The Project Gutenberg eBook of Notes and Queries, Number 225, February 18, 1854

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Title: Notes and Queries, Number 225, February 18, 1854

Author: Various

Release date: February 4, 2013 [eBook #42004]

Language: English

Credits: Produced by Charlene Taylor, Jonathan Ingram, Keith Edkins
and the Online Distributed Proofreading Team at (This file was produced from images
generously made available by The Internet Archive/Canadian





"When found, make a note of."Captain Cuttle.

No. 225. Saturday, February 18. 1854. Price Fourpence.
Stamped Edition 5d.


Notes:— Page
Remarkable Imprints 143
Legends of the Co. Clare, by Francis Robert Davies 145
Canting Arms 146
Minor Notes:—Selleridge—Tombs of Bishops—Lines on visiting the Portico of Beau Nash's Palace, Bath—Acrostic in Ash Church, Kent—A Hint to Publishers—Uhland, the German Poet—Virgilian Inscription for an Infant School 146
The Shippen Family—John White, by Thos. Balch 147
Books issued in Parts and not completed 147
Minor Queries:—"Hovd Maet of Laet"—Hand in Church—Egger Moths—The Yorkshire Dales—Ciss, Cissle, &c.—Inn Signs, &c.—Smiths and Robinsons—Coin of Carausius—Verelst the Painter—Latin Treatise on whipping School-boys—Whitewashing in Churches—Surname "Kynoch"—Dates of published Works—Saw-dust Recipe 148
Minor Queries With Answers:—Branks, or Gossips' Bridles—Not caring a Fig for anything—B. C. Y.—Earl Nugent's Poems—Huntbach MSS.—Holy Loaf Money—St. Philip's, Bristol—Foreign Universities 149
Death-warnings in Ancient Families, by C. Mansfield Ingleby 150
Starvation, by N. L. Melville, &c. 151
Osmotherley in Yorkshire, by T. Gill 152
Echo Poetry, by Jas. J. Scott 153
Blackguard 153
"Wurm," in Modern German—Passage in Schiller's "Wallenstein" 154
Was Shakspeare descended from a Landed Proprietor? by H. Gole, &c. 154
Lord Fairfax 156
Photographic Correspondence:—Mr. Lyte on Collodion—Dr. Diamond on Sensitive Collodion 156
Replies To Minor Queries:—Portrait of Alva—Lord Mayor of London not a Privy Councillor—New Zealander and Westminster Bridge—Cui Bono—Barrels Regiment—Sir Matthew Hale—Scotch Grievance—"Merciful Judgments of High Church," &c.—Robert Dudley, Earl of Leicester—Fleet Prison—The Commons of Ireland previous to the Union—"Les Lettres Juives"—Sir Philip Wentworth—General Fraser—Namby-Pamby—The Word "Miser"—The Forlorn Hope—Thornton Abbey—"Quid facies," &c.—Christ-Cross-Row—Sir Walter Scott, and his Quotations from himself, &c. 158
Notes on Books, &c. 162
Books and Odd Volumes wanted 163
Notices to Correspondents 163

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Some Account of the Manor of Apuldrefield, in the Parish of Cudham, Kent, by G. Steinman Steinman, Esq., F.S.A.

Petition to Parliament from the Borough of Wotton Basset, in the reign of Charles I., relative to the right of the Burgesses to Free Common of Pasture in Fasterne Great Park.

Memoranda in Heraldry, from the MS. Pocket-books of Peter Le Neve, Norroy King of Arms.

Was William of Wykeham of the Family of Swalcliffe? By Charles Wykeham Martin, Esq., M.P., F.S.A.

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Indenture enumerating various Lands in Cirencester, 4 Hen. VII. (1489).

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Descent of the Earldom of Lincoln, with Introductory Observations on the Ancient Earldoms of England, by the Editor.

On the Connection of Arderne, or Arden, of Cheshire, with the Ardens of Warwickshire. By George Ormerod, Esq., D.C.L., F.S.A.

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More than one pen has considered titles, dedications, and imprints worth a Note, and as there are still gleanings in their track, I take the liberty of sending you a few of the latter; some from my common-place book, others from the fountainheads on my own shelves, but all drawn at random, without much regard to classification or chronological arrangement.

The horrors of the Star Chamber and the Ecclesiastical Courts produced many extraordinary imprints, particularly to those seditious books of the Puritans, better known as the Marprelate Family; works which were printed by ambulatory presses, and circulated by unseen hands, now under the walls of Archiepiscopal Lambeth, and presto! (when the spy would lay his hands upon them) sprite-like, Martin re-appeared in the provinces! This game at hide and seek between the brave old Nonconformists and the Church, went on for years without detection: but the readers of "N. & Q." do not require from me the history of the Marprelate Faction, so well told already in the Miscellanies of Literature and elsewhere; the animus of these towards the hierarchy will be sufficiently exhibited for my purpose in a few of their imprints. An Almond for a Parrot, for example, purports to be—

"Imprynted at a place not farre from a place; by the Assignes of Signior Some-body, and are to be soulde at his shoppe in Trouble-Knave Street."

Again, Oh read ouer D. John Bridges, for it is a worthy work, is

"Printed ouer sea, in Europe, within two forlongs of a Bouncing Priest, at the Cost and Charges of Martin Marprelate, Gent, 1589."

The Return of the renowned Cavaliero Pasquill has the following extraordinary imprint:

"If my breath be so hote that I burne my mouthe, I suppose I was printed by Pepper Allie, 1589."

The original "Marprelate" was John Penri, who at last fell into the hands of his enemies, and was executed under circumstances of great barbarity in Elizabeth's reign. "Martin Junior," however, sprung up, and The Counter-Cuffe to him is—

"Printed between the Skye and the Grounde, wythin a Myle of an Oake, and not many Fields off from the unpriuileged Presse of the Ass-ignes of Martin Junior, 1589."

The virulency of this theological warfare died away in James's reign, but only to be renewed with equal rancour in that of Charles, when Marprelatism was again called into activity by the high-church freaks of Archbishop Laud. Vox Borealis, or a Northerne Discoverie by way of Dialogue between Jamie and Willie, is an example of these later attacks upon the overbearing of the mitre, and affords the imprint—

"Amidst the Babylonians. Printed by Margery Marprelate, in Thwack-Coat Lane, at the Signe of the Crab-Tree Cudgell, without any privilege of the Cater-Caps, 1641."

Others of this stamp will occur to your readers: this time the Puritans had the best of the struggle, and ceased not to push their advantage until they brought their enemy to the block.

When the liberty of the press was imperfectly understood, the political satirist had to tread warily; consequently we find that class of writers protecting themselves by jocular or patriotic imprints. A satirical pamphlet upon the late Sicke Commons is "Printed in the Happie Year 1641." A Letter from Nobody in the City to Nobody in the Country is "Printed by Somebody, 1679." Somebody's Answer is "Printed for Anybody." These were likely of such a tendency as would have rendered both author and printer amenable to somebody, say Judge Jeffries. During the administration of Sir Robert Walpole, there were many skirmishing satirists supported by both ministry and people, such as James Miller, whose pamphlet, contra, Are these things so? is "Printed for the perusal of all Lovers of their Country, 1740." This was answered by the ministers' champion, James Dance, alias Love, in Yes, they are! alike addressed to the "Lovers of their Country." What of That? was the next of the series, being Miller's reply, who intimated this time that it was "Printed, and to be had of all True Hearts and Sound Bottoms."

When there was a movement for an augmentation of the poor stipends of the Scots Clergy in 1750, there came out a pamphlet under the title of The Presbyterian Clergy seasonably detected, 1751, which exceeds in scurrility, if possible, the famous or infamous, Scotch Presbyterian Eloquence Displayed; both author and printer, however, had so much sense as to remain in the background, and the thing purported to be "Printed for Mess John in Fleet Street." Under the title of The Comical History of the Marriage betwixt Heptarchus and Fergusia, 1706[1], the Scots figured the union of the Lord Heptarchus, or England, with the independent, but coerced, damsel Fergusia, or Scotland; the discontented church of the latter {144}finding that the former broke faith with her, could not help giving way to occasional murmurings, and these found vent in (among others) a poetical Presbyterian tract, entitled Melancholy Sonnets, or Fergusia's Complaint upon Heptarchus, in which the author reduced to rhyme the aforesaid Comical History, adding thereto all the evils this ill-starred union had entailed upon the land after thirty-five years' experience. This curious production was "Printed at Elguze? for Pedaneous, and sold by Circumferaneous, below the Zenith, 1741."[2] Charles II., when crowned at Scone, took the solemn league and covenant; but not finding it convenient to carry out that part of his coronation oath, left the Presbyterians at the Restoration in the lands of their enemies. To mark their sense of this breach of faith, there was published a little book[3] describing the inauguration of the young profligate, which expressively purports to be "Printed at Edinburgh in the Year of Covenant-breaking." The Scots folk had such a horror of anything of a deistical tendency, that John Goldie had to publish his Essays, or an Attempt to distinguish true from false Religion (popularly called "Goldie's Bible"), at Glasgow, "Printed for the Author, and sold by him at Kilmarnock, 1779;" neither printer nor bookseller would, apparently, be identified with the unclean thing. Both churchmen and dissenters convey their exultations, or denouncements, upon political changes, through the medium of imprints; and your correspondents who have been discussing that matter, will see in some of these that the "Good Old Cause" may be "all round the compass," as Captain Cuttle would say, depending wholly upon the party spectacles through which you view it. Legal Fundamental Liberty, in an epistle from Selburne to Lenthal, is "Reprinted in the Year of Hypocritical and Abominable Dissimulation, 1649;" on the other hand, The Little Bible of that militant soldier Captain Butler is "Printed in the First Year of England's Liberty, 1649." The Last Will and Testament of Sir John Presbyter is "Printed in the Year of Jubilee, 1647." A New Meeting of Ghosts at Tyburn, in which Oliver, Bradshaw, and Peters figure, exhibits its royal tendency, being "Printed in the Year of the Rebellious Phanatick's Downfall, 1660." "Printed at N., with Licence," is the cautious imprint of a republication of Doleman's Conference in 1681. A proper Project to Startle Fools is "Printed in a Land where Self's cry'd up, and Zeal's cry'd down, 1699." The Impartial Accountant, wherein it is demonstratively made known how to pay the National Debt, and that without a New Tax, or any Inconveniency to the People, is "Printed for a Proper Person," and, I may add, can be had of a certain person, if Mr. Gladstone will come down with an adequate consideration for the secret! These accountants are all mysterious,—you would think they were plotting to empty the treasury rather than to fill it; another says his Essay Upon National Credit is "Printed by A. R. in Bond's Stables!" Thomas Scott, the English minister at Utrecht, published, among other oddities, Vox Cœlis; or Newes from Heaven, being Imaginary Conversations there between Henry VIII.(!), Edward VI, Prince Henrie, and others, "Printed in Elysium, 1624." Edward Raban, an Englishman, who set up a press in the far north, published an edition of Lady Culros' Godlie Dreame, and finding that no title commanded such respect among the canny Scots as that of Laird, announced the book to be "Imprinted at Aberdene, by E. R., Laird of Letters, 1644." The Instructive Library, containing a list of apocryphal books, and a satire upon some theological authors of that day, is "Printed for the Man in the Moon, 1710." The Oxford Sermon Versified, by Jacob Gingle, Esq., is "Printed by Tim. Atkins at Dr. Sacheverell's Head, near St. Paul's, 1729." "Printed, and to be had at the Pamphlett Shops of London and Westminster," was a common way of circulating productions of questionable morals or loyalty. The Chapmen, or Flying-Stationers, had many curious dodges of this kind to give a relish to their literary wares: The Secret History of Queen Elizabeth and the Earl of Essex derived additional interest in the eyes of their country customers by its being "Printed at Cologne for Will-with-the-Wisp, at the Sign of the Moon in the Ecliptic, 1767." The Poems of that hard-headed Jacobite, Alexander Robertson of Struan, are "Printed at Edinburgh for Charles Alexander, and sold at his house in Geddes Close, where Subscribers may call for their Copies, circa 1750."[4] The New Dialogues of the Dead are "Printed for D. Y., at the foot of Parnassus Hill, 1684." Professor Tenant's poem of Papistry Stormed imitates the old typographers, it being "Imprentit at Edinbrogh be Oliver and Boyd, anno 1827." A rare old book is Goddard's {145}Mastiffe Whelpe, "Imprinted amongst the Antipodes, and are to be sould where they are to be bought." Another, by the same author, is a Satirical Dialogue, "Imprinted in the Low Countreyes for all such Gentlemen as are not altogether idle, nor yet well occupyed." These were both, I believe, libels upon the fair sex. John Stewart, otherwise Walking Stewart, was in the habit of dating his extraordinary publications "In the year of Man's Retrospective Knowledge, by Astronomical Calculation, 5000;" "In the 7000 year of Astronomical History in the Chinese Tables;" and "In the Fifth Year of Intellectual Existence." "Mulberry Hill, Printed at Crazy Castle," is an imprint of J. H. Stevenson. The Button Makers' Jests, by Geo. King. of St. James', is "Printed for Henry Frederick, near St. James' Square;" a coarse squib upon royalty. One Fisher entitled his play Thou shall not Steal; the School of Ingratitude. Thinking the managers of Drury Lane had communicated his performance, under the latter name, to Reynolds the dramatist, and then rejected it, he published it thus: "Printed for the curious and literary—shall we say? Coincidence! refused by the Managers, and made use of in the Farce of 'Good Living,'" published by Reynolds in 1797. Harlequin Premier, as it is daily acted, is a hit at the ministry of the period, "Printed at Brentafordia, Capital of Barataria, and sold by all the Booksellers in the Province, 1769." "Printed Merrily, and may be read Unhappily, betwixt Hawke and Buzzard, 1641," is the satisfactory imprint of The Downefall of temporising Poets, unlicensed Printers, upstart Booksellers, tooting Mercuries, and bawling Hawkers. Books have sometimes been published for behoof of particular individuals; old Daniel Rodgers, in his Matrimonial Honour, announces "A Part of the Impression to be vended for the use and benefit of Ed. Minsheu, Gent., 1650." How full of interest is the following, "Printed at Sheffield by James Montgomery, in the Hart's Head, 1795!" A poor man, by name J. R. Adam, meeting with reverses, enlisted, and after serving abroad for a period, returned but to exchange the barrack-room for the Glasgow Lunatic Asylum. Possessing a poetical vein, he indulged it here in soothing his own and his companions' misery, by circulating his verses on detached scraps, printed by himself. These on his enlargement he collected together, and gave to the world in 1845, under the title of the Gartnavel Minstrel, a neat little square volume of 104 pages, exceedingly well executed, and bearing the imprint "Glasgow, composed, printed, and published by J. R. Adam;" under any circumstances a most creditable specimen, but under those I have described "a rara avis in literature and art."

The list might be spun out, but I fear I have exceeded limits already with my dry subject.

J. O.

Footnote 1:(return)

G. Chalmers ascribed this to one "Balantyne." In Lockhart's Memoirs, Lond. 1714, Mr. John Balantyne, the minister of Lanark, is noticed as the most uncompromising opponent of the Union. I shall therefore assign the Comical History to him until I find a better claimant.

Footnote 2:(return)

This resembles in its doggrel style Scotland's Glory and her Shame, and A Poem on the Burgess Oath. Can any of your correspondents, familiar with Scottish typographical curiosities, tell me who was the author, or authors, of these?

Footnote 3:(return)

A Phœnix, or the Solemn League and Covenant, &c., 12mo. pp. 168, with a frontispiece representing Charles burning the book of the Solemn League and Covenant, above the flames from which hovers a phœnix.

Footnote 4:(return)

I have not met with the name of such a bookseller elsewhere, and would like to hear the history of this book; it was again published with the addition of The Martial Achievements of the Robertsons of Struan, and in imitation of the original is printed at Edinburgh by and for Alexander Robertson, in Morison's Close, where subscribers may call for their copies (1785?).


In the west of Clare, for many miles the country seems to consist of nothing but fields of grey limestone flags, which gives it an appearance of the greatest desolation: Cromwell is reported to have said of it, "that there was neither wood in it to hang a man, nor water to drown him, nor earth to bury him!" The soil is not, however, by any means as barren as it looks; and the following legend is related of the way in which an ancestor of one of the most extensive landed proprietors in the county obtained his estates.

'Twas on a dismal evening in the depth of winter, that one of Cromwell's officers was passing through this part of the country; his courage and gallantry in the "good cause" had obtained for him a large grant of land in Clare, and he was now on his journey to it. Picturing to himself a land flowing with milk and honey, his disappointment may therefore be imagined when, at the close of a weary day's journey, he found himself bewildered amid such a scene of desolation. From the inquiries he had made at the last inhabited place he had passed, he was led to conclude that he could not be far distant from the "land of promise," where he might turn his sword into a pruning-hook, and rest from all his toils and dangers. Could this be the place of which his imagination had formed so fair a vision? Hours had elapsed since he had seen a human being; and, as the solitude added to the dismal appearance of the road, bitterly did the veteran curse the folly that had enticed him into the land of bogs and "Papistrie." Troublous therefore as the times were, the tramp of an approaching steed sent a thrill of pleasure through the heart of the Puritan. The rider soon joined him, and as he seemed peaceably disposed, they entered into conversation; and the stranger soon became acquainted with the old soldier's errand, and the disappointment he had experienced. Artfully taking advantage of the occasion, the stranger, who professed an acquaintance with the country, used every means to aggravate the disgust of his fellow-traveller, till the heart of the Cromwellian, already half overcome by fatigue and hunger, sank within him; and at last he agreed that the land should be transferred to the stranger for a butt of Claret and the horse on which he rode. As soon as this important matter was settled, the stranger conducted his new friend to a house of entertainment in a neighbouring hamlet, whose ruins are still called the Claret House of K——. A plentiful, though coarse, entertainment soon smoked on the board; and as the eye of the Puritan wandered over the "creature comforts," his heart rose, and he forgot his disappointment and his fatigue. It is even said that he dispensed with nearly ten of the twenty minutes which he usually bestowed on the benediction; {146}but be this as it may, ere he retired to his couch—"vino ciboque gravatus"—the articles were signed, and the courteous stranger became possessed of one of the finest estates in the county!

Francis Robert Davies.


In the introduction to a work entitled A Collection of Coats of Arms borne by the Nobility and Gentry of the County of Gloucester, London, J. Good, 159. New Bond Street, 1792, and which I believe was written by Sir George Nayler, it is asserted that—

"Armes parlantes, or canting arms, were not common till the commencement of the seventeenth century, when they prevailed under the auspices of King James."

Now doubtless they were more common in the seventeenth century, but I am of opinion that there are many instances of them centuries previous to the reign of King James; as, for example, in a roll of arms of the time of Edward II. (A.D. 1308-14), published by Sir Harris Nicolas from a manuscript in the British Museum, there are the following:

"Sire Peres Corbet, d'or, à un corbyn de sable.

Sire Johan le Fauconer, d'argent, à iii faucouns de goules.

Sire Johan Heroun, d'azure, à iii herouns d'argent.

Sire Richard de Cokfeld, d'azure, à une crois e iiii coks d'or.

Sire Richard de Barlingham, de goules, à iii ours (bears) d'argent.

Sire Johan de Swyneford, d'argent, à un cheveroun de sable, à iii testes de cenglers (swines' heads) d'or."

Sire Ammon de Lucy bore three luces; Sire William Bernak a fers between three barnacles, &c. There are many other examples in the same work, but as I think I have made my communication quite long enough, I forbear giving them.


Minor Notes.

Selleridge.—The story of the author who was charged by his publisher for selleridge, and thought it for selling his books, whereas it was storing them in a cellar, is given by Thomas Moore in his Diary, lately published, upon the authority of Coleridge. It is to be found, much better told, in Coleridge's Biographia Literaria.



Tombs of Bishops.—The following bishops, whose bodies were interred elsewhere, had or have tombs in the several cathedrals in which their hearts were buried:—William de Longchamp, William de Kilkenny, Cardinal Louis de Luxembourg, at Ely; Peter de Aquâ Blancâ, at Aquablanca, in Savoy; Thomas Cantilupe, at Ashridge, Bucks (Hereford); Ethelmar (Winton), at Winchester; Thomas Savage (York), at Macclesfield; Robert Stichelles (Durham), at Durham.

Mackenzie Walcott, M.A.


Lines on visiting the Portico of Beau Nash's Palace, Bath.

And here he liv'd, and here he reign'd,

And hither oft shall strangers stray;

To muse with joy on native worth,

And mourn those pleasures fled for aye.

Alas! that he, whose days were spent

In catering for the public weal,

Should, in the eventide of life,

Be destin'd sad distress to feel.

An ever open heart and hand,

With ear ne'er closed to sorrow's tale,

Exalts the man, and o'er his faults

Draws the impenetrable veil.

L. M. Thornton.


Acrostic in Ash Church, Kent.—The following acrostic is from a brass in Ash Church, Kent. It is perhaps curious only from the fact of its being unusual to inscribe this kind of verse on sepulchral monuments. The capital letters at the commencement of each line are given as in the original:

"J John Brooke of the parish of Ashe

O Only he is nowe gone.

H His days are past, his corps is layd

N Now under this marble stone.

B Brookstrete he was the honor of,

R Robd now it is of name,

O Only because he had no sede

O Or children to have the same;

K Knowing that all must passe away,

E Even when God will, none can denay.

"He passed to God in the yere of Grace

One thousand fyve hundredth ffower score and two it was,

The sixteenthe daye of January, I tell now playne,

The five-and-twentieth yere of Elizabeth rayne."

Fras. Brent.


A Hint to Publishers.—The present period is remarkable for its numerous reprints of our poets and standard writers. However excellent these may be, there is often a great drawback, viz. that one must purchase an author's entire works, and cannot get a favourite poem or treatise separately.

What I would suggest is, that a separate title-page be prefixed to every poem or treatise in an {147}author's works, and that they be sold collectively or separately at the purchaser's option. Thus few would encumber themselves with the entire works of Dryden, but many would gladly purchase some of his poems if they could be had separately.

These remarks are still more applicable to encyclopædias. The Encycl. Metropol. was a step in the right direction; and henceforth we may hope to have each article sold separately in octavo volumes. Is there no chance, amid all these reprints, of our seeing Heywood, Crashaw, Southwell, Habington, Daniel, or Drummond of Hawthornden?


Uhland, the German Poet.—Mr. Mitchell, in his speech at New York, is said to have stated that Uhland, the German poet, had become an exile, and was now in Ohio. This is a mistake; for Uhland is now living in his native Würtemberg, and is reported in the papers to have quite recently declined a civic honour proposed to be conferred on him by the King of Prussia at the suggestion of Baron Humboldt.

J. M.


Virgilian Inscription for an Infant School.

"... Auditæ voces, vagitus et ingens,

Infantumque animæ flentes, in limine primo."

Æn. VI. 426.




The Historical Society of Pennsylvania having requested me to edit certain MSS., I should be very much indebted to any one for information, either through your columns, or addressed to me directly, concerning the following persons or their ancestry.

Edward Shippen, son of William, born in Yorkshire, near Pontefract or Wakefield, as supposed, 1639; emigrated to Boston 1670, was a member of the Ancient and Honourable Artillery Company, afterwards turned Quaker, was publicly whipt for his faith (see Thomas Story's Journal, quoted in Southey's Common-Place Book), removed to Philadelphia, elected Speaker 1695, first mayor 1701, &c., died 1712. His son's family Bible entries (now in possession of Colonel Jno. Hare Powel) say that his (the son's) relations in England were his "uncle William's children," viz. Robert Shippen, Doctor of Divinity; William Shippen, Doctor of Laws and a parliament man; Edward, a physician; John, a Spanish merchant.

The uncle William thus mentioned is conjectured to have been the Rector of Stockport, and the "parliament man" to have been his son, "downright Shippen" (Lord Mahon's Hist. Eng., three vols.)—a conjecture strengthened by another mem., "John, son of the Rector of St. Mary's parish, Stockport, was baptized July 5, A.D. 1678.

Edward Shippen's daughter, Margaret, married John Jekyll, collector of the port of Boston, said to have been a younger brother of Sir Joseph; and a descendant, daughter of Chief Justice Shippen, married General Benedict Arnold, then a distinguished officer in the American army.

Mr. Shippen lived in great style (Watson's Annals, &c.), and among his descendants were, and are, many persons of consequence and distinction.

Besides information as to Mr. Shippen's ancestors, I should be glad to learn something of his kinsfolk, and of the Jekyll and Arnold branches. Sabine's (Loyalists) account of the latter is imperfect, and perhaps not very just.

John White, Chief Justice Shippen, whilst a law student in London, writes, 1748-50, as though Mr. White was socially a man of dignified position. He was a man of large fortune; his sister married San. Swift, who emigrated to this state. His portrait, by Reynolds, represents a gentleman past middle age, whose costume and appearance are those of a person of refined and elegant education. His letters were destroyed by fire some years since. The China and silver ware, which belonged to him, have the following arms: "Gules, a border sable, charged with seven or eight estoiles gold; on a canton ermines a lion rampant sable. Crest, a bird, either a stork, a heron, or an ostrich." The copy inclosed is taken from the arms on the china; but our Heralds' College (i.e. an intelligent engraver, who gave me the foregoing description) says, that on the silver the crest is "a stork close."

Thos. Balch.



From time to time various productions, many valuable, others the reverse, have issued from the press in parts or numbers; some have been completed, while others have only reached a few numbers. It would be desirable to ascertain what works have been finished, and what have not. I have therefore transmitted a note as to several that have fallen in my way, and should be happy for any information about them:

"1. John Bull Magazine, 8vo., London, 1824. Of this I possess four numbers. A friend of mine has also the four numbers, and, like myself, attaches great value to them, from the ability of many of the articles. One article, entitled "Instructions to Missionaries," is equal to any thing from the pen of T. Hood. May it not have been written by him? {148}

2. Portraits of the Worthies of Westminster Hall, with their Autographs, being Fac-Similes of Original Sketches found in the Note-Book of a Briefless Barrister. London: Thomas and William Boone, 480. Strand. Small 8vo.

Part I. Price Twenty Shillings. Twenty Sketches (very clever).

3. Dictionary of Terms employed by the French in Anatomy, Physiology, Pathology, &c., by Shirley Palmer, M.D. 8vo., 1834. Birmingham: Barlow. London: Longman & Co. Two Parts. Stops at the letter H.

4. Quarterly Biographical Magazine, No. I., May, 1838. 8vo. London: Hunt & Hart.

5. Complete Illustrations of the British Fresh-water Fishes. London: W. Wood. 8vo. Three Numbers.

6. New and Compendious History of the County of Warwick, &c. By William Smith, F.R.S.A. 4to. Birmingham: W. Evans. London: J. T. Hinton, 4. Warwick Square. 1829. Ten Numbers, to be completed in Twelve. On my copy there is written, "Never finished." Is this the case?

7. Fishes of Ceylon. By John Whitchurch Bennet, Esq., F.H.S. London: Longman & Co. 1828. 4to. Two Numbers. A Guinea each.

J. M.

Minor Queries.

"Hovd Maet of Laet."—Will you kindly give me a translation of the above, which is in the corner of an old Dutch panel painting in the style of Ostade and Teniers, jun., in my possession?


Hand in Church (Vol. viii., p. 454.).—What is the hand projecting under chancel arch, Brighton old church?

A. C.

Egger Moths.—What is the derivation of the word "egger," as applied to several species of moths?


The Yorkshire Dales (Vol. ii., p. 220.).—Is the Guide to the above by J. H. Dixon published?

R. W. D.

Ciss, Cissle, &c.—Can any of your readers give me any authority for a written usage of these words, or any one of them: ciss, siss, cissle or cizzle? They are often heard, but I have never seen them written, nor can I find them in any dictionary.


Inn Signs, &c.—Can any reader of "N. & Q." supply information respecting inn and other signs; or refer to any printed books, or accessible MSS., relating to the subject?


Smiths and Robinsons.—Could any of your correspondents inform me what are the arms of Miles Smith, Bishop of Gloucester, those of the Smiths of Willoughby, those of the Smiths of Crudely, in Lancashire, and those of the Robinsons of the North Riding of Yorkshire? Also, in what church, and in what year, did Lady Elizabeth Robinson, otherwise known as Betty of the Boith, serve the office of churchwarden?

John H. R. Smith, Jun.

Coin of Carausius.—A brass coin has lately come into my possession, bearing on the obverse the head and inscription:


And on the reverse, a female figure, with spear and a branch:


I believe it to have been struck by Carausius, an usurper of the end of the third century, and my Query is as to the meaning of the letters MLXXI. Some friends assert them to be the Roman numerals, making the year 1071, and conclude it to have been struck at that date.

C. G.


Verelst the Painter.—Can any of your readers inform me who was Jo. Verelst? I have in my possession a picture bearing the signature, with the addition of P. 1714. The celebrated artists of that name mentioned in the Dictionary of Painters cannot be the same.


Latin Treatise on whipping School-boys.—What is the name of a modern Latin author, who has written a treatise on the antiquity of the practice of whipping school-boys? The work is alluded to in the History of the Flagellants, p. 134., edit. 1777, but the author's name is not given.



Whitewashing in Churches.—Can any of your correspondents inform me at what period, and about what year it became the custom to cover over with whitewash the many beautiful works of art, both in stone and wood, which have of late years been brought to light in our cathedrals and churches in the course of renovation?


Surname "Kynoch."—Can any of your correspondents supply any heraldic or genealogical information regarding this name, a few families of which are to be found in Moray and Aberdeen shires, North Britain?


Dates of published Works.—Is it possible to ascertain the exact time of publication of any book, for instance in the year 1724, either at Stationers' Hall or elsewhere?


Saw-dust Recipe.—There is a recipe existing somewhere for converting saw-dust into palatable {149}human food. Can you tell me what it is, or where it is to be found?

G. D.

Minor Queries with Answers.

Branks, or Gossips' Bridles.—Walton Church contains one of those strange instruments with which our ancestors used to punish those dames who were too free with the use of their tongues. They were called hanks [branks], or gossips' bridles, and were intended to inclose the head, being fastened behind by a padlock, and having attached to it a small piece of iron which literally "held the tongue." Thus accoutred, the unhappy culprit was marched through the village till she gave unequivocal signs of repentance and humiliation. Can any one give some account of this curious instrument?

George Hodges.


[Fosbroke says that "the brank is a sugar-loaf cap made of iron hooping, with a cross at top, and a flat piece projecting inwards to lie upon the tongue. It was put upon the head of scolds, padlocked behind, and a string annexed, by which a man led them through the towns." (See also Brand's Popular Antiquities, vol. iii. p. 108., Bohn's edition.) Engravings of them will be found in Plot's History of Staffordshire, p. 389., and in Brands History of Newcastle, vol. ii. p. 192. In the Historical Description of the Tower of London, p. 54., edit. 1774, occurs the following libellous squib on the fair sex: "Among the curiosities of the Tower is a collar of torment, which, say your conductors, used formerly to be put about the women's neck that cuckolded their husbands, or scolded them when they came home late; but that custom is left off now-a-days, to prevent quarrelling for collars, there not being smiths enough to make them, as most married men are sure to want them at one time or another." Waldron, in his Description of the Isle of Man, p. 80., thus notices this instrument of punishment: "I know nothing in the Manx statutes or punishments in particular but this, which is, that if any person be convicted of uttering a scandalous report, and cannot make good the assertion, instead of being fined or imprisoned, they are sentenced to stand in the market-place, on a sort of scaffold erected for that purpose, with their tongue in a noose made of leather, which they call a bridle, and having been exposed to the view of the people for some time, on the taking off this machine, they are obliged to say three times, 'Tongue, thou hast lyed.'"]

Not caring a Fig for anything.—What is the origin of this expression?

J. H. Chateau.


[Nares informs us that the real origin of this expression may be found in Stevens and Pineda's Dictionaries under Higa; and, in fact, the same phrase and allusion pervaded all modern Europe: as, Far le fiche, Ital.; Faire la figue, Fr.; Die Feigen weisen, Germ., De vÿghe setten, Dutch. (See Du Cange, in Ficha.) Johnson says, "To fig, in Spanish, higas dar, is to insult by putting the thumb between the fore and middle finger. From this Spanish custom we yet say in contempt, A fig for you." To this explanation Mr. Douce has added the following note: "Dr. Johnson has properly explained this phrase; but it should be added, that it is of Italian origin. When the Milanese revolted against the Emperor Frederick Barbarossa, they placed the Empress his wife upon a mule with her head towards the tail, and ignominiously expelled her their city. Frederick afterwards besieged and took the place, and compelled every one of his prisoners, on pain of death, to take with his teeth a fig from the posteriors of a mule. The party was at the same time obliged to repeat to the executioner the words Ecco la fica. From this circumstance far la fica became a term of derision, and was adopted by other nations. The French say likewise, faire la figue."]

B. C. Y.—Can you give me any information respecting the famous B. C. Y. row, as it was called, which occurred about fifty years ago? A newspaper was started expressly to explain the meaning of the letters, which said it was "Beware of the Catholic Yoke;" but it was wrong.

H. Y.

[These "No-Popery" hieroglyphics first appeared in the reign of Charles II. during the debates on the Exclusion Bill, and were chalked over all parts of Whitehall and the Houses of Parliament. O B. C. Y. was then the inscription, which meant, "O Beware of Catholic York." On their re-appearance in 1809 the Y. was much taller than the B. C.; but the use and meaning at this time of these initials still remains a query.]

Earl Nugent's Poems.—I would be much obliged for any information relating to the poems written by Robert, afterwards Earl Nugent, between the years 1720 and 1780. It is supposed that they were first published in some periodical, and afterwards appeared in a collected form.

James F. Ferguson.


[A volume of his poems was published anonymously by Dodsley, and entitled Odes and Epistles; containing an Ode on his own Conversion from Popery: London, 1739, 8vo., 2nd edit. There are also other pieces by him in Dodsley's Collection, and the New Foundling Hospital for Wit. He also published Faith, a Poem; a strange attempt to overturn the Epicurean doctrine by that of the Trinity; and Verses to the Queen; with a New Year's Gift of Irish Manufacture, 1775, 4to.]

Huntbach MSS.—Can you tell me where the Huntbach MSS. now lie? Shaw, in his History of Staffordshire, drew largely from them.


[Dr. Wilkes's Collections, with those of Fielde, Huntbach, Loxdale, and Shaw, as also the engraved plates and drawings, published and unpublished, relative to the History of Staffordshire, were, in the year 1820, in the possession of William Hamper, F.S.A., Deritend House, Birmingham.]


Holy Loaf Money.—In Dr. Whitaker's Whalley, p. 149., mention is made of holy loaf money. What is meant by this?

T. I. W.

[This seems to be some ecclesiastical due payable on Hlaf-mass, or Loaf-mass, commonly called Lammas-Day (August 1st). See Somner and Junius. It was called Loaf or Bread-mass, because it was a day of oblation of grain, or of bread made of new wheat; and was also the holiday of St. Peter ad Vincula, when Peter-pence were paid. Du Cange likewise mentions the Panis benedictus, and that money was given by the recipients of it on the following occasion:—"Since the catechumens," says he, "before baptism could neither partake of the Divine Mysteries, nor consequently of the Eucharist, a loaf was consecrated and given to them by the priest, whereby they were prepared for receiving the body of Christ."]

St. Philip's, Bristol.—Can you inform me when the Church of St. Philip, Bristol, was made parochial, and in what year the Priory of Benedictines, mentioned by William de Worcester in connexion with this church, was dissolved, and when founded?

E. W. Godwin.

[Neither Dugdale nor Tanner could discover any notices of this priory, except the traditionary account preserved in William of Worcester, p. 20.: "—— juxta Cimiterium et Ecclesiam Sancti Philippi, ubi quondam ecclesia religiosorum et Prioratus scituatur." It was probably a cell to the Tewkesbury monastery; and the historians of Bristol state, that the exact time when it became parochial is not known; but it was very early, being mentioned in Gaunt's deeds before the year 1200; and, like St. James's, became a parish church through the accession of inhabitants.]

Foreign Universities.—Is there any history of the University of Bologna? or where can be found any account of the foundation and constitution of the foreign universities in general?

J. C. H. R.

[Our correspondent will find some account of the foreign universities, especially of Bologna, in the valuable article "Universities," Encyclopædia Britannica, vol. xxi., with numerous references to other works containing notices of them. Consult also "A Discovrse not altogether vnprofitable nor vnpleasant for such as are desirous to know the Situation and Customes of Forraine Cities without trauelling to see them: containing a Discovrse of all those Citties which doe flourish at this Day priuiledged Vniuersities. By Samuel Lewkenor. London, 1594, 4to."]



(Vol. ix. p. 55.)

The remarks of John o' the Ford of Malta deserve to be followed up by all your correspondents who, at least, admit the possibility of "communications with the unseen world." In order to facilitate the acquisition of the requisite amount of facts, I beg to apprise John o' the Ford, and your other correspondents and readers generally, that a Society was founded about a year ago, and is now in existence, composed of members of the University of Cambridge; the objects of which will be best gleaned from the following extract from the Prospectus:

"The interest and importance of a serious and earnest inquiry into the nature of the phenomena which are vaguely called 'supernatural,' will scarcely be questioned. Many persons believe that all such apparently mysterious occurrences are due, either to purely natural causes, or to delusions of the mind or senses, or to wilful deception. But there are many others who believe it possible that the beings of the unseen world may manifest themselves to us in extraordinary ways; and also are unable otherwise to explain many facts, the evidence for which cannot be impeached. Both parties have obviously a common interest in wishing cases of supposed 'supernatural' agency to be thoroughly sifted.... The main impediment to investigations of this kind is the difficulty of obtaining a sufficient number of clear and well-attested cases. Many of the stories current in tradition, or scattered up and down in books, may be exactly true; others must be purely fictitious; others again, probably the greater number, consist of a mixture of truth and falsehood. But it is idle to examine the significance of an alleged fact of this nature, until the trustworthiness, and also the extent of the evidence for it, are ascertained. Impressed with this conviction, some members of the University of Cambridge are anxious, if possible, to form an extensive collection of authenticated cases of supposed 'supernatural' agency.... From all those who may be inclined to aid them, they request written communications, with full details of persons, times, and places."

The Prospectus closes with the following classification of phenomena:

"I. Appearances of Angels. (1.) Good. (2) Evil.—II. Spectral appearances of—(1.) The beholder himself (e.g. 'Fetches' or 'Doubles'). (2.) Other men, recognised or not. (i.) Before their death (e.g. 'second sight.') (a.) To one person. (b.) To several persons. (ii.) At the moment of their death. (a.) To one person. (b.) To several persons. 1. In the same place. 2. In several places. i. Simultaneously. ii. Successively. (iii.) After their death. In connexion with—(a.) Particular places remarkable for—1. Good deeds. 2. Evil deeds. (b.) Particular times (e.g. on the anniversary of any event, or at fixed seasons). (c.) Particular events (e.g. before calamity or death). (d.) Particular persons (e.g. haunted murderers).—III. 'Shapes' falling under neither of the former classes. (1.) Recurrent. In connexion with—(i.) Particular families (e.g. the 'Banshee'). (ii.) Particular places (e.g. the 'Mawth Dog'). (2.) Occasional. (i.) Visions signifying events, past, present, or future. (a.) By actual representation (e.g. 'second sight'). (b.) By symbol. (ii.) Visions of a fantastical nature.—IV. Dreams remarkable for {151}coincidences. (1.) In their occurrence. (i.) To the same person several times. (ii.) In the same form to several persons. (a.) Simultaneously. (b.) Successively. (2.) With facts. (i.) Past. (a.) Previously unknown. (b.) Formerly known, but forgotten. (ii.) Present, but unknown. (iii.) Future.—V. Feelings. A definite consciousness of a fact. (1.) Past: an impression that an event has happened. (2.) Present: sympathy with a person suffering or acting at a distance. (3.) Future: presentiment.—VI. Physical effects. (1.) Sounds. (i.) With the use of ordinary means (e.g. ringing of bells). (ii.) Without the use of any apparent means (e.g. voices). (2.) Impressions of touch (e.g. breathings on the person).

"Every narrative of 'supernatural' agency which may be communicated, will be rendered far more instructive if accompanied by any particulars as to the observer's natural temperament (e.g. sanguine, nervous, &c.), constitution (e.g. subject to fever, somnambulism, &c.), and state at the time (e.g. excited in mind or body, &c.)."

As I have no authority to give names, I can do no more than say that, though not a member of the Society, I shall be happy to receive communications and forward them to the secretary.

C. Mansfield Ingleby.


[The Night Side of Nature would seem to indicate that its ingenious, yet sober and judicious, authoress had forestalled the "Folk-lore" investigations of the projected Cambridge Society. Probably some of its members will not rest satisfied with a simple collection of phenomena relating to communications with the unseen world, but will exclaim with Hamlet—

"Thou com'st in such a questionable shape,

That I will speak to thee!"

and will endeavour to ascertain the philosophy of those communications, as Newton did with the recorded data and phenomena of the mechanical or material universe. Whether the transcripts of some of the voluminous unpublished writings of Dionysius Andreas Freher, deposited in the British Museum (Add. MSS. 5767-5792.), will assist the inquirer in his investigations, we cannot confidently state; but in them he will find continual references to what Jacob Böhme terms "the eternal and astral magic, or the laws, powers and properties of the great Universal Will-Spirit of the two co-eternal worlds of darkness and light, and of this third or temporary principle." Freher was the principal illustrator of the writings of the celebrated Jacob Böhme, now exciting so much interest among the German literati; and, if we may credit William Law, it was from the principles of this remarkable man that Sir Isaac Newton derived his theory of fundamental powers. (See "N. & Q.," Vol. viii., p. 247.) But on this and other matters we may doubtless expect to be well informed by Sir David Brewster, in his new "Memoir of the Life, Writings, and Discoveries of Sir Isaac Newton." According to Law, the two-fold spiritual universe stands as near, and in a similar relation to this material mixed world, of darkness and light, evil and good, death and life, or rather the latter to the former, as water does to the gases of which it is essentially compounded.—Ed.]


(Vol. ix., p. 54.)

Until your correspondent Q. designated the word starvation as "an Americanism," I never had the least suspicion that it was obtained from that source. On the contrary, I remember to have heard some thirty or forty years ago, that it was first employed by Harry Dundas, the first Viscount Melville, who might have spoken with a brogue, but whose despatches were in good intelligible English. I once asked his son, the second Viscount, whose correctness must be fresh in the recollection of many of your readers, if the above report was true, and he seemed to think that his father had coined the word, and that it immediately got into general circulation. My impression is, that it was already current during the great scarcity at the end of the last, and the commencement of this century; but the dictionary makers, those "who toil at the lower employments of life," as old Sam Johnson termed it, are not apt to be alert in seizing on fresh words, and "starvation" has shared in the general neglect.

If you permit me I will, however, afford them my humble aid, by transcribing some omitted words which I find noted in a little Walker's Dictionary, printed in 1830, and which has been my companion in many pilgrimages through many distant lands. Many of them may by this time have found their way even into dictionaries, but I copy them as I find them.




Compete (verb).


Cupel (see test).

Stationery (writing materials).


Mister (form of address).



Growl (substantive).

Avadavat (School for Scandal).





Celt (formed of touchstone).





Curry (substantive).



Resile (verb).













N.L. Melville.

However "strange it may appear, it is nevertheless quite true," that this word, "Starvation {152}(from the verb), state of perishing from cold or hunger," is to be found, and thus defined, in "An Appendix to Dr. Johnson's English Dictionary," published along with the latter, by William Maver, in 2 vols. 8vo., Glasgow, 1809, now forty-five years ago. In his preface to this Appendix he says:

"In the compilation the editor is principally indebted to Mr. Mason, whose labours in supplying the deficiencies of Dr. Johnson's Dictionary have so much enriched the vocabulary of our language, that every purchaser of the quarto edition should avail himself of a copy of Mr. Mason's Supplement."

Whether or not Mr. Maver drew the word "starvation" from Mr. Mason's Supplement, I cannot say; but from old date in the west of Scotland it has been, and is still, popularly and extensively used in the exact senses given to it by Mr. Maver as above. I think it much more likely to be of Scottish than of American origin, and that Mr. Webster may have picked it up from some of our natives in this country.

I may add, that in early life I often spoke with Mr. Maver, who was a most intelligent literary man. In 1809 he followed the business of a bookseller in Glasgow, but from some cause was not fortunate, and afterwards followed that of a book auctioneer, and may be dead fully thirty years ago. His edition of, and Appendix to, Johnson were justly esteemed; the latter "containing several thousand words omitted by Dr. Johnson, and such as have been introduced by good writers since his time," with "the pronunciation according to the present practice of the best orators and orthoepists" of the whole language.

G. N.

This word was first introduced into the English language by Mr. Dundas, in a debate in the House of Commons on American affairs, in 1775. From it he obtained the nick-name of "Starvation Dundas." (Vide the Correspondence between Horace Walpole and Mason, vol. ii. pp. 177. 310. 396., edition 1851.) The word is of irregular formation, the root starve being Old English, while the termination -ation is Latin.

E. G. R.

The word may perhaps be originally American; but if the following anecdote be correct, it was introduced into this country long before Webster compiled his Dictionary:

"The word starvation was first introduced into the English language by Mr. Dundas, in a speech in 1775 on an American debate, and hence applied to him as a nickname, 'Starvation Dundas.' 'I shall not,' said he, 'wait for the advent of starvation from Edinburgh to settle my judgment.'"—Letters of Horace Walpole and Mason, vol. ii. p. 396.

J. R. M., M.A.

Throughout this part of the country, "starved" always refers to cold, never to hunger. To express the latter the word "hungered" is always used: thus, many were "like to have been hungered" in the late severe weather and hard times. This is clearly the scriptural phrase "an hungred." To "starve" is to perish; and it is a common expression in the south, "I am quite perished with cold;" which answers to our northern one, "I am quite starved."

H. T. G.


I cannot ascertain the period of the adoption of the unhappily common word "starvation" in our language, but it is much older than your correspondent Q. supposes. It occurs in the Rolliad:

"'Tis but to fire another Sykes, to plan

Some new starvation scheme for Hindostan."



(Vol. viii., p. 617.)

R. W. Carter gives an account of folk lore in reference to Osmotherley, and expresses a desire to know if his statement is authentic. I have endeavoured to make myself acquainted with Yorkshire folk lore, and beg to inform Mr. Carter that his statement approaches as near the truth as possible. In my early days I frequently had recited to me, by a respectable farmer who had been educated on the borders of Roseberry (and who obtained it from the rustics of the neighbourhood), a poetical legend, in which all the particulars of this curious tradition are embodied. It is as follows:

"In Cleveland's vale a village stands,
Though no great prospect it commands;
As pleasantly for situation
As any village in the nation.
Great Ayton it is call'd by name;
But though I am no man of fame,
Yet do not take me for a fool,
Because I live near to this town;
But let us take a walk and see
This noted hill call'd Roseberry,
Compos'd of many a cragged stone,
Resembling all one solid cone,
Which, monumental-like, have stood
Ever since the days of Noah's flood.
Here cockles ... petrified,
As by the curious have been tried,
Have oft been found upon its top,
'Tis thought the Deluge had cast up.
'Tis mountains high (you may see that),
Though not compar'd with Ararat.
Yet oft at sea it doth appear,brace
To ships that northern climates steer,
A land-mark, when the weather's clear.
If many ships at sea there be,
A charming prospect then you'll see;
Don't think I fib, when this you're reading,
They look like sheep on mountains feeding.
{153} Then turn your eyes on the other hand,
As pleasing views you may command.
For thirty miles or more, they say,brace
The country round you may survey,
When the air's serene and clear the day.
There is a cave near to its top,
Vulgarly call'd the Cobbler's Shop,
By Nature form'd out of the rock,
And able to withstand a shock.
On the north side there is a well,
Relating which this Fame doth tell:
Prince Oswy had his nativitybrace
Computed by astrology,
That he unnatural death should die.
His mother to this well did fly
To save him from sad destiny;
But one day sleeping in the shade,
Supposing all secure was made,
Lo! sorrow soon gave place to joy;
This well sprung up and drown'd the boy."

It is confidently stated, in the neighbourhood of Osmotherley and Roseberry, that Prince Oswy and his mother were both interred at Osmotherley, from whence comes the name of the place, Os-by-his-mother-lay, or Osmotherley.

Thomas Gill.



(Vol. ix., p. 51.)

As another and historically-interesting specimen of echo poetry, perhaps the readers of "N. & Q." may not dislike to see preserved in your pages the following translation from the French. The original publication, it is said, exposed the bookseller, Palm of Nuremberg, to trial by court-martial. He was sentenced to be shot at Braunau in 1807—a severe retribution for a few lines of echo poetry. It is entitled

"Bonaparte and the Echo.

Bon. Alone, I am in this sequestered spot not overheard.

Echo. Heard!

Bon. 'Sdeath! Who answers me? What being is there nigh?

Echo. I.

Bon. Now I guess! To report my accents Echo has made her task.

Echo. Ask.

Bon. Knowest thou whether London will henceforth continue to resist?

Echo. Resist.

Bon. Whether Vienna and other Courts will oppose me always?

Echo. Always.

Bon. O, Heaven! what must I expect after so many reverses?

Echo. Reverses.

Bon. What? should I, like a coward vile, to compound be reduced?

Echo. Reduced.

Bon. After so many bright exploits be forced to restitution?

Echo. Restitution.

Bon. Restitution of what I've got by true heroic feats and martial address?

Echo. Yes.

Bon. What will be the fate of so much toil and trouble?

Echo. Trouble.

Bon. What will become of my people, already too unhappy?

Echo. Happy.

Bon. What should I then be, that I think myself immortal?

Echo. Mortal.

Bon. The whole world is filled with the glory of my name, you know.

Echo. No.

Bon. Formerly its fame struck this vast globe with terror.

Echo. Error.

Bon. Sad Echo, begone! I grow infuriate! I die!

Echo. Die!"

It may be added that Napoleon himself (Voice from St. Helena, vol. i. p. 432.), when asked about the execution of Palm, said:

"All that I recollect is, that Palm was arrested by order of Davoust, I believe, tried, condemned, and shot, for having, while the country was in possession of the French and under military occupation, not only excited rebellion amongst the inhabitants, and urged them to rise and massacre the soldiers, but also attempted to instigate the soldiers themselves to refuse obedience to their orders, and to mutiny against their generals. I believe that he met with a fair trial."

Jas. J. Scott.



(Vol. ix., p. 15.)

In a curious old pamphlet of twenty-three pages, entitled Everybody's Business is Nobody's Business answer'd Paragraph by Paragraph, by a Committee of Women-Servants and Footmen, London, printed by T. Read for the author, and sold by the booksellers of London, and ... price one penny (without date), the following passage occurs:

"The next great Abuse among us is, that under the Notion of cleaning our Shoes, above ten Thousand Wicked, Idle, Pilfering Vagrants are permitted to stroll about our City and Suburbs. These are called the Black-Guard, who Black your Honour's Shoes, and incorporate themselves under the Title of the Worshipful Company of Japanners. But the Subject is so low that it becomes disagreeable even to myself; give me leave therefore to propose a Way to clear the streets of those Vermin, and to substitute as many honest and industrious persons in their stead, who are now starving for want of bread, while these execrable {154}villains live (though in Rags and Nastiness) yet in Plenty and Luxury."

"A(nswer). The next Abuse you see is, Black your shoes, your Honour, and the Japanners stick in his Stomach. We shall not take upon us to answer for these pitiful Scrubs, but in his own words; the Subject is so low, that it becomes disagreeable even to us, as it does even to himself, and he may clear the Streets of these Vermin in what Manner he pleases if the Law will give him leave, for we are in no want of them; we are better provided for already in that respect by our Masters and their Sons."

G. N.

The following lines by Charles, Earl of Dorset and Middlesex (the writer of the famous old song "To all you ladies now at land"), are an instance of the application of this term to the turbulent link-boys, against whom the proclamation quoted by Mr. Cunningham was directed. Their date is probably a short time before that of the proclamation:

"Belinda's sparkling wit and eyes,

United cast so fierce a light,

As quickly flashes, quickly dies;

Wounds not the heart, but burns the sight.

Love is all gentleness, Love is all joy;

Sweet are his looks, and soft his pace:

Her Cupid is a black-guard boy,

That runs his link full in your face."

F. E. E.


(Vol. viii., pp. 464. 624.; Vol. ix., p. 63.)

I believe Mr. Keightley is perfectly right in his conjecture, so far as Schiller is concerned. Wurm, without any prefix, had the sense of serpent in German. Adelung says it was used for all animals without feet who move on their bellies, serpents among the rest. Schiller does not seem to have had Shakspeare in his thoughts, but the proverb quoted by Adelung:

"Auch das friedlichste Würmchen beiszt, wenn man es treten will."

In this proverb there is evidently an allusion to the serpent, as if of the same nature with the worm; which, as we know, neither stings nor bites the foot which treads on it. Shakspeare therefore says "will turn," making a distinction, which Schiller does not make. In the translation Coleridge evidently had Shakspeare in his recollection; but he has not lost Schiller's idea, which gives the worm a serpent's sting. Vermo is applied both by Dante and Ariosto to the Devil, as the "great serpent:"

"... I' mi presi

Al pel del vermo reo, che 'l mondo fora."

Inferno, C. XXXV.

"Che al gran vermo infernal mette la briglia."

Orlando furioso, C. XLV. st. 84.

E. C. H.

With deference to C. B. d'O., I consider that Wurm is used, in poetry at least, to designate any individual of the tribe of reptiles. In the Kampf mit dem Drachen, the rebuke of the "Master" is thus conveyed:

"Du bist ein Gott dem Volke worden,

Du kommst ein Feind zurück dem Orden,

Und einen schlimmern Wurm gebar.

Dein Herz, als deiser Drache war,

Die Schlange die das Herz vergiftet,

Die Zwietracht und Verderben stiftet!"

The monster which had yielded to the prowess of the disobedient son of the "Order" is elsewhere called "der Wurm:"

"Hier hausete der Wurm und lag,

Den Raub erspähend Nacht und Tag;"

while the "counterfeit presentment" of it—"Alles bild ich nach genau"—is delineated in the following lines:

"In eine Schlange endigt sich,

Des Rückens ungeheure Länge

Halb Wurm erschien, halb Molch und Drache."

The word in question is in this passage applicable perhaps to the serpent section, but we have seen that it is used to denote the entire living animal.

A. L.

Middle Temple.


(Vol. ix., p. 75.)

I am inclined to think that Mr. Halliwell has been misled by his old law-books, for upon looking at the principal authorities upon this point, I cannot find any such interpretation of the term inheritance as that quoted by him from Cowell. The words "the inheritance," in the passage "heretofore the inheritance of William Shakspeare, Gent., deceased," would most certainly appear to imply that Shakspeare inherited the lands as heir-at-law to some one. But, however, it must not be concluded upon this alone that the poet's father was a landed proprietor, as the inheritance could proceed from any other ancestor to whom Shakspeare was by law heir.

Blackstone, in his Commentaries, has the following:

"Descent, or hereditary succession, is the title whereby a man on the death of his ancestor acquires his estate by right of representation, as his heir-at-law. An heir, therefore, is he upon whom the law casts the estate immediately on the death of the ancestor: and an estate, so descending to the heirs, is in Law called the inheritance."—Vol. ii. p. 201.



"Purchase, perquisitio, taken in its largest and most extensive sense, is thus defined by Littleton; the possession of lands and tenements which a man hath by his own act or agreement, and not by descent from any of his ancestors or kindred. In this sense it is contra-distinguished from acquisition by right of blood, and includes every other method of coming to an estate, but merely that by inheritance: wherein the title is vested in a person, not by his own act or agreement, but by the single operation of law."—Vol. ii. p. 241.

Thus it is clear the possession of an estate by inheritance is created only by a person being heir to it; and the mere purchase of it, though it vests the fee simple in him, can but make him the assign and not the heir. The nomination (as it would be in the case of a purchase) of an heir to succeed to the inheritance, has no place in the English law; the maxim being "Solus Deus hæredem facere potest, non homo;" and all other persons, whom a tenant in fee simple may please to appoint as his successors, are not his heirs but his assigns. (See Williams on the Law of Real Property.)

Russell Gole.

Mr. Halliwell is perfectly right in his opinion as to the expression "heretofore the inheritance of William Shakspeare." All that that expression in a deed means is, that Shakspeare was the absolute owner of the estate, so that he could sell, grant, or devise it; and in case he did not do so, it would descend to his heir-at-law. The term has no reference to the mode by which the estate came to Shakspeare, but only to the nature of the estate he had in the property. And as a man may become possessed of such an estate in land by gift, purchase, devise, adverse possession, &c., as well as by descent from some one else, the mere fact that a man has such an estate affords no inference whatever as to the mode in which he became possessed of it. The authorities on the subject are Littleton, section ix., and Co. Litt., p. 16. (a), &c. A case is there mentioned so long ago as the 6 Edw. III., where, in an action of waste, the plaintiff alleged that the defendant held "de hæreditate suâ," and it was ruled that, albeit the plaintiff had purchased the reversion, the allegation was sufficient.

In very ancient deeds the word is very commonly used where it cannot mean an estate that has descended to an heir, but must mean an estate that may descend to an heir. Thus, in a grant I have (without date, and therefore probably before A.D. 1300), Robert de Boltone grants land to John, the son of Geoffrey, to be held by the said John and his heirs "in feodo et hæreditate in perpetuum." This plainly shows that hæreditas is here used as equivalent to "fee simple." I have also sundry other equally ancient deeds, by which lands were granted to be held "jure hæreditaris," or "liberè, quietè, hæreditariè, et in pace." Now these expressions plainly indicate, not that the land has descended to the party as heir, but that it is granted to him so absolutely that it may descend to his heir; in other words, that an estate of inheritance, and not merely for life or for years, is granted by the deed.

S. G. C.

Mr. Halliwell's exposition of the term "inheritance," quoted from the Shakspeare deed, is substantially correct, and there can be no question but that the sentence "heretofore the inheritance of William Shakspeare, Gent., deceased," was introduced in such deed, simply to show that Shakspeare was formerly the absolute owner in fee simple of the premises comprised therein, and not to indicate that he had acquired them by descent, either as heir of his father or mother, although he might have done so. As Mr. Halliwell appears to attach some importance to the word "purchase," as used by Cowell in his definition of the term "inheritance," the following explanation of the word "purchase" may not prove unacceptable to him.

Purchase—"Acquisitum, perquisitum, purchasium"—signifies the buying or acquisition of lands and tenements, with money, or by taking them by deed or agreement, and not by descent or hereditary right. (Lit. xii.; Reg. Orig., 143.) In Law a man is said to come in by purchase when he acquires lands by legal conveyance, and he hath a lawful estate; and a purchase is always intended by title, either from some consideration or by gift (for a gift is in Law a purchase), whereas descent from an ancestor cometh of course by act of law; also all contracts are comprehended under this word purchase. (Coke on Littleton, xviii., "Doctor and Student," c. 24.) Purchase, in opposition to descent, is taken largely: if an estate comes to a man from his ancestors without writing, that is a descent; but where a person takes an estate from an ancestor or others, by deed, will, or gift, and not as heir-at-law, that is a purchase. This explanation might be extended, but it is not necessary to carry it farther for the purpose of Mr. Halliwell's inquiry.


The word "inheritance" was used for hereditament, the former being merely the French form, the latter the Latin. Littleton (§ 9.) says:

"Et est ascavoir que cest parol (enheritance) nest pas tant solement entendus lou home ad terres ou tenementes per discent de heritage, mes auxi chescun fee simple ou taile que home ad per son purchase puit estre dit enheritance, pur ceo que ses heires luy purront enheriter. Car en briefe de droit que home portera de terre, que fuit de son purchase demesne, le briefe dira: Quam clamat esse jus et hereditamentum suum. Et issint serra dit en divers auters briefes, que home ou feme portera de son purchase demesne, come il appiert per le Register."


The word is still in use, and signifies what is capable of being inherited.

H. P.

Lincoln's Inn.


(Vol. ix., p. 10.)

Your correspondent W. H. M. has called my attention to his Note, and requested me to answer the third of his Queries.

The present rightful heir to the barony of Fairfax, should he wish to claim it, is a citizen of the United States, and a resident in the State of Virginia. He is addressed, as any other American gentleman would be, Mr., when personally spoken to, and as an Esquire in correspondence.

A friend of mine, Captain W., has thus kindly answered the other Queries of W. H. M.:

1. Sir Thomas Fairfax of Denton in Yorkshire was employed in several diplomatic affairs by Queen Elizabeth, and particularly in negotiations with James VI. of Scotland. By Charles I. he was created a peer of Scotland, his patent having been dated at Whitehall on Oct. 18, A.D. 1627.

2. The family of Fairfax never possessed property, or land, in Scotland, and had no connexion with that country beyond their peerage. Many English gentlemen were created peers of Scotland by the Stuart kings, although unconnected with the nation by descent or property. I may cite the following instances:—The old Yorkshire House of Constable of Burton received a peerage in the person of Sir Henry Constable of Burton and Halsham; by patent, dated Nov. 14, 1620, Sir Henry was created Viscount Dunbar and Lord Constable. Sir Walter Aston of Tixal in Staffordshire, Bart., was created Baron Aston of Forfar by Charles I., Nov. 28, 1627. And, lastly, Sir Thomas Osborne of Kineton, Bart., was created by Charles II., Feb. 2, 1673, Viscount Dumblane.

3. Answered.

4. William Fairfax, fourth son of Henry Fairfax of Tolston, co. York, second son of Henry, fourth Lord Fairfax, settled in New England in America, and was agent for his cousin Thomas, sixth lord, and had the entire management of his estates in Virginia. His third and only surviving son, Bryan Fairfax, was in holy orders, and resided in the United States. On the death of Robert, seventh Lord Fairfax, July 15, 1793, this Bryan went to England and preferred his claim to the peerage, which was determined in his favour by the House of Lords. He then returned to America. Bryan Fairfax married a Miss Elizabeth Cary, and had several children. (Vide Douglas, and Burke's Peerage.)

There are several English families who possess Scottish peerages, but they are derived from Scottish ancestors, as Talmash, Radclyffe, Eyre, &c.

Perhaps the writer may be permitted to inform your correspondent W. H. M. that the term "subject" is more commonly and correctly applied to a person who owes allegiance to a crowned head, and "citizen" to one who is born and lives under a republican form of government.

W. W.


1. Thomas, first Lord Fairfax (descended from a family asserted to have been seated at Towcester, co. Northampton, at the time of the Norman invasion and subsequently of note in Yorkshire), accompanied the Earl of Essex into France, temp. Eliz., and was knighted by him in the camp before Rouen. He was created a peer of Scotland, 4th May, 1627; but why of Scotland, or for what services, I know not.

2. I cannot discover that the family ever possessed lands in Scotland. They were formerly owners of Denton Castle, co. York (which they sold to the family of Ibbetson, Barts.), and afterwards of Leeds Castle, Kent.

3. Precise information on this point is looked for from some transatlantic correspondent.

4. The claim of the Rev. Bryan, eighth Lord Fairfax, was admitted by the House of Lords, 6th May, 1800 (H. L. Journals). He was, I presume, born before the acknowledgment of independence.

5. The title seems to be erroneously retained in the Peerages, as the gentleman now styled Lord Fairfax cannot, it is apprehended, be a natural-born subject of the British Crown, or capable of inheriting the dignity. It seems, therefore, that the peerage, if not extinct, awaits another claimant. As a direct authority, I may refer to the case of the Scottish earldom of Newburgh, in the succession to which the next heir (the Prince Gustiniani), being an alien, was passed over as a legal nonentity. (See Riddell on Scottish Peerages, p. 720.) There is another case not very easily reconcilable with the last, viz. that of the Earl of Athlone, who, though a natural-born subject of the Prince of Orange, was on 10th March, 1795, permitted to take his seat in the House of Lords in Ireland (Journals H. L. I.). Perhaps some correspondent will explain this case.

H. G.


Mr. Lyte on Collodion.—When I had the pleasure of meeting you in London, I promised that I would write to you from this place, and give you a detailed account of my method of making the collodion, of which I left a sample with you; but since then have been making a series of experiments, with a view, first, to simplifying my present formulæ, and next, to produce two collodions, one of great sensibility, the other of rather slower action, but producing better half-tones. I have also been considering the subject of {157}printing, and the best methods of producing those beautiful black tints which are so much prized; and I think that, although the processes formerly given all of them produce this effect with tolerable certainty, yet many operators, in common with myself, have met with the most provoking failures on this head, where they felt the most certain of good results.

I do not pretend to make a collodion which is different in its ingredients from that compounded by others. The only thing is that I am anxious to define the best proportions for making it, and to give a formula which even the most unpractised operator may work by. First, to produce the collodion I always use the soluble paper prepared according to the method indicated by Mr. Crookes, and to which I adverted in "N. & Q.," Vol. viii., p. 252. Take of colourless nitric acid of 1.50, and sulphuric acid of 1.60, equal quantities by measure, and mix them; then plunge into the mixture as much of the best Swedish filtering paper (Papier Joseph is also very good) as the liquid will cover; it must be placed in it a single piece at a time. Cover the basin, and let it remain a night, or at least some hours. Then pour off the liquid, and wash the paper till its washings cease to taste the least acid, or to redden litmus paper. Then dry it. Of this paper I take 180 grains to one pint of ether, and having placed them together, I add alcohol drop by drop, till the ether begins to dissolve the paper, which will be denoted by the paper becoming quite transparent. I have rather increased the quantity of paper to be added, as the after treatment rather thins the collodion. This, when shaken up and completely dissolved, forms the collodion. To sensitize I use two preparations, one prepared with potassium, the other with ammonium compounds; and, contrary to what many operators find the case, I find that the potassium gives the most rapid results. To prepare the potassium sensitizer, I take two bottles of, we will suppose, 6 oz. each; into one of these I put about half an ounce of iodide of potassium in fine powder, and into the other an equal quantity of bromide of potassium, also pounded; we will call these No. 1. and No. 2. I fill the bottle No. 1. with absolute alcohol, taking great care that there is no oxide of amyle in it, as that seriously interferes with the action of the collodion. After leaving the alcohol in No. 1. for two hours, or thereabouts, constantly shaking it, let it settle, and then quite clear decant it off into No. 2., where leave it again, with constant shaking, for two hours, and when settled decant the clear liquid into a third bottle for use. The oxide of amyle may be detected by taking a portion of the alcohol between the palms of the hands, and rubbing them together, till the alcohol evaporates, after which, should oxide of amyle be present, it will easily be detected by its smell, which is not unlike that exhaled by a diseased potato. Of the liquid prepared, take one part to add to every three parts of collodion. The next, or ammonium sensitizer, is made as follows. Take

Absolute alcohol 10 oz.
Iodide of ammon. 100 grs.
Bromide of ammon. 25 grs.

Mix, and when dissolved, take one part to three of collodion, as before. I feel certain that on a strict adherence to the correct proportion depends all the success of photography; and as we find in the kindred process of the daguerrotype, that if we add too much or too little of the bromine sensitizer, we make the plate less sensitive, so in this process. When making the first of these sensitizers, I always in each case let the solution attain a temperature of about 60º before decanting, so as to attain a perfectly equable compound on all occasions.

In the second, or ammonium sensitizer, the solution may be assisted by a moderate heat, and when again cooled, may advantageously be filtered to separate any sediment which may exist; but neither of these liquids should ever be exposed to great cold.

I dissolve in my bath of nitrate of silver as much freshly precipitated bromide of silver as it will take up. Next, as to the printing of positives to obtain black tints, the only condition necessary to produce this result is having an acid nitrate bath; whether the positive be printed on albumen paper, or common salted paper, the result will always be the same. I have tried various acids in the bath, viz. nitric, sulphuric, tartaric, and acetic, and prefer the latter, as being the most manageable, and having a high equivalent. The paper I now constantly use is common salted paper, prepared as follows. Take

Chloride of barium 180 grs.
Chloride of ammon. 100 grs.
Chloride of potassium 140 grs.
Water 10 oz.

Mix, and pour into a dish and lay the paper on the liquid, wetting only one side; when it has lain there for about five minutes if French paper has been used, if English paper till it ceases to curl and falls flat on the liquid, let it be hung up by a bent pin to dry. These salts are better than those generally recommended, as they do not form such deliquescent salts when decomposed as the chloride of sodium does, and for this reason I should have even avoided the chloride of ammonium, only that it so much assists the tints; however, in company with the other salts, the nitrate of ammon. formed does not much take up the atmospheric moisture, and I have never found it stain an even unvarnished negative. To sensitize this paper take

Nitrate of silver 500 grs.
Acetic acid, glacial 2 drs.
Water 5 oz.

Mix, and lay the paper on this solution for not less than five minutes, and if English paper, double that time. The hyposulphite to be used may be a very strong solution of twenty to twenty-five per cent., and this mode of treatment will always be found to produce fine tints. After some time it will be found that the nitrate bath will lose its acidity, and a drachm of acetic acid may be again added, when the prints begin to take a red tone: this will again restore the blacks. Lastly, the bath may of itself get too weak, and then it will be best to place it on one side, and recover the silver by any of the usual methods, and make a new bath. One word about the addition of the bromide of {158}silver to the double iodide, as recommended by Dr. Diamond. I tried this, and feel most confident that it produces no difference; as soon as the bromide of silver comes in contact with the iodide of potassium, double decomposition ensues, and iodide of silver is formed. Indeed, farther, this very double decomposition, or a similar one, is the basis of a patent I have just taken for at the same time refining silver and manufacturing iodide of potassium; a process by which I much hope the enormous present price of iodide of potassium will be much lowered.

F. Maxwell Lyte.

Hôtel de l'Europe,
à Pau, Basses Pyrénées.

P.S.—Since writing the former part of this letter, I see in La Lumière a paper on the subject of printing positives, in part of which the addition of nitric acid is recommended to the bath; but as my experiments have been quite independent of theirs, and my process one of a different nature, I still send it to you. When I have an opportunity, I will send a couple of specimens of my workmanship. I had prepared some for the Exhibition, but could not get them off in time. I may add that the developing agent I use is the same in every way as that I have before indicated through the medium of your pages; but where formic acid cannot be got, the best developer is made as follows:

Pyrogallic acid 27 grs.
Acetic acid 6 drs.
Water 9 oz.

On Sensitive Collodion.—As I have lately received many requests from friends upon the subject of the most sensitive collodion, I am induced to send you a few words upon it.

Since my former communication, I believe a greater certainty of manufacture has been attained, whereby the operator may more safely rely upon uniformity of success.

I have not only tried every purchasable collodion, but my experiments have been innumerable, especially in respect to the ammoniated salts, and I may, I think, safely affirm that all preparations containing ammonia ought to be rejected. Often, certainly, great rapidity of action is obtained; but that collodion which acted so well on one day may, on the following, become comparatively useless, from the change which appears so frequently to take place in the ammoniacal compounds. That blackening and fogging, of which so much has been said, I much think is one of the results of ammonia; but not having, in my own manipulations, met with the difficulty, I have little personal experience upon the subject.

The more simple a collodion is the better; and the following, from its little varying and active qualities, I believe to be equal to any now in use.

A great deal has also been said upon the preparation of the simple collodion, and that some samples, however good apparently, never sensitize in a satisfactory manner. I have not experienced this difficulty myself, or any appreciable variation.

The collodion made from the Swedish filtering paper, or the papier Joseph, is preferable, from the much greater care with which it is used.

If slips of either of these papers be carefully and completely immersed for four hours in a mixture of an equal part (by weight) of strong nitric acid or nitrous acid (the aqua fortis of commerce) and strong sulphuric acid, then perfectly washed, so as to get entirely rid of the acids, the result will be an entirely soluble material. About 100 grains of dry paper to a pint (twenty ounces) of ether will form a collodion of the desired consistence for photographic purposes. If too thick, it may be reduced by pure ether or alcohol. However carefully this soluble paper or the gun cotton is prepared, it is liable to decompose even when kept with care. I would therefore advise it to be mixed with the ether soon after preparation, as the simple collodion keeps exceedingly well. Excellent simple collodion is to be procured now at the reasonable price of eight shillings the pint, which will to many be more satisfactory than trusting to their own operations.

To make the sensitizing Fluid.—Put into a clean stoppered bottle, holding more than the quantity required so as to allow of free shaking, six drachms of iodide of potassium and one drachm of bromide of potassium; wet them with one drachm of distilled water first, then pour into the bottle ten ounces of spirits of wine (not alcohol); shake frequently until dissolved. After some hours, if the solution has not taken place, add a few more drops of water, the salts being highly soluble in water, though sparingly so in rectified spirits; but care must be taken not to add too much, as it prevents the subsequent adhesion of the collodion film to the glass.

A drachm and a half to two drachms, according to the degree of intensity desired, added to the ounce of the above collodion, which should have remained a few days to settle before sensitizing, I find to act most satisfactorily; in fine weather it is instantaneous, being, after a good shake, fit for immediate use. If the sensitive collodion soon assumes a reddish colour, it is improved by the addition of one or two drops of a saturated solution of cyanide of potassium; but great care must be used, as this salt is very active.

Hugh W. Diamond.

Replies to Minor Queries.

Portrait of Alva (Vol. ix., p. 76.).—There is a fine portrait of the Duke of Alva in the Royal Museum at Amsterdam, by D. Barendz (No. 14. in the Catalogue of 1848); and Mr. Warden will find a spirited etching of him, decorated with the Order of the Golden Fleece, in the Historia Belgica of Meteranus (folio, 1597), at p. 63. The latter portrait is very Quixotic in aspect at the first glance, but the expression becomes more Satanic as the eye rests on it.


Lord Mayor of London not a Privy Councillor (Vol. iv. passim; Vol. ix., p. 137.).—L. Hartly a little misstates Mr. Serjeant Merewether's evidence. The learned serjeant only said that "he believed" the fact was so. But he was undoubtedly mistaken, probably from confounding {159}the Privy Council (at which the Lord Mayor never appeared) with a meeting of other persons (nobility, gentry, and others), who assemble on the same occasion in a different room, and to which meeting (altogether distinct from the Privy Council) the Lord Mayor is always summoned, as are the sheriffs, aldermen, and a number of other notabilities, not privy councillors. This matter is conclusively explained in Vol. iv., p.284.; but if more particular evidence be required, it will be found in the London Gazette of the 20th June, 1837, where the names of the privy councillors are given in one list to the number of eighty-three, and in another list the names of the persons attending the meeting to the number of above 150, amongst whom are the local mayor, sheriffs, under-sheriffs, aldermen, common sergeants, city solicitor, &c. As "N & Q." has reproduced the mistake, it is proper that it should also reproduce the explanation.


New Zealander and Westminster Bridge (Vol. ix., p. 74.).—Before I saw the thought in Walpole's letter to Sir H. Mann, quoted in "N. & Q.," I ventured to suppose that Mrs. Barbauld's noble poem, Eighteen Hundred and Eleven, might have suggested Mr. Macaulay's well-known passage. The following extracts extracts describe the wanderings of those who—

"With duteous zeal, their pilgrimage shall take,

From the blue mountains on Ontario's lake,

With fond adoring steps to press the sod,

By statesmen, sages, poets, heroes, trod."

"Pensive and thoughtful shall the wanderers greet

Each splendid square, and still untrodden street;

Or of some crumbling turret, mined by time,

The broken stairs with perilous step shall climb,

Thence stretch their view the wide horizon round,

By scatter'd hamlets trace its ancient bound,

And choked no more with fleets, fair Thames survey,

Through reeds and sedge pursue his idle way.

    .      .      .      .      .      .  

Oft shall the strangers turn their eager feet,

The rich remains of ancient art to greet,

The pictured walls with critic eye explore,

And Reynolds be what Raphael was before,

On spoils from every clime their eyes shall gaze,

Egyptian granites and the Etruscan vase;

And when, 'midst fallen London, they survey

The stone where Alexander's ashes lay,

Shall own with humble pride the lesson just,

By Time's slow finger written in the dust."

J. M.

Cranwells, near Bath.

The beautiful conception of the New Zealander at some future period visiting England, and giving a sketch of the ruins of London, noticed in "N. & Q." as having been suggested to Macaulay by a passage in one of Walpole's letters to Sir H. Mann, will be found more broadly expressed in Kirke White's Poem on Time. Talking of the triumphs of Oblivion, he says:

"Meanwhile the Arts, in second infancy,

Rise in some distant clime; and then, perchance,

Some bold adventurer, fill'd with golden dreams,

Steering his bark through trackless solitudes,

Where, to his wandering thoughts, no daring prow

Had ever plough'd before,—espies the cliffs

Of fallen Albion. To the land unknown

He journeys joyful; and perhaps descries

Some vestige of her ancient stateliness:

Then he with vain conjecture fills his mind

Of the unheard-of race, which had arrived

At science in that solitary nook,

Far from the civil world; and sagely sighs,

And moralises on the state of man."

This hardly reads like a borrowed idea; and I should lean to a belief that it was not. Kirke White's Poems and Letters are but too little read.

J. S.


Cui Bono (Vol. ix., p. 76.).—Reference to a dictionary would have settled this. According to Freund, "Cui bono fuit=Zu welchem Zwecke, or Wozu war es gut?" That is, To what purpose? or, For whose good?


The syntax of this common phrase, with the ellipses supplied, is, "Cui homini fuerit bono negotio?" To what person will it be an advantage? Literally, or more freely rendered, Who will be the gainer by it? It was (see Ascon. in Cicer. pro Milone, c. xii.) the usual query of Lucius Cassius, the Roman judge, implying that the person benefiting by any crime was implicated therein. (Consult Facciolati's Dict. in voce Bonum.)


The correct rendering of this phrase is undoubtedly that given by F. Newman, "For the benefit of whom?" but it is generally used in such a manner as to make it indifferent whether that, or the corrupted signification "For what good?" was intended by the writer making use of it. The latter is, however, the idea generally conveyed to the mind, and in this sense it is used by the best writers. Thus, e.g.:

"The question 'cui bono,' to what practical end and advantage do your researches tend? is one," &c.—Herschel's Discourse on Nat. Philosophy, p. 10.

William Bates.


Barrels Regiment (Vol. viii., p. 620.; Vol. ix., p. 63.).—I am obliged to H. B. C. for his attention to my Query, though it does not quite answer my purpose, which was to learn the circumstances which occasioned a print in my possession, entitled "The Old Scourge returned to Barrels." It represents a regiment, the body of each {160}soldier being in the form of a barrel, drawn up within view of Edinburgh Castle. A soldier is tied up to the halberts in order to be flogged; the drummer intercedes: "Col., he behaved well at Culloden." An officer also intercedes: "Pray Col. forgive him, he's a good man." The Col.'s reply is, "Flog the villain, ye rascal." Under the print—"And ten times a day whip the Barrels." I want to know who this flogging Col. was; and anything more about him which gained for him the unenviable title of Old Scourge.

E. H.

Sir Matthew Hale (Vol. ix., p. 77.).—From Sir Matthew Hale, who was born at Alderley, descends the present family of Hale of Alderley, co. Gloucestershire. The eldest son of the head of the family represents West Gloucestershire in parliament. The Estcourts of Estcourt, co. Gloucestershire, are, I believe, also connexions of the family of Hale.

Mackenzie Walcott, M.A.

The descendants of Sir Matthew Hale still live at Alderley, near Wotton Underedge, in Gloucestershire. I believe a Mr. Blagdon married the heiress of Hale, and took her name. The late Robert Blagdon Hale, Esq., married Lady Theodosia Bourke, daughter of the late Lord Mayo, and had two sons. Robert, the eldest, and present possessor of Alderley, married a Miss Holford. Matthew, a clergyman, also married; who appears by the Clergy List to be Archdeacon of Adelaide, South Australia. Mr. John Hale, of Gloucester, is their uncle, and has a family.

Julia R. Bockett.

Southcote Lodge.

The Hales of Alderley in Gloucestershire claim descent from Sir Matthew Hale, born and buried there. (See Atkins, p. 107.; Rudder, p. 218., and Bigland, p. 30.) When Mr. Hale of Alderley was High Sheriff of Gloucestershire in 1826, the judge then on circuit made a complimentary allusion to it in court. The descent is in the female line, and the name was assumed in 1784.


Scotch Grievance (Vol. ix., p. 74.).—The Scottish coins of James VI., Charles I., William, have on the reverse a shield, bearing 1. and 4. Scotland; 2. France and England quarterly; 3. Irish harp.

Edw. Hawkins.

Under this head A Descendant of Scottish Kings asks: "Can any coin be produced, from the accession of James VI. to the English throne, on which the royal arms are found, with Scotland in the first quarter, and England in the second?"

Will you kindly inform your querist, that in my collection I have several such coins, viz. a shilling of Charles I.; a mark of Charles II., date 1669; a forty-shilling piece of William III., date 1697: on each Scotland is first and third. I shall be most happy to submit these to your inspection, or send them for the satisfaction of your correspondent.

F. J. Williams.

24. Mark Lane.

"Merciful Judgments of High Church," &c. (Vol. ix., p. 97.).—The author of this tract, according to the Bodleian Catalogue, was Matthew Tindal.



Robert Dudley, Earl of Leicester (Vol. ix., p. 105.).—I can refer A. S. to Camden's History of Elizabeth, where, under the year 1588, it related,—

"Neither was the publick joy anything abated by Leicester's death, who about this time, namely, on the 4th day of September, died of a continuall fever upon the way as he went towards Killingworth."

I can also refer him to Sir William Dugdale's Baronage of England, vol. ii. p. 222., where I find it stated that he—

"Design'd to retire unto his castle at Kenilworth. But being on his journey thitherwards, at Cornbury Park in Com. Oxon., he died upon the fourth of September, an. 1588, of a feaver, as 'twas said, and was buried at Warwick, where he hath a noble monument."

But neither in the above writers, nor in any more recent account of his life, have I seen his death ascribed to poison. The ground on which Stanfield Hall has been regarded as the birthplace of Amy Robsart is, that her parents Sir John and Lady Elizabeth Robsart resided at Stanfield Hall in 1546, according to Blomefield in his History of Norfolk, though where he resided at his daughter's birth does not appear.



Fleet Prison (Vol. ix., p. 76.).—A list of the wardens will be found in Burn's History of Fleet Marriages, 2nd edit., 1834. Occasional notices of the under officers will also there be met with, and a list of wardens' and jailors' fees.


The Commons of Ireland previous to the Union in 1801 (Vol. ix., p.35.).—Allow me to inform C. H. D. that I have in my possession a copy (with MS. notes) of Sketches of Irish Political Characters of the present Day, showing the Parts they respectively take on the Question of the Union, what Places they hold, their Characters as Speakers, &c., 8vo. pp. 312, London, 1799. Is this the book he wants? I know nothing of its author nor of the Rev. Dr. Scott.


"Les Lettres Juives" (Vol. viii., p. 541.).—The author of Les Lettres Juives was Jean Baptiste de Boyer, Marquis d'Argens, one of the most prolific and amusing writers of the eighteenth century. {161}His principal works are, Histoire de l'Esprit Humain, Les Lettres Juives, Les Lettres Chinoises, Les Lettres Cabalistiques, and his Philosophie du bons Sens. Perhaps your correspondent may be interested to learn that a reply to the Lettres Juives was published in 1739, La Haye, three vols. in twelve, by Aubert de la Chenaye Des-Bois under the title of Correspondence historique, philosophique et critique, pour servir de réponse aux Lettres Juives.

Henry H. Breen.

Sir Philip Wentworth (Vol. vii., p. 42.; Vol. viii., pp. 104. 184.).—In Wright's Essex, vol. i. p. 645., Sir Philip Wentworth is said to have married Mary, daughter of John, Lord Clifford. I do not recollect that Wright cites authority. I know he has more than one error respecting the Gonsles, who are in the same pedigree.


General Fraser (Vol. viii., p. 586.).—Simon Fraser, Lieut.-Colonel, 24th Regiment, and Brigadier-General was second in command under Burgoyne when he advanced from Canada to New York with 7000 men in 1777. He fell at Stillwater, a short time before the surrender of Burgoyne at Saratoga. He was struck by a shot from a tree, as he was advancing at the head of his troops; and died of his wound October 7, 1777. He was buried, as he had desired, in the redoubt on the field, in the front of the American army commanded by General Gates. During his interment, the incessant cannonade of the enemy covered with dust the chaplain and the officers who assisted in performing the last duties to his remains, they being within view of the greatest part of both armies. An impression long prevailed among the officers of Burgoyne's army, that if Fraser had lived, the issue of the campaign, and of the whole war, would have been very different from what it was. Burgoyne is said to have shed tears at his death. General Fraser's regiment had been employed under Wolfe in ascending the Heights of Abraham, Sept. 12, 1759; where, both before and after the fall of Wolfe, the Highlanders rendered very efficient service. His regiment was also engaged with three others under Murray at the battle of Quebec in 1760. Some incidental mention of General Fraser will be found in Cannon's History of the 31st Regiment, published by Furnivall, 30. Whitehall; but I am not aware of any memoirs or life of him having been published.

J. C. B.

Namby-Pamby (Vol. viii., pp 318. 390.).—Henry Carey, the author of Chrononhotonthologos, and of The Dragoness of Wantley, wrote also a work called Namby-Pamby, in burlesque of Ambrose Phillips's style of poetry; and the title of it was probably intended to trifle with that poet's name. Mr. Macaulay, in his Essay on Addison and his Writings, speaks of Ambrose Phillips, who was a great adulator of Addison, as—

"A middling poet, whose verses introduced a species of composition which has been called after his name, Namby-Pamby."

D. W. S.

The Word "Miser" (Vol. ix., p. 12.).—Cf. the use of the word miserable in the sense of miserly, mentioned amongst other Devonianisms at Vol. vii., p. 544. And see Trench's remarks on this word (Study of Words, p. 38. of 2nd edit.).

H. T. G.


The Forlorn Hope (Vol. viii, p. 569.), i.e. the advanced guard.—This explains what has always been to me a puzzling expression in Gurnall's Christian in Complete Armour (p. 8. of Tegg's 8vo. edit., 1845):

"The fearful are in the forlorn of those that march for hell."

See Rev. xxi. 8., where "the fearful and unbelieving" stand at the head of the list of those who "shall have their part in the lake which burneth with fire and brimstone."

H. T. G.


The true origin and meaning of forlorn hope has no doubt been fully explained in "N & Q.," Vol. viii., p. 569. Richardson's Dictionary does not countenance this view, but his example proves it conclusively. He only gives one quotation, from North's Plutarch; and as it stands in the dictionary, it is not easy to comprehend the passage entirely. On comparing it, however, with the corresponding passage in Langhorne (Valpy's edition, vol. iii. p. 97.), and again with Pompei's Italian version (vol. iii. p. 49.), I have no doubt that, by the term forlorn hope, North implied merely an advanced party; for as he is describing a pitched battle and not a siege, a modern forlorn hope would be strangely out of place.

Is enfans perdus the idiomatic French equivalent, or is it only dictionary-French? And what is the German or the Italian expression?

R. Cary Barnard.


Thornton Abbey (Vol. viii., p. 469.).—In the Archæological Journal, vol. ii. p. 357., may be found not only an historical and architectural account of this building, but several views; with architectural details of mouldings, &c.

H. T. G.


"Quid facies," &c. (Vol. viii., p. 539. Vol. ix., p. 18.).—In a curious work written by the Rev. John Warner, D.D., called Metronariston, these lines (as printed in Vol. ix., p. 18.) are quoted, and stated to be—

"A punning Epigram on Scylla as a type of Lust, cited by Barnes."


I have not the Metronariston with me, and therefore cannot refer to the page.

D. W. S.

Christ-Cross-Row (Vol. iii., pp. 330. 465.; Vol. viii., p. 18.).—Quarles (Embl. ii. 12.) gives a passage from St. Augustine commencing,—"Christ's cross is the Christ-cross of all our happiness," but he gives no exact reference.

Wordsworth speaks of

"A look or motion of intelligence

From infant conning of the Christ-cross-row."

Excurs. viii. p. 305.

These lines suggest the Query, Is this term for the alphabet still in use? and, if so, in what parts of the country?


Sir Walter Scott, and his Quotations from himself (Vol. ix, p. 72.).—I beg to submit to you the following characteristic similarity of expression, occurring in one of the poems and one of the novels of Sir Walter Scott. I am not aware whether attention has been drawn to it in the letters of Mr. Adolphus and Mr. Heber, as I have not the work at hand to consult:

"His grasp, as hard as glove of mail,

Forced the red blood-drop from the nail."

Rokeby, Canto I. Stan. 15.

"He wrung the Earl's hand with such frantic earnestness, that his grasp forced the blood to start under the nail."—Legend of Montrose.

N. L. T.

Nightingale and Thorn (Vol. viii., p. 527.).—Add Young's Night Thoughts, Night First, vers. 440-445.:

"Griefs sharpest thorn hard pressing on my breast,

I strive with wakeful melody to cheer

The sullen gloom, sweet Philomel! like thee,

And call the stars to listen—every star

Is deaf to mine, enamour'd of thy lay."

H. T. G.


Female Parish Clerks (Vol. viii., p. 474.).—Within the last half-century, a Mrs. Sheldon discharged the duties of this post at the parish church of Wheatley, five miles from Oxford, and near Cuddesdon, the residence of the Bishop of Oxford. This clerkship was previously filled by her husband; but, upon his demise, she became his successor. It is not a week since that I saw a relation who was an eye-witness of this fact.

Percy M. Hart.


Hour-glass Stand (Vol. ix., p. 64.).—There is an hour-glass stand of very quaintly wrought iron, painted in various colours, attached to the pulpit at Binfield, Berks.

J. R. M., M.A.



The Rev. Edward Trollope, F.S.A., wisely conceiving that an illustrated work, comprising specimens of the arms, armour, jewellery, furniture, vases, &c., discovered at Pompeii and Herculaneum, might be acceptable to those numerous readers to whom the magnificent volumes, published by the Neapolitan government, are inaccessible, has just issued a quarto volume under the title of Illustrations of Ancient Art, selected from Objects discovered at Pompeii and Herculaneum. The various materials which he has selected from the Museo Borbonico, and other works, and a large number of his own sketches, have been carefully classified; and we think few will turn from an examination of the forty-five plates of Mr. Trollope's admirable outlines, without admiring the good taste with which the various subjects have been selected, and acknowledging the light which they throw upon the social condition, the manners, customs, and domestic life, of the Roman people.

As the great Duke of Marlborough confessed that he acquired his knowledge of his country's annals in the historical plays of Shakspeare, so we believe there are many who find it convenient and agreeable to study them in Miss Strickland's Lives of the Queens of England. To all such it will be welcome news that the first and second volumes of a new and cheaper edition, and which comprise the lives of all our female sovereigns, from Matilda of Flanders to the unfortunate Anne Boleyn, are now ready; and will be followed month by month by the remaining six. At the close of the work, we may take an opportunity of examining the causes of the great popularity which it has attained.

Mr. M. A. Lower has just published a small volume of antiquarian gossip, under the title of Contributions to Literature, Historical, Antiquarian, and Metrical, in which he discourses pleasantly on Local Nomenclature, the Battle of Hastings, the Iron Works of the South-East of England, the South Downs, Genealogy, and many kindred subjects; and tries his hand, by no means unsuccessfully, at some metrical versions of old Sussex legends. Several of the papers have already appeared in print, but they serve to make up a volume which will give the lover of popular antiquities an evening's pleasant reading.

We beg to call the attention of our readers to the opportunity which will be afforded them on Wednesday next of hearing Mr. Layard lecture on his recent Discoveries at Nineveh. As they will see by the advertisement in our present Number, Mr. Layard has undertaken to do so for the purpose of contributing to the schools and other parochial charities of the poor but densely populated district of St. Thomas, Stepney.

Books Received.—Mantell's Geological Excursions round the Isle of Wight, &c. This reprint of one of the many valuable contributions to geological knowledge by the late lamented Dr. Mantell, forms the new volume of Bohn's Scientific Library.—Retrospective Review, No. VI., containing interesting articles on Drayton, Lambarde, Penn, Leland, and other writers of note in English literature.—Dr. Lardner's Museum of {163}Science and Art, besides a farther portion of the inquiry, "The Planets, are they inhabited Worlds?" contains essays on latitudes and longitudes, lunar influences, and meteoric stones and shooting stars.—Gibbon's Rome, with Variorum Notes, Vol. II. In a notice prefixed to the present volume, which is one of Mr. Bohn's series of British Classics, the publisher, after describing the advantages of the present edition as to print, paper, editing, &c., observes: "The publisher of the unmutilated edition of Humboldt's Cosmos hopes he has placed himself beyond the suspicion of mutilating Gibbon."


Wanted To Purchase.

Torrens on Wages and Combinations. Longmans. 1834.

*** Letters, stating particulars and lowest price, carriage free, to be sent to Mr. Bell, Publisher of "NOTES AND QUERIES," 186. Fleet Street.

Particulars of Price, &c. of the following Books to be sent direct to the gentlemen by whom they are required, and whose names and addresses are given for that purpose:

Wilkinson's Ancient Egypt. Vols. IV. and V.

Baxter's Flowering Plants. Plain or coloured.

Evelyn's Diary. 5 Vols. 8vo.

Pepys's Diary. 5 vols. 8vo.

Transactions of Geographical Society. Parts or Volumes.

Life of Bishop Ken, by Anderdon.

Percival's Roman Schism.

Wanted by Simms & Son, Booksellers, Bath.

One or two Plans of the Harbour of Cronstadt, showing the Mole, Man-of-war's Mole, Fortress, Fortress of Cronslott opposite, as well as all the Fortresses that are erected in the Shallows defending the Approach, &c.

Wanted by H. E. Baseley, 9. Old Broad Street.

Bible Prints, either Line Engraving, Mezzotint, or Wood, and either with or without Letter-press, for the purpose of binding with a 4to. Edition of "Matthew Henry's Commentary on the Bible."

Wanted by John Garland, Solicitor, Dorchester.

The British Preserve, etched by S. Howitt. Prints, 2. The Badger, and 6. The Stag.

Wanted by Mr. James Pascoe, Solicitor, Penzance.

An Account of the Ministers, &c., who were Ejected or Silenced after the Restoration in 1660, by or before the Act for Uniformity. Second Edition. Vol. I. By Edmund Calamy, D.D. 1713.

Wanted by John Nurse Chadwick, Solicitor, King's Lynn, Norfolk.

Sanders' History of Shenstone, in Staffordshire.

Wanted by C. J. D., Post Office, Stourbridge, Worcestershire.

The Hive, having the First Edition of Vol. I.

Wanted by Fred. Dinsdale, Esq., Leamington.

Dublin University Calendars and Examination Papers for 1835, 1836, 1844, 1845.

Sheridan's (Thos.) Lectures on the Art of Reading. 8vo. Lond. 1781.

Blacker's (Col. Val.) Memoirs of the Operations of the British Army in India during the Mahratta War of 1817, 1818, and 1819. 4to. Lond. 1821. Also, by the same, a Map of Hindostan, from his own survey.

Parker's (Capt. Robert) Memoirs of the most remarkable military transactions from 1683 to 1718. 8vo. Lond. 1747.

Wanted by Rev. B. H. Blacker, 11. Pembroke Road, Dublin.

Allister's Paradigma Chess Openings.

Russell's Elements of Painting with Crayons. 1772.

Phillip's Life of Smith (the Geologist).

Hirscher's Sympathies of the Continent, translated by Coxe. J. H. Parker. 1852.

Sir H. Nicolas's Edition of Walton and Cotton's Angler.

Windsor Castle, by Ainsworth. The original edition, 8vo. with Plates.

Wanted by Mr. Hayward, Bookseller, Bath.

Wordsworth's Poetical Works. 6 vols. 12mo. Moxon. Vol. I. Morocco. (The missing volume was lent to a student at Cambridge by C. B. W. in 1844.)

Roscoe's Italian Novelist. Second Edition. 4 Vols. 12mo. Vol. III.

First or Early Edition of The Christian World Unmasked, by John Berridge.

John Berridge's Works. 8vo. Simpkin & Co.

Geo. Sandys' Paraphrase of the Psalms. Small Edition.

Poems by George Withers. Separate or Collected.

Drayton's Poems. 12mo. Edition.

Walton's Lives. Tonson or Dodsley. 1-Vol. Edition.

Paxton's Magazine of Botany. Nos. 169. and 179. Orr & Co.

Wanted by Mr. Hiscoke, Bookseller, Richmond, Surrey.

Notices to Correspondents.

J. B. Whitborne. Where shall we address a letter to this Correspondent?

Oxford Jeu d'Esprit. We hope next week to lay before our Oxford friends a reprint of a clever jeu d'esprit, which amused the University some five-and-thirty years since.

B. H. C. Will this Correspondent, who states (p. 135.) that he has found the termination -by in Sussex, be good enough to state the place to which he refers?

C. C. The ballad of "Fair Rosamond" is printed in Percy's Reliques, in the Pictorial Book of British Ballads, and many other places; but the lines quoted by our Correspondent—

"With that she dash'd her on the mouth,

And dyed a double wound"—

do not occur in it.

T. Φ. Biographical notices of the author of Drunken Barnaby will be found in Chalmers' and Rose's Dictionaries. The best account of Richard Brathwait is that by Joseph Haslewood, prefixed to his edition of Barnabæ Itinerarium.—Gurnall has been noticed in our Sixth Volume, pp. 414. 544.

W. Fraser. Bishop Atterbury's portrait, drawn by Kneller, and engraved by Vertue, is prefixed to vol. i. of the Bishop's Sermons and Discourses, edit. 1735. The portrait is an oval medallion; face round, nose prominent, with large eye-brows, double chin, and a high expansive forehead, features regular and pleasant, and indicative of intellect. He is drawn in his episcopal habit, with a full-dress curled wig; beneath are his arms, surmounted by the mitre.

I. R. R. The song "O the golden days of good Queen Bess!" will be found in The British Orpheus, a Selection of Songs and Airs, p. 274., with the music.

Trench on Proverbs. We cannot possibly find space for any further discussion of the translation of Ps. cxxvii. 2.

Blomefield's Norfolk.Gentlemen who possess a copy of this work will be kind enough to write to John Nurse Chadwick, Solicitor, King's Lynn, Norfolk, stating the fact, with their names and addresses, by letter, post paid.

Professor Hunt's Letter shall appear next week. We can well understand how a gentleman, who labours so assiduously in his scientific investigations, can have little time and feel little anxiety to produce merely pretty pictures. We are glad that the question was asked (we are sure only in a friendly spirit); and our photographic readers will be as glad to hear that an enlarged edition of Professor Hunt's Researches on Light may soon be expected.

C. E. F., Four Photographic Readers, and other Correspondents, shall receive due attention next week.

Our Eighth Volume in now bound and ready for delivery, price 10s. 6d., cloth, boards. A few sets of the whole Eight Volumes are being made up, price 4l. 4s.—For these early application is desirable.

"Notes and Queries" is published at noon on Friday, so that the Country Booksellers may receive Copies in that night's parcels, and deliver them to their Subscribers on the Saturday.




Instituted 1820.


WILLIAM R. ROBINSON, ESQ., Deputy-Chairman.


The SCALE OF PREMIUMS adopted by this Office will be found of a very moderate character, but at the same time quite adequate to the risk incurred.

FOUR-FIFTHS, or 80 per cent. of the Profits, are assigned to Policies every fifth year, and may be applied to increase the sum insured, to an immediate payment in cash, or to the reduction and ultimate extinction of future Premiums.

ONE-THIRD of the Premium on Insurances of 500l. and upwards, for the whole term of life, may remain as a debt upon the Policy, to be paid off at convenience; or the Directors will lend sums of 50l. and upwards, on the security of Policies effected with this Company for the whole term of life, when they have acquired an adequate value.

SECURITY.—Those who effect Insurances with this Company are protected by its Subscribed Capital of 750,000l., of which nearly 140,000l. is invested, from the risk incurred by Members of Mutual Societies.

The satisfactory financial condition of the Company, exclusive of the Subscribed and Invested Capital, will be seen by the following Statement:

On the 31st October, 1853, the sums Assured, including Bonus added, amounted to£2,500,000
The Premium Fund to more than 800,000
And the Annual Income from the same source, to 109,000

Insurances, without participation in Profits, may be effected at reduced rates.


PIANOFORTES, 25 Guineas each.—D'ALMAINE & CO., 20. Soho Square (established A.D. 1785), sole manufacturers of the ROYAL PIANOFORTES, at 25 Guineas each. Every instrument warranted. The peculiar advantages of these pianofortes are best described in the following professional testimonial, signed by the majority of the leading musicians of the age:—"We, the undersigned members of the musical profession, having carefully examined the Royal Pianofortes manufactured by MESSRS. D'ALMAINE & CO., have great pleasure in bearing testimony to their merits and capabilities. It appears to us impossible to produce instruments of the same size possessing a richer and finer tone, more elastic touch, or more equal temperament, while the elegance of their construction renders them a handsome ornament for the library, boudoir, or drawing-room. (Signed) J. L. Abel, F. Benedict, H. R. Bishop, J. Blewitt, J. Brizzi, T. P. Chipp, P. Delavanti, C. H. Dolby, E. F. Fitzwilliam, W. Forde, Stephen Glover, Henri Herz, E. Harrison, H. F. Hussé, J. L. Hatton, Catherine Hayes, W. H. Holmes, W. Kuhe, G. F. Kiallmark, E. Land, G. Lanza, Alexander Lee, A. Leffler, E. J. Loder, W. H. Montgomery, S. Nelson, G. A. Osborne, John Parry, H. Panofka, Henry Phillips, F. Praegar, E. F. Rimbault, Frank Romer, G. H. Rodwell, E. Rockel, Sims Reeves, J. Templeton, F. Weber, H. Westrop, T. H. Wright," &c.

D'ALMAINE & CO., 20. Soho Square. Lists and Designs Gratis.

HEAL & SON'S ILLUSTRATED CATALOGUE OF BEDSTEADS, sent free by post. It contains designs and prices of upwards of ONE HUNDRED different Bedsteads, in iron, brass, japanned wood, polished birch, mahogany, rosewood, and walnut-tree woods; also of every description of Bedding, Blankets, and Quilts.

HEAL & SON, Bedstead and Bedding Manufacturers, 196. Tottenham Court Road.



Founded A.D. 1842.


H. E. Bicknell, Esq.
T. S. Cocks, Jun. Esq., M.P.
G. H. Drew, Esq.
W. Evans, Esq.
W. Freeman, Esq.
F. Fuller, Esq.
J. H. Goodhart, Esq.
T. Grissell, Esq.
J. Hunt, Esq.
J. A. Lethbridge, Esq.
E. Lucas, Esq.
J. Lys Seager, Esq.
J. B. White, Esq.
J. Carter Wood, Esq.

Trustees.—W. Whateley, Esq., Q.C.; George Drew, Esq.,
T. Grissell, Esq.

Physician.—William Rich. Basham, M.D.
Bankers.—Messrs. Cocks, Biddulph, and Co., Charing Cross.


POLICIES effected in this Office do not become void through temporary difficulty in paying a Premium, as permission is given upon application to suspend the payment at interest, according to the conditions detailed in the Prospectus.

Specimens of Rates of Premium for Assuring 100l., with a Share in three-fourths of the Profits:—

Age £ s. d. Age £ s. d.
  17 1 14 4   32 2 10 8
  22 1 18 8   37 2 18 6
  27 2 4 5   42 3 8 2


Now ready, price 10s. 6d., Second Edition, with material additions, INDUSTRIAL INVESTMENT and EMIGRATION: being a TREATISE ON BENEFIT BUILDING SOCIETIES, and on the General Principles of Land Investment, exemplified in the Cases of Freehold Land Societies, Building Companies, &c. With a Mathematical Appendix on Compound Interest and Life Assurance. By ARTHUR SCRATCHLEY, M.A., Actuary to the Western Life Assurance Society, 3. Parliament Street, London.

PHOTOGRAPHIC CAMERAS.—OTTEWILL & MORGAN'S Manufactory, 24. & 25. Charlotte Terrace, Caledonian Road, Islington. OTTEWILL'S Registered Double Body Folding Camera, adapted for Landscapes or Portraits, may be had of A. ROSS, Featherstone Buildings, Holborn; the Photographic Institution, Bond Street; and at the Manufactory as above, where every description of Cameras, Slides, and Tripods may be had. The Trade supplied.

PHOTOGRAPHY.—HORNE & CO.'S Iodized Collodion, for obtaining Instantaneous Views, and Portraits in from three to thirty seconds, according to light.

Portraits obtained by the above, for delicacy of detail rival the choicest Daguerreotypes, specimens of which may be seen at their Establishment.

Also every description of Apparatus, Chemicals, &c. &c. used in this beautiful Art.—123. and 121. Newgate Street.

CALOTYPE PAPER prepared by Dr. Diamond's Process, 4s. per Quire. Albumenised ditto, 4s. ditto. Canson's Negative Paper for Mons. Le Gray's Process:—Waxed, 6s. per Quire; Iodized, 8s. ditto; Sensitive, available for Three Weeks, 13s., size 17½ by 11½, demy folio. Specimens of either Papers sent between Boards on Receipt of Carriage (Ten Stamps).

Sold by LUKE SAMS, 7. Adelphi Chambers, facing the Society of Arts; and retailed by J. B. HOCKIN & CO., 289. Strand, London.

Fcap. 8vo., 5s., cloth.

THOMAS à BECKET, and other Poems, by PATRICK SCOTT.

"Mr. Scott is a true poet."—Notes and Queries.

"He knows well where lie the springs of the highest poetic inspiration."—Critic.

"A volume of great ability."—Guardian.


WESTMINSTER HOSPITAL, Broad Sanctuary, opposite Westminster Abbey.—This Hospital was instituted in the year 1719, and is the oldest hospital in England supported by voluntary contributions. The high prices of provisions and coals have materially increased the current expenditure, and a sum of not less than 800l. is required to meet the payment of the tradesmen's bills to Christmas last. 16,000 persons are relieved annually, and the doors of the Hospital are open night and day for the reception of cases of accident and urgent disease. The Committee earnestly entreat the aid of the benevolent at the present time.

Donations and subscriptions will be thankfully received by MESSRS. BOUVERIE & CO., 11. Haymarket; MESSRS. HOARE & CO., Fleet Street; by the HON. P. PLEYDELL BOUVERIE, and P. R. HOARE, ESQ., the joint Treasurers; or by the Secretary at the Hospital.

F. G. WILSON, Secretary.

W. H. HART, RECORD AGENT and LEGAL ANTIQUARIAN (who is in the possession of Indices to many of the early Public Records whereby his Inquiries are greatly facilitated) begs to inform Authors and Gentlemen engaged in Antiquarian or Literary Pursuits, that he is prepared to undertake searches among the Public Records, MSS. in the British Museum, Ancient Wills, or other Depositories of a similar Nature, in any Branch of Literature, History, Topography, Genealogy, or the like, and in which he has had considerable experience.



KNIGHT & SONS' Illustrated Catalogue, containing Description and Price of the best forms of Cameras and other Apparatus. Voightlander and Son's Lenses for Portraits and Views, together with the various Materials, and pure Chemical Preparations required in practising the Photographic Art. Forwarded free on receipt of Six Postage Stamps.

Instructions given in every branch of the Art.

An extensive Collection of Stereoscopic and other Photographic Specimens.

GEORGE KNIGHT & SONS, Foster Lane, London.

IMPROVEMENT IN COLLODION.—J. B. HOCKIN & CO., Chemists, 289. Strand, have, by an improved mode of Iodizing, succeeded in producing a Collodion equal, they may say superior, in sensitiveness and density of Negative, to any other hitherto published; without diminishing the keeping properties and appreciation of half-tint for which their manufacture has been esteemed.

Apparatus, pure Chemicals, and all the requirements for the practice of Photography. Instruction in the Art.


Printed by Thomas Clark Shaw, of No. 10. Stonefield Street, in the Parish of St. Mary, Islington, at No. 5. New Street Square, in the Parish of St. Bride, in the City of London; and published by George Bell, of No. 186. Fleet Street, in the Parish of St. Dunstan in the West, in the City of London, Publisher, at No. 186. Fleet Street aforesaid.—Saturday, February 18. 1854.