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Title: Chronicles of England, Scotland and Ireland (2 of 6): England (09 of 12)

Author: Raphael Holinshed

Release date: August 24, 2014 [eBook #46668]

Language: English

Credits: Produced by Richard Tonsing, Jonathan Ingram and the Online
Distributed Proofreading Team at


The cover image was created by the transcriber and is placed in the public domain.

[Pg 478]

surnamed Longshanks, the eldest sonne of Henrie the third.

Table of Contents Added by Transcriber

The copie of the Charter in French.
In English thus.
The copie of the second charter touching the possession of the land, in French.
The same in English.
The forme and tenor of the homage doone by the Scots.
The copie of the writ for the deliuerie of the castels.
In English thus.
The forme of the fealtie of Iohn Balioll king of Scots to the king of England in protestation.
The forme of the king of Scots homage to king Edward, in action.
The instrument of the said submission.
The instrument of the homages of the lords of Scotland to K. Edward.
The tenour of the foresaid letter indited and directed to pope Boniface.
An extract of the foresaid writ, as it is registred in the booke that belonged to the abbeie of Abington.

An. Reg. 1.

Edward, the first of that name after the conquest, began his reigne ouer this kingdome of England, the 16 day of Nouember, in the yeare of the world, 5239, of our Lord 1272, of the Saxons 814, after the conquest 206, the vacation of the empire after the deceasse of Frederike the second as yet induring (though shortlie after in the yeare next following, Radulfe of Habspurge was elected emperour) in the third yeare of Philip the third then reigning in France, and Alexander the third yet liuing in gouernement of the Scottish kingdome.

Matth. West.
A new seale made.
Chro. Dun.
Matth. Westm.
Guy de Mōtfort excommunicated.

This Edward the first, when his father died, being about the age of 35 yeares, was as then in the holie land, or rather in his iournie homewards: but wheresoeuer he was at that present, the nobles of the land, after his father was departed this life, assembled at the new temple in London, and causing a new seale to be made, they ordeined faithfull ministers and officers, which should haue the treasure in kéeping, and the administration of iustice for the maintenance of peace and tranquillitie within the land, and on the 22 day of Nouember he was proclaimed king. Who after he had remained a time in the holie land, and perceiued himselfe destitute of such aid as he looked for at the hands both of the Christians and Tartarians, he left in the citie of Acon certeine stipendarie soldiers, and taking the sea sailed homewards, arriuing first in Sicill, where, of Charles K. of that land he was honorablie receiued and conueied, till he came vnto Ciuita Vecchia in Italie, where pope Gregorie as then laie with his court, of whome (as of his old fréend that had béen with him in the holie land) he obteined that earle Aldebrandino Rosso, and Guy of Montfort, that had murthered the lord Henrie, eldest sonne to Richard king of Almaine, might be sent for. Earle Aldebrandino purged himselfe, but Guy de Montfort was excōmunicated, as a violator of the church, a murderer and a traitor, so as he was disherited euen vnto the fourth generation, till he had reconciled himselfe to the church, as he was inioined.

After this, it is woonderfull to remember with what great honor king Edward was receiued of the cities, as he passed through Tuscaine and Lumbardie. At his comming ouer the mounteins at Chalon in Burgundie, he was at a iusts and tornie, which then was there holden by the Frenchmen against the Englishmen, the honor whereof remained with the Englishmen. In this tornie the fight of the footmen was great: for the Englishmen being sore prouoked, slue manie of the French footmen, but bicause they were but rascals, no great accompt was made of them, for they were vnarmed, gaping for the spoile of them that were ouerthrowen. K. Edward passing foorth came to the French court, where of his coosine germane king Philip he was ioifullie receiued. Here king Edward, dooing homage to the French king for the lands which he ought to hold of him in France, passed into Guien.

Anno Reg. 2.
Matth. Westm.
A disme grāted to the king & his brother.

[Pg 479]

Nic. Triuet.
King Edward his returne home.
Matth. West.

A tenth was granted of the cleargie to the K. and to his brother Edmund earle of Leicester and Lancaster by the popes appointment for two yeares, a chapleine of the pope a Gascoine borne named Reimond being sent into England for that purpose, who gaue part vnto them, and part thereof he kept to himselfe towards his charges, but the most part was reserued to the popes disposing. ¶ Whilest the king remained in Gascoigne, he had somwhat to do against certeine rebels, as Gaston de Bierne, and other that were reuolted from him. The castels belonging to the said Gaston he subdued, but his person he could not méet with. Finallie, after he had set things in order as well in Guien as in other places in the parts of beyond the seas, he hasted homewards, and came to London on the second day of August, where he was receiued with all ioy that might be deuised. The stréets were hanged with rich cloths of silke, arras, and tapestrie, the aldermen and burgesses of the citie threw out of their windowes handfuls of gold and siluer, to signifie the great gladnesse which they had conceiued of his safe returne: the conduits ran plentifullie with white wine and red, that ech creature might drinke his fill. Vpon the 19 day of August, in this second yeare of his reigne he was crowned at Westminster, togither with his wife quéene Elianor, by the hands of Robert Kilwarbie archbishop of Canturburie.


At this coronation were present Alexander king of Scots, and Iohn earle of Britaine, with their wiues that were sisters to K. Edward. The king of Scots did homage vnto king Edward for the realme of Scotland, in like maner as other the kings of Scotland before him had doone to other kings of England ancestours to this king Edward. At the solemnitie of this coronation there were let go at libertie (catch them that catch might) fiue hundred great horsses by the king of Scots, the earles of Cornewall, Glocester, Penbroke, Warren, & others, as they were allighted frō their backs. ¶ On S. Nicholas euen there chanced such an earthquake with lightning and thunder, and therewithall the appearing of the burning drake, and a blasing starre called a comet, that the people were brought into no small feare vpon consideration thereof. But now to the point of the historie.

An. Reg. 3.
A parlement. The statutes of Westminster. The prince of Wales Leolin.

King Edward at the first like a prudent prince chose the wisest and worthiest men to be of his councell, & to purchase the loue of his subiects, whose minds were somewhat offended towards his father (by reason that he refused to kéepe promise with them, touching the restitution of gentle and fauourable lawes) king Edward shewed himselfe so gentle towards all degrées of men, that he séemed to excéed the reasonable bounds of courteous humanitie, much more than became his roiall estate. After this he reformed diuerse lawes and statutes, and deuised some new ordinances, greatlie for the wealth of the realme. He held his first parlement at Westminster, where the ordinances were made, called the statutes of Westminster the first.

The king cōmeth to Chester.

To this parlement was Leolin the prince of Wales summoned to come and doo his homage, hauing béene requested first to come to the kings coronation, but he refused; and now hauing summons to come to this parlement, he excused himselfe, affirming that he durst not come for feare of certeine noblemen that laie in wait for his life, requiring to haue pledges deliuered for his safe comming and going, the kings sonne, and Gilbert earle of Glocester, with Robert Burnell the lord chancelor. The king was greatlie offended with such a presumptuous demand, but passed it ouer, till after the end of the parlement, & then repairing to Chester he sent eftsoones messengers to the said Leolin, requiring of him to come & doo his homage, but he still detracted time, so that in the end the king raised an armie, meaning to recouer that by force, which otherwise he could not obteine by quiet meanes. ¶ This yéere the people paid a fiftéenth to the king of all their temporall goods, which was said to be granted first to his father.

Matth. Westm.
Breton bishop of Hereford departeth this life.
It rained bloud.

[Pg 480]

An. Reg. 4.
The earle of Montforts daughter appointed wife to the prince of Wales taken.
Leolin prince of Wales beginneth to make wars.
Matth. West.

The same yéere departed this life Iohn Breton bishop of Hereford, who being verie expert in the lawes of the land, compiled a booke of them called Le Breton. The 11 of September, a generall earthquake chanced betwixt the first houre and the third of the same daie, the church of S. Michaell on the hill without Glastenburie, was therwith throwne down to the ground. After this, it rained bloud in the countrie of Wales, as a prodigious euill token to that nation, with whose bloud shortlie after that region was in manie places moistened and stained. For as it chanced shortlie after, Leolin the sonne of Griffin came to haue the gouernment of Wales, who partlie to raise new seditions in England, and partlie to purchase him friendship and aliance in France, sent vnto king Philip, requiring of him that he might haue in marriage the ladie Elianor daughter to Simon Montfort earle of Leicester, the which togither with hir mother and brother Emerike, remained as banished persons in France. The French king granted his request, and sent hir vnder the conduct of hir said brother to be conueied into Wales vnto Leolin, who had promised to marrie hir. But yer they approched to Wales, at the Ile of Sillie both the brother & sister were taken by foure ships of Bristow, the owners whereof that so tooke them, sent them vnto king Edward. When Leolin vnderstood that his wife was taken from him by the waie as she was comming, he was not a little wroth, and incontinentlie began to make warre vpon king Edwards subiects that bordered néere vnto Wales, killing the people, spoiling their goods, and burning vp their townes and houses on each side.

Matth. Westm.
The excheker and the kings bench remoued to Shrewesburie.

Herewith the king of England was so mooued, that although the said Leolin made sute for peace, and offered no small sum of monie to haue the daughter of the earle of Leicester his fianced wife deliuered to him, yet would not the king by any meanes consent to that marriage, nor receiue any monie of him, except he would restore vnto the right owners such lands as he had inuaded and got into his possession, and further repaire such castels as he had destroied. Herevpon grew no small grudge betwixt the Welshmen and Englishmen, so that to represse the inuasion of the enimies in the parts towards Bristow, Mountgomerie and Chester, the king sent thrée hundred men in armes on horssebacke. In the quindene of Easter, the king departing from Westminster, hasted towards Wales with a mightie power, and caused the courts of the excheker and of his bench to remooue vnto Shrewesburie, that they might be néere vnto him, making forward with all conuenient spéed to come to the aid and succour of his liege people.

The castell of Rutland taken.
An. Reg. 5.
The castell of Stridewie. Leolin sueth for peace.

Hervpon entring into Wales he tooke the castell of Rutland, and sent into Westwales a valiant capteine named Paine de Camureijs, who with fire and sword wasted that countrie, so that the people offering themselues to the kings peace, deliuered vnto the said Paine the castell of Stridewie with the countrie adioining. Then Leolin the prince of Wales, perceiuing that he was not able to resist the kings power, and knowing that if he did attempt the conflict against him the danger would redound to himself & his traine, did as th' old verse counselleth,

Peruigili cura semper meditare futura,
N. Triuet.
Cōmissioners appointed.

and therefore made suit for peace, in so much that finallie it was agréed, that commissioners for both parts should talke concerning certeine articles, and whatsoeuer they concluded, aswell the king as the said Leolin should hold the same for firme and stable. The king appointed one of his commissioners, to wit, the lord Robert de Tiptost, to take an oth for him, & authorised the said Robert Anthonie Beke, and frier William de Southampton, prior prouinciall of the friers preachers, commissioners, nominated on his behalfe, to receiue the like oth of the said Leolin. Which Leolin appointed commissioners for his part, Tuder ap Edeuenet, and Grono ap Helin, the which commissioners with good deliberation concluded vpon certeine points and articles, of which the principall were as followeth.


First, that the said Leolin should set at libertie all prisoners which he held in captiuitie for the king of Englands cause, fréelie and without all challenge.


Secondlie, that to haue peace and the kings of Englands fauour, he should giue vnto the said king fiftie thousand pounds sterling, the daies of the paiement whereof to rest in the kings will and pleasure.


Thirdlie, that the land of the foure cantreds without all contradiction should remaine for euer to the king and his heires, with all lands conquered by the king and his people, the Ile of Anglesey excepted, which Ile was granted to the prince, so that he should paie for the same yearelie the summe of one thousand marks, and fiue thousand marks for an income. Prouided, that if the prince chanced to die without issue, then the said Ile to reuert againe into the kings hands.

[Pg 481]


Fourthlie, that the prince shall come to Rothelan or Rothland (as it is commonlie called) there to doo fealtie to the king, and before his comming thither, he should be absolued and haue the interdiction of his lands released, and at his being at Rothelan, a daie shall be appointed him by the king for his comming to London, there to doo his homage. Herevpon was order taken for his safe conduct, aswell in his comming to Rothelan, as to London. There be that write that he was appointed to come vnto London, at the feast of the natiuitie of our Lord.


Fifthlie, it was couenanted, that all the homages of Wales should remaine to the king, except onelie of fiue barons which inhabited néere vnto the castell of Snowdon: for otherwise the said Leolin could not conuenientlie call himselfe prince, except he had some barons vnder him.


Sixtlie, that he should receiue the title and name of prince so long as he liued, and after his deceasse the homages of those fiue barons should reuert to the king and to his heires for euer.

N. Triuet.
Dauid Leolins brother prouided for.

Seuenthlie the king granted vnto the said Leolin, the lands that belonged to his brother Dauid, for tearme of the said Leolins life, and in recompense thereof was contented to satifie the said Dauid with other lands in some other place, the which after the decease of the said Leolin or Dauid should reuert to the king and his heires.

An oth to be receiued.

For the assurance of which articles and couenants the prince deliuered for hostages ten persons of the best in Wales, which he could get, without imprisonment, disheriting, or terme of deliuerance: and of euerie cantred twentie persons, of the best and most sufficient, to be chosen by such as the king shall send thither yéerelie, & shall from yéere to yéere be sworne vpon the euangelists, in presence of the bailiffes of the said Leolin, that whensoeuer the prince shall breake any of these articles, and vpon admonition dooth not reforme himselfe, they shall forsake him, and in all things, being vnto him open enimies, shall beare him deadlie hostilitie.

Leolins brethren.
Dauid rewarded by king Edward.
Dauid preferred in marriage.

Besides this, the prince shall (as farre as in him may lie) pacifie his brethren, of the which he had put two in prison, Owen and Roderike: the third named Dauid, escaping his hands, fled into England, and remained many yéeres with king Edward, who receiuing him into his seruice, made him knight in this warre, and gaue vnto him a castell at Denbigh in Wales, with lands to the yéerelie value of a thousand marks, in recompense of those possessions which he ought to haue had in Anglesey, the which (as before is said) the king granted vnto Leolin for tearme of his life, and after his deceasse to reuert vnto the king and to his heires. Moreouer, he preferred Dauid to the marriage of a iollie widowe, that was daughter to the earle of Darbie.

The article concerning Owen.

As concerning Owen, through the kings fauour he was deliuered out of prison, by force of the articles concluded at this present by the commissioners, vnder this forme and maner: that vpon his being set at libertie, certeine persons appointed by the king should make offer to him, to choose whether he would first compound with his brother, and therevpon come to the king, and beséech him to allow the composition, or else to put himselfe vnder the safe kéeping of the king, till according to the lawes and customes of Wales, in the place where he did transgresse, iudgement should be giuen of the matter: and if he were acquit, then might he demand his heritage if he thought it so expedient: and which of these two waies he should choose, the same should be made firme and stable in the kings presence.

All these articles, with other additions, were accorded by the said cōmissioners at Aberconweie, on the tuesdaie before the feast of S. Martine, in the yeare 1277, and letters of confirmation made thereof by the king, dated at Rutland on the tenth daie of Nouember, in the fift yéere of his reigne. Also the said Leolin, by the name of Leolin ap Griffin prince of Wales, with letters vnder his seale, confirmed the abouesaid articles on his behalfe, for the releasing of his right to the foure cantreds and other things that should remaine to the king, which letters bare date at Aberconweie, on the foresaid tuesdaie in the said[Pg 482] yéere 1277. Also the K. released to the said Leolin, the said summe of fiftie thousand pounds, and the said summe of a thousand marks yéerelie to be paid for the Ile of Anglesey, as by his letters dated at Rutland on the said 10 daie of Nouember in the said fift yéere of his reigne more at large it appéereth. Neuerthelesse by his letters dated at Rutland, on the said eleuenth of the said month of Nouember, it is euident that he receiued of the said Leolin the summe of two thousand marks sterling, by the hands of Thomas Beke kéeper of his wardrobe.

The castell of Lamperdeuaur built.
An. Reg. 6.
Leolins wife restored to hir husband.
Statues of Glocester.

Moreouer, the king in the west part of Wales built at the same time a castle at Lamperdeuaur, to kéepe vnder the rebellious attempts of the Welshmen. King Edward gaue in marriage by waie of restitution to the fore-remembred Leolin prince of Wales the earle of Leicesters daughter, which was taken (as ye haue heard) at the Ile of Sillie. He also bare all the charges of the feast at the daie of the marriage, and honoured the same with the presence of himselfe and the quéene. ¶ A subsidie of the twentieth part of euerie mans goods was granted to the king towards his charges susteined in the Welsh warres. Moreouer, in the sixt yéere of his reigne K. Edward held a parlement at Glocester, in the which were certeine acts and statutes made for the wealth and good gouernment of the realme, which vnto this daie are called the statutes of Glocester. ¶ Alexander king of Scots came into England, to common with K. Edward, of matters touching his kingdome of Scotland. ¶ Shortlie after king Edward went ouer into France, and there receiued certeine townes that were restored to him, but not the moitie of those that were promised to his father, when he released his title vnto the dutchie of Normandie.

The archbish. of Canturburie being made cardinal resigneth his archbishoprike.
Iohn Peckham archbish. of Canturburie.
Clippers of monie.
An. Reg. 7.
Nic. Triuet.

Robert Kilwarbie archbishop of Canturburie, was by pope Nicholas aduanced to the dignitie of a cardinall, and made bishop of Portua, so that he went to Rome, and gaue ouer the archbishoprike of Canturburie to the which through the popes grant frier Iohn Peckham was admitted archbishop. This yéere there was inquirie made in London for such as had clipped, washed, & counterfaited the kings coine, wherevpon the Iewes of the citie and diuerse goldsmiths that kept the exchange of siluer were indited, and after to the number of two hundreth foure score and seuentéene persons were condemned, and in diuers places put to execution. There were but 3. Englishmen among them, all the residue were Iewes; but diuerse christians that were participants with them in their offenses were put to their fines, and not without iust cause.

Chron. Dunst.
The castels of Flint & Rutland built.
Leolin beginneth new war.

About the same time the king remooued all such shiriffes as were either préests or strangers, and in their places appointed knights to be shiriffes, that were of the same countrie were their offices laie. Moreouer, about this season king Edward builded the castell of Flint, and fortified the castell of Rutland and others, placing garrisons of Englishmen in the same to defend the countrie, and to kéepe the Welshmen vnder obedience. But Leolin so smallie regarded all couenants made, and benefits receiued, that shortlie after, vpon the death of his late married wife, being summoned to come to a parlement holden by king Edward, he disdained to obeie, and vpon a verie spite began to make new warre to the Englishmen, in wasting and destroieng the countrie: notwithstanding king Edward had so manie waies doone him good, and had giuen him iust cause of thankfulnesse, which is the common reward of benefits, and which little recompense whoso neglecteth to make, being but a little lip-labour,

Non est laudari dignus, nec dignus amari.
He sueth for peace.
The statute of Mortmaine.

But being put in feare with the kings comming towards him with his power, he laid armor aside, and began eftsoones to require peace, which the king now the second time did not denie to grant; bicause he would not lose time to warre with the mounteins, woods and marishes, the places of refuge for Welshmen in those daies, when they wanted power to abide battell and kéepe the féelds. About the same time the king gaue vnto Dauid the brother of Leolin the lordship of Frodesham in Cheshire, and made him knight. Moreouer, in this yeare the king held a parlement, in which the statute of Mortmaine was established.

[Pg 483]

A synod at Reading.

Frier Iohn Peckham, whome the pope had alreadie consecrated archbishop of Canturburie, being the 47 in number that had gouerned the said sée, came this yeare ouer into England to supplie the roome. ¶ Also Walter Gifford archbishop of Yorke departed this life, in whose place succéeded William Wickham, the 37 archbishop there. The archbishop of Canturburie held a synod at Reading about the latter end of Iulie, wherin he renewed the constitutions of the generall councell, as thus: That no ecclesiasticall person should haue aboue one benefice to the which belonged cure of soule; and againe, that all those that were promoted to any ecclesiasticall liuing, should receiue the order of priesthood within one yere after his being promoted therevnto.

The kings coine amended.

In this yeare the king tooke order for the amending of his monie and coine, which in that season was fowlie clipped, washed and counterfeited by those naughtie men the Iewes, and other, as before you haue partlie heard. The king therefore in the octaues of the Trinitie sent foorth commandement to all the shiriffes within the land, that such monie as was counterfeited, clipped or washed, should not be currant from thencefoorth: and furthermore he sent of his owne treasure, good monie and not clipped, vnto certeine cities and townes in the realme, that exchange might be made with the same till new monie were stamped. About the third daie of August, the first exchange was made of the new monie of pence and farthings; but yet the old monie went all this yeare togither with the new, and then was the old coine generallie forbidden, and commandement giuen by publike proclamation, that from thencefoorth it should no more be allowed for currant. Herewith also halfpence, which had béene stamped in the meane time, began to come abroad the same day in which the old monie was thus prohibited.

An. Reg. 8.
N. Triuet.
A shift to get monie.

The lord Roger Mortimer kept a great feast at Killingworth, with iusts and triumphs of an hundred knights and as manie ladies, to the which resorted lords, knights, & gentlemen from diuerse countries and lands, to shew proofe of their valiancie in the practise of warlike feats and exercises. In the meane season king Edward standing in néed of monie, deuised a new shift to serue his turne, as this: namely that whereas he was chéefe lord of many lordships, manours, possessions and tenements, he well vnderstood, that partlie by length and proces of time, and partlie by casualties during the troubles of the ciuill warres, manie mens euidences, as their charters, déeds, copies and other writings were lost, wasted, and made awaie, he therfore vnder colour to put the statute of (Quo Warranto) in execution which was ordeined this yeare in the parlement holden at Glocester in August last past (as some write) did now command by publike proclamation, that all such as held any lands or tenements of him, should come and shew by what right and title they held the same, that by such meanes their possessions might returne vnto him, by escheat as chéefe lord of the same, and so to be sold or redéemed againe at his hands.

Ordinances for monie.
The saieng of the earle of Surrie.

This was thought to be so sore a proclamation, as that a more gréeuous had not lightlie béen heard of. Men in euerie place made complaint and shewed themselues gréeuouslie offended, so that the king by meanes thereof came in great hatred of his people: but the meane sort of men, though they stood in defense of their right, yet it auailed them but little, bicause they had no euidence to shew, so that they were constreined to be quiet with losse, rather than to striue against the streame. Manie were thus called to answer, till at length the lord Iohn Warren earle of Surrie, a man greatlie beloued of the people, perceiuing the king to haue cast his net for a preie, and that there was not one which spake against him, determined to stand against those so bitter and cruell procéedings. And therefore being called afore the iustices about this matter, he appeared, and being asked "by what right he held his lands?" suddenlie drawing foorth an old rustie sword; "By this instrument (said he) doo I hold my lands, and by the same I intend to defend them. Our ancestors comming into this realme with William the Conquerour, conquered their lands with the sword, and with the same will I defend me from all those that should be about to take them from me; he did not make a conquest of this realme alone, our progenitors were with him as participants and helpers."

[Pg 484]

The king vnderstanding into what hatred of his people by this meanes he was fallen, and therfore desirous to auoid ciuill dissention and war that might thereby insue, he left off his begun practise: so that the thing which generallie should haue touched and béene hurtfull to all men, was now suddenlie staied by the manhood and couragious stoutnesse onelie of one man, the foresaid earle, who in his rare act of defending cōmon equitie against the mightie in authoritie (who spared not to offer extreme iniurie) shewed himselfe a verie true and naturall branch of nobilitie,

—— cupit quæ grandia semper,
Vilia contemnit, quæ sursum tendere vt ignis
Nititur, & summas penetrat velut ardea nubes.
A synod at Lambeth.
A parlement.
The archbishop of Yorke.
The archbishop of Canturburie.

The archbishop of Canturburie held an other synod at Lambeth, in the which he receiued and confirmed the orders and constitutions decréed and established by the legats Otho and Othobone, in councels by them kept here within this realme, adding diuerse other of his owne: & in the same councell he went about to adnihilate certeine liberties belonging to the crowne, as the taking knowledge of the right of patronages and the kings prohibitions In placitis de catallis, and such like, which séemed méerlie to touch the spiritualtie. But the king by some in that councell withstood the archbishop openlie, and with menaces staied him from concluding any thing that might preiudice his roiall liberties and prerogatiues. King Edward held a parlement at London, in the which he demanded a fiftéenth of the cleargie, which latelie before he had got of the temporaltie. The archbishop of Yorke was content at the first to grant this fiftéenth to be paid of the cleargie within his diocesse in two yeares; but the archbishop of Canturburie held off, and required respit till the next parlement to be holden after Easter, and then he granted vnto the king the dismes of all his cleargie for thrée yeares, that in some point he might be different from the archbishop of Yorke.

An. Reg. 9.
The feast of the round table holden at Warwike.
Dauid the brother of Leolin reuolteth, and becommeth a rebell.
The lord Clifford taken.

In the ninth yeare of king Edwards reigne, the feast of the round table was kept at Warwike with great and sumptuous triumph. Whilest these things were in dooing, Dauid brother to Leolin prince of Wales, forgetting the great benefits which he had receiued at the hands of king Edward, became his aduersarie, and caused his said brother the prince of Wales with a great number of other noble men of that countrie to rebell: and to incourage them the sooner to attempt the warre, he began the first exploit himselfe, taking the said lord Roger Clifford (a right worthie and famous knight) in his castell of Hawardine, vpon Palmesundaie, the said lord being in no doubt of any such matter. Diuerse knights and other that were in the same castell at that time, and made resistance, were slaine.

The castell of Rutland besieged.
The castell of Lamperdeuaux taken.
Emericke de Montfort set at libertie.
Leolin and other the Welsh rebels accurssed.

After this the foresaid Dauid returned to his brother the prince, and therewith assembling an armie, they went both togither and besieged the castell of Rutland. King Edward at the same time being in the parts about Salisburie, where he kept his Easter at the Vies, sent out commissioners to leauie an armie, and commanded such men of warre as he had then in a readinesse, to hast foorth to the rescue of the castell of Rutland. And in the meane time, the castell of Lamperdeuaux was taken by Rice ap Malgone and Griffith ap Meridoc. Also diuerse other castels were taken by other of the Welsh nobilitie. Moreouer, about this time by the labour and suit of Iohn the archbishop of Canturburie, Emericke de Montfort, which had béene reteined in prison (sith that he was first taken togither with his sister at the Ile of Sillie by the Bristowmen) was now set at libertie and permitted to returne into France. The said archbishop of Canturburie was sent into Wales to persuade Leolin and his brother with the other rebels vnto peace and quietnesse, but returning into England, without bringing anie thing to passe, he denounced them accurssed.

An. Reg. 10.

[Pg 485]

The king entreth into Wales.
The mariners of the cinque ports.

The king hasted foorth to come to the rescue of his people, wherevpon Leolin and his brother Dauid retired with their people to Snowdon hilles, and fortified the castell there with a strong garrison of men. The king entring into Wales, when he heard that his enimies were withdrawne into the mounteins, passed foorth till he came néere vnto them, where he pitched downe his field, and the next day causing his horssemen to issue foorth of the campe, filled all the plaines which compasse the foot of those hilles (aswell on the east side as toward the south) with the same horssemen, and herewith placed his footmen more aloft on the side of the hilles in couert: this doone he prouoked his enimie to come foorth to fight, but when he saw this would not be, then that he might stop them from all places of refuge, he caused his ships to take the Isle of Anglesey, bicause the Welshmen vsed to flie thither oftentimes for their safegard, in the which enterprise the mariners of the cinque ports bare themselues right manfullie.


After this, ioining certeine vessels togither, he caused a bridge to be made in the riuer of Meneth, into the which an other small riuer falleth that riseth at the roots of those hilles of Snowdone, to kéepe the enimies from lodging on the further side of that riuer. This bridge conteining roome for thréescore armed men to passe afront, was made ouer the riuer of Sient, by the which men saile into the Isle, which by the course of the sea ebbeth and floweth euerie twelue houres. But so it came to passe, that before the bridge was well boorded ouer, whilest the king yet remained at Aberconwaie, diuerse of the English nobilitie, to the number of seauen banerets with thrée hundreth armed men rashlie passed ouer, and as they surueied the foot of the mounteine, the tide began to come in so swiftlie, that where the Englishmen were aduanced a good prettie waie from the water side, they could not now get backe againe to the bridge which as yet was not fullie made vp.

The Englishmen distressed by Welshmen.
The lord Clifford.
Chron. Dunst.

The Welshmen perceiuing this, came downe beside the mounteine, and assailed the Englishmen verie fiercelie, and with their great multitude so oppressed them, that for feare the Englishmen were driuen to take the water, and so by reason they were loaden with armour, manie of them were drowned: and amongst other, that famous knight sir Lucas de Thanie, Robert Clifford, sir William Lindsey, and two gentlemen of good accompt that were brethren to Robert Burnell as then bishop of Bath. There perished in all (as some saie) thirtéene knights, seuentéene yoong gentlemen, and to the number of two hundred footmen. Yet sir William Latimer, as good hap would, escaped, and diuerse other. This mischance happened on S. Leonards day.

The earle of Glocester maketh warre on the Welshmen.
An. Reg. 11.
Leolin inuadeth the kings fréends.
The lord Gifford and Mortimer.

In this meane time in an other part of the countrie the earle of Glocester with an armie, made sore warre to the Welshmen, and néere vnto the towne called Lantilaware, fought a sore battell with them, in the which manie of the Welshmen being slaine, the earle lost also fiue knights vpon his partie, as William Valence the yoonger, being one of that number, who was the kings cousine. The earle of Glocester then departing from thence, Leolin the prince of Wales entered into the countrie of Cardigan and Stradwie, destroieng the lands of Rice ap Meridoc, which now held with the king against the said prince. At length, prince Leolin going towards the land of Buelth with a small companie, left his maine armie behind him aloft vpon the top of the mounteine, néere to the water called Waie, and he had set a number of his people to kéepe the bridge of Orewin: and so the Welshmen kept on the one side, and the Englishmen on the other, of whome were capteins the lord Iohn Gifford and the lord Edmund Mortimer, the which perceiuing the Welshmen that were readie to defend the bridge, and a great host of them vpon the top of the mounteine, they consulted togither what they were best to doo.

[Pg 486]

Helias Walewaine.
Prince Leolin slaine by Stephan de Franketon.

At length by the couragious exhortation of one Helias Walewaine they drew on the one hand alongst the riuer, where was a foord passable in déed, though not without danger: but yet the Englishmen by the conduct of the same Helias, got ouer by the same foord, so that it bare the name long after of Helias way. And so the Welshmen that kept the bridge (perceiuing the Englishmen to be got ouer vnto that side) fled, wherevpon the residue of the English armie passed ouer at the bridge, whereof rose a great noise which Leolin lurking not farre off might well heare, but yet at the first he could not be brought to thinke that by any possible means the Englishmen were got ouer to that side of the water. But yet perceiuing it to be true, he drue backe toward the heigth of the mounteine againe, neuerthelesse being discouered by one Stephan de Franketon, named by some writers Sward, he was so narrowlie pursued of the same Stephan, that he was ouertaken and slaine.

Leolins head presented to the king.

Stephan not knowing whome he had slaine, returned to the host, the which was now mounting vp the hill to ioine with the Welsh armie that stood still looking for the returne of their prince Leolin (though in vaine) yet they manfullie abode by their tackle, discharging plentie of arowes and darts at the Englishmen as they came vp towards them. The English archers which were mingled amongst the horssemen, paid them home againe with their shot, so that finallie the English horssemen, winning the top of the hill, slue manie of them standing stoutlie at defense, and put the residue to flight. Stephan Sward that had slaine Leolin, after the victorie was atchieued, rode to the dead bodie which he had slaine in the beginning of the battell, and vpon vew taken of him perceiued who he was, of which good hap the Englishmen were verie ioifull. His head was herewith cut off, which the lord Edmund Mortimer tooke with him vnto Rutland (where the king as then was lodged) vnto whome he presented it: and the king sent it vnto London, appointing that there should be an yuie crowne set vpon it, in token that he was a prince, and so being adorned, a horsseman carried it vpon the end of his staffe through Cheapside, holding it as he rode on heigth, that all men might sée it, till he came to the tower, & there it was pight vp aloft vpon one of the highest turrets, remaining there a long time after.

A prophesie fulfilled.
The Gascoigns pursue the Welshmen egerlie.

Thus was the prophesie fulfilled, which was told to him by an old woman taken for a southsaier, of whome he required to know how he should spéed in this warre, wherevnto she answered, that he should boldlie go forward in them, for he should ride with a crowne on his head through Cheapside: and so by the deceiuable prophesie he was deluded & brought to destruction. The incounter wherein the Welshmen were vanquished (as before ye haue heard) chanced on the fridaie before S. Lucies day. King Edward being certified thus of the victorie, streightwaies marched foorth with his people, and appointed at euerie passage certeine bands of souldiers to lie in wait for the enimies. Also at the foot of the hilles he left his horssemen, and mounted vp the hilles himselfe, with the residue of his armie. There were certeine Gascoignes, whome the lord Iohn Vescie had brought with him out of their countrie, to serue the king, which burned manie townes, and slue great numbers of the Welshmen, all that came in their waie, and finallie, giuing an assault to Snowdon castell, they wan it in fine by force.

In this meane time, the Welshmen, when they saw themselues inclosed, and stopped from all waies to escape, after the maner of wild beasts, fled into the thicke woods & caues, some of them making shift to get downe through the stéepe and broken rocks, and some of them séeking to escape by flight, fell into their enimies hands, & were either slaine or taken, and amongst these, about Midsummer was Dauid taken, togither with his wife, his two sonnes, and seauen daughters, and brought to the king, who sent them first to Rutland castell, there to be safelie kept.

Wales diuided into shires.

[Pg 487]

The Vale roiall built by K. Edward the first.
Rées ap Bouan yéeldeth himselfe vnto K. Edward.

King Edward hauing subdued the Welshmen that inhabited in the mountains, went about all the countrie to conquer the residue, assembling all his armie togither, and then pursuing his aduersaries, made great slaughter of them on each side, so that there were slaine aboue thrée thousand men: then hauing the countrie at his will, he gaue vnto the English lords townes in the middest of Wales, and diuided the countrie into shires, ordeined shiriffes, and other officers as then were vsed in England. At Aberconow he builded a strong castell, where before was an house of white moonks, the which he remooued to the Vale roiall in Chesshire, where he builded a faire abbeie of the Cisteaux order, and endowed it with great lands and reuenues. He also made and fortified the castell of Carnaruan fast by Snowdon, and repared againe the towne of Lambaterwhir, otherwise called Abreswich, which Leolin had before beaten downe. Also he placed English garrisons in the castels and holds by the sea sides, and made Englishmen lords of the grounds and possessions belonging to the same. Rées ap Bouan one of the chéefest and mightiest capteins of all Wales, which during the warres, had doone more displeasure to the Englishmen than any other, in spoiling their confines, and making great slaughters vpon them, vnderstanding now both of the death of prince Leolin, and the taking of his brother Dauid, and also perceiuing himselfe pursued on each side, at length yéelded himselfe and his complices to Humfrie de Bohun earle of Hereford, who straightwaies sent him to the king, and the king sent him to London, there to be kept prisoner in the tower.

A parlement at Shrewesburie.
Dauid condemned of treason.
He is executed.

Thus king Edward, hauing brought the rebellious Welshmen vnder his correction, appointed his generall lieutenant there, the lord Robert Tiptost, and when he had set all things in good order, about Michaelmas he came to Shrewesburie, where at a parlement by him there holden, the foresaid Dauid (that was brought thither) as chéefe procurer of all this warre, was condemned of treason, and was afterward executed, according to iudgement pronounced against him, that is to saie, he was hanged drawne and quartered. His head was sent to London, and set vp by the head of his brother Leolin. His quarters were diuided, and sent to be set vp on the gates of foure of the chéefest cities of England. This reward reaped he for his proditorious attempts, before God, angels, and men: an horrible punishment for an heinous offense; and no maruell, sith

Ante Dei vultum nihil vnquam restat inultum.
N. Triuet.

During these warres, the king had of the temporaltie, the thirtith part of all their goods, and of the spiritualtie, the twentith part, towards the maintenance of the same warres.

An. Reg. 12.
Edward the second borne.

The same yeare also after Michaelmas, the king held a parlement at Acton Burnell, wherein those statutes were ordeined, which vnto this daie beare the name of the place where they were made. In the twelfth yeare of this kings reigne, his eldest sonne Alfonse departed this life at Windsore, and on S. Markes daie his sonne Edward, that after succéeded him in the kingdome, was borne at Carnaruan, where the king had builded a strong castell, and was come thither with the quéene at that time, to sée the same. ¶ Also this yeare, in the quindene of saint Michaell, the iustices itinerants began to go their generall circuits.

A great tempest on Easter daie in the morning.

On Easter daie, which fell this yeare on the ninth of Aprill, being also leape yeare, in morning about the rising of the sunne, the element was shadowed with such darkenesse and thicknesse of aire, that it séemed to waxe night againe, and suddenlie rose an horrible tempest, first of haile and raine, and after of snow, that couered all the earth; and then followed such thunder and lightning, that men were maruellouslie amazed therewith, considering it séemed to be against the nature of the season, for scarse in Aprill shall yée heare anie such thunder. Yet at length it brake vp, and the element recouered hir accustomed cléerenesse.

An. Reg. 13.
Ambassadors from the French king.
William the archbishop of Yorke deceassed.
Iohn Roman archbishop of Yorke.
Marton colledge in Oxford built.

In the thirtéenth yeare of his reigne, king Edward kept his Christmasse at Bristowe, and held there a priuate councell, but no generall parlement; and this was the first time that anie English king can be remembred, to haue kept any solemne feast at Bristow. The king then leauing his court of chancerie at Bristow, with his children, came to London, where he had not béene almost of thrée yeares before. Héere came messengers to him from the French king, requiring him to come in person, with a certeine number of men of warre, to aid him in the warres against the king of Aragon, as of right he ought to doo, by reason of the dutchie of Guien which he held of him. The same yeare died William the archbishop of Yorke, after he had gouerned that sée six yeares, and then succéeded one Iohn surnamed Romane. About this season, was Marton colledge in Oxenford founded by Walter Marton that was lord Chancellour of England, and after bishop of Rochester. ¶ King Edward seized the franchises and liberties of London into his hands, and discharged Gregorie Rokkeslie the maior then being, and appointed for custos and gardian of the[Pg 488] citie, one Stephan Sandwich, the which from the day of the conuersion of saint Paule, till the monday following the Purification of our ladie, continued in that office, and was then discharged, and sir Iohn Breton knight charged therewith for the residue of the yeare. There is no certeine knowledge left in records, whie the king tooke such displeasure with the citie, saue that the said Gregorie Rokkeslie then maior, as the fame went, tooke bribes of the bakers, and suffered them to sell bread, lacking six or seauen ounces of weight in a penie lofe. ¶ The new worke of the church of Westminster, to the end of the quier, begun (as before is shewed) in the third yeare of king Henrie, was in this yeare fullie finished.

The death of the Scotish king.
Rich. South.

The ninetéenth of March, died Alexander king of Scotland, by a fall which he caught as he ran a stirring horsse: he left no issue behind him, nor any certeine knowne heire to succéed him, by reason wherof insued great harme to that relme (as in the Scotish historie may more at large appeare.) The manner of whose death (as in Richard Southwell I find it reported) I haue thought good bréeflie to touch, for that in recitall thereof, he somewhat disagréeth from the Scotish historie. There went (saith he) a common speach through Scotland all this yeare, before the kings death, that on the same ninetéenth of March the daie of iudgement should be: wherevpon, as the said king sat at dinner in the castell of Edenburgh, hauing a dish of excellent good lampries before him, he sent part thereof to one of the lords that sat at some other table not far from him, and willed him by the gentleman that bare it, to be merrie, and haue in mind that this was the day of doome. The lord sent him thanks againe, and praied the messenger to tell the king merilie, that if this were the daie of doome, they should rise to iudgement spéedilie with their bellies filled with good meats and drinks. After they had dined, and the night began to draw on, he tooke his horsse, and onlie accompanied with thrée gentlemen, would néeds ride to Kingorne, where the quéene his new wife then laie, and before he could get vnto Innerkenin, it was darke night, so that he tooke there two guides to lead him the waie: but they had not ridden past two miles, but that the guides had quite lost the waie, so that they were driuen to giue their horsses libertie to beat it out themselues.

Herewithall the king being seuered from his companie, how he ruled his horsse it is hard to saie, but downe he was throwne, and immediatlie died with the vehement fall which he thus caught, either headlong downe one of the cliffes or otherwise, and thus he came to his end, on a mondaie, being saint Cuthberts euen the ninetéenth of March (as before is noted) after he had reigned six & thirtie yeares and nine moneths, as the same Southwell saieth; who also (contrarie to that which Hector Boetius writeth) affirmeth, that the same daie was so tempestuous with wind, snow, haile and raine, that he and manie other that then liued and felt it, durst not vncouer their faces, in going abroad against the bitter northerne wind, that droue the snow and sléet most vehementlie vpon them. And although that such fowle weather might haue staied him from taking his iournie in that sort, yet he made no accompt thereof, as he that was accustomed to ride as well in fowle weather as faire, and spared neither for tempest, waters, nor craggie rocks, thicke nor thin; for all was one to him, oftentimes taking his iournie in disguised apparell, accompanied onlie with one seruant. But to returne vnto the dooings in England.

An. Reg. 14.
Thomas Piwilesdon a citizen of London.

[Pg 489]

He with other are banished the citie.
A new order for merchant strangers.
Strangers committed to the towre.

In this yeare the king tooke escuage, fortie shillings of euerie knights fée, towards the charges of his last wars in Wales. ¶ A parlement was holden at Westminster, at the which were made the statutes called Additamenta Glocestriæ, or rather the statutes of Westminster the second. In the fouretéenth yeare of king Edward, a citizen of London named Thomas Piwilesdon, who in time of the barons warres had béene a great dooer, to stir the people against king Henrie, was now accused, that he with other should go about to make new disturbance within the citie: whereof inquirie being made and had before sir Rafe Standish, then custos or gardian of the citie, the said Piwilesdon and other, to the number of fiftie, were banished the citie for euer. ¶ Also, whereas of old time before this season, the merchant strangers were vsed to be lodged within the dwelling houses of the citizens of London, and sold all their merchandize by procuration of their hosts, for the which their said hosts had a certeine allowance, after the rate of euerie pound: now it was ordeined, that the said merchant strangers might take houses to hire, for to inhabit therein, & for stowage of their wares, & no citizen to intermeddle with them or their wares: by reason whereof they vsed manie deceits, both in vttering counterfeit wares, and also vniust weights. Moreouer, much of those wares, which they should haue waied at the K. beame, they weighed at home within their houses, to the hinderance of the kings custome. Wherevpon search being made vpon a sudden, and their weights found and prooued false, twentie of the said strangers were arrested and sent to the towre, and their weights burnt, destroied and broken to péeces in Westcheape, on thursdaie before the feast of Simon and Iude. Finallie, the said merchants were deliuered, being put to a fine of a thousand pounds, after sore and hard imprisonment.

Nic. Triuet.
The king passeth ouer into France.

The Iewes in one night were generallie apprehended, and put in prison through all the parts of England, and so kept in durance, till they had fined at the kings pleasure. ¶ It is reported that the commons of England granted to the king the fift part of their mooueables, to haue the Iewes banished out of the land: but the Iewes, to put the Englishmen frō their purpose, gaue to the king great summes of monie, whereby they tarried yet a while longer. King Edward went ouer into France vpon the fiue and twentith of Maie, passing through Picardie vnto Amiens, and there the French king, to doo him honor, was readie to receiue him. Here king Edward did homage vnto the French king, for the lands which he ought to hold of him in France. And after, he was also present at a parlement, which the said French king held at Paris, in the which he obteined manie things for the liberties of his said lands, as then by diuerse waies wrongfullie oppressed, though such grant continued not long in force. After Whitsuntide, king Edward departed from Paris and went into Gascoigne, togither with his wife quéene Elianor, who was with him in all his iournie.

An. Reg. 15.
Rich. South.
Bristow faire robbed.
Variance betwixt the lord Paine Tiptost and Rice ap Meridoc.

This yeare the king went into Aragon, where his authoritie auailed much, in the making of agréement betwixt the kings of Aragon and Naples; whereby Charles king of Naples was then set at libertie, vpon certeine contracts or couenants passed and agréed betwixt them. ¶ The kings mother quéene Elianor this yeare forsooke the world, and tooke vpon hir the habit of a nunne at Ambresburie; but yet she still reteined and inioied hir dower by the popes authoritie and dispensation. About this time a squire called Chamberlaine, with his complices, set fire on the merchants boothes, at S. Butolphes faire; and whilest the merchants were about to quench the fire, the said squire and his complices set vpon the said merchants, slue manie of them, and robbed them of their goods. In this yeare fell variance betwéene the lord Paine Tiptost, wardeine of certeine castels in Wales, and a Welsh knight called sir Rées ap Meridoc, so that sundrie skirmishes were foughten betwixt them, and men slaine on both sides, to the great disturbance of the countrie.

N. Triuet.

The cause of this warre rose chéeflie, for that the said lord Tiptost, and the lord Alane Plucknet, the kings steward in Wales, would haue constreined the said Rées to appeare at counties and hundreds, as the vse in other parts of Wales then was, contrarie to such liberties as he had obteined of the king as he pretended. But when the king wrote vnto the same Rées, requiring him to kéepe the peace, till his returne (at what time he promised to reforme all things in due and reasonable order). Rées hauing alreadie put armour vpon his backe, would not now incline to any peace, but to reuenge his cause, assembled a great multitude of Welshmen, with whose helpe he burnt & destroied manie townes in Wales so that the K. being then beyond the seas, sent to the earle of Cornewall, whom in his absence he had appointed his lieutenant ouer England, requiring him to send an armie into Wales, to resist the malice and riotous attempts of the Welshmen. The earle shortlie therevpon prepared an armie, and went with the same into Wales, or (as other write) the bishop of Elie, the lord prior of S. Iohns, the earle of Glocester, and diuerse[Pg 490] barons of the land went thither, and chasing the said Rées, dispersed his armie, and ouerthrew and raced his castels, but by vndermining and reuersing the wals at the castell of Druslan, with the fall therof, the baron Stafford, and the lord William de Montchensie, with manie other knights and esquiers, were oppressed and brused to death. ¶ This yeare, the king at Blankfort in Gascoigne, tooke vpon him the crosse, purposing eftsoones to make a iournie against Gods enimies.

Chron. Dunst.

In the winter of this yeare great flouds chanced, by reason of the excéeding abundance of raine that fell: and the sea alongst the northeast coasts from Humber to Yarmouth, brake into the land, ouerflowing the same by the space of thrée or foure leagues in breadth (as the author of the Chronicle of Dunstable affirmeth) ouerthrowing buildings, and drowning vp men and cattell that could not auoid the danger by the sudden comming in thereof, namelie, about Yarmouth, Dunwich, and Gippeswich. Likewise in the Mers land of Lincolnshire it did passing great hurt, bringing all the countrie into water. This chanced in the verie night of the beginning of this yéere, to wit, in the feast of the circumcision of our Lord, and in December it brake out againe in Northfolke and Suffolke, where it did much harme, namelie about Yarmouth.

An. Reg. 16.
Chron. Dunst.
Nic. Triuet.
O woonder by thunder!
Ri. Southwell.

This yeare, and likewise the yeare last past, was such plentie of graine; that wheat was sold in some places of this land for twentie pence a quarter, and in some places for sixtéene pence, and pease for twelue pence a quarter. The summer this yeare excéeded in heat, so that men thorough the intemperate excesse thereof died in diuers places. ¶ It chanced in Gascoigne, that as the king & quéene sate in their chamber vpon a bed talking togither, the thunder-bolt comming in at the window behind them, passed through betwixt them as they sate, and slue two of their gentlemen that stood before them, to the great terror of all that were present. ¶ This yeare diuerse of those that robd the faire at Boston, were executed.

Ran. Higd.
N. Triuet.

Moreouer, whereas Rées ap Meridoc continued still in his mischieuous dooings, at length, the lord deputie of Wales, Robert Tiptost, vsing both spéedie diligence and timelie counsell, gathered all such power as he could make, & passed foorth against his aduersaries. Whereof when sir Rées was aduertised, and vnderstanding that the Englishmen were farre fewer in number than his Welshmen, he thought to ouerthrow them at his pleasure, and therefore incouraging his people with manie comfortable words, to shew their manhood vpon the Englishmens approch, he hasted to méet them. The Welshmen being for the more part but yoong souldiers, and not trained to kéepe any order of battell, ran fiercelie vpon their enimies, assailing them on the front before, on the sides a flanke, and on the backe behind, inforcing themselues to the vttermost of their power to breake their arraie.

The Welsh discomfited. Rées ap Meridoc taken.

But the Englishmen valiantlie resisted, so that there was a sore battell for a while, and the more couragiouslie the Welshmen assailed, the more stoutlie the Englishmen defended, in kéeping themselues close togither, and beating backe their aduersaries: and at length perceiuing them to faint and wax wearie, they rushed foorth into the middle of the Welshmen, & brake them in sunder, so that when they saw themselues thus repelled by the Englishmen, contrarie vnto all their expectation, they knew not what to doo, for they durst neither fight nor flée, and so by that meanes were beaten downe on euerie side. Meridoc himselfe was taken, but the most part of all his armie was slaine, to the number of foure thousand men. Thus were the Welshmen woorthilie chastised for their rebellion. Sir Rées ap Meridoc was had to Yorke, where at length, after the king was returned out of Gascoigne, he was hanged, drawen and quartered.

An. Reg. 17.

[Pg 491]

Hen. Marl.
A sore tempest of haile.
Ran. Higd.
A great dearth beginneth.

This yeare on S. Margarets euen, that is, the 9 daie of Iulie, fell a woonderfull tempest of haile, that the like had not béene séene nor heard of by any man then liuing. And after, there insued such continuall raine, so distempering the ground, that corne waxed verie deare, so that whereas wheat was sold before at thrée pence a bushell, the market so rose by little and little, that it was sold for two shillings a bushell, and so the dearth increased still almost by the space of 40 yeares, till the death of Edward the second, in so much that sometime a bushell of wheat London measure was sold at ten shillings.

Chron. Dun.
Thomas Weiland lord chéefe iustice of the kings bench.
Robert Malet.

The king, after he had remained and continued thrée yeares, two moneths, and fiftéene daies in Gascoine, and in other parts there beyond the sea, he returned into England on the fourth day of August, and vpon the euen of the Assumption of our ladie he came to London, where he was most ioifullie receiued, & so came to Westminster: where shortlie after were presented vnto him manie gréeuous complaints and informations against diuerse of his iustices, as sir Thomas Weiland, Adam Stretton, and others, the which were had in examination, and thervpon found giltie of manie trespasses and transgressions, in so much that it was giuen him to vnderstand, that there were among them that had giuen consent to the committing of murthers and robberies, and wittinglie had receiued the offendors. Wherevpon, the king caused streight inquirie to be made by an inquest of 12 substantiall personages, who found by verdict, that Thomas Weiland lord chéefe iustice of the kings bench, had caused a murther to be doone by his seruants, and after succoured and mainteined them: hervpon he was by the kings officers arrested, but escaping their hands, he tooke sanctuarie in the church of the friers minors at saint Edmundesburie, and was admitted into their habit, but within fourtie daies after, order was giuen by the king that no kind of vittels should be suffered to be conueied to that house, so that all the friers came foorth, except thrée or foure, and at length he was constreined to take vpon him a laie mans apparell, and comming foorth was deliuered to the hands of Robert Malet knight, who had before the custodie of him, and now hauing him againe brought him to the towre of London. At length, he was put to his choise of thrée waies, which soeuer of them he would take, that is, whether to be tried by his péeres, or to remaine in perpetuall prison, or to abiure the realme: he chose the last, and so bare-footed and bare-headed, bearing a crosse in his hand, he was conueied from the towre to Douer, where taking the sea, he was transported to the further side of the sea; his goods, mooueable and vnmooueable, being confiscate to the kings coffers.

William Brampton. Roger Leicester. Iohn Luneth.
Salomon de Roffa. Thomas de Sudington. Richard de Boiland. Walter Hoptō.
Rafe de Hingham.
Adam de Stratton, L. chéefe baron.
Henrie Braie.
Iohn de Metingham, and Elias de Bekingham.

William Brampton, Roger Leicester, Iohn Luneth, associats of the said Thomas, and iustices of the kings bench: also, Robert Lithburie chapleine, and maister of the rolles, being accused of wrongfull iudgements and other trespasses were committed to prison within the tower, and at length with much adoo, escaped with paieng their fines, so that he which paied least, gaue a thousand marks. Moreouer, Salomon of Rochester, Thomas de Sudington, Richard de Boiland, and Walter de Hopton, iustices itinerants, were likewise punished, and for the semblable offenses put to their fines. Sir Rafe de Hingham a iustice also, to whome in the kings absence the ordering of the realme chéefelie apperteined, being accused of diuerse transgressions, and committed to the tower, redéemed his offense for an infinit summe of monie. Adam de Stratton, lord chéefe baron of the excheker, being conuicted of manie hainous crimes, a man plentifullie prouided both of temporall possessions, and ecclesiasticall reuenues, lost all his temporall liuings, and foure and thirtie thousand marks in readie coine, beside other mooueables, in cattell, iewels and furniture of houshold, which were all confiscated, and forfeited wholie: and it was thought he was gentlie dealt with, that he escaped with life, and such spirituall liuings as to him remained. Henrie Braie escheator, and the iudges ouer the Iewes, were reported to haue committed manie gréeuous offenses, but for monie they bought their peace. To conclude, there was not found any amongst all the iustices and officers cléere and void of vniust dealing except Iohn de Metingham, and Elias de Bekingham, who onelie among the rest had behaued themselues vprightlie. When therfore such gréeuous complaints were exhibited to the king, he appointed the earle of Lincolne, the bishop of Elie, and others, to heare euerie mans complaint, and vpon due examination & triall, to sée them answered accordinglie as right and equitie should re[Pg 492]quire. In which administration of iustice against euill iusticiaries, the king performed the charge imposed and laid vpon all such as are in gouernement and magistracie; namelie,

Eob. Hess. in Psal. 2.
Nunc igitur reges resipiscite, quærite rectum,
Quorum iudicijs terra regenda data est.
An. Reg. 18.
H. Marle.
N. Triuet.
The statutes of Westminster the third established.
The Iewes banished out of England.
Iewes drowned.
Chro. Dun.

In the eightéenth yeare of his reigne, the king married two of his daughters, that is to saie, Ioane de Acres vnto Gilbert de Clare earle of Glocester, and the ladie Margaret vnto the lord Iohn sonne to the duke of Brabant. ¶ The king ordeined, that all the wooll, which should be sold vnto strangers, should be brought vnto Sandwich, where the staple thereof was kept long time after. In the same yeare was a parlement holden at Westminster, wherein the statutes of Westminster the third were ordeined. It was also decréed, that all the Iewes should auoid out of the land, in consideration whereof, a fiftéenth was granted to the king, and so héervpon were the Iewes banished out of all the kings dominions, and neuer since could they obteine any priuilege to returne hither againe. All their goods not mooueable were confiscated, with their taillies and obligations; but all other their goods that were mooueable, togither with their coine of gold and siluer, the king licenced them to haue and conuey with them. A sort of the richest of them, being shipped with their treasure in a mightie tall ship which they had hired, when the same was vnder saile, and got downe the Thames towards the mouth of the riuer beyond Quinborowe, the maister mariner bethought him of a wile, and caused his men to cast anchor, and so rode at the same, till the ship by ebbing of the streame remained on the drie sands. The maister herewith entised the Iewes to walke out with him on land for recreation. And at length, when he vnderstood the tide to be comming in, he got him backe to the ship, whither he was drawne vp by a cord. The Iewes made not so much hast as he did, bicause they were not ware of the danger. But when they perceiued how the matter stood, they cried to him for helpe: howbeit he told them, that they ought to crie rather vnto Moses, by whose conduct their fathers passed through the red sea, and therefore, if they would call to him for helpe, he was able inough to helpe them out of those raging flouds, which now came in vpon them: they cried indéed, but no succour appeared, and so they were swallowed vp in water. The maister returned with the ship, and told the king how he had vsed the matter, and had both thanks and reward, as some haue written. But other affirme, (and more truelie as should séeme) that diuerse of those mariners, which dealt so wickedlie against the Iewes, were hanged for their wicked practise, and so receiued a iust reward of their fraudulent and mischéeuous dealing. But now to the purpose.

The eleuenth part of ecclesiasticall reuenues granted to the K.
An. Reg. 19.
The deceasse of Q. Elianor.
Thom. Walsin.
The praise of the quéene deceassed.
Charing-crosse & other erected.

In the foresaid parlement, the king demanded an aid of monie of the spiritualtie, for that (as he pretended) he meant to make a iournie into the holie land, to succour the christians there: whervpon they granted to him the eleuenth part of all their mooueables. He receiued the monie aforehand, but letted by other businesse at home, he went not foorth vpon that iournie. In the ninetéenth yeare of king Edward quéene Elianor king Edwards wife died vpon saint Andrews éeuen at Herdebie, or Herdelie (as some haue) néere to Lincolne, the king being as then on his waie towards the borders of Scotland: but hauing now lost the iewell which he most estéemed, he returned towards London to accompanie the corps vnto Westminster, where it was buried in S. Edwards chapell, at the féet of king Henrie the third. She was a godlie and modest princesse, full of pitie, and one that shewed much fauour to the English nation, readie to reléeue euerie mans gréefe that susteined wrong, and to make them fréends that were at discord, so farre as in hir laie. In euerie towne and place, where the corps rested by the waie, the king caused a crosse of cunning workmanship to be erected in remembrance of hir, and in the same was a picture of hir ingrauen. Two of the like crosses were set vp at London, one at Charing, and the other in Westcheape. Morouer, he gaue in almes euerie Wednesday wheresoeuer he went, pence a péece, to all such poore folkes as came to demand the same.

[Pg 493]

The tenth of spirituall reuenues grāted to the K.

About the same time, bicause the king should be the more willing to go into the holie land, as he had promised to doo, hauing monie to furnish him foorth, the pope granted vnto him the tenth of the church of England, Scotland and Ireland, according to the true value of all the reuenues belonging vnto the same for six yeares. He wrote to the bishops of Lincolne and Winchester, that the same tenth should be laid vp in monasteries and abbeies, till the king was entred into the sea, called Mare Maggiore, forwards on his iournie eastwards, and then to be paid to his vse. But the king afterwards caused the collectors to make paiment to him of the same tenth gathered for thrée yeares, and laid vp in monasteries, although he set not one foot forward in that iournie, as letted through other businesse.

Controuersie about the crowne of Scotland.

Also, by reason of the controuersie which depended as then betwixt diuerse persons, as competitors of the crowne of Scotland, he went into the north parts and kept his easter at Newcastell, and shortlie after, called a parlement at Northampton; where, by the aduise of the prelats and other of his councell, learned in both the lawes, vpon knowledge had by search of records, and chronicles of ancient time, he caused all the prelats and barons of Scotland to be called afore him, and there in the parish-church of Norham, he declared vnto them his right to the superioritie of the kingdome of Scotland, and requiring of them, that they would recognise the same, protesting that he would defend the right of his crowne, to the shedding of his owne bloud, that a true certificat and information might come to light of his title and rightfull claime, vnto the direct and supreme dominion ouer the realme of Scotland.

He had caused verelie all the histories, chronicles, and monuments that were to be found within England, Scotland and Wales, to be sought vp and perused, that it might be knowen what right he had in this behalfe. Wherevpon it was found by the chronicles of Marianus the Scot, William of Malmesburie, Roger Houeden, Henrie Huntington, Rafe de Diceto, and others, that in the yeare of our Lord 910, K. Edward surnamed Senior, or the elder, subdued to him the kings of Scots and Welshmen, so that in the yeare 921, the same people chose the said Edward to be their king and patrone. And likewise in the yeare 926, Athelstan king of England vanquished Constantine king of Scotland, and permitted him yet to reigne vnder him. Moreouer, Edred the brother of Athelstan, and king of England, ouercame the Scots and Northumbers, the which submitted themselues to him and sware him fealtie. Also Edgar king of England vanquished Kineth the son of Alpine king of Scotland, who sware fealtie to him. Likewise Cnute king of England and Denmarke, in the 16 yeare of his reigne ouercame Malcolme king of Scots, & so became king of foure kingdoms, England, Scotland, Denmarke, and Norwaie.

Furthermore, that blessed king S. Edward, gaue the kingdome of Scotland vnto Malcolme the sonne of the king of Cumberland, to hold the same of him. Againe, William Bastard the Norman conqueror, in the sixt yeare of his reigne vanquished Malcolme king of Scotland, and receiued of him an oth of fealtie. Also, Will. Rufus did the like vnto Malcolme king of Scots, and two of his sonnes that successiuelie reigned ouer that realme. Also, Alexander succéeded his brother Edgar in the kingdome of Scotland, by consent of K. Henrie the first. Also Dauid king of Scotland did homage to K. Stephan, & William K. of Scots did homage to Henrie, the son of K. Henrie the second, when in his fathers life time he was crowned; and againe, to Henrie the father in the 20 yeare of his reigne, as by an agréement made betwixt them two it dooth appeare. Also, Roger Houeden saith, that William king of Scotland came to his souereigne lord king Henrie into Normandie, and likewise to king Richard, and moreouer to king Iohn at Lincolne, dooing to them his homage. Also, in the chronicles of S. Albons it is found that Alexander king of Scotland married at Yorke Margaret the daughter of king Henrie the third, in the 35 yeare of his reigne, and did to him homage.

[Pg 494]

K. Edward recognised for superior lord of Scotland.

And further, when king Edward himselfe was crowned at Westminster, in the yeare of our Lord 1274, being the second of his reigne, the last deceassed K. of Scotland, Alexander the third of that name did homage vnto him at Westminster the morrow after the coronation. All which homages and fealties thus done by sundrie kings of Scotland, vnto sundrie kings of England, were directlie and most manifestlie prooued to be doone for the realme of Scotland, and not onelie for the lands which they held of the kings of England within England, as the Scotish writers would séeme to colour the matter. But things being then fresh in memorie, no such cauillation might be auerred. And so herevpon king Edwards title being substantiallie prooued, he was recognised superiour lord of Scotland, of all them that pretended title at that time to that kingdome, by writings thereof made and confirmed vnder their seales, the which being written in French conteined matter as here followeth.

The copie of the Charter in French.

A tous ceulx, qui ceste presente lettre verrunt ou orrunt, Florence counte de Holland, Robert de Brus seigneur du Val Danand, Iehan Baliol seigneur de Galloway, Iehan de Hastings seigneur de Abergeuenne, Iehan Comin seigneur de Badenaugh, Patrique de Dunbar counte de la Marche, Iehan de Vescy pur son pere, Nichol de Seules, & Guilaum de Ros, saluz en dieu. Come nous entendons d'auger droyt en reaume d'Escoce, & celle droyt monstrer, chalēger, & auerer deuant celuy, que plus de poer, iurisdiction, & réeson, eust de trier nostre droyt, & l'noble prince sire Edward, par la grace de Dieu, roy d'Angleterre, nous a enforme per bonnes & suffisaunt réesons, que aluy apent, & auer doit la souerein seigneurie, du dict reaume d'Escoce, & la cognisaunce de oir, trier & terminer nostre droyt. Nous de nostre propre volunté, sanz nulle maniere de force ou destresse, voluns, otrions, & grantons de receiuré droyt deuaunt luy, come souerein seigneur de la terre. Et voluns ia lemeins, & promettons, que nous auerons, & tendrons, ferme, & estable son fait, & que celuy emportera le reaume, a qui droyt le durra deuant luy. En testimoigne de ceste chose, nous auons mis nous seaules a ceste escript. Fait & donné a Norham, le mardi prochein apres la Ascension, l'an de Grace, 1291.

In English thus.

To all them that these present letters shall sée or heare, Florence earle of Holland, Robert le Bruce lord of Annandale, Iohn Comin lord of Badenaw, Patrike de Dunbar earle of March, Iohn de Baliol lord of Gallowaie, Iohn Hastings lord of Abergeuennie, Iohn de Vesey in stead of his father, Nicholas de Sules, & Walter Ros, send gréeting in our Lord. Whereas we intend to haue right in the kingdome of Scotland, and intend to declare, chalenge and proue the same before him that hath the best authoritie, iurisdiction and reason to examine our right, and that the noble prince the lord Edward, by the grace of God, king of England, by good and sufficient reasons hath informed vs, that the superior dominion of Scotland belongeth to him, and that he ought to haue the knowledge in the hearing, examining, and defining of our right, we of our frée willes, without all violence and constraint, will, consent and grant, to receiue our right before him, as the superior lord of the land. We will also & promise, that we shal haue and hold his déed for firme and stable, and that he shall haue the kingdome, vnto whome before him best right shall assigne the same. In witnesse whereof we haue to these letters put our seales. Giuen at Norham, the tuesdaie next after the feast of the Ascension of our Lord, in the yeare of Grace, 1291.

The recognising therefore made of the superioritie and submission of grant to receiue that, which before the king of England should by law be defined, the said king required[Pg 495] to haue the castels, and the whole land deliuered vnto his possession, that by peaceable seizine thereof had, his right of superioritie now recognised by their letters and writings, might be the more manifest and apparent to the whole world. They streightwaies agréed to the kings request, and writings thereof were made and confirmed with their seales, being written in French, as followeth.

The copie of the second charter touching the possession of the land, in French.

A tous iceulx, que ceste presente lettre verrunt ou orront, Florence counte de Holland, Robert de Brus seigneur du Val Danand, Iehan de Baliol seigneur de Galloway, Iehan de Hastings seigneur de Abergeuenny, Iehan Comin seigneur de Badenaw, Patrique Dunbar counte de la Marche, Iehan de Vescy, pour son pere, Nichol de Seules, & Guilaume de Ros, saluz en dieu. Come nous aions otrie, & graunte, de nostre bonne volunté, & commune assent sans nulle destresse, a noble prince sire Edward, par la grace de Dieu, roy de Angleterre quil come souerein seig. de la terre de Escoce puisse oir trier, & terminer nos chalenges, & nos demandes, que nos entendons monstrer, & auerrer pur nostre droyt en la reaume de Escoces & droyt receiuer deuant luy, come souerein seigneur de la terre, promettons ia lemains que son fait auerons & tendrons ferme & estable, & qu'il emportera le reaume, a qui droyt le durra deuant luy.

Mes pour ce que lauandict roy de Ang. ne puist nulle manier conusance faire ne a complier sauns iugement, ne iugement doit estre sauns execution, ne execution ne peult il faire duement, sauns la possession, & seysine de mesme la terre, & de chasteaux. Nous volons, otrions, & grantons, qu'il come souereine seigneur, a parfaire les choses auant dictes, ait la seysine de toute la mesme terre, & de chasteaux de Escoce, tant que droyt soit feit & perfourme, as demandans en tiel maniere, que auant ceo qu' il eit le seysine auant dict face bone seurte, & suffisante as demandants & as gardiens, & a la commune du reaume d' Escoce, a faire la reuersion de mesme le reaume, & de chasteaux, oue toute la royauté, dignité, seignourie, franchises, coustomes, droitures, leys, vsages, & possessions, & touz manieres des apurtenances, en mesme le estate, quils estoient quant la seysine luy fust bailleé, & liuereé a celuy que le droyt emportera par iugemēt de sa royauté, sauue au roy d' Anglterre le homage de celuy, qui serra rey. Yssint quela reuersion soit feit dedans les deux moys apres le iour que le droyt sera trieé & affirme. Et que les yssues de mesme la terre en le moyne temps resceus, soient sauuement mis en depos & bien gardées par la main le chamberleyn d' Escoce que ore est, & de celuy qui serra assigne a luy de par le rey d' Angleterre, & de sous leur seaus sauue renable sustinance de la terre, & des chasteaux & des ministres du royaume. En testimoigne de cestes choses auandicts, nous auons mis nos seaules a ceste escript. Fait & donné a Norham le mecredie prochein apres l'Ascension, l'an de Grace, 1291.

The same in English.

To all them that these present writings shall sée or heare, Florence earle of Holland, Robert le Bruce lord of Annandale, Iohn de Balioll lord of Galloway, Iohn Hastings lord of Abergeuenny, Iohn Comin lord of Badenaw, Patrike de Dunbarre the earle of March, Iohn de Vescy in stead of his father, Nicholas de Sules, William de Ros, send gréeting in our lord. Bicause that of our good will and common assent, without all constraint, we doo consent and grant vnto the noble prince the lord Edward, by the grace of God king of England, that he as superiour lord of Scotland, may heare, examine, define and determine our claimes, chalenges, and petitions, which we intend to shew and prooue for our right, to be receiued before him as superiour lord of the land, promising moreouer, that[Pg 496] we shall take his déed for firme and stable, and that he shall inioy the kingdome of Scotland, whose right shall by declaration best appeare before him.

Whereas then the said king of England cannot in this manner take knowledge, nor fulfill our meanings without iudgement, nor iudgement ought to be without execution, nor execution may in due forme be doone without possession and seizine of the said land and castels of the same; we will, consent, and grant, that he as superiour lord to performe the premisses may haue the seizine of all the land and castels of the same, till they that pretend title to the crowne be satisfied in their suit, so that before he be put in possession and seizine, he find sufficient suertie to vs that pretend title, and to the wardens, and to all the communaltie of the kingdome of Scotland, that he shall restore the same kingdome with all the roialtie, dignitie, seigniorie, liberties, customes, rights, lawes, vsages, possessions, and all and whatsoeuer the appurtenances, in the same state wherein they were before the seizine to him deliuered, vnto him to whome by right it is due, according to the iudgement of his regalitie, sauing to him the homage of that person that shall be king: and this restitution to be made within two moneths after the daie in the which the right shall be discussed and established, the issues of the same land in the meane time shall be receiued, laid vp, and put in safe kéeping, in the hands of the chamberlaine of Scotland which now is, and of him, whome the king of England shall to him assigne, and this vnder their seales, reseruing and allowing the reasonable charges for the sustentation of the land, the castels and officers of the kingdome. In witnesse of all the which premisses, we haue vnto these letters set our seales. Giuen at Norham the wednesday next after the feast of the Ascension of our Lord, in the yeare of Grace, 1291.

Rich. Routh.

These two letters the king of England sent vnder his priuie seale vnto diuerse monasteries within his realme, in the 19 yéere of his reigne, that in perpetuall memorie of the thing thus passed, it might be registred in their chronicles. Thus by the common assent of the chéefest of the lords in Scotland, king Edward receiued the land into his custodie, till by due and lawfull triall had, it might appéere who was rightfull heire to the crowne there. The homage or fealtie of the nobles of Scotland was expressed in words as followeth.

The forme and tenor of the homage doone by the Scots.

Bicause all we are come vnto the allegiance of the noble prince Edward king of England, we promise for vs and our heires, vpon all the danger that we may incurre, that we shall be faithfull, & loiallie hold of him against all maner of mortall men, and that we shall not vnderstand of any damage that may come to the king, nor to his heires, but we shall staie and impeach the same to our powers. And to this we bind our selues & our heires, and are sworne vpon the euangelists to performe the same. Besides this, we haue doone fealtie vnto our souereigne lord the said king in these words ech one by himselfe; I shall be true and faithfull, and faith and loialtie I shall beare to the king of England Edward and his heires, of life, member, and worldlie honour against all mortall creatures.

[Pg 497]

Master Stephansons booke of Records. Wardens of the realme of Scotland appointed by K. Edward.
The bishop of Catnesse elected Chancellor of Scotland.
He receiveth his seale.
He is sworne.

The king hauing receiued as well the possessions of the realme, castels, manours, as other places belonging to the crowne of Scotland, he committed the gouernement and custodie of the realme vnto the bishops of S. Andrews and Glasco, to the lords Iohn Comin, and Iames Steward, who had put him in possession, so that vnder him they held the same, in maner as they had doone before. But in diuerse castels he placed such capteines as he thought most méetest to kéepe them to his vse, till he had ended the controuersie, & placed him in the kingdome, to whom of right it belonged. He also willed the lords of Scotland to elect a sufficient personage to be chancellour of the realme, which they did, naming Alane bishop of Catnesse, whom the king admitted, ioining with him one of his chapleins, named Walter Armundesham, so that on the 12 of Iune, vpon the gréene ouer against the castel of Norham, néere to the riuer of Twéed, in the parish of Vpsetelington, before Iohn Baliol, Robert Bruce, the bishops of S. Andrews and Glasco, the lords Comin and Steward, wardens of Scotland; the bishop of Catnesse receiued his seale, appointed him by the king of England as supreme lord of Scotland, and there both the said bishop & Walter Armundesham were sworne trulie to gouerne themselues in the office.

The wardēs sworne.
The Scotish nobilitie dooth fealtie to king Edward.

The morrow after were the wardens sworne and with them as associated Brian Fitz Alane, and there all the earles and lords of Scotland that were present sware fealtie vnto king Edward, as to their supreme souereigne lord, and withall there was peace proclaimed, and publike edicts set foorth in the name of the same king, intituled supreme lord of the realme of Scotland. The residue of the Scotish nobilitie, earles, barons, knights, and others, with the bishops and abbats, vpon his comming into Scotland, sware fealtie either to himselfe in person, or to such as he appointed his deputies to receiue the same, in sundrie towns and places, according to order giuen in that behalfe. Such as refused to doo their fealties, were attached by their bodies till they should doo their fealties as they were bound. Those that came not, but excused themselues vpon some reasonable cause, were heard, and had day giuen vntill the next parlement: but such as neither came, nor made any reasonable excuse, were appointed to be distreined to come.

The bishop of S. Andrews, and Iohn lord Comin of Badenoth, with Brian Fitz Alane, were assigned to receiue such fealties at S. Iohns towne. The bishop of Glasco, Iames lord steward of Scotland, and Nicholas Seagraue were appointed to receiue them at Newcastell of Are. The earle of Southerland, and the shiriffe of that countrie, with his bailiffes, and the chatellaine of Inuernesse were ordeined to receiue those fealties in that countie: the chatellaine first to receiue it of the said earle, and then he with his said associats to receiue the same of others. The lord William de Saintclare, and William de Bomille, were appointed to receiue fealtie of the bishop of Whitterne, and then the said bishop with them to receiue the fealties of all the inhabitants of Gallowaie. Amongst other that did their homage to the king himselfe, was Marie quéene of Man, and countesse of Stratherne, vpon the 24 daie of Iulie, the king being thus in S. Iohns towne, otherwise called Perth. To conclude, he was put in full possession of the realme of Scotland & receiued their homages and fealties (as before ye haue heard) as the direct and supreme lord of that land.

The king's mother deceassed.
An. Reg. 20.
Nic. Triuet.

This doone, and euerie thing ordered as séemed most expedient, king Edward returned into the south parts of his realme, to be at his mother's buriall, that in this meane time was departed this life. Hir hart was buried in the church of the Graifriers at London, & hir bodie at Ambresburie in the house of the nunnes. ¶ After the funerals were ended, king Edward returned into the north parts againe: he staied a while at Yorke, and during his abode there, Rées ap Meridoc (of whom ye haue heard before) was by order of law condemned & executed. ¶ This yeare after Easter, as the fléet laie before S. Matthewes in Britaine, there rose certeine discord betwixt the Norman mariners, and them of Baion, and so farre the quarel increased, that they fell to trie it by force, the Englishmen assisting them of Baion, and the French kings subiects taking part with the Normans, and now they fraught not their ships so much with merchandize as with armour & weapon. At length the matter burst out from sparkes into open flame, the sequele whereof hereafter shall appeare, as we find it reported by writers.

[Pg 498]

Iohn Balioll obteineth the kingdome of Scotland.
Nic. Triuet.

But now touching the Scotish affaires. At length the king comming into Scotland, gaue summons to all those that claimed the crowne, to appeare before him at the feast of the natiuitie of S. Iohn Baptist next insuing, that they might declare more at large by what right they claimed the kingdome. Hervpon, when the daie of their appearance was come, and that king Edward was readie to heare the matter, he chose out the number of 40 persons, the one halfe Englishmen, and the other Scotishmen, which should discusse with aduised deliberation and great diligence the allegations of the competitors, deferring the finall sentence vnto the feast of S. Michaell next insuing, the which feast being come, after due examination, full triall, and assured knowledge had of the right, the kingdome by all their assents was adiudged vnto Iohn Balioll, who descended of the eldest daughter of Dauid king of Scotland. Robert le Bruce, betwixt whom and the same Balioll at length (the other being excluded) the question and triall onlie rested, was descended of the second daughter of king Dauid, though otherwise by one degrée he was néerer to him in bloud. Thus writeth Nicholas Triuet.


But others affirme, that after long disputation in the matter, by order of king Edward, there were appointed 80 ancient and graue personages, amongst the which were 30 Englishmen, vnto whom (being sworne and admonished to haue God before their eies) authoritie was giuen to name him that should be king. These 80 persons, after they had well considered vnto whome the right apperteined, declared with one voice, that Iohn Balioll was rightful king. King Edward allowed their sentence, and by his authoritie confirmed vnto the same Iohn, the possession of the kingdome of Scotland, with condition that if he did not gouerne that realme with iustice, then vpon complaint, the king of England might put vnto his hand of reformation, as he was bound to doo by his right of superioritie, that in him was inuested. Herevpon king Edward awarded foorth his writ of deliuerie of seizine at the suit of the said I. Balioll, to William and Robert, bishops of S. Andrewes and Glasco, to Iohn lord Comin, Iames lord Steward of Scotland, and to the lord Brian Fitz Alane, wardens of Scotland, commanding them to deliuer vnto the said Iohn Balioll the seizine and possession of that realme, sauing the reléefes and debts due to him of the issues and profits of the same realme, vnto the day of the date of the writ, which was the ninetéenth day of Nouember, in the twentie yere of his reigne. Also there was another writ made, and directed to such as had the kéeping of the castels in their hands, in forme as followeth.

The copie of the writ for the deliuerie of the castels.

Edwardvs Dei gratia rex Angliæ, dominus Hiberniæ, dux Aquitaniæ, & superior dominus regni Scotiæ, dilecto & fideli suo Petro Burdet, constabulario castri de Berwike salutem. Cùm Iohannes de Baliolo nuper in parlamento nostro apud Berwicum super Tuedam, venisset coram nobis, & petiuisset prædictum regnum Scotiæ sibi per nos adiudicari, & seisinam ipsius regni vt propinquiori hæredi Margaretæ filiæ regis Norwegiæ dominæ Scotiæ iure successionis liberari, ac nos auditis & intellectis petitionibus & rationibus diligentur examinatis, inuenerimus præfatum Iohannem de Baliolo esse propinquiorem hæredem, prædictæ Margaretæ, quo ad prædictum regnum Scotiæ obtinendum: propter quod idem regnum Scotiæ, & seisinam eiusdem, saluò iure nostro, & heredum nostrorum, cum voluerimus inde loqui, prædicto Iohanni reddidimus: tibi mandamus quòd seisinam prædicti castri de Beruico cum omnibus pertinentijs suis, vnà cum alijs omnibus rebus tibi per chirographum traditis, secundum quod in prædicti castri tibi commissa custodia res huiusmodi recepisti, sine dilatione præfato Iohanni de Baliolo, vel attornatis suis has litteras deferentibus, deliberari facias. Teste meipso apud Beruicum super Tuedam 19 die Nouembris, Anno regni nostri 20.

In English thus.

Edward by the grace of God, king of England, lord of Ireland, duke of Aquitaine, and superiour lord of the realme of Scotland, to his welbeloued and faithfull seruant Peter Burdet conestable of the castell of Berwike, sendeth gréeting. Where Iohn de Balioll late in parlement holden at Berwike vpon Twéed, came before vs, and demanded[Pg 499] the said realme of Scotland to be adiudged to him by vs, and seizine of the same realme to be to him deliuered as next heire to Margaret daughter to the king of Norwaie, ladie of Scotland by right of succession. We hauing heard and vnderstood the same petitions; and reasons being diligentlie weighed and examined, we find the said Iohn Balioll to be next heire vnto the said Margaret, as to obteine the said kingdome of Scotland, whervpon we haue deliuered to him the said kingdome of Scotland, and the seizine thereof, sauing the right of vs and our heires, when it shall please vs to speake thereof. We therefore command you, that you deliuer vp vnto the said Iohn Balioll, or to his attornies, that shall bring with them these our present letters, the seizine of the said castell of Berwike, with all the appurtenances, togither with all other things to you by indenture deliuered accordinglie as you did receiue the same, with the custodie of the said castle to you committed: and this without delaie. Witnesse our selfe at Berwike vpon Twéed the ninetéenth day of Nouember, in the twentith yeare of our reigne.

The seals broken.

In the same forme of words were writs awarded forth, to all and euerie other the kéepers of castels and manors belonging to the crowne of Scotland, and being at that time in K. Edwards hands, the names of places and the persons that had them in custodie onelie changed. On the same day also in the castell of Berwike was the seale broken, which had béene appointed to the gouernors, during the time that the realme was vacant of a king. It was broken into foure parts, and put into a pursse to be reserued in the treasurie of the king of England, in further and more full token of his superioritie and direct supreme dominion ouer the realme of Scotland.

These things were doone in presence of the said Iohn Balioll then king of Scotland, Iohn archbishop of Dubline, Iohn bishop of Winchester, Anthonie bishop of Duresme, William bishop of Elie, Iohn bishop of Carleil, William bishop of S. Andrewes, Robert bishop of Glasco, Marke bishop of Man, and Henrie bishop of Aberdene, with diuerse other bishops, besides abbats and priors of both the realmes; Henrie earle of Lincolne, Humfrie earle of Hereford, Roger earle of Norffolke, Iohn earle of Buchquane, Douenald earle of Mar, Gilbert earle of Angus, Patrike earle of March, and Malisius earle of Stratherne; with the foure and twentie auditors of England, and the foure score auditors of Scotland: chapleins also, Henrie de Newmarke deane of Yorke, Iohn Lacie chancellour of Chichester, William de Gréenefield canon of Yorke, and Iohn Ercurie notarie, and manie other. Iohn Balioll being thus created K. of Scotland, on the twentith day of Nouember, in the castell of Norham, did fealtie to king Edward for the kingdome of Scotland, in maner as followeth.

The forme of the fealtie of Iohn Balioll king of Scots to the king of England in protestation.

This heare you my lord Edward king of England, souereigne lord of the realme of Scotland, that I Iohn de Balioll king of Scotland, which I hold and claime to hold of you, that I shall be faithfull and loiall, and owe faith and loialtie to you, I shall beare of life and member, and of earthlie honour, against all people, and lawfullie I shall acknowledge and doo the seruices which I owe to doo to you, for the realme of Scotland aforesaid. So God me helpe and his holie euangelists.

[Pg 500]

An. Reg. 21.
Iohn Balioll crowned king of Scotland.

Hereof also he made letters patents, witnessing that he had thus doone fealtie vnto king Edward, which letters he sealed and deliuered in presence of William bishop of saint Andrews, Robert bishop of Glasco, Iohn earle of Bouchquane, William earle of Ros, Patrike earle of March, Walter earle of Menteth, Iames lord steward of Scotland, Alexander de Ergay, Alexander de Balioll lord of Caures, Patrike de Graham, and William de Saintclere. This doone, king Edward appointed Anthonie bishop of Duresme, and the lord Iohn saint Iohn to passe with Balioll into Scotland, and there to put him into the corporall possession of the same realme of Scotland, which they did, and so he was crowned at Scone vpon saint Andrews day, being placed in the marble chaire within the abbeie church there. The solemnitie of which coronation being ended, he returned into England, and comming to Newcastell vpon Tine, where K. Edward in that yeare kept his Christmasse, he there did homage vpon saint Stephans daie vnto the said king Edward, in forme of words as followeth.

The forme of the king of Scots homage to king Edward, in action.

My lord, lord Edward king of England, superiour lord of Scotland, I Iohn de Balioll king of Scotland, doo acknowledge and recognise me to be your leigeman of the whole realme of Scotland, with all the appurtenances, and whatsoeuer belongeth thereto, the which kingdome I hold and ought of right and claime to hold by inheritance of you and your heires kings of England, and I shall beare faith and loialtie to you and to your heirs kings of England, of life, of member, and earthlie honour, against all men, which may liue and die.

Richard Bagley.
A prisoner rescued.
The offenders lost their hand.
A great snow and tempest of wind in Maie.
The archbishop of Canturburie deceasseth.
The kings daughter married to the earle of Bar.

This homage in forme aforesaid did king Edward receiue, his owne and others right saued. Then did the king of England without delaie restore vnto the said Iohn Balioll the kingdome of Scotland, with all the appurtenances. This yeare, as one Richard Bagley an officer of the shiriffes of London led a prisoner towards the gaile, thrée persons rescued the said prisoner, and tooke him from the officer, the which were pursued and taken, and by iudgement of law then vsed, were brought vnto Westcheape, and there had their hands striken off by the wrists. On the 14 daie of Maie fell a woonderfull snow, and therewith blew such an excéeding wind, that great harme was doone thereby in sundrie places of England. In the same yeare died frier Iohn Peckham archbishop of Canturburie, and then was Robert of Winchelsie elected archbishop the 48 in number that had ruled that sée. About the middle of September following, the earle of Bar a Frenchman, married the ladie Elianor the kings daughter in the towne of Bristow. ¶ This yeare wheat was sold at London for two shillings a bushell.

War betwixt England and France.
Two English ships taken.
The lord admerall of England setteth vpō the Norman ships.

This yeare also the war was begun betwéene the kings of England and France. For whereas king Edward had furnished foorth six ships of warre, and sent them vnto Burdeaux for defense of the coasts thereabouts, two of them as they sailed alongst the coast of Normandie, and fearing no hurt by enimies, were taken by the Norman fléet, and diuerse of the mariners hanged. The lord Robert Tiptost that was admerall of the English fléet aduertised thereof, got togither a great number of ships, and directed his course with them streight towards Normandie, and finding no ships of the Normans abroad in the seas, vpon a desire to be reuenged, entered the mouth of the riuer of Saine, and set vpon the Norman ships that laie there at anchor, slue manie of the mariners, & tooke six ship awaie with him, and so returning to the sea againe, cast anchor not far off from the land, to prouoke the Frenchmen to come foorth with their fléet to giue battell. And as he laie at anchor, it chanced that certeine Norman ships fraught with wine came that waies, as they returned out of Gascoigne. The lord Tiptost setting on them, tooke them with little adoo, and sleaing néere hand the third part of all the mariners, sent the ships into England.

[Pg 501]

Charles earle of Valois procureth warre betwixt England and France.

The Frenchmen to reuenge this act, prepared a nauie, and furnishing the same with souldiers went foorth to the sea, to incounter the Englishmen: but yer they met, messengers were sent to and fro, the Englishmen accusing the Frenchmen of truce-breaking, and the Frenchmen againe requiring restitution of their goods taken from them by violence. And now forsomuch as this businesse had béene mooued rashlie betwixt the Englishmen and the Normans, without any commission of their princes, their minds therefore were not so kindled in displeasure, but that there had béen good hope of agréement betwixt them, if Charles earle of Valois the French kings brother (being a man of a hot nature & desirous of reuenge) had not procured his brother to séeke reuengement by force of armes. Wherevpon the French fléet made toward the Englishmen, who minding not to detract the batell, sharplie incountred their enimies in a certeine place betwixt England and Normandie, where they had laid a great emptie ship at anchor, to giue token where they meant to ioine. There were with the Englishmen both Irishmen and Hollanders, and with the Normans there were Frenchmen and Flemings, and certeine vessels of Genowaies.

The Englishmen victors by sea.
K. Edward summoned to appeare at Paris.

The fight at the first was doubtfull, and great slaughter made, as in the méeting of two such mightie nauies must néeds insue. Yet in the end the victorie fell to the Englishmen, and the French ships put to the chase and scattered abroad. The number of ships lost is not recorded by such writers as make report of this conflict, but they write that the losse was great. King Philip being aduertised of this discomfiture of his fléet was sore displeased, and as though he would procéed against king Edward by order of law, he summoned him as his leigeman to appeare at Paris, to answer what might be obiected against him; but withall bicause he knew that king Edward would not come to make his appearance he prepared an armie.

Edmund earle of Lancaster sent to the French king.
K. Edward condemned in the French kings court.
Arnold de Neale sent into Gascoigne with an armie.

In the meane time king Edward sent his brother Edmund earle of Lancaster to be his attornie, and to make answer for him before all such iudges as might haue hearing of the matter: but the iudges meaning nothing lesse than to trie out the truth of the cause, admitted no reasons that the earle could alledge in his brothers behalfe, and so pronounced king Edward a rebell, and decréed by arest, that he had forfeited all his right vnto the duchie of Guien. These things thus doone, he sent priuie messengers vnto Burdeaux, to procure the citizens to reuolt from the Englishmen, and appointed constable of France the lord Arnold de Neale to follow with an armie, who coming thither easilie brought them of Burdeaux vnder the French dominion, being alreadie minded to reuolt through practice of those that were latelie before sent vnto them from the French king for that purpose. After this, the said constable brought the people néere adioining vnder subiection, partlie moued by the example of the chéefe and head citie of all the countrie, and partlie induced therevnto by bribes and large gifts. The Englishmen that were in the countrie, after they perceiued that the people did thus reuolt to the French king, withdrew incontinentlie vnto the townes situat néere to the sea side, but speciallie they fled to a towne called the Rioll, which they fortified with all spéed. Thus saith Polydor.

N. Triuet.
Henrie earle of Lincolne.

Nicholas Triuet, writing hereof, declareth the beginning of this warre to be on this manner. The English merchants being diuerslie vexed vpon the seas, made complaint to the king for losse of their merchandize. The king sent Henrie Lacie earle of Lincolne vnto the French king, instantlie requiring, that by his assent there might some waie be prouided with spéed by them and their councell, for some competent remedie touching such harmes and losses by sea as his people had susteind. In the meane time whilest the earle taried for answer, a nauie of the parts of Normandie conteining two hundred ships and aboue, being assembled togither, that they might the more boldlie assaile their enimies, and the more valiantlie resist such as should encounter them, sailed into Gascoigne, determining to destroie all those of their aduersaries that should come in their waie. But as these Normane ships returned backe with wines, glorieng as it were that they had got the rule of the sea onelie to themselues, they were assailed by thréescore English ships, which tooke them, & brought them into England the friday before Whitsunday: all the men were either drowned or slaine, those onelie excepted which made shift to escape by botes. The newes hereof being brought into France, did not so much[Pg 502] mooue the king and the councell to woonder at the matter, as to take thereof great indignation.

The bishop of London sent with an answer vnto the French king.

Ambassadors were appointed to go into England which on the behalfe of the French king, might demand of king Edward restitution of those ships and goods thus taken by his subiects, and conueied into his realme, without all delaie, if he minded to haue any fauour in the French court touching his affairs that belonged to his countrie of Gascoigne. The king of England hearing this message, tooke therein deliberation to answer, and then sent the bishop of London, accompaned with other wise and discréet persons into France, to declare for answer vnto the French king and his councell as followeth; that is, "Whereas the king of England hath his regall court without subiection to any man, if there were therefore any persons that found themselues hurt or indamaged by his people, they might come to his court, and vpon declaration of their receiued iniuries, they should haue spéedie iustice, and to the end they might thus doo without all danger, whosoeuer minded to complaine, he would giue vnto them a safe conduct to come and go in safetie thorough his land: but if this waie pleased not the French king, then he was content there should be arbitrators chosen on both sides, who weieng the losses on both parts, might prouide how to satisfie the complaints: and the king of England would for his part enter into bonds by obligation to stand to and abide their order and iudgement herein, so that the French king would likewise be bound for his part, and if any such doubt fortuned to arise, which could not be decided by the said arbitrators, let the same be reserued vnto the kings themselues to discusse and determine, and the king of England vpon a sufficient safe conduct had, would come ouer to the French K. if he would come downe vnto any hauen towne néere to the sea coast, that by mutuall assent an end might bée had in the businesse: but if neither this waie should please the French king nor the other, then let the matter be committed to the order of the pope, to whom it apperteined to nourish concord among christian princes; or bicause the sée was as then void, let the whole colledge of cardinals or part of them take order therein, as should be thought necessarie, that strife and discord being taken awaie and remoued, peace might againe flourish betwixt them and their people," as before time it had doone, and bring with it the blessings therevpon depending; namelie, althings that may make an happie & fortunat state, according to the nature of peace, whereof it is said,

Pax est cunctorum mater veneranda bonorum,
Fit sub pace forum, fit felix cultus agrorum,
Pax pietas mentis, pax est pincerna salutis.
The king of England cited to appéere.
Sentence giuen against the king of England.

The French councell weied nothing at all these offers, and would not so much as once vouchsafe to giue an answer to the English ambassadors earnestlie requiring the same. Finallie, the French K. sent vnto the citie of Aniou, which is knowne to belong vnto the dutchie of Guien, where he there caused the king of England to be cited to make his appéerance at Paris, at a certeine daie, to answer to the iniuries and rebellions by him doone in the countrie of Gascoigne, at the which daie when he appéered not, the French king sitting in the seat of iudgement in his owne proper person, gaue sentence there against the king of England, for making default, and withall commanded the high conestable of France to seize into his hands all the duchie of Guien, and either to take or to expell all the king of Englands officers, souldiers, and deputies, which were by him placed within the said duchie. The king a little before had sent thither a valiant knight, named the lord Iohn saint Iohn, which had furnished all the cities, townes, castels, and places, with men, munition, and vittels, for defense of the same.

[Pg 503]

An. Reg. 22.
The peace of the quéenes.

In the mean time the king of England, desirous to be at quiet with the Frenchmen, appointed his brother Edmund earle of Lancaster, as then soiourning in France, to go vnto the French kings councell to procure some agréement, which both might be allowed of the French king, and not be dishonorable vnto him. But when the earle could not preuaile in his sute, he tooke his iournie towards England, vtterlie despairing to procure any peace. But yer he came to the sea side, he was sent for backe againe by the two quéenes of France, Ione wife to king Philip, and Marie his mother in law, which promised to frame some accord betwéene the two kings, and so therevpon after diuerse communications by them had in the matter with the said earle of Lancaster, at length it was accorded, that for the sauing of the French kings honour, which séemed to be touched by things doone by the king of Englands ministers in Gascoigne, six castels should remaine at the said kings pleasure, as Sanctes, Talemond, Turnhim, Pomeroll, Penne, and mount Flaunton. Also there should be set a seruant or sergeant in the French kings name, in euerie citie and castell within all the whole duchie of Guien, except Burdeaux, Baion, and the Rioll. And further, hostages should be deliuered at the French kings pleasure, of all ministers to be placed by the king of England in Gascoigne and other places through all the country. These things doone, the French king should reuoke the summons published and pronounced in the court of Paris against the king of England. Also he shuld restore all the castels (his seruants being remooued which he had placed in the same) togither with the pledges incontinentlie, at the request of the same quéenes, or of either of them. The king of England hauing a safe conduct should come to Amiens, that there méeting with the French king, peace and amitie might be confirmed betwixt them. Then were there writings made and ingrossed touching the forsaid articles of agréement, one part deliuered to the earle, sealed with the seales of the quéenes, and other remained with the foresaid quéenes sealed with the seale of the earle.

Letters patents.

The king of England certified hereof, sent his letters patents, directed vnto all his officers and ministers in Gascoigne, commanding them to obeie in all things the French kings pleasure. These letters patents were first sent vnto the earle of Lancaster, that he might cause them to be conueied into Gascoine when he should sée time. The earle hauing receiued those letters, doubting whether the French K. would obserue the agréement which the quéenes had made and concluded, or not; required of them that he might heare the French king speake the word, that he would stand vnto that which they had concluded. Wherevpon in the presence of the said earle and his wife Blanch quéene of Nauar, mother to the French quéene, also of the duke of Burgoigne, Hugh Véere sonne to the earle of Oxenford, and of a chapline called sir Iohn Lacie, the French king promised by the faith of a prince, that he would fulfill the promises of the said quéenes, and the couenants by them accorded.

Sir Geffrey Langley.

Herevpon a knight of the earles of Lancaster, called sir Geffrey de Langley, was spéedilie sent into Gascoigne with letters from the French king, directed to the conestable, to call him back againe from his appointed enterprise. And the foresaid chapleine sir Iohn Lacie was sent also thither with the letters patents of the king of England, directed vnto his officers there, in forme as is aboue mentioned, whervpon the lord Iohn saint Iohn the king of Englands lieutenant in Gascoigne, vnderstanding the conclusions of the agréement, sold all such prouisions as he had made and brought into the cities, townes, and fortresses for the defense of the same, and departing out of Gascoigne, came towards Paris to returne that waie into England.

The French kings mind changed.
His vniust dealing.

But behold what followed; suddenlie by the enimie of peace was the French kings mind quite changed. And where the king of England was come vnto Canturburie, and kept his Easter there, that immediatlie vpon the receipt of the safe conduct he might transport ouer the seas, and so come to Amiens, according to the appointment made by the agréement; now not onelie the safe conduct was denied, but also the first letters reuocatorie sent vnto the conestable to call him backe, by other letters sent after were also made void, and he by the latter letters appointed to kéepe vpon his iournie, so that the conestable entring into Gascoigne with a power, found no resistance, the capteins and officers submitting themselues with the townes and fortresses at his pleasure according to the tenor of the letters patents latelie to them deliuered. All the officers and capteins of the fortresses were brought to Paris as captiues and pledges.

[Pg 504]

The French K. renounceth what he had said.
Hugh of Manchester a frier sent to the French king.
The king of England renounceth the French king.

Within a few daies after, the earle of Lancaster required the quéenes, that they would call vpon the king to grant his safe conduct for the king of England, to reuoke the citation or summons, to restore the lands taken from him; and to deliuer the pledges: but the French king by the mouths of certeine knights sent vnto the earle, renounced all such couenants as before had béene concluded. The earle of Lancaster then perceiuing that both he and his brother king Edward were mocked thus at the French kings hands, returned into England, and informed the king & his councell from point to point of all the matter. Herevpon a parlement being called at Westminster, at the which the king of Scotland was present, it was decréed by the states, that those lands which were craftilie taken so from the K. should be recouered againe by the sword. And the king herewith sent vnto the French king a frier preacher named Hugh of Manchester, and a frier minor called William de Gainesbourgh, both being wise and discréet men, and doctours of diuinitie, to declare vnto him, that sith he would not obserue such agréements as had béene concluded betwixt their ancestours; and further had broken such couenants as were now of late agréed vpon betwixt them, by the trauell of his brother Edmund earle of Lancaster: there was no cause whie he ought to account him being king of England, and duke of Guien, as his leigeman, neither did he intend or meane further to be bound vnto him by reason of his homage.

Ambassadors sent into Germanie.
Wolles staied.
A subsidie raised of wols.
An armie sent to Gascoigne.

About the same time did the king of England send the archbishop of Dubline, and the bishop of Duresme into Germanie, about the concluding of a league with Adolph king of Romans, to whome was giuen a great summe of monie (as was said) vpon couenants, that he should aid the king of England against the French king, with all his maine force, and that neither of them should conclude peace with the said French king without consent of the other. About the Ascension tide, king Edward staied the woolles of this land, as well belonging to spirituall men as temporall men, till the merchants had fined with him for the same, so that there was a subsidie paied for all sarpliers of wooll that went out of the relme, and in semblable wise for felles and hides. He also sent an armie by sea into Gascoigne, vnder the conduct of his nephew Iohn of Britaine that was earle of Richmond, appointing to him as councellors, the lord Iohn saint Iohn, and the lord Robert Tiptost; men of great wisdome, and verie expert in warlike enterprises.

N. Triuet.
Thrée fléets appointed to the sea.
A dearth.
Rich. South.
The English armie passeth to Gascoigne.
Towns won.
Nic. Triuet.

He also caused thrée seuerall fléets to be prepared, and appointed to them thrée sundrie admerals, for the better kéeping of the seas. To them of Yarmouth and other of those parts, he assigned the lord Iohn Botetourt: to them of the cinque ports, William de Leiborne: and to them of the west countrie, and to the Irishmen, he appointed a valiant knight of Ireland as their chéefteine. This yeare in England was a great dearth and scarcitie of corne, so that a quarter of wheat in manie places was sold for thirtie shillings: by reason whereof poore people died in manie places for lacke of sustnance. About Michaelmas, the English fléet tooke the sea at Portesmouth, and after some contrarie winds, yet at last they arriued within the riuer of Garon, and so passing vp the same riuer, wan diuers townes, as Burge, Blaines, Rions, and others.

Matth. West.
A shift for monie.

[Pg 505]

The treasurer accused.
The K. excuseth himselfe.
The spiritualtie called to a councell.

The kings coffers by reason of furnishing foorth of this armie, and other continuall charges which he had susteined, were now in maner emptie: for remedie whereof, William March one of the kings treasurers, purposed with other mens losses to supplie that want. He knew that in abbeies and churches was much monie kept in store, the which if he commanded to be taken from thence, he thought that he should not commit any offense, but rather doo a good déed, that the monie might come abroad to the vse of the people, whereby the souldiers might be satisfied for their wages. Such capteins therefore, as he appointed to worke the feat, placing their souldiers in euerie quarter through the realme, made search at one time, in Iulie, at thrée of the clocke in the afternoone, for all such monie as was hid and laid vp in all hallowed places, and taking the same awaie, brought it vnto the king, who dissembling the matter, as he that stood in néed, excused the act doone by his treasurer so well as he could, to auoid the enuie of the people; and not content herewith, he called togither shortlie after, to wit, on saint Matthewes day the apostle, at London, all the archbishops, bishops, deanes, & archdeacons, not in their proper persons, but by two procurators of euerie diocesse. Here when they were once assembled, the king declared vnto them the warres which he was driuen to mainteine against the Frenchmen, & the charges which he was at for the same. He also shewed them, that the earles, barons & knights of the realme, did not onlie aid him with their goods, but put their persons forward to serue him in defense of the land, whereof they were members, euen to the shedding of their bloud, and oftentimes with losse of their liues. Therfore (saith he) you which may not put your persons in perill by seruice in the warres, it is good reason you should aid vs with your goods.

Their offer not liked.
The halfe part of spirituall liuings granted to the king.
R. Fabian.

The cleargie hauing no speciall head, by reason that the sée of Canturburie was void, wist not well how to gouerne themselues. At length Oliuer bishop of Lincolne, required in all their names to haue thrée daies respit to make answer to the matter, the which time expired, they offered to the king two dismes to be paid within one yeare. The which when the king heard, he tooke great disdaine therewith, and threatned by some of his men of war to put the cleargie out of his protection, except they would grant to him the halfe of their goods. The cleargie put in feare herewith, and some of them also desirous to win the kings fauour, granted his request, and so the king at that time got the halfe part of euerie spirituall mans liuing and benefice for one yeares extent, to be paid in portions within thrée yeares next insuing, beginning at twentie marks benefice, & so vpwards. And the sooner to induce them herevnto, he promised the bishops to grant some thing that might be beneficiall to the cleargie, if they would demand it.

The prelates require to haue the statute of Mortmain repealed.
The K. shifteth them off.
N. Triuet.

The bishops taking councell togither, required of him that the statute of Mortmain might be repealed, which they saw to be most preiudiciall to their order. But the king answered them, that without the whole consent of a parlement he could not breake that ordinance, which by authoritie of parlement had béene once established, and therefore he wished that they would not require that thing which laie not in him to grant, and so by that means he shifted them off. The spiritualtie was not onelie charged with this subsidie, but they of the temporaltie were also burthened. For the citizens and burgesses of good townes gaue to the king the sixt part of their goods, and the residue of the people gaue the tenth part.

The Welshmen are busie.
Carnaruan burnt.
Morgan driueth the earle of Glocester out of Glamorganshire.
The earles of Lancaster & Lincolne vanquished by the Welshmen.

Moreouer, about the same time, the Welshmen eftsoones rebelled against the king, and in diuerse parts made diuerse rulers amongst them. Those of Northwales which inhabited about Snowdon hils, hauing to their capteine one Madoc, of the line of their former prince Leolin, burned the towne and castell of Carnaruan, sleaing a great multitude of Englishmen, which doubting no such matter, were come thither to the faire. Those of the west part hauing chosen to their ruler one Malgon on the parts of Penbroke and Carmardin shires, did much mischéefe. And one Morgan hauing them of Southwals at his commandement, expelled and droue the earle of Glocester out of his countrie of Glamorgan, which earle had before time disherited the ancestors of the same Morgan. The king therefore to represse the Welshmens attempts, called backe his brother Edmund earle of Lancaster, and the earle of Lincolne, being readie to haue sailed ouer into Gascoine, the which earles as they approched néere vnto the castell of Denbigh vpon saint Martins day, the Welshmen with great force incountred them, and giuing them battell, droue them backe and discomfited their people. Polydor iudgeth that this ouerthrow happened to the Englishmen, the rather for that the armie was hired with such monie as had béene wrongfullie taken out of the abbeis and other holie places, howbeit it is but his opinion onelie.

An. Reg. 23.

[Pg 506]

Baion yéelded to the Englishmen.
The castell of Baion won.
Two French gallies taken.
Saint Iohn de Sordes.
The Gascoigns aid the Englishmen.

The king kept his Christmasse at Aberconwey in Wales, and hearing that the new archbishop of Canturburie, doctor Robert Winchelsey, being returned from Rome (where, of pope Celestine he had receiued his pall) was comming towards him, he sent one of his chapleines named Iohn Berwike with a power of souldiers to conduct him safelie vnto his presence. And after the archbishop had doone his fealtie to the king, accordinglie as of dutie and custome he was bound, he was licenced to returne with great honour shewed vnto him at the kings hands. Vpon the day of the circumcision of our Lord, was the citie of Baion rendred vnto the lord Iohn saint Iohn, the which the day before had béene taken by the mariners by force of assault. Manie of the citizens which were knowne to be chéefe enimies vnto the king of England, were apprehended and sent into England. The castell was then besieged, and after eight daies taken. The lord of Aspermont with diuerse others that held it, were committed to prison. There were also taken two gallies, which the French king had caused to be made, and appointed to be remaining there vpon defense of that citie. Shortlie after the towne of saint Iohn de Sordes was deliuered vnto the Englishmen, who wan manie other townes and fortresses, some by surrender of their owne accord, and some by force and violence. The English armie greatlie increased within a while, after the deceit of the Frenchmen once appeared, for the Gascoins returned vnto the English obedience, in such wise that foure thousand footmen and two hundred horsemen came to aid the English capteins.

The king entreth into Wales.

In the meane time, the king of England passing ouer the riuer of Conwey, with part of his armie to go further into Wales towards Snowdon, lost manie carts and other cariages which were taken by the Welshmen, being loden with the prouisions of vittels, so that he with his people indured great penurie, and was constreined to drinke water mixt with honie, and eat such course bread and salt flesh as he could get, till the other part of the armie came vnto him. There was a small quantitie of wine amongst them, which they would haue reserued onelie for the king, & therfore refused to tast therof. But least they should repine at his extraordinarie and seuerall fare, and so by conceits of discontentment for not hauing the like, he considered in a sympathie, that,

Quæ mala cum multis patimur, leuiora videntur,

saieng, that in time of necessitie all things ought to be common, and all men to be contented with like diet. For as touching him (being the cause and procurer of their want) he would not be preferred before any of them in his meats and drinks. The Welshmen compassed him about in hope to distresse him, for that the water was so risen, that the residue of his armie could not get to him. But shortlie after, when the water fell, they came ouer to his aid, and therewith the aduersaries fled.

The earle of Warwike.
N. Triuet.
The Welshmen ouerthrowne by the earle of Warwike.

The earle of Warwike, hearing that a great number of Welshmen was assembled togither, and lodged in a vallie betwixt two woods, he chose out a number of horssemen, with certeine crossebowes and archers, and comming vpon the Welshmen in the night, compassed them round about, the which pitching the ends of their speares in the ground, and turning the points against their enimies, stood at defense so to kéepe off the horssemen. But the earle hauing placed his battell so, that euer betwixt two horssemen there stood a crosbow, a great part of the Welshmen which stood at defense in maner aforesaid with their speares, were ouerthrowne and broken with the shot of the quarels, and then the earle charged the residue with a troope of horssmen, and bare them downe with such slaughter, as they had not susteined the like losse of people (as was thought) at anie one time before.

The woods in Wales cut downe.
Beaumarise built.
Madoc taken prisoner.

[Pg 507]

Welshmen imprisoned.

In the meane while, king Edward to restreine the rebellious attempts of those Welshmen, caused the woods of Wales to be cut downe, wherein before time the Welshmen were accustomed to hide themselues in time of danger. He also repared the castels and holds in that countrie, and builded some new, as the citie and castell of Bewmarise with other, so that the Welshmen constreined through hunger and famine, were inforced within a while to come to the kings peace. Also at length about the feast of saint Laurence, the Welshman Madoc, that tooke himselfe for prince of Wales was taken prisoner, and being brought to London was committed to perpetuall prison. ¶ By some writers it should appeare, that Madoc was not taken, but rather after manie aduentures & sundrie conflicts, when the Welshmen were brought to an issue of great extremitie, the said Madoc came in and submitted himselfe to the kings peace, and was receiued, vpon condition that he should pursue Morgan till he had taken him and brought him to the kings prison, which was doone, and so all things in those parts were set in rest and peace, and manie hostages of the chéefest amongst the Welsh nobilitie were deliuered to the king, who sent them to diuerse castels in England where they were safelie kept almost to the end of the warres that followed with Scotland.

Charles de Valois chaseth the Englishmen.
The Earle of Richmond.
Rion besieged.

About the same time Charles de Valois brother to the French king, being sent with an armie into Gascoine, and comming vpon the sudden, found the Englishmen wandering abroad in the countrie out of order, by reason whereof taking them at that aduantage, he caused them to leaue their booties behind them, slue part of them, and chased the residue, the which fled to their ships, or to such hauen townes as were in their possession. The capteins of the Englishmen, as Iohn de Britaine earle of Richmond, and the lord Iohn saint Iohn, after they had got togither their souldiers which had béene thus chased, sent two bands vnto Pontesey to defend that towne against the enimies: also other two bands vnto saint Seuere: and they themselues went to Rion to fortifie that place. Charles de Valois aduertised hereof, thought he would not giue them long respit to make themselues strong by gathering any new power, and therfore appointed the conestable sir Rafe de Neale, (who had woone the citie of Burdeaux from the Englishmen latelie before) to go vnto Pontesey and besiege that towne, whilest he went vnto Rion, which he besieged and fiercelie assaulted. But the Englishmen and Gascoins did not onelie defend the towne stoutlie, but also made an issue foorth vpon their enimies, though (as it happened) the smaller number was not able to susteine the force of the greater multitude, and so were the Englishmen beaten backe into the towne againe.

Pontsey won.
N. Triuet.
Rion wone.

Whilest they tried their manhood thus at Rion, the constable woone Pontesey or Pontsac vpon Dordone, and came to ioine with the earles de Valois at Rion, and so inforced both their powers to win that towne. The Englishmen and Gascoins, though they were put in some feare, yet they shewed their approoued valiancie in defending the towne, till at length when they saw they could defend it no longer, and were in no hope of succour from anie part, they fled out about midnight, and made toward their ships: but diuerse of them were taken by the waie, for the Frenchmen hauing knowledge of their intent, forlaie the passages, and taking some of them that first sought to escape thus by flight, slue them, but there was not manie of those. For all the residue, when they perceiued that the Frenchmen had laid betwixt them and their ships, making vertue of necessitie, stood still in defense of the towne, till the Frenchmen entred it by force of assault the friday in Easter wéeke.

Englishmen taken.
Sir Adam Kreting kild.
Sir Walter Gifford.

Some write, that the same night, in which they so ment to flée to their ships, there chanced a great tumult and mutenie betwixt the footmen and horssemen, so that they fought togither, or else might the whole number of them haue escaped. The horssemen that got foorth left their horsses behind them readie brideled and sadled, which the Frenchmen vpon entring the towne in the morning tooke, after they had slaine the most part of the footmen. The Frenchmen hauing got a bloudie victorie, saued onelie the capteins and gentlemen, and slue the other, aswell Englishmen as Gascoins. There was taken of knights, sir Rafe Tannie, sir Amis de saint Amand, with his brother sir Rafe de Gorges marshall of the armie, sir Roger Leiborne, sir Iohn Kreting, sir Iames Kreting, sir Hen. Boding, sir Iohn Mandeuile, sir Iohn Fulborne, sir Robert Goodfield, sir Thomas Turberuile, & sir Walter, with thrée & thirtie esquiers, which were sent all vnto Paris. Sir Adam Kreting was killed, a right valiant knight, by reason of one sir Walter Gifford a knight also, which had dwelled in France manie yeares before as an outlaw.

Saint Seuere taken.
Nic. Triuet.
Hugh Véer.

[Pg 508]

Charles de Valois.
Saint Seuere besiged.
Saint Seuere yéelded by composition.
Charles de Valois returneth into France.

On the same day was the towne of saint Seuere deliuered vnto the Englishmen, the which Hugh or (as Abington saith) Robert Véer, brother to the earle of Oxenford tooke vpon him to kéepe as capteine there with two hundred men of armes. Charles de Valois aduertised thereof, departed from Rion with all spéed, to besiege the foresaid towne of saint Seuere, yer the Englishmen should haue time to fortifie it. But the foresaid Hugh Véer kept him out the space of thirtéene or (as Abington saith) nine wéekes, to the great losse of the Frenchmen, no small part of their people dieng in the meane time, both of pestilence and famine. At length, when vittels began to faile within, a truce was taken for fiftéene daies, within the which it might be lawfull for them within the towne to send vnto Baion for succour, which if it came not within that tearme, the towne should be yéelded vnto the Frenchmen, and so it was vpon these conditions, that the Englishmen and other that would depart, should haue libertie to take with them their armour and goods, and be safelie conueied two daies iornie on their waie from the French armie. Also that those which were minded to remaine still in the towne, should not susteine any losse or damage in their bodies or goods. The pledges also which aforetime were taken out of that towne by the French kings seneshall, should returne in safetie to the towne, and haue their goods restored vnto them. This doone, Charles de Valois appointed a garrison of soldiers to remaine there for the kéeping of the towne, and then returned backe into France. The Englishmen, which escaped out of those places from the Frenchmens hands, repaired vnto Baion, to defend that towne with their capteins the foresaid earle of Richmond and the lord Iohn de S. Iohn, the which of some are vntruelie said to haue béene slaine at Rion. Shortlie after that Charles de Valois was departed and gone out of the countrie, the towne of saint Seuere was recouered by the Englishmen.

The earle of Oxford then liuing hight Robert Véer; and not Hugh Véer.
N. Triuet.

¶ It should appeare by report of some writers, that Hugh Véer (whome they wronglie name to be earle of Oxenford) was sent ouer as then from king Edward to the aid of his capteins in Gascoine, and at his first comming, recouered the towne of saint Seuere, and afterwards so valiantlie defended it against the Frenchmen, that honorable mention is made of him, both by Nicholas Triuet, and also by some French writers, for his high manhood therin shewed. But whether he were brother or sonne to the earle of Oxford, I can not saie; howbeit about the 27 yeare of this king Edwards reigne, we find one Hugh Véer, that was a baron, whom I take to be this man, but earle I thinke he was not. For (as Euersden saith) one Robert Véer that was earle of Oxford deceassed in the yeare next insuing, and after him succéeded an other earle that bare the same name (as by records it may appeare.) Polydor speaking of the siege of S. Seuere, rehearseth not who was capteine as then of the towne, but in the yéelding of it vnto Charles de Valois, after he had laine more than thrée moneths before it, he agréeth with other writers.

Cardinals sent to the kings of England and France to treat a peace.
Matth. Westm.
The cardinals gather monie.

In the same yeare Berard bishop of Alba and Simon archbishop of Bourges, two cardinals of the Romane sée, were sent vnto the kings of England and France, to mooue them to conclude a peace. They first came into France, and after into England, but perceiuing the minds of the kings nothing inclined to concord, they returned to Rome without any conclusion of their purpose, but not without monie gathered of religious men to beare out their expenses, for they had authoritie by the popes grant to receiue in name of procuracies and expenses, six marks of euerie cathedrall and collegiat church thorough the realme, besides diuerse other rewards. And where any poore chapiter of nunnes or religious persons were not able of themselues, the parish churches next adioining were appointed to be contributorie with them.

Nic. Triuet.
Matth. Westm.
Sir Thomas Turberuiles promise to the French king.

At the same time sir Thomas Turberuile a knight, and one of those (as before ye haue heard) which were taken at Rion, to saue his life, and to deliuer himselfe out of captiuitie, though he was neuer proued false before, promised king Philip that if he would suffer him to returne into England, he would so worke with king Edward, that he might be made by him admerall of the seas; which thing brought to passe he would deliuer the English nauie into the hands of the said king Philip. Herevpon was he set at libertie, and ouer he came into England. And for as much as he had knowne to be a man of singular and approued valiancie, king Edward receiued him verie courteouslie, who remem[Pg 509]bring his promised practise to the French king, fell in hand by procuring of fréends to be made admerall of the seas. But king Edward (as God would haue it) denied that sute.

The French king sendeth foorth a fléet against England.
French men slaine.
A gallie burnt.

The French king in the meane time hauing prepared his nauie, conteining thrée hundred saile, what with the gallies and other ships (for he had got diuerse both from Merselles and Genoa) sent the same foorth to the seas, that vpon such occasion the king of England might also send foorth his fléet. But the French nauie comming néere to the coast of England, and lieng at anchor certeine daies, looking for Thomas Turberuile; when he came not at the day prefixed, the capteines of the French fléet appointed one of their vessels to approch néere to the shore, and to set on land certeine persons that knew the countrie, to vnderstand and learne the cause of such staie. They being taken of the Englishmen and examined, could make no direct answer in their owne excuse, and so were put to death. Some write that they sent fiue gallies towards the shore to suruey the coast, of the which gallies one of them aduansing foorth afore hir fellowes, arriued at Hide néere to Romney hauen, where the Englishmen espieng hir, to draw the Frenchmen on land, feined to flie backe into the countrie, but returning suddenlie vpon the enimies, they slue the whole number of them, being about two hundred and fiftie persons. They set fire on the gallie also and burned hir.

Douer robbed by the French.
The Frenchmen chased to their ships.
Frenchmen slaine about Douer.

The admerall of the French fléet kindled in anger herewith, sailed streight vnto Douer, and there landing with his people, robbed the towne and priorie. The townesmen being striken with terror and feare of the sudden landing of their enimies, fled into the countrie, and raised people on euerie side, the which being assembled togither in great numbers, towards euening came to Douer, and inuading such Frenchmen as were straied abroad to séeke preies, slue them downe in sundrie places. The French admerall which had béene busie all the day in pilfering the towne, hearing the noise of those Frenchmen that came running towards the sea side, streightwaies got him to his ships with such pillage as he could take with him. The other Frenchmen, which were gone abroad into the countrie to fetch preies, and could not come to their ships in time, were slaine euerie mothers sonne. Some of them hid themselues in the corne fields, and were after slaine of the countrie people. There was little lesse than eight hundred of them thus slaine by one meane and other at that time. There were not manie of the men of Douer slaine, for they escaped by swift flight at the first entrie made by the Frenchmen: but of women and children there died a great number, for the enimies spared none. There was also an old moonke slaine named Thomas, a man of such vertue (as the opinion went) that after his deceasse, manie miracles through him were shewed.

Sir Thomas Turberuile executed.
N. Triuet.

Sir Thomas Turberuile, being troubled in his mind that he could not bring his traitorous purpose to passe, began to assaie another waie, which was to procure Iohn Balioll king of Scotland to ioine in league with the French king, but yer any of his practises could be brought about, his treason was reuealed, who being thereof euidentlie conuicted, was put to execution. Nich. Triuet saith, that he had promised the French king to cause Wales to reuolt from king Edward, and that by procurement of the prouost of Paris, he consented to worke such treason. And (as some write) he did not onelie homage vnto the French king, but also left two of his sonnes in pledge for assurance to worke that which he had promised. His secretarie that wrote the letters vnto the French king, conteining his imagined treasons, with other aduertisements touching king Edwards purposes, fearing least the matter by some other means might come to light (as the old prouerb saith,

Quicquid nix celat solis calor omne reuelat)

as well to his destruction as his maisters for concealing it, disclosed all to the king. Now he hauing knowledge that he was bewraied by his seruant, fled out of the court, but such diligence was vsed in the pursuit of him, that he was taken within two daies after, and brought backe againe to London, where he was conuicted of the treason so by him imagined, and therefore finallie put to death. ¶ This yeare the cleargie gaue to the king the tenth part of their goods, the citizens a sixt part, and the commons a twelfth part, or rather[Pg 510] (as Euersden saith) the burgesses of good townes gaue the seuenth, and the commons abroad the eleuenth penie.

The death of noble men.
Sir Rafe Monthermer wedded the countesse of Glocester.
An. Reg. 24.
N. Triuet.

The same yeare died Gilbert de Clare earle of Glocester, which left issue behind him, begot of his wife the countesse Ione the kings daughter (beside thrée daughters) one yoong sonne named also Gilbert to succéed him as his heire. The countesse his wife, after hir husbands deceasse, married a knight of meane estate, borne in the bishopricke of Duresme, named sir Rafe Monthermer, that had serued the earle hir first husband in his life time. The king at the first tooke displeasure herewith, but at length through the hie valiancie of the knight, oft times shewed and apparantlie approued, the matter was so well taken, that he was intituled earle of Glocester, and aduanced to great honor. ¶ Iohn Romane archbishop of Yorke also this yeare died, after whome one Henrie de Newmarke deane of the colledge there succéeded. ¶ Moreouer the same yeare William de Valence earle of Penbroke departed this life, and lieth buried at Westminster, and then Aimer his sonne succéeded him.

The king of Scots concludeth a league with the French king.
Matth. West.

Iohn king of Scotland affianced his sonne Edward Balioll with the daughter of Charles du Valois brother to the French king, and concluded with the said French king a league against the king of England. Nothing mooued the Scotish king so much hereto, as the affection which he bare towards his natiue countrie, for he was a French man borne, and lord of Harecourt in Normandie, which segniorie was after made an earledome by Philip du Valois king of France. The Scotishmen had chosen 12 péeres, that is to saie, foure bishops, foure earles, and foure barons, by whose aduise and counsell the king should gouerne the realme, by whome he was induced also to consent vnto such accord with the French men, contrarie to his promised faith giuen to king Edward when he did homage to him.

K. Edwards request made to the Scots is denied.
The disloiall dealing of the Scots.

King Edward not fullie vnderstanding the conclusion of this league, required aid of the Scotish king for the maintenance of his warres against France, and receiuing a doubtfull answer, began to suspect the matter: whervpon he required to haue thrée castels, as Barwike, Edenburgh, and Rokesburgh, deliuered vnto him as gages till the end of the warre, and if the Scotishmen continued faithfull vnto him, he would then restore the same castels to them againe when the warres were ended. This to do the Scotishmen vtterlie denied, alledging that their countrie was frée of it selfe, and acquit of all seruitude or bondage, and that they were in no condition bound vnto the king of Scotland, and therefore they would receiue the merchants of France, of Flanders, or any other countrie without exception, as they thought good.

Nic. Triuet.
The earle of Lancaster sent into Gascoine.

There were in the hauen of Berwike at the same time, certeine English merchants, vpon whome the Scots made assault, and wounded some of them, and some of them they slue, and chased the residue, the which returning into England, made complaint, and shewed in what euill maner they had béene dealt with. King Edward héerevpon perceiuing the purposes of the Scots, determined to make warre vpon them with all spéed, & to conquer the whole countrie, if they could not cleare themselues of such euill dealing as of them was reported and thought to be put in practise. About the conuersion of saint Paule in Ianuarie, king Edward sent ouer into Gascoine his brother the lord Edmund earle of Lancaster, with the earle of Lincolne and other, to the number of 26 banerets, and 700 men of armes, besides a great multitude of other people. They arriued at Blay, about the midst of Lent, and staied there till towards Easter. In which meane season, a great sort of Gascoins and other people resorted vnto them, so that they were two thousand men of armes.

The castell of Lespar deliuered vnto him.

[Pg 511]

Nic. Triuet.
The Frenchmen forced to retire.

Vpon Cene thursdaie, the castell de Lesparre was deliuered vnto the earle of Lancaster, and after that diuers other castels. At his approching néere vnto Burdeaux, vpon the thursdaie in Easter wéeke, as he rested to refresh himselfe and his armie in a little village called Kekell, an armie of French men issuing out of Burdeaux, ment to come on the Englishmen at vnwares: but hauing warning, they prepared themselues to battell, so well as the shortnes of time would permit, and so therevpon incountring with their enimies, and fighting a sore battell, at length constreined the French men to returne vnto the citie, and pursuing them as they fled, two English knights being brethren to sir Peter de Mallow and an other that was a Gascoine, entred the citie with two standard bearers belonging to the earle of Richmond, & to the lord Alane de la Zouch, whom the Frenchmen tooke, closing them within the gates. The other Englishmen being shut out, first fell to the spoile of the suburbs, and then set fire vpon the same. After this were certeine of the citizens that secretlie were at a point with the earle of Lancaster, to haue deliuered the citie into his hands, but their practise being espied, they were taken and executed yer they could performe that which they had promised.

The earle of Lancaster departeth this life.
Aques besieged.
The earle of Arthois sent with an armie to Gascoine.
N. Triuet.

Then the earle perceiuing he should but lose his labor to staie any longer there, vpon certeine weightie occasions returned vnto Baionne, where he shortlie after fell sicke and died. He left behind him thrée sonnes, Thomas that succéeded him in the earldome of Lancaster, Henrie lord of Monmouth, and Iohn whome he had begot of his wife Blanch, the which before had béene married vnto Henrie earle of Champaigne, and king of Nauar, by whome shée had but one onelie daughter, that was married vnto the French king Philip de Beau. After this the English armie besieged the citie of Aques, but thorough want of vittels he was constreined to raise thence and breake vp the siege. The earle of Arthois being sent of the French king with an armie into Gascoine, incountred with the Englishmen, and chased them with the slaughter of a great number, and after recouered diuers townes and fortresses in the countrie.

Burg besieged.
The lord Simon de Montagew his enterprise to rescue the garrison of Burg.
The siege is raised.

Those Englishmen that kept the towne of Burg, being compassed about with a siege by Mounseur de Sully, obteined truce for a certeine space, during the which they sent vnto Blaines for some reléefe of vittels, and where other refused to bring vp a ship loden with vittels, which was there prepared, the lord Simon de Montagew, a right valiant chéefetaine, and a wise, tooke vpon him the enterprise, and through the middle of the French gallies, which were placed in the riuer to stop that no ship should passe towards that towne, by helpe of a prosperous wind, he got into the hauen of Burgh, and so relieued them within of their want of vittels, by meanes whereof, Mounseur de Sully brake vp his siege, and returned into France.

The king of England concludeth a league with the earle of Flanders.
He concludeth a league also with the earle of Bar.
The earle of Bar inuadeth Champaigne.

In the meane time, king Edward not sléeping his businesse, procured Guie earle of Flanders to ioine with him in league against the Frenchmen. This Guie was the son of Margaret countesse of Flanders, whom she had by hir second husband William lord of Dampire in Burstoine. Also king Edward procured Henrie earle of Bar, to whome (as before ye haue heard) he had giuen his daughter Eleanor in marriage, to make warre vpon the Frenchmen, so that at one time the erle of Bar inuaded the countrie of Champaigne, and the earle of Flanders made incursions vpon those countries of France which ioine vnto Flanders. King Philip hereof aduertised, sent forth one Walter de Cressie with a great armie against the earle of Bar, so that besieging the chéefest towne of Bar, he constreined the said earle to leaue off his enterprise in Champaigne, and to returne home, for doubt to lose more there than hée should win abroad.

A mariage concluded.
The earle of Flanders arrested.

But now to touch more at large the circumstances of the occasion that mooued the earle of Flanders to make war against the French king. I find (in Iacob Meir) that there was a marriage concluded betwixt the lord Edward the eldest son of king Edward, and the ladie Philip daughter to the foresaid Guie earle of Flanders, which marriage was concluded by Henrie bishop of Lincolne, and the earle Warren, being sent ouer as ambassadours by king Edward, vnto the said earle Guie for the same purpose. In the yeare following, the said earle of Flanders, togither with his wife, comming to visit the French king at Corbeill, were arrested, and sent to Paris, there to remaine as prisoners, bicause that the earle had affianced his daughter to the French kings aduersarie, without his licence neither might they be deliuered, till by mediation of the pope (who must néeds meddle in[Pg 512] the matter by virtue of his peremptorie power, & all christendome must veile the bonnet to his holinesse, or rather abhominablenesse,

Ille etenim toto sese iubet orbe colendum,
Cui nisi parueris, crede perire licet)
The pope intermedleth in the matter.
The earle of Flanders forced to agrée with the French king.

and suertie had vpon the promise of Amedie earle of Sauoy, they were set at libertie, with these conditions, that they should deliuer into the French kings hands their daughter, which was so affianced vnto K. Edwards sonne, and further couenanted, not to conclude any league with the king of England, but in all points t'obserue a certeine peace which was concluded with Ferdinando earle of Flanders, in the yeare 1225. And if earle Guie brake the same peace, then should he be excommunicated, and all his countrie of Flanders interdicted by the archbishop of Reims, and the bishop of Senlis, iudges appointed herein by authoritie of the pope.

The earle of Flanders released returneth home.
The French kings answer to the pope.
A new league betwixt the K. of England, the emperour and others against the French king.

The earles daughter being sent for, and brought vnto Paris, the earle and his wife were released, and suffered to returne into Flanders, and shortlie after, the earle made earnest suit to haue his daughter restored vnto him againe, insomuch that he procured pope Boniface to be a meane for him to the French king; but all would not serue, no, though as some say the pope accurssed the French king for reteining hir, answer being made, that matters perteining to worldlie gouernment, belonged not to the pope to discusse. Finallie, earle Guie, perceiuing he could not preuaile in that suit, to haue his daughter againe, vpon high displeasure concluded to ioine in league with king Edward & his confederats. Herevpon, at an assemblie or councell kept at Gerardmount, there was a solemne league made and agréed betwixt Adolph the emperour of Almaine, Edward king of England, Guie earle of Flanders, Iohn duke of Brabant, Henrie earle of Bar, both sonnes in law to king Edward, and Albert duke of Austrich, against Philip king of France, and Iohn earle of Henault his partaker.

Matth. West.

The merchants of Flanders procured the earle to conclude this league with king Edward, as some write, the rather in respect of the great commodities which rose to their countrie, by reason of the intercourse of merchandize vsed betwixt England and Flanders, and for that through aid of the Englishmen, they might the better withstand the malice, both of the French and of all other their enimies. This league being proclaimed in England, there were sent ouer into Flanders, the treasurer of the excheker, and diuerse other noble men, to fetch hostages from thence, and to giue to the earle fiftéene thousand pounds of siluer, towards the fortifieng of his castels and holds. King Philip being hereof aduertised, by counsell of the péeres of his realme, sent two honorable personages, as the capteine of Mounstrell, and the capteine of Belquerke, which should attach the earle of Flanders by his bodie, and summon him to yéeld himselfe prisoner at Paris, within the space of fiftéene daies next insuing.

The earle of Flanders defieth the French king.
The earle of Flanders accurssed.
His sonne appealeth from the interdiction.

This attachment made, and summons giuen, the earle of Flanders sent his full defiance vnto the French king by the abbats of Gemblois, and Senefles, vnto whome he gaue sufficient letters procuratorie, to authorise them thereto, dated at Male in the yeare of Grace 1296, after the accounts of the chronicles of Flanders, which begin their yere at Easter: and so this chanced in the fiue and twentith yeare of king Edwards reigne, the Wednesdaie next after the feast of the Epiphanie. Herevpon was the earle accurssed, & Flanders interdicted by the archbishop of Reims, and the bishop of Senlis comming vnto Terwane for that purpose, about the fiftéenth day of Iune, in the yeare 1297. But the lord Robert the earles sonne appealed from that interdiction to the pope, and so the Flemmings tooke themselues frée & out of danger of the same. Earle Guie also obteined of king Edward, that it might be lawfull for them of Bruges to buy wools, through England, Scotland and Ireland, as fréelie as the Italians might by their priuilege and grant.

[Pg 513]

Ambassadors sent to the K. of Scots.

But to returne now to the dooings of king Edward, who in this meane time, hauing a perfect knowledge of the league concluded betwixt the king of France and the king of Scotland, prepared an armie, and first sent ambassadors into Scotland, to giue summons to king Iohn to appeare at Newcastell within certeine daies, that he might there shew the cause whie he had broken the league: and further, to declare vnto him that he was deceiued, if he thought he might serue two maisters, contrarie to the words of the gospell, and according to the old saieng which seldome neuer faileth in consequence,

Deficit ambobus qui vult seruire duobus.

For how much fauour as he purchased at the hands of the French king, so much displeasure might he assure himselfe to procure at the hands of the king of England, whome to obeie, it should be most for his aduantage. The ambassadors that were sent, did their message throughlie, but king Iohn was so farre off from answering anie thing that might sound to the maintenance of peace, that shortlie after he sent letters of complaint vnto king Edward, for wrongs which he alledged he had susteined by his means and at his hands. Herevpon king Edward, by aduise of his councell, determined to set forward with his armie into Scotland.

Nic. Triuet.
The lord Ros reuolteth to ye K. of Scots.
William de Ros continueth faithfull to the king of England.
Englishmen distressed.
Rich. South.

In the meane time, Robert Ros, capteine of Warke castell, reuolted to the Scotish king, mooued therevnto through the loue of a Scotish gentlewoman, whome he meant to marrie, notwithstanding he had sworne fealtie vnto king Edward. Wherevpon, his brother William de Ros giuing knowledge to king Edward, required to haue some aid, whereby he might defend the castell against the Scotishmen. King Edward sent vnto him a thousand souldiers, (Polydor saith an hundred) the which as they lodged one night in a towne called Prestfen, were slaine by the Scotishmen of the garison of Rockesborough, that were led and guided by the said Robert Ros: some of them although but few escaped awaie by flight. King Edward aduertised hereof, hasted foorth, and came to the said castell, glad of this (as is reported) that the Scotishmen had first begun the warre, meaning, as it should séeme by their procéedings, to follow the same, for vpon Good friday, diuerse Scotishmen entring the borders, burnt sundrie villages, and spoiled the abbeie of Carham.

N. Triuet.
The Scots inuade England.
Nic. Triuet.
The Scots raise their siege from Carleil.

Furthermore, whilest king Edward kept his castell at Warke, seauen earles of Scotland, as Bouchan, Menteth, Stratherne, Lennox, Ros, Atholl, and Mar, with Iohn Comin the maister of Badenaw, hauing assembled an armie togither of fiue hundred men of armes on horssebacke, and ten thousand footmen in Annandale, vpon monday in Easter wéeke entred England, and putting all to fire and sword, approched to Carleill, and laid siege therevnto on each side, passing the water of Eden by a foord vnder Richardston, and did so much preuaile, that they burned the suburbes, and assaulted the gates, at which enterprise, a gentleman of Galloway as he ventured somewhat néere to the gate, was drawne vp by an iron hooke, of those that stood aloft vpon the gates to defend the same, and there slaine, and thrust through with speares. In the meane time, a spie, the which had béene taken and committed to prison, set fire on the house wherein he was inclosed, and so the flames catching hold vpon the other buildings, a great part of the citie was thereby burned. Yet the men and the women getting themselues to the wals, droue their enimies backe, and so defended the citie from taking. Whervpon, the Scotish lords perceiuing they could not preuaile, left their siege on the thursdaie in Easter wéeke, and returned againe into Scotland.

Berwike summoned.

[Pg 514]

The English fléet.
Foure English ships lost.

On the same thursdaie, king Edward with his armie passed the riuer of Twéed, and so entring into Scotland, sent to the burgesses of Berwike, offering them peace vpon certeine conditions, and staied a whole day for an answer: but when he could haue none that liked him, nor that sounded in anie thing to peace, he approched the towne, and lodged in the monasterie of Caldestreime. His armie consisted as some write of foure thousand men of armes on horsbacke, and thirtie thousand footmen, besides fiue hundred men of armes on horssebacke, and a thousand footmen of the bishoprike of Durham. At the same time, there came foure and twentie English ships, the mariners whereof, beholding where the English armie was placed in battell raie, vpon a plaine, the king making there certeine knights, they thought his meaning was to haue giuen forthwith an assalt, and so entring the hauen, and approching to the land, began to fight with the townesmen, where they lost foure of their ships, and were constreined to withdraw with the residue, with helpe of the falling water. Some haue written that they lost but thrée ships which were consumed with fire, and that the mariners and souldiers of one of those ships, after they had defended themselues by great manhood from the first houre of the daie, till eleuen of the clocke, escaped awaie, some by the bote of that ship, and some leaping into the water, were saued by the botes of other ships that made in to succour them.

Berwike woone.
This sir Richard Cornewall was brother to the erle of Cornewall.

The rumor of the mariners attempt being bruted through the armie, the king passing forward towards the towne, got ouer a ditch, which the Scots had cast to impeach his passage, and so comming to the towne, wan it not losing any man of renowme, sauing sir Richard Cornewall, the which was slaine by a quarell which a Flemming shot out of a crossebowe, being in the red hall, which the merchants of Flanders held in that towne, and had fortified it in manner of a tower: but when they would not yéeld, and could not easilie otherwise be woone, the house towards euening was set on fire, and so they being thirtie in number were burned to death within it. Vpon the same night, the king lodged in the castell, which was yéelded vnto him by them that kept it, their liues and limmes saued, and receiuing an oth, that they should not from thencefoorth beare armour against the king of England, they were permitted to depart whither they thought good, their capteine sir William Dowglas excepted, whom the king still kept with him, till the end of the warres. Some write that there should be slaine of Scotishmen at this winning of Berwike, aboue the number of twentie thousand men, Abington saith 8000, but Richard Southwell saith 15000 at the least one with an other, with small losse of Englishmen, not past eight and twentie of all sorts. Yée may read more hereof in the Scotish historie.

Abraham Fleming.
R. Grafton, pag. 176.
G. Buchanan rer. Scotic. lib. 8. pag. 243, prope finem.

¶ But before I passe ouer this slaughter, so lamentable and woonderfull, I haue bethought my selfe of a promised apologie for and in the behalfe of Richard Grafton, mentioned before in the reigne of Henrie the second, page 194 where I shewed how vnaduisedlie and with vnséemelie modestie for a man of learning, George Buchanan the Scot dooth shoot his bolts at the said Grafton, as now by occasion of the matter conuenientlie occurrent shall be shewed. The said Grafton in his large volume of English chronicles, falling vpon the affaires betwéene king Edward the first, and Iohn Balioll king of Scotland, among other things there remembred, maketh report that in the said battell of Berwike, the slaughter was so great, that a mill might well haue béene driuen by the space of two daies, with the streames of bloud which at that time ouerranne the ground. At which words George Buchanan giueth a snatch, emboldened so to doo, bicause the said Grafton referreth this record to Hector Boetius in his fourtéenth booke and second chapter.

Iesu, how the Scot taketh vp the Englishman for halting in his allegation, first for the chapter, conuincing him that Hector Boetius diuided not his booke into chapters, and therefore, where is the second chapter, sith the whole fourtéen booke is a continued discourse without distinction by chapters? Secondlie the said Grafton hath the checke, for setting a lie aflote, Buchanan flatlie affirming that Hector Boetius hath no such matter once mentioned in his annales. Touching the first fault, wherewith the Scot chargeth the Englishman, this is note-worthie, that it should séeme to anie man of meane iudgement, that Buchanan of a prepensed malice and purposed wilfulnesse hath sharpened his stile in this nipping sort against Grafton. For sith it was Graftons meaning to record the truth, so farre foorth as he was warranted by the auerment of writers; why should he be cast in the téeth with Effrænis maledicendi libido, or dishonestlie termed Indoctus & impudenter mendax? Which opprobrious epithets, if they were deserued by an vntrue report of the author; then should Buchanan haue sharpened his toong against Belenden his countriman, the translator of Hector Boetius into their mother toong, from whom Grafton hath deriued his words; sense for sense vnmangled (as he found the same written.)

Now who knoweth not that Bellenden distinguished Hectors annales into chapters,[Pg 515] vpon whose authoritie Grafton relieng, and citing his authoritie according to the quotation of his diuision, whie should he rather than Bellenden be barked at, who is the principall in this controuersie? Againe, it could not be hidden from Buchanan, that Bellenden had distributed Boetius into chapters; considering that they were σύγχρονοι, both liuing in the reigne of Iames the fift of that name king of Scots: so that it might haue pleased him to haue tried Grafton by the Scotish Boetius, and so to haue béene resolued for the second chapter of the fouretéenth booke, according to the archdeacon of Murries translation.

Hector Boetius, pag. 294, lib. impress. Parisijs à Iacobo du Puys, 1574.

Now for the matter itselfe, touching the effusion of bloud, wherewith a mill might well haue béene driuen for two daies space; Hector Boetius his owne words are these; Riui sanguinis toto oppido adeo fluxere, vt cum æstu decurrente minor aqua quàm ad molendina circumagenda fuerit, adiuuante aquam sanguine aliqua circumagi sponte cœperint. Which place, Bellenden hath interpreted after this manner; So lamentabl' slaughter wes throw all the parts of the toun, that ane mill might haif gane two daies ithandlie be stremis of blude. Now examine Graftons words by Bellenden, and Bellendens by Boetius (besides that, marke what Grafton annexeth to the report of this slaughter, who saith that he will not inforce the credit therof vpon any man, but counteth it a Scotish lie rather than a matter of truth) and then conclude according to equitie, that Grafton is altogither excusable and fautlesse, and Buchanans curious & furious challenge reproueable. But admit Grafton had fetcht his report from Boetius, as he had it from Bellenden; séemeth it a lie or an vnlikelihood, that the bloud gushing out of the bodies of 25000, or (as Hector Boetius saith) 7000, would not increase to a streame sufficient & able to driue a mill or two about, without any water intermingled therwithall. The Latine copie hath Riui sanguinis, riuers of bloud, noting by the word the abundance and also the streaming course of the same, which was able with the violent current thereof to beare awaie the verie bodies of the slaine. To conclude this matter, & to set our Englishman by the truth, and let the Scot go with his lieng toong, which I would he had had the modestie to haue tempered, & to haue proffered a practise of that which himselfe paraphrasticallie preacheth and teacheth others to obserue, saieng;

In paraph. super psal. 39.
(Linguæ obseraui claustra fræno, pertinax
Obmutui silentio,
Ac temerè ne quid os mali profunderet,
Verbis bonis clausi exitum.)
K. Edward fortifieth Berwike.
A scotish frier sent to king Edward.
The Scotish king renounceth his homage and fealtie vnto the king of England.

And now to the storie. K. Edward remaind at Berwike 15 daies, & caused a ditch to be cast about the towne of 80 foot in breadth, & of the like in depth. In the meane time, about the beginning of Aprill, the warden and reader of the frier minors of Rockesborough called Adam Blunt, came vnto him with letters of complaint from king Iohn, for the wrongs doone and offered vnto him and his realme, as well in claiming an vniust superioritie, and constreining him to doo homage by vndue and wrongfull meanes, as also by inuading his townes, slaieng and robbing his subiects: for the which causes he testified by the same letters, that he renounced all such homage and fealtie for him and his subiects, as he, or any of them owght for any lands holden within England. The king hearing the letters red receiued the resignation of the homage, and commanded his chancellor, that the letter might be registred in perpetuall memorie of the thing.

The Scots inuade the English borders.

[Pg 516]

Rich. South.
The earle of Boghan. The crueltie of the Scots.

The earles of Scotland before remembred, being assembled togither with their powers at the castell of Iedworth, entred into England the eighth of Aprill, and with fire and sword did much hurt in the countries as they passed. In Riddesdale they besieged the castell of Harbotell by the space of two daies, but when they could not preuaile, they remoued, and passing foorth by the east part of the riuer of Tine, thorough Cokesdale, Riddesdale, and Northumberland, vnto Hexham, they did much mischéefe by burning and harrieng the countries. At Hexham they spoiled the abbeie church, and got a great number of the cleargie, as well moonks, priests, as scholers, and others, whom they thrust into the schoolehouse there, and closing vp the dores, set fire on the schoole, and burned all them to ashes that were within it. It is wonderfull to read, what beastlie crueltie the Scots vsed in that road which they made at that time in two seuerall parts. For the earle of Boghan, with them of Galloway, entred by Cumberland in like manner as the other did in Riddesdale, burning and murthering all that came in their waie. For whereas all those that were of able age and lustie to get awaie, fled, & escaped their hands; the aged & impotent creatures, women in childbed, and yoong children that could not shift for themselues, were vnmercifullie slaine, and thrust vpon speares, and shaken vp in the aire, where they yéelded vp their innocent ghosts in most pitifull wise.

The nunrie of Lamelaie burnt.

Churches were burned, women were forced without respect of order, condition or qualitie, as well the maids, widowes and wiues, as nunnes that were reputed in those daies consecrated to God, and when they had béene so abused, manie of them were after also murthered, and cruellie dispatched out of life. At length, they came to the nunrie of Lamelaie, & burned all the buildings there, sauing the church, and then returned backe into Scotland with all their pillage and booties by Lauercost, an house of moonks, which they likewise spoiled. So that the cruell & bloudie desolation whereof Lucan speaketh in his second booke of ciuill warres, may aptlie be inferred here, as fitlie describing the mercilesse murther of all states and sexes without parcialitie vnder the hand of the enimie: for saith he,

Luc. lib. 2.
Nobilitas cum plebe perit, latéque vagatur
Ensis, & à nullo reuocatum est pectore ferrum,
Stat cruor in templis, multáque rubentia cæde
Lubrica saxa madent, nulli sua profuit ætas,
Non senis extremum piguit vergentibus annis
Præcipitasse diem, non primo in limine vitæ
Infantis miseri nascentia rumpere fata.
The castel of Dunbar rendred to the Scots.
Beside 2000 barded horsses they had in that armie 10000 footmen.
N. Trivet.
Matth. Westm.
A sore battell fought at Dunbar. The number slaine.
Matth. Westm.

Patrike earle of Dunbar came to the king of England, and submitted himselfe, with all that he had into his hands; but the castell of Dunbar vpon saint Markes day, being assieged of the Scots was rendered vnto them, by treason of some that were within it, of whome, the countesse (wife to the same erle) was the chéefest; for recouerie whereof king Edward sent Iohn earle of Warren, Surrey and Sussex, & William earle of Warwike with a great power, the which laieng siege to that castell, a great host of Scotishmen came vpon them to the rescue of them within, so that there was foughten a verie sore and terrible battell. At length, the victorie abode with the Englishmen, and the Scotishmen were put to flight, the Englishmen following them in chase eight mile of that countrie, almost to the forrest of Selkirke: the slaughter was great, so that (as was estéemed) there died of the Scotishmen that day, to the number of ten thousand.

Rockesborough yéelded.

The morrow after being saturdaie, which was the eight and twentith day of Aprill, at the kings comming thither the castell was surrendred vnto him. There were taken in the same castell thrée earles, Menteth, Cassels, and Ros; six barons, Iohn Comin the yoonger, William Sanclere, Richard Siward the elder, Iohn Fitz Geffrey, Alexander de Morteigne, Edmund Comin of Kilbird, with thirtie knights, two clearks, Iohn de Someruile, and William de Sanclere, and thrée and thirtie esquires, the which were sent vnto diuerse castels in England, to be kept as prisoners. After the winning of Dunbar the king went to the castell of Rockesborough, which incontinentlie was yéelded by the lord Steward of Scotland, the liues and members of all such as were within it at the time of the surrender.

Rich. Southw.

Then went king Edward vnto Edinburgh, where he planted his siege about the castell, and raised engines, which cast stones against and ouer the walles, sore beating and brusing the buildings within. But as it chanced, the king writing letters, to aduertise his councell at home of his procéedings, and concerning other businesse, deliuered that packet vnto a Welshman named Lewin, commanding him to go with the same to London in all hast[Pg 517] possible, for he knew him to be a verie spéedie messenger and a trustie also (as he tooke it.) But hauing the letter thus deliuered him, togither with monie to beare his charges, he got him to a tauerne, where riotouslie cōsuming the monie (which he had so receiued) in plaie, & making good chéere, in the morning he caused one of his companions to take a target, and beare it afore him in approching the castell, for that he meant (as he colourablie pretended) not to depart, vntill he had wrought some displeasure to them within with his crossebow, which he tooke with him for that purpose, so that comming vnto the castell gates, he called to the wardens on the walles to cast downe to him a cord, that they might plucke him vp to them therewith, for that he had somwhat to say to their capteine touching the secrets of the king of England.

They fulfilling his desire, when he came in, and was brought afore the captein sitting then at breakfast, he said vnto him: "Behold sir, here ye may peruse the king of Englands secrets," and withall raught to him a box, wherein the packet of the kings letters were inclosed, and "appoint me (saith he) to some corner of the wall, and trie whether I can handle a crossebow or not, to defend it against your aduersaries." Héere when others would haue opened the box, and haue read the letters, the capteine would in no wise consent thereto, but going into a turret, called to the Englishmen béelow, and willed them to signifie to the king, that one of his seruants being fled to him, sought to bewraie his secrets, wherevnto he would by no means agrée, and therefore meant to restore both the traitor and the letters. Herevpon, the lord Iohn Spenser, comming to heare what the matter might meane, the capteine caused Lewin to be let downe to him, togither with the letters safe, and not touched by him at all.

A Welshman hanged.

When the king vnderstood this, he much commended the honest respect of the capteine, and whereas he had caused engins to be raised to annoie them within (as yée haue heard) he commanded the same to ceasse, and withall, vpon their capteins suit, he granted them libertie to send vnto their king Iohn Balioll, to giue him to vnderstand in what sort they stood. As touching the Welshman, he was drawne and hanged on a pair of high galowes, prepared for him of purpose, as he had well deserued. A notable example of a traitorous villaine, so to offer the secrets of his souereigne to be known to his enimies: and no lesse excellent a president of an honest and faithfull harted foe, that would not himselfe nor let anie other haue a sight of the contents therein written; a rare point of good meaning and vpright dealing in a souldier, and speciallie in an enimie; but

---- multo optimus ille
Militiæ cui postremum est primúmq; tueri
Inter bella fidem.
Striueling castel left void.
Edenburgh castell deliuered to the king of England.

Now while the messengers were on their waie to Forfair, where the Scotish king then laie, king Edward with a part of his armie went vnto Striueling, where he found the castell gates set open, and the keies hanging on a naile, so that he entred there without any resistance, for they that had this castle in gard, were fled out of it for feare before his comming. The messengers that were sent from them within Edenburgh castell, comming to their king, declared to him in what case they stood that were besieged. King Iohn, for that he was not able to succor them by any manner of means at that present, sent them word, to take the best waie they could for their owne safetie; with which answer the messengers returning, the castell was immediatlie deliuered vnto the lord Iohn Spenser, that was left in charge with the siege, at the kings departure towards Striueling, with the like conditions as the castell of Rockesborough had yéelded a little before.

Thus was that strong castell of Edenburgh surrendred by force of siege, to the king of Englands vse, on the 15 daie, after he had first laid his siege about it. A place of such strength by the heigth of the ground whereon it stood, that it was thought impregnable, and had not béene woone by force at any time, since the first building therof, before that present, so farre as anie remembrance either by writing or otherwise could be had thereof.

[Pg 518]

Saint Iohns towne.
The king of Scots sueth for peace.
The bishop of Durham.
The king of Scots submitteth himselfe to the K. of England.

Here at Edenburgh, or rather at Rockesborough (as Abington saith) a great number of Welshmen came vnto the king, who sent home the like number of English footmen, of those that séemed most wearie. Moreouer, at Striueling, there came to the king the earle of Ulster, with a great number of Irishmen. Then passing ouer the riuer of Forth, the king came vnto saint Iohns towne about Midsummer, and there tarried certeine daies. Whilest these things were a dooing, Iohn king of Scotland, perceiuing that he was not of power to resist king Edward, sent ambassadors vnto him to sue for peace: king Edward was content to heare them, and therevpon appointed, that king Iohn should resort vnto the castell of Brechin, there to commen with such of his councell as he would send thither within fiftéene daies next ensuing, to treat of an agréement. King Edward sent thither Anthonie bishop of Durham, with full commission to conclude all things in his name. And within the appointed time came king Iohn, and diuers of his nobles vnto him, the which after many & sundrie treaties holden betwixt them and the said bishop, at length they submitted themselues and the realme of Scotland, simplie and purelie into the hands of the king of England, for the which submission to be firmelie kept and obserued, king Iohn deliuered his son in hostage, and made letters thereof, written in French as followeth.

The instrument of the said submission.

Iehan per la grace de Dieu, roy de Escoce, à tous ceulx quæ cestes præsentes letres verront ou orront, saluz, &c. Iohn by the grace of GOD king of Scotland, to all those that these present letters shall sée or heare, sendeth gréeting. Bicause that we through euill counsell and our owne simplicitie, haue gréeuouslie offended our souereigne lord, Edward by the grace of God king of England, lord of Ireland, and duke of Aquitane, in many things; that is to saie, in that, whereas we béeing and abiding vnder his faith and homage, haue bound our selues vnto the king of France which then was his enimie and yet is, procuring a mariage with the daughter of his brother Charles du Valois, and that we might gréeue our said lord, and aid the king of France with all our power by warre and other means, we haue at length by aduise of our peruerse counsell defied our said lord the K. of England, and haue put our selues out of his allegiance and homage, & sent our people into England, to burne houses, to take spoiles, to commit murther, with many other damages, and also in fortifieng the kingdome of Scotland, which is of his fée, putting and establishing armed men in townes, castels, and other places, to defend the land against him, to deforce him of his fée, for the which transgressions our said souereigne lord the king, entring into the realm of Scotland with his power, hath conquered and taken the same, notwithstanding al that we could do against him, as by right he may do, as a lord of his fée, bicause that we did render vnto him our homage, and made the foresaid rebellion. We therfore as yet being in our full power and frée will, doo render vnto him the land of Scotland, and all the people therof with the homages. In witnesse whereof, we haue caused these letters patents to be made. Yeuen at Brechin the tenth day of Iulie, in the fourth yeare of our reigne, sealed with the common seale of the kingdome of Scotland.

K. Edward passeth forward through Scotland.

[Pg 519]

K. Edward bringeth the marble stone out of Scotland.
The nobilitie of Scotland submit themselues to the king.

After this, king Edward went forward to sée the mounteine countries of Scotland, the bishop of Durham euer kéeping a daies iournie afore him. At length, when he had passed through Murrey land, and was come to Elghin, perceiuing all things to be in quiet, he returned towards Berwike, and comming to the abbeie of Scone, he tooke from thence the marble stone, wherevpon the kings of Scotland were accustomed to sit as in a chaire, at the time of their coronation, which king Edward caused now to be transferred to Westminster and there placed, to serue for a chaire for the priest to sit in at the altar. The king comming to Berwike, called thither vnto a parlement all the nobles of Scotland, and there receiued of them their homages, the which in perpetuall witnesse of the thing, made letters patents thereof, written in French, and sealed with their seales, as the tenor here followeth.

The instrument of the homages of the lords of Scotland to K. Edward.

The forme of their homage.
The words of K. Edward accepting it.

A tous ceux que cestes lettres verront ou orront, &c. To all those that these present letters shall sée or heare, we Iohn Comin of Badenaw, &c. Bicause that we at the faith and will of the most noble prince, and our dearest lord, Edward by the grace of God king of England, lord of Ireland, and duke of Aquitaine, doo vow and promise for vs and our heires, vpon paine of bodie and goods, and of all that we may haue, that we shall serue him well and trulie against all men which may liue and die, at all times when we shall be required or warned by our said lord the king of England or his heires, and that we shall not know of any hurt to be doone to them, but the same we shall let and impeach with all our power, and giue them warning thereof: and those things to hold and kéepe, we bind vs, our heires, and all our goods, and further, receiue an oth thereof vpon the holie euangelists: and after all, we and euerie of vs haue done homage vnto our souereigne lord the king of England in words as followeth; I become your liegeman of life, members, and earthlie honour, against all men which may liue and die. And the same our souereigne lord the king receiued this homage vnder this forme of words; We receiue it for the land of the which you be now seized, the right of vs, or other saued, and except the lands which Iohn Balioll sometime king of Scotland granted vnto vs, after that we did deliuer vnto him the kingdome of Scotland, if happilie he hath giuen to you any such lands.

Moreouer, all we, and euerie of vs by himselfe haue done fealtie to our said souereigne lord the king in these words; I as a faithfull & liege man, shall kéepe faith and loialtie vnto Edward king of England, and to his heires, of life, member and earthlie honor, against all men which may liue and die, and shall neuer for any person beare armour, nor shall be of counsell nor in aid with any person against him, or his heires in any case that may chance, but shall faithfullie acknowledge, and doo the seruice that belongeth to the tenements the which I claime to hold of him, as God me helpe and all his saints. In witnesse wherof, these letters patents are made and signed with our seales. Yeuen at Warke the foure and twentith of March, in the 24 yeare of the reigne of our said lord the king of England.

Officers appointed in Scotland by king Iohn.
Iohn Balioll sent to London.
A parlement at saint Edmundsburie.
A subsidie granted.

Then was Iohn Warren earle of Surrey and Sussex made by king Edward warden of Scotland, Hugh Cressingham treasurer, and William Ormesbie high iustice, whome the king commanded, that he should call all those before him which held any lands of the crowne, and to receiue of them in his name their homages and fealties. Iohn Balioll the late king of Scotland was sent to London, and had a conuenient companie of seruants appointed to attend him, hauing licence to go any whither abroad, so that he kept himselfe within the circuit of twentie miles néere to London. Iohn Comin of Badenaw, and Iohn Comin of Lowan, and diuerse nobles of Scotland were brought into England on the south side of Trent, being warned vpon paine of death not to returne into Scotland, till the king had made an end of his wars with France. After this, at his returne into England, king Edward held a parlement at saint Edmundsburie, which began the morrow after the feast of All saints, in which the citizens & burgesses of good townes granted vnto him an eighth part of their goods, and of the residue of the people a twelfth part.

[Pg 520]

The pretended excuse of the cleargie.

The cleargie by reason of a constitution ordeined and constituted the same yeare by pope Boniface, prohibiting vpon paine of excommunication, that no talages nor other exactions should be leuied or exacted of the cleargie in any manner of wise by secular princes or to be paid to them of things that perteined to the church, vtterlie refused to grant any manner of aid to the king, towards the maintenance of his wars. Wherevpon the king, to the intent they should haue time to studie for a better answer, deferred the matter to an other parlement to be holden on the morrow after the feast of saint Hilarie.

An. Reg. 25.
The earle of Holland marrieth Elizabeth the kings daughter.
N. Triuet.
The archbishop his words.

This yeare after the feast of the Epiphanie, Elizabeth the kings daughter was married vnto king Iohn earle of Holland. Humfrey de Bohun earle of Hereford and Essex was sent to conueie them into Holland, there to take possession of the earledome, as then descended vnto the said Iohn, by the death of his father latelie before slaine by his owne subiects, bicause he would haue disherited this Iohn, and made a bastard sonne which he had to be his heire. ¶ The day appointed for the parlement to be holden at London being come, and the cleargie continuing in their deniall to grant any subsidie, the king excluded them out of his protection, for the redéeming whereof, manie by themselues, and manie by mediators, did afterwards giue vnto the king a fift part of all their goods. The archbishop of Canturburie being found stiffe in the matter, the king seized all his lands, and commanded all such debts as were found of his in the rolles of the excheker, to be leuied with all spéed of his goods and cattell. Some write, that when the archbishop of Canturburie in name of all the residue, had declared to them whom the king had appointed commissioners to receiue the answer, that whereas they of the cleargie had two souereigne lords and gouernours, the one in spirituall matters and the other in temporall, yet they ought rather to obeie their spirituall gouernour than their temporall. Neuerthelesse, to satisfie the kings pleasure, they would of their owne charges send to the pope, that by his licence and permission, they might grant the king some aid, or else receiue some answer from him, what to doo therein: "for (saith the archbishop) we beléeue that the king feareth the sentence of excommunication, and would be as glad to auoid it as we."

The declaration of the lord chéefe iustice.

When the commissioners heard this answer, they required that they would appoint some of their owne companie to beare this message vnto the king, for they durst not report it to him: which being doone as the commissioners had required, the king in his furie procéeded against them, in such rigorous manner as ye haue heard, in somuch that the lord chéefe iustice sitting vpon the bench, spake openlie these words; "You sirs that be attornies of my lords the archbishops, bishops, abbats, priors, and all other the cleargie, declare vnto your masters, and tell them, that from hencefoorth there shall no iustice be doone vnto them in the kings court for any manner of thing, although neuer so heinous wrong be doone vnto them: but iustice shall be had against them, to euerie one that will complaine and require to haue it."

The clearkelie handling of the matter by the archbi. of Yorke his suffragans.
The miserie of churchmen.

Henrie de Newarke the elect bishop of Yorke, with the bishops of Durnam, Elie and Salisburie, with certeine other, fearing the kings indignation thus kindled against them, ordeined to laie downe in the churches, a fift part as ye haue heard, of all their goods, towards the defense of the realme, and maintenance of the kings warres in such time of great necessitie, and so the king receiuing it, they were restored to the kings protection againe. The fréends of the bishop of Lincolne found means, that the shiriffe of the shire leuied and tooke the fift part of all his goods, and restored to him againe his lands and possessions. Also, all the monasteries within his diocesse, and within the whole prouince of Canturburie, were seized into the kings hands, and wardens appointed, which onelie ministred necessarie finding vnto the moonks and other religious persons, and conuerted the ouerplus vnto the kings vse. Wherevpon the abbats and priors were glad to follow the court, and sued to redéeme, not their sins, but their goods, with giuing a fourth part thereof. The cleargie suffered manie iniuries in that season, for religious men were spoiled and robbed in the kings high waie, and could not haue any restitution nor remedie against them that thus euill intreated them, till they had redéemed the kings protection. Persons and vicars, and other of the cleargie, when they rode foorth any whither, were[Pg 521] glad to apparell themselues in laie mens garments, so to passe through the countrie in safetie.

The archbish. of Canturburie his goods confiscate.
The obstinate maner of the archbishop of Canturburie.

The archbishop of Canturburie lost all the goods that he had, for he would neither agrée to giue any thing, nor to laie any thing downe in the church, that the king might receiue it. Wherevpon he was brought to such extreme miserie, that all his seruants went from him, & commandement was giuen foorth, that no man should receiue him, neither within monasterie nor without, and so not hauing any one place of all his bishoprike where to laie his head, he remained in the house of a poore person, onelie with one priest and one clearke: yet he stiffelie stood in the matter, affirming certeinlie, that all those which granted any thing, either to the king, or to any other temporall person without the popes leaue, ran without doubt into the danger of the sentence pronounced in the canon.

A parlement at Salisburie.

About the feast of S. Matthew in Februarie, the king called a parlement of his nobles (not admitting thereto any of the cleargie) at Salisburie, and there required certeine of his Nobles to passe ouer into Gascoine, but euerie of them séemed to excuse himselfe, whereat the king being mooued, threatened that they should either go, or he would giue their lands to other that would go, with which words manie of them were gréeuouslie offended, in so much that the earles of Hereford and Marshall, Humfrie Bohun, and Roger Bigod, declared that they would be readie to go with the king if he went himselfe, or else not. And when the earle Marshall was eftsoones required to go, he answered, "I will willinglie go with the king, and march before him in the fore ward, as by right of inheritance I am bound." "Yea (saith the king) and you shall go with other though I go not." "I am not so bound (saith the earle) neither doo I purpose to take the iournie in hand with you."

The disloiall demeanor of the two erles.

The king then in a great chafe burst out & sware, "By God sir earle, either thou shall go or hang." "And I sweare (saith the earle) the same oth, that I will neither go nor hang:" and so he departed from the king without leaue taking. Immediatlie herevpon those two earles assembled manie noble men, and other of their fréends togither to the number of thirtie banerets and aboue, so that in all they were found to be fiftéene hundred men of armes appointed and readie for battell, and herewith they withdrew into their countries, and kept such stir there, that they would not permit the kings officers to take neither wools, leather, nor any thing against the owners will, but forbad them on paine of loosing their heads to come within their roomes, and withall prepared themselues to resist if néed were.

They had with them 600 men of armes, and 10000 footmen as Abington saith.
Battell betwixt the earle of Lincolne and the earle of Arthois, who had with him 1500 men of armes, as Abingtō saith.

In this meane time the warre was prosecuted in Gascoine. ¶ The thursdaie before the Purification of our ladie, Henrie earle of Lincolne, and the lord Iohn saint Iohn departing from Baion towards Bellegard, a place besieged as then by the earle of Arthois, to succour them within the same with vittels, (whereof they stood in néed) as they approched to a wood distant from the fortresse thrée miles, they diuided themselues into two seuerall battels, the lord Iohn saint Iohn leading the first, and the earle of Lincolne the second. The lord saint Iohn therefore hauing passed the wood with his battell, and entring into the plaine fields, was incountred by the earle of Arthois, who tarried there for him with a great power, where immediatlie at the first ioining of the battels, the earle of Lincolne retired backe: so that the lord Iohn saint Iohn and his companie ouerset with preasse of enimies were vanquished: and the said lord saint Iohn with sir William de Mortimer, sir William Burmengham and other to the number of eight knights, and diuerse esquires were taken, the which were sent to Paris as prisoners.

Other write somewhat otherwise of this battell, as that vpon the first incounter the Englishmen droue backe one regiment of the earle of Arthois his men of armes, whom he diuided into foure parts; but when they once ioined with the second regiment, to the which they were beaten backe, forward they came againe, and so charging the Englishmen, with helpe of their third squadron, which was now come to them also, they easilie put the Englishmen oppressed with multitude vnto flight, & followed them in chase. After this came the Englishmen which were in the rereward, and incountring with the fourth[Pg 522] squadron or regiment of the Frenchmen, streightwaies brake the same. Herewith was the night come vpon them, so that one could not know an other, a fréend from an enimie, and so both the Englishmen and Frenchmen were dispersed till the moone rose, and the Frenchmen withdrew to their fortresses, and amongst them certeine Englishmen were mingled, which being discouered were taken prisoners, as the lord Iohn saint Iohn, and others.

Matth. West.

The slaughter was not great, for there were no footmen on either part, to spoile or kill the men of armes that were throwne beside their horsses: for the English footmen remained in the wood, or were withdrawne backe, as before ye haue heard, without attempting any exploit worthie of praise. Indéed some laie the blame in the Gascoine footmen for the losse of this battell, bicause that they withdrew backe, and left the English horssemen in danger of the enimies which had compassed them about on euerie side. Thrée hundred of the men of armes came through to the towne of Bellegard, but bicause it was night, so that they could not be discerned whether they were frends or foes, they within the towne would not suffer them to enter: wherevpon they departed, and went to S. Seuere foure leagues off. Yet further in the night, other of the Englishmen were receiued into Bellegard, which came thither after the other, and so in the morning they of the garison with their assistance issued foorth, and comming to the place where the battell had béene, gathered the spoile of the field, and conueied into their towne such prouision of vittels as they found there.

The earle of Lincolne escaped.
He commeth home.
He inuadeth the countrie about Tholouse.

The earle of Lincolne with a great manie of other wandred a great part of the night and knew not whither to go. At length about thrée of the clocke in the morning he came to Perforate, where he had lodged with his armie the night before, & there found a great number of his people right glad of his comming and happie escape out of danger. From thence he returned vnto Baion with the earle of Richmond sir Iohn de Britaine and all his companie that were left. And such was the hap of this iournie. In Lent following, those that were dispersed here and there abroad, resorted to the earle of Lincolne, soiourning at Baion, and in the summer season made a iournie towards Tholouse, spoiling and wasting the countries of Tholouse and other there abouts, and remoued also the siege which those of Tholouse had laid vnto a fortresse called S. Kiternes, in chasing them from the same siege: and towards Michaelmasse they returned to Baion, and there laie all the winter till after Christmasse, and then by reason of the truce concluded, as after appeareth, betwixt the two kings of England & France, they returned home into England.

The custome of wool raised.
Prouision for the kings iournie into France.
Ia. Meir.
The French king inuadeth Flanders.

In the same yeare the king raised the custome of wooll to an higher rate than had béene paid at any time before: for he tooke now fortie shillings of a sacke or sarpler, where before there was paid but half a marke. Moreouer he commanded, that against his iournie which he meant to make ouer into France, there should be two thousand quarters of wheat, and as much of oates taken by the shiriffe in euerie countie within the realme to be conueied to the sea side, except where they had no store of corne, and there should béeues and bakons be taken to a certeine number. In the meane time the earle of Flanders was sore vexed by war which the French king made against him, being entred into Flanders with an armie of thrée score thousand men, as some authors haue recorded.

Lisle besieged.
The earle of Arthois vanquisheth the Flemings in battell.
N. Triuet.

About the feast of the natiuitie of S. Iohn Baptist, he laid siege to Lisle, and shortlie after came the earle of Arthois, being returned out of Gascoine with his power vnto that siege, and was sent foorth to kéepe the Flemings and others occupied, which laie at Furneis, and in other places thereabouts in low Flanders, with whome he fought and got the victorie. King Edward therefore, to succour his fréends prepared to go ouer into Flanders, and therevpon summoned all those that owght him any seruice, & such also as held lands to the value of twentie pounds and aboue, to be readie with horsse and harnesse at London about Lammas to passe ouer with him in that iournie.

[Pg 523]

A rebellion in Scotland by the means of one William Waleis.
Englishmen slaine in Scotland.

In the meane time about the moneth of Maie, there began a rebellion in Scotland by the setting on of William Waleis: for the king of Englands iustice William Ormsbie, accordinglie as he had in commission, confined and put to outlawrie a great sort of such Scotishmen, as refused to doo fealtie and homage vnto the king of England, the which Scotishmen being thus condemned as outlawes, elected the foresaid William Waleis for their capteine, with whome William Douglas being once associated, the number of them increased hugelie. The earle of Surrey and the treasurer being in England, those outlawes purposed to haue taken the iustice at Scone: but he being warned though almost too late, escaped himselfe with much adoo, leauing the most part of his people as a spoile to the enimies. For William Waleis and his companie killed as manie Englishmen as fell into his hands, and taking certeine religious men, he bound their hands behind them, and constreined them to leape into the riuer, taking pleasure to behold how they plunged.

The vnfaithfull dealing of the Scots.

The king sent the bishop of Durham into Scotland, to vnderstand the certeintie of this rebellion, who returning from thence, informed him of the truth. The king not minding to breake his iournie which he had purposed to make into Flanders, appointed that the earle of Surrey should haue the leading of all such men of warre as might be leuied beyond Trent, to represse the Scotish rebels, and also wrote vnto Iohn Comin earle of Boughan, that remembring their faith and promise, they should returne into Scotland, and doo their best to quiet the countrie: they according to his commandement, went into Scotland, but shewed themselues slow inough to procure those things that perteined to peace and quietnesse.

Robert Bruce.
Thomas Beckets sword.

In the meane time, whilest these things were a doing, the bishop of Carleill, and other which laie there vpon the gard of that citie and castell, hauing some mistrust of the loialtie in Robert Bruce the yoonger, that was earle of Carrike by his mother, they sent him word to come vnto them at a certeine daie, bicause they had to talke with him of matters touching the kings affairs. He durst not disobeie but came to Carleill togither with the bishop of Gallowaie, & there receiued a corporall oth vpon the holie and sacred mysteries, and vpon the sword of Thomas Becket, to be true to the king of England, and to aid him and his against their enimies in all that he might: and further to withstand that the said king receiued no hurt nor damage so far as in him might lie.

Robert Bruce reuolteth to the rebels.
N. Triuet.
Thrée hundreth men of armes, and fiftie thousand footmen saith Abington.
Henrie Percie sent before.

This doone, he returned againe into Scotland, and for a colour entred into the lands of William Douglas, and burnt part of them, bringing the wife and children of the same William backe with him into Annandale: but shortlie after, he conspired with the Scotish rebels, and ioined himselfe with them, not making his father priuie to the matter, who in the meane while remaind in the south parts of England. He would haue persuaded such knights, gentlemen and other as held their lands of his father in Annandale, to haue gone with him, but they would not breake their faith giuen to the king of England, and so left him. The earle of Surrey assembling togither his power in Yorkeshire, sent his nephue the lord Henrie Percie with the souldiers of the countrie of Carleill before into Scotland, who passing foorth to the towne of Aire, went about to induce them of Gallowaie into peace, and hearing that an armie of Scotishmen was gathered togither at a place about foure miles from thence called Irwin, he made thitherward, and comming néere to the Scotish host, might behold where the same was lodged beyond a certeine lake. In that armie were capteins, the bishop of Glasco, Andrew de Murreie steward of Scotland, and William Waleis which (as it should séeme) were not all of one mind.

Discord in the Scotish armie. Sir Richard Lundie.
The Scots sue for peace.

There was in the same armie a knight named sir Richard Lundie, which neuer yet had doon homage to the king of England, but now flieng from his companie, he came to the English armie, and submitted himselfe with his retinue vnto the king of England, saieng that he ment not to serue amongst them any longer that could not agrée togither. The residue of the Scotishmen sued for peace, vpon condition to haue liues, members, goods, cattels and lands saued, with a pardon of all offenses past. The lord Percie vpon pledges & writings héerof deliuered, was contented to grant their requests, so that the king his maister would be therewith pleased, who being hereof certified, bicause he would[Pg 524] not gladlie be staied of his iournie into Flanders, granted vnto all things that were thus required.

The bishop of Glasco and William Douglas.

Then after that the earle of Surrie was come to the English campe, bicause William Waleis ceassed not in the meane time to assemble more people, the Englishmen doubting some treason, resolued to giue battell, but whilest they were in mind thus to do, the bishop of Glasco and William Douglas to auoid the note of disloialtie and treason, came and submitted themselues: and so the bishop was committed to ward within the castell of Rokesborough, and William Douglas in the castell of Berwike. It is to be noted, that euen in the verie time that the treatie was in hand betwixt the lord Percie and the Scotish capteins, the Scots of Gallowaie and other set vpon that part of the English campe, where the trusse and baggage laie, which they spoiled and ransacked, slaieng aboue fiue hundreth persons, what of men, women and children, but the alarum being raised, the Englishmen came to the rescue, and chasing the Scots, slue aboue a thousand of them, and recouered the most part of their owne goods, with more which they tooke from their enimies.

The archbish. of Canturburie receiued into fauour.
Nic. Triuet.
Gardians appointed to the kings sonne in his fathers absence.
Earles Marshall and Hereford refuse to go ouer with the king into Flanders.

In this meane time king Edward at the feast of Lammas held a councell at London, where he receiued the archbishop of Canturburie againe into his fauor, restoring vnto him all his goods and lands. He appointed him and the lord Reinold Grey to haue his eldest sonne prince Edward in kéeping, till his returne out of Flanders. But Nicholas Triuet writeth, that the said prince Edward being appointed to remaine at home, as lieutenant to his father, there were appointed vnto him as councellors, Richard bishop of London, William earle of Warwike, and the forenamed lord Reinold Grey, with the lord Iohn Gifford, and the lord Alane Plokenet, men of high wisedome, grauitie and discretion, without making mention of the archbishop of Canturburie in that place. The two earles Marshall and Hereford being commanded to attend the king into Flanders, refused, excusing themselues by messenger.

Sir Rafe Monthermer released.
Scotishmen released.
The lord Berkley.
A libell deliuered to the king from the earles of Hereford and Marshall.

After this, the king caused sir Rafe Monthermer (whom his daughter the countesse of Glocester, in hir widowhood had taken to husband without knowledge of hir father) to be deliuered out of the castell of Bristow, wherein he had béene kept prisoner a certeine time vpon displeasure for the marriage: but now he was not onelie set at libertie, but also restored to his wife, and to all the lands perteining to the earledome of Glocester, appointing him to find 50 men at armes to serue in that iournie into Flanders. He also deliuered the earles of Cassels and Menteth, Iohn Cumin, and diuers other Scotishmen, appointing them also to go with him into Flanders. Finallie hauing assembled his armie, ouer the which he made the lord Thomas Berklie constable, and Geffrey Ienuille marshall, he went to Whinchelsey, and whilst he laie there before he tooke the sea, there was presented vnto him from the earles a writing, which conteined the causes of the gréefe of all the archbishops, bishops, abbats, earles, lords, barons, and of all the communaltie, as well for summoning them to serue by an vndue meane, as also for the vnreasonable taxes, subsidies, impositions & paiements which they dailie susteined, and namelie the impost augmented vpon the custome of wooll séemed to them verie gréeuous. For whereas for euerie sacke of whole wooll there was fortie shillings paid, and for euerie sacke of broken wooll one marke: it was well knowne, that the wooll of England was almost in value estéemed to be woorth halfe the riches of the realme, and so the custome thereof paid, would ascend to a fift part of all the substance of the land.

The kings answer.

[Pg 525]

The king passeth ouer into Flanders.
Debate and fighting betwixt the mariners of the cinque ports and others.

The kings answer therevnto was, that he could not alter any thing, without the aduise of his councell, of the which part were alreadie passed ouer into Flanders, and part were at London; and therfore he required the said earles, that if they would not attend him in that iournie into Flanders, they would yet in his absence doo nothing that might be preiudiciall to the realme: for he trusted by Gods fauour to returne againe in safetie, and set all things in good order. At length, about the 21 daie of August, the king tooke the sea, and landed in Flanders néere to Sluice, about the 27 day of the same moneth. He was no sooner on land, but that through old enuie and malice depending betwéene the mariners of the cinque ports, and them of Yermouth and other quarters, a quarell was picked, so that they fell togither, and fought on the water in such earnest sort, notwithstanding the kings commandement sent to the contrarie, that there were 25 ships burnt and destroied of theirs of Yermouth, and other their partakers: also thrée of their greatest ships, part of the kings treasure being in one of them, were tolled foorth into the high sea, and quite conueied awaie.

Ia. Meir.
Lisle yéelded to the French king.
Charles de Valois sent to Bruges.

The king from Sluice first went to Bruges, and after to Gaunt, finding the countrie in euill state, by reason that the good towns were not all of one mind: for diuers of them misliked with the dooings of the earle, in that he had alied himselfe with the French kings aduersaries. About the beginning of September was Lisle yéelded vnto the French king, and after that they of Doway, Curtray, and Bruges, did likewise submit themselues to the same king. Then was Charles earle of Valois sent to Bruges to fortifie that towne, and to take the English nauie that laie at anchor in the hauen of Dam: but the Englishmen hauing warning thereof, got foorth with their vessels into the sea, and so the earle of Valois being disappointed of that preie, set in hand to fortifie Bruges and Dam. But the earle of Austrich, & Robert de Neuers son to earle Guy, being sent with a power of Englishmen, Flemings, and other souldiors vnto Dam, fought with the Frenchmen, slue foure hundreth of them, besides diuers that were taken, and recouered the towne. They might also haue recouered Bruges, as was thought, if the Englishmen and Flemings had not fallen at strife, & fought togither about diuiding of the preie.

The emperor Adulfe breaketh promise.

Finallie, after this, the French king came to Bruges, and when the king of England and the earle of Flanders had long looked and all in vaine for the emperor Adulfe, who had promised to come to their aid with a great armie; for the charges and wages wherof he had receiued great summes of monie both of the king of England, and also of the earle of Flanders: they concluded in the end (when they perceiued he would not come) to make some agréement with the French king: and so first was a truce taken, from the middest of October, vnto the calends of December, and after by mediation of Charles (surnamed Claudius) king of Sicill, the same truce was prolonged as hereafter ye shall heare.

In this meane while, to wit, about the end of August, the earle of Surrey, when he saw that the Scotishmen would not performe promise touching the deliuerie of the pledges, and that William Waleis still mooued the people to rebellion, he assembled his armie, & with the same entring Scotland, came vnto Striueling. Then the lord steward of Scotland, and also the earle of Lenox came vnto him, requiring him to staie till they might haue leasure to sée if they could bring the people of Scotland vnto the kings peace. But when they could not doo it, they returned on the tenth day of September, promising to bring to the aid of the earle of Surrey on the morrow after fortie horssemen, vpon the which day two friers of the order of preachers were sent vnto William Waleis, and to the other Scotishmen lieng beyond the hill aboue the monasterie of Scambeskin, to mooue them to the kings peace. But their answer was, that they were not come to haue peace, but to trie the matter by battell.

The pride of Hugh Cressingham.
The Scots assaile the Englishmen.
The valiancie of sir Marmaduke Thweng.

The English armie without good aduise, thorough the presumptuous pride of the lord Hugh Cressingham, preased to the bridge, and hasting to passe the same, the Scotishmen came vpon them yer the one halfe could get ouer, and so fiercelie assailed them, that the Englishmen were beaten backe and slaine downe. For the Scots, after they saw so manie of the Englishmen to haue passed the bridge, as they thought themselues able to distresse, they made downe to the bridge foot, and with a number of their spearemen on foot, closed it vp, that no more should come ouer to the aid of their fellowes, nor those that were alreadie passed, should returne againe: yet one sir Marmaduke Thweng a right valiant knight, which was one of the first among the men of armes that came ouer, after that he and his companie had driuen downe one wing of their aduersaries, & had followed them in a chase a good waie, as purposing to haue gotten the conquest against them, at length perceiuing the companie behind distressed by the Scots, he returned with those[Pg 526] few that were about him, and purposing to repasse the bridge, rushed in among the Scots that stood before him with such violence, that he passed thorough them, making waie for himselfe and his folks by great manhood, sauing one of his nephues also which was set on foot & wounded, after his horsse had béene killed vnder him.

The Englishmen discomfited.
The earle of Surrey returneth in hast to Berwike.
The Scots enter Berwike.
The castell holdeth tacke against them.

At length the discomfiture was such, that the Scots preassed so earnestlie to win the bridge also of these Englishmen, which were not yet passed, that at length the earle of Surrey commanded to breake that end of the bridge, where they stood at defense to kéepe backe the Scots, for else had there few of the Englishmen escaped. There were slaine (as some haue written) to the number of six thousand men, and amongst other was slaine sir Hugh Cressingham, whose skin (as hath béene reported) the Scots stripped off his dead carcasse, for the malice which they bare toward him. This discomfiture chanced on the 11 day of September. The earle of Surrey, leauing in the castell of Striueling the said sir Marmaduke Thweng, promised him to come to his aid at all times when néed should be, within ten wéekes space, and herewith taking his horsse, rode in such hast to Berwike, that after his comming thither, his stéed being set vp in the stable of the friers minors, neuer after tasted meat, but died: after this, the said earle making no long aboad in Berwike, rode vp to London vnto prince Edward, and left the towne of Berwike as a preie to the Scotishmen: but those yet that had the castell in kéeping, defended it manfullie against the Scots, the which assembled togither in campe vnder the leading of Alexander earle of Murrey: and their capteine William Waleis came to Berwike, and finding the towne void of all defense, entred it, but they could not win the castell by any meanes.

The Scots inuade Northumberland, and spoile the countrie.

The Northumberland men conueied their wiues, their children, their cattell, & other goods, which might be remooued, out of the countrie for feare of the enimies inuasion: but when the Scots lingered time, and entred not within the English borders for a season, they brought their goods againe, in hope that the Scots would not come foorth of their owne marches at that time. But the Scots hauing aduertisement thereof, about the feast of S. Luke entred the English borders, and did much hurt within the countrie of Northumberland, so that to auoid the danger, all the religious men fled out of the monasteries situat betwixt Newcastell vpon Tine, and Carleill. The Scots spoiled, harried, and burnt vp the countrie, till the feast of S. Martine, and in the octaues of the same feast they drew togither, and went towards Carleill, which towne they summoned, as you shall heare.

The forest of Inglewood.
The towne of Riton burnt.
An. Reg. 26.
The Scots returne home.

They sent a préest to them that kept it, commanding them to yéeld: but receiuing a froward answer, they fell to and wasted all that countrie, passing thorough the forrest of Inglewood, Cumberland, and Allerdale, till they came vnto Derwent and Cokermouth, not sparing either church nor chappell. Their meaning was to haue gone into the bishoprike of Durham, but what through sore weather of haile, snow and frost, & what through vain feare of wrong information giuen by their spials, that the countrie was well prouided of men of warre for defense, they brake off that iournie, and yet there were not past a hundred men of armes, and thrée thousand footmen in that countrie, which were then also dispersed thorough irksomenesse of long staieng for the enimies. The Scots therefore drew vnto Hexham, and there lodged, not without vexing the canons, although they had granted letters of protection vnto the prior and couent of the same house, to indure for one whole yeare: and likewise letters of safe conduct to passe and repasse for one canon, one squire, and two seruants, when soeuer they should send to them during that terme: which letters were giuen foorth vnder the name of the said earle of Murrey, and William Waleis. From thence they went towards Newcastell, and burnt the towne of Riton. Finallie, perceiuing they could not preuaile in attempting to win the towne of Newcastell, they diuided their spoiles and returned home.

[Pg 527]

The lord Clifford inuadeth Annandale.
Annankirke. Scots slaine.
Annankirke burnt.

About the same time, to wit, a little before Christmasse, the lord Robert Clifford, with the power of the citie of Carleill, entred Annandale, committing all to the spoile of the footmen, of whome there was a great number. The men of armes on horssebacke, being not past an hundred in all, kept togither, and finding their enimies assembled néere to Annankirke, gaue a charge vpon them, and chased them into a marish, within the which they kept them, till the footmen came in, and assailing them, slue 308 persons, and tooke diuerse of them prisoners, and returning againe to their market, burnt ten villages, and on Christmasse euen returned with their preie and booties vnto Carleill. In the beginning of Lent they made an other rode, in the which they burnt the church of Annan.

N. Triuet.
The froward dealing of the erles of Hereford & Marshall.
A subsidie granted.

Whilest these things were in hand, prince Edward the kings eldest son, and other, which had the rule of the realme in the kings absence, sought meanes to pacifie the earles Marshall and Hereford: but they would not agrée, but vpon such conditions as pleased themselues to prescribe, which were, that the king should confirme the great charter, and the charter of forrests, with certeine new articles to be included in the same great charter, and that from thenceforth the king should not charge his subiects so fréelie at his pleasure as before time he had doone, without consent of the states of parlement, and that he should pardon his displeasure and malice conceiued against them for denieng to go with him into Flanders. Manie other articles they would that the king should grant, confirme, pardon and establish. The which were all sent ouer into Flanders to the king, that he might peruse them, and declare whether he would agrée or disagrée to the same. He as one being driuen to the wall, thought good to yéeld vnto the malice and iniquitie of the time, to reconcile the offended minds of the péeres and barons of his realme, and granted vnto all the said articles, confirming the same with his charter vnder his great seale. In consideration wherof, the nobles of the realme and commons granted to the king the ninth penie of all their goods: the archbishop of Canturburie, with the cleargie of his prouince, the tenth penie; and the elect of Yorke and those of his prouince, granted the fift penie; towards the maintenance of the war against the Scots, bicause they were next vnto the danger.

A parlement at Yorke.
Magna charta.

The king also by his speciall letters required the nobles of the realme, that if they continued in their due obedience to him, as they promised at his departure out of the realme to doo, that then they should resort and appeare at his parlement, to begin at Yorke the morrow after the feast of saint Hilarie, without all excuse or delaie: for otherwise he would accompt them as enimies to the commonwelth of the realme. At which day appeared the earles of Warren and Glocester, with the countesse of Glocester his wife daughter to the king, the earles Marshall, Hereford, and Arundell, Guie sonne to the earle of Warwike in his fathers roome: and of barons, the lord Henrie Percie, the lord Iohn Wake, and the lord Iohn Segraue, with manie of the nobilitie, the which being assembled togither, would that it should to all men be notified, in what manner the king had confirmed the great charter, and the charter of forrests; wherevpon the same being read with the articles therevnto added, and put in, the bishop of Carleill, adorned in pontificalibus, did pronounce all them accurssed, that went about to violate and breake the same. And bicause the Scotish lords appeared not, being summoned to be there, it was decréed that the armie should come togither at Newcastell vpon Tine, in the octaues of the feast of saint Hilarie next insuing, so that the generall musters might then and there be taken.

Debate betwixt ye kings men and the Gantners.

The king laie the most part of this winter at Gant, in the which meane time there chanced sedition betwéene th' Englishmen & the Gantners, insomuch that the Welshmen had set fire on the towne, if the king had not staied the matter. But the Flemish writers saie, the Englishmen set fire in foure parts of the towne indéed, that they might the more fréelie haue robbed in other parts thereof, whilest the townesmen had gone about to quench the fire. But the townesmen bent on reuenge, assembled togither in great numbers, and falling on the Englishmen slue thirtie of their horssemen and of their footmen to the number of seuen hundred, or thereabouts. They had also slaine the king, if a knight of Flanders had not made shift to saue him. ¶ In déed (as should appeare by the[Pg 528] same writers) the English footmen had doone much hurt in the countrie, and namelie one day they spoiled the towne of Dam, and slue two hundred worthie personages, who had yéelded themselues to the king at his first comming into the countrie.

And although the king caused certeine of those that had doone this outrage to be hanged: yet the Flemings bare this & other iniuries in their minds, & meant to be reuenged thereof, before the Englishmen departed out of their countrie, and therefore there drew out of sundrie parts into the citie of Gant by small companies, to the number of foure thousand men of armes, besides a great multitude of footmen, and when they perceiued themselues strong inough (as they tooke the matter) at the day amongst them appointed, and considered in their minds, that

---- vnita potentior est vis
Quælibet, at partes in plures secta peribit,
The Flemings set vpon the Englishmen in their lodgings.

they clustered togither, and vnder the leading of the earles sonnes, William and Robert, they did first set vpon the Englishmen that were in their lodgings, of whom they slue diuerse, and after comming foorth into the stréets, they ment to haue made slaughter of all the residue: but by the noise that was raised, the king had warning in what state the matter stood, and therewith getting him to armour, came foorth of his lodging, and streightwaies his people flocked about him. And furthermore, the footmen which were lodged in the suburbes, hearing of this tumult, got them to armour, & approching the gates, found them shut: but with fire which they kindled with straw, wood, butter and tallow, and other such things, they burnt vp the same gates and so got in, losing not past six persons that were slaine at the first entring.

The earle of Flanders pacifieth his people.

Herewith the earle of Flanders came to the king, and besought him to staie his people from committing further outrage: but the king as he had reason so to doo, blamed him for the outragious attempt of his people, and bad him go to appease them, or he would take paine with them himself to his owne suertie, though not greatlie to their ease. The earle went, and preuailed so much, that at length he quieted them, and then was order giuen for restitution of such things as had béen taken from any man wrongfullie, according to the order and direction prescribed by certeine discréet persons appointed as commissioners in that behalfe. The king perceiuing himselfe in some danger, and that without the fauour of the Flemings he might hardlie escape out of their countrie, bare manie things, and spake courteouslie, making partlie amends for the harms doone by his people, as well abroad in the countries as in the towns. And finallie about Midlent he returned into England, as after ye shall heare.

Nic. Triuet.
An armie assembled at Yorke.
The Scots besiege Rockesborough.
The earle of Surrey entreth Scotland.

In this meane time, by the kings appointment, the earle of Surrey lord warden of Scotland, with other earles and noble men to him associat, about the feast of saint Hilarie, had assembled an armie at Yorke, hauing first summoned the lords of Scotland to appeare there at the same day, who yet came not, but contrarilie had besieged the castell of Rockesborough. Wherevpon the earle of Surrey hasted thitherwards, so that William Waleis and other of the Scotishmen which laie there at siege, raised the same, and departed from thence. The earle of Surrey comming to Rockesborough, and relieuing them that kept it with such things as they wanted, passed foorth to Kelsow, and came afterwards to the towne of Berwike, which the Scotishmen had left void. Here came letters vnto them from king Edward, signifieng that he had taken truce with the French king, and that he meant shortlie to returne into England, and therefore commanded them not to make any further enterprise than the defending of the frontiers, and the recouerie of Berwike till his comming ouer. Herevpon was a great part of the armie discharged, and such onelie remained in Berwike as might suffice for defense thereof.

[Pg 529]

K. Edward returneth homewards.
The Scots summoned to the parlement at Yorke, refused to come.

King Edward hauing made an end of his businesse in Flanders, as before ye haue heard, returned now towards England, and came to a towne called Ardenburge, where the most part of such Scotishmen as he had brought with him into Flanders slipped from him, and went vnto Paris. The king being returned into England, remooued the barons of the excheker, and the iustices of the bench vnto Yorke, calling a parlement thither, and gaue summons vnto the lords of Scotland to come to the same: but making default in their appearance, he sent foorth his commission and letters to warne his subiects to be readie with horsse and harnesse at Rockesborough in the feast of the Natiuitie of S. Iohn Baptist next insuing. They obeieng his commandement, assembled there at the day appointed.

An armie raised.
The number of men armed in this armie.
Welshmen and Irishmen. Gascoins.
N. Triuet.
The earles of Hereford and Marshall mistrust the king.

There were in this armie now assembled at Rockesborough togither with those of the bishoprike, about thrée thousand men of armes mounted on barded horsses, besides foure thousand other armed men on horssebacke without bards. There were also a great number of footmen, and yet none but such as came vpon their owne good willes, the which were almost all Welshmen or Irishmen. There came also afterwards fiue hundred men of armes well apparelled, furnished and mounted out of Gascoine, of the which a certeine number were sent to Berwike by the king: where after the battell fought with the Scots, they remained in garison. The earle of Hereford, and the earle Marshall were present with their retinues amongst other in this armie here assembled at Rockesborough, the which vpon suspicion conceiued of that they had heard, thought it not sufficient to haue the kings letters patents touching the confirmation of the two charters, and other the articles aboue mentioned, signed by him, whilest he was out of the realme, and therefore required that he would now within his owne land confirme the same againe. Here the bishop of Durham, Iohn earle of Surrie, William earle of Warwike, and Rafe erle of Glocester, vndertooke for the king, that after he had subdued his enimies; and should be againe returned into the realme, he should satisfie them in that behalfe, and confirme the same articles.

Castels woon by the bishop of Durham.

This doone, the king marching foorth with his armie, came to Temple Histon, and sent foorth the bishop of Durham to take certeine castels therabouts, as Orinton or (as some copies haue) Drilton, and other two, which enterprise the bishop spéedilie accomplished. The English fléet that should haue come from Berwike, and kept alongst the coast to haue furnished the armie with victuals, was staied and holden backe with contrarie winds, so that the armie began to be in great necessitie of victuals. The Scotishmen were aduertised hereof, and supposing that the Englishmen by reason of such want of victuals, had not béene able through féeblenesse to make anie great resistance, assembled their powers togither, and came towards the place where the king with his armie was lodged.

A fraie betwixt the Welsh and Englishmen.
The Englishmen stand in doubt of the Welshmen.

At the same time two of the English ships arriued there with victuals, the which being bestowed amongst the souldiors, reléeued them greatlie of their hunger. Amongest other the Welshmen had two tunnes of wine deliuered to them for their share, the which they tasted so gréedilie, that ouercome therewith they fell to quarrelling with the Englishmen, and begun a fraie, in the which they slue eightéene, and hurt diuerse. The English horssemen herewith being kindled with displeasure, got them to armor, and setting vpon the Welshmen, slue of them to the number of fourescore, and put the other to flight: wherevpon the next morning it was said that the Welshmen vpon wrath conceiued hereof meant to depart to the Scots: but yet when the campe remooued, they followed the armie though a farre off, and apart by themselues, insomuch that manie doubted least if the Englishmen had chanced to haue had the worsse at the Scotishmens hands, they would haue ioined with them against the Englishmen. This bloodie broile sprang of intemperancie, and surfeiting drunkennesse, which is worthie to be thus disclaimed,

---- —— imæ lethum, & vitiorum
Nutrix ac scelerum, quid non mortalia cogis
Pectora? Quid per te non audent? Iurgia, litès,
Prælia dira moues, & gaudes sanguine fuso,
Sordidior quæ res, quæ bellua vilior? &c.

[Pg 530]

N. Triuet.
The battell of Foukirke.
The order of the Scotish battels.

The king now hearing that the Scots were comming towards him, raised his field, and went foorth to méet them, lodging the next night in a faire plaine. In the morning verie earlie, a great alarme was raised, so that euerie man got him to armour, supposing the Scots to be at hand. The horsse appointed for the kings saddle that day, as the king should haue got vpon him, frighted with some noise, started aside, and threw the king downe with such violence, that he brake two of his ribbes, as the report went. Other write, that his horsse trod on him in the night, as he and his people rested them, kéeping their horsses still bridled, to be readie the sooner vpon occasion of any necessitie: but howsoeuer he came by his hurt, he staied not to passe forward in his purposed iournie, but mounting vpon an other horsse, went foorth with his armie till he came to a place called Foukirke, where both the armies of England and Scotland met and fought.

The earles Marshall, Hereford, and Lincolne led the fore ward.
The bishop of Durham led the second ward.
The lord Basset of Draitons words to the bishop of Durham.

The Scots were diuided in foure schiltrons, as they termed them, or as we may saie, round battels, in forme of a circle, in the which stood their people that carried long staues or speares, which they crossed iointlie togither one within another, betwixt which schiltrons or round battels were certeine spaces left, the which were filled with their archers and bowmen, and behind all these were their horssemen placed. They had chosen a strong ground, somewhat sideling on the side of a hill. The earles Marshall, Hereford, & Lincolne, which led the fore ward of the Englishmen, at the first made directlie towards the Scots, but they were staied, by reason they found a marish, or an euill fauoured mosse betwixt their enimies and them, so that they were constreined to fetch a compasse towards the west side of the field. The bishop of Durham ruling in the second battell of the Englishmen, consisting of six and thirtie standards or banners, knowing the let of that mosse or marish toward the east side, hasted foorth to be the first that should giue the onset: but yet when they approched néere to the enimies, the bishop commanded his people to staie till the third battell, which the king led, might approach. But that valiant knight the lord Rafe Basset of Draiton said to him: "My lord bishop, you may go and say masse, which better becommeth you, than to teach vs what we haue to doo, for we will doo that which belongeth to the order and custome of warre."

The Scotish horssemen flée.
Their archers slaine.
These Scotish spearemen were of Gallowaie as Euersden saith.

Herewith they hasted foorth on that side to charge the first schiltron of the Scots, and the earles with their battell on the otherside, and euen vpon the first brunt the Scotish horssemen fled, a few onelie excepted, which staied to kéepe the footmen in order. And amongst other was the brother of the lord steward of Scotland, who as he was about to set in order the bowmen of Selkirke, by chance was vnhorssed, and slaine there amongst the same bowmen, and manie a tall mans bodie with him. The Scotish archers thus being slaine, the Englishmen assailed the spearemen; but kéeping themselues close togither, and standing at defense with their speares like a thicke wood, they kept out the English horssemen for a while, & fought manfullie, though they were sore beaten with shot of arrowes by the English archers on foot: & so at length galled with shot; and assailed by the horssemen on ech side, they begun to disorder and shrinke from one side to another, and herewith the horssemen brake in amongst them, and so they were slaine and beaten downe in maner all the whole number of them.

Nic. Triuet.
Matth. West. saith fourtie thousand.
N. Triuet.
The towne of S. Andrews.
The castell of Aire.

Some saie there died of the Scots that daie (being the two & twentith of Iulie, and the feast of Marie Magdalene) aboue twentie thousand. Other write that there were slaine at the least to the number of 15 thousand. The Scotish writers alledge that this battell was lost by treason of the Comins and other, as in the Scotish historie ye may more plainlie perceiue, with more matter touching the same battell: after this was the towne of saint Andrews destroied, no man being within to make resistance. And from thence the English armie came through Selkirke forrest vnto the castell of Aire, which they found void: and after they came by the towne of Annan, and tooke the castell of Lochmaben, and so returned into England by the west marches, and came to Carleill.

[Pg 531]

Irish lords. The Ile of Araine.
Tomas Biset requireth the Ile of Araine.
The euill opinion of the earles Marshall & Hereford towards the king.

About the same time certeine Irish lords, and amongst other as chéefe, one Thomas Biset landed in the Ile of Araine, the inhabitants whereof yéelded themselues vnto the same Thomas, who (as was iudged) meant to haue aided the Scots: but now hearing of the victorie which king Edward had gotten in a pight field, he sent vnto him to giue him to vnderstand that he was come in his aid, & had woon the said Ile of Araine, and therfore besought him that it might please him to grant it vnto him and his heires for euer. Which request the king granted: whereof when the earles Marshall and Hereford were aduertised, they thought this a rash part of the king, considering that he had promised to doo nothing anew without their consents and counsell.

The kings liberalitie towards his nobles.

Therefore the king being (as ye haue heard) returned to Carleill, they got licence to depart home with their people, leauing the king still at Carleill, where he remained a time, and held a parlement there, in the which he granted vnto manie of his nobles, the lands and liuings of diuers noble men of the Scots, as to the earles earledomes, to the barons baronies; but Gallowaie and Annandale, with certeine other counties, he assigned to none, reseruing the same (as was thought) vnto the foresaid two earles, least they should thinke themselues euill dealt with, if they had no part bestowed on them amongst the residue.

An. Reg. 27.
A parlement.
The lords call vpon the king to performe promise.
His answer.
The addition put in the cōclusion of the articles.

The king after this went to Durham, and from thence thought to haue returned streight towards London, but hearing that the Scots meant to make some inuasion, he went to Tinmouth, and remained there till towards Christmasse. Now when the king had laine a certeine time at Tinmouth, he departed from thence, and drew southward, and comming to Cotingham, a little from Beuerlie, held his Christmasse there, and after drew towards London, where in the beginning of Lent, he held a parlement, at the which he was required to kéepe promise for the confirmation of the two charters and articles concluded with the earles of Hereford and Marshall. The king was nothing contented that this matter should be so earnestlie called vpon, for loth he was to grant their full requests; and againe to denie them, he stood in doubt how it might be taken: he therefore prolonged time, & would make no answer either to or fro. But when the lords vrged him so sore to giue them answer, he got him out of the citie, not making them priuie of his departure, and when they followed him, and séemed not well contented that he should so dissemble with them, he excused himselfe by blaming the aire of the citie to be against his health, and therefore bare them in hand, that he onelie sought to refresh himselfe in some better aire in the countrie more agréeable to his nature: and as for answer to their requests, he willed them to repaire againe to the citie, and they should haue answer by his councell, so farre as should stand with reason to content them. They returned as he willed them, and had the charters confirmed according to their requests, sauing that this addition was put in the latter end of the same, Saluo iure coronæ nostræ. With which addition the lords were offended, and turned home to their houses in as great displéeasure towards the king as before.

The articles red in Paules churchyard.

The councell doubting some seditious stir to arise hereof amongst the people, deliuered the charters (so sealed and signed as they were) vnto the shiriffes of London, that the same might be read openlie before the people, which was doone in Paules churchyard in presence of a great assemblie there, come togither and gathered for that purpose. The people (than whom the sea in ebbing and flowing is not more inconstant, nor in iudgment more rash, heddie, sudden, and vnaduised, as one saith verie well, and to purpose,

Iudicium vulgi insulsum, imbecilláque mens est,
Quandoquidem inuisa est vulgo sapientia, &c.)
The perambulations of forrests.

at the first before they heard the addition, gaue manie blessings to the king for those grants: but when they heard with what words he concluded, they cursed as fast as before they had blessed. Before this parlement was dissolued, the lords had warning to returne againe shortlie after Easter, and then they had all things granted and performed as they could wish or desire. The perambulations of forrestes were appointed vnto thrée bishops, thrée earles, and thrée barons.

A bishop sent from the pope.

About the latter end of Iune there came ouer a bishop sent from pope Boniface as his Nuncio, and diuerse other with him, to declare the order which the pope as arbitrator indifferentlie chosen betwixt the kings of England and France, for the deciding of all[Pg 532] controuersies depending betwixt them, had giuen foorth & decréed, which was in effect as followeth.

The popes decrée of peace betwixt the kings of England & France.

1 First that king Edward being then a widdower should marrie the French kings sister named Margaret, notwithstanding the degrées of consanguinitie, for the which the pope would dispense.

2 That the lord Edward the kings eldest sonne should at conuenient time take to wife the ladie Isabell the French kings daughter.

Nic. Triuet.
The popes request for the releasing to libertie of Iohn Balioll.

3 That the king of England should make satisfaction for the French ships which his men had taken at the beginning of the war, and that sundrie townes in Gascoine should be put into the popes hands, till it might be vnderstood vnto whome the right apperteined. But those two last articles tooke small effect, the French king refusing to deliuer any of those townes which he had gotten in possession. Moreouer, these messengers in the popes behalfe required the king that he would set Iohn Balioll, sometime king of Scotland at libertie, and restore those lands vnto his sonne Edward Balioll, which he ought to hold within the realme of England, promising and vndertaking in the popes behalfe to preserue and saue the realme harmelesse from all hurt and damage that might insue by the deliuerie of the said Iohn Balioll.

Iohn Balioll deliuered out of prison at the popes suit.
He departeth this life.
N. Triuet.
The king marieth the Frēch kings sister.
A parlement at Yorke.
The deceasse of the archbishop of Yorke.
An. Reg. 28.

King Edward vnderstanding that there was great danger in setting him at libertie, was contented to deliuer him vnto the pope, but he refused to make restitution vnto Balioll of the lands which he demanded. The popes ambassadours receiuing Iohn Balioll at king Edwards hands, tooke him ouer with him into France, and there left him in the custodie of the bishop of Cambrie, the popes deputie in that behalfe, where shortlie after he died. After this, according to the couenants of agréement made betwixt the two kings of England and France, the captiues vpon either part were deliuered. In the feast of the natiuitie of our Ladie, the king married the ladie Margaret sister to the French king at Canturburie with great solemnitie. About the feast of S. Martine in winter the king held a parlement at Yorke, meaning to haue gone from thence into Scotland, to haue rescued the castell of Striueling, which the Scotishmen had besieged, and had it surrendred vnto them, yer the king could set forward to come to raise the siege. The same yeare died Henrie Newarke archbishop of Yorke, and Thomas Corbridge a doctour in diuinitie succéeded him.

A proclamation for monie.

In the eight and twentith yeare of his reigne, in the Christmasse season king Edward set foorth a proclamation, forbidding and prohibiting all forren coins to be receiued and paid as sterling monie within his dominion, commanding by the same proclamation, that two péeces of them should go for one sterling, vntill the feast of Easter. There were diuerse monies in those daies currant within this realme, as pollards, crocards, staldings, eagles, leonines, sléepings, and all these were white monies, artificiallie made of siluer, copper, and sulphur, so that it was an ill time for base monies, & much chopping and changing was vsed in buieng and selling of things.

Forren monies forbidden to go as currant.

At Easter following the king vtterlie forbad that any of those monies should be currant at all, and held his exchange in sundrie places, and to be rid of them, men gaue fiue or six of them for one sterling, not caring for them, bicause of their basenesse, and yet within a yeare after that men had learned the skill by proofe how to trie mettall with melted lead in the fire, they found that two péeces of those base monies were in value worth one sterling, and many became rich by the exchange, which had bought good store of them, when they were so smallie estéemed: but the king caused inquirie to be made of them that vsed such exchange without his licence, and put them to their fines.

[Pg 533]

The king goeth with an armie into Scotland.
Thomas of Brotherton borne the first of Iune.

At a parlement holden at London in Lent this yeare, the king renewed the confirmation of the charters, and made certeine new statutes concerning fines and goale deliueries, verie profitable to the commonwealth. About the feast of saint Iohn Baptist, king Edward went with an armie into Scotland, and there granted a truce to the Scots that inhabited the mounteine countries to indure for eleuen moneths, that is to saie, till Whitsuntide next insuing. As the king was vpon his iournie forewards in the north parts, his late married wife quéene Margaret was deliuered of hir first sonne at Brotherton, a place in Yorkeshire not farre from Pontfret; he was named Thomas, and tooke the surname of Brotherton, of the place where he was borne.

Moreouer pope Boniface at the sute of the Scots wrote his letters vnto king Edward, commanding him by the same and by the archbishop of Canturburie, whome he appointed to deliuer the same letters by other letters to him directed, that he should not onelie release and set at libertie all such Scots as he had in prison, but also giue ouer his warres which he made against the realme of Scotland: and if he meant to make anie claime to the same, then to send his procurators vnto the court of Rome, and there to shew what euidence he could for his right thereto, where the mater (as he mainteined) was to be heard, decided, and iudged; and not elsewhere. The archbishop, according to the popes commandement, did the message, and presented the popes letters vnto the king, who deferred the answer vnto the assemblie of the estates in parlement, and hereof the archbishop aduertised the pope accordinglie, as in the letters to him directed he was commanded; which he durst not but satisfie, bicause he was persuaded the popes authoritie to haue béene so ample and peremptorie, that there was no resisting or gainesaieng of him, sith,

Antith. Christ. & Antichrist. pag. 24.
Vt medijs ludunt in aquis immania cœte,
Et patulo pisces quoslibet ore vorant:
Sic tenet imperium mortales inter, & omnes
Diripit, illicita subdit & arte duces,
Omnibus insultans, sic subijcit impius orbem,
Implicat atque suo regia colla iugo.
An. Reg. 29.
Matth. Westm.

This yeare also on saint Remigius daie, which is the first of October, died Edmund earle of Cornewall, the sonne of earle Richard, that was also king of Almaine; and bicause he left no issue behind him to inherit that earledome, the same returned to the crowne. In the 29 yeare of king Edwards reigne, on saint Oswalds day, or (as some haue written) the friday after the feast of Peter Ad Vincula, his wife quéene Margaret was deliuered of hir second sonne that had to name Edmund of Woodstoke, surnamed so of the place where he was borne. ¶ The king also this yeare after Christmasse held a parlement at Lincolne, to the which the earls and barons of the realme came in armour, to the end (as it is said) that they might procure of the king the more spéedie execution of the charter of forrests, which by him had hitherto béene delaied, but now that he perceiued their earnestnesse and importunate suit, he condescended to their willes in all things.

Pope Boniface prohibiteth the king of England further to vex the Scots.

Pope Boniface being sollicited by the instant suit of the Scotishmen, and offended also that the lands in England, which belonged vnto Edward Balioll sonne of Iohn Balioll, were not to the same Edward restored, he eftsoones wrote to king Edward; forbidding him from thence foorth any further to vex the Scots by wars, bicause that the kingdome of Scotland was surrendred alreadie into his hands by the generall consent of the Scotishmen themselues, and therefore was it in his power to bestow and take away the same to whom or from whom soeuer it should please him.

N. Triuet.

¶ There were reasons alledged why the king of England séemed to do wrong in challenging as then the kingdome of Scotland: and amongst other, one was, that such homage as had béene done of ancient time to the kings of England, by the kings of the Scots, was onelie meant for Tindale, Penreth, and such other lands as the Scotish kings held within England, and not for the realme of Scotland. And whereas the kings of Scotland had aided the kings of England in their warres against the rebels of the realme of England, and béene present at their coronation, the same was doone of speciall fauour, and not of dutie. K. Edward hauing receiued the popes prescript, and well considered the whole contents therof, sent in writing his answer at large, proouing by euident reasons that the right of proprietie in the kingdome of Scotland, did most iustlie apperteine vnto him, and that the[Pg 534] allegations were not true, but forged, which had béene by surmised information presented against him.

Beside the kings letters, which he wrote in his owne behalfe, there was an other letter deuised and written by all the lords temporall of the land, assembled in parlement at Lincolne, in which letter they answered in name of all the estates there gathered, vnto that point wherein the pope pretended a right to be iudge for the title of the realme of Scotland, protesting flatlie, that they would not consent that their king should doo any thing that might tend to the disheriting of the right of the crowne of England, and plaine ouerthrow of the state of the same realme, and also hurt of the liberties, customs, and lawes of their fathers, sith it was neuer knowne, that the kings of this land had answered or ought to answer for their rights in the same realme, afore any iudge ecclesiasticall or secular.

The tenour of the foresaid letter indited and directed to pope Boniface.

Hastings I take it.

[Pg 535]

Whiteminster I thinke.
Thus far out of M. Parkins of the inner temple.

To our most holie father in Christ, Boniface by Gods prouidence high bishop of the Holie Romane and vniuersall church, his deuout sonnes Iohn earle Warren, Thomas erle of Lancaster, Rafe de Monthermer earle of Glocester and Hereford, Humfrey de Bohun earle of Hertford and Essex and constable of England, Roger Bigod earle of Norfolke, and mareschall of England, Guie earle of Warwike, Richard earle of Arundell, Adomare de Valence lord of Monterney, Henrie de Lancaster lord of Monmouth, Iohn de Hastings lord of Bergeuennie, Henrie de Percie lord of Topclife, Edmund de Mortimer lord of Wigmor, Robert Fitz Walter lord of Wodham, Iohn de S. Iohn lord of Hannake, Hugh de Véer lord of Swanestampe, William de Breuse lord of Gower, Robert de Monthault lord of Hawarden, Robert de Tateshall lord of Wokeham, Reignold de Grey lord of Ruthin, Henrie de Grey lord of Coduore, Hugh Bardolfe lord of Wormegaie, Robert de Clifford chatellaine of Appelbie, Peter de Malowe lord of Mulgréene, Philip lord of Kime, Robert Fitz Roger lord of Clauerings, Iohn de Mohun lord of Dunester, Almerike de S. Amound lord of Widehaie, William de Ferrers lord of Grobie, Alane de Zouche lord of Ashbie, Theobald de Verdon lord of Webbeley, Thomas de Furniuall lord of Schefield, Thomas de Multon lord of Egremont, William Latimer lord of Torbie, Thomas lord Berkley, Foulke Fitz Warren lord of Mitingham, Iohn lord Segraue, Edmund de Eincourt lord of Thurgerton, Peter Corbet lord of Caus, William de Cantelowe lord of Rauensthorpe, Iohn de Beauchampe lord of Hacche, Roger de Mortimer lord of Penkethlin, Iohn Fitz Reignold lord of Blenleueny, Rafe de Neuill lord of Rabie, Brian Fitz Alane lord of Bedale, William Marshall lord of Hengham, Walter lord Huntercombe, William Martin lord of Cameis, Henrie de Thies lord of Chilton, Roger le Ware lord of Isefield, Iohn de Riuers lord of Augre, Iohn de Lancaster lord of Grisedale, Robert Fitz Paine lord of Lainnier, Henrie Tregoz lord of Garinges, Robert Hipard lord of Lomford, Walter lord Fancomberge, Roger le Strange lord of Ellesmer, Iohn le Strange lord of Cnokin, Thomas de Chances lord of Norton, Walter de Beauchampe lord of Alecester, Richard Talbot lord of Eccleswell, Iohn Butetourt lord of Mendesham, Iohn Engain lord of Colum, Hugh de Poinz lord of Corneualet, Adam L. of Wels, Simon L. Montacute, Iohn L. Sulle, Iohn de Melles or Moelles L. of Candeburie, Edmund baron Stafford, Iohn Louell lord of Hackings, Edmund de N. lord of Elchunhonokes, Rafe Fitz William L. of Grimthorpe, Robert de Scales lord of Neusels, William Tuchet lord of Lewenhales, Iohn Abadan lord of Deuerston, Iohn de Hauerings lord of Grafton, Robert la Ward lord of Whitehall, Nicholas de Segraue lord of Stow, Walter de Tey L. of Stongraue, Iohn de Lisle lord of Wodton, Eustace lord Hacche, Gilbert Peche L. of Corbie, William Painell lord Trachington, Rog de Albo monasterio, Foulke le Strange lord of Corsham, Henrie de Pinkenie lord of Wedon, Iohn de Hodeleston lord of Aneis, Iohn de Huntingfield lord of Bradenham, Hugh Fitz Henrie lord of Raueneswath, Iohn le Breton lord of Sporle, Nicholas de Carrie lord of Mulesford, Thomas lord de la Roche, Wal. de Muncie lord of Thornton, Iohn Fitz Marmaduke lord of Horden, Iohn lord of Kingston, Robert Hastings the father lord of Chebessey, Rafe lord Grendon, William lord of Leiborne, Iohn de Greistocke lord of Morpath, Matthew Fitz Iohn lord of Stokenham, Nicholas de Neuell lord of Wherlton and Iohn Painell lord of Ateli, with all humble submission.

Out of maister Fox, pag. 427.

The holie mother church, by whose ministerie the catholike sée is gouerned, in hir déeds (as we throughlie beléeue and hold) procéedeth with that ripenesse in iudgement, that she will be hurtfull to none, but like a mother would euerie mans right be kept vnbroken, aswell in another, as in hir selfe. Whereas therfore in a generall parlement called at Lincolne of late, by our most dread lord Edward by the grace of God the noble king of England; the same our lord caused certeine letters receiued from you to be read openlie, and to be declared seriouslie afore vs, about certeine businesse touching the condition and state of the realme of Scotland; we did not a little muse and maruell with our selues, hearing the meanings concerning the same, so wondrous and strange as the like we haue not heard at any time before. For we know most holie father, and it is well knowne aswell within this realme of England (as also not vnknowne to other persons besides) that from the first beginning of the realme of England, the certeine and direct gouernment of the realme of Scotland in all temporall causes from time to time belonged to the kings of the same relme of England and relme of Scotland, aswell in the times both of the Britains as also Englishmen, yea rather the same realme of Scotland of old time was in fée to the ancestours of our foresaid lords kings of England, yea and to himselfe.

Furthermore, the kings of Scots and the realme haue not béen vnder any other than the kings of England, and the kings of England haue answered or ought to answer for their rights in the foresaid relme, or for anie his temporalities before anie iudge ecclesiasticall or secular, by reason of frée preheminence of the state of his roiall dignitie and custome kept without breach at all times. Wherefore, after treatie had, and diligent deliberation of the contents in your foresaid letters, this was the common agréement & consent with one mind, and shall be without faile in time to come by Gods grace, that our foresaid lord the king ought by no meanes to answer in iudgement in any case, or should bring his foresaid rights into doubt, nor ought not to send any proctors or messengers to your presence, speciallie séeing that the premises tend manifestlie to the disheriting of the right of the crowne of England, and the plaine ouerthrowe of the state of the said realme, and also hurt of the liberties, customes and lawes of our fathers, for the kéeping & defense of which we are bound by the duetie of the oth made, and we will mainteine them with all power, and will defend them (by Gods helpe) with all strength; and furthermore, will not suffer our foresaid lord the king to doo or by anie means attempt the premisses being so vnaccustomed, vnwont, and not hard of afore. Wherefore we reuerentlie and humblie beséech your holinesse, that yée would suffer the same our lord king of England, (who among other princes of the world sheweth himselfe catholike and deuout to the Romish church) quietlie to inioy his rights, liberties, customes, and lawes aforesaid; without all impairing and trouble, and let them continue vntouched. In witnesse whereof, we haue set our seales to these presents, as well for vs, as for the whole communaltie of the foresaid relme of England. Dated at Lincolne the twelfth of Februarie, in the yeare of our Lord 1301, Et anno Edwardi primi 29.

[Pg 536]

The K. goeth to Scotland.
An. Reg. 30.
A truce granted to the Scots.

The pope when he heard and deliberatelie pondered the kings answer, with this letter directed to him from the English barons, waxed cold in the matter, and followed it no further. The truce betwixt the king and the Scots being once expired, the king assembled his armie, and went into Scotland, about the feast of saint Iohn Baptist, and tarieng there all the summer and winter following, his souldiers lost manie of their great horsses for lacke of forrage, which could not be gotten in the cold winter season. He kept his Christmas at Lithquo, and at length at the request and sute of his brother in law the French king, he granted eftsoones a truce to the Scotishmen, vntill the feast of All saints next insuing.

The king returneth into England.
The pope exhorteth the K. of England to make war against Frāce.

Then hauing ordered his business for that time in Scotland, he returned into England, and about midlent called a parlement at London. Also this yéere pope Boniface vpon displeasure conceiued against the French king, sent vnto king Edward, exhorting him to make warres against the same French king, and to persuade him the more easilie therevnto, he promised him great aid: but the king of England hauing prooued the said pope, not the surest man in friendship towards him, forbare to attempt anie forceable exploit against the French king, trusting by some other meanes to recouer his right.

The deceasse of the earle of Hereford.
Re. Tur.
Tournies prohibited.
Townes restored to the K. in Gascoine.

This yéere Humfrey Bohun earle of Hereford departed out of this life, after whome succéeded his sonne Humfrey, who afterwards maried the kings daughter, Elizabeth countesse of Holland, after that hir first husband was dead. Tournies, iustes, barriers, and other warlike exercises, which yoong lords and gentlemen had appointed to exercise for their pastime in diuerse parts of the realme, were forbidden by the kings proclamations sent downe to be published by the shirifs in euerie countie abroad in the realme: the teste of the writ was from Westminster the sixtéenth of Iulie. ¶ The citizens of Burdeaux could not bare the yoke of the French bondage, and therefore this yéere about Christmasse expelled them out of their citie. ¶ Shortlie after the French king doubting least the king of England, by the setting on of the pope, should make warres against him for wrongfull deteining of Gascoine, to purchase his fauor, restored to him all that which he held in Gascoine, and so then they of Burdeaux also submitted themselues to the king of England of their owne accord.

The lord Segraue sēt with an armie into Scotland.

Now after that the truce with the Scots was expired, which tooke end at the feast of All saints last past, the king sent the lord Iohn Segraue, a right valiant knight (but not so circumspect in his gouernment as was necessarie) with a great armie into Scotland, to haue the rule of the land as lord warden of the same: with him was ioined also Rafe Confreie, treasurer of the armie. These two capteins comming to the borders, and hearing that the Scotishmen alreadie were in armes, they entered into Scotland, and in order of battell passed foorth to Edenburgh, and hearing nothing of their enimies which kept them still in the mounteins, they deuided their armie into thrée seuerall battels, two of the which came behind the fore ward vnder the leading of the said Rafe Confreie, the third (that is to say) the fore ward, the lord Segraue led himselfe, in such order that there was the distance of foure miles betwixt their lodgings. This they did to be the more plentiouslie serued of vittels.

But the Scots vnderstanding this order of their enimies, became the more hardie, and therevpon hauing knowledge where the lord Segraue was lodged with his companie, a good way off from the other two parts of the armie, they hasted forwards in the night season, and came néere vnto the place where the same lord Segraue was incamped, a little before daie, making themselues readie to assaile the Englishmen in their campe. But the lord Segraue hauing knowledge of their comming, though he was counselled by some of them that were about him, either to withdraw vnto the other battels, or else to send vnto them to come to his aid, he would follow neither of both the waies; but like a capteine more hardie than wise in this point, disposed his companies which he had there in order to fight, and incouraging them to plaie the men, immediatlie vpon the rising of the sunne, and that his enimies approched, he caused the trumpets to sound to the battell, and gaue therewith the onset.

The English men vanquished by the Scots.

[Pg 537]

Rafe Cōfreie was slaine at this incounter, as Abington saith.
N. Triuet.
The earle Marshall resigneth his lands vnto the king.

The fight was sore and doubtfull for a while, till the Englishmen ouercome with the multitude of their enimies began to be slaine on ech side, so that few escaped by flight. To the number of twentie worthie knights were taken, with their capteine the said lord Segraue being sore wounded, but he was by chance rescued and deliuered out of the enimies hands, by certeine horssemen, which vnder the leading of the lord Robert Neuell a right valiant knight (vpon hearing the noise of them that fled) came on the spurs out of the next campe to the succour of their fellowes. Rafe Confreie after this mishap (as Polydor saithe) brought backe the residue of the armie into England, not thinking it necessarie to attempt any further enterprise at that time against the enimies, ouermatching him both in strength and number. This incounter chanced on the first sundaie in Lent. ¶ I remember the Scotish chronicles conteine much more of this enterprise greatlie to their glorie, and more (haplie) than is true, as by conferring the place where they intreat of it, with this that I haue here exemplified out of our writers it may well appeare. The earle marshall hauing spent largelie whilest he stood in contention against the king, who was now earnestlie called vpon to repaie such summes of monie as he had borowed of his brother Iohn Bigod, who was verie rich by reason of such benifices and spirituall liuings as he had in his hands, the earle bicause he had no children, to whom he might leaue his lands, meant to haue left them vnto his said brother: but when he saw him so importunate in calling for the debts which he owght him; he tooke such displeasure therewith, that to obteine the kings fauour, and to disappoint his brother of the inheritance, he gaue vnto the king all his possessions, vpon condition that the king adding thereto other lands in value woorth a thousand markes by yeare, should restore them to him againe to inioy during his life, the remainder after his deceasse to come vnto the king, and further, the king should paie and discharge him of all his debts.

A subsidie.
The king goeth in person into Scotland.
The Scots submit themselues to the king.

King Edward being aduertised of the losse which his men had susteined in Scotland, streightwaies called a parlement, wherein by assent of the states a subsidie was granted, towards the maintenance of his warres, and then the same being leuied he assembled his people, and shortlie after about Whitsuntide entred into Scotland to reuenge the death of his men. The Scots hearing of the kings comming, fled into the mounteins, mosses, and marish grounds, not once shewing any countenance to fight any set battell with the English host, so that the king in maner without resistance passed through the countrie euen vnto Cathnes, which is the furthest part of all Scotland. Manie of the Scots perceiuing their lacke of power to resist the English puissance, came to king Edward, and submitted themselues, with condition that they should inioy their lands which he had giuen awaie to his lords, they redéeming the same with conuenient fines, which was granted.

William Waleis.
Hect. Boetius.
Ia. Meir.
An. Reg. 32.
Striueling castell besieged.
Enging to cast stones.

But Will. Waleis with certeine other, kéeping themselues in places where no armie could come to pursue them, would neuer giue eare to any conditions of agréement: so that neither with feare, neither with offer of rewards could this Waleis be induced to follow or behold the English K. ruling the realme of Scotland. King Edward returning backe, came to the castell of Striueling (which the Scotishmen held against him) and besieged it. The king himselfe laie at Dunfersing the most part of the winter: and whilest he laie there, the quéene which had lien a long time at Tinmouth came to him, and when the winter was once past, the king himselfe came to the siege, and caused certeine engins of wood to be raised vp against the castell, which shot off stones of two or thrée hundred weight: but yet would not they within once talke of any surrender. And where the Englishmen filled the ditches with wood and boughs of trées, they set the same on fire, and burnt them to ashes: at length the ditches were filled with stones and earth, so that then the Scots within perceiuing themselues in euident perill to loose the castell, on saint Margarets daie they yéelded themselues simplie into the kings hands, as the English writers affirme, though the Scotish writers record the contrarie.

[Pg 538]

Tho. Wals.
The earle of Penbroke lord warden of Scotland.
N. Triuet.
A fiftéenth granted.

Finallie, when the king had ordered all his businesse in Scotland at his pleasure, he returned into England leauing in Scotland for warden the lord Iohn Segraue, or (as other writers haue) sir Aimer de Valence earle of Penbroke. At his comming to Yorke he caused the iustices of his bench, and the barons of the excheker to remoue with their courts, and all their clearks and officers, togither with the lord chancellor and his court to London, that the termes might be kept there, as in times past they had béene, whereas now the same had remained at Yorke aboue the space of six yeares, vpon this consideration, that the king and his councell might be néere vnto Scotland to prouide for the defense thereof, as occasion from time to time should require. From Yorke he came to Lincolne, and there remained all the winter, holding a councell, in the which he eftsoones confirmed the articles of Magna charta, touching the liberties, priuileges and immunities of his subiects, the which to declare their thankfull minds towards him for the same, granted to him for the space of one yéere the fiftéenth part of all their reuenues. Others write that the king had in this yeare of citizens and of the burgesses of good townes, the sixt penie according to the valued rate of their goods.

The deceasse of the archbishop of Yorke.
Wil. Gréenefield made archbishop of Yorke.
Robert Bruce earle of Carrike departeth this life.
N. Triuet.
Inquisitions taken of the misdemeanors of iustices.
Iustices fined.

About the same time, Thomas Colebrugh or Corbridge archbishop of Yorke departed this life, and one William Gréenefield doctour of both the lawes succéeded him. ¶ There died about the same time that valiant knight the lord W. Latimer. ¶ Also Iohn Warren earle of Surrey and Sussex died this yéere & was buried at Lewes. His nephue by his son (named also Iohn) succéeded him, obteining to wife the kings néece by his daughter Elianor that was married to the earle of Bar, as before ye haue heard. Likewise Robert Bruce earle of Carrike, the fift of that name died this yeare, who was father to that Robert Bruce that was after K. of Scots. ¶ Moreouer, about this season the king ordeined certeine commissioners of iusticiaries, to make inquisitions through the realme, by the verdict of substantiall iuries vpon all officers, as maiors, shiriffes, bailiffes, exchetors, and other that had misused themselues in their offices, either by extortion, briberie, or otherwise, to the gréeuance of the people, contrarie to that they rightlie might doo and iustifie by vertue of their offices: by meanes of which inquisitions manie were accused and found culpable, and therevpon put to gréeuous fines.

Matth. Westm.
Intrusions punished, and other offenses against the kings peace and iustice.
Nic. Triuet.
Traile baston.

Also the iustices, which were assigned to take these inquisitions, extended the same according to their commission against such as had made intrusions into other mens lands, and for doubt to be impleaded for the same had made alienations ouer into the hands of great men; also against such barretors as vsed to take monie to beat any man, and againe would not sticke to take monie of him whom they had so beaten, to beat him that first hired them to beat the other. The malice of such maner people was now restreined by force of these inquisitions: for such as were found culpable, were worthilie punished, some by death, and some by ransoms: diuerse also for feare to come to their answers fled the realme: also forfeits against the crowne were streightlie looked vnto, found out, and leuied; by reason whereof great summes of monie came to the kings coffers, which holpe well towards the maintenance and charges of his warres. This kind of inquisition was named commonlie Traile baston, which signifieth, Traile or draw the staffe. And forsomuch as the procéeding in this wise against such misdemenors as then were vsed, brought so great a benefit to the realme in restreining such malefactors, which greatlie (as should séeme) disquieted the state of the commonwealth, I haue thought good to set downe the substance of the same, as followeth.

An extract of the foresaid writ, as it is registred in the booke that belonged to the abbeie of Abington.

Rex dilectis & fidelibus suis, Radulfo filio Wilhelmi, & Iohanni de Barton de Riton salutem. Quia quàm plures malefactores, & pacis nostræ perturbatores, homicidia, deprædationes, incendia, & alia damna quàm plurima nocte diéq; perpetrantes, vagantur in boscis, parcis, & alijs locis diuersis, tam infra libertates quàm extra, in comitatu Eoracensi, & ibidem receptantur in maximum periculum tam hominum per partes illas transeuntium, quàm ibidem commorantium, in nostri contemptum, ac pacis nostræ læsionem manifestam, vt accepimus: per quorum incursum poterunt peiora peioribus de facili euenire, nisi remedium super hoc citiùs apponatur, nos eorum malitiæ in hac parte obuiare, & huiusmodi damnis & periculis præcauere volentes, assignamus vos ad inqui[Pg 539]rendum per sacramentum tam militum quàm aliorum proborum & legalium hominum, de contemptu prædicto, tam infra libertates quàm extra, per quos ipsa veritas meliùs sciri poterit, qui sint illi malefactores & pacis nostræ perturbatores, & eos conduxerunt & conducunt ad verberandum, vulnerandum, malè tractandū, & interficiendum, plures de regno nostro in ferijs, mercarijs, & alijs locis in dicto comitatu, pro inimicitia, inuidia, aut malitia. Et etiam pro eò quòd in assisis iuratis, recognitionibus, & inquisitionibus factis de felonijs positi fuerant, & veritatem dixerunt: vnde per conditionem huiusmodi malefactorum, iuratores assisarum, iurationum, recognitionum, & inquisitionum illarum, pro timore dictorum malefactorum, & eorum minarum, sæpiùs veritatem dicere, seu dictos malefactores indictare minimè ausi fuerunt, & sunt. Et ad inquirendum de illis qui huiusmodi munera dederunt, & dant, & quantum, & quibus, & qui huiusmodi munera receperunt, & à quibus & qualiter, & quo modo, & qui huiusmodi malefactores fouent, nutriunt, & manutenent in comitatu prædicto, & ad ipsos malefactores tam per vos, quàm per vicecomitem nostrum comitatus prædicti arrestandos, & prisonæ nostræ liberandos, & saluò & securè in eadem per vicecomitem comitatus prædicti custodiendos, ita quòd ab eadem prisona nullo modo deliberentur, sine mandato nostro speciali.

Et ideo vobis mandamus, quòd ad certos diem & locum, quos ad hoc prouideritis, inquisitiones illas faciatis. Et assumpto vobiscum sufficienti passe comitatus prædicti, si necesse fuerit, dictos malefactores coram vobis sic indictatos, arrestetis, & ipsos prisonæ nostræ liberetis, in forma prædicta: & etiam omnia bona, & catalla ipsorum malefactorum qui se subtraxerint, & fugam fecerint, postquam de felonijs aliquibus coram vobis solenniter indictati fuerint, per vicecomitem comitatus prædicti, in manum nostram capiatis, & ea ad opus nostrum saluò custodire faciatis, donec aliud inde vobis præceperimus. Mandamus enim vicecomiti nostro comitatus prædicti, quòd ad certos diem & locum, quos vos prouidere duxeritis, venire faciat, coram vobis tot & tales, tam milites quàm alios, quos habere decreueritis, de comitatu illo, tam infra libertates, quàm extra, per quos ipsa veritas meliùs sciri poterit, & inquiri. Et quòd omnes illos quos per inquisitionem culpabiles inuenire contigerit, & quos vos sic liberaueritis, à nobis recipiantur & quorum nomina eis scire faciatis, assumpto secum sufficienti posse comitatus prædicti, sine dilatione arrestari, & in prisona nostra saluò & securè custodire faciat in forma prædicta, & communitati dicti comitatus, quod simul cum vicecomite prædicto, vobis quotienscúnq; opus fuerit in præmissis pareat, assistat, & intendat, prout eis iniungetis ex parte nostra. In cuius rei testimonium, &c. ¶ Héerevnto were annexed certeine articles by way of instructions, of what points they should inquire, as partlie aboue is noted out of the addition to Matthew West., but not so fullie, as in the said chronicle of Abington is found expressed, and héere for bréefenesse omitted.

An. Reg. 33.
Prince Edward cōmited to ward.
William Waleis taken & put to death.
Rich. South.

In the thrée and thirtith yeare of his reigne, king Edward put his sonne prince Edward in prison, bicause that he had riotouslie broken the parke of Walter Langton bishop of Chester; and bicause the prince had doone this déed by the procurement of a lewd and wanton person, one Péers Gauaston an esquire of Gascoine, the king banished him the realme, least the prince, who delighted much in his companie, might by his euill and wanton counsell fall to euill and naughtie rule. Moreouer, the same yeare, William Waleis was taken, and deliuered vnto king Edward, who caused him to be brought to London, where on S. Bartholmewes euen, he was conueied through the stréets vnto Westminster, and there arreigned of hie treason, and condemned, and therevpon hanged, drawne and quartered, his head was set ouer London bridge, his right side ouer the bridge at Newcastell vpon Tine, his left side was sent to Berwike and there set vp, his right leg was sent to S. Iohns towne, and his left vnto Aberden, in which places the same were set vp for an example of terror to others.

[Pg 540]

N. Triuet.
Flemings banished the land, at contemplation of the king of France.
The archbishop of Canturburie accused by the K.
Nic. Triuet.
He is suspended.

Also, about the same time, the king of France required the king of England by messengers and letters sent vnto him, that he would banish all the Flemings out of his realme, in like manner as at his instance he had latelie before banished all the Scotishmen out of France. The king of England was contented so to doo, and by that means were all the Flemings auoided out of this land at that season, but shortlie after, they returned againe. King Edward accused Robert archbishop of Canturburie vnto the pope, for that he should go about to trouble the quiet state of the realme, and to defend and succour rebellious persons, wherevpon the said archbishop being cited to the popes consistorie, was suspended from executing his office, till he should purge himselfe by order of law, of such crimes as were laid and obiected against him. The king also obteined an absolution of the pope, of the oth which against his will he had taken, for the obseruing of the liberties exacted by force of him, by the earls and barons of his realme, namelie, touching disforrestings to be made.

An. Reg. 34.
Iohn lord Comin slaine by Robert Bruce.
The countesse of Boughan set the crowne on Robert Bruce his head.
She is taken.
Hir punishment.

This yeare, Robert Bruce, contriuing waies how to make himselfe king of Scotland, the nine & twentith day of Ianuarie, slue the lord Iohn Comin at Dunfrice, whilest the kings iustices were sitting in iudgement within the castell there, and vpon the day of the Annunciation of our ladie, caused himselfe to be crowned king of Scotland at Scone, where the countesse of Boughan, that was secretlie departed from hir husband the earle of Boughan, and had taken with hir all his great horsses, was readie to set the crowne vpon R. Bruces head, in absence of hir brother the earle of Fife, to whom (being in England) soiourning at his manor of Whitwike in Leicestershire, that office of right apperteined. This countesse being afterwards taken the same yeare by the Englishmen, where other would haue had hir put to death, the king would not grant thervnto, but commanded that she should be put in a cage made of wood, which was set vpon the walles of the castell of Berwike, that all such as passed by might behold hir; too slender a punishment for so great an offense. But the king counted it no honour to be seuere against that sex whom nature tendereth, though malefactors, and therfore was content with a mild correction tending rather to some shame than smart, to recompense hir offense, whereby she procured against hir selfe no lesse reproch than she susteined, agréeable to the old saieng,

Sæpe suum proprium fecit puer ipse flagellum.
An armie sent into Scotland.
Prince Edward made knight.
Thrée hundred saith Matth. West.
Prince Edward sent into Scotland.

There were present at his coronation foure bishops, fiue earles, and a great multitude of people of the land. Immediatlie vpon the newes brought to the king of Bruces coronation, he sent foorth a power of men, vnder the conduct of the earle of Penbroke, and of the lord Henrie Percie, the lord Robert Clifford, and others, to resist the attempts of the Scots, now readie to worke some mischéefe, through the incouragement of the new king. Edward prince of Wales was made knight this yeare at London vpon Witsundaie, & a great number of other yoong bachelers with him (297 as Abington writeth) the which were sent streightwaies with the said prince towards Scotland, to ioine with the earle of Penbroke, to resist the attempts of the new king Robert le Bruce and his complices. King Edward himselfe followed. The generall assemblie of the armie was appointed at Carleill, fiftéene daies after the Natiuitie of saint Iohn Baptist, from thence to march foorth vnder the guiding of the prince into Scotland.

Robert Bruce.
It was the next sundaie after midsummer daie.
Rob. Bruce put to flight by the earle of Penbroke.

In the meane time, Robert le Bruce went abroad in the countries of Scotland, receiued the homages of manie Scotishmen, and got togither an armie of men, with the which he approched néere to saint Iohns towne, into the which the earle of Penbroke was a little before entred to defend it, with thrée hundred men of armes, beside footmen. Then R. Bruce sent to the earle to come out and giue battell, the earle sent vnto him word againe, that he would not fight that daie being sundaie, but vpon the next morow he would satisfie his request. Robert Bruce herevpon withdrew a mile backe from the towne, determining to rest himselfe and his people that night. About euening tide came the earle foorth of the towne with his people in order of battell, and assailing his enimies vpon a sudden, slue diuerse yer they could get their armour on their backs. Robert Bruce and others that had some space to arme themselues made some resistance for a[Pg 541] while, but at length the Englishmen put them to the worsse, so that they were constreined to flée.

Rob. Bruce fled into Kentire.
His wife and brother are taken.
The earle of Atholl taken.
Nic. Triuet.
Matth. West.

The earle following the chase, pursued them euen into Kentire, not resting till he vnderstood that a great number of them were gotten into a castell, which he besieged, in hope to haue found Robert Bruce within it, but he was fled further into the countrie. Howbeit, his wife and his brother Nigell or Neall, with diuerse other were taken in this castell, and sent in safetie vnto Berwike. Also shortlie after, the earle of Atholl was taken, being fled out of the same castell. ¶ But some write, that this earle was taken in the battell last remembred, after long fight and great slaughter of Scots, to the number of seuen thousand, and also that in the chase, the lord Simon de Friseill was taken, with the bishops of saint Andrews and Glasco, the abbat of Scone, and the said earle of Atholl, named sir Iohn Chambres. The bishops and abbat, king Edward sent vnto pope Innocent, with report of their periurie: but others write, that the foresaid bishops and abbat being taken indéed the same yeare, were brought into England, and there kept as prisoners within sundrie castels.

Bruces wife whose daughter she was.
The saieng of Robert Bruces wife.

The wife of Robert le Bruce being daughter to the earle of Vlster, was sent vnto the manour of Brustwike, and there honorablie vsed, hauing a conuenient number of seruants appointed to wait on hir. The earle of Vlster hir father, in the beginning of these last wars, sent vnto king Edward two of his owne sonnes to remaine with him, in such wise as he should thinke conuenient, to assure himselfe of him, that he would attempt nothing against the English subjects. Also it was said, that the ladie hirselfe, the same daie hir husband and she should be crowned, said, that she feared they should proue but as a summer king and quéene, such as in countrie townes the yoong folks choose for sport to danse about maipoles. For these causes was she the more courteouslie vsed at the kings hands, as reason no lesse required.

Nic. Triuet.
Matth. West.
The castell of Lochdore taken, and Christopher Seiton within it.

It should appeare by Robert Fabian, that the king was present himselfe at this battell: but other affirme, that prince Edward was there as generall and not his father, and that the battell was fought at Dunchell vpon the riuer of Tay. But neither the Scotish chronicles nor Nicholas Triuet (whom in the historie of this king Edward the first, we haue most followed) make any mention, that either the king or prince should be at the foresaid battell, but that the earle of Penbroke with Robert lord Clifford, and Henrie lord Percie were sent before (as ye haue alreadie heard) with an armie, by whome as appeareth this victorie was obteined, at a place called Methfen. After this was the castell of Lochdore taken, and within it Christopher Seiton, that had married the sister of Robert le Bruce; and bicause he was no Scot but an Englishman borne, the king commanded that he should be led vnto Dunfrise, where he had killed one of the kings knights, and there to be hanged, drawen and quartered.

Nic. Triuet.
He is executed.
His lands giuen awaie by the king.
The lands of Rob. Bruce giuen awaie.
The earle of Hereford.
Lord Clifford.
The lord Hērie Percie.
Rafe de Mōthermer.

The wife of this Christopher Seiton, he appointed to be kept in the monasterie of Thixell in Lindsey; and the daughter of Robert le Bruce, which was also taken about the same time, was sent to the monasterie of Waiton. Moreouer, the manour of Seiton in Whitebestroud he gaue vnto the lord Edmund de Mauley, and those other lands that belonged vnto the said Christopher Seiton in Northumberland he gaue vnto the lord William Latimer. The lands that belonged to the new Scotish king he bestowed in this wise, to Henrie Bohun earle of Hereford, which had married one of king Edwards daughters, he gaue the lordships of Annandale; Hert & Hertnes he gaue vnto the lord Robert Clifford, sauing alwaies the right yet that belonged to the church of Durham, Totenham, and Totenhamshire; and the maner of Wrothell in the south parts he gaue to other noble men; and the earledome of Carrike which R. Bruce had holden, as by inheritance from his mother, the king gaue to the lord Henrie Percie, the earledome of Atholl he gaue to Rafe de Monthermer earle of Glocester, who had also married (as before yée haue heard) an other of the kings daughters, after the decesse of hir first husband Gilbert de Clare earle of Glocester.

[Pg 542]

The L. Percie put to flight by the Scotish king Bruce.
Nigell or Neall Bruce condemned and executed.
The earle of Atholl executed.

About the feast of saint Michaell, the new Scotish king Robert le Bruce returned foorth of the Iles (into the which he had fled) with manie Irishmen and Scots in his companie, and remained a certeine time in Kentire, he sent certeine of his officers, to leuie and gather vp the rents of the fermes due at the feast of saint Martine for such lands and possessions as they held in that countrie, wherof the lord Percie being aduertised, hasted thither; but the new king comming vpon him, slue certeine of his men, tooke his horsses and plate, with other things, and droue him into a castell, within the which he besieged him, till at length by a power sent from king Edward, Bruce was constreined to depart. The king in this meane time was come to Lauercost néere to Carleill, and there remained a long time. From thence he sent his iustices vnto Berwike, where they sate in iudgement vpon Nigell Bruce, and the other prisoners taken with him, which were condemned to die, and so they were hanged, drawen and quartered. The earle of Atholl was conueied to London, and although he sued for pardon in respect of that he was of kin to the king, yet was he hanged vpon a gibbet higher than all the residue, his bodie burned vnder the same gibbet, and his head first cut off, was set vpon a pole ouer London bridge for example sake that traitors should looke for no pardon.

The summes of monie which the pope had of the archbish. of Yorke.

The elect archbishop of Yorke William Gréenefield was confirmed this yeare by pope Clement the fift, at the citie of Lions in France, where the same pope was crowned about the same time, and held his court there, liuing chéeflie by the monie which he got of bishops that came to him for their confirmations: he had of the said archbishop of Yorke within one yeare, nine thousand and 500 markes, besides the expenses which he was at whilest he laie there, and so when this archbishop was returned into England, through pouertie he was driuen to gather monie of the persons, préests, and religious men within his prouince at two sundrie times in one yeare, as first, in name of a courtesie and gratious beneuolence, and the second time by waie of an aid.

The great reuenues of Anthonie B. of Durham.

Moreouer, pope Clement ordeined Anthonie bishop of Durham, patriarch of Ierusalem, dispensing with him, so as he held still the bishoprike of Durham, notwithstanding his other promotion; and this was, bicause the bishop was rich, and the pope poore. For this bishop might dispend in yearelie reuenues by purchases & inheritances, besides that belonged to his miter, aboue fiue thousand marks, and he gaue great rewards to the pope, and to his cardinals, by means whereof he obteined in suit against the prior of Durham, so that he had the charge and ouersight of the monasterie of Durham, both the spirituall gouernement and temporall, through informing the pope, that the prior was not able in discretion to rule the house. At his returning home, he caused a crosse of siluer and gilt, adorned with an image of the crucifix, to be borne afore him.

He is kept out of the abbeie at Durham.
He is summoned to appéere before the K. and refuseth.

But where he appointed certeine persons as his deputies to enter into the priorie of Durham, and to take charge thereof in place of the prior, the moonks shut the gates against them, appealing to the pope, and pretending the kings protection, which they had purchased. But those that thus came in the bishops name, accursed the moonks, & so departed. The king héerewith was highlie offended, so that he caused them to answer the matter afore the iustices of his bench, and for their presumption in pronouncing the cursse, without making the king priuie to their dooings, they were put to their fines. And whereas the bishop was summoned to appeare before the king in person at a certeine daie, he made default, and departing out of the realme, got backe againe to the pope, contrarie to the kings prohibition: wherevpon the liberties of the sée of Durham were seized into the kings hands, and the king placed his iustices and chancellor there, and in the yeare next insuing, he exacted of the tenants of the archbishoprike, the thirtéenth penie of their goods, and otherwise vexed them with sundrie talages.

[Pg 543]

The conclusion of the strife betwixt the bishop and moonks of Durham.
Bernards castell giuen to the earle of Warwike.

The conclusion of this matter was this, that the prior was cited by the pope, to appeare at his consistorie, whither he went, hauing the kings letters in his fauour directed to the pope; wherevpon, when the pope had examined the matter, and heard the prior speake in his owne person, he perceiued him to be otherwise than he was informed (a sober and discréet man) and therefore restored him againe to the gouernment of his house; but he remained in the popes court, till after the kings death, and finallie died there himselfe in the yeare 1307. But now to returne to other dooings of king Edward. We find, that whilest he lay still at Lauercost, he gaue to the earle of Warwike Bernards castell, the which he had by escheat, through forfeiture thereof made by Iohn Balioll late king of Scotland. He also tooke and seized into his hands Penreth with the appurtenances.

An. Reg. 35.
A parlement at Carleill. William Testa the popes chapleine inhibited to leuie monie.

In the octaues of S. Hilarie, the king held a parlement at Carleill, in the which, by the péeres of the realme, great complaint was made of the oppressions doone to churches, abbeies, and monasteries, by reason of paiments latelie raised and taxed by one maister William or Guilelmo Testa the popes chapleine. Commandement therefore was giuen to the same chapleine, that from thencefoorth he should not leauie anie such paiments; and for further remedie, messengers were made foorth vnto the pope, to declare vnto him the inconuenience thereof. This Testa was sent from pope Clement into England with bulles, in the contents whereof it appeared, that the pope had reserued to himselfe the first fruits of one yeares reuenues of euerie benefice that fell void by anie manner of meanes within the realme of England, Scotland, Wales, and Ireland, and likewise of all abbeies, priories, and monasteries; so that it may well be said of him & his retinue, according to the processe of all their actions, as it was said of old,

Curia Romana non quærit ouem sine lana.

But the king and lords of the land thought it against reason, that the pope should take and receiue the profits of those abbeies and monasteries, which had béene founded by their predecessors for the seruice of God, and the maintenance of almesdéeds, and good hospitalitie to be kept: and so the pope changed his purpose, touching abbeies, but granting to the K. the tenth of the English churches for two yéers, he obteined the first fruits of the same churches for himselfe, as before he required. In the same parlement were statutes made concerning religious men, which had their head and chéefest houses in forren regions.

A statute against the religious persons.
N. Triuet.
Petrus Hispanus a cardinall sent frō the pope.
The cause of his comming.
Matth. West.
His demand of monie of religious houses.
The cardinall preacheth.
He accursed Rob. Bruce.
Nic. Triuet.

There came also at the same time, a cardinall from the pope, named Petrus Hispanus to procure the consummation of the mariage, betwixt the prince of Wales, and the French kings daughter; for the same was delaied, by reason that all couenants were not kept on the French kings behalfe, touching the deliuerie of the townes in Gascoine. For whereas in times past, the French king had giuen one of those townes that were taken from the Englishmen, named Mauleon, vnto a French knight; he kept the same still, and would not deliuer it now at the French kings commandement, where-through (as was said) the marriage had béene hitherto deferred. The same cardinall by vertue of his bull, would haue had of euerie cathedrall church, colledge, abbeie, and priorie, twelue marks of sterling monie; and of euerie person of parish churches eight pence of euerie marke of his reuenues. But the English cleargie appealed from this exaction, so that by the king and his councell it was ordeined, that he should haue no more than in times past cardinall Othobon did receiue, that is to saie, the halfe of his demand. Moreouer, this cardinall being at Carleill, and hauing made a sermon in praise of peace, vpon the conclusion of marriage betwixt the prince of Wales and the French kings daughter, in the end he reuested himselfe and the other bishops which were present, and then with candels light, and causing the bels to be roong, they accursed in terrible wise Robert Bruce the vsurper of the crowne of Scotland, with all his partakers, aiders and mainteiners.

Thomas Bruce and Alexander Bruce taken.

[Pg 544]

Matth. West.
Tho. Bruce executed. Alexander Bruce & Reginald Crawford executed.

Neuerthelesse, Robert Bruce in this meane while slept not his businesse, but ranging abroad in the countrie, slue manie that would not obeie him, and sent foorth his two brethren, Thomas that was a knight, and Alexander that was a préest, with part of his armie into an other quarter of the countrie, to allure the people vnto his obedience, partlie with gentlenesse, and partlie with menaces. But the Englishmen came vpon them in the night and tooke them both, so that being brought before the iustices they were condemned, and therevpon hanged, drawen and quartered. ¶ Some write, that Duncan Magdoill, a man of great power in Galloway, tooke these two brethren prisoners, togither with Reginald Crawford, (being the principall) on the ninth daie of Februarie, as they with certeine other capteins and men of war came by sea, and landed in his countrie, vpon whome being seuen hundred men, he with thrée hundred or few aboue that number boldlie gaue the onset, and not onelie tooke the said thrée persons prisoners, sore wounded as they were, with diuerse other, but also slue Malcolme Makaile a lord of Kentire, and two Irish lords, whose heads, and the foresaid prisoners, he presented vnto king Edward, who caused Thomas Bruce to be hanged, drawen and quartered, but the other two were onelie hanged and quartered at Carleill, where their heads were set vp aloft on the castell and gates of the citie.

The earle of Penbroke put to flight. Bruce besiegeth the earle of Glocester. He is chased frō that siege.

After Easter their brother Robert Bruce, calling himselfe king of Scotland, and hauing now augmented his armie with manie souldiers of the out Iles, fought with the earle of Penbroke and put him to flight, and slue some of his men though not manie. Within a few daies after, he chased also the earle of Glocester, into the castell of Aire, and besieged him within the same, till an armie was sent from king Edward to the rescue: for then the said Robert was constreined to flée, and the Englishmen followed, till he got into the woods and marishes, where they might come néere him without manifest danger, to cast themselues awaie. ¶ The king of England, minding to make a full conquest of the Scots, and not to leaue off vntill he had wholie subdued them, sent his commissions into England, commanding all those that owght him seruice, to be redie at Careleill within thrée wéekes after Midsummer. He sent his sonne Edward into England, that vpon knowledge had what the French king did touching the agréement, he might accordinglie procéed in the marriage to be made with his daughter.

The death of K. Edward the first.
He is buried at Westminster. His issue.

After the prince was departed from the campe, his father king Edward was taken with sore sicknesse, yet he remooued from Carleill, where the same sickness first tooke him, vnto Burrough vpon Sand, and there the daie after being the seuenth daie of Iulie, he ended his life, after he had reigned 34 yeares, six moneths and one and twentie daies. He liued 68 yeares and twentie daies. His bodie was conueied to London, and in the church of Westminster lieth buried. He had issue by his first wife quéene Elianor, foure sons, Iohn, Henrie, Alfonse, & Edward which succéeded him, the other died long before their father. Also fiue daughters; Elianor, Ione, Margaret, and Elizabeth, were bestowed in marriage as before in this booke is expressed: the fift named Marie became a nunne. By his second wife quéene Margaret, he had two sonnes, Thomas of Brotherton, and Edmund of Woodstoke, with one daughter named Margaret after hir mother.

His stature and forme of bodie.
His qualitie of mind.
He misliked the pride of prelats.

He was tall of stature, somewhat blacke of colour, strong of bodie, and leane, auoiding grosenesse, with continuall exercise, of comelie fauour, and iettie eies, the which when he waxed angrie, would suddenlie become reddish, and séeme as though they sparkled with fire. The haire of his head was blacke and curled, he continued for the most part in good health of bodie, and was of a stout stomach, which neuer failed him in time of aduersitie. Moreouer, he had an excellent good wit, for to whatsoeuer he applied his studie, he easilie atteined to the vnderstanding thereof: wise he was and vertuous, an earnest enimie of the high and presumptuous insolencie of préests, the which he iudged to procéed chéeflie of too much wealth and riches: and therefore, he deuised to establish the statute of Mortmaine, to be a bridle to their inordinate lusts and riotous excesse. He built the abbeie of the vale roiall in Cheshire, he was a constant fréend, but if he once tooke displeasure or hatred against any person, he would not easilie receiue him into fauour againe: whilest he had any vacant time from weightie affaires, he spent lightlie the same in hunting.

[Pg 545]

Siluer mines.
The same Wimondham also receiued 82 pounds, for 26 founders of lead, out of the which the siluer was tried, as appeareth by his accompts.

Towards the maintenance of his warres and other charges, besides the subsidies which he leuied of his people, and other reuenues comming to his coffers, he had great helpe, by reason of the siluer mines which in his daies were found in Deuonshire, and occupied greatlie to his profit, as in the records remaining in the excheker, concerning the accompts and allowances about the same it dooth and may appeare. For in the accompts of master William de Wimondham, it is recorded, that betwixt the twelfth daie of August, and the last of October, in the 22 yeare of this king Edwards reigne, there was tried and fined out at Martinestowe in Deuonshire by times, so much of fined siluer, as amounted to the summe of 370 pounds weight, which being brought to London, was there refined by certeine finers, that plate might be forged thereof, for the ladie Elianor duches of Bar, and daughter to the said king, married in the yeare then last past to the duke of Bar, as before ye haue heard.

Betwixt the 10 day of Iulie, and the 20 day of October the same yeare.

In the 23 yeare of his reigne, there was fined at the place aforsaid 521 pounds & ten shillings weight of siluer by times, which was also brought to London. In the 24 yeare of his reigne, there were taken vp 337 miners, within the wapentake of the Peake in Darbishire, and brought into Deuonshire, to worke there in those siluer mines, as appeareth by the allowance demanded by the said master William de Wimondham in his roll of accounts, deliuered that yeare into the excheker: and there was brought from thence to London the same yeare of siluer fined and cast in wedges 700 foure pounds, thrée shillings, one penie weight. In the 25 yeare of his reigne, there were thrée hundred and fourtie eight miners brought againe out of the Peake into Deuonshire, and out of Wales there were brought also 25 miners, which all were occupied about those siluer mines, beside others of the selfe countrie of Deuonshire, and other places. Also Wil. de Aulton clearke, kéeper of the kings mines in Deuonshire and Cornewall, was accomptant of the issues and profits of the kings mines there, from the fourth of March, Anno 26 of his reigne, till the eightéenth of Aprill, Anno 27, and yéelded vp his account, both of the siluer and lead.

But now to conclude with this noble prince king Edward the first, he was sure not onelie valiant but also politike, labouring to bring this diuided Ile, into one entier monarchie, which he went verie néere to haue atchiued, for whereas he was fullie bent to make a conquest of Scotland, in like case as he had alreadie doone of Wales, if he had liued any longer time to haue dispatched Robert le Bruce, that onelie stood in his waie, it was verie likelie that he should haue found none other to haue raised banner against him about the quarrell or title to the claime of that realme. For as he was a right warlike prince of him selfe, so was he furnished with capteins and souldiers answerable to his desire, who being able to lead and command them of himselfe, had them at length obedient inough to serue him, although (as partlie yée haue heard) some of the péeres shewed themselues at times disobedient and stubborne, whom yet in the end he tamed well inough, as the earles of Hereford and Northfolke, the which in the thirtith yeare of his reigne resigned their castels and manours into his hands, as by the records of the tower it further may appeare.

Now to follow, as in other kings I haue doone heretofore for learned men, these I find to haue flourished in this kings daies, Henrie de Henna a Carmelite frier, Goodwine the chantor of the church of Salisburie, Adam de Marisco or Mareis borne in Summersetshire, an excellent diuine as he was reputed in those daies, Gregorie Huntington a monke of Ramesey verie expert in the toongs; Seuall archbishop of Yorke a man singularlie learned and stout in defending the cause of his cleargie against the pope, Haimo de Feuersham, Peter Swanington, Helias Trickingham, Helias de Euesham, Radulfe Bocking born in Sussex, Alphred surnamed Anglicus, Iames Cisterciensis, William of Ware, Robert Oxenford, Thomas Docking, Iohn surnamed Grammaticus, Robert Dodeford: but the more part of these are rather to be ascribed vnto the time of Henrie the third, the father of this king Edward, where these that follow are thought to flourish in the time of king Edwards reigne, after the deceasse of his father king Henrie, Thomas Spot a chronographer, Peter de Ickeham a Kentishman borne as Bale thinketh, Iohn Beckton a doctor of both the lawes, William Hanaberge a Carmelite frier, prouinciall gouernour of his order héere in England; Robert Kilwarbie bishop of Canturburie, and after made a[Pg 546] cardinall and bishop of Portua; Gilbert surnamed Magnus, a moonke of the Cisteaux order; Helias Ros, Walter Recluse, Hugh le Euesham, Iohn Eursded a writer of annales, whome I haue partlie followed in this kings life; William Pagham, Henrie Esseborne, Iohn de Haida, Roger Bacon a Franciscane frier, an excellent philosopher, and likewise a mathematician, Iohn Derlingon a dominike frier, Iohn Chelmeston, Thomas Borstale a Northfolke man borne, Gregorie Cairugent a moonke of Glocester a writer of annales, Gregorie de Bridlington, Thomas Bungey a frier minor borne in Northfolke, an excellent mathematician, prouinciall ruler of his order héere in England, he flourished in the daies of king Edward the first, although there were another of the same name that liued in the time of king Edward the third, Hugh de Manchester a Dominike frier, & prouinciall gouernour of his order héere in England, Richard Knapwell a Dominike frier, Iohn Peckham borne in the dioces of Chichester, a Franciscane frier, excellentlie learned, as by his workes it appeareth, he was aduanced by pope Honorius the third, to the archbishops sée of Canturburie; Thomas de Hey a Suffolke man borne, and a white or Carmelite frier in the house of Gippeswich, Michaell surnamed Scot, was borne in the bishoprike of Durham (as Leland saith) an excellent physician, and likewise verie expert in the mathematicals, Hugh de Newcastell a frier minor, professed in the same towne, Thomas Sutton a blacke frier, that is of the order of S. Dominike, Iohn Read an historiographer, William de la Mare a frier minor, Thomas Wicke a chanon of Osney in Oxenford, Simon de Gaunt, William Hothun, prouinciall of the friers Dominiks in England, Iohn de Hide a moonke of Winchester, Robert Crouch, a cordelier, or a Franciscane frier, Richard Midleton a frier minor, Thomas Spirman a blacke frier, William Lidlinton a doctor of diuinitie, and a Carmelite frier in Stamford, Iohn Fiberie or Beuer, a moonke of Westminster, William Makelesfield borne in Cheshire, in a market towne, whereof he beareth the name, a blacke frier by profession, and an excellent philosopher.

Thus farre Edward the first, surnamed Longshanks.

Transcriber's Notes:

Simple spelling, grammar, and typographical errors were corrected.

Punctuation normalized.

Anachronistic and non-standard spellings retained as printed.

The author's usage of accents was inconsistent. Specifically accented "ée" is far more prevalent than "ee" even for the same word. Changed all instances of "ee" to "ée"