolas kun saĝeco = He speaks with wisdom.

240. Adverbs are used to modify the meaning of verbs, adjectives, or other adverbs.

Examples.Li agas bone = He acts well. Tiu ĉi estas tre granda domo = This is a very large house. Li skribas treege bone = He writes extremely well.

N.B.—When an adverb seems to qualify a preposition, it really qualifies an adverbial phrase, as:—Multe antaŭ la horo = Much before the time (hour).

241. Position.—Adverbs, as a rule, immediately precede or follow the words which they modify (see par. 88).

242. There are two classes of adverbs in Esperanto, which for the sake of distinction we will call (a) "Primary" and (b) "Grammatical."

(a). Primary adverbs are all to be found in the list of primary words in Part V. They have no distinctive termination.

(b). Grammatical adverbs are those which are formed by adding E to a root, grammatical termination, or affix. Some are formed by adding E to a primary word.

A list of adverbs will be found at page 166.

243. No influence on case.—Adverbs exercise no influence on the case of nouns, adjectives, or pronouns. If such be in the accusative, it is not by the influence of the adverb. For example:—Mi amas Johanon tiel varme, kiel mian fraton = I love John as warmly as my brother. Here kiel exercises no influence on mian fraton, for both mian fraton and Johanon are governed by the verb amas. Therefore the meaning is that the speaker loves my brother and John equally warmly. Or, we can place mian fraton in the nominative, as:—Mi amas Johanon tiel varme, kiel mia frato = I love John as warmly as my brother (does). Ask yourself the question, "as my brother does what?" and the answer is "loves John." In English we are obliged to add "does" or "loves him," but in Esperanto the meaning is quite clear from the case of the noun (see also pars. 247 and 105).

244. Adverbs formed from Prepositions.—When a preposition has no complement, noun or pronoun, the preposition then takes the adverbial termination E. For instance, in the phrase mi staras apud li (I am standing by him); apud here is a preposition because it is followed by its complement li. But if li be omitted, we must alter the sentence, as:—Li staras apude = He is standing by (near).

245. Subject not expressed.—When, in a sentence in Esperanto, there is no noun or pronoun which the adjective can qualify (as in case of verbs in the infinitive, or used impersonally), the adverb is used in Esperanto in place of the adjective.

Examples.Mensogi estas honte (not honta) = To lie is shameful. Estas necese, ke.... = It is necessary that.... Estas bele, varme, malvarme = It is fine, warm, cold. Ne estas atendate, ke.... = It is not expected that.... If, however, a noun or pronoun is expressed, then the adjective is used, as:—La vetero (or, ĝi) estas bela, varma, malvarma = The weather (or, it) is fine, warm, cold.

245 (a). Participle-Adverbs.—In Esperanto, when the participle relates to the subject (par. 211), but does not qualify it, then the participle takes the adverbial form. For impersonal use see par. 164 (d).

Examples.Legante, ni lernas = In (by, when, while) reading we learn. Starante sur la supro de la monteto, li povis vidi la preĝejon = By standing on the top of the hill, he could see the church. Estante kolera, ŝi ne volis paroli al sia nevo = Being (as she was) angry, she did not wish to speak to her nephew. Malferminte la fenestron, li vidis la amason sur la strato = Having opened (or, after opening) the window, he saw the crowd in (on) the street. Ekrigardinte la libron, ŝi ĝin metis sur la tablon = Having glanced (or, after glancing) at the book, she put it on the table. Forpelite el la urbo, ili rifuĝis en la arbarego = Having been (or, after being) driven from the town, they took refuge in the forest. Batate de la lernejestro, la knabo terure kriegis = Being beaten by the schoolmaster, the boy howled terribly.

246. Adverbs of quantity, like other words signifying quantity, usually have their complement introduced by the preposition da.

Examples.Multe da homoj = Many men. Nur malmulte da virinoj = Only a few women. Kiom da ĉevaloj vi havas? = How many horses have you? Multe pli da bovaĵo, ol (da) ŝafaĵo = Much more beef than mutton. Malpli da pano, ol (da) vino = Less bread than wine. Tro da kuiristoj malbonigas la buljonon = Too many cooks spoil the broth. Ne estas sufiĉe da supo = There is not sufficient soup.

246. (a). Expressions such as "more and more," "at most," etc., are thus rendered:—

Pli-malpli, pli aŭ malpli, plie aŭ malplie = More or less.

Plie = In addition, besides, moreover. Malplie = Less and less.[18]

Pleje = At (the) most, mostly. Malpleje = At (the) least, least.[18]

Troe = In excess, too many.


[18] These usages are seldom employed.

Examples.Unu pomo plie aŭ malplie ne gravas = One apple more or less does not signify. Plie, mi devas diri al vi, ke.... = Moreover, I must tell you that.... Ni estos kvin pleje haj ili sep malpleje = We shall be five at most and they seven at least. En la kesto mi trovis du librojn troe = In the box I found two books too many (in excess).

247. Adverbs and the accusative case.—Adverbs exercise no influence on case (see par. 243), but used adverbially, participles of active verbs are followed by the accusative if used without a preposition (see par. 66 (b)).

After such adverbs as konforme, rilate, escepte, spite, etc., it is optional either to use the accusative or to add a suitable preposition with the complement in the nominative, as konforme al, kun, or je; rilate al; escepte de (or, kun la escepto de = with the exception of); spite de (see par. 258 (a)).

248. Comparatives and superlatives.—These are marked in the same way as adjectives (see pars. 112–114).

Examples.Pli rapide, ol bone = More quickly than well. Malpli forte, ol kutime = Weaker (less strong) than customary. Tiel dolĉe, kiel eble (or, kiel eble plej dolĉe) = As sweetly as possible. Ŝi kantas la plej bone el ĉiuj = She sings best of all. Li agis tre saĝe = He acted very wisely.

248 (a). Adverbs and adjectives.—Be careful not to use the adjective for the adverb.

Examples.Li kuras rapide = He runs rapidly. Parolu pli laŭte (not laŭta) = Speak louder (more loudly). Ŝi vidis lin piediranta pli malrapide, ol kutime = She saw him walking (that he was (is) walking) more slowly than usual.

N.B.—Note that piediranta is predicative (see par. 209 (b)).


248 (b). The following list of adverbs contains all those found amongst the primary words and some formed from them, also a number of useful grammatical adverbs.

Adiaŭ = Adieu, farewell, good-bye.

Example.Li diris al ŝi adiaŭ, kaj foriris = He said good-bye to her, and departed.

Afrankite = Post-paid.

Ajn = Ever. Ajn is generally used after the correlative words beginning with K, as kia, kiam, etc. (see table of correlative words, par. 147). It then answers to words ending in "ever," but, unlike English, it is never joined to the preceding word (par. 145).

Examples.Kia ajn = Whatever kind of. Kiam ajn = Whenever, whensoever. Kie ajn = Wherever, wheresoever. Kiel ajn = However. Kies ajn = Whosesoever. Kio ajn = Whatever, whatsoever. Kiom ajn = However much. Kiu ajn = Whoever, whosoever, whichever, whichsoever.

Aliloke = Elsewhere.

Alivorte = In other words.

Almenaŭ = At least.

Example.Donu al mi almenaŭ la duonon de tiu biskvito = Give me at least the half of that biscuit.

Alvenante, Alveninte = On arrival.

Ambaŭ = Both, one and the other (pronoun).

Examples.Ili ambaŭ kuris al la stacidomo = They both ran to the station.

Ankaŭ = Also, too.

Examples.Li ankaŭ ĝin faris = He, too, did it. Nek mi ankaŭ = Nor I either (also).

Ankoraŭ = Yet, still. (See remarks on Jam).

Examples.Ĉu li estas ankoraŭ tie ĉi? = Is he still here? Mi ankoraŭ ne vidis lin = I have not seen him yet.

Antaŭe = Formerly, previously, beforehand, in front.

Aparte = Aside, apart, separately, specially.

Apenaŭ = Hardly, scarcely.

Example.Mi apenaŭ pensas tion = I hardly think that (or, so).

Baldaŭ = Soon.

Example.Mi esperas, ke li venos baldaŭ = I hope he will (may) come soon.

Bis = Once more, again, encore.

Example.Bis! = Encore!

Bonstate = In good condition.

Certe = Certainly.

Ĉi = The nearest (tio = that, tio ĉi or ĉi tio = this), (tiu = that, the former, tiu ĉi or ĉi tiu = this, the latter), (tie = there, tie ĉi or ĉi tie = here), (tien = thither, tien ĉi = hither), (ĉio = all, ĉio ĉi = all this) (par. 143).

Examples.Restu ĉi tie = Remain here. Venu ĉi tien = Come hither.

Ĉial = For all reasons, for every reason (par. 150).

Example.Ĉial tio estas la plej bona = For every reason that is the best.

Ĉiam = Always, ever (par. 151).

Example.Li venas ĉiam, kiam oni ne bezonas lin = He always comes when one does not want him.

Ĉiame = Perpetually, continually.

Example.La infano ploras ĉiame (or, senĉese) = The child cries perpetually.

Ĉie = Everywhere (par. 152).

Examples.Ĉie mi lin vidas = Everywhere I see him. Li iras ĉien = He goes everywhere.

Ĉiel = In every (manner) way, all ways (par. 153).

Example.Tiu estas ĉiel la plej bona sidejo = That is in every way the best seat.

Ĉiom = All of it, the whole, all, every quantity (par. 156).

Example.Prenu iom, ne ĉiom = Take some, not the whole.

Ĉirkaŭe = Round about.

Ĉiufoje kiam, or, ĉiun fojon kiam, or, kiam ajn = whenever.

Ĉiujare = Yearly, annually, every year.

Ĉiumonate = Monthly, every month.

Ĉiusemajne = Weekly, every (each) week.

Ĉiutage = Daily. Laŭtage = By the day. Tage = By day. Nokte = By night.

Ĉu = Whether. An interrogative adverb used at the beginning of a direct question; it has no English equivalent. Ĉu simply shows that the sentence is interrogative, and therefore, to translate it, we must look to the tense of the verb and to the subject, so as to preface the interrogation with "do," "does," "did," "have," "has," "is," "will," "shall," "was," "were," "should," "would," "can," etc. etc.

Examples.Ĉu vi komprenis? = Did you understand? Ĉu Johano skribas? = Is John writing? Ĉu vi povas fari tion? = Can you do that? (see remarks on Interrogation, par. 58).

Ĉu = whether (or if in the sense of whether) (a conjunction) is used in indirect questions, when we generally use "if."

Examples.Diru al mi, ĉu li venos = Tell me if (whether) he will come. Diru al mi, se li venos = Tell me if he comes.

Ĉu ... Ĉu = Whether ... whether.

Example.Ĉu li venos, ĉu li ne venos, Paŭlo foriros = Whether he comes (will come) (or) whether he does not (will not come), Paul will depart.

Dekstre = On the right. Maldekstren = To the left.

Denove = Afresh, again, once again.

Due = Secondly, in the second place.

Dum = While, whilst, as (also a preposition and conjunction).

Dume = Meanwhile.

Eble = Possibly, perhaps.

= Even.

Examples.Li eĉ pensis, ke.... = He even thought that.... Eĉ la infanoj insultis min = Even the children abused me.

Efektive = In fact, really, as a matter of fact.

Ekstere = Outwardly. Interne = inwardly, internally, within, inside.

Entute = On the whole, as a whole.

Facile = Easily. Malfacile = With difficulty.

Fine = In conclusion, lastly.

For = Away, forth.

Example.For de ĉi tie fripono! = Get thee hence (away), rascal!

Forme = In shape, in form.

Galope = At a gallop.

Grandnombre = In great numbers.

Ĝisdate = Up to date. Ĝisnune = Up to now, hitherto. Ĝisplue = Until further notice.

Ĝissate = Till satiety (is reached).

Ĝustatempe = Opportunely, to time.

Hieraŭ = Yesterday.

Examples.--Mi lin vidis hieraŭ = I saw him yesterday. Antaŭhieraŭ = The day before yesterday.

Hieraŭ matene = Yesterday morning.

Hodiaŭ = To-day.

Example.Li alvenos hodiaŭ = He will arrive to-day.

Hodiaŭ vespere = This (to-day) evening.

Ial = For some (any) reason, or cause (par. 150).

Example.Ial li venis Londonon = For some reason he came to London.

Iam = At some (any) time, once, ever (par. 151).

Examples.Venu iam morgaŭ = Come some time to-morrow. Ĉu vi iam renkontis lin? = Did you ever meet him?

Ie = Somewhere, (anywhere) (par. 152).

Examples.Mi ne povas ĝin trovi ie en la ĉambro = I cannot find it anywhere in the room. Ĝi estas ie = It is somewhere. Ĉu vi metis ĝin ien? = Did you put it anywhere?

Iel = Somehow, in some way, in some manner, anyhow, (in any way) (par. 153).

Examples.Iel li sukcesas en ĉio = Somehow he succeeds in everything. Respondu iel = Answer in some manner.

Iom = Somewhat, some quantity, a little, some (par. 156).

Examples.La vetero estas iom pli varma = The weather is somewhat (a little) warmer. Jen estas cigaroj, ĉu vi deziras iom? = Here are cigars, do you want some?

Iomete = A very little, in a very slight degree, at all.

Example.Ĝi estis iomete pli granda, ol kulo = It was slightly larger than a gnat.

Intence = Intentionally, on purpose.

Ja = In fact, indeed.

Examples.Li ja alvenos morgaŭ = He in fact will arrive to-morrow. Ja may be used to express the emphatic English use of "do," "did," as:—Mi ja volas, ke li estu tie ĉi = I do wish he were here (par. 217).

Jam = Already, as yet, by now, now.

Examples.Vi jam diris tion = You said (have said) that already. Ĉu vi jam trovis vian horloĝon? = Have you as yet found your watch? Mi ĝin ankoraŭ ne serĉis = I have not yet looked for it. La knabo jam ne ridas = The boy does not laugh now (no longer laughs).

N.B.—Compare jam with ankoraŭ. Jam shows that the circumstances are changed; ankoraŭ, that there is no change. Ex.:—La infano jam dormas = The child is now sleeping (it was not sleeping before). La infano ankoraŭ dormas = The child is still sleeping.

Jen = Behold, here. Jene = As follows.

Examples.Jen estas tio, kion vi bezonas = Here is what (that which) you want. Jen estas la libroj = Here are the books.

Jes = Yes, it is so (par. 63). Jese = Affirmatively.

Examples.Jes, vi estas prava = Yes, you are right. Mi vin certigas, ke jes = I assure you that it is so.

Ju pli ... des pli = The more ... the more (par. 112).

Example.Ju pli mi lin konas, des pli mi lin amas = The more I know him, the more I love him.

Ju pli ... des malpli = The more ... the less.

Example.Ju pli mi lin vidas, des malpli li plaĉas al mi = The more I see him, the less he pleases me.

Ju malpli ... des malpli = The less ... the less.

Example.Ju malpli mi dormas, des malpli mi sentas la bezonon dormi = The less I sleep, the less I feel the need (to sleep) of sleeping.

Ju malpli ... des pli = The less ... the more.

Example.Ju malpli mi trinkas, des pli mi manĝas = The less I drink, the more I eat.

Ĵus = Just, at the (past) moment, just now.

Examples.Mi ĵus vidis ŝin = I have just seen her. Mi ĵus diris al vi lian nomon = I have just told you his name. Lia ĵusa parolo = The speech he has just made.

Kaŝe or sekrete = In secret.

Kelkafoje or kelkfoje = Sometimes. Iafoje = At times. Multfoje = Many times.

Kia ajn = Whatever (kind of) (par. 145).

Example.Mi aĉetos de vi tiun libron, kia ajn ĝi estos = I will buy from you that book whatever it may (shall) be.

Kial = Why, wherefore (par. 150).

Example.Kial vi silentis? = Why were you silent?

Kiam = When, at what time (par. 151).

Example.Kiam li alvenos? = When will he arrive?

Kiam ajn = Whenever, whensoever (par. 145).

Example.Sendu lin al mi, kiam ajn li venos = Send him to me whenever he comes (shall come).

Kie = Where, in what place (par. 152).

Examples.Kie kreskas tiuj floroj? = Where do those flowers grow? Diru al mi, kie li estas = Tell me where he is. Kien (accusative) = Whither. Kien vi iras? = Whither (or, where) are you going? De kie li venis? = Whence did he come?

Kie ajn = Wherever, wheresoever (par. 145).

Examples.Kie ajn li estas, li estas ŝatata = Wherever he is, he is liked. Kien ajn = Whithersoever. Oni lin estimus, kien ajn li irus = He would be esteemed whithersoever he went (should go). De kie ajn ĝi venis, ĝi estas tre bela katido = Whencesoever (from wherever) it came, it is a very fine kitten.

Kiel = How, in what manner, like (in comparison = ... as).

Examples.Kiel vi fartas? = How do you do? (how are you, or, fare you?) Mi havas ian ideon kiel ĝin fari = I have some idea how to do it. Tiel longe kiel = As long as. Se vi estus kiel mi = If you were (should be) like me. Kiel eble plej bone = As well as possible (as possibly, most well). Kiel bona vi estas! = How good you are! (par. 153).

Kiel ajn = However, in whatever manner (par. 145).

Example.Kiel ajn vi ĝin faros, faru ĝin bone = In whatever way you (will) do it, do it well.

Kiom = How much, as much as, as far as (par. 156).

Examples.Kiom kostas tio? = How much does that cost? Kiom mi scias = As far as I know. Kiom li povos = As much as he can (will be able).

Kiom ajn = However (many) much, whatever quantity.

Examples.Mi ĝin aĉetos, kiom ajn ĝi kostos = I shall buy it, however much it may (will) cost. Kiom ajn da teo estas tie, tiom sufiĉas = Whatever quantity of tea is there, it (that quantity) is sufficient (par. 145).

Kompare = Comparatively, in comparison.

Kompate = Compassionately, mercifully. Senkompate = Pitilessly.

Kompreneble = Of course.

Kondiĉe = Conditionally, on condition.

Konforme = Conformably, in accordance.

Konsekvence = Consistently.

Konsente = By consent.

Kontente = Contentedly. Malkontente = Discontentedly.

Kontentige = Satisfactorily, in a satisfactory manner.

Kontraŭe = On the contrary, opposite to, vice versâ.

Kredeble = Likely, probably.

Kune = Together, jointly. Kune kun = Together with, along with. Malkune = Separately.

Kvazaŭ = As if, as though, as it were (also conjunction).

Examples.Li staris, kvazaŭ li vidas fantomon = He stood as though he saw (sees) a phantom. Li parolis, kvazaŭ li vidis ŝin = He spoke as if he had seen her.

Laŭlarĝe = In breadth, broadways, transversely.

Laŭlonge = In length, lengthwise.

Laŭvole = At option, at will.

Laŭte = Loudly, in a loud voice. Mallaŭte = Softly, in a soft voice.

Lerte = Cleverly. Mallerte = Awkwardly.

Longe = Long, for a long time. Mallonge = Briefly, in short. Antaŭ ne longe = Recently, not long ago, a short time ago. De longe = Long ago, long since, for a long time.

Male = On the contrary, contrarily.

Malpleje = Least, at least.

Examples.Li malpleje donis = He gave least. Ni estos tri mapleje = We shall be three at least (see pleje).

Malpli = Less (for comparatives) (par. 112).

Example.Georgo estas malpli forta, ol Johano = George is less strong than John.

Malproksime = Afar, away, far off, in the distance.

Matene = In the morning. Vespere = In the evening.

Mem = Self, selves, very (pronoun) (par. 127).

Examples.Mi mem iros = I shall go myself. Eĉ la virinoj mem laboris sur la kampoj = Even the women themselves (or, the very women) were working in the fields. Ĉe la pordo mem = At the very door (door itself).

Morgaŭ = To-morrow.

Examples.Mi iros tien morgaŭ = I shall go there to-morrow. Li alvenos postmorgaŭ = He will arrive the day after to-morrow.

Multe pli multe da ... = Many (much) more of ... Nemulte = Not much, not many. Malmulte = Little, few.

Ne = No, not, nay.

Examples.Ĉu vi deziras kafon? = Do you wish for coffee? Ne, mi jam havas = No, I have (some) already (see remarks on negation, par. 59).

Ne tute = Not entirely, not altogether, not quite.

Example.Li ne estis tute malprava pri tio, kion li diris = He was not altogether wrong in what he said.

Nenial = For no cause (reason) (par. 150).

Example.Nenial li ĉesis skribi al mi = For no reason he ceased writing to me.

Neniam = Never (par. 151).

Example.Mi neniam vidis lin = I never saw him.

Nenie = Nowhere, in no place (par. 152).

Examples.Nenie oni povis trovi mian hundon = Nowhere could they find my dog. Mi iras nenien speciale = I am going nowhere in particular.

Neniel = Nohow, by no means, in no way (par. 153).

Example.Li neniel povis kompreni ŝin = He could in no way (not at all) understand her.

Neniom = None, nothing, nothing at all, no quantity (par. 156).

Example.Li havas neniom = He has none at all.

Nepre = Unfailingly, surely, infallibly, without fail.

Example.Tiu libro nepre apartenas al mi = That book certainly belongs to me.

Norden = Northwards, to the north. Suden = Southwards, to the south. Orienten = Eastwards, to the east. Okcidenten = Westwards. Okcidente = In the west.

Nun = Now.

Examples.Mi nun foriras = I am now going out. Mi ne povas lin vidi nun = I cannot see him now.

Nune = At present.

Example.Mi estas okupata nune = I am busy at present.

Nuntempe = Now-a-days, at the present time.

Nur = Only (but, in the sense of only), merely.

Example.Li havas nur du ĉevalojn = He has but (only) two horses. N.B.—Care should be taken to place nur in such a position in a sentence so as to convey the required meaning of the phrase. It is best generally to place it before the word to which it specially refers (see par. 88).

Pace = In peace, peacefully.

Page = In payment. Senpage = Gratuitously.

Parkere = By heart.

Parole = Verbally, by word of mouth. Skribe = In writing.

Example.Li tion komunikis al mi parole kaj skribe = He communicated that to me verbally and in writing.

Pasie = With passion, passionately. Kolere, angrily.

Pere = Indirectly. Senpere = In a direct way, direct.

Persone = Personally, in person.

Piedire = On foot.

Example.Mi trapasis la arbaron piedire = I traversed the wood on foot.

(la) Plej = (the) Most (for superlatives), most (par. 113).

Examples.La plej bela el ĉiuj = The finest of all. Vi agis plej saĝe, farante tion = You acted most wisely in doing that.

Pleje = Most, mostly, mainly, at most.

Examples.Ŝi donis pleje = She gave most. Pleje (or, plejofte) mi forgesas, ke ... = Mostly (frequently) I forget that ... Ni estos kvin pleje = We shall be five at most (see malpleje).

Plezure = With pleasure.

Pli = More (for comparatives), rather (par. 112).

Examples.Li ne vivos pli ol unu tagon = He will not live more than one day. Pli kaj pli mi ŝin amas = More and more I love her. Mi pli volis labori, ol ludi = I preferred to work than to play.

Plie = Further, moreover.

Plivole = Preferably, rather (par. 112).

Plu = Further, farther, more. Ne ... plu = No longer.

Examples.Mi ne faros unu paŝon plu = I shall not go (make) one step further. Li ne plu faros tion = He will not do that any longer (more), or, He will no longer do that.

Plue = Furthermore.

Poduone = By half, by halves.

Poste = Afterwards, after, then.

Precipe = Especially, particularly.

Prefere = Preferably, rather.

Preskaŭ = Almost, nearly, well-nigh.

Examples.Li preskaŭ falis = He nearly fell. Ni preskaŭ pensas, ke ... = We almost think that ...

Pripensinte = On reflection.

Proksime = Near. Malproksime = Far off.

Proksimume = Approximately.

Prunte = On loan.

Example.Mi prenis (donis) la monon prunte = I took (gave) the money on loan.

Rapide = Rapidly, quickly, apace. Malrapide = Slowly, tardily.

Rapidire = With speed, by express. Malrapidire = By slow train.

Rave = Enchantingly, delightfully.

Ree = Again, in return.

Rekte = Straightforwardly, direct. Malrekte = Aslant.

Renversite = Topsy-turvy, upset.

Returne = Back. Returnen = Backwards.

Ŝajne = Seemingly.

Samtempe = At the same time, simultaneously.

Sekve = Consequently, therefore. Intersekve = Consecutively, successively.

Sendube = No doubt; without doubt, doubtless.

Senintermanke = Continuously, without intermission.

Skribe = In writing.

Sovaĝe = In a wild state. Malsovaĝe = In a tame state.

Somere = In summer. Vintre = In winter.

Speciale = Specially.

Sube = Beneath, below, under, underneath.

Sufiĉe = Enough, sufficiently.

Supre = Above, up. Supren = Upwards. Malsupre = Below. De supre = From above.

Surgenue = On one’s knees, kneeling.

Surprize = By (with) surprise.

Tial = Therefore, accordingly, for that (such) reason.

Example.Tial mi konsilas, ke vi skribu al li = For that reason (therefore, accordingly) I advise you to write to him (par. 150).

Tiam = Then, at that time. The correlative is kiam, and tiam, kiam = then, when (or, when) (par. 151).

Examples.Tiam ni povos iri al la kunveno = We shall at that time be able to go to the meeting. Mi vizitos vin (tiam), kiam mi venos Londonon = I will visit you (then) when I (shall) come to London.

Tiamaniere = In this (such a) manner, thus.

Tie = There, yonder. Tien = Thither (par. 152).

Examples.Ĉu iu estos tie? = Will anyone be there? Vi ne vidos iun tie. = You will not see anyone there. Ĉu vi iras tien? = Are you going thither (there)?

Tie ĉi, or, Ĉi tie = Here. Tien ĉi, or, Ĉi tien = Hither, here (par. 143).

Examples.Ĉu viaj fratoj estas tie ĉi? = Are your brothers here? Venu tien ĉi = Come here (hither). Ĉi tie ni vidis amasojn da viroj kaj virinoj (or, geviroj) = Here we saw crowds of men and women.

Tiel = Thus, in that way, like that, so much so. Its correlative in comparison is kiel. Tiel ... kiel = as ... as (par. 153).

Example.Li estas tiel forta, kiel vi = He is as strong as you.

Tiel ... ke = So ... that.

Example.Li tiel kriegis, ke li raŭkiĝis pro tio = He shouted so, that he became hoarse through it.

Tiom = As much, as many, so much, so many. Its correlative is kiom, and tiom, kiom = as many as, as much as (par. 156).

Examples.Tiom estas malfacile memori = So much is difficult to remember. Li tiom laboris, kiom vi = He worked as much as you. Donu al mi tiom da pomoj, kiom da piroj = Give me as many apples as pears.

Tiom pli = So much the more.

Examples.Tiom pli bone = So much the better. Tiom pli malbone = So much the worse.

Trae = Right through.

Tre = Very, much.

Examples.Li estas tre dika = He is very corpulent. Mi tre estimas lin = I esteem him much.

Treege = Extremely, exceedingly.

Example.Ŝi estas treege kolera = She is extremely angry.

Trie = Thirdly.

Triumfe = Triumphantly.

Tro = Too, too much.

Examples.Li estas tro grasa = He is too fat. Mi lin tro amas = I love him too much.

Troe = In excess.

Example.Dudek funtoj troe = Twenty pounds in excess.

Tuj = At once, immediately, just (at the moment to come).

Examples.Li tuj iris hejmen = He went home immediately (at once). Tuj kantonta = just about to sing.

Tuj kiam = As soon as (immediately when).

Example.Tuj kiam mi lin vidis, kuris al li renkonte = As soon as I saw him, I ran to meet him.

Tute = Entirely, quite, utterly, stark.

Examples.Vi estas tute prava = You are quite right. Li estas tute freneza = He is stark mad.

Tute ne = Not at all.

Example.Mi tute ne komprenas vin = I don’t at all understand you.

Unue = First, firstly, at first.

Verŝajne = Probably, presumably.

Vete = Emulously.

Vole = With one’s will. Kontraŭvole = Against one’s will. Memvole = Voluntarily. Senvole = Involuntarily.

Vole-nevole = Willy-nilly.

Volonte = Willingly, readily.

248 (c). From the above list we see that the adverb is often used in Esperanto in place of a preposition and its complement (par. 252).

Examples.Ŝi estas nigre vestita = She is dressed in black. Li donis al mi du ŝilingojn page por la libro = He gave me two shillings in payment for the book. Forme ĝi estis simila al krono = In shape it was like a crown. La libro estas angle skribita = The book is written in English. Hamleto estas tradukita Esperanten = Hamlet has been translated into Esperanto. Note that in the word Esperanten the accusative of movement is used figuratively. (par. 67).


The following is a list of the 34 simple prepositions, showing the paragraphs under which remarks and examples of their use will be found:—

Al To, towards 259 (1).
Anstataŭ Instead of 259 (2).
Antaŭ Before, in front of 259 (3).
Apud Beside, close by 259 (4).
Ĉe At, with 259 (5).
Ĉirkaŭ About, around 259 (6).
Da Of 259 (7).
De Of, from, by 259 (8).
Dum During 259 (9).
Ekster Outside 259 (10).
El Out of 259 (11).
En In 259 (12).
Ĝis Till, as far as 259 (13).
Inter Between 259 (14).
Je (Indefinite) 259 (15).
Kontraŭ Against, opposite 259 (16).
Krom Besides, except 259 (17).
Kun With 259 (18).
Laŭ According to 259 (19).
Malgraŭ Notwithstanding 259 (20).
Per By means of 259 (21).
Po At the rate of 259 (22).
Por In order to, for 259 (23).
Post After, behind 259 (24).
Preter Beyond, past 259 (25).
Pri Concerning, of, about 259 (26).
Pro Because of, for 259 (27).
Sen Without 259 (28).
Sub Under 259 (30).
Super Above, over 259 (31).
Sur On 259 (32).
Tra Through 259 (33).
Trans Across 259 (34).

PREPOSITIONS (Prepozicioj).

249. Prepositions express the relation between words, showing how some thing, action, or quality stands in relation to some other thing, action, or quality.

Examples.La riveroj fluas al la oceano = Rivers flow towards the ocean. Li manĝas antaŭ la tagmezo = He eats before midday. Nia domo staras ekster la arbetaro = Our house stands outside the plantation.

250. Every preposition, but one, in Esperanto has a fixed and definite signification, and great care must be taken to use the preposition which gives the meaning we wish to convey. A careful examination of the list of prepositions in par. 259 will show the errors we should make by translating the English preposition into its apparent corresponding one in Esperanto.

251. The preposition je is the only one in Esperanto without a definite meaning. It should be used only when we have to employ a preposition and are uncertain which we ought to select. We can, however, omit the preposition, and put its complement (noun or pronoun) in the accusative case, provided no ambiguity is likely to arise through the presence of other accusatives in the sentence, as:—Li ĝojas je tio, or, Li ĝojas tion = He rejoices at (or, over) that. There is no Esperanto preposition which gives exactly the English meaning of "at" or "over" in this sense. We might, perhaps, say that these words are part of the verb "to rejoice at," or, "to rejoice over." The nearest Esperanto preposition would be pri or pro = about, or, because of, and we could say Li ĝojas pro tio = He rejoices because of that (see Rule 14, par. 94).

(a). Je, with the nominative, is generally used before the complement of the adjectives "deep, high, long, thick, wide," but the accusative without a preposition is equally correct.

Examples.Profunda (alta, longa) je kvin futoj (or, kvin futojn) = Five feet deep (high, long). La rivero estas larĝa je kvindek metroj (or, larĝa kvindek metrojn) = The river is fifty metres wide. We could, however, say, La rivero havas kvindek metrojn da larĝo (or, da larĝeco).

252. Adverb for preposition.—An adverb is often used instead of a preposition and its complement (par. 248 (c)).

Examples.Li parolas saĝe = He speaks with wisdom, instead of, Li parolas kun saĝeco. Li estis frapata perfortege = He was being struck with great violence, instead of, Li estis frapata kun perfortego.

253. Preposition omitted.—Not only the preposition Je (par. 251), but also other prepositions, are frequently omitted in Esperanto where we use them in English; but in such case (as stated in par. 68) their complements must be in the accusative to show the omission. Care, however, must be taken that the omission does not make the phrase ambiguous.

Examples.Li venos la mardon proksiman (or, en la mardo proksima) = He will come next Tuesday. Mi iros Madridon (or, al Madrido) morgaŭ = I shall go to Madrid to-morrow. Mi lin vidis la dekan (or, en la deka) de Julio = I saw him on the 10th of July. Ni restis en la veturilo du horojn (or, dum du horoj) = We remained two hours in the carriage.

(a). Prepositions are also always omitted between two substantives, when the word nomata = named could be understood (par. 106 (d)), as:—

La urbo (nomata) Parizo = The city of (named) Paris. La monato Septembro = The month of September. Li uzadas la lingvon internacian (nomatan) Esperanto = He uses the international language Esperanto.

(b). The preposition el = of, out of, is sometimes omitted in such an expression as:—

Tri miaj parencoj = Three of my relatives (or, three relations of mine).

254. Prepositions as prefixes.—Prepositions are frequently used as prefixes, and when the compound word is a verb, the preposition is often repeated before the indirect complement of the verb.

Examples.Mi eliris el la korto = I went out of the courtyard. Li eniris en la ĉambron = He entered (into) the room. La birdo deflugis de la arbo = The bird flew from the tree. Li eliris el la domo = He went out of the house. Or we could say, Li iris el la domo, omitting the joined preposition.

255. Prepositions and case.—In contrast to prepositions in English, which govern the accusative case, all prepositions in Esperanto govern the nominative case. If the complement of a preposition is in the accusative case, this is owing not to the preposition, but to the rule that the accusative is used to show the direction or place towards which movement (physical or otherwise) is made (par. 67).

256. Preposition and the accusative of direction.—As already stated in par. 67, the accusative is used when direction (physical or otherwise) is implied towards something. But if the word towards which such movement is implied is the complement of a preposition, then such word is in the nominative or accusative, in accordance with the following rules:—

(a). If the preposition denotes of itself movement, its complement will be in the nominative, in accordance with Rule 8 that prepositions govern that case.

(b). If the preposition does not of itself denote movement, then movement is shown by placing its complement in the accusative (par. 67).

257. Prepositions denoting movement.—The following two prepositions denote movement, and consequently their complement is never in the accusative:—Al = To, towards. Ĝis = Up to, as far as.

As regards the others, the following are those in general use, whose complement takes the accusative of direction when motion towards something is implied:—Antaŭ = Before. Ĉirkaŭ = Around, about. En = In. Kontraŭ = Against. Sub = Under. Super = Over. Sur = On, upon. Tra = Through. Trans = Across.

Examples.Li staris momente antaŭ la spegulo, kaj tuj poste venis antaŭ la reĝon = He stood for a moment before the looking-glass, and then came before (into the presence of) the king. La infano dancis en la korto, kaj poste kuris en la ĝardenon = The child danced in (not into) the courtyard, and then ran into (not in) the garden. Ĵetu tion sub la tablon = Throw that under the table. Ĵetu la ŝtonon super la muron = Throw the stone over the wall. Mi prenas sur min tiun ĉi aferon = I take upon myself this business (moral movement, therefore accusative, since sur does not of itself show movement). La knabo vadis trans la riveron kaj trans ĝi trovis aliajn knabojn = The boy waded across the river, and, on the other side of it, found other boys.

258. Prepositional expressions.—Adverbs are not unfrequently followed by prepositions, thus forming prepositional expressions which take the nominative case, like simple prepositions.

Examples.Meze de la kampo = In the middle of the field. Funde de kesto = At the bottom of a box. Flanke de la malliberulo = At the side of the prisoner. Proksime de la preĝejo = Near the church. Dekstre de la vojo = On the right of the road. Supre de la muro = At the top of the wall. Dank’ al lia konsilo = Thanks to his advice. Li venis kune kun sia frato = He came together (along) with his brother. Li estas for de tie ĉi = He is away from here. Oni plantis arbon proksime de la puto = They planted a tree near the well. Metu vian manon for de mia kolo! = Take your hand off (away from) my neck.

(a). A few adverbs, used as prepositional expressions, are sometimes followed by a suitable preposition and sometimes not; in the latter case the complement is in the accusative, to show the omission (par. 253).

Examples.Koncerne tiun aferon (or, Koncerne je tiu afero) = Concerning that matter. Konforme tion (or, Konforme al, kun or, je tio) = In conformity with that. Rilate lian karakteron (or, Rilate al lia karaktero) = With regard to (relative to, as regards, referring to) his character (par. 247)

N.B.—These phrases are alternatives for simple prepositions. We might, in some cases, use pri for koncerne je or rilate al, and laŭ for konforme al.

(b). Two prepositions sometimes are used.

Examples."Eniru!" ekkriegis voĉo de en la pordo = "Come in!" shouted a voice from within (inside) the door. Li rampis de sub la sofo = He crept from under the sofa. La ŝtono havis la alton (or, altecon) de ĉirkaŭ ok centimetroj kaj la larĝon (or, larĝecon) de ĉirkaŭ kvin centimetroj = The stone had the height of about eight centimetres and the width of about five centimetres. El sub la tirkestaro la muso kuris sub la liton = Out from under the chest of drawers the mouse ran under the bed. Ne rapidu foriri de antaŭ li = Do not hasten to leave his presence (go away from before him).

259. The relation of prepositions to their complement.—English grammarians divide prepositions into various classes, but in Esperanto, with the exception of those mentioned in par. 257, denoting motion and rest, there are but two classes to which we need pay special attention, viz., those which relate to both place and time; and of these, two only, viz., antaŭ = before, and post = after, require care in making their meaning clear.

In the following remarks on prepositions the examples given of their use are placed under the various classes that their English rendering would assign to them; but we must bear in mind that, in accordance with Rule 14, every Esperanto preposition, except je, has a defined and constant meaning (par. 250). This defined meaning is given at the head of each preposition. The meanings given in the classes are only the various English renderings that can be given to the preposition (see English prepositions, pars. 260, 261).


259 (1). Al = To, towards.

Denotes approximation or addition.

Approximation = To, towards.

Examples.Li venis al ni = He came to (or towards) us. Mi iras al Parizo, or, Mi iras Parizon = I am going to Paris. If al be omitted, Parizon must be in the accusative of direction. Ni ne vidas, ĉar la lumo estas kaŝata al ni per la kurtenoj = We do not see, because the light is hidden from (towards) us by the curtains.

N.B.—Kaŝata al, not de, which, after a passive participle, means "by"; but independently of this, al is logically used after kaŝi, in the sense of "to hide from"; as:—Sed pro kio kaŝi al li vian amon? = But why conceal from him your love?

Addition = To.

Examples.Mi donis akvon al la birdoj = I gave water to the birds. La rozo apartenas al Teodoro = The rose belongs to Theodore. Donu vestaĵon al la malriĉuloj = Give clothing to the poor.

N.B.—With some verbs al is often used with the complement in the nominative, when in English we omit the preposition, as:—Li konsilis al mi fari tion = He advised me to do that. Ordonu al li (or, Ordonu lin), ke li ne faru tion = Order him not to do that.

Al is also sometimes used with personal pronouns in a possessive sense, as:—Li lavis al si la manojn, or, Li lavis siajn manojn = He washed his hands (see par. 134).

As a prefix, al signifies "to," "towards," as:—Alveni = To come to, arrive. Alpreni = To take to, adopt. Alpaŝi = To step towards, approach.

259 (2). Anstataŭ = Instead of.

One of the prepositions that may be used before the Infinitive (see remarks on Infinitive, pars. 177, 179).

Substitution = Instead of, for, in place of, as a substitute for, in room of.

Examples.Anstataŭ li, oni sendis lian fraton = Instead of him, they sent his brother. Anstataŭ kafo li donis al mi teon = Instead of coffee he gave me tea. Anstataŭ eliri, li restis en la domo = Instead of going out, he remained in the house. Anstataŭ unu el la oficistoj = In place of one of the officials.

Although, in the first two examples given in the preceding paragraph, anstataŭ, being a preposition, is followed by the nominative, nevertheless, the accusative is often used in such cases when its use helps to remove ambiguity; the accusative being due to the omission of a verb understood. Compare: Petro batis Paŭlon anstataŭ Vilhelmo = Peter beat Paul instead of William doing so, with Petro batis Paŭlon anstataŭ (bati) Vilhelmon, Peter beat Paul instead of (beating) William.

As a root-word, Anstataŭi = To replace (intrans.). Anstataŭigi = To replace (trans.), to substitute. Anstataŭulo = A proxy (person instead of).

259 (3). Antaŭ = Before, in front of.

Denotes place or time. May take accusative of direction.

Place = Before, in front of.

Examples.Oni metis antaŭ mi manĝilaron = They put before me a table service. Morgaŭ mi petos permeson veni antaŭ viajn reĝajn okulojn = To-morrow I shall beg permission to come before your royal presence (kingly eyes). Antaŭ nia militistaro staris pafilegoj = In front of our army were (stood) cannon.

Time = Before, ago.

Examples.Antaŭ ne longe = Not long ago. Antaŭ kelkaj semajnoj = Some (a few) weeks ago.

N.B.—Since antaŭ and also post are frequently used both in the sense of "time" and "place," care must be taken to word a phrase so that no ambiguity may arise. In sentences like the following, antaŭ ol or antaŭ kiam should be used when time is implied. Examples.La gefianĉoj renkontiĝis antaŭ la gepatroj = The betrothed met before the parents (= place, viz., in the presence of the parents). La gefianĉoj renkontiĝis antaŭ ol (or, antaŭ kiam) la gepatroj alvenis = The betrothed met before the parents arrived (= time, viz., before the parents arrived). Johano venis antaŭ la juĝiston, sed Jozefo estis elirinta el la juĝejo antaŭ ol Johano alvenis = John came before the judge, but Joseph had left the court before John’s arrival.

As a prefix, Antaŭdiri = To foretell. Antaŭiri = to precede.

259 (4). Apud = Beside, close by.

Place = By, near, near to, close by.

Examples.La batalo apud Farsalo ŝanĝis multajn aferojn en Romo = The battle near Pharsalia changed many things in Rome. Li estas apud la pordo = He is near the door. Li staris apud Johano = He stood by John. Mi vespermanĝos ĉe tiu tablo apud la fenestro = I shall dine at that table close by the window.

As a root-word or prefix, we have:—Apudeco = Contiguity. Apudesti = To be present, or near.

259 (5). Ĉe = At, with.

Marks the situation of a thing or action. Denotes coincidence, either of place, time, or connection.

Place = At, with, to, on.

Examples.Li estas ĉe ni = He is with us (at our house). Ni estis ĉe via patro = We were at your father’s. Ŝi estas ĉe la pordo = She is at the door. Ĉe la alia flanko de la strato = On the other side of the street. Mi gastas ĉe miaj amikoj, Gesinjoroj Smith = I am staying with (am a guest at) my friends, Mr. and Mrs. Smith).

Time = At, on.

Example.Ĉe nia alveno la hundo bojis = At (on) our arrival the dog barked.

Connection = In, to, with, on.

Examples.Brakon ĉe (or, en) brako = Arm in arm. Koron ĉe koro = Heart to heart. Mi kredas, ke ĉe ĉiu vorto, kiun vi diras.... = I believe that with every word you say.... Ĉe la komparativo oni uzas la konjunkcion "ol" = With the comparative the conjunction "ol" is used. Por elpagi mian konton ĉe vi, mi sendas.... = To settle my account with you, I send.... Ĉe tia vetero, vi estos baldaŭ resanigita = With such weather, you will soon be restored to health. Ĉe tio = On that.

As a prefix, Ĉeesti = To be present. Inter la ĉeestantoj ni rimarkis.... = Amongst those present we observed....

259 (6). Ĉirkaŭ = About, around.[19]

Denotes place, time, manner, quantity.

Place = About, around, round.

Examples.Je ĉirkaŭ tri paŝoj = At about three paces. La hundoj ludis kaj saltis ĉirkaŭ ŝi = The dogs played and jumped around her.

Time = About.

Example.La koncerto daŭris ĉirkaŭ tri horojn (or, dum ĉirkaŭ tri horoj) = The concert lasted about three hours.

Manner = Round.

Example.Li premis sian edzinon ĉirkaŭ la talio = He squeezed his wife round the waist.

Quantity = About.

Example.Mi volas aĉeti ĉirkaŭ kvar funtojn = I wish to buy about four pounds.

As a prefix or root-word, ĉirkaŭ has the signification of "encircling," as:—Ĉirkaŭfrazo = Periphrase, circumlocution. Ĉirkaŭpreni = To embrace. Ĉirkaŭi, ĉirkaŭigi = To surround.


[19] It will be seen from the examples that the preposition ĉirkaŭ may be followed by the accusative of direction: Jakobo metis sakon ĉirkaŭ siajn lumbojn (Rabistoj, 52, 2); La virino ĵetis ambaŭ brakojn ĉirkaŭ la kolon de la knabino (Marta, p. 8); Ĵetante siajn brakojn ĉirkaŭ lian kolon (Faraono, II, 57).

259 (7). Da = Of.

Used only after words denoting quantity, measure, weight, number, etc. Between two words, da shows that the first word measures the second.

Quantity = Of.

Examples.Granda nombro da ideoj = A great number of ideas. Dudeko da homoj = A score of people. Funto da teo = A pound of tea. Sur la arbo sin trovis multo (or, multe) da birdoj = On the tree were (found themselves) many (of) birds.

Often de and da may be equally correct. Funto da teo emphasizes the quantity required (funto); funto de teo emphasizes the thing required (teo).

Do not use da before definite words like la, tiu, numbers, or pronouns. Funto de la teo, de tiu teo, de mia teo, de ĝi. Note the difference between "He ate a piece of bread" and "He ate a piece of the (particular) bread." The former is Li manĝis pecon da pano, and the latter Li manĝis pecon de la pano, de tiu pano.

N.B.—Glaso da vino = A glass of wine. Glaso de (or, por) vino, or, vinglaso = A wineglass. Alportu al mi tetason, kaj elverŝu por mi tason da teo = Bring me a teacup, and pour me out a cup of tea.

Note.—Particular attention should be paid to the prepositions da, de, and el, all of which are often translated by the English preposition "of." Note the following examples:—

Da.Cento da pomoj = A hundred (of) apples. Dekduo da kuleroj = A dozen (of) spoons. Miliono da loĝantoj = A million (of) inhabitants. Kvar metroj da ŝtofo = Four metres of material. Ducent kilometroj da longo = Two hundred kilometres in (of) length.

De.Tri estas duono de ses = Three is half of six. Ok estas kvar kvinonoj de dek = Eight is four-fifths of ten. La domo de mia frato = The house of my brother, or, My brother’s house. Doktoro de juro = A doctor of laws.

El.Ĉiu el la infanoj = Each of the children. Unu el ni = One of us. Ni faru uzon el tio = Let us make use of that. Domo konstruita el ŝtono = A house built of stone. La plej bela floro el la ĝardeno = The most beautiful flower of the garden.

259 (8). De = Of, from, by.

De denotes origin, possession, place, time, cause, agency, and disconnection or abstraction. It serves to form the genitive or possessive case. These are all variations of the one primary idea: origin.

De is not used in speaking of places, etc., when English uses the preposition "of," where nomata = named might be inserted between two substantives.

Examples.La urbo Londono = The City of London. La monato Julio = The month of July (par. 106 (d)).

Care must be taken not to confuse de with da.

Possession = Of.

Examples.La libro de Petro = The book of Peter, or, Peter’s book. La domo de mia kara patro = My dear father’s house.

Origin or Dependence = Of, on, from.

Examples.Ĝi dependas de la nombro de vortoj = It depends on the number of words. Tio venis de (or, el) lia unua eraro = That came from his first error. Li estas doktoro de medicino = He is a doctor of medicine. Li venis de (or, el) Parizo kaj nun iras al Berlino = He came from Paris and is now going to Berlin. Kaj Dio diris: "Kolektiĝu la akvo de sub la ĉielo en unu lokon" = And God said: "Let the waters (water) (from) under the heaven be gathered together (collect itself) into one place."

Place = From, of, to.

Examples.For de tie ĉi, fripono! = Away from here, rascal! Li forestas de tie ĉi = He is away from here. Li staris meze de la malamikoj = He stood in the midst of the enemy. Proksime de la domo staris arbo = Near (to) the house stood a tree. Ne malproksime de la dometo staris preĝejo = Not far from the cottage was (stood) a church.

Time = From, since, for.

Examples.De tiu tempo = From (since) that time. De la kreo de la mondo = Since the creation of the world. De tri semajnoj mi estas malsana = For three weeks I have been (am) ill.

Cause = From, of, with.

Examples.Li eksaltis de surprizo = He started (jumped) with surprise. Li mortis de febro = He died of (from) fever. Kaŭze de tio = Because of (due to) (owing to) that.

Agency = By (after a passive verb, to show the agent). To show the means per is used.

Examples.Mi estas amata de mia patro = I am loved by my father. La domo konstruita de mia patro estas kovrita per ardezoj = The house built by my father is covered with slates.

Disconnection or Abstraction = From.

Example.Apartigu la pajlon de la fojno = Separate the straw from the hay.

As a prefix, de signifies "off," "from," as:—Li deprenis la libron de la breto (or, li prenis la libron for de sur la breto) = He took the book off the shelf. Li demetis la ĉapelon = He took off his (the) hat.

259 (9). Dum = During.

Dum, whether used as a preposition or conjunction, always relates to duration of time (see note below).

Time = During.

Examples.Dum la tuta tago (or, La tutan tagon) li restis sola = During the whole day he remained alone, or, He remained alone the whole day. Dum (or, En la daŭro de) kelkaj monatoj, ŝi ne eliradis el sia ĉambro = During (for the space of, for) some months she did not leave (go out of) her room. Li dormis dum la tuta koncerto, or, Li dormis la tutan koncerton = He was sleeping during the whole (all through the) concert. Dum ilia konsiliĝo (or, Dum ili konsiliĝis) mi restis en la apuda ĉambro = During their consultation (or, whilst they were consulting) I remained in the adjoining room.

Note.Dum, although frequently used as a conjunction by Dr. Zamenhof, is rarely, if ever, used by him as a preposition. For our preposition "during" he generally uses the accusative of duration, or the prepositional expression en la daŭro de, or simply en, or turns the phrase by employing an adverbial present participle.

259 (10). Ekster = Outside.

Place = Outside. Ekster is the opposite of en = in.

Examples.Li iris en la domon, sed mi restis ekster ĝi = He went into the house, but I remained outside it. Li loĝas ekster la urbo = He lives outside the town.

Connection or Disconnection. Ekster is sometimes used as a synonym of krom (par. 259 (17)).

Examples.Ekster tiuj ĉi leĝoj, ekzistas aliaj = Outside (besides, or, in addition to) these laws others exist. Ekster tiuj ĉi leĝoj ne ekzistas aliaj = Outside (beside, or, apart from) these laws others do not exist.

As a root-word or prefix, we have:—Eksteraĵo = The exterior, outside. Eksterlande = Abroad.

259 (11). El = Out of.

El is the opposite of en = in, but only when movement in and out is implied.

Care must be taken not to confuse el with da or de, both of which also signify "of," that English preposition with so many meanings. El means essentially "out of," denoting that the noun specified is a portion of something, or is made of some particular material, or issues from something (see par. 259 (7)).

Origin or Dependence = Of, with, from.

Examples.Mi estas la plej riĉa el ĉiuj = I am the richest of all. Unu el ni estos elektata = One of us will be chosen. Li faris uzon el ĉio = He made use of everything. Mi faros uzon el la okazo = I shall take (make use of) the opportunity. Kion ni faros el hundo? = What shall we do with (make out of) a dog? El la dirita regulo sekvas, ke ... = From the said rule, it follows that ... Mi ricevis leteron el Parizo = I received a letter from Paris.

Disconnection = Out of, from.

Examples.Tri musoj elsaltis el la tirkesto = Three mice jumped out of the drawer. Mi eliris el la domo ĝuste kiam li eniris en la veturilon = I went out of the house just as (when) he entered the carriage. La violono falis el la violonujo = The violin fell out of the violin case. El sub la lito = Out of (out from under) the bed.

As a prefix, el signifies "out," and also denotes something done thoroughly well or completely, as:—Elpensi = To think out, to invent. Elfosi = To dig out. Elirejo = An exit, way out. Ellabori = To work out thoroughly, to achieve, elaborate. Eltrinki = To drink up. Ellerni = To master, to learn thoroughly (to study).

259 (12). En = In, into.

May take after it the accusative of movement, and has then the meaning of "into."

Place = In, into, within, at.

Examples.Li estas en la ĝardeno = He is in the garden. Li iris en la ĝardenon = He went into the garden. Mi loĝas en Parizo = I live in Paris. La birdo flugas en la ĉambro (ĝi estas en la ĉambro, kaj flugas en ĝi) = The bird is flying within the room (it is in the room, and is flying in it). La birdo flugas en la ĉambron (ĝi estis ekster la ĉambro, kaj nun flugas en ĝin) = The bird is flying into the room (it was outside the room, and now is flying into it). Helpu min porti tiujn ĉi kestojn en mian fiakron = Help me to carry these trunks to (into) my cab. Li iris en la domon, sed mi mem restis ester ĝi = He went into the house, but I myself remained outside of it. La ĉefa vorto staras en la fino = The chief word stands at the end.

Time = In, on, at, during.

Examples.En printempo floroj aperas = In (during) spring flowers appear. En la tago = On the day. En la unua tempo = At the outset (first time), at first. Mi finos la tasketon en dek tagoj, se mi laboros en ĉiu tago po ok horoj = I shall finish the job (little task) in 10 days if I work 8 hours a day (lit., if I shall work in each day at the rate of 8 hours).

Origin or Dependence = Of, into.

Examples.Apartamento konsistanta en (or, el)[20] unu manĝoĉambro, unu salono, kaj tri dormoĉambroj = A flat (apartment), consisting of one dining-room, one drawing-room, and three bedrooms. Aleksandro ŝanĝiĝis en polvon = Alexander was turned into dust.


[20] El is preferable. En cannot be correctly used here.

Connection = In.

Example.Manon en mano = Hand in hand.

259 (13). Ĝis = Till, as far as.

Place = To, down to, up to, as far as.

Examples.Ni akompanis ilin ĝis ilia domo = We accompanied them as far as (to) their house. Iru ĝis la rivero = Go to (down to, as far as) the river.

Time = Till, until, to.

Examples.De sabato ĝis mardo = From Saturday till (to) Tuesday. Ni devas atendi ĝis Junio = We must wait till June. Ĉu ne estus pli bone atendi ĝis ni havos la hundon? = Would it not be better to wait till we have the dog? Ĝi povas kuŝi ok ĝis naŭ jarojn = It can lie eight to nine years.

N.B.—Jarojn is the accusative of duration (par. 68 (b)), for ĝis has here no influence over it, being simply an item in the phrase; but if a preposition be placed before ok, then the preposition will influence its complement "jaroj," which will be in the nominative; as:—Ĝi povas kuŝi dum (or, je) ok ĝis naŭ jaroj = It can lie during eight (up) to nine years.

259 (14). Inter = Between, among.

Inter differs from en, in that en implies that something is actually in, or within, something else, while inter implies that something is between, or among, some other things.

Place = Between, among.

Example.Inter Rusujo kaj Francujo estas Germanujo = Between Russia and France is Germany.

Time = Between.

Example.Inter la deka kaj dek-unua matene, mi renkontis mian amikon = Between 10 and 11 o’clock in the morning I met my friend.

Manner = Among, amongst.

Example.Ili dividis inter si dek du pomojn = They divided amongst themselves twelve apples.

As a prefix, inter has much the same meaning as in English, as:—Intermeti = To interpose. Intermiksi = To intermingle. Interkonsenti = To agree mutually.

259 (15). Je.

The preposition je has no fixed meaning. It is used only when we have to employ a preposition and we do not know which one the sense requires. We can, however, use the accusative case in place of it (Rule 14, pars. 251, 253).

The following are a few of the examples in which it has been used:—

Cause = At, over, of.

Example.Mi enuas je la hejmo, or, Mi enuas la hejmon = I am weary (tired) of home.

Manner = By, on.

Examples.Li tenis lin je la maniko per unu mano, kaj per la alia li batis lin sur la vizaĝon (or, li frapis al li la vizaĝon) = He held him by (at) the sleeve with one hand, and with the other he struck him on the face (struck to him the face). Mi gratulas vian princan moŝton je (or, pri) la reveno Danujon = I congratulate your Royal (Princely) Highness on (regarding) your (the) return to Denmark.

Time = At, on.

Examples.Je la kvara horo = At 4 o’clock. Je la lasta fojo (or, La lastan fojon) mi vidis lin ĉe vi = On the last occasion (last time) I saw him with you.

Measure = Of, by.

Example.Longa je dek futoj, or, Longa dek futojn = Ten feet long.

259 (16). Kontraŭ = Against, opposite.

Never used in the sense of "by the side of." May take the accusative of direction.

Place = Towards, overlooking, against, facing, opposite.

Example.La fenestro kontraŭ la strato = The window overlooking (towards) the street.

Opposition = To, against, from.

Examples.Vizaĝon kontraŭ vizaĝo = Face to face. Kontraŭ min mem, sin turnis mia ruzo = Against myself my cunning turned (itself) (Hamlet, V, 2). Kien ili iras? Kontraŭ Polujon = Whither are they going? Against Poland (Hamlet, IV, 4). Mi sidis sur ŝtono, kie mi estis ŝirmata kontraŭ la orienta vento = I was sitting on a stone where I was sheltered from (against) the east wind. Li batalis kontraŭ la grekoj = He fought with (= against) the Greeks.

As a prefix, kontraŭ denotes opposition, as:—Kontraŭdiri = To contradict. Kontraŭmeti = To oppose.

259 (17). Krom = Not including, putting aside, apart from. One of the prepositions that may be used before the Infinitive (par. 177).

Separation, Exclusion = Besides, except, save, but.

Examples.Li estas bona, kaj, krom tio, riĉa = He is good, and, besides that, rich. Krom Esperanto, mi scias la lingvon germanan = Besides Esperanto, I know the German language. Mi estas anglo, kaj mi scias nenian lingvon krom mia propra = I am an Englishman, and I know no language except (but, besides, save) my own (see remarks on ekster (par. 259 (11)).

259 (18). Kun = With.

Never used as "with" in the sense of the instrument or means by which something is done (see per, par. 259 (22)).

Connection = With, to.

Examples.Li paroladis kun sia amiko = He was conversing with his friend. Li fianĉiĝis kun Fraŭlino Berta = He became engaged to Miss Bertha. Resti kun leono estas danĝere = To stay with a lion is dangerous. Li promenadis kun sia amiko, kiam mi lin renkontis = He was walking with his friend when I met him.

Manner = With, of.

Examples.Li parolas kun granda saĝeco = He speaks with great wisdom. Li estas homo kun gusto = He is a man of (with) taste. Li estis atendata kun granda senpacienco = He was expected with great impatience.

As a root-word or prefix, Kunigi = To connect. Kunulo = A companion. Kunveni = To come together, to assemble.

259 (19). Laŭ = According to.

Manner = According to, from, in, in accordance with.

Examples.Li agis laŭ sia opinio = He acted according to his own opinion. Tiu vazo estas farita laŭ modelo el (or, en) nia muzeo = That vase has been made according to (from) a model out of (in) our museum. Li parolas laŭ saĝa maniero = He speaks in a wise manner. Ili ĝin faris laŭvice = They did it in turn. La pli juna filino estis la plena portreto de sia patro laŭ sia boneco = The younger daughter was the complete portrait of her father in (according to) her goodness.

Place and Direction = In, along.

Examples.Ni foriris laŭ malsamaj direktoj (or, en diversajn flankojn) = We went away in a different direction (or, in different ways). Aleksandro iris laŭ tiu ĉi rivero ĝis li venis al la palaco = Alexander went along this river till he came to the palace.

N.B.—Laŭ is used in such expressions as:—Laŭlonge = Lengthways. Laŭlarĝe = Across, athwart.

259 (20). Malgraŭ = Notwithstanding.

Opposition = In spite of, notwithstanding, for, despite.

Examples.Li sukcesis malgraŭ la malhelpoj = He succeeded in spite of the hindrances. Li faris sian eblon, sed malgraŭ ĉio, li ne sukcesis = He did his best (his utmost), but for all that (notwithstanding) he did not succeed (see remarks on spite, par. 259 (30)).

259 (21). Per = By, by means of.

Cause = By, by means of, with, through.

Examples.Ni flaras per la nazo, vidas per la okuloj, kaj aŭdas per la oreloj = We smell with the nose, see with the eyes, and hear with the ears. Li mortigis lin per glavo = He killed him with a sword. Tion mi eksciis per mia frato = I learnt that through my brother.

Manner = With, by, in.

Per, used after a passive verb, denotes the means or instrument; de denotes the agent.

Examples.La domo, kiu estas aĉetita de mia patro, estas kovrita per pajla tegmento = The house, which was bought by my father, is covered with thatch (a straw roof). Li tenis lin ĉe la kolo per ambaŭ manoj = He was holding him by the neck with both hands. Li iris el la urbo per (or, laŭ) flanka vojeto = He went out of the town by a by-path. Mia onklo ne mortis per natura morto = My uncle did not die (by) a natural death. Per unu vorto (or, unuvorte), la ĉambro estis tute bela = In a word, the room was quite beautiful.

As a prefix or root-word, per is not much used. Perlabori = To acquire by one’s labour, to earn. Peri = To mediate, to interpose.

259 (22). Po = At the rate of.

Po has a distributive sense, and is used generally before numerals (see par. 123). Do not confuse po with por.

Distribution = At the rate of, in the proportion of, at.

Examples.Mi aĉetis kvar pomojn po du pencoj = I bought four apples at the rate of twopence (each). "Por du pencoj" would mean "for twopence" (all four for twopence). Tiu ĉi libro havas sesdek paĝojn; tial, se mi legos en ĉiu tago po dek kvin paĝoj, mi finos la tutan libron en kvar tagoj = This book has 60 pages; therefore, if I (shall) read (in) each day at the rate of 15 pages, I shall finish the whole book in 4 days. Silko po 5 ŝilingoj por ulno = Silk at 5 shillings a (for a) yard (ell).

As a prefix, Poduone = By half, or, by halves. Pogrande = Wholesale.

259 (23). Por = For, for the sake (benefit) of, in order to.

One of the prepositions that may be used before the infinitive (see remarks on infinitive, par. 177).

Purpose = In order to, to, for, at, for the purpose of, of, on.

Examples.Mi manĝas por vivi = I eat in order to live. Por mi ĝi havas bonan guston = To me it has a pleasant (good) taste. Li sin kuracis por resaniĝi = He treated himself (took remedies) in order to recover (be restored to health). La plej bona metodo (por) akiri ĝin = The best way of getting it (in order to get it). Mi havas multon por fari = I have much to do. Por miaj kvar infanoj mi aĉetis dek du pomojn = For my four children I bought twelve apples. Litoj por du personoj = Beds for two people. Tiu ĉi ringo estas por vi = This ring is for you. Por ĉio (or, pro ĉio) ni lin dankas = We thank him for everything. Por tiu ĉi prezo = At this price. Ni devas konfesi por ŝia laŭdo, ke ... = We must confess to her praise that ... Mi ne havas tempon por fari tion = I have not time to do that. Kiam la momento por foriri alvenis, or, Kiam la momento de foriro alvenis ... = When the moment for departure arrived ... Tiu libro estas facile komprenebla por ĉiuj = That book is easily comprehensible by (for) all. Li aĉetis por unu penco da teo = He bought a pennyworth (for a penny) of tea.

259 (24). Post = After, behind.

Is a preposition of place and time. Like its English equivalent "after," care must be taken not to confuse its meaning. For instance, "He came after me" might mean (a) next in succession or behind me, (b) after my arrival, (c) in pursuit of me. In Esperanto we should say:—(a). Li venis post mi. (b) Li venis post mia alveno. (c). Li postsekvis min (see also remarks on antaŭ, which is the opposite of post (259 (3)).

Place = After, behind.

Examples.Post la reĝo venis lia sekvantaro = After (behind) the king came his suite. "Da" post ia vorto montras, ke tiu ĉi vorto havas signifon de mezuro = "Da" after any (some) word shows that this word has the signification of measure.

Time = After, in, by, hence.

Examples.Resendu al mi la libron (post) kiam vi estos traleginta ĝin = Send back to me the book after you have read it through. Post tri monatoj estos la edziĝo = The wedding will be three months hence (in three months). Post kvarono da horo = In a quarter of an hour. Tagon post tago = Day by day.

Manner = After, by.

Examples.Ili sekvis unu post la alia = They followed one after another. Iom post iom ŝi pli trankviliĝis = Little by little she became more tranquil.

As a prefix, Postveni = To come after, to succeed. Posttagmezo = Afternoon. Postvivi = To survive.

259 (25). Preter = Beyond, past, by.

Differs from trans = across (beyond), in that preter shows the movement of something passing by, or alongside, something else. Trans signifies that something is on the other side of a boundary, or is crossing, or has crossed that boundary (see also tra, par. 259 (33)).

Place = Beside, by, past.

Examples.Mi iris preter la fenestroj de la domo = I went by (past, beside) the windows of the house. Du sinjorinoj iris preter ni, kaj transiris la straton = Two ladies passed (went) by us, and crossed the street.

Preter, as a prefix, has a similar meaning.

Examples.Mi preteriris la fenestrojn de la domo = I passed by the windows of the house. Du sinjorinoj preteriris nin = Two ladies went by (passed) us. Mi preterlasis lin = I let him pass by (I let him beyond). Li preterlasis la okazon = He let the occasion (opportunity) pass, or, he missed the opportunity.

259 (26). Pri = Concerning.

Pri can be translated in various ways.

Reference = Concerning, respecting, regarding, as regards, with regard to, as to, as for, about, of, on.

Examples.Pri mia lerteco, mi povas diri ... = Concerning my skill, I can say ... (In this sentence it will be observed that any of the above meanings of pri instead of "concerning" will give the exact sense.) Pri tio ne diru vorton = As to that, don’t say a word. Ne pensu pri ĝi = Do not think of (about) it. Li parolis pri la pentrarto = He spoke about (the art of) painting. Ili miregis pri (or, je) lia kolero = They were astounded at (about) his anger. Sed pri ŝia fratino, ni povas diri, ke ... = But of her sister, we can say that ... Tio estas verko pri la politiko = That is a work on politics. Vi estas prova pri tio = You are right in that.

As a prefix, Pripensi = To think about, to reflect.

See par. 258 (a) as regards the use of the prepositional expressions rilate, koncerne.

259 (27). Pro = Because of.

Pro always relates to the cause or reason for something happening or being done. Do not confuse it with por.

Cause = Because of, by reason of, on account of, for the sake of (cause), through, owing to, from, for, of.

Examples.Li demandis ŝin, pro kio ŝi ploras = He asked her for what reason (because of what) she wept (weeps). Li min mokis pro mia kredemo = He ridiculed me owing to (for) my credulity. Li estas mortanta (or, ekmortas) pro (or, de) malsato = He is dying of (from) hunger. Ŝi agas pro ĵaluzemo = She acts from jealousy. Li ne povis piediri pro sia malforteco = He could not walk owing to (on account of, through) his weakness. Pro tio, mi ne povas akompani vin = On that account, I cannot accompany you. Li ĝin faris pro sia edzino = He did it because of his wife.

Pro is not used much as a prefix. Propeti = To intercede. Propekulo = A scapegoat.

259 (28). Sen = Without.

Sen always denotes disconnection.

Disconnection = Without, less, minus.

Examples.Li alvenis sen sia amiko = He arrived without his friend. Sen vi, ni estus kiel sen kapo = Without you we should be as without a head. Dek sen tri estas sep = Ten less (minus) three is seven.

Sen is frequently used as a prefix, having the same meaning as our English suffix "less," as:—Sendube = Doubtless, without doubt. Sensenta = Senseless, without feeling. Sensenca = Senseless, without meaning. Senhonta = Shameless, without shame.

259 (29). Spite = In defiance of.[21]

Spite, like malgraŭ, marks opposition, but in a stronger sense. Spite means "in defiance of opposition," whilst malgraŭ has more the sense of "notwithstanding." Spite is not a preposition, but an adverb, and to translate the prepositional form "in spite of" it is usually better to use malgraŭ.

Opposition = In defiance of, defiantly.

Examples.Spite ĉion, kion mi povis diri, li vangfrapis la infanon = In defiance of all I could say, he slapped the child’s face. Spite mian malamikon = In defiance of my enemy.


[21] The root spit is often used as a verb: spiti, to brave, flout, act in defiance of. Amason ne spitu (Prov. 1191). Se vi malgraŭ tio spitos min (Lev. 26, 21). From this root we get the adjective spitema (Ps. 37, 35) and the adverb spite. Hence there are often found in the literature such forms as spite al vi, spite de tio; and, consequently (with the accusative instead of the preposition), spite vin, spite tion, spite mian malamikon (par. 247).

259 (30). Sub = Under.

Sub may be followed by the accusative of direction. It is the opposite of sur = on.

Place = Under, beneath.

Examples.La hundo kuris sub la tablon por ekkapti la katon, kiu kuŝis sub la tablo = The dog ran under the table to seize the cat that was lying under the table. Muso estas sub la kanapo = A mouse is under the sofa.

Manner = In, on.

Examples.Io, sub la formo de kato, transkuris la straton = Something, in the shape of a cat, ran across the street. Li iris sub la kondiĉo, ke neniu lin akompanu = He went on (under) the condition that no one should accompany him.

As a prefix, Subetaĝo = A basement (floor below). Submeti = To put under, to subdue. Subtegmento = A garret (under roof).

259 (31). Super = Over, above.

May be followed by the accusative of direction. It differs from sur, since sur generally means that something is upon or touching something else, whilst super signifies that the object is over or above something, but not in actual contact.

Place = Over, above, beyond.

Examples.La balono estis vidata super la urbo = The balloon was seen over the town. Super mia kapo preterflugis birdo = A bird flew by, over my head. Li ĵetis ŝtonon super la muron, sed li ne havis sufiĉe da forto, kaj la ŝtono falis sur la muron = He threw a stone over the wall, but he had not sufficient (of) strength, and the stone fell upon (on to) the wall. La spirito de Dio ŝvebis super la akvo = The Spirit of God moved upon the face of (above) the waters (water). Mi konas nenion super tio = I know nothing beyond that.

Super is the root of Superi = To surpass. As a prefix, Superflui = To overflow. Superhoma = Super-human. Supervesto (or, palto) = An overcoat.

259 (32). Sur = On, upon, on to.

May be followed by the accusative of direction. See remarks on sub and super. Do not confound sur with super.

Place = On, upon (resting on, touching).

Examples.Sur lia vizaĝo mi vidis ĝojan rideton = On his face I saw a joyful smile. Vi trovos la paperojn sur la skribtablo = You will find the papers on the writing-table. La birdo (sur)flugis sur la tegmenton = The bird flew on to the roof. Li metis la ĉapelon sur sian kapon = He put his (the) hat on his head. Li staris supre sur la monto, kaj rigardis malsupren sur la kampon = He stood above on the mountain, and looked down (below) upon the field (note the accusatives of direction, malsupren and kampon). Laŭ la komando "tri" vi ekpafos sur la arbon = At the command "three" you will shoot at (on to) the tree.

Dependence = On, to.

Examples.Tio ĉi povas tre influi sur la sukceson de nia afero = This can have much influence on the success of our business. Sur la danan tronon mi havas rajtojn = I have rights on (to) the Danish throne.

As a prefix, Surmeti = To put on.

259 (33). Tra = Through.

Tra, trans, and preter. The following compound verbs will best show the meaning of the three prepositions:—

Preterpasi = To pass by, go beyond.

Trapasi = To pass through, to traverse.

Transpasi = To pass over, to cross over.

Example.Trapasinte la arbaron, li preterpasis la preĝejon, kaj poste transpasis la riveron per la ponto = Having passed through (traversed) the wood, he passed by the church, and then crossed the river by the bridge.

Place = Through, across.

Examples.Li iris tra la amaso, kaj eniris en la domon = He went through the crowd and entered the house. Tra la mondo iras forta voko = Through the world goes a powerful call. Li estas tiel dika, ke li ne povas trairi tra nia mallarĝa pordo = He is so stout (thick) that he cannot go through our narrow door.

Adverb: trae = right through.

Occasionally the accusative of direction is used after tra, when this seems useful for emphasis, or to remove ambiguity.

As a prefix, Tralegi = To read through. Trapasi = To pass through, to traverse. Traguti = To percolate.

259 (34). Trans = Across; on the other side of, beyond.

May be followed by the accusative of direction.

Place = Across, beyond, on the other side of.

Examples.La hirundo flugis trans la riveron, ĉar trans la rivero sin trovis aliaj hirundoj = The swallow flew across the river, because on the other side of (beyond) the river were (found themselves) other swallows.

As a prefix, Transiri = To go over, to cross. Transmigri = To migrate. Transvivi = To outlive, survive (a period of time).


260. English prepositions are used with many various meanings. In fact, to express the sense of some of those in common use correctly, five or six or more Esperanto prepositions have to be used to give the different meanings of one English preposition. For instance, "by" has five different meanings in the following expressions:—"He went by the house." "He was hit by a stone." "By his advice." "Little by little." "He stood by the door."

261. The following common English prepositions are given with their Esperanto equivalents and examples of their use, viz., "At, by, for, from, in, of, on, to, with."


261. (a). Represented by:—

Apud, as:—La gefianĉoj staris apud la altaro = The betrothed stood at the altar.

Ĉe, as:—Ĉe ĉiu paŝo kiun ŝi faris = At every step that she took. Ŝi estas ĉe la pordo = She is at the door.

De, as:—Li estas mirigita de la lukso de la kortego = He was astonished at the lŭury of the court.

En, as:—En la unua tempo = At (in) the outset. En Parizo = At Paris. En la fino = At the end. En la kunveno = At the meeting. En la interspaco de ... = At the distance of ...

Je, as:—Je la kvara horo = At four o’clock.

Po, as:—Piroj po du pencoj por funto = Pears at (at the rate of) twopence a (for a) pound.

Por, as:—Por tiu ĉi prezo = At (for) this price.

Pri, as:—Ŝi ridetis pri (je) lia kolero = She smiled at (about) his anger.

Sur, as:—Ili pafis unu sur la alian = They fired at one another.

Accusative, as:—Ŝi mokadas lian kredemon = She jeers at his credulity.

Adverb, as:—Tuj = At once. Almenaŭ = At least. Iafoje = At times. Nune = At present, etc.


261 (b). Represented by:—

Apud, as:—Mi volus stari apud la patrino = I would like to stand by mother.

Ĉe, as:—Mi tenis lin ĉe la kruro per ŝnurego = I held him by the leg with a rope.

De, as:—Li estas amata de ĉiuj siaj amikoj = He is loved by all his friends.

Laŭ, as:—Mi restadas tie ĉi laŭ la konsilo de mia kuracisto = I am remaining (staying) here by (according to) the advice of my doctor.

Per, as:—Li eliris el la urbo per flanka vojeto = He left the town by a by-path.

Post, as:—Iom post iom, ŝi pli trankviliĝis = Little by (after) little she became more tranquil.

Preter, as:—En tiu momento iris preter ni du sinjorinoj = At that moment two ladies passed by (beside) us.

Adverb, as:—Legante, ni lernas = By reading, we learn. Tage = by day. Laŭtage = By the day. Mi staris apude dum li paroladis = I stood by (near to, close by) whilst he was talking.


261 (c). Represented by:—

Al, as:—Ili ekiris al Berlino (or, Berlinon) = They started for Berlin.

Anstataŭ, as:—Li skribis trion anstataŭ kvaro = He wrote a three for (instead of) a four.

De, as:—Tro baldaŭ alvenis la horo de foriro = Too soon came the hour for (of) departure. De tri semajnoj mi estas malsana = For three weeks I have been (am) ill.

Dum, as:—Dum la tuta tago li restis sola = For (during) the whole day he remained alone.

Laŭ, as:—Ŝi estas granda laŭ sia aĝo = She is big for (according to) her age.

Malgraŭ, as:—Malgraŭ ĉio li ne estis feliĉa = For (notwithstanding) all that, he was not happy.

Por, as:—Tiu ĉi monujo estas por vi = This purse is for you.

Pri, as:—Li petis lin pri helpo, or, Li petis helpon de li = He asked him for help. Vi ne devas peti pri tio, kio estas nia ŝuldo = You have not to beg for that which is our obligation.

Pro, as:—Oni laŭdis lin pro lia boneco = They praised him for (because of) his goodness. La domo estis vendita pro ŝuldoj = The house was (had been) sold for debt. Mi volas esti amata pro mi mem, ne pro mia riĉeco = I want to he loved for myself, not for my wealth.

Pro tio, ke, as:—Li riproĉis min pro tio, ke mi foriris = He reproached me for having gone away (lit., because of that that I went away).

Tra, as:—Li ne povas ĝin porti tra tia interspaco = He cannot carry it for (through) such a distance.

Accusative, as:—Li restis sola la tutan tagon = He remained alone all day long (for the whole day) (see the example under dum).


261 (d). Represented by:—

Al, as:—Ni ne vidas, ĉar la lumo estas kaŝata al ni per la kurtenoj = We do not see, because the light is hidden from (towards) us by the curtains.

De, as:—Apartigu la pajlon de la fojno = Separate the straw from the hay. De tiu tempo = From that time. De lundo ĝis vendredo = From Monday to Friday.

El, as:—Mi konkludis el lia mieno, ke li estas oficiro = I concluded from (out of) his appearance that he was (is) an officer.

Kontraŭ, as:—Tie mi estis ŝirmata kontraŭ la vento = There I was sheltered from (against) the wind.

Laŭ, as:—Tiu ĉi figuro estas skulptita laŭ mia modelo = This figure is sculptured (carved) from (in accordance with) my model.

Per, as:—Tion mi eksciis per mia frato = I learnt that from (by means of) my brother.

Pro, as:—Li tremis pro (or, de) timo = He trembled from (because of) fear.

Sen, as:—Ok sen du estas ses = Two from eight (lit., eight without two) is six.


261 (e). Represented by:—

Ĉe, as:—Tio donas helpon ĉe la lernado de la vortoj = That gives help in the learning of the words.

Da, as:—Tri metroj da longo = Three metres in length.

En, as:—Li estas en la domo = He is in the house.

Je, as:—La suna disko ŝajne duobliĝis je grandeco = The sun’s disc apparently became doubled in size.

Laŭ, as:—Laŭ mia opinio (or, miaopinie) ili estas tute pravaj = In (according to) my opinion they are quite right. Li edukiĝis laŭ la timo al Dio = He was brought up in (according to) the fear of God.

Per, as:—La ambaŭ estis similaj per la vizaĝo kaj la karaktero = The two were alike in (by means of) features (the face) and (the) character.

Post, as:—Ni foriros post du aŭ tri tagoj = We are (shall be) going away in (after) two or three days.

Pri, as:—La instruisto povas pri nenio lin instrui = The teacher can instruct him in nothing.

Sub, as:—Io, sub la formo de homo, aperas = Something, in (under) the shape of a man, appears.

Sur, as:—Promenante sur la strato, mi falis = While walking in (on) the street, I fell.

Accusative, as:—Li estis naskita la vintron de 1902a = He was born in the winter of 1902.

Adverb, as:—Forme = In shape. Troe = In excess. Vespere = In the evening. Alivorte = In other words, etc.


261 (f). Represented by:—

Al, as:—La amo al Dio = The love of (towards) God. Ilia timo al la morto estas granda = Their fear of (to) death is great. Pro malamo al mi li foriris = Through hatred of me he went away.

Da, as:—Granda nombro da ideoj = A great number of ideas.

De, as:—La unua vorto de la linio = The first word of the line. La amo de Dio = The love of (from) God, God’s love.

Dum, as:—Vojaĝo dum dek kvin tagoj, or, Dekkvintaga vojaĝo = A journey of (during) fifteen days.

El, as:—Unu el ni estos elektata = One of (out of) us will be chosen. El ĉiuj miaj amikoj, li estas la plej forta = Of (out of) all my friends, he is the strongest.

En, as:—La plej granda ĉambro en la domo = The largest room of (in) the house.

Inter, as:—La plej malgranda inter (or, el) ĉiuj arboj en la ĝardeno = The smallest of (among) all the trees in the garden.

Kun, as:—Ŝi estas virino kun gusto = She is a woman of (with) taste.

Pri, as:—Ne pensu pri ĝi = Do not think of (about) it. Ŝi parolis pri sia frato = She spoke of (about) her brother.

Pro, as:—Li mortis pro (or, de) malsato = He died of (owing to) hunger.

Adjective, as:—Li estas sperta homo = He is a man of experience (an experienced man).


261 (g). Represented by:—

Al, as:—Peston al la tranĉilo! = Plague on the knife!

Ĉe, as:—Ĉe (or better, sur) la alia flanko de la strato = On (at) the other side of the street. Ĉe tio mi eliris el la ĉambro = On that, I left the room.

Ĉirkaŭ, as:—La rado turniĝis ĉirkaŭ sia akso = The wheel turned on its axis.

De, as:—Ĝi dependas de la nombro de vortoj = It depends on (from) the number of words.

En, as:—En la tago difinita = On (in) the appointed day.

Je, as:—Mi gratulas vin je (or, pri) via reveno = I congratulate you on (concerning) your return.

Kun, as:—Ŝi ĝin donis al mi kun (or, sub) tiu kondiĉo = She gave it me on (with) that condition.

Post, as:—Post plua konsiderado = On (after) further consideration.

Pri, as:—Li gratulis min pri mia edziĝo = He congratulated me on (concerning) my marriage.

Pro, as:—Pro tio mi lin lasis = On that account I left him.

Sub, as:—Li vizitis min sub la preteksto, ke li estas parenco = He visited me on (under) the pretext that he was (is) a relation.

Sur, as:—La paperoj kuŝas sur la tablo = The papers are lying on the table.

Accusative, as:—Li ĝin donis al mi lundon = He gave it me on a Monday.

Adjective, as:—La veturilo estas luebla = The carriage is on hire (is able to be hired).

Adverb, as:—Li staris dekstre = He stood on the right. Li ĝin faris intence = He did it on purpose. Prunte = On loan.


261 (h). Represented by:—

Al, as:—Mi iras al Parizo = I am going to Paris. Li diris al mi = He said to me.

En, as:—Li ridetis en si mem = He smiled to (in) himself. Li reiris en la urbon = He went back to (into) the town.

Ĝis, as:—De sabato ĝis mardo = From Saturday to (till) Tuesday. Li amis ĝis freneziĝo = He loved to frenzy.

Ke (with a personal pronoun), as:—Vi bone faris, ke vi venis = You did well to come (that you came).

Kontraŭ, as:—Vizaĝon kontraŭ vizaĝo = Face to (opposite) face.

Kun, as:—Li fianĉiĝis kun mia kuzino = He became engaged (affianced) to my cousin.

Por, as:—Mi havas multe (or, multon) por fari = I have much to do (for to do). Ŝi estis muta por ĉiuj liaj demandoj = She was dumb to (for) all his questions. Tia agado estas danĝera por ni = Such action is dangerous to (for) us.

Pri, as:—Pri tio lasu min zorgi = Let me look to that.

Sub, as:—Sub la sono de muziko = To (under) the sound of music.

Sur, as:—Iri sur la kamparon = To go to (into) the country.

Adverb, as:—Li iris dekstren = He went to the right. Morte kondamnita = Condemned to death.

Accusative, as:—Mi iris Parizon = I went to Paris.


261 (i). Represented by:—

Ĉe, as:—Por esti ĉe li, mi fordonis ĉion = To be with (at) him, I gave up everything.

De, as:—Li eksaltis de surprizo = He started with (from) surprise.

El, as:—Kion ni faros el tio? = What shall we do (make) with (out of) that?

Je, as:—Li okupis sin je (or, pri) meĥaniko = He occupied himself with (concerning, about) mechanics.

Kontraŭ, as:—Li batalis kontraŭ la malamiko = He fought with the enemy.

Kun, as:—Li paroladas kun sia amiko = He is conversing (talking) with (to) his friend.

Laŭ, as:—Li kuris laŭ granda rapideco = He ran with great rapidity.

Per, as:—Li mortigis sin per glavo = He killed himself with (by means of) a sword.

Pri, as:—Pri tio mi havas nenion por diri = With regard to (concerning) that, I have nothing to say.

Sub, as:—Mi ĝin donis al li sub tiu kondiĉo = I gave it to him with (under) that condition.

Adverb, as:—Rilate vian leteron = With reference to (relating to) your letter.

CONJUNCTIONS (Konjunkcioj).

262. Conjunctions serve to connect words, phrases, clauses, or sentences.

Examples.Somero kaj Vintro = Summer and Winter. Tage nokte = By day or by night. Li diras, ke vi estas mallaborema = He says that you are lazy. Li estas fiera, sed vi estas humila = He is proud, but you are humble.

263. Conjunctions are of two kinds, Co-ordinating and Subordinating. They have no influence over the moods of verbs (par. 171 (b)).

264. Co-ordinating conjunctions connect two sentences, or two members of a sentence that are independent of each other. These are of five classes:—

265. Subordinating conjunctions introduce a clause that is dependent on another. There are six classes, viz., conjunctions of:—

266. Conjunctions connect the same cases of nouns, pronouns, and adjectives. When there is a diversity of case, it is due to ellipsis (see par. 105).

Example.Mi vidis lin kaj lian fraton, sed ne lian fratinon = I saw him and his brother, but not his sister.

267. The co-ordinating conjunction is sometimes omitted.

Examples.Li venis, li vidis, li venkis = He came, he saw, he conquered! Vi iros, Johano restos tie ĉi = You will go, John will remain here.

268. Conjunctions and adverbs.—Some English words are sometimes adverbs and sometimes conjunctions, more especially those introducing clauses of time or place. Some are also prepositions as well as conjunctions and adverbs, and care must be taken to use the correct Esperanto words in such cases. For instance, in English "before," "after," and "since" are prepositions, adverbs, or conjunctions.

Before (prep.) = Antaŭ.

Example.Li staris antaŭ la reĝo = He stood before the king.

Before (adv.) = Antaŭe.

Example.La reĝo neniam lin vidis antaŭe = The king never saw him before.

Before (conj.) = Antaŭ ol.

Example.Pripensu antaŭ ol paroli = Reflect before speaking.

After (prep.) = Post, or, malantaŭ.

Example.Post la hundoj, venis la homoj = After (behind) the dogs came the men.

After (adv.) = Poste, or, malantaŭe.

Example.La rajdantoj iris antaŭe, kaj la hundoj venis poste (or, malantaŭe) = The riders went in advance, and the dogs came after.

After (conj.) = Post kiam, or, kiam.

Example.Resendu al mi la libron, post kiam (or, kiam) vi estos ĝin traleginta = Send me back the book after you (will) have read it through.

Since (prep.) = De.

Example.De la kreo de la mondo = Since the creation of the world.

Since (adv.) = De tiu tempo; de tiam; de kiam; de la tempo, kiam.

Example.Mi lin vidis hieraŭ, sed mi lin ne vidis de tiu tempo = I saw him yesterday, but I have not seen him since.

Since (conj.) = Ĉar.

Example.Mi devas ĝin fari, ĉar vi insistas = I must do it, since you insist.


(Including Conjunctive Adverbs).

268. (a). The following is a list of the principal conjunctions. Some of them, according to the sense in which they are used, are employed also as adverbs or prepositions, and will be found in the lists of adverbs and prepositions in pars. 248 (b) and 259.

Alie = Otherwise, or, else.

Example.Mi ne vidis lin, alie mi estus vin sciiginta = I did not see him, otherwise (else, or) I should have told (informed) you.

Aliflanke = On the other hand.

Example.Kelkaj personoj diras, ke Johano estas fripono: aliflanke, aliaj diras, ke li estas naivulo = Some persons say John is a knave; on the other hand, some say he is a simpleton.

Almenaŭ = At least.

Example.Almenaŭ li provis ĝin fari = At least he tried to do it.

Ankaŭ = Also, too, as well (also adverb).

Examples.Mi ankaŭ ĝin vidis = I, too, saw it. Johano kaj ankaŭ Mario estis tie = John and also Mary were there.

Antaŭ ol = Before, ere.

Examples.Antaŭ ol morti, li diris ... = Before dying he said ... Li vespermanĝis, antaŭ ol li foriris = He dined before he went away. Antaŭ ol ni atingos lin, li estos malproksime = Ere we (shall) reach him, he will be far away. Antaŭ ol iri Londonon, ni veturis Berlinon = Before going to London, we travelled to Berlin.

= Or.

Example.Oni ne scias, ĉu li ploras aŭ ridas = One does not know whether he is weeping or laughing.

Aŭ ... aŭ = Either ... or.

Example.Aŭ vi aŭ mi devos ĝin fari = Either you or I must (will have to) do it.

Cetere = Besides, for the rest, for the matter of that.

Example.Li ne venis; cetere, se li estus veninta, mi ne estus vidinta (or, vidus) lin = He did not come; besides, if he had (should have) come, I should not have seen him.

Ĉar = Because, for, since.

Examples.Tion mi scias, ĉar tie mi estas = I know that, because (for) I was there. Ĉar vi ne estis tie, vi ne povas ĝin scii = Since you were not there, you cannot know it.

Ĉiufoje kiam, ĉiun fojon kiam = Every time when, each time when.

Example.Mi lin renkontadis ĉiufoje, kiam mi iris Londonon = I met him every time (when) I went to London.

Ĉu = Whether, or, if (see remarks on ĉu in the list of adverbs, par. 248 (b)).

Ĉu ... aŭ = Whether ... or.

Example.Mi iros, ĉu li venos aŭ ne = I shall go, whether he come (will come) or not.

Ĉu ... ĉu = Whether ... whether.

Example.Ĉu li skribos, ĉu li ne skribos, mi ne respondos al li = Whether he writes, whether he does not write, I shall not reply to him.

De l’ tempo kiam, or, de kiam = Since, from the time when.

Example.De l’ tempo kiam li mortis.... = Since he died....

Des pli = So much the. Des pli is generally used with Ju pli (which see), but sometimes alone in reply to questions (par. 112).

Example.Mi devas averti vin, ke li eble ne estos hejme = I must warn you, that perhaps he will not be (or, that he may not be) at home. Des pli bone! mi tute ne deziras lin vidi = So much the better, I don’t at all wish to see him.

Do = Then, therefore, consequently (argumentative).

Examples.Mi do povas dormi trankvile = Then I can sleep tranquilly. Estis do vidaĵo mirinda! = It was then a wonderful sight! Kion do Johano diros? = What then will John say?

Dum (also preposition) = While, whilst (par. 259 (10)).

Examples.Dum li estis parolanta, ni eliris el la ĉambro = Whilst he was speaking, we went out of the room. Li povas labori, dum mi estas for = He can work, whilst I am away.

Dume = Meantime, meanwhile (also adverb).

Example.Ili ekbruligis la fajron, dume ni pretigis la manĝaĵon = They lighted the fire, meanwhile we got the food ready.

Eĉ se = Even if.

Example.Ili ne volus iri, eĉ se ili estus invititaj = They would not wish to go, even if they were (should be) invited.

Foje kiam = Once when, one day when, once upon a time.

Example.Foje kiam mi promenis, mi renkontis vian amikon = Once (one day), when walking, I met your friend.

Ĝis (also preposition) = Till, until (par. 259 (13)).

Example.Atendu, ĝis mi revenos[22] = Wait till I (shall) return.


[22] N.B.—Some writers would say ĝis kiam. Zamenhof never did—the second word appears superfluous.

Jen = Behold, here (also an adverb and interjection).

Example.Jen la malsameco de la rezulto klariĝas = Here the difference of the result is explained.

Jen ... jen = Now ... now, sometimes ... at other times.

Example.Jen li kuras rapide, jen li haltas! = Now he runs rapidly, now he stops!

Ju malpli ... des malpli = The less ... the less (par. 112).

Example.Ju malpli li laboras, des malpli li enspezas = The less he works, the less he earns.

Ju malpli ... des pli = The less ... the more.

Example.Ju malpli li trinkas, des pli li manĝas = The less he drinks, the more he eats.

Ju pli ... des malpli = The more ... the less.

Example.Ju pli ni trinkas, des malpli ni manĝas = The more we drink, the less we eat.

Ju pli ... des pli = The more ... the more.

Example.Ju pli bona vi estos, des pli vi estos amata = The better you are, the more you will be loved.

Kaj = And.

Example.Vi kaj mi devas ĝin fari = You and I must do it.

Kaj ... kaj = Both ... and.

Example.Mi vidis tie kaj Johanon kaj Georgon = I saw both John and George there.

Kaj ceteraj = And the rest, et cetera (commonly written k.c.).

Kaj tiel plu = And so forth, and so on (commonly written k.t.p.).

Ke = That. Be careful not to use ke for the pronouns kio, kiu, tio, or tiu = that.

Examples.Mi esperas, ke tio, kion vi havas en la mano, ne estas venena insekto = I hope that that which you have in your (the) hand is not a poisonous insect. Mi pensas, ke tiu vorto estas malĝuste tradukita = I think that that word is wrongly translated.

Kial = Wherefore, why (par. 150) (also adverb).

Example.Demandu lin, kial li tion faras = Ask him why he does that.

Kiam = When, as, after (kiam = after, when used with the English pluperfect) (par. 151).

Examples.Pluvis forte, kiam ni atingis (alproksimiĝis) la lagon = It rained heavily when (as) we reached the lake. Kiam mi estis kolektinta la sumon, mi aĉetis novan libron = After (when) I had collected the amount, I bought a new book.

Kiam ajn = Whenever (par. 145).

Example.Li balbutis, kiam ajn li parolis = He stammered whenever he spoke.

Kie = Where (par. 152) (also adverb).

Example.Sciigu min, kie li estas = Tell (inform) me where he is.

Kie ajn = Wherever (par. 145).

Example.Mi lin trovos, kie ajn li estas = I shall find him wherever he is.

Kiel = As (in comparison) (par. 153).

Example.Li estas tiel forta, kiel vi = He is as strong as you.

Kiel ajn malmulte = However little.

Example.Kiel ajn malmulte vi volos (or, volas) ... = However little you may (will) wish....

Kiel ankaŭ = As also, as well as.

Example.Mia patro, kiel ankaŭ mi, pensas, ke.... = My father, as well as I, thinks that....

Kiel eble plej baldaŭ = As soon as possible (lit., as possible, most soon). Kiel eble plej should be used as follows:—

Examples.Kiel eble plej frue = As early as possible. Kiel eble plej rapide = As quickly as possible. Sendu lin al mi kiel eble plej baldaŭ = Send him to me as soon as possible.

Kiel ekzemple = As for example.

Example.Oni ne manĝas kelkajn birdojn, kiel ekzemple aglojn, akcipitrojn, vulturojn, cikoniojn, kaj aliajn = People do not eat some birds, as, for example, eagles, hawks, vultures, storks, and others.

Kio ajn okazos (or, ĉiuokaze) = At all events (lit., whatever shall happen).

Example.Mi venos morgaŭ, kio ajn okazos = I shall come to-morrow whatever happens.

Kondiĉe, ke = On condition that.

Example.Mi vin forpermesos, kondiĉe, ke vi revenu postmorgaŭ = I will give you leave of absence, on condition that you return the day after to-morrow.

Konsente, ke = It being agreed that.

Example.Mi iros, konsente, ke vi ankaŭ estu tie = I will go, it being understood that (agreed that) you also be there.

Kontraŭe = On the contrary (also adverb).

Example.Vi preferas la bovaĵon, mi, kontraŭe, preferas la ŝafaĵon = You prefer beef, I, on the contrary, prefer mutton.

Krom se = Unless.

Examples.Krom se ili rapidos (or, se ili ne rapidos), ili maltrafos la vagonaron = Unless they (will) make haste, they will miss the train.

Krom tio = Besides, moreover, apart from that.

Example.Ŝi estis krom tio tre bela knabino = She was, besides (moreover), a very beautiful girl.

Kun la kondiĉo, ke = On (with) the condition that.

Example.Mi pruntis al li la libron kun la kondiĉo, ke li redonu ĝin al mi postmorgaŭ = I lent him the book on the condition that he should (is to) return it to me the day after to-morrow.

Kvankam = Although, though.

Examples.Kvankam li estas riĉa, tamen li ne estas feliĉa = Although he is rich, yet he is not happy. Kvankam mi konsentas vian opinion, tamen mi ne povas akordiĝi kun vi = Though I agree with your opinion, I cannot nevertheless be in accord with you.

Kvazaŭ = As if, as though (also adverb).

Example.Li staris, kvazaŭ li vidas teruraĵon = He stood as if he saw a terrible object.

Laŭ tio ... ke = According as.

Example.Laŭ tio, ke vi estos atenta aŭ maldiligenta, la lernejestroj vin laŭdos aŭ mallaŭdos = According as you are (will be) attentive or idle, the schoolmaster will praise or blame you.

Malgraŭ ĉio = In spite of all (everything), after all.

Example.Li foriris malgraŭ ĉio, kion mi diris = He went away in spite of all I said.

Malgraŭ tio, ke = Notwithstanding that.

Example.Malgraŭ tio, ke mi ne havis palton, mi eliris = Notwithstanding that I had no overcoat, I went out.

Malpli ... ol = Less ... than (par. 112).

Example.Li estas malpli kuraĝa, ol lia frato = He is less courageous than his brother.

Ne nur, ne sole = Not only.

Example.Li ne nur ŝtelis, sed li mortigis ankaŭ = He not only stole, but he committed murder (murdered) also.

Nek = Nor (par. 59 (c)).

Example.Li ne estis tie, nek mi = He was not there, nor I.

Nek ... ankaŭ = Nor ... also, nor ... too, nor ... either.

Example.Vi ne estis tie, nek mi ankaŭ = You were not there, nor I either.

Nek ... nek = Neither ... nor (par. 59 (c)).

Example.Nek vi nek mi estis tie = Neither you nor I was there.

Ol = Than (par. 112).

Examples.Pli bone malfrue, ol neniam = Better late than never. La libro ne kostos pli ol tri ŝilingojn = The book will not cost more than three shillings.

Per (or, pro) tio, ke = In that, since.

Example.La akvo diferencas de la glacio per tio, ke tiu estas fluida, kaj ĉi tiu malfluida = Water differs from ice, in that the former is fluid and the latter solid.

Pli ... ol = More ... than (par. 112).

Example.Li estas pli forta, ol vi = He is stronger than you.

Plie = Moreover, further (also adverb).

Example.Plie, mi diras al vi, ke ... = Moreover, I tell you that....

Por ke = In order that, so that, to the end that. Por ke is always followed by the Imperative mood, because, when used, this expression implies order (see remarks on Imperative, par. 201).

Examples.Por ke mi rekompencu vin, konvenas, ke vi ĝin meritu = In order that I may recompense you, it is proper (fitting) that you merit it. Mi volas ĉion fari, por ke vi estu kontenta je mi = I wish to do everything, so that you may be satisfied with me, or, I will do everything to please you.

Post kiam = After.

Example.Post kiam la suno subiris, ni revenis hejmen = After the sun set we returned home.

Same kiel = As, just as (par. 112).

Example.Same kiel la patrino amas sian infanon, tiel mi amas vin = Just as the mother loves her child, so do I love you.

Se = If.

Example.Mi ĝin faros, se mi povos = I shall do it if I can (shall be able).

Se ne = If not, otherwise, lest.

Example.Lernu vian lecionon, se ne, mi vin vergos! = Learn your lesson, otherwise I shall cane you!

Se nur = If only, provided that.

Example.Vi vidos Johanon, se nur vi alvenos frue = You will see John, provided that you (will) arrive early.

Se okaze = If perchance, in case, in the event of.

Example.Se okaze vi venus malfrue, Johano ne estus tie ĉi = If perchance you should come late, John would not be here.

Se tamen = If however, if still, if though, if notwithstanding.

Example.Se tamen vi ne povos veni morgaŭ matene, venu vespere = If, however, you are not (will not be) able to come to-morrow morning, come in the evening.

Sed = But.

Example.Li legas, sed ne komprenas tion, kion li legas = He reads, but does not understand what he reads.

Sed ankaŭ = But also.

Example.Ŝi donis al mi ne nur hundon, sed ankaŭ ĉevalon = She gave me not only a dog, but also a horse.

Sed eĉ = But even.

Example.Ne sole viroj, sed eĉ infanoj estis tie = Not only men, but even children were there.

Sekve = Consequently.

Example.Ekpluvis, sekve ni revenis domen = It began to rain, consequently we returned home.

Tamen = However, yet, still, nevertheless, but.

Examples.Kvankam li estas riĉa, tamen li ne estas feliĉa = Although he is rich, yet (still) he is not happy. Mi ne povis veni hodiaŭ, tamen mi venos morgaŭ = I could not come to-day, however, I will come to-morrow. Kvankam li perdis monon, tamen li ne mortis malriĉulo = Although he lost money, nevertheless he did not die a poor man.

Tia, ke = Such that.

Example.Mia teruro estis tia, ke mi ne povis paroli unu vorton = My terror was such, that I could not utter a single word.

Tial = So, therefore (par. 150) (also adverb).

Example.Li rifuzis labori, tial mi eksigis lin = He refused to work, therefore (so) I dismissed him.

Tial, ke = Inasmuch as, since, because.

Example.Mi vin ne mallaŭdas, tial, ke tio ne estis via eraro = I do not blame you, inasmuch as (since) it (that) was not your mistake.

N.B.—Do not confuse tial, ke with tiel, ke = so that.

Tiam, kiam = Then when, when (par. 151).

Example.Tiam, kiam mi estis riĉa, mi ne estis feliĉa, or, Kiam mi estis riĉa, (tiam) mi ne estis feliĉa = When I was rich, (then) I was not happy.

Tiamaniere, ke = In such a manner that, so that.

Example.Parolu tiamaniere (or, tiel), ke mi povu vin kompreni = Speak in such a manner (so) that I can (may be able to) understand you.

Tiel, ke = So that.

Example.Estis muro inter ili, tiel, ke ili ne povis vidi unu la alian = There was a wall between them so that they could not see one another.

Tiel ... ke = So ... that.

Example.Li estas tiel bona, ke li ĉion pardonas = He is so good that he pardons everything.

Tiel ... kiel = As ... as (par. 112).

Example.Ŝi estas tiel bona, kiel (ŝi estas) bela = She is as good as she is beautiful.

Timante, ke, or, pro la timo, ke = For fear that, fearing that, lest.

Example.Mi tion diris, timante, ke li venos = I said that, fearing that (lest) he would (will) come. Note the use of the future tense here. "What is my fear?" I fear he will perhaps come.

Tio estas (t.e.) = That is, that is to say, to wit. The initial letters are nearly always used just as we say id est = i.e.

Tiom ... ke = So many ... that, so much ... that.

Example.Mi havis tiom da pomoj, ke mi devis ilin fordoni = I had so many apples that I was obliged to give them away.

Tiom ... kiom = As much ... as, as many ... as.

Example.Donu al mi tiom, kiom vi povas = Give me as much (many) as you can.

Tuj kiam = As soon as, immediately when, directly.

Example.Mi fermis la pordon, tuj kiam li eliris = I shut the door as soon as (directly) he went out.


269. Interjections (interjekcioj) and interjectional expressions vary so considerably in force and meaning in different languages that it is impossible to translate some of them. If we translated our English interjections literally into Esperanto, many of them would have no meaning to a foreigner. The following short list appears at present to be in use, but, no doubt, as the language becomes more widely spoken, more will be added.

Adiaŭ! = Adieu! farewell! good-bye!

Ah! Aha! = Ah! hah!

Aj! = An exclamation of disgust.

Antaŭen! = Forward!

Atentu! = Look out! Take care! Attention!

Aŭskultu! = Hark! hist!

Bis! = Encore!

Bone! = Good!

Bonvenu! Bonvenon! = Welcome!

Brave! = Bravo! capital! splendid!

Certe! = Certainly!

Ĉu estas eble! = Is it possible!

Ĉu ne! = Isn’t it! etc. Ĉu! = Is it! etc.

Ĉu ne vere! = Is it not so!

Dio gardu! = God save us!

Dio mia! = God bless me!

Dio min savu! = God save me!

Dio volu! = Would to God! may God!

Efektive! = Really!

Fi! = Fie! for shame!

For! = Away! be off!

For de tie ĉi! = Begone! be off! avaunt!

Ha! = Ah! ha!

Haltu! = Stop!

He! = Halloo! hey!

Helpon! Helpu! = Help!

Ho! = O! oh! ho!

Ho ve! = Alack! alas! oh dear! welladay!

Hontu! = For shame!

Hura! = Hurrah! huzza!

Ja! = Indeed!

Jen! = Lo! there! behold! see!

Kial do! = Why indeed! why then!

Kiel abomene! = How abominable!

Kion! = What! Kion do! = What then!

Kompreneble! = Of course!

Kuraĝe! = Courage!

Ne! = No!

Nu! = Well!

Nu do! = Well then!

Pacience! Paciencu! Paciencon! = Be quiet! Patience!

Peston! = Plague on’t!

Pluen! Daŭrigu! = Proceed! Go on!

Pro Dio! = For God’s sake!

Rapidu! Rapide! = Quick!

Silentu! Silenton! = Hist! hush!

Ŝŝ! = ’Sh! Hush!

Ts! = Hist!

Ve! = Woe!

Vere! = Really! True!

Verege! Tre vere! = Very true!

Vivu! = Long live!

269 (a). When adjectives are used as interjections, the adverbial form in E is used, because there is neither noun nor pronoun with which they can agree, as:—Neeble! = Impossible! (par. 245).


270. Suffix -AĈ-. Prefixes FI- and FUŜ-.

The suffix -aĉ- denotes badness of quality or condition, and is used with any part of speech to show disparagement, contempt. Fuŝi, to botch, bungle, do blunderingly, is sometimes used as a prefix with a similar meaning, though it is less frequently used than -aĉ.

Aĉa = nasty; domaĉo = a hovel; veteraĉo = vile weather; ĉapelaĉo = a shabby hat; fuŝkonstrui, or, konstruaĉi = to jerry-build.

The exclamation Fi = fie! for shame! is used as a prefix to denote shamefulness, disgustingness, nastiness. Fi- denotes moral rather than physical badness, and is stronger than -aĉ-, which has a more general sense.

Fidomo = a house of ill repute; fivorto = a naughty word; firakonto = a low story.

270 (1). Suffix -AD-. (Ex. 19.)

(a). This suffix marks that an action is being continued or is habitual. It marks an action of some duration, not momentary. Thus, pafo = a shot from a gun (the gun is fired, and the action is over); but pafado = a fusillade (a continuance of shots of more or less duration).

Thus dancado = dancing, desegnado = designing, drawing, kantado = singing, legado = reading, pentrado = painting, skulptado = (the art of) sculpture, skribado = writing. These words signify not momentary acts, but habitual actions; in fact, they are used to denote arts or practices, as the art of painting, singing, etc. Kanto = A song. Ŝia kanto plaĉas al mi = Her song pleases me. Ŝia kantado ĉarmas min = Her singing charms me.

(b). If we wish to speak of the faculties of hearing, smelling, touching, thought, feeling, will, we say aŭdado, flarado, palpado, pensado, sentado, volado; but if we speak of isolated acts of such faculties, we say aŭdo, flaro, palpo, penso, sento, volo.

(c). Sometimes the word arto is used when we wish to specify that some -ado is an art.

Examples.Danc-arto (dancado) = the art of dancing, kant-arto (kantado) = the art of singing, pentr-arto (pentrado) = the art of painting.

N.B.—The hyphens are not necessary.

(d). The difference in meaning of words with and without the suffix is seen in such words as:—

Movo = a motion, movado = movement (general), progreso = a step of progress, progresado = progress (general), parolo = word (spoken), parolado = speech, discourse, fumo = smoke, fumado = smoking (habit of smoking), verko = a work (literary or musical), verkado = composition (lit.).

(e). In the verb itself we use this suffix to show that the action is not merely momentary, but is being continued, repeated, or is habitual; an aspect of the verb which is, in English, often expressed by the words "keep on," "used to," etc.

Examples.Mi saltadis la tutan tagon de loko al loko = I jumped (about) all day long from place to place (kept on jumping). Viziti = To visit. Vizitadi = To frequent, to haunt.

(f). Where the root plus o denotes the name of an object, the ending -ado introduces the idea of action, thus: krono = a crown; kronado = coronation; martelo = a hammer; martelado = hammering, etc.

(g). Do not therefore use -AD- without thinking of its significance, or merely for the sake of euphony.

271. Suffixes -AĴ- and -EC-. (Ex. 20).

(a). -AĴ- denotes something having the quality denoted by the root, or made or derived from that which is named by the root. It is also used to denote the flesh of animals intended for food.

Examples.Ĉasi = to hunt, ĉasaĵo = game. Armi = to arm, armaĵo = armour. Bovo = an ox, bovaĵo = beef. Ovo = an egg, ovaĵo = an omelet.

(b). -EC- denotes an abstract quality, similar to the English suffixes, -nce, -ncy, -ness, -tude, -ity.

Examples.Pura = clean, pureco = purity, cleanness. Feliĉa = happy, feliĉeco = happiness, felicity. Sen = without, seneco = dearth, want. Kuraĝa = courageous, kuraĝeco = fortitude. Danki = to thank, dankeco = gratitude, thankfulness. Riĉa = rich, riĉeco = wealth.

(c). Both suffixes apply to good or bad qualities. They can be used as roots, as aĵo = a thing, eco = a quality, a distinctive mark.

(d). A comparison of the following words will best illustrate their meaning.

Amiko = a friend, amikaĵo = a friendly act, amikeco = friendship. Bona = good, bonaĵo = a good (action or thing), boneco = goodness. Fortika = solid, robust, fortikaĵo = a stronghold, fortikeco = robustness. Mola = soft, molaĵo = a soft substance, pulp, moleco = softness. Sprita = witty, spritaĵo = a witticism, spriteco = wittiness. Malsprita = dull, stupid, malspritaĵo = a stupidity, a bêtise, malspriteco = stupidity, a state of silliness.

(e). To express an idea itself, namely, one that is neither concrete (-AĴ-) nor abstract (-EC-), we add only the grammatical termination to the root. For instance, la bono = the good, good (itself), and from this arises bonaĵo = a good action, or, something good, the abstract quality being boneco = goodness. Again, acido = an acid, acidaĵo = an acid thing, something which has an acid taste, acideco = acidity. So, heroo = a hero, heroaĵo = an exploit (something heroic), heroeco = heroism. The student should guard against the tendency of some writers to over-use -ec-: e.g., to use feliĉeco, kuraĝeco, boneco, rapideca, in cases where the sense does not call for a qualitative suffix, and simple feliĉo, kuraĝo, bono, rapida, would be more appropriate. In other words, use eco only when you wish to accentuate the abstractness, the "nessness" of the idea.

Examples.La bono, kiun vi faras estas rimarkinda, ĉar via boneco ĉiam instigadas vin fari bonaĵojn = The good that you are doing is remarkable, for your goodness is always prompting you to do kind acts. Vitriolo estas acido, sed vinagro estas nur acidaĵo, kvankam ambaŭ posedas acidecon = Vitriol is an acid, but vinegar is only a sour fluid, although both possess acidity. La heroo de la heroaĵo montris grandan heroecon = The hero of the exploit showed great heroism. La amiko montras sian amikecon per amikaĵoj = A friend shows his friendship by friendly acts.

272. Suffixes -AN-, -IST-, -ESTR-, -UL-. (Ex. 21).

These four suffixes relate to individuals. When combined with a root, one or other of them serves to show a person’s country, religion, profession, occupation, character, etc. Each has its distinct meaning, and care must be taken not to confuse them. The feminine suffix -IN- is added to denote females.

(a). Like the English -an, -man, -AN- denotes a member of something, such as a club, society, etc.; an inhabitant of a place or country; a partisan; an adherent to a party, faction, religion, etc.

Examples.Klubo = a club, klubano = a member of a club. Senato = senate, senatano = a senator. Ameriko = America, amerikano = an American. Londono = London, londonano = a Londoner. Parizo = Paris, parizano = a Parisian. Urbo = a town or city, urbano = a townsman or citizen. Kamparo = country (rural), kamparano = a countryman. Vilaĝo = a village, vilaĝano = a villager. Insulo = an island, insulano = an islander. Kristo = Christ, Kristano = a Christian. Partio = a party, partiano = a partisan.

(b). The suffix -AN- itself is used as a root. Ano = a member, anaro = a band (a collection of members of something).

(c). -IST-, like the English affix -ist, denotes a person following a profession or trade, or some occupation by which he gains his livelihood, or who is habitually engaged in science, art, etc. In short, it denotes habitual occupation (not necessarily for the sake of gain).

Examples.Juĝi = to judge, juĝisto = a judge. Kuraci = to treat the sick, kuracisto = a doctor. Drogo = a drug, drogisto = a druggist. Maro = sea, maristo = a sailor (by occupation). Rabi = to rob, rabisto = a robber. Ŝteli = to steal, ŝtelisto = a thief. Pentri = to paint, pentristo = a painter (art). Kolorigi = to colour, paint, kolorigisto = a painter (house). Servi = to serve, servisto or servistino = servant (male or female). Astrologio = astrology, astrologiisto (or, astrologo) = an astrologer.

(d). -IST- is used only when there is a root to which it may be added to form the name of someone engaged in a trade, occupation, etc., as shown in the above examples. Thus, from Kudri = to sew, ŝuo = a shoe, boto = boot, we get kudristino = a seamstress or dressmaker, ŝuisto = a shoemaker, botisto = a bootmaker. When there is no such root, Esperanto provides an independent root, as:—Tajloro = a tailor, lakeo = a lackey, or valet.

(e). When the person is engaged in a temporary occupation, or is not a professional, but an amateur, a participle is often used.

Examples.Juĝanto = a judge (of something), juĝisto, a judge (by occupation or profession). Amanto = a lover, amisto = a lover, a sweetheart, a gallant. Fotografanto = a photographer, one who is now photographing, fotografisto = a professional photographer. Laboranto = a person working, laboristo = a labourer, or man who works for a livelihood.

(f). -ESTR- denotes a person who is a chief, leader, ruler, principal, or head of a State, party, body, etc. In the same way as the suffix -AN- denotes a member of some profession, body, etc., so -ESTR- would designate the head of it, as:—Urbo = a city, urbano = citizen, urbestro = a mayor, a chief citizen.

Examples.Imperio = an empire, imperiestro = an emperor, imperiestrino = an empress. Regno = (the) State, regnestro = a ruler, head of (the) State. Ŝipo = a ship, ŝipestro = a captain of a merchant vessel, a skipper. Lernejo = a school, lernejestro = a schoolmaster, head master (a teacher would be instruisto). From polico = police, we get policano = a policeman (a member of the police force), policisto = an officer of police (one who has made the police his profession), policestro = chief of police.

(g). Ĉefo = chief, head, is used as a prefix as an equivalent of the English chief, main, head-, prime.

Examples.Episkopo = a bishop, ĉefepiskopo = archbishop. Anĝelo = an angel, ĉefanĝelo = archangel.

Compare -estro (the one in command over) with ĉef- (principal in honour, in comparison with the others). Ĉefŝipo = principal ship, ŝipestro = ship’s captain.

(h). -UL- denotes a person characterized by the idea contained in the root, the root being used in an adjectival sense to express that an individual is "rich," "poor," "just," "good," etc.

Examples.Riĉa = rich, riĉulo = a rich man. Malriĉa = poor, malriĉulo = a poor man, a pauper. Justa = just, justulo = a just or righteous man. Bona = good, bonulo = a good man. Bela = beautiful, belulino = a beauty, a beautiful woman. Paca = peaceful, paculo = a man of peace. Juna = young, junulo = a youth, junulino = a young woman. Avara = avaricious, avarulo = a miser.

(i). Primary words can be used also as roots when applicable.

Examples.Tie = there, tieulo = an aborigine (a man of there). Tiam = then, at that time, tiamulo = a contemporary (a man of that time). Kun = with, kunulo = a companion (a person with you).

(j). Since words like legi = to read, viziti = to visit, etc., are not adjectival in character, we use with them (in describing a person) by preference not -UL- but -IST- or a participial termination.

Examples.Leganto = a reader (who is reading), leginto = a reader (who has read), legonto = a reader (who is about to read), legisto = a reader (by habitual occupation). But legemulo = a person who is fond of reading.

273. Suffixes -AR- and -ER-. (Ex. 22.)

Aro = a collection, and ero = an item; therefore aro da eroj might be termed "a collection of items."

(a). -AR- denotes a reunion or a collection of the idea contained in the root; a whole formed from a union of the parts.

Examples.Vorto = a word, vortaro = a collection of words, a dictionary. Homo = a man, homaro = mankind. Arbo = a tree, arbaro = a wood, arbareto = a small wood, clump of trees. Arbeto = shrub, small tree, arbetaro = shrubbery, a grove. Insulo = an island, insularo = an archipelago. Vagono = a (railway) carriage, vagonaro = a train. Sekvanto = a follower, sekvantaro = suite, cortège, retinue. Nomo = a name, nomaro = list of names, a register. Ŝtupo = a step, ŝtuparo = a staircase, ŝtupetaro = a ladder, succession of small steps. Aristokrato = an aristocrat, aristokrataro = (the) aristocracy. Aro = a collection, a flock, a herd. If we wish to specify the animals, we can add the suffix to the name, as:—Bruto = cattle, brutaro = a herd of cattle. Ŝafo = a sheep, ŝafaro = a flock of sheep. Abelo = a bee, abelaro = a swarm of bees.

(b). -ER- denotes one of many objects of the same kind, a small fragment, one of many similar parts which together form the whole.

Examples.Sablo = sand, sablero = a grain of sand. Hajlo = hail, hajlero = a hailstone. Fajro = fire, fajrero = a spark. Mono = money, monero = a coin. Polvo = dust, polvero = an atom or speck of dust. Pulvo = gunpowder, pulvero = a grain of gunpowder. Sukero = sugar, sukerero = a grain of sugar.

274. Suffixes -ĈJ- and -NJ-. (Ex. 23.)

(a). -ĈJ- is an affectionate diminutive to the Christian name of a man. It is placed after any letter of the name not later than the fifth (occasionally, the sixth).

Examples.Vilhelmo = William, Vilhelĉjo = Willie, Vilheĉjo = Will, Vilĉjo = Billy, Viĉjo = Bill. Petro = Peter, Peĉjo = Pete. Johano = John, Johanĉjo = Johnnie, Joĉjo = Jack. Nikolao = Nicholas, Nikolĉjo = Nickie, Nikoĉjo, Nikĉjo, or Niĉjo = Nick. Ernesto = Ernest, Erneĉjo, Ernĉjo, or Erĉjo = Ernie. Patro = father, patreto, paĉjo = papa.

(b). -NJ- is a similar diminutive for a female Christian name.

Examples.Mario = Mary, Marinjo = Molly, Manjo = Polly. Klaro = Clara, Klanjo = Clarrie. Sofio = Sophia, Sonjo = Sophy. Patrineto, patrinjo, panjo = mamma, mammy, ma.

275. Suffixes -EBL-, -EM-, -IND-. (Ex. 24.)

(a). These three suffixes, when used as roots, form the words ebla = possible; emo = propensity, tendency; indo = worth, merit, value. As suffixes they are mostly used to form adjectives or adverbs, and the following three, from kredi = to believe, will give an idea of their different shades of meaning. Kredebla = credible, possible of belief, believable; kredema = credulous, having a tendency to believe; kredinda = worthy of belief.

(b). -EBL- denotes possibility, or what is likely to happen, similar to the English suffix -able, -ible.

Examples.Pagi = to pay, pagebla = payable. Fleksi = to bend, fleksebla = flexible. Rompi = to break, rompebla = breakable. Fidi = to rely upon, fidebla = reliable. Kompreni = to understand, komprenebla = comprehensible, kompreneble = of course, comprehensibly.

(c). Do not confuse -EBL- with -EM- or -IND- in words which in English end in -able or -ible, but have two distinct meanings. For instance, "readable" may mean either "able to be read" or "worth reading." In Esperanto there is no such confusion, for legebla = readable, legible, but leginda = readable, worth reading. Hence we see that -EBL- must always denote possibility. It is possible to love or to honour all persons, whether they merit this or not; but when, in English, we talk of a lovable or honourable individual, we imply not possibility, but worthiness; therefore, in Esperanto, aminda = lovable, and honorinda = honourable. -EBL- is sometimes used for the infinitive.

Examples.Tiuj ĉi vortoj ne estas troveblaj en la vortaro = These words are not to be found (findable) in the dictionary. Tia amo estas malfacile imagebla = It is difficult to imagine such love.

(d). -EM- denotes propensity, tendency, inclination, disposition, similar to the English suffix, -ful.

Examples.Paco = peace, pacema = peaceful. Helpi = to help, helpema = helpful, obliging. Trompi = to deceive, trompema = deceitful, trompemo = duplicity. Servi = to serve, servema = obliging, servemo = inclination to serve. Labori = to work, laborema = laborious. Pura = clean, pure, purema = cleanly, purigebla = cleanable. Babili = to chatter, babilema = talkative, chattering. Koleri = to be angry, kolerema = irascible, ekkolerema = quick-tempered. Dormi = to sleep, dormema = disposed to sleep, sleepy, drowsy.

(e). Do not confuse -EM- with -IND- (or with -AM- (love) in compound words). For instance:—

Envii = to envy, enviema = envious, inclined to envy, enviinda = enviable, worthy or deserving of envy. Honti = to be ashamed, hontema = bashful, inclined to be ashamed, hontemo = bashfulness, hontinda = shameful, deserving of shame, impudent. Dormi = to sleep, dormema = drowsy, dormama = fond of sleep.

(f). -IND- denotes worthiness, worthy of.

Examples.Inda = worthy, malinda = unworthy. Laŭdi = to praise, laŭdinda = praiseworthy. Memori = to remember, memorinda = memorable, worthy of being remembered. Estimi = to esteem, estiminda = esteemable, or estimable. If we use "estimable" in the sense of "able to be valued," we must form the word from taksi = to estimate, to value, taksebla = estimable, appraisable.

276. Suffix -EDZ-. (Exs. 25, 34.)

-EDZ- denotes a married person, and can scarcely be called a suffix, although classed as such, since it is generally used as a root.

Examples.Edzo = a husband, a married man, edzino = a wife, a married woman, edzeco = matrimony, a state of marriage, edziĝo = a wedding, nuptials, edziĝa = nuptial, geedzoj = a married couple, husband and wife.

When reference is made to a woman, the feminine suffix -IN- is added to verbs as well as nouns and adjectives.

Examples.Doktoredzino = a doctor’s wife; kudristinedzo = a seamstress’s husband; laboristedzino = a labourer’s wife; lavistinedzo = a washerwoman’s husband; tajloredzino = a tailor’s wife; edzigi (trans.) = to marry a couple, or to marry (a man to a woman), edzinigi (trans.) = to marry a woman to a man; edziĝi (intrans.) = to get (to be) married (man), edziniĝi (intrans.) = to get (to be) married (woman). Note the following sentences:—Li edziĝis kun sia kuzino, kvankam liaj gepatroj volis edzigi lin kun alia sinjorino = He was married to (with) his cousin, although his parents wished to marry him to (with) another lady. Ŝi edziniĝis kun sia kuzo, kvankam ŝiaj gepatroj volis edzinigi ŝin kun alia sinjoro = She was married to her cousin, although her parents wished to marry her to another gentleman.

277. Suffixes -EG- and -ET-. (Ex. 26.)

(a). These two suffixes are opposites, -EG- denoting augmentation, and -ET- diminution of degree. When employed in adjectives, the adverb "very" is often loosely used to denote the degree, as:—Grandega (very large), malgrandega (very little), but a better translation of these words is grandega = huge, enormous; malgrandega = tiny (see remarks on degrees of intensity of adjectives, par. 114). If we cannot find English adjectives as equivalents of -EG- or -ET-, we should use not the adverb "very," but a stronger term, as "excessively," "enormously," etc.

(b). In the case of nouns we must be careful to use the right words to express the English meaning.

Examples.Montego = a huge mountain, granda monto = a big mountain, monto = a mountain, malgranda monto = a small mountain, monteto = a hill, altaĵo = an eminence, altaĵeto = a hillock. Again:—Riverego = a huge river, larĝa rivero = a wide river, rivero = a river, malgranda rivero = a small river, rivereto = a brook, stream, malgranda rivereto = a streamlet.

(c). -EG- denotes augmentation, intensity of degree. Used as a root, ega = intense, egeco = intensity.

(d). -ET- denotes diminution of degree. Equivalent to the English suffixes -let in "streamlet," -ule in "globule," "pustule." Used as a root, eta = little, tiny, etulo = a little one.

Examples.Pluvo = rain, pluvego = a downpour, pluveto = a shower. Ridi = to laugh, ridegi = to guffaw, rideti = to smile. Plori = to shed tears, ploregi = to weep bitterly, ploreti = to whimper. Dormi = to sleep, dormegi = to sleep heavily, dormeti = to doze, dormeto = a nap. Domo = a house, domego = a mansion, dometo = a cottage. Ŝnuro = cord, ŝnurego = rope, cable, ŝnureto = string, twine. Ami = to love, amegi = to idolize, ameti = to have some liking for.

N.B.—From the above we see that -EG- and -ET- may generally be translated by distinct words, and are not merely a substitute for adverbs, which will often more accurately express the meaning than the added suffix.

278. Suffixes -EJ-, -ING-, -UJ-. (Ex. 27.)

These suffixes are akin, since they denote either a place or thing from which the idea of the root is produced, or in which it is contained.

(a). -EJ- denotes the place of, used for, or allotted to, the idea contained in the root. As a root, ejo = a place, a locality.

Examples.Ŝafo = a sheep, ŝafejo = a sheepfold, or a place specially used for sheep. Preĝi = to pray, preĝejo = a church, a place allotted to prayer. Fruktarbo = a fruit-tree, fruktarbejo = an orchard, a place used for fruit trees. Kafo = coffee, kafejo = a café. Vinbero = a grape, vinberejo = a vineyard. Armilo = a weapon, armilejo = an armoury. Tombo = a tomb, grave, tombejo = a cemetery. Manĝi = to eat, manĝejo = a refectory, manĝaĵo = food, manĝaĵejo = a larder. Planti = to plant, plantejo = nursery. Mallibera = captive, malliberejo = a prison. Bovino = a cow, bovinejo = cowshed. Lerni = to learn, lernejo = a school. Juĝi = to judge, juĝejo = a court of justice. Dormi = to sleep, dormejo = a dormitory. Herbo = grass, herbejo = a meadow, a field. Paperfari = to make paper, paperfarejo = a paper manufactory.

(b) -ING- denotes a thing for holding one object only. Used as a root, ingo = a socket, a sheath, a holder.

Examples.Kandelo = a candle, kandelingo = a candlestick. Plumo = a pen, plumingo = a penholder. Fingro = a finger, fingringo = a thimble. Cigaredo = a cigarette, cigaredingo = a cigarette mouthpiece. Glavo = a sword, glavingo = scabbard, sheath (sword). Bajoneto = bayonet, bayonetingo = a scabbard (bayonet).

(c). -UJ- denotes that which contains, produces, encloses, or bears. Used as a root, ujo = a receptacle, a container. It has a wide signification, for it can be used for:—

(1). The names of countries in cases where the root-word denotes the inhabitant, as being the places which contain their various races.

Examples.Franco = a Frenchman, Francujo = France. Turko = a Turk, Turkujo = Turkey. Anglo = an Englishman, Anglujo = England. Germano = a German, Germanujo = Germany. Italo = an Italian, Italujo = Italy. Brito = a Briton, Granda Britujo = Great Britain. Hispano = a Spaniard, Hispanujo = Spain.

N.B.—Lando can be used instead of -ujo, if desired.

Where the root-word denotes not the inhabitant, but the country, uj is of course not used, e.g., Aŭstralio, Nederlando, Usono. In these cases the name of the inhabitant is formed by an from that of the country, thus: aŭstraliano. See par. 272 (a).

(2). The names of trees producing fruits.

Examples.Pruno = a plum, prunujo = a plum-tree. Kaŝtano = a chestnut, kaŝtanujo = a chestnut-tree. Piro = a pear, pirujo = a pear-tree. Migdalo = an almond, migdalujo = an almond-tree. Moruso = a mulberry, morusujo = a mulberry-tree. Ĉerizo = a cherry, ĉerizujo = a cherry-tree.

Arbo can be used instead of ujo in such cases, and is preferable, because clearer, thus: prunarbo, ĉerizarbo.

(3). The names of receptacles commonly used for certain articles.

Examples.Teo = tea, teujo = a tea-caddy or canister (a teapot is a vessel in which tea is made, not kept, therefore tekruĉo = a teapot, from kruĉo = a vessel for fluids). Mono = money, monujo = a purse. Papero = paper, paperujo = a portfolio. Sukero = sugar, sukerujo = a sugar-basin. Karto = a card, kartujo = a card-case. Abelo = a bee, abelujo = a, beehive. Mustardo = mustard, mustardujo = mustard-pot.

(d). The difference in meaning of these three suffixes is shown in the following examples:—

For instance, cigaro = a cigar, cigarejo = a cigar depot; but if we wish to distinguish the kind of depôt, viz., store, shop, etc., we add the word required. If it be a store, we add tenejo = a storehouse, as:—Cigartenejo = a cigar storehouse or depôt. If a shop, we add vendejo = a market, or place where things are sold, as:—Cigarvendejo = a cigar shop, or we might say also cigarbutiko. Cigaringo = a cigar holder or mouthpiece, which holds one cigar. Cigarujo = a cigar case or box, which contains several cigars. Pomo = an apple, pomejo (or, pomarbejo) = an apple orchard, pomujo, pomarbo = an apple-tree.

279. Suffix -ID-. (Ex. 25.)

-ID- denotes the young of, offspring, descendant. Used as a root, ido = offspring, descendant; idaro = issue, posterity.

Examples.Kato = a cat, katido = a kitten. Bovo = an ox, or a general term for the animal, hence bovido = a calf; if we wished to say a cow’s calf, we make bovo feminine, viz., bovino = a cow, bovinido = a cow’s calf of either sex. A cow calf we should call bovidino, and a bull calf, to determine it exactly, would be virbovido, viz., a male calf. It is important that suffixes should follow in their natural order (see order of suffixes, par. 46). Ŝafo = a sheep, ŝafido = a lamb. Cervo = a stag, cervido = a fawn. Hundo = a dog, hundido = a puppy. Ĉevalo = a horse, ĉevalido = a foal. Koko = a cock, kokido = a chicken, kokideto = a chick, a tiny chicken. Birdo = a bird, birdido = a fledgeling, a young bird. Izraelo = Israel, izraelido = an Israelite. Napoleono = Napoleon, napoleonido = a descendant of Napoleon. Reĝo = a king, reĝido = a prince, king’s son.

280. Suffixes -IG- and -IĜ-. (Ex. 28.)

(a). These two are the most important and most widely used of all the suffixes. They form an infinity of words, especially verbs. Used as roots, (1). Igi = to make, to cause, as:—Igu ŝin veni al nia dancado = Make her come to our dance. Li penis igi sian amikon tuŝi la aferon = He tried to make his friend broach the subject (touch upon the matter). (2). Iĝi = to become (to be made, to get), as La vetero iĝas pli varma = The weather is getting (becoming) warmer. Li baldaŭ iĝos maljunulo = He will soon become an old man.

(b). Used as suffixes:—

(1). -IG- denotes (like the English suffix -fy) to make, to cause (to get), to render, as ruĝa = red, ruĝigi = to make red, to redden, and from this verb is formed ruĝigo = the action of reddening, ruĝiga = reddening (adj.).

(2). -IĜ- denotes to become, to get (in the sense of to become). Note the following difference in meaning of ruĝa with this suffix and with -IG- in the preceding paragraph; ruĝiĝi = to become or get red, to blush; ruĝiĝo = the action of getting red, a blush; ruĝiĝa = blushing (adj.).

(c). The above instances are words derived from an adjective, but the suffixes can be applied to almost any part of speech, as the following examples will show:—

(d). From adjectives.

Examples.Bona = good, bonigi = to make or render good, boniĝi = to become good. Plibonigi = to make better, to improve, pliboniĝi = to become better, to improve, plibonigo = the act of making better, improvement (made), pliboniĝo = the state of becoming better, improvement (experienced). Laca = tired, fatigued, lacigi = to tire (active), laciĝi = to get tired, lacigo = the act of tiring others, laciĝo = the state of growing tired. Preta = ready, pretigi = to make ready, pretiĝi = to get (become) ready. From all these verbs nouns, adjectives, and adverbs can be formed.

(e). From nouns.

Examples.Fianĉo = a fiancé (man), fianĉigi = to betroth, to affiance, fianĉiĝi = to become betrothed, to be engaged, fianĉiĝo = betrothal, engagement, fianĉiĝa = betrothing, fianĉiĝe = by betrothal. These words speak of the betrothal of a man, but in case of a woman we add the feminine suffix, as:—fianĉino, fianĉinigi, fianĉiniĝi, fianĉinigo, etc., etc.

(f). From verbs.

Examples.Morti = to die, mortigi = to cause to die, to kill, mortiĝi = to die out, to expire (become dead), mortigo = killing (murder), mortiga = deadly, mortiganto = a murderer, mortige = mortally. Sinmortigo = suicide, sinmortigi = to commit suicide. Sidi = to be sitting, to sit, sidigi = to cause to sit, sidiĝi = to sit down, to seat oneself, sidigo = the act of causing to sit, seating, sidiĝo = the act of sitting down, or of seating oneself, as:—Li kondukis la rigardontojn al iliaj sidejoj, sed la sidigo de tiom da gesinjoroj estis tasko malfacila, ĉar la sidiĝo de eĉ unu sinjorino bezonas iom da tempo, kvankam ne tiom, kiom la sidiĝo de hundo, kiu ofte turnadas sin multfoje antaŭ ol sidiĝi = He conducted the (about to be) spectators to their seats, but the seating of so many ladies and gentlemen was a difficult task, since the sitting down of even one lady needs some little time, although not so much as the sitting down of a dog, which often continues turning itself round many times before seating itself. Sciigi = to cause (someone) to know, or, to make (something) known. Mi sciigis la homon pri la novaĵo, or, Mi sciigis la novaĵon al la homo = I caused the man to know (or, I informed the man, or, I made the news known to the man). Sciiĝi = to become informed, to learn. Mi sciiĝis pri la novaĵo = I learnt the news.

(g). Verbs formed by -IGI are transitive (par. 161), but those by -IĜI are intransitive, and therefore have no passive voice (par. 162); with verbs in -IĜI, therefore, we cannot use the passive participles, -ATA, etc., but only the active forms -ANTA, etc., as:—Li estis fariĝinta (or, li fariĝis) maljunulo, antaŭ ol mi lin konis = He had become an old man before I knew him.

(h). Intransitive verbs.—Some verbs, such as ĉesi = to cease, daŭri = to continue, pasi = to pass, are neuter or intransitive.

Examples.La pluvo ĉesas fali (or, ĉesiĝas) = The rain ceases to fall (or, comes to an end). La pafado daŭris kelkan tempon = The shooting continued some time. La tempo pasas = Time passes.

In English these verbs are used both transitively and intransitively, but if we wish to give them a transitive signification in Esperanto we must add the suffix -IGI.

Examples.Ĉesigu tion! vi surdigas min per via bruo! = Cease that, you deafen me with your noise! Daŭrigu vian rakonton = Continue your narrative. Pasigu al mi la karafon = Pass me the decanter (see par. 237 (i)).

(i). Transitive verbs.—On the contrary, fini = to finish, and komenci = to commence, are transitive, and therefore do not require the addition of -IG to make them transitive.

Examples.Finu vian laboron = Finish your work. Ni komencis nian vojaĝon je la dua horo = We commenced our journey at 2 o’clock.

But if we wish to give an intransitive sense to these verbs we may use the suffix -IĜI.

Examples.Lia laboro finiĝas = His work finishes. La jaro finiĝos post kelkaj tagoj = The year will end in a few days. La vojaĝo komenciĝis je la tria horo = The journey commenced at 3 o’clock (see par. 237 (i)).

(j). Numerals, prepositions, prefixes, and suffixes.—Joined to these, -IG- and -- serve to form numerous words.

Examples.Unuigi = to unify, unuigo = union, unuiĝi = to unite together, to be combined, unuiĝo = union (undergone). Duobligi = to double, duobliĝi = to become double. Aligi al = to attribute to, aliĝi = to join (oneself) to, to adhere, aliĝo = adhesion. Eksigi = to dismiss, eksiĝi = to become ex-, to resign (a position). Disigi = to separate, disiĝi = to separate mutually, disigo = act of separating, disjunction, disiĝo = disunion, schism. Kunigi = to connect, kuniĝi = to join together, to coalesce, kunigo = connection, kuniĝo = junction. Forigi = to do away with, foriĝi = to withdraw.

281. Suffix -IL-. (Ex. 29.)

-IL- denotes the tool, instrument, or means by which something is done. As a root, ilo = a tool, an instrument, an implement, a means of.

Examples.Kombi = to comb, kombilo = a comb. Razi = to shave, razilo = a razor. Tranĉi = to cut, tranĉilo = a knive. Haki = to hack, to chop, hakilo = an axe, a hatchet, a chopper. Kudri = to sew, kudrilo = a needle. Tondi = to shear, to clip, tondilo = shears, scissors. Presi = to print, presilo = a printing press. Fermenti = to ferment, fermentilo = yeast, leaven (a means of fermenting). Batali = to fight, batalilo = a weapon. Armi = to arm, armiloj = arms, armilejo = an arsenal (a place for arms, see -EJ-, 278).

282. Suffix -IN-. (Ex. 25.)

-IN- denotes the feminine gender. As a root, ino = a female, ina = female.

Examples.Frato = a brother, fratino = a sister. Patro = a father, patrino = a mother. Kuzo = a male cousin, kuzino = a female cousin. Avo = grandfather, avino = grandmother. Nepo = a grandson, nepino = a granddaughter. Onklo = an uncle, onklino = an aunt. Nevo = a nephew, nevino = a niece. Patra = paternal, patrina = maternal, patrineco = maternity. Frata = brotherly, fraternal, fratina = sisterly. Ĉevalo = a horse, ĉevalino = a mare, ĉevalido = a colt, ĉevalidino = a filly. Ŝafo = a sheep, ŝafino = a ewe. Hundo = a dog, hundino = a bitch. Bovo = an ox, bovino = a cow.

283. MOŜTO. (Ex. 23.)

(a). This is not a suffix, since it does not form part of a word. It is a word used by itself or added after a title to denote respect. Via moŝto is a higher expression of respect than sinjoro = sir.

(b). No special rule has been laid down for the use of moŝto, but the usual practice is to make the title an adjective and add moŝto.

(c). In speaking to persons bearing titles by birth or profession it would be well to address them by their full title first, as shown below, and afterwards use the expression via moŝto to represent "Your Majesty," "Your Royal Highness," "Your Grace," "Your Lordship," "Your Ladyship," "Your Honour," "Your Worship," "Your Excellency," "Your Eminence," "Your Highness," etc. The suffix -IN is hardly ever added.


N.B.—No title beyond his rank is given to a General in England, like "Monsieur le General" in France. We usually say "General," or "Sir," but moŝto might be used in Esperanto.

(d). As regards addresses of letters, we can say:—

284. Suffixes -OBL-, -ON-, -OP-. (Ex. 18.) These three suffixes are used with numerals, making them multiples, fractions, or collectives (see pars. 119, 120, 121).

(a). -OBL- added to a cardinal number denotes the number is a multiple. It is equivalent to the English suffixes "-fold" or "-uple."

Examples.Multoblo = a multiple, multobla = manifold. Unu = one, unuobla = single, unuoble = singly. Du = two, duobla = double, la duoblo = the double. Kvar = four, kvarobla = fourfold, quadruple, la kvaroblo = the quadruple. Cent = hundred, centoblo = a centuple. It is used in the multiplication table:—

kvaroble tri estas (or, faras) dek du4 times 3 = 12
kvinoble kvar estas dudek5 times 4 = 20
sesoble kvin estas tridek6 times 5 = 30
sepoble ses estas kvardek du7 times 6 = 42
okoble sep estas kvindek ses8 times 7 = 56
naŭoble ok estas sepdek du9 times 8 = 72
dekoble naŭ estas naŭdek10 times 9 = 90
dek-unuoble dek estas cent dek11 times 10 = 110
dek-duoble dek unu estas cent tridek du12 times 11 = 132

(b). -ON- added to a cardinal number denotes a fraction. As a root, ona = fractional.

Examples.Du = two, duona = half, duone = by halves, duono = a half (1⁄2). Tri = three, triona = third, triono = a third (1⁄3). Kvar = four, kvarona = quarter, kvarono = a fourth (1⁄4). Dek = ten, dekona = tenth, dekono = a tenth (1⁄10), tri dekonoj = 3⁄10ths. Dek du = twelve, dek-duona = twelfth, dek-duono = a twelfth (1⁄12), kvin dek-duonoj = 5⁄12ths. Sesdek kvin centonoj = sixty-five hundredths (65⁄100). La kvinona parto (la kvinono) de cent estas la triona parto (la triono) de sesdek, tio estas dudek = The 5th part of 100 is the 3rd part of 60, that is 20.

(c). -OP- added to a cardinal number denotes that the number must be taken in a collective sense. As a root, opa = collective.

Examples.Du = two, duope = two together, in twos. Tri = three, triope = in threes, in triplets. Dek = ten, dekope = in tens. Dudek = twenty, dudekope = in twenties, by scores. Cent = hundred, centope = in hundreds. Mil = thousand, milope = in thousands. Kvinope ili sin ĵetis sur min = Five together (five at a time) they threw themselves upon me. La soldatoj marŝis kvarope = The soldiers were marching in fours.

285. Suffix -UM-. (Ex. 30.)

-UM- has no special meaning. Its different meanings are easily suggested by the context and the signification of the root to which it is joined. There are but few words in which it is used, and these should be learnt as simple words.

The following embrace nearly all:—

N.B.—The 17 words marked * are given in Dr. Zamenhof’s "Fundamento de Esperanto."

286. Prefixes BO-, DUON-, GE-, PRA-. (Ex. 25.)

These four prefixes all denote relationship in a greater or less degree.

(a). BO- denotes relationship by marriage, and is equivalent to the English suffix -in-law, as patro = father, bopatro = father-in-law.

(b). DUON- also denotes relationship by marriage, and is also a prefix in such words as duonpago = half-pay, duonjara = half-yearly, etc. As a root, duono = a half, so properly it should signify only half-blood relationship. As, however, there are few relationships of this nature, it is used also for step relationship, as:—Duonfrato = stepbrother or half-brother.

(c). GE- denotes both sexes taken together. The words are always in the plural, and the feminine suffix is, of course, never added.

Examples.Edzo = a husband, geedzoj = husband and wife, a married couple. Sinjoro = Sir, Mr., gesinjoroj = Mr. and Mrs., or, ladies and gentlemen. Patro = father, gepatroj = father and mother, parents. Mastro = a master (of a household), gemastroj = master and mistress. Frato = brother, gefratoj = brother(s) and sister(s).

(d). PRA- denotes great distance of time, past or future. As regards relationship, it is the equivalent of the English prefixes "fore-," "great," or "grand." As a root, praa = primeval.

Examples.Pratempo = primitive time. Praarbarego = primeval forest. Prapatroj = forefathers, ancestors. Praonklo = grand, or great, uncle. Praavino = great-grandmother.

(e). The following are examples of these four prefixes:—

Patro = father, bopatro = father-in-law, duonpatro = stepfather, gepatroj = father and mother, parents.

Patrino = mother, bopatrino = mother-in-law, duonpatrino = stepmother.

Avo = grandfather, boavo = grandfather-in-law, duonavo = stepgrandfather, geavoj = grandparents, prageavoj = great-grandparents.

Filo = son, bofilo = son-in-law, duonfilo = stepson.

Filino = daughter, bofilino = daughter-in-law, duonfilino = stepdaughter.

Nepo = grandson, pranepo = great-grandson, genepoj = grandson(s) and granddaughter(s), grandchildren.

Nepino = granddaughter, pranepino = great-granddaughter.

Frato = brother, bofrato = brother-in-law, duonfrato = step, or half, brother, gefratoj = brother(s) and sister(s), bogefratoj = brother(s) and sister(s)-in-law.

Fratino = sister, bofratino = sister in law, duonfratino = step, or half, sister.

Onklo = uncle, praonklo = grand, or great, uncle, geonkloj = uncle(s) and aunt(s).

Onklino = aunt, praonklino = grand, or great, aunt.

Nevo = nephew, pranevo = grandnephew, genevoj = nephew(s) and niece(s).

Nevino = niece, pranevino = grandniece.

Infano = child, duoninfano = stepchild.

287. Prefixes DE-, DIS-, FOR-. (Ex. 31.)

These three prefixes give the idea of separation or change of position.

(a). DE- as a preposition = from, of. As a prefix it marks the point of departure, or movement from one place or position to another.

(b). DIS- denotes a separation, in the sense of a rupture, or breaking up into parts, or in several different directions.

(c). FOR- as an adverb = away. As a prefix it denotes distance from something.

(d). Thus, birds on a tree can fly down from the tree to the ground = deflugi; or fly in different directions, viz., disperse = disflugi; or fly away altogether from the tree = forflugi.

(e) The following examples will give a good idea of the meanings of these prefixes:—

Ŝiri = to tear,deŝiri = to tear from, to pluck.
disŝiri = to tear to pieces, to lacerate.
forŝiri = to tear away from.
Iri = to go,deiri = to go from (a place).
disiri = to go in different directions, to separate.
foriri = to go away, to depart.
Ĵeti =to throw,deĵeti = to throw down, to overthrow.
disĵeti = to throw about, to demolish, scatter.
forĵeti = to throw away, to discard.
Meti = to put,demeti = to put down, take off, doff.
dismeti = to disperse, to distribute.
formeti = to put away, to omit.
Porti = to carry,deporti = to carry from, to deport.
disporti = to carry here and there.
forporti = to carry away.

288. Prefix EK-. (Exs. 19, 32.)

EK- denotes an action just begun, of short duration, sudden, momentary.

Examples.Kanti = to sing, ekkanti = to begin to sing, or to start singing. Ridi = to laugh, ekridi = to burst out laughing. Krii = to cry, ekkrii = to exclaim, to cry out. Lerni = to learn, eklerni = to begin to learn. Iri = to go, ekiri = to start, to set out. Plori = to shed tears, ekplori = to burst out crying. Kapti = to catch, ekkapti = to seize. Dormi = to sleep, ekdormi = to fall asleep. Vidi = to see, ekvidi = to perceive. Tremi = to tremble, ektremi = to start (with fear, etc.).

EK- is useful in such expressions as "begin to," "come to," frequently used in English before a verb, as:—Kiam mi ekpripensas = When I begin to (or, come to) reflect. Kiam mi ekpensas pri ĝi = When I come to think of it.

289. Prefixes MAL-, NE-, SEN-. (Ex. 33.)

(a). These three prefixes give an opposite or negative meaning to the words before which they are placed, the nature of which varies with the prefix used.

(b). MAL- is used as a root in the adjective mala = contrary, and the adverb male = on the contrary, conversely. As a prefix it signifies that the word has a meaning exactly the contrary to that which it had before MAL- was prefixed. It is never used to give the meaning of badness, unless because it is prefixed to some word signifying goodness. For instance, timulo = a coward has a bad signification, but its opposite maltimulo = a bold man has no such meaning. Bona = good, malbona = bad, simply because "bad" is the opposite of "good."

(c). NE is a primary adverb, meaning "no," "not," and is often used as a prefix to give a negative signification to a word, as:—Plena = complete, full, neplena = incomplete, not full. Ne estas certe = it is not certain has the same signification as estas necerte = it is uncertain. Used as a root, it forms nei = to deny, nea = negative, etc.

(d). SEN is a preposition meaning "without," and as a prefix it has the same signification; as ĉesi = to cease, senĉesa = without ceasing, incessant, ceaseless; senco = meaning, sense, sensenca = without meaning, senseless; senkapigi = to decapitate. Used as a root, it forms senigi je = to deprive of, seneco = want, etc.

(e). The student may at first wonder which of these three prefixes to use in a given case. He should bear in mind that MAL- denotes the exact opposite of the root, and therefore it may be much stronger in signification than the mere negative ne = not, or the privative sen = without. For instance, plena = complete, full, but neplena = incomplete, not full. Now the opposite to "complete" or "full" is not "incomplete" or "not full," but something stronger, viz., "void" or "empty," therefore malplena = empty, void, vacuous. Again, from riĉa = rich, we form the opposite, malriĉa = poor, which is clearly a worse state than neriĉa = not rich, or senriĉa, which, in its literal sense, means "without wealth or riches." A man not rich might be well off, a man without riches might have enough to live upon. Fermita = shut, closed; the opposite is malfermita = opened, open. Applied to a window it would mean the window was wide open, but if it were only ajar it would be better to say nefermita = not closed.

(f) In using MAL- we must consider the strength of the word to which we are giving an opposite meaning, and not oppose a word like "destitute" to "rich," for "destitute" is the opposite to "rolling in wealth," the adjective for which would be "riĉega," therefore malriĉega = destitute. So bela = beautiful, belega = splendid, magnificent; therefore their opposites are malbela = ugly, malbelega = hideous.

(g). Generally speaking, it will be right (1), to use MAL- if we wish to give a stronger idea than NE or SEN would infer; (2), to use NE in cases where a simple negative will give the meaning; (3), to use SEN if "without" is more applicable than "not," as:—Senmova = without motion, stationary, but nemovebla = not movable, immovable. It will generally be right to employ SEN to represent the English suffix -less, as:—Sendanka = thankless, senmona = penniless, senhara = hairless, bald, senutila = useless. The opposite to "useful" is something stronger than "useless," therefore malutila = detrimental, prejudicial.

(h). The following examples will give an idea of the use of these three prefixes:—

Venko = victory, malvenko = defeat. Videbla = visible, nevidebla = invisible. Ŝanĝebla = changeable (in the sense "able to be changed"), neŝanĝebla = unchangeable. Ofta = frequent, neofta = infrequent, malofta = scarce, rare. Simple = simple, malsimpla = intricate, complex. Permesi = to permit, malpermesi = to forbid. Helpi = to help, malhelpi = to hinder, nehelpi = to give no assistance. Sobreco = sobriety, malsobreco = intemperance, drunkenness. Saĝeco = wisdom, malsaĝeco = foolishness. Modesta = modest, nemodesta = officious, malmodesta = conceited. Justa = just, maljusta = unjust. Pura = clean, nepura = soiled, malpura = dirty. Pia = pious, malpia = impious. Agrabla = agreeable, neagrabla = unpleasant, malagrabla = disagreeable, nasty. Glata = smooth, malglata = rough. Atento = attention, malatento = negligence. Respekto = respect, nerespekto = non-respect, malrespekto = violation. Brua = noisy, senbrua = noiseless.

290. Prefix RE-. (Ex. 32.)

(a). RE-, like the English prefix re-, means "back" or "again." It denotes (1) the repetition of an action, or (2) the return of some person or thing to the person, place, or state with whom, or in which, such person or thing originally was. As a root, ree = again, in return.

(b) (1). Repetition.

Examples.Refari = to make afresh, to remake; rediri = to say again, to repeat (ripeti is, however, more frequently used for "repeat"); rekanti = to sing again; rejuniĝi = to grow young again; renaskiĝo = rebirth, regeneration; repagi = to repay, to reimburse; reenmeti = to put in again, to reinstate; rekunigi = to reunite; rebruligi = to rekindle; reformi = to reform, to remodel; reprodukti = to reproduce.

(2). Return, etc.

Examples.Redoni = to give back, to restore; repreni = to take back; reĵeti = to throw back; resalti = to rebound; rebrili = to shine back, to reflect; reveni = to come back, to return; reporti = to carry back, to carry to the original place.

N.B.—In addition to the 12 prefixes given in pars. 286–290, nearly all the prepositions are in common use as prefixes. Examples of these will be found in par. 259. When prefixed to a verb, the preposition is frequently repeated before the indirect complement (see par. 254).

291. Prefixes SIN- and MEM-.

SIN- and MEM- are used as prefixes to translate the English -self. If the idea is reflexive, it is better to use sin-, otherwise mem-. Singardo = caution; sinmortigo = suicide; sinteno = attitude; memstara = independent; memvola = voluntary.

292. Prefix VIC-.

The prefix VIC- denotes the English vice-; vicprezidanto = a vice-president; vicadmiralo = a vice-admiral.

293. Suffix -ISM-.

The suffix -ISM- was officialized in 1914 with the rather wide meaning given it by international usage in most European languages: system, doctrine, school of thought, theory, party.

Thus: absolutismo = absolutism. Similarly, we have agnostik-, alkohol-, braman-, despot-, epikur-, Esperant-, fatal-, fetiĉ-, homaran-, katolik-, kvaker-, komun-, ideal-, liberal-, mistik-, presbiter-, protestant-, puritan-, radikal-, real-, respublik-, vegetar-ismo.

It does not follow that if from any Esperanto word ending in -ism this syllable is subtracted, the remainder is an Esperanto root. Thus, -ism is not a suffix in the roots atavism, feminism, optimism, pesimism, silogism, solecism, sofism, any more than ist, in, il, ul, an, are suffixes in the roots optimist, turist; doktrin, vazelin; bacil, asimil; okul, formul; banan, turban, sultan. See par. 52 (b).




Article, Nouns, Adjectives (singular), (see pars. 96, 103, 107).

(1) Patro kaj frato. (2) Leono estas besto. (3) Rozo estas floro. (4) Kolombo estas birdo. (5) La rozo apartenas al Teodoro. (6) La suno brilas. (7) La patro estas tajloro. (8) Infano ne estas matura homo. (9) La infano jam ne ploras. (10) La ĉielo estas blua. (11) Kie estas la libro kaj la krajono? (12) La libro estas sur la tablo, kaj la krajono kuŝas sur la fenestro. (13) Sur la fenestro kuŝas krajono kaj plumo. (14) Jen estas pomo. (15) Sur la tero kuŝas ŝtono. (16) Iru al la frato.


(1) A father and brother. (2) A lion is an animal. (3) A rose is a flower. (4) A pigeon is a bird. (5) The rose belongs to Theodore. (6) The sun shines. (7) (The, my, our) father is a tailor. (8) A child is not a mature man. (9) The child no longer cries (already does not cry). (10) The sky (heaven) is blue. (11) Where are the book and the pencil? (12) The book is on the table and the pencil lies on the window. (13) On the window lie a pencil and a pen. (14) Here is an apple. (15) On the ground lies a stone. (16) Go to (the, your) brother.

N.B.—See par. 100 (a) as to the use of the article in speaking of one’s own relatives.


Article, Nouns, Adjectives (accusative and plural), (see pars. 66, 96, 103, 107).

(1) Jen estas pomo, kiun mi trovis. (2) La leono estas forta besto. (3) La dentoj de leono estas akraj. (4) Mi vidas leonon. (5) Kiu kuraĝas rajdi sur leono? (6) La virino estas bona. (7) Jen kuŝas la ĉapelo de la patro. (8) Mi amas la filon. (9) La manoj de Johano estas puraj. (10) Mi konas Johanon. (11) La viroj, virinoj kaj infanoj estas en la ĉambro. (12) La kanto de la birdoj estas agrabla. (13) La kantoj de la birdoj estas agrablaj. (14) La patro donas la librojn al la infanoj. (15) Kie estas la libroj, kiujn vi aĉetis? (16) Kien vi iras? (17) Mi vidas kelkajn homojn. (18) La knabo forpelis la birdojn. (19) De la patro mi ricevis libron, kaj de la fratoj mi ricevis plumon. (20) Mi legas libron. (21) La patro ne legas libron, sed li skribas leteron.


(1) Here is an apple which I found. (2) The lion is a strong animal. (3) The teeth of a lion (a lion’s teeth) are sharp. (4) I see a lion. (5) Who dares (has courage) to ride on a lion? (6) The woman is good. (7) Here is (lies) (the, my, our) father’s hat. (8) I love the (my) son. (9) John’s hands (the hands of John) are clean. (10) I am acquainted with (know) John. (11) The men, women, and children are in the room. (12) The song of birds (birds generally, therefore the article la) is agreeable. (13) The songs of birds are agreeable. (14) The father gives the books to the children. (15) Where are the books which (accus. plu.) you bought? (16) Where (accus.) are you going? (17) I see some men. (18) The boy drove away the birds. (19) From (the, my) father I received a book, and from (the, my) brothers I received a pen. (20) I am reading a book. (21) (The, my, our) father is not reading a book, but he is writing a letter.


Adverbs with Grammatical Terminations (see pars. 238–248).

(1) Resti kun leono estas danĝere.[23] (2) La birdoj gaje flugas, kaj kelkaj ĝoje kantas sur la grandaj arboj. (3) La knaboj kaj (la[24]) knabinoj kuras rapide sur la sablo de la marbordo. (4) La patro agas saĝe kaj bone, sed la filo lernas malrapide, skribas tre malbone, kaj legas malfacile. (5) Mi vidis Johanon matene, Georgon tagmeze, Arturon posttagmeze, kaj Vilhelmon vespere. (6) Ŝi skribas treege bone. (7) Pripensinte mi faros tion. (8) Certe mi ne estimas lin. (9) Li lernis ĝin parkere. (10) Kelkafoje mi promenas en la ĝardeno. (11) Dekstre vi vidos la domon, kaj maldekstre la preĝejon.


[23] Adverb, because there is no noun or pronoun in the sentence which danĝera could qualify (see par. 245).

[24] Before each separate noun it is optional (as in English) to repeat the article or not (see par. 101 (a)).


(1) To remain with a lion is dangerous. (2) The birds are flying merrily, and some are singing joyfully on the large trees. (3) The boys and girls run quickly on the sand of the seashore. (4) The father acts wisely and well, but the son learns slowly, writes very badly, and reads with difficulty. (5) I saw John in the morning, George at mid-day, Arthur in the afternoon, and William in the evening. (6) She writes extremely well. (7) On reflection I shall do that (so). (8) Certainly I do not esteem him. (9) He learnt it by heart. (10) Sometimes I walk in the garden. (11) On the right you will see the house, and on the left the church.


Comparison of Adjectives and Adverbs—Superlatives (see pars. 112, 113, 248).

(1) Mi estas tiel forta, kiel vi. (2) La homoj estas tiel fortaj, kiel la ĉevaloj. (3) La knabinoj ne estas tiel fortaj, kiel la knaboj. (4) Johano estas pli forta, ol Georgo. (5) Ŝi kuras pli rapide, ol vi. (6) Vilhelmo estas malpli forta, ol Karlo. (7) Ju pli mi lin konas, des pli mi lin estimas. (8) Ju malpli mi manĝas, des pli mi trinkas. (9) Ju pli mi lin vidas, des malpli li plaĉas al mi. (10) Mia bastono estas tia sama, kiel (or, kia) via. (11) Mia frato amas mian filinon pli, ol mian filon.[25] (12) Mi amas mian filinon pli, ol mia filo.[25] (13) Johano estas la plej forta el la knaboj. (14) Ili estas la malplej fortaj el ĉiuj. (15) Georgo estas la malplej kuraĝa knabo en[26] la lernejo.


[25] Note the difference in case (see par. 112).

[26] See par. 113 (b).


(1) I am as strong as you. (2) The men are as strong as the horses. (3) Girls (in a general sense, par. 99 (a)) are not as strong as boys. (4) John is stronger than George. (5) She runs more quickly than you. (6) William is weaker (less strong) than Charles. (7) The more I know him, the more I esteem him. (8) The less I eat, the more I drink. (9) The more I see him, the less he pleases (is pleasing to) me. (10) My stick is the same as yours. (11) My brother loves my daughter more than my son. (12) I love my daughter more than my son (does) (loves her). (13) John is the strongest of (out of) the boys. (14) They are the weakest (least strong) of all. (15) George is the least courageous boy in the school.


Personal and Possessive Pronouns (see pars. 126–134).

(1) Li amas min, sed mi lin ne amas. (2) Mi volis lin bati, sed li forkuris de mi. (3) Diru al mi vian nomon. (4) Ne skribu al mi tiajn longajn leterojn. (5) Venu al mi hodiaŭ vespere. (6) Mi rakontos al vi historion. (7) Ŝi diris al mi la veron. (8) La domo apartenas al ni. (9) Ili vidis mian patron, sed ne vian fraton. (10) Li estas mia onklo, ĉar mia patro estas lia frato. (11) Mi ne vidis iliajn librojn. (12) Sinjoro Petro kaj via kuzo amas miajn infanojn. (13) Mi havas mian ĉapelon, nun serĉu vian. (14) Mi lavas min en mia ĉambro, sed vi lavas vin en la ĉambro de via patro. (15) Mi vidis la beston, sed ĝi ne vidis min. (16) Ĉu vi vidis ĝin? (17) Oni diras, "Per mono oni povas aĉeti ĉion." (18) Mi vidis vian libron, lian bastonon, ŝian ombrelon kaj ilian keston.


(1) He loves me, but I do not love him. (2) I wished to beat him, but he ran away from me. (3) Tell me your name. (4) Do not write to me such long letters. (5) Come to me this (to-day) evening (lit., to-day in the evening). (6) I will relate (to) you a story. (7) She told (to) me the truth. (8) The house belongs to us. (9) They saw my father, but not your brother. (10) He is my uncle, for my father is his brother. (11) I did not see their books. (12) Mr. Peter and your cousin love my children. (13) I have my hat, now look for yours. (14) I wash myself in my room, but you wash yourself in your father’s room (in the room of your father). (15) I saw the animal, but it did not see me. (16) Did you see it? (17) People (one, they) say, "With money one can buy anything (everything)." (18) I saw your book, his stick, her umbrella, and their chest.


Possessive Reflexive Pronouns (see pars. 130–138).

(1) Mia patro estas en sia ĝardeno. (2) Mia patrino estas ankaŭ en sia ĝardeno. (3) Via frato rajdas sian ĉevalon. (4) La hundo amas sian mastron. (5) La patrinoj amas siajn infanojn. (6) Mi vidis mian amikon kaj lian edzinon. (7) Johano renkontis mian patron kaj lian[27] amikon. (8) Johano renkontis mian patron kaj sian[28] amikon. (9) Vilhelmo kaj Jozefo vidis siajn kuzojn kun iliaj hundoj. (10) Vilhelmo kaj Jozefo vidis siajn kuzojn kun siaj hundoj. (11) Niaj hundoj estas en siaj hundejoj. (12) Ni vidis niajn ĉevalojn sur la kampo. (13) Mi vidis vian hundon, ŝian ĉevalon, lian azenon, iliajn bovinojn, niajn ŝafojn, kaj miajn birdojn. (14) Ŝi vidis la birdon sur ĝia nesto, sed ĝi baldaŭ forflugis de sia nesto. (15) Mia frato lavis sin en sia ĉambro kaj mia fratino lavis sin en sia ĉambro. (16) Mi lavas min en lia ĉambro.


[27] Lian = his, viz., the father’s friend.

[28] Sian = his own, viz., John’s friend.

See par. 135 as to use of Lia and Sia.


(1) My father is in his garden. (2) My mother is also in her garden. (3) Your brother rides his horse. (4) The dog loves its master. (5) Mothers love their children. (6) I saw my friend and his wife. (7) John met my father and his (my father’s) friend. (8) John met my father and his (John’s) friend. (9) William and Joseph saw their cousins with their (cousins’) dogs. (10) William and Joseph saw their cousins with their (William’s and Joseph’s) dogs. (11) Our dogs are in their kennels. (12) We saw our horses in the field. (13) I saw your dog, her horse, his ass, their cows, our sheep, and my birds. (14) She saw the bird on its nest, but it soon flew away from its nest. (15) My brother washed (himself) in his room, and my sister washed (herself) in her room. (16) I am washing (myself) in his room.


Verbs, Simple Tenses, Negatives, and Questions (see pars. 58–64, 91, 92, 168, 214).

(1) Mi legas. (2) Li ne legas. (3) Ni legas. (4) Ili legas. (5) Vi legas. (6) Mi legis la libron. (7) Mi ne legis la libron. (8) Ĉu vi legis la libron? Ne! mi ne (legis ĝin).[29] (9) Ĉu vi vidas mian ĉevalon? Jes! mi vidas. (10) Mi promenos en la ĝardeno. (11) Mi ne promenos en la ĝardeno. (12) Ĉu vi ne promenos en la ĝardeno? Ne! Mi ne (promenos). Jes! mi promenos. (13) Se mi estus sana, mi estus feliĉa. (14) Se mi ne estus sana, mi ne estus feliĉa. (15) Ĉu vi rekonus min, se vi min vidus sen mia peruko? Jes! mi rekonus. Ne! mi ne rekonus. (16) Ĉu vi deziras kafon? Ne! mi jam havas. (17) Ne tuŝu la spegulon. (18) Li venu, kaj mi pardonos al li. (19) Ordonu al li, ke li ne babilu. (20) Petu ŝin, ke ŝi donu al mi kandelon. (21) Ni estu gajaj, ni uzu bone la vivon, ĉar la vivo ne estas longa. (22) Kial vi ne respondas al mi? Ĉar mi ne komprenas vin.


[29] In replying to questions the complement is usually omitted (par. 64).


(1) I read. (2) He does not read. (3) We are reading. (4) They read. (5) You are reading. (6) I read (perfect) the book. (7) I did not read the book. (8) Did you read the book? No! I did not (read it). (9) Do you see my horse? Yes! I do (see). (10) I shall walk in (not into) the garden. (11) I shall not walk in the garden. (12) Shall you not walk in the garden? No! I shall not (walk). Yes! I shall (walk). (13) If I were (should be) well, I should be happy. (14) If I were not (should not be) well, I should not be happy. (15) Should you recognize me if you saw (should see) me without my wig? Yes! I should (recognize). No! I should not (recognize). (16) Do you want coffee? No! I already have (some). (17) Do not touch the looking glass. (18) Let him come, and I will pardon him. (19) Order (to) him not to chatter (that he do not chatter). (20) Beg her to give (that she give) me a candle. (21) Let us be merry, let us use life well, for life is not long. (22) Why do you not answer (to) me? Because I do not understand you.


Verbs, Compound Tenses, Active Voice (see par. 214).

(1) Nun li diras al mi la veron. (2) Hieraŭ li diris al mi la veron. (3) Li ĉiam diradis al mi la veron. (4) Kiam vi vidis nin en la salono, li jam antaŭe diris[30] al mi la veron (aŭ, li estis dirinta al mi la veron). (5) Li diros al mi la veron. (6) Kiam vi venos al mi, li jam antaŭe diros[30] al mi la veron (aŭ, li estos dirinta al mi la veron). (7) Se mi petus lin, li dirus al mi la veron. (8) Mi ne farus la eraron, se li antaŭe dirus[30] al mi la veron (aŭ, se li estus dirinta al mi la veron). (9) Kiam mi venos, diru al mi la veron. (10) Kiam mia patro venos, diru al mi antaŭe la veron (aŭ, estu dirinta al mi la veron). (11) Mi volas diri al vi la veron. (12) Tuj kiam mi estos ricevinta vian leteron, mi foriros. (13) Kiam mi estis kolektinta la sumon, mi aĉetis novan libron. (14) Estas necese, ke vi estu[31] fininta (or, finu) vian laboron, antaŭ ol mi revenos.


[30] Always use the compound tense if the simple form is likely to confuse the meaning. Note that the words jam antaŭe (already beforehand), or, simply, jam, show the action has passed, and that therefore the simple tense can be used. If these words be omitted, the compound tense must be used. The same remarks apply to the Sentences 8 and 10 (see par. 226 (a)).

[31] Note the imperative mood after verbs expressing "wish," "necessity," etc. (par. 200).


(1) Now he tells (is telling) me the truth. (2) Yesterday he told me the truth. (3) He always told (habitually) me the truth. (4) When you saw us in the drawing-room, he already previously (had) told me the truth (or, he had told me the truth). (5) He will tell me the truth. (6) When you (have) (shall) come to me, he will already previously have told me the truth (or, will have told me the truth). (7) If I (should, were to) ask him, he would tell me the truth. (8) I should not have made the mistake if he previously told me the truth (or, had told me the truth). (9) When I (shall) come, tell me the truth. (10) When my father comes (shall come), tell me beforehand the truth (or, may you have told me the truth). (11) I wish to tell you the truth. (12) As soon as (immediately when) I (shall) have received your letter, I shall go away. (13) When I had collected the sum, I bought a new book. (14) It is necessary that you finish (have finished) your work before I (shall) return.


Verbs, Passive Voice (see pars. 169, 233).

(1) Mi estas amata. (2) Li estis amata. (3) Ni estos amataj. (4) Vi estus amata. (5) Mi estas lavita. (6) Ŝi estis lavita. (7) Ili estis lavitaj. (8) Vi estos lavita. (9) Ĝi estus lavita. (10) Ni estas invitotaj. (11) Mi estis invitota. (12) Li estus invitota. (13) Estu amata. (14) Estu lavita. (15) Tiu ĉi komercaĵo estas ĉiam volonte aĉetata de mi. (16) La surtuto estas aĉetita de mi, sekve ĝi apartenas al mi. (17) Kiam via domo estis konstruata, mia domo estis jam longe konstruita. (18) Mi sciigas, ke de nun la ŝuldoj de mia filo ne estos pagataj de mi. (19) Estu trankvila, mia tuta ŝuldo estos pagita al vi baldaŭ. (20) Mia ora ringo ne estus nun tiel longe serĉata, se ĝi ne estus tiel lerte kaŝita de vi. (21) Laŭ la projekto de la inĝenieroj tiu ĉi fervojo estas konstruota en la daŭro de du jaroj; sed mi pensas, ke ĝi estos konstruata pli ol tri jarojn.[32] (22) Sur la kameno inter du potoj staras fera kaldrono; el la kaldrono, en kiu sin trovas bolanta akvo, eliras vaporo; tra la fenestro, kiu sin trovas apud la pordo, la vaporo iras sur la korton.[33]


[32] Jarojn, being in the accusative, shows that a preposition (dum) has been omitted (see par. 68 (b)).

[33] Accusative of direction (see par. 67 (a)).


(1) I am (being) loved. (2) He was loved. (3) We shall be loved. (4) You would be loved. (5) I have been washed. (6) She had been washed. (7) They had been washed. (8) You will have been washed. (9) It would have been washed. (10) We are (about) to be invited. (11) I was (about) to be invited. (12) He would be about to be invited. (13) Be loved. (14) Be (having been) washed. (15) This merchandise is always willingly (being) bought by me. (16) The overcoat has been (was) bought by me, consequently it belongs to me. (17) When your house was being built, my house had already long been built. (18) I make known that from now my son’s debts will not be paid by me. (19) Be tranquil, my entire debt will soon be (have been) paid to you. (20) My gold ring would not now be so long being looked for if it had not (should not have) been so cleverly hidden by you. (21) According to the project of the engineers this railway is (about) to be constructed in the space (duration) of two years; but I think it will take (be under construction, be being constructed during) more than three years. (22) Upon the fireplace between two pots stands an iron kettle; from the kettle, in which is (finds itself) boiling water, issues steam; through the window, which is (finds itself) near the door, the steam goes into (on to) the yard.


Correlative Words (see pars. 139–157).

(1) Ia, Ial, Iam, Ie, Iel, Ies, Io, Iom, Iu. (2) La montritajn naŭ vortojn ni konsilas bone ellerni, ĉar el ili ĉiu povas jam fari al si grandan serion da aliaj pronomoj kaj adverboj. (3) Se ni aldonas al ili la literon K, ni ricevas vortojn demandajn aŭ rilatajn: Kia, Kial, Kiam, Kie, Kiel, Kies, Kio, Kiom, Kiu. (4) Se ni aldonas la literon T, ni ricevas vortojn montrajn: Tia, Tial, Tiam, Tie, Tiel, Ties, Tio, Tiom, Tiu. (5) Aldonante la literon Ĉ, ni ricevas vortojn komunajn: Ĉia, Ĉial, Ĉiam, Cie, Ĉiel, Ĉies, Ĉio, Ĉiom, Ĉiu. (6) Aldonante la prefikson NEN-, ni ricevas vortojn neajn: Nenia, Nenial, Neniam, Nenie, Neniel, Nenies, Nenio, Neniom, Neniu. (7) Aldonante al la vortoj montraj la vorton Ĉi, ni ricevas montron pli proksiman; ekzemple: Tiu (pli malproksima), Tiu ĉi (aŭ, Ĉi tiu) (pli proksima); Tie (malproksime), Tie ĉi (aŭ, Ĉi tie) (proksime). (8) Aldonante al la vortoj demandaj la vorton AJN, ni ricevas vortojn sendiferencajn: Kia ajn, Kial ajn, Kiam ajn, Kie ajn, Kiel ajn, Kies ajn, Kio ajn, Kiom ajn, Kiu ajn. (9) Ekster tio, el la diritaj vortoj ni povas ankoraŭ fari aliajn vortojn, per helpo de gramatikaj finiĝoj kaj aliaj vortoj (sufiksoj); ekzemple: Tiama, Ĉiama, Kioma, Tiea, Ĉi-tiea, Tieulo, Tiamulo, k.t.p. (kaj tiel plu).


(1) Ia = some, any. Ial = for some reason. Iam = at some time, once (on a time). Ie = somewhere. Iel = in some manner. Ies = somebody’s, some one’s. Io = something. Iom = some (quantity). Iu = someone, somebody. (2) The nine words shown we recommend to be well learnt, for from them everyone can straightaway make for himself a large series of other pronouns and adverbs. (3) If we add to them the letter K, we get interrogative or relative words: Kia = what (kind or sort of). Kial = why, wherefore, for what reason. Kiam = when, at what time. Kie = where, at what place. Kiel = how, in what manner. Kies = whose, of which. Kio = what (thing). Kiom = how much, how many, what amount. Kiu = who, which, what one. (4) If we add the letter T, we get the demonstrative words: Tia = such, that sort of. Tial = for that reason, therefore. Tiam = then, at that time. Tie = there, in that place. Tiel = thus, so, in that manner, like (that). Ties = that one’s, of that. Tio = that (thing). Tiom = so much, that much, so many. Tiu = that (relative or personal). (5) By adding the letter Ĉ we get general words: Ĉia = each, every, every kind of. Ĉial = for every reason, for all reasons. Ĉiam = always, for all time. Ĉie = everywhere. Ĉiel = in every way. Ĉies = everyone’s, each one’s. Ĉio = everything. Ĉiom = all, the whole (quantity). Ĉiu = each one, all, everyone. (6) By adding the prefix NEN- we get negative words: Nenia = no kind of, none. Nenial = for no reason. Neniam = never. Nenie = nowhere. Neniel = nohow, in no way. Nenies = no one’s, nobody’s. Nenio = nothing. Neniom = no quantity, none. Neniu = nobody, no one. (7) By adding to the demonstrative words the word Ĉi we obtain a nearer indication; for example: Tiu = that (the one further off); Tiu ĉi (or, Ĉi tiu) = this (the nearer one); Tie = there (further off). Tie ĉi (or, Ĉi tie) = here (nearer). (8) By adding to the interrogative words the word AJN we get indefinite words (expressions): Kia ajn = whatever (kind). Kial ajn = for whatever cause. Kiam ajn = whenever. Kie ajn = wherever. Kiel ajn = however, in whatever manner. Kies ajn = whosesoever. Kio ajn = whatever (thing). Kiom ajn = however much, or many. Kiu ajn = whoever, whichever. (9) Besides (outside) that, from the said words we can still make other words by help of the grammatical terminations and other words (suffixes); for example: Tiama = of that time, contemporary (adj.). Ĉiama = continual, permanent. Kioma = which, or what (number or quantity). Tiea = yonder (adj.), of there (that place). Ĉi-tiea = of here (this place). Tieulo = an aborigine (man of there, of that place). Tiamulo = a contemporary (man of then, of that time), etc. (and so on).


Correlative Words—continued (see pars. 139–158).

(1) Ia ajn plumo sufiĉos. (2) Ĉiu helpus tian homon. (3) Tiu virino ne estas tia virino, kian mi estimas. (4) Ial li foriris de Berlino, kaj mi ne scias ĝuste kial; iu persono (aŭ, iu) diris, ke li lasis la urbon pro malsano. (5) Kie estas mia naztuko (aŭ, poŝtuko)? Mi ĝin ne vidas ie. (6) Ĝi kuŝas tie, sub tiu kanapo. (7) Kiam vi venos min viziti? (8) Mi venos al vi iam morgaŭ. (9) Kies domo estas tiu? (10) Mi neniam aŭdis, al kiu ĝi apartenas. (11) Ĉu vi konis iun en la ĉambro? (12) Mi ne konis iun (aŭ, mi konis neniun). (13) El ĉiuj miaj amikoj, li estas la plej intima. (14) Kian ĉarman leteron vi estas skribinta! (15) Kia homo estas tiu, kiu rajdas sur la griza ĉevalo? (16) Mi ne scias, mi neniam vidis lin antaŭe. (17) Kiom da ĉevaloj vi havas? (18) Mi ne havas tiom, kiom mi havis antaŭ tri monatoj. (19) Ĉia aĝo havas siajn devojn. (20) Ĉial tio estas la plej bona. (21) Ĉiam pripensu, antaŭ ol vi parolas. (22) Ĉies ideo estas diversa. (23) Preskaŭ ĉiu amas sin mem.


(1) Any kind of pen will do (suffice). (2) Anyone (everyone) would help such a man. (3) That woman is not the (that) kind of woman (that) I esteem. (4) For some reason he left Berlin, and I don’t know exactly why; some person (or, a certain person, or, someone) said that he left the city on account of an illness. (5) Where is my handkerchief? I do not see it anywhere (somewhere). (6) It lies there, under that sofa. (7) When will you come to visit me? (8) I will come to you some time to-morrow. (9) Whose house is that? (10) I never heard to whom it belongs. (11) Did you know anyone (someone) in the room? (12) I did not know anyone (or, I knew no one). (13) Of all my friends, he is the most intimate. (14) What a charming letter you have written! (15) What sort of man is that who is riding on the grey horse? (16) I do not know, I never saw him before. (17) How many horses have you? (18) I have not so many as I had three months ago. (19) Every age has its duties. (20) For every reason (all reasons) that is the best. (21). Always reflect before you speak. (22) Everyone’s idea is different. (23) Nearly everyone loves himself.


Prepositions and Accusative of Direction (see pars. 67, 249–261).

(1) Ĉiuj prepozicioj per si mem postulas ĉiam nur la nominativon. (2) Se ni iam post prepozicio uzas la akuzativon, la akuzativo tie dependas ne de la prepozicio, sed de aliaj kaŭzoj. (3) Ekzemple: Por esprimi direkton, ni aldonas al la vorto la finon N; sekve: tie = "en tiu loko," tien = "al tiu loko"; tiel same ni ankaŭ diras: "La birdo flugis en la ĝardenon, sur la tablon," kaj la vortoj "ĝardenon," "tablon" staras tie ĉi en akuzativo, ne ĉar la prepozicioj "en" kaj "sur" tion ĉi postulas, sed nur ĉar ni volis esprimi direkton, tio estas, montri, ke la birdo sin ne trovis antaŭe en la ĝardeno aŭ sur la tablo kaj tie flugis, sed, ke ĝi de alia loko flugis al la ĝardeno, al la tablo (ni volas montri, ke la ĝardeno kaj tablo ne estis la loko de la flugado, sed nur la celo de la flugado); en tiaj okazoj ni uzus la finiĝon N tute egale ĉu ia prepozicio starus aŭ ne. (4) Morgaŭ mi veturos Parizon (aŭ, en Parizon). (5) Mi restos hodiaŭ dome. (6) Jam estas tempo iri domen. (7) Ni disiĝis kaj iris en diversajn flankojn; mi iris dekstren kaj li iris maldekstren. (8) Flanken, sinjoro!


(1) All prepositions by themselves always require the nominative only. (2) If we ever, after a preposition, use the accusative, the accusative there (in that case) depends not on the preposition, but on other causes. (3) For example: In order to express direction we add to the word the termination N as follows: tie="in that place" (there), tien="to that place" (thither); thus in the same way we also say: "The bird flew into the garden, upon the table," and the words "ĝardenon," "tablon," stand here in (the) accusative, not because the prepositions "en" and "sur" require this, but only because we wished to express direction, that is, to show that the bird was not (did not find itself) previously in the garden or on the table and flew (about) there, but that it flew from some other place to the garden, to the table: (we wish to show that the garden and table were not the place of the flying, but only the destination (aim, purpose) of the flying). In such cases we should use the termination N all the same, whether any preposition were there (should stand) or not. (4) To-morrow I shall travel to Paris (or, into Paris). (5) I shall remain to-day at home. (6) It is already time to go home. (7) We separated and went in different directions; I went to the right and he went to the left. (8) To one side (stand aside), Sir!


Prepositions and Accusative of Direction—continued (see pars. 249–261).

(1) Kie vi estas? (2) Mi estas en la ĉevalejo, sed mi estas enironta en la bovinejon. (3) Kien vi iras? (4) Mi iras en la preĝejon. (5) La birdo flugas en la ĉambro (ĝi estas en la ĉambro kaj flugadas en ĝi). (6) La birdo flugas en la ĉambron (ĝi estis ekster la ĉambro kaj flugas nun en ĝin). (7) El sub la kanapo la muso kuris sub la liton, kaj dum ĝi kuradis sub la lito, la kato ĝin ekkaptis. (8) Anstataŭ kafo la kelnero donis al mi teon kun sukero, sed sen kremo, tial mi ordonis al li, ke li alportu kremon, kaj kiam li ĝin alportis (aŭ, estis ĝin alportinta), mi enmetis en la tason da teo unu sukerpecon, tiam mi enverŝis el la kremujo la kremon. (9) Mi metis la manon sur la tablon. (10) En la salono estis neniu krom li kaj lia fianĉino. (11) La hirundo flugis trans la riveron, ĉar trans la rivero sin trovis aliaj hirundoj. (12) Kiam li estis ĉe mi, li staris tutan horon apud la fenestro. (13) Ili iris Parizon (aŭ, al Parizo).


(1) Where are you? (2) I am in the stable, but I am about to go into the cowshed. (3) Where are you going? (4) I am going into the church. (5) The bird flies in the room (it is in the room and is flying in it). (6) The bird flies into the room (it was outside the room, and now flies into it). (7) From under the sofa the mouse ran under the bed, and whilst it was running about under the bed the cat seized it. (8) Instead of coffee the waiter gave me tea with sugar, but without cream, therefore I ordered (to) him to bring (that he bring) cream, and when he brought it (or, had brought it), I put into the cup of tea one lump of sugar, then I poured in the cream out of the cream-jug. (9) I put my (the) hand on the table. (10) In the drawing-room was nobody except him and his fiancée. (11) The swallow flew across the river, because across the river were (found themselves) other swallows. (12) When he was at my house (with me) he stood (for) a whole hour near the window. (13) They went to Paris.


Prepositions—continued (see pars. 249–261).

(1) Ili ĝojis je niaj malfeliĉoj. (2) Volu montri al mi la dormoĉambron. (3) Nur tajloro povas fari al (or, por) si veston. (4) Ni eniris kafejon antaŭ ol reveni al la hotelo. (5) La kelnero metis antaŭ mi teleron, kuleron, kaj tranĉilon. (6) Anstataŭ ludi kartojn, li lernis Esperanton. (7) Mi staris apud la pordo dum li paroladis kun sia amiko. (8) La profesoro ĉe la lernejo venis kun mi por viziti vian patron. (9) Li sekvis post mi en la interspaco de ĉirkaŭ tri paŝoj. (10) Ŝi donis al mi unufrankan moneron. (11) Li restis ĉe ni de sabato ĝis mardo. (12) Sen mia scio, la birdo deflugis de la arbo. (i3) Li paliĝis de timo, kaj mi, pro teruro, ne sciis kion fari. (14) Dum (aŭ, en) la aŭtuno mi vojaĝadis en Italujo. (15) La leporhundo estas ekster la domo. (16) Tiu ĉi estas la plej granda el ĉiuj arboj en la ĝardeno. (17) Ne miru pri mia senceremonieco kontraŭ vi. (18) Krom Esperanto, mi parolas la lingvon anglan. (19) Ŝi estis bona, kaj krom tio, tre bela fraŭlino.


(1) They rejoiced at our misfortunes. (2) Kindly (be willing) show me the bedroom. (3) Only a tailor can make (for) himself a coat. (4) We entered a café before returning to the hotel. (5) The waiter put before me a plate, spoon, and knife. (6) Instead of playing cards, he learnt Esperanto. (7) I stood near the door whilst he conversed with his friend. (8) The professor of (at) the school came with me to visit your father. (9) He followed me at a distance of about three paces (steps). (10) She gave me a coin of one franc. (11) He stayed with us from Saturday till Tuesday. (12) Unknown to me (without my knowledge), the bird flew down from the tree. (13) He grew pale with fear, and I, from terror, did not know what to do. (14) During (or, in) the autumn I travelled about in Italy. (15) The greyhound (hare-hound) is outside the house. (16) This is the largest of all the trees in the garden. (17) Do not wonder at (concerning) my unceremoniousness towards you. (18) Besides Esperanto, I speak the English language. (19) She was good, and besides that, a very beautiful young lady.


Prepositions—continued (see pars. 249–261).

(1) Li fianĉiĝis kun Fraŭlino Berto post kiam li estis parolinta kun ŝia patro. (2) Mi restadas tie ĉi laŭ la konsilo de mia kuracisto. (3) Malgraŭ mia konsilo, li eliris el la urbo per flanka vojeto. (4) La domo konstruita de mia onklo estas kovrita per ardezoj. (5) Por ĉio estas tempo. (6) Ni invitas ĉiujn vidi por si. (7) Je tiu prezo mi aĉetis por la infanoj tableton. (8) Mi devos ekiri post kvarono de horo. (9) Tagon post tago ni iris preter la fenestroj de la domo. (10) Ili sekvis unu post la alia. (11) Li demandis ŝin, pro kio ŝi ploras. (12) Ne sopiru je via perdita feliĉo; ne pensu pri ĝi. (13) Sen vi, ni estas kvazaŭ sen kapo. (14) Spite miajn protestojn, kaj spite ĉion, kion mi povis diri, li foriris. (15) La hundo kuris sub la tablon por ekkapti la katon, sed la kato forkuris, kaj la hundo ĝin mortigis sub la kanapo. (16) La birdo, kiu sidis sur la arbo, surflugis sur la tegmenton de la domo. (17) Li ĵetis ŝtonon super la muron. (18) Li iris tra la arbaro, kaj poste pasis trans la ponton.


(1) He became engaged (was affianced) to (with) Miss Bertha after he had spoken to (with) her father. (2) I am remaining here by (according to) the advice of my doctor. (3) In spite of my advice, he left the city by a by-path. (4) The house built by my uncle has been covered with slates. (5) There is a time for everything. (6) We invite all to see for themselves. (7) At that price I bought for the children a tiny table. (8) I must start in (after) a quarter of an hour. (9) Day by (after) day we went by (past) the windows of the house. (10) They followed one after the other. (11) He asked her why (because of what) she cried (cries). (12) Do not sigh for (about, concerning) your lost happiness; do not think of (about) it. (13) Without you, we are as without a head. (14) In spite of my protestations, and in spite of everything I could say, he went away. (15) The dog ran under the table to (in order to) seize the cat, but the cat ran away, and the dog killed it under the sofa. (16) The bird that sat on the tree flew on to the roof of the house. (17) He threw a stone over the wall. (18) He went through the wood, and then passed across the bridge.


Preposition "Je" and the Accusative (see pars. 65—69, 251, 256).

(1) Se ni bezonas uzi prepozicion kaj la senco ne montras al ni, kian prepozicion uzi, tiam ni povas uzi la komunan prepozicion "je." (2) Sed estas bone uzadi la vorton "je" kiel eble pli[34] malofte. (3) Anstataŭ la vorto "je" ni povas ankaŭ uzi akuzativon sen prepozicio. (4) Mi ridas je lia naiveco (aŭ, mi ridas pro lia naiveco, aŭ, mi ridas lian naivecon). (5) Je la lasta fojo (aŭ, la lastan fojon) mi vidis lin ĉe vi. (6) Mi veturis du tagojn kaj unu nokton. (7) Mi sopiras je mia perdita feliĉo (aŭ, mian perditan feliĉon). (8) El la dirita regulo sekvas, ke se ni pri ia verbo ne scias, ĉu ĝi postulas post si la akuzativon (t.e., ĉu ĝi estas aktiva) aŭ ne, ni povas ĉiam uzi la akuzativon. (9) Ekzemple, ni povas diri, "obei al la patro," kaj "obei la patron" (anstataŭ "obei je la patro"). (10) Sed ni ne uzas la akuzativon tiam, kiam la klareco de la senco tion ĉi malpermesas; ekzemple, ni povas diri, "pardoni al la malamiko," kaj, "pardoni la malamikon," sed ni devas diri ĉiam, "pardoni al la malamiko lian kulpon."


[34] It is more usual to use plej.


(1) If we need to use a preposition, and the sense does not show (to) us what preposition to use, then we can use the general (common) preposition "je." (2) But it is well to use the word "je" as seldom as possible. (3) Instead of the word "je," we can also use an accusative without a preposition. (4) I laugh at his simplicity (or, I laugh because of his simplicity, or, I deride his simplicity). (5) On the last occasion (or, last time) I saw him with you. (6) I travelled two days and one night. (7) I sigh for (I bemoan) my lost happiness. (8) From the said rule (it) follows that if we, concerning any verb, do not know whether it requires after it the accusative (i.e., whether it is active) or not, we can always use the accusative. (9) For example, we can say, "to obey to the father," and "to obey the father" (instead of "to obey je the father"). (10) But we do not use the accusative (then) when the clearness of the sense forbids this; for example, we can say "to pardon to the enemy," and, "to pardon the enemy," but we must always say, "to pardon to the enemy his offence."


Participles, Substantival, Adjectival, Adverbial (see pars. 203–213).

(1) Se la lernanto scius bone sian lecionon, la instruanto[35] lin ne punus. (2) Fluanta akvo estas pli pura, ol akvo staranta senmove. (3) Kiam Nikodemo batas Jozefon, tiam Nikodemo estas la batanto kaj Jozefo la batato. (4) Al homo, pekinta senintence, Dio facile pardonas. (5) Trovinte pomon, mi ĝin manĝis. (6) La falinta homo ne povis sin levi. (7) Ne riproĉu vian amikon, ĉar vi mem pli multe meritas riproĉon; li estas nur unufoja mensoginto, dum vi estas ankoraŭ nun ĉiam mensoganto. (8) La tempo pasinta jam neniam revenos; la tempon venontan neniu ankoraŭ konas. (9) Venu, ni atendas vin, Savonto de la mondo! (10) En la lingvo Esperanto ni vidas la estontan lingvon de la tuta mondo. (11) Aŭgusto estas mia plej amata filo. (12) Mono havata estas pli grava ol havita. (13) Pasero kaptita estas pli bona, ol aglo kaptota. (14) La soldatoj kondukis la arestitojn tra la stratoj. (15) Li venis al mi tute ne atendite.


[35] Instruanto = The one who is teaching, possibly only an occasional teacher. Instruisto = A teacher habitually, or by profession.


(1) If the pupil knew (should know) his lesson well, the teacher would not punish him. (2) Flowing water is purer than stagnant (standing without movement) water. (3) When Nicodemus beats Joseph, then Nicodemus is the beater (beating one) and Joseph the beaten. (4) God easily pardons (to) a person sinning (having sinned) unintentionally. (5) Having found an apple, I ate it. (6) The fallen man could not raise himself. (7) Do not reproach your friend, for you much more merit reproach; he is only a one-time liar (has been once a liar), while you are yet now always a liar (while you are a liar always now). (8) Time passed will never more return; time about to come no one yet knows. (9) Come, we await You, Saviour of the world! (10) In the language Esperanto we see the future language of the whole world. (11) Augustus is my best loved son. (12) Money in hand (being had) is more important than that once had (than having been had). (13) A sparrow caught is better than an eagle about to be caught. (14) The soldiers led the prisoners through the streets. (15) He came to me quite unexpectedly.


Numerals and Suffixes -OBL-, -ON-, -OP- (see pars. 115–124, 284).

(1) Mi havas cent pomojn. (2) Mi havas centon da pomoj. (3) Tiu ĉi urbo havas milionon da loĝantoj. (4) Mi aĉetis dek du oranĝojn. (5) Mi aĉetis dek-duon da kuleroj kaj du dek-duojn da forkoj. (6) Mil jaroj (aŭ, milo da jaroj) faras miljaron.[36] (7) Unue, mi redonas al vi la monon, kiun vi pruntis al mi; due, mi dankas vin por la prunto; trie, mi petas vin ankaŭ poste prunti al mi, kiam mi bezonos monon. (8) Por ĉiu tago mi ricevas kvin frankojn, sed por la hodiaŭa tago mi ricevis duoblan pagon, t.e. (tio estas), dek frankojn. (9) Kvinoble sep estas (or, faras) tridek kvin. (10) Tri estas duono de ses. (11) Ok estas kvar kvinonoj de dek. (12) Kvar metroj da[37] tiu ĉi ŝtofo kostas naŭ frankojn; tial du metroj kostas kvar kaj duonon frankojn (aŭ, da frankoj). (13) Unu tago estas tricent-sesdek-kvinono, aŭ tricent-sesdek-sesono, de jaro. (14) Tiuj ĉi du amikoj promenas ĉiam duope. (15) Kvinope ili sin ĵetis sur min, sed mi venkis ĉiujn kvin atakantojn. (16) Por miaj kvar infanoj mi aĉetis dek du pomojn, kaj al ĉiu el la infanoj mi donis po tri pomoj. (17) Tiu ĉi libro havas sesdek paĝojn; tial, se mi legos en ĉiu tago po dek kvin paĝoj, mi finos la tutan libron en kvar tagoj. (18) Kioma horo estas? La tria. (19) Je kioma horo ekiras la vagonaro por Berlino? (20) Je tri kvaronoj de la tria (horo) (aŭ, je la dua kaj tri kvaronoj) (aŭ, je kvarono antaŭ la tria) (aŭ, je la dua kvardek kvin). (21) Kiun daton ni havas hodiaŭ? (22) Hodiaŭ estas la dudek-sepa de Marto. (23) Kiom kostas tio ĉi? Naŭ frankojn[38] (aŭ, ĝi kostas naŭ frankojn). (24) Kiom estas la pezo de tiu kesto? Kvardek funtoj.[39]


[36] Jarmilo is often used in preference to miljaro.

[37] Better, de (par. 259 (7)).

[38] Accusative, governed by the verb kostas in the question.

[39] Nominative, because estas does not govern accusative (see par. 64 (a)).


(1) I have a hundred apples. (2) I have a hundred of apples. (3) This town has a million (of) inhabitants. (4) I bought twelve oranges. (5) I bought a dozen (of) spoons and two dozen (of) forks. (6) A thousand years (or, a thousand of years) makes a millennium. (7) Firstly, I give back to you the money which you lent (to) me; secondly, I thank you for the loan ; thirdly, I beg you also afterwards to lend to me when I (shall) need money. (8) For each day I receive five francs, but for this (to-day’s) day I received double payment, i.e. (that is) ten francs. (9) Five times (five-fold) seven is thirty-five. (10) Three is (the) half of six. (11) Eight is four-fifths of ten. (12) Four metres of this stuff cost nine francs; therefore two metres cost four and a half francs (or, of francs). (13) One day is a 365th or a 366th of a year. (14) These two friends always walk out two together (by twos). (15) Five together (by fives) they threw themselves upon me, but I vanquished all five assailants. (16) For my four children I bought twelve apples, and to each of the children I gave at the rate of three apples. (17) This book has sixty pages; therefore if I (shall) read (in) each day at the rate of fifteen pages, I shall finish the whole book in four days. (18) What time (hour) is it? Three o’clock (the third). (19) At what time does the train start for Berlin? (20) At three-quarters of the third (hour) (or, at the second and three-quarters) (or, one-quarter before the third) (or, two forty-five). (21) What is the date (what date have we to-day)? (22) To-day is the 27th of March. (23) How much does this cost? Nine francs (or, it costs nine francs). (24) How much is the weight of that box? Forty pounds.


Suffixes -AĈ-, -AD- and Prefixes EK- and FI- (see pars. 270, 288).

(1) En la daŭro de kelke da minutoj mi aŭdis du pafojn. (2) La pafado daŭris tre longe. (3) Mi eksaltis de surprizo. (4) Mi saltas tre lerte. (5) Mi saltadis la tutan tagon de loko al loko. (6) Lia hieraŭa parolo estis tre bela, sed la tro multa parolado lacigas lin. (7) Kiam vi ekparolis, ni atendis aŭdi ion novan, sed baldaŭ ni vidis, ke ni trompiĝis. (8) Li kantas tre belan kanton. (9) La kantado estas agrabla okupo. (10) La diamanto havas belan brilon. (11) Du ekbriloj de fulmo trakuris tra la malluma ĉielo. (12) La vortoj "aŭdado, flarado, gustumado, pensado," k.t.p., esprimas niajn kapablojn; sed kiam ni uzas tiajn vortojn sen la sufikso -ADO, tiam ili esprimas apartajn agojn de tiaj kapabloj. (13) Mi timas, ke vi ne povos legi tian skribaĉon. (14) Ne legu tiajn fiverkojn.


(1) In the course (duration) of some minutes I heard two shots. (2) The fusillade (shooting) continued very long. (3) I started (jumped suddenly) with surprise. (4) I jump very cleverly. (5) I was jumping all day from place to place. (6) His yesterday’s speech was very fine but (the) too much speaking fatigues him. (7) When you began to speak, we expected to hear something new, but soon we saw that we were mistaken. (8) He sings a very fine song. (9) Singing is an agreeable occupation. (10) The diamond has a beautiful brilliancy (lustre). (11) Two flashes of lightning ran through the dark sky. (12) The words "hearing, smelling, tasting, thinking," etc., express our faculties; but when we use such words without the suffix -ADO, then they express isolated acts of such faculties. (13) I fear you will not be able to read such bad writing. (14) Don’t read such shameful writings.


Suffixes -AĴ-, -EC- (see par. 271).

(1) Vi parolas sensencaĵon, mia amiko. (2) Mi trinkis teon kun kuko kaj konfitaĵo. (3) Akvo estas fluidaĵo. (4) Mi ne volis trinki la vinon, ĉar ĝi enhavis en si ian suspektan malklaraĵon. (5) Sur la tablo staris diversaj sukeraĵoj. (6) En tiuj ĉi boteletoj sin trovas diversaj acidoj, vinagro, sulfuracido, azotacido, kaj aliaj. (7) Via vino estas nur ia abomena acidaĵo. (8) La acideco de tiu ĉi vinagro estas tre malforta. (9) Mi manĝis bongustan ovaĵon. (10) Tiu ĉi granda altaĵo ne estas natura monto. (11) La alteco de tiu monto ne estas tre granda. (12) Kiam mi ien veturas, mi neniam prenas kun mi multon da pakaĵo. (13) Ĉemizojn, kolumojn, manumojn, kaj ceterajn similajn objektojn ni nomas tolaĵo, kvankam ili ne ĉiam estas faritaj el tolo. (14) Glaciaĵo estas dolĉa glaciigita frandaĵo. (15) La riĉeco de tiu ĉi homo estas granda, sed lia malsaĝeco estas ankoraŭ pli granda. (16) Li amas tiun ĉi knabinon pro ŝia beleco kaj boneco. (17) Lia heroeco plaĉas al mi. (18) La tuta supraĵo de la lago estis kovrita per naĝantaj folioj kaj diversaj aliaj kreskaĵoj. (19) Mi vivas kun li en granda amikeco.


(1) You speak (a piece of) nonsense, my friend. (2) I drank tea, with cake and preserve (jam). (3) Water is a fluid (thing). (4) I would not drink the wine because it contained in it some suspicious muddiness. (5) Upon the table stood various sweetmeats. (6) In these phials are various acids, vinegar, sulphuric acid, nitric acid, and others. (7) Your wine is only some abominable sour stuff. (8) The acidity of this vinegar is very weak. (9) I ate a savoury (good-tasted) omelette. (10) This great height (eminence) is not a natural mountain. (11) The height of that mountain is not very great. (12) When I travel anywhere, I never take with me much luggage. (13) Shirts, collars, cuffs, and other similar objects we call linen, although they are not always made out of lint-cloth. (14) An ice is a sweet frozen dainty. (15) The wealth of this person is great, but his foolishness is still greater. (16) He loves this girl for her beauty and goodness. (17) His heroism pleases me. (18) The entire surface of the lake was covered with floating leaves and various other growths. (19) I live with him in great amity.


Suffixes -AN-, -ESTR-, -IST-, -UL- (see par. 272).

(1) Kiu okupas sin je meĥaniko, estas meĥanikisto, kaj kiu okupas sin je ĥemio, estas ĥemiisto. (2) Diplomatiiston oni povas ankaŭ nomi diplomato, sed fizikiston oni ne povas nomi fiziko, ĉar fiziko estas la nomo de la scienco mem. (3) La fotografisto fotografis min, kaj mi sendis mian fotografaĵon al mia patro. (4) La dentisto eltiris du el la dentoj de mia fratino. (5) La ŝipanoj devas obei la ŝipestron. (6) Ĉiuj loĝantoj de regno estas regnanoj. (7) Urbanoj estas ordinare pli ruzaj, ol vilaĝanoj. (8) La regnestro de nia lando estas bona kaj saĝa reĝo. (9) La Parizanoj estas gajaj homoj. (10) Nia provincestro estas severa, sed justa. (11) Nia urbo havas bonajn policanojn, sed ne sufiĉe energian policestron. (12) Luteranoj kaj Kalvinanoj estas kristanoj. (13) Germanoj kaj francoj, kiuj loĝas en Rusujo, estas Rusujanoj, kvankam ili ne estas rusoj. (14) Li estas nelerta kaj naiva provincano. (15) La loĝantoj de unu regno estas samregnanoj; la loĝantoj de unu urbo estas samurbanoj; la konfesantoj de unu religio estas samreligianoj. (16) Nia regimentestro estas por siaj soldatoj kiel bona patro. (17) La botisto faras botojn kaj ŝuojn, sed tian homon en Anglujo oni nomas ordinare ŝuisto. (18) La lignisto vendas lignon, kaj la lignaĵisto faras tablojn, seĝojn, kaj aliajn lignajn objektojn. (19) Ŝteliston neniu lasas en sian domon. (20) La kuraĝa maristo dronis en la maro. (21) Verkisto verkas librojn, kaj skribisto simple transskribas paperojn. (22) Ni havas diversajn servantojn: kuiriston, ĉambristinon, infanistinon, kaj veturigiston. (23) La riĉulo havas multe da mono. (24) Ni ne scias, ĉu li estas malsaĝulo aŭ ruzulo. (25) Timulo timas eĉ sian propran ombron. (26) Li estas mensogisto kaj malnoblulo.


(1) (He) who occupies himself with mechanics is a mechanic, and (he) who occupies himself with chemistry is a chemist. (2) A diplomatist one can also call a "diplomate," but a physicist cannot be called "physics," because physics is the name of the science itself. (3) The photographer photographed me, and I sent my photograph to my father. (4) The dentist drew two of my sister’s teeth. (5) The crew must obey the captain. (6) All inhabitants of a state are members of a state. (7) Townspeople are usually more crafty than villagers. (8) The ruler of our land is a good and wise king. (9) The Parisians are a gay people (men). (10) Our provincial governor is strict, but just. (11) Our town has good policemen, but an insufficiently energetic chief constable. (12) Lutherans and Calvinists are Christians. (13) Germans and French, who live in Russia, are residents in Russia (Russian residents), although they are not Russians. (14) He is a dull and simple provincial. (15) The inhabitants of the same (one) state are fellow-countrymen; the inhabitants of one city are fellow-citizens; the professors (confessors) of one religion are co-religionists. (16) Our regimental chief is for his soldiers like a good father (is like a good father to his soldiers). (17) The bootmaker makes boots and shoes, but such a man in England they usually call a shoemaker. (18) The timber merchant sells wood, and the joiner makes tables, chairs, and other wooden articles. (19) A thief no one lets into his house. (20) The courageous seaman was drowned in the sea. (21) An author writes books, and a scribe simply transcribes papers. (22) We have various servants: a cook (male), a chambermaid, nursemaid, and coachman. (23) The rich man has much money. (24) We do not know whether he is a fool or a cunning man. (25) A coward fears even his own shadow. (26) He is an habitual liar and base fellow (ignoble man).


Suffixes -AR-, -ER- (see par. 273).

(1) Mia skribilaro konsistas el inkujo, sablujo, kelke da plumoj, krajono, kaj inksorbilo. (2) Oni metis antaŭ mi manĝilaron, kiu konsistis el telero, kulero, tranĉilo, forko, glaseto por brando, glaso por vino, kaj buŝtuko. (3) En varmega tago mi amas promeni en arbaro. (4) Nia lando venkos, ĉar nia militistaro estas granda kaj brava. (5) Sur kruta ŝtuparo li levis sin al la tegmento de la domo. (6) Mi ne scias la lingvon hispanan, sed per helpo de vortaro hispana-germana mi tamen komprenis iom vian leteron. (7) Sur tiuj ĉi vastaj kaj herboriĉaj kampoj paŝtas sin grandaj brutaroj, precipe aroj da bellanaj ŝafoj. (8) Centimo, pfenigo, kaj kopeko estas moneroj. (9) Sablero enfalis en mian okulon. (10) Unu fajrero estas sufiĉa, por eksplodigi pulvon. (11) Vi ne trovos eĉ unu polveron sur lia vesto, aŭ unu koteron sur lia pantalono.


(1) My writing materials consist of an inkstand, a sand box, some pens, a pencil, and blotting paper. (2) They put before me a table service (eating implements), which consisted of a plate, spoon, knife, fork, liqueur glass (small glass) for brandy, a glass for wine, and a serviette. (3) On (in) a hot day I love to walk in a wood. (4) Our country will conquer, for our army is large and brave. (5) On a steep ladder he raised himself to the roof of the house. (6) I do not know the Spanish language, but by help of a Spanish-German dictionary I nevertheless understood to some extent your letter. (7) On these vast and richly herbaged fields feed (themselves) large herds of cattle, especially flocks (collections) of fine-fleeced sheep. (8) A centime, a pfennig, and a copeck are coins. (g) A grain of sand fell into my eye. (10) One spark is sufficient (for) to explode gunpowder. (11) You will not find even one grain of dust on his coat, or one speck of mud on his trousers.


Suffixes -ĈJ-, -NJ-, and Moŝto (see pars. 274, 283).

(1) La gepatroj ĉiam nomas Johanon, Johanĉjo (aŭ Joĉjo), kaj Erneston ili nomas Erneĉjo (aŭ Erĉjo). (2) Vilhelmo nomas sian fratinon Marinjo (aŭ Manjo), kvankam ŝi estas baptita Mario; kaj Mario nomas sian fraton Vilhelĉjo (aŭ Vilheĉjo, aŭ Vilĉjo, aŭ Viĉjo). (3) Sofinjo estis baptita Sofio, sed kelkafoje ŝia frato, Nikolao, nomis ŝin Sonjo, kaj ŝi nomis lin Nikĉjo (aŭ Niĉjo). (4) Mi diris al la reĝo: via reĝa moŝto, pardonu min! (5) El la kvar leteroj unu estis adresita: Al Lia Episkopa Moŝto, La Episkopo de N.; la dua: Al Lia Grafa Moŝto de P.; la tria: Al Lia Moŝto Sinjoro D.; la kvara: Al Sinjoro G. C.


(1) The parents always call John, Johnnie (or Jack), and Ernest they call Ernstie (or Ernie). (2) William calls his sister Polly (or Poll), although she has been christened Mary; and Mary calls her brother Willie (or Will, or Billy, or Bill). (3) Sophy was christened Sophia, but sometimes her brother Nicholas called her Soph, and she called him Nickie (or Nick). (4) I said to the King: pardon me, your Majesty! (5) Of the four letters one was addressed to the Right Reverend the Bishop of N.; the second to the Right Honourable the Earl of P.; the third to the Honourable D. (or, His Honour, or, His Worship, etc., D.); the fourth to Mr. G. C. (or, G. C., Esq.).


Suffixes -EBL-, -EM-, -IND- (see par. 275).

(1) Ŝtalo estas fleksebla, sed fero ne estas fleksebla. (2) Vitro estas rompebla kaj travidebla. (3) Ne ĉiu kreskaĵo estas manĝebla. (4) Via parolo estas tute nekomprenebla, kaj viaj leteroj estas ĉiam skribitaj tute nelegeble. (5) Rakontu al mi vian malfeliĉon, ĉar eble mi povos helpi al vi. (6) Li rakontis al mi historion tute ne kredeblan. (7) Ĉu vi amas vian patron? Kia demando! kompreneble, ke mi lin amas! (8) Mi kredeble ne povos veni al vi hodiaŭ, ĉar mi pensas, ke mi mem havos hodiaŭ gastojn. (9) Li estas homo ne kredinda. (10) Via ago estas tre laŭdinda. (11) Tiu ĉi grava tago restos por mi ĉiam memorinda. (12) Lia edzino estas tre laborema kaj ŝparema, sed ŝi estas ankaŭ tre babilema kaj kriema. Li estas tre ekkolerema kaj ekscitiĝas ofte ĉe la plej malgranda bagatelo; tamen li estas tre pardonema, li ne portas longe la koleron, kaj li tute ne estas venĝema. (13) Li estas tre kredema; eĉ la plej nekredeblajn aferojn, kiujn rakontas al li la plej nekredindaj homoj, li tuj kredas. (14) Li estas tre purema, kaj eĉ unu polveron vi ne trovos sur lia vesto.


(1) Steel is flexible, but iron is not flexible. (2) Glass is breakable, and can be seen through (transparent = diafana). (3) Not every plant is eatable. (4) Your talk is quite incomprehensible, and your letters are always written quite illegibly. (5) Relate to me your misfortune, for possibly I can help you. (6) He told me a story quite incredible. (7) Do you love your father? What a question! Of course (it is understandable that) I love him! (8) I probably shall not be able to come to you to-day, because I think that I myself shall have guests to-day. (9) He is a person unworthy of belief. (10) Your action is very praiseworthy. (11) This important day will remain ever memorable for me. (12) His wife is very industrious and thrifty; but she is also very loquacious and noisy. He is very choleric, and often is excited at the least trifle; however, he is very forgiving, he does not nurse anger long, and he is not at all revengeful. (13) He is very credulous; even the most incredible things, that the most unbelievable people tell him, he believes at once. (14) He is very cleanly, and even a grain of dust you will not find on his coat.


Suffixes -EDZ-, -ID-, -IN- (see pars. 276, 279, 282). Prefixes BO-, DUON-, GE-, PRA- (see par. 286).

(1) Patro kaj patrino kune estas nomataj gepatroj. (2) Petro, Anno, kaj Elizabeto estas miaj gefratoj. (3) Gesinjoroj Smith hodiaŭ vespere venos al ni. (4) Mi gratulis telegrafe la junajn geedzojn. (5) La gefianĉoj staris apud la altaro. (6) La patro de mia edzino estas mia bopatro, mi estas lia bofilo, kaj mia patro estas la bopatro de mia edzino. (7) Ĉiuj parencoj de mia edzino estas miaj boparencoj, sekve ŝia frato estas mia bofrato, ŝia fratino estas mia bofratino; mia frato kaj fratino (gefratoj) estas la bogefratoj de mia edzino. (8) La edzino de mia nevo kaj la nevino de mia edzino estas miaj bonevinoj. (9) Virino, kiu kuracas, estas kuracistino; edzino de kuracisto estas kuracistedzino. (10) La doktoredzino Jones vizitis hodiaŭ la gedoktorojn Robinson. (11) Li ne estas lavisto, li estas lavistinedzo. (12) La filoj, nepoj, kaj pranepoj de reĝo estas reĝidoj. (13) La hebreoj estas Izraelidoj, ĉar ili devenas de Izraelo. (14) Ĉevalido estas nematura ĉevalo; kokido, nematura koko; bovido, nematura bovo; birdido, nematura birdo. (15) Miaj filoj kaj filinoj, miaj nepoj kaj nepinoj, miaj pranepoj kaj pranepinoj estas miaj idoj (aŭ, miaj posteuloj); sed miaj avoj kaj avinoj, miaj praavoj kaj praavinoj estas miaj prapatroj. (16) La edzino de mia patro estas mia patrino, kaj la avino de miaj infanoj. (17) Sur la korto staras koko kun tri kokinoj. (18) Mia fratino estas tre bela knabino. (19) Mia onklino estas bona virino. (20) Mi vidis vian onklinon kun ŝiaj kvar nepinoj kaj kun mia nevino. (21) Lia duonpatrino estas mia bofratino. (22) Mi havas bovon kaj bovinon. (23) La juna vidvino fariĝis denove fianĉino. (24) La dua edzo de mia patrino estas mia duonpatro, kaj la infanineto, kiu estis naskita la lastan semajnon, estas mia duonfratino.


(1) A father and mother together are called parents. (2) Peter, Anne, and Elizabeth are my brother and sisters. (3) Mr. and Mrs. Smith will come to us this (to-day) evening. (4) I congratulated by telegraph the young married couple. (5) The affianced pair stood at the altar. (6) My wife’s father is my father-in-law, I am his son-in-law, and my father is my wife’s father-in-law. (7) All my wife’s relations are my relatives by marriage (relations-in-law), consequently her brother is my brother-in-law, her sister is my sister-in-law; my brother and sister (gefratoj) are brother-and-sister-in-law of my wife. (8) My nephew’s wife and my wife’s niece are my nieces-in-law. (9) A woman who treats patients is a female doctor; the wife of a doctor is a kuracistedzino = a doctor’s wife. (10) Mrs. Doctor Jones visited to-day Dr. and Mrs. Robinson. (11) He is not a washerman, he is a washerwoman’s husband. (12) The sons, grandsons, and great-grandsons of a king are princes (a king’s descendants). (13) The Jews are Israelites, for they descend (originate) from Israel. (14) A foal is an immature horse; a chicken, an immature fowl; a calf, an immature ox; a fledgeling, an immature bird. (15) My sons and daughters, my grandsons and granddaughters, my great-grandsons and great-granddaughters, are my descendants; but my grandfathers and grandmothers, my great-grandfathers and great-grandmothers, are my ancestors. (16) My father’s wife is my mother, and the grandmother of my children. (17) In (on) the yard are a cock and three hens. (18) My sister is a very beautiful girl. (19) My aunt is a good woman. (20) I saw your aunt with her four granddaughters and (with) my niece. (21) His stepmother is my sister-in-law. (22) I have an ox and a cow. (23) The young widow became again engaged (a fiancée). (24) The second husband of my mother is my stepfather, and the baby (female) which was born last week is my half-sister.


Suffixes -EG-, -ET- (see par. 277).

(1) Mi aĉetis por la infanoj tableton kaj kelke da seĝetoj. (2) En nia lando sin ne trovas montoj, sed nur montetoj. (3) Tuj post la hejto, la forno estis varmega, post unu horo ĝi estis jam nur varma, post du horoj ĝi estis nur iom varmeta, kaj post tri horoj ĝi estis jam tute malvarma. (4) En la somero ni trovas malvarmeton en densaj arbaregoj. (5) Li sidas apud la tablo kaj dormetas. (6) Mallarĝa vojeto kondukas tra tiu ĉi kampo al nia domo. (7) Sur lia vizaĝo mi vidis ĝojan rideton. (8) Kun bruo oni malfermis la pordegon, kaj la kaleŝo enveturis en la korton. (9) Ĉi tio estis jam ne simpla pluvo, sed pluvego. (10) Grandega hundo metis sur min sian antaŭan piedegon, kaj mi pro teruro ne sciis, kion fari. (11) Antaŭ nia militistaro staris granda serio da pafilegoj.


(1) I bought for the children a tiny table and some tiny chairs. (2) In our country there are no mountains (lit., mountains do not find themselves), but only hills. (3) Immediately after the heating, the stove was hot, after an hour it was no more than (already only) warm, after two hours it was only just warm, and after three hours it was already quite cold. (4) In the summer we find coolness in thick forests. (5) He sits by the table and dozes. (6) A narrow path leads through this field to our house. (7) Upon his countenance I saw a joyful smile. (8) With noise they opened the gate, and the carriage drove into the courtyard. (9) This was no longer (already not) a simple shower, but a downpour (deluge). (10) An enormous dog put his huge forepaw upon me, and from terror I did not know what to do. (11) Before our army stood a great line of cannon.


Suffixes -EJ-, -ING-, -UJ- (see par. 278).

(1) La domo, en kiu oni lernas, estas lernejo, kaj la domo, en kiu oni preĝas, estas preĝejo. (2) La kuiristo sidas en la kuirejo. (3) La kuracisto konsilis al mi iri en ŝvitbanejon. (4) Magazeno, en kiu oni vendas cigarojn, aŭ ĉambro, en kiu oni tenas cigarojn, estas cigarejo; skatoleto aŭ alia objekto, en kiu oni tenas cigarojn, estas cigarujo; tubeto, en kiun oni metas cigaron, kiam oni ĝin fumas, estas cigaringo. (5) Skatolo, en kiu oni tenas plumojn, estas plumujo, kaj bastoneto, sur kiu oni tenas plumon por skribado, estas plumingo. (6) En la kandelingo sidis brulanta kandelo. (7) En la poŝo de mia pantalono mi portas monujon, kaj en la poŝo de mia surtuto mi portas paperujon; pli grandan paperujon mi portas sub la brako. (8) La rusoj loĝas en Rusujo, kaj la germanoj en Germanujo.


(1) The house in which one learns is a school, and the house in which one prays is a church. (2) The cook is (sits) in the kitchen. (3) The doctor advised me to go into a Turkish (sweat, vapour) bath. (4) A shop (warehouse, store) in which cigars are sold (they sell cigars), or a room in which cigars are kept, is a cigar shop (store); a small box or other thing into which cigars are put is a cigar-case; a little tube into which one puts a cigar when one smokes it is a cigarholder (mouthpiece). (5) A box in which one keeps pens is a pen-box, and a little stick on which one has (keeps) a pen for writing is a penholder. (6) In the candlestick was (sat) a burning candle. (7) In my trousers’ pocket I carry a purse, and in my overcoat pocket I carry a writing-case (pocket-book); a larger portfolio I carry under my arm. (8) (The) Russians live in Russia, and (the) Germans in Germany.


Suffixes -IG- and -IĜ- (see par. 280).

(1) En la kota vetero mia vesto forte malpuriĝis; tial mi prenis broson kaj purigis la veston. (2) Li paliĝis de timo kaj poste li ruĝiĝis de honto. (3) Li fianĉiĝis kun fraŭlino Berto; post tri monatoj estos la edziĝo; la edziĝa soleno estos en la nova preĝejo, kaj la edziĝa festo estos en la domo de liaj estontaj bogepatroj. (4) Tiu ĉi maljunulo tute malsaĝiĝis kaj infaniĝis. (5) Post infekta malsano oni ofte bruligas la vestojn de la malsanulo. (6) Forigu vian fraton, ĉar li malhelpas al ni. (7) Ŝi edziniĝis kun sia kuzo, kvankam ŝiaj gepatroj volis ŝin edzinigi kun alia persono. (8) En la printempo la glacio kaj la neĝo fluidiĝas. (9) Venigu la kuraciston, ĉar mi estas malsana. (10) Li venigis al si el Berlino multajn librojn. (11) Mia onklo ne mortis per natura morto, sed li tamen ne mortigis sin mem, kaj ankaŭ estis mortigita de neniu; unu tagon, promenante apud la reloj de fervojo, li falis sub la radojn de veturanta vagonaro kaj mortiĝis. (12) Mi ne pendigis mian ĉapon sur tiu ĉi arbeto; sed la vento forblovis de mia kapo la ĉapon, kaj ĝi, flugante, pendiĝis sur la branĉoj de la arbeto. (13) Sidigu vin (aŭ, sidiĝu), sinjoro! (14) La junulo aliĝis al nia militistaro, kaj kuraĝe batalis kune kun ni kontraŭ niaj malamikoj.


(1) In the muddy weather my coat became very dirty; therefore I took a brush and cleaned the coat. (2) He became (or grew) pale with (from) fear and afterwards he blushed (reddened) with shame. (3) He became engaged to (with) Miss Bertha; in (after) three months will be the marriage; the wedding ceremony will be in the new church, and the marriage festival will be in the house of his future parents-in-law. (4) This old man became quite foolish and childish. (5) After an infectious disease they often burn the clothes of the patient. (6) Send away your brother, because he hinders us. (7) She was married to her cousin, although her parents wished to marry her to (with) another person. (8) In the spring (the) ice and (the) snow melt. (9) Send for (fetch, lit., cause to come) the doctor, for I am ill. (10) He obtained (caused to come to him) many books from (out of) Berlin. (11) My uncle did not die (by) a natural death, but he nevertheless did not kill himself, and also was killed by no one; one day, walking by the rails of a railway, he fell under the wheels of a travelling train and came to his death. (12) I did not hang my cap on this shrub; but the wind blew away the cap from my head, and it, in flying, got hung up on the branches of the shrub. (13) Seat yourself (or, be seated), sir! (14) The young man joined (lit., became to) our army, and courageously fought together with us against our enemies.


Suffix -IL- (see par. 281).

(1) La tranĉilo estis tiel malakra, ke mi ne povis tranĉi per ĝi la viandon, kaj mi devis uzi mian poŝan tranĉilon. (2) Ĉu vi havas korktirilon, por malŝtopi la botelon? (3) Mi volis ŝlosi la pordon, sed mi perdis la ŝlosilon. (4) Ŝi kombas al si la (or, siajn) harojn per arĝenta kombilo. (5) En somero ni veturas per diversaj veturiloj, kaj en vintro ni veturas per glitveturilo. (6) Hodiaŭ estas bela frosta vetero, tial mi prenos miajn glitilojn kaj iros gliti. (7) Per hakilo ni hakas, per segilo ni segas, per fosilo ni fosas, per kudrilo ni kudras, per tondilo ni tondas, per sonorilo ni sonoras, per fajfilo ni fajfas. (8) Plumo estas skribilo, kaj inksorbilo estas mola papero, kiun oni uzas por sorbi aŭ sekigi la inkon.


(1) The knife was so blunt that I could not cut the meat with it, and I had to use my pocket knife. (2) Have you a corkscrew to open (unstop) the bottle? (3) I wanted to lock the door, but I had lost the key. (4) She combs (to herself) her (the) hair with a silver comb. (5) In summer we travel by various vehicles, and in winter we travel by a sledge. (6) To-day is fine, frosty weather, therefore I shall take my skates and go skating (to skate). (7) With a hatchet we chop, with a saw we saw, with a spade we dig, with a needle we sew, with scissors we clip, with a bell we ring, with a fife (whistle) we fife (whistle). (8) A pen is a writing implement, and blotting paper is soft paper which we use to absorb or dry the ink.


Suffix -UM- (see par. 285).

(1) Malfermu la fenestron por aerumi la ĉambron. (2) Ĉiuj hundoj en nia urbo devas porti buŝumojn. (3) Ĉu vi havas butonumilon por butonumi miajn botojn ? (4) La lavistino lavis miajn kolumojn kaj manumojn. (5) Li aĉetis nazumon. (6) Ŝi portadas ventumilon, per kiu ŝi ventumadas sin. (7) Vi ne buŝumis (estas buŝuminta) vian hundon. (8) Gustumu tiun ĉi viandon, kaj diru al mi, ĉu ĝi estas bona aŭ ne. (9) La kalkanumoj de viaj botoj estas tro altaj. (10) Oni lotumis al mi dek du akciojn en la nova kompanio. (11) Mi ne povis plenumi miajn promesojn, ĉar mi havis tiom da aliaj aferoj por decidi. (12) La laktumo de haringo estas bongustaĵo.


(1) Open the window to air the room. (2) All dogs in our town have to wear muzzles. (3) Have you a button-hook to button my boots? (4) The washerwoman washed my collars and cuffs. (5) He bought a pince-nez. (6) She carries (about) a fan, with which she keeps fanning herself. (7) You have not muzzled your dog. (8) Taste this meat, and tell me whether it be good or not. (9) The heels of your boots are too high. (10) They allotted me twelve shares in the new company. (11) I could not fulfil my engagements, for I had so many other matters to settle. (12) The soft roe of a herring is a tasty morsel (thing).


Prefixes DE-, DIS-, FOR- (see par. 287).

(1) Malfeliĉo ofte kunigas la homojn, kaj feliĉo ofte disigas ilin. (2) Mi disŝiris la leteron kaj disĵetis ĝiajn pecetojn en ĉiujn angulojn de la ĉambro. (3) La prefiksoj DE-, DIS-, kaj FOR- ĉiuj montras ian forigon aŭ disigon, ekzemple:—Kiam ni disbatis la muron kaj disĵetis la fortikaĵeton, tiam la malamikoj deĵetis la armilojn kaj forkuris. (4) La infano renversis la inkujon kaj disverŝis la inkon sur mian naztukon. (5) Li estas forkurinto, tial ke li ne revenis al sia regimento je la templimo de sia forpermeso. (6) Li demetis la ĉapelon, kiam li eniris (en) la ĉambron. (7) Kelkaj patrinoj debrustigas siajn infanetojn pli frue, ol aliaj. (8) Li disŝutis la sablon sur la plankon. (9) La servistino senordigis (dismetis) miajn librojn tiamaniere, ke mi ne povis trovi tiun, kiun mi bezonis.


(1) Misfortune often unites men, and happiness often separates them. (2) I tore up the letter and threw away its fragments into all corners of the room. (3) The prefixes DE-, DIS-, and FOR- all denote some sort of abstraction or separation, for example:—When we beat down the wall and demolished the fort, then the enemy threw down their (the) weapons and fled (ran away). (4) The child upset the inkstand and spilled the ink over my handkerchief. (5) He is a deserter (a runaway), for he did not return to his regiment at the expiration of his leave of absence (permission to be away). (6) He took off his (the) hat when he entered the room. (7) Some mothers wean (take from the breast) their infants earlier than others. (8) He scattered the sand on the floor. (9) The maidservant disarranged my books, so that I could not find the one (that which) I wanted.


Prefixes EK- and RE- (see pars. 288, 290).

(1) Li donis al mi monon, sed mi ĝin tuj redonis al li. (2) Mi foriras, sed atendu min, ĉar mi baldaŭ revenos. (3) La suno rebrilas en la klara akvo de la rivero. (4) Li venos al mi morgaŭ, por ke mi redonu al li la librojn. (5) Ŝi ekridis, kaj poste reekbruligis la kandelon. (6) Tuj kiam mi ekkantis, la infaneto ekdormis, kaj redoninte ĝin al ĝia patrino, mi revenis domen. (7) Mi ne povas akcepti vian afablan inviton, ĉar ia malsaneto min retenas en mia ĉambro. (8) Spegulo reĵetas la radiojn de lumo, tuj kiam ili ekfalas sur ĝin. (9) Mi eksaltis de surprizo, kiam la pilko subite resaltis de la muro. (10) Kiam Johano reprenis la libron, kiun mi redonis al li, li diris, ke ĝi estas malpura, sed mi respondis, ke ĝi ne estis bonstata (tiam), kiam mi ĝin ricevis.


(1) He gave money to me, but I immediately gave it back to him. (2) I am going away, but await me, for I shall soon return (come back). (3) The sun is reflected in the clear water of the river. (4) He will come to me to-morrow, in order that I may return him the books. (5) She began to laugh, and then re-lighted the candle. (6) Directly (immediately when) I began to sing the baby fell asleep, and having returned it to its mother, I returned home. (7) I cannot accept your kind invitation, because (an, some kind of) indisposition is keeping me (is retaining me) to (in) my room. (8) A mirror throws back the rays of light directly they begin to fall upon it. (9) I started with surprise when the ball suddenly bounded back from the wall. (10) When John took back the book which I returned to him, he said that it was (is) dirty, but I replied that it was not in a good state (then) when I received it.


Prefixes MAL-, NE-, SEN- (see par. 289.)

(1) Mia frato ne estas granda, sed li ne estas ankaŭ malgranda; li estas de meza kresko. (2) Li estas tiel dika, ke li ne povas trairi tra nia mallarĝa pordo. (3) Haro estas tre maldika. (4) La nokto estis tiel malluma, ke ni nenion povis vidi eĉ antaŭ nia nazo. (5) Tiu ĉi malfreŝa pano estas malmola, kiel ŝtono. (6) Malbonaj infanoj amas turmenti bestojn. (7) Li sentis sin tiel malfeliĉa, ke li malbenis la tagon en kiu li estis naskita. (8) Mi forte malestimas tiun ĉi malnoblan homon. (9) La fenestro longe estis nefermita; mi ĝin fermis, sed mia frato tuj ĝin denove malfermis. (10) Rekta vojo estas pli mallonga, ol kurba. (11) La tablo staras malrekte kaj kredeble baldaŭ renversiĝos. (12) Li staras supre sur la monto kaj rigardas malsupren sur la kampon. (13) Malamiko venis en nian landon. (14) Oni tiel malhelpis al mi, ke mi malbonigis mian tutan laboron. (15) Lia filo mortis kaj estas nun malviva. (16) La korpo estas morta, la animo estas senmorta. (17) La fremdulo sidiĝis neinvitite, kaj tuj ekparolis tute senceremonie. (18) Mi povis nur neregule sendi mian filon en lernejon, tial la lernejestro ĉiam plendadis pri lia neakurateco, neatento, kaj neordinara nekapableco. (19) La vitro estas rompiĝema, kaj estas neeble ĝin fervoje sendi senriske (aŭ, sen risko). (20) Tiu ĉi objekto estas senutila, sed ĝi ne estas malutila. (21) Neniu estas senmakula. (22) Li estas tre nemodesta, kaj lia tromemfido estas senlima, sed li ne estas malmodesta.


(1) My brother is not tall (large), but he is not either (also) short (small); he is of medium growth. (2) He is so stout (thick) that he cannot go through our narrow door. (3) A hair is very thin. (4) The night was so dark that we could see nothing even before our nose. (5) This stale bread is hard as a stone. (6) Bad children love to torment animals. (7) He felt himself so unhappy that he cursed the day in which he was born. (8) I strongly despise this vile (ignoble) person. (9) The window had long been unclosed; I closed it, but my brother immediately opened it again. (10) A direct way is shorter than a curved one. (11) The table stands aslant, and probably (credibly) will soon upset. (12) He stands above upon the mountain and looks down below upon the field. (13) An enemy came into our country. (14) They so hindered me that I spoiled my whole work. (15) His son died, and is now dead. (16) The body is mortal (of death); the soul is immortal (without death). (17) The stranger sat down uninvited, and at once began to speak without ceremony. (18) I could only irregularly send my son to (in) school, therefore the headmaster (schoolmaster) was always complaining of (concerning) his unpunctuality, inattention, and unusual incapacity. (19) Glass is fragile, and it is impossible to send it by rail without risk. (20) This article is useless, but it is not harmful. (21) No one is immaculate. (22) He is very consequential, and his self-conceit is unbounded, but he is not presumptuous.


The learner will find the following exercises useful in helping him to avoid errors in the meaning of words which are nearly alike in spelling.


(1) Laŭ la aĝo de la knabo, oni ne pensis, ke li estas kapabla je tia ago. (2) Anĝelo vidis angilon naĝantan en sitelo apud la angulo de la ĉambro. (3) La bariloj sur la stratoj estas faritaj el bareloj plenigitaj per sablo. (4) La broĉo estas trovita en breĉo de la muro. (5) Oni devas demeti la ĉapelon, kiam oni eniras kapelon. (6) La ĉielo heliĝas, kaj la celo de la abeloj, kiam ili flirtadas de floro al floro, estas kolekti mielon por enmeti en la ĉelojn de la mieltavoloj. (7) Ni vespermanĝis proksime de dezerto, sed ne staris deserto sur la tablo. (8) Ĉu vi divenis de kie la malbonodoro devenis? (9) La funto da teo kuŝis sur la fundo de la kesto, kiun oni trovis apud la fonto. (10) La faktoro diris, ke la fakturo estas ĝusta laŭ ĉiu ero, kaj tial ĝi povas esti nomata ne sole "fakturo," sed ankaŭ "faktaro." (11) Ĉe la festeno estis pendigita super la tablo festono el rozoj. (12) La gaso ekbruligis pecon da gazo. (13) La generala rango estas pli ĝenerala en Anglujo, ol en Rusujo. (14) Justa homo estas ĝusta pri siaj aferoj, sed li ne estas, necese, homo kun gusto. (15) Hirundo glutas insektojn, sed hirudo suĉas sangon. (16) Je la naŭa horo, la ĥoro ekkantis. (17) La kanabo, kiun havas la knabo, apartenas al lia patro. (18) Laŭ mia juĝo, tiu jugo estas tro larĝa. (19) La Templo de Jupitro en Romo estas nomata "la Kapitolo." Kiam mia amiko ĝin vidis, li decidis konstrui domegon laŭ simila desegno, kun kapitelo sur ĉiu kolono; sed li trovis, ke li ne havas sufiĉe da kapitalo por tia celo. Baldaŭ poste, li iris al la kolonio Natalo, kie li sin mortigis per pafo tra la tempio. (20) "Lekanto" estas la nomo de floro, sed la sama vorto, Esperante, ankaŭ signifas personon, kiu lekas ion, t.e., "lekanto." (21) La vango de la gvidisto estis difektita per la falo de la lavango. (22) "La kaso estas plena." En ĉi tiu frazo "kaso" estas la subjekto de la verbo, tial ĝi estas en la kazo nominativa. (23) Li donis al sia amiko sian loĝion en la teatro, kaj tiel lin logis, ke li aĉetu la domon, en kiu ili ambaŭ loĝis.


(1) From the boy’s age, they did not think him capable of such an act. (2) An angel saw an eel swimming in a bucket near the corner of the room. (3) The barriers in the streets are made of barrels filled with sand. (4) The brooch has been found in a breach of the wall. (5) One must take off one’s hat when one enters a chapel. (6) The sky is getting clear, and the purpose of the bees, as they flit from flower to flower, is to collect honey to deposit in the cells of the honeycombs. (7) We dined near a desert, but there was no dessert on the table. (8) Did you guess from whence the bad smell emanated? (9) The pound of tea lay at the bottom of the box, which they found near the spring. (10) The factor said the invoice was correct in every item, and, therefore, it might be called not only an invoice, but also a collection of facts. (11) At the banquet a festoon of roses was suspended over the table. (12) The gas ignited a piece of gauze. (13) The rank of general is more prevalent in England than in Russia. (14) An upright (just) man is exact in his business, but he is not necessarily a man of taste. (15) A swallow swallows insects, but a leech sucks blood. (16) At 9 o’clock the choir began to sing. (17) The hemp which the boy has, belongs to his father. (18) In my judgment, that yoke is too wide. (19) The Temple of Jupiter at Rome is called the "Capitol." When my friend saw it, he decided to build a mansion of a similar design, with a capital on each column; but he found he had not sufficient capital for such a purpose. Soon afterwards he went to the Colony of Natal, where he committed suicide by a shot through his temple. (20) "Marguerite" is the name of a flower, but the same word, in Esperanto, also means a person who is licking something, i.e., a "licker." (21) The guide’s cheek had been injured by the fall of the avalanche. (22) "The money-box is full." In this sentence "moneybox" is the subject of the verb, therefore, it is in the nominative case. (23) He gave his friend his box at the theatre, and thus induced him to buy the house in which they both lived.


(1) La maĉo estas sama, ĉu la nutraĵo estas pano ordinara aŭ maco. (2) La marŝado de la soldatoj estis tra danĝera marĉo. (3) Dum La Meso estis solenata, la virino staris en la mezo de amaso da adorantoj; ŝia maso da haroj estis subtenata per reto, kies maŝo estis rompita en diversaj lokoj. (4) La mastro de la domo estas magistro de artoj, kaj ankaŭ majstro en sia profesio. (5) Lia morto okazis pro mordo de hundo. (6) La monarĥo paroladis kun monaĥo, kiam mi lin vidis. (7) Venena serpenteto lin mordis, kaj preskaŭ tuj li mortis. (8) Muso kaj muŝo estis en la ĉambro de la poeto, kaj tuj kiam li ilin vidis, poeta inspiro, aŭ muzo, lin ekkaptis; li spiris rapide, kaj, post profunda enspiro, la muso kaj muŝo rememorigis al li la naŭ filinojn de Zeŭso, kaj, tie kaj tiam, li ekverkis sian gloran poemon, "La Batalo de la Muzoj." (9) "Mosto" estas vino nefermentita, kiun tre ŝatis lia grafa moŝto. (10) La homo ludanta la orgenon ne sciis, ke ĝi estas malagorda, pro tio, ke li jam antaŭe perdis la organon de aŭdado. (11) La generalo, kiu eldonis la ordonon, portis la dekoracion de la ordeno "la Stelo de Hindujo." (12) Pastelo estas bombono en formo de disko, sed paŝtelo estas krajono el kolora kreto. (13) Estis paco en la domo, tuj kiam la peco da ligno estis kovrita per peĉo. (14) La dekstra pedalo de la fortepiano, kiu apartenis al la pedelo, estas rompita. (15) La kesto pezis pli, ol la negocisto supozis, ĉar kiam ĝi estis metita sur la pesilo, kaj lia servisto ĝin pesis, oni trovis, ke pezilo kvindek-ses-funta ne estas sufiĉe peza por ĝin pesi. (16) Li paŝis antaŭen, kaj pasis tra la pordo. (17) Tuj kiam la piŝto moviĝis, la lokomotivo ekiris, kaj ĝiaj radoj pistis ŝtonon kuŝantan sur la relo; birdo nomata "ralo" ektremis je la bruo, kaj flugis trans la fervojon. (18) Li desegnis ŝipon sur la posto de poŝtkarto, kiun li sendis al Parizo per la poŝto. (19) Li penis disrompi la ŝnuron per la mano, sed malsukcesis; poste li provis ĝin, kaj pruvis, ke ĝi povas subteni pezilon kvarcent-funtan. (20) La pulvo estas pulvoro uzata por pafiloj, sed ĝiaj grajnoj ne estas tiel delikataj, kiel tiuj de polvo; alivorte, pulvero estas pli maldelikata (or, malpli delikata) ol polvero. (21) La pruno ĝermiĝas el la florburĝono de la prunarbo, sed la burĝonoj estas kelkfoje detruitaj de la prujno. (22) Lia vesto estis subŝtofita per pelto, kaj estis tiel varma, ke palto ne estis necesa.


(1) The act of mastication is the same, whether the food is ordinary bread or unleavened bread. (2) The march of the soldiers was through a dangerous swamp. (3) Whilst Mass was being celebrated, the woman stood in the midst of a crowd of worshippers; her mass of hair was supported by a net, the mesh of which had been broken in various places. (4) The master of the house is a master of arts, and also a master in his profession. (5) His death occurred through a bite from a dog. (6) The monarch was conversing with a monk when I saw him. (7) A venomous snake bit him, and he died almost immediately. (8) A mouse and a fly were in the poet’s room, and as soon as he saw them, a poetic inspiration, or muse, seized him; he breathed quickly, and, after a deep inspiration, the mouse and the fly reminded him of the nine daughters of Zeus; and, there and then, he began to write his glorious poem, "The Battle of the Muses." (9) "Must" is unfermented wine, which His Excellency the Count much appreciated. (10) The man playing the organ did not know it was out of tune, for he had lost the organ of hearing. (11) The general, who issued the order, wore the order of the Star of India. (12) A pastille (lozenge) is a disc-shaped sweetmeat, but a pastel (crayon) is a pencil made of coloured chalk. (13) There was peace in the house as soon as the piece of wood had been covered with pitch. (14) The right pedal of the piano, which belonged to the beadle, is broken. (15) The box weighed more than the merchant supposed, for when it was placed on the scales, and his servant weighed it, it was found that a 56 lb. weight was not sufficiently weighty to weigh it. (16) He stepped forward and passed through the door. (17) As soon as the piston began to move, the locomotive started, and its wheels crushed a stone lying on the rail; a bird called a "rail" was startled at the noise, and flew over the railway. (18) He drew a ship on the back of a postcard, which he sent by post to Paris. (19) He tried to break the cord with his hand, but failed; then he tested it, and proved that it could sustain a weight of 400 lbs. (20) Gunpowder is a powder used for guns, but its grains are not so fine as those of dust; in other words, a grain of gunpowder is coarser than a grain of dust. (21) The plum is formed from the blossom of the plum-tree, but the buds are sometimes destroyed by hoar frost. (22) His coat was lined with fur, and was so warm that a greatcoat was not necessary.


(1) Ŝi staris sur la ponto, kaj la punto de ŝia robo flirtis en la vento. (2) La puso elfluis el la karbunkolo kiam la kuracisto ĝin tranĉis, sed la malsanulo je la puŝo de la momento, ne povis ne ekkrii. (3) Li prenis la remilon el la boato, kaj remetis trans la riveron; atinginte la kontraŭan bordon, li remetis la remilon (or, metis la remilon reen) en la boaton kaj iris hejmen. (4) La matena roso estis ankoraŭ sur la rozo, kiam la ruso, per lerta ruzo, venkis la malamikon. (5) Laŭ mia opinio (or, miaopinie) la reno de ŝafo estas pli bongusta, ol la rano, kiun oni manĝas en Francujo. (6) La rato estis kaptita per reto. (7) Homo, kiu reĝas, estas reĝo, kaj la popolo, kiun li regas, estas liaj regatoj (or, personoj regataj). La reganto de kolonio regas la kolonion, sed li ne reĝas. (8) Kiam mi vidis la Romanon, li legis romanon, kaj lia edzino kantis romancon. (9) La rabo de la rubeno, kiu estis tiel granda kiel nigra ribo, okazis apud la loko, kie estis metita la rubo. (10) Li ekdormis kaj sonĝis, sed vekiĝinte, li revis pri sia sonĝo; tiam subite li ekkriis: "Ĉu mi vere dormis, aŭ ĉu ĝi estis nur revo?" (11) Se ni aĉetus sagon sen pafarko, ni ne montrus nian saĝon, ĉar la unua sen la dua estus senutila. (12) La homo ŝarĝis la ŝarĝveturilon per sakoj da greno, poste li ŝargis sian pafilon, saltis sur la sakojn, kaj ludis ŝakon kun sia amiko. (13) Kiam ni finis la sarkadon de la ĝardeno, ni promenadis apud (or, sur) la marbordo kaj vidis ŝarkon. (14) Li malŝatis tian nutraĵon kaj ne povis ĝin manĝi, kvankam li tre malsatis; tial li mendis kokidon rostitan, kiun li tre ŝatis, kaj li baldaŭ satiĝis. (15) Peco da ŝelo en la subŝtofo de la selo brulumigis la dorson de la ĉevalo. (16) Kompreneble vi ŝercas dirante, ke vi serĉas kudrilon en garbo da fojno! (17) Baro el ŝtalo estas trovita en la stalo de la ĉevalejo. (18) La Ŝtato ne estis bone regata, kaj la popolo estis (or, troviĝis) en ribela stato. (19) La stipo estas arbeto, sed mallonga dika peco da ligno estas nomata ŝtipo. (20) "Stofo" estas la nomo de rusa mezurilo, sed, se ni volas skribi pri la ŝtofo el kiu oni faras veston aŭ robon, ni metas signon super la unuan literon, kaj tiu signo aliigas la prononcon. (21) Peco da stupo kuŝis sur la malsupra ŝtupo de la ŝtuparo. (22) Estis tablo en la mezo de la ĉambro, kaj sur ĝi estis telero, sur kiu kuŝis talero kune kun aliaj moneroj; tabulo pendis sur la muro, sur kiu estis gluita tabelo de luveturilkostoj. (23) La turdo estas pli malgranda birdo, ol la turto. (24) Li tusis, kiam oni tuŝis lian traĥeon. (25) Li surmetis la veŝton kaj poste la veston.


(1) She stood on the bridge, and the lace of her gown fluttered in the wind. (2) The matter flowed from the carbuncle when the doctor cut it, but the patient, on the impulse of the moment, could not help crying out. (3) He took the oar out of the boat and paddled (rowed leisurely) across the river; after reaching the opposite bank, he put back the oar into the boat and went home. (4) The morning dew was still on the rose, when the Russian, by a clever stratagem, overpowered the enemy. (5) In my opinion, the kidney of a sheep is more tasty than the frog, which is eaten in France. (6) The rat was caught with a net. (7) The man who reigns is a King, and the people he governs are his subjects (or persons being governed). The Governor of a Colony governs the Colony, but does not reign. (8) When I saw the Roman, he was reading a romance, and his wife was singing a romance (song). (9) The robbery of the ruby, which was as big as a black currant, occurred near the spot where the rubbish had been put. (10) He fell asleep and dreamed, but, after awakening, he mused over his dream; then suddenly he cried out, "Was I really asleep, or was it only a waking dream?" (11) If we bought an arrow without a bow, we should not show our wisdom, for the one without the other would be useless. (12) The man loaded the wagon with sacks of corn, then he loaded his gun, jumped on to the sacks, and played chess with his friend. (13) When we finished the weeding of the garden, we walked near the seashore and saw a shark. (14) He disliked the (that kind of) food and could not eat it, although he was very hungry; so he ordered a roast chicken, which he much appreciated, and he was soon satiated. (15) A piece of bark in the lining of the saddle caused an inflammation on the horse’s back. (16) Of course you are joking when you say you are looking for a needle in a truss of hay. (17) A steel bar has been found in the stall of the stable. (18) The State (one of a confederation, regno = the State) was not well governed, and the people were in a rebellious state. (19) Broom is a shrub, but a short thick piece of wood is called a block of wood. (20) "Stofo" is the name of a Russian measure, but if we wish to write about the material (or, stuff) of which a coat or gown is made, we put an accent over the first letter, which alters the pronunciation. (21) A piece of tow was lying on the bottom step of the staircase. (22) There was a table in the middle of the room, and on it was a plate in which was a thaler, together with other coins; a board hung on the wall, on which was pasted a table of fares for hired carriages (hackney coach fares). (23) The thrush is a smaller bird than the dove. (24) He coughed when they touched his windpipe. (25) He put on his waistcoat and afterwards his coat.


The following are Exercises in similar words in English. The words to be noted are in italics:—


(1) Ĉesinte vetludi, li vizitis sian advokaton kaj lasis siajn aferojn en liajn manojn, sed, antaŭ ol eliri la ĉambron, li faris sian testamenton kaj testamentis sian tutan havon al sia frato. (2) Li petis permeson doni al sia hundo la restaĵon de la vespermanĝo. (3) La generalo donis al li dumonatan forpermeson (aŭ, forpermesis al li du monatojn). (4) Li lasis sian edzinon plorantan, kiam li eliris el la domo, sed elirinte ĝin, li renkontis sian fraton, kiu akompanis lin al la ŝipo, kaj tie lin lasis. La sekvantan tagon li forlasis la landon por ĉiam. (5) Eliru la ĉambron, vi malĝentilulo! (6) Lasu la ĉambron, kiel ĝi estas, ĉar mi ne intencas ĝin aliigi.

To turn.

(7) Kiam mi eniris en la lornejon, la tornisto tornis la kruron de tablo el peco da ligno, kiu turniĝis rapide ĉirkaŭ sia akso. Aŭdante miajn piedpaŝojn, li turnis sin, sed daŭrigis la tornadon. Kiam la kruro torniĝis, montriĝis, ke ĝi estas tro mallonga.



(1) After leaving off gambling, he went to his solicitor’s, and left his affairs in his hands, but, before leaving the room, he made his will, and left all his property to his brother. (2) He asked leave to give the leavings of the dinner to his dog. (3) The general gave him two months’ leave of absence. (4) He left his wife in tears when he left the house, but after leaving it he met his brother, who accompanied him to the ship, and there left him. The following day he left the country for ever. (5) Leave the room, you impertinent fellow. (6) Leave the room as it is, for I do not intend to alter it.

To turn.

(7) When I entered the turnery, the turner was turning the leg of a table out of a piece of wood, which was turning rapidly on its axis. On hearing my footsteps, he turned round, but continued his turning. When the leg was turned, it turned out to be too short.


Do, Did (par. 237 (j)).

(1) Kiel vi fartas? Tre bone, mi dankas vin. (2) Ĉu vi faris, kion mi diris al vi? Jes, mi faris. Ne, mi ne (faris). (3) Ĉu vi mortigis tiun teruran hundon? Jes, certe, ĉar mi diris al mia edzino: "Kion ni povas fari pri tia malbelega besto?" kaj ŝi respondis: "Forigu ĝin." (4) Kunligu tiujn dek paketojn, kaj ankaŭ ordigu la ĉambrojn, kaj poste, se vi ne estos tro laca, ni esploros la vidindaĵojn de la urbo. (5) Ja venu (aŭ, mi petegas, ke vi venu), ĉar mi vere tre deziras vin vidi. (6) Estas malagrable havi interrilatojn kun personoj, kiuj penas nin trompi. (7) Tio sufiĉos por mi, sed por vi ĝi ne decos. (8) Hamleto estas Esperantigita (aŭ, tradukiĝis Esperanten, aŭ, en Esperanton) de Doktoro Zamenhof. (9) Mi parolis kun mia patro, sed li tute ne volis enmiksiĝi en la afero. (10) Li progresadis en la lernejo, sed li ne sukcesis negoce. (11) Riparu por mi ĉi tiun poŝhorloĝon, se ĝi valoras la koston tion fari.


Do, Did.

(1) How do you do? Very well, thank you. (2) Did you do what I told you? Yes, I did. No, I did not. (3) Did you do away with that awful dog? Yes, I did, for I said to my wife: "What can we do with such a hideous brute?" and she replied: "Do away with it." (4) Do up those ten parcels, and also do up the rooms, and afterwards, if you are not too done up, we will do the city. (5) Do come! for I do want to see you! (6) It is unpleasant to have to do with persons who try to do us. (7) That will do well enough for me, but it will not do for you. (8) Hamlet has been done into Esperanto by Doctor Zamenhof. (9) I spoke to my father, but he would have nothing at all to do with the matter. (10) He did well at school, but he did not do well in business. (11) Do up this watch for me, if it be worth the expense of doing so.


To get (par. 237 (k)).

(1) Mi leviĝis je la sesa, kaj tuj kiam mi vestis min, mi ordonis mian serviston, ke li alkonduku al mi mian ĉevalon. Kiam alvenis la ĉevalo, mi suriris ĝin, kaj rajdis al la domo de mia kuzo, kiu pretiĝis por la vulpoĉasado. Ni matenmanĝis, pretigis la ĉevalojn kaj forrajdis. Sur la vojo, mia ĉevalo ricevis al si ŝtonon en la hufon, tial mi deiris, kaj ĝin elprenis. Ĉar la vojetoj estis tre kotaj, la ĉevaloj ŝpruciĝis per koto, ni ankaŭ tre malpuriĝis, sed la ĉasistoj kutimiĝas je tio. Ni baldaŭ alvenis al la kunvenejo, kaj ĝuis bonan kuradon kun la ĉashundoj. (2) La knabino portis grizan robon, kaj, kiam mi demandis ŝin de kiu ŝi ĝin ricevis, ŝi diris al mi, ke ŝi penis ĝin akiri ĉe sia kudristino, sed la kudristino diris, ke ŝi ne havas robon kun tiu koloro en la tenejo, sed, ke ŝi farigos al ŝi tian (robon). La knabino ankaŭ diris, ke ŝi ne mendis la robon, kaj tre bone faris sen ĝi, ĝis fine ŝi decidigis sian patrinon havigi al ŝi tiun, kiun ŝi nun portadas. (3) Kiam vi venkos la malfacilaĵon parkere lerni tiun ĉi lecionon, ne penu liberigi vin de viaj aliaj lecionoj, ĉar vi ne povos min trompi, pretekstante, ke vi jam elfaris vian tutan taskon.


To get.

(1) I got up at six, and as soon as I got dressed, I ordered my servant to get me my horse. When the horse came, I got on to it, and rode to my cousin’s, who was getting ready for the fox hunt. We got breakfast, got the horses ready, and rode off. On the way my horse got a stone in its foot, so I got off and got it out. As the lanes were very muddy, the horses got splashed with mud, we also got very dirty, but huntsmen get accustomed to that. We soon got to the rendezvous and enjoyed a good run with the hounds. (2) The girl had got on a grey dress, and when I asked her from whom she got it, she told me that she had tried to get it at her dressmaker’s, but the dressmaker said she had not got a dress of that colour in stock, but would get such (a dress) made for her. The girl also said that she did not give an order for the dress, and got on very well without it, till at last she got her mother to get for her the one she had now got on. (3) When you have got over the difficulty of getting this lesson by heart, do not try to get off your other lessons, for you cannot get round me by pretending that you have got through all your work.


To appear, know, have.

(1) Kiam li unue aperis en la ĉambro, ŝajnis al mi, ke li estas malprudentulo, sed poste li ŝajne montris tiom da spriteco, ke mi ekvidis, ke mi trompiĝas. (2) Se la lernanto scius bone sian lecionon, la instruanto lin ne punus. (3) "Kristano," li diris al mi, "vi ne konas la historion de naskiĝo de tiu ĉi folio?" "Mahometano, mi ne konas," mi respondis. (Krestomatio, paĝo 31a). (4) Mi sciis, ke vi havas hundon, sed mi ne konis la hundon, kiam mi ĝin vidis. (5) Kiam mia amiko petis, ke mi vizitu lin, li ne sciis, ke mi ne konas lian domon; tamen mi konis la straton kie li loĝas, kaj mi ankaŭ konis lian hundon, tial, tuj kiam mi rekonis ĝin kuŝantan apud la pordo de domo, mi eksciis, ke tiu domo apartenas al mia amiko. (6) Mi havas libron, kiun mi devas redoni al la biblioteko tuj kiam mi estos traleginta ĝin.


To appear, know, have.

(1) When he first appeared in the room, it appeared to me that he was (is) a fool, but afterwards he appeared to show so much wit that I perceived I was (am) mistaken. (2) If the pupil knew his lesson well, the teacher would not punish him. (3) "Christian," he said to me, "you do not know the story of the birth of this leaf?" "Mahometan, I do not know," I answered. (4) I knew that you had a dog, but I did not know the dog when I saw it. (5) When my friend asked me to call upon him, he did not know that I did (do) not know his house; however, I knew the street where he lived (lives), and I also knew his dog, therefore, as soon as I recognized it lying close to the door of a house, I knew that that house belonged to my friend. (6) I have a book which I have (must) to return to the library as soon as I (shall) have read it through (lit., as soon as I shall be having read it through).


To bring, let, give, effect, affect.

(1) Alportu al mi mian ĉapelon kaj poste diru al Johano ke li alkonduku mian ĉevalon. (2) La troproduktado malaltigas la prezon de la komercaĵoj. (3) Kiam oni sciigis la edzon, ke lia edzino naskis filon, li elprenis el sia kelo sian plej bonan vinon, por trinki al la bonfarto (aŭ, tosti la sanon) de sia unuenaskito. La patrino edukis sian filon dum lia infaneco, kaj poste la patro instruigis lin en unu el la plej bonaj lernejoj en la lando. (4) Kiam la policano liberigis la viron, ties frato lasis lin en sian domon, kaj mallevis la rulkurtenojn. (5) Li perdis la sanon, tial li devis ĉesigi multajn el siaj bonfaraĵoj, sed li ankoraŭ disdonas multe da mono al la malriĉuloj. (6) Oni sciigis lin, ke li devos atesti, ĉu la virino naskis filon aŭ filinon. (7) La efiko de ĉi tiu elpensaĵo, laŭ mia opinio (or, miaopinie), faros efekton ne ĝenerale supozitan, ĉar ĝi faros radikalan ŝanĝon en multaj el niaj industrioj, kvankam kiam ili estos tuŝataj (or, influataj) de ĝi, mi ne povas diri; kaj efektive estus afekteco miaparte provi certigi, kiam ĉi tiu efekto efektiviĝos.


To bring, let, give, effect, affect.

(1) Bring me my hat, and then tell John to bring my horse. (2) Overproduction brings down the price of goods. (3) When they brought news to the husband that his wife had brought forth a son, he brought forth the best wine in his cellar to drink to the well-being (or, toast the health) of his first-born. The mother brought up her son during his childhood, and afterwards the father had him brought up in one of the best schools in the country. (4) When the policeman let the man go, the brother of the latter let him into his house, and let down the blinds. (5) His health gave way, so that he had to give up many of his good works, but he still gives away much money to the poor. (6) They gave him notice that he would have to give evidence whether the woman had given birth to a son or a daughter. (7) The effect of this invention, in my opinion, will produce an effect not generally supposed, for it will effect a radical change in many of our industries, although when they will be affected by it I cannot say, and it would in fact be affectation on my part to attempt to assert when this effect will be effected (realized).


Can, could, may, might, must, ought, should, would (par. 237 (lp)).

(1) Eble li venos, kaj eble ne. (2) Ĉu vi permesos, ke mi venu morgaŭ? Jes, mi permesos (aŭ, jes, certe). (3) Ĉu vi povos veni morgaŭ? Jes, mi povos. (4) Ĉu mi devos veni morgaŭ? Ne, vi ne devos. (5) Ĉu mi devus vidi (aŭ, estas necese, ke mi vidu) la kuraciston? Jes, vi devus (aŭ, jes, tre necese); vi devus vidi lin jam hieraŭ. Mi ne povas lin vidi hodiaŭ, ĉar mi ne havas la tempon; mi devas iri al la banko, mia oficejo, kaj aliaj lokoj. (6) Vi devus vidi la kastelon. Mi amus ĝin vidi, sed estus necese ke, mi iru sola, kaj oni povus ŝteli al mi sur la vojo. (7) Li devis atenti sian laboron, ĉar alie li estus malboniginta ĝin. (8) Li devus atenti sian laboron pli, ol li faris, kaj tiuokaze li ne estus difektinta ĝin. (9) Ĉu vi volus, ke mi forlasu miajn amikojn? Kompreneble ne. (10) Li insistas veni; mi ne povas malhelpi lin (al li). Li venos, se vi ne malhelpos lin. (11) Li insistis veni, kvankam mi faris ĉion, kion mi povis, por malhelpi lin. Li venus, se vi invitus lin. (12) Li ne volis (li rifuzis) konfesi, ke li nenion vidas. Li ne konfesus, ke li nenion vidis, se li efektive estus vidinta ion. (13) Mi skribas al li, ke li venu. Mi skribis al li, ke li venu. (14) Mi skribas (skribis) al li, por ke li venu.


Can, could, etc.

(1) He may come, and he may not. (2) May I (will you allow me to) come to-morrow? Yes, you may (or, yes, certainly). (3) Can you come to-morrow? Yes, I can. (4) Must I (shall I have to) come to-morrow? No, you need not. (5) Ought I to see (or, is it necessary for me to see) the doctor? Yes, you ought (or, yes, very necessary); you ought to have seen him yesterday. I cannot see him to-day, for I have no time; I have to go to the bank, my office, and other places. (6) You ought to see the castle. I should love to see it, but I should have (it would be necessary) to go alone, and I might be robbed on the way. (7) He had to pay attention to his work, for, otherwise, he would have spoilt it. (8) He ought to have paid more attention to his work than he did, and then he would not have spoilt it. (9) Would you have me desert my friends? Of course (I would) not. (10) He will come; I cannot stop him. He will come if you do (will) not stop him. (11) He would come, notwithstanding I did all I could to stop him. He would come if you invited (would invite) him. (12) He would not confess that he saw (sees) nothing. He would not have confessed that he saw nothing, if he really had seen something. (13) I am writing to him to come. I wrote to him to come. (14) I am writing (I wrote) to him in order that he may (might) come.


Adverbial and Conjunctional Phrases.

(1) Ne faru tion miakaŭze (or, pro mi). (2) Ĉiu knabo siavice legu verson. (3) Nenial li ĉesis kanti. (4) Ial li forlasis sian celon. (5) Unufoje por ĉiam mi diras al vi denove, ke mi ne permesos ĝin. (6) Mi tute ne scias (tion), kion vi volas diri, se ne (estas), ke vi bezonas monon. (7) Li turnis la librojn supre malsupren, kaj siajn poŝojn el interne, sed li ne povis trovi la leteron. (8) Malgraŭ ĉio (or, ĉiuokaze) estas al mi tute egale, ĉu vi ĝin faros aŭ ne. (9) Ĉiuspecaj personoj ĉeestos la kunvenon, kiel ekzemple nobeloj, negocistoj, komercistoj, butikistoj, kaj tiel plu (k.t.p.), sed, kio ajn okazos (aŭ, ĉiuokaze), mi tien iros, pro tio, ke (aŭ, ĉar) ĝi fariĝas nur unu fojon ĉiujare. (10) Li penis fari sian eblon, sed estis tute senefike. (11) Miasurprize, li diris al mi, ke li ne faris ĝin intence. (12) Nu, oni trovis, ke tiel (Hamleto V, 1). (13) Mi vizitis lin antaŭ ne longe. (14) Mi ŝin ne vidis en la lasta tempo, sed mi esperas, ke ŝi vizitos min pli poste (post kelka tempo).


Adverbial and Conjunctional Phrases.

(1) Do not do that on my account. (2) Let each boy in his turn read a verse. (3) For no reason he left off singing. (4) For some reason he abandoned his purpose. (5) Once for all, I tell you again that I will not permit it. (6) I do not know in the least (or, at all) what you mean, unless it be that you want money. (7) He turned the books upside down and his pockets inside out, but he could not find the letter. (8) After all, it is all the same to me whether you do it or not. (9) All sorts of people will be at the meeting, as, for example, noblemen, merchants, traders, shopkeepers, and so forth (etc.), but at all events I shall go there, for it takes place only once a year. (10) He tried to do his best, but it was all to no purpose. (11) To my surprise, he told me that he did not do it on purpose. (12) Well, it was so found. (13) I called upon him lately (not long ago). (14) I have not seen her of late, but I hope she will call upon me later on.


La edzeco (par. 276).

Georgo fianĉiĝis kun ĉarma knabino, kaj estas edziĝonta kun ŝi ĵaŭde, kaj lia fratino estas edziniĝonta samtage. La fianĉino de Georgo parolis hieraŭ kun la paroĥestro pri sia edziniĝo, kaj li diris, ke li edzigis ŝiajn gepatrojn antaŭ dudek jaroj, kaj ke nenio faros al li pli grandan plezuron, ol edzinigi ŝin. Li proponis, ke la edziĝo okazu en la paroĥa preĝejo, kaj ŝi respondis, ke ŝi estas certa, ke ŝia fianĉo raviĝos edziĝi kun ŝi en la sama preĝejo, kie ŝiaj gepatroj edziĝis, kaj ke ankaŭ la fratino de Georgo konsentos edziniĝi tie.

La edziĝa tago alvenis, kaj la preĝejo pleniĝis de ĉiuj edzigeblaj personoj el la vilaĝo, fraŭlinoj kaj fraŭloj; ankaŭ ĉeestis la pastredzino, kiu estas forta subtenantino de la edzeco.

Kiam la du edziniĝontoj alvenis, la du edziĝontoj atendis ilin en la preĝejo, kaj baldaŭ la soleno komenciĝis. La du geedziĝontoj staris flankon ĉe flanko en la ĥorejo kontraŭ la altaro. Dum la soleno la pastro metis al ĉiu edziĝonto la jenan demandon: "Ĉu vi volas preni ĉi tiun virinon kiel vian edzinigiton?" kaj poste, al ĉiu edziniĝonto: "Ĉu vi volas preni ĉi tiun viron kiel vian edzigiton?" Poste, ĉiu edziĝanto metis ringon sur la kvaran fingron de sia edziniĝanto, samtempe dirante: "Per tiu ĉi ringo mi vin edzinigas."

Tuj kiam la edziĝa soleno finiĝis, la novedzoj kaj novedzinoj iris al la domo de la patro de Georgo, kie fariĝis la edziĝa festo.

Je kelke da jaroj (kelkajn jarojn) poste, Georgo eksedziĝis; kaj jaron pli poste, mi vidis en la ĵurnaloj, ke lia fratino eksedzigis sian edzon.



George became engaged to a charming girl, and is to be married to her on Thursday, and his sister is to be married on the same day. George’s fiancée spoke about her marriage to the vicar of the parish yesterday, and he said he had married her parents twenty years ago, and that nothing would give him greater pleasure than to marry her. He proposed that the marriage should take place in the parish church, and she replied that she was certain her fiancé would be delighted to be married to her in the same church where her parents had been married, and that George’s sister also would consent to be married there.

The wedding day arrived, and the church was filled with all the marriageable persons of the village, maids and bachelors; there was also present the clergyman’s wife, who is a strong advocate of matrimony.

When the two brides[40] arrived, the two bridegrooms[40] were awaiting them in the church, and soon the ceremony commenced. The two bridal couples stood side by side in the chancel opposite the altar. During the ceremony the clergyman put the following question to each bridegroom: "Wilt thou have this woman to thy wedded wife?" and then to each bride: "Wilt thou have this man to thy wedded husband?" Afterwards each bridegroom put a ring on the fourth finger of his bride, at the same time saying: "With this ring I thee wed."

As soon as the marriage ceremony was over the bridegrooms and brides went to George’s father’s house, where the wedding banquet took place.

Some years afterwards George was divorced, and a year later I saw in the papers that his sister had divorced her husband.


[40] "Bride" and "bridegroom" are synonymous terms in English for persons who are about to be and have been married, but they are distinguished in Esperanto:

(See pars. 208, 209.)



Jesaj Frazoj.Affirmative Phrases.
Estas vere. Tio estas vera.It is true. That is true.
Vi estas prava.You are right.
Estas certe, ke ...It is certain that ...
Mi estas certa pri tio.I am sure of that.
Mi povas vin certigi.I can assure you.
Mi vin certigas, ke jes.I assure you it is so.
Mi kredas, ke jes.I believe so.
Tion mi kredas.So (that) I believe.
Mi diras, ke jes.I say yes.
Vi povas kredi min (al mi).You may (can) believe me.
Mi diras al vi, ke ĝi estas la vero (or, ke estas vere).I tell you it is true.
Mi donas al vi mian parolon de honoro.I give you my word (of honour).
Tio sufiĉas.That is sufficient.
Estas li (ŝi) (ili) mem.It is he himself (she herself) (they themselves).
Estas frue (malfrue).It is early (late).
Estas ankoraŭ tre frue.It is still very early.
Estas la dua (horo).It is two o’clock.
Tiom pli bone.So much the better.
Neaj Frazoj.Negative Phrases.
Ne estas vere, ke ...It is not true that ...
Estas malvere, ke ...It is false that ...
Vi ne estas prava.You are not right.
Vi estas malprava.You are wrong.
Neniu tion diras.No one says so (that).
Li ne estas tie.He is not there.
Mi ne diris tion.I did not say that (or, so).
Mi iras nenien.I am going nowhere.
Ne aŭskultu lin.Do not listen to him.
La tagmanĝo ne estas preta.Lunch is not ready.
Mi ne kredas tion.I don’t believe that.
Ne estas eble. Neeble!It is not possible.
Tio ne koncernas min.That does not concern me.
Vi trompas vin.You deceive yourself.
Mi ne farus tion, se mi estus vi.I would not do that if I were you.
Mi ne scias bone, kion vi volas diri.I don’t quite (well) know what you mean (what you wish to say).
Mi ne povas trovi la libron, kiun vi deziras.I cannot find the book you want.
Demandaj Frazoj.Interrogative Phrases.
Kio estas? Kio okazis?What is it? What is the matter? What has happened?
Kiu estas? Kiu estas tie?Who is it? Who is there?
Kien vi iras?Where (whither) are you going?
Kion vi faros, kiam ...?What will you do when ...?
Kion vi diris?What did you say?
Kion vi volas (deziras) (postulas) (bezonas)?What do you wish (desire) (require) (need)?
Kie vi estas?Where are you?
Kioma horo estas?What o’clock is it?
Je kioma horo vi leviĝas?At what time do you get up (rise)?
Kion vi volas diri?What do you mean?
Kiun daton ni havas hodiaŭ?What is the day of the month? (lit., what date have we to-day?)
Ĉu vi aŭdis? Ĉu vi ne aŭdis?Did you hear? Did you not hear?
Ĉu vi konas Sinjoron B.?Do you know Mr. B.?
Ĉu vi komprenas min?Do you understand me?
Ĉu vi parolas Esperanton?Do you speak Esperanto?
Ĉu vi parolas serioze?Do you speak seriously?
Certe vi ŝercas?Surely you are joking?
Ĉu la vespermanĝo estas preta?Is dinner ready?
Ĉu la veturilo jam alvenis?Has the carriage come (arrived)?
Ĉu estas la horo por foriri?Is it time to go away?
Kio estas la nomo de ĉi tiu urbo?What is the name of this town?
Ĉu vi venos kun mi?Will you come with me?
Ĉu estas leteroj por mi?Are there any letters for me?
Ĉu vi estus tiel bona?Would you be so good?
Ĉu vi havas la bonecon?Would you have the goodness?
Kian aĝon (kiom da jaroj) vi havas? Kiomjara vi estas?How old are you?
Kie vi renkontis lin?Where did you meet him?
Kial vi ne respondas?Why don’t you answer?
Kion vi bezonas?What do you want?
Kiom kostas ĉi tiu objekto?What does this article cost?
Kiam ni haltos por tagmanĝi?When shall we stop for (to take) lunch?
Kia estas via opinio?What is your opinion?
Kion vi diris al li?What did you say to him?
Kie (kiam) vi renkontis ŝin?Where (when) did you meet her?
Ĉu vi vidis ŝin sur la strato aŭ ĉe ŝia domo?Did you see her in the street or at her house?
Ĉu vi ne diris al ŝi tion, kion mi petis, ke vi diru?Did you not tell her what I begged you to say?
Ordonaj Frazoj.Imperative Phrases.
Venu ĉi tien. Foriru.Come here. Go away.
Rapidu. Haltu, veturigisto!Make haste. Stop, coachman!
Diru al li, ke li venu.Tell him to come.
Restu ĉi tie momenton.Stay here a moment.
Aŭskultu min.Listen to me.
Komencu. Daŭrigu.Begin. Continue.
Atentu, ke vi ne falu.Take care you don’t fall.
Ne tiel rapide.Not so quick.
Iru pli malrapide.Go slower.
Parolu al li.Speak to him.
Ne diru tion.Don’t say that.
Faru al mi la plezuron.Do me the pleasure.
Mi petas, (ke vi) ne ĝenu vin.Pray do not trouble yourself.
Ne kredu lin (al li).Do not believe him.
Faru, kion mi diras.Do what I say.
Trankviliĝu! Silentu!Be quiet! Be silent!
Venigu la veturilon.Bring the carriage.
Alportu miajn botojn.Bring my boots.
Venigu al mi fiakron.Get me a cab.
Donu al mi tiun libron.Give me that book.
Pruntu al mi vian ombrelon, mi petas.Please lend me your umbrella.
Brosu ĉi tiun vestaĵon.Brush these clothes.
Ne diru unu vorton.Don’t say a word.
Sidiĝu (sidigu vin), mi petas.Pray be seated. Please sit down.
Ne faru tion.Don’t do that.
Pardonu al mi, Sinjoro, vi okupas mian sidejon.Excuse me, sir, you are occupying my place.
Pasigu al mi la salon (pipron) (mustardon), mi petas!Pass me the salt (pepper) (mustard), if you please!
Kelnero, donu al mi la panon!Waiter, give me the bread!
Fermu (malfermu) la pordon (la fenestron), mi petas.Shut (open) the door (window), please.
Rigardu tiun beletan (gracian) knabinon.Look at that pretty girl.
Ho! rigardu kia bela domo estas tiu!Oh! look what a beautiful house that is!
Foriru! For de ĉi tie!Go away from here!
Savu lin! li dronas!Save him! he is drowning!
Esprimoj de Danko.Expressions of Thanks.
Mi dankas. Mi dankas vin (al vi).Thank you.
Mi tre dankas vin. Dankon.Thank you very much. Thanks.
Multe da dankoj. Multan dankon.Many thanks.
Mil dankojn.A thousand thanks.
Vi estas tre bona (kompleza).You are very good (kind).
Mi ne scias, kiel vin danki.I don’t know how to thank you.
Vi estas ja (efektive) tro bona.You are really too good.
Vi faris al mi favoron (servon), kiun mi neniam forgesos.You have done me a favour (service), which I shall never forget.
Mi volus pli multe fari.I wish I could do more.
Mi estos ĉiam via ŝuldanto.I shall always be your debtor.
Mi neniam forgesos vian bonecon.I shall never forget your goodness.
Mi petas, akceptu la esprimon de mia profunda dankeco.I beg you to accept the expression of my profound thankfulness.
Estis por mi plezuro, ke mi povis esti utila al vi.It was a pleasure to me, to be able to be of service to you.
Mi bedaŭras, ke mi ne povis pli multe fari.I regret that I could not do more.
La Vetero.The Weather.
Kia estas la vetero?What sort of weather is it?
Estas belega tago.It is a lovely day.
La suno brilas, sed la vento estas malvarmega.The sun is shining, but the wind is bitterly cold.
Estas tre varmege.It is excessively hot.
Estas tre malvarmege.It is intensely cold.
Ĉu vi opinias, ke pluvos?Do you think it will rain?
La nuboj amasiĝas.The clouds are gathering.
Pluvis la tutan nokton.It rained all night.
Neĝos morgaŭ, mi opinias.It will snow to-morrow, I think.
Ni havos baldaŭ pluvegon.We shall soon have a deluge of rain (a downpour).
Pluvegis la pasintan nokton (hieraŭ nokte).It rained in torrents (it poured) last night.
La vento leviĝas.The wind is rising.
La pluvo falas.The rain is falling.
La vetero estas tre ŝanĝiĝema.The weather is very changeable.
Ventego venas, kaj ŝajnas, ke estos uragano.A storm is coming, and it appears that there will be a hurricane.
La hajlo nun ekĉesas.The hail is now ceasing.

CONVERSATION (Interparolado).

Pardonu al mi, sinjoro, sed ĉu vi parolas Esperanton?

Excuse me, sir, but do you speak Esperanto?

Mi parolas ĝin iom, sed tre malĝuste, ĉar mi ne havis multe da ekzerciĝado.

I speak it a little, but very incorrectly, for I have not had much practice.

Ŝajnas al mi, ke vi parolas tre bone.

It appears to me that you speak very well.

Vi faras al mi komplimenton, mi timas; sed mi ĝojas, ke mi ĝin parolas sufiĉe bone por kompreniĝi. Se vi parolas france, ĉu vi bonvolos havigi al mi bileton por Ĝenevo?

You are paying me a compliment, I fear; but I am glad I speak it sufficiently well to be understood. If you speak French, will you kindly get me a ticket for Geneva?

Kun multe da plezuro. Mi ankaŭ iras tien. En kiu klaso vi veturos?

With much pleasure. I also am going there. By what class do you travel?

En la unua ĉe tia longa veturo.

By the first for such a long journey.

Mi ankaŭ, do ni povos kunveturi (veturi kune). Sed, se vi havas pezan pakaĵon, vi devos ĝin enskribi.

I too, so we can travel together. But if you have heavy luggage, you will have to register it.

Mi havas du vojaĝkestojn kaj valizon; vi farus al mi grandan komplezon, se vi rekomendigus ilin por mi.

I have two trunks and a portmanteau; you would do me a great kindness if you would get them registered for me.

Mi faros tion, tuj kiam mi ricevos la biletojn.

I will do so, as soon as I have got the tickets.

Mil dankojn! Jen estas tri centfrankaj bankbiletoj.

A thousand thanks! Here are three 100-franc notes.

Mi rekomendis vian pakaĵon, kaj jen estas via vojaĝbileto, la pakaĵbileto, kaj la monrestaĵo. Mi pagis ducent dudek du frankojn por la bileto de iro kaj reveno (revenbileto), kaj dudek unu por la rekomendo.

I registered your luggage, and here is your travelling ticket, the luggage ticket and change (money balance). I paid 222 francs for the return ticket, and 21 for the registering.

Tre multan dankon; kaj nun, ni okupu niajn sidejojn en la vagonaro.

Very many thanks; and now let us take our seats in the train.

Ĉi tiu fako estas plena. Jen alia, kiu havas du sidejojn neokupitajn. Ni eniru tiun.

This compartment is full. Here is another that has two vacant seats. Let us enter that.

Tre bone. Kiun sidejon vi plivolas? Tiun, kiu kontraŭas la lokomotivon, aŭ la alian?

Very well. Which seat do you prefer? That which faces the engine, or the other?

Al mi estas tute egale. Elektu vi mem.

It is all the same to me. Choose yourself.

Nu, mi prenos ĉi tiun, ĉar mi ne amas veturi kun la dorso kontraŭ la lokomotivo.

Well, I will take this, for I do not like to travel with my back to the engine.

Kiam la vagonaro ekiros?

When does the train start?

Post du aŭ tri minutoj.

In two or three minutes.

Nun, ni iras.

Now we are off.

Ĉu vi konas bonan hotelon en Ĝenevo kontraŭ la lago?

Do you know a good hotel in Geneva facing the lake?

Mi konas diversajn, en unu el kiuj mi mem iros. Ĝi estas tre komforta, kaj la prezoj moderaj.

I know several, to one of which I am going myself. It is very comfortable and the charges moderate.

Bonvolu diri al mi ĝian nomon. Tia hotelo tre bone konvenus al (por) mi, ĉar mi neniel estas riĉulo.

Kindly tell me its name. Such an hotel would suit me very well, as I am not in any way a rich man.

Mi forgesas la nomon, sed se vi kuniros tien kun mi, mi ĝin montros al vi.

I forget the name, but if you will go there with me, I will show it to you.

Vi estas tre kompleza; plezure mi akompanos vin. Ĉu ni devos vagonŝanĝi antaŭ ol alveni (en) Ĝenevon?

You are very kind; I will accompany you with pleasure. Shall we have to change carriages before arriving at Geneva?

Ne. Tiu ĉi vagonaro estas ekspresa, kaj ni haltos nur kvarfoje inter tie ĉi kaj Ĝenevo, kien ni devus alveni je la sesa (kaj) dudek sep morgaŭ matene.

No. This train is express, and we stop only four times between here and Geneva, where we ought to arrive at 6.27 to-morrow morning.

Ni do havos ankoraŭ pli ol sep horojn en la vagonaro. Mi kaptos la okazon por bona dormo; do mi diros "Bonan nokton, sinjoro."

Then we have still more than seven hours of the train. I shall take the opportunity for a good sleep, so I will say "Good night, sir."

Vekiĝu, sinjoro! Jen ni estas en Ĝenevo. Donu al mi vian pakaĵbileton, kaj mi kolektos viajn aĵojn kune kun miaj.

Wake up, sir! Here we are at Geneva. Give me your luggage ticket and I will collect your things with mine.

Ĉu mi luu fiakron?

Shall I hire a cab?

Ne (estas) necese. Ni povas iri per la omnibuso; la hotelo ne estas tre malproksima de la stacidomo.

It is not necessary. We can go in the omnibus; the hotel is not very far from the station.

Jen la hotelo. Ĉu ĝi kontentigas vin?

There is the hotel. Does it satisfy you?

Perfekte, se la ĉambroj kaj litoj estas puraj, kaj la manĝaĵo bona.

Perfectly, if the rooms and beds are clean and the food good.

Ĉio estis kontentiga la lastan fojon kiam mi estis tie, kaj mi opinias, ke la sama hotelmastro ankoraŭ tenas la hotelon. Jes, mi estas prava. Jen li! Tial vi povas nun diri al li tion, kion vi bezonas.

Everything was satisfactory the last time I was there, and I fancy the same landlord still keeps the hotel. Yes, I am right. Here he is! So you can now tell him what you want.

Bonan vesperon. Kion vi deziras, sinjoro?

Good evening. What do you desire, sir?

Bonan, aeroplenan litĉambron sur la tria etaĝo, kontraŭ la lago. Kiom vi postulas?

A good, airy bedroom on the third floor, facing the lake. What is your charge (do you ask)?

Mi havas ĝuste la ĉambron, kiun vi deziras, sinjoro. La prezo dependas de la daŭro de via loĝado en la hotelo, kaj ĉu vi luos la ĉambron kun aŭ sen nutraĵo.

I have exactly the room you desire, sir. The charge depends on the length of time you stay in the hotel, and whether you take the room with or without board.

Mi restos almenaŭ kvin tagojn por la Kongreso, kaj mi prenos ĉiun manĝon en la hotelo.

I shall remain at least five days for the Congress, and I shall take all meals in the hotel.

Tiuokaze la prezo estos po ok frankoj por ĉiu tago; aŭ, se vi restus tutan semajnon, la tuta kosto estus kvindek frankoj, kiu enhavas la servadon kaj la lumigon.

In that case the charge will be (at the rate of) eight francs a day (for each day); or if you should remain a whole week, the entire cost would be fifty francs, which includes attendance and light.

Nu, do, mi pensas, ke mi restos unu semajnon, se mi trovos la nutraĵon bona kaj la litĉambron pura kaj komforta. Je kiomaj horoj okazas la manĝoj?

Well, then, I think I shall stay a week, if I (shall) find the food good and the bedroom clean and comfortable. At what hours are the meals?

Matenmanĝo kiam ajn vi deziras; tagmanĝo je la unua, kaj vespermanĝo je la sesa kaj duono.

Breakfast whenever you wish; lunch at one o’clock, and dinner at half-past six.

Bone. Bonvolu suprensendi mian pakaĵon al mia ĉambro.

Good. Kindly send my luggage up to my room.

CORRESPONDENCE (Korespondado).

The following are some of the more usual forms of dates, commencements, and conclusions of letters:—


N.B.—The preposition je is generally omitted and the accusative used in its place, as:—La 12an de Marto.

Reference to Dates.—In referring to date, the preposition de is generally used, e.g.:—Responde al via letero de ... = In reply to your letter of....

In speaking of future dates, venonta or proksima is used, with or without monato, as:—Je la 4a de la venonta (or, proksima) monato = On the 4th of next month, or on the 4th proximo. Je can be omitted and the accusative used, as:—La 4an de la venonta.


The style of address varies considerably among nations, but the following are some in more or less general use:—


Commencement.Estimata = Esteemed. Kara = Dear. Mia kara Karlo = My dear Charles. Kara (or, mia kara) Sinjoro B. = Dear (or, my dear) Mr. B. Sinjorino B. = Mrs. B. Fraŭlino B. = Miss B. (Mia) kara Samideano (or, Samideanino) = Fellow thinker (if an Esperantist), lit., partisan of the same idea.

Conclusion.—In the undermentioned examples kun may be omitted and the accusative used, as:—Amikajn salutojn. This shows that some verb (such as mi deziras) is omitted (see par. 105 on ellipsis, and par. 65 (c) on accusative).


Commencement.Sinjoro = Sir. Sinjorino = Madam. Fraŭlino = Mademoiselle. Estimata = Esteemed, may precede the above, or, in some cases, kara, or, tre estimata.

Conclusion.(Tre) fidele via = (Very) faithfully yours. Via (tre) vere = Yours (very) truly. (Tre) sincere via = (Very) sincerely yours.

Titles.—For the use of Moŝto in addressing persons with titles, or in official positions, see par. 283.


In correspondence with near relatives, the following are some of the terms which might be written:—

Commencement.Mia kara ... = My dear ... Plej kara ... = Dearest ... Mia karegulo, or, karegulino ... = My darling ... Amata ... = Beloved ... Kare amata ... = Dearly beloved ...

Conclusion.Kun multe da amo (por ĉiuj) = With much love (to all). Via (tre) amanta = Your (very) affectionate. Via ameganta patrino = Your loving mother.


Commencement.Sinjoro = Sir. Sinjoroj = Gentlemen, or, Sirs. Estimata, estimataj, kara, karaj, may precede the above.

Conclusion.—The modes of conclusion are numerous; the following are a few:—

SPECIMENS OF LETTERS (Modeloj de leteroj).

Gesinjoroj M. havas la honoron inviti Gesinjorojn N. kaj ilian filinon al vespermanĝo ĵaŭdon venontan je la oka horo.

Mr. and Mrs. M. have the honour of inviting Mr. and Mrs. N. and their daughter to dinner on Thursday next at eight o’clock.

Gesinjoroj N. kaj ilia filino akceptas kun multa plezuro la afablan inviton de Gesinjoroj M. por vespermanĝo je la venonta ĵaŭdo. Or, ... tre bedaŭras, ke antaŭa promeso malhelpas ilin akcepti la ... k.t.p.

Mr. and Mrs. N. and their daughter accept with much pleasure the kind invitation of Mr. and Mrs. M. to dinner on Thursday next. Or, ... very much regret that a previous engagement prevents them from accepting the ...

Kara Sro B.,—Mi proponas viziti vin morgaŭ posttagmeze, je la 5a, se tiu horo estos oportuna por vi; se ne, bonvolu sciigi min, per la alportanto (de ĉi tio), je kioma horo vi ester libera.

Dear Mr. B.—I propose calling upon you to-morrow afternoon at 5 o’clock, if that hour will be convenient to you; if not, kindly inform me by bearer (of this) at what hour you will be disengaged.

Vian leteron de la 30a lasta mi ne ricevis ĝis la 2a de la nuna.

I did not receive your letter of the 30th ultimo till the 2nd inst.

Mi bedaŭras, ke mi tiel longe prokrastis respondi vian leteron, sed efektive mi ne povis trovi la tempon ...

I regret that I delayed so long in replying to your letter, but really I could not find time ...

Mi tre ĝojas aŭdi, ke vi ...

I am delighted to hear that you ...

Mi kore gratulas vin pro (pri) via fianĉiĝo kun Fraŭlino B.

I heartily congratulate you on your engagement to Miss B.

Mi ricevis vian leteron tro malfrue por ĝin respondi per la hodiaŭa poŝto (or, respondi hodiaŭ poŝte).

I received your letter too late to answer it by to-day’s post.

Esperantista Klubo,
18an de aprilo, 1906a.

Kara Karlĉjo,

Kiam vi ricevos ĉi tiun leteron, eble vi diros: "Kio estas ĉi tio? Kia lingvo ĝi estas?" Sed, kiam vi malfermos la ŝlosileton (ĉi tie enfermitan), kaj jam tralegos la unuajn ok paĝojn, vi diros: "Estas mirinde! Kiu ĝin kredus? Mi povas tute facile kompreni ĉi tiun strangan lingvon! Kio oni ĝin nomas? Ho! mi vidas, ‘Esperanto!’ Kion signifas ‘ŝlosileto’? Mi serĉu en la libreto mem. Jen estas! ‘Ŝlos’ = lock; ‘il’ = instrument; ‘et’ = diminutive; ‘o’ = ending of nouns; tial ‘ŝlosileto’ signifas a diminutive instrument for locking, = a tiny key. Nu, se mi povas tiel facile, unuavide, kompreni la lingvon, ĝia aŭtoro havas ĉian kaŭzon por esperi, ke li efektivigos sian deziron; kaj mi kore deziras, ke li sukcesu. Mi certe lernos Esperanton kaj penos disvastigi ĝin kiel eble plej multe."

Kaj nun, mia kara Karlo, skribu al mi leteron Esperante, kaj diru al mi, ĉu mi ne estas tute prava, imagante, ke la suprediritaj vortoj estas ĝuste tiuj, kiujn vi pensis, ricevinte tiun ĉi leteron.

Ĉiam la via,

Postskribaĵo. P.S.—Ĉi tiu klubo estas tute esperantista. Ĉiuj anoj aŭ parolas Esperanton, aŭ lernadas ĝin; por ĉi tiuj, ni havas ĉambron aparte dediĉitan al la lernantoj, kaj unu el la anoj donas lecionojn ĉiutage. La kelneroj kaj ĉiuj servistoj parolas la lingvon. La manĝokartoj kaj vinkartoj estas en Esperanto, kaj ni ĉiam parolas Esperante unu kun la aliaj. Mi esperas, ke vi aniĝos, kiam vi revenos Anglujon.


Esperantist Club,
18th April, 1906.

Dear Charlie,

When you receive this letter possibly you will say: "What is this? What language is it?" But when you open the ŝlosileto (herewith enclosed), and have read through the first eight pages, you will say: "It is wonderful! Who would believe it? I can quite easily understand this queer language! What do they call it? Oh! I see, ‘Esperanto!’ What does ‘ŝlosileto’ mean? Let me look in the book itself. Here it is! ‘ŝlos’ = lock; ‘il’ = instrument; ‘et’ = diminutive; ‘o’ = ending of nouns; therefore ‘ŝlosileto’ means a diminutive instrument for locking, = a tiny key. Well, if I can so easily, at first sight, understand the language, its author has every reason to hope that he will realize his desire, and I heartily hope that he will succeed. I shall certainly learn Esperanto, and try to spread it as much as possible."

And now, my dear Charles, write me a letter in Esperanto, and tell me if I am not quite right in imagining that the above-mentioned words are exactly what you thought, after receiving this letter.

Always yours,

Postscript. P.S.—This Club is entirely Esperantist. All members either speak Esperanto or are learning it; for the latter we have a room specially set apart for learners, and one of the members gives lessons daily. The waiters and all the servants speak the language. The menus and wine cards are in Esperanto, and we always speak Esperanto to each other. I hope you will become a member when you return to England.
























In making use of the following list of Adverbs, Adjectives, Conjunctions, Prepositions, and adverbial and prepositional expressions, if the student has any doubt as to the correct Esperanto words he should select when more than one is given, he will generally find them explained (with examples) in the Alphabetical Lists of Adverbs, Prepositions, and Conjunctions at pages 166, 180, and 219.

























These hints are principally for learners teaching themselves. Follow the advice of your instructor, if you have a good one.

(1). First study carefully the pronunciation (pars. 5–19).

(2). Learn, in the following order, Grammatical Terminations (par. 53); Suffixes and Prefixes (pars. 54, 55); Pronouns (pars. 126, 131); List of Prepositions (page 180); Correlative Words (par. 147); List of Primary Words (page 334); Use of the Accusative (pars. 65–68).

(3). Read aloud daily some portion of the "Krestomatio," and Exercises on pages 259–315.

(4). Translate daily some portion of the "Krestomatio," or Kabe’s "Unua Legolibro," into English, and then back into Esperanto, and compare. At first, translate the Esperanto fairly literally, so as to get a good idea of the usual order of words in Esperanto, and where it differs from English in construction. Afterwards translate into fluent English, and then back into Esperanto.

(5). Get readiness of expression by constantly asking yourself aloud questions, and then replying to them; by saying in Esperanto what you see when walking out, what you are doing, etc., as, "Now I must go to bed," "It is time to get up," "I must cross the street," "I wonder who lives there," etc., etc.

(6). Read anecdotes in the "Krestomatio," or in Kabe’s "Unua Legolibro," and then try to repeat them, as if you were telling them to someone. Keep on repeating an anecdote until you can tell it as fluently in Esperanto as in English, but not necessarily in the exact words of the book.

(7). In writing, say aloud the sentences as you write them. Your ear will then often prevent errors.

(8). Write your diary in Esperanto.

(9). Read the best authors, and mark in pencil any words or phrases which strike you as useful to remember. Write these in a notebook for future reference.

(10). Don’t slavishly copy in your style any particular author. Note the good points in each, and remember that what is not easily understood is not good style, however correct it may be grammatically.

(11). After about a week’s study, look out for recruits and teach them what you have learnt. In teaching others you teach yourself.

(12). When you read your daily newspaper, translate aloud a few sentences; that will give you facility of expression in many subjects.

(13). Always bear in mind the following:—

(a). Every letter and syllable is pronounced (par. 16).

(b). Do not clip or drag the vowels (pars. 8–10).

(c). The tonic accent is always on the last syllable but one (par. 17).

(d). Do not use the compound forms of verbs unless necessary for the sense (pars. 167–170, 222–226).

(e). Remember that each preposition in Esperanto, except je, has a fixed meaning (pars. 250, 251).

(f). Note carefully the use of the accusative case (pars. 66–68).

(g). Avoid conundrums in the shape of long compound words of three or more different roots. A sentence in Esperanto is not a riddle!


(Numbers relate to paragraphs, unless otherwise stated.)

Ablative Absolute, Not in Esperanto, 211b.
Accent, 17, 19.
(1) Direct Object, 66.
(2) O. Direction (Motion towards), 67, Ex. 12, 13.
(3) Omitted Preposition, 68, Ex. 16; Duration of time, 68b; Price, weight, measure, 68c.
(4) General remarks, 69.
With adjectives, 36, 69a, 108, 110.
With adverbs, 67b.
With nouns, 109.
With verb omitted, 64a, 105.
ACTION, commencement of, 216b.
Continuation of, 216a.
Just happened, 225.
Soon to happen, 225, 229.
Aĉ, 270, Ex. 19.
Ad, 270 (1), Ex. 19.
ADJECTIVES, 107–114.
Adverbs used for, 245, 269a.
Case of, 108, 110.
Classes of, 108.
Comparison, 112.
Degree of intensity, 114.
Numeral, 116.
Participial, 111, 209b, 213.
Place of, 84.
Possessive sense, 106c.
Predicative, 36, 69a, 77, 108b.
Qualifying, 36, 69a, 108a.
Superlative, 113.
Use in compound words, 106c.
ADVERBS, 238–248, Ex. 3, 43.
Accusative case, 67b.
Classes of, 242.
Comparison, 248.
Followed by word in accusative, 247.
From prepositions, 244.
Instead of prepositional phrase, 252.
List of, 248b.
No influence on case, 243.
Numeral, 117.
Of quantity followed by da, 246.
Participial, 209c, 245a.
Place of, 87–88, 241.
Used for adjectives, 245, 269a.
Advice to the Learner, page 363.
Affect, Ex. 41.
Affirmation, 63–64, page 317.
Affixes, See Prefixes, Suffixes.
Ajn, 158 (c-e).
Aĵ, 271, Ex. 20, Agreement of adjective and noun, 69a, 108, 110.
Al, 259 (1).
Alphabet, Esperanto, 1–4.
An, 272, 278c (1), Ex. 21.
Ankoraŭ, pages 167, 170–171.
Anstataŭ, 259 (2).
Antaŭ, 259 (3).
Antaŭ ol, pages 188, 220.
Any (= any whatever), 158d, (= some), 158c.
Appear, Ex. 40.
Apposition, 69 (c–d).
Apud, 259 (4).
Ar, 273, Ex. 22.
ARTICLES, 96–102.
A, an, 96.
The, 97–101. See "La."
At, 261a.
Aŭ ... aŭ, page 220.


Bo, 286, Ex. 25.
Bring, Ex. 41.
By, 261b.


Can, could, 237 (f, l), Ex. 42.
Capitals, Use of, 70.
Cardinal numerals, 115.
Case, See "accusative," "nominative."
Collective numerals, 121.
Combinations of consonants 11–15; of vowels, 10.
Comparison of adjectives, 112; of adverbs, 248: Ex. 4.
Circumstantial, 32, 80.
Direct, 29, 30, 66, 78.
Indirect, 31, 79; Accusative for, 251, 253; Adverb for, 239, 252.
Compound tenses, 169, 195, 222–226.
Compound words, 39c, 46, 49, 106c.
Conditional Mood, See "Moods."
Congresses, International, page viii.
Conjugation: esti, 167; active verb 168–169; Reflexive verb, 170.
CONJUNCTIONS and Conjunctive Adverbs, 262–268, Ex. 43.
Case after, 105, 266.
Co-ordinating, 264.
List of, 268a.
No influence on mood, 171, 263.
Omission of, 267.
Subordinating, 265.
Consonants, 7.
Contents, List of, page xxv.
Conversation, pages 324–328.
CORRELATIVES, 139–158. Ex. 10, 11.
Initial and terminal letters, 141.
Parts of speech, 140.
Series beginning with i, 158 (c–d).
Series ending with a, 149; al, 150, 158a; am, 151; e, 152; el, 153, 158a; es, 154; o, 155, 158b; om, 156; u, 157, 158b.
Correspondence, pages 329–333.
Titles and addresses, 283.
Countries, names of, 278c.


Ĉe, 259 (5).
Ĉef, 272 (g).
Ĉi, 143.
Ĉirkaŭ, 259 (6).
Ĉj, 274, Ex. 23.
Ĉu, 58, 63–64, 91, 170.


Da, 259 (7).
De, 259 (8), 287, Ex. 31
Definitions, 20–39.
Dev, 237a, Ex. 42.
Direct complement, 29–30, 66, 78.
Dis, 287, Ex. 31.
Distributive numerals, 123.
Do, did, 217, 237j, Ex. 38.
Dum, 259 (9).
Duon, 120, 286, Ex. 25.


Ebl, 275, Ex. 24.
Ec, 271, Ex. 20.
Edz, 276, Ex. 25, 44.
Effect, Ex. 41.
Eg, 114, 277, Ex. 26.
Ej, 278, Ex. 27.
Ek, 288, Ex. 19, 32.
El, 259 (12).
Elision, 56–57.
Ellipsis, 58a, 64a, 105, 237m.
Em, 275, Ex. 24.
Emphasis: (order of words) 76, 84a, 87–88; (ja), 217.
En, 259 (12).
Er, 273, Ex. 22.
"Espero, La," pages xxii, xxiii.
Est, 163, 167, 234.
Estr, 272, Ex. 21.
Et, 52b, 114, 277, Ex. 26.
Exercises and Translations, pages 259–316.
Expressions, Useful, pages 340–362.


Fi, 270, Ex. 19.
Foj, 122.
For, 287, Ex. 31.
For, 261c.
Foreign words, 39d, 52.
Formation of words, 39c, 40–50, 106c.
Fractional numerals, 120.
From, 261d.
Fuŝ, 270.


Ge, 286, Ex. 25.
Get, 237k, Ex. 39.
Give, Ex. 41.
Adjectives, 107–114.
Adverbs, 238–248.
Article, 96–102.
Commentary, 95–290.
Conjunctions, 262–268.
Interjections, 269.
Nouns, 103–106.
Parts of speech, 95.
Prepositions, 249–261.
Pronouns, 125–157.
Rules, 94.
Verbs, 159–237.
Explanations, 40–42.
List of, 53.
Of verbs, 160.


Ĝis, 259 (13).


Have, Ex. 40.
Hints to learners, page 363.


Id, 279, Ex. 25.
Ig, 280, Ex. 28.
, 280, Ex. 28.
Il, 281, Ex. 29.
Imperative mood, See "Moods."
Imperative phrases, pages 320–321.
Impersonal verbs, 129, 164.
In, 282, Ex. 25.
In, 261e.
Ind, 275, Ex. 24.
Indicative mood, See "Moods."
Indirect complement, 31, 79.
Infinitive mood, See "Moods."
Ing, 278, Ex. 27.
Inter, 259 (14).
Interjections and Exclamations, 269.
Interrogation, 58–64, 91, 170, pages 318–320.
Ism, 52b, 293.
Ist, 272, Ex. 21.


Ja, 217, page 170.
Jam, page 170, par. 226a.
Je, 251, 259 (15), Ex. 16.
Jes, 63, 64.
Ju ... des, 112d, page 171.


Ĵus, 225, page 171.


Kaj ... kaj, Page 222.
Ke, page 223; Ke ne, 63; Ke ... u, 200, por ke ... u, 201.
Know, 237c, Ex. 40.
Kon, sci, 237c, Ex. 40.
Kontraŭ, 259 (16).
Krom, 177, 179, 259 (17).
Kun, 259 (18).
Kuŝ, 237 (b).


LA, 97–102.

Before numeral adjectives, 101.
Before proper names, 99b.
English and Esperanto uses compared, 99.
Instead of possessive pronoun, 100.
Invariable, 97.
Optional use, 101a.
Land-names, 278c.
Las, 237d, Ex. 36, 41.
Laŭ, 259 (19).
League of Nations, page vii.
Leave, Ex. 37.
Let, Ex. 41.
Letters, Names of, 4.
Logical Tense, 220, 232.


Mal, 289, Ex. 33.
Malgraŭ, 259 (20).
Matrimony, Ex. 44.
May, might, 237m, Ex. 42.
Mem, 291.
MOODS OF VERBS, 171–202.
Conditional, 190–194; after se, 193; to soften an expression, 194.
English and Esperanto compared, 171.
How to determine, 172.
Imperative, 195–202; after por ke, 201.
Indicative, 171a, 186–189; when obligatory, 189.
Infinitive, 173–185; as a noun, 181; place of, 82; prepositions used with, 177; ebla instead of, 275c; used for gerund, 182; used for participle or other mood, 184, 185; used generally without a preposition, 176; when another mood is used for, 183.
Subjunctive, None in Esperanto, 171b.
Moŝt, 283, Ex. 23.
Multiple numerals, 119.
Must, 237 (8), Ex. 42.


Ne, 59a, 289, Ex. 33.
NEGATION, 59–62, page 318.
Double, repeated, 60, 62.
Place of negative, 59a, 92.
Questions and answers, 64, 170.
Nek ... nek, 59c, page 225.
Nj, 274, Ex. 23.
Nominative case, 104, 110.
NOUNS, 103–106.
Case, 105, 109, 110.
Declension, 104.
Elision of final O, 56, 57.
Infinitive as noun, 180.
Numeral, 118.
Participial, 209a, 210.
Place of, 83.
Possessive case, 106.
Predicative, 35, 109.
NUMERALS, 115–124, Ex. 18.
Cardinal, 115.
Collective, 121.
Distributive, 123.
Fractional, 120.
Multiple, 119.
Ordinal adjectives, 116.
Ordinal adverbs, 117.
Reiterative, 122.
Substantive (numeral nouns), 116.


Object of proposition, 28, 75.
Obl, 284.
Of, 261f.
On, 284.
On, 261g.
Oni, onia, onin, 126.
Op, 284.
Order of words, 73–93.
Ordinal numerals, 116–117.
Ought, 237p, Ex. 42.


PARTICIPLES, 203–213, Ex. 17.
Active, 160, 203, 222, 224, 226, 230, 231; Followed by accusative, 66b, 208.
Adjectival, 111, 207, 209b; distinguished from simple adjectives, 213.
Adverbial, 209c, 245a.
Anta, distinguished from a, 213.
Infinitive used for: In English, 185; In Esperanto, 184.
Predicative, 209b.
Passive, 160, 204, 233–236; not used with iĝi, 280g.
Place of, 87.
Terminations of, 203–204.
Parts of speech, 95.
Per, 259 (21).
Pes, pez, 237e.
Phrases, pages 317–323.
Plej ... el, 113, 248, page 176.
Pli aŭ malpli, and similar phrases, 246a.
Pli ... ol, 112, 248, page 176.
Plu, page 176.
Plural, 103, 107, 115f, 142.
Po, 259 (22).
Por, 259 (23); por ke, 201.
Possession, 106, 130–138.
Possessive pronouns, See "Pronouns."
Possessive sense of adjective, 106b.
Post, 259.
Pov, 237f, Ex. 42.
Pra, 286, Ex. 25.
Predicate, 24, 33.
Predicative adjectives, 36, 69a, 77, 108b.
Predicative nouns, 35, 109.
PREFIXES, 286–290.
Definition, 44.
List of, 55.
Order in combination, 45.
PREPOSITIONS, 249–261, Ex. 14, 15.
Adverb with, 258.
As prefixes, 254, 259 (1–34).
Case after, 255, 256.
Classes of, 259.
Definition, 249.
Denoting movement, 257.
List of, 259.
Omission of, 68, 106d, 253, 258.
Place of, 89.
Prepositional expressions, 258.
Relation to complement, 259.
Replaced by adverb, 252.
Replaced by participle, 212.
Preter, 259 (25).
Pri, 259 (26).
Conversion into other parts of speech, 51.
Definition, 39a.
List of, pages 334–339.
Pro, 259 (27).
PRONOUNS, 125–157.
Classes of, 125.
Correlative, 140.
Demonstrative, 143.
Interrogative, 145.
Personal, 126; with al, for possessive, 134a.
Place of, 85.
Possessive, 130–138, Ex. 5; la instead of, 100; sia, lia, etc., 135; omission of, 134; with or without la, 132.
Reflexive, 128–138, Ex. 6;
after participle or infinitive, 138c.
Relative, 145.
Pronunciation, 5–19.
Proper names, accus. with, 69d.
Proposition, 22.
Punctuation, 71–2.


Qualifying adjectives, 36, 69a, 108a.
Questions (affirmation, negation), 58–64, 91, 170.


Re, 290, Ex. 32.
Reflexive pronouns, 128–138, Ex. 6, 138c.
Reflexive verbs, 165, 170.
Reiterative numerals, 122.
Roots: definition of, 28; idea conveyed by, 50; modification of English spelling, 52; transitive, intransitive, 237i.
Rules of Grammar, 94.


Sci, kon, 237c, Ex. 40.
Se, pages 226–227, 168 (ĉu).
Sen, 259 (28), 289, Ex. 33.
Shall, will, 237n.
Should, would, 237o, Ex. 42.
Si, See "Reflexive Pronouns"; Possible non-use of, 138d.
Sid, 237g.
Similar words, Distinction of: Ex. 34–36.
Sin, 291; sin trovi, 237h.
Some, 158 (c–e).
Spelling, modification of English, 52.
Spite, 259 (29).
Sub, 259 (30).
Subject of proposition, 23, 25–26, 75; omitted, 27.
Subjunctive Mood, None in Esperanto, 171b.
Substantives, See "Nouns."
Substantive Numerals, 118.
SUFFIXES, 43, 270–285.
List of, 54.
Order in combination, 46.
Super, 259 (31).
Sur, 259 (32).
Syntax, 20–36.


Telegrams, Alphabet for, 2.
TENSES, 214–236.
Future; Simple, 227–229; compound, 230i; used for present or subjunctive, 232.
Names of, 215.
Past: simple, 223; compound, 224; used for pluperfect, 226.
Present: simple, 216; compound, 222; used for past or future, 219–221.
Terminations, List of, 53.
Thanks, Expressions of, Pages 321–322.
Time of day, 124.
Titles and addresses, 283.
To, 261b.
Tra, 259 (33).
Trans, 259 (34).
Transitive and intransitive roots, 237i.
Turn, Ex. 37.
Tuj, 225, page 179.
Typewriting Esperanto, 3.


U.E.A., page vii.
Uj, 278, Ex. 27.
Ul, 272, Ex. 21.
Um, 285, Ex. 30.
Unu, Use of, 115f.


VERBS, 159–237.
Auxiliary (esti), 163, 167, 234.
Compound tenses, 169; Active Voice, Ex. 8; Passive Voice, Ex. 9; Less frequent than in English, 167, 195, 222–226.
Conjugation: esti, 167; Active verb, 168–9; Reflexive verb, 170.
Duration of action, 216, 225, 229.
Ellipsis of, 58a, 64a, 66c, 237m.
Impersonal, 164.
Intransitive, 162, 237i.
Moods, 171–202.
Participles, 203–213.
Place of, 86.
Reflexive, 165, 170.
Tenses, 214–236.
Transitive, 66a, 161, 237i.
Vic, 292.
Adverbs, 248b.
Conjunctions and Conjunctive adverbs, 268a.
Interjections and Exclamations, 269.
Prepositions, 259.
Primary words, pages 334–339.
Useful words and expressions, pages 340–362.
"Vojo, La," page xxiv.
Vol, 237n, Ex. 42.
Vowels, 8.


Weather, The, pages 322–323.
Will, shall, 237n.
With, 261i.
Word-building, 40–50, 106c.
Would, should, 237o, Ex. 42.

Printed in Great Britain
Billing and Sons Ltd., Guildford and Esher

Transcriber's notes:

Minor typographical errors and inconsistencies in the original have been silently corrected. In many places, ditto marks have been replaced with their intended text. Page boundaries have been recorded in comments in the html markup.

The following changes to the text have been made:

Par. 29 accusative form— -N in the singular, or— -JN in the plural. accusative form -N in the singular, or -JN in the plural.
Par. 69 aŭ, rozojn belajn or, rozojn belajn
Footnote 19 seen from the following examples seen from the examples
Par. 261(i) Represented as under:— Represented by:—
Exercise 36 (aŭ, personoj regataj) (or, personoj regataj)
Par. 147 at for all time for all time

The original book had a list of errata which have been applied to the text. In many cases these were simple corrections. But in places that would have required more extensive rewriting, the errata have been included as footnotes. This has resulted in some footnotes that contradict the main body of the text. For reference, the original errata list is included below.

Notes on the Current Edition of Cox’s


As this edition is a photographic reprint of the last it has not been possible to introduce emendations or additions, and it is thought that the following notes will be helpful to students using the book.

(Figures refer to pages and lines, thus: "46/8" means "page 46, line 8". The letter "m" after a line number means "from bottom of page").

xxiii/4. Read "passing through the world".

xxiv/11. For "pri tempoj" read "pri l’ tempoj".

33. Add prefix MIS-, denoting mis-, amiss, wrongly, erroneously.

37/18-20. The words "Kiuj ... week" should be transferred to par. (c).

37/8m. After "how much" insert "how many’th".

38/6 and 58/8. After "word" add "or words".

46/8. In the Fundamento, Zamenhof used capital letters to begin the names of months. In his mature style he also used capitals for nouns and adjectives of nationality, e.g. Angla, Anglo, Dana, Franco.

49/1m. For "Tiu" read "Tio".

53/19. The use here of the preposition je is not recommended.

66. The second paragraph requires qualification. For "adjectives and adverbs" read "derived adjectives and adverbs": the principle dealt with in the paragraph applies to words consisting of roots plus one or more grammatical endings. There are several words in Esperanto (e.g. tra, tre, tro, la, je, po) which are thus outside the principle as stated.

67/6. For "Tiu estas floro" read "Tio estas floro"

68. Section (b) is too strict. In practice the definite article is often used before proper names, and one can say (e.g.) la Alpoj, la Mediteraneo, etc.

69. In section (b) read "It is not generally used".

72/7m. For "Tiu estas ... " read "Tio estas ... "

73/4. Replace "Ĉu tiu ĉi ... " by "Ĉu ĉi tio ... "

80. Section (g). This use of unu is not recommended.

81/3m. For "kvaro da pikoj" read "kvaro pika", and for "seso da keroj" read "seso kera".

87/4. For "Tiu estas bela ... " read "Tio estas bela ... "

87/6. This use of ĝi for a person is not recommended, and li (or tiu) would be better in a case where there is doubt as to the sex.

96/11. For "Occasionally" read "Often". Zamenhof advised the placing of ĉi normally before the demonstrative,—as in the example (Ĉi tiu) here given, and ĉi tie, ĉi tien in the next paragraph.

101/2. "Mi ĵus ... " is preferable to "ĵus mi ... "

102/12m. For "Tagon" read "Iun tagon".

128/15. For "de du horoj" read "du horojn", and delete "from" in the next line.

140/8. For "plenaj je vivo" read "plenaj de vivo".

140/22. For "of speaking" read "spoken of".

165/6-8. For "more and more" read "in addition, besides". Delete "Malplie = Less and less" and "Malpleje = at (the) least, least", as these usages are seldom employed.

165/11. For "signifas" read "gravas".

170/5m. For "Mi jam ĝin ankoraŭ ... " read "Mi ĝin ankoraŭ ... "

175/7. For "He has nothing at all" read "He has none at all".

180. Delete the item "(Spite) ... " The expression "in spite of" is usually best translated by malgraŭ.

184/17. For "kaj tiam ... " read "kaj tuj poste ... "

184/20. For "kaj tiam kuris ... " read "kaj poste kuris ... "

187/16m. For "the preceding" read "this".

191/10. For "leĝoj" read "juro".

191/3m. For "da vortoj" read "de vortoj".

192/3m. For "de la breto" read "de sur la breto".

193/3 and 19. It is a question whether dum can ever be correctly described as adverb: and the reference to Zamenhof’s use of it as such is mistaken.

195/12m. For "en (or, el)" read "el". En cannot be correctly used here.

197/20. For "vidas" read "vidis".

199/20. For "diversaj flankoj" read "diversajn flankojn". (Alternatively, replace "en" by "al" and retain the nominative case).

201/22. For "havas la tempon" read "havas tempon".

203/16. For "Tiu estas verko ... " read "Tio estas verko ... "

204. Spite is not a preposition, but an adverb, and to translate the prepositional form "in spite of" it is usually better to use malgraŭ, as indicated above under the reference to p. 180. The expression in defiance of can be suitably rendered by spite followed by the accusative case (as shown in the footnote). In the Examples "ĉio" should be replaced by "ĉion" and "mia malamiko" by "mian malamikon".

206/4m. For "tiam" read "poste".

214/2. For "da vortoj" read "de vortoj".

216. Add Kontraŭ, as:—Li batalis kontraŭ la malamiko = He fought with the enemy.

219/6m. and 8m. Better use aliflanke for on the other hand.

233/8. For "armajo" read "armaĵo", and for "bovajo" read "bovaĵo".

233/15m. For "a good (action)" read "a good (action or thing)".

237/1m. For "lump" read "grain".

239/14m. Delete "serviceable": and replace "serviceableness" by "inclination to serve".

249/21. Delete this line. Magistrato does not mean a magistrate: it means the local civic authority (e.g. a Borough or District Council).

251/7. Asterisk amindumi.

273/4m. For "sukereron" read "sukerpecon", and delete the footnote.

276/12. For "miaj protestoj" read "miajn protestojn" and for "ĉio" read "ĉion".

276/18. For "tiam" read "poste".

279/2m. For "miljoro" read "miljaro".

288/5m. "mia" is here preferable to "miaj". (See Zamenhof’s Ekzercaro, par. 36).

290/5m. For "Tiu ĉi estis ..." read "Ĉi tio estis ..."

301/20. For "estas subtenita" read "estis subtenata".

304/1m. For "leteron" read "literon", and for "kiu" read "kaj tiu signo".

307/3m. For "el" read "pri".

311/10. For "unuenaskita" read "unuenaskito".

311/21. For "radika" read "radikala".

331/23. For "de ĉi tiu" read "de ĉi tio".

332/7. For "Kia lingvo estas?" read "Kia lingvo ĝi estas?"