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Title: Special Days and Their Observance

Author: Anonymous

Release date: July 25, 2014 [eBook #46413]

Language: English

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Special Days
and their

September 1919

JUNE 1919



Liberty Bell
The symbol of liberty, freedom, justice and order in the government of the United States of America



Special Days
and their

September 1919

JUNE 1919




Foreword 7
Acknowledgments 9
Opening Exercises 11
Morning Exercises, Jennie Haver 13
Morning Exercises, Florence L. Farber 24
Opening Exercises, Louis H. Burch 27
Columbus Day, J. Cayce Morrison 33
Thanksgiving Day, Roy L. Shaffer 59
Lincoln's Birthday, Charles A. Philhower 69
Washington's Birthday, Henry W. Foster 89
Arbor Day 109
Trees and Forests, Alfred Gaskill 112
Arbor Day observed by planting Hamilton Grove, Charles A. Philhower 119
Suggestions to Teachers, K. C. Davis 121
Value of our Forests, U. S. Bureau of Education 123
Memorial Day, George C. Baker 125
Flag Day, Hannah H. Chew 141
Bibliography, Katharine B. Rogers 159


Liberty Bell Frontispiece
Columbus, "Admiral at the Helm" 51
Saint Gaudens' Lincoln 73
Gutzon Borglum's Lincoln 85
Stuart's Washington 93
Statue of Washington at West Point 103




In the statutes of the state will be found the following:

The day in each year known as Arbor Day shall be suitably observed in the public schools. The Commissioner of Education shall from time to time prepare and issue to schools such circulars of information, advice and instruction with reference to the day as he may deem necessary.

For the purpose of encouraging the planting of shade and forest trees, the second Friday of April in each year is hereby designated as a day for the general observance of such purpose, and to be known as Arbor Day.

On said day appropriate exercises shall be introduced in all the schools of the State, and it shall be the duty of the several county and city superintendents to prepare a program of exercises for that day in all the schools under their respective jurisdiction.

In all public schools there shall be held on the last school day preceding the following holidays, namely, Lincoln's Birthday, Washington's Birthday, Decoration or Memorial Day and Thanksgiving Day, and on such other patriotic holidays as shall be established by law, appropriate exercises for the development of a higher spirit of patriotism.

It shall be the duty of the principals and teachers in the public schools of this State to make suitable arrangements for the celebration, by appropriate exercises among the pupils in said schools, on the fourteenth day of June, in each year, as the day of the adoption of the American flag by the Continental Congress.

The provisions of these statutes have been carried out in the schools of the state. They are believed in and supported heartily by the public opinion of the state.

In order that greater assistance may be rendered to teachers and school officers in preparing for these special days, this pamphlet on Special Days and their Observance has been prepared by the Department, chiefly through the efforts of Mr. Z. E. Scott, Assistant Commissioner in charge of Elementary Education.

The pamphlet also contains suggestions concerning the opening exercises of schools.

Mr. Scott has been assisted in this work by the following persons, the school officers having in turn been aided by their teachers. To all these grateful acknowledgment is hereby made.


George C. Baker, Supervising Principal, Moorestown
Louis H. Burch, Principal Bangs Avenue School, Asbury Park
Hannah Chew, Principal Culver School, Cumberland County
K. C. Davis, formerly of State Agricultural College, New Brunswick
Florence Farber, Helping Teacher, Sussex County
Henry W. Foster, Supervising Principal, South Orange
Alfred Gaskill, State Forester
Jennie Haver, Helping Teacher, Hunterdon County
J. Cayce Morrison, Supervising Principal, Leonia
Charles A. Philhower, Supervising Principal, Westfield
Katharine B. Rogers, Reference Librarian, State Library
Roy L. Shaffer, Supervisor of Practice, Newark State Normal School

It has been the aim of Mr. Scott and his associates to suggest exercises which would be appropriate for the observance of these several days, which would be of interest to pupils, and which at the same time would be of a character worthy of the dignity of the public schools of the state.

Calvin N. Kendall

Commissioner of Education



Grateful acknowledgment is hereby made to the following publishers and authors for permission to use copyrighted selections:

American Book Company, New York, for extract from Green's "Short History of the English People."

D. Appleton & Company, New York, for Bryant's "America" and extract from Edward S. Holden's "Our Country's Flag."

Henry Holcomb Bennett for "The Flag Goes By."

Bobbs-Merrill Company, Indianapolis, for "The Name of Old Glory," by James Whitcomb Riley.

Boosey & Company, New York, for "We'll keep Old Glory Flying," by Carleton S. Montanye.

Dr. Frank Crane for "After the Great Companions."

Thomas Y. Crowell Company, New York, for extract from "The Book of Holidays," by J. Walker McSpadden. Reprinted by permission of the publishers. Copyright 1917 by Thomas Y. Crowell Company.

Joseph Fulford Folsom for "The Unfinished Work."

Harper & Brothers, New York, for extract from "The Americanism of Washington," by Henry van Dyke.

Caroline Hazard for "The Western Land."

Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, for Bret Harte's "The Reveille" and extract from "Our National Ideals," by William Backus Gitteau.

Kindergarten Magazine Publishing Company, Manistee, Michigan, for nine selections, including two by Laura Rountree Smith and one by Mary R. Campbell.

Macmillan Company, New York, for extract from "The Making of an American," by Jacob A. Riis, and "On a Portrait of Columbus," by George Edward Woodberry, used by permission of and special arrangement with the publishers.

Moffat, Yard & Co., New York, for extract from "Memorial Day," by Robert Haven Schauffler.

New England Publishing Company, Boston, for "Columbus Day" and Walt Whitman's "Address to America." From "Journal of Education."

New York Evening Post for "America's Answer," by R. W. Lillard.

New York Herald for Mrs. Josephine Fabricant's "The Service Flag."

New York State Department of Education, Albany, for "The Boy Columbus" and an extract from speech of Chauncey M. Depew.

Theodore Presser Company, Philadelphia, for "Our Country's Flag," by Mrs. Florence L. Dresser.

G. P. Putnam's Sons, New York, for "In Flanders Fields," by John McCrae.

Saturday Evening Post, Philadelphia, for "I Have a Son," by Emory Pottle.


Charles Scribner's Sons, New York, for extract from "With Americans of Past and Present Days," by J. J. Jusserand, copyright 1916; used by permission of the publishers.

C. W. Thompson & Company, Boston, for "The Unfurling of the Flag," by Clara Endicott Sears. Copyright; used by permission.

Horace Traubel, Camden, for "O Captain! My Captain!" by Walt Whitman.

P. F. Volland Company, Chicago, for "Your Flag and My Flag," by Wilbur D. Nesbit. Copyrighted 1916 by publishers.

Harr Wagner Publishing Company, San Francisco, for "Columbus," by Joaquin Miller.




This above all: to thine own self be true,
And it must follow, as the night the day,
Thou canst not then be false to any man.






The morning exercise is a common meeting ground; it is the family altar of the school to which each brings his offerings—the fruits of his observations and studies, or the music, literature, and art that delight him; a place where all cooperate for the pleasure and well-being of the whole; where all contribute to and share the intellectual and spiritual life of the whole; where all bring their best and choicest experiences in the most effective form at their command.

This quotation from the Second Year Book of the Frances W. Parker School may well be an inspiration, a guide, and finally, a goal for us to use in preparation for the morning exercises.

The period given to the opening exercises may be made the most important period of the day. The pupils, whether they be in a one room rural school or a larger town school, need a more receptive attitude toward the work before them. A short time given to interesting, uplifting exercises will do much to control and lead the restless children, encourage the downhearted ones, inspire the indifferent, and give to teachers and pupils alike higher ideals for effective work and right living.

A part of the time given to opening exercises should be of a devotional nature—consisting of the reading of short selections from the Bible, without comment—and of prayer and singing. Very careful plans must be made for the devotional exercises if they are to function as they should. Too often the selection of song and Bible reading is made after the pupils are in their seats. A message that is truly inspiring is usually the result of considerable time spent in preparation. The thoughtful teacher will plan her opening exercises as carefully as any other part of her regular school work.

The morning exercise affords an opportunity to train pupils for leadership. Recently an interesting morning program of musical appreciation was carried out in a two room country school. When [14] the bell rang the twelve year old pupil leader went to the front of the room and placed a march record on the phonograph. After the pupils were seated she conducted the following program with a great deal of poise and self confidence:

America, by the School
Bacarolle from "Tales of Hoffman" (phonograph)
Traumerei—Schumann (phonograph)
Spring Song—Mendelssohn (phonograph)
Flag salute, by the School

Following each record on the phonograph she asked for the name of the selection and the composer's name. It was surprising to see how familiar even the little ones were with the classical selections.

Some one has said that the only influence greater than that of a good book is personal contact with a great man or woman. Once in a while an interesting talk may be given by a visitor, but the morning exercise period should not be regarded as a lecture period. Occasionally it is well to have leaders of different occupations in the neighborhood give short, pertinent talks on their work.

All too often children are blind to the beauty, deaf to the music, and almost insensible to the wonder and mystery of the great world of nature. One day a little country girl found a large, silky, brown cocoon and carried it to school. She didn't know what it was: neither did her teacher. The cocoon was taken home and kept as an object of curiosity to be shown to the neighbors when they called. One warm spring morning a beautiful Cecropia moth, measuring six inches from tip to tip of wing, emerged from the cocoon. That girl will never forget her wonder and awe as she watched Nature stage one of her most beautiful miracles. Any teacher would find it an inspiration and a delight to bring such a charming bit of nature into her morning exercises. Every day Nature is unfolding just as wonderful stories. Our eyes must be open to see them.

The opening exercises, conducted as they should be, may be a source of inspiration and a means of training for moral and social behavior, for patriotism, for health, for vocational usefulness, for the right use of leisure—in other words, for useful, patriotic citizenship.

There is an abundance of material on every hand that can be used in morning exercises. Following are a few suggestions that may be of help.



Profiting by the experience of French and English troops, instructors taught our sailors and soldiers to sing in unison. It has been found that singing does much to improve the morale of the company. Singing in the morning exercises does much to socialize the group and develop school spirit.

There is such a wealth of suitable songs for morning exercises that it seems hardly necessary to suggest many. The hymns selected should be inspiring and uplifting; the patriotic songs should be thoroughly learned and sung in an enthusiastic manner.

Patriotic Songs

Battle Hymn of the Republic
Columbia, the Gem of the Ocean
Flag of the Free
God Speed the Right
Marching through Georgia
Marseillaise Hymn
National Hymn
Old Glory
The American Hymn
The Battle Cry of Freedom
The Star Spangled Banner

Folk Songs

Annie Laurie
Auld Lang Syne
Flow Gently, Sweet Afton
Home, Sweet Home
My Old Kentucky Home
Oft in the Stilly Night
Old Black Joe
Old Folks at Home
Robin Adair
Santa Lucia
The Blue Bells of Scotland
The Miller of Dee


Cradle Song
Lullaby and Good-night
Oh, Hush Thee, my Baby
Sweet and Low
Silent Night



How Gentle God's Command
Holy, Holy, Holy
In Heavenly Love Abiding
Italian Hymn
Love Divine, All Love Excelling
Nearer, My God, to Thee
Oh, Worship the King
The King of Love
There's a Wideness in God's Mercy
Vesper Hymn


The introduction of the phonograph into the public school and the multitude of records which reproduce the great masterpieces now make it possible for every child to have an opportunity to hear and to be taught to appreciate good music. Frequently part of the morning exercise period should be devoted to an appreciation of good vocal and instrumental musical selections. In one rural school the pupils readily associate the name of the composition and composer with each of the following records, which they helped to purchase:

Anvil Chorus from "Il Trovatore"—Verdi
Barcarolle from "Tales of Hoffman"—Offenbach
Hearts and Flowers—Tobain
Intermezzo from "Cavalleria Rusticana"—Mascagni
Lo, Hear the Gentle Lark—Bishop
Melody in F—Rubinstein
Miserere from "Il Trovatore"—Verdi
Pilgrim's Chorus from "Tannhauser"—Wagner
Sextette from "Lucia di Lammermoor"—Donizetti
Spring Song—Mendelssohn

Literature on musical appreciation will be mailed free to all teachers who request it from the educational departments of the phonograph manufacturers.

Teachers who are really interested in giving their pupils the best music will find that a number of their patrons are willing to lend records to the school for special exercises.

Following are suggestive musical programs:

A Morning with Beethoven

Bible Reading and Lord's Prayer
Minuet in G, No. 2 (phonograph)
"The Moonlight Sonata," Reading by pupil
The Moonlight Sonata (phonograph)
The Flag Salute, Pupils


A Morning with Mendelssohn

Hark! the Herald Angels Sing, Song by School
Bible Reading and Lord's Prayer
Spring Song (phonograph)
Oh, For the Wings of a Dove (phonograph)
The Flag Salute, School

Indian Songs

Bible Reading and Lord's Prayer
The Story of the Indians, Pupil
Navajo Indian Song (phonograph)
Medicine Song (phonograph)
Flag Salute, School

Negro Songs

Old Black Joe, School
Bible Reading and Prayer
Good News (phonograph)
Live a-Humble (phonograph)
The Flag Salute, School
(The records given are by the Tuskegee Institute Singers)

Irish Songs

Wearin' of the Green, School
Bible Reading and Prayer
Come Back to Erin (phonograph)
Macushla (phonograph)
The Flag Salute, School

Scotch Songs

My Laddie (phonograph)
Bible Reading and Prayer
Annie Laurie, School
My Ain Countrie (phonograph)
Flag Salute, School


To instil in the hearts of boys and girls a love for good literature is to give them a never ending source of happiness throughout life. Children can be interested in books by hearing stories read, by retelling them, and by reading them. The story of the author's life may add interest to the author's work. Much can be done in morning exercises to start children on the road to good reading. The more work children do themselves the more interested they will be. Following are suggestive literary programs:


Robert Louis Stevenson

Bible Reading by pupils—Philippians IV, 4-8
Stevenson's Prayer for a Day's Work, Recitation by pupil
Short story of Stevenson's life, Pupil
My Shadow, Pupil
The Land of Story Books, Pupil
God Speed the Right, Sung by School
The Flag Salute, School

Hans Christian Andersen

Psalm 100, Pupil
Lord's Prayer, School
A Poor Boy Who Became Famous, Retold by pupil
The Steadfast Tin Soldier, Retold by pupil
The Little Tin Soldier, Song by School
The Flag Salute, School

Henry W. Longfellow

The Arrow and the Song, Song by School
Bible Reading and Lord's Prayer
Scenes from Hiawatha, Dramatization by pupils
The Village Blacksmith, Recitation by pupil


When children are truly interested in reading, the natural outlet for the emotions aroused is dramatic action. Let different classes be responsible for dramatizing stories from their history or reading lessons and present the results in the morning exercises. The educative and socializing value to the class presenting the exercise is almost invaluable. Dramatizing the story makes an interesting incentive for a number of language lessons; rehearsing the play provides for much practice in oral expression; and producing the play before an audience gives valuable training in leadership, self confidence and poise.


We do not expect many of the school children to become artists, but all can learn to appreciate and tastefully select the beautiful in pictures, personal dress, home furnishing and decoration, and architecture. It has been truly said, "Though we travel the world over to find the beautiful, we must carry it with us or we find it not."

Frequently a few minutes of the morning exercises may be very profitably, spent in the study of the beautiful. Artistic material to use as illustrations for the talks is on every hand. Inexpensive reproductions of the world's great pictures; illustrations in magazines; [19] beautifully colored papers for color combinations in neckties, dress designing and hat trimming; magazine and catalog pictures of well designed furniture and home utensils can be easily obtained.

A suggestive list of morning talks is given below:

Famous Pictures
      The First Step—Millet
      Landscape with Windmill—Ruysdael
      The Horse Fair—Bonheur
      Sistine Madonna—Raphael

How Can We Get Good Pictures for Our Schoolroom
Color Harmony in Dress
Good Taste in Furniture
Home Decoration
Beautifying the School Ground
Washington, the City Beautiful

      How to Enjoy Pictures—Emery
      A Child's Guide to Pictures—Coffin
      The Mentor
      The School Arts Magazine
      Ladies' Home Journal
      The Perry Pictures
      National Geographic Magazine


Truly, "A people's health's a nation's wealth," and every encouragement should be given in school to further the doctrine of healthful living. The medical examiner, the school nurse, the pupils and the teachers, all may do their part to make the health talks practical and of much value to the school.

Suggestive Health Talks

Why we should exercise
Care of the Teeth
Care of the Eyes
Prevention of Colds
How to prevent Tuberculosis
Swat the Fly
How to destroy mosquitoes
Safety First
Cigarette Smoking
Self Control and Good Manners
School Sanitation



Teaching of Hygiene and Safety Pamphlets of Health, from the National
Department of Health, Washington, D. C.
State Department of Health, Trenton, N. J.
Russell Sage Foundation, New York City
Health-Education League, Boston, Mass.
Farmer's Bulletins from U. S. Department of Agriculture
Modern Hygiene textbooks
Newspaper and Magazine Articles


The study of the wonderful things of the world, their beautiful fitness for their existence and function, the remarkable progressive tendency of all organic life, and the unity that prevails in it create admiration in the beholder and tend to his spiritual uplifting.

Suggestive topics for morning exercises

How can we attract the birds?
How I Built A Bird House
Does it Pay the Farmer to Protect the Birds?
The Travel of Birds
The Life History of a Frog
The Life History of a Butterfly
How I made my Home Garden
How I raised an Acre of Corn
The Trees on our School Ground


A series of morning exercises may be devoted to the local history of a community. The material may be planned by the pupils with the assistance of some of the older people in the neighborhood. This idea was carried out very successfully in a small town and did much to interest the parents in the school. Many were willing to send family heirlooms to the classroom to use as illustrations for the talks. One charming old lady sent a written account of the history of her old home.

Following are some topics that might be developed:

Former Location of Indian Tribes in the Community
Evidences of Indian Occupation (old trails, implements, mounds, etc.)
The First White Settlers
Revolutionary Landmarks
Colonial Relics
Historic Homes in the Community
Famous People of the Community


A program for one morning might be conducted by the pupils as follows:

Proverbs 27:1-2, Pupil
Italian Hymn, School
Famous People of the Community
The Grandfather who fought in the Civil War, pupil
The Man who was Governor of the State, pupil
The Woman who was a Nurse in the World War, pupil
The Man who wrote a Book, pupil
The Soldier boy in France, pupil


Much interesting and instructive material can be secured for opening exercises by making use of members of recognized organizations for boys and girls. There are members of the Boy Scouts of America in almost every community. The Camp Fire Girls are getting to be almost as well known. Let each group prepare occasional programs for morning exercises.

Boy Scouts

Bible Reading and Lord's Prayer
The Origin and Growth of Scouting
The Three Classes of Scouts
The Scout Motto
The Scout Law
"America" and Flag Salute

Camp Fire Girls

Bible Reading and Lord's Prayer
The Seven Laws of the Order
The Wood Gatherer
The Fire Maker
The Torch Bearer
Song by School
The Flag Salute


The patriotic note should be found in every morning exercise and some periods should be devoted entirely to patriotic selections. The national hymns should be learned from the first stanza to the last. It is hard to get the patriotic note in our singing when we do not know the words.


Suggestive Programs

America, School
Bible Reading and Lord's Prayer
Patrick Henry's Speech (phonograph)
Lincoln's Gettysburg Address (phonograph)
Flag Salute

Bible Reading and Prayer
Army Bugle Call No. 1 (phonograph)
The Junior Red Cross
      Sewing for the Red Cross, A girl
      Earning Money for the Red Cross, A boy
      How the Work of the Junior Red Cross develops Patriotism
            in a school, Pupil
Come, Thou Almighty King, School

"Patriotism consists not in waving a flag but in striving that our country shall be righteous as well as strong."—James Bryce

"One cannot always be a hero, but one can always be a man."—Goethe

"Go back to the simple life, be contented with simple food, simple pleasures, simple clothes. Work hard, play hard, pray hard. Work, eat, recreate and sleep. Do it all courageously. We have a victory to win."—Hoover


For life is the mirror of king and slave;
'Tis just what we are and do.
Then give to the world the best you have
And the best will come back to you.

Madeline S. Bridges

Somebody did a golden deed;
Somebody proved a friend in need;
Somebody sang a beautiful song;
Somebody served the whole day long.
Was that "somebody" you?
Courtesy is to do and say
The kindest thing in the kindest way.
Truth is honest, truth is sure;
Truth is strong and must endure.


Hang on! Cling on! No matter what they say.
Push on! Sing on! Things will come your way.
Sitting down and whining never helps a bit;
Best way to get there is by keeping up your grit.

Louis E. Thayer


The day returns and brings us the petty round of irritating concerns and duties. Help us to play the man, help us to perform them with laughter and kind faces, let cheerfulness abound with industry. Give us to go blithely on our business all this day, bring us to our resting beds weary and content and undishonored, and grant us in the end the gift of sleep.

Robert Louis Stevenson

Be strong!
We are not here to play, to dream, to drift.
We have hard work to do and loads to lift.
Shun not the struggle; face it; 'tis God's gift.
Be strong!
It matters not how deep intrenched the wrong,
How hard the battle goes, the day how long;
Faint not—fight on! Tomorrow comes the song.

Maltbie D. Babcock

Smile a smile;
While you smile,
Another smiles,
And soon there's miles and miles
Of smiles. And life's worth while
If you but smile.

Jane Thompson

You cannot dream yourself into a character; you must hammer and forge yourself one.—James Anthony Froude

Small service is true service while it lasts;
Of friends, however humble, scorn not one;
The daisy, by the shadow that it casts,
Protects the lingering dewdrop from the sun.


There's so much bad in the best of us
And so much good in the worst of us,
That it hardly behooves any of us
To talk about the rest of us.
A wise old owl lived in an oak.
The more he saw the less he spoke;
The less he spoke the more he heard.
Why can't we be like that old bird?

Kindness is catching, and if you go around with a thoroughly developed case your neighbor will be sure to get it.

The thing to do is hope, not mope:
The thing to do is work, not shirk.

If you have faith, preach it; if you have doubts, bury them; if you have joy, share it; if you have sorrow, bear it. Find the bright side of things and help others to get sight of it also. This is the only and surest way to be cheerful and happy.




The short period known as the opening exercise period belongs to all the children of the school. This period should furnish especially favorable opportunities for the development of initiative on the part of pupils, group cooperation, development of the play spirit, interest in community life, interest in and love for our great men and women, and devotion to our Republic.

The first problem of the teacher, then, is to understand fully that she is to a great degree responsible for furnishing aims and purposes in this beginning period of the day, or rather in providing the situations through which these aims and purposes may develop. When she feels the importance of this period in the general scheme of the day's work she will plan for it as definitely and as carefully as she will any other part of her program. The working out of a detailed program is of secondary importance. The thing of first importance is that she become fully cognizant of the general aims and ideals which she hopes to achieve. With these firmly fixed in her mind she is ready then to cooperate with the pupils of her room in planning detailed programs.

The following projects are in keeping with the principles presented and have been found stimulating in one and two room schools:

Project 1. The teacher divides her children into groups on the basis of age and ability. For example, in a one room school a teacher might have two groups. Each group is to work out with the teacher a program which it is to give and for which it is responsible. This program may consist of a short story to be dramatized, the story to contain not more than two or three important scenes. The costuming, if any is needed, is to be done by pupils and teacher. Rehearsing is to be directed by the teacher. When the program is presented it should be as a new production to all the school except those who are engaged in presenting it. It is to be given, therefore, as a real play to a real audience. Each pupil should invite a member of the family or a friend.

The value of such work will soon be noticed in a better social spirit among the children. The dramatizations given may furnish the material for both oral and written language lessons. Dramatization itself will provide excellent practice in oral expression and also training [25] in initiative, leadership and cooperation. The story presented may furnish many funny settings which the pupils may enjoy with abandon. And what children do not need real merriment in school! Opportunity ought to be afforded all children of our public schools to enjoy a real laugh at least once each day.

Teachers need have no fear that the different groups will be over-critical or discourteous to one another. They will understand that they are being entertained and they will cooperate to make the play given worth while.

The following stories lend themselves very readily to dramatization.

First and Second Grades

The Three Billy Goats Gruff
Spry Mouse and Mr. Frog
The Three Bears
The Camel and The Jackal
The Tale of Peter Rabbit
Our First Flag

Third and Fourth Grades

The Sleeping Beauty
Snow White and Rose Red
Brother Fox's Tar Baby
How the Cave Man Made Fire
Scenes from Hiawatha
Early Settlers in New Jersey

Fifth and Sixth Grades

The Pied Piper of Hamelin
Joseph and His Brethren
Abou Ben Adhem
Paul Revere's Ride
Scenes from Life of Daniel Boone
Franklin's Arrival in Philadelphia
Scenes from Alfred the Great
The Battle of Hastings
How Cedric Became a Knight

Seventh and Eighth Grades

The Vision of Sir Launfal
Rip Van Winkle
The King of the Golden River
Scenes from Evangeline
Landing of the Pilgrims
Conquest of the Northwest Territory
The Man Without a Country


Project 2. A special problem in history or geography, for example, may be taken up, such as the life of the people in Japan, or the life of the people on a cattle ranch. In either case the class that presents the work as an opening exercise should be given opportunity to work out certain scenes which it wants to give. These scenes should be presented either by sand-table, by charts, by posters, by pictures from magazines, or by dramatization on the part of the children. Preparation of such work is decidedly worth while, and ought to be a regular part of the day's program. The important scenes should be rehearsed before the final presentation.

Project 3. Poster exhibit. This project could be arranged for all the children of a given school, in which case the best work would be selected and the children presenting it would discuss each poster in one or two minute talks. A still better way to handle the project would be to have the best posters from different schools. In this case at least one pupil from each school should be invited to present the posters from his school.

Project 4. War programs. A war opening exercise program could be worked out by the children of a given school. This could be done by having children collect war posters and war pictures made during the recent world war and arrange them in such a way that they tell a connected story. A group should be held responsible for presenting each story or part of a story. A sand-table should be provided if necessary.

An excellent war program could be provided by having the emphasis placed upon the various men who have led or are leading in our own national life. Pictures of these men should be secured and children called upon to tell what important work each man has done or is doing. This same device could be carried a step further and a special program arranged, centering around the pictures of the different men who led the allied forces. The older pupils of any school ought to be able to do this work.

An additional way by which our schools may help in the work of patriotism is to have an opening exercise by the children whose immediate relatives were at the front. Such a program ought to have for its purpose the idea of service to one's country.

Another helpful device would be to have at an appropriate time former soldiers come to the school and talk to the children concerning the meaning of the war.


The teacher who plans her opening exercise periods in keeping with the foregoing presentation will make these periods inspiring and helpful to herself and her children. She will be putting across the gospel of good cheer, and cooperation in the new kind of school which offers opportunities for participation in life's present day activities, not preparation for future activities.



Play is one of the first manifestations of the child in self expression. As the child grows older this play is made up in part of the imitation of the doings and sayings of the older persons and playmates with whom he is associated. The child reflects the life of his parents wherever it comes under his comprehension. The stick horse gives as much pleasure to the boy as the well trained saddle horse gives to the father.

When the child enters school much of the play element of his life is left behind, and teachers have often failed to use to advantage the experience and knowledge the child has in "living over" the actions and sayings of others. The ordinary child has observed the animals and birds around him and can imitate them. He can personify the tree, the flower, or the brook, and gain a clearer knowledge of the purpose and function of the thing personified by so doing. Under the proper direction of the teacher nearly all the common occurrences of life may be dramatized by the children in the ordinary schoolroom and with few so-called stage properties.

Older children are interested in the simple dramatizations of the little folks and should have opportunity to see them often, not alone to be entertained, but to be reminded of the simple and easy ways of "playing you are someone else." A grammar grade class may learn many things from watching a primary class dramatize "Three Bears," "Little Red Hen," or "Little Red Ridinghood."

The simple dramatization in the schoolroom furnish excellent material for general assemblies or morning exercises. Simple costumes and stage settings satisfy the children, and the setting of the stage or platform for the scene should, in most cases, be done before the children. Children who see the table set, the chairs placed, and the beds prepared for the "Three Bears" know how to get ready for their play when they are called upon to contribute their part for the assembly.


Children will bring material for their costumes and stage furnishings from home and should be encouraged to do so. Parents will come to see children take part in a program when nothing else would attract them to the school, and if the home is to be called upon to help the school there must be a closer relationship between parents and teacher.

In preparing dramatizations for elementary school pupils but few scenes should be chosen, and in those selected the language and action should be simple and within the capabilities of the children.

The following dramatizations were worked out by teachers and pupils of our building as class projects. They were presented in the opening exercises as worth-while classroom projects which would be entertaining and helpful to all pupils of the school, to teachers and to parents. In presenting these scenes the pupils secured excellent practice in oral English work, in dramatic action, and in community and group cooperation. The pupils and teachers who made up the audience enjoyed opening exercises in which there was purpose. All entered into the spirit of the play; all enjoyed the exercises without having to think why. The results have been better team work between teacher and pupils, better school spirit, more pupil participation in leadership activities.

The History of Cotton

Prepared by Bessie O'Hagen, Teacher of Fourth Grade, Bangs Avenue School, Asbury Park

Characters: Spirit of Cotton, Little Girl, Maiden from India, Maiden from Egypt, Maiden from America, Spirit of Eli Whitney.

Little Girl (coming into the room in bad humor). I hate this old cotton dress. I wish I had a silk one. I don't see why we have to use cotton anyway. We have to have cotton dresses, cotton sheets, cotton stockings, cotton everything. I just hate cotton! I'm not going out to play or anything. (Finally sits down.) I am so tired. I wish I had a silk dress. I hate this cotton dress. (Falls asleep.)

Spirit of Cotton (skipping into the room). Heigh ho! Ho heigh! Here am I, the Spirit of Cotton. I heard what you said, little girl. Did you ever see cotton grow?

Little Girl (frightened). Why, no.

Spirit of Cotton. How do you know whether it is interesting or not? I will tell you the story of my life. In the early spring the planter gets the ground ready for me. As soon as the frost is out of the ground, he plants me.

Little Girl. What happens then?


Spirit of Cotton. The good earth gives me food. The sun and rain make me grow, and soon—

Heigh ho! Ho heigh!
There am I,
A tall plant of cotton.

Little Girl. How do you look?

Spirit of Cotton. My leaves are green like the maple. I have lovely blossoms. They are white the first day and pink the next.

Little Girl. I thought you said that you were a cotton plant.

Spirit of Cotton. So I did. My blossoms fall off, and then—

Heigh ho! Ho heigh!
There am I,
A nice bunch of cotton.

Little Girl. Is that all?

Spirit of Cotton. No, I have some friends who will tell you more about my life. (Goes out and returns leading a little girl by the hand.) This is my friend from India. (Goes out again.)

Little Girl. How did you get here?

Maiden from India. I heard the Spirit of Cotton calling and I obeyed.

Little Girl (pointing to a map of Asia which is pinned on Maiden from India). Is this your country?

Maiden from India. Yes, I have come to tell you something about cotton in my country. Cotton was first raised in my country. That was long, long, long ago.

Little Girl. A hundred years ago?

Maiden from India. We knew how to weave cotton thousands of years ago.

Little Girl. Did you know how to weave well?

Maiden from India. We made such fine dresses that you could draw a whole one through your ring.

Little Girl. I don't believe I could draw my dress through my ring.

Maiden from India. I know you couldn't.

Spirit of Cotton (outside). Heigh ho! Ho heigh!

Maiden from India. I must return. The Spirit of Cotton is calling. (Goes out.)

Spirit of Cotton (comes in, leading a little girl by the hand). This is my friend from Egypt. She has something to tell you too. (Goes out.)

Little Girl. Do you know about cotton?

Maiden from Egypt. Yes, we knew how to use cotton long before your country was even heard of.

Little Girl. Is this your country (pointing to a map)?

Maiden from Egypt. Yes.

Little Girl. Did your people like cotton dresses?

Maiden from Egypt. Yes; just think how warm those woolen ones were.

Little Girl. I guess every one who ever lived must have liked cotton.

Maiden from Egypt. All good children do now.

Spirit of Cotton (outside). Heigh ho! Ho heigh!

Maiden from Egypt. I must go. I hear the Spirit of Cotton calling.


Spirit of Cotton (bringing a little girl into the room). This is my friend from America. (Goes out again.)

Little Girl. I know you. We studied that map in school. You are from the United States. What did America have to do with cotton?

Maiden from America. When Columbus first landed on the Bahama Islands the natives came out to his ships in canoes, bringing cotton thread and yarn to trade.

Little Girl. That was in 1492, wasn't it?

Maiden from America. Yes, it was 427 years ago.

Little Girl. Why did you put all this cotton here (points to cotton pasted on different states)?

Maiden from America. They are the cotton states.

Little Girl. I know which ones they are—North Carolina, South Carolina, Louisiana, Arkansas and Texas. Did America do anything wonderful with cotton?

Maiden from America. Yes; we raise more cotton than any other place in the world. It is the best cotton too.

Little Girl. I am so glad of that. We won't let India and Egypt get ahead of us, will we?

Maiden from America. Of course not. All good little girls must help too.

Little Girl. I shall always like cotton after this.

Spirit of Cotton (outside). Heigh ho! Ho heigh!

Maiden from America. I hear the Spirit of Cotton calling; I must go. (Goes out.)

Spirit of Cotton (leading a boy into the room). This is my friend Eli Whitney. (Goes out.)

Eli Whitney. I am the Spirit of Eli Whitney. I was born in Massachusetts in 1765. One day when my father went to church, I took his watch to pieces and put it together again. Then I thought I would go to Yale College. When I finished Yale College I went to Georgia. I heard everyone there talking about cotton. They were trying to find out how to get the seeds out of it more easily. I invented the cotton gin.

Little Girl. What happened then?

Eli Whitney. One man could now clean fifty times as much cotton as he could before.

Spirit of Cotton (outside). Heigh ho! Ho heigh!

Eli Whitney. I hear the Spirit of Cotton calling; I must go. (Goes out.)

Little Girl (waking up). Where is the spirit of Cotton? Where is the Maiden from India? Where is the Spirit of Eli Whitney? It must have been a dream! I guess I got up on the wrong side of the bed this morning. I will always like cotton after this. I am going out to play now.


The Cat and His Servant

Prepared by Alice Lewis, Teacher of Second Grade, Bangs School, Asbury Park

Dramatized from story of same name

Characters: Farmer, Cat, Fox, Wolf, Bear, Rabbit, Cow, Sheep.

Materials used: Small branches of tree, box for house, cards with printed names of animals.

Scene: The Forest.

Enter the Farmer and the Cat

Farmer.—I have a cat. He is very wild so I will take him to the forest. (Puts cat in bag and takes him to tree.) I will leave him here. (Takes off bag and leaves the cat.)

Cat. I will build a house for myself and be the owner of this forest. (Brings in box and nails boards.) Now my house is done.

Enter the Fox

Fox. Good morning. What fine fur you have! What long whiskers you have! Who are you?

Cat. I am Ivan, the owner of this forest.

Fox. May I be your servant?

Cat. Yes; you may. Come into my house. (Both go in house.) I am hungry. Go out and get me something to eat.

Fox. I will go. (Goes into forest and meets Wolf.)

Wolf. Good morning.

Fox. Good morning.

Wolf. I have not seen you for a long time. Where are you living now?

Fox. I am living with Ivan. I am his servant.

Wolf. Who is Ivan?

Fox. He is the owner of this forest.

Wolf. May I come with you and see Ivan?

Fox. Yes; if you will promise to bring a sheep with you. If you do not Ivan will eat you.

Wolf. I will go and get one. (Leaves the fox and hunts for a sheep.)

Enter the Bear

Bear. Good morning, Mr. Fox.

Fox. Good morning, Mr. Bear.

Bear. I have not seen you for a long time. Where are you living?

Fox. I am living with Ivan. I am his servant.

Bear. Who is Ivan?

Fox. He is the owner of this forest.

Bear. May I go with you and see him?

Fox. Yes, but you must promise to bring a cow with you or Ivan will eat you.

Bear. I will go and get one. (Leaves the fox and hunts for a cow.)


The Fox returns to the house and enters

Cat. Did you bring me something to eat?

Fox. No; but I have sent for something and it will be here soon.

Cat. All right; we will wait.

Enter Wolf with a sheep and Bear with a cow

Bear. Good morning, Mr. Wolf. Where are you going?

Wolf. Good morning. I am going to see Ivan, the owner of this forest.

Bear. So am I. Let us go together.

Bear and Wolf walk to Cat's house and place sheep and cow near door

Wolf. You knock on the door.

Bear. No; you knock on the door. I am afraid.

Wolf. So am I. Shall we ask Mr. Rabbit to do it?

Bear. Yes; you ask him.

Wolf (calling to a rabbit who is passing). Hello, Mr. Rabbit; will you knock at the Cat's door for us?

Rabbit. Yes, I will. (Knocks.)

Bear and Wolf hide behind the trees and bushes

Cat (coming out of his house with the Fox and noticing the cow and sheep lying by the door). Look! here is what you got for my dinner. There is only enough for two bites.

Bear (to himself). How hungry he is. A cow would be enough to eat for four bears and he says it is only enough for two bites. What a terrible animal he is.

Cat (seeing Wolf behind the bushes). Look! there is a mouse. I must catch him and eat him. (Chases Wolf away.) I think I hear another mouse. (Sees Bear and tries to catch him but fails.) I am so tired that I cannot run at all. Let us sit by the door and eat our dinner. (Cat and Fox sit down and eat the sheep and cow.)


See Bibliography at end of monograph.



October 12


Columbus, seeking the back door of Asia, found himself knocking at the front door of America.

James Russell Lowell




October 12, 1492! What a date in the world's history—the linking of the new world with the old—the dreams of a dreamer come true—the opening of the gates to a newer and better home for man—the promise of—America!

The story of Columbus is a story of romance, of patient perseverance, of high endeavor, of noble resolve—a story that grips and thrills. Every boy and every girl who feels the story wants to discover a new world; and out of that desire may well come the discovery of America—its aims, ideals, opportunities. The Columbus Day program is an opportunity to discover the new world into which we are emerging. Even childhood in the school may come to glimpse that which lies beyond and feel the exultation of the sailor who cried, "Land! Land!"

The materials of this program are largely suggestive. It is hoped that they may be of service in program making from kindergarten to high school.

The school program of most value is that which results from the creative genius of the children themselves. Let children live the life of Columbus in imagination and they will create their own program and express it in costume, tableaux, music, composition, acting, and dialog. The merit of the Columbus Day program will lie in its leading children, through their own expression, to a better understanding of their country, to a broader conception of patriotism.


Marco Polo
A flat world
The new idea—sailing west to reach the east
The dangers of the western sea
The attempted mutiny (See Irving's "Life of Columbus")
The signs of land
Columbus in chains
San Salvador
October 12, 1492
The Columbian Exposition, 1892
The discovery of America, 1919
What Columbus would do today


A Little Program for Columbus Day


(By three boys bearing the American flag, the Spanish flag, and a drum)

1st We are jolly little sailors;
Join us as we come;
We'll bear the flag of proud old Spain,
And we will beat a drum!

2d We are jolly little sailors,
And we pause to say,
We raise the bonny flag of Spain
Upon Columbus Day.

2d We are jolly little sailors;
Raise the red, the white, the blue;
Though we honor brave Columbus,
To our own flag we are true.

All (Beat drum and wave flag)
Salute the banners, one and all,
O raise them once again;
Salute the red, the white, the blue,
Salute the flag of Spain!
For countries old and countries new,
We will wave the red, the white, the blue!


(By eight girls carrying banners that bear letters spelling "Columbus")

C Columbus sailed o'er waters blue,
O On and on to countries new.
L Long the ships sailed day and night,
U Until at last land came in sight.
M Many hearts were filled with fear,
B But the land was drawing near.
U Upon the ground they knelt at last
S So their dangers all were past.
All Wave the banners bright and gay,
We meet to keep Columbus Day


Crowning Columbus

(Recitation by four children. Picture of Columbus on easel. Children place on it evergreen and flower wreaths and flags)

1st Crown him with a wreath of evergreen,
The very fairest ever seen—
Our brave Columbus.

2d Crown him with flowers fresh and fair;
We'll place them by his picture there—
Our brave Columbus.

3d Crown him with the flag of Spain;
Columbus day has come again—
Our brave Columbus.

4th Crown him with red, and white, and blue;
Bring out the drum and banners too—
Our brave Columbus.

All As we stand by his picture here,
Columbus' name we all revere—
Our brave Columbus.

What We Can Do

(Recitation by two small boys, carrying flag)

1. I wish I could do some great deed—
Just find a world or two,
So that the flag might wave for me
As for Columbus true.

It makes a small child very sad
To think all great deeds done.
What is then left for us to do?
What's to be tried and won?

2. My father says—and he knows too,
For he's a grown up man—
That heroes leave some things for us
To carry out their plan.

He says that if we do our best,
Just where we are, you see,
We too shall serve our country's flag;
True patriots we shall be.

Both. We'll love our flag, we'll keep its pledge;
We'll honor and obey;
We'll love our fellow brothers all;
And serve our land this way.



(By a very small child, carrying a flag)

My beautiful flag,
You are waving today,
To honor a hero true;
Columbus who gave us
Our dear native land,
Our land of the Red, White and Blue.


(By a very small child, carrying a flag)

I'll wave my flag for Discovery Day,
And before I get frightened
I'll scamper away.

Columbus Game

The children stand in a circle. They choose one to represent Columbus. The children all sing the song (given below). As they sing the fifth line Columbus points to three children, who become the Nina (baby), the Pinta, and the Santa Maria. These three children come inside the circle, and wave arms up and down as though sailing. The children now all repeat the song, marching round in the circle, waving arms up and down, and the children inside the circle skip round also.

The song is then repeated, children standing in a circle, and the three chosen as Nina, Pinta and Santa Maria choose three children to take their places by pointing at any three children in the circle.

Game may continue as long as desired or until all have had a chance to go inside the circle.[A]

[A] The story of Columbus may be dramatized in connection with this game.


Columbus was a sailor boy,
Many years ago.
A great ship was the sailor's joy,
Many years ago.
The Nina, the Pinta, the Santa Maria,
Little vessels three,
The Nina, the Pinta, the Santa Maria,
Sailed out across the sea.

Laura Rountree Smith

My Little Ship

Once I made a little ship,
Down beside the sea;
And I said, "Come now, dear winds,
And blow it back to me!"
O little ship that sails the sea.
O wind that blows it back to me!



Tune, Lightly Row

Wave the flags, wave the flags;
We are sailor boys at play;
Wave the flags, wave the flags,
On Columbus Day.
O'er the waters we will go,
Singing, singing, as we row;
Wave the flags to and fro,
On Columbus Day. (Children wave flags)
Cross the flags, cross the flags,
With their pretty colors gay;
Cross the flags, cross the flags,
On Columbus Day.
We would like to sail, 'tis true,
O'er the waters bright and blue,
So we cross the flags for you
On Columbus Day. (Children cross flags)

Laura Rountree Smith

Recitation for Very Little Boys

1st—Columbus was a sailor bold,
At least that's what I have been told.
2d—I would also like to sail the sea,
If not too far from mother's knee.
3d—He had three ships to sail the sea,
One ship would be enough for me.
4th—In the Nina I would go;
But what if stormy winds should blow?
5th—In the Pinta I'll set sail;
That ship has weathered many a gale.
6th—The Santa Maria waits for me;
O how I love to sail the sea.
7th—At night we'll glide across the foam,
But wish ourselves quite safe at home.
8th—Kind friends, I hope you understand,
We are really happier far on land.
(All join hands and run to seats)
Then come, dear sailors, hand in hand,
We'll run to seek the nearest land!



(Ferdinand and Isabella on their thrones, chairs with a red drapery concealing them.)

Enter Columbus and followers, bowing low


O most gracious majesties!


My wise men say your scheme is vain,
So your plan I must disdain;
If as you say this earth is round
No one could stay upon the ground.

(Bows his head and looks very wise. Columbus looks sadly around and sighs. Queen Isabella stretches forth her hand.)


I have talked to the Abbot kind,
And he has made me change my mind.
Take these and these (dropping her bracelets and necklaces into Columbus' hat) and may you be,
Successful in your quest at sea.

Columbus and followers

Long live, long live Isabella the queen!
Such generous faith has seldom been seen.
Long live, long live Isabella the queen!

All (except Columbus, who bows as he listens)

Here's to Columbus, so brave and so true,
Who will soon sail west on the ocean blue

Headed by king and queen all march around and off

One returns

Columbus safely made his voyage
And now, though he never knew it,
He discovered this land, the fair land of our birth,
The greatest nation on all the earth.

(Displays flag)

All except Columbus return and sing America

Mary R. Campbell



(By three boys)

1st—Columbus dared to cross the sea
Where none had gone before;
And sailing west from Palos, Spain,
He came to our front door.
2d—His men were only prisoners
Queen Isabel set free;
For other men, they did not dare
To cross the unknown sea.
3d—He had no friend to share his hope;
No one could understand;
Now all men honor his great name,
Who first saw our dear land.
All—If we can only be as true
To our best selves as he,
Speak truth, keep faith, be brave and pure,
True heroes we shall be.

Discovery Day

I wonder what Columbus
Would think of us today,
Just stepping out from '92,
Four centuries on, we'll say.
With aeroplanes and warships,
And submarine affairs,
He'd surely think the mighty sea
Was putting on some airs.
Discovery Day, we greet you;
You're only just begun;
Industry, art, and science now,
Begin their race to run.
But brighter than these wonders,
More beautiful to see,
Democracy's fair smile begins
To dawn o'er land and sea.
Discovery Day! When Freedom
Shall reign in every land,
When nations know their brotherhood,
And naught but good is grand.
America, thy mission
Be this: discover now
A world safe for Democracy.
'Tis ours to teach it how.


The Flag of Spain

Tune—Long, Long Ago

There was a flag that waved all over Spain
Long, long ago; long, long ago.
And many sailors had gone forth in vain,
Long, long ago, long ago.
Then came the ships and Columbus set sail;
Proudly the vessels withstood every gale.
Then came the cry, "Blessed land, land we hail,"
Long, long ago, long ago.


A dreamer they called him,
And mocked him to scorn,
But O, through this dreamer
A new world was born.
A new land whose watchword
Is ringing afar—
"Democracy! Freedom!"
That none shall dare mar.
A nation whose vision
Is making it be
Humanity's champion
On land and on sea.
America, my land,
A dream gave thee birth;
Through vision thou'st conquered
In all realms of worth.
Thy spirit shall beckon
Till all nations heed,
And follow in wisdom
The path thou dost lead.



The foundation for these exercises should be laid in previous class recitations and specially prepared class compositions which relate developing incidents in the life of Columbus. Several periods used in the preparation of these oral and written exercises will be time well spent. Select the composition which portrays the life pictures most clearly and effectively; and as the writer reads his story, let other members of the class give tableaux or act scenes apropos. The children should be encouraged to initiate their own ideas and execute their own mental pictures in costume, arrangement, facial expression, etc.

The following are mentioned suggestively:

Acts portraying the life of Columbus

1. Columbus, the boy

Boy of nine to eleven years, seated, intently studying a geography,


Boy whittling a wooden toy ship.

2. Columbus, the man

Larger boy, posing as a dreamer, gazing at and studying the stars, or

Larger boy drawing maps, appearing wise and thoughtful.

(Let others stand aside, smiling and mockingly pointing.)

3. Columbus' appearance before King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella

King and Queen, dressed in royal style, on improvised throne; Columbus kneeling before them; the queen offering him her jewels.

4. On shipboard

Boys representing mutinous sailors, their faces depicting fear, anger, dejection—dressed sailor fashion.

Columbus displaying confidence, courage and patience—dressed in short full trousers, cape over his shoulders thrown back on one side. Let facial expressions and actions change to show land has been sighted.

5. The landing

Columbus planting the flag of Spain in the New World. Sailors (all with uncovered heads) kneeling. Indians (let the boys wear Indian suits) watching from the outskirts, one falling down in worship.


6. The return reception

King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella on throne, dressed as before, with guards on either side. Ladies-in-waiting, noblemen, etc., dressed in 15th century style, grouped about. Columbus enters (to music). All bow low except king and queen, who rise to meet him. Columbus kneels before them, kisses the queen's hand and rises.

Indians enter (with bow and arrow) and gaze in wonder about. One Indian plucks Columbus by sleeve and gruntingly interrogates him concerning some wonder in the room—a picture of the king and queen, decorated with Spanish flags. The king takes the hand of the Indian, places it in Columbus' hand and, covering them with his own left hand, raises the right to signify his blessing upon the newly found land.

Music gives the signal for the recessional. All fall into line and march out—guards, king, queen, Columbus, ladies, and courtiers. The Indians follow irregularly.


"'Tis a wonderful story," I hear you say,
"How he struggled and worked and plead and prayed,
And faced every danger undismayed,
With a will that would neither break nor bend,
And discovered a new world in the end—
But what does it teach to a boy of today?
All the worlds are discovered, you know, of course,
All the rivers are traced to their utmost source;
There is nothing left for a boy to find,
If he had ever so much a mind
To become a discoverer famous;
And if we'd much rather read a book
About some one else, and the risks he took,
Why nobody, surely, can blame us."
So you think all the worlds are discovered now;
All the lands have been charted and sailed about,
Their mountains climbed, their secrets found out;
All the seas have been sailed and their currents known—
To the uttermost isles the winds have blown
They have carried a venturing prow?
Yet there lie all about us new worlds, everywhere,
That await their discoverer's footfall; spread fair
Are electrical worlds that no eye has yet seen,
And mechanical worlds that lie hidden serene
And await their Columbus securely.
There are new worlds in Science and new worlds in Art,
And the boy who will work with his head and his heart
Will discover his new world surely.



One day Columbus was at a dinner which a Spanish gentleman had given in his honor, and several persons were present who were jealous of the great Admiral's success. They were proud, conceited fellows, and they very soon began to try to make Columbus uncomfortable.

"You have discovered strange lands beyond the seas," they said, "but what of that? We do not see why there should be so much said about it. Anybody can sail across the ocean; and anybody can coast along the islands on the other side, just as you have done. It is the simplest thing in the world."

Columbus made no answer; but after a while he took an egg from a dish and said to the company:

"Who among you, gentlemen, can make this egg stand on end?"

One by one those at the table tried the experiment. When the egg had gone entirely around and none had succeeded, all said that it could not be done.

Then Columbus took the egg and struck its small end gently upon the table so as to break the shell a little. After that there was no trouble in making it stand upright.

"Gentlemen," said he, "what is easier than to do this which you said was impossible? It is the simplest thing in the world. Anybody can do it—after he has been shown how!"


(Fitchburg, Massachusetts, Normal School)

This entertainment is simply an attempt to give a few of the most dramatic incidents in the life of Columbus as connected with his discovery of the New World. Other scenes could be readily added, although it would require some care to avoid an anti-climax.

A. In Spain at the Council of Salamanca

Before this scene is presented give a brief explanation and description of the early life of Columbus and his attempts to obtain aid.

Characters: Churchmen and counselors at the court of Spain (seven to ten) and Columbus.

Costumes: The churchmen are dressed in long black garments, except two, who have black capes with white underneath. Columbus wears a long, black garment or coat, which plainly shows the poverty of its owner.

Tableau I—Columbus before the Council at Salamanca

The characters are arranged somewhat as in a picture of this scene found in the Perry pictures. A picture of this scene is also found in[46] Lossing's History of the United States, volume I. Only the chief characters are shown in this tableau. Three churchmen or counselors are in center near Columbus; two at left, one pointing mockingly, or making fun of Columbus; two stand haughtily in the back, and there may also be two or three at right. Columbus has a partly open roll of parchment in one hand and is pointing with the other. One of the churchmen in the center has an open Bible in his hand, and another has a book which he is holding out to Columbus.

B. On Shipboard

Characters: Columbus, the mate, other sailors.

Costumes: Columbus, red cape; sailors, sweaters and sailor caps.

Tableau II—Nearing Land; Columbus and the Mate

The conversation in Joaquin Miller's "Columbus" takes place between Columbus and mate. The sailors are in the background, one holding a lantern. Between the different parts of his conversation with Columbus, the mate goes to consult with the sailors. The last stanza of the poem is given by some one from the wings. When the reader reaches the line, "A light! A light!" Columbus and the mate change their position. Columbus points and the mate raises his arm, peering forward. (Picture in "Leading Facts of American History," by Montgomery, revised edition. Also in "Stepping Stones of American History.")

C. In the new world

Characters: Columbus, three noblemen, eight sailors, six Indians.

Costumes: Columbus and the noblemen wear the Spanish costume of the fifteenth century (described later). Sailors wear sweaters and sailor caps made from blue, red or grey cambric. Indians wear Indian suits (nearly all boys have or may obtain them from any clothing store). They carry bows and arrows or tomahawks. The spears and swords for this and the following scene are made from wood, bronzed to look like silver. The tall cross is made of wood and stained with shellac. The banner of the expedition is white, with a green cross. Over the initials F and Y (Ferdinand and Ysabella) are two gilt crowns.

Tableau III—The landing of Columbus

The characters are posed from Vanderlyn's painting of the scene in the Capitol at Washington. Reproductions are found in many histories and among the Perry pictures. Columbus holds the banner of the expedition in one hand, and a drawn sword in the other. One of the men has a tall staff with the top in form of a cross; two others hold tall spears. The Indians are peering out at the white men from the sides of the stage; one of them is down on the stage with his head bowed on his hands, worshipping the strangers; the others seem to be full of fear and curiosity.


D. At Barcelona in Spain

Before this scene is presented a description of the reception of Columbus by the king and queen upon his return to Spain is given. This scene is more elaborate than any of the others.

Characters and costumes: Queen, red robe, purple figured front; collar and trimmings of ermine. She wears a crown. Ermine is made of cotton with little pieces of black cloth sewed on it, crown of cardboard covered with gilt paper. Dress cheesecloth with a front of silkoline.

King wears purple full, short trousers (trunks), purple doublet, purple cape and gilt crown. The trousers and cape are trimmed with ermine.

The two guards have black trousers (trunks) and red capes, collars, and knee pieces made from silver paper; they wear storm hats covered with silver paper, and carry spears.

The two ladies-in-waiting wear dresses fixed to resemble the dress of the period. They have high headpieces shaped like cornucopias, made from cardboard covered with gilt paper, and with long veils draped over them; this was one style of headpiece worn in the fifteenth century.

The eight churchmen, eight sailors and six Indians are dressed as in previous scenes.

The little page of Columbus is dressed in his own white suit.

Columbus wears grey and red clothing. The ten noblemen wear combinations of bright colors.

The general plan in regard to the dress of the Spanish nobility in the time of Columbus is to have the full, short trousers (trunks) made of one color and slashed with another; the upper garment or doublet made of figured silkoline; the cape of one color lined with another, worn turned back over one shoulder; pointed collars and cuffs of white glazed or silver paper; and soft felt hats with plumes. Each nobleman carries a sword.

The gold brought by the sailors may be made by gilding stones.

Tableau IV—Reception of Columbus by King and Queen

In center of stage is raised platform or throne with two or three steps leading up to it: this throne is covered with figured raw silk (yellow and brown). Chairs are placed on throne for king and queen.

The scene is an attempt to represent the reception of Columbus on his return to Spain after his first voyage. (See painting by Ricardo Balaca, the Spanish artist, of Columbus before Ferdinand and Isabella at Barcelona.)

A march may be played on the piano while the different characters in the tableau come on the stage and take their proper positions. First the two royal guards march to the throne, taking positions one on each side, so that the king and queen may pass between them in mounting the platform. They are followed by the king and queen, and then the ladies-in-waiting. The king and queen mount the platform and take seats; the ladies wait in front of the platform until the king and queen are seated, then they take positions on each side of the throne. The guards, after the king and queen are seated, take positions on the platform in the rear. [48] All these come as one group in the procession, with only a little space between them.

Next come the churchmen. One of them carries the tall cross. They take their places at the right of the queen.

The Indians come, shuffling across the stage to the extreme left of the king and queen. Of course they know nothing of keeping time to the music or paying homage to royalty.

The sailors march upon the stage, each bringing something from the New World—gold, a stuffed bird, or some product. Each in turn approaches the king and queen, kneels, and then places whatever he carries at the side of the platform, and takes his place on the left.

The noblemen, one by one, come in with great dignity, go to the front of the throne, kneel and salute with their swords. Then they go to the right of the stage.

Finally the music sounds a more triumphal note, announcing the approach of the hero of the occasion. Columbus is preceded by his page, carrying the banner of the expedition. The page kneels to the king and queen, then goes to the left, where he is to stand just back of the place reserved for Columbus.

As Columbus approaches the throne, the king and queen rise and come forward to do him honor. Columbus kneels, kisses the queen's hand, then rises and points out to the king and queen the treasures which his sailors have brought. He also brings forward one of the Indians. The king and queen regard everything with interest. After this, at a signal given on the piano, all kneel to give thanks for the discovery of the New World. The Te Deum Laudamus is chanted or the Doxology is sung.

This is the end of the reception.

This scene may be simplified, if desired, and given in the form of two tableaux. Columbus kneeling before the queen and king and Columbus telling his story may be given separately. There need not be as many characters in the scene. See the picture, "Reception of Columbus" (adapted from the picture by Ricardo Balaca) in "America's Story for American Children," by Mara L. Pratt.

It would be easy to give the substance of this entertainment in any schoolroom and without costumes. Even with these limitations the story of Columbus would become more real to the children in this way than it could be made by any description.

A good description of the reception of Columbus in Spain after his first voyage is given in the "Life of Columbus," by Washington Irving.

A description and picture of the banner of the expedition may be found in Lossing's "History of the United States," volume I.

Music that may be used: "Columbus Song," taken from "1492"; the "New Hail Columbia."



It was on the morning of Friday, 12th of October, 1492, that Columbus first beheld the New World....

No sooner did he land than he threw himself upon his knees, kissed the earth, and returned thanks to God with tears of joy. His example was followed by the rest, whose hearts indeed overflowed with the same feelings of gratitude.

Columbus then rising drew his sword, displayed the royal standard, and ... took solemn possession in the name of the Castilian sovereigns, giving the island the name of San Salvador. Having complied with the requisite forms and ceremonies, he now called upon all present to take the oath of obedience to him, as admiral and viceroy, representing the persons of the sovereigns.

The feelings of the crew now burst forth in the most extravagant transports.... They thronged around the Admiral in their overflowing zeal. Some embraced him, others kissed his hands. Those who had been most mutinous and turbulent during the voyage, were now most devoted and enthusiastic. Some begged favors of him, as of a man who had already wealth and honors in his gift. Many abject spirits, who had outraged him by their insolence, now crouched as it were at his feet, begging pardon for all the trouble they had caused him, and offering for the future the blindest obedience to his commands.

Washington Irving


Immortal morn, all hail!
That saw Columbus sail
By Faith alone!
The skies before him bowed,
Back rolled the ocean proud,
And every lifting cloud
With glory shone.
Fair science then was born,
On that celestial morn,
Faith dared the sea;
Triumphant over foes
Then Truth immortal rose,
New heavens to disclose,
And earth to free.
Strong Freedom then came forth,
To liberate the earth
And crown the right;
So walked the pilot bold
Upon the sea of gold,
And darkness backward rolled,
And there was light.

Hezekiah Butterworth


All hail, Columbus, discoverer, dreamer, hero, and apostle! We here, of every race and country, recognize the horizon which bounded his vision, and the infinite scope of his genius. The voice of gratitude and praise for all the blessings which have been showered upon mankind by his adventure is limited to no language, but is uttered in every tongue. Neither marble nor brass can fitly form his statue. Continents are his monument, and unnumbered millions, past, present, and to come, who enjoy in their liberties and their happiness the fruits of his faith, will reverently guard and preserve, from century to century, his name and fame.

Chauncey Mitchell Depew

Little wonder that the whole world takes from the life of Columbus one of its best-beloved illustrations of the absolute power of faith. To a faithless world he made a proposal, and the world did not hear it. To that faithless world he made it again and again, and at last roused the world to ridicule it and to contradict it. To the same faithless world he still made it year after year; and at last the world said that, when it was ready, it would try if he were right; to which his only reply is that he is ready now, that the world must send him now on the expedition which shall show whether he is right or wrong. The world, tired of his importunity, consents, unwillingly enough, that he shall try the experiment. He tries it; he succeeds; and the world turns round and welcomes him with a welcome which it cannot give to a conqueror. In a moment the grandeur of his plans is admitted, their success is acknowledged, and his place is fixed as one of the great men of history.

Give me white paper!
The sheet you use is black and rough with smears
Of sweat and grime and fraud and blood and tears,
Crossed with the story of men's sins and fears,
Of battle and of famine all those years
When all God's children have forgot their birth
And drudged and fought and died like beasts of earth.
Give me white paper!
One storm-trained seaman listened to the word;
What no man saw he saw, and heard what no man heard.
For answer he compelled the sea
To eager man to tell
The secret she had kept so well;
Left blood and woe and tyranny behind,
Sailing still West that land newborn to find,
For all mankind the unstained page unfurled,
Where God might write anew the story of the world.

Edward Everett Hale


"Admiral at the Helm"


The fame of Columbus is not local or limited. It does not belong to any single country or people. It is the proud possession of the whole civilized world. In all the transactions of history there is no act which for vastness and performance can be compared with the discovery of the continent of America, "the like of which was never done by any man in ancient or in later times."

James Grant Wilson

With boldness unmatched, with faith in the teachings of science and of revelation immovable, with patience and perseverance that knew no weariness, with superior skill as a navigator unquestioned, and with a lofty courage unrivaled in the history of the race, Columbus sailed from Palos on the 3d of August, with three vessels, the largest (his flagship) of only ninety feet keel, and provided with four masts, eight anchors, and sixty-six seamen. Passing the Canaries and the blazing peak of Teneriffe, he pushed westward into the "sea of darkness," in defiance of the fierce dragons with which superstition had peopled it, and the prayers and threats of his mutinous seamen, and on the 12th of October landed on one of the Bahama Islands.

Benson J. Lossing


[B] From complete works of Joaquin Miller, published by the Harr Wagner Publishing Company of San Francisco.

Behind him lay the gray Azores,
Behind the Gates of Hercules;
Before him not the ghost of shores,
Before him only shoreless seas.
The good mate said: "Now must we pray,
For lo! the very stars are gone.
Brave Admiral, speak; what shall I say?"
"Why, say 'Sail on! sail on! and on!'"
"My men grow mutinous day by day;
My men grow ghastly wan and weak."
The stout mate thought of home; a spray
Of salt wave washed his swarthy cheek.
"What shall I say, brave Admiral, say,
If we sight naught but seas at dawn?"
"Why, you shall say at break of day,
'Sail on! sail on! sail on! and on!'"
They sailed and sailed, as winds might blow,
Until at last the blanched mate said:
"Why, now not even God would know
Should I and all my men fall dead.
These very winds forget their way,
For God from these dread seas is gone.
Now speak, brave Admiral, speak and say—"
He said: "Sail on! sail on! and on!"
They sailed. They sailed. Then spake the mate:
"This mad sea shows his teeth tonight.
He curls his lip, he lies in wait,
He lifts his teeth, as if to bite!
Brave Admiral, say but one good word;
What shall we do when hope is gone?"
The words leapt like a leaping sword:
"Sail on! sail on! sail on! and on!"
Then pale and worn, he paced his deck,
And peered through darkness. Ah, that night,
Of all dark nights! And then a speck—
A light! A light! At last a light!
It grew, a starlit flag unfurled!
It grew to be Time's burst of dawn.
He gained a world; he gave that world
Its grandest lesson: "Oh! sail on!"

Joaquin Miller

He failed. He reached to grasp Hesperides,
To track the foot-course of the sun, that flies
Toward some far western couch, and watch its rise—
But fell on unknown sand-reefs, chains, disease.
He won. With splendid daring, from the sea's
Hard, niggard fist he plucked the glittering prize,
And gave a virgin world to Europe's eyes,
Where gold dust choked the streams, and spice the breeze.
He failed fulfillment of the task he planned,
And drooped a weary head on empty hand,
Unconscious of the vaster deed he'd done;
But royal legacy to Ferdinand
He left—a key to doorways gilt with sun—
And proudest title of "World-father" won!

George W. W. Houghton

With all the visionary fervor of his imagination, its fondest dreams fell short of the reality. He died in ignorance of the real grandeur of his discovery. Until his last breath, he entertained the idea that he had merely opened a new way to the old resorts of opulent commerce, and had discovered some of the wild regions of the East.... What visions of glory would have broke upon his mind, could he have known that he had indeed discovered a new continent, equal to the whole of the old world in magnitude, and separated by two vast oceans from all of the earth hitherto known by civilized man; and how would his magnanimous spirit have been consoled, amidst the chills of age and cares of penury, the neglect of a fickle public, and the injustice of an ungrateful king, could he have anticipated the splendid empires which were to spread over the beautiful world he had discovered, and the nations, and tongues, and languages, which were to fill its lands with his renown, and to revere and bless his name to the latest posterity!

Washington Irving



Was this his face, and these the finding eyes
That plucked a new world from the rolling seas?
Who, serving Christ, whom most he sought to please,
Willed the great vision till he saw arise
Man's other home and earthly paradise—
His early thought since first with stalwart knees
He pushed the boat from his young olive trees,
And sailed to wrest the secret of the skies.
He on the waters dared to set his feet,
And through believing planted earth's last race.
What faith in man must in our new world beat,
Thinking how once he saw before his face
The west and all the host of stars retreat
Into the silent infinite of space!

George Edward Woodberry

Of no use are the men who study to do exactly as was done before, who can never understand that today is a new day. There never was such a combination as this of ours, and the rules to meet it are not set down in any history. We want men of original perception and original action, who can open their eyes wider than to a nationality—namely, to considerations of benefit to the human race—can act in the interest of civilization; men of elastic, men of moral mind, who can live in the moment and take a step forward. Columbus was no backward-creeping crab, nor was Martin Luther, nor John Adams, nor Patrick Henry, nor Thomas Jefferson; and the Genius or Destiny of America is no log or sluggard, but a man incessantly advancing, as the shadow on the dial's face, or the heavenly body by whose light it is marked.

Ralph Waldo Emerson


(From a Commencement Poem, Dartmouth College. 1872)

As a strong bird on pinions free,
Joyous, the amplest spaces heavenward cleaving,
One song, America, before I go,
I'd sing, o'er all the rest, with trumpet sound,
For thee, the Future.
Sail—sail thy best, Ship of Democracy!
Of value is thy freight—'tis not the Present only,
The Past is also stored in thee!
Thou holdest not the venture of thyself alone—
Not of thy western continent alone;
Earth's résumé entire floats on thy keel, O Ship—
Is steadied by thy spars.
With thee Time voyages in trust,
The antecedent nations sink or swim with thee;
With all their ancient struggles, martyrs, heroes, epics, wars,
Thou bears't the other continents;
Theirs, theirs as much as thine, the destination-port triumphant,
Steer, steer with good strong hand and wary eye—
O helmsman—thou carryest great companions,
Venerable, priestly Asia sails this day with thee,
And royal, feudal Europe sails with thee.

Walt Whitman


O mother of a mighty race,
Yet lovely in thy youthful grace!
The elder dames, thy haughty peers,
Admire and hate thy blooming years;
With words of shame
And taunts of scorn they join thy name....
They know not, in their hate and pride,
What virtues with thy children bide;
How true, how good, thy graceful maids
Make bright, like flowers, the valley shades;
What generous men
Spring, like thine oaks, by hill and glen.
What cordial welcomes greet the guest
By thy lone rivers of the West;
How faith is kept, and truth revered,
And man is loved and God is feared,
In woodland homes,
And where the ocean border foams.
There's freedom at thy gates, and rest
For earth's down-trodden and opprest;
A shelter for the hunted head;
For the starved laborer toil and bread.
Power, at thy bounds,
Stops, and calls back his baffled hounds.
O fair young mother! on thy brow
Shall sit a nobler grace than now.
Deep in the brightness of thy skies
The thronging years in glory rise,
And, as they fleet,
Drop strength and riches at thy feet.
Thine eye, with every coming hour,
Shall brighten, and thy form shall tower;
And when thy sisters, elder born,
Would brand thy name with words of scorn,
Before thy eye
Upon their lips the taunt shall die.

William Cullen Bryant


Great Western land, whose mighty breast
Between two oceans finds its rest,
Begirt by storms on either side,
And washed by strong Pacific tide.
The knowledge of thy wondrous birth
Gave balance to the rounded earth;
In sea of darkness thou didst stand,
Now first in light, great Western land.
In thee the olive and the vine
Unite with hemlock and with pine;
In purest white the southern rose
Repeats the spotless northern snows.
Around thy zone a belt of maize
Rejoices in the sun's hot rays;
And all that Nature could command
She heaped on thee, great Western land.
Great Western land, whose touch makes free,
Advance to perfect liberty,
Till right shall make thy sov'reign might,
And every wrong be crushed from sight.
Behold thy day, thy time is here;
Thy people great, with naught to fear.
God hold thee in His strong right hand,
My well beloved Western land.

Caroline Hazard


[C] Used by permission of, and by special arrangement with, Houghton Mifflin Company, the authorized publishers.

Foremost among the ideals which have characterized our national life is the spirit of self-reliance. The very first chapter of our national history records the story of a man, who arose from among the toilers of his time, and whom eighteen years of disappointed hopes could not dismay. It tells how this man, holding out the promise of a new dominion, at last overcame the opposition of royal courtiers, and secured the tardy support[57] of reluctant rulers. And when, at Palos, Columbus flung to the breeze the sails of his frail craft, and ventured upon that unknown ocean from which, according to the belief of his age, there was no hope of return, he displayed the chief characteristic of the American people—the spirit of self-reliance.

What is this spirit? Emerson has expressed it in a sentence: "We will walk on our own feet; we will work with our own hands; we will speak our own minds." This was the spirit which animated that little group of colonists who preferred the unknown hardships of the new world to the certain tyranny of the old; who chose to break old ties, to brave the sea, to face the loneliness and perils of life in a strange land—a land of difficulties and dangers, but a land of liberty and opportunity....

In order that our country may continue this proud record of self-reliance, each one of us has a special obligation. Every citizen in his individual life should live up to the same ideal of self-reliance. The young citizen who relies on himself, who does honest work in school, never cheating or shirking, who is always, ready to do a little more than is actually required of him, who thinks for himself, acts rightly because he loves right actions—such a citizen is doing his part in helping to achieve our national ideal of self-reliance.

William Backus Guitteau

I believe in my country. I believe in it because it is made up of my fellow-men—and myself. I can't go back on either of us and be true to my creed. If it isn't the best country in the world it is partly because I am not the kind of a man that I should be.

Charles Stelzle


See Bibliography at end of monograph.




Last Thursday in November


For flowers that bloom about our feet;
For tender grass, so fresh, so sweet;
For song of bird, and hum of bee;
For all things fair we hear or see,
Father in heaven, we thank Thee!
For blue of stream and blue of sky;
For pleasant shade of branches high;
For fragrant air and cooling breeze;
For beauty of the blooming trees,
Father in heaven, we thank Thee!

Ralph Waldo Emerson




Among our national holidays Thanksgiving should be a red letter day. We need these days so that the modern tendency of reducing all days to the same mediocre level may be overcome. Such days, when contrasted with common school days, show a wonderful stimulation. Hence it is urged that the celebration of Thanksgiving take on the aspect of the play-festival. The play-festival will have a potent effect on the audience and the actors. The audience will be composed for the most part of the school body and on this body the festival program will have a unifying effect. For this reason it is further urged that an entire grade, or perhaps a group of grades, be employed to render the program. Such a rendition will be treated as a contribution from a part to the whole.

The festival to be effective must bind the entire school into one social group. The response of the audience will be complementary and the spirit and the pride of the school will give forth inspiration to the actor and the audience. The performer must make others feel what he knows, and thus his learning becomes intensified. The result is that the play-festival has two high values, the social and the educational.

The essential problem which arises, and which must be answered by every teacher, is, "What shall be done to provide a good program, and how shall it be done?" The answer will come from a careful survey of the needs, capacities, and make-up of each individual or group of pupils. The answer includes the utilization of the dramatic instinct, i. e., the play instinct, which finds expression through singing, speaking and dancing. The successful festival must be well organized, and this organization must be effected according to a suitable program. (1) The history of the day must be clearly brought to the attention of the pupils. (2) There should be a committee appointed to have supervision of the arranging of the festival. (3) A program full of content should-be arranged. (4) What constitutes the proper program for a Thanksgiving festival should have the careful thought of those in charge. The children should be actual factors in planning the program, as well as in presenting it.

In order that Thanksgiving Day may be celebrated in an appropriate[62] manner it is necessary that its history be fully comprehended by the entire school. Teachers of all grades should use the historic material that will meet the needs and capacities of their pupils. This material should be correlated with as much of the regular school work as may seem advisable. It is essential that the entire school fully appreciate the historic foundations of the day, so that they may comprehend the setting which has so much to do with this holiday. Furthermore, a full comprehension of the history as a background for this festival will stimulate the school audience, so that they will receive from the program those things which we believe they ought to receive from the celebration.


The following extracts relative to the history of Thanksgiving have been selected because they are exceptionally interesting; they show that traditionally the celebration of this holiday is truly American; they also give hints as to the wealth of material that may be woven into a program for the play-festival.

The first year of the Pilgrim settlement, in spite of that awful winter when nearly half of their number perished, had been comparatively successful. The Pilgrims had planted themselves well, and it is easy to understand why this fact should have appealed to the mind of their governor, William Bradford, as an especial reason for proclaiming a season of thanksgiving. The exact date is not certain, but from the records we learn that it was an open air feast. It is evident that it must have occurred in that lovely period of balmy, calm, cool air and soft sunshine which is called Indian Summer, and which may be considered to range between the latter week of October and the latter week of November. It came at the end of the year's harvest. In confirmation, let us quote from the writing of Edward Winslow, thrice governor of the Pilgrims:

"Our corn did prove well; and, God be praised, we had a good increase of Indian corn, and our barley indifferent good. Our harvest being gotten in, our governor sent four men on fowling that so we might after a special manner rejoice together after we had gathered the fruit of our labors."

We learn that as a result of this hunting expedition they had many wild turkeys, which the women probably stuffed with beechnuts, and they brought home wood pigeons and partridges in abundance. But, it seems, they must have lacked deer, since the Indians, with their king, Massasoit, volunteered to go out and bring in the venison.


One noteworthy fact is the relations that existed between the Pilgrims and the Indians. At this first Thanksgiving feast King Massasoit and ninety of his warriors were present. They entered heartily into the preparations of thanksgiving. What a cheerful spectacle it must have been to see the Indian guests appearing, carrying a many branched buck or a pretty doe, possibly hung across the stalwart shoulders of some giant red man? Shall one doubt that the Pilgrim gravity was for a moment dispelled, when the Indians approached with their delicious contribution to the feast? Can't we hear the welcoming cheer that arose from the throats of those Englishmen, or the clapping of the hands of the younger women as those Indian athletes entered the camp? It is also recorded that from their Indian guests the Pilgrims received clams, oysters, fish and vegetables. What a feast this must have been!

The warriors remained with the Pilgrims for several days, and contended with them in various games or feats of strength and agility. Perhaps Massasoit unbent from his kingly dignity to show how straight he could send an arrow at some improvised target. Maybe some Puritan maiden laughingly tried her hand on an Indian bow. Possibly, too, in the military drill which Miles Standish with his famous regiment of twenty gave, there was intention on the part of the stout little warrior to show the Indian what a formidable foe the white man might be if provoked. At any rate, the friendship, hallowed by thanksgiving hospitality, continued unbroken for nearly half a century.

What a noble, inspiring picture is the history of this first Thanksgiving Day—a picture of piety, of human brotherhood, and of poetry, for which the universal heart of man, when realizing its profound significance, must gladly and proudly give thanks.

For many years this autumnal "feast of ingathering" was merely an occasional festival, as unexpected prosperity or hoped for aid in adversity moved our Pilgrim fathers to a special act of praise. It was not until after the Revolutionary War that this day took on a national significance. George Washington issued the first proclamation in 1795. This will be read by many with deep interest, especially in view of the fact that some persons believe that a national Thanksgiving proclamation is a recent invention in our country. After this date it was only occasionally observed until 1863. It was our Civil War which awakened our national conscience, and since that time every President of the United States has issued a Thanksgiving Proclamation, which has in turn been issued to the different states by their respective governors.


Thanksgiving is a universal holiday; it is for all the people. As heretofore, each year brings new households, enlarged families, increased affections, comfortable homes, plentiful tables, abundant harvests, a beneficent government, free schools, and religious liberty. There is much to be grateful for in our national history. Whatever may have been our sense of past duty, it is the privilege of all to thank God that He has given us the unexpected and unsought for opportunity to relieve much oppression and to extend the blessings of good government and fair freedom to many millions of people.

It is a wonderful opportunity, and no people on the face of the globe have a stricter sense of duty than our great country. We may be far from perfect if tried by the highest standards, but where shall we find a nation which less desires to rule, and desires to rule more justly, giving liberty to all? We as a generation have lived to see what may be the greatest epoch in the world's history. Truly the seeds of this harvest were sown years ago by our Pilgrim fathers. For such mercies what soul will not raise its thanksgiving to God? Let us as teachers of the state of New Jersey teach our children these great truths, and enter with an open mind and a willing heart into each Thanksgiving festival, and let us all try to inculcate in the hearts of our pupils this significant brotherhood.


Let the history of this great Thanksgiving Feast be the background and setting for your play-festival. Let it be the duty of teachers to see that the program for this celebration is inspired by patriotism, by a reverence for God, who has been most gracious to us as a people. For social reasons, it will be well to let some particular grade prepare the program for the festival. The other grades of the school will be in the audience, and thus the whole school will be united into one large social group. Before it is decided which grade shall be selected to prepare the program the principal and teachers should meet and, after talking over the preliminary plans, appoint the festival committee. It is important that the proper kind of machinery for this festival work be constructed. It will be the duty of this special committee to keep in mind such objects of the play-festival as the promotion of a keener appreciation and a more reverent remembrance of great events and great men and women of our history; the promotion of a deep national patriotism; the promotion of a sense of deep gratitude that we live in such a bountiful and beautiful earth. The play-festival [65] should be looked upon as a means of moral, social, cultural and esthetic education.

Keeping these things in mind, the play-festival should be invented almost entirely by the children, who will present the program. Of course this will require the watchful guidance of teachers and committee. A play or program that has been already planned for the occasion may be taken, but even in such a program the scenes should be planned by the class. If this plan is followed almost any of the ready-made plays may be adapted for any grade from the kindergarten to the high school. The wealth of historic material which readily conforms to the Thanksgiving program is abundant. There is no school that cannot act some scene, pantomime, tableau or the like, with but little thought and drill. The results obtained by bringing any class in touch with some of our masterpieces of history, literature, art, music, or sculpture, cannot be easily estimated.


A good method of preparing the program is to bring before the class who has been decided upon to render the festival the fact that this grade has been appointed to do this bit of patriotic service. Tell them about the festival, its simple aims; about the historic material on which the day is founded. Have the pupils write their ideas about developing the program. These may be discussed, and the best suggestions can be used about which to form an outline. This is admirable training for the pupils. Not infrequently surprises occur; unsuspected talents are discovered; and often the children who have appeared as dullards in them regular school subjects will take an interest which will lead to salutary results. Many times children will enjoy working on such plans and develop a new interest in their studies. The children should also be asked for suggestions as to developing the stage scenery, costumes, etc. Frequently their suggestions, with slight modifications, have an effectiveness beyond the reach of the teacher. Of course we as teachers must be satisfied with rather crude suggestions, and work up to a satisfactory result.

The stage setting should always be simple, but suggestive. Often a play-festival may be rendered with little or no scenery. In fact, most of our present school programs are given without even a semblance of scenery or decorations. Some simple stage setting, scenery, or decorations will add wonderfully to the effect of your program, and [66] this will be found easy to accomplish. This is particularly true of the Thanksgiving Day program. In the rural districts, especially, can be found the proper materials for this day. Such things as cornstalks, pumpkins, apples, fruits, cereals, and vegetables of many kinds will meet your needs. Whatever is good for a harvest home celebration may be used to celebrate Thanksgiving.

It is desirable, also, to have simple costumes. The teacher should not be burdened with the making of the costumes. Arouse the interest of your class, and they will take home this interest. The result will be that the teacher will get more than he had hoped or suggested.

The work of preparing the music should be done during the period of the day when singing is usually done. The music is very valuable. The whole school appreciates music and singing. It is the one unifying influence within the reach of the school. If all the various classes are used to promote the play-festival a practical correlation of the work of the school may be profitably accomplished.


Below is submitted a type program for the Thanksgiving Day Festival. This is suitable for fifth and sixth grade pupils. This type of program may be easily changed so that it may be rendered by pupils of the first grade or by students of the high school. Care should always be exercised that the plan of the program is easily understood by the class who renders it. Scenes should be molded to meet the needs and capacities of the grade that is to perform. The dialog or monolog should also be adapted to the ages of the pupils who are to do the acting. Below will be found a list of scenes which by thoughtful manipulation may be made to fall within the command of pupils from the kindergarten to the high school. The bibliography given will furnish much information.



In Charge of Grade VI

Theme: The Harvest

Song—"America," by the school
Reading—"George Washington's Thanksgiving Proclamation of 1795"
Song—"Harvest Home," by the school

Act I. Getting ready for seed time
    Scene I. Indians showing the Pilgrims how to plant corn
    Scene II. Resting (a camp scene)

Song—"Thanksgiving Day," by the school
Recitation—"Thanksgiving," by a pupil

Act II. A corn husking bee (place, a New England barn)
    Scene I. Husking corn
    Scene II. The frolic
    Scene III. Going home

Song—"Star Spangled Banner," by the school

The following scenes may be made appropriate for the different grades by changing the quality and quantity of the scenery. Pantomimes are especially to be recommended for use in our school programs. Many of these scenes will lend themselves to this purpose. Hints for the preparation of these scenes may be gained from the great paintings or their reproductions.

Autumn Memories
The Pilgrims
An Indian Camp
An Indian Village
Miles Standish and his Warriors
The Pilgrim's Town Meeting
The Pilgrims going to Church
The Pilgrims Hunting
The Pilgrims Fishing
The Husking Bee
The Dying Year
Thanksgiving at Home
The Harvest Home (Old English)
The Country Dance
The Love Scene of Priscilla and John Alden
Miles Standish's Home
Many Indian Scenes from Hiawatha
Many Harvest Home Scenes


See Bibliography at end of monograph.



February 12


Again thy birthday dawns, O man beloved,
Dawns on the land thy blood was shed to save,
And hearts of millions, by one impulse moved,
Bow and fresh laurels lay upon thy grave.

Ida Vose Woodbury




The observance of Lincoln's birthday as a national holiday has grown steadily until twenty-four states have designated it by statute as a holiday. The great emancipator is today our foremost national hero. His most unusual career from the log cabin to the White House sets ambition and hope of attainment before the most lowly and the most favorably environed alike.

There are many salient reasons why the boys and girls of our schools should study the life of this great hero. He established once and for all time the now inalienable right of life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness to all mankind. Early in life he was dubbed by his friends and neighbors with the enviable title of "Honest Abe." On the frontier we find him inuring himself to toil. He was thoroughly acquainted with that slogan always necessary to success, "hard work." His life was pure, untainted with the vices which spring from luxury, the lust for gain, the greed for fame. Simple in living, steadfast in purpose, kindly in spirit, he towered among his fellows, exemplary of that manhood toward which all boys who would be of worth to mankind should aspire.

At the present time it is especially opportune that Lincoln's birthday be celebrated most impressively. The freedom for which we have just been fighting is a greater freedom than that of '61. That was for the freedom of the slave, this for a greater freedom of men already free; that was freedom for a part of mankind, this a freedom for all, for the democracy of the world. The principles for which he stood are the principles for which we must ever stand, but the application of those principles is limitless in its scope. It is for us to see that those who have sacrificed their lives in this great cause shall not have died in vain. It is for the boys and girls in our schools today to carry to a successful issue this great project of making the world safe for democracy and democracy safe for the world, and no small part of this work lies on our shoulders as teachers of boys and girls who will be citizens tomorrow.

The law requires that on the last school day preceding Lincoln's birthday appropriate exercises be held for the development of a high spirit of patriotism. The whole day should center around the life [72] of Lincoln. For the afternoon a special program should be prepared and the parents of the school children invited by special letters written by the pupils of the school. The pupils of each school should assist in working out the program. In some schools, in the upper grades the pupils should be held responsible for much of the work in program making. Each teacher and principal should arrange the work of the day and the special program to one end, that of utilizing the great spirit and profound wisdom of a wonderful man to the establishment of a greater patriotism and the working out of the national problems before us.

The following general suggestions indicate the important factors to be considered in making a Lincoln program.

Point out the significance of the flag salute

Analyze the pledge

Sing patriotic songs

The songs of today
The songs of the past

Study Lincoln's boyhood. His career from the log cabin to the White House is phenomenal

Lincoln the lawyer and politician

Emphasize the work and honesty in the life of Abraham Lincoln

President of the United States and statesman. His great speeches

Read, study and memorize the Gettysburg speech. Each child should have a copy

Learn quotations, and know their meaning and application

Collect a number of pictures of Lincoln

Call special attention to the best statuary

Gutzon Borglum's Lincoln before the Court House in Newark, New Jersey, and the statue by Saint Gaudens in Lincoln Park, Chicago, are the most worthy and should be particularly noted

"O Captain, My Captain," by Whitman, and "The Perfect Tribute," by Mary Shipman Andrews, should be read by the teacher

Do not neglect the great humor in his life; children enjoy a joke

Pupils will enjoy writing acrostics on the name of Lincoln

The Lincoln Highway and the National Lincoln Memorial are recent monuments to the honor of this great man

Let the decorations of the room be in keeping with the celebration

Lincoln posters may be made in the drawing class

The younger pupils will be interested in collecting the stamps with Lincoln's picture

Civil War veterans, Civil War pictures, Civil War newspapers, Civil War correspondence, will make vital contributions in vivifying the life of Lincoln, incidents of the War, and this special observance. Invite veterans to come in and make brief speeches. Request pupils to bring old newspapers, old correspondence, war relics and the like with the assurance that they will be cared for and safely returned


Saint Gaudens' Lincoln Lincoln Park, Chicago
Copyright by Underwood & Underwood, N.Y.


Read letters from boys who were at the front. Collect war pictures from the Sunday newspapers. Remember the boys from your community who went to war. Contrast the present war situation and practices with those of the Civil War. Classroom activity of this kind may continue for the whole week.


Preparatory to the observance of Lincoln's birthday teach carefully and thoroughly the Gettysburg Speech. Each pupil from the fifth grade through the high school ought to know this great masterpiece. Teach the occasion on which it was given, which brought forth this great production, the significance of the speech then and now, and finally have each child give it from memory. A contest in the delivery of Lincoln's Gettysburg Speech would interest the school and the public. The winner should appear on the holiday program.

The placing in schools of Lincoln Memorial Bronze Tablets containing the Gettysburg Speech will give special significance to the observance. This practice should be promoted. Every new school should have its Lincoln Memorial Tablet.

The most interesting persons in the eyes of children are children. They are most concerned with what kind of a boy Lincoln was. Books such as "Life of Abraham Lincoln for Boys and Girls," by C. W. Moores, and "The Boy's Life of Abraham Lincoln," by J. G. Nicolay, should be made available. Pupils should be encouraged to tell to the class what they have found of interest in the accounts of his boyhood. Incidents of his honesty, his desire for learning, and habit of hard work, will be brought forth and no effort should be spared to emphasize these most important characteristics. Strive for enthusiastic admiration, and the imitation of these most desirable qualities will follow.

Stories from his life, incidents in his experience, and periods in his career, such as the twenty-two years on the farm, the twenty-seven years in intellectual pursuits, and the seven years in national service, will give profitable material for work in English. Oral and written reproductions should be taught for some time before the holiday observance and the best of these used on this occasion. Mr. Judd Stewart's suggestions (given on another page) respecting the study of Lincoln's English are very valuable.

Give an exercise or two in acrostic writing with the aim of setting forth in a succinct way his admirable character and laudable accomplishments. A problem of this type appeals to children and has value in it.


The humorous stories of Lincoln should not be neglected. There is great need for high standards of humor, jokes and jests with boys and girls. Every one should be able to tell a good story well. The humor in Lincoln's life presents good material for such teaching.

A study and memorizing of quotations may be begun early in the fall; in fact, such study should be pursued throughout the whole school course. If this is done many pupils will be able to give on February twelfth their choice from among Lincoln's sayings with reasons for their selections and with statements respecting the source of their admiration. Every pupil should have a stock of Lincoln sayings at his command. These selected thoughts should be a part of the thinking of boys and girls.

Readings for the week preceding the holiday observance can be made from the following brief publications:

"Lincoln Centenary Ode," Percy MacKaye
"Commemorative Ode," James Russell Lowell
"Abraham Lincoln," Carl Schurz
"Abraham Lincoln," George Bancroft
"The Perfect Tribute," Mary Shipman Andrews

The selections should be read in their entirety, in most cases by the teacher to the class. If there is a pupil who is a very good reader, such a pupil may do it effectively. Each school library ought to have a good selection of Lincolnia from which the pupils could draw books for outside reading. Books such as these should be read by the class supplemental to the study of the Civil War period.

A good teacher is able to read well "O Captain, My Captain," and she reads it often to her pupils. Ultimately the children will get the spirit of the poem and some will be able to read it well or give it from memory. The various poems herein mentioned are worthy of similar treatment.

As the Gettysburg Speech is studied, so should the Civil War songs be studied. The "Battle Hymn of the Republic" should be sung with all the feeling which its meaning is capable of conveying. As much should be done with "Tenting on the Old Camp Ground." The allusion here is very impressive. The sentiment is the song, the tune is a mode of expression.

Each school in the state should have a picture of Lincoln. It should be hung by the pupils where it can be seen by the youngest as well as the oldest. A child does well in having a definite acquaintance with the rugged, kindly face of Lincoln. A look at this picture should give renewed emphasis to his standards of living and the great principles [76] which he established. Not long since a teacher said to me, "When I have a case of discipline where the pupil has difficulty in getting the right point of view I often say to the boy, especially if he be of the upper grades, 'Go out into the hall and look for a few minutes at the fatherly face of the great Lincoln and then come back to me and tell me what you think he would say in this case.'" Such procedure is extremely effective, particularly when the pupil is acquainted with Lincoln's sayings and the great principles for which he stood. Marshall's "Lincoln" is a fine portrait for schools.

The decoration of the classroom will present demands for drawing and handwork activities such as picture frames, draperies, red, white and blue chains, and flag decorations. Much can be done in the making of posters with water colors and crayons, in the artistic ornamentation of Lincoln picture mounts on drawing paper, and in the lettering and decoration of Lincoln acrostics. The use of Lincoln picture cutouts; the drawing or painting of flags, the state seal and shields, the American eagle; perspective drawings of the log cabin, the White House and the Capitol are suggested activities. Postage stamps containing Lincoln's picture may be used in connection with handwork and drawing activities. Booklets for acrostics, anecdotes, quotations, brief biography or history incidents, with appropriate cover design, initial letters and simple illustrations will afford attractive and profitable projects.

Many other ways and means of presenting the life of Lincoln will suggest themselves to the active, thinking teacher. The whole object is to help boys and girls to know Lincoln as he lived, to make his life function in making their lives better and more worth while through his great thoughts, high ideals and indefatigable spirit of work.

The following programs, selections, suggestions and bibliography are intended to make available some selected material which in many cases may not be accessible.


Organization of School for exercises

1. School orchestra
2. Two color bearers at each entrance to auditorium
3. One color bearer with honorary guard of two at each side of platform
4. Color bearer for flag salute—center of platform



Salute flag draped over Lincoln portrait
Song, "America"
Story of Lincoln's life told by pupil[D]
Reading "Gettysburg Address" by teacher
Solo "When The Boys Come Home"
Reading Civil War letter
Solo, "Star Spangled Banner," school joining in chorus
Talk by Civil War veteran
Chorus sung by school, "Keep the Home Fires Burning"
Formal dismissal in keeping with assembly

[D] It would be well to have several pupils take part in this, each presenting a period in Lincoln's life.


Place in front of the room the picture of Lincoln veiled with the American Flag

Unveil picture

Pupils stand in saluting posture ten seconds

Quote in concert, verse from Ida Vose Woodbury's "Lincoln's Birthday"

Song, "Battle Hymn of the Republic"

Brief story of life of Lincoln (compare autobiography). (Told by an older pupil—not longer than five minutes)

At least three incidents from Lincoln's life given by intermediate pupils

Damage to borrowed book

Returning of right change

Lincoln and the pig

Long walk to school

Wood chopping for log house

Lincoln and his sums

Illustrate on sand table Lincoln's log house and the clearing of forest land

Recitation, "Gettysburg Speech"

"O Captain, My Captain" read by teacher

Song, "My Country 'Tis of Thee"

Salute flag and give pledge: "I pledge allegiance to my flag, and to the republic for which it stands; one nation, indivisible, with liberty and justice for all"



Reading of acrostics, using letters of Lincoln's name

Make Lincoln booklets

Conversational lesson in which each child contributes what he knows or was able to find about Lincoln, the teacher adding interesting items

Lincoln's Gettysburg Speech recited by one child

Civil War newspaper articles read

Patriotic songs chosen by children sung

Pledge—"I pledge allegiance to my flag, and to the republic for which it stands; one nation, indivisible, with liberty and justice for all"


Picture of Lincoln in front of room

Salute and pledge

Song, "America"

Stories about Lincoln selected and read by children from books brought from home or library

Recitation, "A Prayer for our Soldiers and Sailors," by Oriola Johnson

Marching and military exercises with flags

Lincoln's early boyhood told by pupil. A few readings of sketches written by pupils. Request that each child take his composition home and read it to his parents



1. Morning Circle


Tone plays about flag, etc.

Hail to the flag (Gaynor)

2. Morning talk about Lincoln

Get from the children what they know about Lincoln. Add to this until they know something of his life, laying emphasis on his kindness, obedience, thoughtfulness, bravery. Hint as to how these much admired qualities may be used by little children

3. Table Work

Gift period

Make soldier hats from squares of newspaper. Build Lincoln log house


4. Games

(a) "Soldier Boy, where are you going?"

(b) Parade for Lincoln's Birthday

Choice by children of best kindergarten soldiers to carry the flags in parade; use drum

5. Table Work

Occupation period

Make crayoneine frame around picture of Lincoln

Take picture home

6. Sing "America," at least one verse


Four score and seven years ago our fathers brought forth on this continent a new nation, conceived in liberty, and dedicated to the proposition that all men are created equal. Now we are engaged in a great civil war, testing whether that nation, or any nation so conceived and so dedicated, can long endure. We are met on a great battle-field of that war. We have come to dedicate a portion of it as the final resting-place of those who here gave their lives that that nation might live. It is altogether fitting and proper that we should do this.

But, in a larger sense, we cannot dedicate—we cannot consecrate—we cannot hallow—this ground. The brave men, living and dead, who struggled here, have consecrated it far above our poor power to add or detract. The world will little note nor long remember what we say here, but it can never forget what they did here. It is for us, the living, rather, to be dedicated here to the unfinished work which they who fought here have thus far so nobly advanced. It is rather for us to be here dedicated to the great task remaining before us—that from these honored dead we take increased devotion to that cause for which they gave the last full measure of devotion; that we here highly resolve that these dead shall not have died in vain; that this nation, under God, shall have a new birth of freedom; and that the government of the people, by the people, for the people, shall not perish from the earth.

Abraham Lincoln


[Lincoln's ideas respecting the injustice of the principles of slavery and the honesty of purpose in waging the Civil War are set forth in the Second Inaugural Speech. This passage is probably the most beautiful, the most chaste, the most profound, the grandest, ever uttered by an American.]


Fellow-countrymen: At this second appearing to take the oath of the presidential office, there is less occasion for an extended address than there was at the first. Then a statement somewhat in detail, of a course to be pursued, seemed fitting and proper. Now, at the expiration of four years, during which public declarations have been constantly called forth on every point and phase of the great contest which still absorbs the attention and engrosses the energies of the nation, little that is new could be presented.

The progress of our arms, upon which all else chiefly depends, is as well known to the public as to myself; and it is, I trust, reasonably satisfactory and encouraging to all. With high hope for the future, no prediction in regard to it is ventured.

On the occasion corresponding to this, four years ago, all thoughts were anxiously directed to an impending civil war. All dreaded it; all sought to avert it. While the inaugural address was being delivered from this place, devoted altogether to saving the Union without war, insurgent agents were in the city seeking to destroy it without war—seeking to dissolve the Union, and divide effects, by negotiation.

Both parties deprecated war; but one of them would make war rather than let the nation survive, and the other would accept war rather than let it perish. And the war came.

The prayer of both could not be answered—those of neither have been answered fully. The Almighty has His own purposes. "Woe unto the world because of offenses! for it must needs be that offenses come; but woe to that man by whom the offense cometh."

If we shall suppose that American slavery is one of those offenses which, in the providence of God, must needs come, but which, having continued through His appointed time, He now wills to remove, and that He gives to North and South this terrible war as the woe due to those by whom the offense came, shall we discern therein any departure from those divine attributes which the believers in a living God always ascribe to Him?

Fondly do we hope, fervently do we pray, that this mighty scourge of war may soon pass away.

Yet, if God wills that it continue until all the wealth piled by the bondsman's two hundred and fifty years of unrequited toil shall be sunk, and until every drop of blood drawn by the lash shall be paid by another drawn with the sword, as was said three thousand years ago, so still it must be said, "The judgments of the Lord are true and righteous altogether."

With malice toward none, with charity for all, with firmness in the right, as God gives us to see the right, let us strive on to finish the work we are in; to bind up the nation's wounds; to care for him who shall have borne the battle, and for his widow and for his orphan; to do all which may achieve and cherish a just and lasting peace among ourselves, and with all nations.

Abraham Lincoln



The following autobiography was written by Mr. Lincoln's own hand at the request J. W. Fell, of Springfield, Illinois, December 20, 1859. In the note which accompanied it the writer says: "Herewith is a little sketch, as you requested. There is not much of it, for the reason, I suppose, that there is not much of me."

I was born February 12, 1809, in Hardin County, Kentucky. My parents were both born in Virginia, of undistinguished families—second families, perhaps I should say. My mother, who died in my tenth year, was of a family of the name of Hanks, some of whom now reside in Adams County, and others in Mason County, Illinois. My paternal grand-father, Abraham Lincoln, emigrated from Rockingham County, Virginia, to Kentucky, about 1781 or 1782, where, a year or two later, he was killed by Indians, not in battle, but by stealth, when he was laboring to open a farm in the forest. His ancestors, who were Quakers, went to Virginia from Berks County, Pennsylvania. An effort to identify them with the New England family of the same name ended in nothing more definite than a similarity of Christian names in both families, such as Enoch, Levi, Mordecai, Solomon, Abraham, and the like.

My father, at the death of his father, was but six years of age, and grew up literally without any education. He removed from Kentucky to what is now Spencer County, Indiana, in my eighth year. We reached our new home about the time the state came into the Union. It was a wild region, with many bears and other wild animals still in the woods. There I grew up. There were some schools, so called, but no qualification was ever required of a teacher beyond readin', writin' and cipherin' to the rule of three. If a straggler, supposed to understand Latin, happened to sojourn in the neighborhood, he was looked upon as a wizard. There was absolutely nothing to excite ambition for education. Of course, when I came of age I did not know much. Still, somehow, I could read, write, and cipher to the rule of three, but that was all. I have not been to school since. The little advance I now have upon this store of education I have picked up from time to time under the pressure of necessity.

I was raised to farm work, at which I continued till I was twenty-two. At twenty-one I came to Illinois, and passed the first year in Macon County. Then I got to New Salem, at that time in Sangamon, now Menard County, where I remained a year as a sort of clerk in a store. Then came the Black Hawk War, and I was elected a captain of volunteers—a success which gave me more pleasure than any I have had since. I went into the campaign, was elected, ran for the Legislature the same year (1832), and was beaten—the only time I have ever been beaten by the people. The next and three succeeding biennial elections I was elected to the Legislature. I was not a candidate afterward. During the legislative period I had studied law, and removed to Springfield, to practice it. In 1846 I was elected to the Lower House of Congress. Was not a candidate for reelection. From 1849 to 1854, both inclusive, practiced law more assiduously than ever before. Always a Whig in politics, and generally on the Whig electoral ticket, making active canvasses. I was losing interest in politics when the repeal of the Missouri Compromise aroused me again. What I have done since then is pretty well known.

If any personal description of me is thought desirable, it may be said I am in height six feet four inches, nearly; lean in flesh, weighing, on an average, one hundred and eighty pounds; dark complexion, with coarse black hair and gray eyes—no other marks or brands recollected.



Executive Mansion, Washington, November 21, 1864

Dear Madam:

I have been shown in the files of the War Department a statement of the Adjutant-General of Massachusetts, that you are the mother of five sons who have died gloriously on the field of battle. I feel how weak and fruitless must be any words of mine which should attempt to beguile you from the grief of a loss so overwhelming. But I cannot refrain from tendering to you the consolation that may be found in the thanks of the Republic they have died to save. I pray that our Heavenly Father may assuage the anguish of your bereavement, and leave you only the cherished memory of the loved and lost, and the solemn pride that must be yours to have laid so costly a sacrifice upon the altar of freedom.

Yours, very sincerely and respectfully

Abraham Lincoln

To Mrs. Bixby
    Boston, Massachusetts


Let us have faith that right makes might; and in that faith let us, to the end, dare to do our duty as we understand it.

I intend no modification of my oft-expressed wish that all men everywhere should be free.

A house divided against itself cannot stand. I believe this government cannot endure permanently half slave and half free.

I take the official oath today with no mental reservation and with no purpose to construe the constitution by any hypercritical rules.

You can have no oath registered in heaven to destroy the government; while I shall have the most solemn one to "preserve, protect and defend" it.

The mystic chords of memory stretching from every battle-field and patriot grave to every living heart and hearthstone all over this broad land, will yet swell the chorus of Union, when again touched, as surely they will be, by the better angels of our nature.


In giving freedom to the slaves we assure freedom to the free—honorable alike in what we give and what we preserve.

Do not swap horses in the middle of the stream.

You can fool part of the people all of the time, and all of the people part of the time; but you cannot fool all of the people all of the time.

I do not think much of a man who is not wiser today than he was yesterday.

The leading rule for the man of every calling is diligence; never put off until tomorrow what you can do today.

I never let an idea escape, but write it on a piece of paper and put it in a drawer. In this way I sometimes save my best thoughts on a subject.

Wealth is a superfluity of what we do not need.

Come what will, I will keep faith with friend and foe.

Faith in God is indispensable to successful statesmanship.

God bless my mother; all I am or hope to be I owe to her.

I will study and get ready and maybe my chance will come.

Be sure you put your feet in the right place and then stand firm.

And having thus chosen our course, without guile and with pure purpose, let us renew our trust in God, and go forward without fear and with manly hearts.

Nothing valuable can be lost by taking time.

It is all in that one word—thorough.

Let us strive on to finish the work we are in.

When you can't remove an obstacle plow around it.

The way for a young man to rise is to improve every way he can, never suspecting that anybody wishes to hinder him.

To add brightness to the sun or glory to the name of Washington is alike impossible. Let none attempt it. In solemn awe pronounce the name and in its naked deathless splendor leave it shining on.


O Captain! my Captain! our fearful trip is done;
The ship has weather'd every rack, the prize we sought is won;
The port is near, the bells I hear, the people all exulting,
While follow eyes the steady keel, the vessel grim and daring.
But O heart! heart! heart!
O the bleeding drops of red,
Where on the deck my Captain lies,
Fallen cold and dead.
O Captain! my Captain! rise up and hear the bells;
Rise up—for you the flag is flung—for you the bugle trills;
For you bouquets and ribbon'd wreaths—for you the shores a-crowding;
For you they call, the swaying mass, their eager faces turning.
Here, Captain! dear father!
This arm beneath your head!
It is some dream that on the deck,
You've fallen cold and dead.
My Captain does not answer; his lips are pale and still;
My father does not feel my arm; he has no pulse nor will.
The ship is anchor'd safe and sound, its voyage closed and done;
From fearful trip the victor ship comes in with object won.
Exult, O shores, and ring, O bells!
But I with mournful tread,
Walk the deck my Captain lies,
Fallen cold and dead.

Walt Whitman


The crowd was gone, and to the side
Of Borglum's Lincoln, deep in awe,
I crept. It seemed a mighty tide
Within those aching eyes I saw.
"Great heart," I said, "why grieve alway?
The battle's ended, and the shout
Shall ring forever and a day—
Why sorrow yet, or darkly doubt?"
"Freedom," I plead, "so nobly won
For all mankind, and equal right,
Shall with the ages travel on
Till time shall cease, and day be night."
No answer—then; but up the slope
With broken gait, and hands in clench,
A toiler came, bereft of hope,
And sank beside him on the bench.

Joseph Fulford Folsom


(Written by a fifth grade child)

L     is for Lincoln, brave and true
I     is for the Iron nerve which helped him through
N     is for Nation whose tongue sings his praise
C     is for Colors on his birthday we raise
O     is for Oration or speech he gave
L     is for Liberty given the slave
N     is his Name which ever we'll save


Statue of Lincoln by Gutzon Borglum
In front of Court House, Newark



In his eagerness to acquire knowledge, young Lincoln had borrowed of Mr. Crawford, a neighboring farmer, a copy of Weems' Life of Washington—the only one known to be in existence in that section of the country. Before he had finished reading the book, it had been left, by a not unnatural oversight, in a window. Meantime, a rain storm came on, and the book was so thoroughly wet as to make it nearly worthless. This mishap caused him much pain; but he went, in all honesty, to Mr. Crawford with the ruined book, explained the calamity that had happened through his neglect, and offered, not having sufficient money, to "work out" the value of the book.

"Well, Abe," said Mr. Crawford, after due deliberation, "as it's you, I won't be hard on you. Just come over and pull fodder for me for two days, and we will call our accounts even."

The offer was readily accepted, and the engagement literally fulfilled. As a boy, no less than since, Abraham Lincoln had an honorable conscientiousness, integrity, industry, and an ardent love of knowledge.


Lincoln could not rest for an instant under the consciousness that he had, even unwittingly, defrauded anybody. On one occasion, while clerking in Offutt's store, at New Salem, Illinois, he sold a woman a little bill of goods, amounting in value by the reckoning, to two dollars six and a quarter cents. He received the money, and the woman went away. On adding the items of the bill again, to make sure of its correctness, he found that, he had taken six and a quarter cents too much. It was night and closing and locking the store, he started out on foot, a distance of two or three miles, for the house of his defrauded customer, and, delivering over to her the sum whose possession had so much troubled him, went home satisfied.

On another occasion, just as he was closing the store for the night, a woman entered, and asked for a half pound of tea. The tea was weighed out and paid for, and the store was left for the night. The next morning, Lincoln entered to begin the duties of the day, when he discovered a four-ounce weight on the scales. He saw at once that he had made a mistake, and, shutting the store, he took a long walk before breakfast to deliver the remainder of the tea. These are very humble incidents, but they illustrate the man's perfect conscientiousness—his sensitive honesty—better perhaps than they would if they were of greater moment.



An instance of young Lincoln's practical humanity at an early period of his life is recorded, as follows:

One evening, while returning from a "raising" in his wide neighborhood, with a number of companions, he discovered a straying horse, with saddle and bridle upon him. The horse was recognized as belonging to a man who was accustomed to excess in drink, and it was suspected at once that the owner was not far off. A short search only was necessary to confirm the suspicions of the young men.

The poor drunkard was found in a perfectly helpless condition, upon the chilly ground. Abraham's companions urged the cowardly policy of leaving him to his fate, but young Lincoln would not hear to the proposition. At his request, the miserable sot was lifted to his shoulders, and he actually carried him eighty rods to the nearest house. Sending word to his father that he should not be back that night, with the reason for his absence, he attended and nursed the man until the morning, and had the pleasure of believing that he had saved his life.


Two persons who had been arguing with each other how long a man's legs should be in proportion to his body, stepped into Lincoln's office and asked him to settle the dispute.

To them he replied: "After much thought and consideration, not to mention mental worry and anxiety, it is my opinion, all side issues being swept aside, that a man's lower limbs, in order to preserve harmony of proportion, should be at least long enough to reach from his body to the ground."


When Abraham Lincoln was a lawyer in Illinois, he and a certain judge once got to bantering each other about trading horses, and it was agreed that the next morning at nine o'clock they should make a trade, the horses to be unseen up to that hour, and no backing out, under a forfeiture of $25.

At the hour appointed the Judge came up, leading the sorriest-looking specimen of a horse ever seen in those parts. In a few minutes Mr. Lincoln was seen approaching with a wooden sawhorse upon his shoulders. Great were the shouts and the laughter of the crowd, and both were greatly increased when Mr. Lincoln, on surveying the Judge's animal, set down his sawhorse, and exclaimed: "Well, Judge, this is the first time I ever got the worst of it in a horse trade."

The following paragraphs are quoted from a small pamphlet of Mr. Judd Stewart of Plainfield, New Jersey, entitled "Suggestions for a Text Book for Students of English." Mr. Stewart is a profound student of Lincoln, and without doubt has the largest private collection of Lincolnia in the United States.


It was recently suggested to me by a lieutenant in the navy, a graduate of Annapolis, that in teaching English the writings and speeches of Lincoln would be a very proper text-book. This appeals to me most forcefully because all school children know who Lincoln was, know something of his Gettysburg Address, know him as the Emancipator of the Slaves and probably a majority of them admire him. Therefore, it seems to me that a text-book based upon, or rather made up from Lincoln's speeches and letters would be of great interest to the majority of children, and by having such a text-book they would learn history and good expressive English at the same time and in a most interesting way.

The suggested text-book would consist of: The House Divided Against Itself Speech, in 1858; The First Debate with Douglas Speech in 1858; The Cooper Institute Speech, 1860; The First Inaugural, 1861; The First Message to Congress, 1861; The Emancipation Proclamation, 1863; The Gettysburg Address, 1863; The Letter to Mrs. Bixby, 1864; The Second Inaugural, 1865.

Lincoln spent 49 years of his life in preparation, six years in the accomplishment of his work. The study of his life is commended and commends itself to all thinking people.

Why should we not teach his thoughts, his modes of speech, his simplicity of expression to those who with their children and descendants for ages will remember Abraham Lincoln, the Emancipator, the Martyr, the Greatest American?

Attention should be given to the great statue of Lincoln before the Court House in Newark, New Jersey. It presents our most admired statesman seated on a bench absorbed in thought. The statue is a wonderful work of art. From every angle it is unique, beautiful, and a masterpiece. At all times of day passersby may see the children of the city sitting in his arm, lovingly admiring the fatherly face. On his knees and on the bench they gather, children of all races, rejoicing in the freedom which he gave to mankind.

The statue was conceived and made by the Sculptor Gutzon Borglum, for Amos H. VanHorn, the donor. It was presented to the Lincoln Post on May 30, 1911, by Chancellor Mahlon Pitney. Colonel Theodore Roosevelt received it in behalf of the Post, and Mayor Husaling made the speech of acceptance.

Pass on, thou that hast overcome. Your sorrows, O people, are his peace. Your bells and bands and muffled drums sound triumph in his ear. Wail and weep here; God made it echo joy and triumph there. Pass on.

Four years ago, O Illinois, we took from your midst an untried man, and from amongst the people. We return him to you a mighty conqueror. Not thine any more, but the Nation's; not ours, but the world's. Give him place, O ye prairies. In the midst of this great continent his dust shall rest, a sacred treasure to myriads who shall pilgrim to that shrine to kindle anew their zeal and patriotism. Ye winds that move over the mighty places of the West, chant his requiem. Ye people, behold a martyr whose blood as so many articulate words, pleads for fidelity, for law, for liberty.

Henry Ward Beecher


See Bibliography at end of monograph.



February 22


It was almost unconsciously that men learned to cling to Washington with a trust and faith such as few other men have won, and to regard him with a reverence which still hushes us in presence of his memory.





February is the greatest month for the teaching of patriotism. The national heroes, Washington and Lincoln, whose birthdays we celebrate, give distinction to two of its days. The time falls happily in midyear, when pupils and teachers alike need inspiration for a new period of sustained effort requiring determination and vigor.

It has been shown very clearly that through its schools a nation can be trained in ideals which will govern national life and conduct. Neither Washington nor Lincoln, however, owed his heroic quality to schools; but they did owe it to the very same ideals for which our schools stand. Indeed, their greatest service to mankind is the fact that they incarnated those ideals.

It is not so easy to venerate abstract principles and to submit one's life to them as it is to imitate great personalities whose deeds have embodied those principles.

Because we love our national heroes and venerate them personally, they still live and work through us. The principles of democracy are established eternally in their deeds and in ours.

The child who writes an appreciation of Washington, or recites from his addresses, or renders a poem commemorating him, or dramatizes something from his life, enters into his spirit, and in the child Washington lives again.

The Declaration of Independence asserts the lofty principle of equality in liberty. All men are created free, and equal in the right to life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness. It is a declaration of rights, not of duties. Each person has a right to his life, his liberty, the pursuit of his happiness. The deeds of Washington embodied not only these principles, but emphasized the duty of service. In our time our country has fully justified a new statement of political faith, which Washington lived. All men are born equal in the right to opportunity—each to make the best of himself—so that he may render the best service.

Think not of the reward! On the whole, service is requited according to its worth. Too many want to do what they can't do, and won't do what they can do! It may be pride, or it may be looking for [92] an undeserved reward. The school should train for service, and teach self-respect in doing the best that one can in the thing for which he is best fitted. Washington sought no reward; but he commands the undying veneration, not only of his countrymen, but of all mankind. Speaking of the retirement of Washington, at a time when party spirit against the policy of the great founder and preserver of the Republic was calculated to arouse bitterness in a less noble man, Knight, in his "History of England," says: "Had his nature been different, had his ambition been less under the control of his virtue, he might have taken up his sword and, sweeping away his enemy, have raised himself to supreme power upon the ruins of his country's liberty. He retired to his estate at Mount Vernon to pass the rest of his days as a private citizen.... Washington's scheme of glory was realized. He had been a ruler of free men, ruling by the power of law. He laid down his authority when he had done the work to which he was called, most happy in this, that ambitions of a selfish order could never be justified by his example."

Washington's point of view as a ruler of men was unique at that period in the world's history.

We need to teach from the life of Washington that same respect for English ideals of government which he maintained and defended, even by revolting against the English king. Too many of our people have grown up in hatred of England, through the story of the Revolution and the War of 1812, and the unfortunate attitude of aristocratic England in our Civil War.

How does England, the heart and brain of England, regard us? If we know that she sympathizes with our ideals and her heart has been with us all the time, shall we not feel safe with her, and find in Englishmen brothers with whom we may work for the good of the world?

English historians have an appreciation of Washington which we cannot surpass. Writing English history for the instruction of English boys and girls, and men and women, they justify our Revolution and laud our national hero as a world hero. No American orator has ever magnified Washington in more laudatory terms than are to be found in Green's "History of England." Green says: "Washington more than any of his fellow colonists represented the clinging of the Virginia land owner to the Mother Country, and his acceptance of the command proved that even the most moderate of them had no hope now save in arms."


Stuart's Washington
Copyright by Underwood & Underwood, N. Y.


For the future we shall need a better understanding of our English brothers. This cannot better be attained than by knowing well that our ideals are held in the same regard by them as by ourselves.

There was one man who was the chief instrument in the hands of Providence for conducting the war, by his energy, prudence, and constancy, to that triumphant assertion of Independence which has built up the great North American republic. To Washington the historian naturally turns, as to the grandest object of contemplation, when he laid aside his victorious sword—that sword which, with those he had worn in his earlier career, he bequeathed to his nephews with words characteristic of his nobleness: "These swords are accompanied with an injunction not to unsheathe them for the purpose of shedding blood, except it be for self-defence, or in defence of their Country and its rights, and in the latter case to keep them unsheathed, and prefer falling with them in their hands to the relinquishment thereof."

The United Colonies in America had such a man as Washington to control the destinies of our country in the making. The new nation had such a man for a leader during the early years of trial and promise. The nation today has the records, accomplishments and deeds of the national hero, Washington, to ever honor, venerate and imitate. The school children of the great state of New Jersey should be happy to learn from the life of this great man lessons of service, respect for law and order, truthfulness and patriotism.


According to Captain Mercer, the following describes Washington when he took his seat in the House of Burgesses in 1759:

"He is as straight as an Indian, measuring six feet two inches in his stockings, and weighing one hundred and seventy-five pounds. His head is well shaped, though not large, and is gracefully poised on a superb neck, with a large, and straight rather than prominent nose; blue-gray penetrating eyes, which are widely separated and overhung by heavy brows. A pleasing, benevolent, though commanding countenance, dark-brown hair, features regular and placid, with all the muscles under control, with a large mouth, generally firmly closed."

Houdon's bust accords with this description.

To the man of all men for whom his manly heart felt most tenderness, to Lafayette, it is that he wrote the beautiful letter of February 1, 1784, unaware that his rest was only temporary, and that he was to become the first President of the country he had given life to:


"At length, my dear marquis, I am become a private citizen on the banks of the Potomac, and under the shadow of my own vine and my own fig-tree, free from the bustle of a camp and the busy scenes of public life, I am solacing myself with those tranquil enjoyments of which the soldier who is ever in pursuit of fame, the statesman whose watchful days and sleepless nights are spent in devising schemes to promote the welfare of his own, perhaps the ruin of other countries, as if the globe was insufficient for us all ... can have very little conception. I have not only retired from all public employments, but I am retiring within myself, and shall be able to view the solitary walk of private life with heart-felt satisfaction. Envious of none, I am determined to be pleased with all; and this, my dear friend, being the order for my march, I will move gently down the stream of life until I sleep with my fathers."

J. J. Jusserand

Among these men whose union in purpose and action made the strength and stability of the republic, Washington was first, not only in the largeness of his nature, the loftiness of his desires, and the vigor of his will, but also in that representative quality which makes a man able to stand as the true hero of a great people. He had an instinctive power to divine, amid the confusions of rival interests and the cries of factional strife, the new aims and hopes, the vital needs and aspirations, which were the common inspiration of the people's cause and the creative forces of the American nation. The power to understand this, the faith to believe in it, and the unselfish courage to live for it, was the central factor of Washington's life, the heart and fountain of his splendid Americanism.

Henry van Dyke

"How did George Washington look?" asked Nell;
"What was he like? Won't you please to tell?"
Thus I answered: "A courtly man,
Wearing his honors as heroes can.
Erect and tall, with his six feet two;
Knee-breeches, buckles, frills and queue;
Powdered brown hair; blue eyes, far apart;
Strong-limbed and fearless, with gentle heart;
Gracious in manner toward every one—
Such, my Nellie, was Washington."

Washington one day came across a small band of soldiers working very hard at raising some military works, under command of a pompous little officer, who was issuing his orders in a peremptory style indeed.

Washington, seeing the very arduous task of the men, dismounted from his horse, lent a helping hand, perspiring freely, till the weight at which they were working was raised.

Then, turning to the officer, he inquired why he, too, had not helped, and received the indignant reply: "Don't you know I'm the corporal?"

"Ah, well," said Washington, "next time your men are raising so heavy a weight, send for your commander-in-chief." And he strode off, leaving the corporal dumbfounded.


An American sailor landing in England shortly after the close of the War of the Revolution took a first-class seat in a stage coach, but was told to get out, as such seats were reserved for gentlemen. "I am a gentleman," said the sailor. "Who made gentlemen out of fellows like you?" asked the coach guard. "George Washington," said the sailor; and he kept his seat.

No nobler figure ever stood in the forefront of a nation's life. Washington was grave and courteous in address; his manners were simple and unpretending, his silence and the serene calmness of his temper spoke of a perfect self-mastery; but there was little in his outer bearing to reveal the grandeur of soul which lifts his figure, with all the simple majesty of an ancient statue, out of the smaller passions, the meaner impulses of the world around him. What recommended him for command was simply his weight among his fellow landowners of Virginia, and the experience of war which he had gained by service in border contests with the French and the Indians, as well as in Braddock's luckless expedition against Fort Duquesne. It was only as the weary fight went on that the colonists learned little by little the greatness of their leader, his clear judgment, his heroic endurance, his silence under difficulties, his calmness in the hour of danger or defeat, the patience with which he waited, the quickness and hardness with which he struck, the lofty and serene sense of duty that never swerved from its task through resentment or jealousy, that never through war or peace felt the touch of a meaner ambition, that knew no aim save that of guarding the freedom of his fellow countrymen, and no personal longing save that of returning to his own fireside when their freedom was secured. It was almost unconsciously that men learned to cling to Washington with a trust and faith such as few other men have won, and to regard him with a reverence which still hushes us in presence of his memory. Even America hardly recognized his real greatness till death set its seal on "the man first in war, first in peace, and first in the hearts of his fellow countrymen."

J. R. Green

Washington is the mightiest name on earth, long since mightiest in the cause of civil liberty, still mightiest in moral reformation. On that name a eulogy is expected. It cannot be. To add brightness to the sun or glory to the name of Washington is alike impossible. Let none attempt it. In solemn awe pronounce the name, and in its naked, deathless splendor leave it shining on.

Abraham Lincoln



[E] Reprinted by permission from "The Book of Holidays," by J. W. McSpadden. Copyright 1917 by Thomas Y. Crowell Company.

The story of George Washington's life has been often told, but it is worth repeating. It was an active, busy life from his earliest days, beginning as it did away back in Colonial times when the country was wild and unsettled. Washington was born in Westmoreland County, Virginia, in 1732. There is no reliable record of his early education, but it has been supposed that the first school he ever attended was a little old field school kept by one of his father's tenants, named Hobby, who was both sexton and schoolmaster. Even at this early age George was fond of playing at war. He used to divide his playmates into parties and armies. One of them was called the French and the other American. A big boy named William Bustle commanded the French, and George commanded the Americans. Every day, with cornstalks for muskets and gourds for drums, the two armies would turn out and march and fight.

George was not remarkable as a scholar, but he had a liking for mathematics. He was of a more serious turn of mind than most boys of his age. His last two years at school were devoted to engineering, geometry, trigonometry, and surveying, and at sixteen years of age he was appointed a public surveyor. His new employment brought him a handsome salary, and well it might; for it took him into the perils and hardships of the wilderness, often meeting savage chieftains, or fording swollen streams, climbing rugged mountains, breasting furious storms, wading through snowdrifts, sleeping in the open air, and living upon the coarse food of hunters and of Indians. But everywhere he gained the admiration of the backwoodsmen and the Indians by his manly bearing and his wonderful endurance.

In the year 1751 the frontiers of the colony of Virginia were constantly being attacked by the French and the Indians, so it was decided to divide the colony into military districts under a major; and when he was but nineteen, George Washington received one of these appointments. Two years later he was sent to the French, who were becoming threatening, to find out their intentions and to warn them against invading Virginian territory. This important mission made it necessary for him to journey six hundred miles through the wilderness; but he carried out his instructions successfully, and traveled the whole distance without an escort....

In 1755 George Washington served under the British officer, General Braddock, showing great bravery under fire at the battle of Monongahela, against the French and Indians, which would probably not have been lost if the general had taken Washington's advice.

In 1759 Washington married a widow named Martha Custis, with two children, John and Martha Parke Custis. He was a great favorite with the two youngsters, and used to order toys, dolls, and gingerbreads for [98] them from London. Mrs. Custis had a large estate and so had Washington, and the management cf them took up all of his time.

When the disputes between England and the American colonies were at their height, in 1774, he became a member of the First Continental Congress, and the following year was chosen by that body Commander-in-Chief of the Continental army. For this position his training and his surveying experiences had thoroughly fitted him. He took command of the troops at Cambridge, Massachusetts, on July 3, 1775; but it was a poor army that he found under him. It was in want of arms, ammunition, and general equipment. Washington, however, kept it together with patience and skill during the trying years of the Revolution. The war lasted six years and ended with the surrender of the British commander, Cornwallis, at Yorktown, Virginia, in 1781. During all this time Washington had had to contend with the greatest difficulties. The troops were poorly paid or equipped; often there were disputes among the officers, and Congress did not know the army's needs; but the General always kept the confidence of his men until victory was assured....

In 1783 Washington bade farewell to his army, and for the next six years lived the simple life of a country gentleman on his estate at Mount Vernon, attending to the affairs of his homestead and property.

In 1789 he was again called from private life, to become first president of the United States. Congress was sitting at New York, for which city he started, in April. He disliked fuss and ceremony, but the people could not be restrained from showing their love and admiration. His progress through New Jersey was amid constant cheering, ringing of bells, and the booming of cannon. At Elizabethtown he embarked on a splendid barge, followed by other barges and boats, making a long water procession up the Bay of New York, the ships in the harbor being decorated with colors, and firing salutes as it passed. The inauguration took place on April 30, 1789, at the old City Hall, in Wall Street, Broad Street being crowded with thousands of people as far as the eye could reach. In 1793, he was re-elected for a second term of four years, after which he bade farewell to the people and retired into private life. On the 12th of December, 1799, he caught a severe cold in making the round of his plantations and died two days later, in his sixty-eighth year. In number of years he had not lived a long life, but how much was crowded into it!

Most of the portraits of Washington show him as a serious-looking gentleman in a wig, and the earliest biographies of him would lead us to believe that he was always on his dignity. But our first president was, in fact, a very genial man, with a hearty laugh, who enjoyed going to the theater, was fond of fox-hunting and was a thorough sportsman, and, as he himself admitted, had a hot temper. Towards young people and children he was always very gracious and kind....

Like Lincoln, Washington was very athletic. Both of our two great presidents were tall men: Washington was six feet two inches; Lincoln was six feet four. When he first visited the Natural Bridge, in Virginia, Washington threw a stone to the top, a distance of about two [99] hundred feet, and, climbing the rocks, carved his name far above all others....

In all the positions which he was called upon to fill, in his remarkable life, whether as host at his home, as surveyor, as general, or as president, Washington showed the same desire to give the best that was in him for his people, his country, and for humanity at large. He endeared himself to the lowly and he gained the admiration of the great. He was never influenced by mean motives, and those who were under him loved him. Thus it was that among Americans he came to be regarded as "First in war, first in peace, first in the hearts of his countrymen;" and when his death became known on the other side of the Atlantic Ocean, the armies of Napoleon in France, and the fleet of Great Britain, his former enemy, did homage to his memory.

Washington's birthday was celebrated even during his lifetime, and he had the satisfaction of receiving the congratulations of his fellow-citizens many times upon the return of this day, frequently being a guest at banquets given in honor of the occasion. In fact, after the Revolution, Washington's birthday practically took the place of the birthday of the various crowned heads of Great Britain, which had always been celebrated with enthusiasm during colonial times. When independence was established, all these royal birthdays were cast aside, and the birthday of Washington naturally became one of the most widely celebrated of American holidays....

Let us not forget what we owe to Washington, or make him merely a name—an excuse for a holiday. Let us remember him as a real, flesh and blood man—one of the greatest known to history.

He gave us a nation to make it immortal;
He laid down for Freedom the sword that he drew;
And his faith leads us on through the uplifting portal
Of the glories of peace and our destinies new.

J. Walker McSpadden


(Copied by Washington at the age of fourteen from an old translation of a French book of 1595.)

Show not yourself glad at the misfortune of another, though he were your enemy.

When you see a crime punished you may be inwardly pleased; but always show pity to the suffering offender.

Superfluous compliments and all affectation of ceremony are to be avoided; yet, where due, they are not to be neglected.

When a man does all he can, though it succeed not well, blame not him that did it.

Be not hasty to believe flying reports to the disparagement of any.


In your apparel be modest, and endeavor to accommodate Nature, rather than to procure admiration; keep to the fashion of your equals.

Associate yourself with men of good quality, if you esteem your own reputation; for 'tis better to be alone than in bad company.

Speak not injurious words neither in jest nor in earnest; scoff at none, although they give occasion.

Gaze not at the marks or blemishes of others, and ask not how they came. What you may speak in secret to your friend, deliver not before others.

Nothing but harmony, honest industry, and frugality are necessary to make us a great people. First impressions are generally the most lasting. It is therefore absolutely necessary, if you mean to make any figure upon the stage, that you should take the first steps right.

There is a destiny which has the control of our actions not to be resisted by the strongest efforts of Human Nature.

Let your heart feel for the afflictions and distresses of everyone, and let your hand give in proportion to your purse; remembering always the widow's mite, but that it is not everyone who asketh that deserveth charity; all, however, are worthy the inquiry, or the deserving may suffer.

I consider storms and victory under the direction of a wise Providence, who no doubt directs them for the best purposes, and to bring round the greatest degree of happiness to the greatest number.

Happiness depends more upon the internal frame of a person's mind, than on the externals in the world.

To constitute a dispute there must be two parties. To understand it well, both parties and all the circumstances must be fully heard; and to accommodate differences, temper and mutual forbearance are requisite.

Idleness is disreputable under any circumstances; productive of no good, even when unaccompanied by vicious habits.

It is not uncommon in prosperous gales to forget that adverse winds blow.

Economy in all things is as commendable in the manager, as it is beneficial and desirable to the employer.

It is unfortunate when men cannot or will not see danger at a distance; or seeing it, are undetermined in the means which are necessary to avert or keep it afar off.

Every man who is in the vigor of life ought to serve his country in whatever line it requires, and he is fit for.

Rise early, that by habit it may become familiar, agreeable, healthy, and profitable. It may, for a while, be irksome to do this, but that will wear off; and the practice will produce a rich harvest forever thereafter, whether in public or in private walks of life.



To be prepared for war is one of the most effectual means of preserving peace.

There is a rank due to the United States among nations which will be withheld, if not absolutely lost, by the reputation of weakness.

The propitious smiles of Heaven can never be expected on a nation that disregards the eternal rules of order and right which Heaven itself has ordained.

The very idea of the power and right of the people to establish government presupposes the duty of every individual to obey the established government.

If there was the same propensity in mankind for investigating the motives, as there is for censuring the conduct, of public characters, it would be found that the censure so freely bestowed is oftentimes unmerited and uncharitable.

Where is the man to be found who wishes to remain indebted for the defense of his own person and property to the exertions, the bravery, and the blood of others, without making one generous effort to repay the debt of honor and gratitude?

There is no truth more thoroughly established than that there exists in the economy and course of nature an indissoluble union between virtue and happiness, between duty and advantage, between the genuine maxims of an honest and magnanimous policy and the solid rewards of public prosperity and felicity.

Against the insidious wiles of foreign influence the jealousy of a free people ought to be constantly awake.

The name American must always exalt the just pride of Patriotism.

To the efficacy and permanency of your union a government for the whole is indispensable.

Every attempt to alienate any portion of our country from the rest should be indignantly frowned upon.

Let us impart all the blessings we possess, or ask for ourselves, to the whole family of mankind.

Let us erect a standard to which the wise and honest may repair.

'Tis substantially true that virtue or morality is a necessary spring of popular government.

It is incumbent upon every person of every description to contribute to his country's welfare.

It would be repugnant to the vital principles of our government virtually to exclude from public trusts, talents and virtue, unless accompanied by wealth.

Give such encouragements to our own navigation as will render our commerce less dependent on foreign bottoms.

I have never made an appointment from a desire to serve a friend or relative.

Labor to keep alive in your breast that little spark of celestial fire, conscience.



(Dated at Rocky Hill, near Princeton, New Jersey, November 2, 1783)

It is universally acknowledged that the enlarged prospects of happiness, opened by the confirmation of our independence and sovereignty, almost exceed the power of description. And shall not the brave men who have contributed so essentially to these inestimable acquisitions, retiring victorious from the field of war to the field of agriculture, participate in all the blessings which have been obtained? In such a republic, who will exclude them from the rights of citizens and the fruits of their labor?

To those hardy soldiers who are actuated by the spirit of adventure, the fisheries will afford ample and profitable employment; and the extensive and fertile regions of the West will yield a most happy asylum to those who, fond of domestic enjoyment, are seeking personal independence.

Little is now wanting to enable the soldier to change the military character into that of a citizen but that steady and decent behavior which has distinguished not only the army under this immediate command, but the different detachments and separate armies through the course of the war. To the various branches of the army the General takes this last and solemn opportunity of professing his inviolable attachment and friendship. He can only again offer in their behalf his recommendations to their grateful country and his prayers to the God of armies. May ample justice be done them here, and may favors, both here and hereafter, attend those who, under the divine auspices, have secured innumerable blessings for others!

With these wishes and this benediction the commander-in-chief is about to retire from service. The curtain of separation will soon be drawn, and the military scene to him will be closed forever!


(To the People of the United States—September 17, 1796)

Friends and Fellow-Citizens:

The period for a new election of a citizen to administer the executive Government of the United States being not far distant, and the time actually arrived when your thoughts must be employed in designating the person who is to be clothed with that important trust it appears to me proper, especially as it may conduce to a more distinct expression of the public voice, that I should now apprise you of the resolution I have formed, to decline being considered among the number of those out of whom a choice is to be made....


Statue of Washington at West Point
Presented to the United States Military Academy by a Veteran of the Civil War
Copyright by Underwood & Underwood, N. Y.


In looking forward to the moment which is intended to terminate the career of my public life my feelings do not permit me to suspend the deep acknowledgment of that debt of gratitude which I owe to my beloved country for the many honors it has conferred upon me; still more for the steadfast confidence with which it has supported me, and for the opportunities I have thence enjoyed of manifesting my inviolable attachment, by services faithful and persevering, though in usefulness unequal to my zeal. If benefits have resulted to our country from these services, let it always be remembered to your praise, and as an instructive example in our annals, that under circumstances in which the passions, agitated in every direction, were liable to mislead, amidst appearances sometimes dubious, vicissitudes of fortune often discouraging, in situations in which not unfrequently want of success has countenanced the spirit of criticism, the constancy of your support was the essential prop of the efforts, and a guarantee of the plans by which they were effected. Profoundly penetrated with this idea, I shall carry it with me to my grave, as a strong incitement to unceasing vows that Heaven may continue to you the choicest tokens of its beneficence; that your union and brotherly affection may be perpetual; that the free Constitution, which is the work of your hands, may be sacredly maintained; that its administration in every department may be stamped with wisdom and virtue; that, in fine, the happiness of the people of these States, under the auspices of liberty, may be made complete, by so careful a preservation and so prudent a use of this blessing, as will acquire for them the glory of recommending it to the applause, the affection and adoption of every nation which is yet a stranger to it.

Here, perhaps, I ought to stop. But a solicitude for your welfare, which cannot end but with my life, and the apprehension of danger, natural to that solicitude, urge me, on an occasion like the present, to offer to your solemn contemplation, and to recommend to your frequent review, some sentiments, which are the result of much reflection, of no inconsiderable observation, and which appear to me all important to the permanency of your felicity as a People.

Interwoven as is the love of liberty with every ligament of your hearts, no recommendation of mine is necessary to fortify or confirm the attachment.

The unity of government, which constitutes you one people, is also now dear to you. It is justly so; for it is a main pillar in the edifice of your real independence, the support of your tranquility at home, your peace abroad; of your safety; of your prosperity; of that very liberty which you so highly prize. But as it is easy to foresee that from different causes and from different quarters much pains will be taken, many artifices employed, to weaken in your minds the conviction of this truth; as this is the point in your political fortress against which the batteries of internal and external enemies will be most constantly and actively (though often covertly and insidiously) directed, it is of infinite moment that you should properly estimate the immense value of your national Union to your collective and individual happiness; that you should cherish a cordial, habitual, and immovable attachment to it, accustoming yourself to think and speak of it as of the palladium of your political safety and prosperity; watching for its preservation with [105] jealous anxiety; discountenancing whatever may suggest even a suspicion that it can, in any event, be abandoned; and indignantly frowning upon the first dawning of every attempt to alienate any portion of our country from the rest, or to enfeeble the sacred ties which now link together the various parts.

For this you have every inducement of sympathy and interest. Citizens, by birth or choice, of a common country, that country has a right to concentrate your affections. The name 'American,' which belongs to you in your national capacity, must always exalt the just pride of patriotism more than any appellation derived from local discriminations. With slight shades of difference, you have the same religion, manners, habits, and political principles. You have in a common cause fought and triumphed together; the independence and liberty you possess are the work of joint counsels, and joint efforts, of common dangers, sufferings, and successes.

But these considerations, however powerfully they address themselves to your sensibility, are greatly outweighed by those which apply more immediately to your interest. Here every portion of our country finds the most commanding motives for carefully guarding and preserving the union of the whole....

To the efficacy and permanency of your union a government for the whole is indispensable. No alliances, however strict, between the parts can be an adequate substitute; they must inevitably experience the infractions and interruptions which all alliances in all times have experienced. Sensible of this momentous truth, you have improved upon your first essay by the adoption of a constitution of government better calculated than your former for an intimate union and for the efficacious management of your common concerns. This government, the offspring of our own choice, uninfluenced and unawed, adopted upon full investigation and mature deliberation, completely free in its principles, in the distribution of its powers uniting security with energy and containing within itself a provision for its own amendment, has a just claim to your confidence and your support. Respect for its authority, compliance with its laws, acquiescence in its measures, are duties enjoined by the fundamental maxims of true liberty. The basis of our political systems is the right of the people to make and to alter their constitutions of government. But the constitution which at any time exists, till changed by an explicit and authentic act of the whole people, is sacredly obligatory upon all. The very idea of the power and the right of the people to establish government presupposes the duty of every individual to obey the established government.

All obstructions to the execution of the laws, all combinations and associations, under whatever plausible character, with the real design to direct, control, counteract, or awe the regular deliberation and action of the constituted authorities, are destructive of this fundamental principle and of fatal tendency. They serve to organize faction, to give an artificial and extraordinary force: to put in the place of the delegated will of the nation, the will of a party, often a small but artful and enterprising minority of the community; and, according to the alternate triumphs [106] of different parties, to make the public administration the mirror of the ill-concerted and incongruous projects of faction, rather than the organ of consistent and wholesome plans digested by common counsels, and modified by mutual interests....

Towards the preservation of your government, and the permanency of your present happy state, it is requisite, not only that you steadily discountenance irregular opposition to its acknowledged authority, but also that you resist with care the spirit of innovation upon its principles, however specious the pretext. One method of assault may be to effect, in the forms of the constitution, alterations which will impair the energy of the system, and thus to undermine what cannot be directly overthrown. In all the changes to which you may be invited, remember that time and habit are at least as necessary to fix the true character of government as of other human institutions; that experience is the surest standard by which to test the real tendency of the existing constitution of a country; that facility in changes, upon the credit of mere hypothesis and opinion, exposes to perpetual change, from the endless variety of hypothesis and opinion; and remember, especially, that, for the efficient management of your common interests, in a country so extensive as ours, a government of as much vigor as is consistent with the perfect security of liberty is indispensable. Liberty itself will find in such a government, with powers properly distributed and adjusted, its surest guardian. It is, indeed, little else than a name, where the government is too feeble to withstand the enterprise of faction, to confine each member of the society within the limits prescribed by the laws, and to maintain all in the secure and tranquil enjoyment of the rights of person and property....

Of all the dispositions and habits which lead to political prosperity, religion and morality are indispensable supports. In vain would that man claim the tribute of patriotism who should labor to subvert these great pillars of human happiness, these firmest props of the duties of men and citizens. The mere politician, equally with the pious man, ought to respect and to cherish them. A volume could not trace all their connections with private and public felicity. Let it simply be asked, where is the security for property, for reputation, for life, if the sense of religious obligation desert the oaths which are the instruments of investigation in courts of justice? And let us with caution indulge the supposition that morality can be maintained without religion. Whatever may be conceded to the influence of refined education on minds of peculiar structure, reason and experience both forbid us to expect that national morality can prevail in exclusion of religious principle....

Promote, then, as an object of primary importance, institutions for the general diffusion of knowledge. In proportion as the structure of a government gives force to public opinion it is essential that public opinion should be enlightened.

As a very important source of strength and security, cherish public credit. One method of preserving it is to use it as sparingly as possible, avoiding occasions of expense by cultivating peace, but remembering also that timely disbursements to prepare for danger frequently prevent much greater disbursements to repel it; avoiding likewise the accumulation [107] of debt, not only by shunning occasions of expense, but by vigorous exertions in time of peace to discharge the debts which unavoidable wars may have occasioned, not ungenerously throwing upon posterity the burden which we ourselves ought to bear. The execution of these maxims belongs to your representatives, but it is necessary that the public opinion should cooperate....

Observe good faith and justice towards all nations; cultivate peace and harmony with all. Religion and morality enjoin this conduct; and can it be that good policy does not equally enjoin it? It will be worthy of a free, enlightened, and, at no distant period, a great nation, to give to mankind the magnanimous and too novel example of a people always guided by an exalted justice and benevolence.


The life of our Washington cannot suffer by a comparison with those of other countries who have been most celebrated and exalted by fame. The attributes and decorations of royalty could have only served to eclipse the majesty of those virtues which made him, from being a modest citizen, a more resplendent luminary.

Malice could never blast his honor, and envy made him a single exception to her universal rule. For himself he had lived enough to life and to glory. For his fellow-citizens, if their prayers could have been answered, he would have been immortal. His example is complete, and it will teach wisdom and virtue to magistrates, citizens, and men, not only in the present age, but in future generations, as long as our history shall be read.

John Adams

Washington stands alone and unapproachable like a snow peak rising above its fellows into the clear air of morning, with a dignity, constancy, and purity which have made him the ideal type of civic virtue to succeeding generations.

James Bryce

First in war, first in peace, first in the hearts of his countrymen, he was second to none in the humble and endearing scenes of private life, pious, just, humane, temperate, and sincere, uniform, dignified, and commanding, his example was as edifying to all around him, as were the effects of that example lasting.

Henry Lee

Others of our great men have been appreciated—many admired by all. But him we love. Him we all love. About and around him we call up no dissentient and discordant and dissatisfied elements, no sectional prejudice nor bias, no party, no creed, no dogma of politics. None of these shall assail him. When the storm of battle blows darkest and rages highest, the memory of Washington shall nerve every American arm and [108] cheer every American heart. It shall relume that Promethean fire, that sublime flame of patriotism, that devoted love of country, which his words have commended, which his example has consecrated.

Rufus Choate

Let a man fasten himself to some great idea, some large truth, some noble cause, even in the affairs of this world, and it will send him forward with energy, with steadfastness, with confidence. This is what Emerson meant when he said: "Hitch your wagon to a star." These are the potent, the commanding, the enduring men—in our own history, men like Washington and Lincoln. They may fail, they may be defeated, they may perish; but onward moves the cause, and their souls go marching on with it, for they are part of it, they have believed in it.

Henry van Dyke

Brave without temerity, laborious without ambition, generous without prodigality, noble without pride, virtuous without severity—Washington seems always to have confined himself within those limits where the virtues, by clothing themselves in more lively but more changeable and doubtful colors, may be mistaken for faults. Inspiring respect, he inspires confidence, and his smile is always the smile of benevolence.

Marquis Chastelleux

Great without pomp, without ambition brave,
Proud, not to conquer fellow-men, but save;
Friend to the weak, a foe to none but those
Who plan their greatness on their brethren's woes;
Aw'd by no titles—undefil'd by lust—
Free without faction—obstinately just;
Warm'd by religion's sacred, genuine ray,
That points to future bliss the unerring way;
Yet ne'er control'd by superstition's laws,
That worst of tyrants in the noblest cause.

From a London Newspaper


See Bibliography at end of monograph.



Second Friday in April



I think that I shall never see
A poem lovely as a tree;
A tree whose hungry mouth is prest
Against the earth's sweet flowing breast;
A tree that looks at God all day
And lifts her leafy arms to pray;
A tree that may in summer wear
A nest of robins in her hair;
Upon whose bosom snow has lain,
Who intimately lives with rain.
Poems are made by fools like me,
But only God can make a tree.

Joyce Kilmer




The following are the provisions of the statutes of the State concerning the observance of Arbor Day:

The day in each year known as Arbor Day shall be suitably observed in the public schools. The Commissioner of Education shall from time to time prepare and issue to schools such circulars of information, advice and instruction with reference to the day as he may deem necessary.

For the purpose of encouraging the planting of shade and forest trees, the second Friday of April in each year is hereby designated as a day for the general observance of such purpose, and to be known as Arbor Day.

On said day appropriate exercises shall be introduced in all the schools of the State, and it shall be the duty of the several county and city superintendents to prepare a program of exercises for that day in all the schools under their respective jurisdiction.

You will notice that Arbor Day now occurs on the second Friday of April, the Legislature of 1912 having changed the date.

It is believed that Arbor Day may not only be devoted to the consideration of the value of trees and forests, including, of course, the planting of trees and shrubs, but that it may also be used to direct attention to birds and their protection, to the importance of the school garden, and to other related matters. The conservation of some of our natural resources might well be considered as the broad theme of the day, the main emphasis, however, being placed on trees.

Much of the contents of this pamphlet will afford suggestive material for the use of teachers at any appropriate time. The general information given may be of help to many teachers throughout the spring months. The discussions of the various subjects presented may afford valuable reading material in the grammar schools.

The main purpose of the pamphlet is to give an impetus to the movement for a greater interest in our natural resources, and the movement for a greater appreciation of the opportunities offered by rural or semi-rural life. It is hoped that the suggestions made are such as may appeal to the interests of children.

It is hoped that Arbor Day may be a profitable one to the pupils in the schools. It is further hoped that the influence of the contents of the pamphlet may not be confined to any one day, but may be extended to many days of the school year.

Calvin N. Kendall

Commissioner of Education



Arbor Day will occur this year on Friday, April 11. An announcement concerning it may be found in the March number of the Education Bulletin.

It has been happily suggested by Secretary Houston of the Department of Agriculture at Washington that the day be observed in part this year by planting trees upon our roadways, in our yards, and in our pleasure places, each tree being named for a soldier who has fallen in the late War. Such trees would be appropriate memorials to these soldiers.

I suggest that this particular year there be wide-spread planting of trees dedicated to those whose lives have been sacrificed in the War. The planting of the trees should be marked with some appropriate exercises and these exercises should take on more than a school significance. The whole community should be invited by the school to take part.

I trust there may be a generous response on the part of the schools of New Jersey to this idea.

Calvin N. Kendall

Commissioner of Education



Save What We Have, Let Planting Come After

When the farmers of Nebraska, led by J. Sterling Morton, established Arbor Day in 1872, they sought the threefold blessing that trees always give—shade from the summer sun, shelter from winter winds, and wood. These men found the broad prairies of the Middle West practically treeless and they soon discovered that unless nature's fault was remedied the homes they hoped to make could be neither pleasant, nor secure, nor successful.

In New Jersey, as in all parts of the East, conditions were and are different. The whole state was originally unbroken forest, and the task of the pioneers was to make room for fields and settlements. Nearly half our area (46 per cent) is still forest, though the greater part has been reduced to a woefully poor condition. Thus if our [113] festival is to serve our needs, we will celebrate Arbor Day in such, a way that we shall learn to improve the forests we have rather than seek to make more; to protect and care for the trees we have as well as to plant more; to get rid of false impressions and broaden our understanding of the relations between tree life and human society.

New Jersey cannot spare more land for forests. She now has upwards of two million acres, and if we apply the rule that a state with 30 per cent of her area in forests is well off, we shall reduce the total to about a million and a half acres. But this will adjust itself; our present concern is to stop the waste of our forest resources and bring them to serve one of the most highly organized communities in the nation.

With respect to trees, as distinguished from forests, this intensive life and concentrated population make it imperative that cities and towns be provided with parks and as much street shade as possible. Thus there are two ample fields for study and work, the one dealing with trees and their social bearings, the other with forests and their economic relations.

The art of caring for trees is called arboriculture, and one who devotes himself to it an arborist. The art of producing and developing tree communities, or forests, is silviculture or forestry.


The intimate study of trees is full of interest. The sap, consisting of raw food material gathered by the root hairs from the soil, courses upward, through the newer wood cells of trunk and branch, to the leaves; there, under the action of sunlight, it is assimilated with carbon dioxide, and, so prepared as tree food, passes downward through the newer bark. Thus, the process never entirely suspended, even in winter, but varying in vigor with the seasons, the tree grows in stature by producing new shoots each year. No part of a tree that has concluded a season's growth is ever elongated, but remains fixed, and length is added to its terminal by the development of new buds. This is why a branch always remains at the height at which it started. On account of this fact the age of a tree or branch may be determined by counting back from the terminal one year for each section of development. On most deciduous trees this is hard to follow for more than a few years, but on the evergreens, which produce their branches in whorls, it is easy. On the other hand, diameter growth may continue indefinitely and is exhibited on any cross-section in a series of annual [114] rings. A count of these rings will give the age of the tree at that point.

Other interesting things to know are the means by which trees support themselves upright, even in severe storms; how they support the weight of heavy branches; and how the various species differ in the form, color, texture of their bark. Then the flowers and fruits. Few people know that the early spring awakening of the silver maple is marked by the appearance of its flowers weeks before the leaves come out, or that pines and oaks have flowers at all. And so with the fruits: willows produce catkins; chestnuts, burs; elms, samaras; spruce, cones.


And then one who is fond of trees will not be satisfied until he can recognize and name at least the commoner kinds. This is field work for many seasons, for the variations as well as the fixed characters must be observed, and there are at least a hundred species to be found in New Jersey. The student will soon want a handbook like Collins and Preston's "Key to Trees," but without that he will distinguish the two great groups—evergreen and deciduous. The evergreens are also called conifers because the fruit of most of them is a cone. Almost all are ornamental but none is suitable for the street. Their wood is commonly called soft, though that of many species is quite hard, and forms the great bulk of coarse lumber used for building, etc.

Deciduous trees are so called because their leaves fall at the beginning of winter. There are many more kinds or species of these than of evergreens and their forms and characters are more varied. A few have recognized values as shade trees; many more are interesting or attractive in the park or on the lawn; others are never found outside the forest. By way of contrast with that of the conifers, the wood of deciduous trees is called hard, though many kinds are quite soft, and the trees themselves hardwoods. Hardwood lumber is often very beautiful, and is used for many purposes besides furniture, but the world could better get along without it than without soft woods.


One is attracted to a noble oak, a graceful hemlock, a beautifully colored maple, and wants to live with it and its kind. This desire deserves to be satisfied, and can be satisfied by encouraging the planting of trees where they will reduce the glare and heat of city streets; [115] on lawns and in parks they are more at home and can be treated so that the beauty of individuals and the values of groups or masses can be brought out. Especially should they find place upon every school ground so that the attention of the children may be constantly drawn to these hungry, thirsty, breakable, burnable, beautiful friends of man.

The kinds of trees that may be planted upon a city street are few, for the life is so hard that only the hardiest can stand it. If we name Norway Maple, Ginkgo, Sycamore, White Elm, Red Oak, the list of the best is exhausted. Others may often be planted where conditions are favorable, and for lawns and parks the list of availables is almost endless, but in any case the wisest course is to avoid novelties and get some one who is experienced to do the planting.

But more important than to plant a tree is to protect and develop one already in the right place. This applies especially to trees beside country roads. A newly planted tree has a precarious hold on life for several years, whereas an old one has survived many dangers. Let, therefore, the care of the trees that are found in place be the first concern. Guard them from all that may increase their infirmities, keep in check the insects that seek to destroy them, have their wounds attended to and their branches pruned where necessary. This is work for one who knows how, not for the butcher who "tops" a tree "to make it grow"; or for the "tree doctor" who uses cement without knowing whether it will do good or do harm. Reputable men can be found to do any work of this kind. Under wise direction there should be no hesitation about cutting down a tree that is in the way. In many places houses and streets are too much shaded.

The fundamental idea to be grasped is that every tree is an organism; in one view an individual, in another a community. We must satisfy at least its strongest requirements or it cannot live. To the extent that all are satisfied is the tree healthy and vigorous.


As with trees so with the tree communities called forests. Our duty in New Jersey is to improve the forests we have rather than to concern ourselves about getting more. Of course, waste land may be redeemed by planting with trees, but where there is a remnant of the old forest, nature can be trusted to bring another if she is given a fair chance. The forest secured in this way may not yield so much lumber as one that was planted, and it will not satisfy a forester, but it will answer our most immediate needs, and can be secured more quickly than any other.


And again, as with trees, let no one fear to have a forest cut off when its time comes. Forest trees were made for use and if they are not used as they mature, nature will get rid of them by decay. That this must be so will appear when one observes that in any piece of native woods room is made for young trees by the fall of old ones that have lived their term.


Nature clothed most of the habitable earth with forests of one kind or another and evidently meant that they should serve mankind. This they do by furnishing wood for shelter and for warmth (seven-eighths of the people of the world still use wood for fuel), by providing grateful shade in summer and protection from cold winds in winter, by preventing the soil on steep hillsides from being lost by erosion, by regulating the flow of streams. The contention that forests cause rainfall, or materially influence the climate of a country, is not established. The weight of evidence indicates that forests thrive in proportion to the rainfall rather than that the rain falls in proportion to the extent of forests. And in respect to stream flow we must distinguish between a mountainous or hilly country and a country that is flat; and whether the rain commonly falls in brief, heavy storms or in frequent gentle showers. For instance, we can say with assurance that in North Jersey a forested watershed will discharge a purer, more regular stream than one that is unforested, while in South Jersey the influence of the forest upon the streams is negligible.


As the climate of New Jersey is much the same in all parts, the character of our forests is determined chiefly by soil conditions. Fortunately we have a great diversity, and between the northern and southern sections, strong contrasts. The line separating these sections is nowhere sharply defined but is commonly assumed to run more or less irregularly from Long Branch to Salem.

The forests of North Jersey, supported by soils of considerable fertility, are almost universally of the mixed hardwood type common to the greater part of the central United States east of the Mississippi River. That is, they are composed of a variety of deciduous trees in which are many oaks, chestnut, beech, several maples, ashes, hickories, elms, birches, etc. As exceptions or variants to the type are swampy areas in which black spruce and hemlock are dominant, and sterile mountain crests bearing the pitch pine and scrub oak of the poorest [117] South Jersey sands. This kind of forest, in which each species occupies the position to which it is best adapted, and from which therefore all competitors are excluded, is considered by ecologists the most highly developed vegetable society.

And about and among these forests is the most fully developed human society—villages, towns and cities.

Practically all these forests have been several times cut over and many times burned. Individual trees about settlements are often noble and imposing, and occasional groves of fine trees are found, but the forest is only a reminder of what it was—and a promise of what it may be.

In South Jersey the contrast with North Jersey is emphasized in every way. Instead of hills and valleys the land is level or gently rolling. Near the Delaware and at numerous points in the interior are fertile soils and thriving communities, but much of the territory is characterized by sand and forests of pine, with an undergrowth of scrub oak, often covering hundreds of thousands of acres. This condition justifies the common name of the region "The Pines," though variations in soil frequently give rise to considerable areas of tree oaks, and swamps of white cedar border many of the streams.

On the sandy land profitable agriculture is full of uncertainties; but forestry is not, for there the pitch pine, though burned almost to extinction by the fires that for years swept annually across the level reaches, persists and wherever given a few years' immunity from fire, sends up its arms of living green. Here is the great forest area of the state; one of those tracts fitted by nature to maintain trees of a single kind, or single class. These "pure" forests, so called in contrast to the mixed forests of richer regions, are found in the southern states, in the far North and in the Rocky Mountains. They are easily developed, easily logged, and always will be, as they now are, the chief source of the world's lumber supply.


The key to the forest problem in New Jersey, as in every state, is the control of fire. A few years ago it was an undenied fact that more forest was destroyed by fire every year than by the ax. Burning the forest to make plow-land was justifiable when trees were an encumbrance, but the practice got us into bad habits. From being a servant, fire became a master. Without fires, we in New Jersey can and will have all the forest we need; with fires, that which is bad becomes worse.


The lesson for Arbor Day, and for every day, therefore, is to urge and require that no forest shall be burned. It is good fun to sit about a camp-fire, yet the danger that the fire will escape and do harm is great. Even a surface-fire that apparently burns only dry leaves, and is often set for that purpose, will kill the young trees that are just starting on the struggle for life. Fortunately New Jersey is getting her fires under control. Firewardens are located wherever there are forests; their duty is to prevent fires by every means possible, and if a fire is started they must summon men to put it out. The forests are already responding to this protection and proving their ability to take care of themselves when relieved of the frightful handicap that has been upon them for generations.


Though fire control will make a forest where conditions are favorable as here, the skill of a forester is needed to make it a good and a productive forest. Here is applied a knowledge that is more intimate than that which serves to recognize a tree or to provide for its physical well-being. The successful forester must be a practical scientist in many departments; must have executive ability and be a capable business man. All who cannot meet these requirements should be discouraged from seeking to make forestry their profession.


Every urban community needs parks where those who live in close quarters can find fresh air. And a state with many cities must make it possible for the people to get into the open—not for an hour only, but for days and weeks. New Jersey can do this in the woodlands that are so near to most of the large cities. It is not always necessary that the state take title to the land; few owners object to reasonable use and almost all would gladly remove every restriction if they were assured that the privilege would not be abused.

The timber forests of continental Europe are universally used as great public parks. Good roads make all parts accessible and the tourists are so accustomed to behave themselves that no serious harm is done. We can have ample parks of this kind at no more cost than assuring the owners' material interests.



The state of New Jersey is prepared to help its citizens in any interest connected with the soil. The State Forester, Trenton, will advise individuals or communities regarding the care of shade trees and the planting or management of forests. The Agricultural Experiment Station, New Brunswick, and the Department of Agriculture, Trenton, will afford similar assistance upon any subject connected with farms, orchards or gardens. Anyone who wants to know about any of these subjects has the right to ask questions and to seek advice.



The following fitting observance of Arbor Day, commemorating an historic incident in the life of Alexander Hamilton, was conducted in Mindowaskin Park, Westfield, April 12, 1918. The program took its origin from the following narrative:

Alexander Hamilton, in the year 1801, planted a grove of thirteen trees at his home, "Hamilton Grange," 143d Street, west of Convent Avenue, New York City. The trees were the liquidambar styraciflua, sweet or red gum, and were sent from the South. Each one of the thirteen trees was named for one of the thirteen original colonies. The group of trees was later known as the "Hamilton Grove." Martha Washington became greatly interested both in its upkeep and in its preservation.

The program was as follows.

The schools marched to the park with flags and assembled en masse.

As the flag was raised, the Star Spangled Banner was sung, a cornetist leading.

Address by Honorable Arthur N. Pierson.

Song, "Over There."

Planting of trees: Each of the thirteen grades, from the kindergarten through the twelfth grade, planted a tree. As the trees for the states were planted the following passages were read. When the New Jersey tree was planted the whole audience joined in the response.


This tree we plant as a memorial to the great state of Massachusetts, noted for its patriots and its learning. As thy emblem, the pine tree, points to heaven, may thy ideals lead us on.


New Hampshire

Land of the Great Stone Face, look over these United States of ours with a watchfulness that will keep us true and steadfast in the cause of democracy.

Rhode Island

Grow, thou tree of life, as the spirit of religious liberty has grown in this broad land of ours.


As the famous Charter Oak kept thy government free and unmolested, so may the branches of this tree perpetuate to the world the constitution under which we as a nation live.

New York

The towering buildings of thy metropolis cry as they mount heavenward "Excelsior." May thy slogan be the slogan of our nation.

New Jersey

Proud are we of this the "Garden State of the Union." We love thee and the great Union of which thou art a part. For thee and our country we live and serve.


Live to the memory of thy founder, William Penn, father of peace and justice. This boon we would give to the world.


Song—"Maryland, My Maryland."


Long live the memory of this first state of the Union. May we show to the world, "In Union there is Strength."


Home of the father of Our Country, to thee we dedicate this tree. Washington, give us that courage that held thee to the great cause of freedom.

North Carolina

The cypress tall and majestic is the tree of this state. Majestic may this country of ours stand among the nations of the world.

South Carolina

Like the palmetto which bends its branches over all who come to its shade, spread to all the benediction of life and liberty.


Refuge of the oppressed. May the charity of thy founders characterize us as a nation.

Song, "America."


A record of the plantings was filed in the school. On each succeeding Arbor Day each class which planted a tree will see whether its tree is growing. Should the tree perchance have died, another will be planted in its place. Other trees than the sweet gum may be used in some localities with greater certainty of thriving.



As the season of planting is upon us and all nature is preparing to show her most gorgeous dress, we should interest the pupil in ways of beautifying the school. There is not a school in the land that cannot be made better, and many of them may be improved very much. The pupils will take a great interest in the matter if they receive a little encouragement and leadership on the part of their teachers.

Beautify the school grounds. A woven wire trellis supporting a thrifty vine would be a splendid screen for unsightly outbuildings. Shrubs about the foundations of the school building, in the angles of walks, and in natural clumps in the corners of the grounds would add beauty to the school surroundings. A few plots not used for play nor for garden may be grassed. Never scatter the trees or shrubs openly about the lawn area. Better mass the shrubs in natural clumps in angles or foundations, walks and borders. Use the trees along boundary and division lines. Native trees and shrubs are always preferable to imported or exotic kinds.


Arbor Day plans should be begun early and should include a number of lines of preparatory work.

Send for the bulletins first.

Draw plans of the grounds, measuring the lines and distances to make it somewhat accurate. If a class is assigned to this task the best map may be framed for the future use of the school. A passepartout binding, at least, may be used. This map may show the plan of planting for several years if there is more to be planted than can be done this year. The walks, buildings, clumps of shrubs, trees, school garden, playgrounds, etc., should all be shown.

This work may be done by arithmetic or geography classes. The arithmetic class may also find suitable dimensions for the corn-contest plots.


Have the reading classes read about birds, gardening, trees, lawns, weeds, etc. Use the newer words in spelling exercises. Let boys and girls both make bird-houses at home. These may be ready to put up on Arbor Day.

The corn testing and seed study should begin at once.

Trees, shrubs and seeds that are to be planted on Arbor Day, or soon after, should be ready in advance. The roots of trees and shrubs must be temporarily covered with soil to prevent drying out.

Some exercises in root grafting of apples may be carried out as described in two of the bulletins, 113 and 408.

Tools to be used in the planting of school grounds may be brought by pupils from their homes; the list available for the purpose should be made in advance.

Divide the students into suitable groups for the work, so that each will know his part.

Invite parents and home folks to the work of Arbor Day, and make it a community exercise. The men may come in the morning to work, and the women may come with lunch baskets at noon, both staying until the exercises are over.

Plan to have some one take pictures of the children and patrons while the improvement work is going on.

Do not forget to have some manure and good soil hauled in advance.



1. Remarks by the teacher or a member of the school board on the value of teaching the useful and beautiful as well as the classical and historical.

2. Have five pupils stand together. The first pupil will read from this pamphlet or tell in his own way why we should all know more about trees; the second about insects; the third about weeds; the fourth about birds; and the fifth about corn.

3. Have five girls stand and each tell a few things about some useful bird.

4. Have a boy who has made a bird box tell how bird boxes are a protection to young birds, and how he made his.

5. Have a boy tell of some ways of destroying English sparrows, learned from U. S. Farmers' Bulletin 383.

6. Another boy should tell how to distinguish English sparrows from other sparrows and common birds.


7. Have some of the best tree planters tell how to plant a tree—preparation of soil, roots, pruning and actual planting.

Note. In any or all of these exercises pupils may get the subject matter from this pamphlet and from bulletins referred to in it. They may make note on paper of what they wish to say and speak from these notes. If the time for preparation be very short the points may be copied and read directly. Let each exercise be very short.


1. Announcement of outlines of contests in school or home gardening, corn growing, or other work the school may be planning, and the premiums offered for the contests and exhibits next fall.

2. Some pupils may tell of several benefits of trees and forests, or five pupils may stand together and each tell of one important benefit.

3. Have a pupil describe how to test seed corn by the individual ear method.

4. Have two pupils tell of the two types of insect moths, each telling how to control such insects.

5. Have a boy tell of three or four things necessary to improve the home lawn. (See U. S. Bulletin 248)

6. Have three pupils stand and each take one part

(a) Use of vines to beautify the grounds at school or home, naming some vines to use in certain places

(b) Use of trees in same way

(c) Use of shrubs in same way


Few people ever think of a forest as a place to store water. Who would think that "the woods" hold water as well as a mill pond or a reservoir! But they do, although we cannot see the water they hold, except, perhaps, as a pool here and there; and yet this is one of the most important functions that a forest can perform.

All of us have noticed in walking through the woods how soft and springy the ground is. A thick carpet of leaves, twigs, and decayed wood covers the earth, sometimes to a depth of several feet. It is very porous, and it absorbs water like a sponge. When storms come and rain falls in torrents, it does not beat directly upon the ground under the trees because the raindrops first strike the leaves and branches above. The water then trickles gently down and soaks into the leafy carpet. If the forest is extensive a very large quantity of water is absorbed—enough to prevent floods except in extraordinarily long periods of rain. Gradually through the weeks and months that follow the absorbed water oozes out of low places as "springs," and it dashes merrily away in little brooks that continue to form creeks and rivers which flow peacefully and steadily out to sea.

If there are no trees, no leaves to break the beating rain, no spongy mold to hold the water when it falls, no matted roots to prevent washing, the big raindrops spatter upon the earth and quickly form rushing streams that wash the ground into gulleys. The bare earth absorbs some water, to [124] be sure, but far less than the humus of the forest. If the rains are continued the rivers are soon filled beyond the capacity of their banks and they spread over the neighboring valleys, carrying devastation with them. After the heavy rains cease, the flood waters subside as suddenly as they had arisen and the streams dwindle to insignificance, sometimes completely drying up in a long, hot summer.

Thus it is that forests act as great reservoirs and aid in preventing disastrous floods and in maintaining the flow of streams at a rate that is nearly uniform all the year round.

Now let us see what use is made of the trees. The greatest of all is for firewood; but this is largely the decaying or faulty trees from the farmer's woodlot, the waste product of a lumber region, or from land that is cleared for cultivation. It is said that about 100,000,000 cords are used annually.

The greater part of the salable timber, however, is sawed into lumber, which is used in a variety of ways. The first and greatest use of lumber is for building houses, barns, sheds, outbuildings and fences.

Next comes furniture of all kinds—chairs, tables, beds, and all other house, office, and school furniture; musical instruments; vehicles of all kinds—wagons, carriages, buggies, and parts of automobiles; agricultural implements—plows, harrows, harvesters, thrashing machines, and other farm implements.

Car building is another great use for lumber—freight cars, passenger cars, and trolley cars. Other important uses for timber are as cross-ties, poles for telegraph and telephone lines, and "shoring" or supports in mines. Even more trees are used in the manufacture of paper than for these purposes. Then there are various small articles used in the home, such as spools, butter dishes, fruit crates, baskets, boxes, all kinds of tools, toys, picture frames, matches, pencils, clothes pins, toothpicks, etc. These are little things, but so many of them are used that they consume a great deal of wood. Next we derive tannic acid for tanning leather, turpentine and rosin, maple sugar, and many extracts used in making medicines.

So valuable are the forests that the whole nation is interested in preserving them. No one is benefited more by them than the farmer, and no one should be more interested in them.—U. S. Bureau of Education Bulletin, "Agriculture and Rural Life Day"


"The Study of Birds and Bird Life in the Schools of New Jersey," by Dr. Robert G. Leavitt, of the Trenton State Normal School, published by this Department, should be consulted.


See Bibliography at end of monograph.



May 30



How sleep the brave, who sink to rest
By all their country's wishes blessed!
When Spring, with dewy fingers cold,
Returns to deck their hallowed mold,
She there shall dress a sweeter sod
Than Fancy's feet have ever trod.
By fairy hands their knell is rung;
By forms unseen their dirge is sung;
There Honor comes, a pilgrim gray,
To bless the turf that wraps their clay;
And Freedom shall awhile repair,
To dwell a weeping hermit there!

William Collins





Flag Salute

Song—"Battle Hymn of the Republic"

Story of Memorial Day

Stories from the battle-fields of 1861 and 1918, told by larger pupils, adult members of the community, or soldiers

"The Blue and the Gray"

Song—"Keep the Home Fires Burning"

"The Gettysburg Address"

"In Flanders Fields"

Song—"America" or "The Star Spangled Banner"

Preparatory to the making and carrying out of a Memorial Day program, the teacher, a group of pupils or some wide-awake member of the community should talk about the sacrifices made by the soldiers of our country during the different wars in which we have been engaged; what great principles they have fought for, and why we should honor their memory in the public schools of our land. Throughout the preparation and the execution of the program there should be a consciousness of the debt we owe to those who have fought and died for freedom's cause. The simplest program prepared in this spirit will be of lasting value to the children of the school and to the members of the community in which the exercises are held.

Pupils and teachers should talk over fully the kind of program to be given. Much responsibility should be placed upon the pupils for the making of the program. They should make all "projects" necessary for the carrying out of the program, and should invite all patrons and friends in the community.

The exercises should be a service truly commemorating the honored dead of our land.


The observance of May 30 as Memorial Day had its official origin in an order issued in 1868 by General John A. Logan, then commander-in-chief of the Grand Army of the Republic. General Logan often said afterward that the issuing of that order was the proudest act of his life.


The strewing of flowers upon graves is old in some countries. It is said that the first decoration of graves of soldiers of the Civil War was done on April 13, 1862, by two little girls, daughters of a Michigan chaplain. They had been out gathering wild flowers, and, returning, came across a rough, unmarked mound which covered some northern boy.

One of the girls said: "Oh, let's put our flowers on this grave! He was a soldier boy." They knelt down and made garlands of flowers on that grave. This grave was in Virginia, not far from Mount Vernon. The next day they interested their family and friends in a plan to decorate all the graves, and the plan was carried out. Each year afterward, in May, they did the same wherever they happened to be. Others saw them and followed their example.

The later date of May 30 was chosen by General Logan so that flowers could be had in all the northern states.

From decorating the graves of soldiers the custom has extended to the graves of all who have relatives or friends to remember them. In time the soldiers will be forgotten, but the custom of decorating graves with flowers will doubtless continue for many generations to come. The spirit which prompts it is a noble one, which should ever be cherished.

Two years after the close of the Civil War the New York Tribune printed a paragraph simply stating that "the women of Columbus, Mississippi, have shown themselves impartial in their offerings made to the memory of the dead. They strewed flowers alike on the graves of the Confederate and of the National soldiers."

Whereupon the North thrilled with tenderness and Francis Miles Finch was inspired to write his moving lyric "The Blue and the Gray," which has become the credo of the Festival.

In a famous address, Chauncey M. Depew related the occurrence with felicity: "When the war was over in the South, where under warmer skies and with more poetic temperaments symbols and emblems are better understood than in the practical North, the widows, mothers, and the children of the Confederate dead went out and strewed their graves with flowers; at many places the women scattered them impartially also over the unknown and unmarked resting-places of the Union soldiers. As the news of this touching tribute flashed over the North it roused, as nothing else could have done, national amity and love and allayed sectional animosity and passion. Thus out of sorrows common alike to North and South comes this beautiful custom."


The incident, however, produced no practical results until in May, 1868, Adjutant-General N. P. Chipman suggested to National Commander John A. Logan, of the Grand Army of the Republic, that their organization inaugurate the custom of spreading flowers on the graves of the Union soldiers at some uniform time. General Logan immediately issued an order naming the 30th day of May, 1868, "for the purpose of strewing with flowers or otherwise decorating the graves of comrades who died in defense of their country during the late rebellion, and whose bodies now lie in almost every city, village, or hamlet churchyard in the land.... It is the purpose of the commander-in-chief to inaugurate this observance with the hope that it will be kept up from year to year while a survivor of the war remains to honor the memory of the departed."

The idea spread rapidly. Legislature after legislature enacted it into law until the holiday has become a legal one in all states. In some of the southern states an earlier date is usually chosen.


[F] Used by permission of, and by special arrangement with, Houghton Mifflin Company, the authorized publishers.

Hark! I hear the tramp of thousands
And of armed men the hum;
Lo! a nation's hosts have gathered
Round the quick alarming drum—
Saying "Come,
Freeman, come!
Ere your heritage be wasted," said the quick alarming drum.
"Let me of my heart take counsel:
War is not of life the sum;
Who shall stay and reap the harvest
When the autumn days shall come?"
But the drum
Echoed "Come!
Death shall reap the braver harvest," said the solemn-sounding drum.
"But when won the coming battle,
What of profit springs therefrom?
What if conquest, subjugation,
Even greater ills become?"
But the drum
Answered, "Come!
You must do the sum to prove it," said the Yankee answering drum.
"What if, 'mid the cannon's thunder,
Whistling shot and bursting bomb,
When my brothers fall around me,
Should my heart grow cold and numb?"
But the drum
Answered "Come!
Better there in death united than in life a recreant—Come!"
Thus they answered—hoping, fearing,
Some in faith and doubting some,
Till a trumpet-voice, proclaiming,
Said, "My chosen people, come!"
Then the drum,
Lo! was dumb,
For the great heart of the nation, throbbing, answered, "Lord, we come!"

Bret Harte


By the flow of the inland river,
Whence the fleets of iron have fled,
Where the blades of the grave-grass quiver,
Asleep are the ranks of the dead:
Under the sod and the dew,
Waiting the judgment-day;
Under the one, the Blue,
Under the other, the Gray.
These in the robings of glory,
Those in the gloom of defeat,
All with the battle-blood gory,
In the dusk of eternity meet:
Under the sod and the dew,
Waiting the judgment-day;
Under the laurel, the Blue,
Under the willow, the Gray.
From the silence of sorrowful hours
The desolate mourners go,
Lovingly laden with flowers
Alike for the friend and the foe:
Under the sod and the dew,
Waiting the judgment-day;
Under the roses, the Blue,
Under the lilies, the Gray.
So with an equal splendor,
The morning sun-rays fall,
With a touch impartially tender,
On the blossoms blooming for all:
Under the sod and the dew,
Waiting the judgment-day;
Broidered with gold, the Blue,
Mellowed with gold, the Gray.
So, when the summer calleth,
On forest and field of grain,
With an equal murmur falleth
The cooling drip of the rain:
Under the sod and the dew,
Waiting the judgment-day;
Wet with the rain, the Blue,
Wet with the rain, the Gray.
Sadly, but not with upbraiding,
The generous deed was done;
In the storm of the years that are fading
No braver battle was won:
Under the sod and the dew,
Waiting the judgment-day;
Under the blossoms, the Blue,
Under the garlands, the Gray.
No more shall the war cry sever,
Or the winding rivers be red;
They banish our anger forever
When they laurel the graves of our dead!
Under the sod and the dew,
Waiting the judgment-day;
Love and tears for the Blue,
Tears and love for the Gray.

Francis Miles Finch


God of our fathers, known of old—
Lord of our far-flung battle line—
Beneath whose awful hand we hold
Dominion over palm and pine—
Lord God of Hosts, be with us yet,
Lest we forget—lest we forget!
The tumult and the shouting dies,
The captains and the kings depart;
Still stands thine ancient sacrifice—
An humble and a contrite heart.
Lord God of Hosts, be with us yet,
Lest we forget—lest we forget!
Far-called, our navies melt away;
On dune and headland sinks the fire.
Lo! all our pomp of yesterday
Is one with Nineveh and Tyre!
Judge of the nations, spare us yet,
Lest we forget—lest we forget!
If, drunk with sight of power, we loose
Wild tongues that have not Thee in awe,
Such boasting as the Gentiles use
Or lesser breeds without the law—
Lord God of Hosts, be with us yet,
Lest we forget—lest we forget!
For heathen heart that puts her trust
In reeking tube and iron shard,
All valiant dust that builds on dust,
And guarding calls not Thee to guard,
For frantic boasts and foolish word,
Thy mercy on Thy people, Lord!

Rudyard Kipling


Mine eyes have seen the glory of the coming of the Lord;
He is trampling out the vintage where the grapes of wrath are stored;
He hath loosed the fateful lightning of His terrible swift sword;
His truth is marching on.
Glory! glory! Hallelujah!
Glory! glory! Hallelujah!
Glory! glory! Hallelujah!
His truth is marching on.
I have seen Him in the watch-fires of a hundred circling camps;
They have builded Him an altar in the evening dews and damps;
I can read His righteous sentence by the dim and flaring lamps.
His day is marching on.
He has sounded forth the trumpet that shall never call retreat;
He is sifting out the hearts of men before His judgment seat;
Oh, be swift, my soul, to answer Him! be jubilant, my feet!
Our God is marching on.
In the beauty of the lilies Christ was born across the sea,
With a glory in His bosom that transfigures you and me;
As He died to make men holy, let us die to make men free,
While God is marching on.

Julia Ward Howe

We have scattered our floral tributes today over the graves of the patriotic dead. These frail mementos of affection will soon wither, but let not the memory of these martyrs fail to inspire in us a purer, holier life! The roll-call brings to mind their faces and their deeds. They were faithful to the end. The weary march, the bivouac, the battle are still remembered by the survivors. But your line, comrades, is growing slenderer every year. One by one you will drop out of the ranks, and other hands may ere long strew your grave with flowers as you have done today in yonder cemetery. When mustered in the last grand review, with all the veterans and heroes of earth, may each receive with jubilant heart the Great Commander's admiring tribute "Well done!" and become with Him partaker of a felicity that is enduring and triumphant!

E. P. Thwing

Of all the martial virtues, the one which is perhaps most characteristic of the truly brave is the virtue of magnanimity. That sentiment, immortalized by Scott in his musical and martial verse, will associate for all time the name of Scotland's king with those of the great spirits of the past. How grand the exhibitions of the same generous impulses that characterize this memorable battle-field! My fellow-countrymen of the North, if I may be permitted to speak for those whom I represent, let me assure you that in the profoundest depths of their nature, they reciprocate that generosity with all the manliness and sincerity of which they are capable. In token of that sincerity they join in consecrating, for annual patriotic pilgrimage, these historic heights, which drank such copious draughts of American blood, poured so freely in discharge of duty, as each conceived it—a Mecca for the North, which so grandly defended, a Mecca for the South, which so bravely and persistently stormed it. We join you in setting apart this land as an enduring monument of peace, brotherhood, and perpetual union. I repeat the thought with emphasis, with singleness of heart and of purpose, in the name of a common country, and of universal liberty; and by the blood of our fallen brothers, we unite in the solemn consecration of these hallowed hills, as a holy, eternal pledge of fidelity to the life, freedom, and unity of this cherished Republic.

John B. Gordon

From "Gettysburg: A Mecca for the Blue and the Gray"


Our fathers ordained that in this Republic there should be no distinctions; but human nature is stronger than laws and nothing can prevent this people from showing honor to all who have deserved well of the country. Every man who has borne arms with credit has earned and is sure to receive a special measure of regard. And it is our peculiar privilege to remember that our armies and navies, regular and volunteer, have always been worthy of esteem ... the Grand Army of the Republic—soldiers and citizens whom the Republic delights to honor.

John Hay

Let no vandalism of avarice or neglect, no ravages of time, testify to the present or to the coming generations, that we have forgotten, as a people, the cost of a free and undivided Republic.

John A. Logan

We honor our heroic and patriotic dead by being true men, as true men by faithfully fighting the battles of our day as they fought the battles of their day.

David Gregg


The race has not run out.

We are still men, and worthy of our fathers.

That is what Memorial Day 1919 says to us.

Not in pride nor vain boasting but in fearful and solemn humility we speak, for it is our dead that prompt us. They, our kin and blood, were not afraid to die.

When the Destroyer came, the obscene Dragon, with breath of poison gas, eyes of hell fire, and teeth of steel, they did not shrink, our brothers, but played the man, and struck, and dying struck again, and flung their shredded bodies into the breach, and "filled the gap up with our English dead."

We are of such.

We put our arms around our dead, and hold them proudly up to God, and glory before all men that this is our breed.

The lies of the Accuser are disproved. His slanders fall from us. We are not slaves of greed, money grubbers, soft and lily-livered. We know how to suffer and to die. We, too, can follow the gleam.

O Greeks of Marathon, room for us! Through Chateau Thierry and the wood of Argonne we have come up to stand by your side, and dare to call you Brothers.

You Five Hundred of Balaklava, meet these boys from Kansas and New York, who also rode blithely into the valley of death. They are your kind.

You men of Bunker Hill, of Gettysburg and of San Juan, place! place for these, our neighbors' sons, our friends and playmates!


For them also the laurel, and the royal requiem! For them the Cross of Honor, and the Divine Halo!

They are ours! Ours! Dear God, we will be worthy of them. Thus cries the poet of America:

"Allons! After the great Companions, and to belong to them!

"Allons! through struggles and wars!

"Have the past struggles succeeded?

"What has succeeded? yourself? your nation? Nature?

"Now understand me well—it is provided in the essence of things that from any fruition of success, no matter what, shall come forth something to make a greater struggle necessary.

"Allons! the road is before us!"

Dr. Frank Crane


The service flag is not an official flag of the United States Government. The idea was, so far as we are advised, an entirely novel one, the credit for the conception of which appears to be due to R. L. Queisser, of Cleveland, Ohio, who designed and patented the present flag. It has, however, taken such firm root in popular sentiment and has been of such beneficial influence that it is officially recognized, and everyone who is entitled to fly it is encouraged and urged to do so.

Mr. Queisser was formerly captain of the machine gun company, 5th Ohio Infantry (now 145th United States Infantry), from which he was retired because of an accident. He thus states the origin of the flag:

"Shortly after April 6, 1917, when war with Germany was declared, the thought came to me that both of my sons, who were still officers in the guard, would again be called out, and I wondered if I could not evolve some sign or symbol by which it might be known that they were away in their country's service, and one which would be to their mother a visible sign of the sacrifice her sons were making. The inspiration of the service flag came to me in that manner."

Official U. S. Bulletin



A field of gleaming white,
A border ruby red,
And a blazing star
That is seen afar
As it flutters overhead.
From the window of a cot,
From the mansion on the hill,
Sends that banner fair,
Beyond compare,
Its loyal message still.
"A man beloved and dear,
O land, I've given to you.
He has gone to fight
On the side of right;
To Old Glory he'll be true!"
It floats from learning's halls,
And within the busy mart,
Where its crowded stars
Form growing bars
To rejoice the drooping heart.
Each star stands for a life,
To the nation gladly given,
For an answered prayer
To those "over there,"
Though a mother's heart be riven.
We pass with kindling eye
Beneath your colors true;
A nation's love,
A nation's hope
Are bound in the heart of you!

Josephine M. Fabricant


[G] Reprinted from the Saturday Evening Post, Philadelphia. Copyrighted 1917 by the Curtis Publishing Company, Philadelphia.

I have a son who goes to France
I have clasped his hand—
Most men will understand—
And wished him, smiling, lucky chance in France.
My son!
At last the house is still—
Just the dog and I in the garden—dark—
Stars and my pipe's red spark—
The house his young heart used to fill
Is still.
He said one day, "I've got to go
To France—Dad, you know how I feel!"
I knew. Like sun and steel
And morning. "Yes," I said, "I know
You'll go."
I'd waited just to hear him speak
Like that.
God, what if I had had
Another sort of lad,
Something too soft and meek and weak
To speak!
And yet!
He could not guess the blow
He'd struck.
Why, he's my only son!
And we had just begun
To be dear friends. But I dared not show
The blow.
But now—tonight—
No, no; it's right;
I never had a righter thing
To bear. And men must fling
Themselves away in the grieving sight
Of right.
A handsome boy—but I, who knew
His spirit—well, they cannot mar
The cleanness of a star
That'll shine to me, always and true,
Who knew.
I've given him.
Yes; and had I more,
I'd give them too—for there's a love
That asking, asks above
The human measure of our store—
And more.
Yes; it hurts!
Here in the dark, alone—
No one to see my wet old eyes—
I'll watch the morning rise—
And only God shall hear my groan
I have a son who goes to France
I have clasped his hand—
Most men will understand—
And wished him, smiling, lucky chance
In France.

Emory Pottle



[H] From "In Flanders Fields," by Lieutenant-Colonel John McCrae, courtesy of G. P. Putnam's Sons, publishers.

In Flanders fields the poppies blow
Between the crosses, row on row,
That mark our place; and in the sky
The larks, still bravely singing, fly,
Scarce heard amidst the guns below.
We are the dead. Short days ago
We lived, felt dawn, saw sunset glow,
Loved and were loved; and now we lie
In Flanders fields.
Take up our quarrel with the foe!
To you from failing hands we throw
The torch. Be yours to hold it high!
If ye break faith with us who die
We shall not sleep, though poppies grow
In Flanders fields.

John McCrae


Rest ye in peace, ye Flanders dead.
The fight that ye so bravely led
We've taken up. And we will keep
True faith with you who lie asleep,
With each a cross to mark his bed,
And poppies blowing overhead,
Where once his own life blood ran red.
So let your rest be sweet and deep
In Flanders fields.
Fear not that ye have died for naught.
The torch ye threw to us we caught.
Ten million hands will hold it high,
And freedom's light shall never die!
We've learned the lesson that ye taught
In Flanders fields.

R. W. Lillard



It is a fearful thing to lead this great, peaceful people into war, into the most terrible and disastrous of all wars, civilization itself seeming to be in the balance. But the right is more precious than peace, and we shall fight for the things which we have always carried nearest our hearts—for democracy, for the right of those who submit to authority to have a voice in their own governments, for the rights and liberties of small nations, for a universal dominion of right by such a concert of free peoples as shall bring peace and safety to all nations and make the world itself at last free.

To such a task we can dedicate our lives and our fortunes, everything that we are and everything that we have, with the pride of those who know that the day has come when America is privileged to spend her blood and her might for the principles that gave her birth and happiness and the peace which she has treasured. God helping her, she can do no other.

Woodrow Wilson

We came into this war for ourselves. It is a war to save America, to preserve self-respect, to justify our right to live as we have lived, not as some one else wishes us to live. It is more precious that this America shall live than that we Americans should live.

Franklin K. Lane

No nation has a right to its freedom if it is unwilling to fight for the freedom of others, and for its own.

The cost of war is not to be measured in money. It is in the slow paid price of the human heart—in the blood drops, one by one.

Charles C. Gordon


See Bibliography at end of monograph.



June 14



It is not a painted rag. It is a whole national history. It is the Constitution. It is the Government. It is the free people that stand in the Government, on the Constitution.

Henry Ward Beecher




The great war has brought more forcibly to us a realization of the necessity for training the youth of our land to a greater respect for, and a fuller knowledge of our national emblem.

Wherever the flag floats, children must be taught to love it and to respect its significance.

New Jersey long ago required that the flag be displayed on school buildings, and the flag salute be given daily, but no statute can make certain that the spirit of the law is emphasized.

The teachers of the children of the state bear the responsibility of training for patriotism, and the future of democracy depends upon the patriotic ideals nurtured in the public schools. We shall have more patriotic observances than formerly and one of those which we shall celebrate with more interest will be Flag Day.

The date authorized to be observed as Flag Day comes so near the close of the school year that it may well be used as a special occasion on which pupil and parent join in paying tribute to our national emblem.

Flag Day can be made the occasion of raising a new flag, or of taking a collection to provide silk flags or a patriotic picture for the classrooms, thus giving parents an opportunity to contribute to the patriotism of the school. If a new flag is to be presented to the school, Flag Day will be a most appropriate time to receive it, and exercises can be conducted partly or altogether out-of-doors. On the playground all pupils can take part in marches and drills suitable to their grades. In order to have the best effects, some uniformity of costume is best. Any movements uniformly done in mass are pleasing, and teachers can adapt marching figures to their own playground with good effect. The purpose of the teacher of the primary grades should be to awaken love and reverence for the flag and to instill loyalty into the minds and hearts of the children.

In the higher grades children should not only be trained to show love and respect for the flag, but should understand their duty toward their country. They should study the flag, its history, its significance, its various forms and uses, the correct ways of displaying it, and the proper manner of raising and lowering it.


The flag of our state should also be taught, together with its history.

It is a part of our school law that the flag salute shall be a part of the daily program. It is the duty of the teacher to interpret the meaning and the spirit of the salute to the pupils, not neglecting the correct pronunciation of the words. The salute should never be carelessly repeated, but should be given in a serious manner, and only after children have been called to standing position.

In the making of a program, attention should be given to current events. The best of the popular songs may be sung. (Be sure they are the best.) Current literature will furnish some prose and poetry suitable for the occasion. A real, present-day note should always be sounded. The same program should not be used year after year, but the material should be selected anew each time, though some repetition in the use of standard recitations and national songs is to be expected.

A scrap-book kept for suitable material will be a valuable aid to the teacher. Such a scrap-book can be made by using large envelops, fastening them at the bottom within a cardboard cover, and labelling each envelop according to its contents. As additions are made to the songs, poems, programs, etc., a catalog of the contents can be kept on the outside of the envelop. It will be best to mount recitations on heavy paper in order to preserve them longer.



Opening remarks by teacher in charge

Singing by school, "America"

Recitation, "Our Flag" (by May Howlister), First grade pupil

Recitation, "Your Flag and my Flag" (by Wilbur D. Nesbit), Fourth grade pupil

Song, "Our Country's Flag" (by Florence L. Dresser)

Flag Drill, All pupils

Presentation of new flag, Member of Parent-Teacher Association

Flag Salute, Entire audience: "I pledge allegiance to my flag, and to the Republic for which it stands; one Nation, indivisible, with Liberty and Justice for all"

Song, "The Star Spangled Banner"



Remarks by teacher or pupil in charge

Song, "The Star Spangled Banner," School, led by school orchestra

Oration, "Flag Day Address" (by President Wilson), Eighth grade boy

Recitation, "The Name of Old Glory" (by James Whitcomb Riley)

Song, "The Unfurling of the Flag" (by Clara Endicott Sears)

"Why we should love the Flag" (Best original speech by grade pupil)

Recitation, "Old Flag" (by Hubbard Parker)

Song, "We'll Keep Old Glory Flying" (by Carleton S. Montanye)

Flag drill and grand march, All pupils of grades 5, 6, 7, 8

Presentation of new flag by father of pupil

Flag Raising

Flag Salute: "I pledge allegiance to my flag and to the Republic for which it stands; one Nation, indivisible, with Liberty and Justice for all"

Song, "America"


On the 2d of July, 1776, the American Congress resolved "that these united colonies are, and of right ought to be, free and independent states; and that all political connection between us and the states of Great Britain is, and ought to be, totally dissolved." On the 4th of July a Declaration of Independence was adopted by the Congress, and sent out under its authority, to announce to all other nations that the United States of America claimed a place among them. On this 4th of July the nation was born. Its flag, the visible symbol of its power, was not adopted till 1777.

On the 14th of June, 1777, Congress resolved "that the flag of the thirteen United States be thirteen stripes, alternate red and white; that the union be thirteen stars, white in a blue field, representing a new constellation."

The national flag—our national flag—grew in the most direct way out of the banners that had waved over the colonists. The flag of the United Colonies had thirteen stripes, one for each colony, and the stripes were alternate red and white. This part of the old flag remained unchanged in the new one. Each colony retained its stripe.

The flag of the colonies, in its union, had displayed the king's colors. There was now no longer a king in America, but a new Union had arisen—a Union of Thirteen States—no longer a Union of kingdoms. The union of the old flag had been the crosses of St. George and St. Andrew conjoined on a blue field. The new union was a circle of silver stars in a blue sky—"a new constellation."

The flag of the United States was derived from the flag of the United Colonies in the simplest and most natural manner. The old flag had expressed the hopes and aspirations of thirteen colonies which had united in order to secure justice from their king and fellow-countrymen in England. The new flag expressed the determined resolve of the same thirteen [146] colonies—now become sovereign states—to form a permanent Union, and to take their place among the nations of the world. They were no longer Englishmen; they were Americans.

Many suggestions have been made to account for the appearance of stars or of stripes in the new flag. It seems unnecessary to seek for any explanation other than the one that has just been given. The old flag of the United Colonies expressed the feelings and aspirations of the revolted English colonists. They were willing to remain as subjects of the English king, but they had united to secure justice. The new flag expressed their firm resolve to throw off the yoke of England and to become a new nation. The symbols of each flag exactly expressed the feeling of the men who bore it.

There is a resemblance between the colors and symbols of the new flag and the symbols borne on the coat of arms of General Washington that is worthy of remark. General Washington was a descendant of an English family, and his ancestors bore a coat of arms that he himself used as a seal, and for a book-plate.

It has been supposed that the stars of the American flag were suggested by the three stars of this coat of arms, and this is not impossible. General Washington was in Philadelphia in June, 1777, and he is said to have engaged Mrs. John Ross, at that time, to make the first flag, though this is not absolutely certain.

However this may be, it is known that the American flag of thirteen stars and of thirteen stripes was displayed at the siege of Fort Stanwix in August, 1777; at the battle of Brandywine on September 11; at Germantown on the 4th of October; at the surrender of the British under General Burgoyne on October 17. The flag had been adopted in June of the same year. The vessels of the American navy flew this flag on the high seas, and their victories made it respected everywhere....

The treaty of peace between England and the United States was signed (at Paris, France) on September 3, 1783. This was the acknowledgment of Great Britain of the independence of her former colonies; and the other nations of Europe stood by consenting. Our flag was admitted, at that time, on equal terms with the standards of ancient kingdoms and states, to the company of the banners of the world....

In April, 1818, the Congress passed "An Act to Establish the Flag of the United States":

"Section I. Be it enacted, etc., That from and after the fourth day of July next, the flag of the United States be thirteen horizontal stripes, alternate red and white; that the Union have twenty stars, white in a blue field.

"Section II. And be it further enacted, That on the admission of every new state into the union, one star be added to the union of the flag; and that such addition shall take effect on the fourth of July next succeeding such admission. Approved, April 4, 1818."

No changes (other than the addition of new stars) have been made in the national flag since 1818. The stars have been added, one by one, until in 1898 there are forty-five in all. Every state has its star; each of the original thirteen states has its stripe.


So long as the United States exists the flag will remain in its present form, except that new stars will be displayed as the new states come in. It will forever exhibit the origin of the nation from the thirteen colonies, and its growth into a Union of sovereign states.

Edward S. Holden


This morning, as I passed into the Land Office, The Flag dropped me a most cordial salutation, and from its rippling folds I heard it say: "Good-morning, Mr. Flag-Maker."

"I beg your pardon, Old Glory," I said, "aren't you mistaken? I am not the President of the United States, nor a member of Congress, nor even a general in the army. I am only a Government clerk."

"I greet you again, Mr. Flag-Maker," replied the gay voice. "I know you well. You are the man who worked in the swelter of yesterday straightening out the tangle of that farmer's homestead in Idaho, or perhaps you found the mistake in that Indian contract in Oklahoma, or helped to clear that patent for the hopeful inventor in New York, or pushed the opening of that new ditch in Colorado, or made that mine in Illinois more safe, or brought relief to the old soldier in Wyoming. No matter; whichever one of these beneficent individuals you may happen to be, I give you greeting, Mr. Flag-Maker."

I was about to pass on, when the Flag stopped me with these words:

"Yesterday the President spoke a word that made happier the future of ten million peons in Mexico; but that act looms no larger on the flag than the struggle which the boy in Georgia is making to win the Corn Club prize this summer.

"Yesterday the Congress spoke a word which will open the door of Alaska; but a mother in Michigan worked from sunrise until far into the night, to give her boy an education. She, too, is making the flag.

"Yesterday we made a new law to prevent financial panics, and yesterday, maybe, a school teacher in Ohio taught his first letters to a boy who will one day write a song that will give cheer to the millions of our race. We are all making the flag."

"But," I said impatiently, "these people were only working!"

Then came a great shout from The Flag:

"The work that we do is the making of the flag.

"I am not the flag; not at all. I am but its shadow.

"I am whatever you make me, nothing more.

"I am your belief in yourself, your dream of what a people may become.

"I live a changing life, a life of moods and passions, of heartbreaks and tired muscles.

"Sometimes I am strong with pride, when men do an honest work, fitting the rails together truly.

"Sometimes I droop, for then purpose has gone from me, and cynically I play the coward.

"Sometimes I am loud, garish, and full of that ego that blasts judgment.


"But always I am all that you hope to be, and have the courage to try for.

"I am song and fear, struggle and panic, and ennobling hope.

"I am the day's work of the weakest man, and the largest dream of the most daring.

"I am the Constitution and the courts, statutes and the statute makers, soldier and dreadnaught, drayman and street sweep, cook, counselor, and clerk.

"I am the battle of yesterday, and the mistake of tomorrow.

"I am the mystery of the men who do without knowing why.

"I am the clutch of an idea, and the reasoned purpose of resolution.

"I am no more than what you believe me to be and I am all that you believe I can be.

"I am what you make me, nothing more.

"I swing before your eyes as a bright gleam of color, a symbol of yourself, the pictured suggestion of that big thing which makes this nation. My stars and my stripes are your dream and your labors. They are bright with cheer, brilliant with courage, firm with faith, because you have made them so out of your hearts. For you are the makers of the flag and it is well that you glory in the making."

Franklin K. Lane


[I] From the Biographical Edition of the Complete Works of James Whitcomb Riley, copyright 1913. Used by special permission of the publishers, The Bobbs-Merrill Company.

Old Glory! say, who,
By the ships and the crew,
And the long, blended ranks of the gray and the blue—
Who gave you, Old Glory, the name that you bear
With such pride everywhere
As you cast yourself free to the rapturous air
And leap out full-length, as we're wanting you to?—
Who gave you that name, with the ring of the same,
And the honor and fame so becoming to you?—
Your stripes stroked in ripples of white and of red,
With your stars at their glittering best overhead—
By day or by night
Their delightfulest light
Laughing down from their little square heaven of blue!—
Who gave you the name of Old Glory?—say, who—
Who gave you the name of Old Glory?
The old banner lifted, and faltering then
In vague lisps and whispers fell silent again.
Old Glory—speak out!—we are asking about
How you happened to "favor" a name, so to say,
That sounds so familiar and careless and gay
As we cheer it and shout in our wild breezy way—
We—the crowd, every man of us, calling you that—
We—Tom, Dick and Harry—each swinging his hat
And hurrahing "Old Glory!" like you were our kin,
When—Lord!—we all know we're as common as sin!
And yet it just seems like you humor us all
And waft us your thanks, as we hail you and fall
Into line, with you over us, waving us on
Where our glorified, sanctified betters have gone—
And this is the reason we're wanting to know—
(And we're wanting it so—
Where our own fathers went we are willing to go)—
Who gave you the name of Old Glory—O-ho!—
Who gave you the name of Old Glory?
The old flag unfurled with a billowy thrill
For an instant, then wistfully sighed and was still.
Old Glory: the story we're wanting to hear
Is what the plain facts of your christening were—
For your name—just to hear it,
Repeat it, and cheer it, 's tang to the spirit
As salt as a tear;—
And seeing you fly, and the boys marching by,
There's a shout in the throat and a blur in the eye
And an aching to live for you always—or die,
If dying, we still keep you waving on high.
And so, by our love
For you, floating above,
And the scars of all wars and the sorrows thereof,
Who gave you the name of Old Glory, and why
Are we thrilled at the name of Old Glory?
Then the old banner leaped, like a sail in the blast,
And fluttered an audible answer at last.
And it spake, with a shake of the voice, and it said:
By the driven snow-white and the living blood-red
Of my bars, and their heaven of stars overhead—
By the symbol conjoined of them all, skyward cast,
As I float from the steeple, or flap at the mast,
Or droop o'er the sod where the long grasses nod—
My name is as old as the glory of God.
... So I came by the name of Old Glory.

James Whitcomb Riley




We'll keep Old Glory flying fair,
No matter where we are;
We'll let the breeze caress each stripe
And proudly kiss each star.
'Twill never know the despot's heel,
This Banner of the Free.
We'll keep Old Glory flying high,
For Home and Liberty!
No matter where we go, or when,
No matter where we go,
Our starry flag in grandeur proud,
To us the way will show.
On foreign shores, afar from home,
We'll carry it on high,
And let the foeman know its might—
To honor it or die.

Carleton S. Montanye



Beneath our country's flag today,
We stand a children's band,
And to it now in loyalty
We pledge each heart and hand.
We love its colors as they wave
Beneath these summer skies,
The flag our fathers fought to save
Is sacred in our eyes.
Our country's flag, the dear old flag,
To it, ev'ry heart beats true!
We will follow far each gleaming star,
Our own red, white and blue.
'Neath each clust'ring fold, as in days of old,
It will gather those oppressed,
And secure from harm and from all alarm,
It will bid them safely rest.
To its slightest call, we will rally all;
Ev'ry pledge it makes to keep;
And it leads us forth over lands afar,
O'er the ocean's blue so deep.

Florence L. Dresser



What shall I say to you, Old Flag?
You are so grand in every fold,
So linked with mighty deeds of old,
So steeped in blood where heroes fell,
So torn and pierced by shot and shell,
So calm, so still, so firm, so true,
My throat swells at the sight of you, Old Flag.
What of the men who lifted you, Old Flag,
Upon the top of Bunker Hill?
'Mid shock and roar and crash and scream,
Who crossed the Delaware's frozen stream,
Who starved, who fought, who bled, who died,
That you might float in glorious pride, Old Flag?
What of the women brave and true, Old Flag,
Who, while the cannon thundered wild,
Sent forth a husband, lover, child,
Who labored in the field by day,
Who, all the night long, knelt to pray,
And thought that God great mercy gave,
If only freely you might wave, Old Flag?
What is your mission now, Old Flag?
What but to set all people free,
To rid the world of misery,
To guard the right, avenge the wrong,
And gather in one joyful throng
Beneath your folds in close embrace
All burdened ones of every race, Old Flag.
Right nobly do you lead the way, Old Flag.
Your stars shine out for liberty,
Your white stripes stand for purity,
Your crimson claims that courage high
For Honor's sake to fight and die.
Lead on against the alien shore!
We'll follow you e'en to Death's door, Old Flag!

Hubbard Parker




There's a streak across the skyline
That is gleaming in the sun,
Watchers from the lighthouse towers
Signalled it to foreign Powers
Just as daylight had begun,
Message thrilling,
Hopes fulfilling
To those fighting o'er the seas.
"It's the flag we've named Old Glory
That's unfurling to the breeze."
Can you see the flashing emblem
Of our Country's high ideal?
Keep your lifted eyes upon it
And draw joy and courage from it,
For it stands for what is real,
Freedom's calling
To the falling
From oppression's hard decrees.
It's the flag we've named Old Glory
You see floating in the breeze.
Glorious flag we raise so proudly,
Stars and stripes, red, white and blue,
You have been the inspiration
Of an ever growing nation
Such as this world never knew.
Peace and Justice,
Freedom, Progress,
Are the blessings we can seize
When the flag we call Old Glory
Is unfurling to the breeze.
When the cry of battling nations
Reaches us across the space
Of the wild tumultuous ocean,
Hearts are stirred with deep emotion
For the saving of the race!
Peace foregoing,
Aid bestowing,
First we drop on bended knees,
Then with shouts our grand Old Glory
We set flaunting to the breeze!

Clara Endicott Sears



Your flag and my flag,
And how it flies today
In your land and my land
And half a world away!
Rose-red and blood-red
The stripes forever gleam;
Snow-white and soul-white—
The good forefathers' dream;
Sky-blue and true blue, with stars to gleam aright—
The gloried guidon of the day; a shelter through the night.
Your flag and my flag!
And, oh, how much it holds—
Your land and my land—
Secure within its folds!
Your heart and my heart
Beat quicker at the sight;
Sun-kissed and wind-tossed—
Red and blue and white.
The one flag—the great flag—the flag for me and you—
Glorified all else beside—the red and white and blue!
Your flag and my flag!
To every star and stripe
The drums beat as hearts beat
And fifers shrilly pipe!
Your flag and my flag—
A blessing in the sky;
Your hope and my hope—
It never hid a lie!
Home land and far land and half the world around,
Old Glory hears our glad salute and ripples to the sound!

Wilbur D. Nesbit


There are many flags in many lands,
There are flags of every hue,
But there is no flag in any land
Like our own Red, White, and Blue.
Then "Hurrah for the flag!" our country's flag,
Its stripes and white stars, too;
There is no flag in any land
Like our own Red, White, and Blue.

Mary Howlister


This flag, which we honor and under which we serve, is the emblem of our unity, our power, our thought and purpose as a nation. It has no other character than that which we give it from generation to generation. The choices are ours. It floats in majestic silence above the hosts that execute those choices, whether in peace or in war. And yet, though silent, it speaks to us—speaks to us of the past, of the men and women who went before us, and of the records they wrote upon it.

We celebrate the day of its birth; and from its birth until now it has witnessed a great history, has floated on high the symbol of great events, of a great plan of life worked out by a great people. We are about to carry it into battle, to lift it where it will draw the fire of our enemies. We are about to bid thousands, hundreds of thousands, it may be millions, of our men—the young, the strong, the capable men of the nation—to go forth and die beneath it on fields of blood far away....

Woe be to the man, or group of men, that seeks to stand in our way in this day of high resolution, when every principle we hold dearest is to be vindicated and made secure for the salvation of the nations. We are ready to plead at the bar of history, and our flag shall wear a new luster. Once more we shall make good with our lives and fortunes the great faith to which we were born, and a new glory shall shine in the face of our people.

Woodrow Wilson

From Flag Day Address, June 14, 1917


In the War of 1812, when an attack was being made upon Fort McHenry, Mr. Key and his friend were on board an American vessel just in sight of the enemy's fleet and the flag of Fort McHenry. They remained on board all through the night, holding their breath at every shell that went careering over among their countrymen in the fort, and every moment expecting an explosion.

Suddenly the firing ceased, and as they had no connection with the enemy's ships they could not find out whether the fort had been abandoned, or the siege given up. For the remainder of the night they paced to and fro upon the deck in terrible anxiety, longing for the return of the day, and looking every few moments at their watches to see how long they must wait for it.

Light came at last, and they could see that our flag was still there. At length they were told that the attack had failed and that the British were re-embarking.

The words of the "Star Spangled Banner" were written by Mr. Key, as he walked the deck in the darkness and suspense.

In less than an hour after it went into the printer's hands it was all over town, was hailed with joy, and at once took its place among our national pieces.

Ferdinand Durag, an actor, saw it, and catching up a volume of flute music, he whistled tune after tune; at length, he chanced upon one called [155] "Anacreon in Heaven," and as note after note fell from his lips, he cried, "Boys, I've hit it!" Then, taking up the words, there rang out for the first time the "Song of the Star Spangled Banner." How the men shouted and clapped!

The actor sang it in public. It was caught up in camps, sung around bivouac fires, and whistled in the streets. When peace was declared and the people scattered to their homes, it was sung around thousands of firesides.


Oh, say, can you see, by the dawn's early light,
What so proudly we hailed at the twilight's last gleaming,
Whose broad stripes and bright stars, through the perilous fight,
O'er the ramparts we watched were so gallantly streaming?
And the rockets' red glare, the bombs bursting in air,
Gave proof through the night that our flag was still there.
Oh, say, does that star-spangled banner yet wave
O'er the land of the free and the home of the brave?
On the shore dimly seen through the mists of the deep,
Where the foe's haughty host in dread silence reposes,
What is that which the breeze, o'er the towering steep,
As it fitfully blows, half conceals, half discloses?
Now it catches the gleam of the morning's first beam,
In full glory reflected, now shines on the stream;
'Tis the star-spangled banner; oh, long may it wave
O'er the land of the free and the home of the brave.
Oh, thus be it ever, when freemen shall stand
Between their loved homes and the war's desolation,
Blest with victory and peace, may the Heav'n-rescued land
Praise the Power that hath made and preserved us a nation.
Then conquer we must, when our cause it is just,
And this be our motto: "In God is our trust!"
And the star-spangled banner in triumph shall wave
O'er the land of the free and the home of the brave.

Francis Scott Key

A man came from Europe to this country, and went to Cuba in 1867. He was arrested as a spy, court-martialed and condemned to be shot. He sent for the American and English consuls, and proved to them that he was not a spy. They went to one of the Spanish officers and said, "This man you have condemned to be shot is an innocent man." The Spanish officer said, "The man has been legally tried by our laws and condemned, and the law must take its course and the man must die." The next morning the man was led out; the grave was already dug for him, the black cap was put on him, the soldiers were there ready to receive the order "Fire," and in a few moments the man would be shot and put in that [156] grave. Then the American consul took the American flag and wrapped it around the prisoner, and the English consul took the English flag and wrapped it around him, and they said to those soldiers, "Fire on those flags if you dare!" Not a man dared. Why? There were two great governments behind those flags.

Let us love our flag, because behind it is "the greatest of the best and the best of the great of all governments."

I have told the story of the making of an American. There remains to tell how I found out that he was made and finished at last. It was when I went back to see my mother once more and, wandering about the country of my childhood's memories, had come to the city of Elsinore There I fell ill of a fever and lay many weeks in the house of a friend upon the shore of the beautiful Oeresund. One day when the fever had left me they rolled my bed into a room overlooking the sea. The sunlight danced upon the waves, and the distant mountains of Sweden were blue against the horizon. Ships passed under full sail up and down the great waterway of the nations. But the sunshine and the peaceful day bore no message to me. I lay moodily picking at the coverlet, sick and discouraged and sore—I hardly knew why myself. Until all at once there sailed past, close in shore, a ship flying at the top the flag of freedom, blown out on the breeze till every star in it shone bright and clear. That moment I knew. Gone were illness, discouragement and gloom! Forgotten weakness and suffering, the cautions of doctor and nurse. I sat up in bed and shouted, laughed and cried by turns, waving my handkerchief to the flag out there. They thought I had lost my head, but I told them no, thank God! I had found it, and my heart, too, at last. I knew then it was my flag; that my children's home was mine, indeed; that I also had become an American in truth. And I thanked God, and, like unto the man sick of the palsy, arose from my bed and went home, healed.

Jacob A. Riis

From "The Making of an American"



Hats off!
Along the street there comes
A blare of bugles, a ruffle of drums,
A flash of color beneath the sky:
Hats off!
The flag is passing by!
Blue and crimson and white it shines,
Over the steel-tipped, ordered lines.
Hats off!
The colors before us fly;
But more than the flag is passing by.
Sea-fights and land-fights, grim and great,
Fought to make and to save the State:
Weary marches and sinking ships;
Cheers of victory on dying lips;
Days of plenty and years of peace;
March of a strong land's swift increase;
Equal justice, right and law,
Stately honor and reverend awe;
Sign of a nation, great and strong
To ward her people from foreign wrong;
Pride and glory and honor—all
Live in the colors to stand or fall.
Hats off!
Along the street there comes
A blare of bugles, a ruffle of drums;
And loyal hearts are beating high:
Hats off!
The flag is passing by!

Henry Holcomb Bennett


In no case should the flag be permitted to touch the ground, nor should it be marred by advertisements, nor desecrated on the stage.

For indoor decorations the flag should only be used as a drapery; it should not be used to cover a bench or table, or where anything can be placed upon the flag.

No words, figures, pictures or marks of any kind should be placed upon the flag.

When our national flag and state or other flags fly together, or are used in decoration, our national flag should be on the right.

Whenever possible the flag should always be allowed to fly in the breeze from a staff or mast, but if it should be necessary to fasten it to the side of a building or platform, it should hang with the blue field at the upper left hand corner. If hung where it can be seen from both sides, the blue field should be toward the east or north.

The correct salute to the flag as required by the regulations of the United States army is:

Standing at attention, raise the right hand to the forehead over the right eye, palm downward, fingers extended and close together, arm at an angle of forty-five degrees. Move hand outward about a foot, with a quick motion, then drop it to the side.

The oath of allegiance to the flag, adopted by the N. S. D. A. R., and by our military schools, the Boy Scouts and other organizations, and which should be taught in all our public schools is:


"I pledge allegiance to my flag, and to the Republic for which it stands: one Nation indivisible, with liberty and justice for all."

When the colors are passing on parade or in review, the spectator should, if a man or boy, stand at attention and uncover.

When the "Star Spangled Banner" is played, all present should rise and stand at attention until the ending.

When the flag is displayed at half mast, for mourning, it is lowered to that position from the top of the staff. It is afterward hoisted to the top before it is finally lowered.

When the flag is flown at half staff as a sign of mourning it should be hoisted to full staff at the conclusion of the funeral.

When used on a bier or casket at a funeral, the stars should be placed at the head.

Our most important holidays (when the flag should be displayed at full staff) are: Lincoln's Birthday, February 12; Washington's Birthday, February 22; Arbor Day; Memorial Day, May 30; Flag Day, June 14; Independence Day, July 4; Columbus Day, October 12; Thanksgiving Day, and State Day.

The flag should not be hoisted before sunrise or allowed to remain up after sunset.

At "retreat," sunset, civilian spectators should stand at "attention" and the men should remove their hats during the playing of the "Star Spangled Banner." Military spectators are required by regulation to stand at "attention" and give the military salute.

When the national colors are passing on parade, or in review, spectators should, if walking, halt, and if sitting, rise and stand at attention, the men removing their hats.


See Bibliography at end of monograph.







Armstrong, W. C. Patriotic poems of New Jersey. New Jersey Society Sons of the American Revolution

Bacon, Corinne, comp. One thousand good books for children. Wilson[J]

[J] This bibliography contains references to books and parts of books for the different holidays.

Bates, E. W. & Orr, W. Pageants and pageantry. Ginn

Bemis, K. I., Holtz, M. S. & Smith, H. L. Patriotic reader. Houghton

Broadhurst, Jean & Rhodes, Clara L. Verse for patriots. Lippincott

Chambers, R. Book of days. Lippincott

Chubb, Percival. Festivals and plays. Harper

Craig, Mrs. A. A. The dramatic festival. Putnam

Davis, H. C. ed. Three minute declamations for college men. Hinds

Davis, H. C. ed. Three minute readings for college girls. Hinds

Deems, E. M. Holy-days and holidays. Funk

Dynes, S. A. Socializing the child. Silver Burdette (Chapters VII and VIII for teachers' reading)

Horsford, I. M. Stories of our holidays. Silver Burdette

Mackay, C. D. How to produce children's plays. Holt

Mackay, C. D. Patriotic plays and pageants. Holt

Mackay, C. D. Plays of the pioneers. Harper

McSpadden, J. W. Book of holidays. Crowell

Needham, M. M. Folk festivals. Huebsch

Olcott, F. J. ed. Good stories for great holidays. Moffat

One hundred and one famous poems. Cable

Patten, H. P. The year's festivals. Estes

Paulsson, Emilie. Holidays songs and everyday songs and games. Milton Bradley Co.

Rice, S. S. Holiday selections. Penn

Schauffler, R. H. ed. Our American holiday series. Moffat Separate volumes on Arbor Day, Flag Day, Lincoln's Birthday, Memorial Day, Thanksgiving, Washington's Birthday

Stevenson, B. E. Days and deeds. Baker & Taylor

Stevenson, B. E. Home book of verse. Holt

Thorp, J. & Kimball, R. Patriotic pageants of today. Holt

Watkins, D. E. & Williams, R. E. The forum of democracy. Allyn



McNaught, M. S. Training in courtesy. (U. S. Bureau of Education bulletin no. 59, 1917)


Brooks, E. S. The true story of Christopher Columbus. Lothrop

Colombo, Fernando. The discovery of America; from the Life of Columbus by his son. (Old South Leaflets, vol. 2, no. 29)

Fiske, John. The discovery of America. 2 vols. Houghton

Irving, Washington. Columbus; his life and voyages. (Heroes of the Nation Series)

Mackie, C. P. With the Admiral of the ocean sea; a narrative of the first voyage to the western world, drawn mainly from the diary of Columbus. McClurg

Moores, C. W. Life of Christopher Columbus for boys and girls. Houghton

Seelye, Mrs. E. E. The story of Columbus. Appleton

Trenton State Normal School—Junior Class. Columbus Day; a dramatic festival. (Manuscript at Trenton State Normal School Library)

Winsor, Justin. Christopher Columbus, and how he received and imparted the spirit of discovery. Houghton


Kellogg, A. M. How to celebrate Thanksgiving and Christmas. Penn

Schauffler, R. H. ed. Thanksgiving. Moffat

Schell, S. Thanksgiving celebrations. Werner.

Sindelar, J. C. Thanksgiving entertainments. Flanagan.

Trenton State Normal School. Thanksgiving Day. Crowell Publishing Co. (Woman's Home Companion)


Andrews, Mary R. S. The perfect tribute. Scribner

Arnold, I. N. Life of Abraham Lincoln. McClurg

Baldwin, James. Four great Americans, Washington, Franklin, Webster, Lincoln. American Book Co.

Brooks, E. S. The true story of Abraham Lincoln. Lothrop

Brooks, Noah. Abraham Lincoln, and the downfall of American slavery. Putnam

Coffin, C. C. Abraham Lincoln. Harper

Gordy, W. F. Abraham Lincoln. Scribner


Hill, F. T. Lincoln, the lawyer. Houghton

MacKaye, Percy. Lincoln centenary ode. Macmillan

Moores, C. W. Life of Abraham Lincoln for boys and girls. Houghton

Morgan, James. Abraham Lincoln, the boy and the man. Macmillan

Morse, J. T. Abraham Lincoln. 2 vols. Houghton

Nicolay, J. G. Boy's life of Abraham Lincoln. Century

Nicolay, J. G. Short life of Abraham Lincoln. Century

Nicolay, J. G. & Hay, John. Abraham Lincoln. 10 vols. Century

Nicolay, J. G. & Hay, John. Complete works of Abraham Lincoln. 2 vols. Century

Putnam, M. L. Children's life of Abraham Lincoln. McClurg

Robinson, L. E. Abraham Lincoln as a man of letters. Reilly

Rothschild, Alonzo. Lincoln, master of men. Lane

Schauffler, R. H. ed. Lincoln's Birthday. Moffat

Schurz, Carl. Abraham Lincoln. Houghton

Selby, Paul. Anecdotal Lincoln. Thompson

Tarbell, I. M. Life of Abraham Lincoln. 2 vols. Doubleday

Whipple, Wayne. The story-life of Lincoln. Winston


Brooks, E. S. The true story of George Washington. Lothrop

Carrington, H. B. Washington, the soldier. Scribner

Ford, P. L. The true George Washington. Lippincott

Ford, W. C. George Washington. Small

Hapgood, Norman. George Washington. Macmillan

Haworth, P. L. George Washington: farmer. Bobbs-Merrill

Headley, J. T. Washington and his generals. Scribner

Hill, F. T. On the trail of Washington. Appleton

Irving, Washington. Life of George Washington. 8 vols. Putnam

Irving, Washington. Washington and his country. ("Life" abridged for schools) Ginn

Kellogg, A. M. How to celebrate Washington's Birthday. Penn

Lodge, H. C. George Washington. 2 vols. Houghton

MacKaye, Percy. Washington, the man who made us. Knopf

Schauffler, R. H. ed. Washington's birthday. Moffat

Scudder, H. E. George Washington. Houghton

Seawell, M. E. Virginia cavalier. Harper

Seelye, Mrs. E. E. Story of Washington. Appleton

Sindelar, J. C. Washington day entertainments. Flanagan.

Trent, W. P. Southern statesmen of the old régime. Crowell

van Dyke, Henry. Americanism of Washington. Harper

Whipple, Wayne. Story-life of Washington. 2 vols. Winston



Revell, E. I. Arbor Day exercises for the schoolroom. Educational Publishing Co.

Schauffler, R. H. ed. Arbor Day. Moffat

Skinner, C. R. Arbor Day manual. Bardeen


Andrews, M. P. The American's creed and its meaning. Doubleday

Hale, E. E. The man without a country

Revell, E. I. Memorial Day exercises for the schoolroom. Educational Publishing Co.

Schauffler, R. H. ed. Memorial Day. Moffat

United States Committee on Public Information. Battle line of democracy


Canby, George & Balderston, Lloyd. Evolution of the American flag. Ferris & Leach

Harrison, P. D. The stars and stripes and other American flags. Little, Brown & Co.

Holden, E. S. Our country's flag and the flags of foreign countries. Appleton

Ide, E. K. History and significance of the American flag. (Published by the author)

National Geographic Magazine. Flag number, October 1917

Preble, G. H. History of the flag of the United States of America, and other national flags. Williams

Schauffler, R. H. ed. Flag Day. Moffat

Schell, Stanley. Flag Day program. Werner

Stewart, C. W. The stars and stripes. Boylston Publishing Co.

Tappan, E. M. Little book of the flag. Houghton

U. S. Navy Department. Flags of the maritime nations



Adams, John, 107
Address to America, Walt Whitman, 54
After the great companions, Frank Crane, 134
America, William Cullen Bryant, 55
America's answer, R. W. Lillard, 138
Arbor Day, 109-24

Babcock, Maltbie D., 23
Bailey, 22
Baker, George C., 125
Battle hymn of the republic, Julia Ward Howe, 132
Beecher, Henry Ward, 88, 142
Bennett, Henry Holcomb, 156
Bibliography, Katharine B. Rogers, 159-64
Bixby letter, Abraham Lincoln, 82
Blue and the Gray, The, Francis Miles Finch, 130
Boy Columbus, The, 44
Boy that hungered for knowledge, The, 86
Bridges, Madeline S., 22
Bryant, William Cullen, 55
Bryce, James, 107
Butterworth, Hezekiah, 49

Campbell, Mary R., 40
Cat and his servant, The, Alice Lewis, 31
Chastelleux, Marquis, 108
Chew, Hannah H., 141-158
Choate, Rufus, 107
Civility, selections from rules of, 99
Collins, William, 126
Columbus, Christopher, A dreamer they called him, 42
Columbus and the egg, 45
Columbus dared to cross the sea, 41
Columbus sailed over waters blue, 36
Columbus was a sailor bold, 39
Crowning Columbus, 37
Discovery Day, 41
I'll wave my flag for Discovery Day, 38
My beautiful flag, 38
My little ship, 38
We are jolly little sailors, 36
What we can do, 37
Columbus, Joaquin Miller, 52
Columbus Day, Fitchburg (Massachusetts) Normal School, 45;
J. Cayce Morrison, 33-57
Columbus game, 38
Columbus play, Mary R. Campbell, 40
Cotton, history of, Bessie O'Hagen, 28
Courtesy is to do and say, 22
Crane, Frank, 134

Davis, K. C., 121
Depew, Chauncey Mitchell, 50
Discovery Day, 41
Discovery of America, Washington Irving, 49
Dresser, Florence L., 150

Emerson, Ralph Waldo, 54, 60

Fabricant, Josephine M., 135
Farber, Florence L., 24
Finch, Francis Miles, 130
Fitchburg (Massachusetts) Normal School, 45
Flag, American, brief history of, Edward S. Holden, 145
[166] Flag, story about, 155
Flag Day, Hannah H. Chew, 141-58
Flag etiquette, rules for, 157
Flag goes by, Henry Holcomb Bennett, 156
Flag of Spain, 42
Folsom, Joseph Fulford, 84
Forests, value of, U. S. Bureau of Education, 123
Foster, Henry W., 89
Froude, James Anthony, 23

Gaskill, Alfred, 112
Gettysburg Speech, Abraham Lincoln, 79
Gordon, Charles C., 139
Gordon, John B., 133
Green, J. R., 90, 96
Gregg, David, 134
Guitteau, William Backus, 56

Hale, Edward Everett, 50
Hamilton grove, planting of, Charles A. Philhower, 119
Harte, Bret, 129
Haver, Jennie, 13
Hay, John, 134
Hazard, Caroline, 56
Holden, Edward S., 145
Houghton, George W. W., 53
Howe, Julia Ward, 132
Howlister, Mary, 153

I have a son, Emory Pottle, 136
If you have faith, 23
Immortal morn, Hezekiah Butterworth, 49
In Flanders Fields, John McCrae, 138
Irving, Washington, 49, 53

Jusserand, J. J., 94

Kendall, C. N., 7, 9, 111, 112
Key, Francis Scott, 155
Kilmer, Joyce, 110
Kindness is catching, 23
Kipling, Rudyard, 131

Lane, Franklin K., 139, 147
Lee, Henry, 107
Lewis, Alice, 31
Lillard, R. W., 138
Lincoln, Abraham, 79, 82, 96
Lincoln, Acrostic, 84
Lincoln and Judge B. ... swap horses, 87
Lincoln's autobiography, 81
Lincoln's Birthday, Charles A. Philhower, 69-88
Lincoln's honesty, 86
Lincoln's humor, 87
Lincoln's kindness of heart, 86
Lincoln's speeches, sayings from, 82
Logan, John A., 134
London Newspaper, 108
Lossing, Benson J., 52
Lowell, James Russell, 34

McCrae, John, 138
McSpadden, J. Walker, 97
Makers of the flag, Franklin K. Lane, 147
Memorial Day, George C. Baker, 125-39
Miller, Joaquin, 52
Montanye, Carleton S., 150
Morning exercises, Florence L. Farber, 24;
    Jennie Haver, 13
Morrison, J. Cayce, 33

Name of Old Glory, James Whitcomb Riley, 148
Nesbit, Wilbur D., 153

O Captain, my Captain, Walt Whitman, 83
O'Hagen, Bessie, 28
Old Flag, Hubbard Parker, 151
On a portrait of Columbus, George Edward Woodberry, 54
Opening exercises, 11-32;
—— Louis H. Burch, 13
Our country's flag, Florence L. Dresser, 150
Our flag, Mary Howlister, 153
Our national ideals, William Backus Gitteau, 56

Parker, Hubbard, 151
Philhower, Charles A., 69, 119
[167] Pottle, Emory, 136

Recessional, Rudyard Kipling, 131
Reveille, The, Bret Harte, 129
Riis, Jacob A., 156
Riley, James Whitcomb, 148
Rogers, Katharine B., 159

Sailor, story of, 96
Sears, Clara Endicott, 152
Second inaugural address, Abraham Lincoln, 79
Service flag, The, Josephine M. Fabricant, 135
Service flag, The, U. S. Bulletin, 135
Shaffer, Roy L., 59-67
Shakespeare, William, 12
Sleep of the brave, The, William Collins, 126
Smith, Laura Rountree, 38, 39
Somebody did a golden deed, 22
Star spangled banner, Francis Scott Key, 155
"Star spangled banner," story of, 154
Stars and Stripes, Henry Ward Beecher, 142
Stelzle, Charles, 57
Stevenson, Robert Louis, 23
Stewart, Judd, 87
Suggestions to teachers, K. C. Davis, 121

Thanksgiving Day, Roy L. Shaffer, 59-67
Thayer, Louis E., 22
There's so much bad, 23
Thing to do is hope, The, 23
Thompson, James, 23
Thwing, E. P., 133
Trees, Joyce Kilmer, 110
Trees and forests, Alfred Gaskill, 112
Truth is honest, 22

U. S. Bureau of Education, 123
Unfinished work, Joseph Fulford Folsom, 84
Unfurling of the flag, The, Clara Endicott Sears, 152

van Dyke, Henry, 95, 108

Washington, Abraham Lincoln, 96
Washington, George, life of, J. Walker McSpadden, 97
    How did George Washington look, 95
    Lend a hand, 95
    Washington as he looked, 94
Washington's Birthday, Henry W. Foster, 89-108
Washington's Farewell address, 102
Washington's Farewell to the army, 102
Washington's sayings, 101
We thank Thee, Ralph Waldo Emerson, 60
We'll keep Old Glory flying, Carleton S. Montanye, 150
Western land, The, Caroline Hazard, 56
Whitman, Walt, 54, 83
Wilson, James Grant, 52
Wilson, Woodrow, 139, 154
Wise old owl, A, 23
Woodberry, George Edward, 54
Woodbury, Ida Vose, 70
Wordsworth, William, 23

Your flag and my flag, Wilbur D. Nesbit, 153

Transcriber Note

Some formatting was standardized between sections. Page breaks moved to blank lines. Paragraphs split by images were rejoined. Cover image was produced from materials obtained on The Internet Archive and is placed in the Public Domain.