The Project Gutenberg eBook of Notes and Queries, Number 241, June 10, 1854

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Title: Notes and Queries, Number 241, June 10, 1854

Author: Various

Editor: George Bell

Release date: May 27, 2013 [eBook #42819]

Language: English

Credits: Produced by Charlene Taylor, Jonathan Ingram, Keith Edkins
and the Online Distributed Proofreading Team at (This file was produced from images
generously made available by The Internet Archive/Canadian





"When found, make a note of."Captain Cuttle.

No. 241. Saturday, June 10. 1854. Price Fourpence.
Stamped Edition 5d.


Notes:— Page
Stone Pillar Worship 535
Somersetshire Folk Lore 536
Irish Records, by James F. Ferguson 536
Derivation of Curious Botanic Names, and Ancient Italian Kalydor, by Dr. Hughes Fraser Halle 537
Minor Notes:—Forensic Jocularities—Ridley's University—Marvellous, if true—Progress of the War—Hatherleigh Moor, Devonshire—Cromwellian Gloves—Restall 538
Sepulchral Monuments 539
"Es Tu Scolaris" 540
On a Digest of Critical Readings in Shakespeare, by J. O. Halliwell 540
Minor Queries:—"Original Poems"—A Bristol Compliment—French or Flemish Arms—Precedence—"Σφιδη"—Print of the Dublin Volunteers—John Ogden—Columbarium in a Church Tower—George Herbert—Apparition which preceded the Fire of London—Holy Thursday Rain-water—Freemasonry 541
Minor Queries with Answers:—Lewis's "Memoirs of the Duke of Gloucester"—Apocryphal Works—Mirabeau, Talleyrand, and Fouché—"The Turks in Europe," and "Austria as It Is"—"Forgive, blest Shade"—"Off with his head," &c.—"Peter Wilkins"—The Barmecides' Feast—Captain 542
Coleridge's unpublished Manuscripts, by Joseph Henry Green 543
King James's Irish Army List, 1689 544
Barrell's Regiment 545
Clay Tobacco-pipes, by W. J. Bernhard Smith 546
Madame de Staël 546
Cranmer's Martyrdom 547
Photographic Correspondence:—Difficulties in making soluble Cotton—Light in Cameras—Cameras—Progress of Photography—A Collodion Difficulty—Ferricyanide of Potassium 548
Replies to Minor Queries:—Postage System of the Romans—Epigram on the Feuds between Handel and Bononcini—Power of prophesying before Death—King John—Demoniacal Descent of the Plantagenets—Burial Service Tradition—Paintings of our Saviour—Widdrington Family—Mathew, a Cornish Family—"Πιστις," unde deriv.—Author of "The Whole Duty of Man"—Table-turning—Pedigree to the Time of Alfred—Quotation wanted—"Hic locus odit, amat"—Writings of the Martyr Bradford—Latin Inscription on Lindsey Court-house—Blanco White's Sonnet—"Wise men labour," &c.—Copernicus—Meals, Meols—Byron and Rochefoucauld—Robert Eden—Dates of Maps—Miss Elstob—Corporation Enactments, &c. 549
Notes on Books, &c. 554
Books and Odd Volumes Wanted 554
Notices to Correspondents 555

Multæ terricolis linguæ, cœlestibus una.



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In Vol. v., p. 121. of "N. & Q.," there is an interesting note on this subject by Sir J. Emerson Tennent, which he concludes by observing that "it would be an object of curious inquiry, if your correspondents could ascertain whether this (the superstitious veneration of the Irish people for such stones) be the last remnant of pillar worship now remaining in Europe." I am able to assure him that it is not. The province of Brittany, in France, is thickly studded with stone pillars, and the history and manners of its people teem with interesting and very curious traces of the worship of them. In fact, Brittany and Breton antiquities must form the principal field of study for any one who would investigate or treat the subject exhaustively.

A list of the principal of these pillars still remaining may be found in the note at p. 77. of the first vol. of Manet's Histoire de la Petite Bretagne: St. Malo, 1834. But abundant notices of them will be met with in any of the numerous works on the antiquities and topography of the province. They are there known as "Menhirs," from the Celtic maen, stone, and hirr, long; or "Peulvans," from peul, pillar, and maen (changed in composition into vaen), stone. See Essai sur les Antiquités du Département du Morbihan, par J. Mahé, Vannes, 1825, where much curious information on the subject may be found. This writer, as well as the Chevalier de Freminville, in his Monuments du Morbihan, Brest, 1834, p. 16., thinks that these menhirs, so abundant throughout Brittany, may be distinguished into three classes: 1. Those intended as sepulchral monuments; 2. Those erected as memorials of some great battle, or other such national event; and 3. Those intended to represent the Deity, and which were objects of worship. I have little doubt that these gentlemen are correct in the conclusions at which they have arrived in this respect. But it is curious to find both of them—men unquestionably of learning, and of widely extended and varied reading—considering the poems of Ossian as indisputably authentic, and quoting from them largely as from unquestioned documents of historic value.

The largest "menhir" known to be in existence—if, indeed, it can still be said to be so—is that of Locmariaker, a commune of the department of Morbihan, a little to the south of Vannes. This vast stone, before it was thrown down and broken into four pieces—its present condition—was fifty-eight French feet in length. Its form, when entire, was that of a double cone, so that its largest diameter was at about the middle of its length. It has been calculated to weigh more than four hundred thousand French pounds. In its immediate neighbourhood is a very large specimen of the "Dolmens" or druidical altars on which victims were sacrificed.

As to the question when the worship of these stones ceased, my own observations of the manners and habits of the people there, some fifteen years since, would lead me to say that it had not then ceased. No doubt such an assertion would be indignantly repelled by the clergy, and perhaps by many of the peasantry themselves. The question, however, if gone into, would become a subtle one, turning on another, as to what is to be deemed worship. And we all know that the tendency of unspiritual minds to idolatry has led the priesthood of Rome to institute verbal distinctions on this point, which open the door to very much that a plain unbiassed man must deem rank polytheism. My knowledge of the people in Italy enables me to affirm, with the most perfect certainty, that not only the peasantry very generally, but many persons much above that rank, do, to all intents and purposes, and in the fullest sense of the word, worship the Madonna, and believe that there are several separate and wholly distinct persons of that name. And that this worship is often as wholly Pagan in its nature as in its object, is curiously proved by the fact, which brings us back again to Brittany, that in many instances in that province we find chapels dedicated to "Notre Dame de la Joye," and "Notre Dame de Liesse," which are all built on spots where, as M. de Freminville says in his Antiquités du Finisterre, p. 106., "the Celts worshipped a divinity which united the attributes of Cybele and Venus." And Souvestre, in his Derniers Bretons, vol. i. p. 264., tells us that there still exists near the town of Tréguier, a chapel dedicated to Notre Dame de la Haine; that it would be a mistake to suppose that the people have ceased to believe in a deity of hate, and that persons may still be seen skulking thither to pray for the gratification of their hatred.

Sir J. Emerson Tennent quotes a passage from Borlase, in which he says, speaking of this stone-worship among the Cornish, a people of near kin to the Armorican Bretons, that it might be traced by the prohibitions of councils through the fifth and sixth, and even into the seventh century. I find a council, held at Nantes in 658, ordering that the stones worshipped by the people shall be removed and put away in places where their worshippers cannot find them again; a precaution which the history of some of these stones in Brittany shows to have been by no means superfluous. But the usage may be traced by edicts seeking to restrain it to a later period than this. For in the Capitulaires of Charlemagne (Lib. x. tit. 64.), he commands that the abuse of worshipping stones shall be abolished.

There can be no doubt, however, that this worship remained even avowedly to a very much more recent period in Brittany. "It is well known," {536}says De Freminville, in his Antiquités des Côtes-du-Nord, p. 31., "that idolatry was still exercised in the Isle of Ushant, and in many parishes of the diocese of Vannes, in the seventeenth century. And even at the present day," he adds, "how many traces of it do we find in the superstitious beliefs of our peasants!"

Many of these notions still so prevalent in the remoter districts of that remote province, seem to point to nearly obliterated indications of a connexion between these "peulvans" or pillar-stones, and the zodiacal forms of worship, which the Druids are known to have, more or less exoterically, practised. Thus it is believed in many localities that a "menhir" in the neighbourhood turns on its axis at midnight. (Mahé, Essai sur les Antiq. du Morbihan, p. 229.) In other cases the peasantry make a practice of specially visiting them on the eve of St. John, i. e. at the summer solstice.

Various other remnants of the ideas or practices inculcated by the ancient faith may be traced in usages and superstitions still prevalent, and, without such a key to their explanation, meaningless. With such difficulty did the new supplant the old religion. Many curious illustrations may be found in Brittany of the means adopted by the priests of the new faith to steal, as it were, for their own emblems the adoration which all their efforts were ineffectual to turn from its ancient objects, in the manner mentioned by the writer in the Archæologia, cited by Sir J. E. Tennent in his Note. Thus we find "menhirs" with crosses erected on their summits, and sculptured on their sides. See Notions Historiques, etc. sur le Littoral du Département des. Côtes-du-Nord, par M. Habasque: St. Brieuc, 1834, vol. iii. p. 22.

In conclusion, I may observe that this worship prevailed also in Spain—, doubtless, throughout Europe—inasmuch as we find the Eleventh and Twelfth Councils of Toledo warning those who offered worship to stones, that they were sacrificing, to devils.

T. A. T.

Florence, March, 1854.


1. All texts heard in a church to be remembered by the congregation, for they must be repeated at the day of judgment.

2. If the clock strikes while the text is being given, a death may be expected in the parish.

3. A death in the parish during the Christmas tyde, is a token of many deaths in the year. I remember such a circumstance being spoken of in a village of Somerset. Thirteen died in that year, a very unusual number. Very many attributed this great loss of life to the fact above stated.

4. When a corpse is laid out, a plate of salt is laid on the chest. Why, I know not.

5. None can die comfortably under the cross-beam of a house. I knew a man of whom it was said at his death, that after many hours hard dying, being removed from the position under the cross-beam, he departed peaceably. I cannot account for the origin of this saying.

6. Ticks in the oak-beams of old houses, or death-watches so called, warn the inhabitants of that dwelling of some misfortune.

7. Coffin-rings, when dug out of a grave, are worn to keep off the cramp.

8. Water from the font is good for ague and rheumatism.

9. No moon, in its change, ought to be seen through a window.

10. Turn your money on hearing the first cuckoo.

11. The cattle low and kneel on Christmas eve.

12. Should a corpse be ever carried through any path, &c., that path cannot be done away with. For cases, see Wales, Somerset, Bampton, Devon.

13. On the highest mound of the hill above Weston-super-Mare, is a heap of stones, to which every fisherman in his daily walk to Sand Bay, Kewstoke, contributes one towards his day's good fishing.

14. Smothering hydrophobic patients is still spoken of in Somerset as so practised.

15. Origin of the saying "I'll send you to Jamaica." Did it not take its source from the unjudge-like sentence of Judge Jeffries to those who suffered without sufficient evidence, for their friendly disposition towards the Duke of Monmouth: "To be sent —— —— to the plantations of Jamaica?" Many innocent persons were so cruelly treated in Somerset.

16. The nurse who brings the infant to be baptized bestows upon the first person she meets on her way to the church whatever bread and cheese she can offer, i. e., according to the condition of the parents.

17. In Devonshire it is thought unlucky not to catch the first butterfly.

18. Mackerel not in season till the lesson of the 23rd and 24th of Numbers is read in church. I cannot account for this saying. A better authority could have been laid down for the remembering of such like incidents. You may almost form a notion yourself without any help. The common saying is, Mackerel is in season when Balaam's ass speaks in church.

M. A. Balliol.


It not unfrequently happens that ancient deeds and such like instruments executed in England, and relating to English families or property, are {537}to be found on record upon the rolls of Ireland. The following transcripts have been taken from the Memoranda Roll of the Irish Exchequer of the first year of Edward II.:

"Noverint universi me Johannem de Doveria Rectorem Ecclesie de Litlington Lyncolnensis Dyocesis recepisse in Hibernia nomine domini Roberti de Bardelby clerici subscriptas particulas pecunie per manus subscriptorum, videlicet, per manus Johannis de Idessale dimid' marc'. Item per manus Thome de Kancia 5 marc'. Item per manus Ade Coffyn 2 marc'. Item per manus mercatorum Friscobaldorum 10 libri una vice et alia vice per manus eorundem mercatorum 100s, fratre Andr' de Donscapel de ordine minorum mediante. Item per manus Johannis de Seleby 29s. Item de eodem Johanne alia vice 2 marc' et dimid'. Item per manus ejusdem Johannis tertia vice tres marc' et dimid'. Item per dominum Willielmum de Estden per manus Ricardi de Onyng 100s. Et per manus domini Johannis de Hothom pro negociis domini Walteri de la Haye centum solid? De quibus particulis pecunie memorate predictum dominum Robertum de Bardelby et ejus executores quoscumque per presentes quieto imperpetuum. Ita tamen quod si alia littera acquietancie ab ista littera de dictis particulis pecunie inveniatur de cetero alicubi pro nulla cassa cancellata irrita et majus imperpetuum habeatur. In cujus rei testimonium sigillum meum presentibus apposui. Datum apud Dublin', 28 die Februarij, anno regni regis Edwardi primo."—Rot. Mem. 1 Edw. II. m. 12. dorso.

"A toutz ceaux q' ceste p'sente l're verrount ou orrount Rauf de Mounthermer salutz en Dieu—Sachez nous avoir ordeine estably e assigne n're foial et loial Mons' Waut' Bluet e dan Waut' de la More, ou lun de eaux, si ambedeux estre ne point, de vendre e n're p'fit fere de totes les gardes e mariages es parties Dirlaunde q' escheierent en n're temps, e de totes autres choses q'a nous apartenēt de droit en celes p'ties, e qcunque eaux ferount pr n're prou, co'me est susdit, teignoms apaez e ferme e estable lavoms. En tesmoigne de quele chose a ceste n're l're patente avoms mys n're seal. Don' a Tacstede le quit jour de Octobr lan du regne le Rey Edward pimer."—Rot. Mem. 1 Edw. II. m. 17.

"Rogerus Calkeyn de Gothurste salutem in Domino Sempiternam. Noveritis me remisisse et quietum clamasse pro me et heredibus meis Johanni de Yaneworth heredibus suis et assignatis, totum jus et clameū quod habui vel aliquo modo habere potui, in tenemento de Gothurste in dominio de Cheddeworth. Ita quod nec ego nec heredes mei nec aliquis nomine nostro, aliquid juris vel clamei in prædicto tenemento habere vendicare poterimus imperpetuum. In cujus rei testimonium huic presenti scripto sigillum meum apposui. Hiis testibus, Magistro Waltero de Istelep tunc Barone domini Regis de Scaccario Dublin', Thoma de Yaneworth, Rogero de Glen, Roberto de Bristoll, Roberto scriptore, et aliis."—Rot. Mem. 1 Edw. II. m. 30.

James F. Ferguson.



The generic name of the fern Ceterach officinarum is generally said to be derived from the Arabic Chetherak. I find however, among a list of ancient British names of plants, published in 1633 at the end of Johnson's edition of Gerard, the expression cedor y wrach, which means the joined or double rake, and is exactly significant of the form of the Ceterach. The Fernrakes are joined as it were back to back; but the single prongs of the one alternate botanically with those of the other. Master Robert Dauyes, of Guissaney in Flintshire, the correspondent of Johnson, gives the name of another of the Filices (Equisetum) as the English equivalent of the ancient British term. But the form of this plant does not at all correspond to that signified by the Celtic words. It is not improbable, therefore, that he was wrong as respects the correct English name of the plant.

The Turkish shetr or chetr, to cut, and warak, a leaf, seem to point out the meaning of the Arabic term quoted in Hooker's Flora and elsewhere. Probably some of your Oriental readers will have the kindness to supply the exact English for chetherak.

It appears to me, however, that the transition from cedorwrach to ceterach is more easy, and is a more probable derivation.

Hooker and Loudon say that another generic name, Veronica, is of doubtful origin. In the Arabic language I find virunika as the name of a plant. This word is evidently composed of nikoo, beautiful, and viroo, remembrance; viroonika. therefore means beautiful remembrance, and is but an Oriental name for a Forget-me-not, for which flower the Veronica chamædrys has often been mistaken. Possibly the name may have come to us from the Spanish-Arabian vocabulary. The Spaniards call the same plant veronica. They use this word to signify the representation of our Saviour's face on a handkerchief. When Christ was bearing his cross, a young woman, the legend says, wiped his face with her handkerchief, which thenceforth retained the divine likeness.[1]

The feminine name Veronica is of course the Latin form of Φερονίκη, victory-bearer (of which Berenice is the Macedonian and Latin construction), and is plainly, thus derived, inappropriate as the designation of a little azure wild flower which, like loving eyes, greets us everywhere.

In looking over Martin Mathée's notes on Dioscorides, published 1553, I find that Italian women of his time used to make a cosmetic of the root of the Arum, commonly called "Lords and Ladies." The mixture, he says, makes the skin wondrously {538}white and shining, and is called gersa. ("Ils font des racines d'Aron de l'eaue et de lexive," &c., tom. v. p. 98.)

Hughes Fraser Halle, LL.D.

South Lambeth.

Footnote 1:(return)

[See "N. & Q.," Vol. vi., pp. 199. 252. 304.]

Minor Notes.

Forensic Jocularities.—The epigram on "Four Lawyers," given in Vol. ix., p. 103. of "N. & Q.," has recalled to my recollection one intended to characterise four worthies of the past generation, which I heard some thirty years since, and which I send for preservation among other flies in your amber. It is supposed to record the history of a case:

"Mr. Leech

Made a speech,

Neat, concise, and strong;

Mr. Hart,

On the other part,

Was wordy, dull, and wrong.

Mr. Parker

Made it darker;

'Twas dark enough without.

Mr. Cooke,

Cited his book;

And the Chancellor said—I doubt."

—a picture of Chancery practice in the days "when George III. was king," which some future Macaulay of the twenty-first or twenty-second century, when seeking to reproduce in his vivid pages the form and pressure of the time, may cite from "N. & Q." without risk of leading his readers to any very inaccurate conclusions.

T. A. T.


Ridley's University.—The author of The Bible in many Tongues (a little work on the history of the Bible and its translations, lately published by the Religious Tract Society, and calculated to be useful), informs us that Ridley "tells us incidentally," in his farewell letter, that he learned nearly the whole of St. Paul's Epistles "in the course of his solitary walks at Oxford." What Ridley tells us directly in his "Farewell" to Pembroke Hall, Cambridge, is as follows:

"In my orchard (the walls, butts, and trees, if they could speak, would bear me witness) I learned without book almost all Paul's Epistles; yea, and I ween all the canonical epistles, save only the Apocalypse."


Marvellous, if true.

"This same Duc de Lauragnois had a wife to whom he was tenderly attached. She died of consumption. Her remains were not interred; but were, by some chemical process, reduced to a sort of small stone, which was set in a ring which the Duke always wore on his finger. After this, who will say that the eighteenth century was not a romantic age?"—Memoirs of the Empress Josephine, vol. ii. p. 162.: London, 1829.

E. H. A.

Progress of the War.—One is reminded at the present time of the satirical verses with reference to the slow progress of business in the National Assembly at the first French Revolution, which were as follows:

"Une heure, deux heures, trois heures, quatre heures,

Cinq heures, six heures, sept heures, midi;

Allons-nous diner, mes amis!

Allons-nous," &c.

"Une heure, deux heures, trois heures, quatre heures,

Cinq heures, six heures, sept heures, minuit;

Allons-nous coucher, c'est mon avis!

Allons-nous coucher," &c.

Which may be thus imitated in our language:

"One o'clock, two o'clock, three o'clock, four,

Five o'clock, six o'clock, seven o'clock, eight,

Nine o'clock, ten o'clock, eleven o'clock, noon;

Let's go to dinner, 'tis none too soon!

Let's go to dinner," &c.

"One o'clock, two o'clock, three o'clock, four,

Five o'clock, six o'clock, seven o'clock, eight,

Nine o'clock, ten o'clock, eleven, midnight;

Let's go to bed, 'tis all very right!

Let's go to bed," &c.

F. C. H.

Hatherleigh Moor, Devonshire.—I copy the following from an old Devonshire newspaper, and should be obliged if any of your correspondents can authenticate the circumstances commemorated:

"When John O'Gaunt laid the foundation stone

Of the church he built by the river;

Then Hatherleigh was poor as Hatherleigh Moor,

And so it had been for ever and ever.

When John O'Gaunt saw the people were poor,

He taught them this chaunt by the river;

The people are poor as Hatherleigh Moor,

And so they have been for ever and ever.

When John O'Gaunt he made his last will,

Which he penn'd by the side of the river,

Then Hatherleigh Moor he gave to the poor,

And so it shall be for ever and ever."

The above lines are stated to have been found "written in an ancient hand."


Cromwellian Gloves.—The Cambridge Chronicle of May 6, says that there is in the possession of Mr. Chas. Martin, of Fordham, a pair of gloves, reputed to have been worn by Oliver Cromwell. They are made of strong beaver, richly fringed with heavy drab silk fringe, and reach half way between the wrist and the elbow. They were for a long time in the possession of a family at Huntingdon. There is an inscription on the inside, bearing the name of Cromwell; but the date is nearly obliterated.

P. J. F. Gantillon.


Restall.—In the curious old church book of the Abbey Parish, Shrewsbury, the word restall occurs as connected with burials in the interior of the church. I cannot find this word in any dictionary to which I have access. Can the readers of "N. & Q." explain its meaning and origin, and supply instances and illustrations of its use elsewhere? I subjoin the following notes of entries in which the word occurs:

"1566. Received for restall and knyll.

1577. Received for buryalls in the church, viz.

Itm. for a restall of Jane Powell for her grad mother, vijs. viijd."

1593. The word is now altered to "lastiall," and so continues to be written till April 29, 1621, when it is written "restiall," which continues to be its orthography until 1645, when it ceases to be used altogether, and "burials in the church" are alone spoken of.

Prior Robert of Salop.



(Continued from p. 514.)

In a previous communication, fighting under the shield of a great authority, I attempted to prove that the effigies of the mediæval tombs presented the semblance of death—death in grandeur, mortality as the populace were accustomed to behold it, paraded in sad procession through the streets, and dignified in their temples. The character of the costume bears additional testimony to their supposed origin, and strongly warrants this conclusion. It is highly improbable that the statuaries of that age would clothe the expiring ecclesiastic in his sacerdotal robes, case the dying warrior in complete steel, and deck out other languishing mortals in their richest apparel, placing a lion or a dog, and such like crests or emblems, beneath their feet. They were far too matter-of-fact to treat a death-bed scene so poetically. The corpse however, when laid in state, was arrayed in the official or the worthiest dress, and these heraldic appurtenances did occupy that situation. Thus in 1852 were the veritable remains of Prince Paul of Wurtemburg, in full regimentals and decorated with honours, publicly exhibited in the Chapelle Ardente at Paris (Illustrated London News, vol. xx. p. 316.). Unimaginative critics exclaim loudly against the anomaly of a lifeless body, or a dying Christian, being thus dressed in finery, or covered with cumbrous armour; and such would have been the case in former days had not the people been so familiarised with this solemn spectacle. In an illumination in Froissart we have the funeral of Richard II., where the body is placed upon a simple car attired in regal robes, a crown being on the head, and the arms crossed. We are informed that "the body of the effigies of Oliver Cromwell lay upon a bed of state covered with a large pall of black velvet, and that at the feet of the effigies stood his crest, according to the custom of ancient monuments." The chronicler might, perhaps, have said with more propriety "in accordance with tradition;" cause and effect, original and copy, being here reversed.

"In a magnificent manner (he proceeds) the effigies was carried to the east end of Westminster Abbey, and placed in a noble structure, which was raised on purpose to receive it. It remained some time exposed to public view, the corpse having been some days before interred in Henry VII.'s Chapel."

In the account of the funeral obsequies of General Monk, Duke of Albemarle, in 1670, the writer says:

"Wren has acquitted himself so well, that the hearse, now that the effigy has been placed upon it, and surrounded by the banners and bannerols, is a striking and conspicuous object in the old abbey. It is supported by four great pillars, and rises in the centre in the shape of a dome."

It is here also worthy of note, that Horncastle Church affords a curious example of the principle of a double representation—one in life, and the other in death; before alluded to in the Italian monuments, and in that of Aylmer de Valence. On a mural brass (1519), Sir Lionel Dymock kneels in the act of prayer; and on another plate covering the grave below, the body is delineated wrapt in a shroud—beyond all controversy dead.

Mr. Markland, in his useful work, mentions "the steel-clad sires, and mothers mild reposing on their marble tombs;" and borrows from another archæologist an admirable description of the chapel of Edward the Confessor, who declares that "a more august spectacle can hardly be conceived, so many renowned sovereigns sleeping round the shrine of an older sovereign, the holiest of his line." It can only be the sleep of death, and this the sentiment conveyed: "These all died in faith." The subjects of this disquisition are not lounging in disrespectful supplication, nor wrapt in sleep enjoying pious dreams, nor stretched on a bed of mortal sickness: but the soul, having winged its way from sin and suffering, has left its tenement with the beams of hope yet lingering on the face, and the holy hands still refusing to relax their final effort. Impossible as this may seem to calculating minds, it is nevertheless one of the commonest of the authorised and customary modes designed to signify the faith, penitence, and peace attendant on a happy end.

C. T.



Allow me through your pages to ask some of your correspondents for information respecting an old and very curious book, which I picked up the other day. It is a thin unpaged octavo of twelve leaves, in black-letter type, without printer's name or date; but a pencil-note at the bottom of a quaint woodcut, representing a teacher and scholars, gives a date 1470! And in style of type, abbreviations, &c., it seems evidently of about the same age with another book which I bought at the same time, and which bears date as printed at "Padua, 1484."

The book about which I inquire bears the title Es tu Scolaris, and is a Latin-German or Dutch grammar, of a most curious and primitive character, proving very manifestly that when William Lilly gave to the world the old Powle's Grammar, it was not before such a work was needed. A few extracts from my book will give some idea of the erudition and etymological profundity of the "learned Theban" who compiled this guide to the Temple of Learning, which, if they do not instruct, will certainly amuse your readers. I should premise that the contractions and abbreviations in the printing of the book are so numerous and arbitrary, that it is extremely difficult to read, and that this style of printing condenses the subject-matter so much, that the twelve leaves would, in modern typography, extend to twenty or thirty. The book commences in the interrogatory style, in the words of its title, Es tu Scolaris?—"Sum." It then proceeds to ring the changes on this word "sum," what part of speech, what kind of verb, &c.; and setting it down as verbum anormalium, goes on to enumerate the anormalous verbs in this verse,—

"Sum, volo, fero, atque edo,

Tot et anormala credo."

Now begins the curious lore of the volume:

"Q. Unde derivatur sum?

A. Derivatur a greca dictione, hemi (εμι); mutando h in s et e in u, et deponendo i, sic habes sum!"

I dare say this process of derivation will be new to your classical readers, but as we proceed, they will say, "Foregad this is more exquisite fooling still."

"Q. Unde derivatur volo?

A. Derivatur a beniamin (sic pro βουλομαὶ) grece; mutando ben in vo et iamin in lo, sic habes volo. Versus

Est volo formatum

A beniamin, bene vocatum.

Q. Unde derivatur fero?

A. Dicitur a phoos! grece; mutando pho in fe et os in ro, sic habes fero!

Q. Unde derivatur edo?

A. A phagin, grece; mutando pha in e et gin in do, sic habes edo!"

Here be news for etymologists, and proofs, moreover, that when some of the zealous antagonists of Martin Luther in the next century denounced "Heathen Greek" as a diabolical invention of his, there was little in the grammar knowledge of the day to contradict the accusation.

But we have not yet exhausted the wonders and virtues of the word sum; the grammar lesson goes on to ask,—

"Q. Quare sum non desinit in o nec in or?

A. Ad habendum, drnam[2] [I cannot expand this contraction, though from the context it means a mark or token], dignitatis sue respectu aliorum verborum.

Q. Declara hoc, et quomodo?

A. Quia per sum intelligitur Trinitas, cum tres habeat litteras, scl. s. u. et m. Etiam illud verbum sum, quamvis de omnibus dici valeat, tamen de Deo et Trinitate proprie dicitur.

Q. Quare sum potius terminatur in m quam in n?

A. Quia proprie m rursus intelligitur Trinitas, cum illa littera m, tria habet puncta."

I shall feel much obliged for any particulars about this literary curiosity which you or any of your correspondents can give.

A. B. R.


Footnote 2:(return)

[Drnam stands for differentiam.]


With reference to this subject, which has been so frequently discussed in your columns, daily experience convincing me still farther in the opinion that the complete performance of the task is impracticable, would you kindly allow me to ask what can be done in the now acknowledged case of frequent occurrence, where different copies of the folios and quartos vary in passages in the very same impression? What copies are to be taken as the groundworks of reference; and whose copy of the first folio is to be the standard one? Mr. Knight may give one reading as that of the edition of 1623, and Mr. Singer may offer another from the same work, while the author of the "critical digest" may give a third, and all of them correct in the mere fact that such readings are really those of the first edition. Thus, in respect to a passage in Measure for Measure,—

"For thy own bowels, which do call thee sire,"—

it has been stated in your columns that one copy of the second folio has this correct reading, whereas every copy I have met with reads fire; and so likewise the first and third folios. Then, again, in reference to this same line, Mr. Collier, in his Shakspeare, vol. ii. p. 48., says that the folio edition of 1685 also reads fire for sire; but in my copy of the fourth folio it is distinctly printed sire, and the comma before the word very {541}properly omitted. It would be curious to ascertain whether any other copies of this folio read fire.

J. O. Halliwell.

Minor Queries.

"Original Poems."—There is a volume of poetry by a lady, published under the following title, Original Poems, on several occasions, by C. R., 4to., 1769. Can you inform me whether these poems are likely to have been written by Miss Clara Reeve, authoress of The Old English Baron, and other novels? I have seen at least one specimen of this lady's poetry in one of the volumes of Mr. Pratt's Gleaner.


A Bristol Compliment.—A present made of an article that you do not care about keeping yourself is called "A Bristol Compliment." What is the origin of the phrase?

Haughmond St. Clair.

French or Flemish Arms.—What family (probably French or Flemish) bears Azure, in chief three mullets argent; in point a ducal coronet or; in base a sheep proper crowned with a ducal coronet or.


Precedence.—Will any of your correspondents assign the order of precedence of officers in army or navy (having no decoration, knighthood, or companionship of any order of knighthood), not as respects each other, but as respects civilians? I apprehend that every commission is addressed to the bearer, embodying a civil title, as e.g., "John Smith, Esquire," or as we see ensigns gazetted, "A. B., Gent." My impression therefore is, that in a mixed company of civilians, &c., no officer is entitled to take rank higher than the civil title incorporated in his commission would imply, apart from his grade in the service to which he belongs. On this point I should be obliged by any notices which your correspondents may supply; as also by a classification in order of precedence of the ranks which I here set down alphabetically: barristers, doctors (in divinity, law, medicine), esquires, queen's counsel, serjeants-at-law.

It may be objected that esquire, ecuyer, armiger, is originally a military title, but by usage it has been appropriated to civilians.

Suum Cuique.

"Σφιδή."—The meaning of this word is wanted. It is not in Stephens' Thesaurus. It occurs in Eichhoff's Vergleichung der Sprachen Europa und Indien, p. 234.:

"Sanscrit bhid, schneiden, brechen; Gr. φάζω; Lat. fido, findo, fodio; Fr. fends; Lithuan., fouis; Deut. beisse; Eng. bite" [to which Kaltschmidt adds, beissen, speisen, fasten, Futter, Butter, Mund, bitter, mästen, feist, Weide, Wiese, Matte]; "Sans. bhidâ, bhid, Spaltung, Faser; Gr. σφιδή, Lat. fidis; Sans. bhittis, graben; Lat. fossa; Sans. bhaittar, zerschneider; Lat. fossor."

T. J. Buckton.


Print of the Dublin Volunteers.—Can any of your correspondents inform me when, and where, and by whom, the well-known print of "The Volunteers of the City and County of Dublin, as they met on College Green, the 4th day of Nov., 1779," was republished? An original copy is not easily procured.


John Ogden.—Can any reader of "N. & Q." furnish an account of the services rendered by John Ogden, Esq., to King Charles I. of England? The following is in the possession of the inquirer:

"Ogden's Arms, granted to John Ogden, Esq., by King Charles II., for his faithful services to his unfortunate father, Charles I.

"Shield, Girony of eight pieces, argent and gules; in dexter chief an oak branch, fructed ppr.

"Crest, Oak tree ppr. Lion rampant against the tree.

"Motto, Et si ostendo, non jacto."


Columbarium in a Church Tower.—At Collingbourne Ducis, near Marlborough, I have been told that the interior of the church tower was constructed originally to serve as a columbarium. Can this really be the object of the peculiar masonry, what is the date of the tower, and can a similar instance be adduced? It is said that the niches are not formed merely by the omission of stones, but that they have been carefully widened from the opening. Are there any ledges for birds to alight on, or any peculiar openings by which they might enter the tower?

J. W. Hewett.

George Herbert.—Will any one of your correspondents, skilled in solving enigmas, kindly give me an exposition of this short poem of George Herbert's? It is entitled—


"I gave to Hope a watch of mine; but he

An anchor gave to me.

Then an old prayer-book I did present,

And he an optic sent.

With that, I gave a phial full of tears;

But he a few green ears.

Ah, loiterer! I'll no more, no more I'll bring;

I did expect a ring."

G. D.

Apparition which preceded the Fire of London.—An account of the apparition which predicted the Great Fire of London two months before it took place, or a reference to the book in which it may be found, will oblige



Holy Thursday Rain-water.—In the parish of Marston St. Lawrence, Northamptonshire, there is a notion very prevalent, that rain-water collected on Holy Thursday is of powerful efficacy in all diseases of the eye. Ascension-day of the present year was very favourable in this respect to these village oculists, and numbers of the cottagers might be seen in all directions collecting the precious drops as they fell. Is it known whether this curious custom prevails elsewhere? and what is supposed to be the origin of it?


Freemasonry.—A (Hamburg) paper, Der Freischütz, brings in its No. 27. the following:

"The great English Lodge of this town will initiate in a few days two deaf and dumb persons; a very rare occurrence."

And says farther in No. 31.:

"With reference to our notice in No. 27., we farther learned that on the 4th of March, two brethren, one of them deaf and dumb, have been initiated in the great English Lodge; the knowledge of the language, without its pronunciation, has been cultivated by them to a remarkable degree, so that with noting the motion of the lips they do not miss a single word. The ceremony of initiation was the most affecting for all present."

Query 1. Would deaf and dumb persons in England be eligible as members of the order? 2. Have similar cases to the above ever occurred in this country?

J. W. S. D. 874.

Minor Queries with Answers.

Lewis's "Memoirs of the Duke of Gloucester."—Can you inform me who was the editor of

"Memoirs of Prince William Henry, Duke of Gloucester, from his birth, July the 24th, 1689, to October 1697: from an original Tract written by Jenkin Lewis. Printed for the Editor, and sold by Messrs. Payne, &c., London: and Messrs. Prince & Cooke, and J. Fletcher, Oxford, 1789."

In a rare copy of this volume now before me, it is attributed by a pencil-note to the editorship of Dr. Philip Hayes, who was organist of Magdalen College Chapel, Oxford, from 1777 to 1797. I should be glad to learn on what authority this could be stated. I am anxious also to know the names of any authors who have published books respecting the life, reign, or times of King William III.?

J. R. B.


[Some of our readers will probably be able to authenticate the editorship of Jenkin Lewis' Memoirs of the Duke of Gloucester. The following works on the reign of William III. may be consulted among others: Walter Harris's History of the Reign of William III., fol., 1749; The History of the Prince of Orange and the Ancient History of Nassau, 8vo., 1688; An Historical Account of the Memorable Actions of the Prince of Orange, 12mo., 1689; History of William III., 3 vols. 8vo., 1702; Life of William III., 18mo., 1702; another, 8vo., 1703; The History of the Life and Reign of William III., Dublin, 4 vols. 12mo., 1747; Vernon's Letters of the Reign of William III., edited by G. P. R. James, 3 vols. 8vo., 1841; Paul Grimbolt's Letters of William III. and Louis XIV. Consult also Watt and Lowndes' Bibliographical Dictionaries, art. William III.; and Catalogue of the London Institution, vol. i. p. 292.]

Apocryphal Works.—Can you inform me where I can procure an English version of the Book of Enoch, so often quoted by Mackay in his admirable work The Progress of the Human Intellect? Also the Epistle of Barnabas, and the Spurious Gospels?

W. S.

Cleveland Bridge, Bath.

[The Book of Enoch, edited by Archbishop Laurence, and printed at Oxford, has passed through several editions.—The Catholic Epistle of St. Barnabas is included among Archbishop Wake's Genuine Epistles of the Apostolical Fathers.—"The Spurious Gospels" will probably be found in The Apocryphal New Testament; being all the Gospels, Epistles, and other Pieces now extant, attributed in the first four Centuries to Jesus Christ, his Apostles, and their Companions, and not included in the New Testament by its compilers: London, 8vo., 1820; 2nd edition, 1821. Anonymous, but edited by William Hone.]

Mirabeau, Talleyrand, and Fouché.—Can any of your correspondents tell me which are the best Lives of three of the most remarkable men who figured in the age of the French Revolution, viz. Mirabeau, Talleyrand, and Fouché? If there are English translations of these works? and also if there is any collection of the fierce philippics of Mirabeau?

Kennedy McNab.

[Mirabeau left a natural son, Lucas Montigny, who published Memoirs of Mirabeau, Biographical, Literary, and Political, by Himself, his Uncle, and his adopted Child, 4 vols. 8vo., Lond., 1835.—Memoirs of C. M. Talleyrand, 2 vols. 12mo., Lond., 1805. Also his Life, 4 vols. 8vo., Lond., 1834.—Memoirs of Joseph Fouché, translated from the French, 2 vols. 8vo., Lond., 1825.]

"The Turks in Europe," and "Austria as It Is."—I possess an 8vo. volume consisting of two anonymous publications, which appeared in London in 1828, one entitled The Establishment of the Turks in Europe, an Historical Discourse, and the other Austria as It Is, or Sketches of Continental Courts, by an Eye-witness. Can you give me the names of the authors?


[The Turks in Europe is by Lord John Russell: but the author of Austria as It Is, we cannot discover; he was a native of the Austrian Empire.]

"Forgive, blest Shade."—Where were the lines, commencing "Forgive, blest shade," first {543}published? I believe it was upon a mural tablet on the chancel wall of a small village church in Dorsetshire (Wyke Regis); but I have seen it quoted as from a monument in some church in the Isle of Wight.

The tablet at Wyke, in Dorset, was erected anonymously, in the night-time, upon the east end of the chancel outer wall; but whether they were original, or copied from some prior monumental inscription, I do not know, and should feel much obliged could any of your readers inform me.

S. S. M.

[Snow, in his Sepulchral Gleanings, p. 44., notices these lines on the tomb of Robert Scott, who died in March, 1806, in Bethnal Green Churchyard. Prefixed to them is the following line: "The grief of a fond mother, and the disappointed hope of an indulgent father." Our correspondent should have given the date of the Wyke tablet.]

"Off with his head," &c.—Who was the author of the often-quoted line—

"Off with his head! so much for Buckingham!"

which is not in Shakspeare's Richard III.?



[Colley Cibber is the author of this line. It occurs in The Tragical History of Richard III., altered from Shakspeare, Act IV., near the end.]

"Peter Wilkins."—Who wrote this book? and when was it published?



[This work first appeared in 1750, and in its brief title is comprised all that is known—all that the curiosity of an inquisitive age can discover—of the history of the work, and name and lineage of the author. It is entitled The Life and Adventures of Peter Wilkins, a Cornish Man. Taken from his own Mouth, in his Passage to England, from off Cape Horn in America, in the ship Hector. By R. S., a passenger in the Hector; Lond. 1750, 2 vols. The dedication is signed R. P. "To suppose the unknown author," remarks a writer in the Retrospective Review, vol. vii. p. 121., "to have been insensible to, or careless about, the fair fame to which a work, original in its conception, and almost unique in purity, did justly entitle him, is to suppose him to have been exempt from the influence of that universal feeling, which is ever deepest in the noblest bosoms; the ardent desire of being long remembered after death—of shining bright in the eyes of their cotemporaries, and, when their sun is set, of leaving behind a train of glory in the heavens, for posterity to contemplate with love and veneration."]

The Barmecides' Feast.—Can you tell me where the story of the Barmecides and their famed banquets is to be found?

J. D.

[In The Thousand and One Nights, commonly called The Arabian Nights' Entertainments, Lane's edition, chap. v. vol. i. p. 410. Consult also The Barmecides, 1778, by John Francis de la Harpe; and Moreri, Dictionnaire Historique, art. Barmécides.]

Captain.—I shall feel greatly obliged by your informing me the proper and customary manner of rendering in a Latin epitaph the words "Captain of the 29th Regiment." Ainsworth does not give any word which appears to answer to "Captain." Ordinum ductor is cumbrous and inelegant.


[The words, "Captain of the 29th Regiment," may be thus rendered into Latin: "Centurio sive Capitanus vicesimæ nonæ cohortis." The word capitanus, though not Ciceronian, was in general use for a military captain during the Middle Ages, as appears from Du Cange's Glossary: "Item vos armati et congregati quendam de vobis in capitaneum elegistis."]



(Vol. ix., p. 496.)

In an article contained in the Number of "N. & Q." for May the 27th last, and signed C. Mansfield Ingleby, an inconsiderate, not to say a coarse attack has been made upon me, which might have been spared had the writer sought a private explanation of the matters upon which he has founded his charge.

He asks, "How has Mr. Green discharged the duties of his solemn trust? Has he made any attempt to give publicity to the Logic, the 'great work' on Philosophy, the work on the Old and New Testaments, to be called The Assertion of Religion, or the History of Philosophy, all of which are in his custody, and of which the first is, on the testimony of Coleridge himself, a finished work?... For the four works enumerated above, Mr. Green is responsible."

Now, though, by the terms of Coleridge's will, I do not hold myself "responsible" in the sense which the writer attaches to the term, and though I have acted throughout with the cognizance, and I believe with the approbation of Coleridge's family, yet I am willing, and shall now proceed to give such explanations as an admirer of Coleridge's writings may desire, or think he has a right to expect.

Of the four works in question, the Logic—as will be seen by turning to the passage in the Letters, vol. ii. p. 150., to which the writer refers as "the testimony of Coleridge himself"—is described as nearly ready for the press, though as yet unfinished; and I apprehend it may be proved by reference to Mr. Stutfield's notes, the gentleman to whom it is there said they were dictated, and who possesses the original copy, that the work never was finished. Of the three parts mentioned as the components of {544}the work, the Criterion and Organon do not to my knowledge exist; and with regard to the other parts of the manuscript, including the Canon, I believe that I have exercised a sound discretion in not publishing them in their present form and unfinished state.

Of the alleged work on the Old and New Testaments, to be called The Assertion of Religion, I have no knowledge. There exist, doubtless, in Coleridge's handwriting, many notes, detached fragments and marginalia, which contain criticisms on the Scriptures. Many of these have been published, some have lost their interest by the recent advances in biblical criticism, and some may hereafter appear; though, as many of them were evidently not intended for publication, they await a final judgment with respect to the time, form, and occasion of their appearance. But no work with the title above stated, no work with any similar object—except the Confessions of an Inquiring Spirit—is, as far as I know, in existence.

The work to which I suppose the writer alludes as the History of Philosophy, is in my possession. It was presented to me by the late J. Hookham Frere, and consists of notes, taken for him by an eminent shorthand writer, of the course of lectures delivered by Coleridge on that subject. Unfortunately, however, these notes are wholly unfit for publication, as indeed may be inferred from the fact, communicated to me by Coleridge, that the person employed confessed after the first lecture that he was unable to follow the lecturer in consequence of becoming perplexed and delayed by the novelty of thought and language, for which he was wholly unprepared by the ordinary exercise of his art. If this History of Philosophy is to be published in an intelligible form, it will require to be re-written; and I would willingly undertake the task, had I not, in connexion with Coleridge's views, other and more pressing objects to accomplish.

I come now to the fourth work, the "great work" on Philosophy. Touching this the writer quotes from one of Coleridge's letters:

"Of this work something more than a volume has been dictated by me, so as to exist fit for the press."

I need not here ask whether the conclusion is correct, that because "something more than a volume" is fit for the press, I am therefore responsible for the whole work, of which the "something more than a volume" is a part? But—shaping my answer with reference to the real point at issue—I have to state, for the information of Coleridge's readers, that, although in the materials for the volume there are introductions and intercalations on subjects of speculative interest, such as to entitle them to appear in print, the main portion of the work is a philosophical Cosmogony, which I fear is scarcely adapted for scientific readers, or corresponds to the requirements of modern science. At all events, I do not hesitate to say that the completion of the whole would be requisite for the intelligibility of the part which exists in manuscript.

I leave it then to any candid person to decide whether I should have acted wisely in risking its committal to the press in its present shape. Whatever may be, however, the opinion of others, I have decided, according to my own conscientious conviction of the issue, against the experiment.

But should some farther explanation be expected of me on this interesting topic, I will freely own that, having enjoyed the high privilege of communion with one of the most enlightened philosophers of the age—and in accordance with his wishes the responsibility rests with me, as far as my ability extends, of completing his labours,—in pursuance of this trust I have devoted more than the leisure of a life to a work in which I hope to present the philosophic views of my "great master" in a systematic form of unity—in a form which may best concentrate to a focus and principle of unity the light diffused in his writings, and which may again reflect it on all departments of human knowledge, so that truths may become intelligible in the one light of Divine truth.

Meanwhile I can assure the friends and admirers of Coleridge that nothing now exists in manuscript which would add materially to the elucidation of his philosophical doctrines; and that in any farther publication of his literary remains I shall be guided, as I have been, by the duty which I owe to the memory and fame of my revered teacher.

Joseph Henry Green.



(Vol. ix., pp. 30, 31. 401.)

I was much pleased at Mr. D'Alton's announcement of his work; and I should have responded to it sooner, if I could have had any idea that he did not possess King's State of the Protestants in Ireland; but his inquiry about Colonel Sheldon, in Vol. ix., p. 401., shows that he has not consulted that work, where (p. 341.) he will find that Dominick Sheldon was "Lieutenant-General of the Horse." But after the enumeration of the General Staff, there follows a list of the field officers of eight regiments of horse, seven of dragoons, and fifty of infantry. In Tyrconnel's regiment of horse, Dominick Sheldon appears as lieutenant-colonel. This must have been, I suppose, a Sheldon junior, son or nephew of the lieutenant-general of horse. This reference to King's work has suggested to me an idea which I venture to suggest to Mr. D'Alton as a preliminary to the larger work on Irish family genealogies which he is about, and for which we shall {545}have I fear to wait too long. I mean an immediate reprint (in a separate shape) of the several lists of gentlemen of both parties which are given in King's work. This might be done with very little trouble, and, I think, without any pecuniary loss, if not with actual profit. It would be little more than pamphlet size. The first and most important list would be of the names and designations of all the persons included in the acts of attainder passed in King James's Irish Parliament of May, 1689. They are, I think, about two thousand names, with their residences and personal designations; and it is interesting to find that a great many of the same families are still seated in the same places. These names I think I should place alphabetically in one list, with their designations and residences; and any short notes that Mr. D'Alton might think necessary to correct clerical error, or explain doubtful names: longer notes would perhaps lead too far into family history for the limited object I propose.

In a second list, I would give the names of King James's parliament, privy council, army, civil and judicial departments, as we find them in King, adding to them an alphabetical index of names. The whole would then exhibit a synopsis of the names, residences, and politics of a considerable portion of the gentry of Ireland at that important period.



(Vol. ix., pp. 63. 159.)

Your correspondent H. B. C. is undoubtedly correct in his statement that "Ten times a day whip the Barrels," is a regimental parody on the song "He that has the best Wife," sung in Charles Coffey's musical farce of The Devil to Pay, published in 1731. Popular songs have been made the subject of political or personal parodies from time immemorial; and no more fruitful locality for parodies can be found than a barrack, where the individual traits of character are so fully developed, and afford so full a scope to the talents of a satirist. Indeed, I knew an officer, who has recently retired from the service, who seized on every popular ballad, and parodied it, in connexion with regimental affairs, to the delight of his brother officers; and in many instances his parodies were far more witty than the original comic songs whence they were taken.

As regards the regiment known as Barrell's, at the period assigned as the date of the song relative to that corps, i. e. circa 1747, there can be no doubt as to what corps is alluded to. Barrell's regiment, now the 4th, or King's Own, regiment of infantry, is the only corps that was ever known in the British army as Barrell's; for although Colonel William Barrell was colonel of the present 28th regiment from Sept. 27, 1715, to August 25, 1730, and of the present 22nd regiment from the latter date to August 8, 1734, yet neither of these regiments appears to have seen any war-service during the periods that they were commanded by him, or to have been known in military history as Barrell's regiments. He was appointed to the 4th regiment of infantry August 8, 1734, and retained the command of that distinguished corps exactly fifteen years, for he died August 9, 1749. While he commanded the regiment it embarked for Flanders, and served the campaign of 1744, under Field-Marshal Wade. It remained in Flanders until the rebellion broke out in Scotland, when it returned to England, and marched from Newcastle-on-Tyne to Scotland in January, 1746, arriving on the 10th of that month at Edinburgh. The regiment was engaged at the battle of Falkirk, Jan. 17, 1746, where its conduct is thus noticed in the General Advertiser: "The regiments which distinguished themselves were Barrell's (King's Own), and Ligonier's foot." Ligonier's regiment is now the glorious 48th regiment, of Albuera fame.

At the battle of Culloden Barrell's regiment gained the greatest reputation imaginable; the battle was so desperate that the soldiers' bayonets were stained with blood to the muzzles of their muskets; there was scarce an officer or soldier of the regiment, and of that part of Munro's (now 37th regiment) which engaged the rebels, that did not kill one or two men each with their bayonets. (Particulars of the Battle, published 1746.) Now it will be remembered that your correspondent E. H., Vol. ix., p. 159., represents a drummer of the regiment interceding with the colonel for the prisoner, by stating that "he behaved well at Culloden." And this leads me to the question, Who was the colonel against whom this caricature was directed? It is proved ("N. & Q.," Vol. vii., p. 242.) that regiments were known by the names of their colonels, whether commanded personally by the colonel or not, until July 1, 1751, and indeed for several subsequent years.

Now the reference to Culloden renders it probable that the colonel appealed to was present at that battle, and perhaps an eye-witness of the personal bravery on that occasion of the soldier who was subsequently flogged. But although Colonel Barrell retained the colonelcy of the 4th Infantry until August, 1749, yet he was promoted to major-general in 1735, after which time he would have commanded a division, not a regiment. In 1739 he was farther promoted to lieut.-general, and appointed the same year Governor of Pendennis Castle, which office would necessarily remove him from the personal command of his regiment. He was not present at the battle of Culloden, April 16, 1746, where his regiment was commanded by Lieut.-Colonel Robert {546}Rich, who was wounded on that occasion. As to the epithet of "Colonel," used by the drummer, that term is always used in conversation when addressing a lieutenant-colonel, or even a brevet lieutenant-colonel, and its use only proves, therefore, that the officer in command of the parade held a higher rank than major. After Culloden, the 4th regiment moved to the Highlands, and in 1747 returned to Stirling. In 1749 General Barrell died, and the colonelcy of the regiment was given to Lieut.-Colonel Rich, whom I suspect to be the officer alluded to in the caricature. I have searched the military records of the 4th regiment, but can find no mention of the places at which it was stationed from 1747 to 1754, in the spring of which year it embarked from Great Britain for the Mediterranean, just as it is now doing in the spring of 1854. I am inclined to fix the date of the print as 1749 (not 1747), when "Old Scourge" returned to his regiment as colonel, at the decease of General Barrell. Colonel Rich was not promoted to major-general until Jan. 17, 1758, and his commission as colonel is dated Aug. 22, 1749, the day on which he became colonel of the 4th regiment. He died in 1785, but retired from the service between the years 1771 and 1776: he succeeded his father as a baronet in 1768.

G. L. S.


(Vol. ix., p. 372.)

I was much pleased at reading Mr. H. T. Riley's Note on this neglected subject, in which I take no small interest, and feel happy in communicating the little amount of information I possess regarding it. I have long thought that the habit of smoking, I do not say tobacco, but some other herb, is of much greater antiquity than is generally supposed. Tobacco appears to have been introduced amongst us about 1586 by Captain R. Greenfield and Sir Francis Drake (vide Brand's Popular Antiquities); but I have seen pipe-bowls of English manufacture, which had been found beneath the encaustic pavement of Buildwas Abbey in Shropshire, which gives a much earlier date to the practice of smoking something. I remember an old man, a perfect Dominie Sampson in his way, who had been in turn gaoler, pedagogue, and postmaster, at St. Briavel's, near Tintern Abbey, habitually smoking the leaves of coltsfoot, which he cultivated on purpose; he told me that he could seldom afford to use tobacco. The pipes found in such abundance in the bed of the Thames, and everywhere in and about London, I believe to be of Dutch manufacture; they are identical with those which Teniers and Ostade put into the mouths of their boors, and have for the most part a small pointed heel, a well-defined milled ring around the lip, and bear no mark or name of the maker. Such were the pipes used by the soldiers of the Parliament, to be found wherever they encamped. I will only instance Barton, near Abingdon, on the property of G. Bowyer, Esq., M.P., where I have seen scores while shooting in the fields around the ruins of the old fortified mansion. The English pipes, on the contrary, have a very broad and flat heel, on which they may rest in an upright position, so that the ashes might not fall out prematurely; and on this heel the potter's name or device is usually stamped, generally in raised characters, though sometimes they are incised. Occasionally the mark is to be found on the side of the bowl. A short time ago I exhibited a series of some five-and-twenty different types at the Archæological Institution, and my collection has been enlarged considerably since. These were principally found in Shropshire and Staffordshire, and appear for the most part to have been made at Broseley. They are of a very hard and compact clay, which retains the impress of the milled ring and the stamp in all its original freshness. I shall feel much obliged by receiving any additional information upon this subject.

W. J. Bernhard Smith.



(Vol. ix., p. 451.)

I cannot direct R. A. to the passage in Madame de Staël's works. The German book for which he inquires is not by Schlegel assisted by Fichte, but—

"Friedrich Nicolai's Leben und sonderbare Meinungen. Ein Beitrag zur Literatur-Geschichte des vergangenen und zur Pädagogik des angehenden Jahrhunderts, von Johan Gottlieb Fichte. Herausgegeben von A. W. Schlegel: Tubingen, 1801, 8o, pp. 130."

There certainly is no ground for the charge that Fichte attacked Nicolai when he was too old to reply. Nicolai was born in 1733, and died in 1811; so that he was sixty-eight when this pamphlet was published. His Leben Sempronius Gundiberts was published in 1798; and your correspondent H. C. R. (Vol. vii., p. 20.) partook of his hospitality in Berlin in 1803.

As to the provocation, Fichte (at p. 82.) gives an account of attacks on his personal honour; the worst of which seems to be the imputation of seeking favourable notices in the Literary Gazette of Jena. In Gundibert Fichte's writings were severely handled, but no personal imputation was made. I do not know what was said of him in the Neue Deutsche Bibliothek, but I can hardly imagine any justification for so furious an attack {547}as this on Nicolai. I also concur with Madame de Staël in thinking the book dull: "Non est jocus esse malignum." It begins with an attempt at grave burlesque, but speedily degenerates into mere scolding. Take one example:

"Es war sehr wahr, dass aus seinen (Nicolais) Händen alles beschmutzt und verdreht herausging; aber es war nicht wahr, das er beschmutzen und verdrehen wollte. Es ward ihm nur so durch die Eigenschaft seiner Natur. Wer möchte ein Stinkthier beschuldigen, dass es bohafter Weise alles was es zu sich nehme, in Gestank,—oder die Natter, das sie es in Gift verwandle. Diese Thiere sind daran sehr unschuldig; sie folgen nur ihrer Natur. Eben so unser Held, der nun einmal zum literarischen Stinkthier und der Natter des achtzehnten Jahrhunderts bestimmt war, verbreitete stank um sich, und spritze Gift, nicht aus Bosheit, sondern lediglich durch seine Bestimmung getrieben."—P. 78.

The charge of defiling all he touched will be appreciated by those who have read Sebaldus Nothanker and Sempronius Gundibert, two of the purest as well as of the cleverest novels of the last century.

H. B. C.

U. U. Club.


(Vol. ix., p. 392.)

The long-received account of a very striking act in the martyrdom of Cranmer is declared to involve an "impossibility." The question is an important one in various ways, for it involves moral and religious, as well as literary and physiological, considerations of deep interest; but as I think the pages of "N. & Q." not the most appropriate vehicle for discussion on the former heads, I shall pass them over at present with a mere expression of regret that such a subject should have been so mooted there. With reference, then, to the literary evidence in favour of the fact, that the noble martyr voluntarily put forth his hand into the hottest part of the fire which was raging about him, and burnt it first, the historians quoted are entirely agreed, differing as they do only in such details as might seem rather to imply independent testimony than discrepant authority. But the action is declared to be "utterly impossible, because," &c. Why beg the question in this way? "Because," says H. B. C., "the laws of physiology and combustion show that he could not have gone beyond the attempt;" adding, "If the hand were chained over the fire, the shock would produce death." Leaving the hypothetical reasoning in both cases to go for what it is worth, it would surely be easy to produce facts of almost every week from the evidence given in coroners' inquests, in which persons have had their limbs burnt off—to say nothing of farther injury—without the shock "producing death." The only question then which I think can fairly arise, is, whether a person in Cranmer's position could voluntarily endure that amount of mutilation by fire which many others have accidentally suffered? This may be matter of opinion, but I have no doubt, and I suppose no truly Christian philosopher will have any, that the man who has faith to "give his body to be burned," and to endure heroically such a form of martyrdom, would be quite able to do what is attributed to Cranmer, and to Hooper too, "high medical authority" to the contrary notwithstanding. I might, indeed, adduce what might be called "high medical authority" for my view, i. e. the historical evidence of the fact, but I think the bandying of opinions on such a subject undesirable. It would be more to the point, especially if there really existed any ground for "historic doubt" on the subject, or if there was any good reason for creating one, to cite cotemporaneous evidence against that usually received. With respect to the heart of the martyr being "entire and unconsumed among the ashes," I must be permitted to say that, neither on physiological nor other grounds, does even this alleged fact, taken in its plain and obvious meaning, strike me as forming one of the "impossibilities of history."

J. H.


Your correspondent H. B. C. doubts the possibility of the story about Cranmer's hand, and says that "if a furnace were so constructed that a man might hold his hand in the flame without burning his body, the shock to the nervous system would deprive him of all command over muscular action before the skin could be entirely consumed. If the hand were chained over the fire, the shock would produce death." Now, this last assertion I doubt. The following is an extract from the account of Ravaillac's execution, given with wonderfully minute details by an eye-witness, and published in Cimber's Archives Curieux de l'Histoire de France, vol. xv. p. 103.:

"On le couche sur l'eschaffaut, on attache les chevaux aux mains et aux pieds. Sa main droite percée d'un cousteau fut bruslée à feu de souphre. Ce misérable, pour veoir comme ceste exécrable main rotissoit, eut le courage de hausser la teste et de la secouer pour abattre une étincelle de feu qui se prenoit à sa barbe."

So far was this from killing him that he was torn with red-hot pincers, had melted lead, &c. poured into his wounds, and he was then "longuement tiré, retiré, et promené de tous costez" by four horses:

"S'il y eut quelque pause, ce ne fut que pour donner temps au bourreau de respirer, au patient de se sentir mourir, aux théologiens de l'exhorter à dire la vérité."

And still:

"Sa vie estoit forte et vigoureuse; telle que retirant {548}une fois une des jambes, il arresta le cheval qui le tiroit."

I fear your correspondent underrates the power of the human body in enduring torture. I have seen a similar account of the execution of Damiens, with which I will not shock your readers. The subject is a revolting one, but the truth ought to be known, as it is (most humanely, I fully believe) questioned.

G. W. R.

Oxford and Cambridge Club.


Difficulties in making soluble Cotton.—In making soluble cotton according to the formula given by Mr. Hadow in the Photographic Journal, and again by Mr. Shadbolt in "N. & Q.," I have been subject to the most provoking failures, and should feel obliged if Mr. Shadbolt or any other of your correspondents could explain the causes of my failures, which I will endeavour to describe.

1st. In using nitrate of potash and sulphuric acid, with a certain quantity of water as given, I have invariably found that on adding the cotton to the mixture it became completely dissolved, and the mass began to effervesce violently, throwing off dense volumes of deep red fumes, and the whole appearing of a similar colour. I at first thought it might be the fault of the sulphuric acid; but on trying some fresh, procured at another place, the same effects were produced.

Again, in using the mixed acids (which I tried, not being successful with the other method) I found, on following Mr. Hadow's plan, that the cotton was also entirely dissolved.

How is the proper temperature at which the cotton is to be immersed to be arrived at? Are there any thermometers constructed for the purpose? as, if one of the ordinary ones, mounted on wood or metal, was used, the acids would attack it, and, I should imagine, prove injurious to the liquids.

At the same time I would ask the reason why all the negative calotypes I have taken lately, both on Turner's and Sandford's papers, iodized according to Dr. Diamond's plan, are never intense, especially the skies, by transmitted light, although by reflected light they look of a beautiful black and white. I never used formerly to meet with such a failure; but at that time I used always to wet the plate glass and attach the paper to it, making it adhere by pressing with blotting-paper, and then exciting with a buckles brush and dilute gallo-nitrate. But the inconvenience attending that plan was, that I was compelled to take out as many double slides as I wished to take pictures, which made me abandon it and take to Dr. Diamond's plan of exciting them and placing them in a portfolio for use. I imagine the cause of their not being so intense is the not exposing them while wet.

A bag made of yellow calico, single thickness, has been recommended for changing the papers in the open air. I am satisfied it will not do, especially if the sun is shining; it may do in some shady places, but I have never yet seen any yellow calico so fine in texture as not to allow of the rays of light passing through it, unless two or three times doubled. I have proved to my own satisfaction that the papers will not bear exposure in a bag of single thickness, without browning over immediately the developing fluid is applied.

With regard to the using of thin collodion, as recommended by Mr. Hardwick in the last Number of the Photographic Journal, I am satisfied it is the only plan of producing thoroughly good positives; and I have been in the habit of thinning down collodion in the same manner for a long time, finding that I produced much better pictures with about half the time of exposure necessary for a thick collodion.

H. U.

Light in Cameras.—I cannot sufficiently express my acknowledgments to "N. & Q." for the photographic benefits I have derived from its perusal, more especially from the communication in No. 240. of Lux in Camera. Since I took up the art some months ago, I have had (with two or three exceptions) nothing but a succession of failures, principally from the browning of the negatives, and on examining my camera, as recommended by Lux in Camera, I find it lets in a blaze of light from the cause he mentions[3], and thence doubtless my disappointments. But why inflict this history upon you? I inclose for your acceptance the best photograph I have yet produced from Dr. Diamond's "Simplicity of the Calotype." Printed from Delamotte's directions:—

First preparation, 5 oz. of aq. dist.; ¼ oz. of muriate of ammonia.

Second process, floating on solution 60 grains of nitrate of silver, 1 ounce of distilled water.

Is there any better plan than the above?

Charles K. Probert.

P.S.—The view inclosed is the porch and transept of Newport Church, Essex, from the Parsonage garden. Is it printed too dark? I wish I could get the grey and white tints I saw in the Photographic Exhibition.[4] Had your readers behaved with ordinary gratitude, your photographic portfolio ought to have overflowed by this time.

Footnote 3:(return)

It was an expensive one, bought of one of the principal houses for the supply of photographic apparatus, &c.

Footnote 4:(return)

[Some of the best specimens of these tints were forwarded to us by Mr. Pumphrey, accompanying the description of his process, printed in our eighth volume, p. 349.—Ed. "N. & Q."]

Cameras.—The note of Lux in Camera has brought in more than one letter of thanks; and a valued correspondent has written to us, suggesting "That the attention of the Photographic Society, who have as yet done far less than they might have done to advance the Art, should be at once turned, and that seriously and earnestly, to the production of a light, portable, and effective camera for field purposes; one which, at the same time that it has the advantages of lightness and portability, should be capable of resisting our variable climate." Our correspondent throws out a hint which possibly may be adopted with advantage, {549}that papier maché has many of the requisites desired, being very firm, light, and impervious to wet.

Progress of Photography.—As a farther contribution to the History of Photography, we have been favoured with the following copy of a letter from a well-known amateur, which details in a graphic manner his early photographic experiences.

"As there is a sort of reflux of the tide to Mr. Fox Talbot's plan, and different people have succeeded best in different ways, it may amuse you to hear how I used to work, with better luck than I have had since.

"Mr. Talbot's sensitive wash was very strong, so he floated his paper upon distilled water immediately after its application.

"Mr. G. S. Cundell, of Finsbury Circus, diluted the sensitive wash with water, instead of floating the paper. Amateurs date their success from the time Mr. Cundell published this simple modification of the original process.

"Mr. William Hunt, of Yarmouth, was my first friend and instructor in the art; and if there be any merit in the pictures I did before I knew you, the credit is due to him entirely.

"The first paper we tried was Whatman's ivory post, very thick and hard, and yet it gave good negatives. We afterwards got a thinner paper, but always stuck to Whatman. Neither were we troubled with that porosity in the skies of which you complain in the more recently-made papers of that manufacturer.

"We first washed the paper with a solution of nitrate of silver, fifteen grains to the ounce, going over the surface in all directions with a camel-hair brush. As soon as the fluid ceased to run, the paper was rapidly dried before the fire, and then immersed in a solution of iodide of potassium, 500 grains to the pint of water. We used to draw it through the solution frequently by the corners, and then let it lie till the yellow tint was visible at the back. It was then immediately taken to the pump and pumped upon vigorously for two or three minutes, holding it at such an angle that the water flushed softly over the surface. We then gave it a few minutes in a rain-water bath, inclining the dish at different angles to give motion to the water. By this time the iodide of silver looked like pure solid brimstone in the wet paper. Then we knew that it was good, and hung it up to dry.

"To make this paper sensitive, we took 5 drops of gallic acid (saturated solution), 5 drops of glacial acetic acid, 10 drops of a 50-grain solution of nitrate of silver, and 100 drops of water. The sensitive wash was poured upon a glass plate, and the paper placed thereon. We used to lift the paper frequently by one or other corner till it was perfectly limp. We then blotted off and placed in the camera, where it would keep a good many hours.

"Whether such pictures would have come out spontaneously under the developing solution, I know not, for we had not patience enough to try. We forced them out in double quick time with red-hot pokers; and great was the alarm of my wife to see me rush madly about the house armed with these weapons. Yet the plan had its advantages; by presenting the point of the poker at a refractory spot, its reluctance to appear was speedily overcome, and we persuaded out the shadows.

* * *

"P.S.—I now have the first picture I ever did, little, if at all, altered. It was done in July, 1845, with a common meniscus lens. I have just got a capital negative by Dr. Diamond's plan, but which is spoiled by the metallic abominations in Turner's paper."

A Collodion Difficulty.—With reference to Mr. J. Cook's collodion, I would suggest that his ether was indeed "still very strong" of acid; by which the iodine was set free, and gave him "nearly a port-wine colour." This is a common occurrence when the ether or the collodion is acid. The remedy is at hand, however. Powder a few grains of cyanide of potassium, and introduce about a grain at a time, according to the quantity: shake up till dissolved, and so on, until you get the clear golden tint. Thus will "the mystery be cleared up." I need not say that the essential properties of the solution will not be impaired.

Andrew Steinmetz.

P.S.—In a day or two I shall send you a recipe for easily turning to immediate use the "used-up dipping baths" of nitrate, without the troublesome process recommended to one of your correspondents.

Ferricyanide of Potassium.—I have used with success the ferricyanide of potassium (the red prussiate of potash, as it is called) for removing the stains contracted in photographing. This it does very readily when the stains are recent, and it has no injurious effect upon cuts and sore places should any exist on the hands. An old stain may with a little pumice be very readily removed. I have mentioned this to several friends, and, if not a novelty, it is certainly not generally known.

S. Pelham Dale.

Sion College.

Replies to Minor Queries.

Postage System of the Romans (Vol. ix., p. 350.).—Your correspondent Ardelio probably alludes to the system of posts for the conveyance of persons, established by the Romans on their great lines of road. An account of this may be seen in the work of Bergier, Histoire des Grands Chemins de l'Empire Romain, lib. iv.; and compare Gibbon's Decline and Fall, chap. xvii. Communications were made from Rome to the governors of provinces, and information was received from them, by means of these posts: see Suet. Oct. c. xlix. But the Romans had no public institution for the conveyance of private letters. A letter post is a comparatively modern institution; in England it only dates from the reign of James I. An account of the ancient Persian posts is given by Xenoph. Cyrop. VIII. vi. § 17, 18.; Herod. viii. 98.: compare Schleusner, Lex. N. T. in ἀγγαρεύω.


As a proof that there is at least one eminent exception to the assertion of Ardelio, that "we know that the Romans must have had a postal system," I send the following extract from Dr. William {550}Smith's Dictionary of Greek and Roman Antiquities, sub voc. Tabellarius:

"As the Romans had no public post, they were obliged to employ special messengers, who were called Tabellarii, to convey their letters, when they had not an opportunity of sending them otherwise."



Epigram on the Feuds between Handel and Bononcini (Vol. ix., p. 445.).—This epigram, which has frequently been printed as Swift's, was written by Dr. Byrom of Manchester. In his very interesting Diary, which is shortly about to appear under the able editorship of my friend Dr. Parkinson in the series of Chetham publications, Byrom mentions it.

"Nourse asked me if I had seen the verses upon Handel and Bononcini, not knowing that they were mine; but Sculler said I was charged with them, and so I said they were mine; they both said they had been mightily liked."—Byrom's Remains (Cheetham Series), vol. i. part i. p. 173.

The verses are thus more correctly given in Byrom's Works, vol. i. p. 342., edit. 1773:

"Epigram on the Feuds between Handel and Bononcini.

Some say, compar'd to Bononcini,

That Mynheer Handel's but a ninny;

Others aver that he to Handel

Is scarcely fit to hold a candle:

Strange all this difference should be,

'Twixt Tweedledum and Tweedledee!"

Jas. Crossley.

Power of prophesying before Death (Vol. ii., p. 116.).—In St. Gregory's Dialogues, b. IV. ch. xxv., the disciple asks,—

"Velim scire quonam modo agitur quod plerumque morientes multa prædicunt."

The answer begins (ch. xxvi.),—

"Ipsa aliquando animarum vis subtilitate sua aliquid prævidet. Aliquando autem exituræ de corpore animæ per revelationem ventura cognoscunt. Aliquando vero dum jam juxta sit ut corpus deserant, divinitus afflatæ in secreta cœlestia incorporeum mentis oculum mittunt."

J. C. R.

King John (Vol. ix., p. 453.).—I cannot reply to the Queries of Prestoniensis, but I have a note of a grant made by John (as Com. Moritoniæ) of the tithes of the parishes between Rible and Merse, which appears to have received the Bishop of Coventry's confirmation, ap. Cestriam, an. 2 Pont. Papæ Cœlestini. John's grant was to the Priory of Lancaster. My reference is to Madox, Formulare Anglicanum, Lond. 1702, p. 52, MXCVI. The deed is witnessed by Adam de Blakeburn and Robert de Preston, as well as by Phil. Sanson (De Worcester?) and others.


Demoniacal Descent of the Plantagenets (Vol. ix., p. 494.).—H. B. C. will find another passage, illustrative of this presumption, in Henry Knyghton's Chronica:

"De isto quoque Henrico, quondam infantulo et in curia regis Francorum nutrito, beatus Bernardus Abbas de eo sic prophetavit, præsente rege, De Diabolo venit, et ad Diabolum ibit: Notans per hoc tam tyrannidem patris sui Galfridi, qui Sagiensem episcopum eunuchaverat, quam etiam istius Henrici futuram atrocitatem qua in beatum Thomam desæviret."—Twysden, Hist. Angl. Scriptores, pp. 2393. 32., and 2399. 10.

C. H.

Burial Service Tradition (Vol. ix., p. 451.).—The only cases in which a clergyman is legally justified in refusing to read the entire service over the body of a parishioner or other person admitted to burial in the parochial cemetery, are the three which are mentioned in the preliminary rubric, which, as expounded by the highest authorities, are as follows: 1. In case the person died without admission to the universal church by Christian baptism. 2. Or "denounced 'excommunicate majori excommunicatione' for some grievous and notorious crime, and no man able to testify of his repentance." (Canon 68.) 3. Or felo de se; for in a case of suicide the acquittal of the deceased by a coroner's jury entitles him to Christian burial. The extraordinary notion of the clergyman, mentioned by the Rev. S. Adams, is certainly erroneous in law. I can only suppose it originated from some case in which the severance of the deceased's right hand was regarded by the jury as a proof that he did not kill himself. Except in certain special cases, none but parishioners are entitled to burial in a parochial burying-place at all.


Paintings of our Saviour (Vol. ix., p. 270.).—Your correspondent J. P. may hear of something to his advantage by visiting the church of Santa Prassede (Saint Praxedes?), not far from Santa Maria Maggiore in Rome. In the former he will see, as usual, a list of wonderful relics preserved therein, and amongst them "A Portrait of the Saviour, presented by St. Peter to Santa Prassede." A valuable gift, truly, if only authentic. The name of the artist is not given, I believe, in the above veracious document. They had better have made the catalogue complete by putting in the name of St. Luke himself, whose pencil, I rather think, is stated to have furnished other such portraits elsewhere. "Credat Judæus!"

The Santa Prassede above alluded to is stated to have been a daughter of Pudens, mentioned in the Epistles of St. Paul.

M. H. R.

Widdrington Family (Vol. ix., p. 375.).—The church of Nunnington, near Helmsly, in the North {551}Riding of Yorkshire, contains two handsome marble monuments of Lords Preston and Widdrington. The old hall at Nunnington, now occupied by a farmer, was once the seat of Viscount Preston, and afterwards of Lord Widdrington. William, Lord Widdrington, who is said to be descended from the brave Witherington, celebrated in Chevy Chace for having fought upon his stumps, was of the very noble and ancient family of the Widdringtons of Widdrington Castle, in the county of Northumberland; and great-grandson of the brave Lord Widdrington who was slain gallantly fighting in the service of the crown at Wigan, in Lancashire, in 1651. William, his grandson, was unfortunately engaged in the affair of Preston in 1715, when his estate became forfeited to the crown, and he afterwards confined himself to private life. He married a daughter of the Lord Viscount Preston above mentioned, one of the co-heiresses of the estate at Nunnington, and was in consequence buried in the family vault in 1743, aged sixty-five. For other particulars of the family of Widdrington, see Camden's Britannia.

Thomas Gill.


Mathew, a Cornish Family (Vol. ix., pp. 22. 289.).—I fear I cannot give the Rev. H. T. Ellacombe much information on the point he desires of the descent of the Devon and Cornwall branches of the Mathew family, which I yet entertain the hope some of your readers having access to the Cambrian genealogical lore at Dinevawr, Penline, Margam, Fonmon, and other places, may be able to graft correctly on their Welsh tree.

I was unable to corroborate in the British Museum the marriages given in the Heralds' Visitation of Devon, with Starkey and Gamage. Did a son of Reynell of Malston by an heir of Mathew take that name?

Mr. Ellacombe will find by the Heralds' Visitation that both of the West of England branches settled before 1650 in Cornwall, the one at Tresingher, the other at Milton; but that of the former, William married Elizabeth Wellington, and John married Rebecca Soame, both reverting to settle in Devonshire, from whom, perhaps, his ancestress derives.



"Πίστις," unde deriv. (Vol. ix., p. 324.).—The perfect impossibility of deriving this word from Ἵστημι is at once evident, on the following grounds: 1. To obtain the letter π, recourse is had to the compound form ἐφίσταμαι; but where have we a similar instance, in any derived word, of the ε in ἐπὶ being thus absorbed, and the π taken to commence a fresh word? 2. Allowing such an extraordinary process, what possible meaning of ἐφίσταμαι can be adduced in the slightest degree corresponding to the established interpretation of πίστις?

Throwing aside the termination -ις, we obtain the letters πιστ-, which a very slight knowledge of etymology enables us to trace back to πείθω; for the stem of this verb is ΠΙΘ (cf. Aor. 2. ἔπιθον), and the formation of the adjective πίστος from πε-πειστ-αι is clearly analogous to that of the word in question, the long syllable and diphthong ει being altered into the short and single letter ι, to which many similar instances may be adduced.


There is no doubt as to the derivation of πίστις from πείθω. Compare κνῆστις from κνάω or κνήθω, πρῖστις or πρῆστις from πρήθω, πύστις from πυνθάνομαι. Verbs of this form introduce the ς into the future and other inflected tenses, as πείσω, πεύσομαι.


Author of "The Whole Duty of Man" (Vol. vi., p. 537.).—It is asserted in the English Baronetage (vol. i. p. 398., 1741), on the authority of Sir Herbert Perrot Pakington, Bart., in support of the claim of Lady Pakington to the authorship, "the manuscript, under her own hand, now remains with the family." Can this MS. now be found?

B. H. C.

Table-turning (Vol. ix., pp. 88. 135., &c.).—In turning over Sozomen's Ecclesiastical History, I observed at b. VI. ch. 34. an account of the transaction already printed in your pages from Ammianus Marcellinus. It is in brief as follows:—Certain philosophers who were opposed to Christianity were anxious to learn who should succeed Valens in the empire. After trying all other kinds of divination, they constructed a tripod (or table with three legs: see Servius on Virgil, Æn. III. 360.) of laurel wood, and by means of certain incantations and formulæ, succeeded (by combining the letters which were indicated, one by one, by a contrivance of some kind connected with the table) in obtaining Th. E. O. D. Now, being anxious and hopeful for one Theodorus to succeed to the throne, they concluded that he was meant. Valens, hearing of it, put him and them to death, and many others whose names began with these letters.

On referring to Socrates, I find that he also names the circumstances just alluded to. Although he does not give all the particulars, he adds one important statement, which serves to identify the thing more closely with modern table-moving and spirit-rapping. "The devil," he says, "induced certain curious persons to practise divination, by calling up the spirits of the dead (νεκυομαντείαν ποιήσασθαι), in order to find out who should reign after Valens." They succeeded in obtaining the letters Th. E. O. D.

I observe a reference to Nicephorus, b. XI. 45., but have not his works at hand to consult. {552}

The use of laurel, in the construction of the table, seems to connect the occurrences with the worship of Apollo. Those who would investigate the subject fully must consult such passages in the classics as this from Lucan [Lucretius?], lib. i. 739-40.:

"Sanctius et multo certa ratione magis, quam

Pythia, quæ tripode ex Phœbi lauroque profatur."

I have a reference to Le Nourry, p. 1345., who, I see, has some remarks upon the passage already given from Tertullian; he, however, throws little light upon the subject.

Henry H. Breen (Vol. viii., p. 330.) says, "It is not unreasonable to suppose that table-turning ... was practised in former ages:" to this I think we may now subscribe.

B. H. C.


Pedigree to the Time of Alfred (Vol. viii., p. 586.; Vol. ix., p. 233.).—The person S. D. met at the "King's Head," Egham, was doubtless Mr. John Wapshott of Chertsey, Surrey (late of Almoner's Barn Farm in that neighbourhood), an intelligent, respectable yeoman, who would feel much pleasure in giving S. D. any information he may require.

B. S. Elcock.


Quotation wanted (Vol. ix., p. 421.).—"Extinctus amabitur idem," is from Horace, Epist. II. i. 14. (See Vol. vii., p. 81.)

P. J. F. Gantillon.

"Hic locus odit, amat."—In Vol. v. of "N. & Q.," at p. 8., "Procurator" gives the two quaintly linked lines—

"Hic locus odit, amat, punit, conservat, honorat

Nequitiam, leges, crimina, jura probos."

as "carved in a beam over the Town Hall of Much Wenlock, in Shropshire." They are to be found also in the ancient hall of judicature of the "Palazzo del Podesta," at Pistoja, in Tuscany. The ancient stone seats, with their stone table in front of them, where the magistrates of the republic administered justice in the days of the city's independence, are still remaining, and these lines are cut in the stone just over the benches. This simple and primitive tribunal was built as it now stands in 1307, and there can be no doubt that the verses in question existed there before they found their way to Much Wenlock. But as it is hardly likely that they travelled direct from Tuscany into Shropshire, the probability is that they may be found in some other, or perhaps in many other places. I have not been able to light on any clue to the authorship or history of the lines. Perhaps some of your correspondents, who have the means of wider researches than this city commands, might be more fortunate.

T. A. T.

Florence, March, 1854.

Writings of the Martyr Bradford (Vol. ix., p. 450.).—In reply to Mr. Townsend's inquiry respecting early editions of Bradford's writings, I can add to the information furnished by the Editor that the copy of his Hurt of Hearyng Masse, sold at Mr. Jolley's sale, was purchased subsequently of Mr. Thorpe, and deposited in the Chetham Library. This edition is not noticed by Watt.

In Stevens's Memoirs of the Life and Martyrdom of John Bradford, with his Examinations, Letters, &c., there is no mention of the letter ad calcem of—

"An Account of a Disputation at Oxford, Anno Domini 1554. With a Treatise of the Blessed Sacrament; both written by Bishop Ridley, Martyr. To which is added a Letter written by Mr. John Bradford, never before printed. All taken out of an original manuscript [and published by Gilbert Ironside], Oxford, 1688, 4to."

Bibliothecar. Chetham.

Latin Inscription on Lindsey Court-house (Vol. ix., p. 492.).—Your correspondent L. L. L. gives this inscription as follows:

"Fiat Justitia,


Hæc domus

Dit, amat, punit, conservat, honorat,

Equitiam, pacem, crimina, jura, bonos."

This couplet, in its correct form, evidently stood thus:

"Hæc custodit, amat, punit, conservat, honorat,

Æquitiam, pacem, crimina, jura, bonos."

That is to say,

"Custodit æquitiam, amat pacem, punit crimina, conservat jura, honorat bonos."

The substantive of æquus is æquitas, not æquitia. If these verses were composed in good Latinity, the first word of the pentameter probably was justitiam.


Blanco White's Sonnet (Vol. vii., pp. 404. 486.; Vol. ix., p. 469.).—This sonnet is so beautiful, that I hope it will suffer no disparagement in the eyes of any of your admiring readers, if I remind them of a passage in Sir Thomas Browne's Quincunx, which I conceive may have inspired the brilliant genius of Blanco White on this occasion. I regret that I have not the precise reference to the passage:

"Light" (says Browne) "that makes things seen, makes some things invisible. Were it not for darkness, and the shadow of the earth, the noblest part of creation had remained unseen, and the stars in heaven as invisible as on the fourth day, when they were created above the horizon with the sun, or there was not an eye to behold them. The greatest mystery of religion is expressed by adumbration; and, in the noblest part of the Jewish types, we find the cherubim shadowing the {553}mercy-seat. Life itself is but the shadow of death, and souls departed but the shadows of the living: all things fall under this name. The sun itself is but the dark simulacrum, and light but the shadow of God!"

J. Sansom.


"Wise men labour," &c. (Vol. ix., p. 468.).—The following version of these lines is printed in the Collection of Loyal Songs, written against the Rump Parliament between the Years 1639-1661:


"Wise men suffer, good men grieve,

Knaves devise and fools believe;

Help, O Lord! send aid unto us,

Else knaves and fools will quite undo us."

These four lines constitute the whole of the piece, which is anonymous: vol. i. p. 27., and also on the title-page.

B. H. C.

[We are indebted to S-C. P. J. for a similar reply.]

Copernicus (Vol. ix., p. 447.).—This inscription, as given in "N. & Q.," contains two false quantities, Grātiam and Vēniam. May I suggest the transposal of the two words, and then all will be right, at least as to prosody, which, in Latin poetry, seems to override all other considerations.

C. De la Pryme.

N.B.—What is the nominative to poor dederat?

Meals, Meols (Vol. vii., pp. 208. 298.; Vol. ix., p. 409.).—The word "mielles" is of frequent occurrence in Normandy and the Channel Islands, where it is applied to sandy downs bordering the sea-shore. It is not to be found in French dictionaries, and, like the words hougue, falaise, and others in use in Normandy, has probably come down from the Northmen, who gave their name to that province.

Edgar Macculloch.


Byron and Rochefoucauld (Vol. ix., p. 347.).—Allow me to refer your correspondent Sigma to "N. & Q.," Vol. i., p. 260., where, under the signature of Melanion, I noted Byron's two unacknowledged obligations to La Rochefoucauld, and the blunder made in the note on Don Juan, canto iii. st. 4. Sigma will also find these and other passages from Byron given among the notes in the translation of La Rochefoucauld, published in 1850 (June) by Messrs. Longman and Co.

C. Forbes.


Robert Eden (Vol. ix., p. 374.).—Robert Eden, Archdeacon and Prebendary of Winchester, was the son of Robert Eden, of Newcastle-upon-Tyne. The Edens of Auckland and the Edens of Newcastle were descended from two brothers. The Archdeacon was fourth cousin of the first baronet. His daughter, Mary, married Ebenezer Blackwell, Esq., and their daughter, Philadelphia, married Lieut.-Col. G. R. P. Jarvis, of Doddington, in Lincolnshire. I am descended from a first cousin of the Archdeacon, and could furnish R. E. C., if I knew his address, with farther particulars respecting the Edens of Newcastle.

E. H. A.

Dates of Maps (Vol. ix., p. 396.).—I think the answer to Mr. Warden's very just complaint respecting maps not being dated is easily accounted for, much more easily, I fear, than reformed. The last published map is considered the most exact and useful; it, therefore, is the interest of the map-seller to sell off all of the old ones that he can; hence it is difficult, unless some pains are taken, to ascertain which is the last. A. publishes a new map of France, B. then publishes one; but both avoid putting the date, as the oldest date would sell fewer, and the newer map proprietor expects a still newer one soon to appear. By A. I do not mean to allude to Mr. Arrowsmith in particular, who is one of the best, if not the best, map-seller we have. But why are large military map-sellers so much dearer with us than on the Continent? I must except the Ordnance map, which is now sold cheaply, thanks entirely to Mr. Hume's exertions in parliament.

A. (1)

Miss Elstob (Vol. iii., p. 497.).—This surname is so uncommon that I have met with but three instances of persons bearing it; one was the lady referred to by your correspondent, the second was her brother, the Rev. William Elstob, and the third was Dryden Elstob, who served for some time in the 3rd Light Dragoons, and also, I believe, in the Royal Navy,—at least I know that he used to wear a naval uniform in the streets of London. I believe that the family was settled at one time at Newcastle-on-Tyne.[5] What is known of the family?


Footnote 5:(return)

[Both William Elstob and his learned sister were born at Newcastle-upon-Tyne, of which place their father, Ralph Elstob, was a merchant.]

Corporation Enactments (Vol. ix., p. 300.).—Your correspondent Abhba having omitted to mention where he found the curious piece of information which under this title he supplied to you, I beg leave to supply the deficiency. The same paragraph, nearly verbatim, has been long since published in a book which is by no means rare, the Dublin Penny Journal, vol. i. p. 226. (No. 29, January 12, 1833), where it appears thus:

"In the town books of the corporation of Youghal, among many other singular enactments of that body, are two which will now be regarded as curiosities. In the years 1680 and 1700, a cook and a barber were made freemen, on condition that they should severally {554}dress the mayor's feasts, and shave the corporation—gratis!"

Is not this the very paragraph which has been supplied to you as an original? The attempt to disguise it by the alteration of two or three words is below criticism. Surely, if passages from common or easily accessible books are to occupy valuable space in the pages of "N. & Q.," it is not too much to expect that reference be honestly given to the work which may be cited.



Misapplication of Terms (Vol. ix., p. 361.).—Your correspondent is quite entitled to the references he demands, and which I had considered superfluous. I beg to refer him to the school dictionaries in use by my boys, viz. Mr. Young's and Dr. Carey's edition of Ainsworth, abridged by Dr. Morell; also to the following, all I possess, viz. Dr. Adam Littleton's, 4to. 4th ed., 1703; Robertson's ed. of Gouldman, 4to., 1674; and Gesner's Thesaurus, 4 vols. fol. I may add that the observations of Horne Tooke are quite to my mind, especially when applied to the "legendary stories of nurses and old women." (Todd's Johnson.)

Working in the same direction as your correspondent who has caused this invasion of your space, I cannot resist the opportunity of protesting against the use of "opened up" and "opened out," as applied to the developments of national enterprise and industry. These expressions, common to many, and frequently to be read in the "leading journal," stand a fair chance of becoming established vulgarisms. It is, however, something worse than slipshod when a paper of equal pretension, and more particularly addressed to the families of the educated classes, informs its readers "that some of the admirers of the late Justice Talfourd contemplate the erection of a cenotaph over his grave in the cemetery at Norwood." (Illustrated News, March 25, 1854.)





On the publication of the first volume of Mr. Peter Cunningham's edition of The Works of Oliver Goldsmith, we did not hesitate to pronounce it "the best, handsomest, and cheapest edition of Goldsmith which has ever issued from the press." The work is now completed by the publication of the fourth volume, which contains Goldsmith's Biographies; Reviews; Animated Nature; Cock Lane Ghost; Vida's Game of Chess (now first printed as it has been found transcribed in Goldsmith's handwriting from the original MS. in the possession of Mr. Bolton Corney), and his Letters. And after a careful revision of the book, we do not hesitate to repeat our original opinion. It is a book which every lover of Goldsmith will delight to place upon his shelves.

We have to congratulate Mr. Darling, and also all who are interested in any way in theological literature, on the completion of that portion of his Cyclopædia Bibliographica which gives us, under the names of the authors, an account, not only of the best works extant in various branches of literature, but more particularly on those important divisions, biblical criticism, commentaries, sermons, dissertations, and other illustrations of the Holy Scriptures; the constitution, government, and liturgies of the Christian Church; ecclesiastical history and biography; the works of the Fathers, and all the most eminent Divines. We sincerely trust that a work so obviously useful, and which has been so carefully compiled, will meet with such encouragement as will justify Mr. Darling in very speedily going to press with the second and not less important division—that in which, by an alphabetical arrangement of subjects, a ready reference may be made to books, treatises, sermons, and dissertations on nearly all heads of divinity, theological controversy, or ecclesiastical inquiry. The utility of such an Index is too obvious to require one word of argument in its favour.

The subject of the non-purchase of the Faussett Collection by the Trustees of the British Museum was brought before Parliament by Mr. Ewart on Thursday, 1st June, when copies were ordered to be laid before the House of Commons "of all reports, memorials, or other communications to or from the Trustees of the British Museum on the subject of the Faussett Collection of Anglo-Saxon Antiquities."

Books Received.—Miss Strickland's Lives of the Queens of England, Vol. VI. This volume is entirely occupied with the biography of Mary Beatrice of Modena, the Queen of James II., in which Miss Strickland has availed herself of a large mass of inedited materials.—Selections from the Writings of the Rev. Sydney Smith, forming Nos. 61. and 62. of Longman's Traveller's Library, and containing his admirable Essays on Education, the Ballot, American Debts, Wit and Humour, the Conduct of the Understanding, and Taste.—Critical and Historical Essays, &c., by the Right Honourable T. B. Macaulay, People's Edition, Part III., includes his Essays on Lord Mahon's War of Succession, Walpole's Letters, Lord Chatham, Mackintosh's History of the Revolution, and Lord Bacon.—Annotated Edition of the English Poets, edited by Robert Bell. This month's issue consists of the second volume of the Poetical Works of William Cowper.



Particulars of Price, &c. of the following Books to be sent direct to the gentlemen by whom they are required, and whose names and addresses are given for that purpose:

The Trials of Robert Powell, Edward Burch, and Matthew Martin, for Forgery, at the Old Bailey. London. 8vo. 1771.

Wanted by J. N. Chadwick, Esq., King's Lynn.


Ayre's Life of Pope. 2 Vols. 1741.

Pope and Swift's Miscellanies. 1727. 2 Vols. (Motte), with two Vols. subsequently published, together 4 Vols.

Familiar Letters to H. Cromwell by Mr. Pope. Curl, 1727.

Pope's Literary Correspondence. Curl, 1735-6. 6 Vols.

Pope's Works. 4to. 1717.

Pope's Correspondence with Wycherley. Gilliver, 1729.

Narrative of Dr. Robert Norris concerning Frenzy of J. D. Lintot, 1713.

The New Rehearsal, or Bayes the Younger. Roberts, 1714.

Complete Art of English Poetry. 2 Vols.

Gay's Miscellaneous Works. 4 Vols. 12mo. 1773.

Richardsoniana, or Reflections on Moral Nature of Man. 1776.

A Collection of Verses, Essays, &c., occasioned by Pope and Swift's Miscellanies. 1728.

Wanted by Mr. Francis, 14. Wellington Street North, Strand.

A true Account of the Voyage of the Nottingham-galley of London, &c., by Captain John Dean. 8vo. London, 1711.

A Falsification of the above, by Longman, Miller, and White. London, 1711. 8vo.

A Letter from Moscow to the Marquis of Carmarthen, relating to the Czar of Muscovy's Forwardness in his great Navy since his return home, by J. Deane. London, 1699. Fol.

Hours of Idleness, Lord Byron. 8vo. Newark, 1807.

Bacon's Essays in Latin.

Wanted by S. F. Creswell, King's College, London.

The Church of England Magazine. Vol. XXI. 1846. In good order, and in the cloth case.

Wanted by the Rev. B. H. Blacker, 11. Pembroke Road, Dublin.

Father Bridoul's School of the Eucharist. Trans. by Claget. London, 1687.

Freitaghii Mythologia Ethica, with 138 Plates. Antv. 1579. 4to.

Wanted by J. G., care of Messrs. Ponsonby, Booksellers, Grafton

Street, Dublin.

Notices to Correspondents.

Y. S. M. The letter to this Correspondent has been forwarded.

W. S. Can our correspondent find a more correct report of the lines quoted at the meeting of the Peace Society? Those sent to us are certainly inaccurate.

R. B. Allen. The monument in the chancel of the church of Stansted Montfichet, in Essex, is to Sir Thomas (not Hugh) Middleton. See Wright's Essex, vol. ii. p. 160.

Other Correspondents shall be answered next week.

Errata. Vol. ix., p. 193., throughout the "Curious Marriage Agreement," for Jacob Sprier read Jacob Spicer. He was an inhabitant of Cape May County, New Jersey.—Page 468. col i. line 26., for 1789 read 1759.—Page 477., in art. "Old Rowley," for "father of the Jury," read "father of the Turf."—Page 469., in quotation from Ausonius, for "erplevi" read "explevi."

Our Eighth Volume is now bound and ready for delivery, price 10s. 6d., cloth, boards. A few sets of the whole Eight Volumes are being made up, price 4l. 4s.—For these early application is desirable.

"Notes and Queries" is published at noon on Friday, so that the Country Booksellers may receive Copies in that night's parcels, and deliver them to their Subscribers on the Saturday.

Gratis and Post Free on application.

FOREIGN THEOLOGY AND ORIENTAL BOOKS.—MR. BROWN'S Catalogue, No. 24., contains Bibles in most languages, Books in all Branches of Biblical Criticism and Ecclesiastical History, Liturgies, Councils, a good collection of the Fathers, Works relating to the Greek Church, a large number of books relative to the Jesuits, Metaphysical Works, a capital selection of Hebrew and Oriental Philology, &c. &c.

London: WILLIAM BROWN, 130. 131. and 132. Old Street.

OLIVER CROMWELL AND KING CHARLES.—A FAC-SIMILE of an exceedingly curious and interesting NEWSPAPER, published during the Commonwealth, announcing the DEATH of OLIVER CROMWELL. Also, a Fac-Simile of KING CHARLES'S NEWSPAPER, containing curious Gossip about many Eminent Persons and Extraordinary Occurrences. Sent (Post Free) on receipt of 12 Postage Stamps.

Address, J. H. FENNELL, 1. Warwick Court, Holborn, London.

ALLEN'S ILLUSTRATED CATALOGUE, containing Size, Price, and Description of upwards of 100 articles, consisting of PORTMANTEAUS, TRAVELLING-BAGS, Ladies' Portmanteaus, DESPATCH-BOXES, WRITING-DESKS, DRESSING-CASES, and other travelling requisites, Gratis on application, or sent free by Post on receipt of Two Stamps.

MESSRS. ALLEN'S registered Despatch-box and Writing-desk, their Travelling-bag with the opening as large as the bag, and the new Portmanteau containing four compartments, are undoubtedly the best articles of the kind ever produced.

J. W. & T. ALLEN, 18. & 22. West Strand.

PIANOFORTES, 25 Guineas each.—D'ALMAINE & CO., 20. Soho Square (established A.D. 1785), sole manufacturers of the ROYAL PIANOFORTES, at 25 Guineas each. Every instrument warranted. The peculiar advantages of these pianofortes are best described in the following professional testimonial, signed by the majority of the leading musicians of the age:—"We, the undersigned members of the musical profession, having carefully examined the Royal Pianofortes manufactured by MESSRS. D'ALMAINE & CO., have great pleasure in bearing testimony to their merits and capabilities. It appears to us impossible to produce instruments of the same size possessing a richer and finer tone, more elastic touch, or more equal temperament, while the elegance of their construction renders them a handsome ornament for the library, boudoir, or drawing-room. (Signed) J. L. Abel, F. Benedict, H. R. Bishop, J. Blewitt, J. Brizzi, T. P. Chipp, P. Delavanti, C. H. Dolby, E. F. Fitzwilliam, W. Forde, Stephen Glover, Henri Herz, E. Harrison, H. F. Hassé, J. L. Hatton, Catherine Hayes, W. H. Holmes, W. Kuhe, G. F. Kiallmark, E. Land, G. Lanza, Alexander Lee, A. Leffler, E. J. Loder, W. H. Montgomery, S. Nelson, G. A. Osborne, John Parry, H. Panofka, Henry Phillips, F. Praegar, E. F. Rimbault, Frank Romer, G. H. Rodwell, E. Rockel, Sims Reeves, J. Templeton, F. Weber, H. Westrop, T. H. Wright," &c.

D'ALMAINE & CO., 20. Soho Square. Lists and Designs Gratis.

BENNETT'S MODEL WATCH, as shown at the GREAT EXHIBITION. No. 1. Class X., in Gold and Silver Cases, in five qualities, and adapted to all Climates, may now be had at the MANUFACTORY, 65. CHEAPSIDE. Superior Gold London-made Patent Levers, 17, 15, and 12 guineas. Ditto, in Silver Cases, 8, 6, and 4 guineas. First-rate Geneva Levers, in Gold Cases, 12, 10, and 8 guineas. Ditto, in Silver Cases, 8, 6, and 5 guineas. Superior Lever, with Chronometer Balance, Gold, 27, 23, and 19 guineas. Bennett's Pocket Chronometer, Gold, 50 guineas; Silver, 40 guineas. Every Watch skilfully examined, timed, and its performance guaranteed. Barometers, 2l., 3l., and 4l. Thermometers from 1s. each.

BENNETT, Watch, Clock, and Instrument Maker to the Royal Observatory, the Board of Ordnance, the Admiralty, and the Queen,



The Executrix of a deceased Clergyman, amongst other interesting local Relics collected by her late husband, is possessed of the PULPIT in which Whitefield is supposed to have preached his First Sermon; and, at the time of the restoration of St. Mary-de-Cryps, Gloucester, passed into the present owner's possession.

The Pulpit is Oak, with carved panels, in shape hectagonal, and has a sounding-board. Application for farther particulars to be addressed to

MESSRS. DAVIES & SON, Booksellers, Gloucester.

ROSS & SONS' INSTANTANEOUS HAIR DYE, without Smell, the best and cheapest extant.—ROSS & SONS have several private apartments devoted entirely to Dyeing the Hair, and particularly request a visit, especially from the incredulous, as they will undertake to dye a portion of their hair, without charging, of any colour required, from the lightest brown to the darkest black, to convince them of its effect.

Sold in cases at 3s. 6d., 5s. 6d., 10s., 15s., and 20s. each case. Likewise wholesale to the Trade by the pint, quart, or gallon.

Address, ROSS & SONS, 119. and 120. Bishopsgate Street, Six Doors from Cornhill, London.

ONE THOUSAND BEDSTEADS TO CHOOSE FROM.—HEAL & SON'S Stock comprises handsomely Japanned and Brass-mounted Iron Bedsteads, Children's Cribs and Cots of new and elegant designs, Mahogany, Birch, and Walnut-tree Bedsteads, of the soundest and best Manufacture, many of them fitted with Furnitures, complete. A large Assortment of Servants' and Portable Bedsteads. They have also every variety of Furniture for the complete furnishing of a Bed Room.


HEAL & SON, 196. Tottenham Court Road.



THE EXHIBITION OF PHOTOGRAPHS, by the most eminent English and Continental Artists, is OPEN DAILY from Ten till Five. Free Admission.

£ s.d.
A Portrait by Mr. Talbot's Patent Process110
Additional Copies (each)050
A Coloured Portrait, highly finished (small size)330
A Coloured Portrait, highly finished (larger size)550

Miniatures, Oil Paintings, Water-Colour, and Chalk Drawings, Photographed and Coloured in imitation of the Originals. Views of Country Mansions, Churches, &c., taken at a short notice.

Cameras, Lenses, and all the necessary Photographic Apparatus and Chemicals, are supplied, tested, and guaranteed.

Gratuitous Instruction is given to Purchasers of Sets of Apparatus.

168. New Bond Street.

THE LONDON SCHOOL OF PHOTOGRAPHY, 78. Newgate Street.—At this Institution, Ladies and Gentlemen may learn in One Hour to take Portraits and Landscapes, and purchase the necessary Apparatus for Five Pounds. No charge is made for the Instruction.

WHOLESALE PHOTOGRAPHIC DEPOT: DANIEL McMILLAN, 132. Fleet Street, London. The Cheapest House in Town for every Description of Photographic Apparatus, Materials, and Chemicals.

*** Price List Free on Application.

COLLODION PORTRAITS AND VIEWS obtained with the greatest ease and certainty by using BLAND & LONG'S preparation of Soluble Cotton; certainty and uniformity of action over a lengthened period, combined with the most faithful rendering of the half-tones, constitute this a most valuable agent in the hands of the photographer.

Albumenized paper, for printing from glass or paper negatives, giving a minuteness of detail unattained by any other method, 5s. per Quire.

Waxed and Iodized Papers of tried quality.

Instruction in the Processes.

BLAND & LONG, Opticians and Photographical Instrument Makers, and Operative Chemists, 153. Fleet Street, London.

*** Catalogues sent on application.

THE SIGHT preserved by the Use of SPECTACLES adapted to suit every variety of Vision by means of SMEE'S OPTOMETER, which effectually prevents Injury to the Eyes from the Selection of Improper Glasses, and is extensively employed by

BLAND & LONG, Opticians, 153. Fleet Street, London.

IMPROVEMENT IN COLLODION.—J. B. HOCKIN & CO., Chemists, 289. Strand, have, by an improved mode of Iodizing, succeeded in producing a Collodion equal, they may say superior, in sensitiveness and density of Negative, to any other hitherto published; without diminishing the keeping properties and appreciation of half-tint for which their manufacture has been esteemed.

Apparatus, pure Chemicals, and all the requirements for the practice of Photography. Instruction in the Art.



KNIGHT & SONS' Illustrated Catalogue, containing Description and Price of the best forms of Cameras and other Apparatus. Voightlander and Son's Lenses for Portraits and Views, together with the various Materials, and pure Chemical Preparations required in practising the Photographic Art. Forwarded free on receipt of Six Postage Stamps.

Instructions given in every branch of the Art.

An extensive Collection of Stereoscopic and other Photographic Specimens.

GEORGE KNIGHT & SONS, Foster Lane, London.

PHOTOGRAPHY.—HORNE & CO.'S Iodized Collodion, for obtaining Instantaneous Views, and Portraits in from three to thirty seconds, according to light.

Portraits obtained by the above, for delicacy of detail rival the choicest Daguerreotypes, specimens of which may be seen at their Establishment.

Also every description of Apparatus, Chemicals, &c. &c. used in this beautiful Art.—123. and 121. Newgate Street.


OTTEWILL AND MORGAN'S Manufactory, 24. & 25. Charlotte Terrace, Caledonian Road, Islington.

OTTEWILL'S Registered Double Body Folding Camera, adapted for Landscapes or Portraits, may be had of A. ROSS, Featherstone Buildings, Holborn; the Photographic Institution, Bond Street; and at the Manufactory as above, where every description of Cameras, Slides, and Tripods may be had. The Trade supplied.

Patronised by the Royal Family.

TWO THOUSAND POUNDS for any person producing Articles superior to the following:


BEETHAM'S CAPILLARY FLUID is acknowledged to be the most effectual article for Restoring the Hair in Baldness, strengthening when weak and fine, effectually preventing falling or turning grey, and for restoring its natural colour without the use of dye. The rich glossy appearance it imparts is the admiration of every person. Thousands have experienced its astonishing efficacy. Bottles, 2s. 6d.; double size, 4s. 6d.; 7s. 6d. equal to 4 small; 11s. to 6 small; 21s. to 13 small. The most perfect beautifier ever invented.


BEETHAM'S VEGETABLE EXTRACT does not cause pain or injury to the skin. Its effect is unerring, and it is now patronised by royalty and hundreds of the first families. Bottles, 5s.

BEETHAM'S PLASTER is the only effectual remover of Corns and Bunions. It also reduces enlarged Great Toe Joints in an astonishing manner. If space allowed, the testimony of upwards of twelve thousand individuals, during the last five years, might be inserted. Packets, 1s.; Boxes, 2s. 6d. Sent Free by BEETHAM, Chemist, Cheltenham, for 14 or 36 Post Stamps.

Sold by PRING, 30. Westmorland Street; JACKSON, 9. Westland Row; BEWLEY & EVANS, Dublin; GOULDING, 108. Patrick Street, Cork; BARRY, 9. Main Street, Kinsale; GRATTAN, Belfast; MURDOCK, BROTHERS, Glasgow; DUNCAN & FLOCKHART, Edinburgh. SANGER, 150. Oxford Street; PROUT, 229. Strand; KEATING, St. Paul's Churchyard; SAVORY & MOORE, Bond Street; HANNAY, 63. Oxford Street; London. All Chemists and Perfumers will procure them.


ON THE PRODUCTION OF WAXED-PAPER NEGATIVES, by JAMES HOW.—Just published in THE CHEMIST, a Monthly Journal of Chemical and Physical Science. Edited by JOHN and CHARLES WATT. June. Price 1s.

London: SAMUEL HIGHLEY, 32. Fleet Street.



Founded A.D. 1842.


H. E. Bicknell, Esq.
T. S. Cocks, Jun. Esq., M.P.
G. H. Drew, Esq.
W. Evans, Esq.
W. Freeman, Esq.
F. Fuller, Esq.
J. H. Goodhart, Esq.
T. Grissell, Esq.
J. Hunt, Esq.
J. A. Lethbridge, Esq.
E. Lucas, Esq.
J. Lys Seager, Esq.
J. B. White, Esq.
J. Carter Wood, Esq.

Trustees.—W. Whateley, Esq., Q.C.; George Drew, Esq.,
T. Grissell, Esq.

Physician.—William Rich. Basham, M.D.
Bankers.—Messrs. Cocks, Biddulph, and Co., Charing Cross.


POLICIES effected in this Office do not become void through temporary difficulty in paying a Premium, as permission is given upon application to suspend the payment at interest, according to the conditions detailed in the Prospectus.

Specimens of Rates of Premium for Assuring 100l., with a Share in three-fourths of the Profits:—

Age £ s. d. Age £ s. d.
  17 1 14 4   32 2 10 8
  22 1 18 8   37 2 18 6
  27 2 4 5   42 3 8 2


Now ready, price 10s. 6d., Second Edition, with material additions, INDUSTRIAL INVESTMENT and EMIGRATION: being a TREATISE ON BENEFIT BUILDING SOCIETIES, and on the General Principles of Land Investment, exemplified in the Cases of Freehold Land Societies, Building Companies, &c. With a Mathematical Appendix on Compound Interest and Life Assurance. By ARTHUR SCRATCHLEY, M.A., Actuary to the Western Life Assurance Society, 3. Parliament Street, London.

ALLSOPP'S PALE or BITTER ALE.—MESSRS. S. ALLSOPP & SONS beg to inform the TRADE that they are now registering Orders for the March Brewings of their PALE ALE in Casks of 18 Gallons and upwards, at the BREWERY, Burton-on-Trent; and at the under-mentioned Branch Establishments:

LONDON, at 61. King William Street, City.

LIVERPOOL, at Cook Street.

MANCHESTER, at Ducie Place.

DUDLEY, at the Burnt Tree.

GLASGOW, at 115. St. Vincent Street.

DUBLIN, at 1. Crampton Quay.

BIRMINGHAM, at Market Hall.

SOUTH WALES, at 13. King Street, Bristol.

MESSRS. ALLSOPP & SONS take the opportunity of announcing to PRIVATE FAMILIES that their ALES, so strongly recommended by the Medical Profession, may be procured in DRAUGHT and BOTTLES GENUINE from all the most RESPECTABLE LICENSED VICTUALLERS, on "ALLSOPP'S PALE ALE" being specially asked for.

When in bottle, the genuineness of the label can be ascertained by its having "ALLSOPP & SONS" written across it.

Printed by Thomas Clark Shaw, of No. 10. Stonefield Street, in the Parish of St. Mary, Islington, at No. 5. New Street Square, in the Parish of St. Bride, in the City of London; and published by George Bell, of No. 186. Fleet Street, in the Parish of St. Dunstan in the West, in the City of London, Publisher, at No. 186. Fleet Street aforesaid.—Saturday, June 10. 1854.