The Project Gutenberg eBook of Cooley's Cyclopædia of Practical Receipts and Collateral Information in the Arts, Manufactures, Professions, and Trades..., Sixth Edition, Volume II

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Title: Cooley's Cyclopædia of Practical Receipts and Collateral Information in the Arts, Manufactures, Professions, and Trades..., Sixth Edition, Volume II

Author: Arnold James Cooley

Richard Vine Tuson

Release date: January 31, 2013 [eBook #41957]

Language: English

Credits: Produced by Chris Curnow, Leonora Dias de Lima, Henry
Gardiner and the Online Distributed Proofreading Team at


Transcriber’s Note: This is Volume II. Volume I is etext 39733 at Near the beginning of that volume will be found lists of the abbreviations used in this text. Near the end of this Volume II will be found a list of publications referenced in the footnotes.

The original publication has been replicated faithfully except as listed here.









Medicine, Pharmacy, Hygiene, and Domestic Economy










Medicina Literis.




Ink, Lithograph′ic. Prep. 1. Mastic (in tears), 8 oz.; shell-lac, 12 oz.; Venice turpentine, 1 oz.; melt together, add, of wax, 1 lb.; tallow, 6 oz.; when dissolved, further add of hard tallow soap (in shavings), 6 oz.; and when the whole is perfectly combined add of lampblack, 4 oz.; lastly, mix well, cool a little, and then pour it into moulds, or upon a slab, and when cold cut it into square pieces.

2. (Lasteyrie.) Dry tallow soap, mastic (in tears), and common soda (in fine powder), of each 30 parts; shell-lac, 150 parts; lampblack, 12 parts; mix as last. Both the above are used for writing on lithographic stones.

3. (Autographic.)—a. Take of white wax, 8 oz., and white soap, 2 to 3 oz.; melt, and when well combined, add of lampblack, 1 oz.; mix well, heat it strongly, and then add of shell-lac, 2 oz.; again heat it strongly, stir well together, cool a little, and pour it out as before. With this ink lines may be drawn of the finest to the fullest class, without danger of its spreading, and the copy may be kept for years before being transferred.

b. From white soap and white wax, of each 10 oz.; mutton suet, 3 oz.; shell-lac and mastic, of each 5 oz.; lampblack, 312 oz.; mix as above. Both the above are used for writing on lithographic paper. When the last is employed, the transfer must be made within a week.

Obs. The above inks are rubbed down with a little water in a small cup or saucer for use, in the same way as common water-colour cakes or Indian ink. In winter the operation should be performed near the fire, or the saucer should be placed over a basin containing a little tepid water. Either a steel pen or a camel-hair pencil may be employed with the ink. See Lithography.

Ink, Mark′ing. Syn. Indelible ink, Permanent i. Of this there are several varieties, of which the following are the most valuable and commonly used:—

1. Nitrate of silver, 14 oz.; hot distilled water, 7 fl. dr.; dissolve, add of mucilage, 14 oz.; previously rubbed with sap green or syrup of buckthorn, q. s. to colour. The linen must be first moistened with ‘liquid pounce,’ or ‘the preparation,’ as it is commonly called, and when it has again become dry, written on with a clean quill pen. The ink will bear dilution if the writing is not required very black.

The POUNCE or PREPARATION. A solution of carbonate of soda, 112 oz.; in water, 1 pint, slightly coloured with a little sap green or syrup of buckthorn, to enable the spots wetted with it to be afterwards known.

2. (Without preparation.) Take of nitrate of silver, 14 oz.; water, 34 oz.; dissolve, add as much of the strongest liquor of ammonia as will dissolve the precipitate formed on its first addition, then further add of mucilage, 112 dr., and a little sap green, syrup of buckthorn, or finely powdered indigo, to colour. Writing executed with this ink turns black on being passed over a hot Italian iron, or held near the fire.

3. Terchloride of gold, 112 dr.; water, 7 fl. dr.; mucilage, 2 dr.; sap green, q. s. to colour. To be written with on a ground prepared with a weak solution of protochloride of tin, and dried. Dark purple.

4. (Rev. J. B. Reade.) Nitrate of silver, 1 oz., tartaric acid (pure), 3 dr., are triturated together in a mortar in the dry state; a little water is then added, by which crystals of tartrate of silver are formed, and the nitric acid set free; the latter is then saturated with liquor of ammonia, sufficient being added to dissolve all the newly-formed tartrate of silver, avoiding unnecessary excess; lastly, a little gum and colouring matter is added.

5. (Rev. J. B. Reade.) To the last is added an ammoniacal solution of a salt of gold. Mr Reade has used for this purpose the ‘purple of Cassius,’ the hyposulphate, the ammonio-iodide, the ammonio-periodide of gold, but any other compound of gold which is soluble in ammonia will do as well. This ink is unacted on by nearly all those reagents which remove writing executed with solutions of the salts of silver alone, as cyanide of potassium, the chlorides of lime and soda, &c.

6. (Redwood.) Nitrate of silver and pure bitartrate of potassa, of each 1 oz. (or 4 parts), are rubbed together in a glass or Wedgwood-ware mortar, and after a short time liquor of ammonia, 4 oz. (16 parts, or q. s.), is added; when the solution is complete, archil, 4 dr. (or 2 parts); white sugar, 6 dr. (or 3 parts); and powdered gum, 10 dr. (or 5 parts), are dissolved in the liquor, after which sufficient water is added to make the whole measure exactly 6 fl. oz., when it is ready to be bottled for use. The last three are used in the same manner as No. 2.

7. (Dr Smellie.) From sulphate of iron, 1 dr.; vermilion, 4 dr.; boiled linseed oil, 1898 oz.; triturated together until perfectly smooth. Used with type.

8. (Soubeiran.) Nitrate of copper, 3 parts; carbonate of soda, 4 parts; nitrate of silver, 8 parts; mix, and dissolve in liquor of ammonia, 100 parts. Used like No. 2.

9. (Ure.) A strong solution of chloride of platinum, with a little potassa, and sugar and gum, to thicken.

10. The fluid contained between the kernel and shell of the cashew nut. On linen and cotton it turns gradually black, and is very durable. This has been called ANACARDIUM or CASHEW-NUT INK.

11. Sulphate of manganese, 2 parts; lampblack, 1 part; sugar, 4 parts; all in fine powder, and triturated to a paste with a little water. Used with types or stencil-plates; the part, when dry, being well rinsed in water. Brown.

12. Black oxide of manganese and hydrate of potassa are mixed, heated to redness in a crucible, and then triturated with an equal weight of pure white clay, and water, q. s. to give it due consistence. Used like the last. (Brown.)

13. (Aniline Black Marking Ink.) This ink is prepared by means of two solutions, one of copper, the other of aniline, prepared as follows:—

(1.) Copper solution. 8·52 grams of crystallised chloride of copper, 10·65 grams of chlorate of soda, and 5·35 grams of chloride of ammonium are dissolved in 60 grams of water.

(2.) Aniline solution. 20 grams of hydrochlorate of aniline are dissolved in 30 grams of distilled water, and to this are added 20 grams of solution of gum Arabic (1 part of gum to 2 of water) and 10 grams of glycerin.

By mixing in the cold 4 parts of the aniline solution, with 1 part of the copper solution, a greenish liquid is obtained which can be employed directly for the marking; but as this liquid can only be preserved for a few days without decomposition, it is advisable to keep the solution separately, until the ink is required for use.

The ink may be used either with a pen, or a stencil plate and brush; if it do not flow freely from the pen it may be diluted with a little water without fear of weakening the intensity of the colour. At first the writing appears of a pale green colour, but after exposure to the air it becomes black, or it may be changed to a black colour immediately, by passing a hot iron over the back of the fabric, or heating it over the flame of a spirit lamp. As, however, a dry heat is apt to make the fibre saturated with the ink, brittle, it is preferable to hold the marked fabric over a vessel, containing water in full ebullition; the heat of the vapour is sufficient to determine almost immediately, the reaction by which aniline black is formed. After the steaming, the writing should be washed in hot soapsuds, which gives the ink a fine blue shade. The ink is not acted upon by acids or alkalies, and if care be taken that the fibres are well saturated with it, there is no danger of its being removed by washing. (‘Dingler’s Journal.’)

14. In addition to the above formulæ, the following of M. Henry may be worthy of attention in large establishments where economy is an object:—Take 1 oz. of iron filings and 3 oz. of vinegar, or diluted acetic acid. Mix the filings with half the vinegar, and agitate them continually till the mixture becomes thick, then add the rest of the vinegar and 1 oz. of water. Apply heat to assist the action, and when the iron is dissolved, add 3 oz. of sulphate of iron, and 1 oz. of gum previously dissolved in 4 oz. of water; and mix the whole with a gentle heat. To be used with brush and stencil plates.

15. (Crimson Marking Ink.) Dissolve 1 oz. of nitrate of silver, and 112 oz. of carbonate of soda in crystals, separately in distilled water, mix the solutions, collect and wash the precipitate on a filter, introduce the washed precipitate still moist into a Wedgwood mortar, and add to it tartaric acid 2 dr. and 40 gr., rubbing together till effervescence has ceased; dissolve carmine 6 grains, in liquor ammoniæ (·882) 6 oz., and add to it the tartrate of silver, then mix in white sugar, 6 dr., and powdered gum Arabic, 10 dr., and add as much distilled water as will make 6 oz. (‘Pharm. Journal.’)

Obs. The products of the first two of the above formulæ constitute the marking ink of the shops. They have, however, no claim to the title of ‘INDELIBLE INK,’ “which no art can extract without injuring the fabric”—as is generally represented. On the contrary, they may be discharged with almost as much facility as common iron-moulds. This may be easily and cheaply effected by means of ammonia, cyanide of potassium, the chlorides of lime and soda, and some of the hyposulphites, without in the least injuring the texture of the fabric to which they may be applied. The only precaution required is that of rinsing the part in clean water immediately after the operation. The ‘marking ink without preparation’ is more easily extracted than that ‘with preparation.’ The former has also the disadvantage of not keeping so well as the latter, and of depositing a portion of fulminating silver, under some circumstances, which renders its use dangerous. The thinner inks, when intended to be used with type or plates, are thickened by adding a little more gum, or some sugar.

Ink, Mark′ing. Syn. Packer’s ink. Ink bottoms. Used by packers for marking bales, boxes, &c.

Ink, Perpet′ual. Prep. 1. Pitch, 3 lbs.; melt over the fire, and add of lampblack, 34 lb.; mix well.

2. Trinidad asphaltum and oil of turpentine, equal parts. Used in a melted state to fill in899 the letters on tombstones, marbles, &c. Without actual violence, it will endure as long as the stone itself.

Ink, Print′er’s. See Printing Ink.

Ink, Pur′ple. 1. A strong decoction of logwood, to which a little alum or chloride of tin has been added.

2. (Normandy.) To 12 lbs. of Campeachy wood add as many gallons of boiling water, pour the solution through a funnel with a strainer made of coarse flannel, or 1 lb. of hydrate, or acetate of deutoxide of copper finely powdered (having at the bottom of the funnel a piece of sponge); then add immediately 14 lbs. of alum, and for every 340 galls. of liquid add 80 lbs. of gum Arabic or gum Senegal. Let these remain for three or four days and a beautiful purple colour will be produced.

Ink, Red. Prep. 1. Brazil wood (ground), 4 oz.; white-wine vinegar (hot), 114 pint; digest in glass or a well-tinned copper or enamel saucepan, until the next day, then gently simmer for half an hour, adding towards the end gum Arabic and alum, of each 12 oz.

2. Ground Brazil wood, 10 oz.; white vinegar, 10 pints; macerate for 4 or 5 days; then boil as before to one half, and add of roach alum, 412 oz.; gum, 5 oz.; and when dissolved, bottle for use.

3. As the last, but using water or beer instead of vinegar.

4. Cochineal (in powder), 1 oz.; hot water, 12 pint; digest, and when quite cold, add of spirit of hartshorn, 14 pint (or liquor of ammonia, 1 oz., diluted with 3 or 4 oz. of water); macerate for a few days longer, and then decant the clear. Very fine.

5. (Buchner.) Pure carmine, 20 gr.; liquor of ammonia, 3 fl. oz.; dissolve, then add of powdered gum, 18 gr. Half a drachm of powdered drop lake may be substituted for the carmine where expense is an object. Colour superb.

6. (Henzeler.) Brazil wood, 2 oz.; alum and cream of tartar, of each 12 oz.; rain water, 16 fl. oz.; boil to one half, strain, add of gum (dissolved), 12 oz.; and when cold, further add a tincture made by digesting powdered cochineal, 112 dr., in rectified spirit, 112 fl. oz.

7. (Redwood.) Garancine and liquor of ammonia, of each 1 oz.; distilled water (cold), 1 pint; triturate together in a mortar, filter, and dissolve in the solution, gum Arabic 12 oz.

Ink, Se′pia. See Sepia.

Ink, Sil′ver. From silver leaf or powdered silver, as GOLD INK.

Ink, Sympathet′ic. Syn. Diplomatic ink, Invisible i. Fluids which, when used for writing, remain invisible until the paper is heated, or acted on by some other chemical agent. Sympathetic inks have been frequently employed as the instruments of secret correspondence, and have often escaped detection; but by heating the paper before the fire until it begins to grow discoloured by the heat, the whole of them may be rendered visible.

The following are the most common and amusing sympathetic inks:—1. Sulphate of copper and sal ammoniac, equal parts, dissolved in water; writes colourless, but turns YELLOW when heated.—2. Onion juice; like the last.—3. A weak infusion of galls; turns BLACK when moistened with weak copperas water:—4. A weak solution of sulphate of iron; turns BLUE when moistened with a weak solution of prussiate of potassa, and BLACK when moistened with infusion of galls.—5. The diluted solutions of nitrate of silver and of terchloride of gold; become respectively DARK BROWN and PURPLE when exposed to the sunlight.—6. Aqua fortis, spirits of salts, oil of vitriol, common salt, or saltpetre, dissolved in a large quantity of water; turns YELLOW or BROWN when heated.—7. Solution of chloride or nitromuriate of cobalt; turns GREEN when heated, and disappears again on cooling. If the salt is pure, the marks turn BLUE.—8. Solution of acetate of cobalt, to which a little nitre has been added; becomes ROSE COLOURED when heated, and disappears on cooling.—9. A weak solution of the mixed chlorides of cobalt and nickel; turns GREEN. The last three are about the best of our sympathetic inks.—10. Solution of acetate of lead; turns BROWNISH-BLACK when exposed to the fumes of sulphuretted hydrogen.—11. A weak solution of nitrate of mercury; turned BLACK by heat and sulphuretted fumes.—12. Rice water or decoction of starch; turned BLUE by a solution of iodine in weak spirit, and by the fumes of iodine, if the paper is first slightly moistened by exposure to steam or damp air.

Ink, Vi′olet. The same as PURPLE INK, but weaker.

Ink, Yel′low. 1. From gamboge (in coarse powder), 1 oz.; hot water, 5 oz.; dissolve, and when cold, add of spirit, 34 oz.

2. Boil French berries, 12 lb., and alum, 1 oz., in rain water, 1 quart, for half an hour, or longer, then strain and dissolve in the hot liquor gum Arabic, 1 oz.

Ink, Zinc Labels, to write on. Syn. Horticultural ink. 1. Dissolve 100 gr. of tetrachloride of platinum in a pint of water. A little mucilage and lamp black may be added.

2. Sal ammoniac 1 dr.; verdigris, 1 dr.; lampblack, 12 dr.; water, 10 dr.; mix.

INK POW′DERS. Prep. 1. Aleppo galls, 4 oz.; sulphate of iron, 112 oz.; gum Arabic, 1 oz.; lump sugar, 34 oz.; (all quite dry and in powder); mix, and divide into 3 packets. A pint of boiling water poured over one of them produces, in a few hours, a pint of excellent ink.

2. Aleppo galls, 3 lbs.; copperas, 1 lb.; gum Arabic, 12 lb.; white sugar, 14 lb.; all in powder; mix, and divide into two-ounce packets, to be used as the last. Ink powders are very useful in travelling.

INK STAINS, to remove. See Spots.

INOCULA′TION. Syn. Inoculatio, L. In medicine and surgery, the application of poisonous900 or infectious matter to any part of the body for the purpose of propagating a milder form of disease, and thus preventing or lessening the virulence of future attacks. In this country the term is generally restricted to the artificial propagation of smallpox. See Vaccination.

INOSIN′IC ACID. An acid said by Liebig to exist in the juice of the flesh of animals, after it has deposited its kreatine.

IN′OSITE. A species of unfermentable sugar, discovered by Scherer in the juice of flesh. It forms beautiful crystals.

IN′SECTS. Syn. Insecta, L. A class of invertebrate animals belonging to the subkingdom Annuloso. The true insect is defined as an articulated animal, having six legs, 2 antennæ, 2 compound eyes; a small brain at the anterior extremity of a double medullary cord; its circulation is effected by a pulsating dorsal vessel, provided with numerous valves; its respiration by tracheæ, which form 2 lateral trunks, and ramify through the body. The generation of insects is oviparous. There are two distinct sexes. The adult state is attained through a series of metamorphoses. In general, every insect possesses 2 pairs of wings; the trunk in the adult animal is usually composed of 3 chief parts—the head, thorax, and abdomen. The trunk of an insect may also be described as consisting of 13 segments, of which 1 constitutes the head, 3 constitute the thorax, and 9 the abdomen. Insects are arranged in the following orders:—1. Hymenoptera, including bees, wasps, ichneumon-flies, &c.—2. Coleoptera, including all those kinds commonly called beetles.—3. Neuroptera, dragon-flies, ephemeræ, white ants, &c.—4. Strepsiptera, the stylops, &c.—5. Lepidoptera, the butterflies and moths.—6. Diptera, the house-fly and other 2-winged insects.—7. Orthoptera, crickets, grasshoppers, locusts, earwigs, &c.—8. Hemiptera, bugs, frog-hoppers, aphides, &c.—9. Aptera, fleas, &c. There are several animals belonging to the classes MYRIOPODA and ARACHNIDA which are commonly but erroneously called ‘insects.’ Of these the centipedes, spiders, and acarides, or mites, are well-known examples. Several useful products, as SILK, WAX, HONEY, COCHINEAL, LAC, CANTHARIDES, &c., are supplied by insects. The class includes numerous creatures which are extremely destructive, and others which are regarded as domestic pests. In the articles devoted to these offensive insects various methods of exterminating them are noticed. A powder for destroying insects has recently been introduced into this country, and has been found peculiarly efficacious. This powder, which is known under various names (INSECTS-DESTROYING POWDER, DUMONT’S INSECTICIDE, &c.), is produced by the Pyrethrum roseum Caucasicum, a composite flower growing wild in the Caucasus. The central or tubular florets of the disc are alone employed, and when ground, furnish the powder of commerce. This powder, though so destructive to insect life, has no injurious effect upon man or domestic animals. See Acari, Ant, Bee, Bug, Bites and Stings, Cantharides, Cochineal, Lac, Pediculi, Silk, &c.


INTEM′PERANCE. Under this head we refer to habitual indulgence in the use of spirituous or fermented liquors, whether accompanied or not by fits of intoxication or drunkenness.

The pernicious influence of intoxicating liquors upon individuals and upon society has been so often and ably exposed by the clergy, judges, and magistrates, and by philanthropists of every kind, that it would be folly to do more than refer to it here. Fully one half of the dark or disreputable deeds of those who fill our gaols, and fully an equal proportion of the poverty and wretchedness which pauperises our population and crowds our workhouses, are traceable to this damning vice of the Anglo-Saxon race—intemperance.

To cure HABITUAL DRUNKENNESS various means have been proposed, most of which are more ingenious than useful. The following, however, deserves respectful notice:—

Dr Kain, an eminent American physician, recommends tartar emetic, given in alterative and slightly nauseating doses, for the cure of habitual drunkenness. “Possessing,” he observes, “no positive taste itself, it communicates a disgusting quality to those fluids in which it is dissolved. These liquors, with the addition of a very small quantity of emetic tartar, instead of relieving, increase the sensation of loathing of food, and quickly produce in the patient an indomitable repugnance to the vehicle of its administration. My method of prescribing it has varied according to the habits, age, and constitution of the patient. A convenient preparation of the medicine is 8 gr., dissolved in 4 oz. of boiling water; 12 an oz. (say a table-spoonful) of the solution to be put into half a pint, pint, or quart of the patient’s favorite liquor, and to be taken daily in divided portions. If vomiting and purging ensue” (which is seldom the case), “I should direct laudanum to allay the irritation, and diminish the dose. In some cases the change suddenly produced in the patient’s habits has brought on considerable lassitude and debility, which, however, were of short duration. In a majority of cases no other effect has been perceptible than slight nausea, some diarrhœa, and a gradual but very uniform distaste to the menstruum.”

Dr W. Marcet has described the more or less disordered state of the brain, nerves, muscles, and stomach, brought on by the continual use of alcohol, even without intoxication being produced. The symptoms of this state, which he terms CHRONIC ALCOHOLISM, are quite distinct from those of DELIRIUM TREMENS, which is an acute and violent901 disturbance of the nervous system. From experiments on a large number of patients, Dr Marcet has arrived at the important conclusion, that oxide of zinc is the true antidote in cases of slow alcoholic poisoning. It seems to act as a strong tonic on the nerves, being at the same time a powerful sedative and antispasmodic.[1]

[1] ‘On Chronic Alcoholic Intoxication.’ By W. Marcet, M.D., 1862.

The symptoms of actual intoxication, or the disordered condition of the intellectual functions and volition, produced by taking excessive quantities of alcoholic liquors, need not be described.

Among the remedies employed to remove the ‘fit of drunkenness,’ the preparations of ammonia, and the vegetable acids, are the most common and important. About 2 or 3 fl. dr. of aromatic spirits of ammonia (spirits of sal volatile), or a like quantity of solution of acetate of ammonia (mindererus spirit), mixed with a wine-glassful of water, will in general neutralise or greatly lessen the action of intoxicating liquors. In some cases these fluids produced vomiting, which is, however, a good symptom, as nothing tends to restore an inebriated person so soon as the removal of the liquor from the stomach. Hence tickling the fauces with the finger or a feather, until sickness comes on, is a method very commonly adopted by drunkards to restore themselves to a sober state. The use of aromatic water of ammonia was first suggested by Mr Bromly. With a like intention, some persons have recourse to soda water, which acts by the free carbonic acid it contains, and also as a diluent and, from its coldness, as a tonic on the coats of the stomach. The carbonates and bicarbonates of soda and potassa are also favourite remedies with habitual drunkards. Among the vegetable acids, acetic acid is the one that appears to possess the greatest power of removing intoxication; and after this follow the citric, tartaric, malic, and carbonic acids. These substances are commonly taken by soldiers before going to parade. The usual dose of vinegar is a small teacupful. In the West Indies lime juice and lemon juice are had recourse to. Both these juices act from the citric acid they contain. The use of bitter almonds, as a means of lessening or retarding the effects of fermented liquors was known to antiquity, and is still common among heavy drinkers at the present day. Even small doses of medicinal prussic acid have been foolishly taken with a like intention. See Abstinence, Alcohol, effects of, Delirium tremens, &c.

INTERMIT′TENT FEVER. Syn. Ague. A disease consisting of paroxysms or periods of fever with perfect intermissions or periods without fever. Marsh miasmata, or the effluvia arising from stagnant water or marshy ground, when acted upon by heat, are the most frequent causes of this malady. For the prevention of ague in situations where it prevails endemically, small doses of quinine should be taken two or three times a day, and flannel clothing should be constantly worn.

Symp. Each febrile paroxysm is of three periods or stages—the cold, the hot, and the sweating stage, and these occur in regular succession. The cold stage commences with great languor and aversion to motion; a sense of coldness down the back soon follows; then the extremities become cold, the fingers shrunken, and the nails blue; the skin assumes that peculiar condition which is commonly known as ‘goose-skin,’ the patient shivers, his teeth chatter, and he is glad to draw close to the fire or envelop himself in blankets. After this state of things has continued for a greater or less time, the heat of the surface begins to return, the patient has flushings and becomes warmer and warmer, and ultimately the whole surface is of a dry burning heat; intense thirst, restlessness, severe headache, and sometimes delirium, characterise this second or hot stage. After this stage has continued for some time, another change comes over the patient; moisture appears on the face and forehead, the harsh and hot skin becomes soft, and at last a copious sweat breaks out over the whole surface. This is the third or sweating stage, and after it has passed, the several functions of the system return to their ordinary condition. The paroxysm may return daily (QUOTIDIAN AGUE); or every other day (TERTIAN A.); or every fourth day, including that of the first attack (QUARTAN A.).

Treatm. During the cold stage everything should be done to bring on the hot; the patient should be placed in a warm bed, with warm pans or bottles of water; he may be allowed the free use of warm diluent drinks. In the hot stage the opposite course should be adopted; the coverings must be diminished and lemonade and other cooling drink administered. In the sweating stage there is no occasion for any treatment beyond care to avoid checking the perspiration by premature exposure. During the intermission the disease must be fought with the tonics, Peruvian bark, or its chief alkaloid, quinine. The most effective form of this remedy is the sulphate, which may be given in doses of from 2 to 4 gr. every three hours, the dose being greater for a quartan than for a quotidian. See Ague-cake, Fever, &c.

INTOXICA′TION. See Intemperance.

IN′ULIN. Syn. Inuline, Alantine, Dahline. A peculiar starch-like substance, first obtained by Rose from the root of Inula Helenium or elecampane. It has been found in several other vegetables.

Prep. From the rasped root, by the same method that is adopted for arrow-root or potato farina; or by boiling the sliced root in 7 or 8 times its weight of water, and after filtration,902 whilst hot, allowing the decoction to repose for a short time.

Prop., &c. Only very slightly soluble in cold water; very soluble in boiling water, but is nearly all deposited as the solution cools; it is precipitated by alcohol.

Inulin is distinguished from starch by giving a yellow or yellowish-brown instead of a blue colour with iodine; in the decoction not being precipitated by either acetate of lead or infusion of galls; and by the precipitate formed in the cold decoction by an infusion of gall-nuts not disappearing until the liquid is heated to above 212°, whilst the precipitate from starch redissolves at 122° Fahr. It appears to be a substance intermediate between starch and gum.

I′ODATE′. Syn. Iodas, L. A salt of iodic acid. The iodates closely resemble the chlorates of the corresponding metals. They are recognised by the development of free iodine when their solutions are treated with reducing agents; thus, sulphuretted hydrogen passed into a solution of iodate of potassium reduces this salt to an iodide, iodine being liberated and sulphuric acid and water formed. They deflagrate like the chlorates when heated with combustibles. They are all of sparing solubility, and many are quite insoluble in water. They may be made by adding iodine to soluble hydrates or carbonates, and crystallising the sparingly soluble iodate from the very soluble iodide. See Iodic acid, Iodine, and Potassium.

IODHY′DRIC ACID. See Hydriodic acid.

IOD′IC ACID. HIO3. Syn. Acidum iodicum, L.

Prep. 1. Iodate of sodium is dissolved in sulphuric acid in considerable excess, the solution boiled for 15 minutes, and then set aside to crystallise.

2. Decompose iodate of barium by dilute sulphuric acid.

3. (Boursen.) Iodine, 1 part; nitric acid (sp. gr. 1·5), 40 parts; mix, keep them at nearly the boiling temperature for several hours, or until the iodine is dissolved, then evaporate to dryness, and leave the residuum in the open air at a temperature of about 59° Fahr.; when, by attracting moisture, it has acquired the consistence of a syrup, put it into a place where the temperature is higher and the air drier, when in a few days very fine white crystals of a rhomboidal shape will form.

Prop., &c. Iodic acid is a crystalline solid, white or yellowish-white; it is decomposed into oxygen and iodine by a heat of about 450° to 500° Fahr.—a property of which we avail ourselves for the conversion of the salts of this acid (iodates) into iodides. It is very soluble in water, and is rapidly decomposed when heated with inflammable bodies. Iodic acid is used as a test for morphia and sulphurous acid. It has been employed as a tonic, stimulant, and alterative, in catarrhal hoarseness, strumous cases, incipient phthisis, &c.—Dose, 3 to 6 gr.

Test. When iodic acid is mixed with an equal quantity of an alkaloid (preferably quinine), on a capsule or watch-glass, and a drop or two of water added, several distinct explosions occur, accompanied by the copious evolution of gas. No other substance exhibits a similar reaction. See Iodate.

I′ODIDE. Syn. Ioduret*, Hydriodate*, Iodidum, Ioduretum, Hydriodas, L. A compound of iodine with a metal or other basic radical. The iodides belong to the same class of bodies as the bromides and chlorides, and may be, for the most part, made in the same manner. All the principal iodides are noticed under the names of their respective bases. See Iodine, &c.

I′ODINE. I. Syn. Iodum, B. P.; Iodinium (Ph. L. & D.), Iodineum (Ph. E.), L.; Iode, Fr.; Iod, Ger. An elementary substance accidentally discovered in 1812, by De Courtois, a saltpetre manufacturer at Paris. It was first examined and described by M. Clement, in 1813, and its precise nature was soon afterwards determined by Sir H. Davy and M. Gay-Lussac. In 1819, some six years after its discovery, iodine was first employed in pharmacy. The merit of the introduction of this powerful curative agent into medicine is due to Dr Coindet, a physician of Geneva, who in that year commenced a series of experiments upon it as a remedy for bronchocele or goitre. It is found in each of the three kingdoms of nature, but exists in greatest abundance in the vegetable family Algæ (Seaweeds).

Prep. Iodine is principally manufactured in the neighbourhood of Glasgow, from the mother-waters of kelp known as iodine lye.

1. Kelp, the half vitrified ashes of seaweed, is exhausted with water, and the solution filtered; the liquid is then concentrated by evaporation until it is reduced to a very small volume, the chloride of sodium, carbonate of sodium, chloride of potassium, and other salts, being removed as they successively assume the crystalline form; oil of vitriol is now added, in excess, to the residual dark-brown mother-liquor (iodine-lye), and the evolved gases are either kindled or allowed to escape by a flue; the liquid, after standing some time, is decanted or filtered, heated to about 140° Fahr., and mixed with as much binoxide of manganese as there was oil of vitriol employed; the whole is then introduced into a cylindrical leaden still, furnished with a very short head and connected with 2 or 3 large globular glass receivers, and heat is applied, when fumes of iodine are evolved and condensed in the receivers. During the distillation very great care is taken to watch the process, and prevent the neck of the still becoming choked with condensed iodine. For this purpose the head of the still is usually furnished with a movable stopper, by which the process may be watched,903 and additions of manganese or sulphuric acid made, if required. To render the product pure, it should be pressed between blotting paper, and then resublimed in glass or stoneware.

2. A solution of sulphate of copper, 4 parts, and protosulphate of iron, 9 parts, are added to the mother-liquid of the soda-works, as long as a white precipitate is thrown down; this precipitate (iodide of copper) is collected, dried, and mixed with its own weight of finely powdered black oxide of manganese, and distilled by a strong heat in a retort, when dry iodine passes over. By the addition of sulphuric acid with the manganese, a less heat is required, but the product is wet with water, like that of the last formula.

3. The residual liquor of the manufacture of soap from kelp (or other iodine lye), of the sp. gr. of 1·374, is heated to 230° Fahr., with sulphuric acid diluted with half its weight of water, after which the liquor is allowed to cool, and is either decanted or filtered; to every 12 fl. oz. of the filtrate 1000 gr. of black oxide of manganese, in powder, are added; the mixture is put into a glass globe or matrass with a wide neck, over which is inverted another glass globe, and heat is applied by means of a charcoal chauffer, when iodine sublimes very copiously, and condenses in the upper vessel; as soon as the latter is warm, it is replaced by another, and the two globes are thus applied in succession, as long as violet fumes are evolved. The iodine is washed out of the globes with a little cold water. A thin disc of wood, having a hole in its centre, is placed over the shoulder of the matrass, to prevent the heat from acting on the globular receiver. On the large scale, a leaden still, as before described, may be employed, and receivers of either stoneware or glass; and the addition of the sulphuric acid is made in a basin or trough of stoneware or wood. Prod. 12 oz. yield 80 to 100 gr.

4. Another method of preparing iodine has been patented by a Mr Stanford, which consists of compressing the wet weed, drying in an oven, and distilling at a high temperature. The inventor claims that double the usual amount of iodine is obtained besides other useful products.

5. Considerable quantities of iodine are now obtained from the mother-liquor of Chilian saltpetre or nitre (nitrate of soda). In 1873, a nitre refinery in Peru which separates the iodine in combination with copper, as cuprous iodide, by means of bisulphide of soda and sulphate of copper, produced 15,000 kilos of cuprous iodide, corresponding to 9000 kilos of iodine.

Other methods of obtaining it from Chilian nitre consist in treating the mother-liquors left after the salt has been crystallised out with sulphurous acid, until the separated iodine begins to redissolve. Nitrous acid has also been substituted for sulphurous. The iodine so procured is purified by sublimation, whilst that which remains in the residual saline matter is removed by treatment with chlorine.

Prop. Iodine is usually met with under the form of semi-crystalline lumps having a semi-metallic lustre, or in micaceous, friable scales, somewhat resembling plumbago or gunpowder. By carefully conducted sublimation, or by the slow evaporation of its solution in hydriodic acid, it may be obtained in rhombic plates an inch long. It has a greyish-black colour, a hot acrid taste, and a disagreeable odour not much unlike that of chlorine. It fuses at 225° into a deep-brown liquid, volatilises slowly at ordinary temperatures, boils at 347°, forming a magnificent violet-coloured vapour, when mixed with water it rapidly rises with the steam at 212° Fahr. It dissolves in about 7000 parts of water, and freely in alcohol, ether, solutions of the iodides, liquid hydriodic acid, chloroform, petroleum, bisulphide of carbon, &c. Most of these solutions have the brown colour of liquid iodine, but some (particularly those formed by the last three solvents named above) have the beautiful violet colour of the vapour. It bleaches like chlorine, only more feebly. Iodine has an extensive range of affinity; with the metals it forms compounds termed iodides, of which several are used in medicine. Its principal compounds with oxygen are the iodic and periodic anhydrides. Sp. gr. 4·946 to 4·948. According to Debaugne, the addition of syrup of orange peel or tannin to water greatly increases its power of dissolving iodine. 2 gr. of the latter will enable 6 fl. oz. of water to take 10 gr. of iodine. A knowledge of these facts may prove useful to the pharmaceutist.

Pur. It is entirely soluble in rectified spirit, and in a solution of iodide of potassium. On applying heat to it, it first liquefies, and then (wholly) sublimes in violet-coloured vapour. The iodine of commerce is usually that of the first sublimation, and generally contains from 12% to 20% of water. Some of the foreign iodine, prepared by precipitation with chlorine, without subsequent sublimation, even contains 1-4th part of water, and has a dead leaden-grey colour, and evolves a sensible odour of chlorine. Coal, plumbago, oxide of manganese, crude antimony, and charcoal, are also frequently mixed with iodine to increase its weight. Water may be detected by the loss of weight it suffers when exposed to strong pressure between bibulous paper; or more accurately by drying it in the manner directed below,—chlorine may be detected by the odour, and the other substances mentioned above, by their insolubility in rectified spirit and in a solution of iodide of potassium. Before use as a medicine it should be dried by being placed in a shallow basin, of earthenware, in a small confined space of air, with 10 or 12 times its weight of fresh-burnt lime, till it scarcely adheres to the side of a dry bottle, or else prepared904 from the commercial iodine as follows:—Place it in a deep circular porcelain capsule, and having covered it accurately with a glass matrass filled with cold water, apply a water heat to the capsule for 20 minutes, and then allow the whole to cool; should the sublimate attached to the bottom of the matrass include acicular prism of a white colour, and a pungent odour, it must be scraped off with a glass rod, and rejected; the apparatus is then to be again exposed to a gentle and steady heat until the whole of the iodine has sublimed; the sublimate is, lastly, to be collected from the bottom of the matrass, and at once enclosed in a stoppered bottle.

Tests. Free iodine may be recognised by the violet colour of its vapour, by its imparting a violet colour to bisulphide of carbon, and by its striking a blue colour with starch. The latter test is so delicate, that water containing only 1450000th part of iodine acquires a perceptible blue tinge on the addition of starch. Free iodine may be eliminated from solutions of iodides by chlorine, nitric acid, concentrated sulphuric acid and peroxide of manganese, and may be made evident by adding starch-paste. This reagent serves to detect minute traces of iodine in insoluble as well as in soluble compounds of that element. The substance under examination is mixed in a retort with concentrated nitric acid, and a strip of white cotton cloth moistened with a solution of starch suspended from the stopper; in a few hours the cloth will become coloured blue if the most minute trace of iodine be present. By mixing the liquid containing the iodine with the starch and acid, and lightly pouring thereon a small quantity of aqueous chlorine, a very visible blue zone will be developed at the line of contact, even in very dilute solutions.

Iodides give a pale yellowish precipitate with nitrate of silver, scarcely soluble in ammonia, and insoluble in dilute nitric acid; a bright yellow one with acetate of lead; and a scarlet one with bichloride of mercury. This distinguishes them from the iodates which give white precipitates with the same reagents. In solutions of alkaline iodides, chloride of palladium produces a black precipitate.

Estim. The proportion of free iodine in a mixture may be estimated: by separating it by heat, and collecting and weighing the sublimate; by solution in rectified spirit, adding water, and collecting the resulting precipitate, which must then be dried and weighed; by dissolving it in a solution of iodide of potassium, and then adding a standard solution of hyposulphite of sodium, until the whole of the free iodine is taken up, and the mixture no longer strikes a blue colour with starch. 24·8 gr. of the hyposulphite are necessary to absorb 12·7 gr. of free iodine;[2] by comparing the tint of a solution prepared by chloroform with that of a standard solution containing a known quantity of iodine, as in Crum’s process for estimating chlorine.

[2] For details of this and other methods of accurately determining the per-centage of iodine, free or combined, the reader is referred to Sutton’s “Systematic Handbook of Volumetric Analysis.”

Uses, &c. Iodine is chiefly used as a medicine, a chemical test, and in photography. Until within the last year it was largely used in the manufacture of the green coal-tar colours; these latter are now chiefly made from anthracene. In small doses it appears to be both alterative and tonic, rapidly diffusing itself through the body, and exerting a stimulating action on the organs of secretion. It is also said to be diuretic, and in some cases to have produced diaphoresis and salivation. Iodine has been exhibited in the following diseases, as well as in most others depending on an imperfect action of the absorbents, or accompanied by induration or enlargement of individual glands or organs:—Internally, in bronchocele, goitre, Derbyshire neck, scrofula, ovarian tumours, enlargement or induration of the lymphatic, prostate, and parotid glands, amenorrhœa, leucorrhœa, diseases of the muco-genital tissues, phthisis, chronic nervous diseases, lepra, psoriasis, chronic rheumatism, dropsies, hydrocele, &c.:—Externally, in scrofula, numerous skin diseases, (especially the scaly), erysipelas, diseased joints, chilblains, burns, scalds, various wounds, to check ulceration, to promote absorption, &c.—Dose, 12 gr. dissolved in spirit, or in water by means of an equal weight of iodide of potassium. It is seldom exhibited alone, being usually combined with the last-named substance, which, in fact, is now generally preferred by practitioners. It is applied externally in the form of ointment, solution, or tincture.

Iodine, Bro′mides of. Bromine and iodine unite rapidly by mere mixture. By careful distillation a red vapour is obtained, which, on cooling, condenses into red crystals, of a form resembling fern leaves. This is said to be the protobromide (IBr). By adding more bromine, these crystals are converted into a fluid, said to be a pentabromide (IBr5).

Iodine, Chlo′′rides of. When dry chlorine is passed over dry iodine, at common temperatures, heat is evolved, and a yellow solid terchloride (ICl3) results when the iodine is fully saturated, and an orange-red liquid protochloride (ICl) when the iodine is in excess. They both absorb moisture in the air, are volatile, and very soluble in water.

Iodine and Hydrogen. Hydriodic acid, HI. Syn. Iodhydric acid; Acidum Hydriodicum, L. An acid compound of iodine and hydrogen. Prep. 1. (Gaseous).—a. Into a glass tube, closed at one end, introduce a little iodine, then a small quantity of roughly powdered glass moistened with water, next a few small fragments of phosphorus, and upon this some more glass; this order (iodine, glass, phosphorus, glass) is to be repeated until the tube is one half or two thirds filled; a cork and905 delivery tube are then to be fitted, a gentle heat applied, and the gas collected by ‘downward displacement’ or over mercury. If the gas be passed into water a solution of hydriodic acid will be obtained.

Obs. Hydriodic acid gas can only be retained a short time over mercury, owing to its action on that metal.

b. Pour a little water over some pentiodide of phosphorus, previously put into a glass retort, apply a gentle heat, and collect the gas as before.

c. Heat together in a retort water, iodide of potassium, iodine, and phosphorus, and collect the gas as in b.

d. Place pure iodide of barium in a retort, and decompose it with sulphuric acid.

2. (Solution of Hydriodic acid.)—a. The gas prepared by either of the above methods passed into cold distilled water.

b. Iodine, in fine powder, is suspended in water, and a stream of sulphuretted hydrogen passed through the mixture as long as sulphur is deposited, or until it becomes colourless. The liquid is then gently heated, to expel the excess of sulphuretted hydrogen, and either decanted or filtered. A cheap and excellent process.

c. (Medicinal Hydriodic acid.) Dr Buchanan.—Tartaric acid, 264 gr.; pure iodide of potassium, 330 gr.; dissolve each separately in 112 fl. oz. of water; mix the solutions, and when the precipitate has settled decant the clear liquid, and add a sufficiency of water to make it up to 614 fl. oz. The liquid retains a little acid tartrate of potassium in solution, but this does not interfere with its medicinal properties. This preparation “possesses all the therapeutic powers of iodine without its irritating properties.” (Pereira.)—Dose, 12 to 1 fl. dr., gradually increased to 2 or 3 fl. dr., twice or thrice daily.

Prop., &c. Gaseous hydriodic acid is colourless, fumes in the air, is very soluble in water, and has a density of about 4·4. Liquid hydriodic acid, when strong, is very liable to decompose, and should be kept in well-stoppered bottles. Both the gas and the solution are decomposed by potassium, zinc, iron, and other metals, with the evolution of hydrogen and the formation of salts called iodides.

Iodized Cotton wool. (Mehu.) Prep. Finely powdered iodine (5 to 10 per cent.) is strewn upon loose cotton wool in such a manner that the glass jar in which this operation is performed contains alternate layers of cotton wool and iodine. The mixture is gently heated in the open jar on a water bath to expel the air; when this is accomplished the jar is closed and the application of heat continued for about two hours, during which the iodine vapour thoroughly penetrates the wool, imparting to it a yellow colour.

IODO′FORM. CHI3. Syn. Iodoformum, L. A solid, yellow, crystallisable substance, obtained by the action of iodine on alcohol.

Prep. 1. An alcoholic solution of potash is added to tincture of iodine, carefully avoiding excess; the whole is then gently evaporated to dryness, the residuum is washed with water, and then dissolved in alcohol; the alcoholic solution yields crystals by evaporation.

2. (Paris Pharmaceutical Society.) Pure carbonate of potash, 2 parts; alcohol (84°) 5 parts; distilled water, 15 parts. The potash, water, alcohol, and the iodine reduced to powder are placed together in a flask, and the whole heated in a water bath until the decoloration of the liquid. Another 12 part of iodine is then added and heat again applied, and the addition of the element is repeated until the liquid remains slightly brown coloured. It is then decolorised by the addition of one or two drops of caustic potash solution, and upon cooling crystals of iodoform are obtained.

These are collected upon a filter, washed lightly with cold distilled water, then dried upon blotting paper and enclosed in well-stoppered bottle.

By the evaporation of the mother liquor iodide of potassium is obtained.

Prop., &c. Nearly insoluble in water; freely soluble in alcohol; the solution is decomposed by caustic potassa into formic acid and iodide of potassa.—Dose, 12 gr. to 3 gr. Medicinal applications, the same as those of iodine itself.

IPECACUAN′HA. Syn. (Ipecacuanha, L.; Ipecacuhan, E., B. P.) Radix ipecacuanhæ, Ipecacuanha (Ph. L. E. & D.), L. The dried root of Cephaëlis Ipecacuanha, or the true ipecacuanha plant, one of the Cinchonaceæ. “Ashy coloured, tortuous, very much cracked, and marked in rings with deep fissures, having an acrid, aromatic, bitterish taste.” (Ph. L.) It occurs in pieces 3 or 4 inches long, and about the size of a writing quill.—Dose. As an emetic, 10 to 20 gr., assisted by the copious use of warm water; as a nauseant, 1 to 3 gr.; as an expectorant and sudorific, 12 to 1 gr. It is undoubtedly the safest and most useful medicine of its class. It has recently been highly recommended in dyspepsia, combined with other bitters or aperients. Almond meal is sometimes used as an adulterant in ipecacuanha powder.

The following is Bucholz’s analysis of ipecacuanha root:—

Emetic extractive (emetina) 4·13
Soft resin 2·43
Wax 0·75
Gum 25·17
Starch 9·00
Woody fibre 10·80
Bitter extractive 10·12
Sugar 2·00
Extractive, gum and starch extracted by potash 34·80
Loss 0·80


The annexed process for the determination of the emetina in ipecacuanha is by Zenoffsky:—Take 15 grammes of the root, mix with 15 drops of dilute sulphuric acid, and so much of 85 per cent. alcohol that the volume shall be 155 c.c. Digest 24 hours, filter, measure 100 c.c. of the filtrate, evaporate the alcohol, and add a deci-normal solution of iodo-hydrargyrate of potassium until no more reaction takes place. The number of c.c. of the reagent used multiplied by 0·0189 (110000th of an equivalent of emetine) gives the amount of emetine in the 10 grammes of root to which the 100 c.c. of liquid corresponds. The deci-normal solution of iodo-hydrargyrate of potassium is made by dissolving 13·546 grammes of mercuric chloride and 49·8 grammes of potassium iodide in water, and making up to 1 litre.

Quantitative determination showed that one c.c. of such a solution corresponds to 0·0189 gramme of emetine. To perform the volumetric estimation, the standard solution is added to the liquid containing the alkaloid, until no more turbidity is produced. To determine the end of the reaction, filter a few drops on to a watch-glass (placed on black glazed paper) and touch with a glass rod previously moistened with the standard solution. To prevent loss both filter and filtrate should be returned to the liquor.

IRID′IUM. Ir. A rare metal discovered by Descotils in 1803, and by Tennant in 1804, in the black powder left in dissolving crude platinum. This powder is an alloy of iridium with osmium. The metal is also found native and nearly pure amongst the Uralian platinum ores.

Prep. The native alloy of iridium and osmium remaining after dissolving crude platinum in aqua regia is reduced to powder, mixed with an equal weight of dry chloride of sodium, and heated to redness in a glass tube, through which a stream of moist chloride gas is transmitted. The further extremity of the tube is connected with a receiver containing liquor of ammonia. Chloride of iridium and chloride of osmium are produced; the former remains in combination with the chloride of sodium; the latter, being volatile, is carried forward into the receiver, where it is decomposed into osmic and hydrochloric acids, which combine with the ammonia. The contents of the tube, when cold, are treated with water to dissolve out the double chloride of iridium and sodium; the solution thus formed is mixed with an excess of carbonate of sodium, and evaporated to dryness. The residue is ignited in a crucible, boiled with water, and dried; it then consists of a mixture of sesquioxide of iron and a combination of oxide of iridium with sodium hydrate. It is reduced by hydrogen at a high temperature, and treated successively with water and strong hydrochloric acid, which remove the alkali and the iron, leaving metallic iridium in a divided state. By strong pressure and exposure to a welding heat, a certain degree of compactness may be given to the product.

Prop., &c. Brittle, white, very hard, only fusible by the strongest heat of Deville’s gas furnace. In its pure state it is not acted upon by any of the acids, but it is oxidised by fusion and nitre, and by ignition to redness in the air. An ingot of iridium, weighing 2734 oz., melted by Deville’s process, was displayed in Messrs Johnson and Matthey’s case at the International Exhibition of 1862. An alloy of iridium and osmium (artificial or native) has been employed for tipping the nibs of gold pens (everlasting pens).

Iridium, Chlo′rides of. Dichloride. IrCl2. An olive-green powder formed by transmitting chlorine over powdered iridium, heated to a dull red, or by digesting the hydrated protoxide in hydrochloric acid. Sesquichloride, Ir2Cl6, obtained by calcining iridium with nitrate of potassium, digesting in nitric acid, washing with water, and solution in hydrochloric acid. Tetrachloride, IrCl4, obtained in solution by adding hydrofluosilicic acid to the tetrachloride of iridium and potassium (formed when chloride is passed over a heated mixture of iridium and chloride of potassium). Hexachloride, IrCl6, obtained in combination with potassium by heating iridium with nitrate of potassium, dissolving in aqua regia, and evaporating to dryness.

Iridium, Ox′ides of. Monoxide, IrO, prepared by adding potassium hydrate to the hexachloride of iridium, and digesting the precipitate in an acid. It is a heavy black powder, insoluble in acid. Sesquioxide, Ir2O3, is best prepared by fusing in a silver crucible a mixture of carbonate of potassium and the double chloride of iridium and potassium, and boiling the product in water. Bluish-black TRIOXIDE, IrO3, is produced when carbonate of potassium is gently heated with hexachloride of iridium. A greyish-yellow hydrate, containing alkali.

IRITIS. A very dangerous disease of the eye, producing inflammation in the iris or coloured circle which surrounds the pupil. Iritis is frequently produced by rheumatism, as well as by scrofula and gout, and often places the sight in great peril.

The symptoms are pains around the ball of the eye and on the brow, which increase at night, cloudiness of the cornea, difficulty, and inequality of contraction in the pupil, change of colour in the iris, frequently disturbed vision, and much pain in and watering from the eye when the patient is placed in the light, particularly a strong light.

We have described the principal symptoms of this serious disorder in order that any one affected by them may at once seek the assistance of a skilful surgeon or oculist.

I′RON. Fe. Syn. Ferrum, L.; Fer, Fr.; Eisen, Ger. The history of this most important907 metal extends to the remote past. The discovery of an iron rod in one of the Assyrian bronzes brought to England by Mr Layard established the interesting fact that this metal was known and commonly employed, where strength was required, nearly 3000 years ago. Rust of iron and scales of iron were used as medicines at a period equally remote.

Sources. Iron in a metallic state (native iron) is of very rare occurrence; but it invariably enters into the composition of meteorites. Combined with oxygen and other elements, as iron ores, it occurs in nearly every part of the earth. These ores may be divided into the oxides and the carbonates. The oxides may be again divided into four distinct classes, viz.—(1) Magnetic iron ore, consisting of 31% protoxide and 69% sesquioxide, with an insignificant proportion of silica; (2) specular iron, or iron glance, composed of the sesquioxide, with a small admixture of magnetic oxide; (3) red hæmatite, consisting of the sesquioxide nearly in a state of purity; and (4) brown hæmatite, the hydrated sesquioxide of iron. The carbonates are principally two, viz.—(5) spathose iron, the protocarbonate of iron in a sparry condition, and (6) clay ironstone or black band ironstone, which consists of the protocarbonates associated with clay and carbonaceous matter.

Swedish iron is made almost entirely from No. 1, which occurs in massive beds at Arendahl and Dannemora, in Sweden. This iron is of great purity, being perfectly free from sulphur and phosphorus. The titaniferous iron sand found at Taranaki, in New Zealand, consists almost entirely of No. 1 and the metal titanium. No. 2 found principally in the island of Elba, in the form of rhombohedral crystals. The micaceous iron ore found in small quantities in Wales and Lancashire has nearly the same composition, but crystallises in brilliant plates. No. 3 occurs in radiated fibrous masses in different parts of the world. It is found in large quantities in Wales and Lancashire, some of the specimens from the latter locality containing nearly 99% of the sesquioxide. It makes excellent iron. No. 4 occurs in reddish-brown masses of a botryoidal form. It is a valuable ore, and is found in England, Wales, and Scotland. No. 5 is found chiefly at Siegen, in Prussia. No. 6 is the principal ore of the Staffordshire and Scotch iron districts, where it occurs in great abundance, associated with the fuel and the flux required for smelting it. Iron is contained in plants, and forms an essential component of the blood of the higher animals.

Prep., &c. Iron is only prepared on the large scale, and an account of the manufacture would be out of place here. Those requiring detailed information must consult the elaborate works of Percy, Hunt, Fairbairn, Phillips, and other metallurgists.

Pure iron may be prepared by introducing fine iron wire, cut small, 4 parts, and black oxide of iron, 1 part, into a Hessian crucible; covering with a mixture of white sand, lime, and carbonate of potassium (in the proportions used for glass-making); and, after applying a closely fitting cover, exposing the crucible to a very high degree of heat. A button of pure metal is thus obtained, the traces of carbon and silicon present in the wire having been removed by the oxygen of the black oxide.

Prop., &c. The properties and uses of iron are too well known to require description. Its applications are almost universal. It is remarkably ductile, and possesses great tenacity, but is less malleable than many of the other metals. Its sp. gr. is 7·844. It is the hardest of all the malleable and ductile metals, and when combined with carbon (steel) admits of being tempered to almost any degree of hardness or elasticity. In dry air it does not oxidise at common temperatures; but at a red heat it soon becomes covered with a scaly coating of black oxide, and at an intense white heat burns brilliantly with the production of the same substance. Pure water, free from air or carbonic acid, does not tarnish the surface of polished iron, but the combined action of air and moisture, especially when a little acid vapour is present, causes its surface to be soon covered with rust, which is hydrated sesquioxide of iron (ferric hydrate). Nearly all acids attack iron; dilute sulphuric and hydrochloric acid do so with considerable energy and the evolution of hydrogen gas. At a red heat iron decomposes water rapidly, hydrogen being evolved, and the black oxide of iron formed. Iron is magnetic up to a dull-red heat, at which point it loses all traces of that property. It melts at about 3300° Fahr. With oxygen, chlorine, iodine, the acids, &c., it forms numerous important compounds. As a remedial agent, when properly exhibited, iron acts as a genial stimulant and tonic, and generally proves beneficial in cases of chronic debility, unaccompanied with organic congestion or inflammation. The carbonate (ferrous carbonate), as it exists in mineral waters, held in solution by carbonic acid in excess, appears to be the form most congenial to the human body; and from its state of dilution is rapidly absorbed by the lacteals, and speedily imparts a ruddy hue to the wan countenance. Iron is undoubtedly one of the most valuable articles of the materia medica, and appears from the antiquity of its introduction into medicine, and the number of its preparations, to have been deservedly appreciated.

Tests. Iron forms two classes of salts, namely, ferrous or proto salts, in which iron exhibits a power of combining with two atoms of any monad element, and the ferric or persalts in which iron has a capacity of uniting with three atoms of any monad element.

The ferrous or proto salts have generally a greenish colour, but yield nearly colourless908 solutions, except when concentrated. Their solutions are known by the following reactions:—They are not precipitated by hydrosulphuric acid when acid, and but incompletely when neutral. Sulphide of ammonium produces a black precipitate, becoming brown on exposure to the air, insoluble in alkalies, but easily soluble in the mineral acids. Ammonia and potassa give a greenish-white precipitate, gradually becoming green and then brown in the air. This precipitate occasionally is of a bluish-black if excess of potassa is used. The presence of ammoniacal salts interferes with the action of these tests. Ferrocyanide of potassium gives a nearly white precipitate, becoming gradually blue in the air, and immediately so on the addition of a little weak nitric acid or chlorine water. Ferricyanide of potassium produces a rich deep-blue precipitate, insoluble in hydrochloric acid. In highly dilute solutions the effect is only a deep bluish-green coloration. Phosphate of sodium produces a white precipitate, which after a time becomes green.

The ferric salts, which are also called the sesqui or persalts of iron, have for the most part a reddish-yellow colour, yielding deep-coloured solutions, which exhibit the following reactions:—They redden litmus paper. Hydrosulphuric acid in acid solutions reduces ferric to ferrous salts, giving a white or yellow precipitate of sulphur only. In alkaline solutions it yields a blackish precipitate, consisting of sulphur and ferrous sulphide. Sulphide of ammonium gives similar reaction. Ammonia and potassa produce bulky reddish-brown precipitates insoluble in excess. Ferrocyanide of potassium gives a rich blue precipitate, insoluble in hydrochloric acid, and readily decomposed by potassa. Ferricyanide of potassium deepens the colour, but does not give a blue precipitate, as it does with ferrous salts (proto salts). Sulphocyanide of potassium gives an intense ruby-red colour to neutral or acid solutions. Tincture and infusion of galls strike a black colour. Phosphate of sodium gives a white precipitate, which becomes brown, and finally dissolves on the addition of ammonia.

Estim. The iron may be thrown down in the state of ferric hydrate or hydrated sesquioxide, washed, dried, ignited, and weighed. The weight, in grains, multiplied by ·7, indicates the weight of metallic iron.

Fifty gr. of the ore are reduced to powder, dissolved in aqua regia, with the aid of heat, and the solution filtered in order to separate the silica and a little alumina which sometimes is left in an insoluble state; an excess of ammonia is then added to the filtered liquor, which produces a reddish-brown precipitate of ferric hydrate mixed with alumina which is collected on a filter, washed, and boiled with a solution of potassa, in order to dissolve the alumina; the whole is next thrown upon a filter, washed, dried, carefully ignited, and weighed. The above is well adapted to determine the quantity of iron in clay ironstone, the most common ferruginous ore in England.

The sulphur in cast and wrought iron, and steel, may be estimated by the following process, invented by M. Koppmayer:—10 grammes of iron, finely produced and sifted, are introduced into a bottle holding from 12 to 13rd litre. The stopper has three holes. Through one of these passes a funnel with a ground-glass tap, its neck reaching to the bottom of the bottle. Through the second passes the tube at right angles, fitted with a tap and reaching also to the bottom of the bottle.

Through the third hole passes a delivery tube, connecting the bottle to the condensing apparatus.

This latter consists of a series of bulbs arranged like a staircase, so as to permit the gas to come into the greatest possible contact with the standard solution of iodine in iodide of potassium, with which the condenser is filled, this solution ought not to be exposed to light.

When the apparatus is arranged as above, the atmospheric air is first driven out of the bottle by means of a current of hydrogen gas, introduced by the tube bent at right angles. When it is considered that the air is entirely expelled, the tap of this tube is closed. The funnel is now filled with hydrochloric acid, its tap is opened, and by means of the application of heat the acid is allowed to run down upon the iron without allowing any common air to enter. Hydrogen and sulphuretted hydrogen are formed which pass into the condenser.

Acid is thus added until all disengagement of gas ceases. The bottle is then heated till its contents boil, a little water having been first added by means of the funnel. After these operations, hydrogen is allowed to enter anew to sweep out all remaining gases. The iodised solution is then poured out, care being taken to rinse the bulb-tube thoroughly, and titrated with hyposulphite of soda, so as to find the remaining proportion of free iodine. The difference between the original amount of free iodine present in the solution, and the amount thus found, shows the proportion of iodine which has been converted into hydriodic acid, and which is proportional to the sulphur contained in the sample under examination.

Iron, Preparations of:—

Ferric Acetate. Fe2(C2H3O2)6. Syn. Peracetate of iron; Ferri sesquiacetas, L. Prep. Ferric carbonate, 1 part; acetic acid, 6 parts; digest three days and filter. A dark brownish-red, uncrystallisable liquid, very soluble and powerfully astringent. The calcined sesquioxide of iron of the shops, commonly sold as carbonate of iron, does not answer well for this or any of the sesqui-compounds, owing to its being with difficulty dissolved by acids, especially by the weaker ones.—Dose. (Of the last) 10 to 25 drops, in water or wine.


Ferric Albuminate. Syn. Ferri albuminas, L. Prep.

Precipitate a filtered solution of white of egg with another of ferric sulphate or persulphate of iron, wash the deposit in water, and dissolve it in alcohol holding potassium hydrate in solution.

This preparation is highly spoken of by M. Lassaigne as especially adapted by its nature, on theoretical grounds, for combining with the tissues of the body.

Ferric Citrate. Fe2(C6H5O7)2. Syn. Percitrate of iron, Citrate of Sesquioxide of i., Citrate of i.; Ferri citras.

Prep. By saturating a solution of citric acid in an equal weight of water with freshly precipitated moist hydrated ferric hydrate, evaporating at 150° Fahr. to the consistence of a syrup, and spreading on glass plates to dry.

By either of the methods adopted for the AMMONIO-CITRATE, merely omitting the addition of the ammonia. It much resembles the ammonio-citrate, but is only slightly soluble in water, and has a rather less agreeable taste.—Dose, 3 to 5 gr.

Ferric and Ammonium Citrate. Syn. Ammonio-citrate of iron: Ammonio ferric citrate; Ferri ammonio citras. L. There are several preparations in which the term ‘citrate of iron’ has been applied. That commonly known under this name is really a double citrate of iron and ammonia, and appears to be correctly called ‘ammonio-citrate of iron.’

B. P. Liquor Ferric Persulphatis (B. P.), 8; liquor ammonia, 1912; citric acid (in crystals) 4; distilled water, a sufficiency, mix 14 of the solution of ammonia, with 40 of water, and all gradually; the solution of ferric sulphate stir constantly and briskly; let the mixture stand two hours, and put into a calico filter and allow to drain. Wash well the precipitate until it no longer gives a precipitate with barium chloride. Dissolve the citric acid in 8 oz. of the water, and having applied the heat of a water bath add the precipitate of ferric hydrate previously well drained, stir them together until the whole or nearly the whole of the hydrate has dissolved. Let the solution cool, then add 512 of the ammonia, filter through flannel, evaporate to the consistency of syrup, and dry it in thin layers on flat porcelain or glass plates at a temperature not exceeding 100°.

Prep. (Ph. L.) Ferrous sulphate, 12 oz.; carbonate of sodium, 1212 oz.; dissolve each separately in boiling distilled water, 6 pints; mix the solutions whilst still hot, and allow the precipitate to subside; after a time decant the supernatant liquor, wash the precipitate frequently with water (drain it), add of citric acid (in powder), 6 oz., and dissolve by the aid of a gentle heat; when the whole has cooled, add of liquor of ammonia, Ph. L., 9 fl. oz., and gently evaporate to the consistence of a syrup; in this state spread it very thinly on flat earthenware dishes (or sheets of glass), dry by a gentle heat, and when dry keep it in well-stoppered bottles.

(Ph. D.) Citric acid, 4 oz.; distilled water, 16 fl. oz.; hydrated ferric oxide, obtained from the sulphate, 5 oz.; liquor of ammonia, 4 fl. oz., or q. s.

(Wholesale.) A mixture of iron filings and citric acid, in powder, with barely sufficient water to cover it, is kept in a warm situation for some days, occasionally stirring the mass, and replacing the water as it evaporates. A saturated solution is next made in distilled water, there being previously added more citric acid (about half the weight of the acid first used), as required; it is then neutralised with liquor of ammonia (about 114 oz. of liquor of ammonia, sp. gr. ·882, to every gallon of the solution of sp. gr. 1·025), and the solution is concentrated by evaporation; the process is then completed as in No. 1. The first part of this process produces a salt of the protoxide of iron, or ferrous citrate, which is afterwards converted, by exposure to the atmosphere, into a citrate of the magnetic acid, or ferri, ferro-citrate, and, lastly, into citrate of peroxide of iron, or ferric citrate.

B. P. Liquor Ferri Persulphatis 8. Liquor ammoniæ 1912. Citric acid (in crystals) 4. Distilled water, a sufficiency. Mix 14 of the solution of ammonia with 40 of water, and add gradually the solution of ferric sulphate. Stir constantly, let the mixture stand 2 hours and filter through calico, and allow to drain. Wash until the washing ceases to precipitate barium chloride, dissolve the citric acid in 8 of water, add the precipitated ferric hydrate, and heat in a water bath until dissolved. Let the solution cool, add 512 of the ammonia, filter through flannel, evaporate to the consistency of syrup, and dry on flat porcelain plates in thin layers at a temperature below 100° F.

Obs. Pharmaceutical writers have been so diffuse in their disquisitions on the preparation of this salt, as would lead to the inference that there is some difficulty attending it. The contrary is, however, the case. The only care necessary is to spread the syrup solution very thinly on warm sheets of glass to dry, which it will rapidly do if they are placed in an atmosphere of warm dry air, for which purpose a ‘drying closet’ is the most convenient. The dry salt may then be easily detached from the glass, and will form thin scales, or lamellæ, of great brilliancy and beauty. It is also better to use a little more oxide than the acid will dissolve, as the remainder will be employed in a future operation. Less water may be used, or even a larger quantity than that mentioned; but in the first case the liquid will become difficult to filter—in the latter it will require more evaporation. Boiling water dissolves about twice its weight of citric acid, and there remains 1320ths of this quantity in solution when cold, and it takes rather more than910 twice the weight of the citric acid in moist hydrated protoxide of iron to produce saturation.

Prop., &c. This beautiful salt is of a rich ruby colour, and forms glistening transparent scales, very soluble in aqueous menstrua, and the resulting solution is less easily decomposed by reagents than the solutions of most of the other salts of iron. It is ‘compatible’ with the alkaline of carbonates and bicarbonates, and several other salts, and is nearly tasteless, advantages which have been perhaps overrated by both prescriber and patient. It is doubtful whether this article has not obtained a larger sale from its pleasing appearance than from its medicinal virtues. Several persons who have prepared it in lumps or powder, by the simple evaporation of the solution to dryness, have been unable to sell it under that form, even at a lower price.

Ammonio-citrate of iron is soluble in water; the solution neither changes the colour of litmus nor turmeric; nor is it turned blue by ferrocyanide of potassium; but either potassium hydrate or lime water being added, it throws down ferric hydrate, and ammonia is evolved. From 100 gr. dissolved in water, potassium hydrate precipitates about 34 gr. of ferric hydrate.—Dose, 3 to 10 gr., in water, wine, or bitter infusions.

Ferric and Strychnine Citrate. (U. S.) Syn. Ferri et strychniæ citras. Prep. Citrate of iron and ammonia, 500 gr.; strychnia, 5 gr.; citric acid, 5 gr.; distilled water, 9 fl. dr. Dissolve the citrate of iron and ammonia in 1 oz. of the water, and the strychnia and nitric acid in 1 dr. of distilled water. Mix the two solutions, evaporate the mixture over a water bath, at 140° Fahr., to the thickness of a syrup, and spread on glass plates, so that the salt, when dry, may be obtained in scales.

Ferric and Magnesium Citrate. Syn. Citric of iron and magnesia; Ferri magnesio citras; Ferri et magnesiæ citras, L. Prep. As the last, but using carbonate of magnesium instead of ammonia to neutralise the solution.—Dose, 2 to 10 gr. It has been recommended as a chalybeate in the dyspepsia of gouty and debilitated habits.

Ferric and Quinine Citrate. Syn. Citrate of quinine and iron; Ferri-quinio-citras, L. As the ammonio-citrate, but using quinine, recently precipitated, instead of ammonia, to neutralise the acid.

B. P. Pure ferric hydrate is prepared from liquor ferri persulphatis, 412 pints, and liquor ammoniæ, 8 pints, as in the ferric and ammonium citrate. Sulphate of quinine 1 is mixed with water 8, and sulphuric acid 112, and when dissolved, ammonia added until the quinine is precipitated. The precipitate is collected and washed with 30 of water. Citric acid 3 is dissolved in 8 of water by the aid of a water bath, and the ferric hydrate, well drained, added; stir together until dissolved, and add the quinine, stirring well until all is dissolved, and allow to cool; add 112 of solution of ammonia diluted with 2 of water, stirring the solution briskly until the quinine at first thrown down by the ammonia is redissolved; filter and evaporate to a syrup, drying in thin layers on flat porcelain or glass plates at a temperature of 100°.

Ferric citrate, 4 parts; citrate of quinine, 1 part; distilled water, q. s.; dissolve, gently evaporate, and proceed as directed for ammonio-citrate of iron. Greenish golden-yellow scales when prepared by the B. P. process, soluble in 2 parts of water, and somewhat deliquescent; entirely soluble in ether; taste bitter as well as chalybeate.—Dose, 2 to 6 dr.; in cases where the use of both iron and quinine is indicated.

Ferric and Sodium Citrate. Syn. Ferri sodio-citras, Ferri et sodæ citras, L. Prep. From citric acid, carbonate of sodium, and iron or the hydrate, as the ammonio-citrate or potassio-citrate.

Ferric Chlo′ride. Fe2Cl6. Syn. Sesquichloride of iron, Perchloride of iron, PERMURIATE OF I.; Ferri sesquichloridum, L. Prep. 1. (Anhydrous.) By passing dry chlorine over heated iron filings. Brown scales.

(Hydrated.) Dissolve ferric hydrate in hydrochloric acid, evaporate to the consistence of a syrup, and crystallise. Yellow or red scaly crystals. The impure solution of this salt has been greatly used as a sewage deodoriser. See Tincture.

Ferric and Ammonium Chloride (Fe2Cl6NH4Cl.Aq). Syn. Double chlorides of iron and ammonium, Ammonio-chloride of iron; Ferri ammonium chloridum.

Ferric oxide, 3 oz.; hydrochloric acid, 12 pint; digest in a sand bath until dissolved, then add of ammonium 212 lbs., dissolved in water, 3 pints; filter the liquid, evaporate to dryness, and reduce the mass to coarse powder. Orange-coloured crystalline grains readily soluble in water.

Ammonio-chloride of iron is tonic, emmenagogue, and aperient.—Dose, 5 to 15 gr.; in glandular swellings, obstructions, &c.

Ferric Ferrocy′anide. (Fe4(FeCy6)3. 18Aq). Syn. Sesquiferrocyanide of iron, Prussian blue; Ferri ferrocyanidum, F. sesquiferrocyanidum, L. Prep. Ferrous sulphate, 4 oz.; water, 1 pint; dissolve, add to the solution of nitric acid, 6 fl. dr., in small portions at a time, boiling for a few moments after each addition; next dissolve ferrocyanide of potassium, 412 oz., in water, 1 pint, and add this last solution, by degrees, to the first liquid, stirring well each time; lastly, collect the precipitate, wash it with boiling water, drain, and dry it.—Dose, 3 to 5 gr., three or four times daily, as an alterative, febrifuge, and tonic, gradually increasing the quantity until some obvious effect is produced; in911 agues, epilepsy, and neuralgia. See Prussian blue.

Ferric Hydrate. Fe2(HO)6. See under Ferric Oxide.

Ferric Iodide. Fe2I6. Syn. Ferri periodidum, L. Prep. Freely expose a solution of ferrous iodide to the air; or digest iodine, in excess, on iron, under water, gently evaporate, and sublime. A deliquescent, volatile red compound, soluble in water and alcohol. It is rarely employed in medicine.

Ferric Oxide. Fe2O3. Syn. Sesquioxide of iron, Peroxide of iron, Red oxide of i.; Ferri sesquioxydum, F. peroxydum, F. oxydum rubrum, L. This substance is found native under several forms, but that employed in the arts is prepared by one or other of the following methods:—

From metallic iron. From iron wire or clean iron filings cut into pieces, moistened with water, and exposed to the air until completely converted into rust; it is then ground with water, elutriated, and dried, in a similar way to that adopted for chalk. For sale, it is usually made up into small conical loaves or lumps.

By calcination:—(Brown-red colcothar, Crocus, Indian red, Rouge, Jewellers’ r.; Ferri oxydum rubrum, L.)—Calcine ferrous sulphate until the water of crystallisation is expelled, then roast it with a strong fire until acid vapours cease to rise; cool, wash the residuum with water until the latter ceases to affect litmus, and dry it.

Ferrous sulphate, 100 parts; common salt, 42 parts; calcine, wash well with water, dry, and levigate the residuum. This process yields a cheap and beautiful product, which is frequently sold for the ferri sesquioxydum; but it is less soluble, and therefore unfitted for a substitute for that preparation.

By precipitation;—Ferri sesquioxydum—B. P., Ferri oxydum rubrum—Ph. E. L. By precipitating a solution of ferric sulphate or chloride with ammonia, in excess, and washing, drying, and igniting in the resulting hydrate. Pure; anhydrous.

Ferrous sulphate, 4 lbs.; sodium carbonate, 4 lbs. 2 oz.; dissolve each separately in water, 3 galls.; mix the solution whilst hot, set the mixture aside, that the precipitate may subside, and subsequently wash and dry it as before. Contains water, and a trace of alkali.

Ferric hydrate, Ferri peroxydum hydratum—(Ph. D., Ferrugo—Ph. E.)—a. (Ph. E.) Ferrous sulphate, 4 oz.; sulphuric acid, 312 fl. dr.; water, 1 quart; mix, dissolve, boil, and gradually add of nitric acid, 9 fl. dr.; stirring well and boiling for a minute or two after each addition, until the liquor yields a yellowish-brown precipitate with ammonia; it must then be filtered and precipitated with liquor of ammonia (fort.), 312 fl. oz.; rapidly added and well mixed in; collect the precipitate, wash it well with water, drain it on a calico filter, and dry it at a heat not exceeding 180° Fahr. When intended as an antidote for arsenic it should not be dried, but kept in the moist or gelatinous state.

Ferric peroxide, moist (B. P.) Syn. Ferri peroxidum humidum. Prep. Mix solution of persulphate of iron (B. P.), 4 fl. oz., with 1 pint of distilled water, and add it gradually to 33 fl. oz. of solution of soda (B. P.), stirring constantly and briskly. Let them stand for two hours, stirring occasionally; then put on a calico filter, and when the liquid has drained away, wash the precipitate with distilled water till what passes through ceases to give a precipitate with chloride of barium. Lastly, enclose the precipitate without drying it in a stoppered bottle, or other vessel, from which evaporation cannot take place.

Dry hydrate of peroxide of iron (B. P.). Ferri peroxidum hydratum. Dry the moist peroxide, 1 lb., at a temperature not exceeding 212° Fahr., till it ceases to lose weight. Reduce to a fine powder.—Dose, 5 to 30 grains.

Prop. Ferric oxide, prepared by precipitation (1, c), is an impalpable powder, of a brownish-red colour, odourless, insoluble in water, freely soluble in acids, and possessing a slightly styptic taste, especially when recently prepared. When exposed to heat its colour is brightened, its sp. gr. increased, and it is rendered less easily soluble in acids. The oxide prepared by calcination is darker and brighter coloured, less soluble, and quite tasteless. It has either a scarlet or purplish cast, according to the heat to which it has been exposed. The finest Indian red, or crocus, usually undergoes a second calcination, in which it is exposed to a very intense heat. It is then known as ‘purple brown.’ The best jeweller’s rouge is prepared by calcining the precipitated oxide until it becomes scarlet.

The hydrate is of a yellowish-brown colour, and though it can be dried without decomposition, it requires to be kept in a moist state. It is best preserved in a well-stoppered bottle, filled with recently distilled or boiled water.

Pur. Medicinal ferric oxide or sesquioxide of iron (FERRI SESQUIOXYDUM, Ph. L. & D.) is soluble in dilute hydrochloric acid, scarcely effervescing, and is again thrown down by potassa. The strained liquor is free from colour, and is not discoloured by the addition of either sulphuretted hydrogen or ferrocyanide of potassium.

The hydrate (FERRI PEROXYDUM HYDRATUM—Ph. D., FERRUGO—Ph. E.) is entirely and very easily soluble in hydrochloric acid, without effervescence; if previously dried at 180° Fahr., a stronger heat drives off about 18% of water.

Uses, &c. The precipitated oxide is employed in medicine as a tonic and emmenagogue, in doses of 10 to 30 gr.; and as an anthelmintic and in tic douloureux, in doses of 1 to 4 dr., mixed up with honey. It is also912 employed to make some preparations of iron. The calcined oxide is employed as a pigment, as an ingredient in a plaster, &c. The hydrate is used medicinally as a tonic in doses of 10 to 30 gr.; and in much larger, as an antidote in cases of arsenical poisoning.

We are indebted to Bunsen and Berthold for the introduction of this substance as an antidote to arsenic. A table-spoonful of the moist oxide may be given every 5 or 10 minutes, or as often as the patient can swallow it. (Pereira.) When this preparation cannot be obtained, rust of iron or even the dry so-called carbonate (sesquioxide) may be given along with water instead. According to Dr Maclagan, 12 parts, and to Devergie, 32 parts, of the hydrate are required to neutralise 1 part of arsenious acid. Fehling says that the value of this substance as an antidote to arsenic is materially impaired by age, even when kept in the moist state. The presence of potassium, sodium, ammonium, hydrates, sulphates, chlorides or carbonates, is not of consequence, and, therefore, in cases of emergency, time need not be lost in washing the precipitate, which, in such cases, need only be drained and squeezed in a calico filter. The magma obtained by precipitating ferrous sulphate with magnesia, in excess, and which contains free magnesia and magnesium sulphate, besides ferric hydrate, precipitates arsenious acid not only more quickly, but in larger quantity, than ferric hydrate does when alone. It will even render inert Fowler’s solution, and precipitate both the copper and arsenic from solutions of Schweinfurt green in vinegar, which the pure gelatinous oxide alone will not do.

Soluble Saccharated Oxide of Iron. (G.) Syn. Ferrum oxydatum saccharatum solubile. Prep. Solution or perchloride of iron (sp. gr. 1·480), 2 oz. (by weight); syrup, 2 oz. (by weight); mix, and add gradually, solution of caustic soda (sp. gr. 1·330); 4 oz. (by weight); and set aside for 24 hours; then add to the clear liquid 30 fl. oz. of distilled hot water; agitate and set aside. Pour off the supernatant liquid from the precipitate which will have formed, and pour on fresh distilled water; then collect the precipitate on a filter and wash thoroughly with distilled water.

Put the drained precipitate into a porcelain vessel, and mix with it 9 oz. of sugar in powder, and evaporate to dryness with constant stirring over a water bath, then mix in enough sugar in powder to make up 10 oz. by weight; reduce to powder and keep in a closed vessel. One hundred parts contain three of metallic iron.

Ferric Nitrate. Fe2(NO3)6. Syn. Proto nitrate of iron, Nitrate of sesquioxide of iron; Ferri pernitras, L. By digesting nitric acid (diluted with about half its weight of water) on iron or ferric hydrate. A deep-red liquid, apt to deposit a basic salt. It is used in dyeing, and has been recommended in dyspepsia, calculous affections, and chronic diarrhœa.—Dose, 5 to 10 or 12 drops.

Ferric Phosphate. Fe2H3(PO4)3. Syn. Ferric orthophosphate (Odling); Ferri sesquiphosphas, Phosphas ferricus, L. A white powder obtained by precipitating ferric chloride by sodium phosphate.—Uses and dose. As the last.

Ferric pyrophosphate. Fe6(P2O7)3. A salt containing ferric iron combined with the radical of pyrophosphoric acid.

Prep. By precipitating a solution of ferric sulphate with one of pyrophosphate of sodium, taking care to operate at a temperature below 59° Fahr.

Prop., &c. A gelatinous precipitate which dissolves with facility in excess of pyrophosphate of sodium. The citrate of ammonium is the most eligible solvent according to M. Robiquet, who first called attention to this salt as a remedial agent.—Dose, 5 to 10 gr.

Ferric Sulphate. Fe2(SO4)3. Syn. Persulphate of iron, Sulphate of sesquioxide of iron; Ferri persulphas, L. Prep. By adding to a solution of ferrous sulphate exactly half as much sulphuric acid as it already contains, raising the liquid to the boiling-point, and then dropping in nitric acid, until the liquid ceases to blacken by such addition. The solution evaporated to dryness furnishes a buff-coloured mass, slowly soluble in water.

Prop., &c. With the sulphates of ammonium and potassium it unites to form compounds to which the name ‘iron alums’ has been given. It forms the active ingredient in the ‘liquor oxysulphatis ferri’ of Mr Tyson, and is said by Dr Osborne to be a constituent of ‘Widow Welch’s pills.’ This salt is also formed when ferrous sulphate is calcined with free exposure to the air. Dissolved in water, it is used as a test for hydrocyanic, gallic, and tannic acids.

Ferric Sulphide. Syn. Persulphide of iron. This compound is prepared in the hydrated state (FERRI PERSULPHURETUM HYDRATUM) by adding, very gradually, a neutral solution of ferric sulphate to a dilute solution of potassium sulphide, and collecting, &c., the precipitate, as in the case of the hydrated ferrous sulphide. Proposed by Bouchardat and Sandras as a substitute for ferrous sulphide, to which they say it is preferable.

Ferric Tan′nate. Syn. Ferri tannas, Ferrum tannicum, L. Prep. From tannin, 1 part; boiling water, 150 parts; dissolve, add of freshly precipitated ferric hydrate (dried at 212° Fahr.), 9 parts; evaporate by a gentle heat to one half, filter, add of sugar 1 part, complete the evaporation, and at once put it into bottles.—Dose, 3 to 5 gr., thrice daily; in chlorosis, internal hæmorrhages, &c.

Double Ferric and Ammonium Tartrate. Syn. Ammonio tartrate of iron, Double tartrate of iron and ammonium; Ammonio913 ferric tartrate, Ferri ammonio tartrate; Ferri ammonio tartras.

Prep. (Aikin.) Tartaric acid, 1 part; iron filings, 3 parts; digest in a sufficient quantity of hot water to barely cover the mixture for 2 or 3 days, observing to stir it frequently, and to add just enough water to allow the evolved gas to escape freely; next add ammonia, in slight excess, stir well, dilute with water, decant, wash the undissolved portion of iron, filter the mixed liquors, and evaporate to dryness; dissolve the residuum in water, add a little more ammonia, filter, and again gently evaporate to dryness, or to the consistence of a thick syrup, when it may be spread upon hot plates of glass or on earthenware dishes and dried in a stove-room, as directed for the corresponding citrate.

Tartaric acid, 612 oz.; water, 7 pints; dissolve, neutralise the selection with sesquicarbonate of ammonium, and add 614 oz. more tartaric acid; to the solution heated in a water bath, further add moist hydrated oxide of iron (obtained from sesquioxide of iron, 5312 dr., dissolved in hydrochloric acid, and precipitated by ammonia); when dissolved, filter, and evaporate, &c., as before.

Prop., &c. Glossy, brittle lamellæ, or irregular pieces, of a deep garnet colour, almost black, very soluble in water, and possessing a sweetish and slightly ferruginous taste. By repeated re-solution and evaporation its sweetness is increased, probably from the conversion of a part of its acid into sugar. It contains more iron than a given weight of the sulphate of the same base. It is the most pleasant-tasted of all the preparations of iron except the ammonio-citrate, last noticed.—Dose, 3 to 10 gr.

Ferric and Potassium Tartrate. Syn. Tartrate of potassa and iron, Ferro-tartrate of potassa; Ferric tartrate of p.; Ferri tartaratum (B. P.), Ferri potassio-tartras (Ph. L.), Ferrum tartarizatum (Ph. E.), Ferri tartarum (Ph. D.), Ferri et potassæ tartras (Ph. U. S.), L. Prep. (B. P.) Prepare ferric hydrate from 4 fl. oz. of liq. ferri persulphas, B. P., as in making the double citrate, and add it to 2 oz. of the acid tartrate of potassium, dissolved in 30 oz. of water. Digest for 6 hours at 140°, allow to cool, and decant off the clear solution, which is to be evaporated down and dried on glass plates.—(Ph. L.) Ferrous sulphate, 4 oz., is dissolved in water, 1 pint, previously mixed with sulphuric acid, 12 fl. oz.; heat is applied to the solution, and nitric acid, 1 fl. oz., gradually added; the solution is boiled to the consistence of a syrup, and then diluted with water, 4 galls. (less the pint already used); liquor of ammonia, 10 fl. oz., is next added, and the precipitate washed, and set aside for 24 hours; at the end of this time, the water being decanted, the still moist precipitate is added, gradually, to a mixture of bitartrate of potassium, 2 oz., and water, 12 pint, heated to 140° Fahr.; after a time the undissolved oxide is separated by a linen cloth, and the clear solution either gently evaporated to dryness or treated in the same manner as the citrate (lastly, preserve it in well-stoppered bottles). The formulæ of the Ph. E., D., & U. S., are essentially the same. The Ph. D. orders a heat not beyond 150° Fahr. to be applied to the mixture of the oxide and bitartrate, with occasional stirring for 6 hours, and the desiccation to be conducted at the same temperature.

Obs. This preparation is a double salt of potassium and iron; it is therefore wrongly called ‘tartrate of iron’ as is commonly heard. It is totally soluble in water; the solution is neutral to litmus and turmeric, unaffected by ferrocyanide of potassium, and not precipitated by acids nor alkalies, nor acted on by the magnet. Heated with potassa, 100 gr. throws down about 34 gr. of sesquioxide of iron. Entirely soluble in cold water; taste freely chalybeate. That of commerce has generally a feebly inky taste a slight alkaline reaction, is slightly deliquescent, dissolves in 4 parts of water, and is nearly insoluble in alcohol.

Potassio-tartrate of iron is an excellent ferruginous tonic.—Dose, 10 to 20 gr., made into a bolus with aromatics, or dissolved in water or other convenient menstruum.

Ferric Valerianate. Syn. Valerianate of sesquioxide of iron, Valeriate of iron; Ferri valerianas (Ph. D.), L. Prep. (Ph. D.) By adding a solution of sodium valerianate to another of ferric sulphate, and collecting and washing the precipitate, which is to be dried by placing it for some days folded in bibulous paper, on a porous brick; after which it is to be carefully kept from the air.

Prop., &c. A reddish-brown amorphous powder; nearly insoluble in water; soluble in rectified spirit, and in the dilute acids with decomposition. Citrate or tartrate, flavoured with oil of valerian, is frequently sold for it.—Dose, 1 to 3 gr.; in anæmia and chlorosis complicated with hysteria.

Ferroso-Ferric Hydrate. Fe3(HO)6. Syn. Hydrated ferroso-ferric oxide, Hydrated magnetic oxide. (B. P.) Liquor ferri persulphas, 512; ferri sulphas, 2; solution of soda, 80; distilled water, a sufficiency. Dissolve the ferrous sulphate in 40 of water, add the solution of soda, stirring them well, boil the mixture, let it stand for two hours, put in a calico filter, wash with distilled water until the washing gives no precipitate with barium chloride, and dry at a temperature not exceeding 120.

Ferrous sulphate, 6 oz.; sulphuric acid, 160 minims; nitric acid, 4 fl. dr.; stronger solution of ammonia, 412 fl. oz.; boiling water, 3 pints; dissolve half of the sulphate in half of the water, add the oil of vitriol, boil, add the nitric acid gradually, boiling after each addition for a few minutes; dissolve the remaining half of the sulphate in the rest of914 the boiling water; mix the two solutions, add the ammonia, stirring well (and boil for a short time); collect the precipitate on a calico filter, wash it with water until it ceases to precipitate a solution of nitrate of barium, and dry at a heat not exceeding 183° Fahr. The formulæ of Gregory and Dr Jephson are similar.

Ferrous sulphate, 8 oz., dissolved in a mixture of water, 10 fl. oz., and sulphuric acid, 6 fl. dr., is converted by means of nitric acid, 4 fl. dr., diluted with water, 2 fl. oz., into ferric sulphates; this solution is then added to another, formed by dissolving ferrous sulphate, 4 oz., in water, 12 pint; the whole is then mixed with liquor of potassium hydrate, 234 pints, and after being boiled for 5 minutes is collected on a calico filter, and washed, &c., as before; and is to be preserved in a well-stoppered bottle.

Prop., &c. The hydrate is a black sand-like substance, consisting of very minute crystals. When pure it is attracted by the magnet, and is entirely soluble in hydrochloric acid; and ammonia added to the solution throws down a black precipitate. The oxide is the chief product of the oxidation of iron at a high temperature in the air and in aqueous vapour. It is more permanent than ferrous oxide, but incapable of forming salts.—Dose, 5 to 20 gr. two or three times a day.

Ferroso-ferric Oxide. Fe3O4. Syn. Magnetic o. of i.; Ferri oxydum nigrum, F. o. magneticum (Ph. D.), Oxydum ferroso-ferricum, L. This occurs native, but that used in medicine is prepared artificially.

From the black scales of iron that fall around the smith’s anvil, by washing, drying, detaching them from impurities by means of a magnet, and then treating them by grinding and elutriation, as directed for prepared chalk. The product of this process is inferior as a medicine to the hydrate obtained as below, being less easily soluble in the juices of the stomach.

Ferroso-ferric Oxide. Fe3O4. Syn. Magnetic oxide. See Ferroso-ferric oxide.

Iron, Black Oxide of. (B. P.) Syn. Ferri oxydum magneticum; Ferri oxydum nigrum; Martial æthiops. Prep. Dissolve sulphate of iron, 2 oz., in 2 pints of distilled water, and add solution of persulphate of iron (B. P.), 512 fl. oz., then mix with solution of soda, 4 pints (B. P.), stirring well together. Boil the mixture, let it stand for 2 hours, stirring occasionally, then put it on a calico filter, and when the liquid has drained away wash the precipitate with distilled water till what passes through ceases to precipitate chloride of barium. Finally, dry the precipitate at a temperature not exceeding 120° Fahr.—Dose, 5 to 10 gr.

Ferrous Acetate. Fe(C2H3O2)2. Syn. Ferri acetas, L. Prep. 1. From freshly precipitated ferrous carbonate dissolved in dilute acetic acid.

2. By adding a solution of calcium acetate to another of ferrous sulphate, and evaporating the filtered liquid, out of contact with the air. Small, colourless, or pale-greenish needles or prisms, very soluble and prone to oxidation.

Ferrous Arsenate. Fe3(AsO4)2. Syn. Ferri arsenias, L. Prep. 1. From a solution of sodium arseniate, added to a solution of ferrous sulphate, the precipitate being collected, washed in a little cold water, and dried.—Dose, 120 to 112 gr., made into a pill; in lupus, psoriasis, cancerous affections, &c. Externally, combined with 4 times its weight of ferrous phosphate and a little water, as a paint to destroy the vitality of cancerous formations. An ointment (20 to 30 gr. to the oz.) is also used for the same purpose. They are all dangerous remedies in non-professional hands.

2. (B. P.) Prep. Sulphate of iron, 9 oz.; arseniate of soda dried at 300° F., 4 oz.; acetate of soda, 3 oz. Dissolve the arseniate and the acetate of soda in 2 pints, and the sulphate of iron in 3 pints, of boiling distilled water, mix the two solutions, collect the white precipitate which forms on a calico filter, and wash until the washings cease to be affected by a dilute solution of chloride of barium. Squeeze the washed precipitate between folds of strong linen in a screw-press, and dry it on porous bricks in a warm air-chamber whose temperature shall not exceed 100° F.—Dose, 116th of a gr.

Ferrous Arsenite. Fe(AsO2)2. Syn. Ferri arsenis, L. From the potassium arsenite, and ferrous sulphate, as the last. A yellowish-brown powder, occasionally used in medicine as a tonic, alterative, and febrifuge.—Dose, 116 to 112 gr.

Ferrous Bromide. FeBr2. Syn. Ferri bromidum, L. Prep. (Moir.) Bromine and iron filings, of each 1 part; water, 3 parts; mix in a stoppered phial, set it aside, occasionally shaking it, for 2 or 3 days, and when the colour of the bromine has disappeared, and the liquid becomes greenish, filter and evaporate to dryness.—Dose, 1 to 6 gr., as a tonic, diuretic, and resolvent, in similar cases to those in which iodide of iron is given.

Ferrous Carbonate. Fe(CO3). Syn. Protocarbonate of iron; Ferri carbonas, F. subcarbonas, L. This occurs in nature as SPATHOSE ORE, the chief constituent as of CLAY IRONSTONE, and in many CHALYBEATE WATERS.

Prep. (B. P.) Ferrous sulphate (sulphate of iron), 2; ammonium carbonate, 114; boiling distilled water, 320; refined sugar, 1. Dissolve the sulphate and ammonium carbonate each in 14 of the water, and mix; allow to stand for 24 hours and decant, of the clear solution, add the remainder of the water to the precipitate, stir well, allow to settle, and decant off. Collect the deposit in a calico filter, press, rub in the sugar in a915 porcelain mortar, and dry at a temperature not exceeding 212° Fahr. Small coherent grey lumps. Precipitate a solution of ferrous sulphate with a solution of sodium carbonate, well wash the green powder with water which has been boiled, and dry it out of contact with the air. On the slightest exposure to air it is converted into ferrous hydrate or oxide. This change is for the most part prevented by combining it with sugar, as in the following preparation.

With sugar: Ferri carbonas saccharata, B. P.; SACCHARINE C. OF I.; FERRUM CARBONICUM SACCHARATUM, FERRI CARBONAS CUM SACCHARO—Ph. L., FERRI CARBONAS SACCHARATUM—Ph. E. & D. L.—(Ph. L.) Ferrous sulphate, 4 oz.; sodium carbonate, 414 oz.; dissolve each separately in quart of boiling water, and mix the solutions whilst hot; after a time collect the precipitate, wash it frequently with water, and add of sugar, 2 oz., previously dissolved in water, 2 fl. oz.; lastly, evaporate the mixture over a water bath to dryness, and keep it in a well-closed bottle.

Prop., &c. A sweet-tasted greenish mass or powder, consisting chiefly of carbonate of iron. It is one of the best of the chalybeates.—Dose, 5 to 10 gr. When pure, it should be easily soluble in hydrochloric acid with brisk effervescence.

Ferrous Chloride. FeCl2. Syn. Protochloride of iron; Muriate of iron; Ferri chloridum, L. Prep. 1. (Anhydrous.) By passing dry hydrochloric acid gas over ignited metallic iron. The chloride sublimes in yellowish crystals.

2. (Hydrated.) Dissolve iron filings or scale in hydrochloric acid, evaporate and crystallise. Soluble green crystals.

Ferrous Citrate. Fe3(C6H5O7)2. Syn. Protocitrate of iron, Citrate of protoxide of iron. This salt is easily formed by digesting iron filings or wire with citric acid, and evaporating the solution as quickly as possible out of contact with the air. It presents the appearance of a white powder, nearly insoluble in water, and rapidly passing to a higher state of oxidation by exposure to the air. Its taste is very metallic. It is exhibited under the form of pills, mixed with gum or syrup, to prevent it from being prematurely decomposed.

Ferrous Ferricy′anide. Syn. Ferridcyanide of iron. Prep. By adding a solution of potassium ferricyanide (‘red prussiate of potash’) to a solution of ferrous sulphate (or any other soluble ferrous salt), and collecting and drying and precipitate. A bright-blue powder. (See Turnbull’s blue.)

Ferrous Hydrate. Fe2(HO)2. See under Ferrous oxide.

Ferrous Hydrate. Fe(HO)2. May be precipitated from ferrous solutions as a white powder, by alkaline hydrates. It rapidly absorbs oxygen, and turns first green, and then red, by exposure to the air. Both the oxide and hydrate are very powerful bases, neutralising the acids and forming stable salts, which, when soluble, have commonly a pale green colour, and a nauseous metallic taste.

Ferrous Hypophosphite. Syn. Ferri hypophosphis. From the double decomposition of hypophosphite of lime and sulphate of iron, as hypophosphite of potash.

Ferrous Iodide. FeI2. Syn. Protoiodide of iron, Iodide of iron; F. iodidum, Ferri hydriodas, F. ioduretum, L. Prep. (B. P.) Fine iron wire, 1; iodine, 2; distilled water, 10. Introduce the iron, iodine, and 8 of water into a flask, heat it about ten minutes, and boil until all the red colour is gone. Filter through paper into a polished iron dish, washing with the rest of the water, and boil until a drop of the solution taken out on iron wire solidifies on cooling. Pour on porcelain and cool. (Ph. L. 1836.) Iodine, 6 oz.; iron filings, 2 oz.; water, 412 pints; mix, boil in a sand bath until the liquid turns to a pale green, filter, wash the residuum with a little water, evaporate the mixed liquors in an iron vessel at 212° Fahr. to dryness, and immediately put the iodide into well-stoppered bottles.

Iodine, 1 oz., and clean iron filings or turnings, 12 oz., are put into a Florence flask with distilled water, 4 fl. oz., and having applied a gentle heat for 10 minutes, the liquid is boiled until it loses its red colour; it is then at once filtered into a second flask, the filter washed with water, 1 fl. oz., and the mixed liquid is boiled down, until it solidifies on cooling.

With sugar: Saccharine iodide of iron, Saccharum ferri iodidi, Ferri iodidum saccharatum, L. Iron (in powder), 1 dr.; water, 5 dr.; iodine, 4 dr.; obtain a solution of iodide of iron, as above, and add to it of sugar of milk (in powder), 114 oz.; evaporate at a temperature not exceeding 122° Fahr., until the mass has a tenacious consistence, then further add of sugar of milk, 1 oz., reduce the mixture to powder, and preserve it in a well-stoppered bottle. Every 6 gr. contains 1 gr. of iodide of iron.

From “syrup of iodide of iron” exposed in a shallow vessel, in a warm place, until it crystallises; the crystals are collected, dried, and powdered. A simpler plan is to gently evaporate the whole to dryness, and to powder the residuum. The saccharine iodide may be kept for some time in a corked bottle without undergoing decomposition.

Obs. The preparation of the above compound, like that of the citrates, has formed a fertile subject during some years for pharmaceutical amateurs to dilate upon. There is in reality not the least difficulty in the process. As soon as iodine and iron are mixed together under water much heat is evolved, and if too much water be not used the combination is soon complete, and the liquor merely requires916 to be evaporated to dryness, out of contact with the air, at a heat not exceeding 212° Fahr. This is most cheaply and easily performed by employing a glass flask, with a thin broad bottom and a narrow mouth, by which means the evolved steam excludes air from the vessel. The whole of the uncombined water may be known to be evaporated when vapour ceases to condense on a piece of cold glass held over the mouth of the flask. A piece of moistened starch paper occasionally applied in the same way will indicate whether free iodine is evolved; should such be the case, the heat should be immediately lessened. When the evaporation is completed, the mouth of the flask should be stopped up by laying a piece of sheet india rubber on it, and over that a flat weight; the flask must be then removed, and when cold broken to pieces, the iodide weighed, and put into dry and warm stoppered wide-mouth glass phials, which must be immediately closed, tied over with bladder, and the stoppers dipped into melted wax.

Prop., &c. Ferrous iodide evolves violet vapours by heat, and ferric oxide remains. When freshly made it is totally soluble in water, and from this solution, when kept in a badly stoppered vessel, ferric hydrate is very soon precipitated; but with iron wire immersed in it, it may be kept clear in a well-stoppered bottle.—Dose, 1 to 3 gr., or more, as a tonic, stimulant, and resolvent. It has been given with advantage in anæmia, chlorosis, debility, scrofula, and various glandular affections.

Ferrous Lactate. Fe(C3H5O3)2. Syn. Protolactate of iron; Ferri lactas, Ferrum lacticum, L. Prep. Boil iron filings in lactic acid diluted with water, until gas ceases to be evolved, and filter whilst hot into a suitable vessel, which must be at once closely stopped; as the solution cools, crystals will be deposited, which after being washed, first with a little cold water, and then with alcohol, are to be carefully dried. The mother liquor, on being digested, as before, with fresh iron, will yield more crystals.

Into sour whey, 2 lbs., sprinkle sugar of milk and iron filings, of each, in fine powder, 1 oz.; digest at about 100° Fahr., until the sugar of milk is dissolved, then add a second portion, and as soon as a white crystalline powder begins to form, boil the whole gently, and filter into a clean vessel; lastly, collect, wash, and dry the crystals as before.

Prop., &c. Ferrous lactate is a greenish-white salt; and when pure, forms small acicular or prismatic crystals, which have a sweetish ferruginous taste, and are soluble in about 48 parts of cold and in 12 parts of boiling water. It has been regarded by many high authorities as superior to every other preparation of iron for internal use, as being at once miscible with the lactic acid of the gastric juice, instead of having to be converted into a lactate at the expense of that fluid, as it is asserted is the case with the other preparations of iron.—Dose, 2 to 6 gr., frequently, in any form most convenient.

Ferrous Ma′late (Impure). Syn. Ferri malas impurus, L. Prep. (P. Cod., 1839.) Porphyrised iron filings, 1 part; juice of sour apples, 8 parts; digest for 3 days in an iron vessel, evaporate to one half, strain through linen whilst hot, further evaporate to the consistence of an extract, and preserve it from the air.—Dose, 5 to 20 gr., where the use of iron is indicated.

Ferrous Nitrate. (FeNO3)2. Syn. Protonitrate of iron, Nitrate of protoxide of iron; Ferri nitras, L. By dissolving ferrous sulphide in dilute sulphuric acid, in the cold, and evaporating the solution in vacuo. Small green crystals, very soluble, and prone to oxidation.

Ferrous Oxalate. (U. S.) Syn. Ferri oxalas. Prep. Sulphate of iron, 2 oz.; oxalic acid, 396 gr.; distilled water, q. s. Dissolve the sulphate in 30 oz. (old measure), and the acid in 15 oz. (old measure) of distilled water. Filter the solutions, mix them, shake together, and set aside until the precipitate is formed. Decant the clear liquid, wash the precipitate thoroughly, and dry it with a gentle heat.

Ferrous Oxide. FeO. Syn. Protoxide of iron, Ferri protoxydum, L. This substance is almost unknown in a pure state, from its extreme proneness to absorb oxygen and pass into the sesquioxide.

Ferrous Phosphate. Syn. Phosphate of iron, Neutral p. of protoxide of iron, Bimetallic ferrous orthophosphate (Odling); Ferri phosphas (Ph. U. S.), L. A salt formed from ordinary or tribasic phosphoric acid.

Prep. (B. P.) Ferrous sulphate, 3; sodium phosphate, 212; sodium acetate, 1; boiling distilled water, 80; dissolve the sulphate and sodium salts, each in half the water, mix, and stir carefully, filter through calico, wash with hot distilled water until it ceases to give a precipitate with barium chloride, dry at a heat not exceeding 120° Fahr. (Ph. U. S.) Ferrous sulphate, 5 oz.; sodium phosphate, 6 oz.; dissolve each separate in 2 quarts of water, mix the solutions, and after repose for a short time wash and dry the precipitate.

Prop., &c. A slate-coloured powder; insoluble in water; soluble in dilute nitric and hydrochloric acid.—Dose, 5 to 10 gr.; in amenorrhœa, diabetes, dyspepsia, scrofula, &c.; and externally, as an application to cancerous ulcers.

Ferrous Sulphate. FeSO4.7Aq. Syn. Protosulphate of iron, Sulphate of iron, Copperas, Green vitriol, Shoemaker’s black; Ferri sulphas (B. P., Ph. L. E. & D.), Vitriolum ferri. The crude sulphate of iron or green vitriol of commerce (FERRI SULPHAS VENALIS, Ph. L.) is prepared by exposing heaps of moistened iron pyrites or native bisulphuret of iron to the air for several months, either in its unprepared state or after it has been roasted.917 When decomposition is sufficiently advanced, the newly formed salt is dissolved out with water, and the solution crystallised by evaporation. In this state it is very impure. The ferrous sulphate or sulphate of iron employed in medicine is prepared as follows:—

Prep. (B. P.) Iron wire, 4; sulphuric acid, 4; distilled water, 30. Pour the water on the iron, add the acid, and when the disengagement of gas has nearly ceased, boil for ten minutes. Filter through paper. Allow to stand twenty-four hours, and collect the crystals. Sulphuric acid, 1 fl. oz.; water, 4 pints; mix, and add of commercial sulphate of iron, 4 lbs.; iron wire, 1 oz.; digest with heat and occasional agitation until the sulphate is dissolved, strain whilst hot, and set aside the liquor that crystals may form; evaporate the mother-liquor for more crystals, and dry the whole.

Dissolve the transparent green crystals of the impure sulphate of iron in their own weight of water, acidulated with sulphuric acid, and re-crystallise.

The formula of the Ph. U. S. is similar.

Dried; Ferri sulphas exsiccata, B. P.; Ferri sulphas exsiccatum—Ph. E., F. s. siccatum—Ph. D. From ferrous sulphate, heated in a shallow porcelain or earthen vessel, not glazed with lead, till it becomes a greenish-grey mass, and then reduced to powder. The heat should be that of an oven, or not exceeding 400° Fahr. Five parts of the crystallised sulphate lose very nearly 2 parts by drying.

Granulated; Ferri sulphas granulata, L. (B. P.) A solution of iron wire, 4 oz., in sulphuric acid, 4 fl. oz., diluted with water, 112 pint, after being boiled for a few minutes, is filtered into a vessel containing rectified spirit, 8 fl. oz., and the whole stirred until cold, when the granular crystals are collected on a filter, washed with rectified spirit, 2 fl. oz., and dried, first by pressure between bibulous paper, and next beneath a bell-glass over sulphuric acid, after which they are put into a stoppered bottle, to preserve them from the air.

Prop., &c. Ferrous sulphate forms pale bluish-green rhombic prisms, having an acid, styptic taste, and acid reaction; it dissolves in two parts of cold and less than one part of boiling water; at a dull-red heat it suffers decomposition; sp. gr. 1·82. It is perfectly soluble in water; a piece of iron put into the solution should not be covered with metallic copper. By exposure to the air it effloresces slightly, and is partly converted into a basic ferric sulphate.—Dose, 12 to 4 gr., in pills or solution; externally, as an astringent or styptic. In the arts, as sulphate of iron (copperas), it is extensively used in dyeing, and for various other purposes. The dried sulphate (ferri sulphus exsiccatum) is chiefly used to make pills.

Crude sulphate of iron is frequently contaminated with the sulphates of copper, zinc, manganese, aluminium, magnesium, and calcium, which, with the exception of the first, are removed with difficulty. It also contains variable proportions of the neutral and basic ferric sulphates. The preparation obtained by direct solution of iron in dilute sulphuric acid should, therefore, be alone used in medicine.

In commerce there are four varieties of crude sulphate of iron or copperas known,—greenish-blue, obtained from acid liquors,—pale green, from neutral liquors,—emerald green, from liquors containing ferric sulphate,—and ochrey brown, which arises from age and exposure of the other varieties to the air. Even the first two of these contain traces of ferric sulphate, and hence give a bluish precipitate with ferrocyanide of potassium; whereas the pure sulphate gives one which is at first nearly white.

Ferrous Sulphide. FeS. Syn. Sulphuret of iron, Sulphide of i., Protosulphide of i.; Ferri sulphuretum (Ph. E. & D.), L. Prep. (Ph. E. & D.) Expose a bar of iron to a full white heat, and instantly apply a solid mass of sulphur to it, observing to let the melted product fall into water; afterwards separate the sulphide from the sulphur, dry, and preserve it in a closed vessel.

From sublimed sulphur, 4 parts; iron filings, 7 parts; mixed together and heated in a common fire till the mixture begins to glow, and then removing the crucible from the heat, and covering it up, until the reaction is at an end, and the whole has become cold.

Hydrated; Ferri protosulphuretum hydratum, L. By adding a solution of ammonium sulphide or of potassium sulphide to a neutral solution of ferrous sulphate made with recently distilled or boiled water; the precipitate is collected on a filter, washed as quickly as possible with recently boiled water, squeezed in a linen cloth, and preserved in the pasty state, under water, as directed under ferric hydrate.

Prop., &c. The sulphide prepared in the dry way is a blackish brittle substance, attracted by the magnet. It is largely used in the laboratory as a source of sulphuretted hydrogen. The hydrated sulphide is a black, insoluble substance, rapidly decomposed by exposure to the air. Proposed by Mialhe as an antidote to the salts of arsenic, antimony, bismuth, lead, mercury, silver, and tin, and to arsenious acid; more especially to white arsenic and corrosive sublimate. A gargle containing a little hydrated sulphide of iron will instantly remove the metallic taste caused by putting a little corrosive sublimate into the mouth. (Mialhe.) On contact with the latter substance it is instantly converted into ferrous chloride and mercurous sulphide, two comparatively inert substances. It is administered in the same way as ferrous hydrate. When taken immediately after the ingestion of corrosive sublimate, it instantly renders it innocuous;918 but when the administration is delayed until 15 or 20 minutes after the poison has been swallowed, it is almost useless.

Ferrous Tar′trate. Syn. Ferri tartras, Ferri prototartras, L. Prep. 1. From iron filings, 2 parts; tartaric acid, 1 part; hot water, q. s.; digest together until reaction ceases, agitate the liquid, pour off the turbid solution, and collect, wash, and dry the powder as quickly as possible, and keep it out of contact with the air.

2. Crystallised potassium tartrate, 132 parts; ferrous sulphate, 139 parts; dissolve each separately, mix the solutions, and collect the precipitate as before. A nearly insoluble powder; seldom used.

Obs. By dissolving the corresponding hydrates in a solution of tartaric acid, employing the former in slight excess, and evaporating, both the ferrous and ferric tartrate are easily obtained.

IRON AL′UM. See Alums.

IRON CEMENT′. See Cements.

IRON, DIALYSED. (Paris Pharmaceutical Society.) Syn. Ferrum dialysatum. Oxide de fer dialysé. Prep. Solution of ferric chloride (sp. gr. 1·245), 100 grams; solution of ammonia (sp. gr. 1·169), 35 grams; add the ammonia in small quantities to the ferric chloride; at first the precipitate formed is redissolved very rapidly, but afterwards disappears more slowly. When the liquor has again become transparent, it is introduced into the dialyser; the distilled water in which the vessel containing the ferruginous solution is placed, must be frequently renewed. After a time the highly coloured solution is no longer precipitated by silver nitrate, and gives no acid reaction. It is then absolutely free from the disagreeable taste of certain ferruginous preparations. A small quantity of hydrochloric acid always remains in the liquor, which may be shown by precipitating the oxide of iron by a slight excess of ammonia, filtering, adding an excess of nitric acid, and then silver nitrate. Ten c.c. are evaporated, and from the residue must be calculated how much distilled water is required to be added to produce a 10 per cent. solution.

2. (‘American Journal of Pharmacy.’) Take 10 parts of liq. ferri perchlor. (B. P.), precipitate by liquor ammoniæ, and wash the precipitate thoroughly. Mix this with 12 parts of liq. ferri perchlor. (B. P.), and place in a dialyser. The dialyser is placed in a suitable vessel with distilled water, the water under it renewed every 24 hours. The operation is continued until no trace of chlorine exists, at which time the preparation is found to be neutral. It usually takes from twelve to fifteen days to complete the process.

The resulting preparation, which should be of a deep dark red colour, contains about 5 per cent. of the oxide of iron. If the solution after completion of the operation should contain more than 5 per cent. of iron, it may be diluted with dialysed water till it reaches that point.

The above formula is said to furnish an article precisely similar to the original Bravais’ dialysed iron.

3. (E. B. Shuttleworth.) Add ammonia to a solution of perchloride of iron as long as the precipitate formed is redissolved. A solution is produced which contains ferric hydrate dissolved in ferric chloride, with free chloride of ammonium. Either the liquor ferri perchlor. fort. (B. P.), or the liquor ferri chloridi (U. S.), may be conveniently used, and the liquor ammoniæ, sp. gr. ·959 or ·960, of either Pharmacopœia will be found a convenient strength. If the ammonia be added to the strong solution of iron, considerable heat is evolved, and, on cooling, the preparation becomes gelatinised—often so much so that the vessel containing it may be inverted. It is better to avoid this result, and to such end the solution of perchloride must be diluted until of a sp. gr. of about 1·300. This degree may be nearly enough approached by diluting two measures of the B. P. liquor with one of water; or adding one measure of water to five of the U. S. preparation. This solution will generally remain permanently bright and fluid. The amount of liquor ammoniæ required will of course vary with the acidity of the perchloride. The liquor ferri B. P. will sometimes bear as much as an equal volume. A gelatinised solution, even when made from the undiluted liquor, will often become fluid when put upon the dialyser, but, as I have said before, it is better to work with bright solutions.

4. (Dr Pile.) Dr Pile, noticing the fact that chloride of sodium is one of the most rapid crystalloids to dialyse, used a solution of carbonate of sodium to add to the solution of ferric chloride in place of the ammonia so generally recommended, and with great success. The solution of ferric chloride (U. S.) which has been neutralised by a cold solution of carbonate of sodium is poured into a floating dialyser. Starting with 1 pint of solution of ferric chloride, which on being treated with the sodium solution and ready to dialyse, had a sp. gr. of 1·175, it had in 5 days increased to 5 pints. The water in which the dialyser floated was changed daily. At the end of five days it had passed through the membrane all the crystalloids, was free from taste of foreign substances, and owing to increase of bulk had now the sp. gr. of 1·0295, and on evaporation yielded 5 per cent. dry oxide of iron. Too long dialysation will cause the solution of iron to become gelatinous.

Mr Shuttleworth[3] says that an efficient dialyser may be made out of one of the flat hoops of an ordinary flour barrel, a bell jar, or even an inverted glass funnel. He gives the preference to the former, and limits its diameter to ten or twelve inches; if it exceeds this, the septum is liable to bulge in the centre,919 and to make the layer of liquid too deep at that point.

[3] ‘Canadian Pharmaceutical Journal,’ Oct., 1877.

The parchment paper employed for the septum must be entirely free from holes; this is an essential condition, and if any should be discovered—by the simple process of sponging the upper surface of the paper with water, and then carefully examining the under surface,—they must be stopped by means of a little white of egg, applied and coagulated by heat, or by a drop of collodion.

The parchment paper is not the kind ordinarily known under that name, but a less porous description, which has been made by previous immersion in dilute sulphuric acid.

Well-washed bladder, deprived of its outer coat, also makes a good septum.

The septum should be tied around the hoop with twine, but not too tightly, and should be so arranged that its edges shall be left standing up around the hoop, so as to absorb any liquid escaping from the hoop at its junction with the septum. The dialyser being ready for use, the liquid intended for dialysis is poured into it to a depth of not more than half an inch, and the dialyser with its contents is then floated on the surface of some distilled water, contained in a suitable receptacle.

The hoop must only be allowed to sink just below the level of the water; if it gets below this point, it will be necessary to keep it up by some support or the other.

It is necessary to change the water in the outer vessel daily. For the first two or three days distilled water should always be used. When this is not obtainable rain water should be employed. When the water shows the absence of chlorides, and the preparation ceases to have a ferruginous taste, the operation may be regarded as finished. The process generally occupies one or two weeks.

“A pig’s bladder, completely filled with the iron solution, securely tied, and immersed in water frequently changed, answers well for making this preparation. The process requires a longer time than with a carefully regulated and properly conducted dialysis, but it entails considerably less trouble. I consider it an advantage to procure the bladder perfectly fresh, as it is then easily cleaned by pure water, and alkaline ley need not be used. Great care is necessary in tying the neck carefully. This can be best accomplished by a few turns of iron wire. Above this may be secured a piece of twine, to suspend the bladder, by means of a stick, or rod, placed on the edge of the vessel containing the water. The bladder should be perfectly full, and immersed altogether in water. The attraction of the solution for the water is so great, that considerable pressure is manifested, and should any parts or holes be in the bladder, the liquid will be forced out, water will take its place, and failure result.”[4]

[4] ‘Canadian Pharmaceutical Journal,’ Oct., 1877.

Pretty general consent appears to have fixed the strength of the solution of dialysed iron at five per cent. Where it exceeds this, the solution must be diluted with distilled water; and where it falls short of the amount, it will have to be reduced to the required volume by standing it in a warm and dry situation. The employment of much heat must be particularly avoided as it very frequently leads to the destruction of the compound; hence every care should be taken to render the evaporation of the fluid unnecessary.

There seems little doubt that the so-called “dialysed iron” is an oxychloride of the metal. Prof. Maisch[5] believes it to be a very basic oxychloride of iron. On the supposition that the oxychloride and chloride of iron are both present in the liquid put into the dialyser, the origin of the oxychloride admits of easy explanation:—The chloride being a crystalloid, diffuses through the septum into the outer water, and thus becomes separated from the oxychloride, which being a colloid, and incapable of a passage through the membrane, remains in solution in the dialyser.

[5] Ibid., Oct., 1877.

The comparative freedom from taste and easy assimilation of the oxychloride of iron render it a valuable therapeutic agent. The dose of the five per cent. solution is 15 to 50 drops daily, in divided doses. Syrup forms a pleasant vehicle for its administration.

Dialysed iron has been successfully employed in a case of arsenical poisoning. The ‘American Journal of Pharmacy’ for January, 1878, contains an interesting paper by Dr Mattison detailing a series of experiments, which conclusively prove its value as an antidote to arsenic. Dr Mattison recommends the administration of the iron to be immediately followed by a teaspoonful or more of common salt.

IRON FI′′LINGS. Syn. Ferri ramenta (Ph. L. 1836). Ferri limatura (Ph. E.), Ferri scobs (Ph. D.). The usual method of preparing iron filings for medical purposes has been already noticed; the only way, however, to obtain them pure, is to act on a piece of soft iron with a clean file. The Fr. Cod. orders them to be forcibly beaten in an iron mortar, and to be separated from oxide and dust by means of a fine sieve, and from the grosser parts by means of a coarse hair-sieve.—Dose, 10 to 30 gr., in sugar or honey, as a chalybeate; in larger doses it is an excellent vermifuge, especially for ascarides or the small thread-worm.

IRON LIQ′UOR. Syn. Pyrolignite of iron, Dyer’s acetate of i., Black liquor, Tar iron L.; Ferri acetas venalis, L. This article, so extensively used in dyeing, is a crude mixed acetate of the protoxide and sesquioxide of iron. It is usually prepared by one or other of the following methods:—

1. Old scraps of iron (hoops, worn-out tin-plate, &c.) are left in a cask of pyroligneous acid, occasional agitation being had recourse920 to, until a sufficiently strong solution is obtained. By keeping the acid moderately warm in suitable vessels it will become saturated with the iron in a few days. With cold acid, on a large scale, forty days or more are required to complete the process.

2. A solution of pyrolignite or crude acetate of lime, is added to another of green copperas, as long as a precipitate is formed; after repose, the clear liquor is decanted.

IRON, REDUCED. Syn. Quevenne iron; Ferrum redactum (B. P.), Ferri pulvis, L.; Fer reduit, F. Prep. This preparation, which consists of metallic iron in a fine state of division mixed with a variable amount of magnetic oxide of iron, is made by passing perfectly dry hydrogen over peroxide of iron heated to redness in a gun-barrel.

Prop. A greyish-black powder, attracted by the magnet, and exhibiting metallic streaks when rubbed with firm pressure in a mortar. Rapidly absorbs oxygen, and must, therefore, be preserved from the air in well-stoppered bottles. It dissolves in hydrochloric acid with the evolution of hydrogen. 10 grains added to an aqueous solution of 50 grains of iodine and 50 grains of iodide of potassium, and digested with them in a small flask at a gentle heat, should leave not more than 5 grains undissolved, which should be entirely soluble in hydrochloric acid.

Uses. In medicine it is chiefly given to restore the condition of the blood in all anæmic states of the system. There is no pulverulent state of iron so convenient as this for children, as it has no taste, and only a very small dose is required.—Dose, 1 to 5 grains (children, 14 to 1 grain), in powder, pill, or between bread and butter.

Iron reduced by Electricity. See Electricity, Iron reduced by.

Iron, to remove Rust from Polished. Rust of iron may be removed from a polished grate by means of emery paper, or by scraping some Bath-brick to a fine powder, mixing it with a little oil and rubbing the spots well with a piece of flannel dipped in this mixture; after which some whiting should be applied by diligent friction. This operation requires daily repetition until the rust has disappeared. Steel fire-irons, fenders, &c., when put aside in the summer, should be previously smeared thinly over with a species of paraffin, known to druggists by the name of ‘vaseline’ or ‘cosmoline,’ or with grease, mercurial ointment, &c.

Iron, to remove the Stains of, from Marble. Rub on very cautiously (confining it to the surface only occupied by the spot) some strong hydrochloric acid, removing it directly the spot disappears. Should this cause any diminution in the polish, this may be restored by means of emery paper.

IRON WIRE. Syn. Ferrum in fila tractum (Ph. L.), Ferri filum (Ph. E.), Ferri fila (Ph. D.), L. This is the only form of metallic iron retained in the Ph. L. It is used to make preparations of iron.

ISATINE. C16H10N2O4. A yellow crystalline body obtained by the oxidation of indigo. When acted upon by potash it becomes converted into aniline. Isatine may be formed by heating indigo in a dilute solution of dichromate of potash and sulphuric acid, or by treating indigo under proper conditions with nitric acid.

ISCHU′RIA. In pathology, retention, stoppage, or suppression of the urine.

I′′SINGLASS. Syn. Ichthyocolla, L. The finest kinds of isinglass are obtained from various species of the genus Acipenser, or sturgeon, that from the great sturgeon being perhaps the most esteemed. It is the air-bag, swimming bladder, or sound, dried without any other preparation than opening, folding, or twisting it. The picked or cut isinglass of the shops consists of the lamps of staple isinglass picked in shreds by women and children, or cut by machines.

Prop., &c. Good isinglass is the purest natural gelatin known. Its quality is determined by its whiteness, absence of the least fishy odour, and ready and almost entire solubility in boiling water; the solution forming a nearly white, scentless, semi-transparent, solid jelly, when cold. It is soluble in weak acids, and this solution is precipitated by alkalies. The aqueous solution is not precipitated by spirit of the common strengths. 1 part of good isinglass dissolved in 25 parts of hot water forms a rich, tremulous jelly. It is very commonly adulterated. Of the different varieties of isinglass, the Russian is the best and most soluble. See Gelatin.

ISOM′ERISM. In chemistry, identity of composition, with dissimilarity of properties. Isomeric compounds (isomerides) are such as contain the same elements in the same proportions, but which differ from each other in their chemical properties; thus, formate of ethyl and acetate of methyl are isomeric, having precisely the same ultimate composition, though differing in the arrangement of their elements.

ISOMOR′PHISM. In chemistry, the quality possessed by bodies differently composed of assuming the same crystalline form. Isomorphous substances are found to be closely allied in their chemical nature; and the fact of two bodies crystallising in the same form has often led to the discovery of other points of similarity between them. The alums, for instance, no matter what their components, all crystallise in octahedra, and a crystal of potassium-alum, if transferred to a solution of chrome-alum, will continue to increase with perfect regularity from the deposition of the latter salt.

IS′SUE. Syn. Foniculus, L. In surgery, a small artificial ulcer formed on any part of the body by means of caustic or the lancet, and kept open by daily introducing an ISSUE921 PEA covered with some digestive or stimulating ointment; the whole being duly secured by an appropriate bandage.

ISSUE PEAS. Syn. Pisæ pro fonticulis, L. Those of the shops are the immature fruit of the orange tree (ORANGE BERRIES). They are usually smoothed in a lathe. Issue peas are also ‘turned’ from orris root. The following compound issue peas are occasionally employed:—

1. Orris root (in powder) and Venice turpentine, of each 1 part; turmeric, 2 parts; beeswax, 3 parts; melted together and made into peas whilst warm.

2. Beeswax, 3 parts; melt, add of Venice turpentine, 1 part; mix, and further add, of turmeric, 2 parts; orris root (in powder), 1 part; mix well, and form the mass into peas whilst warm. More irritating than the common pea.

3. (Dr Gray.) Beeswax, 12 parts; verdigris and white hellebore, of each 4 parts; orris root, 3 parts; cantharides, 2 parts; Venice turpentine, q. s. Used to open issues instead of caustic, but their employment requires care.

ISSUE PLAS′TERS. See Plasters.

ITCH. Syn. Youk‡, Scotch Fiddle‡; Psora, Scabies, L.; Gale, Fr. In pathology, a cutaneous disease, caused by a minute insect lodging under the skin, and readily communicated by contact. There are four varieties of itch, distinguished by nosologists by the names—scabies papuliformis, or rank itch;—scabies lymphatica, or watery itch; scabies purulenta, or pocky itch; scabies cachectica, a species exhibiting appearances resembling each of the previous varieties. Our space will not permit more than a general notice of the common symptoms, and the mode of cure which is equally applicable to each species, and will not prove injurious to other skin diseases simulating the itch.

The common itch consists of an eruption of minute vesicles, principally between the fingers, bend of the wrist, &c., accompanied by intense itching of the parts, which is only aggravated by scratching. The usual treatment is repeated applications of sulphur ointment (simple or compound), well rubbed in once or twice a day, until a cure is effected; accompanying its use by the internal exhibition of a spoonful or more of flowers of sulphur, mixed with treacle or milk night and morning. Where the use of sulphur ointment is objectionable, a sulphur bath, or a lotion or bath of sulphurated potash, or of chloride of lime, may be employed instead.

In the ‘Canadian Pharmaceutical Journal’ for 1872 is a paper by Professor Rothmund recommending the employment of balsam of Peru in this objectionable disease. The writer states that one application generally effects a cure, and that its use does away with the necessity of baths. He recommends the balsam being rubbed all over the naked body. Carbolic acid is another and much cheaper remedy proposed by the same author. To obviate its caustic action he advises the acid to be mixed with glycerin or linseed oil, in the proportion of one scruple of the acid to two ounces of either excipient. He considers the objection to this remedy may be that it enters too rapidly into the circulation. Another agent employed by Professor Rothmund is a lotion composed of one part of carbolate of sodium dissolved in 12 parts of water. The affected parts of the skin are to be rubbed with this three times a day.

It is further recommended to continue this treatment 8 or 10 days after the cure, in order to kill any acari or their eggs that may have lurked among the clothes or bed-linen. See Bath, Lotion (Itch), Ointment, Psoriasis, &c.

I′VORY. The osseous portion of the tusks and teeth of the male elephant, the hippopotamus, wild boar, &c. That of the narwhal or seahorse is the most esteemed, on account of its superior hardness, toughness, translucency, and whiteness. The dust or shavings (IVORY DUST, IVORY SHAVINGS) of the turner form a beautiful size or jelly when boiled in water. Vegetable ivory is the hard albumen of the seed of the Phytelephas macrocarpa, one of the Palm family.

Ivory may be dyed or stained by any of the ordinary methods employed for woollen, after being freed from dirt and grease; but more quickly as follows:—

1. Black. The ivory, well washed in an alkaline lye, is steeped in a weak neutral solution of nitrate of silver, and then exposed to the light, or dried and dipped into a weak solution of sulphide of ammonium.

2. Blue. Steep it in a weak solution of sulphate of indigo which has been nearly neutralised with salt of tartar, or in a solution of soluble Prussian blue. A still better plan is to steep it in the dyer’s green indigo-vat.

3. Brown. As for black, but using a weaker solution of silver.

4. Green. Dissolve verdigris in vinegar, and steep the pieces therein for a short time, observing to use a glass or stoneware vessel; or, in a solution of verdigris, 2 parts; and sal ammoniac, 1 part, in soft water.

5. Purple. Steep it in a weak neutral solution of terchloride of gold, and then expose it to the light.

6. Red. Make an infusion of cochineal in liquor of ammonia, then immerse the pieces therein, having previously soaked them for a few minutes in water very slightly acidulated with aquafortis.

7. Yellow. a. Steep the pieces for some hours in a solution of sugar of lead, then take them out, and when dry, immerse them in a solution of chromate of potassa.

b. Dissolve as much of the best orpiment in solution of ammonia as it will take up, then steep the pieces therein for some hours;922 lastly, take them out and dry them in a warm place, when they will turn yellow.

Ivory is etched or engraved by covering it with an etching ground or wax, and employing oil of vitriol as the etching fluid.

Ivory is rendered flexible by immersion in a solution of pure phosphoric acid (sp. gr. 1·13), until it loses, or partially loses, its opacity, when it is washed in clean cold soft water, and dried. In this state it is as flexible as leather, but gradually hardens by exposure to dry air. Immersion in hot water, however, restores its softness and pliancy. According to Dr Ure, the necks of some descriptions of INFANTS’ FEEDING BOTTLES are thus made.

Ivory is whitened or bleached by rubbing it with finely powdered pumice-stone and water, and exposing it to the sun whilst still moist, under a glass shade, to prevent desiccation and the occurrence of fissures; observing to repeat the process until a proper effect is produced. Ivory may also be bleached by immersion for a short time in water holding a little sulphurous acid, chloride of lime, or chlorine, in solution; or by exposure in the moist state to the fumes of burning sulphur, largely diluted with air. Cloez recommends the ivory or bones to be immersed in turpentine and exposed for three or four days to sunlight. The object to be bleached should be kept an eighth or a fourth of an inch above the bottom of the bath by means of zinc supports. For the preparation of ivory intended for miniature painting Mr Ernest Spon in his useful work, ‘Workshop Receipts,’ says: “The bleaching of ivory may be more expeditiously performed by placing the ivory before a good fire, which will dispel the wavy lines if they are not very strongly marked, that frequently destroy the uniformity of surface.”

Ivory may be gilded by immersing it in a fresh solution of proto-sulphate of iron, and afterwards in solution of chloride of gold.

Ivory is wrought, turned, and fashioned in a similar manner and with similar tools to those used for bone and soft brass.

Obs. Bone for ornamental purposes is treated in a similar way to ivory, but less carefully, owing to its inferior value. The bones of living animals may be dyed by mixing madder with their food. The bones of young pigeons may thus be tinged of a rose colour in 24 hours, and of a deep scarlet in 3 or 4 days; but the bones of adult animals take fully a fortnight to acquire a rose colour. The bones nearest the heart become tinged the soonest. In the same way logwood and extract of logwood will tinge the bones of young pigeons purple. (Gibson.)

1. Ivory, Artificial. Let a paste be made of isinglass, egg-shell in very fine powder, and brandy. Give it the desired colour, and pour it while warm into oiled moulds. Leave the paste in the moulds until it becomes hard.

2. (L’Union Pharmaceutique.) Two parts of caoutchouc are dissolved in 36 parts of chloroform, and the solution is saturated with pure gaseous ammonia. The chloroform is then distilled off at a temperature of 85° C. The residue is mixed with phosphate of lime or carbonate of zinc, pressed into moulds and dried. When phosphate of lime is used the product possesses to a considerable degree the nature and composition of ivory.

IVORY BLACK. See Black pigments.

JABORANDI. Syn. Iaborandi, Jamborandi. The above names are given by the natives of Brazil, Paraguay, and other parts of South America to any indigenous plants possessing strongly stimulant, diaphoretic, and sialagogue properties, which are principally employed in those countries as antidotes for the bites and stings of venomous snakes and insects.

As far as they have been examined, all the plants known under the generic name ‘jaborandi’ have been traced to the two natural orders, Rutaceæ and Piperaceæ. Those exercising the most marked physiological effects appear to belong to the former or the rutaceous division, and are very probably different species of Pilocarpus. The drug was first introduced into Europe by Dr Coutinho, of Pernambuco, who some four years since sent a sample of it to Dr Gubler, of Paris, by whom it was administered to some of the patients of the Beaujon Hospital there. The jaborandi with which these experiments were made was identified by Professor Baillon, of Paris, as belonging to the Pilocarpus pinnatus (pinnatifolius). Four to six grams of the bruised leaves and twigs were infused in a cup of water, and the patient being put to bed, in ten minutes after taking the draught, finds himself bathed in a perspiration lasting for four or five hours, this being so profuse as to render several changes of linen necessary during the time. Accompanying the diaphoresis are great salivary and bronchial secretions, which sometimes will not permit the patient to speak without his mouth becoming filled with water.

The quantity of saliva is stated to have sometimes equalled a litre in measure. These experiments have been repeated in this country with analogous effects; in one case reported with jaborandi obtained from the Beaujon Hospital, and in another from London; results the similarity of which strongly point to a corresponding composition in the two specimens of the plant used, if, as seems not improbable, they may have belonged to different species. A case of impaired vision following the administration of jaborandi is also recorded; but this seems evidently to have been the effect of an overdose of the drug.[6]

[6] ‘Pharm. Journal,’ 3rd series, v, 364 and 561.

When jaborandi is administered in divided doses instead of producing salivation or sweating, it acts as an active diuretic only,923 increasing the flow of urine to nearly double the usual amount. M. Albert Robins says:—“The effect of jaborandi on animals is very marked; guinea-pigs are seized with salivation, weeping and diarrhœa, true ecchymoses being found in the intestines, and dogs become instantly salivated, their gastric secretion being also much increased.”[7]

[7] ‘Medical Times and Gazette.’

Drs Coutinho and Gubler affirm they have employed jaborandi in dropsy, bronchitis, diabetes, and various other diseases, and that they have found it fully answer their expectations; and in one case of albuminuria it is narrated that a permanent diminution of albumen from 14·40 to 12 grammes followed its use.

An alkaloid has been obtained from the piperaceous jaborandi by Parodi, and named by him jaborandine. Some short time afterwards Mr A. W. Gerrard succeeded in separating the alkaloid from the rutaceous jaborandi, to which, in accordance with Mr Holmes’ suggestion, and because Parodi had anticipated him in the adoption of the previous title, he gave the name pilocarpine.

Mr Gerrard recommends the following process for the preparation of pilocarpine:—“Prepare a soft extract either with leaf or bark, with 50 per cent. alcohol. Digest this with water, filter and wash. Evaporate the filtrate to a short extract, cautiously add ammonia in slight excess, shake well with chloroform, separate the chloroform solution, and allow it to evaporate; the residue is the alkaloidal pilocarpine with probably a small amount of impurity.” Mr Gerrard has also succeeded in preparing a crystalline nitrate and hydrochlorate of the alkaloid, both of which possess the medicinal powers of the jaborandi.

Pilocarpus pinnatifolius. a, flower; b, flower with the petals removed; c, carpels.

The abridged description of a sample of jaborandi from Pernambuco is from Mr Holmes’ paper in the ‘Pharmaceutical Journal.’[8] The cut is from the last edition of Royle’s ‘Materia Medica.’ “The specimens of the plant examined appear to belong to a shrub about 5 feet high. The root is cylindrical, hardly tapering at all, nearly 34 inch in diameter for the first 12 inches, and very sparingly branched. Bark of root of a pale yellowish brown, about a line in thickness, and has a short fracture. The root has an odour like a mixture of bruised pea-pods and orange-peel. Its taste is first like that of924 green peas; this soon disappears, and gives rise to a tingling sensation. The stem is 12 inch in diameter near the root, narrowing to 14 inch in the upper branches. The bark is thin, greyish-brown, longitudinally striated, and in some specimens sprinkled over with a number of white dots. The wood of the stem is yellowish-white and remarkably fibrous. The leaves (one of which is represented in the drawing) are imparipinnate, about 9 inches long, with from 3 to 5 pairs of opposite leaflets, which are articulated to the rachis, and have very short, slightly swollen petiolates. The rachis of the leaf is swollen at the base.

[8] 3rd series, v, 581.

The pairs of leaflets are usually about 114 inch apart, the lowest pair being about 4 inches from the base of the rachis. The leaflets are very variable in size, even on the same leaf. Their general outline is oblong-lanceolate. They are entire, with an emarginate or even retuse apex and an unequal base, and texture coriaceous. The veins are prominent on both sides of the leaf, and branch from the midrib at an obtuse angle in a pinnate manner. When held up to the light the leaflets are seen to be densely pellucidly punctate. These pellucid dots, which are receptacles of secretion, are not arranged, as in another kind of jaborandi, in lines along the veinlets, but are irregularly scattered all over the leaf, and appear equally numerous in every part. The whole plant is glabrous.”

Mr Holmes says there appear to be two varieties, if not species, of this Pilocarpus, the one being perfectly smooth in every part, as above described, and the other having the stems, petioles, and under surface of the leaves covered with a dense velvety pubescence composed of simple hairs.

JAG′GERY. Syn. Palm sugar. A coarse brown sugar made in India by the evaporation of the juice of several species of palms. The following are the principal varieties of this product:—

1. Cocoa jaggery. From the juice of the Cocoa-nut palm (Cocos nucifera).

2. Malabar jaggery. From the juice of the Gummuti palm (Saguerus saccherifer).

3. Mysore jaggery. From the juice of the wild Date-palm (Phœnix sylvestris); 17 galls. yields 46 lbs.

4. Palmyra jaggery. From the juice of the Palmyra palm (Borassus flabelliformis); 6 pints yield 1 lb.

JA′LAP. Syn. Jalapæ radix, Jalapa, B. P. (Ph. L. & D.) Convolvuli jalapæ radix (Ph. E.), L. The dried tubercles of the Exogonium purga, I. jalapa—(Royle.) Jalap is a powerful stimulant and drastic purgative, producing copious liquid stools; but when judiciously administered, both safe and efficacious. It appears to be intermediate in its action between aloes and scammony.—Dose, 10 to 30 gr., in powder; in constipation, cerebral affections, dropsies, obstructed menstruation, worms, &c. Owing to its irritant properties, its use is contra-indicated in inflammatory affections of the alimentary canal, and after surgical operations connected with the abdomen and pelvis. It is usually administered in combination with sulphate of potassa or bitartrate of potassa and ginger; with mercurials, as the case may indicate. The powder is very generally adulterated.

Jalap Biscuits. 1. An ounce of jalap mixed with 16 ounces of the materials for gingerbread or other kind of cake.

2. Pure resin of jalap, 56 grams, powdered sugar and flour, 1000 grams; tincture of vanilla, 10 grams, white of egg, No. 20, yolk of egg, No. 40.

Let the resin be emulsified with the yolks of the egg, add successively the sugar, tincture, and flour, and mix thoroughly into a paste, with which thoroughly incorporate the whites of eggs, previously beaten up. Let the mass be divided into 144 biscuits, and bake.

Jalap, Res′in of. Syn. Resina jalapæ, L. Prep. 1. (Ph. E.) See Extract of Jalap.

2. (Nativelle.) Jalap root is digested in boiling water for 24 hours, and after being reduced to thin slices more water is added, and the whole boiled for 10 minutes, with occasional agitation; the liquid is then expressed in a tincture press, and the boiling and pressing repeated a second and third time (these decoctions by evaporation yield AQUEOUS EXTRACT OF JALAP); the pressed root is next treated with rectified spirit, q. s., and boiled for 10 minutes, and then allowed to cool; the tincture is then pressed out, and the boiling with fresh alcohol and expression is repeated twice; a little animal charcoal is added to the mixed tinctures, and, after thorough agitation, the latter are filtered; the liquid is now distilled until nothing passes over, the supernatant fluid is poured off the fluid resin, and the latter dried by spreading it over the surface of the capsule, and continuing the heat. The product is a friable and nearly colourless resin, which forms a white powder resembling starch. Prod. Fully 10% of pure resin.

3. (Planche.) Resinous extract of jalap is dissolved in rectified spirit, the tincture agitated with animal charcoal, and after filtration gently evaporated to dryness.

Pur. The jalap resin of commerce is generally adulterated with scammony, gum, guaiacum or resin. When in a state of purity, it does not form an emulsion with milk, like scammony resin, but runs into a solid mass. It is insoluble in fixed oils and turpentine, whilst the common resins are freely soluble in those menstrua. Its alcoholic solution, dropped on a piece of absorbent white paper, and exposed to the action of nitrous gas, does not acquire a green or blue colour; if it does, guaiacum resin is present. 2% of this adulteration may be thus detected. (Gobley.) It is insoluble in ether; but guaiacum resin, common resin, and some others, are so; the925 decanted ether should not become opalescent when mixed with water, and should evaporate without leaving any residuum. Powdered jalap resin placed in cold water does not dissolve, but forms a semi-fluid, transparent mass, as if it had been melted. Dissolved in a watch-glass with a little oil of vitriol, a rich crimson-coloured solution is obtained, from which, in a few hours, a brown viscid resin separates. These last two characteristics distinguish it from other resins.

Obs. Earthenware or well-tinned copper vessels must alone be used in the above processes, as contact with copper or iron turns the resin black, and this tinge can only be removed by redissolving the resin in alcohol, the addition of animal charcoal, and re-evaporation.

Jalap resin is an energetic cathartic.—Dose, 1 to 5 gr. See Jalapin.

Jalap, Factitious Resin of. Syn. Resinæ jalapæ factitia, L. A substance frequently sold for jalap resin is made by fusing a mixture of pale yellow resin and scammony resin, and adding, when it has cooled a little, but still semi-fluid, a few drops of balsam of Peru or tolu; the mixture is then poured into small paper capsules or tin moulds. Its effects resemble those of jalap resin, but it inflames less. (Landerer.)

Jalap, Soap of. Syn. Sapo jalapæ, Sapo jalapinus, L. Prep. (Ph. Bor.) Resin of jalap and Castile soap, of each 1 part; rectified spirit, 2 parts, or q. s. to dissolve the ingredients softened by a gentle heat; subsequently evaporate the mixture by the heat of a water bath until reduced to 412 oz., or it has acquired the consistence of a pill-mass.

Prop., &c. A greyish-brown mass, soluble in rectified spirit. Said to be milder in its action than the resin alone.—Dose, 5 to 15 oz.

JALAP′IC ACID. Syn. Odorous principle of jalap.—Pereira. Prep. Add an alcoholic solution of acetate of lead to a similar solution of jalap resin, collect the precipitate (jalapate of lead), and throw down the lead by means of sulphuretted hydrogen. (See Absinthic acid.) A brownish, soft, greasy substance, smelling strongly of jalap, soluble in alcohol and alkali, and slightly so in ether. Jalap resin contains about 13% of this substance.

JAL′APIN. C34H56O16. Syn. Jalapina. Jalap resin is commonly sold under this name, but pure jalapin is prepared by one or other of the following formulæ:—

Prep. 1. The liquid filtered from the jalapate of lead in preparing jalapic acid is a solution of acetate of jalapin, which, after any trace of lead is removed, by adding a few drops of dilute sulphuric acid, and filtration, yields the whole of its jalapin, as a precipitate, on the addition of 5 or 6 times its volume of water; this is collected, washed with a little cold distilled water, and dried by exposure to a current of warm dry air.

2. (Hume.) Coarsely powdered jalap is digested in strong acetic acid for 14 days, the tincture filtered ammonia added in excess, and the whole agitated strongly; the mixture is then filtered, the deposit washed in cold water, redissolved in acetic acid, reprecipitated by ammonia, and again washed and dried.

3. (Kayser.) Pure jalap resin, in powder, is digested for some time in boiling ether, by which means the jalapic acid is removed, and pure jalapin remains undissolved.

Prop., &c. A transparent, colourless, scentless, insipid resin, very soluble in alcohol, but insoluble in ether. It is the active purgative principle of crude jalap resin.

JAMAI′CINE. Syn. Jamaicina. A peculiar alkaloid obtained by Huttenschmidt from the bark of the Cabbage-tree (Andira inermis).

Prep. The aqueous solution of cabbage-tree bark, treated with sulphuretted hydrogen and evaporated.

Prop. Yellow crystals soluble in water and, to a limited extent, in alcohol; fusible, and very bitter tasted. It forms salts with the acids, which, in small doses, produce restlessness and trembling; and in larger ones, purging. It is said to be vermifuge.

JAMES’S POWDER. See Powders.

JAMS. Syn. Preserves. Conserves of fruit with sugar, prepared by boiling. In the latter respect they differ from the conserves of the apothecary.

Prep. The pulped or bruised fruit is boiled along with 12 to 23 of its weight of loaf sugar, until the mixture jellies, when a little is placed on a cold plate; the semi-fluid mass is then passed through a coarse hair sieve whilst hot, to remove the stones and skins of the fruit, and as soon as it has cooled a little is poured into pots or glasses. It is usual to tie these over, when cold, with paper which has been dipped in brandy. The pots must then be placed aside in a dry and rather cold situation.

The following fruits are those from which jams are commonly prepared:—Apricots, cherries (various), cranberries, currants (black, red, and white), gooseberries (ripe and green), mulberries, Orleans plums, raspberries, and strawberries. Red currants are commonly added to the last, to remove insipidity.

JAPAN′. See Varnish, and below.

JAPAN′NING. The art of covering paper, wood, or metal, with a coating of hard, brilliant, and durable varnish. The varnishes or lacquers employed for this purpose in Japan, China, and the Indian Archipelago, are resinous juices derived from various trees belonging to the natural order Anacardiaceæ, especially Stagmaria verniciflua, Holigarna longifolia, Semecarpus Anacardium, and species of Rus (Sumach). For use, they are purified by a defecation and straining, and are afterwards mixed with a little oil, and with colouring926 matter, as required. In this country varnishes of amber, asphaltum, or copal, or mixtures of them, pass under the names of ‘JAPAN’ and ‘JAPAN VARNISH,’

Proc. The surface is coloured or painted with devices, &c., as desired, next covered with a highly transparent varnish (amber or copal), then dried at a high temperature (135° to 165° Fahr.), and, lastly, polished. Wood and paper are first sized, polished, and varnished. For plain surfaces, asphaltum, varnish or japan is used. See Varnishing.

JAPON′IC ACID. C12H10O5. When catechu is exposed to the air in contact with caustic alkalies, black solutions (alkaline japonates) are formed; with carbonated alkalies, red solutions (alkaline rubates); the acid of the former may be separated. It is a black powder, insoluble in water, soluble in alkalies, and precipitated by acids. Buric acid forms red insoluble compounds with the earths and some other metallic oxides.

JARAVE. The Spanish name for SARSAPARILLA BEER. See Beers (in pharmacy).

JASPER. Syn. Iaspis, L. A mineral of the quartz family, occurring in rocky masses. It takes various shades of red, yellow, brown, and green, and is occasionally banded, spotted, or variegated. It was formerly used as an amulet against hæmorrhages and fluxes. It is now extensively worked up into rings, seals, snuff-boxes, vases, &c., for which it is well calculated from its extreme hardness and susceptibility of receiving a fine polish.

JATRO′PHIC ACID. Syn. Crotonic acid, Iatrophic a. A peculiar fatty acid discovered by Pelletier and Caventon, and originally regarded by them as the cathartic principle of croton oil and croton seeds, but since shown by Redwood and Pereira to be nearly inert.

Prep. The oil is saponified by caustic potassa, and the resulting soap is decomposed by tartaric acid; the fatty matter which floats on the surface of the liquid is then skimmed off the aqueous portion, and the latter submitted to distillation; the liquid in the receiver is a solution of jatrophic acid.

Prop., &c. Volatile; very acid; has a nauseous odour; is solid at 23°, and vaporizes at 35° Fahr. It forms salts with the bases, none of which possess any practical importance.

JAU′MANGE. Prep. From isinglass, 1 oz.; boiling water, 12 oz.; dissolve, add of any sweet white wine, 12 pint; the yolks of 2 eggs beaten to a froth, and the grated yellow peel of two lemons; mix well, and heat the whole over the fire until sufficiently thickened, stirring all the time; lastly, serve it up or pour it into moulds.

JAUN′DICE. Syn. Icterus, Morbus luteolus, L. A disease characterised by a yellow colour of the eyes and skin, deep-coloured urine, and pale alvine evacuations. It appears to arise from a disordered action of the biliary organs. The treatment consists of the administration of saline aperients, and small doses of blue-pill, followed by tonics and diaphoretics. The action of these remedies should be promoted by the copious use of diluents (particularly saline water), and exertion in the open air, when possible. When there is much pain and vomiting, anodynes (or opium, morphia, &c.) may be administered. Jaundice is not in itself a dangerous disease, but it sometimes lays the patient open to attacks of others which are so.

Animals.—Jaundice affects cattle, giving rise to a tawny hue of the skin and membranes. Pleuro-pneumonia is frequently followed by jaundice. The best remedies are large doses of Epsom salts combined with ginger; and if these fail to remove the costiveness, a drachm of calomel should be added. If necessary, the above purge must be repeated next day, the action being assisted by giving the animal warm fluids.

Tonics and stimulants are also sometimes superadded to the above treatment.

JEL′LY. Syn. Gelatina, L. A term now very loosely applied to various substances which are liquid or semi-liquid whilst warm, and become gelatinous on cooling.

Jellies are coloured by the addition of the usual stains used by confectioners, and are rendered transparent by clarification with white of egg.

Jelly, Almond. Syn. Gelatina amygdalarum, L. Prep. From rich almond milk, 14 pint; thick hartshorn jelly, 12 pint; sugar, 2 oz.; with 2 or 3 bitter almonds and a little lemon peel, to flavour, heated together, strained, and moulded.

Jelly, Ar′row-root. Syn. Gelatina marantæ, L. From arrow-root, 112 oz., to water, 1 pint. Tous les mois jelly is made in the same way.

Jelly, Bis′cuit. Prep. From white biscuit (crushed beneath the rolling-pin), 4 oz.; cold water, 2 quarts; soak for some hours, boil to one half, strain, evaporate to 1 pint, and add, of white sugar, 34 lb., red wine, 4 oz., and cinnamon, 1 teaspoonful. In weakness of the stomach, and in dysentery and diarrhœa, and in convalescence combined with rich beef gravy or soup.

Jelly, Bladder-wrack. (Dr Russell.) Syn. Gelatina fuci. Prep. Bladder-wrack (Fucus vesiculosus), 2 lbs.; sea water, 2 lbs.; macerate for 15 days. Applied to glandular tumours.

Jelly, Bread. Syn. Panada; Gelatina panis, L. Prep. Cut a French roll into slices, toast them on each side, and boil in water, 1 quart, until the whole forms a jelly, adding more water if required; strain, and add sugar, milk, &c., to palate. It may be made with broth from which the fat has been skimmed, instead of water. Used as the last.

Jelly, Broth. Syn. Soup-jelly. From broth or soup from which the fat has been skimmed, evaporated until it becomes gelatinous on cooling. A few shreds of isinglass are commonly added. See Soup (Portable).


Jelly, Calves’ Feet. Prep. For each foot take of water 3 pints, and boil to one half; cool, skim off the fat, and again boil for 2 or 3 minutes with the peel of a lemon and a little spice; remove it from the fire, strain through a jelly bag (see Filtration), add the juice of a lemon and a glass of wine, and when it has cooled a little put it into glasses or ‘forms.’

Obs. If this jelly is required to be very transparent it must be treated as follows:—After the fat is removed it should be gently warmed, just enough to melt it, next well beaten with the white of an egg and the seasoning, and then brought to a boil for a minute or two, when it will be ready for straining, &c. The calves’ feet should not be bought ready boiled, but only scalded. Cows’ feet (‘COW HEELS’) make nearly as good jelly as that from calves’ feet, and are much more economical.

Jelly, Ceylon Moss. Syn. Gelatina gracilariæ, L. Prep. (Dr Sigmond.) Boil Ceylon moss (Granularia lichenoides), 12 oz. in water, 1 quart, for 25 minutes, or till the liquid jellies on cooling; strain and flavour. Very nutritious; recommended in irritation of the mucous membranes and phthisis.

Jelly, Copaiba. (M. Caillot.) Syn. Gelatina copaiba. Prep. Isinglass, 4 parts; water, 40 parts; dissolve in a water bath, and add 20 parts of sugar; pour the clear liquid jelly into a warm mortar, and add copaiba, 60 parts; triturate, and pour in a vessel to jelly. Flavour with some aromatic essential oil or balsam of tolu.

Jelly, Cor′sican Moss. Syn. Gelatina helminthocorti, L. Prep. (P. Cod.) Corsican moss (Gracilaria Helminthocorton), 1 oz.; water, q. s.; boil 1 hour, and strain 8 fl. oz.; to this add of isinglass (previously soaked in a little water), 1 dr.; refined sugar, 2 oz.; white wine, a wine-glassful. Vermifuge. See Decoction.

Jelly, Fruit. Under this head we include those jellies made from the juices of fruits.

Prep. The strained juice mixed with 13 to 12 its weight of refined sugar, until it ‘jellies’ on cooling, observing to carefully remove the scum as it rises. The process should be conducted by a gentle heat, and it is preferable not to add the sugar until the juice is somewhat concentrated, as by lengthened boiling the quality of the sugar is injured.

Obs. Jellies are sold in pots or glasses, like JAMS. Both jams and fruit jellies are refrigerant and laxative; they are, however, mostly employed as relishes, especially during fevers and convalescences. The principal fruit jellies are:—Apple, BARBERRY, CHERRY (from either Cornelian or Kentish cherries), CURRANT (black, white, and red), ELDERBERRY, GOOSEBERRY, PLUM, QUINCE, RASPBERRY. See Lemon and Orange jelly.

Jelly, Glycerin. Syn. Gelatina glycerini. Mix glycerin to the required consistence with compound tragacanth powder. Or take powdered gum Arabic, 12 oz.; syrup, 4 oz. (3 oz. of sugar to 1 oz. of water); the yolks of 3 eggs; olive oil, 4 oz.; glycerin, 2 oz. Rub the gum and syrup well together, add the yolks, and when mixed add the oil and glycerine, previously triturated together. Applied to chapped hands, abrasions, &c. See Glycerin of Starch.

Jelly, Gra′′vy. By evaporating meat gravies.

Jelly, Harts′horn. Syn. Gelatina cornu cervi, L. Prep. (P. Cod.) Hartshorn shavings, 8 oz.; wash it in water, then boil in clean water, 3 pints, till reduced to one half; strain, press, add of sugar, 4 oz., the juice of one lemon, and the white of an egg beaten up with a little cold water; mix well, clarify by heat, evaporate till it jellies on cooling, then add the peel of the lemon, and set it in a cool place. It may be flavoured with wine, spices, &c. Very nutritious.

Jelly, Ice′land Moss. Syn. Gelatina lichenis, L. Prep. (P. Cod.) Iceland moss, 2 oz.; soak for 1 or 2 days in cold water, then boil for 1 hour in water, q. s. to yield a strong solution; strain, decant the clear after repose, apply heat, and dissolve therein of isinglass, 1 dr.; evaporate the whole to a proper consistence, put it into pots, and set them in a cool place. Nutritious. Recommended in phthisis. The jelly of Iceland moss and cinchona (GELATINA LICHENIS CUM CINCHONA—P. Cod.) is made by adding to the above syrup of cinchona, 6 fl. oz.

Jelly, Iceland Moss (Sweetened). (P. C.) Syn. Gelatina lichenis saccharata. Prep. Saccharated Iceland moss (see Iceland moss, Saccharated), 712 oz.; sugar, 712 oz.; water, 15 oz.; orange-flower water, 1 oz. Boil the first three substances and remove the scum which forms, and then let the jelly flow into a vessel which contains the orange-flower water.

Jelly, I′′rish Moss. Syn. Gelatina chondri, L. Prep. From Irish or carrageen moss. See Decoction.

Jelly, I′′singlass. Syn. Confectioners’ jelly; Gelatina ichthyocollæ, L. Prep. From isinglass dissolved in water by boiling, and evaporated till it ‘jellies’ on cooling, adding flavouring, as desired. 112 oz. of good isinglass makes fully a pint of very strong jelly. See Blancmange, Isinglass, Calves-feet Jelly, &c.

Jelly, Lem′on. From isinglass, 2 oz.; water, 1 quart; boil, add of sugar 1 lb., clarify, and when nearly cold add the juice of 5 lemons, and the grated yellow rinds of 2 oranges and of 2 lemons; mix well, strain off the peel, and put it into glasses.

Jelly No′yeau. As Punch jelly, but strongly flavoured with bitter almonds.

Jelly, Or′ange. From orange juice, 1 pint; let it stand over the grated yellow rind of 3 or 4 of the oranges for a few hours, then strain, and add, of loaf sugar, 12 lb., or more, isinglass928 12 oz., dissolved in water, 1 pint; mix, and put it into glasses before it cools.

Jelly, Punch. From isinglass, 2 oz.; sugar, 134 lb.; water, 1 pint; dissolve, add of lemon juice, 12 pint; the peels of 2 lemons and of 2 oranges; rum and brandy, of each 14 pint; keep it in a covered vessel until cold, then liquefy it by a very gentle heat, strain, and pour it into moulds. A pleasant and deceptive way of swallowing alcohol.

Jelly, Quince. (E. P., 1744.) Syn. Gelatina cydoniorum. Prep. Juice of quinces, 3 lbs.; sugar, 1 lb.; boil to a jelly.

Jelly, Rice. Syn. Crême de Riz. From rice boiled in water, sweetened, and flavoured.

Jelly, Sago. Prep. Soak sago in cold water for 1 hour, strain, and boil in fresh soft water until it becomes transparent; then add wine, sugar, clear broth, milk, or spices, to flavour. 1 oz. of sugar makes a pint of good jelly.

Jelly, Salep. (Soubeiran). Syn. Gelatina salepæ. Prep. Ground salep, 4 dr.; sugar, 4 oz.; water, a sufficient quantity. Boil to 12 oz., and flavour to the taste.

Jelly, Ta′pioca. As Sago jelly, but using tapioca in lieu of sago.

JERVINE. C60H5N2O5 An alkaloid discovered in 1837, by Simon, in the root of the Veratrum album, and by Mitchell, in 1874, in the root of the Veratrum viride. Dr H. C. Wood, jun., describing the physiological effects of jervine, says they consist “in general weakness, lowering of arterial pressure, a slow pulse, profuse salivation, and finally convulsions.” Jervine was analysed by Will, who ascribed to it the above composition.

JES′UIT’S BARK. See Cinchona.


JESUIT’S POWDER. Powdered cinchona bark.

JET. A variety of mineral bituminous carbon, very hard, and susceptible of a fine polish.

JEW′ELS. See Diamond, Emerald, Gems, &c.

JEWEL′RY. The gold in articles of jewelry, whether solid or plated, which are not intended to be exposed to very rough usage, is generally ‘coloured,’ as it is called in the trade. This is done as follows:—

1. (Red gold colour.) The article, after being coated with the amalgam, is gently heated, and, whilst hot, is covered with gilder’s wax; it is then ‘flamed’ over a wood fire, and strongly heated, during which time it is kept in a state of continual motion, to equalise the action of the fire on the surface. When all the composition has burned away, the piece is plunged into water, cleansed with the ‘scratch-brush’ and vinegar, and then washed and burnished. To bring up the beauty of the colour, the piece is sometimes washed with a strong solution of verdigris in vinegar, next gently heated, plunged whilst hot into water, and then washed, first in vinegar, or water soured with nitric acid, and then in pure water; it is, lastly, burnished, and again washed and dried.

2. (Or-molu colour.) This is given by covering the parts with a mixture of powdered hematite, alum, common salt, and vinegar, and applying heat until the coating blackens, when the piece is plunged into cold water, rubbed with a brush dipped in vinegar, or in water strongly soured with nitric acid, again washed in pure water, and dried. During this process, the parts not to be dried in ‘or-molu colour’ should be carefully protected.

The frauds practised in reference to the ‘fineness’ of the metal used in jewelry is noticed under Gold (Jeweller’s). See also Assaying, Diamond, Gems, Gilding liquor, Gilding wax, &c.

JEW’S PITCH. See Asphaltum.

JOURNAL BOXES, Alloy for. Copper, 24 parts; tin 24 parts; antimony, 8 parts. First melt the copper, then add the tin, and lastly the antimony.

JUICE (Spanish). See Extract and Liquorice.

JU′JUBE. A fruit resembling a small plum, produced by various species of Zizyphus. Combined with sugar, it forms the JUJUBE PASTE of the shops, when genuine; but that now almost always sold under the name is a mixture of gum and sugar, slightly coloured and flavoured.

JU′LEP. Syn. Julap; Julepum, Julepus, Julapium, L. A term usually regarded as synonymous with ‘MIXTURE’; but according to the best authorities, implying a medicine which is used as a vehicle for other forms of medicine. The word comes through the French, from a Persian expression, which signifies ‘sweet drink.’ A julep, according to Continental writers, is a drink of little activity, generally composed of distilled waters, infusions, and syrups, to which mucilages and acids are sometimes added; “but never powders or oily substances, which could interfere with its transparency.” In England the juleps of old pharmacy are now classed under ‘MIXTURES,’

JU′′NIPER BERRIES. Syn. Juniperi baccæ, J. communis baccæ (Ph. E.), JUNIPERUS (Ph. L.), L. The fruit of the Juniperus communis, or common juniper tree. In the old Ph. L. & D. both the tops and berries (JUNIPERI FRUCTUS ET CACUMINA—Ph. L. 1836; JUNIPERUSBACCÆ, CACUMINA—Ph. D. 1862) were ordered. The berries are stomachic and diuretic, and have been long employed in dropsies, either alone or combined with foxglove and squills. The tops (SUMMITATES) have been highly praised in scurvy and certain cutaneous affections.—Dose, 1 to 2 dr., made into a conserve with sugar, or in the form of infusion or tea.


Douath found 100 parts of the berries to contain—

Water 29·44
Volatile oil ·91
Formic acid 1·86
Acetic acid ·94
Malic acid (combined) ·21
Oxalic acid traces
Wax-like fatty matter ·64
Green resin (from ethereal solution) 8·46
Hard brown resin (from alcoholic solution) 1·29
Bitter principle (called juniperin) ·37
Pectin ·73
Albuminous substances 4·45
Sugar 29·65
Cellulose 15·83
Mineral substances 2·33

JUN′KET. Syn. Devonshire junket, Curd jelly. From warm milk put into a bowl, and then turned with a little rennet; some scalded cream and sugar are next added with a sprinkling of cinnamon on the top, without breaking the curd. Much esteemed by holiday folk in the western counties during the hot weather of summer. Sometimes, very strangely, a little brandy finds its way into these trifles.

JUTE. This is the fibre yielded by the Corchorus capsularis, a lime tree growing in India and China. It is the material of which sacks, gunny bags, and coarse thread are made. It mixes even with linen or cotton, and hence may not improbably be employed as a sophisticant of these substances.

The plates on page 930 exhibit the different microscopic appearances of the three substances.

KALEIDOSCOPE. Syn. Flower-glass. A pleasing philosophical toy invented by Sir David Brewster, which presents to the eye a series of symmetrical changing views. It is formed as follows:—Two slips of silvered glass, from 6 to 10 inches long, and from 1 to 112 inch wide, and rather narrower at one end than the other, are joined together lengthwise, by one of their edges, by means of a piece of silk or cloth glued on their backs; they are then placed in a tube of tin or pasteboard, blackened inside, and a little longer than is necessary to contain them, and are fixed by means of small pieces of cork, with their faces at an angle to each other that is an even aliquot part of 4 right angles (as the 16, 18, 110, &c.). The other end of the tube is then closed with an opaque screen or cover, through which a small eyehole is made in the centre; and the other end is fitted, first with a plate of common glass, and at the distance of about 18th of an inch, with a plain piece of slightly ground glass, parallel to the former; in the intermediate place or cell are placed the objects to form the images. These consist of coloured pieces of glass, glass beads, or any other coloured diaphanous bodies, sufficiently small to move freely in the cell, and to assume new positions when the tube is shaken or turned round. A tube so prepared presents an infinite number of changing and symmetrical pictures, no one of which can be exactly reproduced. This toy is so easily constructed, is so very inexpensive, and at the same time so capable of affording an almost inexhaustible fund of amusement to the young, that we advise our juvenile friends to try their hands at its construction. Any common tube of tin or pasteboard may be used, and strips of glass smoked on one side will answer for mirrors.

KA′LI. The name formerly applied to a species of Salsola employed for making BARILLA. It is sometimes used as a designation for the crude alkalies, and is the German synonym for ‘potassa.’

Kali, Acid′ulated. Syn. Lemon and kali, Lemonated k. A common preparation of the shops for making a pleasant effervescing draught. It is sometimes incorrectly styled ‘citrate of potash.’ Prep. 1. Carbonate of soda and tartaric acid, of each 5 oz.; lump sugar, 1 lb.; all in the state of fine powder, and separately dried by a very gentle heat, after which they are mixed together, flavoured with essence of lemon, 1 dr., rubbed through a gauze sieve in a warm dry situation, put into bottles, and corked down immediately.

2. Finely powdered white sugar, 16 lbs.; tartaric acid, 414 lbs.; carbonate of soda, 4 lbs.; essence of lemon, 1 oz.; as the last. Keeps well. A dessert-spoonful of either thrown into a glassful of water makes a pleasant effervescing draught.

KA′LIUM. [L.] Potassium.

KAL′YDOR. A cosmetic lotion; it resembles ‘Gowland’s Lotion,’ but is got up in a rather more pleasing style. See Lotion.

KAMALA. A powder consisting of the minute glands obtained from the capsules of the Rottlera tinctoria, a plant belonging to the nat. ord. Euphorbiaceæ. Kamala is imported from India, where it is known under the name of kameela. The rottlera, from which it is obtained, is a tree from 15 to 20 feet in height, indigenous to India and to many of the East Indian Islands.

Kamala has long been employed in India as a remedy for tapeworm, and within the last few years has been given for the same purpose in this country with very general success. It may be administered in doses of from thirty grains to three drachms, suspended in water, rubbed up with mucilage, or mixed with syrup. In large doses, such as three drachms, it sometimes purges violently. After the third or fourth motion the worm is generally evacuated dead. A second dose may be taken in about four hours should the first fail to act; or instead of a second dose, some castor oil may be given. Kamala is also used externally by the natives of India in various skin complaints, particularly in scabies. It is also said to have proved useful in herpetic ringworm.


Cloth fibers under the microscope.
Cotton, Linen and Jute.


Dr Anderson obtained from the resinous colouring matter, which is the principal constituent of kamala, a yellow crystalline substance, to which he gave the name rottlerin. The existence of rottlerin has since been confirmed by Mr Groves, who found that it becomes changed by exposure, a circumstance to which he attributes its non-detection in old specimens of the drug, and to which may very reasonably be attributed Leube’s failure to find it.

The ‘British Pharmacopœia’ ascribes the following ‘characters’ to kamala:—“A fine granular mobile powder, of a brick-red colour; it is with difficulty mixed with water, but when boiled with alcohol the greater part is dissolved, forming a red solution. Ether dissolves most of it, the residue consisting principally of tufted hairs. It should be free from sand or earthy impurities.”

Kamala forms a very considerable article of export from India, it being a valuable dye.

KA′OLIN. Syn. China clay, Porcelain c. A fine white clay, derived from the decomposition of the felspar of granitic rocks. The potteries and porcelain works of this country are chiefly supplied with this substance from extensive tracts of it which occur near St Austie, Cornwall. See Clay.

Elsner[9] gives the following process for distinguishing kaolin from ordinary clay:—He agitates it in a test-tube with pure strong sulphuric acid till a uniform mixture is produced, decants the acid after subsidence, dilutes it carefully with six volumes of water, and supersaturates the cooled solution with ammonia.

[9] Dingl., ‘Pot. Journ.’ (Watts).

Kaolin thus treated separates but slowly from the strong acid, and the diluted acid solution gives an immediate white precipitate with ammonia, whereas ordinary clay is but slightly attacked by the acid, separates quickly from it, and the acid after dilution gives but an insignificant precipitate with ammonia.

KAP′NOMOR. Syn. Capnomor. A colourless oil obtained from crude kreasote by distillation with potassa. It boils at 360° Fahr., has a peculiar odour, and is insoluble in water, but readily soluble in an alkaline solution of kreasote.

KATAL′YSIS. Syn. Catalysis, Contact action. Terms applied to a class of chemical actions in which the decompositions, and the recombination of the elements of compound bodies, is apparently excited by the mere presence of, or contact with, other bodies, which do not themselves suffer such a change.


KELP. The alkaline ashes obtained by burning various species of sea-weed, formerly much used for the preparation of carbonate of soda. The weeds most valued for the purpose are the Fucus vesiculosus, nodosus, and serratus, and the Laminaria bulbosa and digitata.

Of late years the manufacture of kelp, like that of barilla, has been almost abandoned except as a source of iodine. Mr E. C. C. Stanford, by carefully collecting and compressing the weed, and afterwards submitting it to dry distillation, doubles the yield of iodine and bromine, and obtains in addition various valuable hydrocarbons. See Barilla, Iodine, Soda, &c.

KER′MES. Syn. Kermes-grains, Alkermes; Granum tinctorium, L. The dried bodies of the female Coccus Ilicis of Linnæus, a small insect of the order Hemiptera, which flourishes on the Ilex oak. It has been used as a red and scarlet dye-stuff ever since the time of Moses; but is now superseded in this country by cochineal, which gives colours of much greater brilliancy.

KER′MES MIN′ERAL. Syn. Kermes minerale, K. mineralis, L. An amorphous tersulphide of antimony, containing a small admixture of teroxide of antimony and sulphuride of potassium. Prep. 1. In the humid way.a. (P. Cod.) Carbonate of soda (cryst.), 128 parts (say 21 parts), is dissolved in water, 1280 parts (say 210 parts), contained in a cast-iron pan; tersulphide of antimony (in fine powder), 6 parts (say 1 part), is next added, and the whole boiled for an hour, with constant agitation with a wooden spatula; the boiling liquid is then filtered into a heated earthen pan containing a small quantity of very hot water, and the solution is allowed to cool as slowly as possible; the red powder which is deposited is collected on a cloth, on which it is well washed with cold water, and the superfluous water being removed by pressure, the powder is dried by a gentle heat, and is, lastly, passed through a fine silk-gauze sieve, and preserved from light and air.

b. (Wholesale.) From black sulphuride of antimony, 4 lbs.; carbonate of potassa, 1 lb.; boil in water, 2 galls., for half an hour, filter, &c., as before. The undissolved portion of sesquisulphuret of antimony may be boiled again several times with fresh potassa and water, until the whole is dissolved. Inferior to the last.

c. (Cluzell’s kermes.) From tersulphide of antimony, 4 parts; crystallised carbonate of soda, 90 parts; water, 1000 parts; boil, &c., as in 1, a, and dry the powder, folded up in paper, at a heat not exceeding 90° Fahr.

2. In the dry way.a. (P. Cod.) Carbonate of potassa, 100 parts; tersulphide of antimony, 50 parts; sulphur, 3 parts; mix, fuse in a Hessian crucible, pour the melted mass into an iron mortar, and when cold reduce it to powder; next boil it in water, 1000 parts, contained in an iron vessel, filter the solution, and otherwise proceed as before. Product: large, but of inferior quality.

b. (Fownes.) From tersulphide of antimony, 5 parts; carbonate of soda (dry), 3 parts; water, 80 parts; fuse, &c., as before. Nearly equal to 1, a.


c. (Berzelius.) Carbonate of potassa (pure), 3 parts, tersulphide of antimony, 8 parts; water, q. s. Resembles the last.

Prop., &c. An odourless, tasteless powder, insoluble in both water and alcohol, and, when pure and carefully prepared, entirely soluble in hydrosulphate of ammonia. As prepared by the formulæ 1, a, and 1, c, it is a very dark crimson powder, of a velvety smoothness; but that from the other formulæ has a brownish-red colour, more or less deep. The secret of preparing this compound of a fine and velvety quality, like that imported from the Continent, consists simply in filtering the solution whilst boiling hot, and allowing it to cool very slowly, by placing the vessel in an appropriate situation for that purpose. Another important point, according to Rose, is to employ sufficient alkali to keep the whole of the teroxide of antimony in solution as the liquid cools, instead of allowing a part of it to be deposited with the kermes. This is the reason of the superior quality and mildness of that prepared according to the directions of the French Codex. The liquor decanted from the ‘kermes mineral’ yields the golden sulphide of antimony on the addition of an acid, for which purpose the acetic is generally employed.

Dose, 12 gr. to 3 or 4 gr., as a diaphoretic, cathartic, or emetic. It occupies in foreign practice the place of our James’s Powder.

KETCH′UP. Syn. Catchup, Catsup, Katchup. The juice of certain vegetables strongly salted and spiced, so as to be used as sauce; or a simple sauce made without the natural juice as a substitute for the true ketchup. The following are the principal varieties:—

Ketchup, Camp. Prep. Take of good old beer, 2 quarts; white wine, 1 quart; anchovies, 4 oz.; mix, heat it to the boiling-point, remove it from the fire, and add of peeled shalots, 3 oz.; mace, nutmegs, ginger, and black pepper, of each, bruised, 12 oz.; macerate for 14 days, with frequent agitation, then allow it to settle, and decant and bottle the clear portion.

Ketchup, Cu′cumber. Prep. From ripe cucumbers, in the same way as mushroom ketchup. Very luscious. Mixed with cream, or melted butter, it forms an excellent white sauce for fowls, &c.

Ketchup, Marine′. Prep. Take of strong old beer, 1 gall.; anchovies, 112 lb.; peeled shalots (crushed), 1 lb.; bruised mace, mustard seed, and cloves, of each 12 oz.; bruised pepper and ginger, of each 14 oz.; mushroom ketchup and vinegar, of each 1 quart; beat the mixture to the boiling point, put it into a bottle, and macerate for 14 days, frequently shaking; then strain through flannel, and bottle it for use. Excellent with anything; like the last, it makes good white sauce, and keeps well.

Ketchup, Mush′room. Prep. 1. Sprinkle mushroom flaps, gathered in September, with common salt, stir them occasionally for 2 or 3 days, then lightly squeeze out the juice, and add to each gallon cloves and mustard seed, of each, bruised, 12 oz.; allspice, black pepper, and ginger, of each, bruised, 1 oz.; gently heat to the boiling-point in a covered vessel, macerate for 14 days, and decant or strain. Should it exhibit any indications of change in a few weeks, bring it again to the boiling-point, with a little more spice, and a table-spoonful more salt.

2. Take of mushroom juice, 2 galls.; pimento, 2 oz.; cloves, black pepper, mustard seed, and ginger, of each, bruised, 1 oz.; salt, 1 lb. (or to taste); shalots, 3 oz.; gently simmer for 1 hour in a covered vessel, cool, strain, and bottle.

3. Take of mushroom juice, 100 galls.; black pepper, 9 lbs.; allspice, 7 lbs.; ginger, 5 lbs.; cloves, 1 lb. (all bruised); salt, q. s.; gently simmer in a covered tin boiler for 1 hour.

Ketchup, Oys′ter. Prep. Pulp the oysters, and to each pint add, of sherry wine, or very strong old ale, 1 pint; salt, 1 oz.; mace, 14 oz.; black pepper, 1 dr.; simmer very gently for 10 minutes, strain, cool, bottle, and to each bottle add a spoonful or two of brandy, and keep them in a cool situation. Cockle ketchup and MUSSEL KETCHUP are made in the same way. Used to flavour sauces when the fish are out of season; excellent with rump steak, &c.

Ketchup, Pon′tac. Prep. Take of the juice of elderberries and strong vinegar, of each 1 pint; anchovies, 12 lb.; shalots and spice, q. s. to flavour; boil for 5 minutes, cool, strain, and bottle. Used to make fish sauces.

Ketchup, Toma′to. Prep. Prepared from tomatoes or love apples, like mushroom ketchup, except that a little very strong Chili vinegar is commonly added. An admirable relish for ‘high’ or rich flavoured viands.

Ketchup, Wal′nut. Prep. 1. Take of the expressed juice of young walnuts, when tender, 1 gall.; boil 10 minutes, skim, add of anchovies, 2 lbs.; shalots, 1 lb.; cloves and mace, of each 1 oz.; 1 clove of garlic, sliced; simmer in a covered vessel for 15 minutes, strain, cool, and bottle, adding a little fresh spice to each bottle, and salt, q. s. Will keep good in a cool place for 20 years.

2. Take of green walnut shells, 16 galls.; salt, 5 lbs.; mix and beat together for a week, press out the liquor, and to every gallon add, of allspice, 4 oz.; ginger, 3 oz.; pepper and cloves, of each 2 oz.; all bruised; simmer for half an hour, and set aside in a closed vessel and in a cool situation until sufficiently clear.

3. Take of walnut juice, 1 gall.; vinegar, 1 quart; British anchovies (sprats), 3 or 4 lbs.; pimento, 3 oz.; ginger, 14 oz.; long pepper, 12 oz.; cloves, 1 oz.; shalots, 2 oz.; boil and bottle, as before.

4. From the juice of walnut shells, 30 galls.; salt, 1 bushel; allspice and shalots, of each 6 lbs.; ginger, garlic, and horse-radish, of each 3 lbs.; essence of anchovies, 3 galls.; as before.


Ketchup, Wine. Prep. Take of mushroom or walnut ketchup, 1 quart; chopped anchovies, 12 lb.; 20 shalots; scraped horse-radish, 2 oz.; spice, q. s.; simmer for 15 minutes, cool, and add of white and red wine, of each 1 pint; macerate for 1 week, strain, and bottle.

General Remarks. In preparing the above articles, vessels of glazed earthenware, or stoneware, or well-tinned copper pans, should alone be used to contain them whilst being boiled or heated, as salt and vegetable juices rapidly corrode copper, and render the ketchup poisonous. Nothing in the shape of copper, lead or pewter should be allowed to touch them. Even a plated copper spoon left in a bottle of ketchup for some time will render its contents poisonous. Unpleasant and even dangerous fits of vomiting, colic, and diarrhœa have resulted from the neglect of this precaution. See Sauce, &c.

KIBES. The vulgar name for ulcerated chilblains.

KID′NEYS. Syn. Renes, L. (In anatomy.) The kidneys, as almost every one knows, are abdominal viscera which secrete the urine, and form the great channels by which the effete nitrogenous matter is removed from the blood. They are subject to various affections, both functional and organic, chronic and acute, of which some are imperfectly understood, and others only admit of alleviation, but not of being cured. See Urine and Urinary affections.

Kidneys. (In cookery.) Soyer recommends kidneys to be dressed by gently broiling them, having previously split them, “so as nearly to divide them, leaving the fat in the middle,” and “run a skewer through them, that they may remain open.” After being rubbed with a little butter, and seasoned with salt and pepper, “they may be served on toast, or with any sauce.” “You may also egg and bread-crumb them.” “Five minutes suffice for a sheep or lamb’s kidney of common size.” (Soyer.) One or two lamb’s kidneys, plainly broiled and served up with the gravy in them, eaten along with a little dry-toasted bread, form a most excellent and appropriate luncheon or dinner for a dyspeptic or convalescent.

KIESERITE. A sulphate of magnesia found in the refuse salt (abraumsalz) of Stassfurth, near Magdeburg. It forms about 12% of the abraumsalz. It is employed for washing wool and for the manufacture of ‘permanent white’ by treatment with chloride of barium; also for the preparation of Glauber salts, and of hypochlorite of magnesia for bleaching linen. See Linen.

KING’S CUP. Prep. Yellow peel of 1 lemon; lump sugar, 112 oz.; cold water, 1 pint; infuse 8 or 10 hours, and strain. The addition of a teaspoonful of orange-flower water is a great improvement. Used as a diluent in cases where acid liquors are inadmissible. See Lemonade.

KING’S EVIL. See Scrofula.

KING’S YELLOW. See Yellow pigments.

KI′NIC ACID. HC7H11O6. Syn. Quinic acid, Cinchonic acid. A peculiar monobasic acid occurring in the cinchona barks, in which it exists associated with the alkaloids.

Kinic acid is somewhat extensively diffused throughout the vegetable kingdom, being found in the bark of every species of the true cinchonas, as well as in the leaves of the oak, the elm, the ash, the ivy, the privet, and the coffee plant and berries. It occurs in the cinchona barks most probably combined with the alkaloids, which therefore exist in the plant as kinates.

It is readily obtained from kinate of lime by the action of dilute sulphuric acid; the filtered solution evaporated to the consistence of a syrup, gradually deposits large crystals resembling those of tartaric acid.

Henry and Plisson give the following directions for the preparation of kinic acid:—Make a decoction of cinchona bark with water containing some sulphuric acid, and filter whilst hot, and to the filtrate add gradually freshly precipitated oxide of lead, until the liquid becomes neutral, and changes from a red to a pale yellow colour; care must be taken to add sufficient oxide. The filtrate is freed from lead by passing sulphuretted hydrogen through it, and filtered milk of lime is then added to precipitate the quinine and cinchonine; and the filtered liquid is evaporated to a syrup, which yields on cooling crystalline calcic kinate. To separate the acid from the calcic salt, Berzelius directs an aqueous solution of the salt to be made and to be precipitated by basic acetate of lead; the washed precipitate, suspended in water, is then decomposed by sulphuretted hydrogen, and the solution filtered and evaporated. Or the calcium kinate may be decomposed by an aqueous or alcoholic solution of sulphuric acid.[10]

[10] Watts.

Kinic acid is, in the form of large tubular crystals, fusible at 161° C. These crystals dissolve in two parts of water; they are also soluble in spirits of wine, but scarcely, if at all, in ether.

It forms salts called kinates. Kinate of calcium is obtained from an acidulated infusion of cinchona bark, by adding an excess of lime, filtering, evaporating to a syrup, and setting the liquid aside to crystallise. These crystals are purified by re-dissolving them, treating the solution with a little animal charcoal, and crystallising the salt as before. The liquid from which the bark-alkaloids have been precipitated by hydrate of lime affords an almost inexhaustible supply of this salt. See Kinone.

KI′NO. Syn. Gum kino; Kino (B. P., Ph. L. E. & D.) The juice flowing from the incised bark of the Pterocarpus Marsupium or Indian, hardened in the sun.—Dose, 10 to 30934 gr., in powder; as an astringent in chronic diarrhœa, &c.

Kino, Factitious, met with in the shops, is made as follows:—Logwood, 48 lbs.; tormentil root, 16 lbs.; madder root, 12 lbs.; exhaust by coction with water, q. s.; to the liquor add of catechu, 16 lbs.; dissolve, strain, and evaporate to dryness. Prod. 24 lbs. Extract of mahogany is also commonly sold for kino.

KIRSCH′WASSER (-văs ser) [Ger.]. Syn. Kirschenwasser. A spirituous liquor distilled in Germany and Switzerland from bruised cherries. From the rude manner in which it is obtained, and from the distillation of the cherry-stones (which contain prussic acid) with the liquor, it has often a nauseous taste, and is frequently poisonous. When properly made and sweetened, it resembles noyeau.

KISH. An artificial graphite occasionally produced in iron-smelting furnaces. It occurs in brilliant scales, and is said to possess peculiar efficacy in certain forms of anæmia and chlorosis.

KITCH′EN. The late Alexis Soyer set down as one of the crying faults of our countrymen the employment of an apartment for the kitchen which is either too small or inconveniently situated, and which, in general, is not sufficiently provided with ‘kitchen requisites.’ “As a workman cannot work properly without the requisite tools, or the painter produce the proper shade without the necessary colours, in like manner does every person wishing to economise his food and to cook it properly require the proper furniture wherewith to do it.” The neglect of these matters, which is so general, is, undoubtedly, a mischievous and deceptive economy.

KNIVES, to Clean. After being used all knives should be wiped on a coarse cloth, so as to ensure their freedom from grease previous to being cleaned. The practice of dipping the blades in hot water not only fails to remove any grease that may be on them, but is almost sure to loosen the handles. It is very essential to remove any grease from them, since if this remain it will spoil the knife-board.

For cleaning knives, a proper knife-cleaning machine, purchased of a good maker, is best. But where this is not used, the knife-board ought to be covered with very thick leather, upon which emery powder should be placed. The emery gives a good polish to the knives, and does not wear them out so quickly as Bath-brick. When the points of the knives become worn very thin, they should be rounded by the knife-grinder. Where the handles are good it will sometimes be worth while to fit them to new blades.

KNOX’S POW′DER. Prep. From common salt, 8 parts; chloride of lime, 3 parts; mixed together. An ounce of it dissolved in a tumblerful of water furnishes a solution which is similar to Labarraque’s disinfecting fluid.

KŒCHLIN’S LIQUID. Prep. From copper filings, 96 gr.; liquor of ammonia, 2 fl. oz.; digested together until it turns of a full blue colour, and then mixed with hydrochloric acid, 5 fl. dr.; distilled water, 5 lbs.—Dose, 1 to 2 teaspoonfuls daily; in scrofula. It is poisonous in large doses.

KOOCH′LA NUT. See Nux vomica.

KOU′MISS. A liquor prepared by the Calmucs, by fermenting mare’s milk, previously kept until sour, and then skimmed. By distillation it yields a spirit called rack, racky, or araka. 21 lbs. of fermented milk yield about 34 pint of low wines, and this, by rectification, gives fully 14 pint of strong alcohol. It has lately come into use as a remedy for phthisis and general debility.

The following formula from the Zeitschrift des Oesterr. Apoth. Ver. (1876, 526), for the preparation of so-called Koumiss Extract, is said to be a good one:—

Powdered sugar of milk 100 parts
Glucose (prepared from starch) 100
Cane sugar 300
Bicarbonate of potassium 36
Common salt 33

Dissolve these ingredients in 600 parts of boiling fresh whey of milk, allow the solution to cool, then add 100 parts of rectified spirit, and afterwards 100 parts of strained fresh beer yeast. Stir the mixture well and put into bottles containing a quarter of a litre each. The bottles must be well corked and kept in a cool place.

For the preparation of Koumiss add 5 to 6 tablespoonfuls of this extract to a litre of skimmed, lukewarm milk, contained in a bottle of thick glass; cork well, keep the bottle for half a day in a moderately warm room (at 16°-20° C.), and afterwards in a cool cellar, shaking occasionally. The bottle should be filled to within 3-4 centimètres of the cork. After two days the Koumiss is ready for use.

KOUS′SO. Syn. Cusso, Kosso. This substance is the dried flowers of the Brayera anthelmintica, an Abyssinian tree which grows to the height of about 20 feet, and belongs to the natural order Rosaceæ. It is one of the most effective remedies known for both varieties of tapeworm. The dose for an adult is 3 to 5 dr., in powder, mixed with about half a pint of warm water, and allowed to macerate for 15 or 20 minutes. The method prescribed for its successful administration is as follows:—The patient is to be prepared by a purgative or a lavement, and the use of a very slight diet the day before. The next morning, fasting, a little lemon juice is to be swallowed, or a portion of a lemon sucked, followed by the dose of kousso (both liquid and powder), at 3 or 4 draughts, at short intervals of each other, each of which is to be washed935 down with cold water acidulated with lemon juice. The action of the medicine is subsequently promoted by drinking weak tea without either milk or sugar, or water flavoured with lemon juice or toasted bread; and if it does not operate in the course of 3 or 4 hours, a dose of castor oil or a saline purgative is taken.

The flavour of kousso is rather disagreeable and nauseating. Its operation is speedy and effectual; but at the same time it is apt to produce, in large doses, great prostration of strength, and other severe symptoms, which unfit it for administration to the delicate of both sexes, or during pregnancy or affections of the lower viscera. Care should be taken not to purchase it in powder, as, owing to its high price, it is uniformly adulterated. The powdered kousso of the shops is, in general, nothing more than the root-bark of pomegranate, coloured and scented.

KRE′ASOTE. Syn. Creasote, Creosote, Kreosote; Creasotum (B. P., Ph. L. & D.), Creazotum (Ph. E.), L. A peculiar substance, discovered by Reichenbach, and so named on account of its powerful antiseptic property. It is a product of the dry distillation of organic bodies, and is the preservative principle of wood smoke and pyroligneous acid.

Prep. Kreasote is manufactured from wood-tar, in which it is sometimes contained to the amount of 20% to 35%, and from crude pyroligneous acid and pyroxilic oil.

1. (P. Cod.) Wood-tar is distilled in a wrought-iron retort until white vapours of paraffin appear; the heavy oily matter which forms the lower layer of the product is collected, washed with water slightly acidulated with sulphuric acid, and then distilled in a glass retort, rejecting the first portions, which are chiefly eupion; the distillate is treated with a solution of potassa (sp. gr. 1·12), the mixed liquids being shaken strongly together; after it is settled, the layer of eupion which forms is removed from the surface, and the potash-solution of kreasote exposed to the air until it becomes black; it is then saturated with dilute sulphuric acid, the water liquid rejected, and the remainder (consisting of crude kreasote) submitted to distillation in glass; the treatment by exposure, potassa, sulphuric acid, and distillation is repeated three times or oftener, until the combination of kreasote and potassa ceases to become coloured by the action of the air; it is, lastly, saturated with concentrated phosphoric acid, and again distilled, rejecting the first portion that comes over.

2. (M. Simon.) A copper still, capable of containing 80 Berlin quarts, is filled to one third with the oil of wood-tar, and heat is applied; first, the more volatile matters pass over; these do not contain kreasote, and are, therefore, rejected; but when, by gradually increasing the temperature, there passes over a very acid liquid, which becomes turbid, and at the same time an oil separates from it when mixed with water, the product is collected, and the distillation continued until the operator notices a squirting in the still, when this part of the process is complete; the distilled product is then nearly saturated with potassa and returned to the still, which, in the meantime, has been well cleaned out, and about half filled with water, and the distillation is recommenced; at first an oil comes over, which floats on water, and which consists chiefly of eupion, and is, therefore, rejected; as soon, however, as the oil begins to sink in the water which comes over with it, it is charged with kreasote, and is carefully collected; the distilling aqueous fluid being reintroduced from time to time into the still, and the distillation continued so long as any oil continues to come over with it; the heavy oily distillate is now agitated with liquor of potassa, sp. gr. 1·120; the portion which remains undissolved is eupion, and is skimmed off; the potassa-solution of kreasote still, however, contains a considerable quantity of eupion, the greater portion of which may be separated by dilution and distillation with an equal quantity, or with at least 45ths of its volume of water, fresh water being added from time to time, as long as any eupion comes over with the distilled liquor; when this has ceased to pass over, sulphuric acid is poured into the still in quantity exactly sufficient to saturate 13rd only of the potassa formerly employed, and the distillation is again renewed; kreasote now distils over, the first portions of which, however, still contain eupion, after which pure kreasote follows; that is to say, “a kreasote which, when mixed with 6 or 8 times its quantity of a solution of pure potassa, furnishes a mixture which, by the addition of any further quantity whatever of water, does not become turbid.” The combination of kreasote remaining in the still is now mixed with sulphuric acid in slight excess, and the distillation renewed, the water coming over with it being from time to time returned into the still; and when no further oil passes over with the water, the process is complete. The kreasote thus obtained is redistilled with the water which has passed over with it, whilst the distilled water, as before, is allowed from time to time to run back into the still. The kreasote thus obtained is then colourless; but it contains a considerable quantity of water in solution, which is separated by distillation in a glass retort. The water distils first, and then kreasote, which, after cleaning the neck of the retort from the water, must be received in another dry receiver. If the kreasote assumes a red colour after being exposed for some time to the air, it must be re-distilled, and then it keeps very well. Korne found that tar prepared from turf furnishes much more kreasote than that from fir-wood, &c.

3. (Ure.) In operating upon pyroligneous acid, if we dissolve effloresced sulphate of soda in it to saturation, at the temperature of 267° Fahr., the kreasote separates, and floats upon the surface; it is then decanted, and left in936 repose for some days, during which it deposits a fresh portion of salt and vinegar; it is next saturated whilst hot with carbonate of potassa, and distilled along with water; a pale yellow oily liquid passes over, which is rectified with phosphoric acid, &c., like the crude product of kreasote from tar.

Prop. Kreasote is a colourless, transparent liquid, heavier than water, of a peculiar unpleasant penetrating odour resembling that of smoked meat, and a very pungent and caustic taste; its vapour irritates the eyes; it boils at 400° Fahr., and is still fluid at -16·6° Fahr.; it produces on white filter paper greasy spots, which disappear if exposed to a heat of 212° Fahr.; dissolves in 80 parts of water, and mixes in all proportions with spirit of wine, the essential and fatty oils, acetic acid, naphtha, disulphide of carbon, ammonia, and potassa; it dissolves iodine, phosphorus, sulphur, resins, the alkaloids, indigo blue, several salts (especially the acetates and the chlorides of calcium and tin); reduces the nitrate and acetate of silver; is resinified by chlorine, and decomposed by the stronger acids. The aqueous solution is neutral, and precipitates solutions of gum and the white of eggs. It kindles with difficulty, and burns with a smoky flame. When quite pure, it is unaltered by exposure to the air. Sp. gr. 1·071, at 68° Fahr. A slip of deal dipped into it, and afterwards in hydrochloric acid, and then allowed to dry in the air, acquires a greenish-blue colour. It turns a ray of polarised light to the right, whereas carbolic acid does not affect polarisation.

Pur. The fluid commonly sold in the shops for kreasote is a mixture of kreasote, picamar, and light oil of tar; in many cases it is little else than impure carbolic acid, with scarcely a trace of kreasote. Pure kreasote is perfectly soluble in both acetic acid and solution of potassa; shaken with an equal volume of water in a narrow test-tube, not more than the 1-80th part disappears; otherwise it contains water, of which kreasote is able to assume 1-10th without becoming turbid. If it can be dissolved completely in 80 parts by weight of water, at a medium temperature, it then forms a perfectly neutral liquid. An oily residue floating on the surface betrays the presence of other foreign products (EUPION, KAPNOMOR, PICAMAR), which are obtained at the same time with the kreasote during the dry distillation of organic substances.

Kreasote is “devoid of colour, has a peculiar odour, and is soluble in acetic acid. When it is dropped on bibulous paper, and a boiling heat is applied for a short time, it entirely escapes, leaving no transparent stain.” (Ph. L.) “Entirely and easily soluble in its own weight of acetic acid.” (Ph. E.) Sp. gr. 1·046 (Ph. L.), 1·066 (Ph. E. & D.). The density and boiling point of absolutely pure kreasote is given above. When prescribed in pills with oxide of silver, the mass will take fire unless the oxide be first mixed with liquorice or other powder. (Squire.)

Uses. Kreasote has been recommended in several diseases of the organs of digestion and respiration, in rheumatism, gout, torpid nervous fever, spasms, diabetes, tapeworm, &c.; but its use has not, in general, been attended with satisfactory results. It is given in the form of pills, emulsion, or an ethereal or spirituous solution. Externally it has been employed in various chronic diseases of the skin, sores of different kinds, mortifications, scalds, burns, wounds (as a styptic), caries of the teeth, &c.; mostly in the form of an aqueous solution (1 to 80); or mixed with lard (5 drops to 1 dr.), as an ointment; dissolved in rectified spirit, it forms a useful and a popular remedy for toothache arising from decay or rottenness. In the arts, kreasote is extensively employed to preserve animal substances, either by washing it over them, or by immersing them in its aqueous solution. A few drops in a saucer, or on a piece of spongy paper, if placed in a larder, will effectually drive away insects, and make the meat keep several days longer than it otherwise would. A small quantity added to brine or vinegar is commonly employed to impart a smoky flavour to meat and fish, and its solution in acetic acid is used to give the flavour of whisky to malt spirit. See Carbolic acid.

KRE′ATIN. C4H9N3O2·Aq. Syn. Creatin. A crystallisable substance obtained from the juice of the muscular fibre of animals. It was first obtained by Chevreul, but has recently been carefully studied by Liebig.

Prep. (Liebig.) Lean flesh is reduced to shreds, and then exhausted with successive portions of cold water, employing pressure; the mixed liquid is heated to coagulate the albumen and colouring matter of the blood, and is then strained through a cloth; pure baryta water is next added as long as a precipitate forms, the liquid is filtered, and the filtrate is gently evaporated to the consistence of a syrup; after repose for some days in a warm situation, crystals of kreatin are deposited; these are purified by redissolving them in water, agitating the solution with animal charcoal, and evaporating, &c., so that crystals may form.

Prop., &c. Brilliant, colourless, prismatic crystals; readily soluble in boiling water, sparingly so in cold water and in alcohol; the aqueous solution is neutral, bitter tasted, and soon putrefies.

KREAT′ININ. C4H7N3O. This substance exists in small quantities, both in the juice of flesh and in conjunction with kreatin in urine. It is also produced by the action of the stronger acids on kreatin. It forms colourless prismatic crystals, which are soluble in water, and the solution has a strongly alkaline reaction. It is a powerful organic base, and produces crystallisable salts with the acids.

KRE′NIC ACID. See Crenic acid.


KRYSTAL′LINE. The name originally applied by Unverdorben to ANILINE.

KUSTITIEN’S METAL. Prep. Take of malleable iron, 3 parts; beat it to whiteness, and add of antimony, 1 part; Molucca tin, 72 parts; mix under charcoal, and cool. Used to coat iron and other metals with a surface of tin; it polishes without a blue tint, is hard, and has the advantage of being free from lead and arsenic.

KYANI′ZING. A method of preserving wood and cordage from decay, long known and practised; patented by Mr Kyan many years since. It consists in immersing the materials in a solution of corrosive sublimate, 1 part, and water, 50 or 60 parts, either under strong pressure or the contrary, as the urgency of the case or the dimensions of the articles operated on may require. See Dry rot.

KY′ANOL. A substance obtained from coal-tar oil, and at first thought to be an independent principle, but since shown to be identical with ANILINE.

LABARRAQUE’S FLUID. See Solution of Chloride of Soda.

LAB′DANUM. Syn. Ladanum. An odorous, resinous substance found on the leaves and twigs of the Cystus creticus, a plant growing in the island of Candia and in Syria. It was formerly much used for making stimulating plasters. The following compound is often vended for it:—

Labdanum, Facti′′tious. Prep. From gum anime, resin, Venetian turpentine, and sand, of each 6 parts; Spanish juice and gum Arabic, of each (dissolved in a little water), 3 parts; Canada balsam, 2 parts; ivory black, 1 part; balsam of Peru, q. s. to give a faint odour.

LA′BELS capable of resisting the action of OILS, SPIRITS, WATER, SYRUPS and DILUTE ACIDS, may be obtained as follows:—Lay a coat of strained white of egg over the label (an ordinary paper one), and immediately put the vessel into the upper portion of a common steam-pan, or otherwise expose it to a gentle heat till the albumen coagulates and turns opaque, then take it out and dry it before the fire, or in an oven, at a white heat of about 212° Fahr.; the opaque white film will then become hard and transparent. The labels on bottles containing STRONG ACIDS or ALKALINE SOLUTIONS should be either etched upon the glass by means of hydrofluoric acid, or be written with incorrodible ink. See Etching and Ink.

LAB′ORATORY. Syn. Laboratorium, L. A place fitted up for the performance of experimental or manufacturing operations in chemistry, pharmacy, and pyrotechny. For full information respecting the best mode of fitting up a chemical laboratory, the reader is referred to works especially devoted to chemical manipulation.[11] Almost any well-lighted spare room may be fitted up as a small laboratory at very little expense. The gas-furnaces and improved lamps introduced of later years have to a certain extent rendered chemists independent of brick furnaces. A strong working bench, fitted with drawers and cupboards, and having gas-pipes at intervals for attaching different kinds of jets, is an indispensable fixture. A close cupboard or closet, which is connected by a pipe with the chimney or the external air, is required to receive vessels emitting corrosive or evil-smelling vapours; the door of this closet should be of glass. A sink, with a copious supply of water, must be at hand, for washing apparatus. A glass, a stoneware barrel, with a tap of the same material, is required for holding distilled water. Shelves, supports for apparatus, and drawers, should be provided in abundance. The fine balances and other delicate instruments should be kept in a separate apartment. With regard to apparatus, we may state that the articles most frequently required in a laboratory are the gas or alcohol lamps; iron pans for sand bath and water bath; evaporating dishes; precipitating jars, funnels, and wash-bottles; retorts, flasks, and test-tubes; mortars and pestles; retort- and filtering-stands; rat-tail and triangular files, and glass rod and tubing.

[11] The latest and best work is the ‘Handbook of Chemical Manipulation,’ by Greville Williams. Faraday’s famous work on the same subject has long been out of print.

The principal philosophical instrument-makers sell chests or cabinets filled with apparatus and chemicals, under the name of ‘PORTABLE LABORATORIES,’ Those sold by Mr J. J. Griffin and by Messrs Jackson and Townson are, perhaps, the most complete. They are well adapted for illustrating all the more valuable facts of chemical science, and performing all the ordinary operations of qualitative analysis.

LABURNINE. A poisonous alkaloid, found in the unripe seeds of the laburnum plant, associated with another poisonous alkaloid called Cytisine.

LAC. Syn. Lacca, L. A resinous substance combined with much colouring matter, produced by the puncture of the female of a small insect, called the Coccus lacca or ficus, upon the young branches of several tropical trees, especially the Ficus Indica, Ficus religiosa, and Croton lacciferum. The crude resinous exudation constitutes the STICK-LAC of commerce. Shell-lac or SHELLAC is prepared by spreading the resin into thin plates after being melted and strained. Seed-lac is the residue obtained after dissolving out most of the colouring matter contained in the resin.

Shell-lac is the kind most commonly employed in the arts. The palest is the best, and is known as ‘orange-lac.’ The darker varieties—‘liver-coloured,’ ‘ruby,’ ‘garnet,’ &c.—respectively diminish in value in proportion to the depth of their colour.

Uses, &c. Lac was formerly much used in938 medicine; its action, if any, is probably that of a very mild diuretic. It is now chiefly used in DENTIFRICES, VARNISHES, LACQUERS, and SEALING-WAX.

Lac, Bleached. Syn. White lac; Lacca alba, L. By dissolving lac in a boiling lye of pearlash or caustic potassa, filtering and passing chlorine through the solution until all the lac is precipitated; this is collected, well washed and pulled in hot water, and, finally, twisted into sticks, and thrown into cold water to harden. Used to make pale varnishes and the more delicate coloured sealing-wax.

LAC DYE. Syn. Lac, Lac-lake, Indian cochineal. A colouring substance used to dye scarlet, imported from India.

Prep. By dissolving out the colour of ground stick-lac by means of a weak alkaline solution, and then precipitating it along with alumina by adding a solution of alum.

Obs. To prepare the lac for dyeing, it is ground and mixed with diluted ‘lac spirit,’ and the whole allowed to stand for about a week. The ‘cloth’ is first mordanted with a mixture of tartar and ‘lac spirit,’ and afterwards kept near the boil for three quarters of an hour, in a bath formed by adding a proportion of the prepared lac dye to the mixture used for mordanting. Lac dye is only applicable to woollen and silk. The colours it yields are similar to those obtained from cochineal, but less brilliant.

LAC SPIRIT. See Tin mordants.

LACE. This decorative fabric is made by interweaving threads of linen, cotton, or silk, into various patterns and designs. Although in some instances lace is made by hand, the greater part is now manufactured by machinery worked by steam or water. The hand-made lace was called bone, pillow, or bobbin lace, these two latter names having been given it from its having been woven upon a pillow or cushion by means of a bobbin. The manufactured article is bobbin net. Lace and the machinery by which it is produced is of so complex a nature that Dr Ure says of one particular form of it “it is as much beyond the most curious chronometer in the multiplicity of mechanical device as that is beyond a common roasting jack.”

Owing to the improvements in machinery introduced of late years, it may be mentioned that a piece of lace which twenty years since could only be produced at a cost of 3s. 6d. for labour, may now be turned out for 1d., and a quantity of the fabric which sold for £17, now realizes only 7s. A pair of curtains, each four yards long, may be made in one frame in two hours.

The following statistics relating to the British lace industry are of interest:—“In 1843 there were 3200 twist net and 800 warp frames, returning £2,740,000 that year; in 1851, 3200 bobbin net and 800 warp, giving a return of £3,846,000; and in 1866, 3552 bobbin and 400 warp, returning £5,130,000. There has since been no actual census, but about the same number is now at work, and the returns and profits are greatly increased by improved quality and patterns of goods produced. The returns of 1872 were certainly £6,000,000 at least; and from advancing wages and demand for Lever’s laces, must still rapidly increase. Men are now earning by making them from £4 to £6 for 56 hours’ weekly labour.”[12]

[12] ‘British Manufacturing Industries.’ Stanford.

Lace, Gold and Silver, to Clean. Reduce to fine crumbs the interior of a 2-lb. stale loaf, and mix with them 14 lb. of powder blue. Sprinkle some of this mixture plentifully on the lace, afterwards rubbing it on with a piece of flannel. After brushing off the crumbs rub the lace with a piece of crimson velvet.

Lace, to Scour. Take a perfectly clean wine bottle; wind the lace smoothly and carefully round it; then gently sponge it in tepid soap and water; and when clean, and before it becomes dry, pass it through a weak solution of gum and water. Next pick it out and place it in the sun to dry. If it be desired to bleach the lace, it should be rinsed in some very weak solution of chloride of lime, after removal from which it must be rinsed in cold water. Starch and expose it; then boil and starch, and again expose it if it has not become sufficiently white.

The following method is also said to whiten lace:—It is first ironed slightly, then folded and sewn into a clean linen bag, which is then placed for 24 hours in pure olive oil. Afterwards the bag, with the lace in it, is to be boiled in a solution of soap and water for 15 minutes, then well rinsed in lukewarm water, and finally dipped in water containing a small quantity of starch. The lace is then to be taken from the bag, and stretched on pins to dry.

To scour point lace proceed as follows:—“Fix the lace in a prepared tent, draw it tight and straight, make a warm lather of Castile soap, and with a fine brush dipped in rub over the lace gently, and when clean on one side do the same on the other; then throw some clean water on it, in which a little alum has been dissolved, to take off the suds; and, having some thin starch, go over with it on the wrong side, and iron it on the same side when dry; then open with a bodkin and set it in order. To clean the same, if not very dirty, without washing, fix it as before, and go over with fine bread, the crust being pared off, and when done, dust out the crumbs.” (Ernest Spon.)

Black lace may be cleaned by passing it through warm water containing some ox-gall, rinsing it in cold water, and then passing it through water in which a small quantity of glue has been previously dissolved by means of heat; it should then be taken out, clapped between the hands, and dried on a frame.

LAC′QUER. A solution of shell-lac in alcohol, tinged with saffron, annotta, aloes, or other colouring substances. It is applied to939 wood and metals to impart a golden colour. See Varnish.


LAC′TATE. Syn. Lactas, L. A salt of lactic acid. The lactates are characterised by yielding an enormous quantity of perfectly pure carbonic oxide gas when heated with 5 or 6 parts of oil of vitriol. Most of these salts may be directly formed by dissolving the hydrate or carbonate of the metal in the dilute acid.

LACTA′TION. See Infancy, Nursing, &c.

LACTIC ACID. H2C6H10O6. Syn. Acid of milk; Acidum lacticum, L. A sour, syrupy liquid, discovered by Scheele in whey. It is also found in some other animal fluids, and in several vegetable juices, especially in that of beet-root.

Lactic acid is by no means an unimportant constituent of the human organism. It is contained in the gastric juice, and is frequently formed in the sweat. It has also been detected in the saliva of persons suffering from diabetes. A modification of the acid, termed sarkolactic acid, occurs in the fluids of the muscular tissue.

It is likewise a product of the fermentation of many vegetable juices, such as turnips, carrots, beet-root, and cabbage, which latter vegetable, after undergoing the lactic fermentation, becomes converted into the sauer kraut of the Germans.

In the form of calcic lactate it occurs in nux vomica.

Prep. 1. Dissolve lactate of barium in water, precipitate the barium with dilute sulphuric acid, carefully avoiding excess, and gently evaporate to the consistence of a syrup, or until it acquires the density 1·215. Lactate of calcium may be used instead of lactate of barium, in which case a solution of oxalic acid must be employed as the precipitant. Pure. (See No. 5.)

2. Milk (skimmed or stale), 1 gall.; bicarbonate of sodium, 12 lb.; dissolve and expose the liquid to the air for some days, until it becomes sour, then saturate the excess of acid with some more bicarbonate of sodium, and again expose it to the air; repeat this as often as the liquid becomes sour; next heat the liquid to the boiling point, filter, evaporate to dryness (or nearly), and exhaust the residuum with rectified spirit; filter the alcoholic solution, which contains lactate of sodium, add sulphuric acid as long as it causes a precipitate to form, again filter, and concentrate the clear liquid by evaporation.

3. (Boutron and Fremy.) Milk, 3 or 4 quarts; sugar of milk, 200 to 300 gr.; mix, and expose for 2 or 3 days in an open vessel at 70° to 80° Fahr., then saturate with bicarbonate of sodium, again expose at a moderate temperature, saturate with more bicarbonate of sodium, and repeat the process until the whole of the sugar of milk is decomposed; then coagulate the casein by heat, filter, evaporate, extract the acid lactate of sodium by alcohol of sp. gr. ·810, and decompose it by the cautious addition of dilute sulphuric acid; again filter, distil off the alcohol, and evaporate as before.

4. (Scheele.) Evaporate sour whey to 18th of its bulk, saturate with slaked lime, filter, add 3 or 4 times the quantity of water, cautiously precipitate the lime with a solution of oxalic acid, filter, and gently evaporate to dryness in a warm bath; digest the residuum in strong rectified spirit, and again filter and evaporate.

5. (Wackenroder.) Sugar of lead, 25 parts; finely powdered chalk, 20 parts; skimmed milk, 100 parts; water, 200 parts; digested together at about 75° Fahr. In six weeks the chalk will be dissolved; the whole is then heated, but not to boiling; the cheese is strained off, pressed, and the decanted liquid is clarified by albumen and evaporated, to let the lactate of calcium crystallise; the salt is recrystallised and decomposed, either by sulphuric acid or by the exact quantity of oxalic acid. This is, perhaps, the most effective mode of preparing lactic acid.

6. (Wholesale.)—a. Good raw cane-sugar, 7 lbs., is dissolved in milk (skimmed or stale), 2 galls., and cheese (in a moist or putrescent state), 12 lb., and chalk, 4 lbs., previously rubbed to a cream with water, 112 gall., is then added; the mixture is then exposed in a loosely covered jar, at a temperature of 80° to 86° Fahr., with occasional stirring, for 2 or 3 weeks, or until the whole is converted into a semi-solid mass of crystals of lactate of calcium; this is purified either by draining off and expressing the liquid portion, dissolving the residue in water, and evaporating the solution for crystals; or the whole is put into a stoneware vessel and heated to the boiling-point, by which the casein is coagulated, and the lactate of calcium is dissolved; the solution filtered whilst hot, furnishes the salt in crystals on cooling; these crystals are subsequently dissolved in water, and the filtered solution decomposed by oxalic acid, as before.

b. From cane-sugar, 4 parts; moist cheese, 1 part; chalk, 3 parts; water, 20 parts; as the last.

Obs. Lactic acid prepared by any of the used formulæ may be rendered quite pure by dilution with water, saturation with baryta, evaporation, crystallisation, re-solution in water, and the careful addition of dilute sulphuric acid, as in No. 1; the liquid is, lastly, again filtered and evaporated. Another plan is to convert the acid into lactate of zinc, by the addition of commercial zinc-white, and to redissolve the new salt in water, and then decompose the solution with a stream of sulphuretted hydrogen. In all cases the evaporation should be conducted at a very gentle heat, and, when possible, finished over sulphuric acid, or in vacuo. For particular purposes940 this last product must be dissolved in ether, filtered, and the ether removed by a very gentle heat. Care must also be taken to remove the solid lactate of calcium at the proper period from the fermenting liquid, as otherwise it will gradually redissolve and disappear, and on examination the liquid will be found to consist chiefly of a solution of butyrate of calcium.

Prop. The product of the above formulæ is a solution of lactic acid. It may be concentrated in vacuo over a surface of oil of vitriol until it appears as a syrupy liquid of sp. gr. 1·215; soluble in water, alcohol, and ether; exhibiting the usual acid properties, and forming salts with the metals, called LACTATES. Heated in a retort to 266° Fahr.; a small portion distils over, and the residuum on cooling concretes into a yellowish, solid, fusible mass, very bitter, and nearly insoluble in water. This is lactic acid, which has lost half (1 equiv.) of its basic water. By long boiling in water this substance is reconverted into lactic acid. Heated to 480° Fahr., it suffers decomposition, lactide (the anhydrous, concrete, or sublimed lactic acid of former writers) and other products being formed. This new substance may be purified by pressure between bibulous paper and solution in boiling alcohol from which it separates in dazzling white crystals on cooling. By solution in hot water and evaporation to a syrup, it furnishes common lactic acid.

Uses. Lactic acid has been given in dyspepsia, gout, phosphatic urinary deposits, &c. From its being one of the natural constituents of the gastric juice, and from its power of dissolving a considerable quantity of phosphate of calcium, it appears very probable that it may prove beneficial in the above complaints.—Dose, 1 to 5 gr.; in the form of lozenges, or solution in sweetened water.

LAC′TIC FERMENTA′TION. The peculiar change by which saccharine matter is converted into lactic acid. Nitrogenous substances, which in an advanced state of putrefactive change act as alcohol-ferments, often possess, at certain periods of their decay, the property of inducing an acid fermentation in sugar, by which that substance is changed into lactic acid. Thus, the nitrogenised matter of malt, when suffered to putrefy in water for a few days only, acquires the power of acidifying the sugar which accompanies it; whilst in a more advanced state of decomposition it converts, under similar circumstances, the sugar into alcohol. The gluten of grain behaves in the same manner. Wheat flour, made into a paste with water, and left for four or five days in a warm situation, becomes a true lactic acid ferment; but if left a day or two longer, it changes its character, and then acts like common yeast, occasioning the ordinary panary or vinous fermentation. Moist animal membranes, in a slightly decaying condition, often act energetically in developing lactic acid. The rennet employed in the manufacture of cheese furnishes a well-known example of this class of substances.

In preparing lactic acid from milk, the acid formed, after a time, coagulates and renders insoluble the casein, and the production of the acid ceases. By carefully neutralising the free acid by carbonate of sodium, the casein becomes soluble, and resuming its activity, changes a fresh quantity of sugar into lactic acid, which may be also neutralised, and by a sufficient number of repetitions of this process all the sugar of milk present may, in time, be acidified. This is the rationale of the common process by which lactic acid is obtained. Cane-sugar (probably by previously becoming grape-sugar) and the sugar of milk both yield lactic acid; the latter, however, most readily, the grape-sugar having a strong tendency towards the alcoholic fermentation. If the lactic fermentation be allowed to proceed too far, the second stage of the process of transmutation commences, hydrogen gas and carbonic acid gas are evolved, and the butyric fermentation, by which oily acids are formed, is established.

Pasteur ascribes the lactic fermentation to the agency of a specific kind of ferment, which occurs in the form of a greyish layer deposited upon the surface of the sediment formed during the fermentation of the sugar, casein, and chalk (see Lactic acid, b), in the manufacture of lactic acid.

If to a mixture of yeast, or any nitrogenous substance, and water, sugar, and then chalk, be added, and finally a very small quantity of this greyish substance, taken from a portion of a liquid undergoing active lactic fermentation, lactic acid fermentation is almost immediately set up, the chalk disappears owing to the formation of calcic lactate, and the greyish substance is copiously deposited. When placed under the microscope this ferment is seen to be composed of “little globules, or very short articulations, either isolated or in threads, constituting irregular flocculent particles, much smaller than those of beer yeast, and exhibiting a rapid gyratory motion.” If these little particles be washed thoroughly in pure water, and then placed in a solution of sugar, lactic acidification immediately commences in the saccharine liquid, and goes on steadily until stopped by the excess of free acid.

LAC′TIDE. See Lactic acid.

LAC′TIN. See Sugar of Milk.

LAC′TOMETER. Syn. Galactometer. An instrument for ascertaining the quality of milk. Milk may be roughly tested by placing it in a long graduated tube sold for the purpose, and allowing it to remain until all the cream has separated and measured, then decanting off the clear whey, and taking its specific gravity; the result of the two operations, when compared with the known quantity of cream and the density of the whey of an average sample of milk, gives the value of the sample tested. See Milk.


A little instrument called a ‘milk-tester’ is sold in London at a low price. It is essentially a hydrometer which sinks to a given mark on the stem in pure water, and floats at another mark at the opposite end of the scale in pure milk. The intermediate space indicates the quantity of water (if any) employed to adulterate the article. As the sp. gr. of pure milk varies, the indications of the ‘tester’ cannot be depended on.

LAC′TOSE. See Sugar of Milk.

LAC′TUCA. (B. P.) Syn. Lettuce. The leaves and flowering tops of the wild indigenous plant Lactuca virosa. They are sedative, narcotic, and powerfully diuretic; also mildly laxative and diaphoretic. Given in dropsy and visceral obstructions. See Lettuce, Extract of.

LACTUCA′′RIUM. Syn. Lettuce opium. Thridace; Lactucarium (Ph. E. & D.). The inspissated milky juice of the Lactuca sativa (common garden lettuce), or the Lactuca virosa (strong-scented wild lettuce), obtained, by incision, from the flowering stems, and dried in the air. The latter species yields by far the greatest quantity. M. Arnaud, of Nancy, adopts the following method of procuring this substance, which appears to be the most productive and simple of any yet published:—Before the development of the lateral branches, the stems of twelve plants are cut, one after another, a little below the commencement of these branches; returning to the first one, a milky exudation is found on the cut portion, and on that which remains fixed in the earth; this milky exudation is adroitly collected with the end of the finger (or with a bone knife), which is afterwards scraped on the edge of a small glass; the same operation is performed on twelve other heads, and so on; on the third day it is repeated on every portion of the plant remaining in the ground, a thin slice being first cut off the top; this is done every day until the root is reached. As soon as the lactucarium is collected it coagulates; the harvest of each day is divided into small pieces, which are placed on plates, very near each other, but without touching, and allowed to dry for two days, after which they are set aside in a bottle. In this way 15 or 20 times the ordinary product is obtained.

Prop., &c. Lactucarium is anodyne, hypnotic, antispasmodic, and sedative, allaying pain and diminishing the force of the circulation. It has been recommended in cases in which opium is inadmissible, and has been administered with advantage in chronic rheumatism, colic, diarrhœa, asthma, and troublesome cough of phthisis, the irritability and watchfulness in febrile disorders, &c.—Dose, 2 to 5 gr.; made into pills, lozenges, or tincture.

LACTU′CIN. Syn. Lactucinum, L. This is the active principle of lactucarium, and is found in the juice of several species of lettuce.

Prep. Exhaust lactucarium with hot rectified spirit, agitate the tincture with a little animal charcoal, filter, add a little milk of lime, and evaporate to dryness; digest the residuum in hot rectified spirit; filter, and evaporate by a gentle heat, so that crystals may form.

Prop., &c. A nearly colourless, odourless, fusible, neutral, bitter substance; sparingly soluble in cold water and in ether, but freely soluble in alcohol. It possesses feeble basic properties. Good lactucarium contains fully 20% of this substance.

LAD′ANUM. See Labdanum.


LAKE. Syn. Lacca, L. Animal or vegetable colouring matter, precipitated in combination with oxide of tin or alumina; usually the latter. The term was formerly restricted to red preparations of this kind, but is now indiscriminately applied to all compounds of alumina and colouring matter. The term ‘LAKE,’ when unqualified by an adjective, is, however, understood to apply exclusively to that prepared from cochineal.

Prep. Lakes are made—1. By adding a solution of alum, either alone or partly saturated with carbonate of potassa, to a filtered infusion or decoction of the colouring substance, and after agitation precipitating the mixture with a solution of carbonate of potash.—2. By precipitating a decoction or infusion of the colouring substance made with a weak alkaline lye, by adding a solution of alum.—3. By agitating recently precipitated alumina with a solution of the colouring matter, prepared as before, until the liquid is nearly decoloured, or the alumina acquires a sufficiently dark tint. The first method is usually employed for acidulous solutions of colouring matter, or for those whose tint is injured by alkalies; the second, for those that are brightened, or at least uninjured, by alkalies; the third, for those colouring matters that have a great affinity for gelatinous alumina, and readily combine with it by mere agitation. By attention to these general rules, lakes may be prepared from almost all animal and vegetable colouring substances that yield their colour to water, many of which will be found to possess great beauty and permanence. The precise process adapted to each particular substance may be easily ascertained by taking a few drops of its infusion or decoction, and observing the effects of alkalies and acids on the colour. The quantity of alum or of alumina employed should be nearly sufficient to decolour the dye liquor; and the quantity of carbonate of potassa should be so proportioned to the alum as to exactly precipitate the alumina without leaving free or carbonated alkali in the liquid. The first portion of the precipitate has the deepest colour, and the shade gradually becomes paler as the operation proceeds. A beautiful ‘tone’ of violet, red, and even purple, may be communicated to the colouring matter of cochineal by the addition of perchloride of tin; the addition of arseniate of potassa (neutral942 arsenical salt) in like manner gives shades which may be sought for in vain with alum or alumina. After the lake is precipitated, it must be carefully collected, washed with cold distilled water, or the purest rain water, until it ceases to give out colour, and then carefully dried in the shade. In this state it forms a soft velvety powder. That of the shops is generally made up into conical or pyramidal drops (drop lake), which is done by dropping the moist lake through a small funnel on a clean board or slab, and drying it by a gentle heat as before. A very little clear gum water is commonly added to the paste to give the drops consistence when dry.

Lake, Blue. Syn. Lacca cœrulea, L. Prepared from some of the blue-coloured flowers; fugitive. The name is also applied to lump archil (lacca cœrulea), to moist alumina coloured with indigo, and to mixed solutions of pearlash and prussiate of potash, precipitated with another solution of sulphate of iron and alum. These are permanent and beautiful, but are seldom used, in consequence of indigo and Prussian blue supplying all that is wanted in this class of colours.

Lake, Brazil-wood. Syn. Drop lake; Lacca in globulis, L. Prep. 1. Take of ground Brazil-wood, 1 lb.; water, 4 galls.; digest for 24 hours, then boil for 30 or 40 minutes, and add of alum, 112 lb., dissolved in a little water; mix, decant, strain, and add of solution of tin, 12 lb.; again mix well and filter; to the clear liquid add, cautiously, a solution of salt of tartar or carbonate of soda, as long as a deep-coloured precipitate forms, carefully avoiding excess; collect, wash, dry, &c., as directed above.

Obs. The product is deep red. By collecting the precipitate in separate portions, lakes varying in richness and depth of colour may be obtained. The first portion of the precipitated lake has the brightest colour. An excess of alkali turns it on the violet, and the addition of cream of tartar, on the brownish red. The tint turns more on the violet red when the solution of tin is omitted. Some persons use less, others more, alum.

2. Add washed and recently precipitated alumina to a strong and filtered decoction of Brazil wood. Inferior to the last.

Lake, Carminated. Syn. Cochineal lake, Florence l., Florentine l., Paris l., Vienna l.; Lacca Florentina, L. Prep. 1. The residuum of the cochineal left in making carmine is boiled with repeated portions of water, until it is exhausted of colour; the resulting liquor is mixed with that decanted off the carmine, and at once filtered; some recently precipitated alumina is then added, and the whole gently heated, and well agitated for a short time; as soon as the alumina has absorbed sufficient colour, the mixture is allowed to settle, after which the clear portion is decanted, the lake collected on a filter, washed, and dried, as before. The decanted liquor, if still coloured, is now treated with fresh alumina until exhausted, and thus a lake of a second quality is obtained. Very fine.

2. To the coloured liquor obtained from the carmine and cochineal as above, a solution of alum is added, the filtered liquor precipitated with a solution of carbonate of potassa, and the alum or alumina; this brightens the lake collected and treated as before. Scarcely so good as the last.

Obs. Some makers mix a little solution of tin with the coloured liquor before adding colour. The above lake is a good glazing colour with oil, but has little body. It may be made directly from a decoction of cochineal. (See below.)

Lake, Cochineal. Prep. 1. Cochineal (in coarse powder), 1 oz.; water and rectified spirit, of each 212 oz.; digest for a week, filter, and precipitate the tincture with a few drops of solution of tin, added every two hours, until the whole of the colouring matter is thrown down; lastly, wash the precipitate in distilled water, and dry it. Very fine.

2. Digest powdered cochineal in ammonia water for a week, dilute the solution with a little water, and add the liquid to a solution of alum, as long as a precipitate falls, which is the lake. Equal to the last.

3. Coarsely powdered cochineal, 1 lb.; water, 2 galls.; boil 1 hour, decant, strain, add a solution of salt of tartar, 1 lb., and precipitate with a solution of alum. By adding the alum first, and precipitating the lake with the alkali, the colour will be slightly varied. All the above are sold as CARMINATED or Florence lake, to which they are often superior.

Lake, Green. Made by mixing blue and yellow lake together. Seldom kept in the shops, being generally prepared extemporaneously by the artist on his palette.

Lake, Lac. Prep. Boil fresh stick-lac in a solution of carbonate of soda, filter the solution, precipitate with a solution of alum, and proceed as before.

Lake, Lichen. See Orcein.

Lake, Madder. Syn. Lacca rubiæ, L. columbina, L. Prep. 1. (Sir H. C. Inglefield.) Take of Dutch grappe or crop madder, 2 oz.; tie it in a cloth, beat it well in a pint of water in a stone mortar, and repeat the process with fresh water (about 5 pints) until it ceases to yield colour; next boil the mixed liquor in an earthen vessel, pour it into a large basin, and add of alum 1 oz., previously dissolved in boiling water, 1 pint; stir well, and while stirring, pour in gradually of a strong solution of carbonate of potassa (‘oil of tartar’), 112 oz.; let the whole stand until cold, then pour off the supernatant yellow liquor, drain, agitate the residue with boiling water, 1 quart (in separate portions), decant, drain, and dry. Product, 12 oz. The Society of Arts voted their gold medal to the author of the above formula.

2. Add a little solution of acetate of lead to a decoction of madder, to throw down the943 brown colouring matter, filter, add a solution of tin or alum, precipitate with a solution of carbonate of soda or of potassa, and otherwise proceed as before.

3. (Ure.) Ground madder, 2 lbs.; water, 1 gall.; macerate with agitation for 10 minutes, strain off the water, and press the remainder quite dry; repeat the process a second and a third time; then add to the mixed liquors, alum 12 lb., dissolved in water, 3 quarts; and heat in a water bath for 3 or 4 hours, adding water as it evaporates; next filter, first through flannel, and, when sufficiently cold, through paper; then add a solution of carbonate of potassa as long as a precipitate falls, which must be washed until the water comes off colourless, and, lastly, dried. If the alkali be added in 3 successive doses, 3 different lakes will be obtained, successively diminishing in beauty. See Madder, Madder, Red, &c.

Lake, Or′ange. Prep. Take of the best Spanish annotta, 4 oz.; pearlash, 34 lb.; water, 1 gall.; boil for half an hour, strain, precipitate with alum, 1 lb., dissolved in water, 1 gall., observing not to add the latter solution when it ceases to produce an effervescence or a precipitate; strain, and dry the sediment in small squares, lozenges, or drops. The addition of some solution of tin turns this lake on the LEMON YELLOW; acids redden it. See Lake, Yellow.

Lake, Red. Prep. Take of pearlash, 1 lb.; clean shreds of scarlet cloth, 312 lbs.; water, 5 galls.; boil till the cloth is decoloured, filter the decoction, and precipitate with a solution of alum, as before. See the Lakes noticed above (Brazil-wood, Carminated, Cochineal, and Madder).

Lake, Yellow. Prep. 1. Boil French berries, quercitron bark, or turmeric, 1 lb., and salt of tartar, 1 oz., in water, 1 gall., until reduced to one half, then strain the decoction, and precipitate with a solution of alum.

2. Boil 1 lb. of the dye-stuff with alum, 12 lb.; water, 1 gall., as before, and precipitate the decoction with a solution of carbonate of potash. See Lake, Orange (above).

LAMB in its general qualities closely resembles mutton, of which, indeed, it is merely a younger and more delicate kind. It is well adapted as an occasional article of food for the convalescent and dyspeptic; but it is unequal for frequent use, more especially for the healthy and robust, to the flesh of the adult animal.

LAMBS, DISEASES OF. Among other diseases, these animals are particularly prone to one affecting the lungs, in consequence of the existence of parasites (Strongylus bronchialis) in the air-passages. See Parasites.

LAMP. A contrivance for producing artificial light or heat by the combustion of inflammable liquids. The term ‘lamp’ is also applied to a portable gas-burner (GAS-LAMP), and to a tubular candle-holder, which, by the aid of a simple mechanical device, keeps the flame at one height (CANDLE-LAMP).

Oil lamps were employed for illumination among the nations of antiquity, at the earliest period of which any record exists. The Assyrian, Greek, and Roman lamps preserved in our museums are generally noble specimens of art-workmanship. Though elegant in form, and rich in external embellishment, the ancient lamp was simply a vessel to contain the oil, with a short depression or spout on the one side, in which the wick is laid. Lamps of this rude construction are still in common use in many countries.

No important improvement in the principle and construction of lamps as a source of light occurred until a comparatively recent date; the smoke, dirt, and disagreeable odour of the common lamp having previously led to its disuse among the superior classes in favour of candles. At length, in 1789, M. Argand made a revolution in illumination by the invention and introduction of the well-known lamp which bears his name. In the Argand lamp a hollow tubular wick of woven cotton replaces the solid bundles of fibres, and is so arranged that air passes through it into the interior of the flame. Over the burner is placed a cylindrical glass chimney, open at the bottom, and surrounding the flame at a short distance from it, by which another current of air is made to act on the exterior portion of the flame. In this way a due supply of oxygen is secured, and sufficient heat generated for the perfect combustion of the gaseous products of the oil, and the smoke and soot which escape from the ordinary lamp are converted into a brilliant and smokeless flame.

The earliest table-lamps constructed on Argand’s principle had one serious defect—the oil vessels had to be placed almost on a level with the burners, in a position which caused them to cast objectionable shadows. This defect was almost entirely removed by making the oil vessel in the form of a flattish ring, connected by slender tubes with the burner. The more elegant contrivances, known as the MODERATOR LAMP and Carcel lamp, which are now so much used for burning colza and similar oils, cast no shadow. In these the oil, instead of being sucked up by the wick, or descending to it by the force of gravity, is driven up by mechanical means from the oil-reservoir contained in the foot or pedestal. A spiral spring, acting upon a piston, elevates the oil in the ‘moderator,’ while a little pump worked by clockwork does the same duty in the ‘Carcel.’ The burner and wick in each are formed on Argand’s principle.

For burning the hydrocarbon oils distilled from coal and petroleum, lamps of very simple construction are used. These oils, in consequence of their diffusive character, rise to a considerable height up a wick, and therefore do not require mechanical lamps. The wicks of HYDRO-CARBON LAMPS are usually flat, but944 sometimes circular. To cause perfect combustion, a strong draught of air is created by placing over the flame a tall glass chimney, usually much contracted above the flame. A metallic cap, with an orifice the shape of the flame, is placed over the burner, its use being to deflect the currents of air upon the flame. The reservoirs of hydro-carbon lamps ought always to be constructed of some bad conductor of heat, as glass or porcelain.


For chemical operations, many forms of lamp are used. The ordinary glass SPIRIT-LAMP, fitted with a ground-glass cap, is quite indispensable for minor experiments. (See engr. 1.) Stoneware wick-holders are preferable to those of brass, which become greatly heated, and endanger the splitting of the glass. “An effective spirit-lamp may at any time be constructed out of a vial having a glass tube passing through the cork, a cover being formed from a test-tube inverted over the wick, and fitting with moderate tightness on the superior extremity of the cork” (Greville Williams). Alcohol or wood spirit is the fuel used.

The Argand lamp, when intended as a source of heat for chemical purposes, is so modified as to adapt it to burn either oil, spirit of wine, or wood-spirit, and the combustion is greatly aided by the chimney, which in this case is made of copper. (See engr. 2 and 3.) The lamp itself is also made of metal, and furnished with ground caps to the wick-holder and aperture by which the spirit is introduced, in order to prevent loss of spirit by evaporation when the lamp is not in use. When in use this aperture must always be left open, otherwise an accident is sure to happen, as the heat expands the air in the lamp, and the spirit is forcibly expelled.

In those situations in which coal-gas is cheap, it may be used with great economy and advantage as a source of heat in most chemical operations. Retorts, flasks, capsules, and other vessels, can be thus exposed to an easily regulated and constant temperature for many successive hours. Small platinum crucibles may be ignited to redness by placing them over the flame on a little wire triangle. Of the various gas-lamps now used in the laboratory, the first and most simple consists of a common Argand gas-burner fixed on a heavy and low foot, and connected with a flexible gas-tube of caoutchouc or other material. (See engr. 4.) With this arrangement it is possible to obtain any degree of heat, from that of the smallest blue flame to that which is sufficient to raise a moderately large platinum crucible to dull redness. When gas mixed with a certain proportion of air is burnt, a pale blue flame, free from smoke, and possessing great heating power, is obtained. A lamp for burning the mixture may easily be made by fitting a close cover of fine wire gauze over the top of the chimney of the last-mentioned contrivance. The gas is turned on, and after a few minutes ignited above the wire gauze. (See page 946). The ingenious and useful burners of Bunsen and Griffin are so constructed that gas and air mixed in any proportions, or gas alone, may be burnt at pleasure. Bunsen’s is a most efficient and convenient form of burner. (See illustration on next page.) It consists of a gas jet, surrounded by a metal tube, about 6 to 9 inches high and about 12 inch in diameter; having at the bottom four large holes. On the admission of air, when the gas is turned on, the air rushes in by these orifices, and mingling with the gas, the mixture ascends to the top of the tube and is there ignited, giving rise to a flame of great heat, but without luminosity, owing to the simultaneous combustion of the carbon and the hydrogen. The burner, however, is so contrived that by shutting off the supply of air entirely, or limiting it, the flame may be made more or less luminous at pleasure. To distribute the flame, a rosette burner is placed on the top of the tube.



An improved variety of this burner has been designed by Bunsen, and is figured below.

Regions of the flame.
Fig. 1.
Fig. 2.Improved Bunsen burner.

It is so contrived as to give a flame that is a very much better substitute for the flame of the blowpipe, than the ordinary Bunsen’s burner, and may hence be employed for reducing, oxidising, fusing, and volatilising, as well as for the observation of coloured flames. Fig. 1 is a sheath which, by turning round, regulates the admission of air. When it is used the conical chimney, d d d d, is placed in e e; it is of a size sufficient to allow of the flame burning tranquilly. In fig. 1 the flame is represented of half its natural size. This flame it will be seen consists of three divisions, viz.—1, a a a a the dark zone, which is composed of cold gas mixed with about 62 per cent. of air. 2, a c a b the mantle formed by the burning mixture of gas and air. 3, a b a, the luminous tip of the dark cone, which only appears when the orifices for the air are partially closed. Reductions may be performed in this part of the flame.

Bunsen, however, divides the flame into six parts, to which he attributes as many functions. These six divisions of the flame he names as follows:—

1. The base at α has a relatively low temperature, because the burning gas is here cooled by the constant current of fresh air, and also because the lamp itself conducts the heat away. This part of the flame serves for discovering the colours produced by readily volatile bodies, when less volatile matters which colour the flame are also present. At the relatively low temperature of this part of the flame, the former vaporises alone instantaneously, and the resulting colour imparted to the flame is for a moment visible unmixed with other colours.

2. The Fusing Zone. This lies at β, at a distance from the bottom of somewhat more than one third of the height of the flame, equidistant from the outside and the inside of the mantle, which is broadest at this part. This is the hottest part of the flame, viz., about 2300°, and it therefore serves for testing substances, as to their fusibility, volatility, emission of light, and for all processes of fusion at a high temperature.

3. The lower Oxidising Zone lies in the outer border of the fusing zone at γ, and is especially suitable for the oxidation of oxides dissolved in vitreous fluxes.

4. The upper Oxidising Flame at ε consists of the non-luminous tip of the flame. Its action is strongest when the air holes of the lamp are fully open. It is used for the roasting away of volatile products of oxidation, and generally for all processes of oxidation, when the highest temperature is not required.

5. The lower Reducing Zone lies at δ, in the inner border of the fusing zone next to the dark cone. The reducing gases are here mixed with oxygen, and, therefore, do not possess their full power, hence they are without action on many substances which are deoxidised in the upper reducing flame. This part of the946 flame is especially suited for reduction on charcoal or in vitreous fluxes.

6. The upper Reducing Flame lies at η, in the luminous tip of the dark inner cone, which, as already explained, may be produced by diminishing the supply of air. This part of the flame must not be allowed to get large enough to blacken a test tube filled with water and held in it. It contains no free oxygen, is rich in separated incandescent carbon, and therefore has a much stronger action than the lower reducing zone. It is used more particularly for the reduction of metals collected in the form of incrustations.

The subjoined is a drawing of the gauze burner, which is an open cylinder with wire gauze at the top.

Argand’s lamp, with wire-gauze cap.

When this is placed over the gas burner, a supply of air is drawn in at the bottom by the ascending current of gas, and the mixture burns above the gauze, with a very hot flame, quite free from smoke, the metallic meshes preventing the flame from passing down to the gas below. See Illumination, Fuel, Furnace, Gas, Laboratory, &c.

Lamp, Flame′less. Syn. Glow lamp. A coil of fine platinum wire is slipped over the wick of a spirit lamp, the greater part being raised above the cotton; the lamp is supplied with ether or alcohol, lighted for a moment and then blown out. The coil continues to glow in the mixed atmosphere of air and combustible vapour, until the liquid in the lamp is exhausted.

Lamp, Monochromat′ic. A lamp fed with a mixture of a solution of common salt and spirit of wine. It gives a yellow light, and makes every object illuminated by it appear either yellow or black. The human features are changed in a remarkable degree; the countenance appearing truly ghastly and unearthly.

Lamp, Safety. Syn. Miner’s lamp, Davy, Geordy. The safety lamp of Sir H. Davy and George Stephenson are similar in principle, and were independently invented about the same time. That of Sir H. Davy consists of a common oil lamp, surmounted with a cylinder of wire gauze, the apertures of which are not greater than the 120th of an inch square, and the wire of which it is made to the 140th to the 160th of an inch in diameter. (See engr.) The fire-damp (carbonetted hydrogen) along with air passes through the meshes into the interior of the gauze cylinder. Here it ignites, but the flame which is produced by its combustion cannot explode a mixture of fire-damp and air by which the lamp may be surrounded. The flame is prevented from passing to the exterior of the gauze by the cooling action of the metal of which it is constructed. When this lamp is taken into an explosive atmosphere, although the fire-damp may burn within the cage with such energy as sometimes to heat the metallic tissue to dull redness, the flame is not communicated to the mixture on the outside. These appearances are so remarkable, that the lamp becomes an admirable indicator of the state of the air in different parts of the mine, and if its admonitions are attended to, gives the miner time to withdraw before an explosion takes place.

Lamp, Telescope. This ingenious contrivance, invented by Messrs Murray and Heath, is intended for microscopic illumination. It consists of three brass tubes, sliding one within the other, the oil vessel being contained in the inner tube. The height of the lamp is regulated to the greatest nicety by simply turning one tube in the other, interior spiral guides preventing all chance of slipping. The great advantage of this arrangement is absence of the stand and bar usually employed for raising and lowering the lamp, which enables it to be used on all sides, and to be brought much closer to the microscope than other lamps. See engr., below.

LAMP BLACK. See Black pigments.

LAMP′REY. Syn. Great lamprey, Seal. This fish is the Petromizon marinus of Linnæus. It generally quits the sea in the spring, for the purpose of spawning, and remains in our rivers for a few months. Its flesh is soft and glutinous, and though esteemed a delicacy, is extremely difficult of digestion, if not otherwise unwholesome. Potted lampreys are usually so highly seasoned as to become a dangerous article of food. Henry I is said to have lost his life from the effects of a surfeit of lampreys.

LAUDANINE. C20H25NO3. An alkaloid obtained by Hesse from the aqueous extract of opium. It is homologous with morphine and codeine. It dissolves in strong sulphuric acid with a rose-red colour, in strong nitric acid with an orange red colour, and in ferric chloride with emerald green colour.

LANTHA′NIUM. La92. A rare metal, discovered by Mosander, associated with oxide of cerium. Oxide of lanthanium is a pale salmon-coloured powder, unaffected by ignition in open vessels. According to Zschiesche the atomic weight of lanthanium is 90·18. See Cerium.


LANTHOPINE. C23H25NO4. A base obtained by Hesse in small quantity, associated with other bases from the aqueous extract of opium. It is homologous with papaverine. Strong nitric acid dissolves it, giving rise to an orange red colour. Strong sulphuric acid gives with it a faint violet colour.

LA′PIS. [L.] A stone. The term was much employed by the old chemists, and is still commonly applied to several preparations used in medicine.

Lapis Causticus. See Potassium.

Lapis Divi′nus. Syn. Divine Stone; Lapis ophthalmicus, L.; Pierre divine, Fr. Prep. 1. (Beer.) Verdigris, nitre, and alum, equal parts, melted together.

2. (P. Cod.) Alum, nitre, and blue vitriol, of each 3 oz.; camphor, 1 dr.; as last.

3. (Woolfuss.) Blue vitriol, nitre, alum, and camphor, equal parts, melted together, adding the camphor last. Astringent and detergent. 1 oz., dissolved in water, 1 pint, formed a once celebrated lotion. 1 dr. in water, 1 pint, is still used as a collyrium.

Lapis Inferna′lis. See Nitrate of Silver.

Lapis Lazu′li. See Ultramarine.

Lapis Lydius. Syn. Lydian stone. A siliceous slate, used as a touchstone by jewellers.

Lapis Medicamento′sus. Syn. Medicinal stone; Lapis mirabilis, L. Prep. (Ph. L. 1746.) Alum, litharge, and Armenian bole, of each 6 oz.; colcothar of green vitriol, 3 oz.; vinegar, 4 fl. oz.; mix, and evaporate to dryness. Formerly used to make an astringent and detergent lotion:—1 oz. to water, 1 pint. Once a popular application to ulcers, and in other cases; now disused.

Lapis Vulnerar′ius. Very similar to Lapis divinus.

LARCH BARK. The inner bark of the Larix Europœa, the common larch, has been lately introduced, under the form of a tincture, into the British Pharmacopœia.

Dr Stenhouse obtained from the bark a peculiar volatile constituent, possessed of acid properties for which the name of lariximic acid has been proposed. The other trees of the pine family are deficient in this acid. The young bark abounds most in it. Gum, starch, resin, and that variety of tannic acid, which forms olive green precipitates with the salts of iron, have also been found, in addition to other substances, in larch bark.

The inner bark, employed internally, has a special action on the mucous membranes, and948 acts as an astringent and mild stimulant. It is said to have been given with excellent results in hæmoptysis, as well as in bronchitis attended with copious expectoration, and in diseases of the urinary passages. Externally has been found serviceable in psoriasis, chronic eczema, and some other skin diseases. It is best to combine its extract or tincture with glycerin when it is to be used outwardly. See Tincture of larch bark.

LARD. Syn. Hog’s lard, AXUNGE; Adeps (Ph. L.), Axungia (Ph. E.), A. suillus (Ph. D.), A. porci, A. præparatus (B. P.), L. The fat of the pig (Sus scrofa—Linn.) melted by a gentle heat, and strained through flannel or a hair sieve. The fat about the loins yields the whitest and hardest lard. “That which has been cured with chloride of sodium is not to be employed.” (Ph. L.) “It is not to be used without being first carefully washed with water.” (Ph. L. 1866.) Used chiefly to make ointments, and in cookery. See Adeps.

LARD′ING. By many this is regarded as belonging to the higher style of cookery only, and too troublesome and extravagant to be adapted to the kitchens of the middle classes and the poor. This, we are assured, is not the case. On the contrary, “it is an economical process, and will make lean meat go much farther than without it.” The process of larding is as follows:—“Get what is called a larding needle, that is, a piece of steel from 6 to 9 inches long, pointed at one end, and having four slits at the other to hold a small strip of bacon when put between them. It will, perhaps, cost tenpence. Cut the bacon into pieces 2 or 3 inches long, and 14 to 12 an inch square; put each one after the other in the pin, insert it in the meat, and leave only about half an inch out; using 8 pieces to each pound.” (Soyer.)

LARK. The Alauda arvensis (SKYLARK) and the Alauda cristata (FIELD-LARK), with several other species of the same genus, form a light and nutritious article of food, by many esteemed a delicacy. The last, according to Galen and Dioscorides, eaten either roasted or boiled, ‘helps the colic.’ The heart, applied to the thigh, was also regarded to possess the same virtue.

LARYNGITIS. Inflammation of the larynx, or upper part of the windpipe. The symptoms that indicate this most dangerous malady are sore throat, accompanied with considerable pain in front of the throat, difficulty in breathing and swallowing, considerable hoarseness, change or loss of voice, a sense of suffocation, fever, restlessness, flushing of the face, and an eager desire for fresh air. We have described the accompaniments of this dread disease, in order that any one seized with an attack may know its nature, and at once send for his medical attendant. Should circumstances prevent his doing so immediately, as many leeches as possible should be applied to the centre of the throat.

LAUD′ANUM. This name is now understood to denote, exclusively, the common tincture of opium of the Pharmacopœia; but formerly the term was applied to several preparations of opium differing greatly from each other, both in their strength and mode of preparation. (See below.)

Laudanum, Dutchman’s. From the flowers of bull’s hoof or Dutchman’s laudanum (Passiflora merucuja—Linn.) infused in rum. Narcotic. Used as a substitute for tincture of opium in the West Indies.

Laudanum, Ford’s. This is merely the common tincture of opium aromatised with a little cloves and cinnamon.

Laudanum, Houlton’s. Prep. From opium 212 oz.; distilled vinegar, 112 pint; digested together for a week, the filtered tincture gently evaporated nearly to dryness, and then redissolved in weak spirit (1 of rectified spirit to 7 of water), 1 quart.—Dose, 10 to 60 drops.

Laudanum, Neumann’s. A fermented infusion of opium evaporated to the consistence of honey.

Laudanum, Quince. Syn. Extractum opii cydoniatum, Laudanum cydoniatum, L. Prep. 1. Extract of opium made with quince juice; a few drops of the oils of cinnamon, cloves, and mace being added before the mass cools. Now seldom used.

2. Laudanum, liquid-quince; (Laudanum liquidum cydoniatum, L.) (L. c. paratum fermentatione, L.) A fermented infusion of opium prepared with quince juice, aromatised with cloves, cinnamon, aloes wood, and yellow sandal wood, and evaporated so as to possess about twice the strength of the ordinary tincture. Now obsolete.

Laudanum, Rousseau’s. Wine of opium prepared by fermentation. See Wine.

Laudanum, Smith’s Concentrated. Resembles Battley’s LIQUOR OPII SEDATIVUS, but possesses about 6 times its strength.

Laudanum, Swediaur’s. Prep. From extract of opium, 2 parts, dissolved in a mixture of alcohol, 1 part, distilled water, 8 parts. Every 5 drops contain 1 gr. of opium.

Laudanum, Sydenham’s Liquid. Syn. Laudanum liquidum Sydenhami, L. Similar to Wine of Opium—Ph. L., but rather stronger, and aromatised with a little cloves and cinnamon. Wine of opium is now always sold for it.

Laudanum, Tartarised. Syn. Laudanum liquidum tartarizatum, L. A tincture of opium prepared with spirit alkalised with salt of tartar, and flavoured with aromatics. Obsolete.

LAUGH′ING GAS. See Nitrous oxide.

LAUR′EL. See Cherry laurel, Sweet bay, Oil, &c.

LA′VA. The matter thrown out by volcanoes. The beautiful ornamental vases, jugs, and other objects sold under the name, are a superior sort of unglazed coloured porcelain.

LAVE′MENT. See Enema.


LAV′ENDER. The flowers or flowering tops of Lavandula vera or common garden lavender. An essential oil, spirit, and tincture, prepared from it, are officinal in the Pharmacopœias.

Lavender Dye (for COTTON). For 100 yards of material. Take 1 lb. of logwood, and 2 lbs. of sumach, and scald them separately. Then decant them into a proper sized tub, let them cool to 150° Fahr., and add 2 gills of vitriol. Winch the goods in this 20 minutes; lift, and run them slightly through acetate of iron; wash them in two waters; then give 1 lb. of logwood as before, raise with a pint of chloride of tin, wash in two waters; then in a tub of cold water put 4 oz. extract of indigo, enter and winch in this 15 minutes, lift; give one water, and dry.

Lavender Dye (for WOOL). Boil 512 lbs. of logwood with 2 lbs. of alum. Then add 10 oz. of extract of indigo. When cold put in the goods, and gradually raise to the boiling point. For 50 lbs.

Lavender, Red. See Tincture.

Lavender, Smith’s British. Prep. From English oil of lavender, 2 oz.; essence of ambergris, 1 oz.; eau de Cologne, 1 pint; rectified spirit, 1 quart. Very fragrant. See Water (Lavender).

Lavender, to Dye Silk. (Mustpratt.) Into a vessel with warm water, as hot as the hand can bear, dissolve a little white soap, enough to raise a lather; then add one gill of archil liquor, and work the goods in this for fifteen minutes; ring out and dry.

Boil one ounce of cudbear, and add the solution to the soap and water instead of archil, which will give a lavender having a redder tint than with the archil. If a still redder shade of lavender be required the soap may be dispensed with.

Lavender Water. See Spirits, Perfumed.

LAX′ATIVES. Syn. Lenitives; Laxativa, Laxantia, Lenitiva, L. Mild purgatives or cathartics. The principal of these are—almond oil, cassia pulp, castor oil, confection of senna, cream of tartar, figs, grapes, honey, phosphate of soda, prunes, salad oil, tamarinds, &c.

LAY′ERS. Among gardeners, a mode of propagating plants, by laying down the shoots of young twigs, and covering a portion of them with the soil, without detaching them from the parent plant. To facilitate the rooting of such layers, the part beneath the soil is fractured by twisting or bruising it, or it is partly cut through with a sharp knife, immediately under a bud. When the layer has taken root, it is divided from the parent stem, and transplanted or potted. In this way, with a little care, nearly all plants may be multiplied.

LEAD. Pb. Eq. 207. Syn. Plumbum. This metal, like gold, silver, and iron, appears to have been known in the most remote ages of antiquity. The ore from which it is almost exclusively extracted, as being the only one found in abundance, is the native sulphide or sulphuret of lead, called by mineralogists galena.

Prep. On the large scale lead is obtained by roasting galena in a reverberatory furnace, and smelting the residue along with coal and lime. The lead thus obtained generally contains small quantities of both silver and gold, which it often pays to extract, by a method termed ‘Pattinson’s process.’ This process is founded on the circumstance that, when melted, lead containing silver is allowed to cool. The lead crystallises out first, leaving an alloy of lead and silver still fused. By removing the crystals of lead, as formed, until about four fifths are removed, the residue is an alloy of lead and silver much richer than the original. Repeated several times, this yields a rich alloy of silver and lead that is expelled and the silver obtained.

Another method for the removal of silver from lead is one employed in Glasgow, and known as the ‘Flack-Guillim’ process. It is thus described in ‘Dingler’s Polytechnic Journal,’ ccxxxv, 67-70, and in ‘Engineering’ for September 15th, 1876. “Eighteen tons of rich lead are melted, and one per cent. of zinc added. The molten mass then allowed to cool, the crust which forms is removed, and the lead sweated out in a small pot. The lead in the large pot is then treated with another half per cent. of zinc in the same way. A third addition of a quarter per cent. of zinc suffices to remove the greater part of the remaining silver, 5 dwts. being left in the lead per ton. This lead is then run into the improving pan, and the last traces of zinc oxidised out.”

Pure lead for chemical purposes may be obtained as follows, although the lead of commerce is nearly pure:

By reducing nitrate of lead with charcoal.

By heating the oxide left by igniting pure acetate of lead with black flux.

Prop., &c. The general properties of lead are too well known to require notice here. The sp. gr. of that of commerce is about 11·35; but in a state of absolute purity its greatest density is 11·45. It melts at about 600° Fahr., and when very slowly cooled, crystallises in octahedrons. At a white heat it boils, and is volatilised. When exposed to moist air, it soon becomes covered with a grey film. It is scarcely acted on by hydrochloric or sulphuric acids, although after some time both coat it with a film of chloride or sulphate. It is rapidly acted on by nitric acid, with formation of the nitrate. Pure water put into a leaden vessel and exposed to the air soon corrodes it, and dissolves the newly formed oxide; but river and spring water have little action upon lead, provided there is no free carbonic acid present, the carbonates and sulphates in such water destroying their solvent powers. It has been found that a very small amount of phosphate of sodium or of iodide of950 potassium, dissolved in distilled water, prevents its corrosive action on this metal. The lead in contact with such water gradually becomes covered with a superficial film of an insoluble salt of lead, which adheres tenaciously, and prevents further change. From this it appears that ordinary water (‘hard water’), which abounds in mineral salts, may be more or less safely kept in leaden cisterns; but distilled water and rain water, and all other varieties that contain scarcely any saline matter, speedily corrode, and dissolve a portion of lead, when kept in vessels of that metal. When, however, leaden cisterns have iron or zinc fastenings or braces, a galvanic action is set up, the preservative power of saline matter ceases, and the water speedily becomes contaminated with lead, and unfit for consumption as a beverage. Water containing carbonic anhydride also acts on lead, and this is the reason why the water of some springs (although loaded with saline matter), when kept in leaden cisterns, or raised by leaden pumps, possesses unwholesome properties.

M. Fordos, in a communication to the ‘Journal de Pharmacie et de Chimie,’ xix, 20, states that in the course of some experiments on the applicability of lead for water pipes and cisterns he could not detect a trace of lead in ten litres of river water taken from the leaden cistern of one of the Paris hospitals. But upon shaking pure water with shot and air, a coating of carbonate of lead was formed on the sides of the bottle, which almost rendered the glass opaque. On dissolving the film in nitric acid, and estimating the lead, it was found that one litre of water had produced five milligrammes of the carbonate. Wine and vinegar would also dissolve that film; and as shot is commonly used for cleaning wine bottles, lead frequently finds its way into wines, a fact which may account for many of the cases of chronic poisoning by lead which occur in large towns. The detection of small quantities of lead in forensic investigation would afford, therefore, no proof of any intentional poisoning.

Orfila’s erroneous statement that lead is a normal constituent of the human organism may also be accounted for in this way.

Free carbonic acid is evolved during the fermentation or decay of vegetable matter, and hence the absolute necessity of preventing the leaves of trees falling into water-cisterns formed of lead. The ‘eau de rose’ and the ‘eau d’orange’ of commerce, which are pure distilled water holding in solution small quantities of essential oil, and are imported in leaden canisters, always contain a small quantity of lead, and deposit a sediment, which is not the case when they are kept in glass or incorrodible vessels.

Lead and all its preparations are highly poisonous; and whether imbibed in almost infinitesimal quantities with our daily beverages and food, or swallowed in larger and appreciable doses, is productive of the most disastrous consequences, the real cause being unfortunately seldom suspected.

Mr G. Bischof[13] writes:—Some eight months ago a tube was passed in my laboratory, which is supplied with water by the New River Company, into the slate cistern so as to act as a syphon to supply some apparatus with water. The external surface of the tube inside the cistern was therefore alternately exposed to the action of air and water, according to the level of water in the cistern.

[13] ‘Journal of the Chemical Society,’ April, 1867.

Recently I noticed a white efflorescence on the greater part of the tube inside the cistern. An adjoining cistern of sheet lead, with a lead overflow pipe fixed into the bottom, shows nowhere any such corrosion.

On cutting the tube it became evident that it is a composition tube, that is to say, a lead tube, containing some antimony. On analysis it was found to be composed of—

Lead 98·3
Antimony 1·7

Although the external diameter of the tube is only half an inch, 0·29 gram of efflorescence was obtained per foot by gentle rubbing. This dried at 100° C. contained 1·02 per cent. of sulphuric acid, corresponding with 4·1 per cent. of sulphate of lead. The remainder, except 1·13 per cent. of a residue insoluble in nitric acid, is carbonate of lead.

The alternate exposure to air and water appears not essential to the corrosion, as I have observed a similar effect when the same tubing remained constantly under water. The interior of the tube has also been corroded, although of course no permanent efflorescence could be formed, owing to the rapid flow of the water.

The frequent practice of plumbers of using composition tubing in connection with water supplies is therefore highly reprehensible, being fraught with considerable danger to the health of those using the water for drinking or cooking.

Mr Louis Siebold detected lead in eight out of ten samples of concentrated solution of acetate of ammonia as well as in a sample of the ordinary solution of the British Pharmacopœia. In pursuing his investigations Mr Siebold found that solutions of acetate of ammonium are capable of dissolving lead from glass. He therefore advises that all forms of the solution, more particularly the concentrated liquor employed by many chemists for making the weaker solutions, should be kept in bottles free from lead.

With the acids lead or its oxides form salts, usually white in colour, and in the majority nearly insoluble in water, but readily soluble in acids.

Tests. The oxides and salts of lead, mixed951 with a little carbonate of soda, and exposed on a charcoal support to the reducing flame of the blowpipe, readily yield a soft and ductile globule of metallic lead, and the charcoal, at the same time, becomes covered with a yellowish incrustation of oxide of lead. Both metallic lead and its oxides are soluble in nitric acid, furnishing a solution which may be examined with ease.

Solution of lead salts may be recognised by the following reactions:—Sulphuretted hydrogen, sulphydrate of ammonium, and the alkaline sulphides, give black precipitates, insoluble in the cold dilute acids, alkalies, alkaline sulphides, and cyanide of potassium. Potassium and sodium hydrates give a white precipitate, soluble in excess. Ammonia (except with the acetate) gives a white precipitate, insoluble in excess. The carbonates of potassium, sodium, and ammonium, give a white precipitate, insoluble in excess. Dilute sulphuric acid (in excess), and solutions of the sulphates give a white precipitate, sparingly soluble in dilute acids, but soluble in a hot boiling solution of potassium carbonate. Chromate and bichromate of potassium give yellow precipitates insoluble in dilute nitric acid, and soluble in solution of potassium hydrate. Iodide of potassium gives a yellow precipitate, soluble in great excess by heat, and separating in small, brilliant, golden-yellow scales, as the liquid cools. A piece of polished zinc precipitates metallic lead in an arborescent form, hence called the lead tree. To prepare for these tests, a solid supposed to contain lead should be digested in nitric acid, when the solution, evaporated to dryness and redissolved in water, may be tested as above.

Estim. This has been already referred to under previous heads. The ores of lead (galena) may be digested in nitric acid, when the solution may be treated with sulphuric acid, and the lead estimated from the weight of the precipitated sulphate. This is called an assay in the wet way. The method adopted by practical mineralogists is an assay in the dry way, and is conducted as follows:—A small but powerful air-furnace, charged with coke, is brought to as high a temperature as possible, and a conical wrought-iron crucible plunged into the midst of it; as soon as the crucible has attained a dull-red heat, 1000 gr. of the galena, reduced to powder, are thrown into it, and stirred gently with a long piece of stiff iron wire flattened at the one end, in order to expose as large a surface of the powdered ore to the air as possible, observing now and then to withdraw the wire, to prevent it becoming red hot, in which case some of the ore would permanently adhere to it, and be reduced before the intended time; the roasting is completed in 3 or 4 minutes, and any portion of the ore adhering to the stirrer being detached by a knife, and returned into the crucible, the latter is covered up, and allowed to attain a full cherry-red heat, when about 2 or 3 spoonfuls of reducing flux are added, and the whole brought to a full white heat; in 12 to 15 minutes, the portion of metal and scoria adhering to the sides of the crucible are scraped down into the melted mass with a small stick of moist green wood, after which the crucible is again covered, and the heat urged for 2 or 3 minutes longer, so as to keep the mass in a perfectly liquid state during the whole time; the crucible is then removed from the fire with the crucible-tongs, and adroitly tilted so as to discharge its contents into a small, ingot-mould of brass, observing to rake the scoria from the surface to the sides of the crucible, so as to allow the molten lead to be poured out without it; the scoria is then reheated in the crucible with about 12 spoonful of flux, and after being cleansed with a piece of green wood, as before, is at once poured into a second mould, which is instantly inverted; the little button of lead thus obtained is added to the lead in the other mould, and the whole is accurately weighed. The weight, divided by 10, gives the per-centage of lead (including silver, if present) in the ore examined.

One half of the lead thus obtained is put into a dry cupel of bone ash, and placed in the cupelling furnace, and treated as described in the article on assaying; the metallic button left on the cupel is then detached and weighed. The weight, divided by 5, gives the per-centage of pure silver.

Obs. The flux commonly employed in the above assay is composed of red argol, 6 parts; nitre, 4 parts; borax, 2 parts; fluor spar, 1 part; well pulverised and thoroughly mixed together. When the ore is very refractory, about a spoonful of carbonate of potassium should be added for each 1000 grains of ore, in which case the roasting may be dispensed with. The quantity of silver in argentiferous galena varies from 310000 to 13 part of the whole. Whenever this ore contains above 2 parts of silver in the 1000, it is found to be profitable to extract the latter. Indeed, by Pattison’s process it is found that as small a proportion as 1 in 8000 can be extracted with profit.

Uses. The uses of lead in the arts are well known. It enters into the composition of many important alloys (pewter, type-metal, shot-metal, solder, &c.), it furnishes us with several valuable pigments (chrome yellow, &c.), and it is extensively used in dyeing. Some of its preparations are employed in medicine.

Ant., &c. Administer an emetic of sulphate of zinc or sulphate of copper, and, if necessary, tickle the fauces with the finger or a feather, to induce vomiting. Should this not succeed the stomach-pump may be had recourse to. Epsom or Glauber’s salts, or alum, dissolved in water, or water acidulated with sulphuric acid, followed by tea, water gruel, or barley water, are the proper antidotes, and should be taken as soon after the poison has been swallowed as952 possible. In poisoning by white lead, Dr Alfred Taylor recommends the administration of a mixture of sulphate of magnesium and vinegar, as preferable to the sulphate alone. When the symptoms are those of painter’s colic, the treatment recommended under that head should be adopted. In paralysis arising from lead, small doses of strychnine and its preparations may be cautiously administered. A symptom of poisoning by lead is the formation of a narrow leaden blue line, from 120th to 16th of an inch wide, bordering the edges of the gums, attached to the neck of two or more teeth of either jaw. (Dr Burton.) This discoloration may often be detected or rendered more conspicuous by rinsing the mouth out with water holding a little sulphuretted hydrogen or sulphydrate of ammonium in solution. Chevallier and Rayer recommend the use of sulphurous or hepatic mineral waters, or of artificial solutions of sulphuretted hydrogen or alkaline sulphides in water, both in cases of acute and chronic poisoning by lead; but the practical success of this plan does not appear to have been in proportion to theoretical anticipations. The moist and freshly precipitated sulphides of iron are said by their advocates to be infallible if taken sufficiently early.

Lead in Aerated Water. Some time since Sir Robert Christison condemned the use of syphons for lemonade, owing to the action of free tartaric acid upon lead, and the rapidity with which waters containing any free acid become charged with lead in syphons. According to Professor Miller, 0·0175 gr. of lead per gallon is not an unusual amount for average cistern water. Mr John S. Thompson, however, reports to the Edinburgh University Chemical Society that, after such water has been aerated and put into a syphon, the amount of lead dissolved in it begins to rise in a rapid manner. Thus in potash water, drawn from a syphon, 0·0408 grain of lead per gallon was found to be present, being nearly 25 times the quantity found in the same water before it entered the syphon. Pure aerated water again drawn in a similar manner from a syphon gave 0·0816 gr. of lead per gallon, or exactly double the amount found in the potash water, showing at once the well-known protective action that salts of the alkalies and alkaline earths have on lead. “Although,” says the ‘Medical Journal,’ “these results are sufficiently high and alarming; still, when the water is drawn off in small quantities at a time, as is frequently the case with invalids, the results are found to be still higher; thus, when potash water was so treated, 0·0455 gr. of lead per gallon was found, while aerated water, drawn off in small quantities, gave 0·0933 gr. of lead per gallon, showing a very marked rise in both cases. The cause of this increase in quantity of the lead appears to be owing, not so much to the lengthened period of contact between the liquid and the metal as to the fact that the nozzle of the syphon, being exposed to the atmosphere in a moist state, becomes rapidly oxidised or carbonated, and is left in the most suitable condition for entering into solution, so that, when merely small portions of the liquid are drawn off each time, a comparatively concentrated solution of lead is obtained. These results,” continues the same authority, “compare accurately with those which were obtained by Messrs Savory and Moore, in examining the contents of a series of syphons of aerated water for Dr George Owen Rees, F.R.S., whose attention was drawn to the subject by detecting symptoms of lead-poisoning in himself after he had been in the habit for some time of drinking such aerated water.”

Lead, Acetate of. Pb(C2H3O2)2. Syn. Plumbic acetate, SUGAR OF LEAD, PLUMBI ACETAS. (B. P.) Prep. Litharge (in fine powder) 24; acetic acid, 40; distilled water, 20; mix the acetic acid and the water, add the litharge, and dissolve with the aid of a gentle heat, filter, evaporate until a pellicle forms, and crystallise. Drain and dry the crystal.

Acetic acid (sp. gr. 1·0843), 23 parts, is gently heated in a copper boiler rendered electro-negative by means of a large flat piece of lead soldered within it, and litharge (pure, and in fine powder), 13 parts, is sprinkled in; the heat is then continued, with constant stirring, until the acid is saturated, when the mother-waters of a former process, if any, are added, and the whole is heated to the boiling point, and allowed to settle until cold; the clear portion is now decanted, and evaporated in a similar vessel until the liquor has the sp. gr. 1·266 or 1·267, when it is run into salt-glazed stone-ware vessels (the edges of which have been well smeared with candle grease), and allowed to crystallise. The product is 38 to 3812 parts of crystallised sugar of lead. It is found to be advantageous to preserve a very slight excess of acid during the boiling and crystallisation, to prevent the formation of any basic acetate the presence of which impedes the formation of regular crystals.

From litharge, 112 lbs.; acetic acid (sp. gr. 1·057), 128 lbs. Prop. 180 to 184 lbs.

Prop. Pure acetate of lead forms colourless, transparent, prismatic crystals, slightly efflorescent in dry air; it is soluble in 8 parts of alcohol and in 114 part of cold water; the aqueous solution has a sweet astringent taste, and feebly reddens litmus, but turns turmeric and the juice of violets green; when gently heated, it melts in its water of crystallisation; by continuing the heat, the whole of the water is expelled, and the dry acetate obtained; at a higher temperature the salt suffers decomposition, and acetic acid, acetone, &c., is given off. Commercial acetate of lead is in general a confused crystalline mass, somewhat resembling broken lump sugar. It is powerfully astringent and poisonous.

When pure it is completely soluble in distilled water acidulated with acetic acid forming953 a transparent colourless solution, “38 grains dissolved in water require for complete precipitation 200 grains measures of the volumetric solution of oxalic acid.” (B. P.)

Uses, &c. Acetate of lead is extensively employed in dyeing and calico-printing. In medicine it is used as an astringent, styptic, and hæmostatic; in pulmonary, uterine, and intestinal hæmorrhage, colliquative diarrhœa, phthisical sweats, &c. It is usually combined with morphia or opium, and with acetic acid to prevent it passing into the state of the poisonous carbonate in the stomach.—Dose, 12 gr. to 2 gr. (Collier); 1 to 2 gr. to 8 or 10 gr., twice or thrice a day (Pereira); 3 gr. to 10 gr., every 6 or 8 hours (A. T. Thomson). Externally, as a collyrium, 10 gr. to water, 8 fl. oz. (A. T. Thomson); as a lotion, 20 gr. (A. T. Thomson), 1 dr. (Collier) to water, 8 or 10 fl. oz.; as an injection, 40 gr. to rose water, 12 pint. The lotion is cooling and sedative, and is commonly used in excoriations, local inflammations, &c.

Basic Acetates. There are several of these salts, but only one is of any importance.

Tribasic Lead Acetate or Double Plumbic Acetate, and Dioxide. Pb(C2H3O2)2 2PbO. Syn. Subacetate of lead; Basic lead citrate; Goulard’s acetate of lead; Plumbi subacetas (B. P.). Prep. Litharge, 7; acetate of lead, 10; and distilled water, 40; are boiled half an hour, and evaporated down, and allowed to crystallise out of contact with air.

Used under the form of “Plumbi subacetas liquor” v. (B. P.)

Lead, Arse′′niate of. Pb3(AsO4)2. Syn. Arsenate of l.; Plumbi arsenias, L. Prep. Gradually add a solution of acetate of lead to another of arseniate of sodium. A white, insoluble powder. Proposed as an external application in certain forms of cancer.

Lead, Bro′mide of. PbBr2. Syn. Plumbi bromidum, L. Prep. By precipitating a solution of neutral acetate or nitrate of lead with a solution of bromide of potassium. A white, crystalline powder, sparingly soluble in water. It fuses by heat into a red liquid, which turns yellow when cold. It has been used in the same cases as iodide of lead.

Lead, Car′bonate of. PbCO3. Syn. Plumbi carbonas, L. Prep. By precipitating a cold solution of either acetate or nitrate of lead with a solution of an alkaline carbonate, observing to well wash the precipitate and dry it in the shade. This preparation is seldom employed, the commercial carbonate (WHITE LEAD) being substituted for it. See White pigments.

Lead, Chloride of. PbCl2. Syn. Chloride lead; Plumbi chloridum (Ph. L. 1836). Prep. (Ph. L. 1836). Dissolve acetate of lead, 19 oz., in boiling water, 3 pints; next dissolve chloride of sodium, 6 oz., in boiling water, 1 pint; mix the two solutions, and when cold wash and dry the precipitate. A white, crystalline powder.

Dissolve finely powdered litharge in boiling dilute hydrochloric acid, and set aside the filtered solution to cool. Brilliant colourless needles.

Prop. Soluble in 135 parts of cold and in 22 parts of boiling water; it melts when heated, and solidifies on cooling, forming a horn-like substance (horn lead; plumbi corneum).

Uses, &c. In the Ph. L. 1836, chloride of lead was ordered to be employed in the preparation of ‘hydrochlorate of morphia.’ Mr Tuson highly recommends it in cancerous affections, to allay pain and restrain morbid action, either in the form of a lotion or ointment.

Various mixtures of lead chlorides and oxide are employed as a white pigment under the name of ‘Pattison’s white.’ It is prepared by rapidly mixing a boiling solution of lead chloride with an equal volume of lime water. Another similar compound is called ‘patent yellow’ or ‘Turner’s yellow.’

Lead, Chromate of. PbCrO4. Syn. Lemon yellow, Leipsig yellow, Paris yellow. Prep. By adding a filtered solution of acetate or nitrate of lead to a like solution of chromate of potassium, as long as the precipitate forms, which is collected, washed with water, and dried. For information respecting the manufacture of this substance on the large scale, as a colouring substance (chrome yellow), see Yellow pigments.

Lead, Dichromate of. Syn. Chrome orange, Chrome red. PbCrO4.PbO. Prep. By adding to a solution of nitrate or acetate of lead a solution of chromate of potassium, to which an equivalent of potassa has been added. This compound is of a splendid scarlet colour. See Red pigments.

Lead, Cy′anide of. PbCy2. Syn. Plumbi cyanidum, L. Prep. By adding hydrocyanic acid to a solution of acetate of lead, as long as a precipitate forms, which, after being washed with distilled water, is dried by a very gentle heat, and preserved from the light and air. Sometimes used as a source of medicinal hydrocyanic acid.

Lead, Iodide of. PbI2. Syn. Lead iodide; Plumbi iodidum (B. P., Ph. L. E. D.). Prep. (B. P.) Nitrate of lead, 4; iodide of potassium, 4; distilled water, a sufficiency. Dissolve with the aid of heat the nitrate of lead in 30 of water, and the iodide of potassium in 10 of water, mix, collect the precipitate, wash, and dry at a gentle heat.

Prop., &c. A rich yellow-coloured powder, soluble in acetic acid, alcohol, and boiling water; when heated, it fuses and volatilises in yellow vapour, but with a higher degree of heat, violet vapours of iodine are evolved, leaving a residuum (lead) which is wholly soluble in nitric acid.—Dose, 14 gr. to 4 gr. or more, made into a pill; as a deobstruent and resolvent, in enlargements of the cervical, axillary, and mesenteric glands, and in scrofulous affections and scirrhous tumours.

Lead, Nitrate of. Pb(NO3)2. Syn. Plumbi nitras, L. (B. P., Ph. E. D.)


Prep. (Ph. D.) Litharge (in fine powder), 1 oz.; pure nitric acid, 2 fl. oz., diluted with water, 12 pint; mix, apply a sand-heat, and evaporate to dryness, occasionally stirring; boil the residuum in water, 212 pints; filter, acidulate with a few drops of nitric acid, evaporate to a pellicle, and set the liquid aside to cool; lastly, dry the deposited crystals on bibulous paper, and preserve them in a well closed bottle.

(Commercial.) By dissolving white lead in dilute nitric acid, and crystallising.

Uses, &c. This salt is extensively used in calico printing, and in the preparation of the iodide and other salts of lead. It was formerly much esteemed in asthmas, hæmorrhages, and epilepsy. It is now often used in an external application in cancer, ulcers, wounds, and various cutaneous affections. It is the basis of Liebert’s celebrated ‘cosmétique infallible,’ and of Ledoyen’s ‘disinfecting fluid.’ A very weak solution is an excellent application to chapped nipples, lips, hands, &c.—Dose, 12 to 1 gr.; in the form of pill or solution, washed down with a tablespoonful of water very slightly acidulated with nitric acid.

Lead, Nitro-sac′charate of. Syn. Plumbi nitrosaccharas, L. Prep. (Dr S. E. Hoskins.) Nitric acid, 1 part; water, 19 parts; mix; in this dilute acid saccharate of lead (in fine powder) is to be dissolved, and set aside that crystals may form, which are to be dried by pressure between the folds of bibulous paper. A weak solution of the salt, acidulated with saccharic acid, has been employed by Dr Hoskins as a solvent for phosphatic calculi, with apparent success.

Lead, Oxide of. PbO. Syn. Monoxide of lead, Protoxide of lead, Yellow oxide of lead, Plumbi oxydum (B. P.) Prep. This substance is obtained perfectly pure by expelling the acid from nitrate of lead, by exposing it to heat in a platinum crucible; or, still better, by adding ammonia to a cold solution of nitrate of lead until the liquid becomes faintly alkaline, washing the precipitate with cold water, drying it, and heating it to moderate redness for 1 hour.

Prop., &c. Pure protoxide of lead has a lemon-yellow colour, and is the best of all the salts of lead. It is very heavy, slightly soluble in water, and freely so in acids, particularly when in the hydrated state; the aqueous solution has an alkaline reaction; at a red heat it melts, and assumes a semi-crystalline form on cooling; in the melted state it rapidly attacks and dissolves siliceous matter, with which it unites to form glass (flint glass); when heated along with organic substances of any kind, it is easily reduced to the metallic state.

On the commercial scale, this oxide is prepared by heating the grey film or dross that forms on the surface of melted lead when freely exposed to the air. When the process is arrested, as soon as the oxide acquires a uniform yellow colour, it is called massicot; when the heat is still further increased, until it fuses or partially vitrifies, it forms litharge of which there are several varieties. See Litharge, Massicot.

Lead, Red Oxide of. Syn. Red lead, Minium. Prep. This is prepared by exposing unfused protoxide of lead to the air for a long time, at a dull red heat. It is a very heavy powder, of a fine red colour, decomposed by a strong heat into protoxide of lead, and oxygen gas, which is evolved. Somewhat uncertain in its composition, but is generally of the composition Pb3O4 or PbO22PbO. See Red Pigment.

Lead, Dioxide. PbO2. Syn. Biniodide of lead, Peroxide of lead, Puce oxide of lead. Prep. By digesting red oxide of lead in dilute nitric acid; or by infusing a mixture of protoxide of lead and chlorate of potassium at a heat a little below redness, and washing the powdered mass in water; or by transmitting a current of chlorine gas through a solution of neutral acetate of lead. This oxide gives up half its oxygen at a red heat; acids also decompose it. Its chief use is in chemical analysis, to separate sulphurous acid from certain gaseous mixtures, which it converts into sulphuric acid, which it at the same time absorbs, forming sulphate of lead. It has recently been employed as an oxidising agent in the manufacture of the ANILINE DYES.

Lead, Pyrolig′nite of. Sugar of lead made with rough pyroligneous acid. Used in dyeing, chiefly for the preparation of acetate of alumina.

Lead, Sac′charate of. Syn. Plumbi saccharas, L. Prep. (Dr S. E. Hoskins.) Nitric acid, 2 parts; water, 10 parts; mix in a porcelain capsule, add of sugar, 1 part; and apply heat until reaction ceases; then dilute the liquid with distilled water, neutralise it with powdered chalk, filter, and add to the filtrate a solution of acetate of lead, as long as a precipitate (saccharate of lead) forms; lastly, collect the precipitate on a filter, wash and dry it. Used to make nitro-saccharate of lead, and as a source of saccharic acid.

Lead, Sul′phate of. PbSO4. Syn. Plumbi sulphas, L. This salt occurs native in transparent octohedra (lead vitriol), and is obtained in large quantities as a by-product in the preparation of acetate of aluminum for dyeing.

Prep. By adding dilute sulphuric acid to a solution of a soluble salt of lead. It is very sparingly soluble in water and in dilute sulphuric acid, soluble in strong hydrochloric acid and bitartrate of ammonium.

Lead, Sul′phide of. PbS. Syn. Plumbi sulphide. This occurs abundantly in nature in the form of GALENA.

Prep. By fusing metallic lead with sulphur or by passing sulphuretted hydrogen through a solution of a salt of lead.

Lead, Tan′nate of. Syn. Plumbi tannas, L. Prep. Precipitate a solution of acetate of955 lead with an infusion of galls, and wash and dry the precipitate. Astringent, sedative, and hæmostatic.—Dose, 1 gr. and upwards, made into a pill. It has been highly recommended in the form of ointment and cataplasms, in bed-sores, chronic ulcers of the feet, white swellings, &c.

Lead, Tar′trate of. Syn. Plumbi tartras, L. Prep. By precipitating acetate of lead, by tartrate of ammonium, washing and drying.

LEAD DUST. Syn. Pulvis plumbi, Plumbum divisum, L. Prep. By melting new lead, adding bruised charcoal, mixing with violent agitation, which must be continued until the metal ‘sets,’ and then pounding and washing away the charcoal. Used by potters.

LEAD, GRANULATED. Prep. By melting new lead, and pouring it in a small stream from an iron ladle with a hole drilled in its bottom, into a pail of water. Used to make solutions and alloys.

LEAD, RED. See Red pigments.

LEAD, WHITE. See White pigment.

LEAD PYROPH′ORUS. See Pyrophorus.

LEATH′ER. Syn. Corium, Corius, L. Leather is the skin of animals which has been prepared by one or other of several processes adopted for the purpose, having the common object of preventing its spontaneous destruction by putrefaction, besides other objects, which are more or less peculiar to each variety of this useful substance.

Leather is only prepared on the large scale, and primarily either by the process of ‘TANNING’ or ‘TAWING,’ in the manner briefly described under these heads.

Curried leather is leather which has been tanned, and sold to the currier, who, after soaking it in water, and rubbing it to soften it, pares it even with a broad, sharp knife, rubs it with a piece of polished stone or wood, and, whilst still wet, besmears it with oil or grease (DUBBING), which gradually penetrates the leather as the moisture evaporates. It next undergoes the operation of ‘waxing,’ which consists of first rubbing it on the flesh side with a mixture of oil and lamp black; it is then ‘black-sized’ with a brush or sponge, and, when dry, is lastly ‘tallowed’ with a proper cloth, and ‘slicked’ upon the flesh side with a broad and polished lump of glass. Leather curried on the hair or grain side, termed ‘black on the grain,’ is blackened by wetting it with iron liquor, and rubbing it with an iron ‘slicker’ before applying the oil or grease. The grain is finally raised by the ‘pommel’ or ‘graining board’ passed over it in various directions.

Leather is dyed or stained by the application, with an ordinary brush, of any of the strong liquid dyes, in the cold or only gently heated, to the surface of the skin previously stretched on a board. The surface, when dry, is commonly finished off with white of egg and the pommel or smoothing stick. Bookbinders generally employ copperas water as a black stain or sprinkle; a solution of indigo as a blue one; and a solution of salt of tartar or common soda, as a brown one.

Leather, before being japanned or varnished, as in the preparation of what is called ‘ENAMELLED’ and ‘PATENT LEATHER,’ is carefully freed from grease by the application of absorbent substances or hard pressure between rollers, and the surface is nicely shaved, smoothed, and polished by appropriate tools, the varnish is then applied to the grain side for the former, and the flesh side of the skin for the latter, which is previously stretched out tight on a board to receive it. The whole is, lastly, submitted to a gentle stove-heat to harden the varnish; and the process is repeated, if necessary.

Uses, &c. These are well known, and are all but universal. The leather manufacture of Great Britain is equal in importance and utility to any other department of our industry, and inferior in point of value and extent only to those of cotton, wool, and iron. “If we look abroad on the instruments of husbandry, on the implements used in most of the mechanic trades, on the structure of a multitude of engines and machines; or if we contemplate at home the necessary parts of our clothing—breeches, shoes, boots, gloves—or the furniture of our houses, the books on our shelves, the harness of our horses, or even the substance of our carriages; what do we see but instances of human industry exerted upon leather? What an aptitude has this single material in a variety of circumstances for the relief of our necessities, and supplying conveniences in every state and stage of life! Without it, or even without it in the plenty we have it, to what difficulties should we be exposed?” (Dr Campbell.) Leather is a kind of natural felt, but of much closer and firmer texture than that of artificial origin. “The thinner and softer kinds of leather are sometimes used as body-clothing; but its special and proper purpose is the manufacture of coverings for the feet, to protect them from cold and water.” (Eras. Wilson.) See Japanning, Varnish, &c.

Leather, destruction of, by Gas. It is well-known that the binding of books suffer considerable damage, when the books are kept in apartments lighted by coal gas. That the cause of this deterioration is due, as was believed, to the combustion of the bisulphide of carbon contained in the gas, and its consequent oxidation into sulphuric acid, is exemplified by the following interesting communication from Professor Church, published in the ‘Chemical News’ for October 19th, 1877. He says:—“Vellum seems unaffected; morocco suffers least; calf is much injured, and russia still more so. The disintegration is most rapid with books on the upper shelves of a library, whither the heated products of combustion ascend, and where they are absorbed and condensed.


By comparing specimens of old leather, with specimens of new, it is quite clear that the destructive influence of gas is due mainly to its sulphur.

True there are traces of sulphates in the dye and size of new leather bindings, but the quantity is insignificant and there is practically no free sulphuric acid. That leather may be destroyed by the oil of vitriol produced by the burning of gas in a library is proved by the following observations and analyses.

The librarian of one of our public libraries forwarded to me the backs of several volumes, which had been ‘shed’ by the books on the upper shelves in an apartment lighted by gas. The leather of one of these backs (a volume of the ‘Archæologia’) was carefully scraped off so as to avoid any paper or size from underneath. This task of scraping was easy enough, for the leather was reduced to the consistency of Scotch snuff. On analysis of the watery extract of this leather, the following figures were obtained:—

Free sulphuric acid in decayed leather 6·21 per cent.
Combined 2·21

LEAV′EN. Dough which has become sour or run into a state of incipient putrefaction. When a small quantity of it is added to recent dough, it excites fermentation, but is apt to produce a disagreeable taste and odour in the bread. It is now superseded by yeast. Both these substances are used in the same way.

LEAVES (Medicated). Syn. Folia medicata, L. On the Continent several preparations of this kind are in use. In many cases the leaves of tobacco deprived of nicotine, by soaking them in water, are dried, and then moistened or steeped in a tincture or infusion of the medicinal substance. In this way belladonna, camphor, and henbane, are often administered. Cruveilhier recommends opiated belladonna leaves for smoking in troublesome coughs, phthisis, spasmodic asthmas, &c., to be prepared as follows:—Belladonna leaves, 1 oz., are steeped in an infusion of opium, 10 gr., in water, 1 fl. oz. (or less), and are then carefully dried in the shade. “Mustard leaves (Riggollot’s) consist of mustard moistened with water, spread on paper, and dried.” (Squire.) See Cigars (in pharmacy), and Vegetables.

Leaves, How to Dissect. “For the dissection of leaves,” says Mrs Cussons, “I find the process of maceration too long and tedious, to say nothing of the uncertainty as to the results. I have therefore adopted the use of alkali in saturated solution, the specimens to be introduced while the liquid is heated to the boiling point; the time of immersion to be regulated by the character of the various leaves and the nature of the epidermis to be removed. When the specimen is freed from epidermis and cellular tissue, it must be subjected to the action of chlorine to destroy the colouring matter. The introduction of peroxide of hydrogen not only serves to render the lace-like specimen purer in colour, but also preserves it. In destroying the colouring matter in ferns this also is invaluable; added to the chlorine it gives a solidity to the bleached fronds, and appears to equalise the action of the chlorine. For skeletonising capsules the slow process of maceration by steeping in rain-water is alone available; a moderate heat may be applied to hasten the process, but alkali is useless. The only known flower which can be dissected is the Hydrangea japonica. The fibrous nature of the petals renders it easy to skeletonise in the perfect truss in which it grows. Skeletonised leaves and capsules appear to gain in the process a toughness and durability not possessed by them in their natural state.”

LECANOR′IC ACID. See Orsellinic acid.

LEECH. Syn. Hirudo (B. P., Ph. L. & D.), L. The officinal leech of the Pharmacopœias is the Sanguisuga medicinalis (Hirudo medicinalis—Cuv.), familiarly known as the ‘old English’ or ‘speckled leech.’ It is also occasionally called the ‘Hamburg grey’ or ‘Russian leech,’ from being imported from those parts. Its characteristics are—Back, greenish or olive green, sometimes almost black or intense brown, with 6 rusty-red or yellowish longitudinal stripes, which are mostly spotted with black.—Belly, dirty yellow or light olive green, spotted more or less with black. The spots are very variable in size and number; in some cases few, in others so numerous as to form the prevailing tint of the belly. This variety, which is the most valuable of the commercial leeches, is chiefly imported from Hamburg.

Another variety of leech, the Sanguisuga officinalis, familiarly known as the ‘Hamburg’ or ‘French green leech,’ is imported from Bordeaux, Lisbon, and Hamburg. Its characteristics are—Back, brownish olive-green, with 6 reddish or rusty yellow longitudinal bands.—Belly, light dirty pea-green, or yellowish green, free from spots, but exhibiting two lateral stripes. This leech is vastly inferior to the preceding variety, and some of those imported from France and Portugal are absolutely useless, from their indisposition to bite, arising from the fraud practised by the collectors and dealers of gorging them with blood to improve their appearance before sending them to market. The above are the species of leech commonly employed in medicine in this country, but many others are noticed by writers on the subject.

Leeches are best preserved in water obtained from a pond, and occasionally changed; when kept in spring water they soon die. The introduction of a hand to which an ill-flavoured medicine or odour adheres into the water in which they are kept is often957 sufficient to poison them. The application of saline matter to the skin of leeches, even in very small quantities, immediately occasions the expulsion of the contents of the stomach; hence a few grains of common salt are frequently sprinkled over them, to make them disgorge the blood which they have swallowed. The frequent changing of the water in which leeches are kept is injudicious. Once a month in winter, and once a week in summer, is deemed sufficiently often by the large dealers, unless the water becomes discoloured or bloody, when it should be changed every day, or every other day. When clean pond water cannot be obtained, clean rain water that has been well exposed to the air should alone be employed. Mr J. R. Kenworthy recommends placing in the water a few balls of irregular lumps of pure clay, about 212 inches in diameter; a method which we can recommend as both simple and successful. The plan adopted by M. Fée is as follows:—Place 7 inches of a mixture of moss, turf, and charcoal, in a marble or stone trough, over which sprinkle some small pebbles. At one end of the trough, and about half way up, place a thin shelf of stone or marble, pierced with small holes, on which put first some moss, or portions of marsh horse-tail (Equisetum palustre), and on this a layer of pebbles to keep it down; then pour in water sufficiently high just to moisten the moss and pebbles, put in the leeches, and tie over the mouth of the trough with a cloth. Another plan consists in keeping the leeches in a glass tank, or aquarium, provided with a pebbly bottom and a few healthy aquatic plants.

Propag. According to Dr Wagner, an annual feast on living blood is necessary to render leeches able to grow and propagate. These conditions can only be fulfilled by restoring to the breeding cisterns those which have been already employed. All artificial methods of feeding them by bladders or sponges of blood have been found to fail. He recommends the employment of two tanks, with the bottom formed of loam, clay, or turf, surrounded by an inner border of a similar substance, and an outer one of sand—the one for leeches fit for medical use—and the other for breeding, or for such leeches as have been applied. No leeches are to be taken from the breeding tank until a year has elapsed after their having been applied and fed with human blood; and their removal to the first tank should take place in September, or October, as by this time the breeding season is over. By this plan all leeches that have been applied are to be carefully restored to the breeding tank, without making them disgorge the blood they have swallowed.

LEECH′ING. This consists in the application of leeches to any vascular part of the body, for the purpose of withdrawing blood from it, and thus allaying local inflammation, distension of vessels, &c. Leeches are most conveniently applied by means of a common pill-box or a wine glass. The part should be previously washed perfectly clean, and if covered with hair should be closely shaved. Sometimes leeches are indisposed to bite; in such cases, allowing them to crawl over a piece of dry linen or calico, rolling them in porter, moistening the part with a little milk or sweetened milk, or drawing a little blood by a slight puncture or scratch, will usually make them bite freely. To stop the bleeding from leech-bites various plans are adopted, among which the application of nitrate of silver or creasote, or gentle pressure for some hours with the finger, are the most successful. Of late years a piece of matico leaf or soldier’s herb, applied in the same manner as a piece of lint, has been commonly adopted to stop the bleeding of leech-bites.

LEEK. Syn. Porrum, L. The Allium porrum (Linn.). Its general properties are intermediate between those of the onion and garlic. The juice is said to be powerfully diuretic, and capable of dissolving phosphate calculi.

LEGU′MIN. Vegetable casein. It is found most abundantly in the seeds of leguminous (podded) plants, e.g. beans, peas, &c., as well as in the sweet and bitter almond.

In properties it closely resembles the casein of milk.

Legumin may be obtained from peas or from almonds as follows:—After digesting the crushed seeds for 2 or 3 hours in warm water, the undissolved portion is removed by straining through linen, and the strained liquid, after depositing the starch suspended in it, is next filtered and mixed with diluted acetic acid. The white flocculent precipitate which is thus produced, is then collected on a filter and washed. It is afterwards dried, powdered, and digested, first in alcohol, and afterwards in ether.

Rochleder considered that, as thus obtained by Dumas and Cahours, it was not absolutely pure, since as it was not entirely soluble in a cold concentrated solution of potash, he recommended the alkaline solution being decanted from the undissolved portion, and again precipitated by the addition of acetic acid.

Legumin as thus prepared was believed by Rochleder to be pure, and was found on analysis to give results analogous to those furnished by casein.

In the seed, legumin occurs associated with considerable quantities of the phosphates of calcium, magnesium, and potassium. Rennet coagulates it like it does the casein of milk, its similarity to which is exemplified by the manufacture of a kind of cheese from peas and beans by the Chinese.

Dried peas contain about a fourth of their weight of legumin.

LEM′ON. Syn. Limo, L. The fruit of the Citrus limonum or lemon tree. The juice,958 peel, and essential oil are officinal. See Oil, and below.

LEM′ON AC′ID. See Citric acid.

LEM′ON FLA′VOUR. See Essence of Lemon.

LEM′ON JUICE. Syn. Limonis succus (B. P.), Succus limonum (Ph. L. & D.), L. The juice of the lemon, obtained by squeezing and straining. When freshly expressed, it is turbid, owing to the presence of mucilage and extractive matter. These substances render the juice liable to decomposition, and various methods have from time to time been proposed for preserving it. Amongst these may be mentioned the addition to the fresh juice of one per cent. of bisulphite of calcium, or ten per cent. of proof spirit.

“We have examined the juice expressed from two varieties of lemons, viz. Palermo and Messina, with the following results:

  Palermo. Messina.
“Ounces of juice yielded by 100 lemons 108 96
Specific gravity of juice 1044·85 1038·56
Percentage of citric acid 8·12 7·04
Percentage of ash 0·289 0·301

“100 parts of the ash of the juice of Palermo lemons gave:

“Sulphuric acid 10·59
Carbonic acid 16·33
Chlorine 0·81
Phosphoric acid 6·74
Ferric phosphate 1·32
Lime 8·89
Magnesia 3·02
Potash 47·84
Soda 3·32
Silica 0·72
Loss 0·42

“If lemons are kept a few months before squeezing, the yield of juice is slightly increased, but its specific gravity and percentage of citric acid remains unaltered. It is erroneous to suppose that the acid of the lemon is, by keeping, changed into sugar. We have kept lemons for 12 months, and found that the percentage of acid was not diminished. A certain proportion of sugar was formed, but at the expense of the soluble starch contained in the cell-walls of the lemon. Lemon juice on being kept is found to decrease in density, but the amount of acid remains the same.” (Harkness.)

Lemon juice may be preserved by heating it to 150° Fahr., filtering, and setting it aside in bottles completely filled. If this process be performed in the winter, the juice, it is said, may be kept perfectly good for 12 months. Fresh lemon juice is prevented from decomposition and rendered fit for exportation by mixing it with 110th of alcohol. (Schweitzer.)

The Merchant Shipping Act of 1867 requires that after a ship has been at sea ten days 1 oz. of lime or lemon juice, mixed with 1 oz. of sugar and 12 pint of water, shall be served out to each of the crew between the hours of 12 and 1 in the day.

Adult. Lemon juice is frequently adulterated, the adulterants being water, sugar, or gum, and sulphuric or acetic acid. The modus operandi is, to dilute the genuine juice with water, and then bring up the density with the sugar or gum, and the percentage of acid with one or other of the above acids. The examination of lemon and lime juice supplied to the navy is now conducted in the Inland Revenue Laboratory, Somerset House, and it speaks well for that department when we say that cases of scurvy on board ships are now of very rare occurrence. No juice is passed unless it comes up to a certain standard in specific gravity, and percentage of citric acid, and any sample containing any other acid is at once rejected.

Prop. Lemon juice is refrigerant and antiscorbutic, and has long been extensively employed in the preparation of cooling drinks and effervescing draughts, which are justly esteemed as wholesome summer beverages, as well as palliatives in fevers, nausea, &c. In scurvy, there is no remedy equal to freshly expressed lemon juice; and in acute rheumatism and gout, according to the united testimony of Dr Owen Rees, Dr Babington, and numerous Continental practitioners, it has been exhibited with considerable success. In agues, dysentery, English cholera, nausea, and vomiting, heartburn, putrid sore-throat, hospital gangrene, syphilis, and numerous skin diseases, it has proved most serviceable. See Citric Acid, Gout, &c.

Lemon Juice, Facti′′tious. Syn. Solutio acidi citrici, Succus limonum factitius, L. Prep. 1. Citric acid, 114 oz.; carbonate of potassa, 45 gr.; white sugar, 212 oz.; cold water, 1 pint; dissolve, add the yellow peel of a lemon, and in 24 hours strain through a hair sieve or a piece of muslin.

2. As the last, but using 15 or 16 drops of oil of lemon, to flavour instead of the lemon peel.

Obs. The above is an excellent substitute for lemon juice, and keeps well in a cool place. Tartaric acid, and even vinegar, are sometimes used instead of citric acid; but it is evident that it then loses all claim to being considered as an imitation of lemon juice, and to employ it in lieu of which would be absurd.

LEM′ON PEEL. Syn. Cortex limonum (B. P., Ph. L.), L. “The fresh outer part of the rind.” (B. P.) “The fresh and the dried exterior rind of the fruit;” the latter dried “in the month of April or May.” (Ph. L.) Candied lemon peel (CORTEX LIMONUM CONDITUS) is employed as a dessert, and as a flavouring ingredient by cooks and confectioners. It is reputed stomachic. See Candying.



LEMONADE′. Syn. Lemon sherbet, King’s cup; Limonadum, L.; Limonade, Fr. Prep. 1. Lemons (sliced), 2 in no.; sugar, 212 oz.; boiling water, 112 pint; mix, cover up the vessel, and let it stand, with occasional stirring until cold, then pour off the clear through a piece of muslin or a clean hair sieve.

2. Juice of 3 lemons; yellow peel of 1 lemon; sugar, 14 lb.; cold water, 1 quart; digest for 5 or 6 hours, or all night, and decant or strain as before.

3. Citric acid, 1 to 112 dr.; essence of lemon, 10 drops; sugar, 2 oz.; cold water, 1 pint; agitate together until dissolved.

Obs. Lemonade is a pleasant, cooling summer beverage, and when made as above may be drank in large quantities with perfect safety. It also forms an excellent refrigerant and antiseptic drink in fevers and putrid diseases generally. Tartaric acid is commonly substituted for citric acid, from being cheaper; it is, however, much, inferior, being less wholesome and less agreeable. Lemonade for icing is prepared as above, only using a little more sugar. Orange sherbet, or orangeade for icing is made in a similar way from oranges.

Lemonade, Aera′ted. Syn. Limonadum aeratum, L.; Limonade gazeuse, Fr. Prep. 1. (P. Cod.) Water, charged with 5 times its volume of carbonic acid gas, 1 pint; syrup of lemon, 2 oz.; mix.

2. (Without a bottling machine.)—a. Into each bottle put lemon syrup, 1 to 112 oz.; essence of lemon, 3 drops; sesquicarbonate of soda, 12 dr.; water, q. s. to nearly fill the bottle; have the cork fitted and ready at hand, then add of tartaric acid (cryst.), 1 dr.; instantly close the bottle, and wire down the cork; it should be kept inverted in a cool place, and, preferably, immersed in a vessel of ice-cold water.

b. As the last, but substituting lump sugar, 34 oz., for the lemon syrup.

c. From lump sugar, 1 oz.; essence of lemon, 3 drops; bicarbonate of potassa, 25 gr.; water q. s., as No. 1; then add citric acid (cryst.), 45 gr., and cork, &c., as before. The last is most wholesome, especially for the scorbutic, dyspeptic, gouty, and rheumatic.

Obs. The best aerated lemonade of the London makers is prepared by putting 112 fl. oz. of rich lemon syrup into each bottle, which is then filled up with aerated water at the bottling machine.

Lemonade, Antimo′′niated. Syn. Limonadum antimoniatum, L. Prep. By adding tartar emetic, 1 gr., to each pint of ordinary lemonade.—Dose. A wineglassful every 12 hour or hour; as a diaphoretic and expectorant. See Antimony (Potassio-tartrate).

Lemonade, Ape′′rient. Syn. Limonadum laxativum, L. Prep. 1. Sugar, 1 oz.; lemon juice, 34 fl. oz.; sulphate of soda, 3 dr.; water, 8 fl. oz.; put them into a soda-water bottle without shaking, have the cork ready fitted, add of sesquicarbonate of soda (in cryst.), 12 dr., and instantly cork the bottle, wire it down, and keep it in a cool place, inverted. For a dose.

2. Heavy carbonate of magnesia, 112 dr.; refined sugar, 1 oz.; essence of lemon, 5 or 6 drops; water, 8 fl. oz.; bottle as last, then add of citric acid (cryst.), 3 dr., and instantly cork, &c., as before. For a dose. It should be kept for at least 24 hours before being taken.

Lemonade, Lactic. Syn. Limonadum lacticum, L. Prep. (Magendie.) Lactic acid, 1 to 4 dr.; syrup, 2 oz.; water, 1 pint; mix. Recommended in dyspepsia, &c.

Lemonade, Milk. Syn. Limonadum lactis, L. Prep. Take of sugar, 12 lb.; water, 1 pint; dissolve, add the juice of 3 lemons; milk or whey, 12 pint; stir the whole together and strain through a hair sieve. Some persons add a glassful of sherry.

Lemonade, Min′eral. Syn. Limonade minerale, Fr. On the Continent this name is applied to various drinks consisting of water acidulated with the mineral acids and sweetened with sugar. Thus we have limonade chlorhydrique, nitrique, phosphorique, sulphurique, &c., all of which are used as cooling drinks in fevers, inflammations, skin diseases, &c.

Lemonade, Port′able. See Powders.


LEMONATED KALI. See Kali, Potassium (Citrate), &c.

LEN′ITIVES. In medicine, purgatives which act in a gentle manner, and have a soothing effect. See Laxatives.

LENS. In optics, a piece of glass or other transparent medium, having one or two curved surfaces, either convex or concave. A description of the different kinds of lenses belongs to a work on optics. It may, however, be useful to the chemical student to remark here that the Coddington and Stanhope lenses, which may now be bought at any of the opticians, neatly mounted and of great power, for a few shillings, will be found of the greatest service in examining minute crystals, precipitates, &c.; and for all ordinary purposes offer a cheap and efficient substitute for more complicated microscopes. An extemporaneous instrument, possessing considerable power, may be made by simply piercing a small circular hole in a slip of metal, and introducing into it a drop of water, which then assumes a spherical form on each side of the metal, while the latter is held in a horizontal position. The ingenious little TOY MICROSCOPES sold about the streets of London, under the form of a perforated pill-box, at one penny each, consist of such a lens made with Canada balsam instead of water, which has the property of hardening without losing its transparency after exposure for a few hours to the air. A still simpler substitute for a lens is a piece of blackened card-paper960 with the smallest possible needle-hole pierced through it. Any very small object held in a strong light, and viewed through this hole at the distance of about an inch, will appear quite distinct, and from 10 to 12 times larger than its usual size. We have often found this little instrument of incalculable service in situations and under circumstances in which a more powerful or complicated apparatus was unattainable or could not be applied.

Another method for the manufacture of an extemporaneous lens, by Mr Francis, is the following:—Procure a piece of thin platinum wire, and twine it once or twice round a pin’s point, so as to form a minute ring with a handle to it. Break up a piece of flint glass into fragments a little larger than a mustard seed; place one of these pieces on the ring of wire, and hold it in the point of the flame of a candle or of a gas-light. The glass will melt and assume a complete lens-light or globular form. Let it cool gradually and keep it for mounting. It may be mounted by placing it between two pieces of brass which have corresponding circular holes cut in them of such a size as to hold the edge of the lens.

LEN′TIL. Syn. Lens, L. The seed of the Ervum Lens, a plant of the natural order Leguminosæ. The lentil is considerably smaller than an ordinary pea, and is of the shape of a double convex lens. Several varieties are cultivated on the Continent of Europe and in many parts of Asia, where they are largely consumed as human food. Lentils are more nourishing than any other description of pulse, but are reputed difficult of digestion, apt to disorder the bowels, and injurious to the eyes. Several alimentary preparations, sold at high prices as cures for dyspepsia, constipation, &c., contain lentil flour as the principal ingredient.

Composition of Lentils.

Nitrogenous matter 25·2
Starch, &c. 56·0
Cellulose 2·4
Fatty matter 2·6
Mineral matter 2·3
Water 11·5

Lentils on account of their difficult digestibility require to be very thoroughly cooked. See Ervalenta and Revalenta.

LEPROSY. Syn. Lepra. A disease of the skin distinguished by circular scaly patches.

LEPTANDRIN. A peculiar crystalline principle obtained from the root of Leptandra Virginica, a North American plant belonging to the nat. order Scrophulariaceæ. Leptandrin is chiefly employed in American medical practice as a cathartic and cholagogue, in which latter function it has been recommended as a substitute for mercury. It is stated to be very serviceable in cases of duodenal indigestion and chronic constipation.—Dose, 14 to 12 grain.

Mr Wayne obtained leptandrin by adding subacetate of lead to an infusion of the root, filtering, precipitating the excess of lead by carbonate of sodium, removing the carbonate of lead by filtration, passing the filtered liquid through animal charcoal to absorb all the active matter, washing the charcoal with water till the washings began to be bitter, then treating it with boiling alcohol, and allowing the alcoholic solution to evaporate spontaneously. By dissolving the powder thus obtained in water, treating this with ether, and allowing the ether to evaporate, needle-shaped crystals were obtained, which had the bitter taste of the root. Leptandrin is soluble in water, alcohol, and ether.

LETH′ARGY. Syn. Lethargus, L. A heavy, unnatural sleep, sometimes bordering upon apoplexy, with scarcely any intervals of waking, from which the patient is with difficulty aroused, and into which he again sinks as soon as the excitement is withdrawn. It frequently arises from plethora, in which case depletion is indicated; or from the suppression of some usual discharge or secretion, which it should then be our business to re-establish. It also often arises from over mental fatigue and nervous debility, when relaxation from business, the use of a liberal diet, and ammoniacal stimulants and antispasmodics, are found useful. When depending on a determination of blood to the head, cupping may be had recourse to, and all sources of excitement avoided. In all cases the bowels should be moved as soon as possible by means of mild purgatives.

LET′TUCE. Syn. Lactuca, L. The early leaves or head of the Lactuca sativa, or garden lettuce, forms a common and wholesome salad. They are reputed as slightly anodyne, laxative, hypnotic, and antaphrodisaic, and have been recommended to be eaten at supper by those troubled by watchfulness, and in whom there exists no tendency to apoplexy. The leaves and flowering tops of L. virosa are officinal in the B. P., the “flowering herb” (LACTUCA), in the Ph. L.; the “inspissated juice,” in the Ph. E.; and the “inspissated juice and leaves,” in the Ph. D. The “inspissated juice” of Lactuca virosa, or strong-scented wild lettuce, is also officinal in the Ph. E.; and both the “leaves and inspissated juice” of the same variety are ordered in the Ph. D. The last species is more powerful than the cultivated lettuce. See Extract and Lactucarium.

LEUCORRHŒ′A. Syn. Whites; Catarrhus vaginæ, Fluor albus, L. The symptoms of this disease are well known to most adult females. The common causes are debility, a poor diet, excessive use of hot tea, profuse menstruation or purgation, late hours, immoderate indulgence of the passions, frequent miscarriages, protracted or difficult labours, or local relaxation. Occasionally it is symptomatic of other affections. The treatment961 must be directed to the restoration of the general health, and imparting tonicity to the parts affected. Tepid or sea bathing, or shower baths; bark, chalybeates, and other tonics; with local affusions of cold water, and mild astringent injections, as those of black tea or oak bark, are generally found successful in ordinary cases.

LEVANT′ NUT. See Cocculus indicus.

LEVIGA′TION. Syn. Levigatio, L. The process of reducing substances to fine powder, by making them into a paste with water, and grinding the mass upon a hard smooth stone or slab, with a conical piece of stone having a flat, smooth, under surface, called a ‘muller.’ Levigation is resorted to in the preparation of paints on the small scale, and in the elutriation of powders. The term is also, sometimes, incorrectly applied to the lengthened trituration of a substance in a marble or Wedgwood-ware mortar.

LEVORACE′MIC ACID. See Racemic acid.

LEY′DEN JAR. Syn. Leyden phial, Electrical jar. An instrument for the accumulation of the electric fluid. Its simplest form is that of a wide-mouthed jar of rather thin glass, coated on both sides with tin-foil, except on the upper portion, which is left uncoated, and having a cover of baked wood, through which passes a brass wire, terminating in a metallic knob, and communicating with the inner coating. To charge the jar, the outer coating is connected with the earth, and the knob put in contact with the conductor of an electrical machine. The inner and outer surfaces of the glass thus become respectively positive and negative, and the particles of the glass become strongly polarised. On making connection between the two coatings with a conducting substance, discharge takes place by a bright spark and a loud snap; and if any part of the body be interposed in the circuit, a shock is felt.

LIBAVIUS’S LIQUOR. See Tin (Tin chloride).

LI′CHEN. In pathology, a dry papulous or pimply eruption of the skin, terminating in scurfy exfoliations. “Lichen exhibits great variety in its outward characters in different individuals; in one the pimples are brightly red; in another, of debilitated constitution, they are bluish and livid; in a third they are developed around the base of hairs; in a fourth they appear as circular groups, and increase by their circumference, while they fade in the centre, forming so many rings of various size; in a fifth, a modification of the preceding, they have the appearance of flexuous bands; while in a sixth they are remarkable for producing intensity of suffering, or unusual disorganisation of the skin. They are all occasioned by constitutional disturbance, sometimes referable to the digestive, and sometimes to the nervous system. In some instances, however, they depend upon a local cause. I have had a crop of lichenous pimples on the backs of my hands from rowing in hot weather; and in hot climates that annoying disorder called prickly heat is a lichen.” (Eras. Wilson.) The treatment of this affection is noticed under Eruptions (Papular).

LICHENS. Syn. Lichenes—Juss., Lichenales—Lind., L. In botany, these are cryptogamous plants, which appear under the form of thin, flat crusts, covering rocks and the barks of trees. Some of them, like Iceland moss (Cetraria Islandica), are esculent and medicinal and employed either as medicine or food; and others, when exposed in a moistened state to the action of ammonia, yield purple or blue colouring principles, which, like indigo, do not pre-exist in the plant. Thus, the Rocella tinctoria, the Variolaria orcina, the Lecanora tartarea, &c., when ground to a paste with water, mixed with putrid urine or solution of carbonate of ammonia, and left for some time freely exposed to the air, furnish the archil, litmus, and cudbear of commerce, very similar substances, differing chiefly in the details of their preparation. From these the colouring matter is easily extracted by water or very dilute solution of ammonia. See Archil, Cudbear, and Litmus.

LIEBER’S HERBS OF HEALTH—Gesundeheitskräuter Liebersche—Blankenheimer Thee—Blankenheimer Tea—Herba Galeopsidis Grandifloræ Concisa (Yellow Hemp Nettle).

LIG′ATURE. In surgery, a small waxed piece of cord or string formed of silk or thread, employed for the purpose of tying arteries, veins, and other parts, to prevent hæmorrhage, or to cause their extirpation. To be safe and useful they should be round, smooth, and sufficiently strong to permit of being tied with security without incurring the danger of breaking or slipping. There are many cases recorded in which emigrants, soldiers, and travellers have lost their lives from the simple inability of those around them to apply a ligature.

LIGHT. Syn. Lumen, Lux, L. Light acts as a vivifying or vital stimulus on organised beings, just as privation of light, or darkness, disposes to inactivity and sleep. “In maladies characterised by imperfect nutrition and sanguinification, as scrofula, rickets, and anæmia, and in weakly subjects with œdematous (dropsical) limbs, &c., free exposure to solar light is sometimes attended with very happy results. Open and elevated situations probably owe part of their healthy qualities to their position with regard to it.” On the contrary, “in diseases of the eye, attended with local vascular or nervous excitement, in inflammatory conditions of the brain, in fever, and in mental irritation, whether attended or not with vascular excitement, the stimulus of light proves injurious, and, in such cases, darkness of the chamber should be enjoined. After parturition, severe wounds, and surgical operations, and in all inflammatory conditions,962 exclusion of strong light, contributes to the well-doing of the patient.” (Pereira.)

LIGHT, ELECTRIC. We believe we are correct in stating, that within the last two or three years some 600 registrations for patents, more or less, have been taken out for electricity applied to the purposes of artificial illumination. Conceding that many, if not the greater part, of these inventions may prove useless, their number is nevertheless an index of the mental activity that has lately been directed to the subject of electric lighting; and although we are far from affirming that the problem of the practical application of electricity to the lighting of our streets and dwellings may eventually be successfully thought out, still, we think, looking upon these constant endeavours to accomplish the end in view as links in the chain of that experimental evolution and gradation which has characterised the course of most great discoveries, we are justified in regarding them as not altogether improbable auguries and precursors of subsequent success.

Shortly after Faraday’s discovery in 1830 of electrical induction, or the power of a bar of magnetised steel to set up in a certain direction a current of electricity in a coil of insulated wire when introduced into it, Pixü, reducing the result of Faraday’s researches to practice, constructed an instrument, which appears to have been the first dynamic magneto-electric machine. By Pixü’s contrivance a current of electricity was generated by means of the poles of a permanent horseshoe magnet being made to revolve across those of an electro, or temporary magnet, the induced electricity set up in which in its turn established in the surrounding helix a current of electricity, which being made to escape by the terminals or ends of the wire coils could be applied to practical use.

The dynamic electro-magnetic machines of Saxton and Clarke, which succeeded Pixü’s, may be regarded as modifications of this latter, since they differed only in the arrangement of their parts and mode of action. All three machines were chiefly in use in chemical and physical laboratories, whence they have gradually been supplanted by the far more useful Ruhmkorff’s coil, a very powerful variety of the electro-magnetic instrument. In a small form Clarke’s is now chiefly used for medical purposes. That electro-magnetic machines, as cheaper and more convenient sources of electric force, should have been applied to the purposes of telegraphy, will be an obvious inference.

Among the most important and effective of the various instruments for attaining this end, it will suffice to mention the magneto-electric machine of Messrs Siemens and Halske, first brought into use in 1854.

Except, however, in the case of short distances, or with telegraphs belonging to private persons or commercial firms, these instruments have not met with very general adoption. This is owing to the great tension of the induced current, and the consequent difficulty of insulating the wire, particularly for long distances, objections from which the old galvanic apparatus is in a much greater measure free. Mr Henley was the first to use the dynamic magneto-electric machine for working the electric telegraph soon after this instrument had been adopted in England; but as we have seen, the method, except in the cases quoted, have been in great measure abandoned. A large magneto-electric machine has lately been invented by Wheatstone, the induced spark from which is used for firing mines.

The first electro-magnetic machine used for lighting purposes appears to have been one that was the joint invention of MM. Nollet and Van Malderen, of Brussels, a circumstance to which it probably owes its name of the ‘Alliance Machine.’

Nollet, who brought out his invention (which is a modification of Clarke’s) in 1850, originally designed it for the electrolysis of water, the hydrogen resulting from which it was proposed to pass through camphine, or some other hydro-carbon illuminant, and to burn as gas. Additionally it was designed to use the hydrogen as a source of motive power by exploding it in a suitably constructed engine. Owing to the improvements, however, effected in the machine by Van Malderen, by which it became a powerful generator of magneto-electricity, this purpose was abandoned. ‘The Alliance Machine’ consists of a cast-iron frame, on the circumference of which 40 powerful horseshoe magnets, each capable of supporting a weight of 120 to 130 lbs., are fixed, in eight series of 5 magnets each. A number of circular metal discs, around the circumference of which are attached sixteen bobbins of insulated wire fixed to a horizontal shelf turned by a pulley, are in such a position with regard to the magnets, that with each revolution of the shaft each bobbin passes sixteen alternate poles of the magnets, and will have had sixteen alternate currents set up or induced in it. Until replaced by the later and smaller magneto-electric machine, the ‘Alliance’ has been the one mostly employed for the production of the electric light in France, and it is still in use in the lighthouses of Hève and Grisnez, as well as in those of many other places in that country. In 1856 Mr Holmes took out a patent for a machine, which differs from Nollet’s in increasing the number of bobbins by arranging them in concentric circles between two brass discs. By this device the bobbins revolve more quickly in succession in front of the poles of the magnets, a plan which ensures the generation of a greater number of currents for every revolution.

Like the first application of Nollet’s, Holmes’ machine was used for lighthouse illumination. It was in work from December,963 1858, until June, 1862, at the South Foreland lighthouse, since which time it has been removed to Dungeness, in the lighthouse of which station it has been in use ever since.

When applied to lighting purposes, both the ‘Alliance’ and Holmes’, and the other machines named, are worked in conjunction with the carbon points, which when arranged with proper machinery constitute the electric lamp.

Wild’s and Ladd’s are powerful dynamic magneto-electric instruments, capable of yielding large quantities of the electric fluid.

Artificial illumination by means of electricity has, however, been more or less occasionally practised for other than lighthouse purposes.

For instance, in 1854, during the building of the Napoleon Docks at Rouen, when 800 workmen were engaged nightly for four hours, the electric light was used for several nights with perfect success, the men being able to carry on their work at a distance of more than 100 yards from the source of the light.

In 1862 and 1863 it was frequently employed in Spain during the night in the construction of railways. During the late Franco-German war in 1870 it was applied to submarine illumination, and more lately it has been used in a series of street illumination in St Petersburg.

The electric light apparatus was placed on the tower of the Admiralty Buildings of that city, and by means of it three of the larger streets were illuminated at night from 7 until 10 o’clock. In this latter case, as well as in that of the Rouen Docks, the lamps were supplied with the electric current generated in batteries.

It may be said, however, to have been only within the last two years that the question of electric lighting has developed into a burning one, and that the light itself has become so much more generally and extensively adopted.

This new era in the history of artificial illumination may be said to date from the introduction of two forms of dynamic magneto-electric apparatus, the one invented by Dr Siemens, the eminent telegraphic engineer, the other by M. Gramme, of Paris, who, from having been formerly a journeyman carpenter, has now become the head of a manufacture which forms a most important branch of scientific industry.

In the apparatus of Gramme and Siemens three marked features and improvements over the older machines have been achieved:—

1. A great reduction in size, and, consequently, in cost, and requisite space for the machine.

2. The method of generating large quantities of electricity by the mutual action between the different parts of the same machine, and the induction therein set up.[14]

[14] This discovery was made independently and nearly simultaneously by Drs Siemens and Sir Charles Wheatstone.

3. The production of the electric current at a much less expenditure of motive power.

On this latter point Professor Tyndall, in his report to the elder brethren of the Trinity House, states that magneto-electric machines of old construction cost ten times more, occupied twenty-five times the space, and weighed fourteen times as much as the recent machines, while they produced only one-fifth of the light with practically the same driving power; which in effect amounts to this—that taking illuminating effect in each case into consideration, the new machines cost one-fiftieth, and are, as regards space occupied, 125 times more advantageous than the earlier forms.

In all the older and larger machines the current of electricity, as it was given off from the wire and passed through the carbon points, was alternate, or first in one direction and then in the opposite—that is, it was a momentary current, first positive and then negative.

In Siemens’ machine, and in one form of Gramme’s, the current is direct—that is, it pursues one uniform course in its passage through the carbon points of the lamp, and in its circuit from the terminal of one wire to that of the other.

Scientific opinion is somewhat at variance as to the disadvantages of the indirect current; many electricians consider that it causes the partial destruction of the contacts, and sets up unnecessary heat in the machine. In magneto-electric machines employed in electro-metallurgic operations, it is essential the current should be a direct one.

In the Gramme machine the electro-magnet consists of a ring composed of soft iron wire attached to a horizontal spindle or axis, which latter is turned by an endless strap revolving on a pulley. Around this iron ring are wound a number of coils, each having 300 turns, of insulated copper wire, each coil being bent inside the ring, and fixed to an insulated piece of brass.

The wire being continuous, each coil is connected with the adjacent one, the whole of the coils thus forming a single conductor. The series of pieces of brass to which the wire is soldered are formed into a circle, which surrounds the axis of the machine, each piece of brass being insulated from its neighbour. The iron-wire ring with its attachments is so arranged, that when the shaft or axis to which it is fixed is turned, it revolves between the poles of a powerful horseshoe magnet in the same plane with it. As it turns the ring gives rise in the coils to two different and diverse currents of electricity, one in one half of the coils around the ring, and the other in the other half.

These currents are made to pass to the circle composed of the insulated pieces of964 brass, which are arranged radially to the axis of the machine.

Two brass brushes press against these insulated brass radii, one on each side.

These brushes are connected one to each terminal of the machine, and so contrived as always to be in contact with the coils, not becoming insulated from one coil until contact is established with the next one, an arrangement which gives rise to a continuous current of electricity always, and in the same direction.

The Gramme, although of very small dimensions, is an extremely powerful machine. It easily decomposes water, and will heat an iron wire 8 inches in length and a 25th of an inch in diameter to redness.

The following description of the Siemens magneto-electric machine is from a paper read some few months back at the Society of Arts by Dr Paget Higgs, and is extracted from the journal published by that body:

“In the latest form of construction of the Siemens magneto-electric machine the armature, as the revolving coil may be called, consists of several lengths of insulated copper wire, coiled in several convolutions upon a cylinder. The whole surface of the cylinder is covered with wire, laid on in sections, each convolution being parallel to its longitudinal axis. For about two thirds of its surface the wire cylinder is surrounded by curved iron bars, there being just sufficient space left between these curved iron bars and the wire cylinder to allow of its free rotation. The curved iron bars are prolongations of the cores of large, flat electro-magnets; the coils of these electro-magnets and the wire on the cylinder (from brush to brush) form a continuous electrical circuit. On revolving the cylinder (which is supported on a longitudinal axis in suitable bearings, the axis carrying a pulley) an initially weak current is generated into its wires by their passage through the magnetic field, formed by the residual magnetism of the iron coils of the electro-magnets, and the current being directed into the coils of the electro-magnets, increases the magnetism of the cores, which again induce a stronger current in the wire cylinder. This material action may continue until the iron has attained its limit of magnetisation. The maximum magnetic power acting upon each convolution is attained at every revolution of the armature, when the convolution passes through the centre of both magnetic fields, and gradually falls to zero as the convolution becomes perpendicular to that position. Each convolution has, therefore, a neutral position, and a convolution leaving that position on the one side of the axis and advancing towards the north pole of the electro-magnet would be subject to a direct induced current, and that portion of the convolution on the opposite side of the axis would be traversed by a current of opposite direction as regards a given point, but of the same direction as regards circuit. Each of the sections of wire coiled upon the cylinder consists of two separate coils, leaving four ends; two of these ends are connected to each of the segments of a circular commutator divided into parts. But all the coils are connected to the several segments of commutator in such a manner that the whole of the double sections form a continuous circuit, but not one continuous helix. Two brushes placed tangentially to the segments of the commutator collect the electric currents; these brushes are connected one to each electro-magnet, and the two free ends of the electro-magnet coils are connected to the conducting wires leading to the lamp.

“The dimensions, weight, number of revolutions made by the armature, light equivalent in normal candles, and horse-power required for driving, are for the three sizes of machines as follows:

Dimension in Inches. Weight in lbs. Revolutions of cylinder. Candles’ Light. Horse Power.
Length. Width. Height.
25 21 8·8 298 1100 1,000 112 to 2
29 26 9·5 419 650 6,000 314 to 4
44 28·3 12·6 1279 480 14,000 9 to 10

“In the lamp which it is preferred to use with the Siemens machine, the points of the carbons after being separated are brought together again by the gravitation of the top carbon and its holder. The descent of the top carbon actuates by means of the straight rack it carries at its lower end, a large pinion, the spindle of which carries a small pinion, gearing into a second neck attached to the lower carbon holder, the superior weight of the top carbon and holder, in conjunction with the multiplying ratio of the two pinions, producing a continual tendency of the carbons to approach each other. The large and small pinions are connected to each other, and to the spindle that carries them, by an arrangement of friction discs, and the object of this construction is to allow of the two racks being moved equally and simultaneously up or down for the purpose of focussing the light when required. This movement is effected by means of bevelled gearing, and actuated by a milled965 head, which can be pressed into position when required. On the spindle carrying the large and small pinions and the friction discs is placed a toothed wheel, connected with the spindle by a pawl and ratchet.

“This wheel is the first of a train of wheels and pinions driving a regulating fly in the usual way. The pawl and ratchet are provided to allow of the rapid distancing of the carbon holders when it becomes necessary to introduce fresh carbons. The spindle of the fly also carries a small finely-toothed ratchet wheel. This ratchet wheel is actuated by a spring pawl, carried at the end of a lever, which lever is the continuation of the armature of the electro-magnet, in such a manner that when the armature is attracted by the electro-magnet, the spring pawl engages in the teeth of the ratchet wheel, and causes the wheels in gearing therewith to act upon the racks of the carbon holders to draw them apart.

“The action of the lamp is as follows:—The current passes from the conductor to the top carbon holder, thence through the carbons to the bottom carbon holder, then to the coils of the electro-magnet situated in the base of the lamp. From the coils of the electro-magnet the circuit is completed to the other conductor. Upon the current passing through the circuit, the armature of the electro-magnet is attracted, and the abutment from the armature lever caused to short-circuit the coils of the electro-magnet, releasing the armature. The armature being released, the short-circuit is removed from the coils of the electro-magnet, and the cycle of movement repeated; in this manner an oscillatory motion is given to the armature lever, which by the spring pawl actuates the ratchet wheel, the train of clockwork, and the racks of the carbon holders, forcing the carbons apart until the distance between their points sufficiently weakens the current, so that it no longer attracts the armature of the electro-magnet. Thus, by the combined action of gravitation of the top carbon in drawing the carbons together, and of the current to separate the carbons when they approach too closely, a working distance is maintained between the points with perfect automatism.”

Siemens’ lamp is at the present time employed in the Lizard Lighthouse, in Messrs Siemens’ Engineering Works in England and Wales, as well as in other localities or buildings requiring powerfully lighting up.

An interesting illustration of the value of the electric light to the sailor is furnished by the ‘Telegraph Journal’ of April 5th, 1878. This publication contains a letter from the captain of the S.S. ‘Faraday,’ narrating how that vessel was by its means prevented from running into another vessel during a dense fog.

Siemens’ magneto-electric apparatus and lamp were used on the occasion above referred to.

In every form of contrivance for electrical illumination the lamp or lighting apparatus consists of carbon points separated by a very slight interval, through which the current of electricity passes by means of terminal wires attached to the dynamo-electrical machine.

The lighting effect is produced by the passage of the electric spark through the small gap which separates the carbon points, in which interval extremely minute but solid particles of carbon, given off by the points, are heated up to incandescence in the path of the spark, and thus give rise to the intensely luminous focus known as ‘the electric light.’ The brilliancy of the light of course depends upon the quantity of electricity employed.

A very large number and variety of designs and patents for electric lamps have made their appearance in England, America, France, and Russia within the period following the invention of the small, powerful, and economic dynamo-electric machines of Siemens and Gramme.

The lighting apparatus generally attached to and worked by that variety of Gramme’s machine generating the continuous current is that known as the ‘Serrin Lamp.’ Two carbon electrodes placed vertically one above the other (the positive being the upper one) are fixed on brass holders, which are so connected by a suitably contrived clockwork movement, combined with the working of an electro-magnet in connection with the electric circuit, as to maintain the two carbon poles during their combustion at the necessary distance from each other. Serrin’s lamp differs in detail from Siemens’, but, like this latter, is automatic in principle. In Paris it was the one in general use until the introduction of the Jablochkoff candle, and, with the Duboscq lamp, may be looked upon as the precursor of the various lamps and regulators now employed in electric lighting. Serrin’s lamp or regulator, with some slight modification in the machinery, is also used in the Lontin system of electric illumination, by which separate lights are supplied by separate circuits of electricity. Lontin’s method is that by which the Gaiety Theatre in the Strand is lighted; and is also used at the Western Railway Station (Gare, St Lazare) at Paris. The Jablochkoff candle, which in Paris has lately superseded the Serrin lamp, probably because its use renders unnecessary the use of automatic machinery, is the invention of a Russian engineer, whose name it bears.

It consists of two sticks of gas carbon, about 9 inches long and 15th of an inch thick, which are placed vertically side by side, and insulated from one another by a very thin strip of kaolin or china clay (a silicate of alumina and potash), the whole forming a candle. Each carbon rod is connected with one of the terminal wires of a Gramme dynamo-electric machine, the electric current from which, however, not being continuous, sets up an966 alternate current between the tips or poles of the candles, which are gradually consumed like an ordinary taper, and with this only difference in action between Serrin’s and Siemens’ lamps, that whereas in these latter the spark passes from the top to the bottom carbon point, in the Jablochkoff candle it jumps from side to side. The inventor contends that the kaolin by becoming heated diminishes the resistance of the circuit, and thus permits of the passage of the electric spark more easily through the carbons, and also, we believe, asserts that the kaolin being electrolytically decomposed as the carbons are consumed, becomes converted into silica, which melts and drops down, whilst the aluminium liberated contributes luminosity during combustion to the flame.

One of the chief advantages, however, claimed by M. Jablochkoff is, that he can divide the circuit into a number of different lights, as the resistance of the circuit is uniform.

A large number of Jablochkoff candles are employed in the celebrated ‘Magasins du Louvre,’ one of the most extensive commercial establishments in Paris for the sale of silks, ribbons, gloves, &c., and clothing of every description.

The pure white light diffused by electricity admirably adapts it for viewing colours of all kinds at night, whether seen in pictures or on fabrics and raiments, and more particularly blues and greens, the hues of which are frequently indistinguishable from each other by gaslight. The candle is also used to light the courtyard of the Hotel du Louvre, a large building contiguous to, and with its apartments running over, the Magasins, as well as in several shops.

Jablochkoff’s system is also in work in Paris in front of many public buildings, and by its means the Place and Avenue de l’Opera, together occupying a space 900 yards long by 30 wide, are brilliantly illuminated every night.

That celebrated circus, so well known to every visitor to Paris, the Hippodrome, is also lighted by it.

Another form of electric lamp is that of M. Rapieff, now in use in the machine-room of the ‘Times’ newspaper office. In this lamp there are four carbon points instead of two. M. Rapieff, like M. Jablochkoff, states that by means of his system he is enabled to supply several lamps with the same electric current. In the Wallace-Farmer lamp slabs of carbon instead of points are had recourse to.

In the lamps of M. Regnier in one variety two revolving carbon discs are used, whilst in another a rod of carbon descends upon a disc of the same material, an arrangement which the inventor states leads to the subdivision of the current and its separate utilisation by a number of such lights.

One of the latest and apparently most successful methods for dividing the electric current, so that one and the same current shall be made simultaneously to supply and render incandescent a series of carbon points, and in so doing give rise to as many effective electric illuminators, is that of Mr Werdermann. Mr Werdermann, observing the disparity of consumption between the positive and negative poles of the electrodes, found by experiment that when the sectional area of the negative pole was sixty-four times greater than the positive one, the electric arc was so far reduced, that the two carbons were in contact. Under these conditions the electric arc was infinitely small, the negative electrode was not consumed, whilst the positive one was incandescent. Two supplies of electric light, therefore, ensued, one by the electric arc, and the other by the incandescent carbon of the positive electrode. Under these circumstances, if it were possible to devise a plan by which the positive pole as it consumed should be kept in uniform contact with the negative pole, the difficulty which had hitherto proved the stumbling-block to using a series of lights from one current would be annihilated.

Mr Werdermann demonstrated the correctness of his premises by a practical illustration of his plan very lately (November, 1878) at the British Telegraph Manufactory, 374, Euston Road. The current from a dynamo-electric Gramme machine of 2-horse power was conducted to two electric lamps, each having an illuminating value equal to 360 candles each. The light so produced is described by a spectator as “being soft and sun-like, and as being capable of being looked at without discomfort, though it was not shaded.” These being extinguished, ten smaller lamps were ignited by means of the same current, each one having an illuminating power equal to forty candles. “The lamps burned steadily with a beautiful soft and clear white light. First one of the ten lights was then extinguished, and afterwards a second, the only effect on the remainder being that they became slightly more brilliant.”[15]

[15] ‘Daily News.’

Unlike Mr Edison, Mr Werdermann does not believe in the indefinite divisibility of the electric light. It will be observed that the candle power of the light becomes diminished by subdivision. Two lights gave a light equal to 700 candles, whereas the same current divided into ten lights gave an aggregate light of only 400 candles.

The following extract from the ‘Times’ of December 5th, 1878, illustrates the financial aspect of the electric light question:—

“At the usual weekly meeting of the Society of Arts, held last evening, Dr C. W. Siemens, F.R.S., in the chair, a paper on electric lighting was read by Mr J. N. Shoolbred, M. Inst. C.E. The object of the author was to present some results of the application of electric lighting to industrial purposes, especially as967 regards cost. He noticed first the Holmes and the Alliance magneto-electric machines, giving alternating currents and single lights for lighthouse use. Secondly, he referred to the dynamo-electric machines, producing single lights for general industrial purposes, as well as for lighthouses, and including the Siemens and the Gramme machines. In his third group the author included the machines used for producing divided lights, each group indicating a marked period representing a clearly defined stage of progress in electric lighting. With regard to cost, Mr Shoolbred stated that in every instance his figures and particulars were those afforded by the users of the various lights, and not by the inventors or their representatives. In the case of the Holmes machine the annual cost per lighthouse was about £1035, inclusive of interest, repairs, and wages. With the Siemens machine the annual cost was about £494 per lighthouse, including interest and the other expenses. With the Alliance machine as used at Havre the cost was about £474 per annum per lighthouse, interest, &c., included. The single-light Gramme machine has been in use in the Paris goods station of the Northern of France Railway for two years. Six machines have been kept going with one light each, and the cost is found to be 5d. per light per hour, or with interest on outlay at 10 per cent., 8d. per hour. The same light at the ironworks of Messrs Powell at Rouen was stated to cost 4d. per light per hour, exclusive of interest and charge for motive power, the latter being derived from one of the engines on the works. In 1877 a series of experiments were carried out with the Lontin light at the Paris terminus of the Paris, Lyons, and Mediterranean Railway. The passenger station was lighted, and the results were so satisfactory that the company have entered into a permanent contract with the proprietors of the Lontin light for lighting their Paris goods station with 12 lights, at a cost of 5d. per light per hour. The Western of France Railway Company have had 6 Lontin lights in the goods station at the Paris terminus, St Lazare, since May last, and 12 lights in the passenger station since June. Careful experiments have shown the cost to be 8d. per light per hour, inclusive of interest. Referring to the Jablochkoff light, Mr Shoolbred placed before the meeting some particulars with regard to its application in the Avenue de l’Opéra, Paris, which were afforded him by M. J. Allard, the chief engineer of the lighting department of the City of Paris. It appears that the authorities pay the Société Générale d’Électricité 37f. 2c. per hour for the 62 lamps in use there. These 62 lamps supersede 344 gas-jets which were previously used, and which cost the authorities 7·244f. per hour. The electric illumination, however, is considered as equal to 682 gas-jets, or about double the original illumination—that is, to a cost of 14·45f. per hour as against 37·2f. for the electric light, the cost of which, therefore, is 2·6 times that of the gas. The contract for lighting by electricity was terminated by the City of Paris on the 30th ult., and the authorities have declined to renew it except at the price paid for gas, namely, 7·224f. (or about 6s.) per hour, and that only until the 15th of January next. These terms have been accepted by the Société, so that the price paid to them will be at the rate of about 118d. per light per hour. Mr Shoolbred stated that the Société place their expenses at 1·06f. (or just 11d.) per light per hour, which, however, they hope shortly to reduce by one half. A series of careful photometric experiments carried out by the municipal authorities with the Jablochkoff lights, above referred to, showed each naked light to possess a maximum of 300 candles of intensity. With the glass globe this was reduced to 180 candles, showing a loss of 40 per cent., while during the darker periods through which the lights passed the light was as low as 90 candles. The foregoing were the only authenticated particulars which the author could obtain as regards the working of the various electric systems of electric lighting. In conclusion, Mr Shoolbred referred to the Rapieff light at the ‘Times’ office, which, he observed, worked fairly and with regularity, which could not be said of all others, and it might therefore be entitled to take rank as an established application of electric illumination. The paper was illustrated by the Siemens, Rapieff, Serrin, and other forms of electric light, which were shown in operation.”

That the electric light is eventually destined to supplant coal gas in illuminating the fronts of large buildings, open spaces, squares, assembly rooms, public halls, theatres, picture galleries, workshops and factories, &c., seems no very extravagant prediction. We have already seen that it has for some years been employed in one lighthouse; and we have the testimony of Mr Douglas, of the Trinity House, at a very recent meeting of the Society of Arts, that at the Souter Point Lighthouse there had been only two stoppages in eight years, once through a bad carbon breaking, and once through the lighthouse-keeper going to sleep.

In addition to places above specified, amongst other localities in which it is in work, we may mention the chocolate factories of M. Menier, at Noiselle, his india-rubber works at Grenelle, his sugar refinery at Nice, and Messrs Caille’s works at Paris. In this country it was employed in the erection of the Tay Bridge, as well as in the works of Messrs Head, at Stockton-on-Tees, and in London it may be nightly seen burning before the Gaiety Theatre in the Strand, at Billingsgate Market, and frequently lighting up the front of the Stereoscopic Company’s premises in Regent Street. Further, we may add that the Metropolitan Board of Works are making968 the experiment of lighting the Victoria Embankment and the City authorities the Holborn Viaduct, with the Jablochkoff candle. The former have placed a dynamo-electric apparatus, worked by a steam engine of 20-horse power, close to the foot of Hungerford Bridge, from whence wires will be carried right and left towards Westminster and Blackfriars respectively.

We believe the main conducting wire is carried under the coping-stone of the parapet running along the Embankment, and that the carbon points are fixed on the top of a certain number of gas standards which now surmount the wall of the Embankment.

That electricity is more economical as a method of artificial lighting than coal-gas the figures previously given seem to demonstrate, and there can be no question as to the much greater luminosity and purity of the light over the gas flame, qualities which render it an admirable substitute for the sunlight, the absence of which it may be said to supply at night. One disadvantage urged against its employment in weaving rooms is, that it casts such dark and distinct shadows that these are frequently mistaken for the threads themselves, an objection which is said to have been remedied by placing the light as near the ceiling as possible. The non-generation of carbonic acid and sulphurous products such as are given off by burning gas, although of slight importance when the light is employed in the open air, becomes a great advantage when it is used in crowded assembly rooms or theatres, since the atmospheric contamination caused by carbonic acid becomes of course considerably reduced. The absence of sulphur compounds especially qualifies the light for use in large libraries. If it be true that the light gives rise to an appreciable amount of ozone, this constitutes another point in its favour. Opinion is at variance as to the possibility of the practical application of the electric light for illuminating private houses and dwellings in such a manner as to supply the place of the gas we now burn in them. One serious impediment to the probable accomplishment of this result certainly seems to be the fact that electricity for lighting purposes can only practically be conveyed to short distances from its source, which would necessitate the establishment and supervision of a number of generating machines near the houses to be lighted. Another obstacle, which hitherto has not been overcome, is the circumstance that the current when subdivided yields proportionately a greatly diminished amount of light. For instance, one light which had a certain photometric candle valve would yield when divided into two an aggregate amount of light considerably less than the one; and if divided into three still less, and so on. This has been pointed out when noticing Mr Werdermann’s invention for the divisibility of the light. Mr Edison, an American inventor, asserts that he has conquered this difficulty, and additionally perfected a machine for measuring the current used in the electric light. He states that it consists of an apparatus placed in every house lighted by electricity, which registers the quantity of electricity consumed, and uses for the purpose 1000th part of the quantity employed in the building.

Dr Siemens, no mean authority, doubts the practicability of applying electric lighting to household illumination.

A matter of primary importance in connection with the successful working of the electric light is the quality of the carbon points. In their manufacture gas carbon obtained from the necks of the retorts used in gas-making, as being the hardest and purest, is employed.

Superior, however, as this form of carbon is to every other description of the substance, it is never chemically pure, and as any foreign substance imparts to the light the irregularity or flickering that sometimes accompanies it, it is necessary the impurities should be removed. To effect their separation the carbon has to undergo several processes, such as soaking in caustic potash to remove the silica, treatment with strong acids, several washings, grinding, &c. It is then kneaded and put into moulds, in which it is subjected to a pressure as high as 12 tons to the square foot. Subsequently the points so made are baked.

LIGHTNING. See Accidents.

LIG′NIN. C6H10O5. Syn. Cellulose. This is woody fibre deprived of all foreign matter. It forms about 95 per cent. of baked wood, and constitutes the woody portion of all vegetable substances. Fine linen and cotton are almost entirely composed of lignin, the associated vegetable principles having been removed by the treatment the fibres have been subjected to during the process of their manufacture.

Pure lignin is tasteless, inodorous, insoluble in water and alcohol, and absolutely innutritious; dilute acids and alkaline solutions scarcely affect it, even when hot; oil of vitriol converts it into dextrin or grape sugar, according to the mode of treatment. When concentrated sulphuric acid is added very gradually to about half its weight of lint, linen rag, or any similar substance shredded small, and contained in a glass vessel, with constant trituration, the fibres gradually swell up and disappear, without the disengagement of any gas, and a tenacious mucilage is formed, which is entirely soluble in water. If, after a few hours, the mixture be diluted with water, the acid neutralised by the addition of chalk, and, after filtration, any excess of lime thrown down by the cautious addition of a solution of oxalic acid, the liquid yields, after a second filtration, and the addition of alcohol in considerable excess, a gummy mass, which possesses969 all the characters of pure dextrin. If, instead of at once saturating the diluted acid solution with chalk, we boil it for 4 or 5 hours, the dextrin is entirely converted into grape sugar, which, by the addition of chalk and filtration, as before, and evaporation by a gentle heat to the consistence of a syrup, will, after repose for a few days, furnish a concrete mass of crystallised sugar. By strong pressure between folds of porous paper or linen, redissolving it in water, agitation with animal charcoal, and recrystallisation, brilliant colourless crystals of grape sugar may be obtained. Hemp, linen, or cotton, thus treated, yield fully their own weight of gum, and 1 per cent. of their weight of grape sugar. During the above transformation, the sulphuric acid is converted into sulpholignic acid, and may be procured in a separate state. A solution of oxide of copper in ammonia, or solution of basic carbonate of copper in strong ammonia, dissolves cotton, which may then be precipitated by acids in colourless flakes.

LIG′NITE. Syn. Brown coal. Wood and other matter more or less mineralised and converted into coal. The lignites are generally dark brown, and of obvious woody structure. They are distinguished from true coals by burning with little flame and much smoke. Those of Germany are largely used as a source of paraffin and burning oils.

LIG′NUM VI′TÆ. See Guaiacum Wood.

LIME. CaO. Syn. Oxide of calcium; Chaux, Fr.; Kalk, Ger. Lime, when pure, and as a chemical and medical reagent, will be found treated of under Calcium (Oxide of). It is prepared on the large scale for commerce by calcining chalk, marble or limestone, in kilns, and is called quicklime, caustic lime, burnt lime, stone lime, &c. The lime kilns are usually of the form of an inverted cone, and are packed with alternate layers of limestone and fuel, and the burnt lime raked out from the bottom. The lime thus obtained is a pale yellow powder, combining eagerly with water, and crumbling to a light white powder, “slaked lime,” with the evolution of much heat. Lime which slakes well is termed “fat lime,” while if it slakes badly is termed “poor lime.” The slaked lime, the Calcis hydras of the B. P., is fresh lime sprinkled with water till it falls to powder.

Lime, Salts of. See under Calcium.

Lime, Pyrolignite of. An impure acetate of calcium used for making mordants in dyeing and calico printing, as a substitute for the more expensive acetate of lead.

Lime, Chloride of. Syn. Bleaching powder, Chlorinated lime, Hypochlorite of calcium.

This article was formerly believed to be a compound of lime and chlorine (CaO.Cl), and consequently received the name of ‘chloride of lime.’ We now know, however, that it is not a definite substance, but a mixture of calcium hypochlorite, calcium chloride, and calcium hydrate. The value of this preparation is due to the readiness with which the calcium hypochlorite is decomposed by acids, even by the carbonic acid of the air, with the evolution of hypochlorous acid which abstracts hydrogen from many vegetable colouring matters, badly smelling gases, &c.: the former are thereby bleached and the latter deodorised.

Chloride of lime is most extensively used for bleaching linen, calico, and similar fabrics, thousands of tons being made near Newcastle alone every year. It is also largely employed as a deodoriser.

Prep. Freshly slaked lime is thinly spread out in a proper vessel and exposed to an atmosphere of chlorine gas until it is saturated. Now included in the Materia Medica.

Slaked lime (fresh), 20 parts, common salt, 1 part, are mixed together, and the powder placed in long earthenware vessels into which chlorine is passed until the mixture begins to grow damp, or until one part of it, dissolved in 130 parts of water, is capable of decolouring 412 parts of sulphate of indigo (see Chlorimetry), when the whole is transferred to dry bottles.

(Wholesale.) The chlorine is generated from the usual materials mixed in leaden vessels, heated by steam, and the gas, after passing through water, is conveyed by a leaden tube into an apartment built of siliceous sandstone, and arranged with shelves or trays, containing dry fresh slaked lime, placed one above another, about an inch asunder. The process, to produce a first-class article, is continued for 4 or 5 days. During this time the lime is occasionally agitated by means of iron rakes, the handles of which pass through boxes of lime placed in the walls of the chamber, which thus act as valves.

The successful manufacture of bleaching powder is dependent upon the careful observance of a number of conditions, such as the quality of the limestone,[16] which should be free from iron; the presence of magnesia at the time is also very objectionable, since it gives rise to the formation and presence in the bleaching powder of deliquescent chloride of magnesium; the apportionment of the water in slaking the lime is also a matter of no inconsiderable importance, the lime forming into balls, which fail to properly absorb the gas if the water be insufficient, whilst if it be in excess, it yields a powder deficient in chlorine. When slaked, the lime is passed through a sieve to free it from small pebbles. After being slaked it is kept for 2 or 3 days before being used, as it is found that under these circumstances it absorbs chlorine more readily than when recently prepared. Previous to its entrance into the lime chamber, the chlorine is passed through water, to free it from vapour, and solid particles of chloride of manganese.

[16] A very pure kind of limestone, and one which is largely used in the preparation of bleaching powder, is found at Buxton.


The temperature of the chamber into which the chlorine is passed ought not to exceed 62° F. An excess of chlorine has been found to yield a powder deficient in hypochlorite.

Bleaching powder, unless protected from the air (carbonic acid), slowly parts with its chlorine. In summer it has been estimated that it loses as much as 86 per cent. of the gas, and in winter about 26 per cent.

Prop., &c. Chloride of lime is a pale, yellowish-white powder, generally more or less damp, and evolving a chlorine-like odour of hypochlorous acid. Its soluble constituents dissolve in about 20 parts of water. It is decomposed by acids with the evolution of chlorine and oxygen (hypochlorous acid). Good chloride of lime should contain from 32% to 36% of chlorine, of which, however, but 25% to 30% can be easily liberated by an acid.

Estim. See Chlorometry.

Uses. Chloride of lime is employed in medicine as a deodoriser and disinfectant. An ointment of chloride of lime has been used in scrofula, and a lotion or bath, moderately dilute, is one of the cleanest and readiest ways of removing the ‘itch,’ and several other skin diseases. It is also in great use as a disinfectant, and may be used either in substance or solution. A small quantity of the powder spread on a flat dish or plate, and placed on the chimney-piece, and a like quantity in an opposite part of the room, will continue to evolve sufficient chlorine or hypochlorous acid to disinfect (? Ed.) the air of an apartment for several days. The evolution of chlorine is promoted by occasionally renewing the exposed surface, by stirring it with a piece of stick, and after it becomes scentless, by the addition of a little acid, as strong vinegar, or hydrochloric acid, or oil of vitriol, largely diluted with water. Of late, however, it has been partly superseded by sulphurous acid, carbolic acid, &c. The most extensive consumption of chloride of lime is, however, for bleaching textile fabrics. When employed for this purpose, the goods are first immersed in a dilute solution of this substance, and then transferred to a vat containing dilute sulphuric acid. The chlorine thus disengaged in contact with the cloth, causes the destruction of the colouring matter. This process is generally repeated several times, it being unsafe to use strong solutions. White patterns may thus be imprinted upon coloured cloth; the figures being stamped with tartaric acid thickened with gum water, the stuff is immersed in the chloride bath, when the parts to which the acid has been applied remain unaltered, while the printed portions are bleached white.

Concluding Remarks.—Chloride of lime is now scarcely ever made on the small scale, as it can be purchased of the large manufacturer of better quality and cheaper than it could possibly be made by the druggist. The chief precaution to be observed in the manufacture of good bleaching powder is to maintain the ingredients at a rather low temperature.

LIME. The fruit of Citrus limetta. It resembles the lemon, but is smaller and has a smoother skin. It is imported into Great Britain in a preserved state for use as a dessert. Its juice is also largely imported for the preparation of CITRIC ACID, and for the prevention of scurvy on board ship (see below).

LIME JUICE. Syn. Lemon Juice. The juice of the fruits of various species of Citrus, principally LIMES, is known in commerce under these names. It is very variable as to quality, which depends upon the method of extraction, the quality of the fruit, and the honesty of the shipper.

We have examined the juice expressed from limes sent from the West Indies, from Jamaica, and from South Africa, with the following results:

  W. Indies. Jamaica. S. Africa.
Specific gravity of juice 1041·30 1044·18 1044·90
Per cent. of citric acid 7·96 8·66 8·50
Per cent. of ash 0·321 0·401 0·364

The yield from limes is very small, and the freshly expressed juice contains a large amount of pulp. This, however, on standing a few weeks, separates, and a clear sherry-coloured liquid is obtained.

A concentrated lime or lemon juice is used by calico printers. It is a “dark, treacly-looking fluid, marking from 48° to 54° Twaddell,” and contains about 30 per cent. of pure citric acid.

Adult. See Lemon juice.

Estim. Lime juice is only valuable on account of the citric acid it contains. If of good quality, 100 gr. will neutralise from 70 to 76 gr. of pure crystallised carbonate of soda. “For commercial purposes each grain of carbonate of soda neutralised may represent a half grain of crystallised citric acid (equal to 38 gr. of dry acid), and the value of the lime juice be calculated in proportion.” (O’Neill.) As commercial lime juice contains variable proportions of vegetable extractive matter, the indications of the hydrometer cannot be depended upon. Acidimetry, Citric acid, &c.

LIME′STONE. A general term applied to a great variety of rocks in which carbonate of lime is the principal constituent.

Estim. The value of chalk, limestone, marble, &c., for hydraulic mortars and cements, may be determined as follows:

A given weight (say 100 gr.) of the sample is reduced to powder and digested in hydrochloric acid dilated with about an equal weight of water, with frequent agitation for an hour or longer; the mixture is then diluted with thrice its volume of water, thrown upon a filter, and the undissolved portion washed, dried, ignited, and weighed. This weight indicates the per-centage of clay and silica or sand, and the loss that of the lime or calcium971 oxide, magnesium oxide, and ferric oxide, present in the substance examined. In most cases these results will be sufficient to show the quality of the limestone for the purpose of making mortar or cement.

The filtrate and the washings are mixed together, and ammonia is added in excess; the bulky, reddish-brown precipitate is collected, washed, dried, ignited, and weighed. This gives the per-centage of ferric oxide.

The filtrate from last is then treated with oxalate of ammonium, and the quantity of lime determined in the manner described under the head of Calcium.

The liquid filtered from the precipitate in last is boiled for some time with carbonate of potassium until ammoniacal fumes are no longer evolved; the precipitate is then collected on a filter, washed with hot water, dried, and strongly ignited for 3 or 4 hours, and, lastly, weighed. This gives the per-centage of magnesium.

LINC′TUS. [L., Eng.] Syn. Loch, Lohoch, Lincture, Lambative; Looch, Fr. A medicine of the consistence of honey, intended to be licked off a spoon. This form of medicine is well adapted to females and children, but is not much used in England at the present time. Those employed in modern pharmacy and prescribing are included under the heads Confection, Conserve, or Electuary.—The Dose, when it is not otherwise stated, is a teaspoonful occasionally.

Linctus, Acid. (Dr Copland.) Syn. Linctus acidus. Prep. Honey of roses, 10 dr.; hydrochloric acid, 20 minims; syrup of red poppies, 2 dr. Mix.

Linctus of Borax. (Univ. Coll. Hosp.) Syn. Linctus boracis. Prep. Borax, 3 dr.; honey, 1 oz. Melt, and stir together, and then add syrup, 1 oz.

Linctus, Caca′o. Syn. Linctus cacao, L.; Crême de Tronchin, Fr. Prep. From cocoa-butter, 2 oz.; white sugar (in powder), syrup of capillaire, and syrup of tolu, of each 1 oz.; mix. Demulcent and pectoral; in coughs, sore throats, hoarseness, &c.

Linctus, Common. Prep. From oil of almonds and syrup of tolu, of each 1 oz.; powdered white sugar, 2 dr. As the last.

Linctus, Cough. Syn. Pectoral linctus; Linctus pectoralis, L. Prep. 1. (Dr Latham.) Compound ipecacuanha powder (Dover’s powder), 12 dr.; compound tragacanth powder, 2 dr.; syrup of tolu, confection of hips, and simple oxymel, of each 1 oz.—Dose, 1 teaspoonful, 3 or 4 times a day. “This linctus has been extensively used, as a remedy for coughs, in the West-end of London, having been found to be a safe and generally efficacious remedy.” (Redwood.) The preceding as well as the following are also useful preparations.

Linctus, Demulcent. Syn. Linctus demulcens L.; Looch de Tronchin, Fr. Prep. From oil of almonds, syrup of capillaire, manna and cassia pulp, of each 2 oz.; powdered gum tragacanth, 20 gr.; orange-flower water, 2 fl. oz. As the last. The above is the quantity for two days, which is as long as it will keep.

Linctus of Egg. Syn. Linctus ovi; Lohoch ovi. Prep. Oil of almonds, 12 dr.; yolk of 1 egg; syrup of marshmallow, 1 oz. Mix.

Linctus, Emol′lient. Syn. Oily emulsion; Lohoch oleosum, Emulsio oleosa, L.; Looch huileux, Fr. Prep. (P. Cod.) Oil of almonds, powdered gum, and orange-flower water, of each 4 dr.; syrup of marshmallow, 1 oz.; water, 3 fl. oz. or q. s.; for an emulsion. In troublesome coughs.

Linctus, Expec′torant. Syn. Linctus expectorans, Lohoch e., L. Prep. 1. Oxymel of squills, confection of hips, syrup of marshmallow, and mucilage of gum Arabic (thick), equal parts. Demulcent and expectorant.

2. (Dr Copland.) Oil of almonds and syrup of lemons, of each 1 fl. oz.; powdered ipecacuanha 6 gr.; confections of hips, 1 oz.; compound powder of tragacanth, 3 dr.

3. (Zanetti.) Kermes mineral, 4 gr.; manna, 6 oz.; oil of almonds, syrup of squills, and syrup of senega, of each 2 dr. Laxative, demulcent, and expectorant. The above are useful in hoarseness, tickling coughs, sore throats, &c.

Linctus, Green. Syn. Linctus viride; Lohoch viride. Prep. Pistachio nuts (or sweet almonds), no. 14; syrup of violets, 1 oz.; oil of almonds, 12 oz.; gum tragacanth, 15 gr.; tincture of saffron, 1 scruple; orange-flower water, 2 dr.; water, 4 oz. Mix.

Linctus of Linseed. (E. 1744.) Syn. Linctus lini; Lohoch lini. Prep. Fresh drawn linseed oil, 1 oz.; syrup of tolu, 1 oz.; sulphur, 2 dr.; white sugar, 2 dr. Mix.

Linctus of Manna. (E. 1744.) Syn. Linctus mannæ; Lohoch mannæ. Prep. Equal parts of manna, oil of almonds, and syrup of violets. Mix.

Linctus of Naphthalin. (Dupasquier) Syn. Linctus naphthalini; Lohoch naphthalini. Prep. To one common lohoch add from 8 gr. to 30 gr. of naphthalin. The latter must be well triturated with the gum.—Dose. One teaspoonful, as an expectorant.

Linctus, Pectoral. Syn. Fox lungs; Linctus pectoralis, Lohoch è pulmone vulpium, L. Prep. From spermaceti and Spanish juice, of each 8 oz.; water, q. s. to soften the liquorice; make a thin electuary, and add of honey, 3 lbs.; oil of aniseed, 1 oz.; mix well. A popular and excellent demulcent in coughs. It formerly contained the herb fox lungs, but spermaceti is now substituted for that article.

Linctus of Poppies. (Th. Hosp.) Syn. Linctus papaveris. Prep. Compound tincture of camphor, syrup of poppies, and syrup of tolu, of each equal parts. Mix.—Dose, 1 fl. dr.

Linctus of Spermaceti. (E. 1744.) Syn.972 Linctus cetacei; Lohoch cetacei. Prep. Spermaceti, 2 dr.; yolk of egg, q. s.; triturate, and add gradually oil of almonds, 12 oz.; syrup of tolu, 1 oz. Mix.

Linctus of Syrup of White Poppies. (P. C.) Syn. Linctus syrupi papaveris albi; Lohoch syrupus papaveris albi. Prep. White lohoch, 5 parts; syrup of poppies (P. C.), 1 part. Mix.

Linctus, Turpentine. Syn. Linctus stimulans, L. terebinthinæ, Lohoch anthelminticum, L. Prep. (Recamier.) Oil of turpentine, 2 dr.; honey of roses, 3 oz.; mix.—Dose. A teaspoonful, night and morning, followed by a draught of any weak liquid; in worms, more especially tape-worm.

Linctus, White. Syn. Linctus albus, MISTURA ALBA, Lohoch album, L.; Looch blanc, Fr. Prep. (P. Cod.) Jordon almonds, 412 dr.; bitter almonds, 12 dr.; blanch them by steeping them in hot water and removing the skins; add of white sugar, 12 oz.; gum tragacanth, 20 gr.; beat to a smooth paste, and further add of oil of almonds and orange-flower water, of each 4 dr.; pure water, 4 fl. oz. A pleasant demulcent in tickling coughs.

LIN′EN. Syn. Linteum, L. Linen is a textile fabric made of the libre-fibres of the Linum usitatissimum, or common flax, a plant which from time immemorial has been cultivated for this purpose. It is remarkable for the smoothness and softness of its texture, and is hence highly esteemed in temperate climates as an elegant and agreeable article of clothing to be worn next the skin. Its fibres are better conductors of heat, more porous, and more attractive of moisture, than those of cotton, which render it less adapted for body linen in cold weather, as well as in hot weather and hot climates, than calico. The latter, however, lacks the luxurious softness and freshness of linen, whilst the peculiar twisted and jagged character of its fibres render it apt to excite irritation in extremely delicate skins. The common prejudice in favour of old linen and flax lint for dressing wounds is thus shown to have reason on its side, and, like many other vulgar prejudices, to be supported by the investigations of science.

Identif. Linen fabrics are commonly sophisticated with cotton, which is a much less costly and a more easily wrought material. Various plans have been proposed to detect this fraud, many of which are too complicated and difficult for practical purposes. The following commend themselves for their simplicity and ease of application:—

1. A small strip (a square inch, for instance) of the suspected cloth is immersed for 2 or 3 minutes in a boiling mixture of about equal parts of hydrate of potassium and water, contained in a vessel of silver, porcelain, or hard glass; after which it is taken out and pressed between the folds of white blotting paper or porous calico. By separating 8 or 10 threads in each direction, their colour may be readily seen. The deep yellow threads are LINEN, the white or pale yellow ones are COTTON.

2. A small strip of the cloth, after having been repeatedly washed with rain water, boiled in the water, and dried, is immersed for 1 to 2 minutes in sulphuric acid; it is then withdrawn, carefully pressed under water with the fingers, washed, immersed for a few seconds in ammonia, solution of carbonate of potassium, or solution of carbonate of sodium, again washed with water, and dried between filtering paper. By this treatment the cotton fibres are dissolved, while the linen fibres are merely rendered thinner and more translucent according to the duration of the experiment; after a short immersion, the cotton fibres appear transparent, while the linen fibres remain white and opaque.

3. Böttger recommends the linen stuffs to be dipped into an alcoholic solution of rosolic acid, then into a concentration solution of sodium carbonate, and finally washed with water. The linen fibre assumes a pink colour, whilst the cotton fibre remains unaltered.

4. (By the MICROSCOPE.) The indications afforded by both the previous tests, although quite visible to the naked eye, are rendered still more palpable by the use of a magnifying glass of small power, as the common pocket lens. Under a good microscope the presence of cotton in a linen tissue is very perceptible. The fibres of cotton present a distinctly flat and shrivelled appearance, not unlike that of a narrow, twisted ribbon, with only occasional joints; whilst those of flax are round, straight, and jointed. The fibres of cotton, after being exposed to the action of strong alkaline lyes, untwist themselves, contract in length, and assume a rounded form, but still continue distinct in appearance from the fibres of linen. The engraving represents a fibre of linen (1) and a fibre of cotton (2), as they appear when magnified 155 diameters. The difference between the two may be perceived, although less distinctly through a good Stanhope or Coddington lens, provided the object be well illuminated.

Dyeing. Linen and cotton, from the similarity of their behaviour with dye-stuffs, are treated in nearly the same manner. The affinity of their fibres for colouring matter is very much weaker than that of the fibres of silk and woollen. On this account they are dyed with greater difficulty than those substances, and the colours so imparted are, in general, less brilliant and permanent under similar conditions. Linen shows less disposition to take dyes than cotton. The yarn or973 cloth, after being scoured and bleached in the usual manner, requires to have an additional tendency given to it, by chemical means, to condense and retain the materials of the dye-bath in its pores. This is effected by steeping the goods in solutions (mordants) which have at once an affinity for both the fibres of the cloth and the colouring matter. A similar process is employed in dyeing most other substances; but with cotton and linen, attention to this point is essential to the permanency of the dye. These matters are more fully explained under the heads Dyeing and Mordant.

The following new process for bleaching linen, having been omitted from our article on “Bleaching” is inserted here:—

Mr Hodges’ process, which is known in Ireland as the “Chemico-Mechanical Process,” owing to the patentee turning to account the advantages derivable from the employment of mechanical contrivances driven by steam, combined with the introduction of a new method of obtaining the hitherto little used hypochlorite of magnesia, may be said to date from the discovery of the substance, known as Kieserite (native sulphate of magnesia), which occurs as an essential constituent of the Abraumsalts of Stassfurth. For some time after the introduction of this substance into the market, it was considered of little value except for the production of Epsom salts; but Mr. Hodges, in the course of some investigations in bleaching jute, having had occasion to employ large quantities of hypochlorite of magnesia, it occurred to him that kieserite might be substituted for the more expensive crude sulphate of magnesia; and the importation into Ireland of the sample for this purpose was the first that was ever sent into that country for the manufacture of a bleaching liquor, or, indeed, for any other use. Mr. Hodges on experimenting with the kieserite, found that it not only supplied the place of the crude sulphate, but acted as a better precipitant for the lime of the bleaching powder, which is employed in the production of the hypochlorite of magnesia; and that it also produced a stronger and clearer solution. Without entering into a minute description of the process (which is at present successfully carried out in a factory erected for the purpose in the neighbourhood of Belfast), the following outline will be sufficient to show the nature of the methods adopted. The kieserite, which is imported from Germany in square blocks, on arriving at the works, is conveyed to a house, on the ground-floor of which it is stacked until required, when it is ground to a fine powder, and placed in barrels, is drawn up by means of a crane to a room at the top of the building, at one end of which is a row of three tanks furnished with water taps, agitators, and false bottoms. In one of the end tanks a definite quantity of the kieserite powder (varying according to its strength, is ascertained by analysis) is placed and dissolved in a given quantity of water, the solution being assisted by agitators, and on settling the clear liquor is siphoned over into the middle tank. In the third tank bleaching powder (hypochlorite of lime), varying in quantity according to the strength of the kieserite solution, is placed. The bleaching powder after being agitated with water is allowed to settle, and the clear solution is siphoned over into the middle tank containing the clear kieserite solution, the agitator being kept in motion, not only during the mixing of the liquids, but for some time after. The mixed liquids are then allowed to remain undisturbed all night, after which the clear hypochlorite of magnesia solution is siphoned into a large settling tank, which is situated in the room below. From this vessel it is conducted through wooden pipes (which are so contrived that they can be opened and cleansed at will), into a large cistern standing in the bleaching house. This cistern is fitted with a ball-cock, by which arrangement the liquid can be drawn off by a system of wooden pipes as required. The bleaching house in which the cistern is situated is fitted up in an original manner, and covers something more than an acre of ground; whilst the reeling-shed, which is the only part of the works our limits will permit us describe, is 240 feet long by 24 feet broad, and contains ten steeps and twelve reel boxes. Each box is provided with water, a solution of the bleaching agent, and steam pipes, and is capable of reeling at a time about 500 lbs. of yarn. Above the box is a line of rails or pillars. A travelling crane runs along the reels, and carries the reels from one box to another. Attached to this crane is a newly-invented hydraulic pump, by means of which the reels with the yarn on them can be lifted in a few seconds from one box to another.

After the yarn has been boiled, washed, and passed through the squeezers in the usual manner, it is put on to a wagon, in which it is carried, by means of a line of rails, down to the first reel box. Here it is placed on to the reels, which are made to revolve by means of steam; first in one direction and then in another, through a solution of carbonate of soda, previously heated by means of the steam-pipes before mentioned. The yarn having been sufficiently scalded and so saturated with soda, the reels to which it is attached are raised by the hydraulic pump out of the box, and the yarn allowed to drain for a few minutes, after which the travelling crane carries it on to the next box. Into this box the yarn is again lowered by the pump and made to revolve as before, but this time through a solution of the bleaching agent, which immediately re-acting on the carbonate of soda with which the yarn is charged, renders this bleaching agent free from the danger which attends the employment of chlorine, or the ordinary bleaching powder used in the older methods of bleaching.974 After the yarns have been brought to the desired shade in the solution of Hodges’ bleaching agent they are either removed as before to a new box, and there washed before being scoured, or they are thrown into one of the steeps filled with water for the night. These operations are repeated with weaker solutions in the remaining reel boxes, either once or twice according to the shade required.

Mr Hodges claims as the chief features of his invention that it consists, first, in the employment of a bleaching agent which has not hitherto been practically employed, and a cheap method for its production; second, in the preparation of the yarn prior to being submitted to the action of the bleaching agent, this preparation setting free not only the imprisoned chlorine of the hypochlorite, but also another powerful bleaching agent, oxygen; third, in new and improved machinery, by which the work of bleaching the yarn is greatly shortened; fourth, in doing away with the tedious and expensive operation of exposing the yarn on the grass; if this last were the only feature in Mr Hodges’ invention, the patentee would have greatly improved the process of bleaching, not only, however, does the new process supplant the old long and tedious one, but a great economy of time is additionally gained in other parts of the process, added to these advantages it is stated that a superior finish is given to the yarns, and that in consequence a much greater demand for them has arisen.

Mr Hodges contends that the absence of caustic lime from his new bleaching compound gives it great advantages over the old bleaching powder, particularly in its application to finely woven fabrics, such as muslins, &c. He also says that fabrics bleached by it receive an increased capacity for imbibing and retaining colouring matter, a fact of considerable importance to the dyer and calico-printer, as they are thus enabled to communicate to the fabrics tints which have heretofore been considered impossible. See Kieserite.

The domestic management of linen may here receive a few moments’ attention. Fruit stains, iron-moulds, and other spots on linen, may, in general, be removed by applying to the part, previously washed clean, a weak solution of chlorine, chloride of lime, spirits of salts, oxalic acid, or salts of lemons, in warm water, and frequently by merely using a little lemon juice. When the stain is removed the part should be thoroughly rinsed in clear warm water (without soap) and dried. Recent iron-moulds or ink spots on starched linen, as the front of a shirt, may be conveniently removed by allowing a drop or two of melted tallow from a common candle to fall upon them before sending the articles to the laundress. The oxide of iron combines with the grease, and the two are washed out together. If the spot is not entirely removed the first time, the process should be repeated. Linen that has acquired a yellow or bad colour by careless washing may be restored to its former whiteness by working it well in water to which some strained solution of chloride of lime has been added, observing to well rinse it in clean water both before and after the immersion in the bleaching liquor. The attempt to bleach unwashed linen should be avoided, as also using the liquor too strong, as in that case the linen will be rendered rotten.

LING. The Galus molua (Linn.), an inferior species of the cod-fish tribe, common in the Northern seas, and used as a coarse article of food by the poor.

LIN′IMENT. Syn. Linimentum, L. A semifluid ointment, or soapy application to painful joints, swellings, burns, &c. The term is also occasionally extended to various spirituous and stimulating external applications. A preparation of a thinner consistence, but similarly employed, is called an ‘EMBROCATION,’ These terms are, however, frequently confounded together, and misapplied. Liniments are generally administered by friction with the hand or fingers, or with some substance (as a piece of flannel) capable of producing a certain amount of irritation of the skin. Sometimes a piece of linen rag dipped in them is simply laid on the part. In most cases in which liniments are found beneficial, the advantage obtained from them is attributable rather to the friction or local irritation than to any medicinal power in the preparation itself. The greater number of cerates and ointments may be converted into liniments by simply reducing their consistence with almond or olive oil, or oil of turpentine.

Liniment, Ac′id. Syn. Linimentum acidum, L. acidi sulphurici, L. Prep. 1. (Sir B. Brodie.) Salad oil, 3 oz.; oil of vitriol, 1 dr.; mix, then add of oil of turpentine, 1 oz., and agitate the whole well together. As a counter-irritant, in rheumatism, stiff joints, &c. It closely resembles the ‘Gulltonian Embrocation,’

2. (Hosp. F.) Olive oil, 3 oz.; oil of turpentine, 2 oz.; sulphuric acid, 1 fl. dr. An excellent alterative, stimulant, discutient, and counter-irritant, in chronic rheumatism, stiff joints, indolent tumours, and various chronic diseases of the skin.

Liniment of Albumen. (Dr Christison.) Syn. Linimentum albuminis. Prep. Equal parts of white of egg and rectified spirit, agitated together. In excoriation from pressure.

Liniment of Am′ber-oil. Syn. Linimentum succini, L. Prep. 1. From olive oil, 3 parts; oils of amber and cloves, of each 1 part. Resembles ‘Roche’s Embrocation,’

2. (Opiated; Linimentum succini opiatum, L.) From rectified oil of amber and tincture of opium, of each 2 fl. oz.; lard, 1 oz. Anodyne, antispasmodic, and stimulant. A once popular remedy in cramp, stiff joints, 975&c.

Liniment of Ammo′′nia. Syn. Ammoniacal liniment, Volatile l., Oil and hartshorn; Linimentum ammoniæ (B. P., Ph. L. E. & D.), L. Prep. 1. (B. P.) Solution of ammonia, 1; olive oil, 3; mix.

2. (Ph. L. & E.) Liquor of ammonia (sp. gr. ·960), 1 fl. oz.; olive oil, 2 fl. oz.; shake them together until they are mixed.

3. (Ph. D.) To the last add of olive oil, 1 fl. oz. Stimulant and rubefacient. Used in rheumatism, lumbago, neuralgia, sore throat, spasms, bruises, &c. When the skin is irritable more oil should be added, or it should be diluted with a little water.

4. (Camphorated; Linimentum ammoniæ camphoratum, Embrocatio amm. camphorata, L.)—a. (Hosp. F.) Olive oil, 3 oz.; camphor, 12 oz.; dissolve by a gentle heat, and when cold, add of liquor of ammonia, 1 fl. oz.

b. Soap liniment, 2 oz.; olive oil and liquor of ammonia, of each 2 dr. As the last; more especially for sprains, bruises, chilblains, &c.

5. (Compound; Dr Granville’s counter-irritant or antidynous lotion; Linimentum ammoniæ compositum, L.—Ph. E.)—a. (Stronger.) From liquor of ammonia (sp. gr. ·880), 5 fl. oz.; tincture of camphor, 2 fl. oz.; spirit of rosemary, 1 fl. oz.; mix. It should be kept in a well-stoppered bottle and in a cool situation.

b. (Weaker.) Solution of ammonia (·880), 5 fl. oz.; tincture of camphor, 3 fl. oz.; spirit of rosemary, 2 fl. oz.

Obs. The above formulæ are nearly identical with the original ones of Dr Granville; the principal difference being in his ordering liquor of ammonia of the sp. gr. ·872, instead of ·880. They are counter-irritant, rubefacient, vesicant, and cauterising, according to the mode and length of their application. The milder lotion is sufficiently powerful to produce considerable rubefaction and irritation in from 1 to 5 or 6 minutes; vesication, in 8 or 10 minutes; and cauterisation, in 4 or 5 minutes longer. For the latter purpose the stronger lotion is generally employed. According to Dr Granville, these lotions are prompt and powerful remedies in rheumatism, lumbago, cramp, neuralgia, sprains, swollen and painful joints, headache, sore throat, and numerous other affections in which the use of a powerful counter-irritant has been recommended. They are ordered to be applied by means of a piece of linen, 6 or 7 times folded, or a piece of thick, coarse flannel wetted with the lotion, the whole being covered with a thick towel, and firmly pressed against the part with the hand. The stronger lotion is only intended to be employed in apoplexy, and to produce cauterisation. See Counter-irritants.

6. (From SESQUICARBONATE OF AMMONIA;—Linimentum ammoniæ sesquicarbonatis—Ph. L.) Solution of sesquicarbonate of ammonia, 1 fl. oz.; olive oil, 3 fl. oz.; shake them together until mixed. This preparation resembles ordinary liniment of ammonia in its general properties, but it is much less active, owing to the alkali being carbonated. It is the ‘oil and hartshorn’ and the ‘volatile liniment’ of the shops.

7. (With Turpentine.) (Dr Copland.) Syn. Linimentum ammoniæ cum terebinthina. Prep. Liniment of ammonia, 114 fl. oz.; oil of turpentine, 12 fl. oz.; mix.

Liniment, An′odyne. See Liniments of Belladonna, Morphia, Opium, Soap, &c.

Liniment, Antispasmod′ic. Syn. Linimentum antispasmodicum, L. cajeputi compositum, L. Prep. (Hufeland.) Oils of cajeput and mint, of each 1 part; tincture of opium, 3 parts; compound camphor liniment, 24 parts. Anodyne, stimulant, and rubefacient.

Liniment, Arceus’s. Compound elemi ointment.

Liniment of Arnica. Syn. Arnica opodeldoc, Linimentum arnicæ. Prep. Dissolve by heat Castile soap, 4 parts, and camphor, 1 part, in rectified spirit, 10 parts. Add tincture of arnica, 5 parts.

Liniment of Belladon′na. Syn. Linimentum belladonnæ, B. P. L. Prep. 1. (B. P.) Prepared the same as Linimentum aconitii. A fluid ounce is equal to a solid ounce. Prescribed with equal parts of soap liniment, or compound camphor liniment, and is an excellent topical application for neuralgic pain.

2. Extract of belladonna, 1 dr.; oil of almonds, 2 oz.; lime water, 4 fl. oz. In eczema, and some other cutaneous affections, to allay irritation, &c.

3. (Cutan. Hosp.) Extract of belladonna, 4 dr.; glycerine, 1 oz.; soap liniment, 6 oz. As the last.

4. (Guy’s Hosp.) Extract of belladonna 1 oz.; soap liniment, 8 fl. oz.

5. (Phœbus.) Extract of belladonna, 40 gr.; rectified ether, 1 dr.; cherry-laurel water, 2 fl. oz. As a friction to the abdomen in lead colic.

Obs. The above are reputed excellent stimulants, anodynes, antispasmodics, and resolvents, in various diseases, as rheumatism, neuralgia, painful affections of the skin and joints, tumours, &c. &c.

Liniment of Belladonna and Chloroform. (Mr Squire.) Syn. Linimentum belladonnæ et chloroformi. Prep. Belladonna liniment, 7 fl. dr.; belladonna chloroform (made by percolating the root with chloroform) 1 fl. dr.; sprinkled on piline and applied to the loins, excellent in lumbago.

Liniment of Borax. (Swediaur). Syn. Linimentum Boracis. Prep. Borax, 2 dr.; tincture of myrrh, 1 oz., distilled water, 1 oz.; honey of roses, 2 oz. Mix.

Liniment of Caj′eput Oil. Syn. Linimentum olei cajeputi, L. Prep. 1. (Dr Copland.) Compound camphor liniment and soap liniment,976 of each 112 fl. oz.; oil of cajeput, 1 fl. oz.

2. (Dr Williams.) Oil of cajeput, 12 fl. dr.; castor oil, 1 fl. dr.; olive oil, 412 fl. dr. A warm, antispasmodic, diffusible stimulant and rubefacient; in spasmodic asthma, colic, chronic rheumatism, spasms, chest affections, &c. See Antispasmodic L. (above).

Linimentum Calcis. (B. P.) Solution of lime, 1; olive oil, 1; mix. The best liniment for burns and scalds.

Liniment of Cam′phor. Syn. Camphorated oil, Camphor embrocation; Linimentum Camphoræ (B. P., Ph. L. E. & D.), Oleum camphoratum, L. Prep. 1. (B. P.) Camphor, 1; olive oil, 4; dissolve.

2. (Ph. L. & E.) Camphor, 1 oz.; olive oil, 4 fl. oz.; gently heat the oil, add the camphor (cut small), and agitate until dissolved. The Dublin College orders only 12 the above camphor. Stimulant, anodyne, and resolvent; in sprains, bruises, rheumatic pains, glandular enlargements, &c.

3. (Compound; Linimentum camphoræ compositum—B. P., Ph. L. & D.)—a. (B. P.) Camphor, 5; English oil of lavender, 14; strong solution of ammonia, 10; rectified spirit, 20. Dissolve the oil and camphor in the spirit and gradually add the ammonia.

b. (Ph. L.) Camphor, 212 oz.; oil of lavender, 1 fl. dr.; rectified spirit, 17 fl. oz.; dissolve, then add of stronger liquor of ammonia, 3 fl. oz., and shake them together until they are mixed.

c. (Ph. L. 1836.) Liquor of ammonia, 712 fl. oz.; spirit of lavender, 1 pint; distil off 1 pint, and dissolve in it camphor, 212 oz. The formula of the Ph. D. 1826 was nearly similar.

d. (Wholesale.) Camphor (clean), 21 oz.; English oil of lavender, 334 oz.; liquor of ammonia, 234 lbs.; rectified spirit, 7 pints; mix, close the vessel, and agitate occasionally, until the camphor is dissolved. Powerfully stimulant and rubefacient. It closely resembles, and is now almost universally sold for, Ward’s ‘Essence for the Headache.’

e. (Ethereal.) Syn. Linimentum camphoræ ethereum. Prep. Camphor, 1 dr.; ether, 1 dr.; oil of vipers, 2 dr. Mix.

Liniment of Canthar′ides. Syn. Liniment of Spanish flies; Linimentum lyttæ, Lin. cantharidis (Ph. D. & U. S.), L. Prep. 1. (Dr Collier.) Tincture of cantharides and soap liniment, equal parts.

2. (Ph. D.) Cantharides (in fine powder), 3 oz.; olive oil, 12 fl. oz.; digest for 3 hours over a waterbath, and strain through flannel, with expression.

3. (Ph. U. S.) Spanish flies, 1 oz.; oil of turpentine, 8 fl. oz.; proceed as last. The above are irritant and rubefacient; but should be used cautiously, lest they produce strangury.

Liniment of Capsicum. 1. (Dr Copland.) Syn. Linimentum Capsici. Prep. Compound camphor liniment, 1 fl. oz.; volatile liniment, 1 fl. oz.; tincture of capsicum, 3 fl. oz.; mix.

2. (Dr Turnbull.) Capsicums, 1 oz.; rectified spirit, 3 fl. oz. Macerate 7 days, and strain for use.

Liniment of Colchicum. (Ear Infirmary.) Syn. Linimentum colchici. Prep. Soap liniment, 1 fl. oz.; wine of colchicum seed, 12 fl. oz.; mix.

Liniment of Colocynth. (Heim). Syn. Linimentum colocynthidis. Prep. Tincture of colocynth, 12 fl. oz.; castor oil, 112 oz.

Liniment of Chlo′′ride of Lime. Syn. Linimentum calcis chlorinatæ, L. Prep. 1. Chloride of lime, 1 dr.; water (added gradually), 3 fl. oz.; triturate together in a glass mortar for 10 minutes, pour off the liquid portion, and add of oil of almonds 2 fl. oz.

2. (Kopp.) Solution of chloride of lime (ordinary), 1 part; olive oil, 2 parts.

3. (Waller.) Chloride of lime (in fine powder), 1 part; soft soap, 2 parts; soft water, q. s. to make a liniment.

Obs. The above are cleanly and excellent applications in itch, scald head, herpes, lepra, foul ulcers, &c.

Liniment of Chlo′′roform. Syn. Linimentum chloroformi, B. P. Prep. 1. (B. P.) Chloroform, 1; liniment of camphor, 1; mix. The oil in the camphor liniment prevents the evaporation of the chloroform. Stimulating on application to a tender skin.

2. Chloroform, 1 fl. dr.; almond oil, 7 fl. dr.; mix in a phial, and agitate it until the two unite.

3. (Tuson.) Chloroform, 1 fl. dr.; soap liniment, 2 fl. oz.; as the last. Used as an application in neuralgic pains, rheumatism, &c.

Liniment of Cod-liver Oil. Syn. Linimentum olei morrhuæ, L. o. jacoris aselli, L. Prep. (Dr Brach.) Cod-liver oil, 2 fl. oz.; liquor of ammonia, 1 fl. oz.; mix. Resolvent, dispersive; applied to glandular tumours, scrofulous enlargements, &c.

Liniment of Cro′ton Oil. Syn. Linimentum crotonis (B. P., Ph. D.), L. olei crotonis, L. o. tiglii, L. Prep. 1. (B. P.) Croton oil, 1; oil of cajeput, 312; rectified spirit, 312; mix.

2. (Ph. D.) Croton oil, 1 fl. oz.; oil of turpentine, 7 fl. oz.; mix by agitation.

3. (J. Allen.) Croton oil and liquor of potassa, of each, 1 fl. dr.; agitate until mixed, then add of rose water, 2 fl. oz.

4 (Pereira.) Croton oil, 1 part; olive oil, 5 parts.

Obs. The above are used as counter-irritants; in rheumatism, neuralgia, bronchial and pulmonary affections, &c. When rubbed on the skin, redness, and a pustular eruption ensue, and in general the bowels are acted on.

Liniment, Diuretic. Syn. Linimentum diureticum, L. Prep. 1. (Dr Calini.) Squills (in fine powder), 1 dr.; gastric juice of a calf, 2 oz.; mix.


2. (Dr Christison.) Soap liniment, tincture of foxglove, and tincture of squills, equal parts. In dropsies; rubbed over the abdomen or loins twice or thrice a day.

Liniment, Emol′lient. Syn. Linimentum album, L. emolliens, L. Prep. From camphor, 1 dr.; Peruvian balsam, 12 dr.; oil of almonds, 1 fl. oz.; dissolve by heat, add of glycerin, 12 fl. oz., agitate well, and, when cold, further add of oil of nutmeg, 15 drops. Excellent for chapped hands, lips, nipples, &c.

Liniment of Foxglove. (Dr Royle.) Syn. Linimentum digitalis. Prep. Infusion of digitalis, 2 fl. oz.; water of ammonia, 2 fl. dr.; oil of poppy seed, 4 fl. dr.; mix. To be rubbed on the abdomen 3 or 4 times a day.

Liniment of Gar′lic. Syn. Linimentum alii, L. Prep. From juice of garlic, 2 parts; olive oil, 3 parts; mix. In hooping-cough, infantile convulsions, &c.

Liniment of Gin′ger. Syn. Linimentum zingiberis, L. Prep. (Dr Turnbull.) Ginger, 1 part; rectified spirit, 2 parts; make a tincture or essence. For short-sightedness. A few drops are occasionally rubbed on the forehead for 8 or 10 minutes at a time. How this tincture came to be called a liniment we are at a loss to determine.

Liniment of Glycerin. (Mr Startin.) Syn. Linimentum glycerini. Prep. Soap liniment, 3 oz.; glycerin, 1 oz.; extract of belladonna, 1 oz.; mix. For gouty, rheumatic, and neuralgic pains. A little veratrine is sometimes added.

Liniment, Green. (Dr Campbell.) Syn. Linimentum viride. Camphor, 1 oz.; olive oil, 6 oz.; extract of hemlock, 1 oz.; spirit of ammonia, 2 oz. Mix.

Liniment of Hellebore. (Dornbleuth.) Syn. Linimentum hellebori. Prep. Soft soap, 4 oz.; hellebore powder, 2 oz.; hot water, q. s.

Liniment, Hunga′′rian. Syn. Linimentum Hungaricum, L. Prep. (Soubeiran.) Powdered cantharides and sliced garlic, of each 1 dr.; camphor, bruised mustard seed, and black pepper, of each 4 dr.; strong vinegar, 6 fl. oz.; rectified spirit, 12 fl. oz.; macerate a week, and filter. An excellent rubefacient and counter-irritant.

Liniment of Hydrochlo′′ric Acid. Syn. Linimentum muriaticum, L. acidi muriatici, L. a. hydrochlorici, L. Prep. 1. (Hosp. F.) Olive oil, 2 oz.; white wax, 2 dr.; dissolve by a gentle heat, add of balsam of Peru, 1 dr.; hydrochloric acid, 2 dr.; mix well. An excellent application to chilblains before they break.

2. (W. Cooley.) Olive oil, 14 pint; white spermaceti (pure) and camphor, of each 12 oz.; mix with heat, add of hydrochloric acid, 12 fl. oz., and proceed as before. Equal to the last, and cheaper. This was extensively employed among the seamen of the Royal Navy by Mr Cooley with uniform success.

Liniment of I′odide of Potas′sium. Syn. Linimentum ioduretum gelatinosum, L. Gelée pour le goitre, Fr. Prep. (Foy.) Iodide of potassium, 4 dr.; proof spirit, 2 oz.; dissolve, and add the liquid to a solution of curd soap, 6 dr., in proof spirit, 2 oz., both being at the time gently warmed; lastly, aromatise with rose or neroli, pour it into wide-mouthed bottles, and keep them closely corked. In goitre, &c.

Liniment of Iodide of Sulphur. (Prof. E. Wilson.) Syn. Linimentum sulphuris iodidi. Prep. Iodide of sulphur, 30 gr.; olive oil, 1 fl. dr.; triturate together.

Liniment of I′odine. Syn. Linimentum iodi (B. P.); Ioduretted liniment; Linimentum iodinii, L. ioduretum, L. Prep. 1. (B. P.) Iodine, 5; iodide of potassium, 2; camphor, 1; rectified spirit, 40; dissolve.

2. (Cutan. Hosp.) Compound tincture of iodine and laudanum, equal parts.

3. (Dr Copland.) Soap liniment, 1 oz.; iodine, 8 to 10 gr.

4. (Guibourt.) Iodide of potassium, 1 dr.; water, 1 fl. dr.; dissolve, and add to it white soap (in shavings) and oil of almonds, of each 10 dr., previously melted together. Some perfume may be added. In scrofula, glandular enlargements, rheumatism, &c.

Liniment of Ipecacuanha. (Dr Neligan.) Syn. Linimentum ipecacuanhæ. Prep. Ipecacuanha in fine powder, 4 dr.; lard, 2 dr.; olive oil, 112 fl. oz.

Liniment of Juniper. (Dr Sully.) Syn. Linimentum juniperi. Prep. Oil of juniper, 112 oz.; lard, 2 oz.; oil of aniseed, 6 drops. For scald-head.

Liniment of Labdanum. (Quincy.) Syn. Linimentum labdani; Linimentum criniscani. Prep. Labdanum, 6 dr.; bear’s grease, 2 oz.; honey, 12 oz.; powdered southernwood, 3 dr.; oil of nutmeg, 1 dr.; balsam of Peru, 2 dr.; mix. To restore the hair.

Liniment of Lead. Syn. Linimentum plumbi, L. Prep. (Gaozey.) Acetate of lead, 40 gr.; soft water, 12 fl. oz.; olive oil, 6 oz.; mix, and agitate well. Astringent and refrigerant. Useful in excoriations, especially when accompanied with inflammation.

Liniment of Lime. Syn. Liniment for burns, Carron oil; Linimentum calcis (Ph. L. E. & D.), L. aquæ calcis, Oleum lini cum calcis, L. Prep. 1. From olive oil (linseed oil—Ph. E.) and lime water, equal parts, shaken together until they are mixed. Very useful in burns and scalds.

2. (Compound; Linimentum calcis compositum, L.)—a. (Camphorated—W. Cooley.) Camphor liniment and lime water, equal parts.

b. (Opiated—W. Cooley.) Lime water and camphor liniment, of each 1 oz.; extract of opium, 5 gr.; mix. Both are used as anodynes to allay pain and irritation in severe burns, chilblains, &c., for which purpose they are excellent. All the above liniments with lime water should be used as soon as possible after978 being prepared, as the ingredients separate by keeping.

Liniment of Mercury. Syn. Mercurial liniment; Linimentum hydrargyri (B. P., Ph. L.), Lin. h. compositum (Ph. L. 1836), L. Prep. 1. (B. P.) Ointment of mercury, 1; solution of ammonia, 1; liniment of camphor, 1. Melt the ointment in the liniment, add the ammonia, and shake them together.

2. (Ph. L.) Camphor, 1 oz.; spirit of wine, 1 fl. dr.; sprinkle the latter on the former, powder, add of lard and mercurial ointment (stronger), of each 4 oz.; rub them well together, then gradually add of liquor of ammonia, 4 fl. oz.; and mix well. Stimulant and discutient. It resembles mercurial ointment in its effects; but though milder in its operation, it more quickly produces salivation.

Liniment of Mor′phia. Syn. Linimentum morphiæ, L. Prep. (W. Cooley.) Pure morphia, 3 gr.; put it into a warm mortar, add very gradually, of oil of almonds (warm), 1 fl. oz., and triturate until the morphia is dissolved, then add of camphor liniment, 1 oz. An excellent topical anodyne and antispasmodic, which often allays pain when other means have failed.

Liniment of Mus′tard. Syn. Linimentum sinapis, L. Prep. 1. Flour of mustard (best), 1 oz.; water, tepid, 2 fl. oz.; mix, and add of glycerin, liquor of ammonia, and olive oil, of each 1 fl. oz.

2. (Béral.) Carbonate of ammonia (in fine powder), 1 part; camphor (in powder), 2 parts; oil of lavender, 4 parts; tincture of mustard, 6 parts; mix, dissolve by agitation, add of simple liniment (warm), 56 parts, and again agitate until the whole is perfectly incorporated.

3. Black mustard seed (ground in pepper-mill or otherwise well bruised), 14 lb.; oil of turpentine, 1 pint; digest, express the liquid, filter, and dissolve it in camphor, 12 lb. Stimulant and rubefacient. A popular and useful remedy in rheumatic pains, lumbago, colic, chilblains, &c. The last is a close imitation of Whitehead’s ‘Essence of Mustard.’

4. (Lin. olei volatilis sinapis.)—a. From volatile oil of black mustard seed, 12 dr.; oil of almonds, 1 fl. oz. As a rubefacient.

b. From volatile oil, 1 part; alcohol (sp. gr. ·815), 1 to 2 parts. As a vesicant.

Liniment of Mustard (Compound). Linimentum sinapis compositum (B. P.). Oil of mustard, 1 dr.; ethereal extract of mezereon, 40 gr.; camphor, 2 dr.; castor oil, 5 dr.; rectified spirit, 32 dr.; dissolve.

Liniment, Narcotic. (P. Codex.) Syn. Liniment calmant; Linimentum narcoticum. Prep. Anodyne balsam, 8 parts; compound wine of opium, cold cream, of each 1 part. Mix.

Liniment of Ni′trate of Mercury. Syn. Citrine liniment; Linimentum hydrargyri nitratis, L. Prep. (Sir H. Halford.) Ointment of nitrate of mercury and olive oil, equal parts, triturated together in a glass mortar, or mixed by a gentle heat. This liniment is stimulant, discutient, and alterative, and in its general properties resembles the ointment of the same name. For most purposes the quantity of oil should be at least doubled.

Liniment of Nux Vom′ica. Syn. Linimentum nucis vomicæ, L. Prep. (Magendie.) Tincture of nux vomica, 1 fl. oz.; liquor of ammonia, 2 fl. dr.; mix. As a stimulating application to paralysed limbs. The addition of 12 fl. dr. each of glycerin and salad oil renders it an excellent application in chronic rheumatism and neuralgia.

Liniment of Oil of Ergot. Syn. Linimentum olei ergotæ. Prep. Oil of ergot, 1 dr.; oil of almonds, or sulphuric ether, 3 dr.; mix.

Liniment of O′pium. Syn. Anodyne liniment; Linimentum opii (B. P., Ph. L. & E.), L. opii or L. anodynum (Ph. D.), L. saponis cum opio, L. Prep. 1. (B. P.) Tincture of opium, 1; liniment of soap, 1; mix.

2. Tincture of opium, 2 fl. oz.; soap liniment, 6 fl. oz.; mix.

3. (Ph. E.) Castile soap, 6 oz.; opium, 112 oz.; rectified spirit, 1 quart; digest for three days, then filter, add of camphor, 3 oz., oil of rosemary, 6 fl. dr., and agitate briskly.

4. (Ph. D.) Soap liniment and tincture of opium, equal parts.

5. (Wholesale.) Soft soap, 114 lb.; powdered opium and camphor, of each 14 lb.; rectified spirit, 1 gall.; digest a week.

Obs. This preparation is an excellent anodyne in local pains, rheumatism, neuralgia, sprains, &c.

Liniment of Phos′phorus. Syn. Linimentum phosphoratum, L. Prep. (Augustin.) Phosphorus, 6 gr.; camphor, 12 gr.; oil of almonds, 1 oz.; dissolve by heat; when cold, decant the clear portion, and add of strongest liquor of ammonia 10 drops. A useful friction in gout, chronic rheumatism, certain obstinate cutaneous affections, &c.

Liniment de Rosen. (P. C.) Prep. Oil of mace, 4 parts; oil of cloves, 4 parts; oil of juniper, 9 parts. Mix.

Liniment, Sim′ple. Syn. Linimentum simplex (Ph. E.), L. Prep. (Ph. E.) White wax, 1 oz.; olive oil, 4 fl. oz.; melt together, and stir the mixture until it is cold. Emollient; resembles spermaceti ointment in all except its consistence.

Liniment of Soap. Syn. Opodeldoc, Camphorated tincture of soap, Balsam of s.; Linimentum saponis (B. P., Ph. L. E. & D.) L. saponaceum, Tinctura saponis camphorata, Balsamum saponis, L. Prep. 1. (B. P.) Hard soap (cut small), 212 oz.; camphor, 114 oz.; English oil of rosemary, 3 dr.; rectified spirit, 18 oz.; distilled water, 2 oz.; mix the water and spirit, add the other ingredients, digest at a temperature not exceeding 70° Fahr., agitating occasionally for seven days, and filter.


2. (Ph. L.) Castile soap (cut small), 212 oz.; camphor (small), 10 dr.; spirit of rosemary, 18 fl. oz.; water, 2 fl. oz.; digest with frequent agitation until the solid substances are dissolved.

3. (Ph. E.) Castile soap, 5 oz.; camphor, 212 oz.; oil of rosemary, 6 fl. dr.; rectified spirit, 1 quart.

4. (Ph. D.) Castile soap (in powder), 2 oz.; camphor, 1 oz.; proof spirit, 16 fl. oz.

5. (Liniment savonneau—P. Cod.) Tincture of soap (P. Cod.) and rectified spirit (·863 or 41 o. p.), of each 8 parts; olive oil, 1 part.

Obs. This article, prepared according to the directions of the Pharmacopœia, from ‘soap made of olive oil and soda’ (Castile soap), is apt to gelatinise in cold weather, and to deposit crystals of elaidate and stearate of lime. This may be avoided, when expense is not an objection, by first well drying the soap, employing a spirit of at least 85%, and keeping the preparation in well-closed bottles. A cheaper and better plan is to substitute the ‘soft soap’ of the Ph. L. (‘soap made with olive oil and potassa’) for the Castile soap ordered by the College. The soft soap of commerce imparts to the liniment an unpleasant smell. The following formula, one of those commonly adopted by the wholesale druggists, produces a very good article, though much weaker than that of the Pharmacopœia.

6. (Wholesale.) Camphor (cut small), 112 lb.; soft soap, 7 lbs.; oil of rosemary, 3 fl. oz.; rectified spirit of wine and water, of each 312 galls.; digest with occasional agitation for a week, and filter. This is the ‘opodeldoc’ or ‘soap liniment’ of the shops.

Uses. Soap liniment is stimulant, discutient, and lubricating, and is a popular remedy in rheumatism, local pains, swellings, bruises, sprains, &c.

7. (With Opium.) See Liniment of Opium.

8. (Sulphuretted; Linimentum saponis sulphuretum, L. sulphuro-saponaceum—Jadelot, L.) Sulphuret of potassium, 3 oz.; soap, 12 oz.; water, q. s.; melt together, and add of olive oil, 12 oz.; oil of origanum, 1 fl. dr.; mix well. An excellent remedy for the itch, and some allied skin diseases.

Liniment of Strychnia. (Dr Neligan.) Syn. Linimentum strychniæ. Strychnia, 30 gr.; olive oil, 112 fl. oz. Ten drops to be rubbed over the temples in amaurosis.

Liniment of Sul′phide of Carbon. Syn. Linimentum carbonis sulphureti, L. Prep. 1. From bisulphide of carbon, 1 dr.; camphorated oil, 1 oz.; mix.

2. (Lampadius.) Camphor, 2 dr.; bisulphuret of carbon, 4 fl. dr.; dissolve, and add of rectified spirit, 1 fl. oz. In rheumatism, gouty nodes, &c.

Liniment of Sulphu′ric Acid. See Liniment, Acid.

Liniment, Tripharm′ic. Syn. Linimentum tripharmicum (Ph. L. 1746), L. Prep. Take of lead plaster and olive oil, of each 4 oz.; melt, add of strong vinegar, 1 fl. oz., and stir until cold. Cooling and desiccative; in excoriations, burns, &c.

Liniment of Tur′pentine. Syn. Kentish’s liniment; Linimentum terebinthinæ (B. P., Ph. L. & D.), L. terebinthinatum (Ph. E.), L. Prep. 1. (B. P.) Oil of turpentine, 16; camphor, 1; soft soap, 2; dissolve the camphor in the turpentine, then add the soap, and rub till thoroughly mixed.

2. (Ph. L.) Soft soap, 2 oz.; camphor, 1 oz.; oil of turpentine, 10 fl. oz.; shake them together until mixed. Stimulant; in lumbago, cholera, colic, &c.

3. (Ph. L. 1824.) Resin cerate, 6 oz.; oil of turpentine, 4 fl. oz.; mix. An excellent application to burns.

4. (Ph. E.) Resin ointment, 4 oz.; camphor, 4 dr.; dissolve by a gentle heat, and stir in oil of turpentine, 5 fl. oz.

5. (Ph. D.) Oil of turpentine, 5 fl. oz.; resin ointment, 8 oz.; mix by a gentle heat. This forms Dr Kentish’s celebrated application to burns and scalds. The parts are first bathed with warm oil of turpentine or brandy, and then covered with pledgets of lint, smeared with the liniment.

6. (Compound—a. B. Linimentum terebinthinæ aceticum.) Oil of turpentine, 1; acetic acid, 1; liniment of camphor, 1; mix.

b. (Linimentum terebinthinæ compositum, L.) Acetic: St John Long’s liniment; (Linimentum terebinthinæ aceticum, L.) Oil of turpentine, 3 oz.; rose water, 212 fl. oz.; acetic acid, 5 dr.; oil of lemons, 1 dr.; yolk of egg, 1; make an emulsion. As a counter-irritant in phthisis.

c. (Ammoniated—Debreyne.) Lard, 3 oz.; melt, and add, of oil of turpentine and olive oil, of each 1 oz.; when cold, further add of camphorated spirit, 4 fl. dr.; liquor of ammonia, 1 fl. dr. In sciatica, lumbago, &c.

d. (Opiated—Recamier.) Oil of turpentine, 1 fl. oz.; oil of chamomile, 2 fl. oz.; tincture of opium, 1 fl. dr. In neuralgia, &c.

e. (Sulphuric—Ph. Castr. Ruthena.) Oil of turpentine, 2 oz.; olive oil, 5 oz.; mix, and add of dilute sulphuric acid, 112 dr. See Acid liniment.

Liniment of Vera′trine. Syn. Linimentum veratriæ, L. Prep. (Brande.) Veratrine, 8 gr.; alcohol, 12 fl. oz.; dissolve, and add of soap liniment, 12 fl. oz. In neuralgic and rheumatic pains, gout, &c.

Liniment of Ver′digris. Syn. Oxymel of verdigris; Linimentum æruginis (Ph. L.), Oxymel æruginis (Ph. L. 1738), Oxymel cupri subacetatis (Ph. D. 1826), L. Prep. (Ph. L.) Verdigris (in powder), 1 oz.; vinegar, 7 fl. oz.; dissolve, filter, through linen, add of honey, 14 oz., and evaporate to a proper consistence.

Obs. This preparation is wrongly named a ‘liniment.’ The College, after ‘beating980 about the bush’ for nearly a century, found a right name for it in 1788; but, as in many other cases, soon abandoned it for another less appropriate.

Oxymel of verdigris is stimulant, detergent, and escharotic. It is applied to indolent ulcers, especially of the throat, by means of a camel-hair pencil; and, diluted with water, it is used as a gargle. Care must be taken to avoid swallowing it, as it occasions vomiting and excessive purging.

Liniment, Ver′mifuge. Syn. Linimentum anthelminticum, L. vermifugum, L. Prep. Castor oil, 1 oz.; essential oils of wormwood and tansy, of each 12 oz.; Dr Peschier’s ethereal tincture of pennyroyal buds, 20 drops; mix. Employed in frictions on the abdomen in cases of worms in children. Its activity may be still further increased by the addition of a little garlic juice. (‘Journ. de Méd.’) An excellent medicine.

Liniment, Vesicating. (Dr Montgomery.) Syn. Linimentum vesicans. For children. Prep. Compound camphor liniment, 4 fl. dr.; oil of turpentine, 2 fl. dr. To produce immediate vesication in adults. Mix one part of the strongest liquor ammoniæ, with two of olive oil, and apply six drops on spongio-piline for ten minutes.

Liniment, Ware’s. Prep. From camphor liniment, 1 oz.; solution of carbonate of potassa, 1 dr. In amaurosis.

Liniment, White’s. The old name for spermaceti ointment.

Liniment, White. Syn. Linimentum album. Prep. Rectified oil of turpentine, 2 oz.; solution of ammonia, 2 oz.; soap liniment, 3 oz.; spirit of rosemary, 1 oz. Mix in the above order, and gradually add with continual agitation, distilled vinegar, 8 oz. For chapped hands.

Liniment, Wilkinson’s. Prep. (Phœbus.) Prepared chalk, 20 gr.; sulphur, lard, and tar, of each 12 oz.; mix, and add of Boyle’s fuming liquor, 10 or 15 drops. In certain chronic skin diseases, neuralgia, &c.

Linimentum Aconiti. (B. P.) Aconite root, in powder, 20; camphor, 1; rectified spirit, to percolate, 30. Moisten the root for 3 days, then pack in a percolator, and pour sufficient rectified spirit upon it to produce with the camphor 20.

Strength, 1 in 1. Applied with a camel-hair pencil, alone or mixed in equal proportions, with a soap liniment or compound camphor liniment, and rubbed on the part. Seven parts of this, and 1 part of chloroformum belladonna, and sprinkled thinly on impermeable piline, is the best application for neuralgia or lumbago.

Linimentum Potassii Iodidi cum Sapone. (B. P.) Hard soap, in powder, 112; iodide of potassium, 112; glycerin, 1; oil of lemon, 18; water, 1. Dissolve the soap in 7 of water by heat of a water bath; dissolve the iodide of potassium in the remainder of the water, and mix by trituration the two solutions, and when cold add the oil of lemon, and mix thoroughly.

LINOLEIC ACID. C16H28O2. This may be obtained by saponifying linseed oil. It is a liquid acid, and rapidly oxidizes when exposed to the air, becoming converted into oxylinoleic acid, which is incapable of solidification even at low temperatures.

LIN′SEED. Syn. Flax seed; Lini semina, L. The seed of Linum usitatissimum (Linn.), or common flax. (Ph. L.) Oily, emollient, demulcent, and nutritive. Ground to powder (linseed meal; farina lini), it is used for poultices. The cake left after expressing the oil (linseed cake) contains, when of average quality, in 100 parts, moisture, 12·70; oil, 11·32; albumenoids, 28·21; mucilage, &c., 29·42; indigestible fibre, 12·46; ash, 5·89. It is used for feeding cattle. Under the form of tea or infusion it is used as a diluent, and to allay irritation in bronchial, urinary, and other like affections. See Infusion of Linseed.

LINSEED CAKE. See Linseed.

LINT. Syn. Linteum, L. White linen-cloth, scraped by hand or machinery, so as to render it soft and woolly. The hand-made lint is now little used; it was prepared from pieces of old linen-cloth. The machine-made lint is prepared from a fabric woven on purpose. A lint made from cotton (cotton-lint) is now largely manufactured; it is much inferior to the true lint, being a bad conductor of heat. Lint is used for dressing ulcers, either alone or smeared with some suitable ointment or cerate.

Lint, Medica′ted. Syn. Linteum medicatum, L. nigrum, L. infernale, L. Prep. 1. Nitrate of silver, 20 to 30 gr.; distilled water, 1 fl. oz.; dissolve, saturate dry lint, 12 oz., with the solution, and expose it in a saucer or capsule to the light and air, until it has become black and dry.

2. Nitrate of silver and nitrate of copper, of each 12 dr.; lint, 1 oz.; water, 112 fl. oz.; as the last. Used to dress old and indolent ulcers.

LIP SALVE. See Salve.

LIQUA′TION. The process of sweating out by heat the more fusible metals of an alloy. Metallurgists avail themselves of this method in assaying and refining the precious metals and procuring antimony and some other metals from their ores.

LIQUEFA′′CIENTS. Syn. Resolvents; Liquefacientia, Resolventia, L. In pharmacy, substances or agents which promote secretion and exhalation, soften and loosen textures, and promote the absorption or removal of enlargements, indurations, &c. To this class belong the alkalies, antimony, bromine, chlorine, iodine, mercury, sulphur, &c., and their preparations.

LIQUEFAC′TION. The assumption of the liquid form. It is usually applied to the conversion of a solid into the liquid state, which may arise from increase of temperature981 (fusion), absorption of water from the atmosphere (deliquescence), or the action of a body already fluid (solution).

Liquefaction of Gases. Under the combined influence of pressure and cold, all the gases may be liquefied, and some even solidified. The first satisfactory experiments in this direction were made by Faraday, who succeeded in reducing to the liquid condition eight bodies which had hitherto been regarded as permanent gases, namely, ammonia, carbonic anhydride, chlorine, cyanogen, hydrochloric acid, nitrous oxide, sulphuretted hydrogen, and sulphurous anhydride. His method of proceeding was very simple:—the materials were sealed up in a strong, narrow, glass tube, bent so as to form an obtuse angle, together with a little ‘pressure gauge,’ consisting of a slender tube closed at one end, and having within it, near the open extremity, a globule of mercury. The gas, being disengaged by the application of heat or otherwise, accumulated in the tube, and by its own pressure brought about liquefaction. The force required for this purpose was judged of by the diminution of volume of the air in the pressure gauge. By employing powerful condensing syringes, and an extremely low temperature, Faraday subsequently succeeded in liquefying olefiant gas, hydriodic and hydrobromic acids, phosphuretted hydrogen, and the gaseous fluorides of silicon and boron. He failed, however, with oxygen, hydrogen, nitrogen, nitric oxide, carbonic oxide, and coal-gas, all of which refused to liquefy at the temperature of -166° Fahr., while subjected to pressures varying in different cases from 27 to 58 atmospheres.

Within the last year, however, viz. toward the end of 1877, these hitherto refractory gases have been reduced to the liquid, and, in the case of hydrogen, to the solid state. These results have been accomplished by subjecting the gases to a pressure considerably greater than that employed by Faraday, combined with the expedient of the sudden removal of this pressure, whereby the escaping gas (previously enormously reduced in temperature) in the act of expansion robs the remainder of so much of its heat as to leave it in the fluid condition.

The liquefaction of oxygen was accomplished independently by M. Cailletet, of Paris, and M. Pictet, of Geneva; the French chemist having effected it on December 2nd, 1877, and the Swiss one on the 22nd of the same month.

Simultaneously with Cailletet’s announcement of the liquefaction of oxygen, that of carbonic oxide was made by the same chemist; who, about three weeks after at a meeting in the Paris Academy of Sciences, stated that he had also reduced hydrogen, nitrogen, and atmospheric air to the fluid state.

In the previous November he had been equally successful in converting gaseous nitric oxide into a liquid.

M. Cailletet, in a communication to the Paris Academy of Sciences, read by M. Dumas at a meeting of that body on 24th December, 1877, thus describes the process by which he liquefied the gases oxygen and carbonic oxide.

“If oxygen or pure carbonic oxide be enclosed in a tube such as I have before described, and placed in an apparatus for compression like that which has already been worked before the Academy,[17] and the gas be then lowered in temperature to 29° C., by means of sulphurous acid and at a pressure of about 300 atmospheres, the two gases preserve their gaseous state.

[17] This apparatus, which consists of a hollow steel cylinder, to which is attached a strong glass tube, is described in the ‘Comptes Rendus,’ tome 85, p. 851. The gas is forced into it by means of a hydraulic pump with the intervention of a cushion of mercury.

“But if they are allowed to suddenly expand, this expansion, according to the formula of Poisson, reducing them to a temperature at least 200° C. below their initial temperature, causes them immediately to assume the appearance of an intense fog, which is caused by the liquefaction and perhaps by the solidification of the oxygen or carbonic acid.

“The same phenomenon is also observed, upon the expansion of carbonic acid, and of protoxide and binoxide of nitrogen, when under strong pressure.

“This fog is produced with oxygen, even when the gas is at the ordinary pressure, provided time is allowed for it to part with the heat it acquires in the mere act of compression.

“This I demonstrated by experiments performed on Sunday, the 16th December, at the Chemical Laboratory of the Ecole Normale Supérieure, before a certain number of savants and professors, amongst whom were some members of the Academy of Sciences. I had hoped to find in Paris, together with the materials necessary for the production of a high degree of cold (protoxide of nitrogen or liquid carbonic acid), a pump capable of supplying the place of my compression apparatus at Châtillon-sur-Seine. Unfortunately a pump well fixed and suited to this sort of experiment could not be found in Paris, and I was obliged to send to Châtillon-sur-Seine for the refrigerating substances for collecting the condensed matters on the walls of the tube.

“To know whether oxygen and carbonic oxide are in a liquid or a solid state in the fog would necessitate an optical experiment more easy to imagine than to accomplish, because of the form and the thickness of the tubes containing them. Furthermore, chemical reactions will assure me that the oxygen is not transformed into ozone in the act of compression. I shall reserve the study of all these questions till the apparatus I am now having made is complete.

“Under the same conditions of temperature and pressure, even the most rapid expansion of pure hydrogen gives no trace of nebulous982 matter. There remains for me only nitrogen to study, the small solubility of which in water induces me to believe that it will prove very refractory to all change of condition.”[18]

[18] ‘Comptes Rendus,’ tome 5, p. 1213.

M. Pictet’s process for liquefying oxygen, although differing in the method of working, is similar in principle to that of M. Cailletet. His paper, which was read at the same sitting of the Academy as M. Cailletet’s, thus describes it:—

A and B, in the accompanying figure, are two double section and force pumps, coupled together on the compound system, one causing a vacuum in the other in such a manner as to obtain the greatest possible difference between the pressures of suction and forcing.”

The pumps act on anhydrous sulphurous acid contained in the cylindrical receiver c. The pressure in this receiver is such that the sulphurous acid is evaporated from it at a temperature of 65° C. below zero.

The sulphurous acid is forced by the pumps into a condenser, d, cooled by a current of cold water; here it liquefies at the temperature of 25° above zero, and at a pressure of about 234 atmospheres.

The sulphurous acid returns to the receiver C as it liquefies by the little tube d.

E and F are two pumps resembling the preceding, and coupled in the same manner. They act upon carbonic acid contained in a cylindrical receiver H.

The temperature in this latter receiver is such that the carbonic acid evaporates from it at a temperature of 140° C. below zero.

The carbonic acid forced on by the pumps is driven into the condenser K, enclosed in the sulphurous acid receiver C, which has a temperature of 65° below zero; the carbonic acid here becomes liquefied at a pressure of five atmospheres.

The carbonic acid, in proportion as it liquefies, returns to the receptacle H by the small tube k.

L is a retort of wrought iron, sufficiently thick to resist a pressure of 500 atmospheres. It contains chlorate of potassium, and is heated in such a manner as to give off pure oxygen. It communicates by a tubulure with an inclined tube, M, made of very thick glass, one metre in length, which is enveloped by the receiver, H, containing carbonic acid at the temperature of 140° below zero.

A tap, N, situated upon the tubulure of the retort, permits of the opening of an orifice, P, which leads into the surrounding air.

After the four pumps have been worked for several hours by means of a steam engine of 15-horse power, and when all the oxygen has been disengaged, the pressure in the glass tube is 320 atmospheres, and the temperature at 140° below zero.

Upon suddenly opening the orifice, P, the oxygen escapes with violence, producing, in doing so, so considerable an expansion and absorption of heat as to cause a liquefied portion to appear in the glass tube, and to spirt out983 from the orifice when the apparatus is sloped.

It ought to be stated that the quantity of liquefied oxygen contained in the tube one metre long and 0·01 m. in internal diameter, occupied about a third of its length, and issued from the orifice P in the form of a liquid jet.

In a communication to M. Dumas, received two days after the above sitting, M. Pictet described his experiments more fully, prefacing the account by the following very interesting remarks:—“The end to which I have been tending for the last 3 years has been to seek to demonstrate experimentally that molecular cohesion is a general property of bodies without exception.

“If the permanent gases cannot be liquefied, it must be concluded that their constituent particles do not attract each other, and are therefore independent of this law.

“To succeed experimentally in bringing the molecules of a gas into the closest possible proximity, and thus to obtain its liquefaction, certain indispensable conditions are necessary, which I thus sum up:

“1. To have a gas that must be perfectly pure and without a trace of foreign gas.

“2. To have at one’s disposal very powerful means of compression.

“3. To obtain an intense degree of cold, and the abstraction of heat at these low temperatures.

“4. To have a large surface of condensation maintained at these low temperatures.

“5. To have the power of utilising the expansion of the gas under considerable pressure to the atmospheric pressure, which expansion added to the preceding means compels liquefaction.

“With these five conditions fulfilled, we may formulate the following problem.

“When a gas is compressed at 500 or 600 atmospheres, and kept at a temperature of -100° or 140°, and then let expand to the pressure of the atmosphere, one of two things must occur. Either the gas, obeying the action of cohesion, liquefies and yields its heat of condensation to the portion of the gas, which expands and is lost in the gaseous form; or under the hypothesis that cohesion is not a natural law, the gas passes beyond absolute zero, that is to say, it becomes inert, a dust without consistence. The work of expansion would be impossible, and the loss of heat absolute.”

Spite of M. Cailletet’s supposition that nitrogen would prove a very incoercible gas, his experiments showed the contrary, since he found that it easily condensed under a pressure of about 200 atmospheres and at a temperature of 13° C., the conditions as to its sudden expansion being observed.

Hydrogen, the lightest of all the gases, which M. Cailletet could only procure in the form of mist, was unmistakably liquefied by M. Pictet within less than a fortnight afterwards, under a pressure of 650 atmospheres and 140° of cold.

The tap which confined the gas at this pressure, being opened, a jet of a steel blue colour escaped from the orifice, accompanied by a hissing sound, like that given off when a red-hot iron is dipped into cold water. The jet suddenly became intermittent, and a shower of solid particles of the hydrogen fell to the ground with a crackling noise. The hydrogen was obtained by the decomposition of formiate of potash by caustic potash, the gas thus yielded being absolutely pure.

Cailletet states that he succeeded perfectly in liquefying atmospheric air, previously deprived of moisture and carbonic acid, but he omits to mention the pressure and reduction of temperature to which the air was subjected. He liquefied nitric oxide at the pressure of 104 atmospheres and at a temperature of -11° C.

Carbonic anhydride is liquefied on the large scale by condensing it in strong vessels of gun-metal or boiler-plate. Thilorier was the first to procure it in a solid condition. It requires a pressure of between 27 and 28 atmospheres at 32° F. (Adams.) The liquefied acid is colourless and limpid, lighter than water, and four times more expansible than air; it mixes in all proportions with ether, alcohol, naphtha, oil of turpentine, and sulphide of carbon; and is insoluble in water and fat oils. When a jet of liquid carbonic anhydride is allowed to issue into the air from a narrow aperture, such an intense degree of cold is produced by the evaporation of a part, that the remainder freezes to a solid (solid carbonic anhydride), and falls in a shower of snow. This substance, which may be collected, affords a means of producing extreme cold. Mixed with a little ether, and poured upon a mass of mercury, the latter is almost instantly frozen. The temperature of this mixture in the air was found to be -106° Fahr.; when the same mixture was placed beneath the receiver of an air-pump, and exhaustion rapidly performed, the temperature sank to -166°. This degree of cold was employed in Faraday’s last experiments on the liquefaction of gases.

LIQUEUR. [Fr.] Syn. Cordial. A stimulating beverage, formed of weak spirit, aromatised and sweetened. The manufacture of liqueurs constitutes the trade of the ‘compounder,’ ‘rectifier,’ or ‘liquoriste.’

The materials employed in the preparation of liqueurs or cordials are rain or distilled water, white sugar, clean flavourless spirit, and flavouring ingredients. To these may be added the substances employed as ‘finings,’ when artificial clarification is had recourse to.

The utensils and apparatus required in the business are those ordinarily found in the wine and spirit cellar; together with a copper still, furnished with a pewter head and a pewter worm or condenser, when the method ‘by distillation’ is pursued. A barrel, hogshead, or rum puncheon, sawn in two, or simply984 ‘unheaded,’ as the case may demand, forms an excellent vessel for the solution of the sugar; and 2 or 3 fluted funnels, with some good white flannel, will occasionally be found useful for filtering the aromatic essences used for flavouring. Great care is taken to ensure the whole of the utensils, &c., being perfectly clean and ‘sweet,’ and well ‘seasoned,’ in order that they may neither stain nor flavour the substances placed in contact with them.

In the preparation or compounding of liqueurs, one of the first objects which engages the operator’s attention is the production of an alcoholic solution of the aromatic principles which are to give them their peculiar aroma and flavour. This is done either by simple solution or maceration, as in the manufacture of tinctures and medicated spirits, or by maceration and subsequent distillation. The products, in this country, are called ESSENCES or SPIRITS, and by the French INFUSIONS, and are added to the solution of sugar (SYRUP or CAPILLAIRE) or to the dulcified spirit, in the proportions required. Grain or molasses spirit is the kind usually employed for this purpose in England. As before observed, it should be of the best quality; as, if this is not the case, the raw flavour of the spirit is perceptible in the liquor. Rectified spirit of wine is generally very free from flavour, and when reduced to a proper strength with clear soft water, forms a spirit admirably adapted for the preparation of cordial liquors. Spirit weaker than about 45 o. p., which has been freed from its own essential oil by careful rectification, is known in trade under the title of ‘pure,’ ‘flavourless,’ ‘plain,’ or ‘silent spirit.’ Before macerating the ingredients, if they possess the solid form, they are coarsely pounded, bruised, sliced, or ground, as the peculiar character of the substance may indicate. This is not done until shortly before submitting them to the action of the menstruum; as, after they are bruised they rapidly lose their aromatic properties by exposure to the air. When it is intended to keep them for any time in the divided state they should be preserved in well-corked bottles or jars. The practice of drying the ingredients before pounding them, frequently adopted by ignorant and lazy workmen for the sake of lessening the labour, is, of course, even more destructive to their most valuable qualities than mere exposure to the air. The length of time the ingredients should be digested in the spirit should never be less than 5 or 6 days, but a longer period is preferable when distillation is not employed. In either case the time may be advantageously extended to 10 days or a fortnight, and frequent agitation should be had recourse to during the whole period. When essential oils are employed to convey the flavour, they are first dissolved in a little of the strongest rectified spirit of wine, in the manner explained under Essence; and when added to the spirit, they are mixed up with the whole mass as rapidly and as perfectly as possible. In managing the still, the fire is proportioned to the ponderosity of the oil or flavouring substance, and the receiver is changed before the faints come over; as these are unfitted to be mixed with the cordial. In many cases the addition of a few pounds of common salt to the liquor in the still facilitates the process and improves the product. Ingredients which are not volatile are, of course, always added after distillation. The stronger spirit is reduced to the desired strength by means of either clear soft water or the clarified syrup used for sweetening. The sugar employed should be of the finest quality, and is preferably made into capillaire or syrup before adding it to the aromatised spirit; and not until this last has been rendered perfectly ‘fine’ or transparent, by infiltration or clarification, as the case may demand. Some spirits or infusions, as those of aniseed, caraway, &c., more particularly require this treatment, which is best performed by running them through a clean wine bag, made of rather fine cloth, having previously mixed them with a spoonful or two of magnesia; but in all cases clarification by simple repose should be preferred. Under proper management, liqueurs or cordials prepared of good materials will be found perfectly ‘clear’ or ‘bright’ as soon as made, or will become so after being allowed a few days for defecation; but in the hands of the inexperienced operator, and when the spirit employed is insufficient in strength or quantity, it often happens that they turn out ‘foul’ or ‘milky.’ When this is the case, the liquid may be ‘fined down’ with the whites of 12 to 20 eggs per hogshead; or a little alum, either alone or followed by a little carbonate of sodium or potassium, both dissolved in water, may be added, in the manner described under Finings.

An excellent and easy way of manufacturing cordial liquors, especially when it is inconvenient to keep a large stock on hand, is by simply ‘aromatising’ and ‘colouring,’ as circumstances or business may demand, spirit 60 or 64 u. p., kept ready sweetened for the purpose. To do this to the best advantage, two descriptions of sweetened spirit should be provided, containing respectively 1 lb. and 3 lbs. of sugar to the gallon. From these, spirit of any intermediate sweetness may be made, which may be flavoured with any essential oil dissolved in alcohol, or any aromatised spirit or ‘infusion’ (see below), prepared either by digestion or distillation. As a general rule, the concentrated essences, made by dissolving 1 oz. of the essential oil in 1 pint of the strongest rectified spirit of wine, will be found admirably adapted for this purpose. These essences, which should be kept in well-corked bottles, are employed by dropping them cautiously into the sweetened spirit until the desired flavour is produced. During this operation985 the liquor should be frequently and violently shaken to produce complete admixture. If by any accident the essence is added in too large a quantity, the resulting ‘milkiness’ or excess of flavour may be removed by the addition of a little more spirit, or by clarification. In this way the majority of the liqueurs in common use may be produced extemporaneously, of nearly equal quality to those prepared by distillation. For those which are coloured, simple digestion of the ingredients is almost universally adopted. The “process by distillation” should, however, be always employed to impart the flavour and aroma of volatile aromatics to the spirit, when expense, labour, and time are of less importance than the production of a superior article.

The French liqueuristes are famed for the preparation of cordials of superior quality, cream-like smoothness, and delicate flavour. Their success chiefly arises from the employment of very pure spirit and sugar (the former in a larger proportion than that adopted by the English compounder), and in the judicious application of the flavouring ingredients. They distinguish their cordials as ‘eaux’ and ‘extraits’ (waters, extracts), or liqueurs which, though sweetened, are entirely devoid of viscidity; and ‘baumes,’ ‘crêmes,’ and ‘huiles’ (balms, creams, oils), which contain sufficient sugar to impart to them a syrupy consistence. The greatest possible attention is given to the preparation of the aromatised or flavouring essences, in France called ‘infusions.’ These are generally made by macerating the aromatic ingredients in spirit at about 2 to 4 u. p. (sp. gr. ·922 to ·925), placed in well-corked glass carboys, or stoneware jars or bottles. The maceration is continued, with occasional agitation, for 3, 4, or even 5 weeks, when the aromatised spirit is either distilled or filtered; generally the former. The outer peel of cedrats, lemons, oranges, limettes, bergamottes, &c., is alone used by our Continental neighbours, and is obtained either by carefully peeling the fruit with a knife, or by ‘oleo-saccharum,’ by rubbing it off with a lump of hard white sugar. Aromatic seeds and woods are bruised by pounding before being submitted to infusion. The substances employed in France to colour liqueurs are, for—blue, soluble Prussian blue, sulphate of indigo (nearly neutralised with chalk), and the juice of blue flowers and berries;—amber, fawn, and brandy colour, burnt sugar or spirit colouring;—green, spinach or parsley leaves (digested in spirit), and mixtures of blue and yellow;—red, powdered cochineal or brazil wood, either alone or mixed with a little alum;—violet, blue violet petals, litmus, or extract of logwood;—purple, the same as violet, only deeper;—yellow, an aqueous infusion of safflower or French berries, and the tinctures of saffron and turmeric.

A frequent cause of failure in the manufacture of liqueurs and cordials is the addition of too much flavouring matter. Persons unaccustomed to the use of strong aromatic essences and essential oils seldom sufficiently estimate their power, and, consequently, are very apt to add too much of them, by which the liqueur is rendered not only disagreeably high flavoured, but, from the excess of oil present, also ‘milky,’ or ‘foul,’ either at once, or, what is nearly as bad, on the addition of water. This source of annoyance, arising entirely from bad manipulation, frequently discourages the tyro, and cuts short his career as a manufacturer. From the viscidity of cordials they are less readily ‘fined down’ than unsweetened liquor, and often give much trouble to clumsy and inexperienced operators. The most certain way to prevent disappointment in this respect is to use too little rather than too much flavouring; for if the quantity proves insufficient, it is readily ‘brought up’ at any time, but the contrary is not effected without some trouble and delay.

A careful attention to the previous remarks will render this branch of the rectifier’s art far more perfect and easy of performance than it is at present, and will, in most cases, produce at once a satisfactory article, ‘fine, sweet, and pleasant.’

The cordials of respectable British ‘compounders’ contain fully 3 lbs. of white lump sugar per gallon, and are of the strength of 60 to 64 u. p. The baumes, crêmes, and huiles imported from the Continent are richer both in spirit and sugar than ours, and to this may be referred much of their superiority. Mere sweetened or cordialised spirits (eaux, of the Fr.) contain only from 1 to 112 lb. of sugar per gallon.

The purity of liqueurs is determined in the manner noticed under Brandy, Wine, &c.

The following list embraces nearly all the cordials and liqueurs, both native and imported, met with in trade in this country:—

Absinthe. Syn. Extrait d’absinthe de Suisse; Swiss extract of wormwood. Prep. From the tops of Absinthum majus, 4 lbs.; tops of Absinthum minus, 2 lbs.; angelica root, Calamus aromaticus, Chinese aniseed, and leaves of dittany of Crete, of each 15 gr.; brandy or spirit at 12 u. p., 4 galls.; macerate for 10 days, then add water, 1 gall.; distil 4 galls. by a gentle heat, and dissolve in the distilled spirit, of crushed white sugar, 2 lbs. Tonic and stomachic.

Alker′mes. This liqueur is highly esteemed in some parts of the South of Europe.

Prep. 1. Bay leaves and mace, of each 1 lb.; nutmegs and cinnamon, of each 2 oz.; cloves, 1 oz. (all bruised); cognac brandy, 312 galls.; macerate for 3 weeks, frequently shaking, then distil over 3 galls., and add of clarified spirit of kermes, 18 lbs.; orange-flower water, 1 pint; mix well, and bottle. This is the original formula for the ‘alkermes de Santa Maria Novella,’ which is much valued.

2. Spice, as last; British brandy, 4 galls.986 water, 1 gall.; macerate as before, and draw over 4 galls., to which add, of capillaire, 2 galls., and sweet spirit of nitre, 14 pint. Cassia is often used for cinnamon. Inferior to the last.

An′iseed Cordial. Prep. 1. From aniseed, 2 oz. (or essential oil, 112 dr.), and sugar, 3 lbs. per gall. It should not be weaker than about 45 u. p., as at lower strengths it is impossible to produce a full-flavoured article without its being milky, or liable to become so.

2. (Anisette de Bordeaux.)—a. (Foreign.) Aniseed, 4 oz.; coriander and sweet fennel seeds, of each 1 oz. (bruised); rectified spirit, 12 gall.; water, 3 quarts; macerate for 5 or 6 days, then draw over 7 pints, and add of lump sugar, 212 lbs.

b. (English.) Oil of aniseed, 15 drops; oils of cassia and caraway, of each 6 drops; rub them with a little sugar, and then dissolve it in spirit (45 u. p.), 3 quarts, by well shaking them together; filter, if necessary, and dissolve in the clear liquor sugar, 112 lb. See Peppermint (below).

Balm of Molucca. Prep. From mace, 1 dr.; cloves, 12 oz.; clean spirit (22 u. p.), 1 gall.; infuse for a week in a well-corked carboy or jar, frequently shaking, colour with burnt sugar q. s., and to the clear tincture add of lump sugar, 412 lbs.; dissolved in pure soft water, 12 gall. On the Continent this takes the place of the ‘cloves’ of the English retailer.

Bit′ters. These have generally from 1 to 112 lb. of sugar per gallon.[19]

[19] See article Bitters.

Car′away Cordial. Prep. Generally from the essential oil, with only 212 lbs. of sugar per gall. 1 fl. dr. of the oil is commonly reckoned equal to 14 lb. of the seed. The addition of a very little oil of cassia, and about half as much of essence of lemon or of orange, improves it. See Brandy (Caraway).

Ce′drat Cordial. Prep. From essence (oil) of cedrat, 14 oz.; pure spirit (at proof), 1 gall.; dissolve, add of water, 3 pints, agitate well; distil 3 quarts, and add an equal measure of clarified syrup. A delicious liqueur. See Crême and Eau (below).

Cin′namon Cordial. Prep. This is seldom made with cinnamon, owing to its high price, but with either the essential oil or bark of cassia, with about 2 lbs. of sugar to the gall. It is preferred coloured, and therefore may be very well prepared by simple digestion. The addition of 5 or 6 drops each of essence of lemon and orange peel, with about a spoonful of essence of cardamoms per gall., improves it. 1 oz. of oil of cassia is considered equal to 8 lbs. of the buds or bark. 1 fl. dr. of the oil is enough for 212 galls. It is coloured with burnt sugar.

Cit′ron Cordial. Prep. From the oil or peel, with 3 lbs. of sugar per gall., as above. (See below.)

Citronelle. Syn. Eau de Barbades. Prep. 1. From fresh orange peel, 2 oz.; fresh lemon peel, 4 oz.; cloves, 12 dr.; corianders and cinnamon, of each 1 dr.; proof spirit, 4 pints; digest for 10 days, then add of water, 1 quart, and distil 12 gall.; to the distilled essence add of white sugar, 2 lbs., dissolved in water, 1 quart.

2. Essence of orange, 12 dr.; essence of lemon, 1 dr.; oil of cloves, and cassia, of each 10 drops; oil of coriander, 20 drops; spirit (58 o. p.), 5 pints; agitate until dissolved, then add of distilled or clear soft water, 3 pints; well mix, and filter it through blotting paper, if necessary; lastly add of sugar (dissolved), q. s.

Clairet. Syn. Rossalis des sin graines. Prep. From aniseed, fennel seed, coriander seed, caraway seed, dill seed, and seeds of the candy-carrot (Athamantia cretensis—Linn.), of each (bruised) 1 oz.; proof spirit 12 gall.; digest for a week, strain, and add of loaf sugar, 1 lb., dissolved in water, q. s.

Cloves. Syn. Clove cordial. Prep. From bruised cloves, 1 oz., or essential oil, 1 fl. dr., to every 3 galls. of proof spirit. If distilled, some common salt should be added, and it should be drawn over with a pretty quick fire. It requires fully 3 lbs. of sugar per gall., and is generally coloured with poppy flowers or burnt sugar. The addition of 1 dr. of bruised pimento, or 5 drops of the oil for every oz. of cloves, improves this cordial. See Balm of Molucca (above).

Coriander Cordial. Prep. From corianders, as the last. A few sliced oranges improve it.

Crême d’Anis. As ANISEED CORDIAL, only richer.

Crême des Barbades. As CITRONELLE, adding some of the juice of the oranges, and an additional lb. of sugar per gall.

Crême de Cacao. Prep. Infuse roasted caracca-cacao nuts (cut small), 1 lb., and vanilla, 12 oz., in brandy, 1 gall., for 8 days; strain, and add of thick syrup, 3 quarts.

Crême de Cedrat. Syn. Huile de Cedrat. Prep. From spirit of citron, 1 pint; spirit of cedrat, 1 quart; proof spirit, 3 quarts; white sugar, 16 lbs., dissolved in pure soft water, 2 galls.

Crême de Macarons. Prep. 1. From cloves, cinnamon, and mace, of each (bruised) 1 dr.; bitter almonds (blanched and beaten to a paste), 7 oz.; spirit (17 u. p.), 1 gall.; digest a week, filter, and add of white sugar, 6 lbs., dissolve in pure water, 2 quarts.

2. Clean spirit (at 24 u. p., sp. gr. ·945), 2 galls.; bitter almonds, 34 lb.; cloves, cinnamon, and mace, of each in coarse powder, 112 dr.; infuse for 10 days, filter, and add of white sugar, 8 lbs.; dissolved in pure water, 1 gall.; lastly, give the liqueur a violet tint with infusion or tincture of litmus and cochineal. An agreeable, nutty-flavoured cordial, but, from containing so much bitter almonds, should be only drank in small quantities at a time. The987 English use only one half the above quantity of almonds.

Crême de Naphe. Prep. From sweetened spirit (60 u. p.) containing 312 lbs. of sugar per gall., 7 quarts; orange-flower water (foreign), 1 quart. Delicious.

Crême de Noyeau. See Noyeau.

Crême d’Orange. Prep. From oranges, (sliced), 3 dozen; rectified spirit, 2 galls.; digest for 14 days; add, of lump sugar, 28 lbs. (previously dissolved in water, 412 galls.); tincture of saffron, 112 fl. oz.; and orange-flower water, 2 quarts.

Crême de Portugal. Flavoured with lemon, to which a little oil of bitter almonds is added.

Curaçao. Prep. From sweetened spirit (at 56 u. p.), containing 312 lbs. of sugar per gall., flavoured with a tincture made by digesting the ‘oleo-saccharum’ prepared from Seville oranges, 9 in number; cinnamon, 1 dr.; and mace, 34 dr., in rectified spirit, 1 pint. It is coloured by digesting in it for a week or 10 days Brazil-wood (in powder), 1 oz., and afterwards mellowing the colour with burnt sugar, q. s.

Delight of the Mandarins. From spirit (22 u. p.), 1 gall.; pure soft water, 12 gall.; white sugar (crushed small), 412 lbs.; Chinese aniseed and ambrette or musk seed, of each (bruised) 12 oz.; safflower, 14 oz.; digested together in a carboy or stone bottle capable of holding double, and agitated well every day for a fortnight.

Eau de Cedrat. Syn. Cedrat water. As CRÊME DE CEDRAT, but using less sugar.

Eau de Chasseurs. See Peppermint (below).

Eau de Vie d’Andaye. Syn. Eau de vie d’Anis; Aniseed liqueur brandy. Prep. From brandy or proof spirit, 1 gall.; sugar, 34 lb.; dissolved in aniseed water, 1 pint.

Gold Cordial. Prep. From angelica root (sliced), 1 lb.; raisins, 12 lb.; coriander seeds, 2 oz.; caraway seeds and cassia, of each 112 oz.; cloves, 12 oz.; figs and sliced liquorice root, of each 4 oz.; proof spirit, 3 galls.; water, 1 gall.; digest 2 days, and distil 3 gallons by a gentle heat; to this add, of sugar, 9 lbs., dissolved in rose water and clean soft water, of each 1 quart; lastly, colour the liquid by steeping in it of bay saffron, 114 oz. This cordial was once held in much esteem. It derives its name from a small quantity of gold leaf being formerly added to it.

Huile d’Anis. See Crême d’Anis (above).

Huile de Vanille. Flavoured with essence or tincture of vanilla. It is kept in a decanter, and used to flavour liqueurs, grog, &c.

Huile de Venus. Prep. From the flowers of the wild carrot, 212 oz., and sugar, 3 lbs. to the gall. It is generally coloured by infusing a little powdered cochineal in it.

Jargonelle. Syn. Jargonelle cordial. Flavoured with essence of jargonelle pear (acetate of amyl). Pine-apple cordial and liqueurs from some other fruits are also prepared from the new fruit essences. See Essence.

Lem′on Cordial. Prep. Digest fresh and dried lemon peel, of each 2 oz., and fresh orange peel, 1 oz., in proof spirit, 1 gall., for a week; strain with expression, add of clear soft water q. s. to reduce it to the desired strength, and lump sugar, 3 lbs. to the gallon. The addition of a little orange-flower or rose water improves it.

Liquodilla. Flavoured with oranges and lemons, of each, sliced, 3 in number; with sugar 212 lbs. per gall.

Lov′age Cordial. Prep. From the fresh roots of lovage, 1 oz. to the gallon. A fourth of this quantity of the fresh roots of celery and sweet fennel are also commonly added. In some parts a little fresh valerian root and oil of savine are added before distillation. It is much valued by the lower classes in some of the provinces for its stomachic and emmenagogue qualities.

Oil of Ce′drat. See Crême de Cedrat (above).

Orange Cordial. Like LEMON CORDIAL or CRÊME D’ORANGE, from fresh orange peel, 12 lb., to the gallon.

Parfait Amour. Syn. Perfect Love. Prep. Flavoured with the yellow rind of 4 lemons, and a teaspoonful of essence of vanilla to the gallon, with sugar, 3 lbs., and powdered cochineal q. s. to colour.

Pep′permint. Syn. Peppermint cordial, Sportsman’s c., X. mint; Eau de chasseurs, Fr. This well-known compound is in greater demand in every part of the kingdom than all the other cordials put together.

Prep. 1. From peppermint water and gin or plain spirit (22 u. p.), of each 1 pint; lump sugar, 34 lb.

2. (Wholesale.) English oil of peppermint, 5 oz., is added to rectified spirits of wine, 3 pints, and the mixture is agitated well together for some time in a corked bottle capable of holding 4 pints or more; it is then emptied into a cask having a capacity of upwards of 100 galls., and perfectly white and flavourless proof spirit, 36 galls., is poured in, and the whole well agitated for ten minutes; a solution of the best double refined lump sugar, 234 cwt., in about 35 galls. of pure filtered rain water, is then added, and the contents of the cask well ‘rummaged up’ in the usual manner for at least 15 minutes; sufficient clear rain water to make up the whole quantity to exactly 100 gallons, and holding in solution alum, 5 oz., is next added, and the whole is again well agitated for at least a quarter of an hour, after which the cask is bunged down, and allowed to repose for a fortnight before it is ‘broached’ for sale.

Obs. The last formula produces a beautiful article provided the ingredients are of good quality. Care on this point is particularly necessary in reference to the essential oil, which should only be purchased of some known988 respectable dealer. The sugar should be sufficiently pure to dissolve in a wine-glassful of clear soft water without injuring its transparency, and the cask should be a fresh-emptied gin pipe, or one properly prepared for gin, as, if it gives colour, it will spoil the cordial. When these particulars are attended to, the product is a bright transparent liquor as soon as made, and does not require fining. Should there be the slightest opacity, the addition of 2 oz. of salt of tartar, dissolved in a quart of hot water, will have the effect of ‘clearing it down’ in the course of a few days. The product is 100 galls. of cordial at 64 u. p.

Pimen′to. Syn. Pimento cordial, Pimento dram. Rather strongly flavoured with allspice or pimento. It has obtained a great repute in the West Indies in diarrhœa, cholera, and bowel complaints generally.

Rasp′berry Cordial. Prep. From raspberry brandy, capillaire, and water, equal parts. A similar article is prepared by flavouring sweetened spirit with the new ‘raspberry essence.’

Rat′ifia. The numerous liqueurs bearing this name are noticed in another part of this volume. See Ratifia.

Shrub. See the article Shrub in another part of this work.

Sighs of Love. Prep. 1. From proof spirit flavoured with otto of roses and capillaire, equal parts.

2. From sugar, 6 lbs., pure soft water, q. s. to produce a gallon of syrup, to which add, of eau de rose, 1 pint; proof spirit, 7 pints. It is stained of a pale pink by powdered cochineal. A very pleasant cordial. A drop or two (not more) of essence of ambergris or vanilla improves it.

Tears of the Widow of Malabar. Prep. As balm of Molucca, but employing cloves (bruised), 12 oz., mace (shredded), 1 dr., and a teaspoonful of essence of vanilla for flavouring. Some add of orange-flower water, 14 pint. It is slightly coloured with burnt sugar.

Tent. From plain spirit (22 u. p.) and port wine, of each 1 quart; sherry and soft water, of each 1 pint; orange-flower water and lemon juice, of each 14 pint; essence of ambergris, 2 drops (not more); sugar, 2 lbs. See Wine.

Us′quebaugh. See the article Usquebaugh in another part of this work.

LIQUEUR DE LA MOTTE. [Fr.] See Drops (Golden) and Tincture.

LIQUEUR DORÉE. [Fr.] Prep. Take of cinnamon, bitter orange peel, and Peruvian bark, of each 12 oz.; hay saffron, 14 oz.; brandy and Malaga wine, of each 3 quarts; digest for a week, strain, and add of lump sugar, 2 lbs. Tonic, stomachic, and stimulant; chiefly used as an agreeable alcoholic dram.

LIQUEUR DE PRESSAVIN. [Fr.] Prep. From oxide of mercury (freshly precipitated) and cream of tartar, of each 1 oz.; hot water, 1 quart; dissolve and filter. For use 2 spoonfuls of this liquor are added to 1 quart of water.—Dose. A wine-glassful 3 or 4 times a day, avoiding the use of common salt. This is simply a solution of potassio-tartrate of mercury, and may be taken in the usual cases in which mercury is administered.

LIQUODIN′NA. See Liqueur.

LIQUID-AMBAR. Syn. Copaibæ balsam. A fluid balsamic juice obtained from the Liquidamber styraciflua, an American tree. It closely resembles LIQUID STORAX in its properties, and may be applied to the same purposes. See Styrax.

LIQ′UOR. Syn. Liquor, L.; Liqueur, Fr. This term is given in the London Pharmacopœia to those aqueous solutions commonly though improperly called ‘WATERS,’ ammoniæ liquor potassæ, &c. It is now more correctly applied to the ‘WATERS’ of the British Pharmacopœia. See Solution.

The term ‘liquor’ has also, of late years, been applied to certain concentrated preparations, most of which would be more correctly termed ‘FLUID EXTRACTS,’ as they merely differ from good extracts in their consistence, and from ordinary extracts in containing less starchy matter, albumen, and gum. There is also usually a little spirit added to them to prevent decomposition. Liquors of this kind may be prepared of the finest quality by the same processes that are required for the preparation of good soluble extracts; observing to stop the evaporation as soon as the consistence of treacle is acquired, and when cold, to add 1-4th or 1-5th part of their weight (after evaporation) in rectified spirit. The addition of 3 or 4 drops of the oils of cloves and mustard seed, dissolved in the spirit, will secure them from any risk of ‘moulding’ or fermenting; in fact, with this addition many of them will keep well without spirit, provided they are evaporated sufficiently, and kept in a cool place. The liquors, which are merely concentrated infusions or decoctions, and which, in their consistence, do not even approximate to extracts, may be made in the manner directed under those heads.

Much confusion would be prevented if the terms ‘concentrated decoction,’ ‘concentrated infusion,’ &c., were adopted for those vegetable preparations possessing eight times the usual strength; ‘liquors’ for those of a higher strength, but still sufficiently liquid to be treated as such in dispensing, &c.; and ‘fluid extracts’ for those possessing considerable consistence, and approaching the common extracts in their degree of concentration and mode of preparation. See Decoction, Infusion, Essence, Extract, Solution, &c.

⁂ The following formulæ present some illustrations of the preparation of this class of medicines.

Liquor of Ammonia. Syn. Liquor Ammoniæ. Prep. Strong solution of ammonia, 1 pint; distilled water, 2 pints; mix and preserve in a stoppered bottle. Sp. gr. ·959.


Liquor of Ammonia, Stronger. Syn. Liquor Ammoniæ Fortior. Prep. Mix chloride of ammonium in coarse powder 3 lbs., and slaked lime 4 lbs., and introduce the mixture into an iron bottle, placed in a metal pot surrounded by sand. Connect the iron tube which screws air-tight into the bottle in the usual manner, by corks, glass tubes, and caoutchouc collars, with a Woulf’s bottle capable of holding a pint; connect this with a second Woulf’s bottle of the same size, the second bottle with a matrass of the capacity of three pints, in which 22 oz. of distilled water are placed, and the matrass by means of a tube bent twice at right angles, with an ordinary bottle containing distilled water 10 oz. Bottles 1 and 2 are empty, and the latter and the matrass which contains the 22 oz. of distilled water are furnished each with a siphon safety-tube charged with a very short column of mercury.

The heat of a fire, which should be very gradually raised, is to be now applied to the metal pot, and continued until bubbles of condensible gas cease to escape from the extremity of the glass tube which dips into the water of the matrass.

The process being terminated, the matrass will contain about 43 fl. oz. of strong solution of ammonia. Bottles 1 and 2 will now include the first, about 16, the second, about 10 fl. oz. of a coloured ammoniacal liquid.

Place this in a flask closed by a cork, which should be perforated by a siphon safety-tube containing a little mercury, and also by a second safety-tube bent twice at right angles, and made to pass to the bottom of the terminal bottle used in the preceding process. Apply heat to the flask until the coloured liquid it contains is reduced to three fourths of its original bulk. The product now contained in the terminal bottle will be nearly of the strength of solution of ammonia, and may be made exactly so by the addition of the proper quantity of distilled water, or of strong solution of ammonia. Density ·191, contains 32·5 per cent. of ammonia.

Antidotes.—Vinegar and water followed by acidulated demulcent drinks.

Liquor, Anodyne. See Spirit of Ether.

Liquor, Antinephritic. Syn. Liquor antinephriticus, L. Prep. (Adams.) Poppy heads, 6 oz.; water, 112 pint; boil to one third, strain with pressure, and add of nitrate of potassa, 1 oz.—Dose, 1 to 2 teaspoonfuls night and morning; in gravel and painful affections of the kidneys and bladder.

Liquor, Antipodag′ric (Beguin’s). Syn. Hoffmann’s gout liquid; Liquor antipodagricus Hoffmannii, L. Prep. From Boyle’s fuming liquor, 1 part; spirit of wine, 3 parts. Sudorific.—Dose, 20 to 30 drops; or externally, in gout, and other painful affections, either alone or combined with camphor. See Ammonium, Persulphide of.

Liquor Antipsor′ic. Syn. Liquor antipsoricus, Lotio a., L. Prep. (Van Mons.) Sulphuret of sodium, 112 dr.; hydrochlorate of ammonia, 75 gr.; dissolve each separately in water, 12 pint, mix the solutions, and filter. In itch and other moist skin diseases.

Liquor, Bleaching. See Solution of Chloride of Lime.

Liquor, Blistering. B. Syn. Liquor Epispasticus, Linimentum cantharides. Prep. Mix cantharides in powder, 8 oz.; and acetic acid, 4 fl. oz. Pack in a percolator, and after 24 hours pass ether slowly through until 20 fl. oz. are obtained. Keep in a stoppered bottle.

Liquor, Boyle’s Fu′′ming. The perhydrosulphate of ammonia.

Liquor of Calum′ba. Syn. Liquor calumbæ, L. Same as CONCENTRATED INFUSION OF CALUMBA.

Liquor of Cam′phor. See Essence.

Liquor of Chiret′ta. Same as Concentrated infusion of chiretta.

Liquor of Cincho′na. Syn. Liquor of bark; Concentrated infusion of bark, Inspissated i. or B.; Inspissated i. of b.; Infusum cinchonæ spissatum (Ph. L.), L. Prep. 1. (Ph. L.) Yellow cinchona bark (bruised), 3 lbs., is macerated in distilled water, 6 pints, at two successive operations, as directed under EXTRACT OF CINCHONA—Ph. L.; the mixed infusions are evaporated by the heat of a water bath to one fourth, and placed aside to settle; the clear portion is decanted, the remainder strained, and the mixed liquid again evaporated until its sp. gr. reaches 1·200; to this, when cold, rectified spirit is dropped in, by degrees, “so that 3 fl. dr. may be added to each fl. oz. of the liquor;” lastly, allow it to repose for 20 days, that the dregs may subside.

Obs. It is not at all clear whether the College means 3 fl. dr. of spirit to be added to each fl. oz. of the liquid before its addition, or that it is to be added so that each fl. oz. of the product shall contain that quantity. We presume the former. 1 fl. dr. of this preparation is said to represent fully 4 fl. oz. of the INFUSION OF CINCHONA—Ph. L.; but it is obvious that it must be liable to great variations in strength. “In a general way 1 fl. dr. may be considered equal to 3 fl. oz. of the infusion.” (Pereira.) As commonly met with, this preparation is nearly destitute of the cinchona alkaloids.

2. Yellow cinchona bark, bruised, 56 lbs., and water holding in solution sulphuric acid, 112 lb., are macerated together, with occasional agitation, in a covered earthen vessel, for 48 hours, after which the liquor is expressed, and the residuum or marc is treated with fresh water; the mixed strained liquid is then evaporated as rapidly as possible in earthenware, to exactly 6 lbs.; to this rectified spirit, 114 lb., is added, and the whole is set aside for a week or 10 days; the clear portion is, lastly, decanted and preserved in well-closed bottles. The product990 is very rich in quinine. It is 96 times as strong as the DECOCTION OF CINCHONA—Ph. L., and 12 times as strong as the above preparation of the Ph. L. This preparation resembles the ‘LIQUOR CINCHONÆ’ sold by certain houses in the trade at 24s. per lb., wholesale.

3. Exhaust the bark as above by maceration in 3 successive waters without acid, filter, evaporate the mixed liquors to 7 lbs., and proceed as before. Inferior to the last, and less rich in the cinchona alkaloids. Very thick; scarcely liquid.

4. From PALE BARK:—(Liquor cinchonæ pallidæ; Infusum cinchonæ spissatum—Ph. L.) From pale bark, as the last. See Infusion of Cinchona.

Liquor, Disinfect′ing. See Solution (Chlorides of Lime, Soda, and Zinc), and Disinfecting compounds.

Liquor of Er′got. Syn. Essence of ergot of rye, Concentrated infusion of e.; Essentia secalis cornuti, Liquor ergotæ, Infusum ergotæ concentratum, L. Prep. Recent ergot of rye (reduced to coarse powder by pounding, or preferably by grinding it in a pepper-mill), 112 lb., and boiling distilled water, 4 lbs., are digested together in a closed vessel, with frequent agitation until cold, and then put into a wide-mouthed bottle, along with rectified spirit, 2 lbs.; the whole is then allowed to macerate for a week, after which the liquor is expressed and filtered. Obs. 4 fl. dr. of this essence are equal to 1 dr. of ergot in substance. It is 8 times the strength of the INFUSION (as usually prepared according to the formula of Pereira and others), and 212 times the strength of the TINCTURE OF ERGOT of the London Apothecaries’ Hall. This is the only ESSENCE OF LIQUOR OF ERGOT known in the wholesale trade.

Liquor of Flints. See Solution.

Liquor of Gutta Percha. B. Syn. Liquor Gutta percha. Gutta percha in thin slices, 1 oz.; carbonate of lead in fine powder, 1 oz.; chloroform, 8 fl. oz. Add the gutta percha to 6 fl. oz. of chloroform in a stoppered bottle, and shake them frequently till solution has been effected. Then add the carbonate of lead previously mixed with the remainder of the chloroform, and having several times shaken the whole together set the mixture aside, and let it remain at rest until the soluble matter has subsided. Lastly, decant the clear liquid and keep in a well-stoppered bottle.

Liquor, Libavius’s. Bichloride of tin.

Liquor of Mat′ico. Syn. Concentrated infusion of matico; Liquor maticonis, Infusum maticonis concentratum, L. Prep. From matico leaves, 1 lb.; rectified spirit, 12 pint; distilled water, 32 fl. oz.; digest 10 days, express, and filter. 1 fl. dr. added to 7 fl. dr. of water is equal to 1 fl. oz. of the common INFUSION.

Liquor of Myrrh. Syn. Solution of myrrh; Liquor myrrhæ, Loco liquaminis myrrhæ, L. Prep. (Ph. Bor.) Extract of myrrh (Ph. Bor.), 1 oz.; distilled water, 5 fl. oz.; mix thoroughly, decant, and strain. It should be of a brownish-yellow colour, and turbid.—Dose, 12 to 1 fl. dr.

Liquor of O′pium. Syn. Liquor opii, L. o. concentratus, L. opiatus, L. See Black drop.[20]

[20] Under Drops, p. 591.

1. (Messrs Smith.) Opium, 4 oz., is made into an extract, and ‘denarcotised’ by ether; it is then dissolved in alcohol, filtered, evaporated nearly to dryness, and redissolved in water q. s. to furnish 12 oz. of solution; to this is added, of rectified spirit, 234 oz., with water q. s. to make the whole up to 16 oz.—Dose, 3 to 12 drops.

2. (Acetic; Liquor opii aceticus, L.) See Laudanum (Houlton’s).

3. (Citric; Liquor opii citricus, L.)—a. Powdered opium, 112 oz.; lemon juice, 112 pint; evaporate to one half, cool, add of rectified spirit, 5 fl. oz., and the next day decant or filter; same strength as ‘LAUDANUM,’

b. (Liquor morphiæ citratis—Dr Porter.) Opium, 4 oz.; citric acid, 2 oz.; triturate, and add of boiling water, 15 fl. oz.; digest with agitation for 24 hours, and filter. This last has above three times the strength of ‘LAUDANUM,’ It is sadly misnamed.

4. (Hydrochloric; Solution of Muriate of Opium; Liquor opii hydrochloricus, L.—Dr Nichol.) Powdered opium, 112 oz.; distilled water, 1 pint; hydrochloric acid, 112 fl. oz.; digest a fortnight, and strain with expression. Same strength as ‘LAUDANUM,’ According to Dr Nichol, this is preferable to every other preparation of opium.

5. (Sedative; Battley’s Sedative solution of Opium; Liquor opii sedativus, L.)—a. Hard aqueous extract of opium (bruised), 3 oz., is boiled in water, 112 pint, until dissolved; to the solution, when cold, rectified spirit, 6 oz. is added, together with water, q. s. to make the whole measure exactly 1 quart; the liquor is, lastly, filtered.

b. From hard extract of opium, 22 oz.; boiling water, 13 pints; rectified spirit, 3 pints; as the last.

c. From extract of opium—Ph. L., 414 oz.; water, 1 quart; boil till reduced to 34 fl. oz.; cool, filter, and add of rectified spirit, 5 fl. oz., and water, q. s. to make up exactly 1 quart.

Obs. The first two formulæ, which vary only in their quantities, are identical with that employed by Mr Battley. As hard extract of opium is not always at hand, we have introduced a formula in which the ordinary extract is ordered. It gives a precisely similar product to the others, provided the cold aqueous decoction is filtered before adding the spirit. Battley’s LIQUOR OPII SEDATIVUS is an excellent preparation, less exciting than opium or laudanum.—Dose, 10 to 30 drops. Dr Christison states that 20 drops of Battley’s solution are equal to 30 drops of the common tincture.


Liquor, Pancreatic (Van den Corput). Syn. Liquor Pancreatini. Pancreatin and carbonate of potash, of each 10 gr.; balm water, 212 fl. oz.; syrup of orange peel, 5 dr.—Dose, 12 fl. oz. to 1 fl. oz.

Liquor of Pepsin. (Mr Squire.) Syn. Liquor pepsini. Prep. 1 drachm of Boudault’s pepsin in 1 oz. of distilled water. Salt must be added if it is to be preserved.—Dose. A teaspoonful.

Liquor of Rhu′barb. Syn. Liquor rhei, Infusum rhei concentratum, L. Prep. 1. Rhubarb (well bruised), 634 oz.; water, q. s.; rectified spirit, 12 pint; proceed as for INFUSION OF CALUMBA (conc.); to produce a quart. 8 times the usual strength.

2. See Infusion of Rhubarb (Concentrated).

3. See Extract of Rhubarb (Fluid).

Liquor of Sarsaparil′la. Syn. Fluid extract of sarsaparilla; Liquor sarzæ, Essentia sarsaparillæ, L. Prep. Either the simple or the compound liquor of sarsaparilla may be made from the corresponding decoction, or, preferably, the infusion prepared with water at 125° Fahr., by carefully evaporating it until sufficiently concentrated, and then straining it through flannel, and adding a little spirit. Jamaica sarsaparilla should be alone employed, as the other varieties, especially the Honduras, not only possess less medicinal virtue, and yield less extract, but are very liable to ferment and get mouldy, unless an undue proportion of spirit is added to them. See Extract of Sarsaparilla (Fluid).

Liquor of Sen′na. Syn. Liquor sennæ, L. Both the FLUID EXTRACT and the CONCENTRATED INFUSION OF SENNA are called by this name, but more generally the former. The following are additional formulæ:—

1. (Duncan.) Senna, 15 lbs.; boiling water, 5 galls.; proceed by the method of displacement, evaporate the product to 10 lbs., add of molasses, 6 lbs. (previously concentrated over a water bath until it begins to congeal on cooling), dissolve, and further add of rectified spirit, 114 pint, together with water q. s. to make the whole measure exactly 12 pints. Every fl. oz. represents 1 oz. of senna.

2. (Dr Tweedy.) As the last, but using tincture of ginger (prepared with rectified spirit), 112 pint, instead of the spirit there ordered.

Liquor of Soap. Syn. Liquor saponis, L. See Tincture.

Liquor, Styp′tic. Syn. Liquor stypticus, L. Prep. (Ph. Slevico-Holsat. 1831.) Alum and sulphate of copper, of each 112 oz.; sulphuric acid, 1 oz.; water, 1 lb.; dissolve, and filter.

Liquor of Tarax′acum. Syn. Fluid extract of dandelion; Extractum taraxaci fluidum, Liquor taraxaci, L. Prep. 1. Dandelion roots (dried), 28 lbs., are rinsed in clean cold water to remove dirt, and then sliced small, and macerated in enough cold water to cover them for 24 hours; the liquid is next pressed out, and after the fecula has subsided the clear portion is decanted, and heated to 180° or 190° Fahr., to coagulate the albumen; the liquid is then filtered while hot and evaporated by steam, or preferably by a current of warm air, until it is reduced to 2212 lbs.; to this rectified spirit, 6 lbs., is added, and after thorough agitation the vessel is set aside for a week or a fortnight, after which the clear portion is gently poured from the sediment and preserved in well-closed bottles in a cool place. A very fine article. It represents an equal weight of the root.

2. The expressed juice of dandelion is heated to near the boiling point, strained, and evaporated, as the last, to a proper consistence; 14th or 15th of rectified spirit is then added, and the liquid is otherwise treated as before. Very odorous and pale coloured.

3. Dried root (coarsely powered), 1 lb.; water, 114 pint; rectified spirit, 12 pint; digest a week, express the liquor, pass it through a hair sieve into a bottle, and in 10 days decant the clear portion.

4. (Ph. Bor.) Extract of dandelion, 3 parts; water, 1 part (or q. s.); triturated together.

5. (W. Procter.) Fresh root, 2 lbs., is sliced and reduced to a pulp, and macerated with 16th of its bulk of rectified spirit for 24 hours; it is then subjected to strong pressure, the marc is treated with water containing a little spirit, 1 pint, and the liquid is again expressed; the mixed product is evaporated to 12 fl. oz., and when cold, rectified spirit, 4 fl. oz. is added, and the whole filtered.

Obs. Liquor of taraxacum has a very large sale. The dose is 1 to 2 fl. dr. See Extract.

Liquor of Valer′ian. See Extract of Valerian (Fluid).

Liquor of Vanil′la. Syn. Fluid extract of vanilla; Liquor vanillæ, Extractum v. fluidum, L. Prep. 1. Vanilla (sliced), 1 lb.; rectified spirit, 3 pints; prepare a tincture either by displacement or maceration, and reduce it, by distillation at the lowest possible temperature, to 112 lb.; put this into a strong bottle whilst hot, add of white sugar candy (in powder), 12 lb., cork down, and agitate the whole until it is nearly cold. Very fine. Used chiefly for its odour and flavour. It represents half its weight of vanilla.

2. (W. Procter.) Vanilla (cut into thin transverse slices), 1 oz.; sugar, 3 oz.; triturate until reduced to fine powder, put it into a strong pint bottle, along with syrup, 12 pint; water, 2 oz.; tie down the cork, and set the bottle for half an hour in boiling water; cool, strain, and treat the residue in a like manner with a mixture of water, 6 fl. oz., and rectified spirit, 1 fl. oz.; lastly, mix the two products. Greatly inferior to the last.

LIQ′UORICE. Syn. Stick liquorice; Liquoritia,992 Glycyrrhizæ radix (B. P.), Glycyrrhizæ radix, Glycyrrhiza (Ph. L. & D.), G. glabra (Ph. E.), L. “The root or underground stem of the Glycyrrhiza glabra, fresh and dried, cultivated in Britain.” “The recent and the dried root of Glycyrrhiza glabra,” or common liquorice. “The fresh root is to be kept buried in dried sand for use.” (Ph. L.) It has a sweetish taste, and is slightly aperient, expectorant, and diuretic. It is a popular demulcent and pectoral. Its extract and solution are much used as a domestic remedy for cough. As a masticatory it allays thirst and irritation.

Composition of the fresh root of liquorice:

Glycyrrhizin 8·60
Gum 26·60
Matter soluble in alcohol, chiefly resin 0·75
Albumen 0·97
Starch 22·91
Woody fibre 13·36
Moisture 26·81
Ash, 3·07 per cent.

Roussin asserts that the sweetness of liquorice root is not due to glycyrrhizin, as has been hitherto assumed, but to an ammoniacal compound of that substance. Glycyrrhizin, when purified four successive times by dissolving it in alcohol, and precipitating the foreign matter accompanying it by ether, is a yellowish substance, insoluble in cold water, and almost tasteless. Treated with dilute solution of potash or soda, it rapidly develops a sweet taste. In liquorice root, however, it is not contained in combination with either of these two alkalies, but appears to exist as an ammoniacal compound, for solutions of potash and soda liberate ammonia, both from the root and the extract. In its compounds with the alkalies glycyrrhizin plays the part of an acid, as it forms true salts capable of undergoing decomposition with most of the metallic salts, and also with the salts of the organic alkaloids. With ammonia it forms two compounds, a basic salt, which yields a deep yellow solution, and another containing less ammonia, the solution of which has an amber colour. The former is produced by dissolving glycyrrhizin in water with an excess of ammonia. Upon evaporating the resulting deep yellow solution to dryness it leaves a yellowish, scaly, shining, brittle, non-hygroscopic residue, which constitutes the second ammoniacal compound. This is readily soluble in cold water, to which it imparts a pale yellow colour and a very sweet taste. The solution turns deep yellow on the addition of a few drops of solution of ammonia, owing to the formation of the basic compound. The pale yellow solution possesses, in a marked degree, the taste of liquorice root, which, indeed, owes its sweetness to this glycyrrhizate of ammonia, or ammoniacal glycyrrhizin, as the author prefers to call it. One gram of this compound imparts the sweet taste of the root to two litres of water.

The author gives the following process for the preparation of the ammoniacal glycyrrhizin in the pure state: The carefully-selected roots, freed from all portions presenting a dark fracture, are scraped, and then well pounded, so as to reduce them to a kind of stringy tow. This substance is macerated in cold distilled water for some hours, pressed, and treated a second time in the same manner. The two liquors are mixed and allowed to stand for some time to deposit the starch. The supernatant liquor is then boiled and filtered, to separate the coagulated albumen. After cooling, sulphuric acid diluted with its weight of water is added gradually, with brisk stirring, until a precipitate is no longer formed. The precipitate, at first gelatinous and flocculent, after standing some time, forms a compact semi-solid mass at the bottom of the vessel. The supernatant liquor is rejected, and after roughly washing the precipitate several times with pure water it is finally kneaded repeatedly in distilled water until all trace of acidity has disappeared. The mass is then well drained and agitated in a flask with three times its weight of 90° alcohol until dissolved, when a similar quantity of 96° to 98° alcohol is added to the syrupy liquid so produced. A little pectic acid is thus precipitated, which is removed by filtration. Ether is then added to the alcoholic liquor as long as a precipitate is formed. After standing twenty-four or even forty-eight hours a blackish pitchy substance is deposited, which adheres to the glass, and allows of the clear liquor being decanted. To this clear liquor is added, in small quantities at a time, alcohol of 90° charged with gaseous ammonia, which determines the formation of a yellow, rather heavy, flocculent precipitate of glycyrrhizate of ammonia. This precipitate is washed rapidly on a fine cloth with a mixture of equal parts of alcohol and ether, pressed and dried in a current of warm air, or over sulphuric acid.

The author suggests the addition of ammoniacal glycyrrhizin to pill masses, powders, or mixtures, and states that its power of masking the taste of nauseous medicines is equal to 100 times its weight of sugar. Sulphate of quinine, sulphate of magnesia, iodide of potassium, and ipecacuanha, lose much of their taste by such an addition.

A dose of cod-liver oil or syrup of iodide of iron is rendered more palatable by being preceded by a small dose of the solid ammoniacal glycerin.[21] Its extract is the common LIQUORICE, Spanish liquorice, or Spanish juice, of the shops. See Extract, &c.

[21] ‘Journal de Pharmacie et de Chimie,’ xii 6-11.

LISBON DIET DRINK. 1. (Foy.) Prep. Guaiacum wood, rasped, 1 oz.; sarsaparilla, bruised, 3 oz.; mezereon, sliced, 12 oz.; crude993 antimony (in a rag), 2 oz.; water, 12 pints. Boil down to 8 pints, and add—red sanders, rasped, white sandal, rasped, of each 3 oz.; rosewood, rasped sassafras bark, sliced, of each 1 oz.; liquorice root, sliced, 12 oz. Infuse for four hours, strain, and add syrup according to taste.—Dose, 1 to 2 pints a day.

2. (Pearson.) Sarsaparilla, bruised, 4 oz.; dried walnut peel, 4 oz.; guaiacum, rasped, 112 oz.; crude antimony (in a rag), 12 oz.; water, 4 pints. Boil down to 3 pints.

LIST. The border or selvage torn off a piece of cloth. It is used by the French polishers and law stationers to form their rubbers, and for numerous other purposes.

LITH′ARGE. Syn. Semi-vitrified oxide of lead; Plumbi oxydum (Ph. L.), Plumbi oxydum semi-vitreum (Ph. D.), Lithargyrum (Ph. E.), L. The litharge of commerce is semi-vitrified protoxide of lead, obtained chiefly by scraping off the drops that form on the surface of melted lead exposed to a current of air (dross of lead; plumbum ustum), and heating it to a full red, to melt out any undecomposed metal. The fused oxide, in cooling, forms a yellow or reddish semi-crystalline mass, which readily separates into scales; these, when ground, constitute the ‘powdered litharge’ of the shops. Litharge is also prepared by exposing red lead to a heat sufficiently high to fuse it, and ‘English litharge’ is obtained as a secondary product, by liquefaction, from argentiferous lead ore, when it is often called ‘silver stone.’

Pur. “Entirely, or almost entirely, soluble in dilute nitric acid. This solution is blackened by sulphuretted hydrogen. Potassa throws down a white precipitate, which is redissolved by adding the same in excess. If sulphate of soda be added to 100 gr. of this oxide dissolved in nitric acid, 135 gr. of sulphate of lead is precipitated.” (Ph. L.) “50 gr. dissolve entirely, and without effervescence, in 112 fl. oz. of pyroligneous acid, and the solution precipitated by 53 gr. of phosphate of soda remains precipitable by more of the test.” (Ph. E.) The solution in both acetic and nitric acid should be colourless. It is of great importance to the pharmaceutist to obtain pure litharge, as the slightest impurity will often colour and spoil his lead plaster (EMP. PLUMBI), and solution of diacetate of lead (LIQ. PLUMBI DIACETATIS).

Uses. Litharge is employed in pharmacy, to make plasters and several other preparations of lead; by painters as a ‘drier’ for oils; and for various other purposes in the arts.

Obs. The litharge of commerce is distinguished by its colour as LITHARGE OF GOLD (LITHARGYRUM AURI, L. AURIUM, L. CHRYSITIS), which is dark coloured and impure, and LITHARGE OF SILVER (SILVER STONE; LITHARGYRUM ARGENTI, L. ARGENTUM, L. ARGYRITIS), which is purer, and paler coloured. The dark colour of the former is generally said to be owing to the presence of red lead. Foreign litharge generally contains copper and iron; and, not infrequently, a little silver and silica. These are readily detected by the usual tests. In grinding litharge, about 1 lb. of olive oil is usually added to each 1 cwt. to prevent dust. The best solvents of litharge are nitric acid and acetic acid. As it slowly absorbs the carbonic acid of the air, it generally effervesces slightly when treated with acids, and this effervescence is stronger in proportion to its age. See Lead.

LITH′IUM. Li. The metallic base of LITHIA, first obtained by Sir H. Davy by exposing hydrate of lithium in contact with mercury to galvanic action, and decomposing the resulting amalgam by distillation. It is now obtained by fusing pure chloride of lithium in a small, thick, porcelain crucible, and decomposing it while in a fused state by a current of electricity. It is a white metal, like sodium, very oxidisable, fusing at 356°, and having a sp. gr. of ·59. It is the lightest metal known. It belongs to the ‘alkaline group,’ of which potassium, sodium, cæsium, and rubidium, are the other members.

Lithium forms salts analogous to those of sodium, but usually somewhat less soluble. They can be distinguished from those of potassium and sodium by the phosphate and carbonate, being only sparingly soluble in water,—from those of barium, strontium, and calcium, by forming crystallisable and soluble salts with sulphuric acid and oxalic acid,—and from those of magnesium, by the solution of its carbonate exhibiting an alkaline reaction. Heated on platinum, they tinge the flame of the blowpipe carmine red. The salts of lithium may generally be formed by dissolving the hydrate or carbonate in dilute acids.

Lithium, Benzoate. LiC7H5O2,H2O. (Paris Pharm. Society.) Benzoic acid, 122 grams; lithium carbonate, 37 grams. Suspend the benzoic acid in 10 parts of water, add the lithium carbonate, and heat. Solution takes place with effervescence, and upon evaporation, handsome, much flattened, more or less elongated prismatic crystals are obtained.

Lithium benzoate is very soluble in water. One grain of the salt calcined, and then treated with slight excess of sulphuric acid, and heated to redness should give 0·376 gram of lithium sulphate.

Lithium, Bromide of. LiBr. To 37 grams of carbonate of lithium suspended in 200 grams of distilled water, 80 grams of bromine are added. A current of sulphuretted hydrogen is then passed through the mixture until the whole of the bromide has disappeared. Hydro-bromic acid is thus formed, which decomposes the carbonate of lithium, bromide of lithium being produced and sulphur set free. The mixture is then gently heated to drive off the excess of sulphuretted hydrogen and to agglutinate the sulphur. After filtration the liquor is concentrated, and if it be desired to obtain the bromide in crystals, the994 desiccation is finished under a bell jar by means of sulphuric acid.

Lithium, Car′bonate of. Li2CO3. Syn. Carbonate of lithia; Lithiæ carbonas (B. P.). Prep. To an aqueous solution of sulphate of lithium add a strong solution of carbonate of ammonium, collect the precipitate, drain, and press, wash with a little rectified spirit, and dry. By dissolving it in boiling water, and slowly evaporating the solution, crystals may be obtained.

Prop., &c. It resembles carbonate of magnesium in appearance; is soluble in about 100 parts of cold water, and in considerably less of boiling water, and is insoluble in alcohol. The tests for its purity given in the B. P. are—in giving no precipitate with oxalate of calcium or lime water, and leaving, when 10 grains are neutralised with sulphuric acid and ignited, 14·86 grains of dry sulphate. It has been proposed by M. Lipowitz, Dr Garrod, and others, as a solvent for uric acid calculi. According to Biswanger, 1 part of carbonate of lithia in 120 parts of water takes up, at blood-heat, nearly 4 parts of uric acid. Mr Alexander Ure recommends a dilute solution of this substance as an injection in lithic calculus, as it is a better solvent of uric acid than either borax or the alkaline carbonates. “Of all the various menstrua hitherto recommended, none appear to promise more favorably than the carbonate of lithia.” “If by means of injections” (of this solution) “we can reduce a stone at the rate of a grain or more an hour, we shall not merely diminish the bulk of the calculus, but further loosen its cohesion, disintegrate it, so to speak, causing it to crumble down, and be washed away in the stream of urine.” (Mr A. Ure.)—Dose, 2 to 5 gr., twice or thrice a day; as an injection, 1 gr. to water, 1 fl. oz.

Lithium, Citrate of. Li3C6H5O7. Syn. Lithiæ citras (B. P.). A white deliquescent amorphous powder, made by acting on 50 grains of lithium carbonate with 100 of citric acid, and is readily soluble in 212 parts of water.

Tests, &c. 20 grains burnt at a low red heat until white leave 10·6 grains of carbonate of lithium. Its medical properties are similar to those of the carbonate.—Dose, 5 to 16 grains, largely diluted.

Lithium, Citrate of, Effervescing. (Paris Pharm. Society.) Citric acid, 40 grams; sodium bicarbonate, 50 grams; lithium bicarbonate, 10 grams. Mix the powders and place them in a flat-bottomed vessel having a large surface; heat to about 100° C., stirring the powder continually until it takes the granular form, then by means of appropriate sieves obtain granules of suitable and uniform size, and preserve the preparation in well-closed bottles.

Lithium, Oxide of. Li2O. Syn. Lithia. An alkaline earth found in petalite, &c., and in small quantities in most mineral waters.

Prep. Petalite (a silicate of aluminum and lithium) in powder mixed with twice its weight of fluor spar is heated with strong sulphuric acid as long as acid vapours are given off. The residue is treated with ammonia, boiled, and filtered, evaporated to dryness, and heated to redness. The residue consists of sulphate of lithium, from which the oxide is obtained by decomposing it with acetate of barium, filtering and heating after having evaporated the solution to dryness.

This yields the so-called oxide, which is in reality the hydrate, LiHO, and is a white, non-volatile, soluble, caustic solid. The true oxide is a white powder decomposed by water forming the hydrate, and obtainable by igniting the metal in oxygen.

Lithia, Effervescing Solution of. Syn. Liquor lithiæ effervescens. Comp. Water charged with carbonic acid and holding in solution carbonate of lithium. 10 fl. oz. contain 5 grains of the carbonate.—Props. Colourless liquid, possessing powerful diuretic properties.—Use. Antilithic, for dissolving calculi of uric acid.—Dose, 5 to 10 fl. oz.

LITHOFRACTEUR. See Blasting powders.

LITHOG′RAPHY. The art of tracing letters, figures, and other designs, on stone, and transferring them to paper by impression. Our notice of this beautiful and useful art must necessarily be brief.

There are two methods of lithography in general use. In the one, a drawing is made on the stone with a lithographic crayon, or with lithographic ink; in the other method the design is made on lithographic paper, which, on being moistened and passed through the press, leaves its design on the surface of the stone, reversed. In either method, water acidulated with nitrous acid, oil of vitriol, or hydrochloric acid, is poured over the stone, and this, by removing the alkali from the chalk or ink, leaves the design on it in a permanent form, at the same time that it ‘etches’ away a portion of the lights, and renders the surface more absorbent of water.

The process of lithographic printing is as follows:—Water is thrown over the stone, the roller charged with printing ink is passed over the surface, the paper is applied, and a copy is obtained by the action of the lithographic press. The same process must be had recourse to for each copy. The nature of the stone is such that it retains with great tenacity the resinous and oily substances contained in the ink or crayon employed to form the design and also absorbs water freely; this, combined with the peculiar affinity between resinous and oily substances, and their mutual power of repelling water, occasions the ink on the printing roller to adhere to the design, and to leave untouched the lights.

The stones are prepared for lithography by polishing in the ordinary way; the style of work for which they are intended determining the degree of labour bestowed upon them.995 For crayon drawings the surface should have a fine grain, but the finish of the stone must depend upon the desired softness of the intended drawing; for writing or drawing on in ink the surface must receive a higher polish, and must be finished off with pumice-stone and water.

The best lithographic stones are obtained from Solenhofen, near Munich, and from Pappenheim, on the banks of the Danube. The white lias which lies immediately under the blue, near Bath, also yields good lithographic stones, and furnishes the principal portion of those employed in this country. See Crayons, Ink and Paper.

LITHONTRYP′TICS. Syn. Lithotryptics, Lithontryptica, L. Under this head are intended numerous substances (LITHICS; LITHICA, L.) used to prevent the formation of urinary calculi, or to dissolve them when already formed. Those employed with the former intention are more correctly termed ANTILITHICS (ANTILITHICA, L.), and those with the latter, LITHONTRYPTICS, or LYTHONLYTICS (LITHONTRYPTICA, LITHONLYTICA, L.).

The following are the principal substances included under this head by pharmacological writers:—Alkalies and their carbonates, benzoic acid, borax, carbonate of lithia, effervescing solution of lithia, carbonic acid, cinnamic acid, diluents (generally), diuretics (generally), juniper, malic acid, Malvern waters, mineral acids, nitrosaccharate of lead, opium, phosphate of soda, phosphoric acid, poppies, turpentines, uva ursi, vegetable acids, vegetable astringents, vegetable bitters, Vichy waters, wall pellitory, water (pure).

LIT′MUS. Syn. Turnsole; Lacmus, Lacca cærulea, L. musiva, L. musci, L. A blue substance prepared by the united influence of water, air, ammonia, and either potassa or soda, from Rocella tinctoria, Lecanora tartarea, or any of the other tinctorial lichens capable of yielding archil, by a process essentially similar to that adopted for the latter substance, except that chalk is generally used to form the paste, which is moulded into cakes and dried.

Pur., &c. “Soluble in both water and alcohol. Its blue colour is reddened by acids, and is restored by the addition of alkalies.” (Ph. L. 1836.) It is extensively used by the dyer as a red and crimson colouring matter, and by the chemist as a test for acids.

The colouring matter of litmus, when purified as much as possible, may be kept for an indefinite period unaltered in glycerin. Litmus is treated with hot water, and the solution, after concentration, is mixed with a sufficient quantity of alcohol (of 80 per cent.) to precipitate the colouring matter. After standing for twenty hours the alcohol is poured off, and carries with it a dirty blue foreign substance, which frequently occurs in litmus, and is not altered by acids. The sediment is treated with hot water, which dissolves it on account of the potassium carbonate which is present.

To remove this carbonate, sulphuric acid is added till the liquid assumes a faint wine tint; it is then heated to boiling for a few minutes, and again rendered blue by the addition of a few drops of lime water. After the lapse of twenty-four hours the liquid is filtered, and evaporated to a syrup, and left all night in a cool place, when the potassium sulphate crystallises out in the form of a crust. It is then filtered through a moist cotton mixed with glycerin, and carefully preserved from damp.[22] See Archil, Cudbear, &c.

[22] J. C. Martenson, from ‘Chem. Centr.,’ translated into the ‘Journal of the Chemical Society.’

LIVE-LONG. Digestive candy. See Candying.

LIV′ER. Syn. Hepar, L. A large abdominal viscus, the exclusive duty of which, until recently, was stated by physiologists to be to secrete bile; but the secretion of sugar for combustion in the lungs or capillaries is now said to be one of its chief duties. The liver is subject to several diseases, both functional and organic, among which inflammation (hepatitis) holds the most prominent place. The acute form of this disease is ushered in with pain in the region of the liver, with sickness, costiveness, and a strong, hard, and frequent pulse, with great pain about the clavicle and shoulders. There is cough, oppressed breathing, and often vomiting of bilious matter. The urine is scanty, and of a saffron-yellow colour, and the skin and eyes are also tinged yellow. The treatment consists chiefly in purging with salines accompanied with mercurials, the use of antimonials, and a blister applied over the region of the liver. Bitter tonics, as calumba, cascarilla, and gentian may afterwards be had recourse to; and if the patient resides in a hot climate a change to a temperate one should be made, if possible. Chronic hepatitis requires similar treatment, but of a less active character. The more usual causes of diseases of the liver, besides those common to the other viscera, are residence in a hot climate, and the excessive use of highly seasoned food and alcoholic liquors.

Liv′er. Syn. Hepar, L. In chemistry and pharmacy, a term formerly applied to numerous substances, on account of their colour; as liver of antimony (HEPAR ANTIMONII), liver of sulphur (HEPAR SULPHURIS), &c.

Liver, Edible. The livers of animals, such as the bullock, the calf, and the sheep, contain a large amount of nitrogenous matter,[23] as may be seen from the following analysis by Payen:

[23] Hence the instinct that leads man to cook it with a food rich in carbon—such as fat bacon.

Composition of Calf’s Liver.

Nitrogenous matter 20·10
Fat 3·58
Carbo-hydrates (amyloid matter) 0·45
Saline matter 1·54
Water 72·33


They are generally regarded as indigestible articles of diet, and as such should be avoided by dyspeptics.

It is of great importance to have the livers of animals thoroughly cooked, so as to ensure the destruction of a dangerous parasite—the Distoma hepatica, the liver fluke—that frequently infests them.

The foie gras, of which the celebrated Strasbourg pie is made, is the abnormally enlarged or, rather, diseased liver of the goose, brought to its enormous size and fatty condition by subjecting the bird to close confinement in a hot place and overfeeding it.

LIVER AND BACON. The liver must be washed, not soaked, then wiped dry and cut into slices. Flour each slice. Remove the rind from the bacon, and cut it into rashers. Let the bacon be fried first, then stand it in a hot dish before the fire during the time the liver is being fried in the melted fat from the bacon. When the liver is cooked place it on the bacon. Next mix a dessert-spoonful of flour into a smooth paste with a cupful of water, stir in it a pinch of pepper and salt, and pour it into the frying-pan; let it just boil, stirring it meanwhile, and, lastly, strain it over the liver and bacon.

LIXIVIA′TION. The process of dissolving out or extracting the saline matter of bodies, more especially of ashes, the residua of distillations, &c., by means of ablution or digestion in water. The solution so obtained is called a ‘LYE,’ ‘LEY,’ or ‘LIXIVIUM,’ and the salts resulting from the evaporation of such solutions ‘LIXIVIAL SALTS,’

LLA′MA. Syn. Guanaco; Lama, L. A genus of animals of the family Bovidæ and tribe Camelina. The llama is confined to South America, and may be regarded as the representative of the camel in the New World. The most important species are Lama vicugna (the VICUNA) and L. Guanacus (the GUANACO). The wool of llamas is woven into stuffs for ponchos, and made into cords, sacks, &c. See Alpaca.

LOAD′STONE. Syn. Lodestone, Magnesian stone, Magnetic ironstone. Native magnetic oxide of iron (Fe3O4). It is often found massive, frequently crystallised, and occasionally in beds of considerable thickness. Its colour varies from reddish black to deep grey. Native magnets from Arabia, China, and Bengal are commonly of a reddish colour, and are powerfully attractive. Those found in Germany and England have the colour of unwrought iron; those from Macedonia are more black and dull.

LOAM. A native mixture of clay, sand, and oxide of iron, with more or less chalk. Loamy soils are of this description. They are called heavy or light, according to the proportion of clay; and sandy, calcareous, or gravelly, just as sand, gravel, or chalk, form a characteristic portion of them.

LOBEL′IA. Syn. Indian tobacco; Lobelia (B. P., Ph. L. E. & D.), L. “The flowering herb of Lobelia inflata” (B. P., Ph. L.), or bladder-podded lobelia. The herb has an unpleasant odour, and an acrid, burning, nauseous taste, somewhat resembling that of tobacco. In small doses (1 to 3 gr.) it is expectorant and diaphoretic; in larger doses (5 to 15 gr.) nauseant and emetic; and in excessive doses, poisonous. According to Dr Pereira, its principal value is that of an anti-spasmodic. It has been highly recommended by Dr Elliotson in spasmodic asthma. He commences with small doses, and gradually increases them unless headache or nausea occurs. Others give a full dose at or before the commencement of the fit. It has been also tried in croup, hooping-cough, and other diseases of the respiratory organs, with variable effect.

Lobelia is the panacea of Dr Coffin, the author of the pretended system of medicine irreverently called ‘Coffinism.’

LOBEL′IC ACID. The acid existing in decoction of lobelia. It closely resembles gallic acid. It reddens litmus, and is precipitated by several metallic salts.

LOBEL′INE. Syn. Lobelina, L. A light yellowish-brown oily substance, found by Calhoun, of Philadelphia, in Lobelia inflata. It is volatile, soluble in alcohol, ether, and water; and in oil of turpentine, oil of almonds, and some other fixed oils; with the acids it forms crystallisable salts, which are soluble. It may be obtained from the seeds by the action of alcohol acidulated with acetic acid, evaporating, treating with magnesia and then with ether, and again evaporating. 1 oz. of the seeds furnishes 2 gr. When perfectly pure, 1 gr. will kill a large dog.

LOB′STERS. See Shell fish.

LOCK′SOY. Rice boiled to a paste and drawn into threads. Used to thicken soups. It is imported from China.

LODGING-HOUSES. The following sections of the Public Health Act of 1875 embody the regulations in force with regard to common lodging-houses:

(S. 76.) Every local authority shall keep a register, in which shall be entered the names and residences of the keepers of all common lodging-houses within the district of such authority, and the situation of every such house, and the number of lodgers authorised according to this Act to be received therein.

A copy of any entry in such register certified by the person having charge of the register to be a true copy shall be received in all courts and on all occasions as evidence, and shall be sufficient proof of the matter registered without production of the register, or of any document or thing on which the entry is founded; and a certified copy of any such entry shall be supplied gratis by the person having charge of the register to any person applying at a reasonable time for the same.

(S. 77.) A person shall not keep a common lodging-house or receive a lodger therein until997 the house has been registered in accordance with the provisions of this Act, nor until his name as the keeper thereof has been entered in the register kept under this Act; provided that when the person so registered dies his widow or any member of his family may keep the house as a common lodging-house for not more than four weeks after his death without being registered as the keeper thereof.

(S. 78.) A house shall not be registered as a common lodging-house until it has been inspected and approved for the purpose by some officer of the local authority; and the local authority may refuse to register as the keeper of a common lodging-house a person who does not produce to the local authority a certificate of character in such form as the local authority direct, signed by three inhabitant house-holders of the parish respectively rated to the relief of the poor of the parish within which the lodging-house is situated, for property of the yearly rateable value of £6 or upwards.

(S. 79.) The keeper of every common lodging-house shall, if required in writing by the local authority so to do, affix and keep undefaced and legible a notice with the words, “Registered common lodging-house,” in some conspicuous place on the outside of such house.

The keeper of any such house who, after requisition in writing from the local authority, refuses or neglects to affix or renew such notice, shall be liable to a penalty not exceeding £5, and to a further penalty of 10s. for every day that such refusal or neglect continues after conviction.

(S. 80.) Every local authority shall from time to time make bye-laws:

1. For fixing from time to time, varying the number of lodgers who may be received into a common lodging-house, and for the separation of the sexes therein; and—

2. For promoting cleanliness and ventilation in such houses; and—

3. For the giving of notices and taking precautions in the case of any infectious disease; and—

4. Generally for the well-ordering of such houses.

(S. 81.) Where it appears to any local authority that a common lodging-house is without a proper supply of water for the use of the lodgers, and that such a supply can be furnished thereto at a reasonable rate, the local authority may by notice in writing require the owner or keeper of such house, within a time specified therein, to obtain such supply, and to do all works necessary for that purpose; and if the notice be not complied with accordingly, the local authority may remove such house from the register until it is complied with.

(S. 82.) The keeper of a common lodging-house shall, to the satisfaction of the local authority, limewash the walls and ceilings thereof in the first week of each of the months of April and October in every year. Penalty for neglect, £2 or less.

(S. 83.) The keeper of a common lodging-house in which beggars or vagrants are received to lodge shall from time to time, if required in writing by the local authority so to do, report to the local authority or to such person as the local authority direct, every person who resorted to such house during the preceding day or night, and for that purpose schedules shall be furnished by the local authority to the person so ordered to report, which schedules he shall fill up with the information required, and transmit to the local authority.

(S. 84.) The keeper of a common lodging-house shall, when a person in such house is ill of fever or any infectious disease, give immediate notice thereof to the medical officer of health of the local authority, and also to the poor-law relieving officer of the union or parish in which the common lodging-house is situated.

(S. 85.) The keeper of a common lodging-house, and every other person having or acting in the care or management thereof, shall, at all times when required by any officer of the local authority, give him free access to such house or any part thereof. Penalty for refusing such access, £5 or less.

(S. 86.) Any keeper of a common lodging-house, or other person having or acting in the care or management thereof, who—

1. Receives any lodger in such house without the same being registered under this Act; or—

2. Fails to make a report after he has been furnished by the local authority with schedules for the purpose, in pursuance of this Act, of the persons resorting to such house; or—

3. Fails to give the notices required by this Act, where any person has been confined to his bed in such house by fever or other infectious disease,—

Shall be liable to a penalty not exceeding £5, and in the case of a continuing offence to a further penalty not exceeding £2 for every day during which the offence continues.

(S. 87.) In any proceedings under the provisions of this Act relating to common lodging-houses, if the inmates of any house or part of a house allege that they are members of the same family, the burden of proving such allegation shall lie on the persons making it.

(S. 88.) Where the keeper of a common lodging-house is convicted of a third offence against the provisions of this Act relating to common lodging-houses, the Court before whom the conviction for such third offence takes place may, if it thinks fit, adjudge that he shall not at any time within five years after the conviction, or within such shorter period after the conviction as the court thinks fit, keep, or have, or act in the care or management998 of a common lodging-house without the previous licence in writing of the local authority, may withhold or grant on such terms or conditions as they think fit.

(S. 89.) For the purposes of this Act the expression ‘common lodging-house’ includes, in any case in which only part of a house is used as a common lodging-house, the part so used of such house.

Bye-laws as to Houses let as Lodgings.

(S. 90.) The Local Government Board may, if they think fit, by notice published in the ‘London Gazette,’ declare the following enactment to be in force within the district or any part of the district of any local authority, and from and after the publication of such notice such authority shall be empowered to make bye-laws for the following matter (that is to say):

1. For fixing the number, and from time to time varying the number, of persons who may occupy a house or part of a house which is let in lodgings, or occupied by members of more than one family, and for the separation of the sexes in a house so let or occupied.

2. For the registration of houses so let or occupied.

3. For the inspection of such houses.

4. For enforcing drainage and the provision of privy accommodation for such houses, and for promoting cleanliness and ventilation in such houses.

5. For the cleansing and limewashing at stated times of the premises, and for the paving of the courts and courtyards thereof.

6. For the giving of notices and taking of precautions in case of any infectious disease.

This section shall not apply to common lodging-houses within the provisions of this Act, relating to such houses.

LOG′WOOD. Syn. Campeachy wood; Hæmatoxylum (Ph. L. E. & D.), Hæmatoxyli lignum (B. P.), Lignum Campechense, L. Campechianum, L. The heart-wood of Hæmatoxylon Campechianum, a native of the coast of Campeachy, but now common in the West Indies and India. It is a valuable astringent, and its decoction, extract, and infusion are useful remedies in chronic diarrhœa and dysentery, and in hæmorrhages, &c. The extract is an efficient substitute for catechu and kino.

Logwood is extensively employed in dyeing and calico printing, for the production of reds, violets, purples, blacks, drabs, &c. It readily yields its colour both to spirit and boiling water. The colouring matter requires a large quantity of water to dissolve it, but when dissolved can be concentrated to any degree by boiling down. The infusion is of a fine red, turning on the purple or violet; acids turn it on the yellow, and alkalies deepen it. To stuffs mordanted with alum it gives various shades of violet and purple, according to the proportions of the materials. By using solution of tin as the mordant, various shades of red, lilac, and violet, may be obtained. The addition of a little Brazil wood is commonly made to brighten the red. With a mordant of sulphate or acetate of iron it dyes black; and with the addition of a little sulphate of copper greys of various shades. It is, however, chiefly employed, in conjunction with gall-nuts, for blacks, to which it imparts a lustre and velvety appearance. Silk is usually turned through the cold decoction, but for wool the decoction is used either hot or boiling. Logwood is one of the cheapest and most easily managed of the dye stuffs. It is also used to make ink. See Hematoxylin, Ink, &c.

LO′HOCH. See Linctus.

LOR′ICA. A species of lute applied as a coating to chemical vessels before exposing them to the fire. Its application is called LORICATION. See Lute.

LO′TION. Syn. Lotio, L. An external application, or wash, consisting of water holding in solution medicinal substances. Lotions may be prepared of any soluble medicaments that are capable of exerting their action by contact with the skin. Writers on pharmacology have arranged them in classes, as sedative, anodyne, stimulant, &c., according to their effects. Sedative and refrigerant lotions are commonly employed to allay inflammation;—anodyne and narcotic lotions, to relieve pain;—stimulant lotions, to induce the maturation of tumours, &c.;—detergent lotions, to clean foul ulcers;—repellent and resolvent lotions, to discuss tumours, remove eruptions, &c.;—counter-irritant lotions, to excite a secondary morbid action, with the intention of relieving one already existing. Lotions are usually applied by wetting a piece of linen with them and keeping it on the part affected; or, in slight cases, by moistening the part with the fingers previously dipped into them. Lotions are more agreeable if made with rose water, but are not thereby rendered more efficacious. In all cases, distilled water, or filtered soft water, is alone admissible as the solvent.

As lotions are, in general, mere extemporaneous or magistral preparations, it will, of course, be only necessary here to give the formulæ for a few of those which are the most useful or the most frequently employed. These will serve as examples from which others may be prepared. As a general rule, the medium dose of any substance dissolved in a fluid ounce of distilled water, forms a lotion of the proper strength, under all ordinary circumstances; or, what is the same thing, the medium dose in grains, taken in scruples, is sufficient for a pint of such a lotion. Thus, the dose of sulphate of zinc is 1 to 3 gr., therefore— (1 + 3)/2 = 2 gr., which is the proportion999 of sulphate of zinc to be taken for 1 fl. oz. of water, or 40 gr. for 1 pint. Again, the dose of bichloride of mercury is 18 to 34 gr.; therefore— (18+34)/2 = 716 gr.; or nearly 12 gr. per fl. oz., and 812 gr. per pint. In this method extreme or unusual doses, as, for instance, those of sulphate of zinc, as an emetic, in poisoning, &c., are not taken into the calculation. In all cases in which lotions are intended for extremely susceptible parts, it is proper to dilute them with an equal bulk of water. When intended for eye-waters (COLLYRIA), they should be diluted with at least 3 to 4 times their bulk of water. See Embrocation, Liniment, &c.

Lotion of Ac′etate of Ammo′′nia. Syn. Lotio ammoniæ acetatis, L. Prep. 1. Solution of acetate of ammonia, 1 part; water, 2 parts.

2. (Hosp. F.) Solution of acetate of ammonia, rectified spirit, and water, equal parts. Discutient and refrigerant. In ordinary inflammations.

Lotion of Ac′etate of Lead. Syn. Lotio plumbi acetatis, L. Prep. 1. (Collier.) Acetate of lead, 1 dr.; distilled water, 8 fl. oz. Sometimes a little vinegar is added. In excoriations, burns, sprains, contusions, &c. See Solution of Diacetate of Lead.

2. Acetate of lead, 2 gr.; distilled water, 1 oz. (Ophthalmic Hospital.)

Lotion of Ac′etate of Mercury. Syn. Lotio Hydrargyri acetatis, L. Prep. Acetate of mercury, 1 scruple; distilled water, 1 pint. Mix.

Lotion of Ac′etate of Zinc. Syn. Lotio zinci acetatis, L. Prep. 1. (Béral.) Acetate of zinc, 112 dr.; water, 1 pint. Astringent; similar to lotion of sulphate of zinc.

2. Acetate of zinc, 1 to 2 gr.; water, 1 oz. An astringent collyrium in ophthalmia, and as injection in gonorrhœa after the acute stage has passed. Neither tincture nor wine of opium gives a precipitate with this lotion.

Lotion, Acetic. Syn. Lotio aceti, L. Prep. 1. Vinegar, 1 part; water, 2 or 3 parts. For bruises, contusions, &c., and as a general refrigerant application to sound parts.

2. Vinegar, 1 fl. oz.; cold water, 12 pint; as a wash in chronic ophthalmia, &c.

Lotion, Acid. See Lotions of Acetic, Nitric, and Phosphoric acid, &c.

Lotion of Acon′itine. Syn. Lotio aconitinæ, L. Prep. (Turnbull.) Aconitine, 8 gr.; rectified spirit, 2 fl. oz. In neuralgia; applied by means of a small piece of sponge mounted at the end of a stick. It must never be employed when the skin is broken or abraded; and it would be wise, in most cases, to dilute it with double its volume of proof spirit.

Lotion, Al′kaline. Syn. Lotio alkalina, L. POTASSÆ CARBONATIS, L. Prep. (P. Cod.) From salt of tartar, 1 oz.; water, 1 pint. Stimulant and detergent. Diluted with an equal bulk of water, it forms an excellent cosmetic wash to remove scurf from the hair. Sometimes it is made with almond milk instead of water.

Lotion, Almond, Alkaline. (Dr A. T. Thomson). Syn. Solution of potash, 4 fl. oz.; emulsion of bitter almonds, 512 fl. oz. To remove the scurf in porrigo furfurans, applied twice a day diluted with warm water.

Lotion of Al′um. Syn. Lotio aluminis, L. Prep. From alum, 112 dr.; distilled or rose water, 1 pint. Astringent. For sore gums, nipples, excoriations, &c.

Lotion, Ammonio-Camphorated. Syn. Aqua sedativa, L. Eau sedative de raspail; Eau, ou lotion ammoniacale camphrée. No. 1. Liquor ammoniæ (·923), 6 parts; camphorated spirit, 1 part; salt, 6 parts; water, 10 parts. No. 2 contains 8 parts, and No. 3 10 parts of ammonia.

Lotion, Ammoni′acal. Syn. Lotio ammoniæ, L. ammoniacalis, L. Prep. 1. Liquor of ammonia, 3 fl. dr.; cold water, 5 fl. oz. As a stimulant to indolent ulcers, and in certain skin diseases.

2. (Swediaur.) Liquor of ammonia, spirit of thyme, and spirit of camphor, equal parts. In headaches; applied to the forehead and temples, and in other cases, as a counter-irritant. In most cases it should be used diluted.

3. (Opiated—Dr Kirkland.) Sal volatile, 312 fl. oz.; tincture of opium, 12 fl. oz.; water, 4 fl. oz. Anodyne, stimulant, and resolvent.

Lotion, Antiphlogis′tic. Syn. Lotio antiphlogistica, L. Prep. 1. (Copland.) Solution of diacetate of lead, 3 fl. dr.; solution of acetate of ammonia, 2 fl. oz.; distilled water, 1 pint. Refrigerant, sedative, and repellant. Used to allay inflammation, &c.

2. (A. T. Thomson.) Opium, 2 dr., distilled vinegar, 12 pint. Anodyne and refrigerant; in swelled joints, &c.

Lotion of Ar′nica. Syn. Lotio arnicæ, L. Prep. 1. Tincture of arnica, 1 fl. dr.; rose water, 212 fl. oz. In contusions, bruises, extravasations, &c.

2. (Niemann.) Arnica flowers, 12 oz.; hot vinegar, 3 fl. oz.; boiling water, 5 fl. oz., infuse until cold, and strain. In acute hydrocephalus; or with water, q. s. to measure a pint, as a common lotion.

Lotion, Arsenical. Syn. Lotio arsenicalis, L. acidi arseniosi, L. Prep. 1. Arsenious acid, 5 gr.; water, 1 pint. In psoriasis, &c.

2. (Compound—M. le Febre.) Arsenious acid, 8 gr.; boiling water, 16 fl. oz.; dissolve, and add of extract of hemlock, 1 oz.; solution of diacetate of lead, 3 fl. oz.; tincture of opium, 1 fl. dr. Every morning, in cancer.

Lotion, Astrin′gent. Syn. Lotio astringens, L. See Lotions of Alum, Sulphate of Zinc, &c.

Lotion, Barlow’s. Prep. From sulphuret of potassium (in powder), 3 dr.; soap (sliced),1000 112 dr.; lime water, 712 fl. oz.; proof spirit, 2 fl. oz. In itch, ringworm, &c.

Lotion, Bateman’s. Prep. From bichloride of mercury, 2 gr.; compound spirit of lavender, 1 fl. oz.; dissolve, and add of distilled water, 4 fl. oz. In obstinate cutaneous eruptions, more especially those of a papular character.

Lotion of Belladon′na. Syn. Lotio belladonnæ, L. Prep. (Graefe.) Extract of belladonna, 12 dr.; dilute solution of diacetate of lead, 12 pint. Applied to tumours and glandular enlargements.

Lotion of Benzoin. Lotio benzoini. Tincture of benzoin, 1; rose water, 40. A nice lotion to protect the face from the heat of the sun.

Lotion of Bichlo′′ride of Mercury. Syn. Lotio hydrargyri bichloridi, L. h. chloridi corrosivi, L. Prep. 1. Corrosive sublimate, 5 to 10 gr.; distilled water, 1 pint. The addition of 5 or 6 gr. of hydrochlorate of ammonia, or as many drops of hydrochloric acid, increases the solvent action of the water, and renders the preparation less liable to change. Some persons dissolve the sublimate in 1 or 2 fl. dr. of rectified spirit before adding it to the water; but this is unnecessary. In obstinate eruptions, glandular swelling, obstinate sores, &c.; also as an injection.

2. (Good.) Corrosive sublimate, 1 dr.; sal ammoniac, 2 dr.; nitre, 4 dr.; water, 6 fl. oz.; dissolve. In itch, &c. For use, it should be diluted with about 3 times its bulk of water.

3. (Lotio hydrargyri amygdalina—St B. Hosp.) Blanched bitter almonds, 1 oz.; water, 1 pint; make an emulsion, and add of bichloride of mercury (dissolved in a little rectified spirit), 10 gr. This resembles Gowland’s lotion, and may be used for it.

Lotion of Bismuth. Lotio Bismuthi. Nitrate of bismuth, 6 gr.; corrosive sublimate, 12 gr.; spirits of camphor, 112 minim; water, 1 oz. A soothing lotion in chronic skin affections.

Lotion, Black. See Lotion, Mercurial.

Lotion of Borax. Syn. Lotio boracis, L. boracica, L. Prep. 1. (Dr Abercrombie.) Borax, 212 dr.; distilled vinegar, 14 pint. In ringworm.

2. (Copland.) Borax (in powder), 1 dr.; rose water and orange-flower water, of each 3 fl. oz.; dissolve. A fragrant and effective application to sore gums, sore nipples, excoriations, &c.

3. (Dr Johnson.) Borax, 2 dr.; precipitated chalk, 1 oz.; rose water and rectified spirit, of each 3 oz. For sore nipples.

4. (Dr Meigs.) Borax, 12 oz.; sulphate of morphia, 6 gr.; rose water, 8 fl. oz. To allay itching and irritation, especially pruritus vulvæ.

5. Borax, 1; rose water, 24. Cosmetic.

Lotion, Bro′mine. Syn. Lotio brominii, L. Prep. (Dr Glover.) Bromine, 1 dr.; water, 1 pint. As an application to scrofulous ulcers.

Lotion for Burns. See Liniment.

Lotion, Camphora′ted. See Lotion, Evaporating.

Lotion of Cap′sicum. Syn. Lotio capsici, L. Prep. (Griffith.) Tinctures of capsicum and camphor, of each 4 fl. oz.; liquor of ammonia, 2 fl. oz. A powerful rubefacient and counter-irritant.

Lotion of Carbolic Acid. (Mr Lister.) Syn. Lotio acidi carbolici. Prep. 1 part of acid in 20 of water is used to promote the healing of wounds, abscesses, ulcers and burns. A weaker solution of 1 in 40 is in common use in the London hospitals. 5 drops to 1 fl. oz. of glycerin forms a good application to eruptions of the skin.

Lotion of Car′bonate of So′da. Syn. Lotio sodæ carbonatis, L. Prep. From carbonate of soda, 12 oz.; water, 1 pint. To allay itching and irritation. See Lotion, Alkaline.

Lotion of Cher′ry Laurel. Syn. Lotio lauro-cerasi, L. Prep. 1. Cherry-laurel water (distilled), 112 fl. oz.; distilled water, 12 pint. Anodyne; useful to allay irritation, &c. Some persons with delicate skin employ it as a wash after shaving.

2. Cherry-laurel water (distilled), 4 oz.; rectified spirit and ether, of each 1 fl. oz.; extract of belladonna, 2 dr.; agitate well together in the cold. An excellent application in neuralgia, painful tumours, &c.

Lotion for Chilblains. See Chilblain, Liniment, &c.

Lotion of Chlo′′rate of Soda. Syn. Lotio sodæ chloratis, L. Prep. (Darling.) Chlorate of soda, 5 dr.; water, 12 pint. In pruritus, &c.

Lotion of Chlo′′ride of Ammonium. Lotio ammonii chloridi. Chloride of ammonium, 1 oz.; rectified spirit, 1 oz.; water, 10 oz. To this vinegar is sometimes added. Used as a dressing for bruises. See also Lotion of Hydrochlorate of Ammonia.

Lotion of Chlo′′ride of Lead. Syn. Lotio plumbi chloridi, L. Prep. (Tuson.) Chloride of lead, 1 dr.; hot distilled water, 1 pint; dissolve. In cancerous ulcerations, painful neuralgic tumours, &c.

Lotion of Chloride of Tin. Syn. Lotio stanni chloridi, L. Prep. (Nauche.) Chloride of tin, 1 gr.; distilled water, 2 to 3 fl. oz. In cancerous ulcerations.

Lotion of Chloride of Zinc. Syn. Lotio zinci chloridi, L. Prep. 1. Chloride of zinc, 10 gr. (or solution, 12 fl. dr.); water, 1 pint. As a disinfectant and preventive lotion.

2. (Voght.) Chloride of zinc, 8 gr.; extract of aloes, 40 gr.; distilled water, 4 fl. oz. In atonic and foul ulcers.

Lotion, Chlorina′ted. Syn. Lotio chlorinata, L. Prep. 1. (Lotio calcis chlorinatæ.)—a. From chloride of lime, 3 dr.;1001 water, 1 pint; agitate together for some time, and strain through muslin.

b. (Derheims.) Chloride of lime, 1 oz.; water, 1 quart; triturate and filter.

2. (Lotio sodæ chlorinatæ.) From chloride of soda, as the last. They are both excellent washes for foul ulcers, the itch, &c.; and, when diluted for the teeth, to sweeten the breath, remove the smell of tobacco smoke, to prevent infection, and for various purposes. When intended for application to very tender or abraded surfaces, they must be largely diluted with water.

Lotion of Chlo′′roform. Syn. Lotio chloroformi, L. Prep. Chloroform (pure), 112 fl. oz.; rectified spirit and cold distilled water, of each 12 pint. Anodyne. A piece of oiled silk should be laid over the rag to prevent evaporation. The lotion made with water, as commonly prescribed, is inert.

Lotion for Corns. See Corn.

Lotion of Crea′sote. Syn. Lotio creasoti, L. Prep. 1. Creasote, 2 fl. dr.; liquor of potassa, 3 fl. dr.; water, 12 pint.

2. Creasote, 3 fl. dr.; vinegar and water, of each 12 pint. In burns, itch, phagedenic ulcerations, ringworm, chancre, &c.

Lotion of Cy′anide of Potas′sium. Syn. Lotio potassi cyanidi, L. Prep. 1. (Cazenave.) Cyanide of potassium, 10 gr.; emulsion of bitter almonds, 6 fl. oz. In chronic eruptions and other cases attended with much itching or irritation.

2. (Foy.) Cyanide of potassium, 8 gr.; distilled water, 1 fl. oz. In neuralgia, acute rheumatism, &c.; applied by means of compresses of linen. Both the above are poisonous if swallowed.

Lotion of Delphin′ine. Syn. Lotio delphiniæ, Embrocatio d., L. Prep. (Dr Turnbull.) Delphinine, 20 to 60 gr.; rectified spirit, 2 fl. oz. Used as LOTION OF VERATRIA.

Lotion of Diac′etate of Lead. Syn. Goulard’s lotion; Lotio plumbi diacetatis, L. The dilute liquor of diacetate of lead (LIQ. PLUMBI DIACETATIS DILUTUS—Ph. L.). See Solution. Also Solution of subacetate of lead (B. P.), 3 minims, with 7 minims to 1 oz. water.

Lotion, Evap′orating. Syn. Lotio evaporans, L. vaporans, L. spiritus diluti, L. Prep. 1. (Copland.) Sulphuric ether, rectified spirit, and solution of acetate of ammonia, of each 112 fl. oz.; rose water, 312 fl. oz.

2. (Guy’s Hosp.) Rectified spirit, 1 part; water, 5 parts.

3. (Erasmus Wilson.) Rectified spirit, 1 part; water, 4 to 6 parts.

4. (Camphorated—Ware.) Camphor, 12 dr.; elder flowers, 12 oz.; rectified spirit, 4 oz.; digest 24 hours, and strain.

Obs. The above are soothing and refrigerant, if allowed to evaporate by free exposure; stimulant, if the evaporation is prevented by covering the part with the hand, or a piece of oiled silk. They are useful applications in nervous headaches, restlessness, itching and irritability of the skin, &c. “A little rose water added to the simple water makes an agreeable addition, and sometimes camphor water (julep), or a little Goulard’s extract, may be deemed advantageous, when a greater degree of calming effect is required.” (Eras. Wilson.) Eau de Cologne, diluted with an equal quantity of water, is often used as an evaporating lotion.

Lotion of Gall-nuts. Syn. Lotio gallæ, L. Prep. From gall-nuts (bruised), 12 oz.; boiling water, 1 pint; infuse until cold, and strain. Astringent. An excellent application to sore nipples, or to strengthen them before suckling; spirit of wine, 3 fl. oz., may be advantageously added to the cold infusion, and a like portion of water omitted, See Decoction.

Lotion of Glyc′erin. Syn. Lotio glycerini, L. glyceriniæ, L. Prep. 1. Glycerin, 1 oz.; water, 1 pint. To allay itching, and remove dryness, &c., in various skin diseases; also in chaps of the nipples, lips, and hands. For the latter purpose the addition of 2 to 3 dr. of borax is recommended by some writers.

2. Glycerin, 1 oz.; thick mucilage, 2 oz.; lime water, 7 oz. In burns, scalds, chaps, excoriations, &c.

3. (Startin.) Glycerin, 1 oz.; extract of belladonna, 1 dr.; soap liniment, 3 oz.; triturate together. In bruises, sprains, and swelled joints; gouty, neuralgic, and rheumatic pains, &c.

4. (Startin.) Trisnitrate of bismuth, 12 dr.; tincture of foxglove and dilute nitric acid, of each 1 fl. dr.; glycerin, 4 dr.; rose water, 812 fl. oz. To allay the itching in prurigo, and some other skin diseases.

Obs. Various lotions may be prepared by dissolving active medicinal substances in glycerin.

Lotion, Goulard’s. See Lotion of Diacetate of Lead.

Lotion, Gout. Syn. Lotio antarthritica, L. Prep. 1. Glycerin, 1 oz.; extract of belladonna, 3 dr.; veratrine, 10 gr., dissolved in rectified spirit, 2 fl. oz.; mix, and further add, of water, 17 fl. oz. It is poisonous if swallowed.

2. (‘Scudamore’s g. l.’) From camphor mixture, 9 fl. oz.; rectified spirit, 3 fl. oz. The above are applied on rags or compresses, or are poured on the surface of poultices.

Lotion, Gowland’s. This celebrated nostrum is prepared as follows:—Take of Jordan almonds, 1 oz.; bitter almonds, 12 oz.; blanch them, and make an emulsion in soft water, 1 pint; to this add of bichloride of mercury, 15 gr.; previously dissolved in rectified spirit, 2 fl. dr., together with enough water to make the whole measure 1 pint, and put it into bottles.

Obs. This preparation is chiefly used as a cosmetic to improve the complexion; and also as a wash for obstinate eruptions and minor1002 glandular swellings and indurations. As a beautifier of the complexion, it is employed by simply wetting the skin with it, either by means of the corner of a napkin or the fingers dipped into it, after which it is gently wiped off with a dry cloth. Dr Paris represents this nostrum to contain 12 dr. of corrosive sublimate in every pint, which is not the case.

Lotion, Granville’s Counter-irritant. See Liniment of Ammonia (Compound).

Lotion, Hem′lock. Syn. Lotii conii, L. Prep. (Mid. Hosp.) Extract of hemlock, 3 dr.; opium, 1 dr.; boiling water, 1 pint; digest until cold, and strain. Anodyne and resolvent; in glandular enlargements, painful ulcers, cancer, indurations, rheumatism, neuralgia, &c.

Lotion, Hooping-cough. (Struve’s.) Lotio antipertussica, L. Prep. (Paris.) Potassio-tartrate of antimony, 1 dr.; tincture of cantharides, 1 oz.; water, 2 oz. This is a powerful counter-irritant, and should be used with caution; as it is apt to induce a troublesome eruption on the parts to which it is frequently applied.

Lotion of Hydrochlo′′rate of Ammonia. Syn. Lotio ammoniæ hydrochloratis, L. Prep. 1. (Weaker.) From sal ammoniac, 1 to 4 dr.; water, 1 pint. As a wash in itch, ulcers, tender feet, swelled joints, &c.

2. (Stronger.) From sal ammoniac, 1 to 2 oz.; water, 1 pint. In contusions, chronic tumours, extravasations, chilblains, &c., when the skin is not broken. Both are stimulant and resolvent or discutient. Vinegar is often substituted for the whole or part of the water, and sometimes a fifth or sixth part of rectified spirit is added. See also Lotion of Chloride of Ammonium.

Lotion, Hydrochlo′′ric. Syn. Lotio acidi hydrochlorici, L. Prep. 1. Hydrochloric acid, 1 fl. oz.; water, 1 pint. In lepra, and several other skin diseases.

2. (Foy.) Hydrochloric acid, 1 part; water, 16 parts. In chilblains, when the skin is unbroken.

Lotion, Hydrocyan′ic. Syn. Lotio hydrocyanici, L. acidi hydrocyanici, L. Prep. 1. (Magendie.) Medicinal hydrocyanic acid, 1 to 2 fl. dr.; lettuce water, 1 pint. In hepatic affections.

2. (Sneider.) Medicinal acid, 112 fl. dr.; rectified spirit and water, of each 6 fl. oz.

3. (A. T. Thomson.) Medicinal acid and rectified spirit, of each 2 fl. dr.; acetate of lead, 16 gr.; distilled water, 712 fl. oz. In impetigo, &c.

Obs. Lotions of prussic acid are employed to allay pain and irritation in various chronic skin diseases, especially the scaly and itchy eruptions; and in cancer, &c., with variable success. See Hydrocyanic acid.

Lotion of Hyposul′phite of Soda. Syn. Lotio sodæ hyposulphitis, L. Prep. (Startin.) Hyposulphite of soda and alum, of each 112 dr.; eau de Cologne, 12 fl. oz.; rose water, 712 fl. oz.; in the advanced stages of acne.

Lotion of I′odide of Ar′senic and Mer′cury. Syn. Lotio arsenici et hydrargyri hydriodatis, L. Prep. From Donovan’s solution, 1 part; water, 9 parts. In lepra, psoriasis, and other scaly skin diseases. See Solution.

Lotion of Iodide of Potas′sium. Syn. Lotio potassii iodidi, L. Prep. 1. From iodide of potassium, 1 to 2 dr.; water, 1 pint. In the usual cases in which ioduretted preparations are employed.

2. (Dr O. Ward.) Iodide of potassium, 1 dr.; water, 34 pint. In itch. (See below.)

Lotion of Iodide of Zinc. Syn. Lotio zinci iodidi, L. Prep. (Ross.) iodine, 112 dr.; zinc filings, 1 dr.; water, 8 fl. oz.; digest with heat until the liquid becomes coloured, then filter. In enlarged tonsils.

Lotion of I′odine. Syn. Lotio iodinii, L. Prep. From iodine, 2 gr.; rectified spirit, 1 fl. dr.; dissolve, well agitate the solution with distilled water, 1 pint, and filter. An excellent wash for scrofulous ulcers, and in chronic ophthalmia, cutaneous scrofula, and several chronic skin diseases, particularly in highly sensitive habits.

Lotion of Iodine Compound. Syn. Lotio iodi comp., L. Prep. 1. Iodide of potassium, 80 gr.; iodine, 60 gr.; water, 1 oz.

2. (Cazenave.) Iodide of potassium and iodide of sulphur, of each 1 dr.; water, 1 pint. In itch; either alone or diluted with an equal bulk of water.

3. (Dauvergne.) Iodine, 3 dr.; iodide of potassium, 6 dr.; water, 3 fl. oz.; dissolve, and label the bottle No. 1. Sulphuret of potassium, 4 oz.; water, 8 fl. oz.; dissolve. For use, a teaspoonful of No. 1, and a table-spoonful of No. 2, are to be added to about a pint of water. In itch, and several other skin diseases.

4. (Lugol.) Iodine, 1 to 2 gr.; iodide of potassium, 3 to 6 gr.; water, 1 pint. In scrofulous ophthalmia, fistulas, &c.; and as a wash in numerous skin diseases.

5. (Righini.) Chloride of lime, 4 dr.; water, 212 fl. oz.; triturate together, filter into a stoppered bottle, and add of tincture of iodine, 1 dr. With a pint of water it forms an effective application in itch.

6. (Soubeiran.) Iodide of potassium, 1 oz.; iodine, 12 oz.; water, 6 oz.; dissolve. Used as iodine paint; also as a caustic to touch the surfaces of scrofulous ulcers, and the eyelids in scrofulous ophthalmia.

7. Iodide of potassium, 12 dr.; iodine, 16 gr.; water, 1 pint. This is the common and best form of iodine lotion, but for certain purposes it is used much stronger. (See above.)

Lotion of Iron with Conium. Lotio ferri cum conio. Sulphate of iron, 8 gr.; extract of conium, 8 gr.; water, 1 oz.

Lotion, Itch. Syn. Lotio antipsorica, L. Prep. (Cazenave.) Sulphuret of potassium, 11003 dr.; soft soap, 2 dr.; water, 8 fl. oz.; dissolve. An excellent remedy for the itch. It leaves little smell behind, and does not soil the linen. (See above.)

Lotion, Kirkland’s. See Lotion of Myrrh.

Lotion of Lemon Juice. Syn. Lotio succi limonis, L. Prep. From the freshly expressed juice of lemon, diluted with 4 or 5 times its bulk of water. To render it more agreeable, rose water may be employed, or a few drops of eau de Cologne added. It is cooling and detergent, and forms an excellent application to foul ulcers, and to allay the itching in numerous cutaneous affections.

Lotion of Lime Wa′ter. Syn. Lotio calcis spirituosa, L. Prep. (Ph. Chirur.) Rectified spirit, 4 oz.; lime water, 8 fl. oz. See Evaporating lotion (above.)

Lotion, Mammil′lary. Syn. Lotio balsami Peruviani composita, L. Prep. (Iverg.) Balsam of Peru, 1 dr.; yolk of 1 egg; make an emulsion, and add of spirit of wild thyme, 3 fl. oz. For sore nipples; to be followed, whilst still wet, by a ‘dusting’ with a powder composed of Peruvian bark, 1 dr.; gum Arabic, 2 dr.

Lotion, Mercu′′rial. Prep. 1. (Black wash, Black lotion, Mild phagedenic l.; Lotio nigra (B. P.), L. hydrargyri cinerea, L. h. nigra, L. h. chloridi cum calce, L. mercurialis n., Aqua phagedænica, MITIS, L.)

a. (B. P.) From calomel, 3 gr.; lime water, 1 oz.; well shaken together.

b. (Mid. Hosp.) To the last add of thick mucilage, 1 fl. oz.

c. (Guy’s Hospital.) From calomel, 1 dr., lime water, 8 fl. oz.

Obs. Black wash is a favourite application to all kinds of syphilitic and scrofulous sores. The bottle should be well shaken before the lotion is applied.

2. Yellow wash, Y. lotion, Phagedenic l.; (Lotio flava, L. phagedænica, Aqua p., Lotio hydrargyri flava, L. h. bichloridi cum calce, L.)—a. (B. P.) Corrosive sublimate, 18 gr.; lime water, 10 oz.; well shaken together.

b. (St B. Hosp.) Corrosive sublimate, 20 gr.; lime water, 6 fl. oz. Used as the last, but it is stronger and more active, from containing a little undecomposed bichloride.

Lotion of Myrrh. Syn. Kirkland’s lotion; Lotio myrrhæ, L. Prep. 1. (Dr Kirkland.) Tincture of myrrh and lime water, equal parts. In scorbutic ulcers and gums.

2. (Compound; Lotio myrrhæ composita, L.—Ph. Chirur.) Honey of roses and tincture of myrrh, of each 2 fl. dr.; lime water, 212 fl. oz. As No. 1; also used as a dentifrice.

Lotion of Ni′trate of Bis′muth. Syn. Lotio bismuthi nitratis, L. Prep. (Cutan. Hosp.) Subnitrate or trisnitrate of bismuth, 12 dr.; corrosive sublimate, 12 gr.; spirit of camphor, 12 fl. dr.; water, 1 pint. In itch, and some other eruptions.

Lotion of Nitrate of Sil′ver. Syn. Lotio argenti nitratis, L. Prep. 1. Nitrate of silver, 15 gr.; nitric acid, 10 drops; distilled water, 12 pint. As a wash for indolent ulcers, sore legs, &c.

2. (Jackson.) Nitrate of silver, 10 gr.; water, 1 fl. oz. For bed-sores; applied, at first, twice or thrice a day.

3. (Schreider.) Nitrate of silver, 12 dr.; nitric acid, 10 drops; water, 112 fl. oz. In chilblains, soft corns, &c.

Lotion of Nitrate of Silver (Strong). Lotio argenti nitratis fortis. Nitrate of silver, 60 gr.; distilled water, 1 oz.

Lotion of Nitrate of Sil′ver, Etherial. Lotio argenti nitratis ætherea. Nitrate of silver, 20 gr.; distilled water, 1 dr.; spirit of nitrous ether, 1 oz.

Lotion of Ni′tre. Syn. Lotio potassæ nitratis, L. Prep. 1. Nitre, 3 dr.; vinegar, 14 pint; water, 34 pint.

2. Nitre, 2 dr.; sal ammoniac, 1 dr.; vinegar and water, of each 12 pint. In sprains, contusions, extravasations, tender feet, chilblains, &c. Diluted with an equal bulk of water, it is a popular application to ‘black eyes.’

Lotion of Ni′tric Acid. Syn. Lotio acidi, L. acidi nitrici, L. Prep. 1. (Collier.) Nitric acid, 12 fl. oz.; water, 1 pint. In lepra, and other scaly skin diseases.

2. (Phœbus.) Nitric acid, 1 fl. dr.; laudanum, 112 fl. dr.; rose water, 12 pint. For venereal ulcers.

Lo′tion of Nitromuriat′ic Acid. Syn. Lotion of aqua regia. Prep. (Copland.) Nitromuriatic acid, 114 dr.; water, 1 pint. In gangrene and mortification.

Lotion of Nux Vom′ica. Syn. Lotio nucis vomicæ, L. Prep. 1. Alcoholic extract of nux vomica, 10 gr.; rectified spirit and water, of each 212 fl. oz. In amaurosis.

2. (Radius.) Alcoholic extract of nux vomica, 8 gr.; liquor of ammonia (stronger), 12 fl. oz.; rectified spirit, 2 fl. oz. In paralysed limbs.

Lotion of O′pium. Syn. Lotio opii, L. opiata, L. Prep. 1. (Christison.) Opium, 40 gr.; water, 14 pint; infuse, add to the filtered liquid a solution of sugar of lead, 40, in water, 14 pint, and filter.

2. (St B. Hosp.) Opium, 112 dr.; boiling water, 1 pint; triturate and strain. Anodyne; the first is also refrigerant and discutient.

Lotion of Ox′ide of Zinc. Syn. Lotio zinci oxydi, L. Prep. 1. (Augustin.) Oxide of zinc, 1 dr.; elder-flower water, 112 fl. oz. In pustular erysipelas.

2. (Hosp. F.) Oxide of zinc, 12 dr.; mucilage, 2 fl. dr.; water, 6 fl. dr. As an astringent and desiccant, in scrofulous eruptions, excoriations, moist chaps, &c.

Lotion, Phageden′ic. See Mercurial lotion (above).

Lotion of Phos′phoric Acid. Syn. Lotio1004 acidi phosphorici, L. Prep. (Pereira.) Dilute phosphoric acid (Ph. L.), 1 fl. oz.; water, 12 pint. In caries and fistula.

Lotion of Potas′sa. See Lotio potassæ, L. Prep. From liquor of potassa, 1 fl. oz.; water, 1 pint. Detergent; in scorbutic eruptions, and foul ulcers, and to prevent infection.

Lotion of Potas′sio-tar′trate of An′timony. Syn. Lotio antimonialis, L. antimonii potassio-tartratis, L. rubefaciens, L. Prep. 1. Tartar emetic, 1 dr.; tincture of camphor, 2 fl. dr.; water, 1 pint. As a local stimulant. Diluted with twice or thrice its weight of water, it is employed as a collyrium in chronic ophthalmia, and in specks on the cornea.

2. (Sir Wm. Blizard.) Tartar emetic, 20 gr.; boiling water, 1 fl. oz. Used to cleanse foul ulcers, to repress fungous growths and warts, and in ringworm, &c.

3. (Pereira.) Tartar emetic, 1 dr.; boiling water, 112 fl. oz.; dissolve. Employed as a local irritant instead of the ointment. All the above are rubefacient and counter-irritant. See Antimony.

Lotion of Quin′ine. Syn. Lotio quinæ, Embrocatio q., L. Prep. From disulphate of quinine, 1 dr.; rectified spirit, 5 fl. oz. Applied over the spine in intermittents.

Lotion, Sapona′ceous. Syn. Lotio saponis, L. saponacea (Ph. L. 1746), L. Prep. From liquor of carbonate of potassa, 12 oz.; olive oil, 4 oz.; rose water, 12 oz.; agitate together. Emollient; chiefly as a cosmetic.

Lotion, Saviard’s. Prep. (Foy.) Caustic potassa, 1 dr.; camphor, 20 gr.; sugar, 1 oz.; water, 1 pint. As a wash for indolent ulcers.

Lotion, Struve’s. See Hooping-cough lotion.

Lotion of Sul′phate of Cop′per. Syn. Lotio cupri sulphatis, L. Prep. 1. Blue vitriol, 1 dr.; camphor julep, 1 pint. For phagedenic ulcers, and in itch, &c.

2. (Dr Graves.) Sulphate of copper, 10 gr.; water, 1 fl. oz. In chilblains, ringworm, &c.

3. (Lloyd.) Sulphate of copper, 1 oz.; water, 1 pint. In itch; either alone or diluted.

Lotion of Sul′phate of Iron. Syn. Lotio ferri sulphatis. Sulphate of iron, 2 gr.; water, 1 oz.

Lotion of Sul′phate of Zinc. Syn. Lotio zinci sulphatis, L. Prep. 1. Sulphate of zinc, 34 dr.; water, 1 pint. Astringent; in some chronic skin diseases, as a wash for loose, flabby granulations, and for ulcers that discharge profusely, &c.

2. (Collier.) Sulphate of zinc, 2 dr.; water, 1 pint. As a counter-irritant in pains of the joints, periosteum, old sprains, &c.

Lotion of Sulphuret of Sodium. (Dr Barlow.) Syn. Lotio sodii sulphureti. Prep. Sulphide of sodium, 2 dr.; white soap, 212 dr.; rectified spirit, 2 dr.; lime water, 7 oz. For ringworm.

Lotion of Tannin. (Mr Druitt.) Syn. Lotio tannini. Prep. Tannic acid, 5 gr.; distilled water, 1 oz.; mix. On lint, covered with oil silk, to sore nipples.

Lotion of Tar. Syn. Lotio picis liquidæ, L. Prep. (Saunders.) Quicklime, 6 oz.; water, 212 pints; slake, add of tar, 4 oz., and boil to one half. This liquid may be advantageously employed in various chronic skin diseases, especially those affecting the heads of children. See Infusion of Tar.

Lotion of Valer′ian. Syn. Lotio Valerianæ, Embrocatio antihysterica, E. emmenagoga, L. Prep. From tincture of valerian and proof spirit, equal parts. In hysteria, suppressions, &c.

Lotion of Vera′trine. Syn. Lotio veratriæ, L. Prep. (Dr Turnbull.) Veratrine, 20 to 60 gr.; rectified spirit, 2 oz. In gout, rheumatism, &c. It is extremely poisonous, and must only be used where the skin is sound, and then with great caution.

Lotion of Ver′digris. Syn. Lotio æruginis, L. cupri citratis, L. Prep. From verdigris, 3 dr.; vinegar, 14 pint; water, 34 pint. As a wash for indolent, scrofulous, and venereal ulcers.

Lotion of Vin′egar. See Acetic lotion (above).

Lotion, Yellow. See Mercurial lotion (above).

LOUSE. Syn. Pediculus. There are several species of this offensive parasite infesting the bodies of man and domesticated animals. The three varieties of lice found on the human skin are:—(1) The Pediculus corporis, (2) the P. capitis, (3) the P. pubis.

(1.) The P. corporis, the body louse, is of a dirty white colour, and varies from half to two lines in length. Its body is broad and elongated, with the margins divided into lobes, and covered with minute hairs; but it has a narrow thorax, furnished on each side with three legs, which terminate in claws. This creature produces great irritation of the skin, giving rise to a number of little pimples on it, which frequently discharge a watery fluid. It multiplies with extraordinary rapidity.

(2.) The P. capitis, the head louse, is much smaller than the above. It is devoid of hairs, with legs large in proportion to its body. It gives rise to a very troublesome eruption, attended with a watery discharge. It is propagated by means of the ova or nits, which are glued to the hairs of the head.

(3.) The P. pubis, the crab louse, is a small, round variety, which attaches itself with considerable tenacity to the hairs of the stomach and lower part of the body more particularly, and, like the preceding parasite, glues its eggs to the hairs.

Various applications have been recommended for the destruction of these loathsome parasites; amongst which we may mention sulphur, stavesacre, white precipitate, and cocculus indicus, in the form of ointments;1005 carbolic acid and perchloride of mercury lotions, and tobacco. Benzoic acid has been found of service in allaying the irritation. Diligent washing with soap and water should be had recourse to previous to applying any of the above remedies, and should the head be infested, the hair should be cut short, and frequently combed with a small toothcomb.

Pediculi are sometimes conveyed from filthy to cleanly persons by means of dirty water-closets, chairs, sheets, brushes and combs, and in various other ways.

School children frequently obtain them in consequence of their heads being brought into too close contact with the heads of other children infested by them.

LOZ′ENGE. Syn. Troche; Trochiscus, Tabella, L.; Tablette, Fr. A small cake, often medicated, consisting principally of powdered sugar, made into a mass with some glutinous liquid, without the aid of heat, and dried. The form given to lozenges (TROCHE, TABELLÆ, TROCHISCI, TABLETTES) is generally that of a small round tablet or flattened cylinder; but originally they were exclusively made in the shape of a lozenge or rhomb, from which circumstance their familiar name is derived. Lozenges are distinguished from DROPS OR PASTILLES by the non-employment of heat in their preparation; and from PASTES, by the latter being formed of vegetable juice or pulp, and having a softer consistence.

In the preparation of lozenges the dry ingredients, separately reduced to a very fine powder, are first perfectly mixed together, and then beaten into a stiff paste with the glutinous liquid employed to give them form; the mass is next rolled out to a desired thickness, and cut into pieces of the proper shape by means of a small cylinder or punch of steel or tin-plate, called a ‘lozenge-cutter.’ The newly formed lozenges are lastly dried by placing them on an inverted sieve or frame covered with paper in a dry, warm, and airy situation, and are frequently turned until they become hard and brittle, due care being taken to preserve them from dust and dirt. To prevent the mass adhering to the fingers and utensils during the process of manufacture, a little finely powdered starch, or a very little olive oil, scented with the same aromatic as that contained in the lozenges, may be used. Mucilage of gum Arabic or of gum tragacanth, thin isinglass size, or the strained white of egg, are the substances usually employed to make the pulverulent materials adhere together. A strained decoction of Irish moss is now frequently used for the same purpose, for inferior qualities. The larger the proportion of gum which enters into the composition of lozenges, the slower they dissolve in the mouth; hence powdered gum is frequently added to the other materials to increase their quality in this respect, as well as to give an additional solidity to those which, like chalk, for instance, are of a peculiarly dry or crumbly nature. Starch and potato flour are often added to lozenge-masses in lieu of a portion of the sugar, and even plaster of Paris is not unfrequently employed to give them weight; frauds which are readily detected in the manner noticed under Gum and Sugar.

As a general rule, MEDICATED LOZENGES should weigh from 8 to 10 gr. each, and a medium dose of their active ingredient should be distributed through the bulk of 6 to 8 of them, in which case 3 to 5 of them may be safely taken as a dose, or sucked during the lapse of 3 or 4 hours. This will be useful in the preparation of those for which no established proportions are given. In ‘sending out’ compounds of this class containing active medicaments, as morphia or opium, the retailer as well as the manufacturer should be careful that the quantity contained in each lozenge is plainly marked on the label.

In lozenges intended for MOUTH COSMETICS or to perfume the breath, ambergris is generally regarded as the most appropriate perfume; but hard smokers frequently prefer cloves and cinnamon, and some ladies give the preference to roses, orange flowers, and orris or violets.

Lozenges are coloured with the same stains as are used for liqueurs and sweetmeats.

Lozenges, as well as all other similar articles of confectionery, should be preserved in well-closed glass bottles, or jars, or in tin canisters, so as to be perfectly excluded from the air and damp.

Lozenges, Absor′bent. Trochisci antacidi, L. Prep. 1. Take of precipitated chalk, 14 lb.; gum Arabic, 2 oz.; double refined white sugar, 14 oz.; all in impalpable powder; oil of nutmeg, 12 fl. dr.; pass the mixture through a fine sieve, beat it up with mucilage q. s., roll the mass into a thin sheet, and cut it into lozenges; lastly, dry them by exposing them on a sheet of white paper to the air, out of contact with dust.

2. As the last, but substituting heavy carbonate of magnesia, 112 oz., for an equal weight of chalk. In diarrhœa, heartburn, acidity, &c. See Lozenges, Chalk, Magnesia, L., Soda, &c.

Lozenges, Aca′cia. See Lozenges, Gum.

Lozenges, Acid′ulated. Syn. Acidulated lemon lozenges, Tartaric acid l.; Trochisci acidi tartarici (Ph. E.), L. Prep. From tartaric acid, 2 dr.; oil of lemon, 10 drops; white sugar, 8 oz.; mucilage, q. s. to make a lozenge mass. The same ingredients mixed with heat form ACIDULATED or ACID DROPS. Both are useful in coughs, hoarseness, sore throats, &c. See Lozenges, Cayenne, Citric acid, Rose, &c.

Lozenges, Al′kaline. See Lozenges, Soda, Vichy, &c.

Lozenges, A′lum. Syn. Trochisci aluminis, L. Each lozenge contains 112 gr. of alum. As an astringent. See Lozenges, Astringent.


Lozenges, An′iseed. Syn. Trochisci anisi, L. Prep. From oil of aniseed, 112 fl. dr.; finest white sugar, 1 lb.; mucilage, q. s. Carminative and stomachic. In colic, griping, &c.; and as a pectoral.

Lozenges, Anthelmin′tic. See Lozenges, Worm.

Lozenges, Antimonial. Syn. Trochisci antimoniales, Morsuli stibii Kunkelii, L.; Tablettes de Kunkel, Fr. Prep. (P. Cod.) Levigated sulphuret of antimony and cardamom seeds, of each 1 oz.; almonds (blanched), 2 oz.; cinnamon, 12 oz.; sugar, 13 oz.; mucilage of tragacanth, q. s.; to be divided into 15-gr. lozenges. As an alterative.

Lozenges, Ape′′rient. Syn. Trochisci aperientes, L. Each lozenge contains 1 gr. each of calomel and scammony, and 2 gr. of jalap; or, instead of the last, 14 gr. of jalapine. 2 to 3 for a dose.

Lozenges, Astrin′gent. Syn. Trochisci astringentes, L. Each lozenge contains 112 gr. of alum and 2 gr. of catechu. In spitting of blood, relaxed uvula, sore throat, &c. See Lozenges, Alum.

Lozenges, Bark. Syn. Trochisci cinchonæ, L. Prep. (P. Cod.) Cinchona, 2 oz.; cinnamon, 2 dr.; white sugar, 14 oz.; mucilage of gum tragacanth, q. s.; mix, and divide into 16-gr. lozenges. Tonic.

Lozenges, Bath. Syn. Dawson’s lozenges. From extract of liquorice and gum Arabic, of each 112 oz.; sugar, 17 oz. It is both rolled into lozenges and formed into pipes. Demulcent; in tickling coughs, &c.

Lozenges, Benzoic Acid. (Th. Hosp.) Syn. Trochisci acidi benzoici. Prep. Benzoic acid in powder, 175 gr.; tragacanth in powder, 70 gr.; refined sugar in powder, 280 gr.; red currant paste, a sufficient quantity to make 1 lb. Divide into 350 lozenges, and dry at a moderate heat in a hot-air chamber. A valuable stimulant and voice lozenge in nervomuscular weakness of the throat.

Lozenges, Bicarbonate of Soda. Trochisci sodæ bicarbonatis. Bicarbonate of soda, in powder, 3600 gr. (814 oz.); refined sugar, 25 oz.; gum acacia, in powder, 1 oz.; mucilage, 2 oz.; distilled water, 1 oz.; mix, and form in 720 lozenges. Each lozenge contains 5 gr. of bicarbonate of soda.—Dose, 1 to 6 lozenges.

Lozenges, Bis′muth. Syn. Trochisci bismuthi, L. Prep. 1. (B. P.) Subnitrate of bismuth, 346 gr.; carbonate of magnesia, 4 oz.; precipitated chalk, 6 oz.; sugar, 29 oz.; gum acacia, 1 oz.; mucilage, 2 oz.; rose water, a sufficiency; make 720 lozenges. Each lozenge contains 2 gr. of subnitrate of bismuth.—Dose, 1 to 6 lozenges.

2. (Trousseau.) Each lozenge contains 1 gr. of subnitrate of bismuth. Tonic and antispasmodic; in chronic dyspepsia, gastrodynia, nausea, cramp of the stomach, &c.

Lozenges, Black Cur′rant. Trochisci ribis nigri, L. Prep. From inspissated juice of black currants and sugar, of each, in powder, 1 lb.; tartaric acid, 14 oz.; mucilage, q. s. In hoarseness, &c.

Lozenges, Bo′′rax. Syn. Trochisci boracis, L. Each lozenge contains 3 gr. of borax. One occasionally in aphthous sore mouth, sore throat, &c.

Lozenges, Bromide of Ammonium. Each lozenge contains 2 gr. of bromide of ammonium.—Dose, 1 to 3 lozenges. In hooping-cough.

Lozenges, Burnt Sponge. Syn. Trochisci spongiæ, T. s. ustæ, L. Prep. (P. Cod.) Burnt sponge, 4 oz.; sugar, 12 oz.; mucilage of tragacanth, q. s.; divide into 12-gr. lozenges. In scrofula, glandular enlargements, &c.

Lozenges, Caca′o. Syn. Trochisci butyri cacao, L. Each lozenge contains 1-3rd of its weight of pure cacao butter. In habitual constipation; and in phthisis, scrofula, &c., instead of cod-liver oil; taken ad libitum. They are usually scented with roses.

Lozenges, Caffe′ine. Syn. Trochisci caffeinæ, L. Each lozenge contains 14 gr. of caffeine and 12 gr. of citric acid. In hemicrania, hypochondriasis, &c.

Lozenges, Cal′omel. Syn. Worm lozenges; Trochisci calomelanos, T. hydrargyri chloridi, L. Prep. (P. Cod.) Each lozenge contains 1 gr. of calomel. Alterative, &c. They afford a simple way of introducing mercury into the system. During their use salt food and acid liquors should be avoided. When given for worms they should be followed, in a few hours, by a purge.

Lozenges, Cam′phor. Syn. Trochisci camphoræ, L. Each lozenge contains 34 gr. of (finely powdered) camphor. They must be kept in a well-corked bottle.

Lozenges of Carbolic Acid. (Th. Hosp.) Syn. Trochisci acidi carbolici. Prep. Carbolic acid, 350 gr.; gum Arabic, 220 gr.; refined sugar, 1212 oz.; mucilage, 1 oz.; distilled water q. s. to make 1 lb. Divide into 350 lozenges, and finish as with benzoic acid lozenges.

Lozenges, Car′bonate of Lime. See Lozenges, Chalk.

Lozenges, Cat′echu. Syn. Cachou lozenges; Trochisci catechu (B. P.), T. de terra Japonica, L.; Tablettes de cachou, Fr. Prep. 1. (Ph. E. 1744.) Catechu, 2 oz.; tragacanth, 12 oz.; white sugar, 12 oz.; rose water, q. s.

2. (P. Cod.) Extract of catechu, 4 oz.; sugar, 16 oz.; mucilage of gum tragacanth q. s.; for 10-gr. lozenges.

3. (Tro. catechu et magnesiæ—P. Cod.) Magnesia, 2 oz.; powdered catechu, 1 oz.; sugar, 13 oz.; mucilage of gum tragacanth (made with cinnamon water), q. s. to mix.

4. (Perfumed.) See Cachou aromatisé and Pastils.

5. (B. P.) Pale catechu, in powder, 720 gr.; refined sugar, in powder, 25 oz.; gum1007 Arabic, in powder, 1 oz.; mucilage, 2 oz.; distilled water, a sufficiency; divide into 720 lozenges. Each lozenge contains 1 gr. of catechu.—Dose, 1 to 3 lozenges.

Obs. All the above are taken in diarrhœa, in relaxation of the uvula, in irritation of the larynx, and as cosmetics to fasten the teeth, and disguise a fetid breath. The one containing magnesia (No. 3) is also sucked in dyspepsia, acidity, and heartburn.

Lozenges, Cayenne′. Syn. Trochisci capsici, L. Flavoured with essence or tincture of capsicum or cayenne, with a very concentrated Chili vinegar, or a little pure soluble cayenne pepper.

2. (Acidulated.) To each lb. add of tartaric acid, 12 oz. Both are used in dyspepsia, and to promote digestion and create an appetite. They have also been recommended in temporary deafness arising from exposure to cold. They are generally tinged of a light pink or red colour.

Lozenges, Chalk. Syn. Heartburn lozenges; Trochisci cretæ; (Ph. E.), T. cardialgici, Tabellæ Cardialgicæ, L. Prep. (Ph. E.) Prepared chalk, 4 oz.; gum Arabic, 1 oz.; nutmeg, 1 dr.; white sugar, 6 oz.; rose or orange-flower water, q. s. Antacid and absorbent. 3 or 4 sucked ad libitum; in heartburn, dyspepsia, diarrhœa, acidity of the stomach and bowels, &c.

Lozenges, Char′coal. Syn. Trochisci carbonis, L. Prep. 1. (P. Cod.) Prepared charcoal, 4 oz.; white sugar, 12 oz., mucilage, q. s. to mix. In diarrhœa, cholera, dyspepsia, &c.

2. (Tro. carbonas cum chocolatâ—M. Chevallier.) Charcoal and white sugar, of each 1 oz.; chocolate, 3 oz.; mucilage of gum tragacanth, q. s. to mix. Nutritious; used as the last.

Lozenges, Ching’s Worm. Prep. 1. (Yellow.) From saffron, 12 oz.; boiling water, 1 pint; infuse, strain, add, of calomel, 1 lb.; powdered white sugar, 28 lbs.; mix well, make a mass with mucilage of tragacanth, and divide it into 7000 lozenges. Each lozenge contains 1 gr. of calomel.

2. (Brown.) From calomel, 7 oz.; resinous extract of jalap, 312 lbs.; white sugar, 10 lbs.; mucilage of tragacanth, q. s.; mix, and divide into 6125 lozenges. Each lozenge contains 12 gr. of calomel and 312 gr. of resinous extract of jalap. 1 to 6 of the yellow lozenges over night, as a vermifuge, followed by an equal number of the brown ones the next morning fasting.

Lozenges, Chlo′′rate of Potassa. Syn. Trochisci potassæ chloratis, L. Prep. 1. Each lozenge contains 112 gr. of chlorate of potassa. In phthisis, sore throat, &c. 6 to 12 a day.

2. (B. P.) Chlorate of potash, in powder, 3600 gr. (814 oz.); refined sugar, in powder, 25 oz.; gum acacia, in powder, 1 oz.; mucilage, 2 oz., distilled water, 1 oz., or a sufficiency; mix the powders, and add the mucilage and water to form a proper mass; divide in 720 lozenges. Each lozenge contains 5 gr. of chlorate of potash.—Dose, 1 to 6 lozenges.

Lozenges, Chloride of Ammonium. Each lozenge contains 2 to 3 gr. of chloride of ammonium. Used in bronchitis.—Dose, 2 to 4 lozenges.

Lozenges, Chlo′′ride of Gold. 1. (Trochisci auri chloridi, L.) Each lozenge contains 140 gr. of neutral chloride of gold. 2 to 4 daily; in scrofula, cancer, &c.

2. (With SODA; Trochisci auri et sodii chloridi, T. sodii auro-chloridi, L.—Chrestien.) Each lozenge contains 116th gr. of soda-chloride of gold. Two daily; as the last.

Lozenges, Chloride of Lime. Syn. Trochisci calcis chloridi, T. c. chlorinatæ, L. Each lozenge contains 14 gr. of dry chloride of lime. They are frequently tinged with a little carmine. Used to sweeten the breath and whiten the teeth. They do not keep well.

Lozenges of Chlorinated Soda. Syn. Trochisci sodæ chlorinatæ. Prep. Solution of chloride of soda, 1 fl. dr.; sugar, 10 dr.; gum Arabic, 2 dr.; mucilage of tragacanth, q. s. (12 dr. of camphor may be added). To be held in the mouth during infection.

Lozenges, Choc′olate. Syn. Trochisci chocolatæ, L. From vanilla chocolate pressed into sheets, and cut into pieces whilst hot.

Lozenges, Cincho′na. Syn. Trochisci cinchonæ extracti, L. Each lozenge contains 112 gr. of dry extract of bark. A little cinnamon or nutmeg is often added. See Bark Lozenges.

Lozenges, Cin′namon. Syn. Trochisci cinnamoni, L. From cinnamon (in fine powder), 1 oz., or the essential oil, 1 fl. dr., to each lb. of sugar. Carminative and stomachic. Cassia lozenges are made in the same way, and are frequently substituted for them.

Lozenges, Ci′trate of Iron. Syn. Trochisci ferri citratis, L. Each lozenge contains 112 gr. of ammonio-citrate of iron. As a mild chalybeate tonic. They are sometimes made with equal parts of sugar and vanilla chocolate.

Lozenges, Citrate of Magne′sia. Syn. Trochisci magnesiæ citratis, L. Each 15-gr. lozenge contains 5 gr. of pure citrate of magnesia. Laxative.

Lozenges, Cit′ric Acid. Syn. Trochisci acidi citrici, L. Prep. (P. Cod.) Citric acid, 3 dr.; sugar, 16 oz.; essence of lemon, 16 drops; mucilage of tragacanth, q. s.; mix, and divide into 12-gr. lozenges. In coughs, hoarseness, &c.

Lozenges, Clove. Syn. Trochisci caryophilli, L. From cloves (powdered along with sugar), 2 oz., or essential oil, 1 fl. dr., to each lb. of sugar. They are frequently coloured. Carminative and stomachic; also used as a1008 restorative after fatigue, added to chocolate to improve its flavour, and sucked to sweeten the breath.

Lozenges, Cough. Syn. Pectoral lozenges, Pulmonic l.; Trochisci anticatarrhales, L. Prep. 1. Black-currant lozenge-mass, 1 lb.; ipecacuanha (in very fine powder), 2 dr. For 12-gr. lozenges.

2. To the last add of powdered opium and camphor, 112 dr.

3. To either No. 1 or 2 add of oil of aniseed, 112 fl. dr.

4. (Tablettes de Tronchin.) From powdered gum Arabic, 8 oz.; oil of aniseed, 16 drops; extract of opium, 12 gr.; kermes mineral, 1 dr.; pure extract of liquorice, 2 oz.; white sugar, 32 oz.; water, q. s.; mix, and divide into 10-gr. lozenges.

5. (Tablettes de Vandamme.) From benzoic acid, 1 dr.; orris powder, 2 dr.; gum Arabic (powdered), 1 oz.; starch, 2 oz.; sugar, 16 oz.; water, q. s.; mix and divide into 15-gr. lozenges.

6. Each lozenge contains 12 gr. of lactucarium, 18 gr. of powdered ipecacuanha, and 112 gr. of powdered squills, together with 13rd of their weight of pure extract of liquorice.

Obs. To render the above serviceable in coughs, hoarseness, &c., the bowels should be kept gently open with some mild aperient, and a light diet adopted, with abstinence from stimulating liquors. See Lozenges, Emetine, Ipecacuanha, &c.

Lozenges, Cro′ton Oil. Syn. Trochisci crotonis, L. Prep. (Soubeiran.) Croton oil, 5 drops; powdered starch, 40 gr.; white sugar, 1 dr.; chocolate, 2 dr.; divide into 30 lozenges; 5 or 6 generally prove cathartic.

Lozenges, Cu′bebine. Syn. Trochisci cubebini, L. Prep. (Ph. Hamb.) Copaiba and extract of cubebs, of each 6 oz.; yolks of 3 eggs; mix, add of powdered marshmallow root, 6 oz.; make it into pipes of 12 gr. each, and roll them in sugar. In gleet, &c., and in affections of the mucous membranes of the throat and fauces. Lablonye orders them to be made of sugar, and flavoured with oil of peppermint.

Lozenges, Cu′bebs. Syn. Trochisci cubebæ, L. Prep. 1. (Spitta.) Cubebs, 2 dr.; balsam of tolu, 6 gr.; mix, and add of extract of liquorice, 1 oz.; syrup of tolu, 1 dr.; powdered gum, q. s.; divide into 10-gr. lozenges. One of these, allowed to melt gradually in the mouth, is said to alleviate the obstruction in the nose, in coryza.

2. (U. S.) Prep. Oleoresin of cubebs, 12 fl. oz. o. m.; oil of sassafras, 1 fl. dr.; extract of liquorice in powder, 4 oz.; gum Arabic in powder, 3 oz.; sugar in fine powder, 3 oz.; syrup of tolu, q. s. Divide into 480 lozenges.

Lozenges of Cyanide of Gold. (Chrestien.) Syn. Trochisci auri cyanidi. Prep. Cyanide of gold, 2 gr.; chocolate paste, 1 oz. Made into 24 lozenges. From 1 to 4 in the day.

Lozenges, D′Arcet’s. See Lozenges, Vichy.

Lozenges, Diges′tive. See Lozenges, Rhubarb, Ginger, Candy, Digestive, &c.

Lozenges, Edinburgh. Prep. From extract of poppies, 2 oz.; powdered tragacanth, 4 oz.; sugar, 10 oz.; rose water, q. s. to form a lozenge-mass.

Lozenges, Emet′ine. Syn. Trochisci emetinæ, L. Prep. (Magendie.)—1. From impure or coloured emetine, 32 gr. (or pure emetine, 8 gr.); white sugar, 2 oz.; mucilage, q. s. to mix; divide into 64 lozenges. Emetic.—Dose, 1 for a child, and 4 for an adult. They are generally tinged of a pink colour with carmine.

2. From impure or coloured emetine, 32 gr. (or pure emetine, 8 gr.); sugar, 4 oz.; mucilage, q. s.; divide into 256 lozenges. Pectoral. One every hour, or oftener, for an adult. The last are intended to take the place of ipecacuanha lozenges, but are rather stronger.

Lozenges, Escharot′ic. Syn. Trochisci escharotici, L. Prep. (P. Cod.) Corrosive sublimate, 2 dr.; starch, 4 dr.; mucilage of tragacanth, q. s.; mix, and divide into 3-gr. oat-shaped granules. For external use only. See Caustic (Zinc).

Lozenges, Ferrocy′anide of Iron. Syn. Trochisci ferri ferrocyanidi, T. cærulei, L. Each lozenge contains 112 gr. of pure Prussian blue. Alterative, febrifuge, and tonic; in epilepsy, intermittents, diseases of the ganglionic system, &c.

Lozenges, Fruit. Prep. From juice of black currants (boiled to the consistence of an extract), 1 lb.; juice of red currants (similarly treated), 12 lb.; powdered gum tragacanth, 14 lb.; sugar, 3 lbs.; raspberry syrup, q. s.; pear essence, a few drops. Resemble black currant lozenges, but are more agreeable.

Lozenges, Garana′. See Lozenges, Paullinia.

Lozenges, Gin′ger. Syn. Trochisci zingiberis, L. Prep. From the best unbleached Jamaica ginger and gum Arabic, of each, in very fine powder, 112 oz.; double refined lump sugar, 1 lb.; rose water (tinged with saffron), q. s. A still finer quality may be made by using an equivalent proportion of essence of ginger, instead of the powder. Inferior qualities are prepared with coarser sugar to which some starch is often added. Ginger lozenges are carminative and stomachic, and are useful in flatulency, loss of appetite, &c.

Lozenges, Gold. Syn. Trochisci auri, L. Each lozenge contains 116 gr. of pulverulent gold.

Lozenges, Gum. Syn. Trochisci acaciæ (Ph. E.), T. gummi arabici, T. gummosi, L. Prep. 1. (Ph. E.) Gum Arabic, 4 oz.; starch, 1 oz.; white sugar, 12 oz. (all in very fine powder); rose water, q. s.

2. (P. Cod.) Gum Arabic, 1 lb.; sugar, 3 lbs.; orange-flower water, 2 fl. oz.

3. (Transparent.) From the same materials,1009 but employing a gentle heat. Demulcent; used to allay tickling coughs.

Lozenges, Guaiacum. (Th. Hosp.) Syn. Trochisci guaiaci. Prep. Guaiacum resin in powder, 700 gr.; tragacanth, 70 gr.; sugar, 280 gr.; black currant paste, q. s. Divide into 350 lozenges, and finish as benzoic acid lozenges.

Lozenges, Gum Tra′gacanth. Syn. Trochisci tragacanthæ, T. gummi t., L. Prep. (Ph. E. 1744.) Compound powder of tragacanth, 3 oz.; sugar, 12 oz.; rose water, 4 fl. oz. Resemble the last, but are more durable in the mouth.

Lozenges, Heart′burn. See Lozenges, Chalk, &c.

Lozenges, Iceland Moss. Syn. Trochisci lichenis, L. (P. Cod.) Contain half their weight of dried and powdered lichen jelly. Resemble gum lozenges.

Lozenges, Indian Hemp. Syn. Trochisci cannabis, D. c. Indici, L. (Ebriard.) Each lozenge contains 112 gr. of extract of Indian hemp.

Lozenges, I′odide of Iron. Syn. Trochisci ferri iodidi, L. Each lozenge contains 12 gr. of dry iodide of iron. 12 to 20 daily; in amenorrhœa, chlorosis, scrofulous debility, &c. They are generally flavoured with a little nutmeg or cinnamon.

Lozenges, Iodide of Potassium. Syn. Trochisci Potassi iodidi, L. Each lozenge contains 1 gr. of iodide of potassium, flavoured with nutmeg or cinnamon. 10 to 15 daily; in scrofula, indurations, &c. One of the best ways of taking iodide of potassium.

Lozenges, Ipecacuan′ha. Syn. Trochisci ipecacuanhæ;, L. Prep. 1. (B. P.) Mix ipecacuanha in powder, 180 gr.; refined sugar in powder, 25 oz.; gum acacia in powder, 1 oz.; add mucilage of acacia, 2 fl. oz., and distilled water, 1 oz., or sufficient to form a proper mass. Divide into 720 lozenges, and dry in a hot-air chamber with a moderate heat. Each lozenge contains 14 gr. of ipecacuanha.

2. (P. Cod., Hamb. do., and Ph. U. S.) Each lozenge contains 14 gr. of ipecacuanha.

3. (Tro. ipecac. cum camphorâ.) Each lozenge contains 12 gr. of camphor, and 14 gr. of ipecacuanha.

4. (Tro. ipecac. cum chocolatâ—P. Cod.) Each lozenge contains 1 gr. of ipecacuanha, and 12 gr. of chocolate à la vanilla. The above are pectoral and expectorant, and are very useful in tickling and chronic coughs, hoarseness, &c.

Lozenges, Ipecacuanha and Morphia. Syn. Trochisci ipecacuanhæ et morphiæ (B. P.). Each lozenge contains 112 gr. ipecacuanha and 136 gr. hydrochlorate morphia.—Dose, 1 to 6 lozenges. See Lozenges, Morphia and Ipecacuanha.

Lozenges, I′ron. Syn. Trochisci ferri, T. chalybeati, L. 1. Each lozenge contains 1 gr. of Quevenne’s iron. See Lozenges, Reduced iron.

2. (Tro. ferri carbonatis.) Each lozenge contains 112 gr. of saccharine carbonate of iron. They are both mild and excellent chalybeates. See Lozenges, Steel.

Lozenges, Ju′jube. See Paste, Jujube.

Lozenges, Ker′mes Mineral. Syn. Trochisci kermetis, L. Prep. 1. (P. Cod.) Each lozenge contains 16 gr. of kermes mineral, and about 34 gr. of gum, made up with sugar and orange-flower water. Diaphoretic and expectorant.

2. (Compound.) As the last, but with the addition of 16 gr. of opium, 14 gr. of squills, and 12 gr. of ipecacuanha. Anodyne and expectorant; both are very useful in catarrhs.

Lozenges, Lactate of Iron. Syn. Trochisci ferri lactatis, L. Prep. (Cap.) Each lozenge contains 1 gr. of lactate of iron. Tonic. Useful in debility, accompanied with a diseased state of the organs of digestion.

Lozenges, Lac′tic Ac′id. Syn. Trochisci acidi lactici, L. Each lozenge contains 1 gr. of lactic acid to about 12 gr. of sugar. They are best flavoured with vanilla or nutmeg. In dyspepsia, &c., especially in gouty subjects. Those prepared by Magendie’s formulæ contain a larger proportion of acid, but are much too sour for frequent use.

Lozenges, Lactuca′′rium. Syn. Trochisci lactucarii, L. Prep. (Ph. E.) Prepared with lactucarium in the same manner as the opium lozenges, Ph. E. Each of these lozenges contains from 16 to 17 gr. of lactucarium. Anodyne and demulcent. Used to allay tickling coughs, &c.

Lozenges, Lavender. Syn. Trochisci lavandulæ, L. From 34 fl. dr. of Mitcham oil of lavender to each lb. of sugar, and tinged red with liquid lake or carmine; or violet, with litmus or indigo. Used chiefly to scent the breath. Those of the shops are generally deficient in odour.

Lozenges, Lem′on. Syn. Trochisci limonis, T. limonum, L. Prep. 1. From 112 fl. dr. of oil of lemon to each lb. of double refined white sugar.

2. (Acidulated.) See Lozenges, Citric and Tartaric.

Obs. Lemon lozenges and drops are agreeable sweetmeats, and those that are acidulated are often very useful to promote expectoration in coughs, &c. The last are also made into drops as well as lozenges, when they form the ‘ACIDULATED LEMON DROPS’ of the shops. Those that are made of citric acid are by far the most wholesome. Both lemon lozenges and drops are generally coloured with infusion of saffron or turmeric.

Lozenges, Lettuce. Syn. Trochisci lactucæ, L. Prep. From extract of lettuce, extract of liquorice, gum, and sugar, equal parts. Anodyne and demulcent; in obstinate cough without expectoration. See Lozenges, Lactucarium.


Lozenges, Lichen. See Lozenges, Iceland moss.

Lozenges, Liquorice. Syn. Black lozenges; Trochisci glycyrrhizæ, T. g. glabræ, T. bechici nigri, L. Prep. 1. (Ph. E.) Extract of liquorice and gum acacia, of each 6 oz; white sugar, 12 oz.; dissolve in water, q. s.; evaporate into a paste, and form into lozenges. Pectoral and demulcent. Useful to allay tickling coughs and remove hoarseness.

2. (With OPIUM.) See Lozenges, Opium.

Lozenges, Magne′sia. Syn. Heartburn lozenges; Trochisci magnesiæ (Ph. E.), L. Prep. 1. (Ph. E.) Carbonate of magnesia, 6 oz.; powdered white sugar, 3 oz.; oil of nutmeg, 20 drops; mucilage of tragacanth, q. s. to mix.

2. (Ph. U. S.) Calcined magnesia, 4 oz.; sugar, 12 oz.; nutmeg, 1 dr.; mucilage of tragacanth, q. s.; for 10-gr. lozenges.

3. (Wholesale.) Calcined magnesia, 3 oz.; powdered gum tragacanth, 1 oz.; double refined lump sugar, 34 lb.; rose or orange-flower water, q. s. to make a lozenge mass.

Obs. Magnesia lozenges are very useful in heartburn, acidity, and indigestion. The confectioners generally omit the nutmeg, and make their mucilage with either rose or orange-flower water, or else add the dry gum to the mass, and then mix up the powders with one or other of these liquids. It is also an improvement to use calcined magnesia, which is about twice as strong as the carbonate, and consequently less need be employed.

Lozenges, Manna. Syn. Trochisci mannæ, L. Prep. (Van Mons.) Powdered tragacanth, 1 dr.; white sugar, 12 oz.; manna, 3 oz.; orange-flower water, q. s. to mix. Demulcent, and in large numbers slightly laxative.

Lozenges, Marshmallow. Syn. Trochisci althææ, L.; Tablettes de guimauve, Fr. Prep. (P. Cod.) Marshmallow root (decorticated and finely powdered), 2 oz.; sugar, 14 oz.; mucilage of tragacanth (made with orange-flower water), q. s. Demulcent and expectorant. Useful to allay the irritation in cough, &c. The preparations of marshmallow have always been highly esteemed as pectorals by the vulgar.

Lozenges, Min′ium. Syn. Trochisci minii (Ph. E. 1744), L. Prep. From red lead, 1 dr.; corrosive sublimate, 2 dr.; crumb of bread, 1 oz.; rose water, q. s.; to be made up into oat-like grains. For external use only.

Lozenges, Morphia. Syn. Trochisci morphiæ (B. P., Ph. E.), T. m. hydrochloratis, L. Prep. 1. (Ph. E.) Hydrochlorate of morphia, 20 gr.; tincture of tolu, 12 fl. oz.; powdered white sugar, 25 oz.; dissolve the hydrochlorate in a little warm water, mix it with the tincture and the sugar, make a mass with mucilage of gum tragacanth, q. s., and divide it into 15-gr. lozenges. Each lozenge contains about 140 gr. of hydrochlorate of morphia. Used as opium lozenges, but are pleasanter. The morphia lozenges of the shop generally contain 124 gr. of hydrochlorate of morphia. (Pereira.)

2. (With IPECACUANHA, Trochisci morphiæ et ipecacuanhæ—Ph. E.) As the last, adding of ipecacuanha, 1 dr. Each lozenge contains about 140 gr. of hydrochlorate of morphia, and 113 gr. of ipecacuanha. Anodyne and expectorant; in tickling coughs, &c., and to allay pain.

3. Hydrochlorate of morphia, 20 gr.; tincture of tolu, 12 oz.; refined sugar, in powder, 24 oz.; gum Arabic, in powder, 1 oz.; mucilage, 2 oz., or a sufficiency; boiling distilled water, 12 oz. Divide the mass into 720 lozenges. Each lozenge contains 136 gr. of hydrochlorate of morphia.—Dose, 1 or 2 occasionally, for cough.

Lozenges, Morphia and Ipecacuanha. Syn. Trochisci morphiæ et ipecacuanhæ (B. P.) Hydrochlorate of morphia, 20 gr.; ipecacuanha, in fine powder, 24 oz.; tincture of tolu, 12 oz.; refined sugar, in powder, 24 oz.; gum Arabic, in powder, 1 oz.; mucilage, 2 oz., or a sufficiency; distilled water, 12 oz.; divide the mass into 720 lozenges. Each lozenge contains 136 gr. of hydrochlorate of morphia and 112 gr. of ipecacuanha.—Dose, 1 or 2 occasionally, for cough.

Lozenges of Naphthalin. (Dupasquier.) Syn. Trochisci naphthalini. Prep. Naphthalin, 5 scruples; sugar, 20 oz.; oil of aniseed to flavour; form a mass with mucilage of tragacanth, and divide into lozenges of 15 gr. each. Expectorant, and may be taken to the extent of 20 a day.

Lozenges, Ni′tre. Syn. Trochisci nitrici, L. Prep. 1. (Ph. E. 1783.) Nitre, 3 oz.; white sugar, 9 oz.; mucilage of tragacanth, q. s. to mix. Diuretic; but chiefly sucked, without swallowing, to remove incipient sore throat.

2. Camphorated; Trochisci nitri camphorati, L.—Chaussier. Each lozenge contains 18 gr. of opium, 12 gr. of camphor, and 1 gr. of nitre. In hoarseness, sore throat, &c.

Lozenges, Nut′meg. Syn. Trochisci myristicæ, L. From oil of nutmeg, 1 fl. dr., to each lb. of sugar, and coloured with infusion of saffron. Carminative and stomachic; in colic, &c.

Lozenges, O′pium. Syn. Anodyne lozenges; Trochisci opii (Ph. E.), T. glycyrrhizæ cum opio, L. Prep. 1. (B. P., Ph. E.) Opium (strained), 2 dr.; tincture of tolu, 12 oz.; triturate together, add of powdered sugar, 6 oz.; extract of liquorice (soft) and powdered gum acacia, of each 5 oz.; mix, and divide into 10-gr. lozenges. Each lozenge contains 16 to 17 gr. of opium. Used to allay tickling cough and irritation of the fauces, and as an anodyne and hypnotic.

2. (Ph. U. S.) Opium (in fine powder), 2 dr.; extract of liquorice, gum Arabic, and sugar, of each 5 oz.; oil of aniseed, 12 fl. dr.; water, q. s.; divide into 6-gr. lozenges. Each lozenge contains 110 gr. of opium. As the last.


3. Extract of opium, 72 gr.; tincture of tolu, 12 oz.; refined sugar (in powder), 2 oz.; extract of liquorice, 6 oz.; distilled water, a sufficiency. Divide the mass into 720 lozenges. Each lozenge contains 110 gr. of extract of opium.—Dose, 1 to 2 lozenges.

Lozenges, Or′ange. Syn. Trochisci aurantii, L. From oil of orange, 112 fl. dr. to each lb. of sugar, and infusion of saffron for colouring. By adding nitric or tartaric acid, 3 dr. ‘ACIDULATED ORANGE LOZENGES’ will be formed.

Lozenges, Orange-flow′er. Syn. Trochisci aurantii florum, L. Prep. (P. Cod.) Powdered sugar, 1 lb.; neroli, 1 dr.; orange-flower water, q. s.; make it into drops (pastilli); or, omit the water, and make it into lozenges with mucilage of tragacanth made with orange-flower water. Delightfully fragrant.

Lozenges, Or′ris-root. Syn. Trochisci iridis, L. Prep. From orris-root (in very fine powder), 1 oz.; sugar, 1 lb.; mucilage of tragacanth, q. s. to mix. Used to perfume the breath.

Lozenges Ox′alate of Potassa. Syn. Trochisci potassæ oxalatis, T. p. super-oxalatis, L. As ACIDULATED LOZENGES, but using quadraoxalate of potassa (salt of sorrel) instead of tartaric acid. (See below.)

Lozenges, Oxal′ic Acid. Syn. Trochisci acidi oxalici, L. As ACIDULATED LOZENGES, but using oxalic acid instead of tartaric acid. The last two are refrigerant, but their use is objectionable, especially for patients who labour under the oxalic diathesis. In large quantities they are poisonous.

Lozenges, Paregor′ic. Syn. Trochisci paregorici, L. Medicated with 2 fl. oz. of paregoric and 2 dr. of tartaric acid, to each lb. of sugar, and tinged of a pink colour with lake or cochineal. As a pectoral in catarrhs, &c.

Lozenges, Paullin′ia. Syn. Trochisci paulliniæ, T. guaranæ, L. Prep. (Dr Gavrelle.) Each lozenge contains nearly 12 gr. of extract of garana or paullinia, and is flavoured with vanilla. 12 to 20 daily, as an alterative and tonic; in chlorosis, diarrhœa.

Lozenges, Pec′toral. Syn. Trochisci pectorales, T. bechici, L. Prep. 1. (Dr Grunn.) Powdered squills, 4 parts; extract of lettuce, 8 parts; ipecacuanha, 18 parts; manna, 125 parts; sugar, 250 parts; mucilage of tragacanth, q. s. to mix.

2. (Magendie.) See Lozenges, Emetine.

3. (Black; T. bechici nigri.) See Lozenges, Liquorice.

4. (White; T. bechici albi.) Orris root, 4 dr.; liquorice powder, 6 dr.; starch, 112 oz.; sugar, 18 oz.; mucilage of tragacanth, q. s. to make a lozenge-mass.

5. (Yellow; T. bechici flavi.) Powdered orris root, 6 dr.; starch, 4 dr.; liquorice powder, 3 dr.; saffron, 2 dr.; sugar, 8 oz.; mucilage of tragacanth, q. s. to mix.

Obs. All the above are used as demulcents in coughs, colds, &c. Nos. 1 and 2 are anodyne as well as demulcent. For other formulæ see Lozenges, Cough, Liquorice, Opium, &c.

Lozenges, Pel′litory. Syn. Trochisci pyrethri, L. Prep. From pellitory, mastic, and tragacanth, of each in fine powder, equal parts; orange-flower water, q. s. to mix. In toothache.

Lozenges, Pep′permint. Syn. Trochisci menthæ piperitæ, L. Prep. 1. (P. Cod.) Oil of peppermint, 1 dr.; powdered sugar, 16 oz.; mucilage of tragacanth, q. s.

2. (Ph. U. S.) Oil of peppermint, 1 fl. dr.; sugar, 12 oz.; mucilage of tragacanth, q. s.

3. (Wholesale.) 1 fl. dr. of the finest Mitcham oil of peppermint to each lb. of the finest double refined white sugar, with mucilage of either gum Arabic or tragacanth to mix.

Obs. The best peppermint lozenges are made of the very finest double refined sugar and of English oil of peppermint only; carefully mixed up with very clean mucilage. The commoner qualities are made by employing inferior lump sugar and foreign oil of peppermint, or, what is better, English oil of peppermint, but in a less proportion than for the better sorts. The addition of starch, in quantity varying from 16 to 29 of the whole mass, is also commonly made to them; and in the cheapest varieties even plaster of Paris or chalk is occasionally introduced by unprincipled makers. The addition of a very small quantity of blue smalts, reduced to an impalpable powder, is commonly made to the sugar, to increase its whiteness. ‘Transparent’ or ‘Semi-transparent peppermint lozenges’ are made from the same materials as the opaque ones; but the sugar is not reduced to quite so fine a powder, and the cake is rolled thinner before cutting it. A little oil of almonds or of olives is also occasionally mixed with the ingredients, to promote the transparency; but it tends to render the lozenges less white.

Peppermint lozenges and drops are useful in flatulency, nausea, and griping; and judging from the enormous and constantly increasing demand for them, they are more highly esteemed by the public than all other lozenges and confections.

Lozenges, Pontefract. These are made of the purest refined juice or extract of liquorice, and have long been esteemed as a demulcent.

Lozenges, Pop′py. Syn. Trochisci papaveris, L. Prep. From extract of poppies, 3 oz.; sugar, 15 oz.; powdered gum tragacanth, 2 oz.; rose water, q. s. to mix. Used in coughs as an anodyne and demulcent, in lieu of opium lozenges.

Lozenges, Pulmon′ic. See Lozenges, Cough, Pectoral, Wafers, &c.

Lozenges, Quin′ine. Syn. Trochisci quininæ sulphatis, L. Prep. (Soubeiran.) Each lozenge contains about 110 gr. of sulphate (disulphate) of quinine. Tonic and stomachic in dyspepsia, &c.; but to render them1012 useful, the quantity of the alkaloid should be doubled.

Lozenges, Reduced Iron. Syn. Trochisci ferri redacti. (B. P.) Reduced iron, 720 gr.; refined sugar, in powder, 25 oz.; gum Arabic, in powder, 1 oz.; mucilage, 2 oz.; distilled water, 1 oz., or a sufficiency. Mix the iron, sugar, and gum, and add the mucilage and water to form a proper mass. Divide into 720 lozenges, and dry them in a hot-air chamber with a moderate heat. Each lozenge contains 1 gr. of reduced iron.—Dose, 1 to 6 lozenges.

Lozenges, Reduced Iron, with Chocolate. (Bouchardat.) Syn. Trochisci chocolatæ et ferri. Prep. Fine chocolate, 14 oz.; iron reduced by hydrogen, 1 oz. Soften the chocolate by heat, mix with the iron, and divide into lozenges of 1512 gr. each. Levigated iron filings are sometimes substituted for the reduced iron; others direct the peroxide.

Lozenges of Rhatany. (Th. Hosp.) Syn. Trochisci krameriæ. Prep. Extract of rhatany in powder, 1050 gr.; tragacanth, 70 gr.; sugar, 280 gr.; red currant paste, q. s. Mix, and divide into 350 lozenges, and finish as in benzoic acid lozenges.

Lozenges, Rhu′barb. Syn. Digestive lozenges; Trochisci rhei, L. Prep. (P. Cod.) Powdered rhubarb, 1 oz.; sugar, 11 oz.; mucilage of tragacanth, q. s.; divide into 12-gr. lozenges. Stomachic and laxative. Sucked before dinner, they excite the appetite, and, after it, promote digestion. They are frequently aromatised with a little cinnamon or vanilla. See Candy (Digestive).

Lozenges, Rose. Syn. Trochisci rosæ, L. Prep. 1. (Acidulated; T. r. acidæ.) From otto, 5 to 10 drops; citric or tartaric acid, 3 dr.; sugar, 1 lb.; mucilage, q. s.

2. (Ph. E. 1746.) Red-rose leaves (powdered), 1 oz.; sugar, 12 oz.; mucilage, q. s.

3. (Pâte de rose lozenges.) As No. 1, omitting one half of the acid.

4. (Red; T. r. rubri.) As No. 1; but coloured with liquid lake, or infusion of cochineal.

Obs. Some makers add of starch, 4 oz., substitute oil of rhodium for otto of roses, and use mucilage made with rose water; but the quality of course suffers. They are chiefly used to perfume the breath.

Lozenges, Saf′fron. Syn. Trochisci croci, L. Prep. From hay saffron (in fine powder), 1 oz.; white sugar, 1 lb.; mucilage of gum tragacanth, q. s. to mix. Anodyne, pectoral, and emmenagogue; but chiefly used to raise the spirits in hypochondriasis.

Lozenges, San′tonine. Syn. Tasteless worm lozenges; Trochisci santonini, L. Each lozenge contains 12 gr. (nearly) of santonine. 5 to 10 daily, as a vermifuge.

Lozenges, Scammony. (Bourières.) Syn. Trochisci scammonii. Prep. Resin of scammony, 4 dr.; calomel, 4 dr.; sugar, 6 oz.; tragacanth, 12 dr.; tincture of vanilla, 40 minims. Make into 300 lozenges. 1 or 2 for a child; 2 to 4 for an adult.

Lozenges, So′da. Syn. Trochisci sodæ bicarbonatis (Ph. E.), L. Prep. 1. (Ph. E.) Bicarbonate of soda, 1 oz.; powdered gum Arabic, 12 oz.; sugar, 3 oz.; mucilage, q. s.

2. (Wholesale.) From bicarbonate of soda and powdered gum tragacanth, of each 2 oz.; double refined lump sugar, 34 lb.; rose water, q. s. to mix. In acidity, heartburn, &c. See Lozenges, Vichy.

3. (With GINGER); Trochisci sodæ et zingiberis, L. To the last, add of ginger (in very fine powder), 112 oz.; powdered gum, 12 oz.

Lozenges of Soluble Tartar. (Guibort.) Syn. Trochisci tartari solubilis. Prep. Borotartrate of potash, 1 oz.; sugar, 7 oz.; mucilage of tragacanth, q. s.; flavoured with lemon.

Lozenges, Squills. Syn. Trochisci scillæ, L. 1. Each lozenge contains 18 gr. of powdered squills and 2 gr. of extract of liquorice.

2. (With IPECACUANHA); Trochisci scillæ et ipecacuanhæ, L. As the last, adding for each lozenge 14 gr. of powdered ipecacuanha. Both the above are useful cough lozenges.

Lozenges, Starch. Syn. Trochisci alimy, T. bechici albi. L. See Pectoral lozenges.

Lozenges, Steel. Syn. Trochisci ferri, T. chalybeati, L. Prep. (P. Cod.) Levigated iron filings, 1 oz.; sugar, 10 oz.; cinnamon, 2 dr.; mucilage of tragacanth, q. s.; mix, and divide into 480 lozenges. Tonic. See Lozenges, Iron.

Lozenges, Sul′phur. Syn. Trochisci sulphuris, L. Prep. (P. Cod.) From sulphur (pure precipitate), 2 oz.; sugar, 16 oz.; mucilage of tragacanth (made with rose water), q. s. to mix. Useful in piles and some skin diseases.

Lozenges, Tannic Acid. Syn. Trochisci acidi tannici (B. P.) Tannic acid, 360 gr.; tincture of tolu, 12 oz,; refined sugar, 25 oz.; gum acacia, 1 oz.; mucilage, 2 oz.; distilled water, 1 oz. Dissolve the tannic acid in the water; add first the tincture of tolu previously mixed with the mucilage, then the gum and the sugar, also previously well mixed. Form the whole into a proper mass, divide into 720 lozenges, and dry them in a hot-air chamber with a moderate heat. Each lozenge contains 12 gr. of tannic acid.—Dose, 1 to 6 lozenges.

Lozenges, Tarta′ric Acid. See Lozenges, Acidulated.

Lozenges, Tolu′. Syn. Balsamic lozenges; Trochisci tolutani, T. balsamicæ, L. Prep. 1. (P. Cod.) Balsam of tolu and rectified spirit, of each 1 oz.; dissolve, add of water, 2 fl. oz., heat the mixture in a water bath, and filter; make a mucilage with the filtered liquid, and gum tragacanth (in powder), 80 gr.; add of sugar, 16 oz.; make a mass, and cut it into lozenges.


2. (Wholesale.) As the last, but using only one half the weight of balsam of tolu. Pectoral and balsamic.

Lozenges, Tronchin’s. Syn. Tablettes de Tronchin, Fr. See Lozenges, Cough.

Lozenges, Vanil′la. Syn. Trochisci vanillæ, L. Prep. 1. Essence of vanilla, 3 fl. dr., to each lb. of sugar.

2. (Guibourt.) From vanilla triturated to a fine powder with 7 times its weight of sugar. Antispasmodic, nervine, and stomachic. Used to sweeten the breath, to flavour chocolate, &c.

Lozenges, Vichy. Syn. D’Arcet’s lozenges; Trochisci sodæ, L.; Pastilles de vichy, Fr. Prep. 1. (P. Cod.) Bicarbonate of soda, 1 oz.; powdered sugar, 19 oz.; mucilage of gum tragacanth, q. s.; mix, and divide into 20-gr. lozenges.

2. (D’Arcet.) As the last, adding a little oil of peppermint to give a slight flavour. Antacid or absorbent; in heartburn, &c.

Lozenges, Vi′olet. Syn. Trochisci violæ, T. violarum, L. Prep. Orris lozenges coloured with the juice of violets.

Lozenges, Wistar’s Cough. Prep. Gum Arabic, extract of liquorice, and sugar, of each 212 oz.; powdered opium, 1 dr.; oil of aniseed, 40 drops; for 60 lozenges. One, three or four times a day.

Lozenges Worm. Syn. Trochisci anthelmintici, Morsuli contra vermes, L. Most of the advertised nostrums under this name have a basis of calomel (about 1 gr. per lozenge), and require to be followed by a purge a few hours afterwards.

1. (Ph. Austr. 1836.) Ethereal extract of wormseed, 1 dr.; jalap, starch, and sugar, of each 2 dr.; mucilage of gum tragacanth, q. s.; divide into 60 lozenges.

2. (Ph. Dan. 1840.) Wormseed, 1 oz.; ethiops mineral and jalap, of each 3 dr.; cinnamon, 2 dr.; sugar, 7 oz.; rose water, q. s. See Lozenges, Calomel, Ching’s, Santonin, &c. (above).

Lozenges, Zinc. Syn. Trochisci zinci, T. z. sulphatis, L. Prep. (Dr Copland.) Each lozenge contains 12 gr. of sulphate of zinc. Antispasmodic, expectorant, and tonic, and in quantity emetic.


LU′CIFERS. See Matches.

LUMBA′GO. Rheumatism of the loins. It is distinguished from nephritis, or inflammation of the kidneys, by the pain being aggravated on stooping. The treatment consists of strong stimulant embrocations or liniments, or of blisters over the parts affected, with active aperients, warmth, and diaphoretics (as Dover’s powder) at bedtime. The hot or vapour bath often gives almost immediate relief. See Liniment of Belladonna and Chloroform. See Rheumatism.

LU′MINOUS PHIAL. See Phosphorus.

LU′NA, CORNEA. [L.] Syn. Horn silver. Fused chloride of silver.

LU′NAR, CAUSTIC. Fused nitrate of silver. See Caustic and Silver.

LUNCHEONS, HOT, by the River Side. We extract the following from ‘Land and Water’:—“In cold weather, by river side or on mountain or moor, when not too far from home, a hot lunch is often a desideratum, but one not easily accomplished without a more or less complicated apparatus and the trouble of lighting a fire—often an impossibility from the want of dry wood. A hot, substantial meal at the end of a hard day’s work is often difficult to get when the time of return home may depend entirely on the humour of the fish; and for either purpose nothing will beat the homely Hot Pot, or ‘Paté de Lancashire,’ as I have seen it pretentiously termed, though the latter name does not convey any of the comforting, cheering sensation to the inner man contained in the simpler denomination. I have never seen a good recipe for it, so append my own. Take a strong glazed earthenware jar of a cylindrical form, ten inches deep and twelve broad. At the bottom of this place a layer, about an inch thick, of potatoes cut into pieces, sprinkle with a little salt; on these place a layer of four or five mutton chops, season with salt and pepper, and a teaspoonful of Worcester sauce. Pour in enough broth, stock, or water to nearly cover the chops; then add another layer of potatoes (rather thicker than the first), on which place two or three chops, and two kidneys, cut into smallish pieces for the sake of the gravy. If mushrooms are procurable, add a few with each layer of meat, or, in place of these, a few oysters. Season, and continue the meat and potatoes in alternate layers until within an inch of the top, when cover with small potatoes whole, or large ones cut into halves or quarters; bake slowly in the oven till the potatoes are quite soft inside, and brown and well cooked at the top, when the dish is ready. If it is not wanted at once, it may easily be kept hot, and the addition of a little stock will prevent its getting dry. To serve out-of-doors, wrap up in cloths, and carry in a small hamper lined with straw, when it will keep steaming hot for an hour or more. One of the great excellences of this dish lies in the fact that all the aroma of the meat is retained, while the potatoes absorb any superfluous gravy. Sliced onions will improve the flavour for those who like them, especially when mushrooms cannot be got. I have tested the appreciation of this dish among a grouse-driving party on the Yorkshire moors on a raw December day, and there was no dissentient voice as to its merits when thankfully discussed over the subsequent pipe. I have found it not ungrateful, after a long day’s fishing, nearly up to my waist in water, when the dinner ordered for six, with a view of taking an evening basket, would have been ruined1014 before my arrival at eleven, had it consisted of aught else; nay, I have assisted at more than one bachelor supper in chambers, where it formed the dish of the evening, and mid-day, evening, or night I have always found it good.”

LUNGS. In anatomy, the organ of respiration occupying the thorax or chest. See Respiration.

LU′PULIN. Syn. Lupulina, Lupuline. Under this name two products are known, namely, 1. (Lupulinic grains, L. glands.) The yellow powder obtained from the dried strobiles or catkins of the hops, by gently rubbing and sifting them.—Dose, 5 to 10 gr.; as an anodyne, tonic, &c.

2. The aromatic bitter principle of hops.

Prep. The aqueous extract of the yellow powder or lupulinic grains of the strobiles, along with a little lime, are treated with rectified spirit; the filtered tincture is evaporated to dryness, redissolved in water, and the solution is again filtered, and evaporated to dryness; the residuum is, lastly, washed with ether, and allowed to dry.

Prop., &c. The latter product is a yellowish-white, bitter, uncrystallisable substance, soluble in 20 parts of water, very soluble in alcohol, and slightly so in ether. The yellow powder above alluded to (No. 1) is improperly called lupulin; a name which appears more appropriate to the pure bitter principle than to the lupulinic grains.

Adult. The lupulin sold to brewers is largely adulterated with quassia. In some samples, lately examined, the quassia amounted to 70 per cent.

LU′PUS. In pathology, a disease affecting the skin, remarkable for eating away the parts which it attacks with extreme rapidity. It is generally confined to the face, and commences with small, spreading ulcerations, which become more or less concealed beneath bran-like scabs, and end in ragged ulcers, which gradually destroy the skin and muscular tissue to a considerable depth.

LUS′TRE. See Plumbago.

LUTE. Syn. Luting; Lutum, Cæmentum, L. A composition employed to secure the joints of chemical vessels, or as a covering to protect them from the violence of the fire.

Prep. 1. Linseed meal, either alone or mixed with an equal weight of whiting, and made into a stiff paste with water. It soon becomes very hard and tough.

2. Ground almond cake, from which the oil has been pressed, mixed up as the last. Both the above are much used for stills, retorts, and other vessels that are not exposed to a heat higher than about 320° Fahr. They are capable of resisting the action of the fumes of volatile oils, spirits, weak acids, &c., for some time.

3. Fresh-slaked lime made into a paste with strained bullock’s blood or size. As the last.

4. Plaster of Paris made into a paste with water, and at once applied. It bears a nearly red heat, but becomes rather porous and friable.

5. Powdered clay or whiting made into putty with water and boiled linseed oil. This is commonly known as ‘fat lute.’

6. A mixture of powdered clay and ground bricks, made up with water or a solution of borax. For joining crucibles, &c., which are to be exposed to a strong heat.

7. Pipe-clay and horse-dung, made into a paste with water. As a coating for glass vessels, to preserve them from injury from exposure to the fire. This composition is used by the pipe-makers, and will stand unharmed the extremest heat of their kiln for 24 hours. It is applied by spreading it on paper.

8. As the last, but employing shredded tow or plumbago for horse-dung.

Obs. For the joints of small vessels, as tubes, &c., especially those of glass or earthenware, pieces of vulcanized Indian tubing, slipped over and tied above and below the joint, are very convenient substitutes for lutes, and have the advantage of lasting for a long time, and bearing uninjured the heat at which oil of vitriol boils. Flat rings or “washers” of vulcanised rubber are also excellent for still heads, &c., whenever the parts can be pinched together by screws or clamps.

LYCOPO′DIUM. The fine powder known in commerce under this name consists of the minute spores of the common club moss, or Lycopodium clavatum. It is exceedingly combustible; thrown suddenly from a powder-puff or bellows across the flame of a candle, it produces the imitation flashes of lightning of our theatres. The powder is also employed as a ‘dusting powder’ in excoriations, and to roll up boluses and pills.

According to M. Paul Cazeneuve, pine pollen is occasionally substituted for lycopodium.

MACARO′NI. This only differs from VERMICELLI in the size of the pipes, which are about as large as a goose-quill. When properly dressed it is very wholesome and nutritious. A pleasant dish may be made by boiling macaroni in water until soft, either with or without a little salt, draining off the water, and then stewing it with a little butter, cream, or milk, and grated cheese, adding spice to palate. It may be made into a ‘form’ and browned before the fire.

MAC′AROONS (English). Prep. Take of sweet almonds, 1 lb.; blanch and beat them to a paste, add of lump sugar 114 lb.; whites of 6 eggs; the grated yellow peel of 2 lemons; mix well, make it into ‘forms,’ cover with wafer paper, and bake in a moderate oven.

MACE. Syn. Macis, L. The tough membranous, lacerated covering (ariliode) of the NUTMEG. It has a flavour and odour more agreeable than that of nutmeg, which in its general properties it resembles. It is used as a flavouring by cooks, confectioners, and liqueuristes;1015 and in medicine as a carminative. See Oil, &c.

MACERA′TION. Syn. Maceratio, L. The steeping of a substance in cold water, for the purpose of extracting the portion soluble in that menstruum. The word is also frequently applied to the infusion of organic substances in alcohol or ether, or in water, either alkalised or acidulated.

MACKEREL. The Scomber Scombrus (Linn.), a well-known spiny-finned sea-fish, much esteemed at certain seasons for the table. Though nutritious, it is very apt to disagree with delicate stomachs, and occasionally induces symptoms resembling those of poisoning.

MAD′DER. Syn. Rubia, Rubiæ radix, L. The root of Rubia tinctorum (Linn.), or dyer’s madder. The best madder has the size of a common goose-quill, a reddish appearance, and a strong odour. As soon as the roots are taken from the ground they are picked and dried; and before use they are ground in a mill. Levant, Turkey, and Smyrna madder is imported whole; French, Dutch, and Zealand madder, ground. The finest quality of ground madder is called ‘crop’ or ‘grappe,’ ‘ombro’ and ‘gamene’ are inferior sorts, and ‘mull’ the worst.

Madder contains several distinct principles as—madder red, or alizarin;—madder purple, or purpurin;—madder orange, or rubiacin; madder yellow, or xanthin, &c. The first of these (noticed below) is by far the most important.

Pur. Madder is frequently adulterated with logwood, Brazil wood, and other dye-stuffs of inferior value; and also, not unfrequently, with brickdust, red ochre clay, sand, mahogany sawdust, bran, &c. These admixtures may be detected as follows:—

1. When dried at 212° Fahr., and then incinerated, not more than 10% to 12% of ash should be left.

2. It should not lose more than 50% to 56% by exhaustion with cold water.

3. When assayed for alizarin (see below), the quantity of this substance obtained should be equal to that from a sample of the same kind of madder which is known to be pure, and which has been treated in precisely the same manner. The operation may be conducted as follows:—500 gr. of the sample are weighed, and, after being dried by the heat of boiling water or steam, are gradually added to an equal weight of concentrated sulphuric acid, contained in a glass vessel, and stirred with a glass rod; after a few hours the charred mass is washed with cold water, collected on a filter, and dried by the heat of boiling water; the carbonised mass (‘garacine’) is next powdered, and treated with successive portions of rectified spirit, to which a little ether has been added, at first in the cold, and afterwards with heat, until the liquid is no longer coloured by it, when the mixed tincture is filtered, and evaporated (distilled) to dryness; the weight of the residuum, divided by 5, gives the percentage of red colouring matter present. Or,—The dried carbonized matter is exhausted by boiling it in a solution of 1 part of alum in 5 or 6 parts of water, and the decoction, after being filtered whilst in the boiling state, is treated with sulphuric acid as long as a precipitate falls, which is washed, dried, and weighed as before.

Uses, &c. Madder has been given in jaundice and rickets, and as an emmenagogue.—Dose, 12 dr. to 2 dr., twice or thrice a day. It is principally employed as a dye-stuff. See Red dyes, Ivory, Purpurin, &c., also below.

MADDER RED. Syn. Alizarin. C14H8O4. 2Aq. The red colouring principle of madder, first obtained in a separate form by Robiquet.

Prep. 1. The aqueous decoction of madder is treated with dilute sulphuric acid as long as a precipitate falls, which, after being washed, is boiled in a solution of chloride of aluminum as long as it gives out colour; the liquid is then filtered, precipitated with hydrochloric acid, and the precipitate washed and dried. It may be purified from a little adhering purpurin, by dissolving it in alcohol, again throwing it down with hydrate of aluminum, boiling the precipitate with a strong solution of soda, and separating the alizarin from its combination with alumina by means of hydrochloric acid; it is lastly crystallised from alcohol.

2. (Meillet.) Alum, 3 parts, is dissolved in water at 140° Fahr., 30 parts, and madder, 13 parts, added to the solution; the whole is then gently boiled for 30 or 40 minutes, after which it is thrown upon a filter, and submitted to strong pressure; this treatment is repeated with fresh solutions a second and a third time; the mixed filtrates are then decanted, and when nearly cold, oil of vitriol, 1 part, diluted with twice its bulk of water, is added, care being taken to stir the liquid all the time; the supernatant fluid is next decanted, and the residuum well washed, and, lastly, dried in the air. If required quite pure, it is dissolved, whilst still moist, in a solution of 112 times its weight of carbonate of potassa in 15 parts of water, and, after reprecipitation with sulphuric acid, is washed and dried as before.

3. (Robiquet & Colin.) Powdered madder is exhausted with water of a temperature not exceeding 68° Fahr., and, after being dried, 1 part of it is boiled for 15 or 20 minutes in a solution of alum, 8 parts, in water, 40 parts; the liquid is filtered whilst boiling, the marc well washed with a fresh solution of alum, the mixed liquids precipitated with sulphuric acid, and the precipitate washed and dried, as before.

Obs. Alizarin has recently been produced artificially by Graebe and 1016Liebermann from anthracene (C14H10), a liquid hydrocarbon existing in coal-tar. For a description of the process see Alizarin, Artificial.

4. Madder exhausted by 2 or 3 macerations in 5 or 6 times its weight of cold water, is submitted to strong pressure, to remove adhering water, and the marc, whilst still moist, is mixed with half its weight of oil of vitriol diluted with an equal quantity of water; the whole is kept at the temperature of 212° for an hour, and after being mixed with cold water is thrown on a linen strainer, well washed with cold water, and dried.

5. From powdered madder and oil of vitriol, equal parts, without heat, as described under Madder.

6. (F. Steiner.) The ‘used madder’ of the dye-works is run into filters, and precipitated with sulphuric acid; the matter thus obtained is put into bags and rendered as dry as possible by hydraulic pressure; the pressed cake is next crumbled to pieces, placed in a leaden vessel, and treated with 1-5th of its weight of oil of vitriol, afterwards assisting the action of the acid by introducing steam to the mixture; the resulting dark brown carbonized mass is, lastly, well washed, dried, powdered, and mixed with about 5% of carbonate of soda, when it is ready for sale.

Obs. The last three formulæ produce the ‘GARANCE’ or ‘GARANCINE’ of commerce, now so extensively used in dyeing.

Prop., &c. Pure anhydrous alizarin crystallises in magnificent orange-red crystals, which may be fused and sublimed; it is freely soluble in alkaline solutions, which it colours purple or violet; and, in oil of vitriol, giving a rich red colour; water throws it down from the last unchanged; it is also soluble in hot alcohol, a hot solution of alum, and, less freely, in hot water. Hydrated alizarin occurs in small scales resembling mosaic gold. When impure, it generally forms shining reddish-brown scales. Commercial ‘garancine’ is a deep-brown or puce-coloured powder, and will probably, ere long, entirely supersede crude madder for dyeing. The properties of garancine as a dye-stuff are precisely similar to those of madder. A solution of alum added to a solution of alizarin, and precipitated by carbonate of potassa, furnishes a rose lake; which, after being washed with water and dried, possesses a most charming tint.

MAGILP′. Syn. Megellup. A mixture of pale linseed oil and mastic varnish, employed by artists as a ‘vehicle’ for their colours. The proportions vary according to the work. It is thinned with turpentine.

MAG′ISTERY. Syn. Magisterium, L. The old name of precipitates. The following are the principal substances to which this term has been applied:—Magistery of alum, hydrate of alumina; M. OF BISMUTH, sub-nitrate of bismuth; M. OF DIAPHORETIC ANTIMONY, washed diaphoretic antimony; M. OF OPIUM (Ludolph’s), crude morphia; M. OF LAPIS CALAMINARIS or M. OF ZINC, hydrated oxide of zinc.

MAGNESIA. See Magnesium, Oxide of.

Magnesia, Hydrate of. (P. Cod.) Syn. Magnesiæ hydras. Obtained by boiling magnesia in 20 or 30 times its weight of water for 20 minutes, draining on a linen cloth and drying. It contains 31 per cent. of water.

Magnesia, Lactate of (Ph. Ger.) Syn. Magnesiæ lactas. Prep. Mix 1 oz. (by weight) of lactic acid in 10 oz. of distilled water, just made slightly warm, and add light carbonate of magnesia enough to neutralise it. Filter and evaporate till crystals form.

MAGNE′SIAN APE′′RIENT (Effervescing). Prep. 1. Heavy carbonate of magnesia, 2 lbs.; tartaric acid and double refined lump sugar, of each 112 lb.; bicarbonate of soda (dried without heat), 1 lb.; each separately dried and in very fine powder; essential oils of orange and lemon, of each 12 fl. dr.; mix well in a warm, dry situation, pass the whole through a sieve, put it into warm, dry bottles, and keep them well corked.

2. As the last, but substituting calcined magnesia, 1 lb., for the heavy carbonate, and adding sugar, 34 lb. The preceding furnish a very pleasant effervescing saline draught.

3. (Moxon’s.)—a. Take of sulphate of magnesia, 2 lbs.; dry it by a gradually increased heat, powder, add of tartaric acid (also dried and powdered), 114 lb.; calcined magnesia, 12 lb.; finely powdered white sugar, 3 lbs.; bicarbonate of soda (dried without heat), 1 lb.; essence of lemon, 1 dr.; mix, and proceed as before.

b. (Durande.) Carbonate of magnesia, 1 part; bicarbonate of soda, tartrate of soda and potassa (sel de Seignette), and tartaric acid, of each 2 parts; mix as before.

c. (Pharm. Journ.) Sulphate of magnesia and bicarbonate of soda, of each 1 lb.; tartaric acid, 12 lb.; mix as before. The last two are much less agreeable than the others.

4. Carbonate of magnesia, 2 parts; calcined magnesia, 4 parts; citric acid, 13 parts; lump sugar, 25 parts; essence of lemon, q. s. to flavour. Very agreeable. This is known as ‘Rogés Purgatif,’

Obs. The above are very useful and popular medicines in indigestion, heartburn, nausea, habitual costiveness, dyspepsia, &c.—Dose, 12 to 2 dessert-spoonfuls, thrown into tumbler 3 parts filled with cold water, rapidly stirred and drank whilst effervescing, early in the morning fasting, or between breakfast and dinner.

MAGNESIAN LEMONADE′. See Citrate of Magnesia and Lemonade (Aperient).

MAGNESIUM. Mg. Syn. Magnium, Talcium. The metallic radical of magnesia. The existence of this metal was demonstrated by Sir H. Davy in 1808; but it was first obtained in sufficient quantity to examine its properties by Bussy in 1830.

Prep. 5 or 6 pieces of sodium, about the size1017 of peas, are introduced into a test-tube, and covered with small fragments of chloride of magnesium; the latter is then heated to near its point of fusion, when the flame of the lamp is applied to the sodium, so that its vapour may pass through the stratum of heated chloride; when the vivid incandescence that follows is over, and the whole has become cold, the mass is thrown into water, and the insoluble metallic portion collected and dried.

Commercial magnesium is prepared by evaporating solution of the chlorides of sodium and magnesium, in the proportion of 1 to 3, to dryness, mixing with one quarter of its weight of fluor spar and a like amount of sodium, and heating to bright redness in an iron crucible of proper construction.

On a larger scale it is prepared by heating to redness a mixture of chloride of magnesium, 9 parts; fused chloride of sodium, 112 parts; fluoride of calcium, 112 parts; and sodium in slices, 112 parts.

Prop., &c. In colour and lustre it resembles silver, but in chemical properties is more like zinc; its sp. gr. is only 1·743; it is malleable; fusible at a red heat, and can be distilled like zinc; unaffected by dry air and by cold water; burns with brilliancy when heated to dull redness in air or oxygen gas, yielding oxide of magnesium; inflames spontaneously in chlorine, yielding chloride of magnesium; it dissolves in the acids with the evolution of hydrogen gas, and pure salts of magnesium result.

It has been used somewhat extensively as an illuminating agent for photographing at night, and also for the purpose of affording a brilliant light for microscopic and magic lantern effects.

Magnesium, Bromide. Syn. Magnesii bromidum. To bromide of iron in solution add calcined magnesia in excess, heat the mixture, filter, and evaporate the clear solution to dryness.

Magnesium, Carbonate of (Light). Syn. Light Carbonate of Magnesia; Carbonate of magnesia; Magnesia; Magnesiæ carbonas levis (B. P.). 3MgCO3.MgO.5H2O. Prep. 1. (Ph. L.) Sulphate of magnesium, 4 lbs., and carbonate of sodium, 4 lbs. 9 oz.; boiling distilled water, 4 galls.; dissolve the salts separately in one half the water, filter, mix the solutions, and boil for 2 hours, constantly stirring with a spatula, distilled water being frequently added to compensate for that lost by evaporation; lastly, the solution being poured off, wash the precipitated powder with boiling distilled water, and dry it. The formulæ of the Ph. E. & D. are essentially the same, except that the ebullition is limited to from 10 to 20 minutes.

2. (B. P.) Similar to the foregoing except that precipitation takes place in the cold. The formula of this compound is (Mg.CO3)3. Mg(HO)2.4(H2O).

3. (Henry’s.) Ordinary carbonate of magnesia, the washing of which has been finished with a little rose water.

4. Add a solution of carbonate of potassium or sodium to the bittern or residuary liquor of the sea-salt works, and well wash and dry the precipitate as before. This is known in commerce as ‘Scotch magnesia.’

Obs. The carbonate of magnesia of commerce is usually made up into cakes or dice while drying; or it is permitted to drain and dry in masses, which are then cut into squares with a thin knife. It is powdered by simply rubbing it through a wire sieve. The presence of iron in the solution of the sulphate of magnesium, when the crude salt is employed, and which is destructive to the beauty of the preparation may be got rid of by the addition of lime water until the liquor acquires a slight alkaline reaction, and subsequent decantation after repose.

Magnesium, Carbonate of (Heavy). Syn. Heavy Carbonate of Magnesia; Magnesiæ carbonas (B. P.). 3MgCO3.MgO.5H2O. Prep. 1. Apothecaries’ Hall. A saturated solution of sulphate of magnesium, 1 part, is diluted with water, 3 parts, and the mixture heated to the boiling point; a cold saturated solution of carbonate of sodium, 1 part (all by measure), is then added, and the whole is boiled with constant agitation until effervescence ceases; boiling water is next freely poured in, and after assiduous stirring for a few minutes, and repose, the clear liquid is decanted, and the precipitate thrown on a linen cloth and thoroughly washed with hot water; it is, lastly, drained, and dried in an iron pot.

2. (Ph. D.) Dissolve sulphate of magnesium, 10 oz., in boiling distilled water, 12 pint; and carbonate of sodium (cryst.), 12 oz., in boiling distilled water, 1 pint; mix the two solutions, and evaporate the whole to dryness by the heat of a sand bath; then add of boiling water 1 quart, digest with agitation for half an hour, and wash the insoluble residuum as before; lastly, drain it, and dry it at the temperature of boiling water.

3. (B. P.) White granular powder precipitated from a boiling solution of sulphate of magnesium by a solution of carbonate of sodium, the whole evaporated to dryness, and the dry residue digested in water, collected on a filter, and washed.

Prop. The ordinary or light carbonate of magnesia is a white, inodorous, tasteless powder, possessing similar properties to calcined magnesia, except effervescing with acids, and having less saturating power. An ounce measure is filled by 45 to 48 gr. of the powder lightly placed in it. The heavy carbonate is sometimes fully thrice as dense (see below), but in other respects is similar.

Dose. As an antacid, 12 to a whole teaspoonful, 3 or 4 times daily; as a laxative 12 dr. to 2 dr. It is commonly taken in milk. It is apt to produce flatulence, but in other respects is preferable to calcined magnesia.

General Remarks. Although commonly called ‘carbonate of magnesia,’ the above1018 substance, whether in the light or heavy form, appears to be a compound of carbonate with hydrate, in proportions which are not perfectly constant. (For B. P. formula see preceding article.) On account of the excess of base in its composition it was formerly regarded as a subsalt (subcarbonate of magnesia). A great deal has been written uselessly respecting the preparation of these carbonates, about which, however, there is neither mystery nor difficulty, as some writers would lead their readers to suppose. If the solutions are very dilute, the precipitate is exceedingly light and bulky; if otherwise, it is denser. By employing nearly saturated solutions, and then heating them and mixing them together whilst very hot, a very heavy precipitate is obtained, but it is apt to be gritty or crystalline. The same occurs when cold solutions are mixed, and no heat is employed. The lightest precipitate is obtained from cold, highly dilute solutions, and subsequent ebullition of the mixture.

Mr Pattinson, a chemist of Gateshead, prepares a very beautiful and pure heavy carbonate from magnesian limestone. The latter is calcined at a dull red heat (not hotter) for some time, by which the carbonic anhydride is expelled from the carbonate of magnesium, but not from the carbonate of calcium, which hence continues insoluble. The calcined mass is next reduced to a milk with water in a suitable cistern, and the carbonic anhydride resulting from its own calcination forced into it under powerful pressure. The result is a saturated solution of carbonate of magnesia, the lime remaining unacted on so long as the magnesium is in excess. The solution by evaporation yields the heavy carbonate, whilst carbonic anhydride is expelled, and may be again used in the same manufacture. 154 to 160 gr. of the heavy carbonate are required to fill an ounce measure when lightly placed in it, by which it appears to be fully thrice as dense as the light carbonate. The bicarbonate of magnesium (magnesiæ bicarbonas, L.) exists only in solution. The so-called ‘fluid magnesias’ of Murray, Dinneford, Husband, &c., are solutions of this salt. The small prismatic crystals which are deposited when ‘fluid magnesia’ is exposed to the air for some time consist of hydrated neutral carbonate, and not bicarbonate, as is sometimes stated.

Magnesium, Chloride of. MgCl2. Syn. Magnesii chloridum, L. Prep. (Liebig.) By dissolving magnesia in hydrochloric acid, evaporating to dryness, adding an equal weight of chloride of ammonium, projecting the mixture into a red-hot platinum crucible, and continuing the heat till a state of tranquil fusion is attained. On cooling, it forms a transparent, colourless, and very deliquescent mass, which is anhydrous, and soluble in alcohol.

Obs. Without the addition of the chloride of ammonium it is impossible to expel the last portion of the water without at the same time driving off the chlorine, in which case nothing but magnesia is left. The fused mass should be poured out on a clean stone, and when solid broken into pieces, and at once transferred to a warm, dry bottle. The P. Cod. orders the solution to be evaporated to the sp. gr. 1·384, and to be put, whilst still hot, into a wide-mouthed flask to crystallise.—Dose, 1 to 4 dr.; as a laxative.

Magnesium, Cit′rate of. Mg3(C6H5O7)2. Syn. Magnesiæ citras. L. Prep. There is some difficulty in obtaining this salt in an eligible form for medicinal purposes. When precipitated from a solution it is insoluble. The following formulæ can be highly recommended.

1. (Parrish.) Dissolve crystallised citric acid, 100 gr., in water, 15 drops, and its own ‘water of crystallisation’ by the aid of heat; then stir in calcined magnesia, 35 gr.; a pasty mass will result, which soon hardens, and may be powdered for use.

Obs. The chief practical difficulty in this process results from the great comparative bulk of the magnesia, and the very small quantity of the fused mass with which it is to be incorporated. A part of the magnesia is almost unavoidably left uncombined, and the salt is consequently not neutral. The uncombined earth should be dusted off the mass before powdering the latter. A high temperature must be avoided.

2. (Robiquet.) Citric acid, 3514 parts, is powdered and dissolved in boiling water, 1058 parts; when the solution is cold, and before it crystallises, it is poured in a wide earthen vessel, kept cold by surrounding it with water; then, by means of a sieve, carbonate of magnesium, 2116 parts, is distributed evenly and rapidly over the surface without stirring; when the reaction ceases the mixture is beaten rapidly as long as it retains its pasty consistence. The salt should be dried at a temperature not exceeding 70° Fahr.

3. (Effervescing; Magnesiæ citras effervescens, L.)—a. Citric acid (dried and powdered), 7 parts; heavy carbonate of magnesium, 5 parts; mix, and preserve in well-corked bottles.

b. (Ellis.) Mix powdered citric acid, 212 oz., with powdered sugar, 8 oz.; triturate to a fine powder, and drive off the water of crystallisation by the heat of a water bath; add citrate of magnesium (prepared by fusion), 4 oz., and oil of lemons, 10 drops, and mix intimately; then add bicarbonate of sodium, 3 oz., and again triturate until the whole forms a fine powder, which must be preserved in stoppered bottles. From 1 to 3 tablespoonfuls, mixed in a tumbler of water, furnishes an effervescing draught in which the undissolved portion is so nicely suspended, that it can be taken without inconvenience.

c. (Ph. Germ.) Light carbonate of magnesia, 25 oz.; citric acid, 75 oz.; distilled water, q. s.; mix into a thick paste and dry at1019 86° Fahr. With 14 oz. of the dried mass mix bicarbonate of soda, 13 oz.; citric acid, 6 oz.; sugar, 3 oz. Sprinkle over the mixture enough rectified spirit so as to make it sufficiently moist to be granulated by rubbing through a tinned iron sieve.

d. (Extemporaneous.) Citric acid (cryst.), 20 gr.; carbonate of magnesium, 14 gr.; mix in a tumbler of cold water, and drink the mixture whilst effervescing. A pleasant saline.

Obs. A dry white powder, sometimes sold as citrate of magnesia in the shops, is quite a different preparation to the above, and does not contain a particle of citric acid. The following formula is that of a wholesale London drug-house that does largely in this article:—

Calcined magnesia, magnesium oxide, 114 lb. (or carbonate, 2 lbs.); powdered tartaric acid, 112 lb.; bicarbonate of sodium, 1 lb.; dry each article by a gentle heat, then mix them, pass the mixture through a fine sieve in a warm dry room, and keep it in well-corked bottles. A few drops of essence of lemon and 3 lbs. of finely powdered sugar are commonly added to the above quantity. This addition renders it more agreeable.

Prop., &c. Citrate of magnesium is a mild and agreeable laxative; its secondary effects resemble those of the carbonate.—Dose. As a purgative, 12 to 1 oz. The dose of the effervescing citrate must depend on the quantity of magnesia present. A solution of this salt in water, sweetened and flavoured with lemon, forms magnesian lemonade.

Magnesium, Boro-cit′rate of. Syn. Magnesiæ boro-citras, L. Prep. (Cadet.) Boracic acid (in powder), 113 gr.; oxide of magnesium, 80 gr.; mix in a porcelain capsule, and add enough of a solution of citric acid, 260 gr., in water, 312 pints, to form a thin paste; then add the remainder of the citric solution, and gently evaporate, with constant stirring, to dryness. A cooling saline, and, in small doses, emmenagogue and lithontriptic.—Dose. As an aperient, 3 to 6 dr.

Magnesium, Oxide of. MgO. Syn. Oxide of Magnesium, Calcined Magnesia, Magnesia (B. P., Ph. L.).

Prep. 1. (B. P.) Magnesium carbonate, heated in a crucible until all the carbonic anhydride is driven off.

Prop., &c. White heavy powder, scarcely soluble in water, but readily soluble in acids without effervescence. Its solution in hydrochloric acid, neutralised by a mixed solution of ammonia and ammonium chloride, gives a copious crystalline precipitate when sodium phosphate is added to it. See next preparation.

Magnesia levis (B. P.) Syn. Light magnesia. Prep. (B. P.) 1. Light carbonate of magnesium heated in a Cornish crucible until all the carbonic anhydride is driven off.

A bulky white powder, differing from the magnesia (B. P.) only in its density, the volume occupied by the same weight being 312 to 1.

The properties of the two varieties of magnesium oxide are identical, and are used in medicine as antacids, laxatives, and antilithics, and much used in dyspepsia, heartburn, &c.—Dose, 10 to 20 gr. as an antacid and 20 to 60 gr. as a purgative.

Magnesium, Phos′phate of. MgHPO4.6Aq. Syn. Magnesiæ phosphas, L. Prep. From the mixed solutions of phosphate of sodium and sulphate of magnesium, allowed to stand for some time. Small, colourless, prismatic crystals, which, according to Graham, are soluble in about 1000 parts of cold water. Phosphate of magnesium exists in the grains of the cereals, and in considerable quantity in beer. It is also found in guano.

Magnesium and Ammo′′nium, Phosphate of. MgNH4.PO4, 6 Aq. Syn. Ammonio-phosphate of magnesia; Magnesiæ et ammoniæ phosphas, L. This compound falls as a white crystalline precipitate whenever ammonia or carbonate of ammonium is added, in excess, to a solution of a salt of magnesium which has been previously mixed with a soluble phosphate, as that of soda. It subsides immediately from concentrated solutions, but only after some time from very dilute ones.

Prop., &c. Ammonio-phosphate of magnesium is very slightly soluble in pure water; when heated, it is resolved into pyrophosphate of magnesium, and is vitrified at a strong red heat. It is found in wheaten bran, guano, potatoes, &c., and occasionally forms one of the varieties of urinary calculi.

Magnesium, Sil′icates of. There are several native silicates of magnesia, more or less pure, of which, however, none is directly employed in medicine. Meerschaum and steatite or soapstone are well-known varieties. Serpentine is a compound of silicate and hydrate of magnesium. The minerals augite and hornblende are double salts of silicic acid, magnesium, and calcium with some ferrous oxide. The beautiful crystallised mineral called chrysolite is a silicate of magnesium, coloured with ferrous oxide. Jade is a double silicate of magnesium and aluminum, coloured with chromic oxide.

Magnesium, Sulphate of. MgSO4, 7 Aq. Syn. Epsom salt, Magnesiæ sulphas (B. P. Ph. L. E. & D.), Sal Epsomensis, L. This compound was originally extracted from the saline springs of Epsom, Surrey, by Dr Grew, in 1695. It is now exclusively prepared on the large scale, and from either magnesian limestone or the residual liquor of the sea-salt works.

Prep. 1. From dolomite or magnesian limestone.—a. The mineral, broken into fragments, is heated with a sufficient quantity of dilute sulphuric acid to convert its carbonates into sulphates; the sulphate of magnesium is washed out of the mass with hot water, and1020 the solution, after defecation, is evaporated and crystallised.

b. The ‘limestone,’ either simply broken into fragments or else calcined (burnt), and its constituents quicklime and oxide magnesium converted into hydrates by sprinkling (slaking) it with water, is treated with a sufficient quantity of dilute hydrochloric acid to dissolve out all the calcium hydrate without touching the magnesium hydrate; the residuum of the latter, after being washed and drained, is dissolved in dilute sulphuric acid, and crystallised as before.

2. From bittern.—a. The residual liquor or mother-water of sea-salt is boiled for some hours in the pans which are used during the summer for the concentration of brine; the saline solution is then skimmed and decanted from some common salt which has been deposited, after which it is concentrated by evaporation, and, finally, run into wooden coolers; in about 36 hours, 1-8th part of Epsom salts usually crystallises out. This is called ‘singles.’ By re-dissolving this in water, and re-crystallisation, ‘doubles,’ or Epsom salts fit for the market, are obtained. A second crop of crystals may be procured by adding sulphuric acid to the mother-liquor, and re-concentrating the solution, but this is seldom had recourse to in England. Bittern yields fully 5 parts of sulphate of magnesia for every 100 parts of common salt that has been previously obtained from it.

b. A concentrated solution of sulphate of sodium is added to bittern, in equivalent proportion to that of the chloride of magnesium in it, and the mixed solution is evaporated at the temperature of 122° Fahr. (Ure); cubical crystals of common salt are deposited as the evaporation proceeds, after which, by further concentration and repose, regular crystals of sulphate of magnesia are obtained.

c. A sufficient quantity of calcined and slaked magnesian limestone is boiled in bittern to decompose the magnesium salts, and the liquid is evaporated, &c., as before. This is a very economical process.

Prop. Small acicular crystals, or (by careful crystallisation) large four-sided rhombic prisms; colourless; odourless, transparent; slightly efflorescent; extremely bitter and nauseous; when heated, it fuses in its water of crystallisation, the larger portion of which readily passes off, but one equivalent of water is energetically retained; at a high temperature it runs into a species of white enamel; it dissolves in its own weight of cold water, and in 3-4ths of that quantity of boiling water; it is insoluble in both alcohol and ether. Sp. gr. 1·66.

Pur. Sulphate of magnesium is soluble in an equal weight of water at 60° Fahr., by which it may be distinguished from sulphate of sodium, which is much more soluble.

An aqueous solution in the cold is not precipitated by oxalate of ammonium. The precipitate given by carbonate of sodium from a solution of 100 gr. should, after well washing and heating to redness, weigh 16·26 gr. (B. P.)

Digested in alcohol, the filtered liquid does not yield a precipitate with nitrate of silver nor burn with a yellow flame, and evaporates without residue. “Not deliquescent in the air.” (Ph. L.) 100 gr. of the pure crystallised sulphate yields 1614 gr. of calcined magnesium oxide. (Pereira.) 10 gr., dissolved in 1 fl. oz. of water, and treated with a solution of carbonate of ammonium, are not entirely precipitated by 280 minims of solution of phosphate of sodium. (Ph. E.)

Uses, &c. Sulphate of magnesium is an excellent cooling purgative, and sometimes proves diuretic and diaphoretic.—Dose, 1 dr. to 1 oz., as a purgative, or an antidote in poisoning by lead. Large doses should be avoided. Instances are on record of their having proved fatal. Dr Christison mentions the case of a boy 10 years old who swallowed 2 oz. of salts, and died within 10 minutes. The best antidote is an emetic. A small quantity of Epsom salts, largely diluted with water (as a drachm to 12 pint or 34 pint), will usually purge as much as the common dose. This increase of power has been shown by Liebig to result rather from the quantity of water than the salt. Pure water is greedily taken up by the absorbents; but water holding in solution saline matter is rejected by those vessels, and consequently passes off by the intestines.

Obs. Oxalic acid has occasionally been mistaken for Epsom salt, with fatal results. They may be readily distinguished from each other by the following characteristics:—

Tastes extremely bitter and nauseous. Tastes extremely sour.
Does not volatilise when heated on platinum foil. Volatilises when heated on platinum foil.
Does not produce milkiness when dissolved in hard water. Produces milkiness when dissolved in hard water.

Magnesium, Tar′trate of. Syn. Magnesiæ tartras, Magnesia tartarica, L. Prep. By saturating a solution of tartaric acid with carbonate of magnesium, and gently evaporating to dryness. It is only very slightly soluble in water.—Dose, 20 to 60 gr., or more; in painful chronic maladies of the spleen. (Pereira, ex Radmacher.) The effervescing tartrate of magnesium, commonly sold under the name citrate, has already been noticed.

Magnesium and Potas′sium, Tartrate of. Syn. Potassio-tartrate of magnesia; Magnesiæ potassio-tartras, M. et potassæ tartras, L. Prep. From acid tartrate of potassium (in powder), 7 parts; carbonate of magnesium, 2 parts; water, 165 parts; boiled until the1021 solution is complete, and then evaporated and crystallised. A mild aperient.—Dose, 1 to 5 dr.; in scurvy, &c.

MAG′NET. Syn. Magnes, L. Besides its application to the loadstone, this name was formerly given to several compounds used in medicine.—Arsenical magnet (MAGNES ARSENICALIS), a substance once used as a caustic, consisted of common antimony, sulphur, and arsenious acid, fused together until they formed a sort of glass. Magnes epilepsiæ was native cinnabar.

MAHOG′ANY. This is the wood of Swietenia Mahogoni (Linn.), a native of the hotter parts of the new world. It is chiefly imported from Honduras and Cuba. The extract is astringent, and has been used in tanning, and as a substitute for cinchona bark. The wood is chiefly employed for furniture and ornamental purposes, and, occasionally, in ship-building.

Imitations of mahogany are made by staining the surface of the inferior woods by one or other of the following methods:

1. Warm the wood by the fire, then wash it over with aquafortis, let it stand 24 hours to dry, and polish it with linseed oil reddened by digesting alkanet root in it; or, instead of the latter, give the wood a coat of varnish, or French polish which has been tinged of a mahogany colour with a little aloes and annotta.

2. Socotrine aloes, 1 oz.; dragon’s blood, 12 oz.; rectified spirit, 1 pint; dissolve, and apply 2 or 3 coats to the surface of the wood, previously well smoothed and polished; lastly, finish it off with wax or oil tinged with alkanet root.

3. Logwood, 2 oz.; madder, 8 oz.; fustic, 1 oz.; water, 1 gall.; boil 2 hours, and apply it several times to the wood boiling hot; when dry, slightly brush it over with a solution of pearlash, 1 oz.; in water, 1 quart; dry, and polish as before.

4. As the last, but using a decoction of logwood, 1 lb., in water, 5 pints. The tint may be brightened by adding a little vinegar or oxalic acid, and darkened by a few grains of copperas.

Stains and spots may be taken out of mahogany furniture with a little aquafortis or oxalic acid and water, by rubbing the part with the liquid by means of a cork till the colour is restored; observing afterwards to well wash the wood with water, and to dry it and polish it as before.

MAIZE. Syn. Indian corn. The seeds of Zea Mays (Linn.). Like the other corn plants, it belongs to the Grass family (Graminaceæ), and has albuminous grains sufficiently large and farinaceous to be ground into flour.

Maize is extremely nutritious, and although it is poorer in albumenoid matters than wheat, it is, of all the cereal grains, the richest in fatty oil, of which it contains about 9%. (Dumas and Payen.) It is remarkable for its fattening quality on animals, but is apt to excite slight diarrhœa in those unaccustomed to its use. Its meal is the ‘POLENTA’ of the shops. The peculiar starch prepared from it is known as ‘CORN FLOUR,’ In America the young ears are roasted and boiled for food.

The centesimal composition of maize is as follows:—Flesh formers (albumenoid bodies), 9·9; heat and fat formers (starch, dextrin, and fat), 71·2, fibre, 4·0; ash, 1·4; water, 13·5.

Letheby says of maize: “The grain is said to cause disease when eaten for a long time, and without other meal—the symptoms being a scaly eruption upon the hands, great prostration of the vital powers, and death after a year or so, with extreme emaciation.

These effects have been frequently observed amongst the peasants of Italy, who use the meal as their chief food, but I am not aware of any such effects having been seen in Ireland, where it is often the only article of diet for months together.”

Millions of bushels are grown every year in the United States of America, and large quantities are continually imported into England, where it is held in high esteem by cattle breeders, it being much cheaper than many of our home-grown productions. It is occasionally given to horses as a substitute for oats.

MALAG′MA. In pharmacy, a poultice or emollient application.

MA′LIC ACID. H3C4H3O5. Syn. Acidum malicum, L. This acid exists in the juice of many fruits and plants, either alone or associated with other acids, or with potassa or lime. In the juice of the garden rhubarb it exists in great abundance, being associated with acid oxalate of potassa.

Prep. (Everitt.) The stalks of common garden rhubarb are peeled, and ground or grated to a pulp, which is subjected to pressure; the juice is heated to the boiling point, neutralised with carbonate of potassa, mixed with acetate of lime, and the insoluble oxalate of lime which falls is removed by filtration; to the clear and nearly colourless liquid, solution of acetate of lead is next added as long as a precipitate (‘malate of lead’) continues to form; this is collected on a filter, washed, diffused through water, and decomposed by sulphuric acid, avoiding excess, the last portion of lead being thrown down by a stream of sulphuretted hydrogen; the filtered liquid is, lastly, carefully evaporated to the consistence of a syrup, and left in a dry atmosphere until it becomes converted into a solid and somewhat crystalline mass of malic acid. If perfectly pure malic acid is required, the malate of lead must be crystallised before decomposing it with sulphuretted hydrogen. Prod. 20,000 gr. of the peeled stalks yield 12,500 gr. of juice, of which one imperial gallon contains 11,13914 gr. of dry malic acid.

Obs. By a similar process malic acid may be1022 prepared from the juice of thee berries of the mountain ash (Sorbus aucuparia), just when they commence to ripen, or from the juice of apples, pears, &c.

Prop., &c. Malic acid is slightly deliquescent, very soluble in water, soluble in alcohol, and has a pleasant acidulous taste. The aqueous infusion soon gets mouldy by keeping. When kept fused for some time at a low heat, it is converted into fumaric acid; and when quickly distilled, it yields maleic acid, while fumaric acid is left in the retort. With the bases malic acid forms salts called malates. Of these the acid malate of ammonia is in large, beautiful crystals; malate of lead is insoluble in cold water, but dissolves in warm dilute acid, from which it separates on cooling in brilliant silvery crystals; acid malate of lime also forms very beautiful crystals, freely soluble in water; neutral malate of lime is only sparingly soluble in water; the first is obtained by dissolving the latter in hot dilute nitric acid, and allowing the solution to cool very slowly.

MALLEABIL′ITY. The peculiar property of metals which renders them capable of extension under the hammer.

MALT. Syn. Bina, Byne, Brasium, Maltum, L. The name given to different kinds of grain, such as barley, bere or bigg, oats, rye, maize, &c., which have become sweet, from the conversion of a portion of their starch into sugar, in consequence of incipient germination artificially produced. Barley is the grain usually employed for this purpose.

Var. Independently of variations of quality, or of the grain from which it is formed, malt is distinguished into varieties depending on the heat of the kiln employed for its desiccation. When dried at a temperature ranging between 90° and 120° Fahr., it constitutes ‘PALE MALT,’ when all the moisture has exhaled, and the heat is raised to from 125° to 135°, ‘YELLOW,’ or ‘PALE AMBER MALT,’ is formed; when the heat ranges between 140° and 160°, the product receives the name of ‘AMBER MALT,’ at 160° to 180°, ‘AMBER-BROWN,’ or ‘PALE BROWN MALT,’ is obtained. Roasted, PATENT, or BLACK MALT, and CRYSTALLISED MALT, are prepared by a process similar to that of roasting coffee. The malt is placed in sheet-iron cylinders over a strong fire, and the cylinders made to revolve at the rate of about 20 revolutions per minute if roasted malt is required, or 120 for crystallised malt. In the former case the finished malt has a dark brown colour; in the latter, the interior of the grain becomes dark brown, whilst the husk assumes a pale amber hue. The temperature must never exceed 420°, or the malt will become entirely carbonised.

Qual. Good malt has an agreeable smell and a sweet taste. It is friable, and when broken discloses a floury kernel. Its husk is thin, clean, and unshrivelled in appearance, and the acrospire is seen extending up the back of the grain, beneath the skin. The admixture of unmalted with malted grain may be discovered, and roughly estimated, by throwing a little into water, malt floats on water, but barley sinks in it. The only certain method, however, of determining the value of malt is to ascertain the amount of soluble matter which it contains, by direct experiment. This varies from 62 to 70%, and for good malt is never less than 66 to 67%. If we assume the quarter of malt at 324 lbs., and the average quantity of soluble matter at 66%, then the total weight of soluble matter will be fully 21334 lbs. per quarter; but as this, “in taking on the form of gum and sugar” during the process of mashing, “chemically combines with the elements of water, so the extract, if evaporated to dryness, would reach very nearly 231 lbs.; and this reduced to the basis of a barrel of 36 gallons, becomes in the language of the brewer, 87 lbs. per barrel, which, however, merely means that the wort from a quarter of malt, if evaporated down to the bulk of a barrel of 36 gallons, would weigh 87 lbs. more than a barrel of water.” (Ure.)

Assay. 1. A small quantity of the sample being ground in a coffee or pepper mill, 100 gr. are accurately weighed, and dried by exposure for about 1 hour at the temperature of boiling water. The loss in weight, in grains, indicates the quantity of moisture per cent. This, in good malt, should not exceed 612 gr.

2. A second 100 gr. is taken and stirred up with about 12 pint of cold water; the mixture is then exposed to the heat of boiling water for about 40 minutes; after which it is thrown on a weighed filter, and the undissolved portion washed with a little hot water; the undissolved portion, with the filter, is then dried at 212° Fahr., and weighed. The loss in weight, less the percentage of moisture last found, taken in grains, gives the percentage of soluble matter. This should not be less than 66 gr. The same result will be arrived at by evaporating the filtered liquid and ‘washings’ to dryness, and weighing the residuum.

3. A third 100 gr. is taken and mashed with about 12 pint of water at 160° Fahr., for 2 or 3 hours; the liquid is then drained off, the residue gently squeezed, and the strained liquid evaporated to dryness, as before, and weighed. This gives the percentage of saccharine matter, and should not be less than about 71 gr., taking the above average of malt as the standard of calculation.

Uses, &c. Malt is chiefly employed in the arts of brewing and distillation. Both roasted and crystallised malt are merely used to colour the worts produced from pale malt. 1 lb. of roasted malt, mashed with 79 lbs. of pale malt, imparts to the liquor the colour and flavour of ‘porter.’ The paler varieties of malt contain the largest quantity of saccharine matter. After the malt has been kiln-dried, the rootlets may be removed by means of a sieve. Before malt is mashed for beer it must be broken up,1023 and the law requires that it be bruised or crushed by smooth metal rollers, and not ground by millstones. It has also been proposed to employ malt, instead of raw grain, for fattening domestic animals, and as food for their young and those in a sickly state. Infusion of malt (sweet wort, malt tea) is laxative, and has been recommended as an antiscorbutic and tonic. It has been given with great advantage in scurvy; but for this purpose good, well-hopped, mild beer is equally serviceable and more agreeable. See Brewing, Distillation, Fermentation, &c.

MALT LIQ′UORS. The qualities of ale, beer, and porter, as beverages, the detection of their adulteration, and the methods of preparing them, are described under their respective names and in the article upon ‘BREWING’; the present article will, therefore, be confined to a short notice of the cellar management, and the diseases of malt liquors generally.

Age. The appearance and flavour to which this term is applied can, of course, be only given to the liquor by properly storing it for a sufficient time. Fraudulent brewers and publicans, however, frequently add a little oil of vitriol (diluted with water) to new beer, by which it assumes the character of an inferior liquor of the class 1 or 2 years old. Copperas, alum, sliced onions, Seville oranges, and cucumbers, are also frequently employed by brewers for the same purpose.

Bottling. Clean, sweet, and dry bottles, and sound and good corks, should be had in readiness. The liquor to be bottled should be perfectly clear; and if it be not so, it must be submitted to the operation of ‘fining.’ When quite fine, and in good condition, the bung of the cask should be left out all night, and the next day the liquor should be put into bottles, which, after remaining 12 or 24 hours, covered with sheets of paper to keep out the flies and dust, must be securely corked down. Porter is generally wired over. The wire for this purpose should be ‘annealed,’ and not resilient. If the liquor is intended for exportation to a hot climate, the bottles should remain filled for 2 or 3 days, or more, before corking them. The stock of bottled liquor should be stored in a cool situation; and a small quantity, to meet present demands only, should be set on their sides in a warmer place to ripen. October beer should not be bottled before Midsummer, nor March beer till Christmas.

Cloudiness. Add a handful of hops boiled in a gallon of the beer, and in a fortnight fine it down.

Fining. See Clarification and Brewing.

Flatness. When the liquor is new, or has still much undecomposed sugar left in it, a sufficient remedy is to remove it into a warmer situation for a few days. When this is not the case, 2 or 3 pounds of moist sugar (foots) may be ‘rummaged’ into each hogshead. In this way a second fermentation is set up, and in a few days the liquor becomes brisk, and carries a head. This is the plan commonly adopted by publicans. On the small scale the addition of a few grains of carbonate of soda, or of prepared chalk, to each glass, is commonly made for the same purpose; but in this case the liquor must be drunk within a few minutes, else it becomes again flat and insipid. This may be adopted for home-brewed beer which has become sour and vapid.

Foxing or Bucking. The spontaneous souring of worts or beer during their fermentation or ripening, to which this name is applied, may generally be remedied by adding to the liquor some fresh hops (scalded), along with some black mustard seed (bruised). Some persons use a little made mustard, or a solution of alum or of catechu, and in a week or 10 days afterwards further add some treacle, or moist sugar.

Frosted beer is recovered by change of situation; by the addition of some hops boiled in a little sweet wort; or by adding a little moist sugar or treacle to induce a fresh fermentation.

Heading. This is added to thin and vapid beer to make it bear a frothy head. The most innocent, pleasant, and effective addition of this sort is a mixture of pure ammonio-citrate of iron and salt of tartar, about equal parts in the proportion of only a few grains to a quart.

Improving. This is the trade synonym of ‘ADULTERATION’ and ‘DOCTORING,’ Nevertheless there are cases in which ‘improvement’ may be made without affecting the wholesome character of the liquor. Of this kind is the addition of hops, spices, &c., during the maturation of beer that exhibits a tendency to deteriorate. For this purpose some persons cut a half quartern loaf into slices, and after toasting them very high, place them in a coarse linen bag along with 12 lb. of hops, and 2 oz. each of bruised ginger, cloves, and mustard seed, and suspend the bag by means of a string a few inches below the surface of the beer (a hogshead), which is then bunged close. The addition of a little ground capsicum in the same way is also a real improvement to beer, when judiciously made.

Mustiness. To each hogshead, racked into clean casks, add 1 lb. of new hops boiled in a gallon of the liquor, along with 7 lbs. of newly-burnt charcoal (coarsely bruised, and the fine dust sifted off), and a 4-lb. loaf of bread cut into thin slices and toasted rather black; ‘rouse up’ well every day for a week, then stir in of moist sugar 3 or 4 lbs., and bung down for a fortnight.

Recovering. This is said of unsaleable beer when rendered saleable, by giving it ‘head’ or removing its ‘tartness.’

Ripening. This term is applied to the regular maturation of beer. It is also used to express the means by which liquors already mature are rendered brisk, sparkling, or fit and agreeable for immediate use. In the1024 language of the cellar, malt liquors are said to be ‘up’ when they are well charged with gaseous matter, and bear a frothy head. These qualities depend on the undecomposed sugar undergoing fermentation, which, when active, can only be of comparatively short duration, and should, therefore, be repressed rather than excited in beers not required for immediate consumption. When we desire to give ‘briskness’ to these liquors, whether in cask or bottle, it is only necessary to expose them for a few days to a slight elevation of temperature, by removing them, for instance, to a warmer apartment. This is the plan successfully adopted by bottlers. The addition of a small lump of white sugar to each bottle of ale or beer, or a teaspoonful of moist sugar to each bottle of porter, just before corking it, will render it fit for drinking in a few days in ordinary weather, and in 2 or 3 days in the heat of summer. A raisin or a lump of sugar candy is often added to each bottle with a like intention. The Parisians bottle their beer one day and sell it the next. For this purpose, in addition to the sugar as above, they add 2 or 3 drops of yeast. Such bottled liquor must, however, be drunk within a week, or else stored in a very cold place, as it will otherwise burst the bottles or blow out the corks.

Ropiness. A little infusion of catechu or of oak bark, and some fresh hops, may be added to the beer, which in a fortnight should be rummaged well, and the next day ‘fined’ down.

Sourness. Powdered chalk, carbonate of soda, salt of tartar, or pearlash, is commonly added by the publicans to the beer, until the acidity is nearly removed, when 4 or 5 lbs. of moist sugar or foots per hogshead are ‘rummaged’ in, together with sufficient water to disburse double the amount of the outlay and trouble. Such beer must be soon put on draught, as it is very apt to get flat by keeping. Oyster shells and egg shells are also frequently used by brewers for the same purpose. To remove the acidity of beer, on the small scale, a few grains of carbonate of soda per glass may be added just before drinking it.

Storing. The situation of the beer-cellar should be such as to maintain its contents at a permanently uniform temperature, ranging between 44° and 50° Fahr., a condition which can only be ensured by choosing for its locality an underground apartment, or one in the centre of the basement portion of a large building.

Vamping. Half fill casks with the old liquor, fill them up with some newly brewed, and bung close for 3 weeks or a month.

MALTIN. A nitrogenous ferment obtained from malt, which it is believed by Dubrunfaut to be the active principle, and is more energetic than diastase. The above chemist states it may be precipitated from extract of malt, by the addition of two molecules of alcohol at 90 per cent. According to Dubrunfaut maltin exists in all cereal grains, and in the water of rivers and brooks; but not in the well water of Paris.

MALTING. The method of converting barley, wheat, oats, or any other description of grain into malt. There are four successive stages in the process of malting, viz., steeping, couching, flooring, and kiln-drying.

1. Steeping or moistening.—The grain is placed in a large wooden or stone cistern, and sufficient water run in to cover it. Here it remains for a period of from 40 to 60 hours, depending on the temperature of the weather, or until it becomes soft enough to be easily pierced with a needle, or crushed between the thumb and finger without yielding a milky juice. While in steep the grain swells, increasing nearly one fifth in bulk, and about 50 per cent. in weight. The water is then drained off, and the grain is ready for the next operation.

2. Couching or germinating.—From the cistern the swollen barley is thrown out into the couch frame to the depth of from 14 or 20 inches, where heat is generated and germination induced. Here it is allowed to remain for from 20 to 30 hours, according to the state of the weather, until the acrospire or pumule shoots forth. Were the grain to remain long in the couch, particularly in warm weather, it would be either unduly forced or turn sour. Whilst in couch it rises in temperature about 15 degrees, and gives off some of its extra moisture. This is called sweating, and as the rootlets now begin to shoot out, means must be taken to check the germination.

3. Flooring or regulating.—This consists in spreading the heated barley on the floor at different depths, according as it is required to increase or retard germination. During this stage of the operation the art of the maltster may be more properly said to commence, as now all his judgment is brought into requisition. The grain must be turned three or four times a day, and at each turning the layer is spread out more and more, until it is reduced to the depth of about three or four inches. The chief object to be attained by this operation is a regular germination of the grain.

4. Kiln-drying.—The sprouted barley is next spread in a thin layer on the malt kiln, and heat applied. The temperature to which the kiln is raised varies according to the purpose for which the malt is required, the difference between pale, amber, and brown malt depending solely on the degree of heat to which each has been subjected, and the manner in which the heat has been applied (see Malt). If the malt were not kiln-dried it would not keep, but would become mouldy. By the process of drying, the vitality of the seed is destroyed, and it may then be preserved without suffering further change.


Product.—Good barley yields about 80% by weight and 109% by measure, of dried and sifted malt. Of the loss by weight 12% must be referred to water existing in the raw grain.

MAN′′GANESE. Mn. Syn. Manganesium, L. A hard, brittle metal, discovered by Gahn in the black oxide of manganese of commerce.

Prep. Reduce manganous carbonate to fine powder, make it into a paste with oil, adding about 1-10th of its weight of calcined borax, place the mixture in a Hessian crucible lined with charcoal, lute on the cover, and expose it to the strongest heat of a smith’s forge for 2 hours; when cold, break the crucible and preserve the metallic button in naphtha.

Obs. The product is probably a carbide of manganese, just as steel is a carbide of iron. Deville has lately prepared pure manganese by reducing the pure oxide by means of an insufficient quantity of sugar charcoal in a crucible made of caustic lime.

Prop. As prepared by Deville, metallic manganese has a reddish lustre, like bismuth; it is very hard and brittle; when powdered, it decomposes water, even at the lowest temperature. Dilute sulphuric acid dissolves it with great energy, evolving hydrogen. Sp. gr. 7·13. In an oxidised state manganese is abundant in the mineral kingdom, and traces of it have been found in the ashes of plants and in mineral waters.

The salts of manganese may be easily prepared in a state of purity by dissolving the precipitated carbonate in the acids. Most of them are soluble, and several are crystallisable.

Tests. Manganous salts are distinguished as follows:—The hydrates of potassium and sodium give white precipitates insoluble in excess, and rapidly turning brown. The presence of ammonium salts interferes with these tests. Ammonia gives similar results.

Ferrocyanide of potassium gives a white precipitate. Sulphuretted hydrogen gives no precipitate in acid solutions, and precipitates neutral solutions only imperfectly; but in alkaline solutions it gives a bright, flesh-coloured, insoluble precipitate, which becomes dark brown on exposure to the air. Sulphide of ammonium, in neutral solutions, also yields a similar precipitate, which is very characteristic. A compound of manganese fused with borax in the outer flame of the blowpipe gives a bead, which appears of a violet-red colour whilst hot, and upon cooling acquires an amethystine tint; this colour is lost by fusion in the inner flame. Heated upon platinum foil with a little carbonate of sodium, in the outer flame, it yields a green mass whilst hot, which becomes bluish green when cold.

Manganous Ace′tate. Mn(C2H3O2)2. Syn. Acetate of protoxide of manganese; Manganii acetas, L. Prep. 1. By neutralising concentrated acetic acid with manganous carbonate, and evaporating the solution so that crystals may form.

Prop., &c. The crystals, when pure, are of a pale red colour; permanent in the air; soluble in alcohol, and 312 parts of water, and possess an astringent and metallic taste.—Dose, 5 to 10 gr., as an alterative, hæmatinic, &c.

Manganous Car′bonate. MnCO3. Syn. Carbonate of protoxide of manganese; Manganesii carbonas, L. Prep. Reduce the black oxide of manganese of commerce to fine powder, and after washing it in water acidulated with hydrochloric acid, dissolve it in strong hydrochloric acid, and evaporate the resulting solution to dryness; dissolve the residue in water, and add to the solution sufficient sodium carbonate to precipitate all the iron present; digest the mixed precipitate in the remainder of the liquid, filter, add ammonium sulphide until it begins to produce a flesh-coloured precipitate, then filter, and add sodium carbonate as long as a precipitate falls; lastly, well wash the newly-formed carbonate in water, and dry it by a gentle heat.

2. By directly precipitating a solution of the chloride with sodium carbonate, and washing and drying the powder as before.

Prop., &c. A pale buff or cream-coloured powder; insoluble in water; freely soluble in acids; exposed to a strong heat, it loses its carbonic acid, absorbs oxygen, and is converted into the red oxide. It is chiefly employed in the preparation of the other salts of manganese.

Manganous Chlo′′ride. MnCl2. Syn. Protochloride of manganese, Muriate of m.; Manganesii chloridum, L. Prep. 1. By saturating hydrochloric acid with manganous carbonate; the solution is greatly concentrated by evaporation, when crystals may be obtained, or it is at once evaporated to dryness; in either case the product must be placed in warm, dry, stoppered bottles, and preserved from the air.

2. From the dark brown residual liquid of the process of obtaining chlorine from binoxide of manganese and hydrochloric acid; this liquid is evaporated to dryness, and then slowly heated to dull redness in an earthen vessel, with constant stirring, and kept at that temperature for a short time; the greyish-looking powder thus obtained is treated with water, and the solution separated from the ferric oxide and other insoluble matter by filtration; if any iron still remains, a little manganous carbonate is added, and the whole boiled for a few minutes; the filtered solution is then treated as before. This is the least expensive and most convenient source of this salt.

Prop., &c. Rose-coloured tabular crystals; inodorous; very soluble both in water and alcohol; very deliquescent; when gradually heated to fusion the whole of the water is expelled, and at a red heat it slowly suffers1026 decomposition. Astringent, tonic, hæmatinic, and alterative.—Dose, 3 to 10 gr.; in scorbutic, syphilitic, and certain chronic cutaneous affections; anæmia, chlorosis, &c.

Manganous Hydrate. Mn(HO)2. Syn. Hydrated protoxide of manganese. Prep. Formed by adding potassium hydrate to manganous sulphate, and filtering and drying the precipitate in vacuo. White powder rapidly absorbing oxygen and burning first green and then brown from formation of higher oxides.

Manganous I′odide. MnI2. Syn. Manganesii iodidum, L. Prep. By dissolving the carbonate in hydriodic acid and evaporating the filtered liquid in vacuo or out of contact with air.—Dose, 1 to 3 gr.; in anæmia, chlorosis, &c., occurring in scrofulous subjects.

Manganous Oxide. MnO. Syn. Protoxide of Manganese. Prep. By passing a current of hydrogen over manganous carbonate heated to whiteness in a porcelain tube. Olive-green powder rapidly oxidising on exposure to air, and soluble in acids forming manganous salts.

There are four other oxides and two oxyhydrates that may be treated of here, but of which only the peroxide and the manganates and permanganates are of practical importance.

Manganous-manganic Oxide. Mn3O4, or MnO.Mn2O3. Syn. Red oxide of manganese, Protosesquioxide of manganese. Found native as “Hansmanite”. It is produced by igniting manganous carbonate, or manganic oxide, or manganic peroxide. Reddish-brown, coloured crystals or powder, and communicates an amethyst colour to glass when fused with it.

Manganous-manganic Peroxide. Mn4O7 or MnO3.Mn2O3. Syn. Intermediate, oxide of manganese. Found native as “Varvicile,” as a black hard crystalline mass. Decomposed when heated into a lower oxide and oxygen.

Manganous Phosphate. MnH.PO4 + 6Aq. Syn. Phosphate of protoxide of manganese; Manganesii phosphas, L. Prep. By precipitating a solution of manganous sulphate with a solution of sodium phosphate. It must be preserved from the air.—Dose, 3 to 12 gr.; in anæmia, rickets, &c.

Manganous Sul′phate. MnSO4. Syn. Sulphate of protoxide of manganese; Manganesii sulphas, L. Prep. 1. By dissolving manganous carbonate in dilute sulphuric acid, and evaporating the filtered solution so that crystals may form, or at once gently evaporating it to dryness. Pure.

2. (Commercial.) By igniting manganic peroxide (pyrolusite) mixed with about 1-10th of its weight of powdered coal in an iron crucible or gas-retort, and digesting the residuum of the calcination in sulphuric acid, with the addition after a time of a little hydrochloric acid; the solution of manganous sulphate thus obtained, after defecation, is evaporated to dryness, and heated to redness as before; the mass, after ignition, is crushed small, and treated with water; the solution is nearly pure, the whole of the iron having been reduced into the state of insoluble peroxide. Used by the calico printers. Cloth steeped in the solution, and afterwards passed through a solution of chloride of lime, is dyed of a permanent brown.

Prop., &c. Pale rose-coloured crystals of the formulæ MnSO4, 7Aq.; MnSO4, 5Aq.; or MnSO4, 4Aq.; according to the method of crystallising, furnishing a solution of a rich amethystine colour. With sulphate of potassa it forms a double salt (‘manganese alum’).—Dose. As an alterative and tonic, 5 to 10 gr.; as a cholagogue cathartic, 1 to 2 dr., dissolved in water, either alone or combined with infusion of senna. According to Ure, its action is prompt and soon over; 1 dr. of it occasions, after the lapse of an hour or so, one or more liquid bilious stools. In large doses it occasions vomiting, and in excessive doses it destroys life by its caustic action on the stomach. (Dr G. C. Mitscherlich.) It has been administered with manifest advantage in torpor of the liver, gout, jaundice, syphilis, and certain skin diseases; and, combined with iron, in anæmia, chlorosis, rickets, &c.

Manganous Tar′trate. MnC4H4O6. Syn. Manganesii tartras, L. Prep. By saturating a solution of tartaric acid with most manganous carbonate. Alterative and tonic.—Dose, 4 to 12 gr.

Manganate of Barium. BaMnO4. Green insoluble powder, obtained by fusing barium hydrate, potassium chlorate, and manganic peroxide together, and washing the product.

Manganate of Potassium. K2MnO4. Finely powdered manganic peroxide, potassium chlorate, and potassium hydrate, made into a thick paste with water, and heated to dull redness. The fused product is treated with a small quantity of water, and crystallised by evaporation in vacuo.

Dark green, almost black crystals, readily soluble in water, but decomposed by excess, or by acids into manganic peroxide, and potassium permanganate.

Manganate of Sodium. Na2MnO4. Prepared on the large scale by heating a mixture of manganic peroxide and sodium hydrate to redness in a current of air. Used in strong solution as a disinfectant under the name of “Condy’s green fluid.”

Manganic Acid. H2MnO4. This acid has not yet been obtained free, but some of its salts are extensively employed as disinfectants, as “green Condy’s fluid.” The chief compounds are the following:—

Manganic Hydrate. Mn2(HO)6. Syn. Hydrated sesquioxide of manganese. Found native as “manganite,” in reddish-brown crystals. Prep. By passing a current of air through recently precipitated and moist1027 manganous hydrate. Soft dark brown powder converted into the oxide by heat.

Manganic Oxide. Mn2O3. Syn. Sesquioxide of manganese. Found native as “Braumite,” and readily formed by exposing manganous hydrate to the action of air, and drying, or by gently igniting the peroxide brown or black powder decomposed by heat.

Manganic Peroxide. MnO2. Syn. Permanganic oxide, Binoxide of manganese, Peroxide of manganese, Black oxide of manganese, Oxide of manganese, Manganesii oxidum nigrum (B. P.), Manganesii binoxydum (Ph. L.), Manganese oxydum (Ph. E.).

It is the only oxide of manganese that is directly employed in the arts. It is a very plentiful mineral production, and is found in great abundance in some parts of the West of England. The manganese of the shop is prepared by washing, to remove the earthy matter, and grinding in mills. The blackest samples are esteemed the best. It is chiefly used to supply oxygen gas, and in the manufacture of glass and chlorine; in dyeing and to form the salts of manganese. It has been occasionally employed in medicine, chiefly externally in itch and porrigo, made into an ointment with lard. It has been highly recommended by Dr Erigeler in scrofula. Others have employed it as an alterative and tonic with variable success. When slowly introduced into the system during a lengthened period, it is said to produce paralysis of the motor nerves. (Dr Coupar.)—Dose, 3 to 12 gr., or more, thrice daily, made into pills.

Pur. Native binoxide of manganese (pyrolusite) is usually contaminated with variable proportions of argillaceous matter, calcium carbonate, ferric oxide, silica, and barium sulphate, all of which lower its value as a source of oxygen, and for the preparation of chlorine. The richness of this ore can, therefore, be only determined by an assay for its principal ingredient.

Assay. There are several methods adopted for this purpose, among which the following recommend themselves as being the most accurate and convenient.

1. A portion of the mineral being reduced to very fine powder, 50 gr. of it are put into the little apparatus employed for the analysis of carbonates described at page 406, together with about 12 fl. oz. of cold water, and 100 gr. of strong hydrochloric acid, the latter contained in the little tube (b); 50 gr. of crystallised oxalic acid are then added, the cork carrying the chloride of calcium tube fitted in, and the whole quickly and accurately weighed or counterpoised; the apparatus is next inclined so that the acid contained in the small tube may be mixed with the other contents of the flask, and the reaction of the ingredients is promoted by the application of a gentle heat; the disengaged chlorine resulting from the mutual decomposition of the hydrochloric acid and the manganic peroxide converts the oxalic acid into carbonic acid gas, which is dried in its passage through the chloride of calcium tube before it escapes into the air. As soon as the reaction is complete, and the residual gas has been driven off by a momentary ebullition, the apparatus is allowed to cool, when it is again carefully and accurately weighed. The loss of weight in grains, if doubled, at once indicates the percentage richness of the mineral examined in manganic peroxide; or, more correctly, every grain of carbonic anhydride evolved represents 1·982 gr. of the peroxide.

2. (Fresenius and Will.) The apparatus employed is the ‘alkalimeter’ figured at page 30. The operation is similar to that adopted for the assay of alkalies, and is a modification of the oxalic acid and sulphuric acid test for manganese, originally devised by M. Berthier. The standard weight of manganic peroxide recommended to be taken by Fresenius and Will is 2·91 grammes, along with 6·5 to 7 grammes of neutral potassium oxalate. The process, with quantities altered to adapt it for employment in the laboratories of these countries, is as follows:—Manganic peroxide (in very fine powder), 50 gr.; neutral potassium oxalate (in powder), 120 gr.; these are put into the flask A (see engr., p. 31), along with sufficient water to about 1-4th fill it; the flask A and B (the latter containing the sulphuric acid) are then corked air-tight, and thus connected in one apparatus, the whole is accurately weighed. The opening of the tube b being closed by a small lump of wax, a little sulphuric acid is sucked over from the flask B into the flask A; the disengagement of oxygen from the manganese immediately commences and this reacting upon the oxalic acid present, converts it into carbonic anhydride gas, which passing through the concentrated sulphuric acid in the flask B, which robs it of moisture, finally escapes from the apparatus through the tube d. As soon as the disengagement of carbonic acid ceases, the operator sucks over a fresh portion of sulphuric acid, and this is repeated at short intervals, until bubbles of gas are no longer disengaged. The little wax stopper is now removed, and suction is applied at h until all the carbonic acid in the apparatus is replaced by common air. When the whole has become cold it is again weighed. The loss of weight, doubled, indicates the amount of pure manganic peroxide, in the sample, as before.

3. (Otto.) 50 gr. of the sample reduced to very fine powder are mixed in a glass flask, with hydrochloric acid 112 fl. oz., diluted with 12 oz. of cold water, and portions of ferrous sulphate, from a weighed sample, immediately added, at first in excess, but afterwards in smaller doses, until the liquid ceases to give a blue precipitate with red prussiate of potash, or to evolve the odour of chlorine; heat being employed towards the end of the process. The1028 quantity of ferrous sulphate consumed is now ascertained by again weighing the sample. If the peroxide examined was pure, the loss of weight will be 317 gr.; but if otherwise, the percentage of the pure peroxide may be obtained by the rule of three. Thus: suppose only 298 gr. of the sulphate were consumed, then

317 : 100 :: 298 : 94,

and the richness of the sample would be 94%. The percentage value of the oxide for evolving chlorine may be obtained by multiplying the weight of the consumed ferrous sulphate by ·2588, which, in the above case, would give 76% of chlorine. For this purpose, as well as for chlorometry, the ferrous sulphate is best prepared by precipitating it from its aqueous solution with alcohol, and drying it out of contact with air until it loses its alcoholic odour.

Obs. Before applying the above processes it is absolutely necessary that we ascertain whether the peroxide examined contains any carbonates, as the presence of these would vitiate the results. This is readily determined by treating it with a little dilute nitric acid:—if effervescence ensues, one or more carbonates are present, and the sample, after being weighed, must be digested for some time in dilute nitric acid in excess, and then carefully collected on a filter, washed, and dried. It may then be assayed as before. The loss of weight indicates the quantity of carbonates present, with sufficient accuracy for technical purposes. The determination of this point is the more important, as these contaminations not merely lessen the richness of the mineral in pure manganic peroxide, but also cause a considerable waste of acid when it is employed in the manufacture of chlorine.

Permanganic Acid. HMnO4. Obtained by distilling cautiously potassium permanganate and sulphuric acid. Dark violet-black liquid, green by reflected light, and rapidly absorbing water forming a violet solution. Oxidises organic matter with explosive violence.

Permanganate of Barium. Ba(MnO)45. Black soluble prisms, formed by decomposing silver permanganate by means of barium chloride, and cautiously evaporating.

Permanganate of Potassium. KMnO4. Prep. Potassium chlorate, or nitrate, and potassium hydrate are made into a paste with water, and manganic peroxide added; the mass is dried and heated to redness. The residue is boiled with water, filtered through asbestos, and evaporated down and recrystallised.

Dark purple, red, almost black anhydrous long prisms, readily soluble in 16 pints of water. Decomposed in presence of acids by most organic matter.

Permanganate of Silver. AgMnO4. Prep. Precipitate a strong solution of silver nitrate by means of a concentrated solution of potassium permanganate. Small black prisms, soluble in 100 parts of water, with a purple colour.

Permanganate of Sodium. NaMnO4. Obtained as a dark purple liquid by passing a current of carbonic anhydride through sodium manganate. Condy’s red fluid is chiefly a sodium permanganate dissolved in water.

MANGE. An eruptive disease, corresponding to the itch in man, resulting from the burrowing into the skin of minute animalcules (mites or acari), and common to several domestic animals, more especially the dog and horse. Like the itch, it is contagious. The causes are confinement, dirt, and bad living. The treatment should consist in the immediate removal of the cause, the frequent use of soft soap and water, followed by frictions with sulphur ointment, solution of chloride of lime or sporokton, the administration of purgatives, and a change to a restorative diet. Dun states that in India a very efficient remedy for mange is employed by the native farriers, which consists of castor oil seeds well bruised, steeped for twelve hours in sour milk, and rubbed into the skin, previously thoroughly cleansed with soap and water. “The itchiness disappears almost immediately and the acari are speedily destroyed.” A dressing consisting of 1 oz. of chloride of zinc (Burnett’s disinfectant fluid) and 1 quart of water may also be applied with advantage.

MAN′′GEL WUR′ZEL. Syn. Mangold-wurzel, Hybrid beet, Root of scarcity. The Beta vulgaris, var. campestris, a variety of the common beet. The root abounds in sugar, and has been used in Germany as a substitute for bread in times of scarcity. In these countries it is chiefly cultivated as food for cattle. The young leaves are eaten as spinach. The percentage composition of mangold wurzel is as follows:—Flesh-formers (albumenoid bodies), 1·54; heat and fat-formers (sugar, &c.) 8·60; indigestible fibre, 1·12; ash, 0·96; 87·78.

MAN′HEIM GOLD. A gold-coloured brass. See Gold (Dutch).

MAN′NA Syn. Manna (B. P., Ph. L., E., & D.), L. A concrete exudation from the stem of Fraxinus ornus and F. rotundifolia, obtained by incision. (B. P.) “The juice flowing from the incised bark” of “Fraxinus rotundifolia and F. ornus, hardened by the air.” (Ph. L.) The finest variety of this drug is known as flake manna, and occurs in pieces varying from 1 to 6 inches long, 1 or 2 inches wide, and 12 to 1 inch thick. It has a yellowish-white or cream colour; an odour somewhat resembling honey, but less pleasant, a sweet, mawkish taste; and is light, porous, and friable. It is laxative in doses of 1 to 2 oz.

Manna Factitious, made of a mixture of sugar, starch, and honey, with a very small quantity of scammony to give it odour and flavour, and to render it purgative, has been lately very extensively offered in trade, and met with a ready sale.

MAN′NACROUP. A granular preparation1029 of wheat deprived of bran, used as an article of food for children and invalids. (Brande.)

MAN′NITE. C6H14O6. Syn. Manna sugar, Mushroom s.; Mannita, L. A sweet, crystallisable substance, found in manna and in several other vegetable productions. It has been formed artificially by the action of sodium-amalgam upon an alkaline solution of cane sugar.

Prep. 1. Digest manna in boiling rectified spirit, and filter or decant the solution whilst hot; the mannite crystallises as the liquid cools in tufts of slender, colourless needles.

2. (Ruspini.) Manna, 6 lbs.; cold water (in which the white of an egg has been beaten), 3 lbs.; mix, boil for a few minutes, and strain the syrup through linen whilst hot; the strained liquid will form a semi-crystalline mass on cooling; submit this to strong pressure in a cloth, mix the cake with its own weight of cold water, and again press it; dissolve the cake thus obtained in boiling water, add a little animal charcoal, and filter the mixture into a porcelain dish set over the fire; lastly, evaporate the filtrate to a pellicle, and set the syrup aside to crystallise. Large quadrangular prisms; perfectly white and transparent.

Prop., &c. Mannite has a powerfully sweet and agreeable taste; dissolves in 5 parts of cold water and about half that quantity of boiling water; freely soluble in hot, and slightly so in cold alcohol; fuses by heat without loss of weight; with sulphuric acid it combines to form a new acid compound. It is distinguished from the true sugars by its aqueous solution not being susceptible of the vinous fermentation, and not possessing the property of rotary polarisation. When pure, it is perfectly destitute of purgative properties. It is now extensively imported from Italy, and is chiefly used to cover the taste of nauseous medicines, and as a sweetmeat.

MANURES′. Substances added to soils to increase their fertility. The food of vegetables, as far as their organic structure is concerned, consists entirely of inorganic compounds; and no organised body can serve for the nutrition of vegetables until it has been, by the process of decay, resolved into certain inorganic substances. These are carbonic acid, water, and ammonia, which are well known to be the final products of putrefaction. But even when these are applied to vegetables, their growth will not proceed unless certain mineral substances are likewise furnished in small quantities, either by the soil or the water used to moisten it. Almost every plant, when burned, leaves ashes, which commonly contain silica, potassa, and phosphate of lime; often, also, magnesia, soda, sulphates, and oxide of iron. These mineral bodies appear to be essential to the existence of the vegetable tissues; so that plants will not grow in soils destitute of them, however abundantly supplied with carbonic acid, ammonia, and water. The carbon of plants is wholly derived from carbonic acid, which is either absorbed from the atmosphere, and from rain water, by the leaves, or from the moisture and air in the soil, by the roots. Its carbon is retained and assimilated with the body of the plant, while its oxygen is given out in the gaseous form; this decomposition being always effected under the influence of light at ordinary temperatures. The hydrogen and oxygen of vegetables, which, when combined with carbon, constitute the ligneous, starchy, gummy, saccharine, oily, and resinous matters of plants, are derived from water chiefly absorbed by the roots from the soil. The nitrogen of vegetables is derived chiefly, if not exclusively, from ammonia, which is supplied to them in rain, and in manures, and which remain in the soil till absorbed by the roots.

According to the celebrated ‘mineral theory’ of agriculture advanced by Liebig a soil is fertile or barren for any given plant according as it contains those mineral substances that enter into its composition. Thus, “the ashes of wheat-straw contain much silica and potassa, whilst the ashes of the seeds contain phosphate of magnesia. Hence, if a soil is deficient in any one of these, it will not yield wheat. On the other hand, a good crop of wheat will exhaust the soil of these substances, and it will not yield a second crop till they have been restored, either by manure or by the gradual action of the weather in disintegrating the subsoil. Hence the benefit derived from fallows and from the rotation of crops.

“When, by an extraordinary supply of any one mineral ingredient, or of ammonia, a large crop has been obtained, it is not to be expected that a repetition of the same individual manure next year will produce the same effect. It must be remembered that the unusual crop has exhausted the soil probably of all the other mineral ingredients, and that they also must be restored before a second crop can be obtained.

“The salt most essential to the growth of the potato is the double phosphate of ammonia and magnesia; that chiefly required for hay is phosphate of lime; while for almost all plants potassa and ammonia are highly beneficial.”

From these principles we “may deduce a few valuable conclusions in regard to the chemistry of agriculture. First, by examining the ashes of a thriving plant, we discover the mineral ingredients which must exist in a soil to render it fertile for that plant. Secondly, by examining a soil, we can say at once whether it is fertile in regard to any plants the ashes of which have been examined. Thirdly, when we know the defects of a soil, the deficient matters may be easily obtained and added to it, unmixed with such as are not required. Fourthly, the straw, leaves, &c., of any plant, are the best manure for that plant, since every vegetable extracts from the soil such matters alone as are essential to it. This important1030 principle has been amply verified by the success attending the use of wheat-straw, or its ashes, as manure for wheat, and of the chippings of the vines as a manure for the vineyard. When these are used (in the proper quantity) no other manure is required. Fifthly, in the rotation of crops, those should be made to follow which require different materials; or a crop which extracts little or no mineral matter, such as peas, should come after one which exhausts the soil of its phosphates and potassa.” (Liebig.)

The experiments of Messrs Lawes and Gilbert have forced upon them opinions differing from those of Baron Liebig on some important points in relation to his ‘mineral theory,’ which endeavours to prove that “the crops on a field diminish or increase in exact proportion to the diminution or increase of the mineral substances conveyed to it in manure.” The results obtained by the English investigators appear to prove that it is impossible to get good crops by using mineral manures alone, and that nitrogenous manures (farm-yard manure, guano, ammoniacal salts, &c.) are fertilising agents of the highest order.

Of the chemical manures now so much used bone-dust is, perhaps, the most important, as it supplies the phosphates which have been extracted by successive crops of grass and corn, the whole of the bones of the cattle fed on these crops having been derived from the soil; its gelatin also yields ammonia by putrefaction. Guano acts as a source of ammonia, containing much oxalate and urate of ammonia, with some phosphates. Nightsoil and urine, especially the latter, are most valuable for the ammonia they yield, as well as for the phosphates and potassa; but are very much neglected in this country, although their importance is fully appreciated in Belgium, France, and China. Nitrate of soda is valued as a source of nitrogen.

All organic substances may be employed as manures; preference being, however, given to those abounding in nitrogen, and which readily decay when mixed with the soil.

The analysis of manures, soils, and the ashes of plants, for the purpose of ascertaining their composition and comparative value, is not easily performed by the inexperienced; but a rough approximation to their contents, sufficiently accurate for all practical purposes, may be generally made by any intelligent person with proper care and attention. See Agriculture, Bone-dust, Guano, &c.

Manures, Artificial. Various formulæ belonging to this head will be found dispersed, under their respective names, throughout this work. The following are additional ones:—

1. (Anderson.) Sulphate of ammonia, common salt, and oil of vitriol, of each 10 parts; chloride of potassium, 15 parts; gypsum and sulphate of potassa, of each 17 parts; saltpetre, 20 parts; crude Epsom salts, 25 parts; sulphate of soda, 33 parts. For clover.

2. (Huxtable.) Crude potash, 28 lbs.; common salt, 1 cwt.; bone-dust and gypsum, of each 2 cwt.; wood-ashes, 15 bushels. For either corn, turnips, or grass.

3. (Johnstone.) Sulphate of soda (dry), 11 lbs.; wood-ashes, 28 lbs.; common salt, 34 cwt.; crude sulphate of ammonia, 1 cwt.; bone-dust, 7 bushels. As a substitute for guano.

4. (Lawes’ ‘Superphosphate.’) See Coprolite.

5. (Fertilising powder.) A mixture of very fine bone-dust, 18 parts; calcined gypsum, and sulphate of ammonia, of each 1 part. The seed is ordered to be steeped in the ‘drainings’ from a dunghill, and after being drained, but whilst still wet, to be sprinkled with the powder, and then dried. See Flowers, Lime (Superphosphate), &c.

MANUSCRIPTS, Faded, to Restore. One of the methods in use for the restoration of old or faded writing is to expose it to the vapours of hydrosulphate of ammonia (hydrosulphide of ammonium) until the ink becomes darkened by the formation of sulphide of iron. Another consists in carefully washing, or sponging, the faded manuscript over with a weak solution of the ammonic sulphide, and as soon as the characters become legible, soaking it in water so as to remove the remaining sulphide, and then drying it between folds of blotting paper. A third plan, and one attended with less risk to the paper, is to brush over the manuscript with a moderately strong aqueous solution of gallo-tannic acid, to wash with water, and afterwards to dry it at a temperature of about 150° Fahr.

The solution of gallo-tannic acid may be obtained by making a strong infusion of bruised nutgalls in boiling water, and when cold, straining it. Some old and mediæval manuscripts are written in inks made of carbon. To such the above treatment is inapplicable; being suited only to those traced in ordinary writing ink. For parchments the latter method is preferable.

MAPS. These, as well as architect’s and engineer’s designs, plans, sections, drawings, &c., may be tinted with any of the simple liquid colours mentioned under ‘VELVET COLOURS,’ preference being given to the most transparent ones, which will not obscure the lines beneath them. To prevent the colours from sinking and spreading, which they usually do on common paper, the latter should be wetted 2 or 3 times with a sponge dipped in alum water (3 or 4 oz. to the pint), or with a solution of white size, observing to dry it carefully after each coat. This tends to give lustre and beauty to the colours. The colours for this purpose should also be thickened with a little gum water. Before varnishing maps after colouring them, 2 or 3 coats of clean size should be applied with a soft brush—the first one to the back.

MARASCHI′NO (-kēno). Syn. Marasquin,1031 Fr. A delicate liqueur spirit distilled from a peculiar cherry growing in Dalmatia, and afterwards sweetened with sugar. The best is from Zara, and is obtained from the marasca cherry only. An inferior quality is distilled from a mixture of cherries and the juice of liquorice root.

MAR′BLE. Syn. Limestone, Hard carbonate of Lime; Marmor, Calcis carbonas durus, M. album (B. P., Ph. E. & D.), L. Marbles are merely purer and more compact varieties of limestone, which admit of being sawn into slabs, and are susceptible of a fine polish. White marble is employed for the preparation of carbonic acid and some of the salts of lime. It contains about 65% of lime. Sp. gr. 2·70 to 2·85. The tests of its purity are the same as those already noticed under Chalk.

Marble is best cleaned with a little soap-and-water, to which some ox-gall may be added. Acids should be avoided. Oil and grease may be generally removed by spreading a paste made of soft soap, caustic potash lye, and fullers earth over the part, and allowing it to remain there for a few days; after which it must be washed off with clean water. Or, equal parts of American potash (crude carbonate of potash) and whiting are made into a moderately stiff paste with a sufficiency of boiling water, and applied to the marble with a brush. At the end of two or three days the paste is removed and the marble washed with soap-and-water. Any defect of polish may be brought up with tripoli, followed by putty powder, both being used along with water.

Marble is mended with one or other of the compounds noticed under Cements.

Marble may be stained or dyed of various colours by applying coloured solutions or tincture to the stone, made sufficiently hot to make the liquid just simmer on the surface. The following are the substances usually employed for this purpose:—

Blue. Tincture or solution of litmus, or an alkaline solution of indigo.

Brown. Tincture of logwood.

Crimson. A solution of alkanet root in oil of turpentine.

Flesh colour. Wax tinged with alkanet root, and applied to the marble hot enough to melt it freely.

Gold colour. A mixture of equal parts of white vitriol, sal ammoniac, and verdigris, each in fine powder, and carefully applied.

Green. An alkaline solution or tincture of sap green, or wax strongly coloured with verdigris; or the stone is first stained blue, and then the materials for yellow stain are applied.

Red. Tincture of dragon’s blood, alkanet root, or cochineal.

Yellow. Tincture of gamboge, turmeric, or saffron; or wax coloured with annotta. Success in the application of these colours requires considerable experience. By their skilful use, however, a very pleasing effect, both of colour and grain, may be produced.

MARBLING (of Books, &c.). The edges and covers of books are ‘marbled’ by laying the colour on them with a brush, or by means of a wooden trough containing mucilage, as follows:—Provide a wooden trough, 2 inches deep, 6 inches wide, and the length of a super-royal sheet; boil in a brass or copper pan any quantity of linseed and water until a thick mucilage is formed; strain this into the trough, and let it cool; then grind on a marble slab any of the following colours in table beer. For—blue, Prussian blue or indigo;—red, rose-pink, vermilion, or drop lake;—yellow, king’s yellow, yellow ochre, &c.;—white, flake white;—black, ivory black, or burnt lampblack;—brown umber, burnt u., terra di sienna, burnt s.; black mixed with yellow or red also makes brown;—green, blue and yellow mixed;—purple, red and blue mixed. For each colour provide two cups—one for the ground colours, the other to mix them with the ox-gall, which must be used to thin them at discretion. If too much gall is used the colours spread; when they keep their place on the surface of the trough, on being moved with a quill, they are fit for use. All things being in readiness, the prepared colours are successively sprinkled on the surface of the mucilage in the trough with a brush, and are waved or drawn about with a quill or a stick according to taste. When the design is thus formed, the book, tied tightly between cutting boards of the same size, is lightly pressed with its edge on the surface of the liquid pattern, and then withdrawn and dried. The covers may be marbled in the same way, only the liquid colours must be allowed to run over them. The film of colour in the trough may be as thin as possible; and if any remains after the marbling, it may be taken off by applying paper to it before you prepare for marbling again. This process has been called French marbling.

To diversify the effect, a little sweet oil is often mixed with the colours before sprinkling them on, by which means a light halo or circle appears round each spot. In like manner spirit of turpentine, sprinkled on the surface of the trough, produces white spots. By staining the covers with any of the liquid dyes, and then dropping on them, or running over them, drops of the ordinary liquid mordants, a very pleasing effect may be produced. Vinegar black, or a solution of green copperas, thus applied to common leather, produces black spots or streaks, and gives a similar effect with most of the light dyes. A solution of alum or of tin in like manner produces bright spots or streaks, and soda or potash water dark ones. This style has been called Egyptian marble.—Soap marbling is done by throwing on the colours, ground with a little white soap to a proper consistence, by means of a brush. It is much used for book-edges, stationery, sheets1032 of paper, ladies’ fancy work, &c.—Thread marble is given by first covering the edge uniformly of one colour, then laying pieces of thick thread irregularly on different parts of it, and giving it a fine dark sprinkle. When well managed the effect is very pleasing.—Rice marble is given in a similar way to the last by using rice.—Tree marble is done on leather book-covers, &c., by bending the board a little in the centre, and running the marbling liquid over it in the form of vegetation. The knots are given by rubbing the end of a candle on those parts of the cover.—Wax marble is given in a similar way to thread marble, but using melted wax, which is removed after the book is sprinkled and dried; or a sponge charged with blue, green, or red may be passed over. This, also, is much used for stationery work, especially for folios and quartos. The ‘vinegar black’ of the bookbinders is merely a solution of acetate of iron, made by steeping a few rusty nails or some iron filings in vinegar. All the ordinary liquid colours that do not contain strong acids or alkalies may be used, either alone or thickened with a little gum, for marbling or sprinkling books.

Sprinkling is performed by simply dipping a stiff-haired painter’s brush into the colour, and suddenly striking it against a small stick held in the left hand over the work. By this means the colour is evenly scattered without producing ‘blurs’ or ‘blots.’

Paper, PASTEBOARD, &c., in sheets, are marbled and sprinkled in a similar manner to that above described, but in this case the gum trough must, of course, be longer.

MARGAR′IC ACID. This term was formerly applied to a mixture of palmitic and stearic acids, produced by decomposing the alkaline soaps of solid fats with an acid, but it is now given to a fatty acid which can only be obtained artificially.

MAR′GARIN. Syn. Margarate of glyceryl. A constituent formerly supposed to exist in solid fats, but now regarded as a mixture of stearin and palmitin.

MARINE′ ACID. See Hydrochloric acid.

MARL. A natural mixture of clay and chalk, with sand. It is characterised by effervescing with acids. According to the predominance of one or other of its component parts, it is called argillaceous, calcareous, or sandy marl. It is very generally employed as a manure for sandy soils, more particularly in Norfolk. See Soils.

MAR′MALADE. Originally a conserve made of quinces and sugar; now commonly applied to the conserves of other fruit, more especially to those of oranges and lemons.

Prep. Marmalades are made either by pounding the pulped fruit in a mortar with an equal or a rather larger quantity of powdered white sugar, or by mixing them together by heat, passing them through a hair sieve whilst hot, and then putting them into pots or glasses. The fruit-pulps are obtained by rubbing the fruit through a fine hair sieve, either at once or after it has been softened by simmering it for a short time along with a little water. When heat is employed in mixing the ingredients, the evaporation should be continued until the marmalade ‘jellies’ on cooling. See Conserves, Confections, Electuaries, Jams, Jellies, and below.

Marmalade, Apricot. From equal parts of pulp and sugar.

Marmalade, Mixed. From plums, pears, and apples, variously flavoured to palate.

Marmalade, Orange. Prep. 1. From oranges (either Seville or St Michael’s, or a mixture of the two), by boiling the peels in syrup until soft, then pulping them through a sieve, adding as much white sugar, and boiling them with the former syrup and the juice of the fruit to a proper consistence.

2. By melting the confection of orange peel (Ph. L.), either with or without the addition of some orange or lemon juice, and then passing it through a sieve.

3. (Candied orange marmalade.) From candied orange peel, boiled in an equal weight each of sugar and water, and then passed through a sieve.

4. (Scotch marmalade.)—a. Seville orange juice, 1 quart; yellow peel of the fruit, grated; honey, 2 lbs.; boil to a proper consistence.

b. Seville oranges, 8 lbs.; peel them as thinly as possible, then squeeze out the juice, boil it on the yellow peels for 14 of an hour, strain, add white sugar, 7 lbs., and boil to a proper consistence.

Marmalade, Quince. Syn. Diacydonium. From quince flesh or pulp and sugar, equal parts; or from the juice (miva cydoniorum, gelatina c.), by boiling it to half, adding an equal quantity of white wine and 23rds of its weight of sugar, and gently evaporating the mixture.

Marmalade, Tomato. Like APRICOT MARMALADE, adding a few slices of onion and a little parsley.

MARMORA′TUM. Finely powdered marble and quicklime, well beaten together; used as a cement or mortar.

MAR′ROW (Beef). This is extensively employed by the perfumers in the preparation of various pomades and other cosmetics, on account of its furnishing an exceedingly bland fat, which is not so much disposed to rancidity as the other fats. It is prepared for use by soaking and working it for some time in lukewarm water, and afterwards melting it in a water bath, and straining it through a piece of muslin whilst hot. When scented it is esteemed equal to bear’s grease for promoting the growth of the hair.

MARSH GAS. Light carbonetted hydrogen.

MARSH’S TEST. See Arsenious acid.

MARSHMALLOW. Syn. Althæa (Ph. L. & E.), L. The root (leaves and root—Ph. E.)1033 of Althæa officinalis, Linn., or common marshmallow. (Ph. L.) It is emollient and demulcent; the decoction is useful in irritation of the respiratory and urinary organs, and of the alimentary canal. The flowers as well as the root are reputed pectoral.

MARTIN’S POWDER. A mixture of white arsenic and the powdered stems of Orobanche virginiana (Linn.), a plant common in Virginia. An American quack remedy for cancer.

MASS. Syn. Massa, L. This term is commonly applied in pharmacy and veterinary medicine to certain preparations which are not made up into their ultimate form. Thus, we have ‘ball-masses,’ ‘pill-masses,’ &c.; of which, for convenience, large quantities are prepared at a time, and are kept in pots or jars, ready to be divided into balls or pills, as the demands of business may require. (See below.)

MASSES (Veterinary).[24]

[24] Reprinted from Tuson’s ‘Veterinary Pharmacopœia.’

Massa Aloes. Mass of aloes. Syn. Cathartic mass. Prep. Take of Barbadoes aloes, in small pieces, 8 parts; glycerin, 2 parts; ginger, in powder, 1 part; melt together in a water bath, and thoroughly incorporate by frequent stirring.—Use. Cathartic for the horse.—Dose. From 6 to 8 dr.

Massa Aloes Composita. Compound mass of aloes. Syn. Alterative mass. Prep. Take of Barbadoes aloes, in powder, 1 oz.; soft soap, 1 oz.; common mass, 6 oz.; thoroughly incorporate by beating in a mortar, so as to form a mass.—Use. Alterative for the horse.—Dose, 1 oz.

Massa Antimonii Tartarata Composita. Compound mass of tartarated antimony. Syn. Fever ball. Prep. Take of tartrated antimony, in powder, 12 dr.; camphor, in powder, 12 dr.; nitrate of potash, in powder, 2 dr.; common mass, a sufficiency; mix so as to form a bolus.—Use. Febrifuge for the horse.—Dose. The above mixture constitutes 1 dose.

Massa Belladonnæ Composita. Compound mass of belladonna. Syn. Cough ball. Prep. Take of extract of belladonna, 12 to 1 dr.; Barbadoes aloes, in powder, 1 dr.; nitrate of potash, in powder, 2 dr.; common mass, a sufficiency; mix so as to form a bolus.—Use. For the horse in chronic cough.—Dose. The above mixture constitutes 1 dose.

Massa Cathechu Composita. Compound mass of catechu. Syn. Astringent mass. Prep. Take of extract of catechu, in fine powder, 1 oz.; cinnamon bark, in fine powder, 1 oz.; common mass, 6 oz.; mix.—Use. Astringent for the horse.—Dose, 1 oz., in the form of a bolus.

Massa Communis. Common mass. Prep. Take of linseed, finely ground, and treacle, of each equal parts; mix together so as to form a mass.—Use. An excipient for medicinal agents when they are to be administered in the form of bolus.

Massa Cupri Sulphatis. Mass of sulphate of copper. Syn. Tonic Mass. Prep. Take of sulphate of copper, finely powdered, 1 oz.; ginger, in powder, 1 oz.; common mass, 6 oz.; mix.—Use. Tonic for the horse.—Dose, 6 to 8 dr.

Massa Digitalis Composita. Compound mass of digitalis. Syn. Cough ball. Prep. Take of Barbadoes aloes, in powder, 2 oz.; digitalis, 1 oz.; common mass, 13 oz.; mix.—Use. For the horse in chronic cough.—Dose, 1 oz. once or twice a day.

Massa Ferri Sulphatis. Mass of sulphate of iron. Syn. Tonic mass. Prep. Take of sulphate of iron, in powder, 2 oz.; ginger, in powder, 1 oz.; common mass, 5 oz.; mix.—Use. Tonic for the horse.—Dose, 6 to 8 dr.

Massa Resinæ Composita. Compound mass of resin. Syn. Diuretic mass. Prep. Take of resin, in powder, nitrate of potash, in powder, hard soap, of each equal parts; mix.—Use. Diuretic for the horse.—Dose, 1 oz.

Massa Zingiberis Composita. Compound mass of ginger. Syn. Cordial mass. Prep. Take of ginger, in powder, gentian root, in powder, treacle, of each equal parts, a sufficiency; mix so as to form a mass.—Use. Stomachic for the horse.—Dose, 1 oz.

MAS′SICOT. Syn. Masticot, Yellow protoxide of lead; Plumbi oxydum flavum, Cerussa citrina, L. The dross that forms on melted lead exposed to a current of air, roasted until it acquires a uniform yellow colour. Artists often apply the same name to white lead roasted until it turns yellow. Used as a pigment.

MAS′TIC. Syn. Mastich, Gum mastic; Mastiche, L. The “resin flowing from the incised bark of Pistacia Lentiscus, var. Chia.” (Ph. L.) It occurs in pale yellowish, transparent, rounded tears, which soften between the teeth when chewed, and giving out a bitter, aromatic taste. Sp. gr. 1·07. It is soluble in both rectified spirit and oil of turpentine, forming varnishes. It is chiefly used as a ‘masticatory,’ to strengthen and preserve the teeth, and perfume the breath.

Mastic. Fine mortar or cement used for plastering walls, in which the ingredients, in a pulverulent state, are mixed up, either entirely or with a considerable portion of linseed oil. It sets very hard, and is ready to receive paint in a few days. See Cements.

MASTICA′TION. The act of chewing food, by which it not only becomes comminuted, but mixed with the saliva, and reduced to a form fit for swallowing. It has been justly regarded by the highest authorities as the first process of digestion, and one without which the powers of the stomach are overtasked, and often performed with difficulty. Hence the prevalence of dyspepsia and bowel complaints among persons with bad teeth, or who ‘bolt’ their food without chewing it.

MAS′TICATORIES. Syn. Masticatoria, L. Substances taken by chewing them. They are employed as intoxicants, cosmetics, and1034 medicinals; generally with the first intention. The principal masticatory used in this country is tobacco. In Turkey, and several other Eastern nations, opium is taken in a similar manner. In India, a mixture of areca nut, betel leaf, and lime, performs the same duties; whilst in some other parts of the world preparations of the cacao are employed. As cosmetics, orris root, cassia, cinnamon, and sandal wood are frequently chewed to scent the breath. Among medicinals, mastic and myrrh are frequently chewed to strengthen the teeth and gums; pellitory, to relieve the toothache; and rhubarb, ginger, and gentian, to relieve dyspepsia and promote the appetite.

Prep. 1. (Augustin.) Mastic, pellitory (both in powder), and white wax, of each 1 dr.; mixed by heat and divided into 6 balls. In toothache, loose teeth, &c.

2. (W. Cooley.) Mastic, myrrh, and white wax, of each 1 part; rhubarb, ginger, and extract of gentian, of each 2 parts; beaten up with tincture of tolu, q. s., and divided into boluses or lozenges of 10 gr. each. One or two to be chewed an hour before dinner; in dyspepsia, defective appetite, &c.

3. (Quincy.) Mastic, 3 oz.; pellitory and stavesacre seed, of each 2 dr.; cubebs and nutmegs, of each 1 dr.; angelica root, 12 dr.; melted wax, q. s. to make it into small balls. As a stimulant to the gums, and in toothache.

4. Opium, ginger, rhubarb, mastic, pellitory of Spain, and orris root, of each 1 dr.; melted spermaceti, q. s. to mix; for 6-gr. pills. As the last, and in toothache and painful gums.

MAS′TICOT. See Massicot.

MATCHES (Cooper’s). Syn. Sweetening matches. These are made by dipping strips of coarse linen or canvas into melted brimstone. For use, the brimstone on one of them is set on fire, and the match is then at once suspended in the cask, and the bung loosely set in its place. After the lapse of 2 or 3 hours the match is removed and the cask filled with liquor. Some persons pour a gallon or two of the liquor into the cask before ‘matching’ it. The object is to allay excessive fermentation. The operation is commonly adopted in the Western Counties for cider intended for shipment, or other long exposure during transport. It is also occasionally employed for inferior and ‘doctored’ wines.

MATCHES (Instantaneous Light). Of these there are several varieties, of which the one best known, and most extensively used, is the common phosphorus match, known as the ‘congreve’ or ‘lucifer.’[25] We need not describe the ‘chemical matches,’ ‘phosphorus bottles,’ and ‘prometheans,’ in use during the early part of the present century, as these are quite obsolete. We will simply sketch the general process of manufacture now in use for phosphorus matches:

[25] The original ‘LUCIFERS,’ or ‘LIGHT-BEARING MATCHES,’ invented in 1826, consisted of strips of pasteboard, or flat splints of wood, tipped first with sulphur, and then with a mixture of sulphide of antimony and chlorate of potassa, and were ignited by drawing them briskly through folded glass-paper. They required a considerable effort to ignite them, and the composition was apt to be torn off by the violence of the friction. The term ‘lucifer’ having become familiar, was applied to the simpler and more effective match afterwards introduced under the names of ‘CONGREVE’ and ‘CONGREVE LIGHT,’

Manuf. The wooden splints are cut by steam machinery from the very best quality of pine planks, perfectly dried at a temperature of 400° Fahr. English splints are of two sizes—‘large’ and ‘minnikins,’ the former 214 inches longer, and the latter somewhat shorter. In the manufacture double-lengths are used, so that each splint may be coated with the igniting composition at both ends, and then cut asunder in the middle to form two matches. In England the splints are usually cut square in form, but in Germany they are cylindrical, being prepared by forcing the wood through circular holes in a steel plate. The ends of the double splints having been slightly charred by contact with a red-hot plate, are coated with sulphur by dipping them to the requisite depth in the melted material. In some cases the ends are saturated with melted wax or paraffin instead of sulphur. The splints are then arranged in a frame between grooved boards in such a manner that the prepared ends project on each side of the frame. These projecting ends are then tipped with the phosphorus composition, which is spread to a uniform depth of about 18 inch on a smooth slab of stone, kept warm by means of steam beneath. When partially dry, the tipped splints are taken from the frames, cut through the middle, and placed in heaps of 100, ready for ‘boxing.’

The different compositions for tipping the matches in use in different countries and factories all consist essentially of emulsions of phosphorus in a solution of glue or gum, with or without other matters for increasing the combustibility, for colouring, &c. In England the composition contains a considerable quantity of chlorate of potassa, which imparts a snapping and flaming quality to the matches tipped with it, and but little phosphorus, on account of the moisture of the climate. In Germany the proportion of phosphorus used is much larger, and nitre, or some metallic peroxide, replaces chlorate of potassa. The German matches light quietly with a mild lambent flame, and are injured quickly by damp. The following formulæ have been selected:

1. (English.) Fine glue, 2 parts, broken into small pieces, and soaked in water till quite soft, is added to water, 4 parts, and heated by means of a water bath until it is quite fluid, and at a temperature of 200° to 212° Fahr. The vessel is then removed from the fire, and phosphorus, 112 to 2 parts, is gradually added, the mixture being agitated briskly and continually with a ‘stirrer’ having wooden pegs or bristles projecting at its lower end. When a uniform emulsion is obtained, chlorate of potassa, 4 to 5 parts, powdered1035 glass, 3 to 4 parts, and red lead, smalt, or other colouring matter, a sufficient quantity (all in a state of very fine powder) are added, one at a time, to prevent accidents, and the stirring continued until the mixture is comparatively cool.

According to Mr G. Gore, the above proportions are those of the best quality of English composition. The matches tipped with it deflagrate with a snapping noise. (See above.)

2. (German.)—a. (Böttger.) Dissolve gum Arabic, 16 parts, in the least possible quantity of water, add of phosphorus (in powder), 9 parts, and mix by trituration; then add of nitre, 14 parts; vermillion or binoxide of manganese, 16 parts, and form the whole into a paste, as directed above; into this the matches are to be dipped, and then exposed to dry. As soon as the matches are quite dry they are to be dipped into very dilute copal varnish or lac varnish, and again exposed to dry, by which means they are rendered waterproof, or at least less likely to suffer from exposure in damp weather.

b. (Böttger.) Glue, 6 parts, is soaked in a little cold water for 24 hours, after which it is liquefied by trituration in a heated mortar; phosphorus, 4 parts, is now added, and rubbed down at a heat not exceeding 150° Fahr.; nitre (in fine powder), 10 parts, is next mixed in, and afterwards red ochre, 5 parts, and smalt, 2 parts, are further added, and the whole formed into a uniform paste, into which the matches are dipped, as before. Cheaper than the last.

c. (Diesel.) Phosphorus, 17 parts; glue, 21 parts; red lead, 24 parts; nitre, 38 parts. Proceed as above.

Obs. Matches tipped with the above (a, b, and c) inflame without fulmination when rubbed against a rough surface, and are hence termed ‘noiseless matches’ by the makers.

3. (Safety matches.) The latest improvement of note in the manufacture of matches is that of Landstrom, of Jonkoping, in Sweden, adopted by Messrs Bryant and May (Patent). It consists in dividing the ingredient of the match-mixture into two separate compositions, one being placed on the ends of the splints, as usual, and the other, which contains the phosphorus, being spread in a thin layer upon the end or lid of the box. The following are the compositions used by the patentee:—a. (For the splints.) Chlorate of potassa, 6 parts; sulphuret of antimony, 2 to 3 parts; glue, 1 part.—b. (For the friction surface.) Amorphous phosphorus, 10 parts; sulphuret of antimony or peroxide of manganese, 8 parts; glue, 3 to 6 parts; spread thinly upon the surface, which has been previously made rough by a coating of glue and sand.

By thus dividing the composition the danger of fire arising from ignition of the matches by accidental friction is avoided, as neither the portion on the splint nor that on the box can be ignited by rubbing against an unprepared surface. Again, by using the innocuous red or amorphous phosphorus, the danger of poisoning is entirely prevented.

MATÉ. Syn. Paraguay Tea. This is the dried leaf of a small shrub, the Ilex Paraguayenses, or Brazilian holly, growing in Paraguay and Brazil; by the inhabitants of which places, as well as South America generally, it is largely employed in the form of a beverage as tea. Its active ingredient, Paraguaine, formerly supposed to be a distinct principle, has from further researches into its composition been discovered to be identical with theine and caffeine—the alkaloids of tea and coffee.

Mr Wanklyn ascribes the following composition to maté:—

Moisture 6·72
Ash 5·86
Soluble organic matter 25·10
Insoluble organic matter 62·32

MATE′′RIA MED′ICA. A collective name of the various substances, natural and artificial, employed as medicines or in the cure of disease. In its more extended sense it includes the science which treats of their sources, properties, classification, and applications. The materia medica of the Pharmacopœia is a mere list, with occasional notes, “embracing the animal, vegetable, and chemical substances, whether existing naturally, prepared in officinal chemical preparations, or sold in wholesale trade, which we (the College) direct to be used either in curing diseases or in preparing medicines.” (Ph. L.)

MAT′ICO. Syn. Soldier’s herb; Mateco (B. P., Ph. D.); Matica, Herba maticæ, L. The dried leaves of a Peruvian plant, generally believed to be the Artanthe elongata, one of the Piperaceæ. The leaves have been employed with considerable success as a mechanical external styptic; applied to leech-bites, slight cuts, and other wounds, &c., and pressed on with the fingers, they seldom fail to arrest the bleeding. Matico has also been much lauded as an internal astringent and styptic, in hæmorrhages from the lungs, stomach, bowels, uterus, &c.; but as it is nearly destitute of astringent properties, its virtues in these cases must have been inferred from its external action. As an aromatic, bitter stimulant, closely resembling the peppers, it has been proposed as a substitute for cubebs and black pepper, in the treatment of diseases of the mucous membranes, piles, &c.—Dose, 12 to 2 dr.; in powder; or under the form of infusion, tincture, or boluses.

MATURA′TION. Growing ripe. Amongst surgeons this term is applied to the process of suppuration, or that which succeeds inflammation, and by which pus or matter is collected in an abscess. Warmth, irritation, and a liberal diet promote this change; cold, sedatives,1036 and depletion, retard it. The maturation of fermented liquor is noticed under Brewing, Malt liquors, Wines, &c.

MEAD. Syn. Mellina, L. An old English liquor, made from the combs from which the honey has been drained, by boiling them in water, and fermenting the saccharine solution thus obtained. It is commonly confounded with metheglin. Some persons add 1 oz. of hops to each gallon; and, after fermentation, a little brandy. It is then called sack mead, See Metheglin.

MEAL. The substance of edible grain ground to powder, without being bolted or sifted. Barley meal and oat meal are the common substances of this class in England. In North America the term is commonly applied to ground Indian corn, whether bolted or not. (Goodrich.) The four resolvent meals of old pharmacy (quatuor farinæ resolventes) are those of barley, beans, linseed, and rye.

MEALS. The “periods of taking food, usually adopted, in conformity with convenience and the recurrences of hunger, are those which are best adapted to the purposes of health; namely, the morning meal, the midday meal, and the evening meal.” “That these are the proper periods for meals is evident from the fact of their maintaining their place amid the changes which fashion is constantly introducing.” “If we look at these periods in another point of view, we shall find an interval of four hours left between them for the act of digestion and subsequent rest of the stomach. Digestion will claim between two and three hours of the interval; the remaining hour is all that the stomach gets of rest, enough, perhaps, but not too much, not to be justly infringed.” (Eras. Wilson.)

MEA′SLES. Syn. Rubeola, Morbilli, L. This very common disease is characterised by feverishness, chilliness, shivering, head-pains, swelling and inflammation of the eyes, shedding of sharp tears, with painful sensibility to light, oppressive cough, difficulty of breathing, and sometimes vomiting or diarrhœa. These are followed about the fourth day by a crimson rash upon the skin, in irregular crescents or circles, and by small red points or spots, which are perceptible to the touch, and which, after four or five days, go off with desquamation of the cuticle. The fever, cough, &c., often continue for some time; and unless there have been some considerable evacuations, either by perspiration or vomiting, they frequently return with increased violence, and occasion great distress and danger.

Treat. When there are no urgent local symptoms, mild aperients, antimonial diaphoretics, and diluents, should be had recourse to; but when the inflammatory symptoms are emergent, and the lungs are weak, especially in plethoric habits, blood may be taken. The cough may be relieved by expectorants, demulcents, and small doses of opium; and the diarrhœa by the administration of the compound powder of chalk and opium; the looseness of the bowels, however, had better not be interfered with, unless it be extreme.

Measles are most prevalent in the middle of winter, and though common to individuals of all ages, are most frequent amongst children. The plethoric, and those of a scrofulous habit, or one which has a syphilitic taint, suffer most from them.

Like the smallpox, the measles are contagious, and seldom attack the same person more than once during life. See Rash.

MEASURE. Syn. Mensura, L. The unit or standard by which we estimate extension, whether of length, superficies, or volume. The following tables represent the values and proportions of the principal measures employed in commerce and the arts:

Table I. English Lineal Measures.

Inches. Feet. Yards. Poles. Furlongs. Miles.
·083 ·028 ·00505 ·00012626 ·0000157828
12· ·333 ·06060 ·00151515 ·00018939
36· ·1818 ·004545 ·00056818
198· 16·5 5·5 ·025 ·003125
7920· 660· 220· 40· ·125
63360· 5280· 1760· 320·

⁂ The unit of the above table is the yard, of which no legal standard has existed since that established by the statute of 1824 was destroyed by the fire which consumed the two Houses of Parliament in 1834.


Table II. English Measures of Superficies.

Square Feet. Square Yards. Poles. Roods. Acres.
·1111 ·00367309 ·000091827 ·000022957
·0330579 ·000826448 ·000206612
272·25 30·25 ·025 ·00625
10890· 1210· 40· ·25
43560· 4840· 160·

Table III. English Measure of Volume.—The Imperial Standard, and the relative value of its divisions, including those used in Medicine, with their EQUIVALENTS in avoirdupois and troy weight.

[minims] Minims or drops. fʒ Fluid Drachms. f℥ Fluid Ounces. O. Pints. Oij. Quarts. C. Gallons. Pecks. Bushels. Quarters. Equivalents in distilled water, at 62° Fahr., in
Troy grains. Avoird. weight.
·01666666 ·00208333 ·00010416 ·00005208 ·00001302 ·91146    
60· ·125 ·00625 ·003125 ·00078125 54·6875 lb. oz.
480· ·05 ·025 ·00625 437·5   1
9600· 160· 20· ·5 ·125 ·0625 ·015625 ·001953125 8750· 1 4
19200· 320· 40· ·25 ·125 ·03125 ·00390625 17500· 2 8
76800· 1280· 160· ·5 ·125 ·015625 70000· 10  
  2560· 320· 16· ·25 ·03125 20  
    1280· 64· 32· ·125 80  
      512· 256· 64· 32· 640  

⁂ The standard unit of the above table is the gallon, which is declared, by statute, to be capable of “containing ten pounds avoirdupois weight of distilled water, weighed in the air at the temperature of 62° Fahr., the barometer being at 30 inches.” The pound avoirdupois contains 7000 grains, and it is declared that a cubic inch of distilled water, under the above conditions, weighs 252·458 grains; hence the capacity of the imperial gallon and its divisions are as follows:—

Imperial gallon = 277·274 cubic inches.
quart = 69·3185
pint = 34·65925
Fluid ounce = 1·73296
drachm = ·21662

‡‡‡ The imperial gallon is 1-5th larger than the old wine gallon,—1-60th smaller than the old beer gallon, and—1-32nd larger than the old dry-measure gallon.

Table IV. French Metrical or Decimal Measures of Length.

Names. Eq. in Mètres. Equivalents in
English Inches, at 32° Fahr. English Long Measure, at 62° Fahr.
      Miles. Fur. Yds. Feet. Inch.
Millimètre ·001 ·03937          
Centimètre ·01 ·39371          
Décimètre ·1 3·93708          
Mètre 39·37079     1 0 3·37
Decamètre 10· 393·70790     10 2 9·7
Hectomètre 100· 3937·07900     109 1 1·078
Kilomètre 1000· 39370·79000   4 213 1 10·3
Myriamètre 10000· 393707·90000 6 1 156 0 9·17

⁂ The standard unit of the above table is the mètre, which has been determined to be 39·37079 inches, at 32° Fahr. (Capt. Kater); the English foot is taken at 62° Fahr. The true length of the mètre, reduced to the latter temperature, is 39·370091 English inches; a number1038 which varies from that in the table only at the fourth decimal figure. It will be perceived that the principle of nomenclature adopted in applying the names, was to prefix the Greek numerals to the decimal multiples, and the Latin numerals to the decimal subdivisions.

Table V. French Metrical or Decimal Measures of Volume.

Names. Eq. in Litres. Eq. in English Cubic Inches Equivalent in English Measures.
Gall. Pints. Oz. Dr. Minims.
Millilitre ·001 ·0610         16·9
Centilitre ·01 ·6103       2 49·
Decilitre ·1 6·1028     3 4 10·36
Litre 61·028   1 15 1 43·69
Decalitre 10· 610·28 2 1 12 1 16·9
Hectolitre 100· 6102·8 22 0 1 4 49·
Kilolitre 1000· 61028· 220 0 16 6 40·
Myrialitre 10000· 610280· 2201 (= 27518 bushels).        

⁂ The standard unit in the above table is the litre, or the cube of the 110 of a mètre. The French centiare contains 1 square mètre,—the are, 100 do.,—the hectare, 10,000 do. The old Paris pint is equal to 1·678 English imperial pint.

‡‡‡ The capacity of solids and aëriform fluids is taken in cubic inches, or feet, in England. In France, the stere, or mètre cube, equal to 35·31658 English cubic feet, is the standard unit.

Table VI. Miscellaneous Measures and their Equivalents:

Tea or coffee spoonful (average) = 1 fl. dr.
Dessert spoonful = 2
Table spoonful = 4
Wine-glassful = 2 fl. oz.
Tea-cupful = 5
Breakfast-cupful = 8
Tumblerful = 8
Basinful = 12
Thimbleful = 34 fl. dr.
Pinch (of leaves and flowers) = 1 dr.
Handful (of leaves and flowers) = 10
Cubic inch of water, at 62° Fahr.   = 252·458 gr.
Cubic foot of water, at 62° Fahr.   = 62·32106 lb.
Line   = 112 inch.
Barleycorn   = 13
Hand   = 4
Chain   = 4
or 22

MEAT. The muscular tissue or flesh of the principal animals constituting the food of man may be said to be composed of the same proximate principles, and, given an equal digestibility and power of being assimilated, may be also said to have an equally nutritive value.

Since meat, however, is generally eaten with a certain amount of fat, which accompanies it in varying quantity, the capacity of the meat for forming muscle will, of course, be in inverse proportion to the amount of fat it contains; on the contrary, its power of raising the bodily temperature will be in direct proportion. Moleschott (quoted by Parkes) gives the following as the mean composition of fresh beef, as determined by all the Continental chemists:—

Water 73·4
Soluble albumen and hæmatin 2·25
Insoluble albuminous substances 15·20
Gelatinous substances 3·30
Fat 2·87
Extractive matter 1·38
Creatin 0·068
Ash 1·6

Dr Parkes remarks of the amount of fat given in the above analysis “that it is evidently too low.”

In the above table we recognise in the albuminous and gelatinous substances the source of the muscular tissue of the human organism. The ash contains the chlorides, carbonates, and phosphates of potassium, sodium, and calcium. From these salts are derived the1039 hydrochloric acid of the gastric juice, the sodium of the bile, and the calcium phosphate and carbonate of the skeleton. Iron is also present, and this finds its way into the blood.

The flavour of meat is much influenced by the food of the animal. The flesh of the Pampas pig is found to be rank and disagreeable when the animal is killed in its wild state; if, however, the food be changed for the better, the flesh becomes altogether different and quite eatable. The pork of pigs fed on flesh is said to give off a strong odour, the fat at the same time being unusually soft. Soft fat is also said to form in animals that have been fed on oily foods.

When meat is roasted, the fire gradually coagulates the albumen of the joint, the coagulation commencing at the surface, and spreading by degrees to the interior. Unless the roasting be continued long enough, sufficient heat will not reach the parts nearest the centre to effect their coagulation; and if under these circumstances the meat be removed from the fire, the uncoagulated or inner parts will present the well-known red and juicy appearance known as ‘underdone.’ Although a certain quantity of the gravy (which consists of the soluble and saline ingredients) escapes in the process, the greater part is retained. The brown agreeably sapid substance formed on the outside of the meat is known as osmazome, and which is concentrated gravy. The melting fat which collects below forms the dripping. The loss in the meat is principally water.

The chemical effects of boiling are explained under the article devoted to that subject.

Meat generally loses from 30 to 40 per cent., and sometimes as much as 60 per cent. in weight, by cooking.

The amount of bone varies, being seldom less than 8 per cent. It amounts in the neck and brisket to about 10 per cent. and from one third to sometimes half the total weight in shins and legs of beef.

The most economical parts are the round and thick flank, next to these the brisket and sticking-piece, and lastly, the leg.

In choosing mutton and pork, selection should be made of the leg, after this of the shoulder.[26]

[26] Letheby.

“Oxen,” says M. Bizet, “yield of best quality beef 57 per cent. of meat, and 43 per cent. waste. The waste includes the internal viscera, &c. Second quality of beef, 54 per cent. meat and 46 per cent. waste; third quality beef, 51 per cent. meat and 49 per cent. waste. In milking-cows, 46 per cent. meat and 54 per cent. waste. Calves yield 60 per cent. meat, and 40 per cent. loss; and sheep yield 50 per cent. meat, and 50 per cent. loss.” Dr Parkes differs from Bizet as to the latter’s value of the meat of the calf. He says the flesh of young animals loses from 40 to 50 per cent. in cooking.

It seems to be agreed, however, that animals when slaughtered should be neither too young nor too old. The flesh of young animals, although more tender, is less digestible than that of older ones; it is also poorer in salts, fat, and an albuminous substance called syntonin.

Consumption of Meat. Dr Letheby, writing in 1868, says that in London “the indoor operatives eat it to the extent of 14·8 oz. per adult weekly; 70 per cent. of English farm labourers consume it, and to the extent of 16 oz. per man weekly; 60 per cent. of the Scotch, 30 of the Welsh, and 20 of the Irish also eat it. The Scotch probably have a larger allowance than the English, considering that braxy mutton[27] is the perquisite of the Scotch labourer; but the Welsh have only an average amount of 212 oz. per adult weekly; and the Irish allowance is still less. It is difficult to obtain accurate returns of the quantity of meat consumed in London; but if the computation of Dr Wynter is correct, it is not less than 3034 oz. per head weekly, or about 412 oz. per day for every man, woman, and child. In Paris, according to M. Armand Husson, who has carefully collected the octroi returns, “it is rather more than 49 oz. per head weekly, or just 7 oz. a day.” Bondin states that throughout France the consumption is about 50 grammes daily, or under 134 oz.

[27] See further on.

Dr Letheby, in his work ‘On Food,’ gives the following as the characteristics of good meat:—

“1st. It is neither of a pale pink colour nor of a deep purple tint, for the former is a sign of disease, and the latter indicates that the animal has not been slaughtered, but has died with the blood in it, or has suffered from acute fever.

“2nd. It has a marked appearance from the ramifications of little veins of fat among the muscles.

“3rd. It should be firm and elastic to the touch, and should scarcely moisten the fingers—bad meat being wet, and sodden and flabby, with the fat looking like jelly or wet parchment.

“4th. It should have little or no odour, and the odour should not be disagreeable, for diseased meat has a sickly cadaverous smell, and sometimes a smell of physic. This is very discoverable when the meat is chopped up and drenched with warm water.

“5th. It should not shrink or waste much in cooking.

“6th. It should not run to water, or become very wet on standing for a day or so, but should, on the contrary, dry upon the surface.

“7th. When dried at a temperature of 212° or thereabout, it should not lose more than from 70 to 74 per cent. of its weight, whereas bad meat will often lose as much as 80 per cent.

“Other properties of a more refined character will also serve for the recognition of bad1040 meat, as that the juice of the flesh is alkaline or neutral to test-paper, instead of being distinctly acid, and the muscular fibre, when examined under the microscope is found to be sodden and ill-defined.”

Unsound meat—diseased meat. Dr Letheby, in his ‘Lectures on Food,’ published in 1868, states that the seizure and condemnation, in London, of meat unfit for human food, during a period extending over seven years, amounted to 700 tons per annum, or to about 1-750th of the whole quantity consumed. These 700 tons he dissects into lbs. as follows:—“805,653 lbs. were diseased, 568,375 lbs. were putrid, and 193,782 lbs. were from animals that had not been slaughtered, but had died from accident or disease. It consisted of 6640 sheep and lambs, 1025 calves, 2896 pigs, 9104 quarters of beef, and 21,976 joints of meat.”

He admits, however, that this amount, owing to the difficulties and inefficiency of the mode of supervision, bears a very insignificant proportion to the actual quantity which escaped detection, and which was, therefore, partaken of as food. Professor Gamgee says that one fifth of the meat eaten in the metropolis is diseased. In 1863 the bodies of an enormous number of animals suffering from rinderpest, as well as from pleuro-pneumonia, were consumed in London; and we know that thousands of sheep die every year, in the country, of rot; the inference from which latter fact is that, since the carcases are neither eaten there nor buried on the spot, they are sent up to, and thrown upon, the London markets. The worst specimens find their way to the poorer neighbourhoods, where, as might be expected, their low price ensures a ready sale for them. These sales, it is said, mostly take place at night.

The above statements, which, if we exclude Professor Gamgee’s figures, do not solve the problem as to the quantity of unsound meat consumed in London, not unreasonably justify the assumption that it is very considerable; and this being admitted, we should be prepared to learn that it was a fertile source of disease of a more or less dangerous character.

There is, however, such extensive divergence in the various data bearing upon this point, that no satisfactory solution of it can be said to be afforded. Thus, Livingstone states that, when in South Africa, he found that neither Englishmen nor natives could partake of the flesh of animals affected with pleuro-pneumonia without its giving rise to malignant carbuncle, and sometimes, in the case of the natives, to death, and Dr Letheby attributes the increased number of carbuncles and phlegmons amongst our population to the importation from Holland of cattle suffering from the same disease. On the contrary, Dr Parkes says he was informed, on excellent authority, that the Caffres invariably consume the flesh of their cattle that die of the same epidemic, without the production of any ill effects. Again, there are numerous well-attested cases in which the flesh of sheep which have died from braxy (a disease that makes great ravages amongst the flocks in Scotland) is constantly eaten without injurious results by the Scotch shepherd. The malady causes death in the sheep from the blood coagulating in the vital organs, and the sheep that so dies becomes the property of the shepherd, who, after removing the offal, is careful to cut out the dark congealed blood before cooking it.[28] Sometimes he salts down the carcase. In cases, however, where thorough cooking or an observance of the above precautions have been neglected, very dangerous and disastrous consequences have ensued. During the late siege of Paris large quantities of the flesh of horses with glanders appear to have been eaten with no evil consequences: and Mr Blyth, in his ‘Dictionary of Hygiène,’ quotes a similar case from Tardieu, who states that 300 army horses affected with glanders (morve) were led to St Germain, near Paris, and killed. For several days they served to feed the poor of the town without causing any injury to health.

[28] Letheby.

A similar exemption from any evil effect following the consumption of diseased flesh is recorded by Professor Brucke, of Vienna.

Not many years since the cattle of a locality in Bohemia, being attacked by rinderpest, were ordered by the Government to be slaughtered, after which they were buried. The poor people dug up the diseased carcases, cooked the meat, and ate it, with no injurious result.

Parent Duchâtelet cites a case where the flesh of seven cows attacked with rabies was eaten without injury; and Letheby states that pigs with scarlet fever and spotted typhus have been used for food with equally harmless results. The flesh of sheep with smallpox had been found to produce vomiting and diarrhœa, sometimes accompanied with fever.

One obvious suggestion of the immunity from disease recorded in part of the cases above given is that the injurious properties of the flesh had been destroyed by the heat to which it had been subjected in the process of cooking, combined with the antiseptic and protective power of the gastric juice. The subject, however, has not been sufficiently examined to warrant the conclusion that every kind of unsound meat may be rendered innocuous by culinary means.

But even were this so the idea of partaking of meat which had once been unsound, from whatever cause, and, as in the instances above quoted, with the pustules of smallpox, the spots generated by typhus, and the rash of scarlet fever upon it, becomes unspeakably repulsive and revolting. But we must not be misled because of the difficulty of reconciling the contradictory statements above given, nor by the evidence some of them appear to afford as to the innocuous character of diseased meat, since it is just possible that closer and more1041 prolonged observation of the facts may have led to different conclusions. Thus, for example, pork, infested with that formidable entozoon, the Trichina spiralis, had been partaken of for years, under the impression that it was a perfectly healthy food, until Dr Zencker, of Dresden, discovered that the parasite was the cause of a frightful disease, which he called Trichinosis, and which had hitherto baffled all attempts to find out its origin. Dr Letheby, writing on this subject, says: “I have often had occasion to investigate cases of mysterious disease, which had undoubtedly been caused by unsound meat. One of these, of more than ordinary interest, occurred in the month of November, 1860. The history of it is this:—A forequarter of cow-beef was purchased in Newgate Market by a sausage-maker who lived in Kingsland, and who immediately converted it into sausage-meat. Sixty-six persons were known to have eaten of that meat, and sixty-four of them were attacked with sickness, diarrhœa, and great prostration of vital powers. One of them died; and at the request of the coroner I made a searching inquiry into the matter, and I ascertained that the meat was diseased, and that it, and it alone, had been the cause of all the mischief.”[29]

[29] Letheby, ‘Lectures on Food,’ Longman and Co.

Here are two instances in which but for subsequent investigation the evil effects narrated would not have been debited to diseased meat, but to some other cause.

“One of the principal and by far the most prolific sources of food-poisoning is the sausage, the eating of which, in Germany more particularly, has caused the death of a number of persons.

The sausages in which these poisonous qualities occasionally develop themselves are the large kinds made in Wurtemburg, in which district alone they have caused the deaths of more than 150 out of 400 persons during the last fifty years. The poisonous character of the sausage is said to develop itself generally in the spring, when it becomes musty, and also soft in the interior. It is then found to be acid to test paper, and to have a very disagreeable and tainted flavour.

Should it be eaten when in this state, after from about twelve to twenty-four hours the patient is attacked with severe intestinal irritation in the form of pains in the stomach and bowels by vomitings, and diarrhœa.

To these symptoms succeed great depression, coldness in the limbs, weak and irregular pulse, and frequent fainting fits. Should the sufferer be attacked with convulsions, and difficult respiration, the seizure generally ends in death. The nature of the poisonous substance that gives rise to these effects in the sausage has not yet been determined. Liebig believed them to be due to the presence in the meat of a particular animal ferment, which he conceived acted on the blood by catalysis, and thus rendered it diseased. Others have surmised that a poisonous organic alkaloid may have been produced in the decaying meat; and others again that the effects may have been caused by some deleterious substance of a fatty nature. M. Van den Corput was of opinion that the mischief was due to the presence in the meat of a poisonous fungus, which he calls a sarcina botulina. This last theory receives support from the fact that a peculiar mouldiness is always to be observed in these dangerous sausages, and that this is coincident with the development of their poisonous qualities.

Several effects have been produced by other kinds of animal food—as veal, bacon, ham, salt-beef, salt-fish, cheese, &c., and the food has usually been in a decayed and mouldy condition. It would be tedious if I were to detail, or even to enumerate the cases recorded by medico-legal writers; but I may perhaps refer to a few of them. In 1839 there was a popular fête at Zurich, and about 600 persons partook of a repast of cold roast veal and ham. In a few hours most of them were suffering from pain in the stomach, with vomiting and diarrhœa; and before a week had elapsed nearly all of them were seriously ill in bed. They complained of shiverings, giddiness, headache and burning fever. In a few cases there was delirium, and when they terminated fatally there was extreme prostration of the vital powers. Careful inquiry was instituted into the matter, and the only discoverable cause of the mischief was incipient putrefaction and slight mouldiness of the meat.” A case is recorded by Dr Geisler of eight persons who became ill from eating bacon which was mouldy; and another by M. Ollivier of the death of four persons out of eight, all of whom had partaken of partially decomposed mutton.

If some of the foregoing statements fail to demonstrate that the act of partaking of diseased meat is a necessary source of danger to health, there can be no such doubt as to the pernicious and perilous consequences which ensue when meat is consumed containing in its tissues the ova and larvæ of certain parasitic creatures. If the fleshy part of a piece of measly pork be carefully examined, it will be found to be more or less dotted about with a number of little bladder-like spots, in size about as large as a hemp-seed.[30]

[30] See article “Cysticerci.”

If now we carefully rupture one of these little bodies or cysts, there will be found in it a minute worm, which under the microscope will be seen to have a head from which proceed a number of little hooks that perform a very disagreeable office should the parasite be taken into the human stomach by any one making a meal off measly and undercooked pork. For, then, being liberated from its sac, or nidus, by the action of the gastric juice of the stomach on this latter, the creature passes1042 into the intestines. To these it attaches itself by means of the hooklets on its head, and instantly becomes a tapeworm, which grows by a succession of jointed segments it is able to develop, and each one of which is capable of becoming a separate and prolific tapeworm filled with countless eggs.

These eggs reach the land through the agency of manure (for they are found in the intestines of the horse), and from this source they get into the stomachs of pigs and oxen, where they hatch not into tapeworm, or tenia, but, travelling through the animal’s stomach, burrow into its muscular tissue. Here they establish and envelop themselves in the little cyst or small bladder-like substance, whose presence, as explained, constitutes the condition called “measly” pork, and here they remain dormant until such time as, taken into the stomach, they may again become tapeworms, to be again expelled and to perpetuate by their ova the round of metamorphosis. From the circumstance of their being met with enclosed in little sacs or cysts, these parasites have been termed Cysticerci. The variety of them we have just been considering as occurring in pork is called the Cysticercus cellulosæ, whilst the tapeworm to which it gives rise is known as the Tinea solium.

Another variety of Cysticercus is met with in the flesh of the ox, the cow, and the calf. In the human body this also develops into a tapeworm called the Tinea mediocanellata. Tapeworm is a very common disease in Russia and Abyssinia, and its prevalence is no doubt due to the habit of giving the children in those countries raw meat to suck, under the impression that the child is strengthened in consequence. From experiments made by Dr Lewis it was found that a temperature of 150° F., maintained for five minutes, was sufficient to destroy these cysticerci.

Another and more formidable entozoon, communicable by unsound meat, is the Echinococcus hominis,[31] which represents one of the metamorphoses of the Tinea echinococcus, the tapeworm of the dog. In Iceland, where a sixth of the population are said to suffer from the ravages of the Echinococcus hominis, it is the custom to feed the dogs on the flesh of slaughtered animals affected with this parasite, which in the body of the dog develops into a tapeworm. The innumerable eggs which the worm produces are, however, incapable of being hatched in the dog’s intestines. They have to find another and more suitable habitat, and this is secured for them as follows:—Segments of the tapeworm, with their countless ova, being voided with dog’s excrement, fall into the running water, and on to the fields and pastures, whence they gain their entrance into the stomachs of human beings, oxen, and sheep. Here the eggs become hatched, not into tapeworms, but into Echinococci hominis, or prospective tapeworms. Burrowing through the membranes of the stomach, the echinococcus establishes itself most commonly in the liver, but not unfrequently in the spleen, heart, lungs, and even the bones of man. In the animal economy they enclose themselves in little sacs or cysts, and give rise to the most alarming and painful diseases, which hitherto have proved incurable. They attack the brain in sheep, and are the cause of the disease known as “staggers.” Sheep are also infested by another parasite known as the Distoma hepatica, the ravages of which give rise in the sheep to that devastating disease—“the rot.” The creature is also known by the name of the “liver-fluke,” since it principally attacks this important organ in the animal. The liver-fluke is of constant occurrence in the livers of diseased sheep, and unless destroyed by thorough cooking will of course pass into the human economy. The embryo fluke gains admission to the sheep’s body through the instrumentality of small snails, to the shells of which it attaches itself. In wet weather the snails crawl over the grass of the meadow which forms the pastures of the sheep, and are swallowed by it. Once in the sheep’s stomach the embryo becomes a fluke, and commences its depredations on the animal’s liver. After this, the reason why the rot attacks sheep after a continuance of wet weather will be evident.

[31] See article “Echinococcus hominis.”

The most terrible of all the meat parasites is a minute worm about 130th of an inch long, found in the flesh of pork. This creature, which is named the Trichina spiralis (from the form it assumes when coiled up in the little cyst or capsule which encloses it), when it gets conveyed into the human stomach with improperly cooked or underdone pork, soon becomes liberated from its confinement owing to the destruction of its envelope by the gastric juice. Once in the stomach the parasite grows rapidly, giving birth to innumerable young trichinæ, which, by first boring through the membranes of the alimentary canal, pierce their way through the different parts of the body into the muscular tissue, where they become encysted, and where they remain until conditions favorable to their liberation again occur.

Until such time, however, as they have become enclosed in the cyst, their movements give rise to indescribable torture, and to a disease known as trichinosis, of which it has been estimated more than 50 per cent. of those attacked by it die. The symptoms of trichinosis commence with loss of appetite, vomiting, and diarrhœa, succeeded after a few days by great fever—resembling, according to Dr Aitken, that of typhoid or typhus. As might be expected the pains in the limbs are extreme. Boils and dropsical swellings are not unusual concomitants of the malady.

Hitherto this frightful disease has been mostly confined to Germany, where there have been several outbreaks of it since its discovery1043 in 1860 by Dr Zencker. Feidler says that only free trichinæ are killed by a temperature of 155° F.; and that when they are in their cysts a greater heat may be necessary. From what has been said the importance of efficient cooking must become manifest. There must always be risk in underdone pork, whether boiled or roasted. In the pig, the trichina, if present, may always be found in the muscles of the eye. In Germany the makers of pork sausages are now said to have these muscles subjected to a microscopic examination previous to using the meat, which, of course, is rejected if the examination has been unfavorable.

The trichinæ, if present in the flesh of pork, may be seen as small round specks by the naked eye, the surrounding flesh itself being rather darker than usual owing to the inflammation set up in it. All doubt, however, on this point may be removed by having recourse to the microscope. Dr Parkes says a power of 50 to 100 diameters is sufficient, and that “the best plan is to take a thin slice of flesh, put it into liquor potassæ (1 part to 8 of water), and let it stand for a few minutes till the muscle becomes clear; it must not be left too long, otherwise the trichinæ will be destroyed. The white specks come out clearly and the worm will be seen coiled up. If the capsule is too dense to allow the worm to be seen, a drop or two of weak hydrochloric acid should be added. If the meat be very fat a little ether or benzine may be put on it in the first place.”

Legislation relative to meat inspection and seizure.—The law recognising the importance of the supply of pure and wholesome meat gives considerable powers to the different sanitary officers who are appointed to inspect it. See Food, Inspection of.

MEAT, AUSTRALIAN. See Meat preserving.

MEAT BISCUITS. Prep. 1. The flour is mixed up with a rich fluid extract of meat, and the dough is cut into pieces and baked in the usual manner.

2. Wheaten flour (or preferably the whole meal), 3 parts; fresh lean beef or other flesh (minced and pulped), 2 parts; thoroughly incorporate the two by hand-kneading or machinery, and bake the pieces in a moderately heated oven. Both the above are very nutritious; the last more especially so. 1 oz. makes a pint of good soup.

MEAT, COLD, to Stew. Let the cold meat be cut into slices about half an inch thick. Take two large-sized onions, and fry them in a wineglass of vinegar; when done, pour them on to the meat; then place the whole in a stewpan, and pour over sufficient water to cover it. After stewing about half an hour add sufficient flour and butter to thicken the gravy, and also pepper, salt, and ketchup, to flavour; then let it simmer gently for another half an hour. Serve up with a little boiled rice around it.

MEAT EXTRACTS. Some preparations of this nature have been already noticed under the heads Essence and Extract; the following are additional and highly valuable formulæ:—

Prep. 1. (Dr Breslau.) Young ox-flesh (free from fat) is minced small, and well beaten in a marble mortar, at first alone, and afterwards with a little cold or lukewarm water; the whole is then submitted to the action of a press, and the solid residuum is treated in the same manner, with a little more cold water; the juice (reddish in colour) is now heated to coagulate the albumen, strained, and finally evaporated in a water bath to the consistence of an extract. As ordinary flesh contains only 1% of kreatine, while that of the heart, according to Dr Gregory, contains from 1·37% to 1·41%, this is the part employed by Dr Breslau. The product possesses an agreeable odour and taste; and is easily soluble in water.

2. (Falkland.) Fresh lean beef (or other flesh), recently killed, is minced very fine, and digested, with agitation, in cold water, 1 pint, to which hydrochloric acid, 6 drops, and common salt, 1 dr., have been added; after about an hour the whole is thrown upon a fine hair sieve, and the liquid portion allowed to drain off without pressure, the first portions that pass through being returned until the fluid, at first turbid, becomes quite clear and transparent; when all the liquid has passed through, cold water, 14 pint, is gently poured on, in small portions at a time, and allowed to drain through into that previously collected. The product is about 34 pint of cold extract of flesh, having a red colour, and a pleasant, soup-like taste. It is administered cold to the invalid—a teacupful at a time, and must on no account be warmed, as the application of even a very slight heat causes its decomposition and the separation of a solid mass of coagulated albumen. This cold extract of flesh is not only much more nutritious than ordinary beef tea, but also contains a certain quantity of the red colouring matter of blood, in which there is a much larger proportion of the iron requisite for the formation of blood-particles. The hydrochloric acid also greatly facilitates the process of digestion. This formula is a modification of the one recently recommended by Liebig for the preparation of a highly nutritive and restorative food for invalids.

3. (Extractum Sanguinis Bovis—Dr Mauthner.) Pass fresh blood (caught from the slaughtered animal) through a sieve, evaporate it to dryness in a water bath, and when cold rub it to powder.—Dose, 10 to 20 gr., or more, per diem, in a little water.

Obs. The above preparations are intended to supersede the inefficient compounds—beef tea, meat soups, &c.—during sickness and convalescence. MM. Breslau and Mauthner describe their extracts of flesh and blood as being peculiarly advantageous in scrofulous exhaustion, exhaustion from anæmia, diarrhœa,1044 &c. The extract of Falkland or Liebig is represented as having been employed both in the hospitals and in private practice at Munich with the most extraordinary success. It is said to be capable of assimilation with the least possible expenditure of the vital force.

Meat, Fluid. This preparation consists of lean meat, in which the albumen has been changed so as to be non-coagulable by heat, and the fibrin and gelatin from their normal insoluble condition to one admitting of their being dissolved in water.

In this soluble condition, the first stage effected in stomach digestion, the several bodies are known as peptones or albuminose, and the proportion of their simple constituents remains the same as in ordinary fibrin, albumen, and gelatin.

The alteration is effected by finely mincing meat and digesting it with peptone, hydrochloric acid, and water, at a temperature of about 100° Fahr., until dissolved.

The solution is then filtered, the bitter principle, formed during the digestion, removed by the addition of a little pancreatic emulsion, and the liquor, which has been neutralised by the addition of carbonate of soda, evaporated to a thick syrup or extractive consistence.

Fluid meat is the only preparation which entirely represents, and yields the amount of nourishment afforded by, lean meat; it differs altogether from beef tea and extracts of meat, as all these contain only a small portion of the different constituents of meat. A patent has been granted to its inventor, Mr Darby.

Meat, Liebig’s Extract of. Syn. Extract of Flesh, Extractum carno. This preparation is an aqueous infusion evaporated to the consistence of a thick paste, of those principles of meat which are soluble in water.[32]

[32] “Altered as they be by the Application of Heat.” Deane and Brady, ‘Pharmaceutical Journal,’ Oct. 1866.

It is chiefly composed of alkaline phosphates and chlorides, a nitrogenous crystalline base known as kreatine, various extractive matters, which it has been surmised may have originated in the decomposition of certain nitrogenous bodies, and possibly of a small quantity of lactic acid, as it contains neither albumen nor fibrin, two of the most important and nutritious ingredients of flesh; it must not, therefore, be regarded as a concentrated form of meat. Liebig says that it requires 34 lbs. of meat to yield 1 lb. of this extract—a statement which, as Dr Pavy justly remarks, shows how completely the substance of the meat which constitutes its real nutritive portion must be excluded. This absence of direct nutrient power, now admitted by physiologists, whilst disqualifying the extract as a substitute for meat, does not, however, preclude its use in certain cases of indisposition requiring the administration of a stimulant or restorative, in which circumstances it has been found a useful and valuable remedy, and has been suggested as a partial substitute for brandy where there is considerable exhaustion or weakness, accompanied with cerebral depression and lowness of spirits. In this latter respect its action seems analogous to strong tea.

In the vast pastures of Australia and the pampas of South America are countless herds of oxen and sheep, whose numbers far exceed the food requirements of the comparatively sparse population of those districts. The fat, horns, hoofs, bones, skins, and wool of these cattle, which form the chief part of the wealth of those countries, are exported principally to Europe. Until within a few years, however, no means had been adopted for the utilisation of the superfluous flesh of the animals, beyond employing it as a manure. By manufacturing it, however, into “extract of meat,” this waste has been remedied, and immense works for its preparation are now erected both in South America and in Australia. The process followed by the different makers, although varying in some particulars, is essentially the same, and consists in extracting by water, either hot, cold, or in the form of the steam, those portions of the meat which are soluble in that fluid, and subsequently evaporating the solution so obtained until it becomes of a proper consistence to be put into jars. The extract so obtained keeps well (if all the fat and gelatin are removed), and is most conveniently adapted for exportation. It is said that the extract as being obtained from cattle that have had English progenitors possesses a flavour superior to that which comes from South America, where the animals are of a different and inferior breed.

The following interesting description of the manufacture of “Liebig’s Extract of Meat” is taken from the Buenos Ayres ‘Standard’ of September, 1867. The establishment, of which it is a description, is at Fray Bentos, on the Uruguay, South America. “The new factory is a building which covers about 20,000 square feet, and is roofed in iron and glass. We first enter a large flagged hall, kept dark, cool, and extremely clean, where the meat is weighed, and passed through apertures to the meat-cutting machines. We next come to the beef-cutting hall, where are four powerful meat-cutters, especially designed by the company’s general manager, M. Geibert; each machine can cut the meat of 200 bullocks per hour. The meat being cut is passed to ‘digerators’ made of wrought iron; each one holds about 12,000 lbs. of beef; there are nine of these digerators, and three more have to be put up. Here the meat is digerated by high-pressure steam of 75 lbs. per square inch; from this the liquid which contains the extract and the fat of the meat proceeds in tubes to a range of ‘fat separators’ of peculiar construction. Here the fat is separated in the hot state from the extract, as no time can be lost for cool operation, otherwise decomposition would set in in a very short time.


“We proceed downstairs to an immense hall, sixty feet high, where the fat separators are working; below them is a range of five cast-iron clarifiers, 1000 gallons each, worked by high-pressure steam through Hallet’s tube system.

“Each clarifier is provided with a very ingenious steam-tap. In the monstrous clarifiers the albumen, fibrin, and phosphates are separated. From hence the liquid extract is raised by means of air-pumps, driven by two thirty horse-power engines, up to two vessels about twenty feet above the clarifiers; thence the liquid runs to the other large evaporators. Now we ascend the staircase reaching the hall, where two immense sets of four vacuum apparatus are at work, evaporating the extract by a very low temperature; here the liquid passes several filtering processes before being evaporated in vacuo. We now ascend some steps and enter the ready-making hall, separated by a wire gauze wall, and all the windows, doors, &c., guarded by the same to exclude flies and dust. The ventilation is maintained by patent fans, and the place is extremely clean. Here are placed five ready-making pans constructed of steel plates, with a system of steel discs revolving in the liquid extract.

“These five pans, by medium of discs, 100 in each pan, effect in one minute more than two million square feet evaporating surface.

“Here concludes the manufacturing process. The extract is now withdrawn in large cans and deposited for the following day.

“Ascending a few steps we enter the decrystallising and packing hall, where two large cast-iron tanks are placed, provided with hot water baths under their bottoms; in these tanks the extract is thrown in quantities of 10,000 lbs. at once, and here decrystallising is made a homogeneous mass and of uniform quality. Now samples are taken and analysed by the chemist of the establishment, Dr Seekamp, under whose charge the chemical and technical operations are performed.

“It may be mentioned that the company’s butcher killed at the rate of 80 oxen per hour; separating by a small double-edged knife the vertebræ, the animal drops down instantaneously on a waggon, and is conducted to a place where 150 men are occupied dressing the meat for the factory, cutting each ox into six pieces; 400 are being worked per day.”

Mr Tooth at a meeting before the “Food Committee” held at the Society of Arts in January, 1868, said that he did not claim any difference in the composition of his article (which was made in Australia) as compared with that made by the South American Company.

In the annexed table the composition of some of the extracts of meat of commerce is given:

  Liebig’s Company. Tooth, Sydney. French Company, South America. Whitehead. Twentyman.
Water 18·56 16·00 17·06 16·50 24·49 20·81
Extractive, soluble in alcohol 45·43 53·00 51·28 28·00 22·08 13·37
Extractive, insoluble 13·93 13·00 10·57 46·00 44·47 59·10
Mineral matter 22·08 18·00 21·09 9·50 8·96 6·72
  100·00 100·00 100·00 100·00 100·00 100·00

The following are the characteristics of extract of meat of good quality. It should always have an acid reaction, its colour should be a pale yellowish brown, and it should have an agreeable meat-like odour and taste. It should be entirely soluble in cold water, and should be free from albumen, fat, and gelatin.

Meat Pie. Stew 2 lbs. of beef steak with one small onion, the gravy from which is to be thickened with flour, and flavoured with pepper and salt. Put it into a baking dish, and cover with a lard crust. It should be baked for one hour. The addition of two kidneys will greatly improve the pie.

Meat (Australian) Pie. Take 2 lbs. of Australian meat, or 112 lb. of meat and 12 lb. of kidney. Season to taste, pour in a little water, cover with a lard crust, and bake not more than half an hour.

MEAT PRESERVING. “The Belgian Musée de l’Industrie notes the following methods of preserving meats as the most deserving of attention amongst those communicated to the French Academy of Sciences, and published in the Comptes Rendus. 1. M. Bundet’s method, by which the meat is kept in water acidulated with carbolic acid in the proportion of 1 to 5 parts of acid per 1000 of water. A series of experiments proved that all kinds of meat could thus be kept fresh for lengthened periods, without acquiring an ill taste or odour.

“The meat may be placed in barrels or air-tight tin cases, filled with acidulated water of the strength above specified, and headed up; or the pieces may be packed in barrels or cases in alternate layers with charcoal, pounded small, and saturated with water containing 51000 of carbolic acid. The charcoal serves as a vehicle for the antiseptic fluid, and as an absorbent of any gaseous matters given off by1046 the meat. The latter should be wrapped in thin linen covers to prevent the charcoal working its way into the tissues.

“This method, it is suggested, might be employed in curing pork in place of ‘salting,’ or of the more lengthy and costly process of ‘smoking,’ and also for the preservation of poultry, game, butter, eggs, &c.

“2. In the case of South American meat M. Baudet proposes the use of large sacks of caoutchouc. The meat should be packed in them, with alternate layers of charcoal as above described, and each sack, when filled, should be hermetically closed by drawing another empty caoutchouc sack, cap-wise, over it. The caoutchouc, it is supposed, would fetch enough in the market—its low price notwithstanding—to cover expenses of packing and freight, and so permit the meat to be sold in Europe at a very small advance on cost price. If intended for use a second time, the empty bags should be steeped in boiling water for a few minutes, to remove any organic impurities adhering to them.

“3. M. Gorge’s method, which is in use in La Plata, consists in washing and drying the meat, and afterwards steeping in successive waters containing hydrochloric acid and sulphite of soda, and then packing it in air-tight cases holding 1, 5, or 10 kilog. each. Meat thus treated requires to be soaked in warm water for about half an hour before use.

“4. M. Leon Soubeiran has recommended braying and drying, in the fashion adopted by the Chinese and Mongols, as described by M. Simon, French consul in China, in a communication made by him to the Société d’Acclimatation. The pemmican of our Arctic voyagers and the charqui of South America are familiar examples of meat preserved by analogous processes. The late M. Payen, a distinguished member of the Academy, insisted upon the great perfection to which this system might be carried by the aid of hot-air stoves and suitable apparatus.”

Besides the foregoing, numerous patents have from time to time been taken out, and processes proposed for the preservation of meat; so as to enable it to be sent from those distant countries, such as South America, Australia, Canada, &c., where it is greatly in excess of the wants of the population, to other lands, in which the supply is as much below the demand, and the meat at such a price as to preclude its being regularly used as an article of food by the body of the people.

As the putrefactive changes set up in dead flesh are dependent upon the combined influences of moisture, air, and a certain temperature, it follows that most of the various methods of meat preservation resolve themselves into so many different efforts to remove the meat from the operation of one of the conditions above specified as necessary for its decomposition.

The charqui or jerked beef of South America affords an example of meat preserved by means of being deprived of moisture. It occurs in thongs or strips which have been prepared by placing freshly killed meat between layers of salt and drying them in the sun. Charqui, although it retains its soundness for a great length of time, and is rendered eatable by soaking in water and prolonged cooking, is difficult of digestion and wanting in flavour, and if any fat be associated with it, this is liable to become rancid.

Pemmican is meat which, after being dried and powdered, is mixed with sugar and certain spices, both of which assist to preserve the meat as well as to improve its flavour, and to remove the tendency to rancidity caused by any fat that may be accidentally present.

Another process for the preservation of meat by means of desiccation is that of MM. Blumenthal and Chollet, who, in 1854, obtained a patent for preparing tablets composed of dried meat and vegetables, which, after being several times dipped into rich soup, were dried in warm air after each immersion.

At a meeting of the Food Committee, held at the Society of Arts, in May, 1868, specimens of dried beef and mutton in powder, from Brisbane, were shown by Mr Orr, who said they had been dried on tinned plates by means of steam. Dr A. S. Taylor, F.R.S., who examined the sample, found it perfectly fresh and good. It had been prepared at least six months previously.

At a subsequent meeting, the Committee reported that the soup prepared from this desiccated meat, with the addition of a small quantity of vegetables, was considered very successful, and the Committee were of opinion that meat so preserved was likely to prove a valuable and cheap addition to the food resources of the people.

The specimen from which the soup was made had been in the Society’s possession, and formed part of the contents of a tin opened upwards of two years ago. The preservation was perfect.

We have only space briefly to describe some of the more prominent of the processes which have been devised for the preservation of meat by excluding atmospheric air.

Mr Tallerman, a large importer of Australian meat, stated in evidence before the Food Committee of the Society of Arts, in May, 1870, that in the preservation of the meat he sent over to this country he had recourse to a very old practice, which was that of packing the joints in fat, the meat being previously salted or cured. Instead of the meat being packed in brine, the casks with the meat are filled up with melted fat.

In Mr Warrington’s patent, which dates from 1846, it is proposed that animal substances shall be preserved by enveloping them in a layer of glue, gelatin, or concentrated meat gravy, or otherwise by dipping them in warm solutions of such substances, or by wrapping them in waterproof cloth, or by1047 covering them with caoutchouc, gutta percha, or varnish, or thin cream of plaster of Paris, which when set was saturated with melted suet, wax, or stearin.

The patent of Prof. Redwood, which resembles Mr Warrington’s in seeking to exclude atmospheric air by surrounding the meat with an impervious substance, claimed the use of paraffin for this purpose, the paraffin being afterwards coated with a mixture of gelatin and treacle, or gelatin and glycerin. The paraffin is easily removed from the meat by plunging this latter into boiling water, which dissolves the outer coating of gelatin mixture, and at the same time melts the paraffin and liberates the enclosed joint.

Messrs Jones and Trevethick’s patent consisted in exhausting of air the vessel containing the meat, then forcing into it a mixture of nitrogen and sulphurous acids, and subsequently soldering the apertures. Dr Letheby says meat, fish, and poultry preserved in this manner have been found good after seven or eight years; and specimens of them were exhibited in the London Exhibition of 1862.

The removal, however, of atmospheric air from the vessels containing the meat it is designed to preserve is now principally accomplished by means of steam. The germ of this idea originated with M. Pierre Antonie Angilbert more than half a century ago, but the modification of Angilbert’s process, which in principle is that generally adopted by the importers of Australian and South American cooked meat, as well as by the English preparers of the article, originated with Messrs Goldner and Wertheimer, nearly forty years since, and, briefly, is as follows:—The freshly killed meat is placed in tins, with a certain quantity of cold water. The tins and their contents are then securely soldered down, with the exception of a small opening not larger than a pin-hole, which is left in the lid. The tins are next placed in a bath of chloride of calcium, the effect of which is to heat the water in them up to the boiling point, and after a certain time to more or less cook the meat contained in them. When the meat is thought to be sufficiently cooked, and whilst the steam arising from the boiling water is escaping from the aperture, this last is carefully soldered down, the steam not only having driven out all the atmospheric air from the vessel, but in the act of escaping having prevented the ingress of any from without. To still further guard against the entrance of air, the tins are covered over with a thick coating of paint.

Previously to their being allowed to leave the preserving works they are tested by being placed for some time in an apartment in which the temperature is sufficiently high to set up putrefactive action in the meat if any air has been left in the tins, the evidence of which would be the bulging out of the tins, owing to the liberation of certain gaseous products of decomposition. When no distension from inside takes place, the result is considered satisfactory, and the vessels are regarded as properly and hermetically sealed. In some cases the vessels, instead of being heated in a bath of chloride of calcium, are exposed to the action of steam. If the operation be successfully performed, the meat so prepared will keep perfectly good avid sound for years.

Mr Richard Jones effects the removal of the air from the vessels containing the meat as follows:—The meat is put into the tins and entirely soldered up, with the exception of a small tube about the size of a quill, which is soldered on the top of the tin. This tube is placed in connection with a vacuum chamber, and the air exhausted from the tin by means of it. In cooking the meat he also employs a chloride of calcium bath.

Dr Letheby, in one of his Canton Lectures on Food, delivered in 1865, speaking on this part of the subject, and on the above method of meat preservation, says:—“To-night, through the kindness of Messrs Crosse and Blackwell, I am able to show you a specimen of preserved mutton which has been in the case forty-four years, and you will perceive that it is in excellent condition. It formed part of the stores supplied by Messrs Donkin and Gamble, in 1824, to His Majesty’s Exploring ship Fury, which was wrecked in Prince Regent’s Inlet in 1825, when the cases were landed with the other stores, and left upon the beach.

“Eight years afterwards, in August, 1833, they were found by Sir John Ross in the same condition as they were left; and he wrote to Mr Gamble at the end of that year, saying, ‘that the provisions were still in a perfect state of preservation, although annually exposed to a temperature of 92° below and 80° above zero.’ Some of the cases were left untouched by Sir John Ross; and after a further interval of sixteen years the place was visited by a party from Her Majesty’s ship Investigator, when, according to a letter from the captain, Sir James Ross, ‘the provisions were in excellent condition, after having lain upon the beach, exposed to the action of the sun, and all kinds of weather, for a period of nearly a quarter of a century.’ Messrs Crosse and Blackwell have placed the original letters in my hands for perusal, and they show beyond all doubt that meat preserved in this manner will keep good for nearly half a century—in fact, the case of boiled mutton now before you has been preserved for forty—four years.”

The generality of the samples of preserved meat from Australia are excellent in quality and flavour,[33] except that in most cases the meat has been overcooked, which has arisen1048 from the too prolonged contact of the meat with the steam, which it is judged necessary shall be generated in such quantities as to ensure the certainty of the exclusion of the air. Another inconvenience attending the process, viz. the liability of the sides of the tin to collapse, owing to the vacuum formed in its interior, has been remedied by the introduction into the vessel of some inert gas, such as carbonic acid, or nitrogen.

[33] The Food Committee of the Society of Arts, who have carefully and impartially examined numerous samples of Australian and South American preserved meat, say: “It is perfectly sweet and fresh, but somewhat insipid from overcooking, and it seems likely the flavour could be improved if the duration of exposure to heat could be shortened without endangering the preservation.”

Preserved meat at the present time forms a very considerable article of export both from Australia and South America. In the former country there are several establishments of a colossal character, where the work of tinning the meat is carried on, in many of which establishments hundreds of cattle are slaughtered daily. The largest establishments of the kind are at Sydney and Melbourne, whence extensive shipments are being constantly made. The following figures are taken from the Board of Trade returns:—

Value of Meat preserved otherwise than by Salting.

  Imports from
Total Imports.
1871 £481,093 £610,228
1872 657,945 816,463
1873 557,552 733,331
1874 509,698 757,001
1875 249,611 592,196

Since 1876 tinned meat has been imported from North America.

Several methods have been proposed for the preservation of meat by subjecting it to such conditions that the surrounding temperature should be sufficiently low to arrest putrefaction. In Mr Harrison’s process the reduction of temperature was effected by the application of melting ice and salt, made to run down the outside of the iron chambers containing the meat. It is affirmed that although the joints submitted to this treatment were solidly frozen, no loss of either flavour or immediate decomposition of the meat took place. Mr Harrison’s experiment was perfectly successful in Australia, but broke down during the voyage of a large cargo of meat shipped from Australia in 1873, owing to a defect in the construction of the ice chamber of the vessel and the failure of the supply of ice.

Of other forms of refrigeration applied for this purpose we may mention the process of M. Tellier, by which he proposes to place (on ship-board or elsewhere) joints of meat in a chamber through which a current of air charged with ether or other volatile substance may be passed, with a view to reduce the temperature to 30° F. Also that of M. Poggiale, from whose report to the Paris Academy of Medicine it appears that in chambers contrived on principles similar to M. Tellier’s, all kinds of butcher’s meat and poultry have been hung for ten weeks, at the end of which time they were found perfectly fresh and wholesome. The agent used in the latter case for the production of cold was methylic ether.

The process, however, of refrigeration which has proved not only the most, but in every respect successful, was first satisfactorily carried out since 1876, in which time large cargoes of dead meat have been constantly sent to our metropolitan markets, as well as to Glasgow, from New York. The following extract from the ‘Dundee Advertiser’ gives some interesting details of this process:—

“As to dead meat, the first sale was held on the 5th of June, when 100 carcases of beef and 72 of mutton were disposed of. Since then there has never been a smaller supply, and on the average about 150 carcases have been sold weekly. Last week 210 carcases were sold, and on Wednesday evening there were no fewer than 33 lorries, each laden with three tons of butcher’s meat. The freight paid for carriage to Glasgow, Liverpool, and London, last week amounted to £1900. Altogether, since the importation began, a million and a quarter pounds of dead meat have been sold in Glasgow. The result of this importation has been a reduction in retail price of 1d. per lb., instead of an increase in price, which must have taken place without the increased supply.

“The oxen are collected chiefly in the states of Illinois and Kentucky. They are there reared in enormous numbers on the prairies. Before they reach New York they are driven over railway for fully a thousand miles. Those animals the carcases of which are to be sent to this country are killed the day before the departure of the steamer. As soon as the carcases are dressed they are put into a cooling room capable of containing 500, and subject to a constant current of cold air, supplied by means of a 25 horse-power engine. This sets the beef and extracts the animal heat. Each carcase is next cut into quarters, and these are sewn up in canvas, and during the night transferred on board the vessel. Six of the Anchor Line mail steamers have been fitted up with refrigeration compartments, constructed on a patented principle specially for the conveyance of meat.

“After the quarters have been hung up in the room the door is hermetically closed. Adjoining the compartment is a chamber filled with ice. Air tubes are connected with the beef room, and through them the animal heat ascends, and by means of a powerful engine it is blown across the ice, and returned to the beef room in a cold state. A temperature of about 38° is thus maintained in the beef-room. If it were to get so low as 32°—freezing-point—the meat would be seriously injured.[34] The heat is, therefore, regulated by a thermometer, and when the temperature gets too low, the speed of the engine is slackened, the normal degree of cold being thus maintained1049 almost without variation during the voyage. Cattle killed on Thursday in New York are sold that day fortnight in Glasgow.”

[34] Mr Harrison’s experiments make this statement doubtful.

The first patent for the preservation of food by means of ice was granted to Mr John Ling in 1845.

Lastly, mention must not be omitted of another method for the preservation of meat, which consists in the application to it of certain antiseptic substances, the action of which in preventing putrefaction is due to their power of destroying minute parasitic organisms of low animal or vegetable life, that would otherwise attack and set up decomposition in the meat. Our ordinary salted meats owe their immunity from decay, as is well known, to the presence in their tissues of common salt. Meat preserved, however, by this means is tough, indigestible, and wanting in many of its most important soluble constituents, which, dissolving part of the salt, run off from the meat and are lost.

Amongst other agents which have been found serviceable as antiseptics, and for which from time to time numerous patents have been taken out, are nitrate of potash, acetate and hydrochlorate of ammonia, the sulphates of soda and potash, and bisulphate of lime. The writer remembers partaking, some years since, of some Canadian turkey, which had been preserved by means of this latter substance, and the turkey having been killed some two months before being eaten. It was perfectly sound and of excellent flavour. In this instance the bird had been sent from Canada, with several others, packed in waterproof casks, filled up with a weak solution of bisulphite of lime.

In some cases the saline solution is merely brushed over the outside of the meat; whilst in others it is injected into the substance of the flesh.

Thiebierge’s process consists in dipping the joints for five minutes into dilute sulphuric acid, of the strength of about ten of water to one of acid. The meat after being taken out is carefully wiped and dried, and is then hung up for keeping.

Sulphurous acid also forms the subject of several patents for the preservation of meat. In the process of Laury, for which a patent was taken out in 1854, the gas was introduced into the vessels containing the food. In that of Belford, for which a provisional specification was granted the same year, the meat was soaked for 24 hours in a solution of sulphurous and hydrochloric acids (the latter being in the proportion of a hundredth of the volume of the former). The addition of the hydrochloric acid was made with the intention of decomposing any alkaline sulphites that might be formed by the combination of the alkaline salts of the meat with the sulphurous acid.

Dr Dewar’s process, which is very similar to the foregoing, proposes, instead of exposing the meat to sulphurous acid fumigation, to immerse it in a solution of the acid of the same strength as that of the British Pharmacopœia. On being taken out of the liquid the meat, or other article, is, as speedily as possible, dried at a temperature not exceeding 140° F., so that the albumen may be preserved simply in a desiccated, and not in a coagulated condition.

In the patent of Demait, which dates from 1855, the meat was directed to be hung up in a properly constructed chamber, and exposed for some time to the action of the gas. More recently, Professor Gamgee has taken out a patent, which is a modification of Demait’s, and which consists in hanging up the carcase of the animal, previously killed when under the influence of carbonic oxide, in a chamber filled with this latter gas, to which a little sulphurous acid has been added, the chamber having been first exhausted of air. The carcase is allowed to remain in the chamber from 24 to 48 hours, after which it is hung in dry air. It is stated that meat subjected to the above treatment has been found perfectly sound and eatable after an interval of five months.

M. Lanjorrois proposes to preserve animal substances from decay by the addition to them of 1 per cent. of magenta. He states the process had been applied to slices of beef, which, after being kept for several months, yielded, after being washed and boiled, very good soup. Commenting on this suggestion for the preservation of meat, the ‘Chemical News’ very sensibly and properly remarks: “It is to be hoped the magenta employed will be free from arsenic.”

The patent of M. de la Peyrouse (which dates from 1873) also consists in excluding the air by enveloping meat in fat. In this process, however, the fat is mixed, when in a melting condition, with a certain quantity of the carbonates of sodium, potassium, and ammonium, as well as with some chlorides of magnesium and aluminium, with the object of preventing the fat becoming rancid and decomposing, and thus imparting a disagreeable flavour to the meat.

In M. George’s process the meat is partially dried, and then steeped in successive waters containing hydrochloric acid and sulphate of soda.

MECON′IC ACID. H3C7HO7. Syn. Acidum meconicum, L. A peculiar acid, first obtained by Sertuerner from opium, in 1804.

Prep. Meconate of lime is suspended in warm water, and treated with hydrochloric acid. Impure meconic acid crystallises on cooling, and may be purified by repeated treatment in the same way with hydrochloric acid. Its purity is ascertained by its leaving no residue when heated in a platinum or glass capsule.

Prop. Meconic acid forms beautiful pearly scales; possesses a sour astringent taste; is1050 soluble in boiling water, and to a less extent in cold; it is also soluble in alcohol. With the acids it forms salts called ‘meconates,’ most of which are crystallisable. Meconate of lime is obtained by heating a solution of chloride of calcium with an infusion of opium made with cold water, and neutralised by powdered marble, and collecting the precipitate. Meconate of potassa is prepared by direct solution of the base in the impure acid obtained from meconate of lime till the liquor turns green, heat being applied, when the salt crystallises out as the liquid cools; it may be purified by pressure and recrystallisation.

Tests. Meconic acid is characterised by—1. Turning ferric salts red, and the red colour not being destroyed by the action of corrosive sublimate.—2. Precipitating a weak solution of ammonio-sulphate of copper green.—3. With acetate of lead, nitrate of silver, and chloride of barium, it gives white precipitates, which are soluble in nitric acid.—4. It is not reddened by chloride of gold.

MEC′ONIN. C10H10O4. A white, crystalline, odourless, neutral substance, discovered by Couerbe in opium.

MECO′NIUM. See Opium.

MED′ICINES. However skilful the medical practitioner may be, and however judicious his treatment, both are interfered with, and their value more or less neutralised, if the remedies he orders are not administered precisely according to his instructions. It is the duty of the attendant on the sick to follow implicitly the directions of the physician, as well in exactly complying with his orders as in doing nothing that she has not been ordered to do. At the same time there are exceptions to this rule, in which a suspension of the remedy, or a deviation from the order of the physician, is not only allowable, but is absolutely required. Thus, from idiosyncrasy or some other cause, the remedy in the doses ordered may have no effect, or may produce one widely different from that intended or expected. In such cases it is evident that a strict adherence to the direction of the physician would be productive of evil; but he should be immediately apprised of the circumstance. The common practice of neglecting to administer the doses of medicine at the prescribed time, or after prescribed intervals, and then, to compensate for the omission, giving the medicine more frequently or in larger doses, cannot be too severely censured, as destructive to the welfare of the patient and injurious to the credit of the physician.

For the purpose of disguising the taste of medicine, or lessening their nauseating properties, Dr Pollio has recommended a means founded on the physiological fact that a strong impression on the nerves (whether of vision, hearing, or taste) renders that which follows less perceptible than under the usual circumstances. Instead, therefore, of applying to the mouth agreeable substances after swallowing nauseous medicines, we should prepare it beforehand, in order that the taste of the medicine may not be perceived. Aromatic substances, as orange or lemon peel, &c., chewed just before taking medicine, effectually prevent castor oil, &c., being tasted. In preparing the mouth for bitters, liquorice is the only sweet that should be used, the others creating a peculiarly disagreeable compound taste. We have noticed already the effect of oil of orange peel in correcting the nauseating qualities of copaiba. See Dose and Prescribing.

MEDICINES FOR PASSENGER SHIPS. The annexed scale of medicines, medical stores, and instruments for ships clearing under the Passengers Acts, other than steamships engaged in the North Atlantic trade, has been issued and caused to be published by the Board of Trade, and is intended to supersede the scales hitherto in force.

The quantities mentioned in the scale are for every 100 passengers, when the length of the passage, computed according to the Passengers Act, is 100 days and upwards. Half the quantity of medicines indicated, but the same kind and quantity of medical stores should be taken when the passage is less than 100 days.

N.B.—There is a separate scale for North Atlantic steam passenger ships.

The medicines are to be prepared according to the British Pharmacopœia, to be plainly labelled in English, and the average doses for an adult stated, according to the British Pharmacopœia.

All bottles are to be stoppered, and all medicines indicated thus (*) are to be marked with a red poison label. All fluid quantities are to be measured by fluid lbs., oz., or dr.

    Lbs. oz. dr.
  Acid, Acetic 0 6 0
* Acid, Carbolic 0 1 0
* Acid, Carbolic (a powder containing not less than 20 per cent. of pure carbolic or cresylic acid) 112 0 0
  Acid, Citric 0 3 0
  Acid, Gallic 0 1 0
  Acid, Hydrocyanic Dil. 0 0 4
  Acid, Nitric 0 1 0
  Acid, Sulph. Dil. 0 6 0
  Æther 0 1 0
  Alumen 0 1 0
  Ammon. Carb. 0 6 0
  Amylum 1 0 0
  Argent. Nit. (Stick) 0 0 2
  Calx Chlorate 7 0 0
  Camphor 0 6 0
  Charta Epispatica, 4 sq. ft., in case      
* Chlor. of Zinc (Burnett’s sol. of) 16 0 0
* Chloroform 0 8 0
  Copaiba 0 8 0
  Creosote 0 0 2
  Cupri Sulph. 0 1 0
  Emp. Cantharidis 0 1 01051
  Ferri et Quiniæ Cit. 0 1 0
  Ferri Sulph. 0 0 4
  Glycerin 0 6 0
  Glycerin Acid. Tannic 0 4 0
* Hydrat. Chloral 0 1 6
  Hydrarg. cum Cretâ 0 0 4
  Hydrarg. Subchloridi 0 0 4
  Lini Farina 6 0 0
  Lin. Camph. 0 8 0
  Lin. Opii 0 2 0
  Lin. Saponis 1 0 0
* Liq. Atropiæ 0 0 1
  Liq. Calcis 1 0 0
* Liq. Morphiæ Acetatis 0 1 0
* Liq. Plumbi Subacetatis 0 2 0
  Liq. Potassæ 0 2 0
* Liq. Potassæ Permanganatis (B. P. or Condy’s Crimson Fluid) 3 0 0
  Magnes. Sulph. 4 0 0
  Mist. Sennæ Co. (omit Extract of Liquorice and substitute Aromatic Spirit of Ammonia, 1 oz. to 1 pint of the mixture) 3 0 0
  Ol. Croton 0 0 1
  Ol. Lini 0 8 0
  Ol. Menthæ Pip. 0 0 2
  Ol. Morrhuæ 3 0 0
  Ol. Olivæ 1 0 0
  Ol. Ricini 2 0 0
  Ol. Terebinthinæ 1 0 0
* Opium 1 0 0
  Plumbi Acetatis 0 1 0
  Potassæ Bicarb. Pulv. 0 4 0
  Potassii Iodid. 0 2 0
  Pulv. Antimonialis 0 0 3
* Pulv. Astringens (double the quantity indicated to be taken to all tropical ports. Pulv. Catechu Co., Pulv. Cretæ Arom. cum Opiô—equal parts) 1 0 0
  Pulv. Cretæ Arom. cum Opiô. 0 2 0
  Pulv. Ipecac. 0 2 0
  Pulv. Ipecac. Co. 0 2 0
  Pulv. Jalapæ Co. 0 3 0
  Pulv. Potassæ Nitratis 0 4 0
  Pulv. Rhei Co. 0 4 0
  Pulv. Scammon. Co. 0 0 6
  Quiniæ Sulph. (double the quantity indicated to be taken to all tropical ports) 0 1 0
  Sodæ Bicarb. 1 0 0
  Sp. Æther. Nitrosi 0 8 0
  Sp. Ammon. Arom. 0 8 0
  Sp. Rectif. 0 4 0
  Sp. Sulphur Sublimatum 3 0 0
  Syr. Ferri Iodidi 0 4 0
* Sol. Morphiæ Acetat. (a neutral solution containing 4 grains in a drachm, and so marked. To be labelled—for hypodermic injection) 0 0 4
  Tr. Arnicæ 0 6 0
  Tr. Camphoræ Co. 0 8 0
  Tr. Digitalis 0 0 6
  Tr. Ergotæ 0 6 0
  Tr. Ferri Perchloridi 0 4 0
* Tr. Opii 0 6 0
  Tr. Scillæ 0 2 0
  Tr. Valerian. Ammon. 0 3 0
  Ung. Cetacei 1 0 0
  Ung. Hydrargyri 0 2 0
  Ung. Hydrargyri Ox. Rub. 0 1 0
  Ung. Sulph. 1 0 0
  Ung. Zinci 0 2 0
  Vin. Colchici 0 1 0
  Vin. Ipecac. 0 1 0
  Zinci Sulphatis 0 1 0
  Desiccated Soup 4 0 0
All pills to be made and marked 5 grains.
  Pil. Aloes cum Myrrhâ 2 doz.
  Pil. Col. c. Hyoscy 4 doz.
  Pil. Hydrarg. 3 doz.
  Pil. Ipecac. cum Scillâ 5 doz.
  Pil. Quiniæ 6 doz.
  Pil. Sapon. Co. 6 doz.
Medical Stores.
  Lint 10 oz.
  Tow 1 lb.
  Adhesive Plaster 3 yds.
  Male Syringe 1
  Male Syringe Glass 1
  Female Syringe 1
  Phials (assorted) 2 doz.
  Phial corks 6 doz.
  Sponges 3
  Bed-pan 1
  Paper of Pins 1
  Hernia Truss, 36 in., reversible 1
  Paper of Pill Boxes 1
  Gallipots 6
  Leg and Arm Bandages 6
  Calico 3 yds.
  Flannel Bandages, 7 yds. long, 6 in. wide 2
  Flannel 2 yds.
  Triangular Bandages, base 48 in., sides 33 in. each 2
Minim Measures 2
1 oz. Measures 1
2 oz. Measures 1
Set of Splints 1
Waterproof sheeting 4 yds.
Oiled Silk 1 yd.
Enema Syringe and Stomach Pump 1
Box of Small Scales and Weights 1
Wedgwood Mortar and Pestle 1
  Wedgwood Funnel 1
Spatulas 2
Authorised Book of Directions for Medicine Chests 1
British Pharmacopœia 1

† One set only of these articles required, irrespective of number of passengers.

N.B.—Only one set of instruments required, without regard to the number of surgeons, passengers, or the length of the voyage.



In Pocket Case 1 Tenaculum.
1 Artery Forceps.
1 Operating ditto.
1 Finger Knife.
1 Curve Bistoury, Probe Point.
1 Curve Bistoury, Spear Point.
2 Probes.
1 Silver Director.
1 Caustic Case.
1 Scissors.
1 Spatula.
12 Needles.
1 Skein Ligature Silk.
3 Lancets.
  1 Amputating Saw.
2 Amputating Knives.
1 Bone Forceps.
3 Tooth Forceps.
1 Skull Forceps.
1 Trephine.
1 Elevator.
1 Hey’s Saw.
1 Trephine Brush.
2 Scalpels.
1 Hernia Knife.
2 Trocars and Canulas.
1 Aneurism Needle.
1 Hernia Director.
1 Tourniquet.
2 Silver Catheters (Nos. 4 and 8).
4 Elastic Gum Catheters (Nos. 3, 5, and 7).
1 Clinical Thermometer.
1 Hypodermic Syringe.
1 dozen charged Tubes for Vaccination.
1 Set of Midwifery Instruments.

MEER′SCHAUM. Syn. Ecume de mer, L. A native silicate of magnesia. It has a sp. gr. ranging between 2·6 to 3·4; is readily acted on by acids, and fuses before a powerful blowpipe into a white enamel. The finest qualities are found in Greece and Turkey. Its principal application is to the manufacture of tobacco-pipes. The Germans prepare their pipes for sale by soaking them in tallow, then in white wax, and, finally, by polishing them with shavegrass. Genuine meerschaum pipes are distinguished from mock ones by the beautiful brown colour which they assume after being smoked for some time. Of late years some of the pipemakers have produced a composition clay pipe, which closely resembles meerschaum in appearance, and is “warranted to colour well.” The composition, which is comparatively valueless, is made up into pipes of suitable patterns, which are frequently sold to the ignorant for “meerschaums.” See Cements, Hydraulic.

ME′GRIM. Syn. Meagrim, Hemicrania, L. A pain affecting one side of the head only, often periodic, like an ague, and generally of a nervous, hysterical, or bilious character. It is clavus when there is a strong pulsation, conveying the sensation of a nail piercing the part. See Headache.

MEG′RIMS. Syn. Meagrims, Vertigo. In veterinary medicine this term is applied to horses which when at work reel, then stand for a minute dull and stupid, or fall to the ground, and lie partially insensible for a few minutes. “Horses subject to this affection should be driven with a breastplate or pipe collar, so as to prevent pressure on the veins carrying the blood from the head; the bowels should be kept in good order; an occasional laxative is advisable, and a course, either of arsenic or quinine, or of arsenic and iron.” (Dun.)

MEL′ANCHOLY. See Hypochondriasis and Insanity.

MELIS′SIC ALCOHOL. A substance obtained by Brodie from beeswax. By oxidation it yields ‘melissic acid.’

MELLA′GO. The old name for a medicine having the consistence of honey, with a somewhat sweetish taste. Mellago taraxaci is fluid extract of dandelion.

MELTING-POINT. The temperature at which solids assume the liquid form.

MEN′STRUUM. [L.] A solvent or dissolvent. The principal MENSTRUA employed in chemistry and pharmacy to extract the active principles of bodies by digestion, decoction, infusion, or maceration, are water, alcohol, oils, and solutions of the acids and alkalies.

MERCU′′RIAL BAL′SAM. See Ointment of Nitrate of Mercury.

MERCU′′RIAL DISEASE′. Syn. Morbus mercurialis, Hydrargyriasis, L. This results from the injudicious or excessive use of mercury, or exposure to the fumes of this metal. The common and leading symptoms are a disagreeable coppery taste; excessive salivation; sponginess, tumefaction, and ulceration of the gums; swollen tongue; loosening of the teeth; exfoliation of the jaws; remarkably offensive breath; debility; emaciation; ending (when not arrested) in death from exhaustion. Fever, cachexia, violent purging and griping, a species of eczema (ECZEMA MERCURIALE, LEPRA MERCURIALIS), and other forms of skin disease, are also phases of the same affection, the first of which occasionally proves fatal under the influence of sudden and violent physical exertion.

The treatment, in ordinary cases, may consist in free exposure to the open air, avoiding either heat or cold; the administration of saline aperients, as Epsom salts, phosphate of soda, &c.; the free use of lemon juice and water as a common drink; with weak gargles or washes of chloride of soda or chloride of lime to the gums, mouth, and throat. Severe cases often resist every variety of treatment, and instances are recorded in the medical journals in which the use of even small doses of mercurials,1053 administered by the faculty, have, owing to the peculiar idiosyncrasy of the patients, been followed by the most horrible sufferings, terminating in death.

MER′CURY. Hg. Syn. Quicksilver, Hydrargyrum (B. P., Ph. L. E. and D.); Mercure, Vif argent, Fr.; Quecksilber, Ger. A remarkable metal, which has been known from a very early period. The Romans employed it as a medicine externally, as did the Arabs; but the Hindoos were probably the first to prescribe it internally.

Sources. The most important are the mines of Idria, in Carniola; Almaden, in New Castile; and New Almaden, in California, where it exists combined with sulphur, under the form of cinnabar. From this ore the pure metal is obtained by distilling it with lime or iron filings, in iron retorts, by which the sulphur it contains is seized and retained, while the mercury rises in the state of vapour, and is condensed in suitable receivers. Quicksilver is commonly imported in cylindrical iron bottles; containing 12 cwt. to 1 cwt. each. It is also imported in small quantities from