The Project Gutenberg eBook of Chronicles of England, Scotland and Ireland (2 of 6): England (11 of 12)

This ebook is for the use of anyone anywhere in the United States and most other parts of the world at no cost and with almost no restrictions whatsoever. You may copy it, give it away or re-use it under the terms of the Project Gutenberg License included with this ebook or online at If you are not located in the United States, you will have to check the laws of the country where you are located before using this eBook.

Title: Chronicles of England, Scotland and Ireland (2 of 6): England (11 of 12)

Author: Raphael Holinshed

Release date: August 24, 2014 [eBook #46670]

Language: English

Credits: Produced by Richard Tonsing, Jonathan Ingram and the Online
Distributed Proofreading Team at


The cover image was created by the transcriber and is placed in the public domain.

[Pg 589]

who came to the crowne by the resignation of his father Edward the second.

Table of Contents Added by Transcriber.

The articles of agréement betwéene the moonks of Burie and the inhabitants of Burie.
A letter of W. Northbourgh the kings confessor describing the kings voiage into France.
The copie of sir Iohn Winkefields letters.
The tenor of an other letter written by sir Iohn Wingfield, directed to sir Richard Stafford knight, who had béene in Gascoigne, and there leauing his familie, was now returned into England.
The méeke and comfortable oration of the English prince to the French king being taken prisoner.
The tenor of the said prince of Wales his appeale or summons of appearance before the French king, &c.


Edward the third of that name, the sonne of Edward the second, and of Isabell the onelie daughter of Philip le Beau, & sister to Charles the fift king of France, began his reigne as king of England, his father yet liuing, the 25 daie of Ianuarie, after the creation 5293, in the yeare of our lord 1327, after the account of them that begin the yeare at Christmasse, 867 after the comming of the Saxons, 260 after the conquest, the 13 yeare of the reigne of Lewes the fourth then emperour, the seuenth of Charles the fift king of France, the second of Andronicus Iunior emperour of the east almost ended, and about the end of the 22 of Robert le Bruce king of Scotland. He was crowned at Westminster on the day of the Purification of our ladie next insuing, by the hands of Walter the archbishop of Canturburie.

Gouernours appointed.

And bicause he was but fourtéene yeares of age, so that to gouerne of himselfe he was not sufficient, it was decréed that twelue of the greatest lords within the realme should haue the rule and gouernment till he came to more perfect yeares. The names of which lords were as followeth. The archbishop of Canturburie, the archbishop of Yorke, the bishops of Winchester and of Hereford, Henrie earle of Lancaster, Thomas Brotherton earle marshall, Edmund of Woodstoke earle of Kent, Iohn earle of Warren, the lord Thomas Wake, the lord Henrie Percie, the lord Oliuer de Ingham, & the lord Iohn Ros. These were sworne of the kings councell, and charged with the gouernement as they would make answer. But this ordinance continued not long: for the quéene, and the lord Roger Mortimer tooke the whole rule so into their hands, that both the king and his said councellors were gouerned onelie by them in all matters both high and low. Neuerthelesse, although they had taken the regiment vpon them, yet could they not foresée the tumults and vprores that presentlie vpon the yoong kings inthronizing did insue: but néeds it must come to passe that is left written where children weare the crowne, & beare the scepter in hand,

Væ pueri terræ sæpissimè sunt ibi guerræ.
The franchises of the citie of London confirmed.

He confirmed the liberties and franchises of the citie of London, and granted that the maior of the same citie for the time being might sit in all places of iudgement within the liberties thereof for chéefe iustice, aboue all other, the kings person onelie excepted; and that euerie alderman that had béene maior should be iustice of peace through all the citie of London and countie of Middlesex; and euerie alderman that had not béene maior, should be iustice of peace within his owne ward. He granted also to the citizens, that they should not be constreined to go foorth of the citie to anie warres in defense of the land, and that the franchises of the citie should not be seized from thenceforth into the kings hands for anie cause, but onelie for treason and rebellion shewed by the whole citie. Also Southwarke was appointed to be vnder the rule of the citie, and the maior of London to be bailiffe of Southwarke, and to ordeine such a substitute in the same borough as pleased him.

Records of Burie.

In the first yeare of this kings reigne, we find in records belonging to the abbeie of S. Edmundsburie in Suffolke, that the inhabitants of that towne raised a sore commotion against the abbat & moonks of the same abbeie, and that at seuerall times, as first on the wednesdaie next after the feast of the conuersion of S. Paule, in the said first yeare[Pg 590] of this kings reigne, one Robert Foxton, Richard Draiton, and a great number of other, assembling themselues togither in warlike order and araie, assaulted the said abbeie, brake downe the gates, windowes, and doores, entered the house by force, and assailing certeine moonks and seruants that belonged to the abbat, did beat, wound, and euill intreat them, brake open a number of chests, coffers, and forssets, tooke out chalices of gold and siluer, books, vestments, and other ornaments of the church, beside a great quantitie of rich plate, and other furniture of household, apparell, armour, and other things, beside fiue hundred pounds in readie coine, & also thrée thousand florens of gold.

All these things they tooke and caried awaie, togither with diuerse charters, writings, & miniments, as thrée charters of Knute sometime king of England, foure charters of king Hardiknute, one charter of king Edward the confessor, two charters of king Henrie the first, & other two charters of king Henrie the third, which charters concerned as well the foundation of the same abbeie, as the grants and confirmations of the possessions and liberties belonging thereto. Also they tooke awaie certeine writings obligatorie, in the which diuerse persons were bound for the paiement of great summes of monie, and deliuerie of certeine wines vnto the hands of the said abbat. Moreouer they tooke awaie with them ten seuerall buls, concerning certeine exemptions and immunities granted to the abbats and moonks of Burie by sundrie bishops of Rome.

Furthermore, not herewith contented, they tooke Peter Clopton prior of the said abbeie, and other moonks foorth of the house, and leading them vnto a place called the Leaden hall, there imprisoned them, till the thursdaie next before the feast of the Purification of our ladie, and that daie bringing them backe againe into the chapter-house, deteined them still as prisoners, till they had sealed a writing, conteining that the abbat and conuent were bound in ten thousand pounds to be paid to Oliuer Kempe and others by them named. And further, they were constreined to seale a letter of release for all actions, quarels, debts, transgressions, suits and demands, which the abbat might in anie wise claime or prosecute against the said Oliuer Kempe and others in the same letters named.

For these wrongs and other, as for that they would not permit the abbats bailiffes and officers to kéepe their ordinarie courts as they were accustomed to doo, as well thrée daies in the wéeke for the market, to wit, mondaie, wednesdaie and fridaie, as the Portman mote euerie tuesdaie thrée wéeks, and further prohibit them from gathering such tols, customes, and yearelie rents, as were due to the abbat for certeine tenements in the towne, which were let to farme, the abbat brought his action against the said Foxton, Draiton, and others, and hauing it tried by an inquest, on the fridaie next after the feast of saint Lucie the virgine, in a sessions holden at Burie by Iohn Stonore, Walter Friskney, Robert Maberthorpe, & Iohn Bousser, by vertue of the kings writ of oier and determiner to them directed, the offendors were condemned in 40000 pounds, so that the said Richard Draiton, and others there present in the court, were committed to prison in custodie of the shiriffe Robert Walkefare, who was commanded also to apprehend the other that were not yet arrested, if within his bailiwike they might be found, and to haue their bodies before the said iustices at Burie aforsaid, on thursdaie in Whitsunwéeke next insuing.

The second riot.

Beside this, there was an other indictement and action of trespasse found there the same daie against the said Richard Draiton and others, for a like disorder and riot by them committed, on the thursday next after the feast of the Purification of our ladie, in the same first yeare of this king, at what time they did not onelie breake into the abbie, and beat the abbats men, but also tooke the abbat himselfe, being then at home, with certeine of his moonks, kéeping both him and them as prisoners, till the next daie that they were constreined to seale certeine writings. And amongst other, a charter, in which it was conteined, that the abbat and his conuent did grant vnto the inhabitants of the towne of Burie, to be a corporation of themselues, and to haue a common seale with a gild of merchants and aldermen: also they were compelled to seale another charter, wherein was conteined a grant to the said inhabitants, that they should haue the custodie of the[Pg 591] towne gates, and likewise the wardship of all pupils and orphans within the same towne, beside diuerse other liberties.

Moreouer, they were in like manner constreined to seale thrée seuerall obligations, in which the abbat and conuent were bound to the said inhabitants, as to a communaltie of a corporation, in seauen thousand pounds, as in two thousand by one obligation, and in two thousand by an other, and in thrée thousand by the third obligation: and further they were driuen to seale a letter of release of all trespasses, and other things that might be demanded against the said inhabitants, with a generall acquittance of all debts. Beside this, the said riotous persons tooke at the same time foorth of the abbie great riches, as well in plate, armor, books, & apparell, as in other things. They also brake downe two houses or messuages, that belonged to the abbeie, and situate within the towne of Burie: they also destroied his fish-ponds, and tooke out such store of fish as they found in the same: they cut downe also thréescore ashes there growing on the soile that belonged to the said abbat, and did manie other great outrages and enormities, so that it was found by the inquest, that the abbat was damnified to the value of other fortie thousand pounds.

The third riot.

These riots may séeme gréeuous and verie strange, but yet the same were not so heinouslie taken, as an other which the said inhabitants of Burie attempted against the said abbeie in manner of a plaine commotion, vpon saint Lukes day in the same yeare, at what time (as by the records of that abbeie it should appeare) both the abbat and his house were in the kings speciall protection, and the said inhabitants prohibited by his letters to attempt anie iniurie against him or his conuent. But neuerthelesse we find that not onelie the inhabitants of Burie, but also a great number of other misgouerned persons, that resorted to them from places there about, arraied and furnished with horsse, armor and weapons, after the manner of warre, came and assaulted the abbeie gates, set fire on them, and burned them with diuerse other houses néere adioining, that belonged to the abbeie, and continued in that their riotous enterprise all that day and the night following.

The manour of Holdernesse barne.
The manour of Westlie burnt.

The same night also they burnt a manor of the abbats called Holdernesse barne, with two other manors called the Almoners barne, and Haberdone, also the granges that stood without the south gate, and the manour of Westlie, in which places they burned in corne & graine, to the value of a thousand pounds. The next daie they entered into the abbeie court, and burnt all the houses on the north side, as stables, brewhouses, bakehouses, garners, and other such necessarie houses and conuenient roomes of offices; and on the other side the court, they burnt certeine houses belonging to the Almonrie. On the next daie they burned the mote hall, and Bradford hall, with the new hall, and diuerse chambers and sollers to the same halles annexed, with the chapell of saint Laurence at the end of the hospitall hall. Also the manor of Eldhall, the manor of Horninger, with all the corne and graine within and about the same.

The manour of Fornham burnt.

The next day they burnt the soller of the Sollerer, with a chapell there: also the kitchin, the larder, and a part of the farmarie. On the thursdaie they burnt the residue of the farmarie, and the lodging called the blacke lodging, with a chapell of S. Andrew therein. In executing of all these riotous disorders, one Geffrie Moreman was an aider, who with diuerse other persons vnknowne, departed foorth of the towne of Burie, and by the assent of the other his complices he burnt the manor of Fornham. The same day also other of their companie, as William the sonne of Iames Neketon, Rafe Grubbe, Richard Kerie, and a great number of other persons vnknowne, by the assent and abbetment of the other that committed the said disorders, burnt two manors belonging also to the said abbeie in great Berton, with all the corne and graine there found.

Vpon knowledge had of these great riots, and perillous commotions, there was a commission directed from the king, vnto Thomas earle of Northfolke high marshall of England, to Thomas Bardulfe, Robert Morlie, Peter Wedall, Iohn Howard, and Iohn Walkfare, authorising them with the power of the countesse of Suffolke and Northfolke, to appre[Pg 592]hend, trie and punish such lewd disordered persons, and rebellious malefactors, which had committed such felonious enterprises, to the breach of the kings peace, and dangerous disquieting of his subiects: but the said commissioners procéeded not according to the effect of their commission in triall of anie felonies by the same persons committed and doone, but onelie caused them to be indicted of trespasse: albeit Robert Walkfare, and Iohn Clauer, with their associats iustices of peace, in their sessions holden at Elueden the tuesdaie next after the feast of the apostles Simon and Iude, in the said first yeare of this K. Edward the third procéeded in such wise against the said malefactors, that Iohn de Berton cordwainer, Robert Foxton, and a great number of other were indicted of felonie, for the misdemenours afore mentioned, and the indictements so found were after sent and presented vnto Iohn Stonore, Walter de Friskenie, Robert Malberthorpe, and Iohn Bousser, who by vertue of the kings commission of oier and determiner to them directed, sat at S. Edmundsburie the wednesdaie next after the feast of saint Lucie the virgine; and then and there sent foorth precepts to the shiriffe, commanding him to apprehend the said Berton, Foxton, and others, that were indicted of the foresaid felonies, and also to returne a sufficient iurie to trie vpon their arreignment the said malefactors by order of law, the fridaie next after the said feast of S. Lucie. Herevpon Alane de Latoner, and Robert Dalling, with seauentéene others, being arreigned, were found guiltie, and suffered death according to the order appointed for felons.

One Adam Miniot stood mute, and refused to be tried by his countrie, and so was pressed to death, as the law in such case appointeth. Diuerse other were saued by their bookes, according vnto the order of clerkes conuict, as Alexander Brid person of Hogeset, Iohn Rugham person of little Welnetham, Iohn Burton cordwainer, and diuerse other. Some were repriued, as one woman named Iulian Barbor, who being big bellied was respited, till she were deliuered of child. Benedict Sio and Robert Russell were repriued, and committed to the safe kéeping of the shiriffe, as triers or appeachers (as we tearme them) of other offenders: and bicause there was not anie as yet attached by their appeales, they were commanded againe to person. One Robert de Creswell was saued by the kings letters of speciall pardon, which he had there readie to shew. As for Robert Foxton, Adam Cokefield, and a great number of other, whome the shiriffe was commanded to apprehend, he returned that he could not heare of them within the precinct of his bailiffewéeke, wherevpon exigents were awarded against them, and the shiriffe was commanded, that if he might come to attach them, he should not faile but so to doo, and to haue their bodies there at Burie before the said iustices, the thursdaie in Whitsunwéeke, next insuing.

The common people often deceiued by lewd informations.

Diuerse also were arreigned at the same time of the said felonies, and thereof acquited, as Michaell Scabaille, Rafe Smeremonger, and others. Indéed those that were found guiltie, and suffered, were the chéefe authors and procurers of the commotion, bearing others in hand that the abbat had in his custodie a certeine charter, wherein the king should grant to the inhabitants of the towne of Burie, certeine liberties, whereby it might appeare that they were frée, and discharged from the paiment of diuerse customes and exactions, wherevpon the ignorant multitude easilie giuing credit to such surmised tales, were the sooner induced to attempt such disorders as before are mentioned. ¶ Thus haue yée heard all in effect that was doone in this first yeare of king Edward the third his reigne, by and against those offendors. But bicause we will not interrupt matters of other yeares with that which followed further of this businesse, we haue thought good to put the whole that we intend to write thereof here in this place.

[Pg 593]

Rob. Foxton pardoned.
A priuilege.
Portman mote.
The abbats officers blamed.

Yée shall therefore vnderstand, that diuerse of those, against whome exigents were awarded, came in, and yéelded their bodies to the shiriffes prison, before they were called on the fift countie daie. Albeit a great manie there were that came not, and so were outlawed. Robert Foxton got the kings pardon, and so purchasing foorth a supersedeas, the suit therevpon against him was staied. The shiriffe therefore in Whitsunwéeke, in the second yeare of this kings reigne, made his returne touching Benedict Sio, Robert Russell, & Iulian Barbor, so that he deliuered them vnto the bailiffes of the libertie of the abbat of Burie, by reason of an ancient priuilege, which the abbat claimed to belong to his house. The bailiffes confessed they had receiued the said prisoners, but forsomuch as they had béene arreigned at a Portman mote, which was vsed to be kept euerie thrée wéeks, and vpon their arreignment were found guiltie of certeine other felonies by them committed within the towne of Burie, and therevpon were put to execution, Adam Finchman the kings attornie there tooke it verie euill, & laid it gréeuouslie to the charge of the abbats officers, for their hastie and presumptuous procéeding against the said prisoners, namelie, bicause the said Sio and Russell were repriued, to the end that by their vtterance, many heinous offenses might haue béene brought to light.

A condemnation.

On the same daie, that is to wit, the thursdaie in Whitsunwéeke, the foresaid Robert Foxton, and diuerse other came in, and were attached by the shiriffe to answer the abbat to his action of trespasse, which he brought against them, and putting the matter to the triall of an inquest, they were condemned in sixtie thousand pounds, to be leuied of their goods and chattels, vnto the vse of the abbat, and in the meane time they were committed to prison. But first they made suit that they might be put to their fines for their offenses committed against the kings peace, and their request in that behalfe was granted, so that vpon putting in sufficient suerties for their good abearing, their fines were assessed, as some at more and some at lesse, as the case was thought for to require.

An agréemēt.

Thus rested the matter a long season after, vntill the fift yeare of this kings reigne, in which the thursdaie next after the feast of the blessed Trinitie, the K. being himselfe in person at S. Edmundsburie aforesaid, a finall agréement and concord was concluded betwixt the said abbat and his conuent on the one partie, and Richard Draiton and others of the inhabitants of that towne on the other partie, before the right reuerend father in God Iohn bishop of Winchester and chancellour of England, and the kings iustices Iohn Stonore and Iohn Cantbridge sitting there at the same time, by the kings commandement. The effect of which agréement was as followeth.

The articles of agréement betwéene the moonks of Burie and the inhabitants of Burie.

First, whereas the said abbat had recouered by iudgement before the said Iohn Stonore and other his associats iustices of oier and determiner in the said towne of Burie, the summe of seuen score thousand pounds for trespasses to him and his house committed and doone by the said Richard Draiton, and other the inhabitants of Burie: now at the desire of the said king, and for other good respects him moouing, he pardoned and released vnto the said Richard Draiton, and to other the inhabitants of Burie, to their heires, executors, and assigns the summe of 122333 pounds, eight shillings eight pence, of the said totall summe of 140000 pounds.

And further the said abbat and conuent granted and agréed for them and their successors, that if the said Richard Draiton, & other the inhabitants of the said towne of Burie, or any of them, their heires, executors or assignes, should paie to the said abbat & conuent, or their successors within twentie yeares next insuing the date of that present agréement, 2000 marks, that is to saie, 100 marks yearelie at the feasts of S. Michaell & Easter, by euen portions: that then the said Richard & other the inhabitants of the towne of Burie should be acquited & discharged of 4000 marks, parcell of 17666 pounds, thirtéene shillings foure pence residue behind for euer.

Moreouer, whereas the said abbat and conuent, & the said abbat by himselfe, since the 19 yeare of the reigne of king Edward the second vnto that present time, had sealed certeine charters, déeds, & writings, as well with the proper seale of the abbat, as with the common seale of the abbat & conuent, if the said Richard and the inhabitants of the said[Pg 594] towne of Burie did restore vnto the said abbat & conuent all the same writings, or take such order, that neither the abbat nor conuent be impleaded, or in any wise hindered, indamaged nor molested by force of the same: and further if neither the said Richard, nor any the inhabitants of the said towne, nor their heires, executors, nor assignes, shall go about to reuerse the iudgements against them, at the suit of the said abbat, nor shall séeke to impeach the executions of the same iudgements by anie false or forged aquitances or releases, nor implead nor molest any of the iurie, by whom they were conuict, that then they and their heires, executors & assignes shall be acquited & discharged of ten thousand pounds parcell of the said 17666 pounds, 13 shillings foure pence.

And furthermore, if the said Richard and other the inhabitants of the said towne of Burie, doo not hereafter maliciouslie rise against the said abbat or conuent, nor séeke to vex them by any conspiracie, confederacie, or by some other secret vniust cause, nor likewise euill intreat any man by reason of the inditement found against them, nor yet claime to haue any corporation of themselues within that towne, that then the said Richard, & the said inhabitants, their heires, successors & assignes, shall remaine acquited and discharged of all the residue of the said 17666 pounds, thirtéene shillings foure pence for euer. And the said abbat and conuent doo grant for them & their successours, that their intention is not, that if any singular person of his owne priuate malice, shall rise against the said abbat and conuent, their successors, moonks, bailiffes, or seruants, to doo them, or any of them iniurie or displeasure; that those which be not partakers of the offense, shall be in any wise punished for the same, so that the offendors be not mainteined by any of the same towne, but that the inhabitants there, doo assist the abbat and conuent their successours, bailiffes, seruants & officers, that the same offendors may be punished, according to their demerits, as reason and law shall allow.

This might come to passe before the agréement was made in the fift yeare of the kings reigne as aboue is mentioned, and so therevpon he might be restored.

This was the effect of the agréement at length had and made betwixt the abbat and moonks of Burie on the one part, & the inhabitants of that towne on the other part, and for the more confirmation therof, it pleased the king to put his seale to the charter conteining the same agréement. ¶ But how soeuer it chanced, it should appeare by such records as came to the hands of master Iohn Fox, as he alledgeth in the first tome of his booke of acts and monuments, this agréement was but sorilie kept: for diuerse of the former offendors, bearing grudge towards the abbat for breaking promise with them at London, did confederat themselues togither, and priuilie in the night comming to the manour of Chennington where the abbat then did lie, burst open the gates, and entring by force, first bound all his seruants, and after they had robbed the house, they tooke the abbat, and shauing him, secretlie conueied him to London, and there remoouing him from stréet to stréet vnknowne, had him ouer the Thames into Kent, and at length transported him ouer vnto Dist in Brabant, where they kept him for a time in much penurie, thraldome and miserie, vntill at length the matter being vnderstood, they were all excommunicate, first by the archbishop, & after by the pope. At the last, his fréends hauing knowledge where he was, they found means to deliuer him out of the hands of those théeues, and finallie brought him home with procession, and so he was restored to his house againe.

[Pg 595]

Rich. South.
Rob. Maners capteine of Norham castell.

Thus much touching those troubles betwixt the townesmen of Burie & the abbat and moonks there, and now we will returne to other generall matters touching the publike state of the realme. ¶ And first you shall vnderstand, that in the beginning of this kings reigne the land trulie séemed to be blessed of God: for the earth became fruitfull, the aire temperate, and the sea calme and quiet. This king though he was as yet vnder the gouernement of other, neuerthelesse he began within a short time to shew tokens of great towardnesse, framing his mind vnto graue deuises, and first he prepared to make a iornie against the Scotishmen, the which in his fathers time had doone so manie displeasures to the Englishmen, and now vpon confidence of his minoritie, ceassed not to inuade the borders of his realme. And namelie the verie selfe night that followed the day of this kings coronation, they had thought by skaling to haue stolne the castell of Norham: but Robert Maners capteine of that place, vnderstanding of their enterprise aforehand by a Scotishmen of the garison there, so well prouided for their comming, that where sixtéene of them boldlie entred vpon the wall, he slue nine or ten of them and tooke fiue.

The Scots inuade England.
The lord Beaumont of Heinault.

This was thought an euill token, that they should still be put to the worsse in this kings time, sith they had so bad successe in the verie beginning of his reigne: but they continuing in their malicious purposes, about saint Margarets tide inuaded the land with thrée armies, the earle of Murrey hauing the leading of one of the same armies, and Iames Douglas of another, and the third was guided by the earle of Mar. King Edward aduertised hereof, assembled not onelie a great power of Englishmen, but also required Iohn lord Beaumont de Heinault, whome he had latelie sent home right honorablie rewarded for his good assistance, to come againe into England, with certeine bands of men at armes, and he should receiue wages and good interteinement for them. The lord Beaumont, as one that loued déeds of armes, was glad to accomplish king Edwards request: and so therevpon with seauen hundred men at armes, or fiue hundred (as Froissart saith) came ouer into England againe, to serue against the Scots.

A fraie betwixt ye English archers and the Henuiers.

The generall assemblie of the armie was appointed to be at Yorke, and thither came the said lord Beaumont with his people, and was ioifullie receiued of the king and his lords. Here whilest not onelie the Scotish ambassadours (which had béene sent to treat of peace, were heard to tell their message) but also whilest the councell tooke some leisure in debating the matter how to guide their enterprise, which they had now in hand: vpon Trinitie sundaie, it chanced that there arose contention within the citie of Yorke, betwixt the English archers, and the strangers, which the lord Beaumont of Heinault had brought with him, insomuch that fighting togither there were slaine to the number of foure score persons of those archers, which were buried within the church of saint Clement in Fosgate. ¶ Some write that there were slaine to the number of thrée hundred Englishmen: yet bicause the Henuiers came to aid the king, their peace was cried vpon paine of life. And further, it was found by an inquest of the citie, that the quarrel was begun by the Englishmen, the which (as some write) were of the Lincolneshire men, of those that sometime belonged to the Spensers, and to the earle of Arundell, so that there was cause, whie they bare euill will to the Henuiers which had aided (as ye haue heard) to bring the said earle and Spensers to their confusion.

Stanop parke.

In this meane time the Scots being entred into England, had doone much hurt, and were come as farre as Stanop parke in Wiredale: and though they had sent their ambassadours to treat with the king and his councell for peace, yet no conclusion followed of their talke. At the same time, bicause the English souldiers of this armie were cloathed all in cotes and hoods embrodered with floures and branches verie séemelie, and vsed to nourish their beards: the Scots in derision thereof made a rime, which they fastened vpon the church doores of saint Peter toward Stangate, conteining this that followeth.

A rime in derision of the Englishmen.
Long beards, hartlesse, painted hoods, witlesse,
Gaie cotes, gracelesse, Make England thriftlesse.
The lord Dowglas.

The king when he saw it was but a vaine thing to staie anie longer in communication with the ambassadors about peace, departed from Yorke with his puissant armie, and getting knowledge how the Scots were closelie lodged in the woods of Stanop parke, he came and stopped all the passages, so it was thought that he should haue had them at his pleasure, but through treason (as was after reported) of the lord Roger Mortimer, after that the Scots had béene kept within their lodgings for the space of fiftéene daies, till they were almost famished, they did not onelie find a waie out, but about two hundred of them vnder the leading of the lord William Douglas, assailing that part of the English campe where the kings tent stood, in the night season, missed not much of either taking the king[Pg 596] or sleieng him: and hauing doone hurt inough otherwise, as in the Scotish chronicle is also touched, they followed their companie, and with them returned into Scotland without impeachment.

The lord Beaumōt returned home.

It is said, that Henrie earle of Lancaster, and Iohn the lord Beaumont of Heinault would gladlie haue passed ouer the water of Wire, to haue assailed the Scots, but the earle of March through counsell of the lord Mortimer, pretending to haue right to the leading of the fore ward, and to the giuing of the first onset, would not suffer them. Howsoeuer it was the king missed his purpose, and right pensiue therefore, brake vp his field, and returned vnto London. ¶ Walter bishop of Canturburie departed this life in Nouember, and then Simon Mepham was aduanced to the gouernement of that sée. The lord Beaumont of Heinault was honorablie rewarded for his paines and trauell, and then licenced to returne into his countrie, where he had not béene long, but that through his means then (as some write) the marriage was concluded betwéene king Edward, and the ladie Philip daughter to William earle of Heinault, and néece to the said lord Beaumont, who had the charge to sée hir brought ouer thither into England about Christmasse: where in the citie of Yorke vpon the éeuen of the Conuersion of saint Paule, being sundaie, in the latter end of the first yeare of his reigne, king Edward solemnlie maried hir.

An. Reg. 2.
A parlement at Northampton.
A dishonorable peace.
The blacke crosse.

In the second yeare of his reigne, about the feast of Pentecost, king Edward held a parlement at Northampton, at the which parlement by euill and naughtie counsell, whereof the lord Roger Mortimer and the quéene mother bare the blame, the king concluded with the Scotish king both an vnprofitable and a dishonorable peace. For first, he released to the Scots their fealtie and homage. Also he deliuered vnto them certeine old ancient writings, sealed with the seales of the king of Scots, and of diuerse lords of the land both spirituall and temporall: amongst the which was that indenture, which they called Ragman, with manie other charters and patents, by the which the kings of Scotland were bound as feodaries vnto the crowne of England; at which season also there were deliuered certeine iewels, which before time had béene woone from the Scots by the kings of England, and among other, the blacke crosier or rood is speciallie named.

A marriage concluded.
Ione Makepeace.
Ri. Southwell.

And not onelie the king by his sinister councell lost such right and title as he had to the realme of Scotland, so farre as by the same councell might be deuised, but also the lords and barons, and other men of England that had anie lands or rents within Scotland, lost their right in like manner, except they would dwell vpon the same lands, and become liege men to the king of Scotland. Herevpon was there also a marriage concluded betwixt Dauid Bruce the sonne of Robert Bruce king of Scotland, and the ladie Iane sister to king Edward, which of diuerse writers is surnamed Ione of the tower, and the Scots surnamed hir halfe in derision, Ione Makepeace. This marriage was solemnised at Berwike vpon the daie of Marie Magdalen. The quéene with the bishops of Elie and Norwich, the earle Warren, the lord Mortimer, and diuerse other barons of the land, and a great multitude of other people were present at that marriage, which was celebrate with all the honour that might be.

Tho. Walsin.
Adam Merimuth.
Creations of earles.
The earle of March ruleth all things at his pleasure.

After the quindene of saint Michaell, king Edward held a parlement at Salisburie, in which the lord Roger Mortimer was created earle of March, the lord Iohn of Eltham the kings brother was made earle of Cornwall, and the lord Iames Butler of Ireland earle of Ormond, who about the same time had married the earle of Herefords daughter. But the earle of March tooke the most part of the rule of all things perteining either to the king or realme into his owne hands: so that the whole gouernment rested in a manner betwixt the quéene mother and him. The other of the councell that were first appointed, were in manner displaced; for they bare no rule to speake of at all, which caused no small grudge to arise against the quéene and the said earle of March, who mainteined such ports, and kept among them such retinue of seruants, that their prouision was woonderfull, which they[Pg 597] caused to be taken vp, namelie for the quéene, at the kings price, to the sore oppression of the people, which tooke it displesantlie inough.

The earle of Lancaster.
Robert Holland slaine.
The archbishop of Canturburie was the chiefe procuror of the agréement & reconciliation of the earle (as Merimuth saith.)

There was like to haue growen great variance betwixt the quéene and Henrie earle of Lancaster, by reason that one sir Thomas Wither, a knight perteining to the said earle of Lancaster, had slaine Robert Holland, who had betraied sometime Thomas earle of Lancaster, and was after committed to prison by earle Henries means, but the quéene had caused him to be set at libertie, and admitted him as one of hir councell. The quéene would haue had sir Thomas Wither punished for the murther, but earle Henrie caused him to be kept out of the waie, so that for these causes and other, Henrie the earle of Lancaster went about to make a rebellion, and the quéene hauing knowledge thereof, sought to apprehend him: but by the mediation of the earles Marshall and Kent, the matter was taken vp, and earle Henrie had the kings peace granted him for the summe of eleuen thousand pounds, which he should haue paid, but he neuer paid that fine, though it was so assessed at the time of the agréement.

Adam Merimuth.
An. Reg. 3.

There were diuerse lords and great men that were confederat with him, the lord Thomas Wake, the lord Henrie Beaumont, the lord Foulke Fitz Warrein, sir Thomas Rosselin, sir William Trussell, and other, to the number of an hundred knights. ¶ In the third yeare of his reigne, about the Ascension tide, king Edward went ouer into France, and comming to the French king Philip de Valois, as then being at Amiens, did there his homage vnto him for the duchie of Guien (as in the French historie appeareth.) ¶ The same yeare Simon the archbishop of Canturburie held a synod at London, wherein all those were excommunicated that were guiltie to the death of Walter Stapleton bishop of Excester, that had béene put to death by the Londoners, as in the last kings time ye haue heard. ¶ This bishop of Excester founded Excester colledge in Oxford, & Harts hall. But now to the purpose.

Tho. Walsi.
Ri. Southwell.
Additions to Meri.
Thom. Dunhed a frier.
Thom. Wals.

The king about the beginning, or (as other saie) about the middle of Lent, held a parlement at Winchester, during the which, Edmund of Woodstoke earle of Kent the kings vncle was arrested the morrow after saint Gregories day, and being arreigned vpon certeine confessions and letters found about him, he was found giltie of treason. There were diuerse in trouble about the same matter, for the earle vpon his open confession before sundrie lords of the realme, declared that not onelie by commandement from the pope, but also by the setting on of diuerse nobles of this land (whome he named) he was persuaded to indeuour himselfe by all waies and meanes possible how to deliuer his brother king Edward the second out of prison, and to restore him to the crowne, whome one Thomas Dunhed, a frier of the order of preachers in London, affirmed for certeine to be aliue, hauing (as he himselfe said) called vp a spirit to vnderstand the truth thereof, and so what by counsell of the said frier, and of thrée other friers of the same order, he had purposed to worke some meane how to deliuer him, and to restore him againe to the kingdome. Among the letters that were found about him, disclosing a great part of his practise, some there were, which he had written and directed vnto his brother the said king Edward, as by some writers it should appeare.

Anno Reg. 4.
The earle of Kent beheaded.
Naughtie seruants bring their master into disfauour.

The bishop of London and certeine other great personages, whome he had accused, were permitted to go at libertie, vnder suerties taken for their good demeanour and foorth comming. But Robert de Touton, and the frier that had raised the spirit for to know whether the kings father were liuing or not, were committed to prison, wherein the frier remained till he died. The earle himselfe was had out of the castell gate at Winchester, and there lost his head the 19 day of March, chiefelie (as was thought) thorough the malice of the quéene mother, and of the earle of March: whose pride and high presumption the said earle of Kent might not well abide. His death was the lesse lamented, bicause of the presumptuous gouernement of his seruants and retinue, which he kept about him, for that they riding abroad, would take vp things at their pleasure, not paieng nor agréeing with the partie to whome such things belonged; in so much that by their meanes, who ought to[Pg 598] haue doone their vttermost for the inlargement of his honour, he grew in greater obloquie and reproch: a fowle fault in seruants so to abuse their lords names to their priuat profit, to whome they cannot be too trustie. But such are to be warned, that by the same wherin they offend, they shall be punished, euen with seruants faithlesse to plague their vntrustinesse, for

Qui violare fidem solet, & violetur eidem.
The Blacke prince borne.
An eclipse.
A late haruest.

The yoong quéene Philip was brought to bed at Woodstoke the 15 day of Iune of hir first sonne, the which at the fontstone was named Edward, and in processe of time came to great proofe of famous chiualrie, as in this booke shall more plainlie appeare. He was commonlie named when he came to ripe yeares prince Edward, & also surnamed the Blacke prince. The sixtéenth day of Iulie chanced a great eclipse of the sunne, and for the space of two moneths before, and thrée moneths after, there fell excéeding great raine, so that through the great intemperancie of weather, corne could not ripen, by reason whereof, in manie places they began not haruest till Michaelmas, & in some places they inned not their wheat till Alhallontide, nor their pease till saint Andrews tide.

A mightie wind.

On Christmasse euen, about the breake of day, a maruellous sore and terrible wind came foorth of the west, which ouerthrew houses and buildings, ouerturned trées by the roots, and did much hurt in diuerse places. ¶ This yeare shortlie after Easter, the king with the bishop of Winchester, and the lord William Montacute, hauing not past fiftéene horsses in their companie, passed the sea, apparelled in clokes like to merchants, he left his brother the earle of Cornewall his deputie & gardian of the realme till his returne. Moreouer, he caused it to be proclaimed in London, that he went ouer on pilgrimage, and for none other purpose. He returned before the later end of Aprill, and then was there holden a turnie at Dertfort.

Additions to N. Triuet.

The mondaie after saint Matthews day in September, the king held a solemne iusts in Cheapeside, betwixt the great crosse and Soperlane, he with 12 as chalengers answering all defendants that came. This solemne iusts and turnie continued thrée daies. The quéene with manie ladies being present at the same, fell beside a stage, but yet as good hap would they had no hurt by that fall, to the reioising of manie that saw them in such danger, and yet so luckilie to escape without harme. ¶ Also in a parlement holden at Notingham about saint Lukes tide, sir Roger Mortimer the earle of March was apprehend the seuntéenth day of October within the castell of Notingham, where the king with the two quéenes, his mother and his wife, and diuerse other were as then lodged. And though the keies of the castell were dailie and knightlie in the custodie of the said earle of March, and that his power was such, as it was doubted how he might be arrested (for he had, as some writers affirme, at that present in retinue nine score knights, besides esquiers, gentlemen and yeomen) yet at length by the kings helpe, the lord William Montacute, the lord Humfrie de Bohun, and his brother sir William, the lord Rafe Stafford, the lord Robert Vfford, the lord William Clinton, the lord Iohn Neuill of Hornbie, and diuerse other, which had accused the said earle of March for the murther of king Edward the second, found means by intelligence had with sir William de Eland constable of the castell of Notingham, to take the said earle of March with his sonne the lord Roger or Geffrey Mortimer, and sir Simon Bereford, with other.

[Pg 599]

Maister Fox.

Sir Hugh Trumpington or Turrington (as some copies haue) that was one of his chéefest fréends with certeine other were slaine, as they were about to resist against the lord Montacute, and his companie in taking of the said earle. The manner of his taking I passe ouer, bicause of the diuersitie in report thereof by sundrie writers. From Notingham he was sent vp to London with his sonne the lord Roger or Geffrey de Mortimer, sir Simon Bereford, and the other prisoners, where they were committed to prison in the tower. Shortlie after was a parlement called at Westminster, chéefelie (as was thought) for reformation of things disordered through the misgouernance of the earle of March. But whosoeuer was glad or sorie for the trouble of the said earle, suerlie the quéene mother tooke it most heauilie aboue all other, as she that loued him more (as the fame went) than stood well with hir honour. For as some write, she was found to be with child by him. They kept as it were house togither, for the earle to haue his prouision the better cheape, laid his penie with hirs, so that hir takers serued him as well as they did hir both of vittels & cariages. Of which misvsage (all regard to honour and estimation neglected) euerie subiect spake shame. For their manner of dealing, tending to such euill purposes as they continuallie thought vpon, could not be secret from the eies of the people. And their offense héerein was so much the more heinous, bicause they were persons of an extraordinarie degrée, and were the more narrowlie marked of the multitude or common people,

---- nam lux altissima fati
Occultum nil esse sinit, latebrásq; per omnes
Intrat, & obtrusos explorat fama recessus.
The earle of March attainted.

But now in this parlement holden at Westminster he was attainted of high treason expressed in fiue articles, as in effect followeth.

1 First, he was charged that he had procured Edward of Carnaruan the kings father to be murthered in most heinous and tyrannous maner within the castell of Berklie.

2 Secondlie, that the Scots at Stanop parke through his means escaped.

3 Thirdlie, that he receiued at the hands of the lord Iames Dowglas, at that time generall of the Scots, great summes of monie to execute that treason, and further to conclude the peace vpon such dishonorable couenants as was accorded with the Scots at the parlement of Northampton.

4 Fourthlie, that he had got into his hands a great part of the kings treasure, and had wasted and consumed it.

5 Fiftlie, that he had impropried vnto him diuerse wards that belonged vnto the king: and had béene more priuie with quéene Isabell the kings mother, than stood either with Gods law, or the king pleasure.

Adam Meremuth.
The earle of March executed.

These articles with other being prooued against him, he was adiudged by authoritie of the parlement to suffer death, and according therevnto, vpon saint Andrewes éeuen next insuing, he was at London drawne and hanged, at the common place of execution, called in those daies The elmes, & now Tiborne, as in some bookes we find. His bodie remained two daies and two nights on the gallowes, and after taken downe was deliuered to the friers minors, who buried him in their church the morrow after he was deliuered to them, with great pompe and funerall exequies, although afterwards he was taken vp and carried vnto Wigmore, whereof he was lord. He came not to his answer in iudgement, no more than any other of the nobilitie had doone, since the death of Thomas earle of Lancaster.

Sir Simon Bereford executed.
Some bookes haue 3 thousand pounds.
Ad. Merem.

Sir Simon de Bereford knight that had béene one of the kings iustices, was drawne also and hanged at London, vpon S. Lucies daie. In this parlement holden at Westminster, the king tooke into his hand, by aduise of the states there assembled, all the possessions, lands and reuenues that belonged to the quéene his mother, she hauing assigned to hir a thousand pounds by yeare, for the maintenance of hir estate, being appointed to remaine in certeine place, and not to go elsewhere abroad: yet the king to comfort hir would lightlie euerie yeare once come to visit hir. ¶ After that the erle of March was executed (as yée haue heard) diuerse noblemen that were departed the realme, bicause they could not abide the pride and presumption of the said earle, now returned: as the sonne and heire of the earle of Arundell, the lord Thomas Wake, the L. Henrie Beaumont, sir Thomas de Rosselin, sir Foulke fitz Warren, sir Griffin de la Poole, and diuerse other.


[Pg 600]

An. Reg. 5.
Edward Balioll commeth into England.
Iohn Barnabie.
The lord Beaumont.

In the fift yeare of K. Edwards reigne, Edward Balioll came foorth of France into England, and obteined such fauour through the assistance of the lord Henrie Beaumont, the lord Dauid of Strabogie earle of Athole, the lord Geffrey de Mowbraie, the lord Walter Cumin, and others, that king Edward granted him licence to make his prouision in England to passe into Scotland, with an armie of men to attempt the recouerie of his right to the crowne of Scotland, with condition that if he recouered it, he should acknowledge to hold it of the king of England as superiour lord of Scotland. The comming awaie of Edward Balioll out of France is diuerslie reported by writers: some saie that he was aided by the French king, whose sister he had married: and other saie, that he being in prison in France, for the escape of an Englishman, one Iohn Barnabie esquier, which had slaine a Frenchman by chance of quarelling in the towne of Dampierre, where the same Barnabie dwelled with the said Edward Balioll, so it came to passe that the lord Henrie Beaumont hauing occasion of businesse with the French king, that fauoured him well, came ouer to France, and there vnderstanding of Baliols imprisonment, procured his deliuerance, and brought him ouer into England, and caused him to remaine in secret wise at the manor of Sandhall vpon Ouse in Yorkeshire with the ladie Vescie, till he had purchased the kings grant for him to make his prouision of men of war and ships within the English dominions.

An. Reg. 6.
The earle of Gelderland.
Edward Balioll crowned K. of Scotlād.

In the sixt yeare of king Edwards reigne, Reignold earle of Gelderland married the ladie Elianor sister to this king Edward the third, who gaue vnto the said earle with hir for hir portion, fiftéene thousand pounds sterling. ¶ Isabell the kings daughter was borne also this yeare at Woodstoke. ¶ After that Edward Balioll had prepared and made readie his purueiances for his iournie, and that his men of warre were assembled and come togither, being in all not past fiue hundred men of armes, and about two thousand archers, and other footmen, he tooke the sea at Rauenspurgh in Yorkeshire, and from thence directing his course northward, he arriued at length in Scotland, where he atchiuing great victories (as in the Scotish chronicle yée may read more at large) was finallie crowned king of that realme.

The cause that mooued K. Edward to aid Edward Balioll.
Rich. South.
Edward Balioll chased out of Scotland.

It may séeme a woonder to manie, that the king of England would permit Edward Balioll to make his prouision thus in England, and to suffer his people to aid him against his brother in law king Dauid that had married his sister (as before ye haue heard.) Indéed at the first he was not verie readie to grant their suit that mooued it, but at length was contented to dissemble the matter, in hope that if Edward Balioll had good successe, he should then recouer that againe, which by the conclusion of peace during his minoritie, he had through euill counsell resigned out of his hands. The Scots neuerthelesse in December chased their new king Edward Balioll out of Scotland, so that he was faine to retire into England, and celebrated the feast of the Natiuitie at Carleill, in the house of the friers minors, and the morrow after being S. Stephans day, he went into Westmerland, where of the lord Clifford he was right honorablie receiued, to whome he then granted Douglas Dale in Scotland, which had béene granted to the said lord Cliffords grandfather in the daies of king Edward the first, if he might at anie time recouer the realme of Scotland out of his aduersaries hands.

An. Reg. 7.
Berwike beseiged.
The victorie of Englishmen at Halidon hill.

After this, he went and laie a time with the ladie of Gines, that was his kinsewoman. Finallie about the téenth day of March, hauing assembled a power of Englishmen and Scotishmen, he entred Scotland, and besieged the towne of Berwike, during the which siege, manie enterprises were attempted by the parties: and amongst other, the Scots entred England by Carleill, dooing much mischiefe in Gillesland, by burning, killing, robbing and spoiling. The king aduertised hereof, thought himselfe discharged of the agréement concluded betwixt him and Dauid Bruce, the sonne of Robert Bruce that had married his sister, & therfore tooke it to be lawfull for him to aid his coosen Edward Balioll the lawfull K. of Scots. And herewith assembling an armie, came to the siege of Berwike, togither with his brother Iohn of Eltham earle of Cornewall, and other noble men, séeking by all meanes possible how to win the towne: and finallie discomfited an armie of Scots, which came to the rescue théerof vpon Halidon hill, in sleaing of them what in the fight and chase, seuen earles, nine hundred knights and baronets, foure hundred esquiers, and vpon 32 thousand of the common people: and of Englishmen were[Pg 601] slaine but 15 persons, as our English writers make mention. The Scotish writers confesse, that the Scotishmen lost the number of 14 thousand.

Berwike deliuered.
The lord Richard Talbot.
The lord iustice of Ireland cōmeth into Scotland.

On the morrow following, being S. Margarets day, the towne of Berwike was rendered vnto king Edward with the castell, as in the Scotish chronicle ye may read, with more matter touching the siege and battell aforesaid, and therfore here in few words, I passe it ouer. King Edward hauing thus sped his businesse, left a power of men with Edward Balioll, vnder the conduct of the lord Richard Talbot, and returned himselfe backe into England, appointing the lord Percie to be gouernor of the towne of Berwike, and sir Thomas Grey knight his lieutenant. The lord Iohn Darcie lord chéefe iustice of Ireland, leauing the lord Thomas Bourgh his deputie in that countrie, passed ouer with an armie into Scotland, to aid the king, who (as ye haue heard) was there the same time in person. And so by the king on one side, and by the Irishmen on an other, Scotland was subdued, and restored vnto Balioll, who the morrow after the octaues of the Natiuitie of our ladie, held a parlement at saint Iohns towne, in the which he reuoked and made void all acts, which the late king of Scots Robert Bruce had inacted or made: and further ordeined, that all such lands and possessions as the said Bruce had giuen to any maner of person should be taken from them, and restored to the former and true inheritour.

Adam Merimuth.
An. Reg. 8.
Adam Merimuth.
A parlement at Yorke.
Edward Balioll dooth homage vnto the king of England for Scotland.

In this yeare about the twelfth of October, Simon Mepham archbishop of Canturburie, departed this life, in whose place succéeded Iohn Stretford, being remooued from the sée of Winchester, whereof he was bishop, before that he was thus called to the sée of Canturburie. After Candlemas the king of England repaired towards Yorke, there to hold a parlement, to the which (beginning on the mondaie in the second wéeke in Lent) when Edward Balioll doubting to be surprised by his aduersaries, could not come, yet he sent the lord Henrie de Beaumont, and the lord William de Montacute, to make excuse for him. The king of England passing further into the north parts, held his Whitsuntide at Newcastell vpon Tine, with great roialtie: and shortlie after, Edward Balioll king of Scots came thither, and vpon the ninetéenth daie of Iune made his homage vnto the king of England, and sware vnto him fealtie in the presence of a great number of Nobles and gentlemen there assembled, as to his superiour and chiefe lord of the realme of Scotland, binding himselfe by that oth, to hold the same realme of the king of England, his heires and successors for euer. He also gaue and granted vnto the king of England at that time fiue counties next adioining vnto the borders of England, as Berwike and Rocksburgh, Peplis, and Dunfres, the townes of Hadington and Gedworth with the castell, the forrests of Silkirke, Etherike, and Gedworth, so as all these portions should be cléerelie separated and put apart from the crowne of Scotland, and annexed vnto the crowne of England for euer. And these things were confirmed and roborated with oth, scepter, and witnesse sufficient.

Inundation of the sea.

Which things doone in due order, as was requisite, the king of England returned home, and the kings went backe into Scotland. And then were all such lords restored againe to their lands and possessions in Scotland, which in the daies of Edward the second had béene expelled from the same: and now they did their homage vnto the king of Scotland for those lands as apperteined. ¶ Immediatlie after, the king of England called a councell of his lords spirituall and temporall at Notingham, commanding them to méet him there about the thirtéenth daie of Iulie, there to consult with him of weightie causes concerning the state of the realme. This yeare on saint Clements daie at night, which fell on the thrée and twentith of Nouember, through a maruellous inundation & rising of the sea all alongst by the coasts of this realme, but especiallie about the Thames, the sea bankes or walles were broken and borne downe with violence of the water, and infinite numbers of beasts and cattell drowned, fruitfull grounds and pastures were made salt marishes, so as there was no hope that in long time they should recouer againe their former fruitfulnesse.

[Pg 602]

Ambassadors from the French king.

In this meane time the French king was appointed to haue made a viage against the Saracens, enimies of our faith, and had sent to the king of England, requiring him of his companie in that iournie. But the king of England being otherwise occupied with the affaires of Scotland, made no direct answer therevnto, so that the French king perceiuing that the king of England was not in all things well pleased with him, thought good before he set forward on that iournie to vnderstand his meaning, and thervpon sent eftsoones vnto him other ambassadours. These ambassadours arriued here in England and had audience, but nothing they concluded in effect, saue that the king promised to send his ambassadors ouer into France, to haue further communication in the matter touching such points of variance as depended betwixt them.

Rich. South.
A parlement at London.
The king entreth into Scotland with an armie.

Although Edward Balioll by the puissance of the king of Englands assistance had got the most part of the realme of Scotland into his hands, yet diuerse castels were holden against him, and the Scots dailie slipped from him, and by open rebellion molested him diuerse waies. The king of England aduertised thereof called a parlement at London, wherein he tooke order for his iournie into Scotland, had a tenth and a fiftéenth granted him, and so about Alhallontide he came to Newcastell vpon Tine, with his armie, and remained there till the feast of saint Katharine, and then entring into Scotland, came to Rockesburgh, where he repared the castell which had béene aforetime destroied. After the third daie of Christmasse was past, the king of England entred into Ethrike forrest, beating it vp and downe, but the Scots would not come within his reach: wherevpon he sent the king of Scots that was there present with him, and the earles of Warwike and Oxenford, and certeine other barons and knights with their retinues vnto Carleill, to kéepe and defend those west parts of the realme from the Scots.

Hen. Marle.
A dearth and death of cattell.

In their iournie thitherwards, they went by Peplis to apprehend certeine Scots, whome they heard to be lodged and abiding thereabouts, but when they found them not, they wasted the countrie, and turned streight to Carleill, where after the Epiphanie there assembled an armie foorth of the counties of Lancaster, Westmerland, and Cumberland, by the kings appointment, which armie togither with the king of Scots and the other lords there found, entred Scotland, and did much hurt in the countrie of Galloway, destroieng towns and all that they found abroad, but the people were fled and withdrawne out of their waie. And when they had taken their pleasure, the king of Scots returned backe to Carleill. This yeare there fell great abundance of raine, and therevpon insued morren of beasts: also corne so failed this yeare, that a quarter of wheat was sold at fortie shillings.

An. Reg. 9.
Ambassadors sent into France.

Finallie, when the king had finished his businesse in Scotland, as to his séeming stood with his pleasure, he returned into England, and shortlie after he sent the archbishop of Canturburie, sir Philip de Montacute, and Geffrey Scroope vnto the French king, to conclude a firme amitie & league with him. These lords comming into France, were not at the first admitted to the French kings presence, till they shewed themselues halfe gréeued with that strange dealing: for then finallie were they brought vnto him, who gentlie receiued them, and caused the matter to be intreated of about the which they were sent, in furthering whereof, such diligence was vsed, that finallie a conclusion of peace and concord was agréed, and so farre passed, that proclamation thereof should haue béene made in Paris, and in the countrie thereabout the next day: but scarse were the English ambassadours returned vnto their lodgings, when they were sent for backe againe, and further informed, that the French king minded to haue Dauid king of Scotland comprised in the same league, so that he might be restored vnto his kingdome, and the Balioll put out. The English ambassadors answered, that their commission extended not so farre, and therefore they could not conclude any thing therein. Herevpon all the former communication was reuoked, and cléerelie made void, so that the English ambassadors returned home into England without anie thing concluded.

[Pg 603]

Ri. Southwell.
A parlement.
The Welshmen.
Dundée burnt.

About the feast of the Ascension, the king held a parlement at Yorke, ordeining for his iournie into Scotland, and also deuising by authoritie thereof diuerse profitable statutes for the common-wealth. About midsummer, he came with his armie vnto Newcastell vpon Tine, whither came to him from Carleill the king of Scots, and there order was taken, that the king of England, and his brother the earle of Cornwall, the earls of Warwike, Lancaster, Lincolne, and Hereford, with all their retinues, and the earle of Gulikerland, that had married the kings sister, and with a faire companie was come to serue the king in these warres, should passe to Carleill, and on the twelfe of Iulie enter Scotland. The king of Scots, the earles of Surrie, and Arundell, and the lord Henrie Percie, a baron of great might and power, being all of kin vnto the king of Scots, with their retinues should go to Berwike, and there enter the same day aboue mentioned, and as it was appointed, so it was put in practise. For both kings on the same day entring Scotland in seuerall parts passed forward without resistance at their pleasures, wasting and burning all the countries, both on this side, and beyond the Scotish sea. The Welshmen spared neither religious persons nor their houses, making no more accompt of them than of others: the mariners of Newcastell also burnt a great part of the towne of Dundée.

The earle of Namure.
The earle of Murrey takē.
Rich. Southw.

The earle of Namure about the same time comming into England, to serue the king in his warres, tooke vpon him to passe into Scotland with a band of an hundred men of armes, beside seauen or eight knights which he brought ouer with him, and certeine Englishmen to be his guides from Berwike, but he was assailed before he could get to Edenburgh, by the earles of Murrey and Dunbarre, and the lord William Dowglas: so that notwithstanding the strangers bare themselues verie manfullie, yet oppressed with multitude, they were forced to giue place, but yet still fighting and defending themselues till they came to Edenburgh, and there taking the hill where the ruines of the castel stood, kept the same all the night folowing. But the next day they despairing of all succours, and hauing neither meat nor drinke, at length yéelded themselues, whom the earle of Murrey receiuing right courteouslie, shewed them such fauour, that without ransome he was contented they should returne into their countries: and for more suertie, he conueied the said earle of Namure (whome the Scotish books call earle of Gelderland) and his companie backe to the borders; but in his returne, or shortlie after, the same earle of Murrey that tooke himselfe for gouernour of Scotland, was encountred by the Englishmen that laie in garrison within Rockesburgh, and by them taken prisoner. The lord William Dowglas being there also with him escaped, but Iames Dowglas brother to the said lord William Douglas, was at that bickering slaine with diuerse other.

Scots submit them to the king of England.
The castell of Kildrummie. The earle of Atholl slaine.
An. Reg. 10.
A truce granted to the Scots.

About the feast of the Assumption of our ladie, diuerse of the Scotish nobilitie came and submitted themselues to the king, namelie the earle of Atholl and others, but earle Patrike of Dunbarre, and the earle of Rosse, the lord Andrew de Murrey, the lord William Dowglas, and the lord William de Keth, and manie other would not come in, but assembling themselues togither, did all the mischéefe they could vnto those that had receiued the kings peace. The earle of Atholl in the winter season, besieging the castell of Kildrummie beyond the Scotish sea was set vpon by the earles of Dunbarre and Rosse, so that they slue him there in field, for his men fled from him (through some traitorous practise as was thought) and left him and a few other in all the danger. ¶ The king of England being returned foorth of Scotland, remained for the most part of the winter in the north parts, and held his Christmasse at Newcastell vpon Tine, and after the Epiphanie hauing assembled an armie readie to passe into Scotland, to reuenge the earle of Atholl's death, which he tooke verie displeasantlie, there came in the meane time ambassadors both from the pope and the French king, and found the king of England at Berwike, readie with his armie to set forwards into Scotland. But these ambassadors did so much by intreatie with the two kings of England and Scotland, that about the feast of the Purification, a truce was agréed vpon to indure till midlent.

[Pg 604]

The stoutnes of Scots hindered the conclusion of the peace.

Then was a parlement to be holden at London, and herewith articles were drawne, and certeine petitions put foorth, vpon the which if the parties in the meane time could agrée, the peace accordinglie might be established, if not, then the warre to be prosecuted as before. The chiefest article and petition which the Scots proponed, as desirous to be therein resolued, was to vnderstand which of the two that claimed the crowne of Scotland, to wit, Edward Balioll, and Dauid Bruce, had most right thereto. But when in the parlement time the lord Maurice de Murrey slue sir Geffrey de Rosse a Scotish knight, that was shiriffe of Aire and Lenarke, being of the Baliols side, for that in time of open warre the same sir Geffrey had slaine his brother, vpon respect of this presumptuous part, and by reason of such stoutnesse as the Scots otherwise shewed, no conclusion of peace could be brought to effect.

An armie sent into Scotland.
S. Iohns towne fortified.
Adam Merimuth.
The K. goeth into Scotland.

Before the feast of the Ascension, the king of England sent forward the king of Scots, the earles of Lancaster, Warwike, Oxford, and Anegos, and diuerse lords and capteins with an armie, the which after Whitsuntide entring into Scotland, passed ouer the Scotish sea, and comming to saint Iohns towne (which the Scots had burnt, despairing to defend it against the English power) they set in hand to fortifie it, compassing it with déepe diches and a strong rampier of earth. ¶ About the same time the king called a parlement at Northampton, where leauing the prelats and other to treat of such matters as were proponed, he himselfe rode northwards, and comming to Berwike, tooke with him a small band of men of armes, and setting forward, hasted foorth till he came to saint Iohns towne, where he found the king of Scots, and other his nobles greatlie woondering at his comming thither so vnlooked for. After he had rested there a little, he tooke with him part of the armie, and passed forward ouer the mounteines of Scotland euen vnto Elgen in Murrey and Inuernes, further by manie miles than euer his grandfather had gone.

Aberden burnt.
Tho. Walsin.
Sir Thomas Rosselin slain.
The earle of Cornewall.
The lord Douglas.
Striueling castell built or rather repared.

In his returne he burnt the towne of Aberden, in reuenge of the death of a right valiant knight called sir Thomas Rosselin, that comming thither by sea tooke land there, and was slaine by the enimies: he burnt diuerse other townes and places in this voiage, spoiling and wasting the countries where he came, not finding anie to resist him. About Lammas the earle of Cornewall with the power of Yorkeshire and Northumberland, and the lord Anthonie Lucie with the Cumberland and Westmerland men entred Scotland, and destroied the west parts, as Carrike, and other which obeied not the Balioll. The lord William Douglas still coasted the Englishmen, dooing to them what damage he might. At length this armie loden with preies and spoile returned home, but the earle of Cornewall with his owne retinue came through to saint Iohns towne, where he found the king being returned thither frō his iournie which he had made beyond the mounteins. The king staied not long there, but leauing the king of Scots with his companie in that towne, he went to Striueling, where, on the plot of ground vpon which the destroied castell had stood, he built an other fortresse, called a Pile. And now, bicause he had spent a great deale of treasure in those warres of Scotland, he summoned a parlement to be holden at Notingham, in which there was granted to him a tenth of the cleargie, and likewise of the citizens and burgesses of good towns, and a fiftéenth of other that dwelt foorth of cities and boroughes.

The deceasse of the earle of Cornewall.
The deceasse of Hugh de Fresnes earle of Lincolne.
Walter Gisburgh.
Thom. Wals.
The lord Stafford.

About the latter end of October, Iohn of Eltham earle of Cornewall the kings brother departed this life at saint Iohns towne in Scotland: his bodie was afterwards conueied to Westminster, & there buried with all solemne funerals. The Scotish writers affirme that he was slaine by his brother king Edward for the crueltie he had vsed in the west parts of Scotland, in sleaing such as for safegard of their liues fled into churches. Moreouer, in December there deceassed at S. Iohns towne aforesaid, Hugh de Fresnes, that in right of the countesse of Lincolne was intituled earle of Lincolne. He died of the flix, or (as was said) through excessiue cold, which in those quarters in that cold time of the yeare sore afflicted the English people. ¶ In the meane time, about the feast of saint Luke the euangelist, the king went with an armie into Scotland toward the castell of Bothuille, and comming thither repared the same, which by the Scots had latelie before béene destroied. The baron Stafford at the same time comming towards the king with a power of men, took Dowglas Dale in his waie, taking in the same a great preie of cattell and other things.

[Pg 605]

A statute ordeined by the Scots in fauour of the K. of England.
Townes fortified by king Edward in Scotland.

Before Christmasse the king returned into England, but the king of Scots remained all the winter in saint Iohns towne with a sober companie. When the king had setled the state of Scotland vnder the gouernement of the Balioll, those Scotishmen which tooke part with the Balioll, ordeined as it were in recompense of king Edwards friendship a statute, whereby they bound themselues to the said king Edward and his heires kings of England, that they should aid and assist him against all other princes: and whensoeuer it chanced that either he or any king of England being rightfull inheritor, had any wars against any prince, either within the land or without, the Scotishmen of their owne proper costs and expenses should find thrée hundred horssemen, & a thousand footmen well and sufficientlie arraied for the warre, the which thirtéene hundred men the Scots should wage for a whole yeare: & if the king of England ended not his warres within the yeare, then he to giue wages to the said number of thirtéene hundred Scots, as he dooth to other of his souldiers and men of warre. There be that write, that the king of England should not onelie fortifie saint Iohns towne about this time, as before is mentioned, but also saint Andrews, Cowper, Aberdine, Dunfermeling, with certeine other castels, leauing garisons of men in the same. But for so much as ye may read sufficientlie of those troubles, in Scotland; and of the returne of king Dauid foorth of France, and how his realme was recouered out of the Baliols hands in the Scotish chronicles: we néed not here to make anie long discourse thereof.

Th. Walsing.
The king studieth to gather monie to mainteine his warres.
Great cheapnesse of wars and scarsitie of monie.

The quéene was deliuered of hir second sonne at Hatfield, who was therfore named William of Hatfield, who liued but a short time, departing this world when he was but yoong. The king being returned home out of Scotland, sought by all waies possible how to recouer monie, both to supplie his charges for the Scotish wars, and also to furnish the other wars which he meant to take in hand against the French king: he got so much into his hands (as it is reported by writers) that it was verie scant and hard to come by throughout the whole realme: by reason of which scarsitie and want of monie, or vpon some other necessarie cause, vittels, and other chaffer and merchandize were excéeding cheape: for at London a quarter of wheat was sold for two shillings, a fat oxe for six shillings eight pence, a fat shéepe for six pence or eight pence, halfe a doozen of pigeons for one penie, a fat goose for two pence, a pig for one penie, and so all other vittels after the like rate.

An. Reg. 11.
Thom. Wals.
Ran. Higd.

This yeare was the warre proclaimed betwixt England and France, chéefelie by the procurement of the lord Robert Dartois, a Frenchman, as then banished out of France, vpon occasion of a claime by him made vnto the earledome of Artois. This lord Robert after he was banished France, fled ouer vnto king Edward, who gladlie receiued him and made him earle of Richmond. ¶ All the goods of the Italians were by the kings commandement this yeare confiscate to his vse, and so likewise were the goods of the moonks of the Cluniake and Cisterceaux orders. ¶ This yeare also a comet or blasing starre appeared, with long and terrible streames passing from it. In the eleauenth yeare of his reigne, the king held a parlement at Westminster, about the time of Lent, during the which, of the earledome of Cornewall he made a duchie, and gaue it vnto his eldest sonne Edward, that was then earle of Chester, whom also (as some write) he created at the same time prince of Wales.

Creations of noble men.
Additions to Hen. Marle.
An act of arraie, against sumptuous apparell.

Moreouer in reward of seruice, there were six noble men at this parlement aduanced to the honour and title of earles, as the lord Henrie sonne to the earle of Lancaster was created earle of Derbie, or after some writers, earle of Leicester; William Bohun was created earle of Northampton, William Montacute earle of Salisburie, Hugh Audeley earle of Glocester, William Clinton earle of Huntingdon, and Robert Vfford earle of Suffolke. This creation was on the second sundaie in Lent, and the same day were twentie knights made, whose names for bréefenesse we doo here omit. In this parlement it was enacted, that no man should weare any manner of silke in gowne, cote, or doublet; except he might dispend of good and sufficient rent an hundred pounds by yeare, which act was not long obserued. For the nature of man is such, that of it owne corrupt & euill inclination, it withstandeth[Pg 606] good things, and chooseth rather to follow whatsoeuer is forbidden, yea though the same be starke naught and offensiue to law and conscience: which preposterous and ouerthwart disposition the poet noteth well, saieng,

---- aliúdq; cupido
Mens aliud suadet: video meliora, probóq;
Deteriora sequor.
An act for restraint of trāsporting ouer wools.
Adam Merimuth.

It was also ordeined by the aduise of this parlement, that Henrie of Lancaster newlie created erle of Derbie should go ouer into Gascoine, there to remaine as the kings lieutenant. But Richard Southwell saith, that the earle of Salisburie, and not the earle of Derbie was appointed to go into Gascoine at that time, and the earle of Warwike into Scotland. Moreouer in this parlement it was enacted that no wooll of the English growth should go foorth of the land, but be here wrought and made in cloath: and further an act was ordeined for receiuing of strangers that were clothworkers, and order taken, that fit and conuenient places should be assigned foorth to them where to inhabit, with manie priuileges and liberties, and that they should haue wages and stipends allowed them, till they were so setled as they might gaine commodiouslie by their occupation and science: but now to returne againe to other matters.

Rich. South.
The castell of Bothuile taken.
Sir Eustace Maxwell.

The Scots this yeare tooke the castell of Bothuile by surrender, so as the Englishmen that were within it, departed with their liues and goods saued. Diuerse other castels and fortresses were taken by the Scots in Fife, and in other parts, but the countrie of Galloway was by them speciallie sore afflicted, bicause the people there held with their lord Edward Balioll. Herevpon it was agréed in this last parlement, that the earle of Warwike being appointed to go thither, should haue with him the power beyond Trent northwards. But when about the Ascension tide the Scots had besieged the castell of Striueling, the king of England in person hasted thitherwards, of whose approach the Scots no sooner vnderstood, but that streightwaies they brake vp their siege, and departed thence: the king therefore returned backe into the south parts. About the same time sir Eustace de Maxwell knight, lord of Carlauerocke, reuolted from Edward Balioll vnto Dauid le Bruse his side, and so that part dailie increased, and also the warre continued, with damage inough vnto both parts.

The earle of Warwike inuadeth Scotland.

In the beginning of September the earle of Warwike with an armie entred Scotland by Berwike, and the lord Thomas de Wake, and the lord Clifford, with the bishop of Carleill accompanied with the Westmerland and Cumberland men, entred by Carleill, and within two daies after met with the earle of Warwike, as before it was appointed, and so ioining togither, they passed forwards, spoiling and wasting Teuidale, Mofeteidale, and Nidesdale. The lord Anthonie Lucie with a part of the armie entred into Galloway, and after he had wasted that countrie, he returned to the armie, which by reason of the excéeding great weat that fell in that season, they could not kéepe on their iournie into Douglasdale, and to Aire, as they had appointed: but hauing remained in Scotland twelue daies, they returned altogither vnto Carleill. Edward Balioll was not with them in this iournie, but remained still in England.

The castell of Edenburgh besieged.
The siege is raised.
The K. practiseth with ye Flemings.

The Scots in reuenge hereof made diuerse rodes into England, withdrawing still with their prey and booties, before the English power could assemble to giue them battell. About Alhallontide, the Scots besieged the castell of Edenburgh, but the bishop of Carleill, the lord Randoll Dacres of Gillesland, with the power of the counties of Cumberland and of Westmerland, and the king of Scots Edward Balioll, with the lord Anthonie Lucie, and such companie as they brought from Berwike, méeting at Rockesburgh, marched foorth vnto Edenburgh, and chasing the Scots from the siege, tooke order for the safe kéeping of the castell from thencefoorth, and returned into England. In this meane time things happened so well to the purpose of king Edward, that by practise he alienated the hearts of the Flemings from the obedience of their earle, being altogither an earnest fréend to the French king. He therefore vnderstanding the minds of his people, sought to winne[Pg 607] them by some gentle treatie, and so did euen at the first, concluding an agréement with them of Gaunt, which were fullie at a point to haue entred into league with the king of England, as with him whose fréendship by reason of the traffike of merchandize, (and namelie of the English wools) they knew to be more necessarie for their countrie than the French kings.

The bishop of Tournie.
Ia. Meir.
The Ile of Cadsant.
An armie sent by sea into Flanders.
Foure thousand saith Ia. Meir.

Although by the helpe of the bishop of Tournie the earle of Flanders caused them to staie from concluding or ioining in anie such bonds of amitie with the king of England for that time, yet he doubted the arriuall of some power out of England, and therevpon appointed his bastard brother Guie of Rijckenburgh, and certeine other noble men and capteins, with a crue of men of warre to lie in the Ile of Cadsant, to defend the passage there, and to sée that no English ships should come or go that waie by the seas: whereof the king of England being aduertised, sent thither the earle of Derbie, the lord Lewes Beauchampe, the lord Reginald Cobham, also the lord William sonne to the earle of Warwike, the lord Walter de Mannie an Hanneuier, and other lords, knights, and capteins, with a power of fiue hundred men of armes, and two thousand archers, the which comming to the foresaid Ile of Cadsant, found the Flemings, about fiue thousand in number, readie arranged on the towne dikes and sands, in purpose to defend the entrie, which they did a certeine space right valiantlie: but in the end they were discomfited, and thrée thousand of them slaine in the stréets, hauen, and houses. Sir Guie the bastard of Flanders was taken with diuerse other knights and gentlemen, the towne was burnt, and the goods with the prisoners were carried into England. This chanced on a sundaie the daie before the feast of saint Martine in Nouember. Where the lord Walter de Mannie might haue had 11 thousand pounds sterling for the ransome of the said sir Guie, and other prisoners, the king bought them of him in the fouretéenth yeare of his reigne for eight thousand pounds sterling, as by records in the tower it appeareth.

Two cardinals come into England.
Additions to Meri.
Ri. Southwell.
The castell of Dunbar beseiged.
An. Reg. 12.

About the feast of saint Martine in winter, there came vnto London two cardinals, sent by the pope to treat for a peace betwixt the kings of England, and France. ¶ The archbishop of Canturburie, with the bishops of Winchester, Elie, Chichester, Couentrie, & the cōmoners of the citie of London met them on Shooters hill. The duke of Cornewall with the earle of Surrie, and manie other of the nobilitie receiued them a mile without the citie. The king himselfe receiued them at the lesser hall doore of his palace at Westminster, and brought them into the painted chamber, where they declared their message: wherevpon the king caused a parlement to be summoned at London, to begin the morrow after Candlemasse day. The king held his Christmasse at Gildford, and within the octaues of the same feast he tooke his iournie towards Scotland, or rather (as other haue) he sent thither the earles of Salisburie, Glocester, Derbie, and Anegos, with thrée barons, the lords Percie, Neuill, and Stafford, the which with twentie thousand men besieged the castell of Dunbar.

A parlement.
A subsidie.
The cardinals returne.

This siege began euen in the beginning of the twelfth yeare of king Edwards reigne, and continued for the space of ninetéene wéeks, with small gaine and lesse honour to the Englishmen, in so much that the same brake vp vnder a colour of a truce, when there was no hope of winning the place, and that the noble men that laie there at siege, hasted to make an end, that they might attend the king in his iournie ouer into Brabant. The morrow after Candlemasse day the parlement began, in which there was a grant made to the king by the laitie of the one halfe of their woolles through the whole realme for the next summer, which he receiued, and likewise he leuied of the cleargie the whole, causing them to paie nine marks of euerie sacke of the best wooll. But after the rate of the one halfe he tooke in whose hands so euer it was found, aswell merchants as others. After this, he tooke a fiftéenth of all the communaltie of his realme in wooll, the price of euerie stone containing fouretéene pounds rated at two shillings. The one and twentith of March the two cardinals tooke the sea at Douer, and in their companie went ouer the archbishop of Canturburie, the bishop of Durham to treat of a peace, if by any good means the two kings might[Pg 608] be made fréends. But as it appeared, their trauell was in vaine, for although they abode togither for a time on the frontiers, dooing their best indeuor, yet their trauell nothing auailed, as by that which followeth is most manifest.

Iaques or Iacob Arteueld, a honimaker of Gant.
His authoritie among the commons.
A league betwixt England & Flanders.
Iac. Meir.
Siger de Curtrey.

The Flemings that fauoured king Edward, were put in such comfort by the late victorie obteined by the Englishmen in the Ile of Cadsant, that falling to their former practise, one Iaques or Iacob van Arteueld an honimaker of the towne of Gant, was chosen amongst them to be as it were the defender of the people, and namelie of the weauers, and other clothworkers. Finallie, his authoritie grew so hugelie amongst all the whole number of the commons in Flanders, that he might doo more with them than their earle; and yet the earle to reconcile the people to his fauour, ceassed not to vse all courteous means towards them that he could deuise, as releasing customes and duties of monie, pardoning offenses, forfeitures, and other such like, but all would not auaile him. The king of England had so woon them by the meanes of the said Iaques van Arteueld, that in the end Iohn archbishop of Canturburie, & Richard the bishop of Durham, came into Flanders as ambassadors from king Edward, and trauelled so earnestlie to draw the Flemings vnto an amitie with their master king Edward, that finallie a league was concluded betwixt the countrie of Flanders, and the said king at Gant, in the presence of the earle of Gelderland, as then being there. The chéefe authors of this league were the said Iaques van Arteueld, and a noble man of Flanders, called Siger de Curtrey.

The Fullers of Gant.
The earle of Flanders fléeth into France.
He returneth home.
He eftsoones fléeth.

But this Siger being immediatlie after apprehended by the earle of Flanders, was put to death. Which act procured the earle so much hatred of the people, that shortlie after comming to Bruges, and attempting to force the towne to his will, he was forced himselfe to flée from thence, for otherwise he had béene either taken or slaine; the commons of the towne & namelie the fullers, of whome he had slaine some there in the stréets, rose so fast vpon him. Herevpon fléeing home to his house, he tooke his wife, and a sonne which he had, and fled with them into France, so forsaking his countrie which was now gouerned by Iaques van Arteueld, as though he had béene immediatlie lord thereof. After this, the earle returned home againe, as it were with the French kings commission, to persuade the Flemings to renounce the league concluded with the king of England: but he could bring nothing to passe, but was still in danger to haue béene arrested and staied of his owne subiects, both at Gant and in other places, but namelie at Dixmue, where if he had not made the more hast awaie, he had béene taken by them of Bruges. Amongst other of his stuffe which he left behind him in that hastie departure, his signet was forgotten, and not missed till he came to saint Omers, whither he fled for his safegard.

Flanders wholie at the deuotion of K. Edward.
K. Edward saileth to Antwerpe.
The marques of Gulikerland.
The earle of Gelderland created duke.

Thus we may perceiue that Flanders rested wholie at king Edwards commandement, who to establish amitie also with the duke of Brabant, and other princes of the empire, about the middest of Iulie sailed ouer vnto Antwerpe, with his wife quéene, Philip his sonne the prince of Wales, and a great number of other of the péeres and barons of his realme, where he was most ioifullie receiued of the duke of Brabant, and other lords of the empire. There was sent to the emperour to procure his fréendship, from the king of England, the marques of Gulike with certeine noble men of England, and also certeine of the duke of Gelderland his councell, the which marques was made at that time an earle, & the earle of Gelderland was made duke. This duke of Gelderland named Reginald had married the ladie Isabell sister of king Edward, and therefore in fauour of the king his brother in law, trauelled most earnestlie to procure him all the fréends within the empire that he could make.

[Pg 609]

K. Edwards confederates.
Lionell that was after duke of Clarance borne.

The princes and lords then with whom king Edward was alied and confederated at that time, I find to be these; the dukes of Brabant and Gelderland, the archbishop of Cullen, the marquesse of Gulike, sir Arnold de Baquehen, and the lord of Valkenburgh, who all promised to defie the French king, in the king of Englands quarrell, and to serue him with notable numbers of men, where and whensoeuer it should please him to appoint. The aliance of the earle of Heinault first procured the king of England all these fréends, vnto the which earle he had sent ouer the bishop of Lincolne and other in ambassage, immediatlie after that he had resolued to make warres against France, by the counsell and aduise of sir Robert Dartois, as in the French historie more plainlie appeareth. In this meane season was quéene Philip brought to bed at Antwerpe of hir third sonne, which was named Lionell. ¶ The king of England earnestlie followed his businesse, and had manie treaties with his fréends and confederats, till at length he made sure to him the fréendship of all those townes & countries, which lie betwixt France and the riuer of Rhene: onelie the cities of Tournie and Cambrie held of the French kings part, though Cambrie belonged to the empire.

Additions to Adam Merimuth.
A parlement at Northampton.
A subsidie vpon wooll.
The cleargie granteth a tenth.
Great raine.
An. Reg. 13.

In this twelfth yeare of king Edwards reigne at a councell holden at Northampton by the duke of Cornewall, lord warden of England in absence of the king his brother, and by manie of the prelats and barons of the realme, there was granted to the king a subsidie in wooll, to the great burthen of the commons: but for so much as the cleargie of the land was not present at that councell, it was ordeined that they should be called, and so they assembled in a conuocation at London the first day of October, in which the cleargie granted to the king a tenth for the third yeare then to come, ouer and besides the two tenths before granted, and that the tenth of this present yeare should be paid in shorter time than it was appointed: but they flatlie denied to grant their wools, which neuerthelesse the laitie paid, and that to their great hinderance, for it rose double to a fiftéene. From the beginning of October, to the beginning of December this yeare, fell such abundance of raine that it hindered greatlie the husbandmen in sowing of their winter corne: and in the beginning of December came such a vehement frost continuing the space of twelue wéeks, that it destroied vp all the séed almost that was sowne, by reason whereof small store of winter corne came to proofe in the summer following: but though there was no plentie, yet all kinds of graine were sold at a reasonable price, through want of monie.

The Frenchmen inuade ye coasts of this land.
Plimmouth burnt.
The earle of Deuonshire.
Rich. South.

The Frenchmen by sea sore troubled the sea coasts of this realme, speciallie where the champion countries stretch towards the sea coasts. At Hastings in the feast of Corpus Christi, they burnt certeine fishermens houses, and slue some of the inhabitants. Also in the hauens about Deuonshire and Cornewall, and towards Bristow, they tooke and burnt certeine ships, killing the mariners that came to their hands, and in the Whitsunwéeke they landed at Plimmouth, and burnt the more part of the towne: but Hugh Courtnie earle of Deuonshire, a man almost fourescore yeares of age, and other knights and men of the countrie came against these Frenchmen, sleaing such as came into their hands to the number of fiue hundred, as was estéemed, and chased the residue. ¶ The Scots also about the same time did much hurt and great mischéefe to the Englishmen both by sea and land.

William Dowglas.
Hect. Boetius.
A floud.

In the beginning of Iulie the lord William Dowglas, with a number of men of warre, returned from France home into England, and to him vpon his returne the castell of Cowper was deliuered, with all the countrie thereabouts. After this, comming to the siege of S. Iohns towne, which the gouernour the earle of Murrey, the erle of March, Patrike de Dunbarre, and other of the Scotish lords had besieged, at length it was surrendered by sir Thomas Vthred capiteine there of the English garison, departing in safetie home into England. Thrée daies before the feast of the Assumption of our ladie, there chanced in the night season such a mightie and sudden inundation of water at Newcastell vpon Tine, that it bare downe a péece of the towne wall, six perches in length, néere to a place called Walknow, where a hundred and twentie temporall men with diuerse préests and manie women were drowned and lamentablie perished.

[Pg 610]

Cōmissioners sent to treat of peace.
They cannot agrée.
Cambrie besieged.
Ia. Meir.
The king raiseth his siege and entreth into France. Flaminguerie.

But now to returne to the king, which all this while remained in Brabant. Ye haue heard how the citie of Cambrie held with the French king: wherefore the K. of England, assembling togither a mightie strong armie aswell of Englishmen as of the low countries of Dutchland, ment to besiege it, but first he sent the archbishop of Canturburie with the bishops of Lincolne and Durham vnto Arras, as commissioners from him to méet there with the archbishop of Rouen, and the bishops of Langres and Beauuais, appointed to come thither as commissioners from the French king, to treat with the Englishmen of a peace, but they could not agrée vpon anie conclusion, wherevpon king Edward, comming forward with his power, approached to Cambrie, and planted his siege round about it. But the bishop not meaning to deliuer the citie vnto king Edward nor vnto anie other that should demand it to the behoofe of the emperour Ludouike of Bauiere, as then excommunicated of the pope, had receiued into the towne fiue thousand Frenchmen, with the French kings eldest sonne, the duke of Normandie latelie returned out of Guien, and the lord Theobald Maruise, with certeine companies of Sauoisins, so that the citie was so defended, that the king of England perceiuing he should but lose time, leuied his siege, and entred into France, pitching his field at a place called Flaminguerie.

Thom. Walsi.
Southamptō burnt.
Two English ships taken.

In the meane time had the French king not onelie made himselfe strong by land, but also by sea, hauing sent foorth a strong nauie of ships and gallies towards the coasts of England, which arriuing at Southampton the mondaie after Michaelmas day, tooke and spoiled the towne, and the morrow after set fire vpon it in fiue places, so that a great part of it was burnt. Also thirtéene sailes of the French fléet met with fiue English ships, and after a sore fight which continued nine houres, tooke two of those fiue being tall and goodlie ships, the one called the Edward, and the other the Christopher; the other thrée being smaller vessels, as two of them barks and the other a caruell escaped by their swiftnesse of sailing. There was slaine in that fight vpon both parts about the number of six hundred men.

The French kings armie.
Iacob Meir.
Townes burnt by the Englishmen in France.
The towne of Guise burnt.
The earle of Heinault.

The French king himselfe hearing that the king of England would inuade his realme, made his generall assemblie of his armie at Peronne; and when he heard that he was entred France, he remooued towards him with his whole power, being at the point of an hundred thousand men, as in the French chronicle yée may read more at large. The king of England had not past thréescore thousand in his armie at the most: but whilest he laie there vpon the borders of France, his people did much hurt, making roads abroad beyond the water of Some, burning and spoiling abbies, towns, and villages, as Orignie, saint Benoit, Ribemont in Thierasse, saint Gouan, Marle, and Cressie. Also the lord Beaumont of Heinault burnt the towne of Guise, though his daughter was as then within the same towne wife vnto Lewes earle of Blois: his brother William earle of Heinault was latelie before deceassed, leauing the earledome to his sonne named also William, who continued with the king of England so long as he laie before Cambrie, & kept him within the bounds of the empire, as though his allegiance had bound him to no lesse, but after the said king was passed the riuer of Lescault, otherwise called the Skell, and in Latine Scaldis, which diuideth the empire from the kingdome of France, he would no longer serue the king of England, but departed from him for feare to offend the French king, accounting that the matter perteined not now to the empire, but to the priuate quarell and businesse of the king of England: notwithstanding his vncle the said sir Iohn like a faithfull gentleman continued still in king Edward his seruice.

The armies approch néere togither.

[Pg 611]

Robert king of Sicill dissuadeth the French king to fight with the king of England.
The armies retire without battell.

The two armies of England and France approched within foure miles togither, so that euerie man thought that there would sure haue béene battell betwixt them, as there had béene in déed, if the French king had béene willing; yet some saie, that he of himselfe was disposed thereto: but his councellors aduised him to the contrarie, by reason of certeine signs and tokens which they misliked, as the starting of an hare amongst them, and such like. Also it was said that Robert king of Naples being then come into France, whose knowledge in astronomie was knowne to be great, dissuaded the French king by his letters, that in no wise he should fight with the king of England, for he had vnderstanding by art of the heauenlie influences and disposition of the bodies aboue, that if the French king fought with this Edward king of England, he should assuredlie be put to the worsse. Whether this was the cause, or anie other, sure it is that the Frenchmen had no mind to fight, so that these two mightie armies departed in sunder without battell, and the king of England returned into Flanders, sorie in déed that he had not with him halfe the number that the French king had, yet in trust of the valiancie of his souldiers, chosen out of the pikedst men through England and all the low countrie on this side the Rhene, he ment verelie to haue incountered his enimies, if they had come forward.

A councell at Brussels.
The motiō of the Flemings to haue the K. of England to take vpon him the title to the crowne of France.

At his comming backe into Brabant, there was a councell called at Brussels, where were present all those lords of the empire which had béene with him in that iournie, as the dukes of Brabant, Gelderland, and Gulike, the marques of Blankbourgh, the earle of Bergen, the lord Beaumont of Heinault otherwise called sir Iohn de Heinault, the lord of Valkenbourgh, and manie others. Thither came also Iaques Arteueld chéefe gouernour of Flanders. Here in councell taken how the king of England might best mainteine the wars which he had begun thus against the French king, he was aduised that he should in anie wise require them of Flanders to aid him and in his quarell to defie the French king, and to go with him against the said French king, and if they would thus doo, then should he promise them to recouer and deliuer into their hands the towns of Lisle, Dowaie, and Bethon. The king of England, according to this aduise to him giuen, made such request to the Flemings, who therevpon desired time to consult togither, what they might doo therein, and finallie they declared for answer, that they would gladlie so doo, but yet whereas they were bound by faith and oth, and in the summe of two millians of florens in the popes chamber, not to make nor mooue any warre against the king of France, whosoeuer he were, on paine to lose that summe, and beside to run in the sentence of cursing, they besought him, that it might stand with his pleasure, to take vpon him the title and armes of France, as the same apperteined to him of right, and then would they obey him as rightfull K. of France, and require of him acquittances in discharge of their bonds, and he to pardon them thereof, as rightfull king of France.

The kings answer to the Flemings.
These towns had béene ingaged to the king of Frāce for monie.
The quartering of the armes of England & France.

The king of England, though he had iust cause to claime the crowne of France, in right of his mother quéene Isabell, yet to take vpon him the name and armes of that realme, before he had made conquest of any part thereof, he thought it stood not with much reason: but yet after he had caused the matter to be throughlie debated amongst them of his councell, as well to satisfie the Flemings, as for other respects, he saw it should be the best waie that might be taken to the aduancement of his purpose. Then he answered the Flemings, that if they would sweare, and seale to this accord, and promise to mainteine his warre, he would be contented to fulfill their desire, and also he promised to get for them againe the townes of Lisle, Dowaie, and Bethune. Herevpon was a day assigned to méet at Gant: the king came thither, and the most part of the said lords, and all the councellors of the good townes & places in Flanders were there assembled, and so all the foresaid matters were rehearsed, sworne, and sealed, and the armes of France were then quartered with those of England, and from thenceforth he tooke vpon him the name of king of France, in all his writings, proclamations, and commandements. This is noted by Christopher Okland, where speaking of the mingling of the French and English armes, he saith amongst other things,

In Angl. prælijs sub Edwardo 3.
---- vt hæres
Legitimus regni Celtarum, insignia gentis
Ille suis immiscet atrox, quòd auunculus orbus
Carolus è vita ad superas migrauerat oras, &c.

[Pg 612]

The issue of Philip le Beau.
Lewes Hutine.
Philip le Long.
Charles le Beau.

¶ Sith then that we be come to this place, it shall not be much amisse to rehearse somewhat of the right and title whereby king Edward did thus claime the crowne of France, hauing of purpose omitted to speak thereof, till now that he intituled himselfe with the name, & tooke vpon him to beare the armes also of France, vpon occasion before expressed. It is well knowne that Philip le Beau king of France had issue by his wife quéene Ione thrée sons, Lewis surnamed Hutine, Philip le Long, and Charles le Beau; also two daughters, the one dieng in hir infancie, and the other named Isabell liued, and was maried vnto Edward the second of that name king of England, who begot of hir this Edward the third, that made this claime. The thrée sonnes of the foresaid Philip le Beau reigned ech after other, as kings of France. First after Philip the father, succéeded his eldest sonne Lewes Hutine, who had issue by his first wife Margaret, daughter to Robert duke of Burgogne, a daughter named Ione, the which was anon giuen in mariage vnto Lewes earle of Eureux: but she liuing not long, died without issue. Hir father the said Lewes Hutine married after the deceasse of his first wife, an other wife named Clemence, daughter to Charles Martell, the father of K. Robert of Sicill, whom he left great with child when he died. The child being borne proued a son, & was named Iohn, but liued not manie daies after. Then Philip the Long was admitted vnto the crowne of France, though manie stood in opinion that Ione the daughter of Lewes Hutine, which yet was aliue, ought to haue inherited the kingdome after hir father: and namelie Odo duke of Burgogne, vncle to the said Ione, was most earnest in that matter, in fauour of his néece. But might ouercame right, so that he was constreined to be quiet. Philip le Long, after he had reigned fiue yeares, died also, and left no issue behind him. Then lastlie Charles le Beau tooke vpon him the kingdome, and the seuenth yeare after died, his wife big bellied, which shortlie after brought foorth a maiden named Blanch, that streightwaies hasting to follow hir father, liued no while in this world. By this means then the bloud roiall in the heires male of Philip le Beau was extinguished in his sonne the foresaid Charles le Beau, whereof the contention tooke beginning about the right to the crowne of France, betwixt the Frenchmen and Englishmen, which hangeth as yet vndecided till these our daies. For king Edward auerred that the kingdome of France apperteined vnto him as lawfull heire, bicause that he alone was remaining of the kings stocke, and touched his mothers father Philip le Beau, in the next degrée of consanguinitie, as he that was borne of his daughter Isabell.

King Edward signifieth his right to the crowne of France.
Ia. Mair.
King Edward tooke vpon him the title & armes of the K. of France.
The Flemings swere fealtie to the king of England.

Therefore immediatlie after the deceasse of the said Charles le Beau, by ambassadours sent vnto the péeres of France, he published to them his right, requiring that they would admit him king according therevnto: but his ambassadours could neuer be quietlie heard, and therefore returned home without anie towardlie answer, which mooued him in the end to attempt the recouerie of his lawfull inheritance by force, sith by law he could not preuaile, and now by aduise of his fréends to take vpon him both the title and armes of France, to signifie to the world what right he had to the same. After that this league therefore was concluded with them of Flanders, and that king Edward had taken vpon him the name of king of France with the armes; the duke of Gelderland and Iaques van Arteueld went vnto all the good townes and iurisdictions of Flanders, to receiue their oths of fidelitie vnto king Edward, persuading with the people, that the supreme rule belonged vnto him, sauing to the townes their ancient lawes and liberties, and to their earle his right of proprietie.

Additions to Nic. Triuet.
Iohn of Gaunt borne.

About the latter end of this thirtéenth yeare of K. Edwards reigne, the mariners and sea-men of the cinque ports, getting them aboord into a number of small ships and balingers, well trimmed and appointed for the purpose, passed ouer to Bullongne, where they tooke land one day in a thicke foggie weather, and setting on the Base towne, they burnt ninetéene gallies, foure great ships, and to the number of twentie smaller vessels, togither with their tackle and furniture. They set fire also on the houses that stood néere to the water side, and namelie they burnt one great house, wherein laie such a number of oares, sailes, armour, and crossebowes, as might haue sufficed to furnish so manie men as could be well aboord in ninetéene gallies. There were manie slaine on both parts in atchiuing this enterprise, but more of the Frenchmen than of the Englishmen. About the same time the quéene of England was deliuered of hir fourth sonne in the towne of Gaunt, the which was named Iohn, first created earle of Richmond, and after duke of Lancaster. He was borne about Christmasse, in the thirtéenth yere of king Edwards reigne.

[Pg 613]

An. Reg. 14.
A parlement.
Hen. Marl.
A subsidie.

When king Edward had finished his businesse with the Flemings at Gaunt, he left his wife quéene Philip there still in that towne, and returned himselfe vnto Antwerpe, and shortlie after about the feast of Candlemasse tooke the sea, and came backe into England, to prouide for monie to mainteine his begun warres. And herevpon about the time of Lent following, he called his high court of parlement at Westminster, in the which he asked of his commons towards his charges, for the recouerie of his right in France, the fift part of their mooueable goods, the customes of wools for two yeares to be paid aforehand, and the ninth sheafe of euerie mans corne. At length it was agréed, that the king should haue for euerie sacke of wooll fortie shillings, for euerie thrée hundred wooll fels fortie shillings, and for euerie last of leather fortie shillings, and for other merchandize after the rate; to begin at the feast of Easter, in this fouretéenth yeare of the kings reigne, and to indure till the feast of Pentecost, then next following, and from that feast till the feast of Pentecost then next insuing into one yeare: for which the king granted, that from the feast of Pentecost, which was then to come into one yeare, he nor his heires should not demand assesse, nor take, nor suffer to be assessed or taken, more custome of a sacke of wooll of any Englishman, but halfe a marke, and vpon the wooll fels and leather the old former custome.

The citie of London lendeth the king monie.

Beside this, the citizens and burgesses of cities and good townes, granted to giue the ninth part of all their goods; and the forren merchants and other not liuing of gaine, nor of bréeding cattell, nor of shéepe, should giue the fiftéenth part of all their goods lawfullie to the value: for the which he granted that as well now in time of warre as of peace, all merchants, denizens and forreiners (those excepted that were of the enimies countries) might without let safelie come into the realme of England with their goods and merchandize, and safelie tarie, and likewise returne, paieng the customs, subsidies, and profits, resonable thereof due, so alwaies that the franchises and frée customs granted by him or his predecessours reasonablie to the citie of London, and other cities, burroughes, and townes, might alwaies to them be saued. Moreouer, there was granted vnto him the ninth sheafe, the ninth fléece, and the ninth lambe, to be taken by two yeares next comming. And for the leuieng thereof, the lords of euerie shire through the land, were appointed to answer him, euerie one for the circuit within the which he dwelled. And bicause the king must néeds occupie much monie yer the receit of this subsidie could come to his hands, he borowed in the meane time manie notable summes of diuerse cities, and particular persons of this land, amongst the which he borrowed of the citie of London 20000 marks, to be paied againe of the monie comming of the foresaid subsidie.

The frontiers of France full of men of warre.
The towne of Asper burnt.
The erle of Heinault defieth the Frēch king.
Townes burnt in Thierasse.

In the meane while, now that king Edward was come backe into England, the warres were hotlie pursued against his fréends, that had their lands néere to the borders of France, and namelie against sir Iohn de Heinault lord Beaumont, for the Frenchmen burned all his lands of Chimaie, except the fortresses, and tooke from thence a great preie. All the frontiers were full of men of warre, lodged within townes in garrison, as at Tournie, Mortaigne, S. Amond, Dowaie, Cambrie, and in other smaller fortresses. These men of warre laie not idle, but were dooing oftentimes in Flanders, and sometime otherwhere, neither was the countrie of Heinault spared, though the earle (as yée haue heard) did not onelie refuse to serue the king of England against France, but also when the same king entred France, he resorted to the French king, and serued him; yet by the suggestion of the bishop of Cambrie, who complained of the Hainuiers, for the damages which they had doone him, the French garrisons of the frontiers thereabouts were commanded to make a road into that countrie, which they did, burning the towne of Asper, and brought from thence a great bootie. The earle of Heinault sore mooued therewith to haue his lands so spoiled and burnt, defied the French king, and ioining with his vncle the lord Beaumont, entred with an armie into Thierasse, tooke & destroied Aubenton, with Mawbert, Fonteine, Daubecuille, and diuerse other.

[Pg 614]

Flanders interdicted.
Ad. Merim.
Adam Merimuth.
Iac. Meir.
The earles of Salisburie & Suffolke taken.
The countrie of Heinault inuaded.

In this meane time the French king procured the pope to pronounce his cursse against the Flemings for their rebellion, and to suspend all diuine seruice that ought to be said in anie hallowed place, so that there were no priests to be found that would take vpon them to saie any diuine seruice: wherevpon the Flemings sent ouer into England certeine messengers to giue notice to king Edward how they were intreated, but he sent them word that he would bring at his comming ouer vnto them, priests that should saie masses and other seruice, whether the pope would or not, for he had priuilege so to doo. ¶ In Aprill, William Melton archbishop of Yorke departed this life, after whome variance rose in the election of a new gouernour to that church, so that two were elected, William la Zouch and William Killesbie: but at length William la Zouch tooke place, being the 43 archbishop that had sit in that seat. ¶ The earles of Salisburie and Suffolke, which were left in Flanders by king Edward to helpe the Flemings, shortlie after Ester, or (as other haue) in the time of Lent, were discomfited by the garrison of Lisle, and taken prisoners as they would haue passed by that towne, to haue ioined with Iaques Arteueld, meaning to besiege Tournie; but now by the taking of those two earles that enterprise was broken. The duke of Normandie with a great armie entred into Heinault, burning and wasting the countrie, euen to the gates of Valenciennes and Quesnoy. And thus were they occupied in those parts, whilest the king of England prepared himselfe with all diligence to returne into Flanders.

A great nauie prepared by the French king.
The king of England taketh the sea.

The French king being aduertised, that the king of England meant shortlie to returne into Flanders with a great power, in purpose to inuade the realme of France on that side, assembled a nauie of foure hundred ships vnder the leading of thrée expert capteins of the warres by sea, as sir Hugh Kiriell, sir Peter Bahuchet, and a Geneweis named Barbe Noir, appointing them to the coasts of Flanders to defend the king of England from landing there, if by any meanes they might. These thrée capteins or admerals came and laie with their ships in the hauen of Sluise, for that it was supposed the king of England would arriue there, as his meaning was indéed, wherevpon when his men, ships, and prouisions were once readie in the moneth of Iune, he tooke the sea with two hundred saile, and directing his course towards Flanders, there came vnto him the lord Robert Morley, with the north nauie of England, so that then he had in all about thrée hundred saile, or (as other saie) two hundred and thrée score.

Ia. Meir.
The king of England setteth vpon his enimies.
Additions to Triuet.
The victorie of the Englishmen at the battell of Sluise.

The French nauie laie betwixt Sluise and Blancbergh, so that when the king of England approched, either part descried other, & therewith prepared them to battell. The king of England staied, till the sunne which at the first was in his face, came somewhat westward, and so had it vpon his backe, that it should not hinder the sight of his people, and so therewith did set vpon his enimies with great manhood, who likewise verie stoutlie incountered him, by reason whereof insued a sore and deadlie fight betwixt them. The nauies on both sides were diuided into thrée battels. On the English part, the earles of Glocester, Northampton and Huntington, who was admerall of the fléet that belonged to the cinque ports, and the lord Robert Morley admerall of the northerne nauie had the guiding of the fore ward, bearing themselues right valiantlie, so that at length the Englishmen hauing the aduantage, not onlie of the sunne, but also of the wind and tide, so fortunatlie, that the French fléet was driuen into the streights of the hauen, in such wise that neither the souldiers nor mariners could helpe themselues, in somuch that both heauen, sea, and wind, séemed all to haue conspired against the Frenchmen. And herewith manie ships of Flanders ioining themselues with the English fléet, in the end the Frenchmen were vanquished, slaine and taken, their ships being also either taken, bowged, or broken.

[Pg 615]

Additions to Triuet & Merimuth.
The Iames of Déepe.
Tho. Walsi.
Adam Merimuth.
Ia. Meir.
R. Southw.
The number slaine.
Rich. South.

When night was come vpon them, there were thirtie French ships, that yet had not entred the battell, the which sought by couert of the night to haue stolne awaie, and one of them being a mightie great vessell, called the Iames of Déepe, would haue taken awaie with hir a ship of Sandwich that belonged to the prior of Canturburie: but by the helpe of the earle of Huntington, after they had fought all the night till the next morning, the Englishmen at length preuailed, and taking that great huge ship of Déepe, found in hir aboue foure hundred dead bodies. To conclude, verie few of the French ships escaped, except some of their smaller vessels, and certeine gallies with their admerall Barbenoir, who in the beginning of the battell got foorth of the hauen, aduising the other capteins to doo the like, thereby to auoid the danger which they wilfullie imbraced. There died in this battell fought (as some write) on midsummer daie, in the yeare aforesaid, of Frenchmen to the number of 30000, of Englishmen about 4000, or (as other haue that liued in those daies) not past 400, amongst whom there were foure knights of great nobilitie, as sir Thomas Monhermere, sir Thomas Latimer, sir Iohn Boteler, and sir Thomas Poinings.

Rich. South.
The king goeth to Gant.

It is said also, that the king himselfe was hurt in the thigh. The two English ships that had béene taken the yéere before, the Edward and the Christopher, were recouered at this time, amongst other of the French ships that were taken there. ¶ Sir Peter Bahuchet was hanged vpon a crosse pole fastened to a mast of one of the ships. Through the wilfulnesse of this man, the Frenchmen receiued this losse (as the French chronicles report) bicause he kept the nauie so long within the hauen, till they were so inclosed by the Englishmen that a great number of the Frenchmen could neuer come to strike stroke, nor to vse the shot of their artillerie, but to the hurt of their fellows. Howsoeuer it was, the Englishmen got a famous victorie, to the great comfort of themselues, and discomfort of their aduersaries. ¶ The king of England, after he had thus vanquished his enimies, remained on the sea by the space of thrée daies, and then comming on land, went to Gant, where he was receiued of the quéene with great ioy and gladnesse.

The riuer of Lestault, or the Scelle.

In this meane while had the duke of Normandie besieged the castell of Thuine Leuesques, néere to Cambrie, which was taken by sir Walter of Mannie, a lord of Heinault, at the first beginning of the warres, and euer since till that time kept to the king of England his vse. The earle of Heinault, who had béene of late both in England with king Edward, and also in Almaine with the emperour, to purchase their assistance for the defense of his countrie against the inuasions of the Frenchmen, was now returned home, and meaning to rescue such as were besieged in Thuine, sent for succours into Flanders, and into Almaine, and in the meane time leuieng such power as he could make with his owne countrie, came therewith to Valenciennes, whither foorthwith resorted vnto him the earle of Namure with two hundred speares, the duke of Brabant with six hundred, the duke of Gelderland, the earle of Bergen, the lord of Valkenburgh, and diuerse other, the which togither with the earle of Heinault went and lodged alongst by the riuer of Lestault ouer against the French host, which kept siege (as ye haue heard) vnder the conduct of the duke of Normandie before Thuine Leuesques, that is situate vpon the same riuer.

The Flemings.
Sir Richard Limosin.
The armies brake vp.

There came also to the aid of the earle of Heinault Iaques Arteueld, with his thrée score thousand Flemings. Now it was thought that they would haue fought yer they had departed in sunder, but they did not. For after it was knowne how the king of England was arriued in Flanders, and had discomfited the French fléet, the duke of Brabant and others thought good to breake vp their enterprise for that time, and to resort vnto the king of England, to vnderstand what his purpose was to doo. Neither were the Frenchmen hastie to giue battell, so that after the capteins of Thuine Leuesques, sir Richard Limosin knight an Englishman, and two esquiers, brethren to the erle of Namure, Iohn and Thierrie, had left their fortresse void, and were come ouer the riuer by boats vnto the earle of Heinaults campe, the armies on both sides brake vp and departed, the Frenchmen into France, and the other to Valenciennes, and from thence the princes and great lords drew to Gaunt, to welcome the king of England into the countrie, of whome they were right ioifullie receiued: and after they had communed togither of their affaires, it was appointed by the king, that they should méet him at Villefort in Brabant at a daie prefixed, where he would be readie to consult with them about his procéedings in his warres against his aduersaries the Frenchmen.

[Pg 616]

The assemblie of the princes at Villeford.
The couenāts betwixt the K. of England & his cōfederats.

At the day appointed, there came to Villefort the dukes of Brabant, and Gelderland, the earle of Heinault, Gulike, Namure, Blackenheim, Bergen, sir Robert Dartois earle of Richmond, the earle of Valkenburgh, and Iaques Arteueld, with the other rulers of Flanders, and manie others. Here it was ordeined, that the countries of Flanders, Brabant, and Heinault, should be so vnited and knit in one corporation, that nothing should be doone amongst them in publike affaires, but by common consent, and if anie warres were mooued against anie of them, then should the other be readie to aid them, against whome anie such warre was mooued: and if vpon anie occasion anie discord rose betwixt them for anie matter, they should make an end of it amongst themselues; and if they could not, then should they stand to the iudgement and arbitrement of the king of England, vnto whome they bound themselues by oth to kéepe this ordinance and agréement.

Tournie furnished with a strong power of men.
Tournie besieged.

The French king being informed that the king of England ment to laie siege vnto Tournie, as it was indéed deuised at this councell holden at Villefort, tooke order for the furnishing thereof with men, munition, and vittels in most defensible wise. There were sent to that towne the best men of warre in all France, as the earle of Ewe constable of France, the yoong earle of Guines his sonne, the earle of Foiz and his brethren, the earle Amerie de Narbon, with manie other, hauing with them foure thousand souldiers. Sir Godmar du Foie was there before as capteine of the towne, so that it was prouided of all things necessarie. Howbeit, the king of England (according as it was appointed at the councell holden at Villefort, about the feast of Marie Magdalen) departed from Gaunt, and came to Tournie, hauing with him seauen earles of his owne countrie, as Darbie, Penbroke, Hereford, Huntingdon, Northampton, Glocester, and Arundell, eight prelats, eight and twentie baronets, two hundred knights, foure thousand men of armes, and nine thousand archers, besides other footmen. He lodged at the gate called saint Martine, in the waie that is toward Lisle and Dowaie.

The great number of people at the siege of Tournie.
Ia. Meir.
The earle of Richmond.

Anon after came the dukes of Brabant and Gelderland, the earle of Gulike, the marquesse of Blanqueburgh, the marquesse of Musse, the earls of Bergen, Sauines, and Heinault: also Iaques Arteueld, who brought with him about fortie thousand Flemings. So that there was at this siege to the number of six score thousand men, as some writers affirme. There was also an other armie of Flemings, as of the townes of Ypres, Popringue, Furnes, Cassell, of the Chateleinie, & of Bergis, being to the number of fortie thousand, appointed to make warre against the Frenchmen that kept saint Omers, and other townes there on the frontiers of Arthois, which armie was led by the earle of Richmond, otherwise called the lord Robert Dartois, and by sir Henrie de Flanders, the which approching one day to saint Omers, were sharplie fought with; for within saint Omers at that time laie a strong power of Frenchmen with the duke of Burgoine, the earle of Arminacke and others.

The Frenchmen set vpon ye Flemings.
The variable fortune of fights.
Additions to Adam Merimuth.

The Flemings were not willing to serue, for neither had they any trust in their capteine the said erle of Richmond, neither would they willinglie haue passed out of their owne confines, but onlie to defend the same from the inuasion of their enimies: yet through much persuasion, forward they went, diuided into sundrie battels contrarie to their manner. The enimies perceiuing some aduantage, issued forth vpon them, and assailed them verie stoutlie, insomuch that the earle of Arminacke setting vpon them of Ypres, ouerthrew them, and chased them vnto a towne called Arques, which they had a little before set on fire and burned. An other companie of Frenchmen, skirmishing with them of Franks, Furnes, and Bergis, put them also to the worse. Contrarilie, those Frenchmen that encountered with the lord Robert Dartois, and them of Bruges whome he led, susteined great losse, and were beaten backe into the citie: the duke of Burgoine himselfe being in no small danger for a time, so sharpe the bickering was betwixt them, and the euent so variable. Wherefore it is notablie and fitlie said in this behalfe, that

Sil. Ital. lib. 6.
---- incerti fallax fiducia Martis.

[Pg 617]

Sir Thomas Vthred.

There be that write, that this fight continued from thrée of the clocke till euentide, and that the earle of Richmond was twise put to flight, for his people did leaue him in the plaine field: but at length by the aduise of sir Thomas Vthred, whome the king of England had appointed to attend the said earle, with manie Englishmen and archers, he assembled his people eftsoones togither againe, and setting on his enimies. Now when it was almost night, néere to the gates of saint Omers, he finallie ouercame them, where were slaine of the French part fiftéene barons and fourescore knights, beside a great number of other people. Diuerse also were slaine on the earle of Richmonds part at this last encounter, and among other an English knight, that bare armes eschecked siluer and gules.

The earle of Richmond in danger to be slaine.

Finallie, as the earle of Richmond returned towards his campe, which laie in the vale of Cassell, he met with certeine Artesines and Frenchmen, which had béene chasing the other Flemings, and though it was late in the euening, that one could not take good view of an other, yet here they fought againe, and so diuerse of the Frenchmen were taken and killed, and amongst other that were caught, was a knight of Burgoine, named sir William de Nillie. But when the earle of Richmond and those that were with him came to the place where the campe laie, they found that all the residue of the Flemings were fled and gone. And when the said earle came to Cassell, the people were readie to haue slaine him, their former malice towards him being now much increased with the euill successe of this passed enterprise, so that he was glad to get him thence, and to repaire vnto king Edward, that laie yet at the siege before Tournie, during which siege manie proper feats of armes were doone betwixt those within and them without: for few daies passed without the atchiuing of some enterprise.

The great armie raised by the French king.

Also the French king, hauing made his assemblie at Arras, and got thither a mightie host, as well out of the empire as of his owne subiects, came and lodged at the bridge of Bouuins, thrée leagues from Tournie. There were with him the king of Bohem, the duke of Lorreine, the bishop of Mentz, the earles of Bar, mount Belliard, & Sauoie, also the dukes of Burgogne and Burbone, with a great number of other earles and lords, so that the greatest puissance of all France was iudged to be there with the king. Whilest he laie incamped thus at Bouuins, and the king of England at Tournie, manie exploits were atchiued betwixt their people, who laie not idle, but still rode abroad and oftentimes met, and then that part which was weakest paied for the others charges, so that manie were slaine & taken on both sides as well of the nobilitie as other. Also diuerse townes were sacked and burned on the frontiers of France, during this siege at Tournie, namelie at the pursuit of the earle of Heinault, as Seclin, S. Amond, Orchies, Landas, and other.

The ladie Iane de Valois treateth for a peace.
A truce accorded.

At length at the suit of the ladie Iane de Valois, sister to the French king, and mother to the earle of Heinault, trauelling still betwixt the parties to bring them vnto some accord, it was granted that either partie should send certeine sufficient persons to intreat of the matter, which should méet at a little chappell, standing in the fields called Esplotin, and hereto also was a truce granted for thrée daies. For the English part were appointed the duke of Brabant, the bishop of Lincolne, the duke of Gelderland, the earle of Gulike, and sir Iohn de Heinault lord Beaumont. For the French part, the king of Bohem, Charles erle of Alanson brother to the French king, the bishop of Liege, the earle of Flanders, and the earle of Arminacke: and the ladie of Valois was still among them as a mediatrix, by whose meanes chéefelie they at length did agrée vpon a truce to indure for a yeare betwéene all parties and their men, and also betwéene them that were in Scotland, in Gascoigne, and Poictou.

[Pg 618]

The Flemings released of debts, and of the interdiction.
Restitution of townes to the king of England.

It was agréed also by these commissioners, that there should other commissioners of either part foure or fiue méet at Arras at a daie appointed, and thither also should the pope send his legats, to treat of a perpetuall peace and full agréement to be made betwixt the two kings of England and France. There was also consideration had of the Flemings, so that they were released of all such summes of monie as they were by any bonds indangered to paie by forfeiture, or otherwise, for any matter before that time vnto the crowne of France. Also they were released of the interdiction and cursse of the church, and then also was their earle restored home. It was further accorded, that the French king should restore vnto the king of England certeine townes and places in Guien, which in the beginning of these warres the earle of Alanson had taken from the Englishmen, as Penne in Agenois, and others. Also whereas the French king had seized the countie of Pontieu into his hands, which was the dower of quéene Isabell, the mother of king Edward, he should also restore the same vnto king Edward, to hold it as he did before.

The siege raised from Tournie.

Herevpon was the siege raised from Tournie, after it had continued there the space of ten wéekes and foure daies. They within stood in great danger for lacke of vittels to haue béene constreined to the surrendring of the towne, if this truce had not béene concluded, which caused the French king the sooner to agrée, in like case as the lacke of monie caused the king of England to take his truce, which otherwise (as was thought) he would not haue doone: so that by the violent constraint of necessitie they were forced thus to doo, against which there is no trieng of maisteries, nor strugling to make it stoope and obeie: for

A necessitate omnia in seruitutem rediguntur.
The earle of Flanders feasteth the K. of England.
Ia. Meir.
The king goeth into Zealand.
Continuation of Triuet.

After he had raised his siege he went to Gant, and thither came also the earle of Flanders being now restored home to his countrie, and made the king of England great cheare, feasting and banketting him right princelie, togither with the quéene. Finallie, after that king Edward had refreshed himselfe a while at Gant, he tooke a verie few with him, and came into Zealand; and there taking the seas to passe ouer into England, he was sore tossed by force of outragious stormes of wind and weather. Yet at length after thrée daies and thrée nights sailing, in the night of the feast of saint Andrew, he came on land at the tower of London about cocke-crowing, and with him the earle of Northampton, the lord Walter de Mannie, the lord Iohn Darcie, the sonne of the lord Iohn Beauchampe, Giles Beauchampe, with two chapleins that were his secretaries, sir William Killesbie, and sir Philip Weston, beside a few others.

Iudges and other officers committed to the tower.

After his arriuall he sent for the bishop of Chichester that was lord chancellor, for the bishop of Couentrie and Lichfield being lord treasuror, and for such of the iudges as were then in London. The lord chancellor and the lord treasuror he streightwaies discharged of their offices, threatening to send them into Flanders, there to remaine as pledges for monie that he there owght, or if they refused to go thither, then to kéepe them prisoners in the towne. But when the bishop of Chichester declared to him the danger of the canon established against such as imprisoned bishops, he suffered them to depart: but the iudges, to wit, Iohn de Stonore, Richard de Willoughbie, William de Shareshull, and also Nicholas or (as other haue) Matthew de la Bech, who was before gardian of his sonne, and lieutenant of the tower: also Iohn de Pultnie, and William de Poole merchants; and the chiefe clerkes of the chancerie, Iohn de saint Paule, Michaell de Wath, Henrie de Stretford, and Robert de Chikewell; and of the escheker, Iohn de Thorpe, and manie other, were committed to diuerse prisons, but yet bicause they were committed but onelie vpon commandement, they were within a while after deliuered.

New officers made in place of other that were discharged.

The lord Wake was also committed but shortlie after, he was deliuered to his great honor, as Walsingham writeth. Robert de Bourchier was made lord chancellor and Richard de Sadington lord treasuror: all the shiriffes of shires, and other officers also were remooued, and other put in their places, and iustices appointed in euerie shire, to inquire vpon the defaults of collectors and other officers, so that few or none escaped vnpunished, howsoeuer they had demeaned themselues, so streictlie those iustices procéeded in their commissions. The king indéed was sore offended with those whom he had put in trust to leuie monie, and to sée it conueied ouer to him into the low countrie, bicause that for want therof in time of néed, he was constreined to take truce with his aduersarie the French king, and leaue off his enterprise, which he was in good for[Pg 619]wardnesse to haue gone through withall, if he had not béene disappointed of treasure which he had commanded to be sent ouer vnto him, which was not doone but kept backe, in whom soeuer the fault rested.

The K. offended with the archb. of Canturburie.
The archbish. writeth to the king.

There were some of his secretaries, namelie, sir William Killesbie, which stirred him to take no small displeasure against the archbishop of Canturburie Iohn Stratford, who therevpon withdrew him into the priorie of Christes church at Canturburie, and there remaining for a season, wrote his mind to the king, exhorting him not to giue too light credit vnto such as should counsell him to haue those in contempt that were faithfull and true to him, for in so dooing, he might happilie loose the loue and good will of his people. Neuertheles, he wished that he should trie out in whose hands the wools and monie remained, which were taken vp to his vse, and that vpon a iust accompts had at their hands, it might appeare who were in fault, that he had not monie brought to him, whilest he laie at siege before Tournie, as he had appointed, and that when the truth was knowne, they that were in fault might be worthilie punished. And as for his owne cause, he signified, that he was readie to be tried by his péeres, sauing alwaies the state of holie church, and of his order, &c. Further, he besought the king, not to thinke euill of him, and of other good men, till the truth might be tried, for otherwise, if iudgement should be pronounced, without admitting the partie to come to his answere, as well the guiltlesse as the guiltie might be condemned.

An. Reg 15.
A letter sent to the deane of Paules.
The archbishop refuseth to come to the court.

The king neuerthelesse still offended towards the archbishop, caused Adam bishop of Winchester to indite a letter against him, directed from the king to the deane and chapiter of Paules, openlie to be published by them: the effect whereof was, to burthen the archbishop with vnthankfulnesse, and forgetting of his bounden duetie towards his souereigne lord and louing maister, namelie, in that where he promised the king to sée him throughlie furnished with monie, towards the maintenance of his warres: when it came to passe, none would be had, which turned not onelie to the hinderance of the kings whole procéedings, but also to his great discredit, and causing him to run greatlie in debt by interest, through borrowing of monie, for the paiment of the wages of his men of warre, when through the archbishops negligence, who had the chéefe rule of the land, the collectors and other officers slacked their duetie, whereby there was no monie sent ouer, according to that was appointed: and wheras now, since his comming ouer, he had sent to the archbishop to come vnto him, that by his information, he might the better learne who they were that neglected their duetie, he disobedientlie refused to come, pretending some feare of bodilie harme, through the malice of some that were about the king. Wherevpon, when Rafe lord Stafford, lord steward of the kings house, was sent with a safe conduct, for him to come in all safetie to the court, he flatlie made answer that he would not come, except in full parlement.

Manie other misdemeanors was the archbishop charged with towards the king in that letter, as maliciouslie slandering the king for vniust oppression of the people, confounding the cleargie, and gréeuing the church with exactions, leuies of monie, tolles and tallages. Therefore, sith he went about to slander the kings roiall authoritie, to defame his seruants, to stirre rebellion among the people; and to withdraw the deuotion and loue of the earles, lords, and great men of the land from the king: his highnesse declared, that he meant to prouide for the integritie & preseruation of his good name (whereof it is said trulie,

Dulcius est ære pretiosum nomen habere)

and to méet with the archbishops malice. And herewith diuerse things were rehersed to the archbishops reproch, which he should doo, procure, and suffer to be doone, by his euill and sinister counsell, whilest he had the rule of the realme in his hands vnder the king: wherein he had shewed himselfe not onelie an acceptor of gifts, but also of persons, in gratifieng diuerse that nothing had deserued sundrie waies foorth, and presuming to doo rashlie manie other things to the detriment of the kings roiall state, and hurt of his regall[Pg 620] dignitie, and to no small damage of the people, abusing the authoritie and office to him committed, so that if he persisted in his obstinate wilfulnesse, and rebellious contumacie, the king by those his letters signified, that he meant to declare it more apparantlie in due time and place, and therefore commanded the said deane and chapiter of Paules, to publish all those things openlie, in places where they thought conuenient, according to their wisedome giuen to them by God, so as he might haue cause to commend therein their carefull diligence. ¶ This letter was dated at Westminster the tenth of Februarie, in the fiftéenth yeare of his reigne ouer England, and second ouer France.

Where the Londoners would not permit the kings iustices to sit within the citie of London, contrarie to their liberties, the king appointed them to sit in the tower; and when they would not make anie answer there, a great tumult was raised by the commons of the citie, so that the iustices being in some perill (as they thought) feigned themselues to sit there till towards Easter. Wherevpon, when the king could not get the names of them that raised the tumult, no otherwise but that they were certeine light persons of the common people, he at length pardoned the offense. After this, those iustices neither sat in the tower, nor elsewhere, of all that yeare.

A parlement.
Adam Merimuth.

In the quindene of Easter, the king held a parlement at London, in the which, the prelats, earls, barons, and commons, presented manie petitions; as to haue the great charter of liberties, and the charter of forrests dulie obserued, and that they which brake the same should be discharged of their offices, if they were the kings officers, and that the high officers of the king should be elected and chosen by their péeres in parlement. The king withstood these petitions a certeine time, yet at length he granted to some of them; but as concerning the election of his officers, he in no wise would consent, but yet he was contented that they should receiue an oth in parlement, to doo iustice to all men in their offices, &c. Vpon which article and others, a statute was made and confirmed with the kings seale.

The emperor woone frō the king of Englands fréendship.
The emperor offereth to be a meane to cōclude a peace.

In the meane while, the French king had with bribes wonne Lewes of Bauaria, that named himselfe emperour, from further fauouring the king of England; in so much that, vnder a colourable pretense of finding himselfe gréeued, for that the king of England had without his knowledge taken truce with the French king, he reuoked the dignitie of being vicar in the empire, from the king of England, but yet signified to him, that where the French king had at his request put the matter in controuersie betwixt him and the king of England into his hands, to make an end thereof, if it so pleased the king of England, that he should treat as an indifferent arbitrator betwixt them, he promised to doo his indeuour, so as he doubted not, but that by his means he should come to a good agréement in his cause, if he would follow his aduise. And to receiue answer hereof, he sent his letters by one Eberhard a chapleine of his, the reader of the friers heremits to S. Augustins order, requesting the king of England to aduertise him by the same messenger, of his whole mind in that behalfe.

The kings answer.

The king for answer, signified againe by his letters to the emperour, that for the zeale which he had to make an accord betwixt him and his aduersarie Philip de Valois, that named himselfe French king, he could not but much commend him, and for his part he had euer wished, that some reasonable agréement might be had betwixt them: but sith his right to the realme of France was cléere and manifest inough, he purposed not to commit it by writing vnto the doubtfull iudgement or arbitrement of anie. And as concerning the agréement which the emperour had made with the French king, bicause (as he alledged) it was lawfull for him so to doo, sith without the emperors knowledge he had taken truce with the same French king, he said, if the circumstances were well considered, that matter could not minister any cause to mooue him to such agréement: for if the emperour remembred, he had giuen to him libertie at all times to treat of peace, without making the emperour priuie thereto (so that without his assent, he concluded not vpon any finall peace) which he protested that he neuer meant to doo, till he might haue his prouident[Pg 621] aduise, counsell, and assent therevnto. And as concerning the reuoking of the vicarship of the empire from him, he tooke it doone out of time; for it was promised, that no such reuocation should be made, till he had obteined the whole realme of France, or at the least, the more part thereof. ¶ These in effect were the points of the kings letters of answer vnto the emperour. Dated at London the thirtenth of Iulie, in the second yeare of his reigne ouer France, and fiftéenth ouer England.

The deceasse of the lord Geffrey de Scrope, & of the bishop of Lincolne. The quéene brought to bed.

This yeare, about Midsummer, or somwhat before, at Gant in Flanders, died the lord Geffrey Scrope the kings iustice, and Henrie bishop of Lincolne, two chéefe councellors to the king. The quéene after hir returne into England, was this yeare brought to bed in the tower of London of a daughter named Blanch, that died yoong, and was buried at Westminster. ¶ In this meane while, during the warres betwixt France and England, the French king in fauour of Dauid king of Scotland, had sent men of warre into Scotland, vnder the conduct of sir Arnold Dandreghen, who was after one of the marshals of France, and the lord of Garrentiers, with other, by whose comfort and helpe, the Scots that tooke part with king Dauid, did indeuor themselues to recouer out of the Englishmens hands, such castels and fortresses as they held within Scotland, as in the Scotish historie ye shall find mentioned, and how about this time, their king the foresaid Dauid returned foorth of France into Scotland by the French kings helpe, who hauing long before concluded a league with him, thought by his friendship to trouble the king of England so at home, that he should not be at great leisure to inuade him in France.

The commissioners that met at Arras.
This truce was prolonged about the feast of the decollation of S. Iohn to indure till Midsummer next following, as the addition to Ad. Merimuth hath.

But now to tell you what chanced of the méeting appointed at Arras. For the cōmissioners that shuld there treat of the peace, when the day assigned of their méeting was come, there arriued for the king of England the bishop of Lincolne, the bishop of Duresme, the earle of Warwike, the erle of Richmond, sir Robert Dartois, sir Iohn of Heinault, otherwise called lord Beaumont, and sir Henrie of Flanders. For the French king, there came the earle of Alanson, the duke of Burbon, the earle of Flanders, the earle of Blois, the archbishop of Sens, the bishop of Beauuois, and the bishop of Auxerre. The pope sent thither two cardinals, Naples and Cleremont; these commissioners were in treatie fiftéene daies, during the which, manie matters were put forth and argued, but none concluded; for the Englishmen demanded largelie, and the Frenchmen would depart with nothing, sauing with the countie of Pontieu, the which was giuen with quéene Isabell in marriage to the king of England. So the treatie brake, the commissioners departed, and nothing doone, but onelie that the truce was prolonged for two yeares further.

The occasion of the wars of Britaine.

Thus were the wars partlie appeased in some part of France, but yet was the truce but slenderlie kept in other parts, by reason of the duke of Britaine. For whereas contention arose betwixt one Charles de Blois, and Iohn earle of Mountfort, about the right to the duchie of Britaine, as in the historie of France maie more plainelie appeare; the earle of Mountfort, thinking that he had wrong offered him at the French kings hands, who fauoured his aduersarie Charles de Blois, alied himselfe with the king of England. And (as some write) after he had woone diuerse cities and townes within Britaine, he came ouer into England, and by doing homage to king Edward, acknowledged to hold it of him, as of the souereigne lord thereof, so that he would promise to defend him and that duchie against his aduersaries: which the king promised him to doo. After this, the French king made such warres against this earle of Mountfort, that he was at length taken prisoner in the towne of Naunts, and committed to safe kéeping within the castell of Loure at Paris. But his wife being a stout woman, and of a manlie courage, stood vp in the quarrell of hir husband, and presented a yoong sonne which she had by him, vnto such capteins and men of warre as serued hir husband, requiring them not to be dismaid with the infortunate chance of hir husbands taking; but rather like men of good stomachs, to stand in defense of his right, sith whatsoeuer happened to him, the same remained in that yoong gentleman his sonne: meaning that although the enimies should deale tyran[Pg 622]nicallie with him, & without regard of his nobleness practise his ouerthrow; yet there was hope in hir son, as increase of yeares should minister strength and courage, both to be reuenged on his fathers enimies, and to ad an inlargement of glorie and renowne to his present honor by practises of his prowesse: which to be singular the séemelie symmetrie or goodlie proportion of his person and his iolie countenance séemed to testifie; for

Hor. lib. car. 4. Ode 4.
Fortes creantur fortibus, & bonis
Est in iuuencis, est in equis patrum
Virtus; nec imbellem feroces
Progenerant aquilæ columbam.
Ia. Meir.

This countesse of Mountfort was sister vnto Lewes earle of Flanders, and named Margaret, and not Claudia (as some write.) She was verie diligent in hir businesse, and spared no trauell to aduance hir cause, so that she wan not onelie the harts of the men of warre, but also of the people of Britaine, the which fauoured hir husband, and lamented the mishap of his taking. She first furnished such cities, townes, castels, and fortresses as hir husband had in possession, with men, munition and vittels, as Renes, Dinaunt, Guerand, Hanibout, and others. This doone, she sent ouer into England, sir Emerie de Clisson, a noble man of Britaine, to require the king of England of succors, with condition, that if it pleased him, hir sonne Iohn should marrie one of his daughters. ¶The king of England glad to haue such an entrie into France, as by Britaine, thought not to refuse the offer, & therevpon granted to aid the countesse: & foorthwith raising a power, sent the same ouer into Britaine, vnder the conduct of the lord Walter of Mannie, and others: the which at length, after they had continued long vpon the sea, by reason of contrarie winds, arriued in Britaine; in which meane time, a great armie of Frenchmen were entred into Britaine, and had besieged the citie of Renes, and finallie woone it by surrender, & were now before the towne of Hanibout, which with streict siege, and sore brusing of the walles, they were néere at point to haue taken, and the countesse of Mountfort within it; if the succours of England had not arriued there, euen at such time as the Frenchmen were in talke with them within, about the surrender. But after that the English fléet was séene to approch, the treatie was soone broken off, for they within had no lust then to talke anie further of the matter.

The english succour ariued in good time.
Charles de Blois.
Lewes de Spaine.
Britaine Britonant.

The lord of Mannie, and the Englishmen arriued at Hanibout thus in time of imminent danger, wherein the countesse, and the other within that towne were presentlie beset, greatlie recomforted the said countesse, as she well shewed by hir chéerefull countenance in receiuing them. Shortlie after their arriuall, a certeine number of the English archers, issuing foorth, beat the Frenchmen from an engine which they had reared against the walles, and set fire vpon the same engine. To conclude, the Frenchmen liked the Englishmen so well, that shortlie after being wearie of their companie, they raised their siege to get themselues further from them: and in an other part of the countrie indeuoured themselues to win townes and castels as they did indéed, hauing their armie diuided into two parts, the lord Charles de Blois gouerning the one part, and a Spaniard called the lord Lewes de Spaine the other (which was the same that thus departed from the siege of Hanibout, after the arriuall of the Englishmen) and then winning the townes of Dinand and Guerand, passed into the countrie of Britaine Britonant, and there not farre from Quinpercorentine, were discomfited by the Englishmen, who followed them thither. Of six thousand Genowaies, Spaniards, and Frenchmen, which the lord Lewes of Spaine had there with him, there escaped but a few awaie. A nephue which he had there with him named Alfonse was slaine, howbeit he himselfe escaped, though not without sore hurts.

[Pg 623]

Edmund of Langley that was after duke of Yorke is borne.
A iusts and tornie at Dunstable.
Hanibout besieged.
An. Reg. 16.
The countes of Richmond commeth ouer into Englād. An armie sent into Britaine.

This yeare, the fift of Iune quéene Philip was deliuered of a sonne at the towne of Langley, the which was named Edward, and surnamed Langley of the place where he was thus borne. Also about the same time was a great iustes kept by king Edward at the towne of Dunstable, with other counterfeited feats of warre, at the request of diuerse yoong lords and gentlemen, whereat both the king and quéene were present, with the more part of the lords and ladies of the land. ¶ The lord Charles de Blois, hauing in the meane time woone Vannes, and other towns, brought his armie backe vnto Hanibout, and eftsoones besieged the same, and the countesse of Mountfort within it. But for so much as it was well fortified, and prouided of all things necessarie to defend a siege, the Englishmen being returned thither againe after the ouerthrow of the lord Lewes de Spaine, it could not be easilie woone. At length, by the labour of certeine lords of Britaine, a truce was taken for a time, during the which, the countesse of Richmond came ouer into England, to commune with king Edward, touching the affaires of Britaine, who appointed sir Robert Dartois earle of Richmond, the earles of Salisburie, Penbroke, and Suffolke, the lords Stafford, Spenser, and Bourchier, with others, to go with hir ouer into Britaine, who made their prouision, so that they might take the sea, to come thither against the time that the truce betwixt the countesse and the lord Charles de Blois should be expired.

Additions to Adam Merimuth and Nic. Triuet.
The earle of Northampton and Deuonshire.
Genowaies reteined in the French kings wages.

There be that write, how the lord Walter de Mannie, tooke a truce indéed with the lord Charles de Blois, to indure till Alhallontide next insuing, but with condition, that if the king of England were contented therewith, then the same to be firme and fullie ratified, otherwise not. Whervpon, when about the beginning of Iulie, the said lord Walter came ouer into England, bringing with him the lord of Lions, and other such prisoners as he had taken, and signified to king Edward what he had concluded touching the truce, the king liked not thereof, and so sent ouer the earles of Northampton and Deuonshire, the lord Stafford, and sir William de Killesbie his chapleine, and one of his secretaries, with fiue hundred men of armes, and a thousand archers, which taking ship, on the vigill of th'Assumption of our ladie, sailed foorth towards Britaine. The Frenchmen therfore vnderstanding that this succour was comming, appointed the lord Lewes of Spaine, sir Charles Grimaldo, and sir Antonie Doria, with thrée thousand Genowaies, and a thousand men of armes, imbarked in two and thirtie great ships, to lie on the sea in wait to incounter with the English fléet, as the same should approch towards Britaine.

The English men and Genowaies méet and fight on the Seas.
Vannes won.

About Easter, the countesse of Mountford with the English armie, appointed to attend hir, tooke the sea at Southampton, and at length met with the lord Lewes of Spaine, and his fléet, where betwixt them was fought a sore battell. Of the Englishmen there were six and fortie vessels, but the lord Lewes of Spaine had nine great ships, and of more force than anie of those which the Englishmen had, and also he had thrée gallies. They began to fight about euensong time, and continued till that night parted them, and had gone togither againe in the morning, if by a tempest, that rose about midnight, the same night, they had not béene scattered in sunder. The Spaniards and Genowaies tooke awaie with them foure English ships, which being vittellers, were left behind. And bicause the same Spaniards and Genowaies were able to abide the sea better than the Englishmen, by reason of their great ships, they kept the maine sea; but the Englishmen were aduised by their mariners to drawe vnto the land, and so they did, arriuing at a little hauen, not farre from Vannes, where comming on land, they streightwaie made towards that citie, and besieged it, not ceassing to assault it both day and night, till at length they wan it, by giuing the assault in two places at once, whilest an other number of them set vpon it in a third place, where was no suspicion, and so entred.

After this, the most part of the Englishmen departed from Vannes, as some with the countesse, to bring hir vnto Hanibout, and some with the earls of Salisburie, Suffolke, and Cornewall, who went and laid siege to Rennes, so that the earle of Richmond remained in Vannes, with the lords Spenser and Stafford, to kéepe it, hauing a certeine number of archers and other men of warre with them. The lord Clisson, and sir Henrie de Leon, which were within Vannes, when it was taken by the Englishmen, and found means to escape, were abashed at the matter, that they had so lost the citie, wherevpon they secret[Pg 624]lie assembled a great power of men thereabouts, and came againe vnto Vannes, and so fiercelie assailed the gates and wals, that in the end they entred by more force. The earle of Richmond was sore hurt, but yet he escaped out at a posterne gate, and the lord Stafford with him, but the lord Spenser was taken by sir Henrie de Leon.

Additions to Nic. Triuet.

Other write otherwise, both of the landing, and also concerning the misfortune of the lord Spenser, alledging letters sent from the earle of Northampton (whome the same authors repute as generall of that armie into Britaine) directed to the king, in which was signified, how that within the octaues of the Assumption of our ladie, they ariued on the coast of Britaine, néere to the towne and castell of Brest, in the which the dutchesse of Britaine with hir children were of the enimies besieged, both by sea and land, by sea with thirtéene great gallies, by land by the lord Charles de Blois, the earls of Sauoie and Foiz. But the gallies perceiuing the English fléet to be approched vpon them, yer they were aware, so that they were compassed in, to their great danger, thrée of the same gallies fled, and so escaped, the residue got vp into a riuer of the same hauen, where they that were aboord, left their vessels and fled to the land, and as well they, as the other that held siege before Brest and such as kept a castell there, not farre off, called Goule forrest, packed awaie without anie more adoo. The English mariners following the gallies (that were withdrawn vp the riuer) with their small boats and barges, set fire on the gallies, and so burnt them.

Thus all the Englishmen came on land, and leauing the lord Saie capteine in the said castell of Goule forrest, they passed forward into the countrie, and comming to a castell commonlie called Monsieur Relix, gaue an assault thereto, where manie of their men of warre were wounded, and sir Iames Louell slaine. After this, staieng a time for the comming of their confederats, which after a fortnights space came to them on the mondaie, being the morrow after Michaelmas daie, they heard that the lords Charles de Blois was comming in all hast with a power of thrée thousand men of armes, twelue hundred Genowaies, & a great multitude of commons to raise the siege. Whervpon the earle of Northampton with his armie marched softlie towards them, and choosing a plot of ground conuenient for his purpose, fought with his enimies, slue and tooke of them at the least thrée hundred men of armes. The earle of Northampton lost not any noble man in this fight, the lord Edward Spenser onelie excepted.

The king passeth ouer into Britaine.
Vannes besieged.
Additions to Triuet.
An armie of Frenchmen discomfited by a few Englishmen.

But now as touching the earle of Richmont, Froissard saith, that he comming to Hanibout, after he had thus lost Vannes, tooke the sea, and sailed into England: but by reason of being tossed on the seas, his wounds rankled so, that shortlie after his comming to London he died, & was buried in the church of S. Paule. The king of England was sore displeased with his death, and immediatlie after passed ouer himselfe into Britaine with a great armie: and landing there the nine and twentith of Nouember, at the same place where the earle of Richmond did land at his arriuall there, not farre from Vannes, he went straight and besieged Vannes, but perceiuing that it would not be woone but by long siege, he left the earle of Arundell, and the lord Stafford to continue the siege, whilest he went to Rennes to aid his people, which still laie at the siege thereof. Before the kings arriuall in Britaine, those that were there vnder the earle of Northampton, as the lord Hugh Spenser, and the lord Richard Talbot, with their retinues, fought with the Frenchmen néere to Morleis, where a few Englishmen, scarse fiue hundred, discomfited a mightie power of Frenchmen, estéemed to be aboue fiftie thousand, of whome some they slue, and some they tooke. Among other was taken the lord Geffrey de Charnie, accompted for one of the best and sagest knights in France, whome the lord Richard Talbot tooke and sent into England.

[Pg 625]

Naunts besieged.

But now as touching the kings dooings, we find, that whilest he remained for this winter season in Britaine, his people forraied the countrie foure daies iournie in length and two daies iournie in bredth. After his comming to Rennes, he staied not past fiue daies, but leauing them whome he found there to continue the siege, he went himselfe to Naunts, where he had knowledge, that the lord Charles de Blois was. At his comming thither, he inuironed the citie about with a strong siege, & made manie fierce assaults to the walles and gates, but could not preuaile, then leauing certeine of his lords there to continue the siege, he raised with the residue, and went to Dinan, which towne with sore and fierce assaults he lastlie woone, and after that drew againe towards Vannes, for that he was informed, how the duke of Normandie was comming downe towards him, with an armie of fortie thousand men. Herevpon he sent for them that laie at siege before Naunts to come vnto him, and suffered them at Rennes to kéepe their siege still, till they heard other word from him.

The duke of Normandie commeth downe into Britaine.

The duke of Normandie with foure thousand men of armes, and thirtie thousand other men of warre, comming into Britaine to aid the lord Charles of Blois, was aduertised, that the king of England was with the most part of all his power withdrawen to Vannes, and there laie at siege, sore constreining them within: wherefore he also drew thitherwards, and approching to the place, incamped with his armie ouer against the king of England, inclosing his field with a great trench. The king of England supposing he should haue battell, sent vnto those which laie at siege before Rennes, commanding them to come from thence vnto him: so that by this meanes all the powers, both of the king of England, and of the duke of Normandie, generall to his father the French king in those warres of Britaine, being assembled before Vannes, had fought some great and bloudie battell, as was supposed, for the whole triall of the right of Britaine, if the cardinals of Cleremont and Prenesti, as legats from pope Clement the sixt, had not taken vp the matter, by concluding a truce betwixt them, for the tearme of thrée yeares.

Additions to Triuet.
Commissioners for the king of England.
Commissioners for the French king.
A truce for thrée yeares.

Commissioners appointed to treat with these cardinals, on the behalfe of the king of England were these, Henrie of Lancaster earle of Derbie, William Bohun earle of Northampton, William Montacute earle of Salisburie, Rafe lord Stafford, Bartholomew lord Burghese, Nicholas lord Cantelow, Reginald lord Cobham, Walter lord of Mannie, Maurice lord Berkeley, and maister Iohn Vfford archdeacon of Elie. For the French king, Odo duke of Burgogne, and Piers duke of Burbon were deputed commissioners. Such diligence was vsed by the parties, that finallie they agréed vpon this truce of thrée yeares, with certeine articles for meane to conclude some finall peace, as that there should be sent from either king some personages of their bloud and others, vnto the court of Rome, with sufficient authoritie, to agrée, confirme, and establish vpon all controuersies and dissentions betwixt the said kings, according to the agréement of the pope, and such as should be so sent to treat thereof.

The conditions of the truce.

It was further agréed, that they should haue libertie to declare and pronounce their arguments and reasons before the pope, but not to haue power to decide and giue sentence, but onlie by waie of some better treatie and order of agréement to be made. And these commissioners were appointed to appeare before the pope, afore the feast of saint Iohn Baptist next insuing, and the pope to dispatch the businesse before Christmasse after, if by consent of the said nobles, the terme were not proroged. And if it so were that the pope could make no agréement, yet should the truce indure the prefixed terme, to wit, till the feast of S. Michaell the archangell, and for the space of thrée yeares then next insuing, betwixt the kings of France, England and Scotland, the earle of Heinault and their alies, as the dukes of Brabant, and of Gelderland, also the marques of Gullikerland, the lord Beaumont, otherwise called sir Iohn de Heinault, and the people of Flanders, in all their lands and dominions, from the date of the charter made hereof, by all the said terme aforesaid, to be obserued, holden and kept. Also, the king of Scots, and the earle of Heinault were appointed to send certeine persons, as commissioners for them, vnto the said court of Rome.

This truce was also accorded to be kept in Britaine, betwixt the said kings and their adherents, in which countrie, as well as in Guien, and other places, euerie man should remaine in possession of that which he held at the time of concluding this truce, saue that[Pg 626] the citie of Vannes should be deliuered into the hands of the cardinall, to be kept by them in the popes name, during the truce, and then to dispose thereof, as should séeme to them good. Manie other articles were comprised in the charter of this truce, too long héere to rehearse, all the which were confirmed with the oths of the said dukes of Burgoigne and Burbone, on the French kings behalfe; and of the earles of Derbie, Northampton and Salisburie, the lord Burghersts, and the lord of Mannie, for the king of England. In witnesse whereof, the said cardinals caused the charter to be made, putting therevnto their seales, the ninetéenth daie of Ianuarie, in the yeare 1343 in presence of diuerse prelats, and of the earles of Bullongne, Ausserre, Sancerre, Iuignie, and Porcien, the lord Miles de Nohers, the lord Ingram de Coucie, and the foresaid lords, Cantelowe, Cobham, and Berkeley, with manie other lords, barons, nobles, and gentlemen.

An. Reg. 17.
The King of England returneth by sea forth of Britaine.
A parlement. The kings eldest sonne created prince of Wales.

When this truce was thus confirmed, manie of the English armie returned home through France, so to passe ouer by the narrow seas into England, but the king himselfe, with a few other, taking their ships to passe by long seas, were maruellouslie tormented by tempest, so that their ships were scattered and driuen to take land at diuerse hauens. The dutchesse of Britaine with hir sonne and daughter, came on land in Deuonshire. Sir Péers de Véele, and his sonne sir Henrie Véele, and sir Iohn Raine knights, were drowned, togither with the ship in which they passed. The king escaping verie hardlie, landed at Weimouth, and on the fift day of March came to London to the quéene. In the quindene of Easter, he held a parlement at Westminster, in which he created his eldest sonne Edward prince of Wales. In this parlement were diuerse matters talked of, and speciallie concerning wools, and of the assessement of a certeine price of them, more and lesse, according to the seuerall parts of the realme, and of the customes to be made of them, to wit, thrée marks and an halfe, for euerie sacke to be transported foorth of the realme.

Ambassadors appointed to go to the pope.

Also in the same parlement were ambassadors appointed foorth, such as should go to the pope to treat of peace (as in the charter of the truce among other articles it was conteined) whose names follow, Iohn bishop of Excester, Henrie de Lancaster earle of Derbie, Hugh le Dispenser lord of Glamorgan, cousins to the king; Rafe lord Stafford, William de Norwich deane of Lincolne, William Trussell knight, and master Andrew de Vfford a ciuillian. These persons were sent with commission to the pope, to treat with him, not as pope, nor as iudge, but as a priuat person, and a common fréend to both parts, to be a meane or mediator, to find out some indifferent end of all controuersie betwixt the parties. The date of their commission was at Westminster, the foure and twentith of Maie, in this seauentéenth yeare of the kings reigne.

Moreouer, in this parlement a gréeuous complaint was exhibited, by the earles, barons, knights, burgesses, and other of the commons, for that strangers, by vertue of reseruations and prouisions apostolike, got the best benefices of this land into their hands, and neuer came at them, nor bare any charges due for the same, but diminishing the treasure of the realme, and conueieng it foorth, sore indamaged the whole state. The bishops durst not, or would not giue their consents in exhibiting this complaint, but rather séemed to stand against it, till the king compelled them to giue ouer.

Herevpon, a letter was framed by the lords of the temporaltie and commons, which they directed vnto the pope in all humble manner, beséeching him to consider of the derogation doone to the realme of England, by such reseruations, prouisions, and collations of benefices, as had béen practised here in England. And therefore sith the churches of England had béene founded and endowed by noble and worthie men in times past, to the end the people might be instructed by such as were of their owne language, and that he being so farre off, and not vnderstanding the default, had (like as some of his predecessors more than in times past had béene accustomed) granted by diuerse reseruations, prouisions, and collations, the churches and spirituall promotions of this land vnto diuerse persons, some strangers, yea, and enimies to the realme, whereby the monie and profits were carried foorth, the cures not prouided for, almes withdrawne, hospitalitie decaied,[Pg 627] the temples and other buildings belonging to the churches ruinated and fallen downe, the charitie and deuotion of the people sore diminished, and diuerse other gréeuous enormities thereby growne cleane contrarie to the founders minds: wherefore, vpon due consideration thereof had, they signified to him, that they could not suffer such enormities any longer, & therefore besought him wholie to reuoke such reseruations, prouisions, collations, to auoid such slanders, mischéefes, and harmes as might insue, and that the cures might therewith be committed to persons méet for the exercise of the same: further also, beséeching him without delaie, to signifie his intention, sith they meant to imploie their diligence to remedie the matter, and to sée that redresse might be had according to reason. The date of these letters was in full parlement at Westminster, the eight and twentith of Maie, in the yeare of Grace 1343.

Sir Iohn Shordich sent to the pope.

Beside these letters, were other written, and sent from the king, conteining in summe, the tenor of the other aboue mentioned, and one sir Iohn Shordich, knight a graue personage and well séene in the law, was appointed to go with the same, who comming to Auignion, and there presenting his letters in the popes priuie chamber, where the pope sat, with all his cardinals about him, receiued no great courteous welcome, after his letters were once read. And whie? Euen bicause the cōtents of the same misliked his mind, tending to the impairing of his vsurped profits & cōmodities from time to time in this land,

Ambitiosus enim sibi totum vendicat orbem,
Seq; (scelus) Christo clamitat esse parem.
The Popes words to Sir Iohn Shordich.
Of benefices inhibited by the king.

Now when the knight made answer to such words as he heard the pope vtter, and charged him with giuing the deanrie of Yorke vnto one that was reputed the kings enimie, the pope said; "Well, it is not vnknowne to vs who made and indited these letters, and we know that thou madest them not, but there is one that pincheth at vs, and we shall punish him well inough: we know all." Herevnto he added thus much more, that "there was a knight that spake defamous words of him, and the church of Rome, wherewith he séemed highlie offended." To conclude, he said, "that he would answer the letters of the king and commons, as touching the points conteined in the same." The cardinals, after they had heard these things, departed as if they had béene sore offended and troubled therewith: and the knight taking his leaue of the pope, departed also foorth of the chamber, and without anie longer abode, got him awaie toward Burdeaux, about other of the kings businesse, doubting least if he had staied longer, he might haue béene kept there against his will. The pope sent answer indéed, but neuerthelesse, the king procéeded in prohibiting such prouisions, and collations within his realme, on paine of imprisonment and death to the intrudors thereby, as after ye shall perceiue.

Iusts in Smithfield.

[Pg 628]

An. Reg. 18.
Th. Walsing.
A chamber built within the castell of Windsore, called the round table.
I. Stow out of Henrie de Leicester. The Ile of Man.

This yeare about Midsummer, there were solemne iusts proclaimed by the lord Robet Morley, which were holden in Smithféeld, where for challengers came foorth one apparelled like to the pope, bringing with him twelue other in garments like to cardinals, which tooke vpon them to answer all commers, for thrée courses. On the defendants side, ran the prince of Wales, with manie earls, barons, knights and esquires innumerable, so that those iusts continued thrée daies togither, to the great pleasure of the beholders. ¶ This yeare, king Edward ordeined a certeine new coine of gold, which he named the floren, that is, the penie of six shillings eight pence, the halfe penie of the value of thrée shillings foure pence, and the farthing of the value of twentie pence. This coine was ordeined for his wars in France, the gold whereof was not so fine as the noble, which in the fourtéenth yeare of his reigne he had caused for to be coined. This yeare, the king caused a great number of artificers and labourers to be taken vp, whome he set in hand to build a chamber in the castell of Windsore, which was called the round table, the floore whereof, from the center or middle point, vnto the compasse throughout, the one halfe was (as Walsingham writeth) an hundred foot, and so the diameter or compasse round about, was two hundred foot. The expenses of this worke amounted by the wéeke, first vnto an hundred pounds, but afterward by reason of the wars that followed, the charges was diminished vnto two and twentie pounds the wéeke (as Thomas Walsingham writeth in his larger booke, intituled, the historie of England) or (as some copies haue) vnto 9 pounds. This yéere also, W. Montacute earle of Salisburie conquered the Ile of Man, out of the hands of the Scots, which Ile the king gaue vnto the said earle, and caused him to be intituled, and crowned king of Man. ¶ This Ile (as Robert Southwell noteth) was woone by the Scots, about the second yeare of Edward the second his reigne, who in the yeare before, to wit, anno Christi 1307, had giuen the same Ile vnto Péers de Gaueston, whom he had also made earle of Cornewall.

Iusts & tornies holden at Windsore.
The order of the garter founded.

Moreouer, about the beginning of this eightéenth yeare of his reigne, king Edward held a solemne feast at his castell of Windsore, where betwixt Candlemasse and Lent, were atchiued manie martiall feasts, and iusts, tornaments, and diuerse other the like warlike pastimes, at the which were present manie strangers of other lands, and in the end thereof, he deuised the order of the garter, and after established it, as it is at this daie. There are six and twentie companions or confrers of this felowship of that order, being called knights of the blew garter, & as one dieth or is depriued, an other is admitted into his place. The K. of England is euer chéefe of this order. They weare a blew robe or mantell, & a garter about their left leg, richlie wrought with gold and pretious stones, hauing this inscription in French vpon it, Honi soit qui mal y pense, Shame come to him that euill thinketh. This order is dedicated to S. George, as chéefe patrone of men of warre, and therefore euerie yeare doo the knights of this order kéepe solemne his feast, with manie noble ceremonies at the castell of Windsore, where king Edward founded a colledge of canons, or rather augmenting the same, ordeined therein a deane with twelue canons secular, eight peticanons, and thirtéene vicars, thirtéene clearks, and thirtéene choristers.

The knights haue certeine lawes and rules apperteining to their order, amongst the which this is chéeflie to be obserued (as Polydor also noteth) that they shall aid and defend one another, and neuer turne their backes or runne awaie out of the field in time of battell, where he is present with his souereigne lord, his lieutenant or deputie, or other capteine, hauing the kings power roiall and authoritie, and whereas his banners, standards, or pennons are spred. The residue of the lawes and rules apperteining vnto this noble order, I doo here purposelie omit, for that the same in [1] an other place more conuenient is expressed, so far as may be thought expedient. But now touching these six and twentie noble men & knights, which were first chosen and admitted into the same order, by the first founder thereof, this king Edward the third, their names are as followeth.

[1] Looke in the description of Britaine.

In Angl. prælijs sub Edwardo 3.

First the said noble prince king Edward the third, the prince of Wales duke of Cornewall and earle of Chester his eldest sonne, Henrie duke of Lancaster, the earle of Warwike, the capitall de Beuch aliàs Buz or Beufe, Rafe earle of Stafford, William Montacute earle of Salisburie, Roger lord Mortimer, Iohn lord Lisle, Bartholomew lord Burwasch or Berghesech, the lord Iohn Beauchampe, the lord de Mahun, Hugh lord Courtnie, Thomas lord Holand, Iohn lord Graie, Richard lord Fitz Simon, sir Miles Stapleton, sir Thomas Walle, sir Hugh Wrottesley, sir Néele Loring, sir Iohn Chandos, Iames lord Audelie, sir Otes Holand, sir Henrie Eme, sir Sanchet Dabrichcourt, sir Walter Panell. ¶ Christopher Okland speaking of the first institution of this honorable order, dooth saie, that after foure daies were expired in the said exercises of chiualrie, the king besides the rich garter which he bestowed vpon them that tried maisteries, did also giue them a pretious collar of S S. but whether this collar had his first institution then with the garter he saith nothing, belike it was an ornament of greater antiquitie. Oklands words are these as followeth;

---- —— concertatoribus ampla
Præmia dat princeps, baccatas induit illis
Crura periscelides, quas vnio mistus Eous
[Pg 629] Commendat, flammis interlucente pyropo.
Præterea ex auro puro, quòd odorifer Indus
Miserat, inserta donabat iaspide gemma,
Si formam spectes duplicato ex sygmate torques.
The occasion that mooued K. Edward to institute the order of the garter.

¶ The cause and first originall of instituting this order is vncerteine. But there goeth a tale amongst the people, that it rose by this means. It chanced that K. Edward finding either the garter of the quéene, or of some[2] ladie with whom he was in loue, being fallen from hir leg, stooped downe and tooke it vp, whereat diuerse of his nobles found matter to iest, and to talke their fansies merilie, touching the kings affection towards the woman, vnto whome he said, that if he liued, it should come so passe, that most high honor should be giuen vnto them for the garters sake: and there vpon shortlie after, he deuised and ordeined this order of the garter, with such a posie, wherby he signified, that his nobles iudged otherwise of him than the truth was. Though some may thinke, that so noble an order had but a meane beginning, if this tale be true, yet manie honorable degrées of estates haue had their beginnings of more base and meane things, than of loue, which being orderlie vsed, is most noble and commendable, sith nobilitie it selfe is couered vnder loue, as the poet Ouid aptlie saith,

[2] The countes of Salisburie.

An. Reg. 19.
Nobilitas sub amore iacet.
Additions to Adam Merimuth, and Triuet.

William de Montacute earle of Salisburie king of Man, and marshall of England, was so brused at the iusts holden here at Windsore (as before ye haue heard) that he departed this life, the more was the pitie, within eight daies after. ¶ The king about the same time, to wit, in the quindene of Candlemasse, held a councell at London, in the which with good aduise and sound deliberation had vpon the complaint of the commons to him before time made, he gaue out streict commandement, that no man on paine of imprisonment and death, should in time to come, present or induct anie such person or persons, that were so by the pope promoted, without the kings agréement, in preiudice of his roiall prerogatiue. Héerevpon, he directed also writs to all archbishops, bishops, abbats, priors, deanes, archdeacons, officials and other ecclesiasticall persons, to whome it apperteined, inhibiting them in no wise to attempt anie thing in preiudice of that ordinance, vnder pretext of anie bulles, or other writings, for such manner of prouisions to come from the court of Rome. Other writs were also directed to his sonne the prince of Wales, and to all the shiriffes within the realme, for to arrest all such as brought into the land any such buls or writings, and to bring them before the kings councell or his iustices, where they might be punished according to the trespasse by them committed.

Coine changed.

About the same time, the king ordeined a certeine coine of fine gold, and named it the floren, which coine was deuised for his warres in France, for the gold thereof was not so fine as was the noble, which in the fourtéenth yeare he had caused to be coined: but this coine continued not long. ¶ After the feast of the holie Trinitie, the king held a parlement at London, in the which he asked a tenth of the cleargie, and a fiftéenth of the laitie, about which demand there was no small altercation, but at length he had it granted for one yeare. ¶ At the same time, the archbishop of Canturburie held a conuocation of all the cleargie at London, in the which manie things were in talke about the honest demeanor of churchmen, which sildome is obserued, as the addition to Nicholas Triuet saith. About the feast of the Assumption of our ladie, the king disanulled the florens, to the great commoditie of his kingdome, ordeining a greater floren of halfe a marke, and a lesser of thrée shillings foure pence, and the least of all of twentie pence, and these were called nobles, and not without cause, for they were a noble coine, of faire & fine gold.

This yeare, on the seauentéenth daie of Nouember, the pope in Auinion created the lord Lewes de Spaine, ambassador for the French king, prince of the Iles called Fortunatæ, for what purpose it was not knowne, but it was doubted, not to be for anie good meaning towards the kingdome of England, the prosperitie whereof, the same pope was suspected [Pg 630]not greatlie to wish. ¶ About the beginning of Lent the same yeare, the said pope had sent an archbishop and a bishop, ambassadors to the king, who met them at Ospring in Kent, and to the end they should not linger long within the realme, he quicklie dispatched them without effect of their message. ¶ This yeare, shortlie after Easter, the duke of Britaine, that had béene deteined prisoner by the French king, and escaped out of prison, came ouer into England. ¶ And about the same time, the king ordeined the exchange of monies at London, Canturburie, and Yorke, to the great commoditie of his people.

Ad. Merimuth.
Fiue hundred men of armes and two thousand archers saith Froissard.
Bergerat woone.

About Midsummer, or (as other haue) Michaelmas, the earle of Derbie, with the earle of Penbroke, the lord Rafe Stafford, the lord Walter de Mannie, the lord Iohn Graie of Codnore, and diuerse other lords, knights, and esquires, to the number of fiue or six hundred men of armes, and as manie archers, sailed ouer into Gascoine, to assist the kings subiects there against the Frenchmen. This earle of Derbie, being generall of the armie, after his arriuall in Gascoine, about the beginning of December, wan the towne of Bergerat by force, hauing put to flight the earle of Lisle, as then the French kings lieutenant in Gascoine, who laie there with a great power, to defend the passage: but being driuen into the towne, and hauing lost the suburbes to the Englishmen, he fled out in the night, and so left the towne, without anie souldiers to defend it, so that the townesmen yéelded it vnto the earle of Derbie, and sware themselues to be true liege men vnto the king of England. After this, the earle of Derbie passed further into the countrie, and wan diuerse castels and towns, as Lango, le Lake, Moundurant, Monguise, Punach, Laliew, Forsath, Pondair, Beaumont in Laillois, Bounall, Auberoch and Liborne, part of them by assault, and the residue by surrender. This doone, he returned to Burdeaux, hauing left capteins and souldiers in such places as he had woone.

This yeare, the king sent foorth a commission vnto certeine persons in euerie countie within the realme, to inquire what lands and tenements euerie man, aboue fiue pounds of yéerelie reuenues, being of the laie fée, might dispend; bicause he had giuen order, that euerie man which might dispend fiue pounds and aboue, vnto ten pounds of such yéerelie reuenues in land of the laie fée, should furnish himselfe, or find an archer on horssebacke, furnished with armour and weapon accordinglie. He that might dispend ten pounds, should furnish himselfe, or find a demilance or light horsseman (if I shall so terme him) being then called a hobler with a lance. And he that might dispend fiue and twentie pounds, should furnish himselfe or find a man at armes. And he that might dispend fiftie pounds, should furnish two men at arms. And he that might dispend an hundred pounds should find thrée men at armes, that is, himselfe, or one in his stéed, with two other. And such as might dispend aboue an hundred pounds, were appointed to find more in number of men at armes, accordinglie as they should be assessed, after the rate of their lands, which they might yearelie dispend, being of the laie fée, and not belonging to the church.

Additions to Nic. Triuet.
The duke of Britaine departed this life.
The lord Beaumont of Heinault forsaketh the K. of England his seruice.

About this season, the duke of Britaine, hauing with him the earles of Northampton and Oxenford, sir William de Killesbie one of the kings secretaries, and manie other barons and knights, with a great number of men of armes, passed ouer into Britaine, against the lord Charles de Blois, where they tarried a long time, and did little good to make anie accompt of, by reason that the duke, in whose quarrell they came into those parts, shortlie after his arriuall there, departed this life, and so they returned home into England. But after their comming from thence, sir Thomas Dagworth knight, that had béene before, and now after the departure of those lords and nobles, still remained the kings lieutenant there, so behaued himselfe against both Frenchmen and Britains, that the memorie of his worthie dooings deserueth perpetuall commendation. Sir Iohn de Heinault lord Beaumont, about the same time, changed his cote, and leauing the king of Englands seruice, was reteined by the French king.

[Pg 631]

The king goeth ouer into Flanders.
Ia. Mair.

In this ninetéenth yeare of king Edward I find, that about the feast of the Natiuitie of saint Iohn Baptist, he sailed ouer into Flanders, leauing his sonne the lord Lionell, warden of the realme in his absence. He tooke with him a great number of lords, knights, and gentlemen, with whome he landed at Sluse. The cause of his going ouer was, to further a practise which he had in hand with them of Flanders, the which by the labour of Iaques Arteueld, meant to cause their earle Lewes, either to doo homage vnto king Edward; or else if he refused, then to disherit him, and to receiue Edward prince of Wales for their lord, the eldest sonne of king Edward.

A councell holden in the king of Englands ship.

King Edward promising to make a dukedome of the countie of Flanders, for an augmentation of honour to the countrie, there came vnto Sluse to the king, Iaques van Arteueld, and a great number of other, appointed as councellors for their chéefest townes. The king with all his nauie lay in the hauen of Sluse, where, in his great ship called the Catharine, a councell was holden vpon this foresaid purpose: but at length, those of the councellors of the chéefest townes misliked the matter so much, that they would conclude nothing, but required respit for a moneth, to consult with all the comunaltie of the countries and townes, and as the more part should be inclined, so should the king receiue answer. The king and Iaques Arteueld would faine haue had a shorter daie, and a more towardlie answer, but none other could be gotten.

Ia. Meir.
Welshmen appointed to Iaques Arteueld for a gard against Gerard Denise.

Herevpon the councell brake vp, and Iaques Arteueld tarieng with the king a certeine space, after the other were departed, promised him to persuade the countrie well inough to his purpose, and suerlie, he had a great gift of eloquence, and had thereby induced the countrie wonderfullie, to consent to manie things, as well in fauour of king Edward, as to his owne aduancement: but this suit which he went now about to bring to passe, was so odious vnto all the Flemings, that in no wise they thought it reason to consent vnto the disheriting of the earle. At length, when Iaques Arteueld should returne vnto Gant, king Edward appointed fiue hundred Welshmen to attend him as a gard, for the preseruation of his person, bicause he said, that one Gerard Denise deane of the weauers, an vnquiet man, maliciouslie purposed his destruction.

Iacob Arteuelds house beset.

Capteins of these Welshmen were Iohn Matreuers, and William Sturine or Sturrie, and so with this crue of souldiers Arteueld returned vnto Gant, and earnestlie went in hand with his suit in king Edwards behalfe, that either the earle should doo his homage to the king of England to whome it was due; or else to forfeit his earledome. Then the foresaid Gerard, as well of his owne mind, as procured thereto by the authoritie of earle Lewes, stirred the whole citie against the said Arteueld, and gathering a great power vnto him, came and beset Arteuelds house round about vpon each side, the furie of the people being wonderfullie bent against him, crieng; "Kill him, Kill him that hath robbed the tresurie of the countrie, and now goeth about to disherit our noble earle."

I. Meir.
Iacob van Arteueld slaine.

Iaques van Arteueld perceiuing in what danger he was, came vnto a window, and spake to that inraged multitude, in hope with faire and courteous words to appease them, but it could not be: whervpon he sought to haue fled out of his house, but the same was broken vp, and so manie entred vpon him, that he was found out, and slaine by one Thomas Denise (as some write.) But other affirme, that on a sundaie in the after noone, being the 17 of Iulie, a cobler, whose father this Iaques van Arteueld had sometime slaine, followed him, as he was fléeing into a stable where his horsses stood, & there with an ax cloue his head asunder, so that he fell downe starke dead on the ground. And this was the end of the foresaid Iaques van Arteueld, who by his wisdome and policie had obteined the whole gouernment of all Flanders. This wofull end was allotted vnto him by destinie, whose decrée nothing is able by any shift to auoid, as is notablie said of the poet in this distichon;

M. Pal. in scor.
Nil extra fatum est, metitúrque omnia summi
Mens regis, cuius sine numine fit nihil vsquam.

[Pg 632]

Ambassadors from the good townes in Flanders vnto king Edward.

There were slaine also ten other persons that were of his councell, and diuerse of the Welshmen in like manner; but the other escaped, and got awaie vnto king Edward, as yet remaining at Sluse, vnto whome those of Bruges, Cassell, Curtrike, Ypres, Aldenard, and other townes, did afterwards sent their orators to excuse themselues, as nothing guiltie nor priuie to the death of his fréend, and their worthie gouernor Iaques van Arteueld, requiring him not to impute the fault vnto the whole countrie, which the rash and vnaduised Gantiners had committed, sith the countrie of Flanders was as readie now to doo him seruice and pleasure as before, sauing that to the disheriting of their earle they could not be agréeable, but they doubted not to persuade him to doo his homage vnto the king of England, and till then they promised not to receiue him. They put the king also in hope of a mariage to be had, betwixt the sonne of their earle, and some one of the kings daughters. Herewith the king of England (who was departed from Sluse, in great displeasure with the Flemings) became somewhat pacified in his mood, and so renewed the league eftsoons with the countrie of Flanders: but the earle would neuer consent to doo homage vnto the king of England, but still sticked to the French kings part, which purchased him much trouble, and in the end cost him his life, as after shall appeare.

Auberoch besieged.
The French armie distressed, and the earle of Lisle taken.

But now to returne vnto the earle of Derbie, whome we left in Gascoigne. Ye shall vnderstand, that shortlie after he was come backe to Burdeaux, from the conquest which he had made of Bergerat, and other townes thereabouts; the earle of Lisle, who (as ye haue heard) was the French kings lieutenant in that countrie, assembled an armie of twelue thousand men, & comming before Auberoch, (a towne in Gascoigne) besieged it, sore pressing them within, in somuch that they were in great danger to haue béene taken, if the earle of Derbie, hauing knowlege in what case they stood, had not come to their rescue, who with thrée hundred speares or men of armes, as we maie call them, and six hundred archers, approching néere to the siege, laid himselfe closelie within a wood, till the Frenchmen in the euening were at supper, & then suddenlie set vpon them in their campe, and discomfited them, so that the earle of Lisle was taken in his owne tent, and sore hurt. There were also taken the earle of Valentinois, and other earles, vicounts, and lords of great accompt, to the number of nine, besides those that were slaine. The residue were put to flight and chased, so that the Englishmen had a faire iournie, and wan great riches by prisoners and spoile of the enimies campe.

Towns woon by the earle of Derbie.

After this, the earle of Derbie, being returned to Burdeaux, and hauing put the captiues in safe kéeping, assembled his power, and marching foorth into the countrie, towards the Rioll (a towne in those parts which he meant to besiege) he wan diuerse towns and castels by the way, as saint Basill, Roch, Million, Montsegure, Aguillon, & Segart. At length he came to the towne of the Rioll, which he besieged, and laie about it nine wéekes yer he could win it, and then was the same towne surrendered into his hands, but the castell was still defended against him for the space of eleuen wéekes, at which time being sore oppressed & vndermined, it was yéelded by them within conditionallie, that they should depart onelie with their armour. After this, the earle of Derbie wan Montpesance, Mauleon, Ville-Franche in Agenois, Miremont, Thomines, the castell of Damassen, and at length came before the citie of Angolesme the which made appointment with the earle, that if no succors came from the French king within the space of a moneth, that then the citie should be surrendered to the king of Englands vse: and to assure this appointment, they deliuered to the earle foure and twentie of their chéefe citizens as hostages.


In the meane time, the earle laid siege to Blaues, but could not win it. His men rode abroad into the countrie, to Mortaigne, Mirabeau, and Aunay, but wan little, and so returned againe to the siege of Blaues. Now when the month was expired, that they of Angolesme should yéeld, the earle sent his two marshals thither, who receiued the homage and fealtie of the citizens, in the king of Englands name, and so they were in peace, and receiued againe their hostages. At length when the earle of Derbie saw that he did but lose his time in the besieging of Blaues, which sir Guischart Dangle, and sir Guilliaume de[Pg 633] Rochfort, being capteins within, did so valiantlie defend, that he could obteine no aduantage of them, he raised his siege, and returned vnto Burdeaux, hauing furnished such townes as he had woone in that iournie with conuenient garisons of men to defend them against the enimies, and to kéepe frontier warre, as they should sée cause.

Froissard saith they were an hundred thousand.
Gio. Villani writeth that they were a six thousand horsmen and fiftie thousand footemen, of Frenchmen, Gascoignes & Lombardes.
Annales de Burgoigne.
An. Reg. 20.
Angolisme recouered by the Frenchmen. Damassen. Thonins.
Aiguillon besieged.

The French king being sore moued at the conquests thus atchiued by the earle of Derbie, raised a mightie armie, and sent the same foorth, vnder the leading of his sonne the duke of Normandie, into Gascoigne, to resist the said earle, and to recouer againe those townes which he had woone in those parts. The duke of Normandie being come to Tholouz, where generall assemblie was appointed, set forward with his armie, and winning by the waie Miremount, and Ville Franche in Agenois; at length came to the citie of Angolesme, which he inuironed about with a strong siege, continuing the same, till finallie, the capiteine named Iohn Normell, required a truce to indure for one daie, which was granted, and the same was the daie of the Purification of our ladie, on the which, the same capiteine, with the souldiers of the garrison departed, and left the citie in the citizens hands. The Frenchmen, bicause they had granted the truce to indure for that daie without exception, permitted them to go their waies without let or vexation. The citizens in the morning yéelded the citie to the duke. After this, he wan the castell of Damassen, Thonins, and Port S. Marie; Thonins by surrender, and the other two by force of assaults. Then he came to the strong castell of Aiguillon, which he besieged, and laie thereat a long season. Within was the earle of Penbroke, the lord Walter de Mannie, sir Franke de Halle, and diuerse knights and capteins, which defended themselues, and the place so stoutlie, that the Frenchmen could win little aduantage at their hands.

Gio. Villani.
The archdeacon of Vnfort.
Frenchmen discomfited.

Whilest the siege continued before this fortresse, the seneshall of Guien departed from the campe, with eight hundred horssemen, and foure thousand footmen, purposing to win a castell, belonging to a nephue of the cardinall Della Motte, a twelue leagues distant from Aiguillon. The archdeacon of Vnfort, owner of that castell, went to the Rioll, where the earle of Derbie with his armie as then was lodged, to whome he made suit, to haue some power of men to rescue his castell. The earle appointed to him a sufficient number, both of horssemen, and also of English archers, with whome the said archdeacon rode all the night, and the next morning betimes, being the one and thirtith of Iulie, they came to the castell where the Frenchmen were arriued the daie before, and had fiercelie assailed the castell, dooing their best to win it by force. But the Englishmen without anie delaie, immediatlie vpon their comming, set vpon the Frenchmen, and gaue them so sharpe and fierce battell, that in the end, the Frenchmen were discomfited: the seneshall with manie other gentlemen were taken prisoners, beside those that were slaine. To conclude, the number of them that were slaine, and taken prisoners in the whole, amounted to foure hundred horssemen, and two thousand footmen. Sir Godfrey de Harcourt being constreined to flée out of France, to auoid the French kings displeasure, came ouer vnto the king of England, who receiued him verie ioifullie, for he was knowne to be a right valiant and a wise personage. He was brother to the earle of Harecourt, lord of saint Sauiour le Vicount, and of diuerse other townes in Normandie. A little before that he fell into the French kings displeasure, he might haue doone with the king of France, more than anie other lord within that realme.

Additions to Adam Merimuth.

[Pg 634]

Purueiers punished.
A parlement.

In this twentith yeare of his reigne, king Edward vpon complaint of the people made against purueiours of vittels for his houshold (the which vnder colour of their commissions, abused the same, in taking vp among the commons all manner of things that liked them, without making paiment for the same, further than the said commissions did allow them) he caused inquirie to be made of their misdemeanors, and such as were found to haue offended, of whome there was no small number, some of them were put to death on the gallowes, and other were fined, so to teach the rest to deale more warilie in their businesse from thenceforth. ¶ About the same time, he caused all the iustices within his dominions to renounce and giue ouer all their pensions, fées, and other bribing benefits and rewards, which they vsed to receiue of the lords and great men of the land, as well prelats, as of them of the temporaltie, to the end that their hands being frée from gifts, iustice might more fréelie haue course, and be of them dulie and vprightlie ministred. Also this yeare in the Lent season, the king held a parlement at Westminster, and tooke into his hands all the profits, reuenues, and emoluments, which the cardinals held within this land: for he thought it not reason, that they which fauoured the pope and the French king, being his aduersaries, should inioy such commodities within his realme.

The king paseth ouer into Normandie.
Iohn Villani saith there were 2500 horsemen, and 30000 footmen and archers, that passed ouer with the K. but when he commeth to speake of the battell, he séemeth to increase the number.

After this, in the moneth of Iulie following, he tooke shipping, and sailed into Normandie, hauing established the lord Percie, and the lord Neuill, to be wardens of his realme in his absence, with the archbishop of Yorke, the bishop of Lincolne, and the bishop of Duresme. The armie which he had ouer with him, was to the number of foure thousand men of armes, and ten thousand archers, beside Irishmen, & Welshmen, that folowed the host on foot. The chéefest capteins that went ouer with him were these. First his eldest sonne Edward prince of Wales, being as then about the age of thirtéene yeares, the earles of Hereford, Northampton, Arundell, Cornewall, Huntington, Warwike, Suffolke, and Oxford; of barons the lord Mortimer, who was after erle of March, the lords, Iohn, Lewes, and Roger Beauchampe; also the lords Cobham, Mowbraie, Lucie, Basset, Barkeley, and Willoughbie, with diuerse other lords, besides a great number of knights and other worthie capteins. They landed by the aduise of the lord Godfrey of Harecourt, in the Ile of Constantine, at the port of Haguc saint Wast, néere to saint Sauiour le Vicount. The earle of Huntington was appointed to be gouernour of the fléet by sea, hauing with him a hundred men of armes, and foure hundred archers.

The ordering of the kings armie.

After that the whole armie was landed, the king appointed two marshals, the lord Godfrey of Harecourt, and the earle of Warwike, and the earle of Arundell was made constable. There were ordeined thrée battels, one to go on his right hand, following by the coast of the sea; and another to march on his left hand, vnder the conduct of the marshals; so that he himselfe went in the middest with the maine armie, and in this order forward they passed towards Caen, lodging euerie night togither in one field. They that went by the sea, tooke all the ships they found in their waie, and as they marched foorth thus, what by water & land, at length they came to a towne called Harflew, which was giuen vp, but yet neuerthelesse it was robbed, and much goods found in it. After this they came to Chierburge, which towne they wan by force, robbed it, and burnt part of it, but the castell they could not win. Then came they to Mountburge and tooke it, robbed it & burnt it cleane. In this manner they passed foorth, and burnt manie towns and villages in all the countrie as they went. The towne of Carentine was deliuered vnto them against the will of the soldiers that were within it. The soldiers defended the castell two daies, and then yéelded it vp into the Englishmens hands, who burnt the same, and caused the burgesses to enter into their ships. All this was doone by the battell that went by the sea side, and by them on the sea togither.

Saint Lo.

On the other side, the lord Godfrie of Harecourt, with the battell on the right hand of the king, road foorth six or seuen leagues from the kings battell, in burning and exiling the countrie. The king had with him (beside those that were with the marshals) 3000 men of armes, six thousand archers, and ten thousand men on foot. They left the citie of Constance, and came to a great towne called saint Lo, a rich towne of draperie, hauing manie wealthie burgesses within it: it was soone taken and robbed by the Englishmen vpon their first approch. From thence the king marched streight to Caen, wherein were capteins Rafe earle of Ewe and Guines constable of France, & the earle of Tankeruile. These noble men meant to haue kept their defenses on the walles, gate, bridge, and riuer, and to haue left the suburbes void, bicause they were not closed, but onelie with the riuer: but they of the towne said they would issue forth, for they were strong inough to fight with the king of England.

[Pg 635]

There were slaine in all without and within the towne 5000 men, as Gio. Villani writeth.
Peter Legh.

When the constable saw their good willes, he was contented to follow their desire, and so foorth they went in good order, and made good face to put their liues in hazard: but when they saw the Englishmen approch in good order, diuided into thrée battels, & the archers readie to shoot, which they of Caen had not séene before, they were sore afraid, and fled awaie toward the towne without any order or arraie, for all that the constable could doo to staie them. The Englishmen followed, and in the chase slue manie, and entered the towne with their enimies. The constable, and the earle of Tankeruile tooke a tower at the bridge foot, thinking there to saue themselues, but perceiuing the place to be of no force, nor able long to hold out, they submitted themselues vnto sir Thomas Holland. ¶ But here whatsoeuer Froissard dooth report of the taking of this tower, and of the yéelding of these two noble men, it is to be proued that the said earle of Tankeruile was taken by one surnamed Legh, ancestor to sir Peter Legh now liuing, whether in the fight or within the tower, I haue not to saie: but for the taking of the said earle, and for his other manlike prowes shewed here and elsewhere in this iournie, king Edward in recompense of his agréeable seruice, gaue to him a lordship in the countie of Chester called Hanley, which the said sir Peter Legh now liuing dooth inioy and possesse, as successor and heire to his ancestor the foresaid Legh, to whom it was so first giuen.

Caen taken.
40000 clothes, as Gio. Villani writeth, were got by the Englishmen in one place and other in this iournie.

But to returne now to the matter where we left. The Frenchmen being entred into their houses, cast downe vpon the Englishmen below in the stréets, stones, timber, hot water, and barres of iron, so that they hurt and slue more than fiue hundred persons. The king was so mooued therewith, that if the lord Godfrie of Harecourt had not asswaged his mood, the towne had béene burnt, and the people put to the edge of the sword: but by the treatie of the said lord Godfrie, proclamation was made, that no man should put fire into any house, nor slea any person, nor force any woman, and then did the townesmen and souldiers submit themselues, and receiued the Englishmen into their houses. There was great store of riches gotten in this towne, and the most part thereof sent into England, with the fléet which the king sent home with the prisoners, vnder the guiding of the earle of Huntington, accompanied with two hundred men of armes, and foure hundred archers.

Gio. Villani.
S. Germans in Laie. S. Clowd.

[Pg 636]

Burners executed.

When all things were ordred in Caen as the king could desire, he marched from thence in the same order as he had kept before, burning and exiling the countrie. He passed by Eureux & came to Louiers, which the Englishmen soone entred and sacked without mercie. Then went they foorth and left Roan, and came to Gisors, the towne they burnt, but the castell they could not get: they burnt also Vernon, and at Poissie they repared the bridge which was broken, and so there they passed ouer the riuer of Saine. The power of the Englishmen increased dailie, by such numbers as came ouer foorth of England in hope to win by pillage. Also manie gentlemen of Normandie, and other of the French nation, which loued not nor owght any good will vnto the French king, came to the king of England, offering to serue him, so that there were in his armie foure thousand horssemen and fiftie thousand footmen with the Normans, and of this number there were thirtie thousand English archers, as Giouan Villani writeth. The English marshals ran abroad iust to Paris, and burnt S. Germans in Laie: also Mountioy, and S. Clowd, and petie Bullongne by Paris, & the quéenes Burge. In the meane time had the French king assembled a mightie armie vpon purpose to fight with the Englishmen. ¶ The lord Godfrey of Harecourt, as he rode foorth with fiue hundred men of armes, and 13 hundred archers, by aduenture incountered with a great number of the burgesses of Amiens on horssebacke, who were riding by the kings commandement to Paris. They were quickelie assailed, and though they defended themselues manfullie for a while, yet at length they were ouercome, and eleuen hundred of them slaine in the field, beside those that were taken. The Englishmen had all their cariage and armour. Thus passed foorth the king of England, and came into Beauuoisin, and lodged néere vnto the citie of Beauuois one night in an abbeie called Messene, and for that after he was dislodged, there were that set fire in the same abbeie, without any commandement giuen by him; he caused twentie of them to be hanged that were the first procurers of that fire.

The French kings armie.

So long the king of England passed forward, that finallie he approched néere to the water of Some, the which was large and déepe, and all the bridges broken and the passages well kept, wherevpon he caused his two marshals with a thousand men of armes, & two thousand archers, to go along the riuer, to the end to find some passage. The marshals assaied diuerse places, as at Piqueney, and other where, but they could not find any passage vnclosed, capteins with men of warre being set to defend the same, in somuch that the marshalls returned to the king, and declared what they had séene and found. At the same instant time was the French king come to Amiens, with more than a hundred thousand men, and thought to inclose the king of England, that he should no waie escape, but be constreined to receiue battell in some place greatlie to his disaduantage.

Sir Godmare du Foy.
Gobin Agace.

The king of England well perceiuing himselfe in danger, remooued from the place where he was incamped, and marched forward through the countries of Pontiew and Vimew, approching vnto the good towne of Abuile, and at length by one of the prisoners named Gobin de Grace, he was told where he might passe with his armie ouer the riuer of Some, at a foord in the same riuer, being hard in the bottome, and verie shallow at an eb water. The French king vnderstanding that the K. of England sought to passe the riuer of Some, sent a great baron of Normandie, one sir Godmare du Foy, to defend the passage of the same riuer, with a thousand men of armes, and six thousand on foot with the Genowaies. This sir Godmare had with him also a great number of them of Mutterell and others of the countrie, so that he had in all to the number of twelue thousand men, one and other, and hearing that the king of England was minded to passe at Blanchetake (which was the passage that Gobin Agace had informed the king of England of) he came thither. When the Englishmen approched, he arranged all his companie to defend the passage.

The English men wan the passage ouer the water of Some.
The number slaine.
Crotay burnt.

And suerlie when the Englishmen at the lowe water entred the foord to passe ouer, there was a sharpe bickering, for diuerse of the Frenchmen incountred the Englishmen on horssebacke in the water, and the Genowaies did them much hurt, and troubled them sore with their crosbowes: but on the other side, the English archers shot so wholie togither, that the Frenchmen were faine to giue place to the Englishmen, so that they got the passage and came ouer, assembling themselues in the field, and then the Frenchmen fled, some to Abuile, some to saint Riquier. They that were on foot could not escape so well as those on horssebacke, insomuch that a great number of them of Abuile, Mutterell, Arras, and S. Riquier were slaine and taken, for the chase indured more than a great league. There were slaine in all to the number of two thousand. When the K. of England had thus passed the riuer, he acquitted Gobin Agace, and all his companie of their ransomes, and gaue to the same Gobin an hundred nobles, and a good horsse, and so the king rode foorth as he did before. His marshals road to Crotaie by the sea side, and burnt the towne, and tooke all such wines and goods as were in the ships and barks which laie there in the hauen.

One of the marshals road to the gates of Abuile, and from thence to S. Riquier, and after to the towne of Rue saint Esperit. This was on a fridaie, and both the marshals returned to the kings host about noone, and so lodged all togither about Cressie in Pontiew, where hauing knowledge that the French king followed to giue him battell, he commanded his marshalls to choose a plot of ground, somewhat to his aduantage, that he might there abide his aduersaries. In the meane time the French king being come with all his puissance vnto Abuile, and hearing how the king of England was passed ouer the riuer of Some, and discomfited sir Godmare du Foy, was sore displeased in his mind: but when he vnderstood that his enimies were lodged at Cressie, and meant there to abide him, he caused all his people to issue out of Abuile, and earlie on the saturdaie in the morning, anon after sunne rising he departed out of the towne himselfe, and[Pg 637] marched towards his enimies. The king of England vnderstanding that his aduersarie king Philip still followed him, to giue him battell, & supposing that the same saturdaie he would come to offer it, rose betimes in the morning, and commanded euerie man first to call vpon God for his aid, then to be armed, and to draw with spéed into the field, that in the place before appointed they might be set in order of battell. Beginning his enterprise at inuocation or calling vpon God, he was the more fortunate in his affaires, and sped the better in the progresse of his actions, as the issue of the warre shewed. A notable example to euerie priuat man, to remember to call vpon God when he purposeth anie thing, for as the poet saith, and that verie christianlie,

Mar. Pal. in sag.
---- nihil est mortalibus ægris
Vtilius, quàm cœlestem, sanctéq; piéq;
Orando sibi quærere opem.
Giovō Villani saith, that when they should ioine in battell, the Englishmen were 30000 archers English & Welsh, beside other footmen with axes & iauelins, and not fullie 4000 horssemen.
The kings demeanor before ye battell.

Beside this, he caused a parke to be made and closed by the wood side behind his host, in the which he ordeined that all the carts and carriages should be set, with all the horsses (for euerie man was on foot.) Then he ordeined thrée battels, in the first was the prince of Wales, and with him the earle of Warwike, the lord Godfrey of Harecourt, the lord Stafford, the lord de la Ware, the lord Bourchier, the lord Thomas Clifford, the lord Reginald Cobham, the lord Thomas Holland, sir Iohn Chandos, sir Bartholomew de Browash, sir Robert Neuill. They were eight hundred men of armes, and two thousand archers, and a thousand of other with the Welsh men. In the second battell was the earle of Northhampton, the earle of Arundell, the lords Ros and Willowbie, Basset, S. Albine, Multon, and others. The third battell the king led himselfe, hauing with him seauen hundred men of armes, and two thousand archers, and in the other battell were to the number of eight hundred men of armes, and twelue hundred archers. Thus was the English armie marshalled according to the report of Froissard. When euerie man was gotten into order of battell, the king leapt vpon a white hobbie, and rode from ranke to ranke to view them, the one marshall on his right hand, and the other on his left, desiring euerie man that daie to haue regard to his right and honour. He spake it so courteouslie, and with so good a countenance, that euen they which before were discomforted, tooke courage in hearing him speake such swéet and louing words amongst them. It was nine of the clocke yer euer he had thus visited all his battels, & therevpon he caused euerie man to eat and drinke a little, which they did at their leisure.

The disorders among the Frenchmen.

The French king before he approched néere to his enimies, sent foorth foure skilful knights to view the demeanor of his enimies, the which returning againe, made report as they had séene, and that forsomuch as they could gesse, the Englishmen ment to abide him, being diuided into thrée battels, readie to receiue him and his puissance, if he went forward, in purpose to assaile them. Here was the French king counselled to stay and not to giue battell that day, but to aduise all things with good deliberation and regard, to consider well how and what way he might best assaile them. Then by the marshals were all men commanded to staie, and not to go anie further, they that were formost and next to the enimies taried, but they that were behind would not abide but rode foorth, and said they would not staie till they were as far as the formost: and when they before saw them behind come forward, then they marched on also againe, so that neither the K. nor his marshals could rule them, but that they passed forward still without order, or anie good arraie, till they came in sight of their enimies: and as soone as the formost saw their enimies, then they reculed backe, whereof they behind had maruell, and were abashed, supposing that the formost companie had béene fighting. Then they might haue had roome to haue gone forward, if they had béene minded. The commons, of whome all the waies betwixt Abuile and Cressie were full, when they saw that they were néere their enimies, they tooke their swords and cried; "Downe with them, Let vs slea them all." There was no man, though he were present at the iornie, that could imagine or shew the[Pg 638] truth of the euill order that was among the French partie, and yet they were a maruellous great number.

Charles Grimaldi & Anthonie or Othone Doria were capteins of these Genowaies, which were not past six thousand, as Gio. Villani saith.
The earle of Alanson.

The Englishmen which beheld their enimies thus approching them, prepared themselues at leisure for the battell, which they saw to be at hand. The first battell, whereof the prince was ruler, had the archers standing in maner of an herse, and the men of armes in the botome of the battell. The earle of Northampton and the earle of Arundell with the second battell were on a wing in good order, readie to comfort the princes battell if néed were. The lords and knights of France came not to the assemblie togither, for some came after, in such hast and euill order, that one of them troubled another. There were of Genowaies crosbowes to the number of twelue or fiftéene thousand, the which were commanded to go on before, and with their shot to begin the battell; but they were so werie with going on foot that morning six leagues armed with their crosbowes, that they said to their constables; "We be not well vsed, in that we are commanded to fight this daie, for we be not in case to doo any great feat of armes, we haue more néed of rest." These words came to the hearing of the earle of Alanson, who said; "A man is well at ease to be charged with such a sort of rascals, that faint and faile now at most néed."

Raine and thunder with an eclipse.
The Genowaies.
The battell is begun.

Also at the same instant there fell a great raine, and an eclipse with a terrible thunder, and before the raine, there came flieng ouer both armies a great number of crowes, for feare of the tempest comming: then anon the aire began to wax cleare, and the sunne to shine faire and bright, which was right in the French mens eies, and on the Englishmens backs. ¶ When the Genowaies were assembled togither, and began to approch, they made a great leape and crie, to abash the Englishmen, but they stood still and stirred not at all for that noise. Then the Genowaies the second time made an other leape and huge crie, and stepped forward a little, and the Englishmen remooued not a foot. The third time againe the Genowaies leapt, and yelled, and went foorth till they came within shot, and fiercelie therwith discharged their crossbowes. Then the English archers stept foorth one pase, and let flie their arrowes so wholie and so thicke togither, that it séemed to snowe. When the Genowaies felt the arrowes persing their heads, armes and breasts, manie of them cast downe their crosbowes, and cut the strings, and returned discomfited. When the French king saw them flée awaie, he said: "Slea these rascals, for they will let and trouble vs without reason."

The king of Boheme.

Then ye might haue séene the men of armes haue dasht in amongst them, and killed a great number of them, and euer the Englishmen shot where they saw the thickest prease: the sharpe arrowes ran into the men of armes, and into their horsses, and manie fell horsse and man amongst the Genowaies, and still the Englishmen shot where they saw the thickest prease, and when they were once downe they could not recouer againe. The throng was such that one ouerthrew another; & also among the Englishmen, there were certeine of the footmen with great kniues, that went in among the men of armes, and killed manie of them as they laie on the ground, both earles, barons, knights, and esquires. The valiant king of Bohem being almost blind, caused his men to fasten all the reines of the bridels of their horsses ech to other, and so he being himselfe amongst them in the formost ranke, they ran on their enimies.

The earle of Alanson.

The lord Charles of Boheme sonne to the same king and late elected emperour, came in good order to the battell, but when he saw how the matter went awrie on their part, he departed and saued himselfe. His father by the meanes aforesaid went so far forward, that ioining with his enimies he fought right valiantlie, and so did all his companie: but finallie being entred within the prease of their enimies, they were of them inclosed and slaine, togither with the king their master, and the next daie found dead lieng about him, and their horsses all tied ech to other. The earle of Alanson came right orderlie to the battell, and fought with the Englishmen, and so did the earle of Flanders also on his[Pg 639] part. These two lords coasted the English archers, and came to the princes battell, and there fought right valiantlie a long time. The French king perceiuing where their banners stood, would faine haue come to them, but could not, by reason of a great hedge of archers that stood betwixt them and him. This was a perillous battell and sore foughten: there were few taken to mercie, for the Englishmen had so determined in the morning.

The princes battell pearsed.
The earle of Northamptō sendeth to the king.
The kings answer.
The French king departeth out of the field.

Certeine Frenchmen and Almaines perforce opened the archers of the princes battell, and came to fight with the men of armes hand to hand. Then the second battell of the Englishmen came to succor the princes battell, and not before it was time, for they of that battell had as then inough to doo, in somuch that some which were about him, as the earle of Northampton, and others sent to the king, where he stood aloft on a windmill hill, requiring him to aduance forward, and come to their aid, they being as then sore laid to of their enimies. The king herevpon demanded if his sonne were slaine, hurt, or felled to the earth? "No (said the knight that brought the message) but he is sore matched." "Well" (said the king) "returne to him and them that sent you, and saie to them that they send no more to me for any aduenture that falleth, so long as my son is aliue, for I will that this iournie be his, with the honor thereof." With this answer the knight returned, which greatlie incouraged them to doo their best to win the spurs, being half abashed in that they had so sent to the king for aid. At length when it drew toward euening, and that the Frenchmen were beaten downe and slaine on ech hand, king Philip as it were by constreint departed out of the field, not hauing as then past thrée score persons about him, of whome the lord Iohn of Heinault was one, by whose persuasion he chéefelie consented to ride his waie for his owne safegard, when he saw the losse was such as on that daie it could not be recouered.

Great slaughter of Frenchmen.
Iac. Meir.
Noble men slaine.

The slaughter of the Frenchmen was great and lamentable, namelie for the losse of so manie noble men, as were slaine at the same battell, fought betwéene Cressie and Broy on the saturdaie next following the feast of saint Bartholomew being (as that yeare fell) the 26 of August. Among other which died that daie, these I find registred by name as chéefest, Iohn king of Boheme, Rafe duke of Lorraine, Charles of Alanso brother germane to king Philip, Charles earle of Blois, Lewes earle of Flanders, also the earle of Harecourt, brother to the lord Geffrie of Harecourt, with the earles of Ausserre, Aumerle, and saint Poule, beside diuerse other of the nobilitie. The Englishmen neuer brake out of their battels to chase any man, but kept themselues togither in their wards and ranks, and defended themselues euer against such as came to assaile them. This battell ended about euening.

The king of England commeth downe from the hill.

When the Frenchmen were clearelie ouercome, and those that were left aliue fled and gone, so that the Englishmen heard no more noise of them, king Edward came downe from the hill (on the which he stood all that day with his helmet still on his head) and going to the prince, imbraced him in his armes, and kissed him, saieng; "Faire sonne, God send you good perseuerence in this your prosperous beginning, you haue noblie acquit your selfe, you are well worthie to haue the gouernance of a realme committed to your hands for your valiant dooings." The prince inclined himselfe to the earth in honouring his father, as he best could. This done, they thanked God togither with their souldiers for their good aduenture. For so the king commanded, and willed no man to make anie boast of his owne power, but to ascribe all the praise to almightie God for such a noble victorie; séeming héerein to be affected as Dauid was in the foure and fortith psalme; for he also referreth the happie successe of warre, and all victorie, vnto Almightie God, and not to the strength of a multitude of men, saieng:

Georg. Buch. paraph. in psal.
Tu nos ab hoste subtrahis, sternis solo
Infensa nobis agmina.
Non ergo semper iure te cantabimus
Nostræ salutis vindicem?

[Pg 640]

¶ On the sundaie in the morning, there was such a mist, that a man could not sée an acres bredth before him. Then by the kings commandement there departed from the host fiue hundred speares, and two thousand archers, to trie if they might heare of anie Frenchmen gathered togither in anie place néere vnto them.

Frenchmen slaine the day after the battell.
The archb. of Rouen and the lord grand prior of France slaine.

On the same morning there were departed out of Abuile and S. Requier in Pontiew, the commons of Roan and Beauuais, with other that knew nothing of the discomfiture the daie before. These met with the Englishmen, supposing they had béene Frenchmen, and being fiercelie assailed of them, after sore fight, and great slaughter, the Frenchmen were discomfited and fled, of whome were slaine in the hedges and bushes, more than seuen thousand men. The archbishop of Roan, and the grand prior of France, ignorant also of the discomfiture the day before, & supposing (as they were informed) the French should not haue foughten till that sundaie, were likewise incountred (as they came thitherward) by the Englishmen, with whome they fought a sore battell, for they were a great number, but yet at length they were not able to susteine the puissant force of the Englishmen, and so the most part of them were slaine, with the said archbishop and grand prior, and few there were that escaped.

On that sundaie morning, the Englishmen met with diuerse Frenchmen, that had lost their waie on the saturdaie, and wist not where the king nor their capteins were become. They were all slaine in manner, so manie as the Englishmen could méet with, insomuch that of the commons and footmen of the cities and good townes of France (as was thought) there were slaine this sundaie foure times as manie as were slaine on the saturdaie in the great battell. When those Englishmen that were sent abroad thus to view the countrie, were returned againe, and signified to the king what they had séene and doone, and how there was no more appearance of the enimies, the king to search what the number was of them that were slaine, and vpon the view taken, it was reported vnto him, that there were found dead eleuen princes, foure score baronets, 12 hundred knights, and more than thirtie thousand other of the meaner sort. Thus was the whole puissance of France vanquished, and that chéeflie by force of such as were of no reputation amongst them, that is to say, the English archers, by whose sharpe and violent shot the victorie was atchiued, to the great confusion of the French nation. ¶ Of such price were the English bowes in that season, that nothing was able to withstand them; whereas now our archers couet not to drawe long and strong bowes, but rather to shoot compasse, which are not méet for the warres, nor greatlie to be feared, though they come into the field.

Calis besieged.

The king of England with his armie kept still his field, vntill mondaie in the morning, and then dislodged, and came before Moturéell by the sea, and his marshals ran towards Hedin. The next daie they road toward Bullongne, & at Wisam the king and the prince incamped, and tarried a whole daie to refresh their people, and on the wednesdaie being the thirtith day of August, he came before the strong towne of Calis, and there planted his siege, and erected bastides betwéene the towne and the riuer, and caused carpenters to make houses and lodgings of great timber, which were couered with réed & broome, so manie and in such order, that it séemed a new towne, and in it was a market place appointed of purpose, in the which the market was dailie kept of vittels, & all other necessarie things euerie tuesdaie and saturdaie, so that a man might haue bought what he would of things brought thither out of England & Flanders. ¶ But now, forsomuch as we haue spoken of this iournie and inuasion made by king Edward into France, in this ninetéenth yéere of his reigne, accordinglie as we haue gathered out of Froissard, and diuerse other authors, I haue thought good to make the reader partaker of the contents of a letter written by a chapleine of the said king, and attendant about him in the same iornie, conteining the successe of his procéedings after his departure from Poissie, which letter is inserted with others in the historie of Robert de Auesburie, and Englished by maister Iohn Fox as followeth.

[Pg 641]

A letter of W. Northbourgh the kings confessor describing the kings voiage into France.

In the acts and monuments.

Salutations premised. We giue you to vnderstand, that our souereigne lord the king came to the towne of Poissie the daie before the Assumption of our ladie, where was a certeine bridge ouer the water of Saine broken downe by the enimie, but the king tarried there so long, till that the bridge was made againe. And whiles the bridge was in reparing, there came a great number of men at armes, and other souldiers well armed, to hinder the same. But the earle of Northampton issued out against them, and slue of them more than a thousand, the rest fled awaie: thankes be to God. And at another time, our men passed the water (although with much trauell) and slue a great number of the common souldiers of France, about the citie of Paris, and countrie adioining, being part of the French kings armie, and throughlie well appointed: so that our people haue now made other good bridges vpon our enimies, God be thanked, without anie losse and damage to vs. And on the morrow after the Assumption of our ladie, the king passed the water of Saine, and marched toward Poissie, which is a towne of great defense, and stronglie walled, and a maruellous strong castell within the same, which our enemies kept. And when our vauntgard was passed the towne, our rergard gaue an assault therevnto, and tooke the same, where were slaine more than thrée hundred men at arms of our enimies part. And the next daie following, the earle of Suffolke, and sir Hugh Spenser, marched foorth vpon the commons of the countrie assembled and well armed, and in fine discomfited them, and slue of them more than two hundred, & tooke thrée score gentlemen prisoners, beside others.

And after that, the king marched toward grand Villiers, and while he was there incamped, the kings vantgard was descried by the men at armes of the K. of Boheme: whervpon our men issued out in great hast and ioined battell with them, but were inforced to retire. Notwithstanding, thanks be vnto God, the earle of Northampton issued out, and rescued the horssemen with the other soldiers: so that few or none of them were either taken or slaine, sauing onlie Thomas Talbot, but had againe the enimie in chase within two leagues of Amiens: of whome we tooke eight, and slue twelue of their best men at armes: the rest being well horssed, tooke the towne of Amiens. After this the king of England marched toward Pountife, vpon Bartholomew day, and came to the water of Some, where the French king had laid fiue hundred men at armes, and thrée thousand footmen, purposing to haue kept and stopped our passage: but thanks be to God, the K. of England and his host entered the same water of Some, where neuer man passed before, without losse of any of our men; and after that incountered with the enimie, and slue of them more than 2000, the rest fled to Abuile, in which chase were taken manie knights, esquiers, & men at armes. The same day sir Hugh Spenser tooke the towne of Crotaie, where he & his soldiers slue 400 men at armes, & kept the towne, where they found great store of vittels.

The same night incamped the king of England in the forrest of Cressie vpon the same water, for that the French kings host came on the other side of the towne, néere vnto our passage: but he would not take the water of vs, & so marched toward Abuile. And vpon the fridaie next following, the king being still incamped in the said forrest, our scuriers descried the French K. which marched toward vs in foure great battels; and hauing then vnderstanding of our enimies (as Gods will was) a little before the euening tide, we drew to the plaine field, and set our battels in arraie: and immediatlie the fight began, which was sore and cruel, & indured long, for our enimies behaued themselues right noblie. But thanks be giuen vnto God, the victorie fell on our side, & the king our aduersarie was discomfited with all his host & put to flight: where also was slaine the king of Boheme, the duke of Loraine, the earle of Alanson, the earle of Flanders, the earle of[Pg 642] Blois, the earle of Harecourt, with his two sons, the earle Daumarle, the earle de Neuers, and his brother the lord of Tronard, the archbishop of Nismes, the archbishop of Sens, the high prior of France, the earle of Sauoie, the lord of Morles, the lord de Guies, le seigneur de Saint Nouant, le seigneur de Rosinburgh, with six earles of Almaine, and diuerse other earles, barons, knights, and esquiers, whose names are vnknowne. And Philip de Valois himselfe, with an other marques, which was called lord elector among the Romans, escaped from the battell. The number of the men of armes which were found dead in the field, beside the common soldiers and footmen, were a thousand, fiue hundred, fortie and two: and all that night the king of England with his host aboad armed in the field, where the battel was fought.

On the next morrow before the sunne rose, there marched towards vs another great host mightie & strong, of the Frenchmen: but the earle of Northampton, and the earle of Norffolke issued out against them in thrée battels, & after long and terrible fight, them likewise they discomfited by Gods great helpe and grace (for otherwise it could neuer haue béene) where they tooke of knights and esquiers a great number, and slue aboue two thousand, pursuing the chase thrée leages from the place where the battell was fought. The same night also the king incamped himselfe againe in the forrest of Cressie, and on the morrow marched toward Bullongne, and by the way he tooke the towne of Staples: and from thence he marched toward Calis, where he intendeth to plant his siege, and laie his batterie to the same. And therfore our souereigne lord the king willeth and commandeth you, in all that euer you may, to send to the said siege vittels conuenient. For after the time of our departing from Caen, we haue trauelled through the countrie with great perill & danger of our people, but yet alwaies had of vittels plentie, thanks be to God therefore. But now (as the case standeth) we partlie néed your helpe to be refreshed with vittels. Thus fare you well. Written at the siege before the towne of Calis, the fourtéenth daie of September.

Iac. Meir.
Terrouan woon by force.

But now touching the siege of Calis, and to returne where we left, ye shall vnderstand, that (as ye haue heard) the English campe was furnished with sufficient prouision of meat, drinke, apparell, munition, and all other things necessarie: and oftentimes also the soldiers made roads and forrais into the borders of France next adioining, as towards Guines, and saint Omer, ye euen to the gates of that towne, and sometime to Bullongne. Also the earle of Northampton fetched a bootie out of Arthois, and as he returned toward the host, he came to Terrouan, which towne the bishop had fortified and manned, deliuering the custodie therof vnto sir Arnold Dandrehen: for when he heard the Englishmen approched, he durst not tarrie within the citie himselfe, but got him to saint Omers. Sir Arnold stood valiantlie to his defense, and would not yéeld, till by verie force the Englishmen entered the citie, slue the soldiers, and tooke their capteine the said sir Arnold prisoner. The citie was put to sacke, and after set on fire. And when the Englishmen were departed, there came a number of Flemings from the siege, which they had laid before S. Omers, and began a new spoile, and fired such houses belonging to the canons and other, which the Englishmen had spared. Thus were those confines in most miserable case, for no house nor other thing was in safegard, but such as were conteined within closure of strong townes and fortresses.


[Pg 643]

Sir Iohn de Vienne capteine of Calis.
The king of Englands pitie towards the poore.

The king of England would not assaile the towne of Calis by giuing anie assault to it, for he knew he should but lose his labour, and waste his people, it was so strong of it selfe, and so well furnished with men of warre. Capteine thereof also was one sir Iohn de Vienne, a valiant knight of Burgoigne, hauing with him diuerse other right hardie and expert capteins, knights, and esquiers. When the said sir Iohn de Vienne saw the manner of the English host, and what the kings intention was, he constreined all the poore and meane people to depart out of the towne. The king of England perceiuing that this was doone of purpose to spare vittels, would not driue them backe againe to helpe to consume the same, but rather pitied them; and therefore did not onelie shew them so much grace to suffer them to passe through his host, but also gaue them meat and drinke to dinner, and moreouer two pence sterling to euerie person: which charitable déed wan him much praise, and caused manie of his enimies to praie right hartilie for his good successe and prosperitie. A most notable example of pitie and compassion, teaching other to be in like sort affected, and also to know, that

Spernit cœlorum regem spretor miserorum.
The duke of Normandie sent for.
The earle of Derbie assembleth an armie.
Towns won by the earle of Derbie.

The French king meaning to raise the siege from Calis, which the king of England kept there, sent for his sonne the duke of Normandie, which had line long at the siege of Aiguillon, and now by commandement of his father left it sore against his will. In this mean while, the earle of Derbie remained in the citie of Burdeaux, and there had held him during all the time that the siege laie before Aiguillon. When he once vnderstood that the siege was raised, and that the duke of Normandie had broken vp his campe, he sent into Gascoigne for all knights and esquires that held of the English part. Then came to Burdeaux the lord Dalbret, the lord de Lespare, the lord de Rosam, the lord of Musident, the lord of Pumiers, and a great sort more of the lords and nobles of Gascoigne, so that the earle had twelue hundred men of armes, two thousand archers, and thrée thousand other footmen. They passed the riuer of Garon, betwixt Burdeaux and Blaie, and tooke their waie to Zanctonge, so to go vnto Poictiers, and tooke by the waie the towne of Mirabell by assault: they wan also the towne and castell of Aunaie, Surgieres, and Benon. Also they took Maraunt in Poictow by force, they burnt also the towne of Lusignen, but the castell they could not win. Moreouer, they did win the bridge, towne, and castell of Tailburge, and slue all that were found within it, bicause a knight of the English part was slaine in the assaulting. From thence the earle of Derbie went and laid siege to saint Iohn Dangelie, which was yéelded to him by composition.

The citie of Poictiers woon by force.

At Niort he made thrée assaults, but could not win it, and so from thence he came to Bourge saint Mariment, the which was woone by force, and all that were within it slaine; and in like manner the towne of Montreuill Bonin was woone, and the most part of them within slaine, that tooke vpon them to defend it, which were 200 coiners of monie that wrought in the mint, which the French king kept there. From thence he passed forward with his host, and finallie came before the citie of Poictiers, which was great and large, so that he could not besiege it but on the one side. The third daie after his comming thither, he caused the citie to be assaulted in thrée places, and the greatest number were appointed to assaile the weakest part of the citie. As then there were no expert men of warre within Poictiers, but a great multitude of people vnskilfull and not vsed to any feats of warre, by reason whereof the Englishmen entered in at the weakest place. When they within sawe the citie woone, they fled out at other gates, but yet there were slaine to the number of seauen hundred persons, for all that came in the Englishmens waie, were put to the sword, men, women, and children. The citie was sacked and rifled, so that great store of riches was gotten there, as well of the inhabitants as other that had brought their goods thither for safegard of the same. The earle of Derbie laie there ten or twelue daies, and longer might haue laine, if his pleasure had so béene, for there was none that durst go about to disquiet him, all the countrie trembled so at his presence.

[Pg 644]

Saint Iohn Dangelie.
The king of Scots inuadeth England.

At his departure from Poictiers he left the citie void, for it was too great to be kept: his souldiers and men of warre were so pestered with riches, that they wist not what to doo therewith: they estéemed nothing but gold and siluer, and feathers for men of warre. The earle visited by the waie as he returned homewards to Burdeaux the towne of saint Iohn Dangelie, and other fortresses which he had woone in going towards Poictiers, and hauing furnished them with men, munition, and vittels necessarie, at his comming to Burdeaux he brake vp his host, and licencing his people to depart, thanked them for their paines and good seruice. All this while the siege continued still before Calis, and the French king amongst other deuises which he imagined how to raise the K. of England from it, procured the Scots to make warre into England, insomuch that Dauid king of Scotland, notwithstanding the truce which yet indured betwixt him and the king of England, vpon hope now to doo some great exploit, by reason of the absence of king Edward, intangled thus with the besieging of Calis, he assembled the whole puissance of his realme, to the number of fortie or thréescore thousand fighting men (as some write) and with them entered into England, burning, spoiling, and wasting the countrie, till he came as far as Durham.

The English lords assemble a power to fight with the Scots.
Tho. Wals.
The quéenes diligence.

The lords of England that were left at home with the quéene for the sure kéeping and defense of the realme, perceiuing the king of Scots thus boldlie to inuade the land, and in hope of spoile to send foorth his light horssemen to harrie the countrie on ech side him, assembled an host of all such people as were able to beare armour, both préests and other. Their generall assemblie was appointed at Newcastell, and when they were all togither, they were to the number of 1200 men of armes, thrée thousand archers, and seauen thousand other, with the Welshmen, and issuing out of the towne, they found the Scots readie to come forward to incounter them. Then euerie man was set in order of battell, and there were foure battels ordeined, one to aid another. The first was led by the bishop of Durham, Gilbert de Vinfreuile earle of Anegos, Henrie lord Percie, and the lord Henrie Scroope: the second by the archbishop of Yorke, and the lord Rafe Neuill: the third by the bishop of Lincolne, Iohn lord Mowbraie, and the lord Thomas de Rokebie: the fourth was gouerned by the lord Edward Balioll capteine of Berwike, the archbishop of Canturburie, and the lord Ros: beside these were W. lord d'Eincourt, Robert de Ogle, and other. The quéene was there in person, and went from ranke to ranke, and incouraged hir people in the best manner she could, and that doone she departed, committing them and their cause to God the giuer of all victorie.

The Scots fight with axes.
The English men obteine the victorie. The king of Scots taken.

Shortlie herevpon the Scots set forward to begin the battell, and likewise did the Englishmen, and therewith the archers on both parts began to shoot: the shot of the Scots did little hurt, but the archers of England sore galled the Scots, so that there was an hard battell. They began at nine of the clocke, and continued still in fight till noone. The Scots had sharpe and heauie axes, & gaue with the same great and mightie strokes, howbeit finallie the Englishmen by the helpe of God obteined the victorie, although they lost manie of their men. There were diuerse of the nobles of Scotland slaine, to the number of seauen earles, beside lords. The king was taken in the field sore wounded, for he fought valiantlie. He was prisoner to an esquier of Northumberland, who as soone as he had taken him, rode out of the field with him, accompanied onelie with eight of his seruants, and rested not till he came to his owne castell where he dwelled, being thirtie miles distant from the place of the battell.

Hect. Boetius.
Ri. Southwell.
Neuils crosse.

There was taken also beside him, the earles of Fife, Sutherland, Wighton, and Menteth, the lord William Douglas, the lord Vescie, the archbishop of S. Andrewes, and another bishop, with sir Thomelin Foukes, and diuerse other men of name. There were slaine of one and other to the number of 15 thousand. This battell was fought beside the citie of Durham at a place called Neuils crosse, vpon a saturdaie next after the feast of saint Michaell, in the yeare of our Lord 1346. Of this ouerthrow Christopher Okland hath verie commendablie written, saieng,

In Angl. prælijs sub Edwardo 3.
---- haud omine dextro
Iam Scotus intulerat vim Dunelmensibus agris,
Cùm formidandum sæuus bellum instruit Anglus,
Aggreditúrque hostem violantem fœdera sacra.
Nominis incerti Scoticæ plebs obuia gentis
Sternitur, & tristi gladio cadit impia turba,
Frustrà obluctantur Scotiæ comitésque ducésque,
Quorum pars iacet occumbens; pars cætera capta
[Pg 645] Captiuum corpus dedit vincentibus, auro
Et pacto pretio redimendum, bellicus vt mos
Postulat. At Dauid Scotiæ rex captus ad vrbem
Londinum fidei pendens dignissima fractæ
Supplicia, adductus celebri concluditur arce.
Exiguus numerus volucri pede fisus equorum
Effugit in patriam, testis certissimus Anglos
Deuicisse suos, & tristia funera narrant.
Sée in Scotland.
Hector Boet.
Countries of Scotlād subdued by the Englishmen.

¶ He that will sée more of this battell, may find the same also set foorth in the Scotish historie, as their writers haue written thereof. And for somuch as by the circumstances of their writings, it should séeme they kept the remembrance of the same battell perfectlie registred, we haue in this place onelie shewed what other writers haue recorded of that matter, and left that which the Scotish chronicles write, to be séene in the life of king Dauid, without much abridging therof. The Englishmen after this victorie thus obteined, tooke the castels of Roxburgh and Hermitage, and also without any resistance subdued the countries of Anandale, Galloway, Mers, Tiuidale, and Ethrike forrest, extending their marches foorth at that time vnto Cokburnes Peth, and Sowtray hedge, and after vnto Trarlinlips, and crosse Caue.

Iohn Copland refuseth to deliuer the K. of Scots.
Iohn Copland rewarded.

The quéene of England being certeinelie informed that the king of Scots was taken, & that Iohn Copland had conueied him out of the field, no man vnderstood to what place, she incontinentlie wrote to him, commanding him foorthwith to bring his prisoner king Dauid vnto hir presence: but Iohn Copland wrote to hir againe for a determinate answer, that he would not deliuer his prisoner the said king Dauid vnto any person liuing, man or woman, except onelie to the king of England, his souereigne lord and master. Herevpon the quéene wrote letters to the king, signifieng to him both of the happie victorie chanced to his people against the Scots, and also of the demeanour of Iohn Copland, in deteining the Scotish king. King Edward immediatlie by letters commanded Iohn Copland to repaire vnto him where he laie at siege before Calis, which with all conuenient spéed he did, and there so excused himselfe of that which the quéene had found hirselfe gréeued with him, for deteining the king of Scots from hir, that the king did not onelie pardon him, but also gaue to him fiue hundred pounds sterling of yearelie rent, to him & to his heires for euer, in reward of his good seruice and valiant prowes, and made him esquire for his bodie, commanding him yet vpon his returne into England to deliuer king Dauid vnto the quéene, which he did, and so excused himselfe also vnto hir, that she was therewith satisfied and contented. Then the quéene, after she had taken order for the safe kéeping of the king of Scots, and good gouernement of the realme, tooke the sea and sailed ouer to the king hir husband still lieng before Calis.

Ia. Meir.
The Flemings.
An. Reg. 21.
The earle of Flanders cōstreined to promise mariage to the king of Englands daughter.

Whilest Calis was thus besieged by the king of England, the Flemings which had latelie before besieged Betwine, and had raised from thence about the same time that the battell was fought at Cressie, now assemble togither againe, and dooing what damage they might against the Frenchmen on the borders, they laie siege vnto the towne of Aire. Moreouer, they wrought so for the king of England (earnestlie requiring their fréendship in that behalfe) that their souereigne lord Lewes earle of Flanders being as then about fiftéene yeares of age, fianced the ladie Isabell daughter to the king of England, more by constraint indéed of his subiects, than for any good will he bare to the king of England: for he would often saie, and openlie protest, that he would neuer marrie hir whose father had slaine his: but there was no remedie, for the Flemings kept him in maner as a prisoner, till he granted to follow their aduise. But the same wéeke that the mariage was appointed to be solemnized, the earle as he was abroad in hawking at the hearon, stale awaie and fled into France, not staieng to ride his horsse vpon the spurs till he came into Arthois, and so dishonorablie disappointed both the king of England, and his owne naturall subiects the Flemings, to their high displeasure.

[Pg 646]

The lord Charles de Blois taken prisoner.
Sir Thomas Dagworth.
Sir Iohn Hartille an English knight was also there with him.

While the king laie thus before Calis, diuerse lords and knights came to sée him out of Flanders, Brabant, Heinault, and Almaigne. Amongst other came the lord Robert of Namur, and was reteined with the king as his seruant, the king giuing him thrée hundred pounds sterling of yearelie pension out of his coffers to be paid at Bruges. During the time that the siege thus continued before Calis, the lord Charles de Blois, that named himselfe duke of Britaine, was taken before a castell in Britaine, called la Roch Darien, and his armie discomfited, chéeflie by the aid of that valiant English knight sir Thomas Dagworth, who had béene sent from the siege of Calis by king Edward to assist the countesse of Montfort and other his fréends against the said Charles de Blois, that with a gret armie of Frenchmen and Britains, had the same time besieged the said castell of Roch Darien, cōstreining them within in such forceable maner, that they stood in great néed of present succors. The said sir Thomas Dagworth aduertised hereof, with thrée hundred men of armes, and foure hundred archers of his owne retinues, beside certeine Britaines, approched to the siege, and on the 20 of Iune earlie in the morning, a quarter of an houre before day, suddenlie set vpon the enimies, who hauing knowledge of his comming, were readie to receiue him as the day before, but being now surprised thus on the sudden, they were greatlie amazed: for they that were within Roch Darien, as soone as the appearance of daie had discouered the matter vnto them, so that they might know their fréends from their enimies, they issued foorth, and holpe not a litle to the atchiuing of the victorie, which was cléerelie obteined before sunne-rising, and the French armie quite discomfited, greatlie to the praise of the said sir Thomas Dagworth and his companie, considering their small number, in comparison of their aduersaries, who were reckoned to be twelue hundred good men of armes, knights, and esquires, beside six hundred other armed men, two thousand crossebowes, six hundred archers of the countrie of Britaine, and footmen of commons innumerable.

There were taken, besides the lord Charles de Blois naming himself duke of Britaine, diuerse other lords and men of name, as monsieur Guie de la Vaall, sonne and heire to the lord la Vaall, which died in the battell, the lord of Rocheford, the lord de Beaumanour, the lord of Loiacke, with other lords, knights, and esquiers, in great numbers. There were slaine the said lord de la Vaall, the Vicount of Rohan, the lord of Chasteau Brian, the lord de Mailestreit, the lord de Quintin, the lord de Rouge, the lord of Dereuall and his sonne, sir Rafe de Montfort, and manie other worthie men of armes, knights and esquiers, to the number of betwixt six and seuen hundred, as by a letter written by the said sir Thomas Dagworth, and registred in the historie of Robert de Auesburie dooth appeare.

The French king assembleth an armie.

In this meane while, king Philip hauing dailie word how the power of his enimie king Edward did increase by aid of the Easterlings and other nations, which were to him alied, and that his men within Calis were brought to such an extreme point, that without spéedie rescue they could not long kéepe the towne, but must of force render it ouer into the hands of his said enimie, to the great preiudice of all the realme of France, after great deliberation taken vpon this so weightie a matter, he commanded euerie man to méet him in their best arraie for the warre, at the feast of Pentecost in the citie of Amiens, or in those marches. At the daie and place thus appointed, there came to him Odes duke of Burgoigne, and the duke of Normandie eldest sonne to the king, the duke of Orleance his yoongest sonne, the duke of Burbon, the earle of Fois, the lord Lois de Sauoie, the lord Iohn of Heinault, the earle of Arminacke, the earle of Forrest, and the earle Valentinois, with manie others.

The Flemings besiege Aire.

[Pg 647]

Ia. Meir.
The French K. cōmeth towards Calis.

These noble men being thus assembled, they tooke councell which waie they might passe to giue battell to the Englishmen: it was thought the best waie had béene through Flanders, but the Flemings in fauour of the king of England denied, not onelie to open their passages to the Frenchmen, but also had leuied an armie of an hundred thousand men of one and other, and laid siege to Aire, and burnt the countrie all about. Wherevpon there were manie sharpe bickerings and sore incounters betwixt the Flemings and such Frenchmen as king Philip sent foorth against them both, now, whilest the French armie laie about Amiens, and also before, during all the time that the siege lay at Calis. For all the French towns vpon the frontiers were stuffed with strong garrisons of souldiers, as Lisle, saint Omers, Arras, Bullongne, Aire and Monttreuill, and those men of war were euer readie vpon occasion to attempt sundrie exploits. After this, when the armie of the Flemings was broken vp, and returned home, or rather diuided into parts, and lodged along on the frontiers, the French king with two thousand men one and other came forward, taking his way through the countrie called la Belme, and so by the countrie of Frankeberge, came streight to the hill of Sangate, betwixt Calis and Wisant.

The earle of Derbie.

The king of England had caused a strong castell to be made betwéene the towne of Calis and the sea, to close vp that passage, and had placed therein thrée score men of armes, and two hundred archers which kept the hauen in such sort that nothing could come in nor out. Also considering that his enimies could come neither to succour the towne, nor to annoie his host, except either by the downes alongst the sea side, or else aboue by the high waie, he caused all his nauie to drawe alongst by the coast of the downes, to stop vp that the Frenchmen should not approch that waie. Also the erle of Derbie being come thither out of Guien, was appointed to kéepe Newland bridge, with a great number of men of armes and archers, so that the Frenchmen could not approch anie waie, vnlesse they would haue come through the marishes, which to doo was not possible.

The request of the French lords to the king of England.
His answer.

Fiftéene hundred of the commons of Tournie wan a tower, which the Englishmen had made and kept for the impeachment of the Frenchmens passage by the downes, but that notwithstanding, when the marshals of France had well viewed all the passages and streicts through the which their armie must passe, if they meant to fight with the Englishmen, they well perceiued that they could not come to the Englishmen to giue them battell, without the king would lose his people, wherevpon (as Froissard saith) the French king sent the lord Geffrey de Charnie, the lord Eustace de Ribaumont, Guie de Néele, and the lord de Beauiew vnto the king of England, which required him on their maisters behalfe to appoint certeine of his councell, as he would likewise appoint certeine of his, which by common consent might aduise betwéene them an indifferent place for them to trie the battell vpon: wherevnto the king of England answered, "That there he was and had béene almost a whole yeare, which could not be vnknowne to his aduersarie their maister, so that he might haue come sooner if he would: but now, sith he had suffered him there to remaine so long, without offer of battell, he meant not to accomplish his desire, nor to depart from that, which to his great cost he had brought now at length to that point, that he might easilie win it. Wherefore if the French K. nor his host could not passe those waies which were closed by the English power, let them séeke some other passage (said he) if they thinke to come hither."

Cardinals sēt to intreat of peace.
They depart.
The French K. returneth into France.
The conditions of the surrender of Calis.

In this meane while came two cardinals frō pope Clement, to treat a peace betwixt the two kings, wherevpon commissioners were appointed, as the dukes of Burgoigne and Burbone, the lord Lewes de Sauoie, and the lord Iohn de Heinault, otherwise called lord Beaumont, on the French part: and the earles of Derbie and Northampton, the lord Reginald Cobham, and the lord Walter de Mannie, on the English part. These commissioners and the legates (as intreators betwéene the parties) met and communed thrée daies togither, but agréed not vpon anie conclusion, and so the cardinals departed; and the French king perceiuing he could not haue his purpose, brake vp his host and returned to France, bidding Calis farewell. After that the French king with his host was once departed from Sangate, without ministring anie succour to them within the towne, they began to sue for a parlée, which being granted, in the end they were contented to yéeld, and the king granted to receiue them and the towne on these conditions; that six of the chéefe burgesses of the towne should come foorth bareheaded, barefooted, and bareleg[Pg 648]ged, and in their shirts, with halters about their necks, with the keies of the towne and castell in their hands, to submit themselues simplie to the kings will, and the residue he was contented to take to mercie.

Six burgesses of Calis presented to the king.
The quéene obteined their pardon.

This determinate resolution of king Edward being intimated to the commons of the towne, assembled in the market place by the sound of the common bell before the capteine, caused manie a wéeping eie amongst them: but in the end, when it was perceiued that no other grace would be obteined, six of the most wealthie burgesses of all the towne agréed to hazard their liues for the safegard of the residue, and so according to the prescript order deuised by the K. they went foorth of the gates, and were presented by the lord Walter de Mannie to the king, before whom they knéeled downe, offered to him the keies of the towne, and besought him to haue mercie vpon them. But the king regarding them with a fell countenance, commanded streight that their heads should be striken off. And although manie of the noble men did make great intreatance for them, yet would no grace be shewed, vntill the quéene being great with child, came and knéeled downe before the king hir husband, and with lamentable chéere & wéeping eies intreated so much for them, that finallie the kings anger was aswaged & his rigor turned to mercie (for

Flectitur iratus voce rogante Deus)

so that he gaue the prisoners vnto hir to doo hir pleasure with them. Then the quéene commanded them to be brought into hir chamber, and caused the halters to be taken from their necks, clothed them anew, gaue them their dinner, and bestowing vpon ech of them six nobles, appointed them to be conueied out of the host in safegard, and set at libertie.

Calis yéelded to the king of England.
Calis made a colonie of Englishmen. The quéene brought to bed in the castell of Calis.

Thus was the strong towne of Calis yéelded vp into the hands of king Edward, the third of August, in the yeare 1347. The capteine the lord Iohn de Vienne, and all the other capteins and men of name were staied as prisoners, and the common soldiers and other meane people of the towne were licenced to depart and void their houses, leauing all their armor and riches behind them. The king would not haue any of the old inhabitants to remaine in the towne, saue onlie a priest, and two other ancient personages, such as best knew the customes, lawes and ordinances of the towne. He appointed to send ouer thither amongst other Englishmen, there to inhabit, 36 burgesses of London, and those of the wealthiest sort, for he meant to people the towne onelie with Englishmen, for the better and more sure defense thereof. The king and quéene were lodged in the castell, and continued there, till the quéene was deliuered of a daughter named Margaret.

Ia. Meir.
A truce. Women hard to agrée.
Sir Amerie de Pauie.

The cardinals, of whome ye heard before, being come as legats from pope Clement to mooue communication of peace, did so much in the matter, that a truce was granted betwixt the realme of England & France, for the terme of twelue moneths, or two yeares (as Froissard saith.) But the English chronicle and Iacobus Meir séeme to agrée, that this truce was taken but for nine moneths, though afterwards the same was proroged. To the which truce all parties agréed, Britaine excepted, for the two women there would not be quieted, but still pursued the war the one against the other. After that this truce was accorded, the king with the quéene his wife returned into England, and left as capteine within Calis one sir Amerie of Pauie an Italian knight, or (as other bookes haue) he was but capteine of the castell, or of some one of the towers of that towne, which séemeth more like to be true, than that the king should commit the whole charge of the towne vnto his gouernement, being a stranger borne, and therefore Iacobus Meir is the more to be credited, that writeth how sir Amerie of Pauie was left but in charge with the castell onelie, and that the towne was committed to the kéeping of the lord Iohn Beauchampe, and Lewes his brother.


[Pg 649]

Thom. Walsi.
An. Reg. 22.
Great raine.
An. Reg. 23.
A great mortalitie.

But now that there was a peace thus concluded betwixt the two kings, it séemed to the English people that the sunne breake foorth after a long cloudie season, by reason both of the great plentie of althings, and remembrance of the late glorious victories: for there were few women that were housekéepers within this land, but they had some furniture of houshold that had béene brought to them out of France as part of the spoile got in Caen, Calis, Carenten, or some other good towne. And beside houshold stuffe, the English maides and matrones were bedecked and trimmed vp in French womens iewels and apparell, so that as the French women lamented for the losse of those things, so our women reioised of the gaine. In this 22 yeare, from Midsummer to Christmasse for the more part it continuallie rained, so that there was not one day and night drie togither, by reason whereof great flouds insued, and the ground therewith was sore corrupted, and manie inconueniences insued, as great sickenes, and other, in somuch that in the yeare following in France the people died woonderfullie in diuerse places. In Italie also, and in manie other countries, as well in the lands of the infidels, as in christendome, this grieuous mortalitie reigned to the great destruction of people. ¶ About the end of August, the like death began in diuerse places of England, and especiallie in London, continuing so for the space of twelue moneths following. And vpon that insued great barrennesse, as well of the sea, as the land, neither of them yéelding such plentie of things as before they had doone. Whervpon vittels and corne became scant and hard to come by.

A practise to betraie Calis.

About the same time died Iohn Stretford archbishop of Canturburie, after whome succéeded Iohn Vfford, who liued not in that dignitie past ten moneths, and then followed Thomas Bredwardin, who deceassed within one yeare after his consecration, so that then Simon Islep was consecrated archbishop by pope Clement the sixt, being the 53 archbishop that had sit in that seat. Within a while after, William archbishop of Yorke died: in whose place succéeded Iohn Torsbie, being the 44 archbishop that had gouerned that church. Moreouer in this 23 yeare of king Edwards reigne, the great mortalitie in England still continuing, there was a practise in hand for recouering againe of Calis to the French kings possession. The lord Geffrie of Charnie lieng in the towne of S. Omers, did practise with sir Amerie de Pauie, to be receiued into the towne of Calis by the castell, secretlie in the night season. The Italian gaue eare to the lord Geffrie his sute; and to make few words, couenanted for the summe of twentie thousand crownes to betraie the towne vnto him, in such sort as he could best deuise.

Diuersitie in writers.
The king secretlie passeth ouer to Calis.
The lord Geffrie de Charnie.

¶ Here writers varie: for Froissard saith that king Edward had information thereof, before that sir Amerie de Pauie vttered the thing himselfe; but the French chronicles, and also other writers affirme, that the Italian aduertised the king of all the drift and matter betwixt him & the lord Geffrie of Charnie, before he went through with the bargaine. But whether by him or by other, truth it is the king was made priuie to the matter at Hauering Bower in Essex (where he kept the feast of Christmasse) & therevpon departing from thence, he came to Douer, and the daie before the night of the appointment made for the deliuerie of the castell of Calis (hauing secretlie made his prouision) he tooke shipping, and landed the same night at Calis, in so secret maner, that but few of the towne vnderstood of his arriuall, he brought with him out of England thrée hundred men of armes, and six hundred archers, whom he laid in chambers and towers within the castell, so closelie that few or none perceiued it, the maner he knew by sir Amerie de Pauie his aduertisements (accordinglie as it was agréed betwixt them) that the lord Geffrie of Charnie was appointed to come and enter the towne that night, for the king had commanded sir Amerie to procéed in merchandizing with the said lord Charnie, and onelie to make him priuie of the day & houre in the which the feat should be wrought.

[Pg 650]

Sir Edward de Rentie.
The king crieth Mannie to the rescue.

The lord Geffrie de Charnie being couenanted that he should be receiued into Calis the first night of the new yeare, departed from S. Omers, where he had assembled fiue hundred speares, the last day of December toward night, and so in secret wise he passed foorth, till about the middest of the next night after, he approched néere to Calis, and sending an hundred men of armes to take possession of the castell, and to paie the Italian his twentie thousand crownes, came to the posterne of the castell, where sir Amerie de Pauie hauing let downe the posterne bridge, was readie to bring them in by the same posterne, and so the hundred men of armes entered, and sir Edward de Rentie deliuered to the Italian his twentie thousand crownes in a bag, who when he had cast the crownes into a coffer (for he had no leisure to tell them) he brought the Frenchmen into the dungeon of the castell, as it were to possesse them of the chéefest strength of the fortresse. Within this dungeon or tower was the king of England closelie laid, with two hundred men of armes, who issued out with their swords and axes in their hands, crieng Mannie to the rescue, for the king had so ordeined, that both he and his sonne should fight vnder the banner of the lord Walter de Mannie, as chéefe of that enterprise.

The earles of Stafford and Suffolke, the lords Montacute, Berkley and la Ware.
The Frenchmen alight on foot.

Then were the Frenchmen greatlie abashed, in such wise, that perceiuing how no defense might aduance them, they yéelded themselues without any great shew of resistance. Herewith the Englishmen issued out of the castell into the towne, and mounted on horssebacke, for they had the French prisoners horsses, and then the archers road to Bullongne gate, where the lord Geffrie was with his banner before him of gules thrée scutchens siluer. He had great desire to be the first that should enter the towne: but shortlie the king of England with the prince his son was readie at the gate, vnder the banner of the lord Walter de Mannie to assaile him. There were also other banners, as the earles of Stafford and Suffolke, the lord Iohn Montacute brother to the earle of Salisburie, the lord Beauchampe, the lord Berkley, and the lord de la Ware. Then the great gate was set open, and they all issued foorth crieng Mannie to the rescue. The Frenchmen perceiuing that they were betraied, alighted from their horsses, and put themselues in order of battell on foot, determining to fight it out like valiant men of war. The king perceiuing this, caused his people likewise to be set in order of battell, & sent thrée hundred archers to Newland bridge, to distresse those Frenchmen, which he heard should be there. This was earelie in the morning but incontinentlie it was daie: the Frenchmen kept their ground a while, and manie feats of armes were doone of both parts, but the Englishmen euer increased out of Calis, and the Frenchmen diminished, so that finallie they were ouercome, as well in the one place, as in the other.

Sir Eustace de Ribaumōt a right valiant knight.
He is taken prisoner by the king of England.
The lord Geffrie de Charnie is taken.
Sir Eustace de Ribaumont.

It chanced that in the hotest of the fight, the king was matched with sir Eustace de Ribaumont, a right strong and hardie knight. There was a sore incounter betwixt him and the king, that maruell it was to behold them. At length they were put asunder, for a great companie of both parts came that waie, and there fought fiercelie togither. The Frenchmen did behaue themselues right valiantlie, and especiallie sir Eustace de Ribaumont: he strake the king that daie twise vpon his knées, but finallie he was taken prisoner by the king himselfe. The lord Geffrie of Charnie was also taken prisoner, and wounded right sore, but the king of his noble courtesie caused him to be dressed by surgions, and tenderlie looked vnto. There were slaine, sir Henrie de Blois, and sir Pepin de la Ware, with other, to the number of six hundred. Monsieur de Memorancie escaped with great danger. Froissard saieth, that this battell was fought in the yeare 1348, vpon the last of December, towards the next morning being Newyeares daie: but (as Auesburie & Walsingham haue, who begin the yeare at our ladie day) this enterprise chanced 1349, and so consequentlie in the 23 yeare of this kings reigne. All the prisoners were brought to the castell of Calis, where the K. the next night gaue them a supper, & made them right hartie cheare, and gaue to sir Eustace de Ribaumont a rich chaplet of pearles, which he then did weare on his owne head, in token that he had best deserued it for his manfull prowes shewed in the fight; & beside that in fauour of his tried valiancie, he acquit him of his ransome, and set him at libertie. This fact of the king was roiall in déed, and his clemencie greatlie to be commended; & therfore it is well said to this purpose,

Gloria consequitur reges sic bella gerentes,
Sic certare parit decus immortale duello.

[Pg 651]

An. Reg. 24.
The death ceaseth.
Commissioners méet to talke of peace.
Men borne with fewer téeth than in times past.
Tho. Walsin.
A combat.
Thom. Wals.
A Spanish fléet. Spaniards vanquisht by the K. of England by sea.
Thom. Wals.

About the end of August the death in London ceassed, which had bin so great & vehement within that citie, that ouer & beside the bodies buried in other accustomed burieng places (which for their infinit number cannot be reduced into account) there were buried that yeare dailie, from Candlemasse till Easter, in the Charterhouse yard of London, more than two hundred dead corpses. Also this yeare, by the earnest sute of the two cardinals which were sent (as ye haue heard) from pope Clement the sixt, a peace was concluded for one yeare. There met néere vnto Calis for the treatie of this peace, the foresaid two cardinals, as mediators; and for the king of England, the bishop of Norwich treasuror and high chancellor of the realme, with others came thither as commissioners; and in like maner for the French king, there appeared the bishop of Lion, and the abbat of S. Denise. ¶ This yeare in August died Philip de Valois the French king. Here is to be noted, that all those that were borne, after the beginning of that great mortalitie whereof ye haue heard, wanted foure chéeke téeth (when they came to the time of growth) of those 32 which the people before that time commonlie vsed to haue, so that they had but 28. In this 24 yeare of this kings reigne, there was a combat fought in lists within the kings palace of Westminster, betwixt the lord Iohn, bastard sonne to Philip king of France, & a knight of the towne of Ypres in Flanders; but the bastard had the vpper hand, and vanquished his aduersarie. ¶ About the feast of the decollation of saint Iohn Baptist, king Edward aduertised of a fléet of Spaniards returning foorth of Flanders, that was laden with clothes and other riches, assembled a conuenient power of men of armes and archers, & at Sandwich tooke the sea with them, sailing foorth, till vpon the coast of Winchelsie he met with the Spaniards, and there assailed them; so that betwixt him and those Spaniards, there was a sore fight, and long continued, to the great losse of people on both parts; but in the end, the bright beame of victorie shone vpon the English sailes, so that all the Spaniards were slaine, for they were so proud and obstinat (as Walsingham affirmeth) that they would not yéeld, but rather choose to die, & so they did indéed, either on the Englishmens weapons points, or else were they drowned there in the sea, six and twentie of their ships were taken, in the which was found great store of good ware and riches. And so the king thought himselfe well reuenged of the Spaniards, which in the last yeare about Alhallontide, had entred into the riuer of Garons, as it runneth vp towards Burdeaux, and there finding manie ships fraught with wines, slue all the Englishmen they found aboord, and tooke awaie the ships with them: which iniurie mooued the king to enterprise this exploit now at this time against them.

Sir Thomas Dagworth slaine.
Ambassadors sent to the pope.

About the beginning of August, sir Raoull de Cahors, and diuerse other knights and esquiers, to the number of six score men of armes, fought before a castell called Auleon, with sir Thomas Dagworth, and there slue the same sir Thomas, and to the number of one hundred men of armes with him. There were sent solemne messengers this yeare vnto Auignion, for the establishing of a peace, mentioned betwixt the king of England and France, at the sute of the pope, so that king Edward should haue resigned his title and claime to the crowne of France, and the French king should haue giuen ouer vnto him the whole duchie of Guien, to hold the same fréelie, without knowledging of resort or superioritie, or dooing any manner of homage for the same: but such delaies were made, and the sute so prolonged by the pope, that the earle of Derbie, who with others was sent to him about this matter, returned without spéed of his purpose for the which he went.

An. Reg. 25.

In the fiue and twentith yeare of king Edwards reigne, the Frenchmen hauing laid siege vnto the towne of saint Iohn Dangeli, the lord Dalbrets son, hauing assembled six hundred men of armes, Gascoigns and Englishmen, meant to worke some feat for reliefe of them within, whervpon, as he was marching through the countrie of Xainctonge néere vnto Xaincts the eighth of Aprill, or (as other haue) the first, he was incountered by the lord Guie de Néell, one of the marshals of France, & other French lords, where at length, the Frenchmen were discomfited, manie also slaine, and diuerse taken prisoners, of which number was the said marshall, with his brother the lord William, and sir Arnold de Dan[Pg 652]drehen, beside others, to the number of 300 men of armes, but yet the siege remained, till for want of vittels the towne was rendered to the Frenchmen.

The castell of Guines woone.

The same yeare in October, an English archer of the garison of Calis, named Iohn of Dancaster, by licence of the lord deputie of Calis, tooke with him thréescore persons men of armes and archers, and in the night that goeth before the feast daie of S. Vincent, in the last quarter of the same night, he comming to the castell of Guines, found as well the watch as others fast asléepe, wherevpon he passed a water that adioined to the castell, wading vp to the girdle, and so came to the wall, where he & his companie rearing vp ladders, mounted by the same so secretlie, that slaieng the watch, being not past thrée or foure persons that were on the wals, they entred the castell, and finding the Frenchmen asléepe, slue those that vpon their wakening made any defense, and tooke the residue, whome they suffered to depart: and by this meanes they wan the castell, finding great store of vittels within, and so as they found it, they kept it to the king of Englands vse. The French histories declare, that one Guilliam de Beauconroy that was capteine of this castell, betraied the place to the Englishmen, for a summe of monie, and when the French king required restitution bicause the truce was not yet expired, he was shifted off with this forged answer, that nothing was excepted by the assurance of the truce, concerning things that should be bought and sold. The Frenchman that betraied it, was shortlie after put to execution at Amiens.

Grotes and halfe grotes first coined.
An. Reg. 26.

In this yeare were the first péeces of siluer called grotes and halfe grotes of foure pence & two pence the péece stamped, by the kings appointment, through the counsell of William de Edington bishop of Winchester lord treasuror. Before that time, there were no other coines, but the noble, halfe noble, and quarter noble, with the péeces of siluer called sterlings. Bicause these new péeces wanted of the weight of the old sterling coine, the prices as well of vittels as of other wares, did dailie rise, and seruants and workemen waxing more craftie than before time they had béene, demanded great wages. ¶ This yeare, vpon the euen of the Assumption of our ladie, sir Iohn Bentlie knight, as then lord warden of Britaine, fought with the lord Guie de Néell, marshall of France (latelie ransomed out of captiuitie) in the parts of Britaine, néere to a place called Mouron, betwixt Rennes and Pluremell, where the said marshall was slaine, togither with the lord of Briquebeke the Chateline of Beauuais, and diuerse other both Britains and Frenchmen.

An. Reg. 27.
Tho. Walsi.
In the printed booke of statutes it should appeare, that this parlement was rather holden in the 25 yeare of this kings reigne.
Statutes for making of clothes.
Weares and milles.

In the seuen and twentith yeare of his reigne, K. Edward held a parlement at Westminster, after the feast of Easter, in which an ordinance was deuised, what wages seruants and laborers should be allowed, prohibiting them to receiue aboue the rate which they were accustomed to take before the yeare of the great mortalitie. Seruants and laborers were in déed growen to be more subtill than before time they had béene; but by reason of the prices of things were inhanced, it is like they demanded greater wages than they had doone before time: and one cause of the dearth was imputed to the new coine of monie, being of lesse weight in the value thereof, than before it had béene, so that the bishop of Winchester being lord treasuror, who had counselled the king to ordeine those grotes and halfe grotes, was euill spoken of amongst the people. In this parlement there were statutes also made, that clothes should in length and in breadth through the realme, beare the same assise, as was ordeined in the parlement holden at Northampton. Also, that all weares, milles, and other lets, should be remooued foorth of riuers, that might be any hinderance of ships, boats, or lighters to passe vp and downe the same. But these good ordinances tooke little or none effect, by reason of bribes that walked abroad, and fréendship of lords and great men, that sought rather their owne commoditie, than the common-wealths.

Creations of noble men.
The lord Charles of Blois.

Shortlie after the feast of Pentecost, the earle of Derbie and Lancaster was made duke of Lancaster, and Rafe lord Stafford was created earle of Stafford. Whereas there had béene a treatie betwixt the lords of Britaine, and the king of England, not onelie for the deliuerance of the lord Charles de Blois, but also for the matching of his eldest sonne in mariage with one of king Edwards daughters, and so to inioy the dukedome in peace: this[Pg 653] matter was so far forwards, that in the yeare last passed, the said lord Charles, leauing two of his sonnes and a daughter in pledge for the paiement of fortie thousand florens, agréed vpon for his ransome; he was permitted to returne into Britaine to prouide that monie: and withall, to procure a dispensation, that his eldest sonne might marrie with one of K. Edwards daughters, notwithstanding that otherwise they were within the degrées of consanguinitie, prohibiting them to marrie. Herevpon this yeare about Michaelmas, he returned into England with the same dispensation: but bicause about the same time the Britains had taken by stealth an Iland with a castell therein, that the Englishmen had kept, & put all those which they found therein, to the sword, the said lord Charles, otherwise duke of Britaine, lost the kings fauour, so that he would heare no more of anie such aliance, by waie of marriage, as had béene communed of before: by reason whereof the British lords, that were in great number come ouer with the lord Charles de Blois, were constreined to returne home, without atchiuing anie part of their purpose, leauing the said lord Charles and his children behind them still héere in England.

Debate betwixt the dukes of Brunswike & Lancaster.
Tho. Walsi. affirmeth that this remoouing of the staple of wols was the 28 yeare of K. Edwards reigne.

On the fourth day of September, the duke of Brunswike and the duke of Lancaster should haue fought a combat in Paris, about words the duke of Lancaster should speake, in derogation of the duke of Brunswikes honor, for the which the said duke had appealed him in the court of France: but when they were readie to haue tried it, and were on horssebacke with their speares in hand within the lists, at point to haue runne togither, the French king caused them to staie, and taking on him the matter, made them fréends, and agréed them. This yeare the king by aduise of his councell remooued the mart or staple of wools from the townes in Flanders, and caused the same to be kept at Westminster, Chichester, Lincolne, Bristowe, Canturburie and Hull. This was doone in despite of the Flemings, bicause they held not the couenants and agréements which they had made with the king, in the life time of Iacques Arteueld, by whose prouision the said mart or staple had béene kept in sundrie townes in Flanders, to their great aduantage and commoditie.

Sir Walter Bentlie committed to the tower.
A great drought.
A dearth.
Corn brought out of Zeland.

Sir Walter Bentlie, vpon his comming ouer foorth of Britaine, where he had béene the kings lieutenant, was committed to the tower, where he remained prisoner for the space of twelue moneths, bicause he refused to deliuer vp the castels within his gouernement, vnto sir Iohn Auenell knight, being appointed to receiue the same, to the vse of the lord Charles de Blois, at the same time when the treatie of agréement was in hand, betwixt the king, and the said lord Charles. But after, when it was perceiued what damage might haue insued by deliuerie of those castels, sir Walter was set at libertie vpon suerties yet they were bound for his foorth comming, and that he should not depart the realme: at length, he was receiued againe into the kings fauour. In the summer of this seauen and twentith yeare, was so great a drought, that from the latter end of March, fell little raine, till the latter end of Iulie, by reason whereof, manie inconueniencies insued: and one thing is speciallie to be noted, that corne the yeare following waxed scant, and the price began this yeare to be greatlie inhanced. Also béeues and muttons waxed déere for the want of grasse, and this chanced both in England and France, so that this was called the déere summer. The lord William duke of Bauiere or Bauarie, and earle of Zeland, brought manie ships into London, fraught with rie, for reléefe of the people, who otherwise had, through their present pinching penurie, if not vtterlie perished, yet pittifullie pined.


[Pg 654]

An. Reg. 28.
Thom. Wals.
A truce betwixt England and France.
Ambassadors to the pope.

In the eight and twentith yeare of king Edwards reigne, vpon a treatie that was holden by commissioners, appointed by the two kings of England and France, after Easter, they were in maner fullie agréed vpon a peace, so that nothing wanted, but putting vnto their seales. In the articles whereof it was conteined, that the king of England should inioy all the lands of his dutchie of Aquitaine, without holding the same of anie by homage, or resort, and in consideration thereof he should resigne all his claime to the crowne of France. Héerevpon were ambassadors sent from either king, vnto the pope, and a truce taken, to indure till the feast of saint Iohn Baptist in the yeare next following. Ambassadors for the king of England were these: Henrie duke of Lancaster, Iohn earle of Arundell, the bishops of Norwich and London, and the lord Guie de Brian. For the French king, the archbishop of Rouen lord chancellor of France, the duke of Burbon, and others: but when the matter came to be heard before the pope about Christmasse, all went to smoke that had béene talked of: for the Frenchmen denied that the articles were drawne according to the meaning of their commissioners, and the pope also winked at the matter, so that the English ambassadors (when they saw that nothing would be concluded) returned home all of them (the bishop of Norwich excepted who departed this life there) and so their iournie came to none effect.

An. Reg. 29.
Debate betwixt the scholers & townesmen of Oxenford.

This yeare, the tenth of Februarie, there rose a sore debate betwixt the scholers and townesmen of Oxenford. The occasion rose by reason of the falling out of a scholer with one that sold wine: for the scholer perceiuing himselfe euill vsed, powred the wine on the drawers head, knocking the pot about his pate, so as the bloud ranne downe by his eares. Héerevpon began a sore fraie betwixt the scholers and townesmen, which continued for the most part of two daies togither. There were twentie townesmen slaine, beside those that were hurt: but at length, there came a great number of countrimen foorth of the villages next adioining, to aid the townesmen, entring the towne with a blacke banner, and so fiercelie assailed the scholers, that they were constreined to flée to their houses and hostels, but their enimies pursuing them, brake vp their doores, entered their chambers, slue diuerse of them, and threw them into priuies, tare their bookes, and bare awaie their goods. The sholers héerewith tooke such displeasure, that they departed the Vniuersitie: those of Merton colledge, and other the like colledges onelie excepted.

Thom. Wals.
The quarrell appeased betwixt the scholers and townesmen of Oxenford.

The bishop of Lincolne inhibited préests to celebrate diuine seruice in presence of anie laie man within that towne of Oxenford; and the king sending his iustices thither, to take knowledge of this disorderlie riot, there were diuerse, both of the townesmen and scholers indited, and certeine of the burgesses committed to ward. ¶ This yeare, the first sundaie in Lent, the king held a roiall iustes at Woodstoke, for ioy of the quéenes purifieng, after the birth of hir sixt sonne, the lord Thomas, whome the bishop of Durham (named Thomas) held at the fontstone: he was borne the seauenth of Ianuarie last past. In the parlement holden at Westminster this yeare after Easter, the king tooke vpon him to make an end of the quarrell betwixt the scholers and townesmen of Oxenford, and sauing to euerie man his right, pardoned the scholers of all transgressions: and this he signified into euerie shire, by writs directed to the shiriffes, they to proclame the same for more notice of the thing. And so in the summer following, the Vniuersitie began againe to flourish, students resorting thither from each side, and falling afresh to their academicall exercises, which they néeded not to haue discontinued, if either partie, I meane the townesmen or scholers, would haue tolerated and borne one with another, and not so rashlie haue vndertaken the reuenge of one anothers wrath and iniurie; but,

Oderunt pacem stulti & certamina quærunt.

In this parlement, the processe of the iudgement had and made against Roger Mortimer, late earle of March, was reuoked, adnihilated, and made void, so that the lord Roger Mortimer was restored to the title and possessions of the earledome of March, as cousine and heire to his grandfather the said erle of March. Moreouer, to this parlement came the bishop of Carpentras, and the abbat of Clugnie, being sent from pope Innocent the sixt, to make sute to haue the truce proroged betwixt the two kings, of England and France, to whome the king himselfe in person, made this resolute answer, that he would not agrée to anie longer truce; for that, when diuerse times, at the Frenchmens sute, he had consented to haue truce by mediation of two cardinals, sent to him about the same matter, his aduersaries in the meane time, whilest such truces in[Pg 655]dured, had doone much harme and damage by subtill practises to persons and places beyond the sea, that were vnder his rule and gouernement, yet he said he would deliberate héereof with his councell, and after intimate his pleasure to the pope, and to them of France by messengers which he would send ouer for that purpose: and so these ambassadors within foure daies after their comming, were thus dispatched with answer. Herewith in this parlement it was ordeined, that the prince of Wales, being as then about foure and twentie yeares of age, should passe ouer into Gascoigne, and have with him a thousand men of armes, and two thousand archers, with a great number of Welshmen.

A nauie prepared.
The duke of Lancaster.

About the same time the king caused fortie ships to be prouided, rigged, and made readie at Rutherhiue, furnished with vittels for one quarter of a yéere, and euerie of the said ships had principall streamers of the duke of Lancasters armes, who was appointed with a great power of chosen men of armes and archers to passe to the sea with the same ships, but few or none of his companie knew whither; horsses they had none. He had with him two of the kings sonnes, Lionell of Antwerpe, and Iohn of Gant, the elder of them being about sixtéene yeares of age. Also, there went with him the earles of Northampton, March, and Stafford, beside manie lords, barons, & knights. On the tenth of Iulie, he made saile to Gréenewich, and there and at Sandwich he staied, till the Assumption of our ladie, the wind for the most part continuing all that while at west and south, contrarie to his iournie, as it might appeare. At length with much difficultie he came to Winchelsie, & after to the Wight. It was thought, that the dukes purpose was to passe into Normandie, to ioine with the king of Nauarre, who was at variance with the French king. But after it was knowen by espials that they were made fréends, the duke of Lancaster doubting crooked measures, and hauing with him no horssemen, returned home without further attempt.

Record. Tur.
The end and award made of the quarrell betwixt the Vniuersitie and townesmen of Oxford.

On saint Kenelmes daie being fridaie, and the 17 of Iulie, master Humfrie Carleton professor of diuinitie, and Iohn Carleton the yoonger, doctor of the lawes, on the behalfe of the Vniuersitie of Oxford, and Iohn saint Frideswide maior, Iohn Bereford, and Iohn Norton, burgesses of the said towne of Oxford, on the behalfe of the communaltie of the same towne, came before the kings councell at Westminster in the councell chamber there, néere to the excheker, where the allegations on both parties being heard, and vpon request made, that it might please his maiesties councell, according to the submissions by both parties made vnto the king and to his councell, to take order in the matter in controuersie betwixt them, concerning the late tumult and businesse which had chanced in the said towne, by the disorder of the communaltie of the same, in breaking downe, and burning vp of houses, in taking awaie the bookes and other goods of the said masters and scholers, & in committing other transgressions. The councell hauing consideration thereof, to auoid the decaie that might haue insued to the said towne, made this end betwixt them, that the said towne (Iohn Bereford, being in the kings prison, and Robert Lardiner onelie excepted) should be bound to paie vnto the said masters and scholers, damnified in the said tumult and businesse, for amends, and reformation of iniuries and losses susteined (death and maime excepted) two hundred and fiftie pounds, beside the goods taken and borne awaie, to be restored againe, and this monie to be paid to the said chancellor, masters and scholers, on that side the mondaie next before the feast of saint Iames, or else sufficient suerties put in for the paiment thereof, at certeine termes, as the parties should agrée vpon: and in respect thereof, the said Iohn Bereford, and Iohn Norton, shall be releassed out of prison of the Marshalsea, at the baile of the said maior, and of Robert de Menkes, and Iohn Dimmoks, till the next sessions of gaole deliuerie, with condition, that the said summes of monie be paid, or suerties put in for the paiment thereof, as before is said, or else the bodies of the said Iohn Bereford, & Iohn de Norton, shall be returned to the said prison, within thrée daies after the feast of Peter ad Vincula, there to remaine in manner as before they did.

[Pg 656]

It was also ordeined by the councell, with the assent of the said Humfrie and Iohn Carleton, that all and euerie manner of persons of the said towne of Oxford, and the suburbes of the same, indited and arreigned of the fellonies and transgressions before mentioned, that should yéeld themselues to the kings prison to be tried by law, and also all other that were at that present in prison, which the said Humfrie and Iohn de Carleton should name (Iohn de Bereford and Robert Lardiner excepted) might be let to baile, vpon sufficient suerties, that should vndertake for them, bodies for bodies, to appeare at the next sessions of gaole deliuerie, there to be tried, according to the order of law. And further it was ordered, that all such goods and cattels as were taken and carried awaie from the said masters and scholers in the said tumult and businesse, by the men of the said towne and suburbes, in whose hands, and in what places soeuer within the said towne and suburbes, by inquisitions, informations, or other meanes, they should or might be found, should be deliuered to the said chancellor, and procurators of the said Vniuersitie, to be by them restored vnto those persons, to whome they belonged. This was the effect of the order taken at that day and place, before the reuerend fathers, Iohn archbishop of Yorke primat and chancellor of England, William bishop of Winchester lord treasuror, Thomas de Brembre lord kéeper of the priuie seale, and Dauid de Wollore master of the rolles, Henrie de Ingelbie clearke, and other of the kings councell then and there present.

Tho. Walsi.
The prince of Wales goeth ouer into Gascoigne.
The citie of London.

The prince of Wales (as ye haue heard) being appointed to passe ouer into Gascoigne, set forward from London the last daie of Iune, and comming to Plimmouth, where his nauie was appointed to be made readie, he staied there, for want of conuenient wind and weather a long time after. Finallie, hauing with him the earles of Warwike, Suffolke, Salisburie & Oxford, also the lord Iohn Chandois, sir Robert Knols, sir Franke de Hall, the lord Iames Audelie, with diuerse other of the nobilitie, and of men of armes and archers a great number, then in parlement to him assigned, he first set from Plimmouth on the daie of the Natiuitie of our ladie. They were in all thrée hundred saile, and finding the wind prosperous, they passed ouer into Gascoigne, where of the Gascoignes they were ioifullie receiued. In August, the Englishmen that were in Britaine, warring against the Frenchmen, that tooke part with the lord Charles de Blois, slue manie of them, & tooke the lord of Beaumanor, the vicount of Roan, and diuerse other. ¶ This yeare also, about Michaelmasse, the king hauing summoned an armie to be readie at Sandwich, passed ouer to Calis with the same. There went ouer with him his two sonnes, Lionell of Antwerp earle of Vlster, and Iohn of Gant earle of Richmond. He found at Calis a thousand men of armes that came to serue him for wages, foorth of Flanders, Brabant, and Almaigne, so that he had about thrée thousand men of armes and two thousand archers on horsebacke, beside archers on foot a great number. The citie of London had sent to him fiue hundred men of armes, and fiue hundred archers all in one sute or liuerie, at their owne costs and charges. On the second of Nouember, he set from Calis, marching foorth towards saint Omers, wasting the countrie by the waie as he passed.

The king inuadeth Frāce. The lord Bousicant.
The king for want of vittels returneth.

The French king being at the same time within the towne of saint Omers, sent the lord Bousicant vnto the king of England, that vnder colour of communication, he might view the kings power, who made such report thereof, vpon his returne backe to the French king, that he determined not to fight with the king of England, but rather to passe before him, and so to destroie vittels, that for want thereof, the king of England should be constreined to returne. And as he determined, so it came to passe, for the vittels were so cut off, that the Englishmen for thrée full daies togither, dranke nothing but water. When therefore king Edward had followed his enimies so for as Heiden, where he brake the parke, and burnt the houses within and about the parke, although he entred not into the towne nor castell, at length, for default of vittels, he returned backe, and came againe to Calis on saint Martins day, being the tenth after his setting foorth from thence.

[Pg 657]

The constable of France demandeth battell.
The answer made to him.
Berwike taken by Scots.

The morrow after being thursdaie, and the twelfe of Nouember, the constable of France, and other Frenchmen, came to the end of the causie of Calis, with letters of credence, offering battell on tuesdaie next following vnto the king of England, in presence of the duke of Lancaster, the earles of Northampton, and the lord Walter de Mannie, who in the kings behalfe declared to the constable, that the king of England, to eschew shedding of bloud, would fight with the French king bodie to bodie, so to trie their right: and if he liked not of that match, then if he would choose thrée or foure knights to him that were néerest to him in bloud, he should choose the like number. But when this offer would not be accepted, the English lords offered battell the next day, being fridaie, or else on saturdaie following, at the Frenchmens choice: but the constable of France and his companie, continuing in their first offer, refused both those daies. Then the English lords accepted the daie by them assigned, with condition, that if they brought not king Edward to giue battell that day, they would yéeld themselues prisoners, so that the Frenchmen would likewise vndertake for their king. The constable hauing no answer readie, staied a while, and after flatlie refused to make any such couenant. Finallie, when the English lords perceiued their aduersaries, not to meane battell, as their words at the first pretended, they brake off, and both parties returned home. The king of England staied till the tuesdaie, and paid the strangers their wages, and so came backe into England. On the sixt of Nouember, whilest the king was thus abroad in Picardie, the Scots verie earlie in the morning of that daie, came priuilie to Berwike, entred by stealth into the towne, and sleaing thrée or foure Englishmen, tooke it, with all the goods and persons within it, those excepted, which got to the castell.

A parlement.
The procéedings of the prince of Wales in Aquitaine.

In a parlement summoned this yeare, the mondaie after the feast of saint Edmund the king, the lords and commons granted to king Edward fiftie shillings of euerie sacke of wooll, that should be caried ouer the sea, for the space of six yeares next insuing. By this grant it was thought, that the king might dispend a thousand markes sterling a day, such vent of wools had the English merchants in that season. ¶ The parlement being ended, the king about S. Andrews tide set forward towards Scotland, and held his Christmasse at Newcastell. About which time by letters sent from the prince, the king was aduertised of his procéedings after his arriuall in Gascoigne, where being ioifullie receiued of the nobles, and other the people of that countrie (as before yée haue heard) he declared to them the cause of his thither comming, and tooke aduise with them how to procéed in his businesse; and so about the tenth of October, he set forward to passe against his enimies, first entring into a countrie called Iuliake, which togither with the fortresses yéelded to him, without anie great resistance. Then he rode through the countie Armignac, wasting and spoiling the countrie, and so passed through the lands of the vicounts de la Riuiere, and after entered into the countie de l'Estrac, and passing through the same, came to the countie of Commiges, finding the towne of S. Matain void, being a good towne & one of the best in that countrie.

Narbonne. Two bishops sent from the pope to the prince of Wales.

After this, he passed by the land of the earle of Lisle, till he came within a league of Tholouse, where the earle of Armignac, being the French kings lieutenant in those parts, and other great lords and nobles were assembled. The prince with his armie tarried there two daies, and after passed ouer the riuer of Garonne, and after ouer an other riuer thereabouts, a league aboue Tholouse, lodging that night a league on the other side of Tholouse: and so they passed thorough Tholouse, dailie taking townes & castels, wherein they found great riches, for the countrie was verie plentifull. Vpon Alhallowes éeuen, they came to castell Naudarie, and from thence they tooke the waie to Carcasson, into the which a great number of men of armes and commons were withdrawne. But vpon the approch of the Englishmen, they slipt awaie, and got them to a strong castell that stood néere at hand. The third day after, the Englishmen burnt the towne, and passing forth, trauersed all the countrie of Carcassonois, till they came to the towne of Narbonne. The people there were fled into the castell, in which the vicount of Narbonne was inclosed, with fiue hundred men of arms. The prince staied there two daies. The[Pg 658] pope sent two bishops towards the prince, to treat with him of peace, but bicause the prince would not hearken to anie treatie without commission from his father, they could not get anie safe conduct to approch néerer.

The prince hauing aduertisments héere, that his enimies were assembled, and followed him, he turned backe to méet them, but they had no will to abide him: for although the earle of Armignac, the constable of France, the marshall Cleremont, and the prince of Orange, with diuerse other néere to Tholouse, made some shew to impeach the prince his passage, yet in the end they withdrew, not without some losse, for the lord Bartholomew de Burwasch aliàs Burghersch, sir Iohn Chandois, the lord Iames Audeley, and sir Thomas Felton, being sent foorth to view them, skirmished with two hundred of their men of armes, and tooke of them fiue and thirtie. After this, they had no mind to abide the English power, but still shranke awaie, as the prince was readie to follow them, and so he perceiuing that the Frenchmen would not giue him battell, he withdrew towards Burdeaux, after he had spent eight wéekes in that his iournie, and so comming thither, he wintered there, whilest his capteins in the meane time tooke diuerse townes and castels abroad in the countrie. ¶ And now to the end yée may haue more plaine information of the princes dooings in those parties, I haue thought good to make you partakers of a letter or two, written by sir Iohn Winkefield knight, attendant on the prince there in Gascoigne.

The copie of sir Iohn Winkefields letters.

My lord, as touching the newes in these parts, may it please you to vnderstand, that all the earles, barons, baronets, knights, and esquiers, were in helth at the making hereof, and my lord hath not lost either knight or esquier in this voyage, except the lord Iohn Lisle, who was slaine after a strange manner with a quarrell, the third day after we were entered into our enimies countries, he died the fiftenth of October. And please it you to vnderstand, that my lord hath ridden through the countrie of Arminac, and hath taken many fensed townes and burnt and destroied them, except certeine which he hath fortified. After this, he marched into the vicountie of Rouergne, where he tooke a good towne named Pleasance, the chiefest towne of that countrie, which he hath burnt and destroied, with the countrie round about the same. This doone, he went into the countie d'Astrike, wherin he tooke manie townes, wasted and destroied all the countrie. After this, he entred into the countie of Cominge, and tooke manie townes there, which he caused to be destroied & burnt, togither with all the countrie abroad. He tooke also the towne of S. Matan, which is the chéefest towne of that countrie, being as large in compasse as Norwich.

Afterward, he entered into the countie of Lisle, and tooke the most part of the fensed townes therin, causing diuerse of them to be burnt and destroied as he passed. And after entring into the lordship of Tholouse, we passed the riuer of Girond, and an other a league aboue Tholouse, which is verie great: for our enimies had burnt all the bridges, as well on the one side of Tholouse, as the other, except the bridges with in Tholouse, for the riuer runneth through the towne. And the constable of France, the marshall Cleremont, and the earle of Arminac, were with a great power within the towne the same time. And Tholouse is a great towne, strong, faire, and well walled, and there was none in our host that knew the foord there: but yet by the grace and goodnesse of God we found it. So then we marched through the seigniorie of Tholouse, & tooke manie good townes inclosed, and burnt and destroied them, and all the countrie about.

[Pg 659]

He meaneth the Merantine sea.

Then we entred into the signiorie of Carcason, and we tooke manie good towns, before we came to Carcason, which towne we also tooke, which is greater, stronger, & fairer than Yorke. And as well this towne as all other townes in the countrie were burnt and destroied. And after we had passed by manie iournies through the countrie of Carcason, we came into the seigniorie of Narbon, and we tooke manie townes, and wasted them, till we came to Narbon, which towne was holden against vs, but it was woone by force, and the said towne is little lesse than London, and is situat vpon the Gréekish sea, for that the distance from the said towne vnto the Gréekish sea is not past two leagues, and there is an hauen and a place to arriue at, from whence the water cōmeth vp to Narbon. And Narbon is not but eleuen leagues distant from Mountpellier, & eightéene from Eguemortz, & thirtie from Auignion. And may it please you to vnderstand, that the holie father sent his messengers to my lord, that were not past seuen leagues frō him, and they sent a sergeant at armes, that was sergeant at armes attendant on the doore of our holie fathers chamber, with their letters to my lord, praieng him to haue a safe conduct to come to declare to his highnesse their message from the holie father, which was to treat betwixt my L. and his aduersaries of France: and the said sergeant was two daies in the host before my lord would sée him, or receiue his letters. And the reason was, bicause he had vnderstanding, that the power of France was come foorth of Tholouse toward Carcason, so that my lord was driuen to turne backe towards them suddenlie, and so did.

On the third daie when we should haue come vpon them, they had knowlege giuen before day, and so retiring, got them to the mounteins, hasting fast toward Tholouse; and the countrie people that were their guides to lead them that waie, were taken as they should haue passed the water. And bicause the popes sergeant at armes was in my kéeping, I caused him to examine the guides that were so taken; and for that the guide which was thus examined, was the constables guide, and his countrieman, he might well sée and know the countenance of the Frenchmen vpon this examining him. And I said to the same sergeant, that he might well declare to the pope, and to all them of Auignion, that which he had heard or séene. And as touching the answer which my lord made to them that were sent to treat with him, you would be well apaied if you vnderstood all the maner; for he would not suffer in any wise that they shuld come néerer vnto him. But if they came to treat of anie matter, he would that they should send to the king his father: for my lord himselfe would not doo any thing therin, except by commandement from my lord his father.

And of my lords turning backe to follow after his enimies, and of the passage of the riuer of Garonne, and of the taking of castels and townes in this iournie, and of other things which he hath doone against his enimies in pursuit of them in this iournie, being things right worthie and honorable, as manie know verie well, in like maner as sir Richard Stafford, & sir William Burton can more plainelie declare, than I to you can write, for it were too much to put in writing. And my lord rode thus abroad in the countrie of his enimies eight whole wéekes, and rested not past eleuen daies in all those places where he came. And know it for certeine, that since this warre began against the French king he had neuer such losse or destruction as he hath had in this iournie: for the countries and good townes which were wasted at this iournie, found to the king of France euerie yeare more to the maintenance of his warre than halfe his realme hath doon beside, except the exchange of his monie which he maketh euerie yeare, and the aduantage and custome which he taketh of them of Poictou, as I can shew you by good remembrances, which were found in diuerse townes in the receiuers houses: for Carcason and le Moignes, which is as great as Carcason, and two other townes in the coasts of Carcason, found to the king of France yéerelie wages for a thousand men of armes: and beside that 100000 old crowns to mainteine the war.

And know you, that by the remembrances which we found, that the townes in Tholouse which are destroied, and the townes in the countrie of Carcason, and the towne of Narbonne and Narbonnois did find euerie yeare with the sums aforesaid, in aid of his war, foure hundred thousand old crownes, as the burgesses of the great townes & other people[Pg 660] of the countrie which ought to know it, haue told vs. And so by Gods assistance if my lord had wherewith to mainteine this warre, and to make the kings profit and his owne honor, he should well inlarge the English marches, and gaine manie faire places: for our enimies are greatlie astonied. And at the making héereof, my lord hath appointed to send all the earles and baronets to abide in certeine places on the marches, to make roads, and to annoie his enimies. Now my lord, at this present I know none other newes to send, but you may by your letters command me as yours to my power. My right honorable lord, God grant you good life, ioy, health, long to continue. Written at Burdeaux, the tuesdaie next before Christmasse.

The tenor of an other letter written by sir Iohn Wingfield, directed to sir Richard Stafford knight, who had béene in Gascoigne, and there leauing his familie, was now returned into England.


Right deare sir, and right louing fréend, touching newes after your departure, you may vnderstand, that there be taken and yéelded fiue townes inclosed, to wit, port saint Marie, Cleirac, Tonings, Burgh, saint Pierre, Chastiell Sacret or Satrat and Brassake. Also seauentéene castels, to wit, Coiller, Buset, Lemnake, two castels called Boloines, which ioine the one néere so the other, Mounioy, Viresch, Frechenet, Mountender, Pudeschales, Mounpoun, Montanac, Valeclare, Cenamont, Leistrake, Plassac, Cont Destablison; and Mounriuell. And will it please you to know that my lord Iohn Chandois, my lord Iames Audeley, and your men that are with them, and the other Gascoignes that are in their companie, & my lord Baldwine Butetort, & that companie, & my lord Reignald Cobham, tooke the said towne, which is called Chastiell Sacret or Satrat, by assault: and the bastard of Lisle which was capteine of the said towne was also slaine there, as they assaulted it, being stricken with an arrow thorough the head: and my lord Reignold is returned backe toward Languedocke, and my lord Baldwin towards Brassacke, with their companies: and the lords Iohn & Iames, and those of their companie remaine in Chastiell Satrat, and haue vittells plentie of all sorts to serue them betwéen this and Midsummer, except fresh fish and cabages as they haue certified vs by letters, wherefore yée néed not take care for your men.


And there be in that towne more than thrée hundred glaiues, and thrée hundred yeomen, and a hundred and fiftie archers. And they haue rid before Agen, and burnt and destroied all their milles, and haue burnt and broken downe all their bridges that lie ouer Garon, and haue taken a castell without the same towne, and haue fortified it. And monsieur Iohn Darminake, and the seneshall of Agenois, which were in the towne of Agen, would not once put foorth their head, nor anie of their people, and yet haue they béene twise before that towne. And monsieur Busgaud was come, and monsieur Ernald de Spaine, and Grimoton de Chambule, with thrée hundred glaiues, and thrée sergeants Lombards, and they are in the towne of Muschacke, which is in Cressie, and it is but a mile from Chastiell Satrat or Sacret, and a league from Bressake, and yée may well thinke that there will be good companie one with another.

The capitall de Beuf.

And further may it please yée to know, that monsieur Bartholomew is at Coniake with six score men of armes of my lords house, & six score archers, & the capitall de Buche or Beuf, the L. Monferrant, & the L. of Crotonie, which haue with them 300 glaiues, & six score archers, and two hundred sergeants, beside them which are in Tailbourgh, Tanney, and Rochford, so that when they are togither, they may be well six hundred glaiues, and at the making héereof, they were vpon a iournie towards Aniou and Poictou, and the earles of Suffolke, Oxford, and Salisburie, the lord of Museden, monsieur Ellis de Pomiers, and other Gascoignes, with the which are well more then fiue hundred glaiues, and two hundred sergeants, and thrée hundred archers, and they were at the making hereof[Pg 661] toward the parties of Nostredame de Rochemade, and haue béene foorth aboue twelue daies, and were not returned at the sending of these presents. My lord Iohn Chandois, my lord Iames, and my lord Baldwin, and those which be in their companie are also foorth vpon a iournie toward their parties; my lord Reinold and those of the houshold, with the Gascoigns which be in their companie, are also foorth vpon a iournie towards their parties.

The earle of Warwike hath béene at Tonings & Clerake, to take those towns, and at the making hereof was gone towards Mermande to destroie their vines, and all other things which he can destroie of theirs. My lord is at Leiborne, and the lord of Pomiers at Fronsack, which is but a quarter of a leage from Leiborne: and my lords people lie as well at saint Milion, as at Leiborne, and monsieur Berard de Bret is there with him, and my lord looketh for newes which he should haue, and according to the news that he shall haue, he will behaue himselfe: for as it séemeth, he standeth much on his honor. At the making hereof, the earle of Arminac was at Auignion, and the king of Aragon is there also: & of all other parleis which haue béene in diuerse places (wherof you know) I can not certifie you at the making herof. Right déere sir, other thing I cannot send vnto you, but that you remember your selfe to send newes to my lord prince as soone as in anie wise you may, and so the Lord grant you good life and long. Written at Leiborne the 21 of Ianuarie.

¶ These letters haue I thought good to make the reader partaker of, as I find them in the chronicle of Robert Auesburie, to the end ye may perceiue how other writers agrée therewith, sith the same letters may serue as a touchstone to trie the truth of the matter. And so now I will returne to speake of the kings dooings in the north part where he left him. On the fourtéenth of Ianuarie K. Edward hauing his armie lodged néere the towne of Berwike, and his nauie readie in the hauen to assaile the Scots that were within the towne, he entered the castell which the Englishmen had in their hands, the lord Walter de Mannie being their capteine, who had gotten certeine miners thither from the forrest of Deane, and other parts of the realme, which were busie to make passage vnder the ground by a mine, through which the Englishmen might enter into the towne. Herevpon, when the Scots perceiued in what danger they stood, and knew that they could not long defend the towne against him, they surrendered it into his hands without further resistance.

Hector Boek.
An. Reg. 30.
The resignation of the realme of Scotland made by the Balioll.

In the Scotish histories it is recorded, that when those which were within the towne of Berwike, heard how that an armie of Englishmen came to the succours of the castell, they raced the walles and burnt the houses of the towne, and so departed with all the spoile which they had gotten there. But how soeuer it was, king Edward being againe possessed of the towne, he set men aworke to repare it, and passing foorth to Roxburge, there met with him the rightfull king of Scots Edward Balioll, who transferred & resigned all the right, title and interest, which he had or might haue to the crowne and realme of Scotland into king Edwards hands: which resignatian he confirmed by his letters patents thereof made and giuen vnder his hand and seale, dated the 25 of Ianuarie 1356, requiring king Edward to perseuere in pursute of his title to the vttermost.

K. Edward sore afflicted the Scots.
The duke of Lācaster sent to aid the king of Nauarre.
Paulus Aemilius.
The castell of Orbec rescued.

King Edward hauing thus receiued the resignation and release of the crowne of Scotland, marched foorth with his armie, till he came to Hadington, burning and destroieng the countrie on ech side round about him, as he passed. And whilest he laie there abiding for his ships, his men of warre were not idle, but ranged abroad in the countrie, and did all the damage to their enimies that they could deuise. At length his armie which he had at the same time on the sea, arriued on that coast, and landing, spoiled a church of our ladie called the White kirke: but being returned to their ships, there arose such a tempest and vehement north wind, that manie of their vessels rushing and beating against the banks and sands, were drowned togither with the men that were within them, for dis[Pg 662]pleasure whereof king Edward fell to the spoile of the countrie againe, not sparing one place more than another: by reason wherof, as well abbeis as all other churches and religious houses both in Hadington, in Edenborough, and thorough all other the parts of Louthian, wheresoeuer he came, were defaced and put to sacke. At length when he had accomplished his will, and so set things in order, he returned backe into England with the foresaid Edward Balioll in his companie, whome he kept with him, for doubt least he should reuolt, and procure some new trouble. In the moneth of Iulie the duke of Lancaster being sent to the aid of the K. of Nauarre, came into Constantine, which is a portion of Normandie, & there ioined with the lord Philip of Nauarre, brother to the king of Nauarre, and with the lord Godfrie de Harecourt, the which being returned into France, and restored to the French kings fauour, was latelie againe reuolted, vpon displeasure taken for the death of his nephue the lord Iohn de Harecourt as in the French histories ye may read more at large. They were in all about the number of foure thousand fighting men, and being assembled togither, they went to Liseux, to Orbec, to Ponteau, & rescued the castell there, which had béene besieged by the lord Robert de Hotetot master of the crossebowes in France, more than two moneths: but now hearing that the Englishmen and Nauarrois approched, he departed from thence, leauing behind him for hast his engins and artillerie.

The citie of Eureux yéelded to the Frenchmen. Vernueil. The French K. commeth to giue the duke of Lancaster battell.

The duke of Lancaster passed forward vnto Bretueill, which he caused to be relieued and furnished with necessarie things as was conuenient. And then leauing the citie of Eureux, which was as then in the Frenchmens hands, latelie yéelded to them after a long siege, he went forward with the lord Philip de Nauarre in companie till they came to Vernueill in Perch, and there tooke both the towne and castell, and robbed the towne and burnt a great part therof. The French king, who had assembled a mightie armie, being aduertised of these matters, hasted forward towards the duke of Lancaster, fullie purposing to giue him battell. The duke and the lord Philip de Nauarre, hauing knowledge that the French king followed them, withdrew towards the towne of the Eagle, and the king still went after them, till he came to Tuebeuf two leages from the towne of the Egle, and there it was shewed to him that he could not follow his enimies any further, by reason of the thicke forrests, which he could not passe without great danger of his person and losse of his people. Then returned he with all his host, and tooke from the Nauarrois the castell of Thilliers, and also the castell of Bretueill, which was yéelded to him after two moneths siege.

The prince of Wales inuadeth ye French dominions.

About the same time, that is to saie, in Iulie, the prince of Wales, hauing assembled an armie of men of warre, to the number of eight thousand, entred into the French dominions, and first passing through Auuergne, at length he came into the countrie of Berrie, wasting and burning the townes and villages as he went, taking easie iournies for the better reléefe of his people, and destruction of his enimies: for when he was entered into anie towne that was sufficientlie stored of things necessarie, he would tarie there two or thrée daies to refresh his soldiers and men of warre, and when they dislodged, they would strike out the heads of the wine vessels, and burne the wheat, oates and barlie, and all other things which they could not take with them, to the intent their enimies should not therewith be susteined and nourished.

The citie of Burges.

[Pg 663]

Issoldune assaulted.
Vierzon woone.
The passages stopped.

After this, they came before the citie of Burges, and there made a great skirmish at one of the gates, and there were manie feats of armes doone. The host departed from thence, without dooing anie more, and comming to a strong castell called Issoldune, they fiercelie assailed it, but could not win it: the gentlemen within defended the walles and gates so manfullie. Then passed they forward, and came to Vierzon, a great towne and a good castell, but it was nothing stronglie fortified; and therefore was it woone perforce, the people within it being not sufficient to resist the valiant puissance of the Englishmen. Here they found wine and other vittels in great plentie, and herevpon they taried there thrée daies to refresh themselues at ease. But before they departed, the prince had aduertisement giuen him that the French king was come to Chartres, with an huge assemblie of men of warre, and that all the townes and passages aboue the riuer of Loire were closed and kept. Then was the prince counselled to returne and passe by Touraine and Poictow, and so that waie to Burdeaux.

The prince returneth.

The prince following their aduise that thus counselled him, set forward toward Remorentine. The French king had sent into that countrie to kéepe the frontiers there, the lord of Craon, the lord Bouciquault, and the heremit of Chaumount, the which with thrée hundred men of armes had followed the Englishmen six daies togither, and could neuer find anie conuenient occasion to set vpon them: for the Englishmen gouerned themselues so sagelie, that their enimies could not lightlie assaile them, but to their owne disaduantage. One day the Frenchmen laid themselues closelie in an ambush néere to the towne of Remorentine, at a maruellous streict passage, by which the Englishmen must néeds passe.


On the same daie there were departed from the princes battell, by licence of the marshals, certeine capteins, Englishmen and Gascoignes, as the lord Bartholomew de Burgherce or Burwasche (as some write him) the lord of Mucident Gascongne, monsieur Petiton de Courton, the lord de la Ware, the lord Basset, sir Daniell Passelew, sir Richard Ponchardon, sir Noell Loring, the yoong lord Spenser, and two of the Danbreticourts, sir Edward, and an other, who hauing with them two hundred men of armes, went foorth to run before Remorentine, that they might view the place. They passed foorth alongst by the Frenchmen which laie in ambush, as yée haue heard, and they were not aduised of them, and they were no sooner passed, but that the Frenchmen brake out, and gallopped after the Englishmen with great random, hauing their speares in their rests.

A skirmish.

The Englishmen and the Gascoignes hearing horsses to come galloping after them, turned, and perceiuing them to be their enimies, stood still to abide them. The Frenchmen couragiouslie gaue the charge, and the Englishmen as valiantlie defended them, so that there insued a great skirmish, which continued a long while, so that it could not be easilie iudged who had the better, nor on which side the fortunate issue of the present conflict would then fall (for

---- mutabilis alea Martis)
The Frenchmen fled.
The prince lodgeth in the towne of Remorentine.

till that the battell of the English marshals approched, the which when the Frenchmen saw comming by a wood side, they fled streightwaies towards Remorentine, and the Englishmen followed in chase so fast as their horsses might beare them, and entered the towne with the Frenchmen: but the French lords and the one halfe of their companie got into the castell, and so saued themselues. The prince hearing what had happened, came into the towne, and there lodged that night, sending sir Iohn Chandois to talke with the capiteines of the castell, to know if they would yéeld: and bicause they refused so to doo, on the next morrow he caused his people to giue an assault to the place, which continued the most part of the day, but yet missing their purpose, he commanded that they should draw to their lodgings, and rest them for that night.

The castell of Remorentine assaulted.
It is set on fier.
They within submitted themselues.
The French King foloweth the prince of Wales.

In the morning as soone as the sunne was vp, the marshals caused the trumpets to sound, and those that were appointed to giue the assault againe, prepared themselues to it. The prince himselfe was present personallie at this assault, so that the same was inforced to the vttermost: but when they saw that by assaults they could not win the castell, they deuised engines, wherewith they cast wild fire into the base court, and so set it on fire, which increased in such vehement sort, that it tooke into the couering of a great tower, which was couered with réed: and then they within perceiuing they must either yéeld or perish with fire, came downe and submitted themselues to the prince, who as prisoners receiued them. The castell of Remorentine being thus woone and defaced with fire, the prince left it void, and marched foorth with his armie as before, destroieng the countrie, and approched to Aniou and Touraine. The French king came forwards toward the prince, and at Ambois heard how the prince was in Touraine, meaning to returne through[Pg 664] Poictow. He was dailie aduertised of the princes dooings by such as were appointed to coast him euer in his iournie.

Seuen thousand chosen men saith Tho. Walsi.

Then came the king to Haie in Touraine, and his people were passed the riuer of Loire at sundrie passages, where most conuenientlie they might. They were in number twentie thousand men of armes; of noble men there were six and twentie, dukes and earles, beside a great number of other lords and barons: the foure sonnes of the king were there, as the lord Charles duke of Normandie, the lord Lewes after duke of Aniou, the lord Iohn after duke of Berrie, and the lord Philip which was after duke of Burgongne. The French king doubting least the prince should escape by spéedie iournies out of his countrie, before he could come to giue him battell, remooued to Chauuignie, and there passed the riuer of Creuse by the bridge, supposing that the Englishmen had béene before him, but they were not. Some of the Frenchmen taried behind at Chauuignie for one night, and in the morning followed the king. They were about two hundred men of armes vnder the leading of the lord Craon, the lord Raoull de Coucie, and the earle of Ioignie. They chanced to incounter with certeine of the auaunt currours of the English armie, which remooued that day from a little village fast by. Those Englishmen were not past thrée score men of armes, but well horssed, and therefore perceiuing the great number of the Frenchmen, they fled towards the princes battell, which they knew was not farre off. Capteins of the Englishmen were two knights of Heinault, the lord Eustace Dambreticourt, and the lord Iohn of Guistelles.

The lord Raoull de Coucie taken.
Frenchmen distressed.

The Frenchmen beholding them in this wise to flée, rode after amaine, and as they followed in chase, they came on the princes battell before they were aware. The lord Raoull of Coucie went so far forward with his banner, that he entred vnder the princes banner, and fought right valiantlie, but yet he was there taken, and the earle of Ioignie, also the vicount of Bruce, the lord Chauuignie, and diuerse other, so that the most part of those Frenchmen were either taken or slaine, and verie few escaped. The prince vnderstood by the prisoners, that the French king was so farre aduanced forward in pursute of him, that he could not auoid the battell. Then he assembled his men togither, and commanded them to kéepe order, and so rode that day being saturdaie from morning till it was toward night, & then came within two leagues of Poictiers: and herewith sending foorth certeine capteins, to search if they could heare where the king was, he incamped himselfe that night in a strong place amongst hedges, vines, and bushes. They that were sent to discouer the countrie, rode so far, that they saw where the French king with his great battell was marching, and setting vpon the taile of the Frenchmen, caused all the host to stir: whereof knowledge being giuen to the king, the which as then was entring into Poictiers, he returned againe, and made all his host to doo the like, so that it was verie late yer he and his people were bestowed in their lodgings that night. The English currours returning to the prince, declared what they had séene and doone. So, that night, the two armies being lodged within a small distance either of other, kept strong and sure watch about their campes.

The ordering of the French battell.

On the morrow after being sundaie, and the eightéenth daie of September, the French king caused his host to be diuided into thrée battels or wards, and in each of them were sixtéene thousand armed men, all mustered and passed for armed men. The first battell was gouerned by the duke of Orleance, wherein were six and thirtie banners, and twise as manie penons. The second was led by the duke of Normandie and his brethren, the lord Lewes & the lord Iohn. The third the French king himselfe conducted. And while these battels were setting in arraie, the king caused the lord Eustace de Ribaumount, and two other noble men to ride on before, to sée the dealing of the Englishmen, and to aduise of what number they were. Those that were thus sent, rode foorth and beheld the order of the Englishmen at good leisure: and returning, infourmed the king, that as they could iudge, the enimies were about two thousand men of armes, foure thousand archers, and[Pg 665] fiftéene hundred of others, and that they were lodged in such a strong place, and so well fensed with ditches and hedges, that it would be hard assaulting them therein.

The cardinal of Piergort.
The prince of Wales contented to come to a treatie.

The cardinall of Piergort the popes legat, as then lieng in the citie of Poictiers, came that morning to the king, and required him to absteine from battell, till he might vnderstand whether the prince would condescend vnto such conditions of peace as he himselfe should think reasonable, which if it might be brought to passe, the same should be more honorable for him, than to aduenture so manie noble men as were there with him at that present in hazard of battell. The king was contented that the cardinall should go to the prince, and sée what he could doo with him. The cardinall rode to the prince, and talked with him till he was contented to come to a treatie. The cardinall returned to the French king, and required of him that a truce might be granted till the next daies sun-rising: which truce obteined, he spent that daie in riding to and fro betwixt them.

The offer of the prince of Wales.
The French kings presumptuous demand.

The prince offered to render into the kings hands all that he had woone in that voiage, as well townes as castels, and also to release all the prisoners, which he or any of his men had taken in that iournie: and further he was contented to haue béene sworne not to beare armour against the French king within the terme of seuen yeares next following. But the French king would not agrée therevnto: the vttermost that he would agrée vnto, was this, that the prince and an hundred of his knights should yéeld themselues as prisoners vnto him, otherwise he would not haue the matter taken vp. But it was the French kings hap after (notwithstanding his hautines) to be taken captiue, as Okland noteth, saieng,

---- seruilia sub iuga missus
Disceret vt domino regi parêre Britanno.

But the prince in no wise cold be brought to any such vnreasonable conditions, and so the cardinall could not make them fréends, although he trauelled earnestlie betwixt them all that daie. When it drew towards night, he returned toward Poictiers.

The Englishmen fortifie their campe.
The cardinall trauelled in vaine.

The Englishmen were not idle, whilest the cardinall was thus in hand to bring the parties to some good agréement, but cast great ditches, and made hedges, and other fortifications about the place where their archers stood, and on the next morning, being mondaie, the prince and his people prepared themselues to receiue battell, as they had doone before, hauing passed the day before and that night in great defect of necessarie things, for they could not stir abroad to fetch forrage or other prouisions without danger to be surprised of their enimies. The cardinall came againe earlie in the morning vnto the French king, and found the French armie readie in order of battell by that time the sunne was vp, and though he eftsoones fell in hand to exhort the king to an agréement, yet it would not be. So he went to the prince, and declared to him how he could doo no good in the matter, and therefore he must abide the hazard of battell for ought that he could sée: wherewith the prince was content, and so the cardinall returned vnto Poictiers.

Tho. Wals.
A prophesie of a prelate.

¶ Here is to be remembred, that when (as Thomas Walsingham writeth) this cardinall of Piergort was sent from the pope to traueil betwixt the parties for a peace to be had, and that the pope exhorted him verie earnestlie to shew his vttermost diligence and indeuour therein: at his setting foorth to go on that message, the said cardinall (as was said) made this answer: Most blessed father (said he) either we will persuade them to peace and quietnesse, either else shall the verie flintstones crie out of it. But this he spake not of himselfe, as it was supposed, but being a prelate in that time, he prophesied what should follow; for when the English archers had bestowed all their arrowes vpon their enimies, they tooke vp pebles from the place where they stood, being full of those kind of stones, and approching to their enimies, they threw the same with such violence on them, that lighting against their helmets, armor, and targets, they made a great ringing noise, so that the cardinals prophesie was fulfilled, that he would either persuade a peace, or else the stones should crie out thereof.

[Pg 666]

The exhortation of the prince.

The worthie prince like a couragious chiefteine, when he saw that he must néeds fight, required his people not to be abashed at the great number of their enimies, sith the victorie did not consist in the multitude of men, but where God would send it: and if it fortuned that the iournie might be theirs and his, they should be the most honored people of the world: and if they should die in that righteous quarrell, he had the king his father and also his brethren, in like case as they had fréends and kinsmen, that would séeke their reuenge. And therefore he desired them that daie to shew themselues like valiant men of warre: and for his part he trusted in God and saint George, they should sée in his person no default. These or the like words did this most gentle prince speake, which greatlie comforted all his people.

Noble men with the prince of Wales.
The capitall de Beuf.
The number of the prince his armie.

There were with him of earles, Warwike, Suffolke, Salisburie, Stafford; of lords, Cobham Spenser, Audeley, Berkley, Basset, Warren, de la Ware, Bradeston, Burwasch, Felton, Mallow, and diuerse other: also sir Iohn Chandois, by whome he was much counselled, sir Richard Stafford, sir Richard of Penbruche, and manie other knights and valiant esquires of England. Moreouer, there was of Gascoigne, the capitall of Buz or Beuf, the lords of Prumes, Burguenrie, Chaumount, de Lespare, Rosen, Monferant, Landuras, the Souldich of Lestrad or Lescard, and other; and of Heinault, sir Eustace Daubreticourt, sir Iohn de Guistelles, and other strangers. All the princes companie passed not the number of eight thousand men one and other, of the which (as Iacobus Meire saith) thrée thousand were archers: though Froissard (as I haue rehearsed before) reporteth the number of archers to be more, as in one place six thousand, and in an other place foure thousand.

The number of the French.
The battell is begun.
The force of the English archer.
The lord Iames Audeley.

The French king hauing in his armie thrée score thousand fighting men, wherof there were more than thrée thousand knights, made so sure account of victorie, as anie man might of a thing not yet had, considering his great puissance, in regard to the small number of his aduersaries: and therefore immediatlie after that the cardinall was departed, he caused his battels to march forward, and approching to the place where the Englishmen stood readie to receiue their enimies, caused the onset to be giuen. There were certeine French horssemen, to the number of thrée hundred, with the Almains also on horssebacke appointed to breake the arraie of the English archers, but the archers were so defended and compassed about with hedges and ditches, that the horssemen of the French part could not enter to doo their feat, and being galled with the sharpe shot of the English bowes, they were ouerthrowne horsse and man, so that the vaward of the Frenchmen, wherein was the duke of Athens, with the marshals of France, the lord Iohn de Cleremont, and the lord Arnold Dandrehen or Odenhen, began to disorder within a while, by reason of the shot of the archers, togither with the helpe of the men of armes, amongst whome in the forefront was the lord Iames Audeley, to performe a vow which he had made, to be one of the first setters on.

Tho. Walsi.
The earles of Warwike and Suffolke.

There was the lord Arnold Dandrehen taken prisoner, and the lord Iohn de Cleremont slaine, so that the noble prowesse of the said lord Iames Audeley, breaking through the Frenchmens battell with the slaughter of manie enimies, was that day most apparant. The loiall constancie of the noble earles of Warwike and Suffolke, that fought so stoutlie, so earnestlie, and so fiercelie, was right manifest. And the prince himselfe did not onelie fulfill the office of a noble chéefteine, but also of a right valiant and expert souldiour, attempting what soeuer any other hardie warriour would in such cases haue done. Neither was this battell quicklie dispatched, nor easilie brought to end; but it was fought out with such obstinate earnestnesse, that thrée times that daie were the Englishmen driuen to renew the fight, through the multitude of enimies that increased and came still vpon them.

[Pg 667]

The marshals battell put to ye worst.
The Frenchmen séeke to saue themselues by flight.

Finallie, the marshals battell was quite discomfited: for the Frenchmen and Almains fell one vpon an other, and could not passe foorth; and those that were behind, & could not get forward, reculed backe: and while the marshals battell being on horssebacke thus assailed the English armie with great disaduantage, and was in the end beaten backe, the two battels of the dukes of Normandie and Orleance came forward, and likewise assailed the Englishmen, but could not preuaile. The archers shot so fiercelie, that to conclude, the Frenchmen behind, vnderstanding the discomfiture of the marshals battell, and how their fellowes before could not enter vpon their enimies, they opened and ran to their horsses, in whome they did put more trust for their safegard by galloping on them awaie, than in their manlike hands, for all their late brauerie and great boasts. One thing sore discouraged the Frenchmen, and that was this: beside those Englishmen that were within the closure of their campe, there were certeine men of armes on horssebacke, with a number of archers also on horssebacke, appointed to coast vnder the couert of a mounteine, adioining to the place, where they thought to strike into a side of the duke of Normandies battell, so that with the terrour hereof, and with the continuall shot of the English archers, the Frenchmen not knowing where to turne themselues, sought to saue their liues by flight.

The valiancie of the French king.
The French king taken.
Ia. Meir.
Sir Denise Morbecke.

The prince of Wales, perceiuing how his enimies (for the more part of them) were fléeing awaie as men discomfited, sent out his horssemen as well on the one hand as on the other, and he himselfe with his whole power of footmen rushed foorth, and manfullie assailed the maine battell of the Frenchmen, where the king himselfe was, who like a valiant prince would not flée, but fought right manfullie: so that if the fourth part of his men had doone halfe their parts as he did his, the victorie by likelihood had rested (as Froissard saith) on his side: but he was forsaken of his thrée sonnes, and of his brother the duke of Orleance, which fled out of the battell with cleare hands. Finallie, after huge slaughter made of those noblemen, and other which abode with him euen to the end, he was taken, and so likewise was his yongest sonne Philip, and both put in great danger to haue béene murthered after they were taken, by the Englishmen and Gascoignes, striuing who should haue the king to his prisoner, where indéed a knight of Flanders or rather Artois, borne in saint Omers, called sir Denise Morbecke, tooke him, but he was streightwaies taken from the same sir Denise by other that came in the meane season, better prouided (béelike) of strength, and lead him awaie vnresisted.

Noblemen slaine.
Ia. Mair.
The chase.
Annales de France.
Archembald Douglas takē.
Iacob Meir.
Prisoners taken.

There were slaine in this battell, of noblemen, the dukes of Burbon and Athens, the marshall Cleremont, sir Geffrey Charnie that bare the chéefe standert of France, the bishop of Chaalons, sir Eustace de Ribaumont, with diuerse other to the number of eight hundred lords, knights, and gentlemen of name. In all there died on the French part six thousand of one and other. The chase was continued euen to the gates of Poictiers, and manie slaine and beaten downe in the stréet before the gates, which the citizens had closed, for doubt least the Englishmen should enter with them that fled, thither for safegard. There were taken beside the king and his sonne, the lord Iaques de Burbon earle of Ponthieu, brother to the duke of Burbon that was slaine there, the earle of Ew, the lord Charles his brother earle of Longuile, the archbishop of Sens, the earle of Vandosme, Salesbruch, Ventadore, Tankeruille, Estampes, and Dampmartine: also Archembald Douglas a noble man of Scotland, sonne to the honorable lord William Dowglas that was killed in Spaine, the marshall Dandrehen or Odenhen (as Iacobus Meir saith) with others to the number of seuentéene hundred earles, lords, knights, and gentlemen, beside those of the meaner sort; so that the Englishmen had twise as manie prisoners as they themselues were in number: and therefore it was deuised amongst them, to put the most part of their prisoners to ransome there in the field, and so they did for doubt of further danger, the multitude being so great as it was.

[Pg 668]

The battell of Poictiers when it was.
The prince suppeth the prisoners.

Thus was the prince of Wales victor in that notable battell fought in the fields of Beauuoir and Malpertuse, two leagues from Poictiers, the ninetéenth day of September being monday, in the yéere a thousand, thrée hundred, fiftie and six, which began in the morning and ended at noone. But bicause the Englishmen were scattered abroad in chase of their enimies, the princes banner was set vp in a bush, to draw all his men togither. It was almost night yer they were all returned from the chase. The prince made a great supper in his lodging that night to the French king, and to the most part of his nobles that were taken prisoners, and did all the honour that he could deuise to the king. And where he perceiued by his chéere and countenance, that his heart was full of pensiue gréefe, carefull thought and heauinesse, he comforted him in the best maner that he might, and said to him: as followeth.

The méeke and comfortable oration of the English prince to the French king being taken prisoner.

Most noble king, there is no cause wherefore your grace should be pensiue, though God this day did not consent to follow your will. For your noble prowes and dignitie roiall, with the supreme type of your kinglie maiestie, remaineth whole and inuiolate, and what soeuer may rightlie be called yours; so that no violent force of time shall blot out or diminish the same. The almightie God hath determined that the chance of war shall rest in his disposition and will, as all other things. Your elders haue atchiued both by land & sea manie noble enterprises. The whole compasse of Europe, all the east parts of the world, all places and countries, both far & néere, are full of monuments, witnessing the noble victories atteined by the French people.

The cause of godlie liuing and religion, the dignitie and preheminence of christianitie hath béene defended and augmented by you, against the most mightie and puissant capteins of the infidels, enimies to the said christian religion. All ages shall make mention of your worthie praises, no nation there is but shall confesse it selfe bounden at one time or other for benefits receiued at your hands; neither is there any people but such as hope to be hereafter bounden to you for reliefe and benefits, to procéed from you in time to come. One or two battels happilie haue chanced among so manie triumphs otherwise than you would haue wished; chance would it should be so, which may inféeble and make weake the power of horsses, armor, and weapon: your inuincible courage and roiall magnanimitie lieth in your power to reteine: neither shall this day take any thing from you or yours. And this realme of France which hath procreat and brought foorth and norished so many of my noble progenitors, shall perceiue my good meaning towards hir, as not forgetfull of mine elders, and toward your maiestie (if you will vouchsafe that I should glorie of that name) a most humble kinsman. There are manie occasions of loue and fréendship betwixt you and my father, which I trust shall take place, for I know all his thoughts and inward meanings: you shall agrée and come to an attonement right easilie togither, & I praie God he neuer take me for his sonne, except I haue you in the same degrée of honor, reuerence, and faithfull loue, which I owe towards him.

The French king thanketh the prince.
The prince returneth to Burdeaux.
The lord Audelie rewarded.

The king (as reason would) acknowledged this to procéed of great courtesie shewed toward him in the prince, and thanked him accordinglie. And the prince performing in déed that which he spake with word, ceassed from further vsing of fire, or other indamaging of the French dominions, and taking his waie through the countries of Poictou and Xaintonge, by easie iournies, he and his people came to Blaie, and so passed ouer the water to Burdeaux in good safetie with all their riches and prisoners. The prince gaue to the lord Iames Audelie (who had receiued in the battell manie sore wounds) fiue hundred marks of yearelie reuenues assigned foorth of his lands in England. The which gift the knight granted as fréelie as he had receiued it vnto foure of his esquiers, which in the battell had béene euer attendant about his person, without whose aid & valiant support, he knew well that he had béene slaine sundrie times in the same battell by his enimies, and therefore thought it a dutie of humanitie and gratitude to make them amends with some[Pg 669] temporall recompense, that had saued his life, than the which nothing is more déere, nor of greater price in the world, as the poet saith,

---- nihil est vita pretiosius ipsa.

When the prince heard that he had so doone, he meruelled what his meaning was therby, and caused him to be brought before his presence, and demanded of him wherefore he had so lightlie giuen awaie that reward which he had bestowed vpon him, and whether he thought that gift too meane for him or not. The lord Audelie so excused himselfe in extolling the good seruice doone to him by his esquiers, through whome he had so manie times escaped the dangers of death, that the prince did not onelie confirme the resignation of the fiue hundred marks giuen to the esquiers, but also rewarded the lord Audelie with six hundred marks more of like yearelie reuenues, in maner and forme as he had receiued the other.

An. Reg. 31.
Additions to Adam Merimuth.
The prince bringeth the French king ouer into England.

When the newes of this great victorie came into England of the ouerthrow of the Frenchmen, and taking of the French king, ye may be sure there was great ioy shewed by outward tokens, as bonfiers made, feasts and bankets kept, through the whole realme. Likewise the Gascoignes and Englishmen being come to Burdeaux, made great reuell and pastime there, spending fréelie that gold and siluer which they had woone in the battell of Poictiers, and elsewhere in that iournie. ¶ This yeare in Aprill the prince of Wales tooke shipping with his prisoners at Burdeaux, and on the fift of Maie arriued at Plimouth. On the foure and twentith day of Maie he was with great honour ioifullie receiued of the citizens into the citie of London, and so conueied to the palace of Westminster, where the king sitting in Westminster hall, receiued the French king, and after conueied him to a lodging appointed for him, where he laie a season; but after he was remoued to the Sauoie, which was at that time a goodlie house, perteining to the duke of Lancaster, though afterwards it was burnt and destroied by Wat Tiler, Iacke Straw, and their companie. In this place the French king laie, and kept house a long time after.

A iusts holden in Smithfield.
The French K. sorrowfull.

In the winter following were roiall iustes holden in Smithfield, at the which were present the kings of England, France, and Scotland, with manie great estates of all their thrée kingdoms, of the which the more part of the strangers were as then prisoners. It was reported, that the French king could not so dissemble nor cloake his inward thought, but that there appeared some tokens of gréefe in his countenance, whilest he beheld these warlike pastimes. And when the king of England, & his sonne prince Edward with comfortable words required him after supper to put all pensiue cares out of his fantasie, and to be merrie and sing as other did, he should make this answer with a smiling countenance, alluding to the complaint of the Israelits in time of their captiuitie vnder the gentiles, & saieng,

Psalm. 137.
Quomodo cantabimus canticum in terra aliena?
Thom. Wals.
Cardinals sent into England.
A truce for two yeares.

About the same time there came ouer into England two cardinals, the one called Talirand being bishop of Alba (commonlie named the cardinall of Pierregort) and the other named Nicholas intituled cardinall of S. Vitale or (as Froissard saith) of Dargell, they were sent from pope Innocent the sixt, to intreat for a peace betwixt the kings of England and France: but they could not bring their purpose to anie perfect conclusion, although they remained here for the space of two yeares: but yet onelie by good means they procured a truce betwéene the said kings, and all their assistants, to indure from the time of the publication thereof, vnto the feast of S. Iohn Baptist, which should be in the yeare 1359: out of the which truce was excepted the L. Philip of Nauarre, and his alies, the countesse of Montfort, and the whole duchie of Britaine.

The French king remoued to Windsor.
Rennes besieged.

Anon after, the French king was remooued from the Sauoie vnto the castell of Windsor with all his houshold, and then he went on hunting and hawking there about at his pleasure, and the lord Philip his sonne with him, all the residue of the prisoners abode still at London, but were suffered to go vp and downe, and to come to the court when they would. In the same yeare the duke of Lancaster besieged the citie of Rennes in Bri[Pg 670]taine, in the title of the countesse of Richmond, & hir yoong sonne Iohn of Montfort, that claimed to be duke of Britaine. Those that were within the citie, as the vicount of Rohan, and Berthram de Claiquin (who as then was a lustie yoong bacheler) and others defended themselues manfullie for a time, but yet at length they were compelled to render the citie into their enimies hands.

Tho. Walsi.
The king of Scots ransomed.

About the same time two Franciscane friers were burnt at London, for matters of religion. ¶ Moreouer quéene Isabell, mother vnto king Edward the third, departed this life the seauen and twentith daie of August, and was buried the seauen and twentith daie of Nouember, in the church of the friers minors at London, not yet dedicated. ¶ Dauid king of Scotland, shortlie after the truce was concluded betwixt England and France, was set at libertie, paieng for his ransome the summe of one hundred thousand marks (as Fourdon saith) but whether he meaneth Scotish or sterling monie, I cannot saie. He also was bound by couenant now vpon his deliuerance, to cause the castels in Nidesdale to be raised, which were knowne to be euill neighbors to the English borderers, as Dunfrise, Dalswinton, Morton, Dunsdere, and nine other.


His wife quéene Ione made such earnest sute to hir brother king Edward for hir husbands deliuerance, that king Edward was contented to release him vpon the paiment of so small a portion of monie, and performance of the couenants, for the raising of those castels; although Froissard saith, that he was couenanted to paie for his deliuerance within the tearme of ten yeares, fiue hundred thousand nobles, and for suertie of that paiment to send into England sufficient hostages, as the earles of Dowglas, Murrey, Mar, Sutherland, and Fiffe, the baron of Vescie, and sir William Camoise. Also he couenanted neuer to weare armour against king Edward, within his realme of England, nor to consent that his subiects should so doo: and further should vpon his returne home, doo the best he could to cause the Scots to agrée that their countrie should hold of him in fée, and that he and his successours, kings of Scotland, should doo homage to the king of England, and his successors for the realme of Scotland.

An. Reg. 32.
Annales de France.
The citie of Auxerre takē by sir Robert Knolles.
Daúbignie sir le Metre.
Newcastell vpon Loire.

In this two and thirtith yeare, as witnesseth the French chronicles, sir Robert Knolles, Iames Pipe, and one Thomlin Foulke, with other capiteins and men of warre as souldiours to the king of Nauarre vpon the tenth day of March earlie in the morning scaled the walles of the citie of Auxerre, and behaued them so manfullie, that they were maisters of the towne before the sunne was vp. They got excéeding much by the spoile of that citie, and by ransoming the prisoners which they tooke there. At length after they had remained eight daies in that citie, and taken their pleasures of all things within it, they wrought so with the citizens, that to haue possession of their citie againe, and to haue it saued from fire, they agréed to giue to sir Robert Knolles, and to his companie, fiftie thousand motons of gold, which amounted to the summe of twelue thousand and fiue hundred pounds sterling or there about; and yet was it agréed, that the Englishmen should burne the gates, and throw downe the walles in diuers places. In Aprill next insuing, the towne of Daúbignie sir le Metre was likewise woone by the Englishmen; and the second daie of Maie Chastelon sir Loigne was taken by the said sir Robert Knolles, and put to sacke as the other were. From thence they went to Newcastell vpon Loire. Thus did the Englishmen and other, in title of the K. of Nauarre, greatlie indamage the realme of France, dailie winning townes and castels, ransoming the people, and wasting the countries in most miserable wise, as in the historie of France you may read more at large.

Talke of a peace, and articles thereof drawne.

In this meane while there was talke of peace betwixt the king of England, and the king of France, and articles thereof drawne in this forme, that the whole countries of Gascoine, Guien, Poictou, Touraine, Xainctonge, Piergourd, Quercie, Limosin, Angolismois, Calis, Guines, Bullogne, and Ponthieu, should remaine to the king of England wholie without dooing homage or paieng anie reléefe for the same: but on the other part, he should renounce all his right, which he might by anie manner of meane claime[Pg 671] to the countries of Normandie, Aniou, or Maine. And further, that the French king should paie a certeine summe of monie for his ransome, and deliuer sufficient pledges for the same, and so depart into France. These articles were sent ouer into France, that the thrée states there might confirme them, which they refused to doo. Wherevpon when the truce ended, the warres were againe reuiued. ¶The king, held this yéere the feast of S. George at Windsor, in more sumptuous manner than euer it had béene kept before.

Thom. Wals.
The bishop of Elie.
Such as deliuered the popes letters hanged.

In the same yeare also, frier Iohn Lisle bishop of Elie, being (as he tooke it) somewhat wronged by the ladie Blanch de Wake, and other that were of hir counsell, when the last yeare against the kings will vnto the popes court, where exhibiting his complaint, he caused the pope to excommunicate all his aduersaries, sending to the bishop of Lincolne and other of the cleargie, that if they knew any of them so excommunicated to be dead and buried, they should draw them out of their graues: which was doone. And bicause some of those that were excommunicated were of the kings councell, the king tooke such displeasure therewith, that he gréeuouslie disquieted the prelats. Wherevpon there were sent from the court of Rome on the behalfe of the bishop of Elie, certeine persons, which being armed, met the bishop of Rochester lord treasuror, deliuering to him letters from the pope, the contents of the which were not knowen, and foorthwith they shranke awaie: but the kings seruants made such pursute after them, that some of them they tooke, and bringing them before the kings iustices, vpon their arreignement they were condemned, and suffered death on the gallowes.

Discord betwixt priests and friers.
Th. Walsing.
Iohn of Gant married.
An. Reg. 33.
Windsore castell repared. Additions to Triuet.
A solemne iusts at London.
The K. with his foure sons are of the challengers part.
The French K. remoued. He departed frō Hertford the 29 of Iulie.

Great discord rose also about this time, or rather afore, betwixt the cleargie, and the foure orders of friers, as in the booke of acts & monuments set foorth by master Iohn Fox ye may read more at large. In this yeare Iohn of Gant earle of Richmond, sonne to the king, the ninetéenth day of Maie married the ladie Blanch daughter to Henrie duke of Lancaster at Reading; and bicause they were cousins within the degrées of consanguinitie, forbidden by the church lawes to marrie, a dispensation was procured of the pope to remoue that obstacle and let. In this yeare the king set workemen in hand to take downe much old bildings belonging to the castell of Windsore, and caused diuerse other faire and sumptuous works to be erected and set vp, in and about the same castell, so that almost all the masons and carpenters that were of any accompt within this land, were sent for and imploied about the same works, the ouerséer whereof was William Wickham the kings chaplein, by whose aduise the king tooke in hand to repare that place, the rather in déed bicause he was borne there, and therefore he tooke great pleasure to bestow cost in beautifieng it with such buildings, as may appeare euen vnto this daie. Moreouer, this yeare in the Rogation wéeke was solemne iusts enterprised at London, for the maior and his foure and twentie brethren as challengers did appoint to answer all commers, in whose name and stéed the king with his foure sonnes, Edward, Lionell, Iohn, and Edmund, and ninetéene other great lords, in secret manner came and held the field with honor, to the great pleasure of the citizens that beheld the same. ¶Ye haue heard how the Frenchmen refused the peace, which was accorded betwixt K. Edward & their king, as then prisoner here in England. Wherupō K. Edward determined to make such warre against the realme of France, that the Frenchmen with all their harts should be glad to condescend and agrée to reason: and first he commanded all manner of Frenchmen (other than such as were prisoners) to auoid out of England. He also appointed the French king to be remoued from the castell of Hertford, where he then remained, vnto the castell of Somerton in Lincolneshire, vnder the gard and conduct of the lord William Deincourt, being allowed fourtie shillings the day for the wages of two and twentie men at armes, twentie archers, & two watchmen: as thus, for himselfe and sir Iohn Kirketon baronets, either of them foure shillings the daie; for thrée knights, sir William Colleuill (in place of the lord Robert Colleuill, that could not trauell himselfe by reason of sicknesse) sir Iohn Deincourt, and sir Saer de Rochfort, ech of them two[Pg 672] shillings the daie; seuentéene esquiers ech of them twelue pence the day, eight archers on horsse backe euerie of them six pence the day, and twelue archers on foot thrée pence, and the two watchmen either of them six pence the day, which amounteth in the whole vnto nine and thirtie shillings the day; and the od twelue pence was allowed to the said lord Deincourt to make vp the summe of 40 shillings. ¶ This haue I noted the rather, to giue a light to the reader to consider how chargeable the reteining of men of war in these daies is, in respect of the former times. But now to our purpose.

The king prepareth to make a iournie into France.
The duke of Lancaster.
Braie assaulted.

The king meaning to passe ouer himselfe in person into France, caused a mightie armie to be mustered and put in a readinesse, and sent before him the duke of Lancaster ouer to Calis with foure hundred speares, and two thousand archers, where the said duke ioined with such strangers as were alreadie come to Calis in great numbers, and togither with them entered into the French dominions, and passing by saint Omers & Bethune, came to Mount saint Eloie, a goodlie abbeie and a rich, two leagues distant from Arras, and there the host tarried foure daies, and when they had robbed and wasted all the countrie thereabout, they rode to Braie, and there made a great assault, at the which a baronet of England was slaine with diuerse other. When the Englishmen saw they could win nothing there, they departed, and following the water of Some, came to a towne called Chersie, where they passed the riuer, and there tarried Alhallowen daie, & the night following.

The kings arriuall at Calis.

On the same daie the duke of Lancaster was aduertised, that the king was arriued at Calis the seuentéenth daie of October, commanding him by letters to draw towards him with all his companie. The duke according to the kings commandement obeied, and so returned toward Calis. The king being there arriued with all his power, tooke counsell which way he should take. Some aduised him first to inuade Flanders, and to reuenge the iniurious dealing of the earle and the Flemings: but he would not agrée to that motion, for he purposed fullie either by plaine force to make a conquest of France, or else vtterlie to destroie and wast the countrie throughout with fier and sword. Herevpon he set forwards the fourth of Nouember, and passing through the countries of Arthois, and Vermendois, he came before the citie of Reimes. There went ouer with him in this iournie, & with the duke of Lancaster, his foure sonnes, Edward prince of Wales, Lionell earle of Vlster, Iohn earle of Richmond, and the lord Edmund his yoongest sonne. Also there was Henrie the said duke of Lancaster, with the earles of March, Warwike, Suffolke, Hereford (who also was earle of Northampton) Salisburie, Stafford, and Oxford, the bishops of Lincolne, and Durham, and the lords Percie, Neuill, Spenser, Kirdiston, Rosse, Mannie, Cobham, Mowbray, de la Ware, Willoughbie, Felton, Basset, Fitz Water, Charleton, Audelie, Burwasch, and others, beside knights and esquiers, as sir Iohn Chandois, sir Stephan Goussanton, sir Nowell Loring, sir Hugh Hastings, sir Iohn Lisle, sir Richard Pembruge, and others.

Reimes besieged.
An. Reg. 34.
Tonnere woone.

The siege was laid before Reimes about saint Andrewes tide, and continued more than seuen wéekes: but the citie was so well defended by the bishop and the earle of Porcien, and other capiteins within it, that the Englishmen could not obteine their purpose, and so at length, when they could not haue forrage nor other necessarie things abroad in the countrie for to serue their turne, the king raised his field, and departed with his armie in good order of battell, taking the way through Champaigne, and so passed by Chaalons, and after to Merie on the riuer of Seine. From Merie he departed and came vnto Tonnere, which towne about the beginning of the foure and thirtith yeare of his reigne was woone by assault, but the castell could not be woone, for there was within it the lord Fiennes constable of France, and a great number of other good men of war, which defended it valiantlie.

[Pg 673]

The number of carriages.

After the king had rested there fiue daies, and that his men were well refreshed with the wines and other such things, which they found in that towne in good plentie, he remooued and drew towards Burgognie, comming to a towne called Guillon or Aguillon, where he lay from Ashwednesday vnto Midlent, hauing good prouision of all maner of vittels by the means of an esquier of his called Iohn Alanson, which had taken the towne of Flauignie not farre thence, wherein was great store of bread and wine and other vittels: and still the marshals rode foorth, and oftentimes refreshed the host with new prouision. The Englishmen had with them in their carriages, tents, pauillions, milles, ouens, and forges; also boates of leather cunninglie made and deuised, able to receiue thrée men a péece, and to passe them ouer waters and riuers. They had at the least six thousand carts with them, and for euerie cart foure horsses which they had out of England.

Additions to Ad. Merimuth.
Winchelsie burnt by the French.
A compositiō made to spare the countrie of Burgognie.

In this meane while, the Frenchmen made certeine vessels foorth to the sea, vnder the gouernance of the earle of S. Paule, the which vpon the fiftéenth daie of March landed earlie in the morning at Winchelsie, and before sunne rising entred the towne, and finding the inhabitants vnprouided to make anie great resistance, fell to and sacked the houses, slue manie men, women, and also children, and after set fier on the towne; and vpon knowledge had that the people of the countrie next adioining were assembled, and comming to the rescue, he caused his men to draw to their ships, and so they taking their pillage and spoile with them, got them aboord, not without some losse of their companie, which were slaine in the towne by such as resisted their violence. Whilest the king laie at Aguillon, there came to him Anscaume de Salilans chancellor of Burgognie, Iaques de Vienne, and other lords of the countrie, being sent from their duke, to agrée with the king for the sparing of the lands and seigniories apperteining to the duchie of Burgognie.

Franks hath Paradine, in Les Annales de Burgognie.
The king of England draweth towards Paris.

The chancellor, and the other Burgognian lords found the king so agréeable to their request, that a composition was made betwixt him and the countrie of Burgognie, so that he should make to them an assurance for him, and all his people, not to ouerrun or indamage that countrie, during the space of thrée yeares, and he to haue in readie monie the summe of two hundred thousand florens of gold, which of sterling monie amounted to the summe of fiue and thirtie thousand pounds. When this agréement was ingrossed vp in writing, and sealed, the king dislodged, and all his host, taking the right waie to Paris, and passing the riuer of Yonne, entered into Gastinois, and at length by easie iournies, vpon a tuesdaie being the last of March in the wéeke before Easter, he came and lodged betwéene Mont le Herie, and Chartres, with his people in the countrie there abouts.

A treatie.

Here the duke of Normandie made meanes for a treatie of peace, which was laboured by a frier called Simon de Langres prouinciall of the friers Iacobins and the popes legat: he did so much, that a treatie was appointed to be holden on good fridaie in the Malederie of Longegimew, where appeared for the king of England the duke of Lancaster, the erls of Warwike and Northampton, with sir Iohn Chandois, sir Walter de Mannie, and sir William Cheinie knights: and for the French king thither came the earle of Eu constable of France, and the marshall Bouciquaut, with other; but their treatie came to none effect: wherfore the king vpon the tuesdaie in the Easter wéeke remooued néerer vnto Paris, and vpon the fridaie following, being the tenth of Aprill, by procurement of the abbat of Clugnie newlie come from pope Innocent the sixt, the foresaid commissioners eftsoones did méet to treat of an agréement, but nothing they could conclude, the parties in their offers and demands were so farre at ods.

The Englishmen before Paris.

Vpon the sundaie next following, a part of the kings hoste came before the citie of Paris, and imbattelled themselues in a field fast by saint Marcilles, abiding there frō morning till thrée of the clocke in the after noone, to sée if the Frenchmen would come foorth to giue battell: but the French would not taste of that vessel. For the duke of Normandie (well considering what losse had insued within few yeares past vnto the realme of France, by giuing battell to the Englishmen, and taught by late triall and féeling of smart to dread imminent danger, for

Vulneribus didicit miles habere metum)

[Pg 674]

The suburbs of Paris burnt.
The bishop of Beauuois.

would not suffer anie of his people to issue foorth of the gates, but commanded them to be readie onelie to defend the walles and gates, although he had a great power of men of warre within the citie, beside the huge multitude of the inhabitants. The Englishmen to prouoke their enimies the sooner to saile forth, burnt diuerse parts of the suburbs, and rode euen to the gates of the citie. When they perceiued that the Frenchmen would not come foorth, about thrée of the clocke in the afternoone they departed out of the field and withdrew to their campe, and then the king and all the English host remooued towards Chartres, and was lodged at a place called Dones. Thither came to him the bishop of Beauuois then chancellor of Normandie, with other, and so handled the matter with him, that a new daie of treatie was appointed to be holden at Bretignie, which is little more then a mile distant from Chartres, vpon the first day of Maie next insuing.

A new treatie.
The duke of Lancaster persuadeth the king to agrée.

In which daie and place appointed, the foresaid duke of Lancaster, and the said earles and other commissioners met with the said bishop, and other French lords and spirituall men to him associate, on the behalfe of the duke of Normandie then regent of France, to renew the former communication of peace, in full hope to bring it to a good conclusion; bicause king Edward began to frame his imagination more to accord with his aduersaries, than he had doone of late, chéefelie for that the duke of Lancaster with courteous words and sage persuasions, aduised him not to forsake such reasonable conditions as the Frenchmen were contented now to agrée vnto, sith that by making such manner of warre as he had attempted, his souldiers onelie gained, and he himselfe lost but time, and consumed his treasure: and further he might warre in this sort all the daies of his life, before he could atteine to his intent, and loose perhaps in one daie more than he had gained in twentie yeares.

An hideous storme & tempest of wether.
A peace concluded.

Such words spoken for the wealth of the king and his subiects, conuerted the kings mind to fansie peace, namelie by the grace of the Holie-ghost chéefe worker in this case. For it chanced on a daie, as he was marching not farre from Chartres, there came such a storm and tempest of thunder, lightening, haile and raine, as the like had neuer béene séene by anie of the English people. This storme fell so hideous in the kings host, that it séemed the world should haue ended: for such vnreasonable great stones of haile fell from the skie, that men and horsses were slaine therewith, so that the most hardie were abashed. There perished thousands thereby, as some haue written. Then the king remembring what reasonable offers of agréement he had refused, vpon remorse of conscience (as by some writers should appeare) asked forgiuenesse of the damage doone by sword and fire in those parts, and fullie determined to grant vnto indifferent articles of peace, for reléefe of the christian inhabitants of that land: and so shortlie after, by the good diligence of the commissioners on both parts, an vnitie and finall peace was accorded, the conditions whereof were comprised in fortie and one articles, the chiefe whereof in effect were these.

[Pg 675]

The articles.
Homages and seruices.

1 First that the king of England should haue and enioy (ouer and beside that which he held alreadie in Gascoigne and Guien) the castell, citie, and countie of Poictiers, and all the lands and countrie of Poictou, with the fée of Touars, and the lands of Belleuille; the citie and castell of Xainctes, and all the lands and countrie of Xaonctonge on both sides the riuer of Charent, with the towne and fortresse of Rochell, with their appurtenances; the citie and castell of Agent, and the countrie of Agenois; the citie and castell of Piergort, and all the land and countrie of Perigueux; the citie and castell of Limoges, and all the lands and countrie of Limosin; the citie and castell of Cahors, and the lordship of Cahorsin; the castell and countrie of Tarbe; the lands countrie and countie of Bigorre; the countie, countrie, and lands of Gaure; the citie and castell of Angolesme; and the countie, land, and countrie of Angolesmois; the citie, towne and castell of Rodaix; and all the countie, and countrie of Rouergne; and if there were in the duchie of Guien any lords, as the earles of Foiz, Arminacke, Lisle, and Perigueux, the vicounts of Carmain, and Limoges, or other holding any lands within the foresaid bounds, it was accorded that they should doo homage and other customarie seruices due for the same vnto the king of England.

The date of the charter of the peace.

2 It was also agréed, that Calis and Guines with the appurtenances, the lands of Montreuill on the sea with the countie of Ponthieu, wholie and entirelie should remaine vnto the king of England. All the which countries, cities, townes, and castels, with the other lands and seigniories, the same king should haue and hold to him and his heires for euer, euen as they were in demaine or fée, immediatlie of God, and frée without recognizing any maner souereingtie to any earthlie man. In consideration whereof, king Edward renounced all such claimes, titles and interest as he pretended vnto any part of France, other than such as were comprised within the charter of couenants of this peace first agréed vpon at Bretignie aforesaid, and after confirmed at Calis, as appeareth, by the same charter dated there the foure & twentith daie of October, in the yeare of our Lord 1360.

The French kings ransome.

3 It was also couenanted, that the French king should paie vnto the king of England thirtie hundred thousand crownes in name of his ransome: for assurance of which paiment, & performance of all the couenants afore mentioned, and other agréed vpon by this peace, the dukes of Orleance, Aniou, Berrie, and Burbon, with diuerse other honorable personages, as earles, lords, and burgesses of euerie good towne, some were appointed to be sent ouer hither into England to remaine as hostages.

The French not to aid the Scots.

4 It was further agréed, that neither the French king nor his successors should aid the Scots against the king of England or his successors; nor that king Edward nor his heirs kings of England should aid the Flemings against the crowne of France.


5 And as for the title or right of the duchie of Britaine, which was in question betwéene the earles of Blois and Mountfort, it was accorded, that both kings being at Calis, the parties should be called before them, and if the two kings could not make them fréends, then should they assigne certeine indifferent persons to agrée them, and they to haue halfe a yéeres respit to end the matter: and if within that terme those that should be so appointed to agrée them, could not take vp the matter betwixt the said earles, then either of them might make the best purchase for himselfe that he could, by helpe of fréends, or otherwise: but alwaies prouided, that neither of the kings nor their sonnes should so aid the said earles, whereby the peace accorded betwixt England and France, might by any meanes be broken or infringed. Also, to whether of the said earles the duchie of Britaine in the end chanced to fall by sentence of iudges, or otherwise, the homage should be doone for the same vnto the French king.

The king of England returneth home.
The earle of Warwike.

All these ordinances, articles and agréements, with manie mo (which here would be too long to rehearse) were accorded and ratified by the instruments and scales of the prince of Wales on the one part, and of the duke of Normandie regent of France on the other part, as by their letters patents then sealed further appeared, bearing date, the one at Loures in Normandie the sixtéenth daie of Maie in the yeare of Grace 1360, and the other at Paris the tenth day of the same moneth, and in the yeare aforesaid. Ouer & beside this, both the said princes tooke on them a solemne oth, to sée all the same articles and couenants of agréement throughlie kept, mainteined and performed. This doone, king Edward imbarked himselfe with his four sonnes and the most part of his nobles at Hunfleu the twentith daie of Maie, and so sailed into England, leauing behind him the earle of Warwike to haue the gouernement of all the men of warre which he left behind him, either in Guien or in any other place on that side the sea.

[Pg 676]

Tho. Walsin.
The French king goeth ouer to Calis.
The kings receiue a solemne oth to sée the peace performed.

There died in this iournie diuerse noble men of this land, as the earles of March and Oxford, the lord Iohn Graie then steward of England, and the lord Geffrie de Saie, with diuerse other. The eight of Iulie next insuing, the French king hauing licence to depart, landed at Calis, and was lodged in the castell there, abiding till the king of England came thither, which was not till the ninth day of October next after. On the foure and twentith daie of October, both the kings being in two trauerses and one chappell at Calis, a masse was said before them, and when they should haue kissed the pax, either of them in signe of greater fréendship kissed the other, & there they were solemnlie sworne to mainteine the articles of the same peace; and for more assurance thereof, manie lords of both parts were likewise sworne to mainteine the same articles to the vttermost of their powers. Whilest these kings laie thus at Calis, there was great banketting and chéere made betwixt them.

The duke of Normandie.
The number of the French hostages.
The French king set at libertie.

Also the duke of Normandie came from Bullongne to Calis, to visit his father, and to sée the king of England, in which meane time two of king Edwards sonnes were at Bullongne. Finallie, when these two kings had finished all matters in so good order and forme that the same could not be amended nor corrected, and that the French king had deliuered his hostages to the king of England, that is to saie, six dukes, beside earles, lords, and other honorable personages, in all to the number of eight and thirtie: on the morrow after the taking of their oths, that is to saie on the fiue and twentith daie of October, being sundaie, the French king was fréelie deliuered, and the same daie before noone he departed from Calis, and rode to Bullongne. The king of England brought him a mile foreward on his waie, and then tooke leaue of him in most louing maner. The prince attended him to Bullongne, where both he and the duke of Normandie with other were eftsoons sworne to hold and mainteine the foresaid peace without all fraud or colourable deceit: and this doone, the prince returned to Calis. Thus was the French king set at libertie, after he had béene prisoner here in England the space of foure yeares, and as much as from the ninetéenth daie of September, vnto the fiue and twentith of October. When the king of England had finished his businesse at Calis, according to his mind, he returned into England, and came to London the ninth daie of Nouember.

¶ Thus haue yée hard the originall begining, the processe, and issue of sundrie conflicts and battels, and speciallie of two, one of Iohn the French king vnluckilie attempted against England; the other of Dauid the Scotish king as vnfortunatlie ended. For both kings were subdued in fight, vanquished, and taken prisoners; with a great number of their noblemen, whereas they were in hope to haue gone awaie with the conquest, and to haue had renowme for their reward. Of which ouerthrow giuen to both these kings, with the clemencie of king Edward (in whose hands though their liues laie to be disposed as he list, yet he was so far from violating the same, that he shewed himselfe a woonderfull fauourer of their estates, and in fine not onelie put them to their reasonable ransoms, but restored them to their roialties, from the which their sinister lot had deposed them) Christopher Okland hath left this remembred:

In Angl. prœl. sub Edwardo, 3.
Plantageneta duos reges iam illustris habebat
Captiuos, tenuit comites custodia mitis
Multos ambabus claro regionibus ortos
Sanguine, quos sæuo bello cepere Britanni.
Attamen Eduardi viguit clementia regis
Tanta, & tanta animo virtus innata sedebat,
Vt pretio & pacto dimitteret ære redemptos
In patriam ad propriæ consanguinitatis amicos.
Strange woonders.
A great death.

In this foure and thirtith yeare of king Edward, men and cattell were destroied in diuerse places of this realme, by lightening and tempest; also houses were set on fire and burnt, and manie strange and woonderfull sights séene. ¶ The same yeare Edward prince of Wales married the countesse of Kent, which before was wife vnto the lord Thomas Holland: and before that, she was also wife vnto the erle of Salisburie, and diuorsed from him, and wedded to the same lord Holland. She was daughter vnto Edmund earle of Kent, brother to king Edward the second, that was beheaded in the beginning of this kings reigne, as before yée haue heard. And bicause the prince and shée were within degrées of consanguinitie forbidden to marrie, a dispensation was gotten from the pope to remooue that let. In this yeare also was a great death of people[Pg 677] (namelie of men, for women were not so much subiect thereto.) This was called the second mortalitie, bicause it was the second that fell in this kings daies.

Hen. Marl.
The primat of Ardmach departed this life.
Additions to Triuet, and Adam Merimuth.
A Strāge sight in the aire.

This yeare also by the death of Richard fitz Rafe primat of Ardmach, that departed this life in the court of Rome; and also of Richard Kilminton deceassed here in England, the discord that had continued for the space of thrée or foure yeares betwixt them of the cleargie on the one part, and the foure orders of friers on the other part, was now quieted and brought to end. Moreouer, this yeare appeared two castels in the aire, of the which the one appeared in the southeast, and the other in the southwest, out of which castels about the houre of noone sundrie times were séene hosts of armed men (as appeared to mans sight) issuing foorth, and that host which sailed out of the castell in the southeast séemed white, and the other blacke. They appeared as they should haue fought either against other, and first the white had the vpper hand, and after was ouercome, and so vanished out of sight.

An. Reg. 35.
A parlement.

About the same time the souldiors which were discharged in France and out of wages, by the breaking vp of the warres, assembled togither, and did much hurt in that realme, as in the French histories yée may read. Their chéefe leaders were Englishmen and Gascoignes subiects to the king of England. The king assembled the states of his realme in parlement at Westminster in the feast of the Conuersion of S. Paule, and there was declared vnto them the tenor and whole effect of the peace concluded betwixt England and France, wherewith they were greatlie pleased, and herevpon the nobles of the realme, and such Frenchmen as were hostages, came togither at Westminster church on the first sundaie of Lent next following: and there such as were not alreadie sworne, receiued the oth for performance of the same peace, in a right solemne manner, hauing the tenour of their oths written in certeine scrols; and after they had taken their oths vpon the sacrament and masse booke, they deliuered the same scrols vnto certeine notaries appointed to receiue and register the same.

Tho. Wals.
Adam Merimuth.
A mightie wind.
An. Reg. 36

The mortalitie yet during, that noble duke Henrie of Lancaster departed this life on the éeuen of the Annunciation of our ladie, and was buried at Leicester. ¶ Iohn of Gant the fourth son to the king, who had married his daughter the ladie Blanch, as before yée haue heard, succéeded him in that dutchie as his heire in right of the said ladie. The same yéere also died the lord Reginold Cobham, the lord Walter fits Warren, and thrée bishops, Worcester, London, and Elie. This yeare vpon the fiftéenth day of Ianuarie there rose such a passing wind, that the like had not béene heard of in manie yéeres before. It began about euensong time in the south, and that with such force, that it ouerthrew and blew downe strong and mightie buildings, as towers, stéeples, houses and chimnies. This outragious wind continued thus for the space of six or seauen daies, whereby euen those buildings that were not ouerthrowne and broken downe, were yet so shaken, that they without reparing were not able long to stand. After this followed a verie wet season, namelie in the summer time and haruest, so that much corne and haie was lost and spoiled, for want of seasonable weather to gather in the same.

Creations of the kings sonnes to degrées of honor.
Hen. Marle.
The prince of Wales passeth ouer into Guien.
Thom. Wals.
Additions to Ad. Merim.

[Pg 678]

A iusts in Smithfield.
The Staple of wools remoued to Calis.

The lord Lionell the kings sonne went ouer into Ireland, to be deputie to his father there, and was created duke of Clarence, and his brother Edmund was created earle of Cambridge; also Edward prince of Wales was by his father king Edward inuested duke of Guien, and did homage vnto his father for the same, in like manner and forme as his father and other kings of England were accustomed to do for the said dutchie to the kings of France. And afterwards about the feast of Candlemasse next insuing, the said prince sailed into Gascoigne, and arriued at Burdeaux, taking vpon him the gouernement and rule of the countrie. Moreouer this yeare, the fiue first daies of Maie, were kept roiall iusts in Smithfield by London, the king and quéene being present, with a great multitude of the nobles and gentlemen of both the realms of England and France; at which time came hither Spaniards, Cipriots, and Armenians, requiring aid of the king against the infidels, that sore molested their confines. ¶ The staple of wols was this yeare remooued to Calis.

A parlement.
A pardon.
A statute against purueiers.
A subsidie.

Also the sixtéenth of October, a parlement began, that was called at Westminster, which continued till the feast daie of S. Brice, on which daie, the king at that time fiftie yeares then past, was borne; wherevpon, as it were in the yeare of his iubile, he shewed himselfe more gratious to his people, granting pardon to offendors, and reuoking outlawes. Moreouer, it was ordeined in this parlement, that no maner of person, of what estate or degrée soeuer he was, the king, the quéene, and dukes onelie excepted, should haue any purueiers of vittels, nor should take vp any thing without readie paiment, and those that from thencefoorth did contrarie to this ordinance, should be extremelie punished. There was granted to the king in this parlement six and twentie shillings eight pence of euerie sacke of wooll that was to be transported ouer the sea, for thrée yeares next insuing.

Lawiers to plead their cases in English.
Schoolemasters to teach scholers to construe their lessons in English.

Furthermore, at the suite of the commons it was ordeined and established by an act in this parlement deuised, that men of law should plead their causes, and write their actions and plaints in the English toong, and not in the French, as they had béene accustomed to doo, euer since the Conquerors time. It was ordeined also, that schoolemasters should teach their scholers to construe their lessons in English, & not in French, as before they had béene vsed. The K. shewed so much curtesie to the French hostages, that he permitted them to go ouer to Calis, and there being néere home, to purchase friendship, by oft calling on their fréends for their deliuerance. They were suffered to ride to and fro about the marches of Calis, for the space of foure daies togither, so that on the fourth daie before sunne setting, they returned into Calis againe. The duke of Aniou turning this libertie to serue his owne turne, departed from thence, and went home into France, without making his fellowes priuie to his purpose.

An. Reg. 37.
Thom. Wals.
Additions to Adam Merimuth.
A statute of araie against costlie apparell.
Thrée kings come into England about businesse with K. Edward.

This yeare a parlement was called by the king, which began the ninth of October, from the which none of the noble men could obteine licence to be absent. In this parlement all rich ornaments of gold and siluer vsed to be worne in kniues, girdels, ouches, rings, or otherwise, to the setting foorth of the bodie, were prohibited, except to such as might dispend ten pounds by yeare. Morouer that none should weare any rich clothes or furres, except they might dispend an hundred pounds by yeare. ¶ Moreouer it was enacted, that labourers and husbandmen should not vse any deintie dishes, or costlie drinks at their tables. But these, and such other acts as were deuised and established at this parlement, tooke none effect, as after it appeared. In this yeare, there came into England to speake with king Edward concerning their weightie affaires, thrée kings, to wit, the king of France, the king of Scotland, & the king of Cypres: they were honorablie receiued, and highlie feasted.

An. Reg. 38.
The death of the French king.

The king of Scotland, and the king of Cypres after they had dispatched their businesse for the which they came, turned backe againe; but the French king fell sicke, and remained here till he died, as in the next yeare ye shall heare. He arriued here in England, about the latter end of this yeare, and came to Eltham (where king Edward as then laie) on the foure and twentith day of Ianuarie, and there dined. After diner, he tooke his horsse and rode toward London, and vpon Blacke heath, the citizens of London clad in one kind of liuerie, and verie well horssed, met him, and conueied him from thence through to London, to the Sauoy, where his lodging was prepared. About the beginning of March, in this eight and thirtith yeare, the forenamed French king fell into a gréeuous sickenesse, of the which he died the eight day of Aprill following. His corps was conueied into France, and there buried at S. Denise: his exequies were kept here in England, in diuerse places right solemnelie, by king Edwards appointment.

[Pg 679]

The battell of Aulroy.

This yeare, by reason of an extreme sore frost, continuing from the seuen and twentith day of September last passed, vnto the beginning of Aprill, in this eight and thirtith yeare (or rather from the seuenth day of December till the ninetenth day of March, as Walsingham and other old writers doo report) the ground laie vntild, to the great hinderance and losse of all growing things on the earth. This yeare on Michaelmasse day, before the castell of Aulroy, not far distant from the citie of Vannes in Britaine, a sore battell was fought betwixt the lord Charles de Blois, and the lord Iohn of Mountford. For when there could be no end made betwixt these two lords, touching their title vnto the duchie of Britaine, they renewed the wars verie hotlie in that countrie, and procured all the aid they might from each side. The king of France sent to the aid of his cousine Charls de Blois a thousand speares; and the earle of Mountford sent into Gascoigne, requiring sir Iohn Chandois, and other Englishmen there to come to his succour. Sir Iohn Chandois gladlie consented to this request, and therevpon got licence of the prince, and came into Britaine, where he found the earle of Mountford at the siege of the foresaid castell of Aulroy. In the meane time the lord Charles de Blois, being prouided of men, and all things necessarie to giue battell, came and lodged fast by his enimies.

Thrée thousand and six hundred fighting men, as Walsing. saith.

The earle of Mountford aduertised of his approch, by the aduise of sir Iohn Chandois and other of his capteins, had chosen out a plot of ground to lodge in, and meant there to abide their enimies. With the lord Charles of Blois was that valiant knight sir Berthram de Cleaquin or Guesclin (as some write him) by whose aduice there were ordeined thrée battels, and a reregard, and in each battell were appointed a thousand of good fighting men. On the other part, the earle of Mountford diuided his men likewise into thrée battels and a reregard. The first was led by sir Robert Knols, sir Walter Hewet, and sir Richard Brulle or Burlie. The second by sir Oliuer de Clisson, sir Eustace Daubreticourt, and sir Matthew Gournie. The third the earle of Mountford himselfe guided, and with him was sir Iohn Chandois associat, by whom he was much ruled: for the king of England, whose daughter the earle of Mountford should marie, had written to sir Iohn Chandois, that he should take good héed to the businesse of the said earle, and order the same as sagelie as he might deuise or imagine.

The worthie actiuitie of the English archers.

In ech of these thrée armies were fiue hundred armed men, and foure hundred archers. In the reregard were appointed fiue hundred men of warre, vnder the gouernance of sir Hugh Caluerlie. Beside sir Iohn Chandois, & other Englishmen recited by Froissard, there was the lord William Latimer, as one of the chiefe on the earle of Mountfords side. There were not past sixtéene hundred good fighting men on that side, as Thomas Walsingham plainelie writeth. Now when the hosts were ordred on both sides (as before we haue said) they approched togither, the Frenchmen came close in their order of battell, and were to the number of fiue and twentie hundred men of armes, after the manner of that age, beside others. Euerie man had cut his speare (as then they vsed, at what time they should ioine in battell) to the length of fiue foot, and a short ax hanging at his side. At the first incounter there was a sore battell, and trulie the archers shot right fiercelie, howbeit their shot did little hurt to the Frenchmen, they were so well armed and furnished: the archers perceiuing that (being big men and light) cast awaie their bowes, and entered in amongst the Frenchmen that bare the axes, and plucked them out of their hands, wherwith they fought after right hardlie. There was doone manie a noble feat of armes, manie taken, and rescued againe.

Sir Hugh Caluerlie.

[Pg 680]

The earle of Auxerre takē prisoner.
Sir Berthrā de Cleaquin.

Against the earle of Montfords battell, fought the battell which the lord Charles de Blois ruled, and at the first, the earle of Montfords part was sore oppressed, and brought out of order in such sort, that if sir Hugh Caluerlie had not in time reléeued them, the losse had runne on that side, but finallie so long they fought, that all the battels assembled and ioined each to other, except the reregard of the Englishmen, whereof (as is said) sir Hugh Caluerlie was chéefe. He kept alwaies his battell on a wing, and euer succoured where he saw néed. At length, the Frenchmen not able to indure the valiant dooings of their aduersaries, began to breake. First the earle of Auxerres batell was discomfited, and put to flight, and the said earle sore wounded, and taken prisoner, but the battell of sir Berthram de Cleaquin as yet stood manfullie at defense, howbeit at length the Englishmen perforce opened it, and then was the said sir Berthram taken prisoner, vnder the banner of Sir Iohn Chandois.

Herewith also, all the other battels of the Frenchmen and Britaines, on the part of the lord Charles de Blois, were cleane discomfited, and put out of arraie, so that such as resisted, and stood at defense, were slaine and beaten downe, and amongst others, the lord Charles was there slaine himselfe, and all other either taken or slaine, except those that escaped by flight, amongst the which there were not manie of the nobilitie. For (as Thomas Walsingham saith) there were slaine about a thousand men of armes, and there were taken two earles, seuen and twentie lords, and fiftéene hundred men of armes. The chase was followed to the citie of Reimes, eight great leagues from the place where the battell began. After this victorie, the earle of Montford conquered manie townes and castels in Britaine, whereof the French king being aduertised, sent his brother the duke of Aniou, vnto the wife of the lord Charles of Blois now deceassed, to comfort hir in such an heauie case, and to take order for things as should be thought expedient, vntill further prouision might be made.

Ambassadors sent to ye earle of Montford.
The variance for Britaine compounded.
An. Reg. 39.
Tho. Wals.

Shortlie after, there were sent vnto the earle of Montford, the archbishop of Reimes, the marshall Bouciquault, and the lord of Cran, as commissioners, to commune with him of a finall agréement. Wherevpon, after he had signified the matter vnto the king of England, and vnderstood his pleasure therein, this treatie was so handled, that peace therof followed, and the parties were agréed in the moneth of Aprill next insuing. ¶ This yeare (as some haue written) king Edward finished his warres vpon S. Stephans daie, and began the foundation of S. Stephan's chappell at Westminster in memorie thereof, which chappell was afterwards finished by king Richard the second that succéeded him. ¶ In the nine and thirtith yéere of king Edwards reigne, and in the moneth of Februarie, in the citie of Angolesme, was borne the first sonne of prince Edward, and was named after his father, but he departed this life the seuenth yeare of his age.

The lord Coucie marieth the king of Englands daughter.
Ia. Mair.
A treatie of mariage for the earle of Cambridge.
The earle of Flanders.

Also this yeare, the seuen and twentith of Iulie, Ingeram de Guines lord de Coucie, a Frenchman, married the ladie Isabell daughter to K. Edward. The solemnization of the marriage feast was kept at Windsor in most roiall and triumphant wise. The said lord Coucie was created earle of Bedford, with an yéerelie annuitie of thirtie markes, going foorth of the issues and profits of that countie, ouer and beside a thousand marks by yeare, assigned to him and his said wife, and to the heires male of their bodies begotten, to be paid forth of the excheker. About this time, there was a treatie also for marriage to be had, betwixt the lord Edmund earle of Cambridge, and the ladie Margaret, daughter and heire to the earle of Flanders, which treatie went so far, that the earle came ouer to Douer, where the king was readie to receiue him, and there the earle promised by words of affiance, to giue his said daughter vnto the said lord Edmund in marriage: and after that the earle had béene at Douer, the space of thrée daies, passing the time in great solace and banketting, when he had finished his businesse, he returned backe againe into his countrie.

The lord Latimer.
The king of Castile chased out of his realme.
Peter pence.
Ine king of Westsaxons.

Whilest the king was thus at Douer with the earle of Flanders, the lord Latimer came from the lord Iohn de Montford, to vnderstand his pleasure, touching the offers that were made for peace, vpon whose returne with answer, the peace was concluded as before yée haue heard. This yeare was Peter king of Castile chased out of his realme, by his bastard brother Henrie, which was aided in that enterprise by sir Berthram de Cleaquin latelie deliuered, and other Frenchmen: so that the said Henrie was crowned at Burgus, vpon Easter daie: wherefore the said Peter was constreined to flée, and so came to Burdeaux to sue for aid at the hands of the prince of Wales. This yeare by the kings commandement, a restraint was ordeined, that Peter pence should not be from thencefoorth anie more gathered within this realme, nor anie such paiment made at Rome, which had béene vsed to be paid there, euer since the daies of Ine, king of Westsaxons, which ordeined this[Pg 681] paiment toward the maintenance of a schoole for English scholers. But howsoeuer this paiment was abrogated at this time by king Edward, it was after renewed againe, and the monie gathered in certeine shires of this realme, till the daies of king Henrie the eight, so greatlie preuailed the vsurped power of that beast of Rome, which had poisoned the princes of the world with the dregs of his abhomination, whose glorie shall end in shame, his honor turne to horror, and his ambitious climing vp aloft aboue all principalitie (to be compéere with God) shall haue an irrecouerable ruine; as long agone, and of late likewise hath béene and now is prophesied of him, that he may readilie read his owne downefall into hell:

In rapidas acherontis aquas, qui gloria mundi
Papa fuit, lapsu corruet ille graui:
Corruet vt rapidum descendit ab æthere fulmen,
Corruet in stygios tempus in omne lacus.
A rainie haruest.
K. Richard the second borne.

In this yeare fell great abundance of raine in the time of haie haruest, so that much corne and haie was lost. ¶ There was also such fighting amongst sparrowes in that season, that they were found dead on the ground in great numbers. Also, there followed great mortalitie of people, the sicknesse being so sharpe and vehement, that manie being in perfect health ouer night when they went to bed, were found dead in the morning. Also, manie died of the small pocks, both men, women, and children. ¶ Moreouer this yeare, Simon Islep archbishop of Canturburie departed this life, and Simon Langham bishop of Elie succéeded in his place. This yeare at Burdeaux, was borne the second sonne of prince Edward named Richard, on the third daie of Aprill: his godfather at the fontstone was Iames K. of Maiorke. ¶ Peter the king of Spaine, who (as yée haue heard) was expelled out of his realme by his bastard brother, made such earnest sute to the prince of Wales for aid to be restored home, that finallie the prince aduertising his father king Edward of the whole matter, by aduise from him, determined to bring home the said king Peter, and to restore him againe to his kingdome, by force of armes, in despite of all his aduersaries.

The prince indéed was verie desirous to take this enterprise vpon him, both of a certeine pitifull affection to relieue the miserable state of king Peter, and also of an ardent desire which he had to purchase a glorious fame thorough martiall déeds, and noble acts of chiualrie. Therfore hauing this occasion to imploie his time in such exercises, and now commanded thereto of his father, he was excéedinglie glad in his mind, and with all spéed that might be, made his prouision both of a sufficient armie of men of warre, and also of all other things necessarie for the furniture of such an enterprise: but first, he tooke good assurance of king Peter, for the paiment of the soldiers wages: so the king left at Baionne thrée of his daughters, Beatrice, Constance, and Isabell as pledges, for performance of all the couenants agréed betwixt him and the prince.

An. Reg. 41.
The prince setteth forward towards Spaine. He entreth into Nauarre.

Thus when the prince, by the aduise and counsell of sir Iohn Chandois, and sir Robert Knols (by whome he was much ruled) had taken direction in his businesse, for that his iournie into Spaine, in each condition as was thought behoouefull, he with the king of Spaine in his companie, passed foorth with a puissant armie, and came to the streicts of Ronceualle, at the entrie into Nauarre, and obteining so much fréendship of the king of Nauarre, as to haue the passages of his countrie opened, they entered into his realme through the same, as fréends, without finding any resistance. In this meane time, Henrie king of Spaine, hauing knowledge that the prince of Wales was thus comming against him, to restore his brother king Peter to his former degrée, by aduise of sir Berthram de Cleaquin, got a great number of soldiers out of France, by whose aid he might the better defend himselfe against his enimies.

[Pg 682]

The king of Nauarre taken by the Frenchmen.
Sir Martin de Care.
Saint Muchaule.

Now it chanced, that whilest the prince of Wales was passing thorough Nauarre, toward the entrie of Spaine, certeine of those Frenchmen, vnder the leading of sir Oliuer Mannie, tooke the king of Nauarre prisoner, as he was riding from one towne to an other. Manie maruelled at that chance, and some there were that thought he suffered himselfe to be taken for a cautele, bicause he would not aid the prince of Wales any further, nor conduct him through his realme, as he had promised to doo. But the prince nothing dismaid herewith, passed forward, by the guiding of a knight of Nauarre, called sir Martin de Care, and finallie came to the confines of Spaine, and lodged at Victoria, not far from his enimies. For king Henrie of Spaine, vnderstanding which waie the prince drew, came forward to incounter him, and pight downe his field, not far from the borders of his realme, at a place called saint Muchaule: and thus were both the hosts lodged within a small distance the one against the other.

The king of Spaine sendeth to the prince.
Victoria. Viana.

King Henrie had sent to the prince an herauld of armes with a letter, requiring to know of him for what cause he moued warre against him, sith he had neuer offended him. The prince taking deliberation for answer of this letter, kept the messenger with him, and perceiuing that king Henrie came not forward, but laie still at saint Muchaule, stronglie incamped, he remooued from Victoria, and came to a towne called Viana, where he staied two daies to refresh his people, and after went forward, and passed the riuer which diuideth the realmes of Castile and Nauarre, at the bridge of Groigne. King Henrie aduertised hereof, departed from saint Muchaule, and came before the towne of Nauarret, situat on the same riuer. Not manie daies before the prince passed the riuer at Groigne, king Henrie had sent foorth two of his brethren, the earle Dom Teille, and the lord Sanches, with six hundred horssemen, to view the princes host.

Sir William Felton slaine.

They chanced to incounter two hundred English horssemen, whom after long and sharpe fight they distressed, & slue sir William Felton, one of the chiefe leaders of those Englishmen, and tooke sir Thomas Felton his brother, sir Hugh Hastings, and diuerse other, both knights and esquiers. Whether that king Henrie was greatlie incouraged by this good lucke in the beginning, or that he trusted through the great multitude of his people, which he had there with him, to haue the vpper hand of his enimies, true it is, that he coueted sore to giue them battell; and although he might haue wearied the prince, and constreined him for want of vittels to haue returned, or to haue fought with him at some great aduantage, if he had deferred the battell, as the marshall of France Dandrehen gaue counsell, yet he would néeds fight in all the hast, and therefore did thus approch his enimies.

The prince perceiuing that his aduersarie came forward to incounter him, dispatched the herauld with an answer to the letter which he had of him receiued, containing in effect, that for great considerations, he had taken vpon him to aid the rightfull K. of Spaine, chased out of his realm by violent wrong, and that if it might be, he would gladlie make an agréement betwixt them; conditionallie, that king Henrie of necessitie must then forsake the administration, and all the title of the kingdome of Spaine, which by no rightfull meane he could inioy, and therefore if he refused thus to doo, he was for his part resolued how to procéed. The herauld departed with this answer, and came therewith vnto king Henrie, and deliuered it vnto him, as then lodged with his puissant armie at Nauarre, so that then both parties prepared themselues to battell.

The number of the princes armie.
The chieftains of the same armie.

The prince hauing with him thirtie thousand men of Englishmen, Gascoignes, and other strangers, ordeined thrée battels, of the which, the first was led by the duke of Lancaster, and with him was sir Iohn Chandois constable of Guien, sir William Beauchampe son to the earle of Warwike, the lord Dalbret, sir Richard Dangle, and sir Stephan Coosenton, marshals of Guien, & diuerse other. The middle ward was gouerned by the prince, and with him was the foresaid Peter king of Spaine, and diuerse other lords and knights of England, Poictou, and other countries, as the vicounts of Chatelareault and Rochcort, the lords of Partnie, Pinan, Taneboton, and others, sir Richard Pontchardon, sir Thomas Spenser, sir Iohn Grendon, and a great sort more, whose names it would be too long to rehearse. The rereward was vnder the gouerance of the king of Malorques, & with him[Pg 683] were associat the earls of Arminacke, Dalbreth, Piergort, Gominges, the capitoll of Buefz, sir Robert Knols, and manie other valiant lords, knights, and esquiers.

The order of the Spaniards.
The number of ye Spanish armie.

On the second day of Aprill, the prince with his battell thus ordered, remoued from Groigne, and marching that day two leagues forward, came before Nauarret, and there tooke his lodging, within a small distance from his enemies, so that both parties prepared to giue battell the next day in the morning, commanding that euerie man at the sounding of the first trumpet, should apparell themselues, that they might be readie vpon the next sound to be set in order of battell, and to go against their enemies. The Spaniards very earlie in the morning drew into the field, and ordeined thrée battels in this wise. The first was led by sir Berthram de Cleaquin, wherein were all the Frenchmen and other strangers, to the number of foure thousand knights and esquires, well armed and appointed, after the manner of France. In the second battell was the earle Dom Tielle, with his brother the lord Sanches, hauing with them fiftéene thousand men on foot, and on horssebacke. The third battell and the greatest of all was gouerned by king Henrie himselfe, hauing in that battell seuen thousand horssemen, and thréescore thousand footmen, with crossebowes, darts, speares, lances, and other abillements of war: so in all thrée battels he had fourescore and six thousand men on horssebacke and on foot.

The duke of Lancaster.
The capitall of Beuf.

The prince of Wales, at the breaking of the daie was readie in the field with his people arranged in order of battell, and aduanced forward with them toward his enimies, an hosting pace; and as they passed a little hill, they might sée as they were descending downe the same, their enemies comming likewise towards them, in good order of battell. When they were approached néere togither, and readie to ioine, the duke of Lancasters battell incountered with the battell of sir Berthram de Cleaquin, which two battels verie eagerlie assailed each other so that there was betwixt them a sore conflict, and well continued. The erle Dom Teille, and his brother the lord Sanches, upon the first approach of the princes battell towards them, fled out of the field, and with them two thousand speares, so that the residue of their battell were shortlie after discomfited, for the capitall of Buz otherwise Beuf, and the lord Clisson, came vpon them on foot, and slue and hurt manie of them, so that they brake their arraie, and fled to saue themselues.

The archers.
King Peter.

This chance discomforted the hearts of the Spaniards right sore, but yet king Henrie like a valiant gentleman came forward, and incouraged his men all that he might, so that there was a cruell battell, and well foughten a long time. For the Spaniards with slings cast stones in such fierce manner, that they claue therewith manie an helmet and bassenet, hurt manie, and ouerthrew them to the earth. On the other part, the English archers shot freshlie at their enemies, galled and slue the Spaniards, and brought them to great confusion: yet king Henrie nothing abashed herewith, wheresoeuer he perceiued his men to shrinke, thither he resorted, calling upon them, and exhorting them to remember their estimations and duties, so that by his diligence and manfull incouragement, thrise that daie did he staie his people, being at point to giue ouer; and set them in the faces of his enemies againe. Neither did the souldiers alone manfullie behaue themselues, but the capteins also stoutlie laid about them. King Peter like a lion pressed forward, coueting to méet with his brother Henrie, that he might séeke his reuenge on him with his owne hands. Cruell was the fight, and tried throughlie with most eger and fierce minds.

The Spaniards put to flight.

At length, when the Spaniards were no longer able to susteine the force and violence of the Englishmen, Gascoignes, & other which were there against them, they brake their arraie, and fled; so that neither the authoritie nor bold exhortation of king Henrie, could cause them to tarrie anie longer: wherevpon, when he saw himselfe forsaken of his people, and that few abode with him to resist his enemies, he also to saue himselfe fled out of the field, being fullie persuaded, that if he had béene taken, no ransome should haue saued his life. The battell that was best fought, and longest held togither, was that of the strangers, which sir Berthram de Cleuquin led. For if the[Pg 684] Spaniards had doone halfe their parts as well as the Frenchmen, & other in this battell, the matter had gone harder against the Englishmen than it did: yet finally, by the noble courage of the duke of Lancaster, and the valiant prowesse of sir John Chandois, sir Hugh Caluerlie, & others, the Frenchmen were put to flight, and their battell quite discomfited. The slaughter in this battell was great, both of them that were slaine in the field, and of those that were drowned in the riuer that runneth by the towne of Nauarret.

The number slaine at this battell at Nauarret.

After that the battell was ended, and that such as had followed the chase were returned, the prince caused the fields to be searched, to vnderstand what number had béene slaine in the battell: they that were appointed to take the view, vpon their returne reported, that there was dead of men of armes five hundred and thréescore, and of commons about seauen thousand, and five hundred of the English part: there were slaine of men of name, but foure knights, two Gascoignes, one Almaine, and the fourth an Englishman, and of other meane souldiers, not past fortie (as Froissard saith). But others affirme, that there were slaine of the princes part about sixtéene hundred; which should séeme to be more like a truth, if the battell was fought so sore and fiercelie, as Froissard himselfe dooth make report. Howbeit, there be that write, how the duke of Lancaster wan the field by great fortune and valiancie, yet the prince came néere to his enimies. But howsoeuer it was, the Englishmen obtained the victorie in this battell, fought on a saturdaie being the third of Aprill, in the yeare 1367. There were taken prisoners, to the number of two thousand, and amongst them the erle of Dene, sir Berthram de Cleaquin, the marshall Dandrehen or Odenhen, and manie other men of name.


After the battell, king Peter went to Burgus, and was receiued into the citie, and shortlie after, that is to say, on the Wednesdaie folowing, the prince came thither, and there held his Easter with king Peter, and tarried there aboue thrée wéekes. In the mean time, they of Asturgus, Toledo, Lisbone, Cordoua, Galice, Siuill, and of all other places of the kingdome of Spaine, came in, and homage vnto king Peter, promising him to be true to him euer after: for they saw that resistance would not auaile so long as the prince should be in the countrie. After this, the prince was in hand with king Peter, for the souldiers wages, by whose aid he was thus restored into his former estate. King Peter went vnto Siuill, to makeshift for monie accordinglie, promising to returne againe, within a few wéekes, and to sée euerie man paid, according as he had couenanted. For when he was driuen out of his realme, and came to Burdeaux to craue aid of the prince, he promised, that so soone as he should be restored to his kingdome, he would sée the souldiers contented of their wages, and bound himselfe thereto, both by his oth and writing giuen vnder his seale. But when he obteined his purpose, he forgat all fréendlie dutie, and was so farre from performing his promise, that he cloaked his ill meaning with a feigned tale, and sent the prince a message spiced with hypocrisie and vnthankfulnesse, two foule faults in a priuat man, much more odious in a prince and great state, as the poet wiselie and trulie saith in this distichon:

Omne animi vitium tantò conspectius in se
Crimen habet, quantò maior qui peccat habetur.
King Peters dissimulation.

The prince tarried for the returne of king Peter, both wéekes and moneths, but could not heare anie tidings of him. He therefore sent vnto him, to vnderstand the cause of the staie: his answer was, that he had prouided monie, and sent it by certeine of his men toward the prince, but the companions that serued vnder the prince, had met with it by the way, and taken it from them that had the conueiance of it: he therefore required the prince to rid the realme of those snaphances, and to leaue behind him some of his officers, to whome in name of him he would make paiment of such monie as was due. This answer pleased not the prince, but there was no remedie, for other at that present[Pg 685] he could not haue, for anie likeliehood he saw: and therefore, taking order with king Peter how the paiment should be made, he prepared to returne into Gascoigne. The order therefore taken betwixt them, was this. Within foure moneths next insuing, king Peter should paie the one halfe of the wages due to the soldiers for this iournie, vnto such as the prince should leaue behind him to receiue the same, and the other halfe within one yeare.

Tho. Walsi.
The prince put to his shifts for default of paie.

The prince was compelled to breake his plate, and to make monie thereof to paie his soldiers, namelie, the companions, which he had called forth of France, so that he left himselfe bare of all riches, to kéepe touch with them, although king Dampeter failed in his promise each waie foorth. For where the prince should haue had in recompense towards his charges, the countie of Algezara, and other lands, by the said Dampeters assignment, so that he sent one of his knights to take seizine of the same lands, he was neuertheles disappointed, for he could not come by any peaceable possession of those lands, and so returned greatlie impouerished, hauing spent in this iournie all that he could make. In the meane time the bastard Henrie, hauing escaped out of the field by flight, got him into France, and there through fauor of the duke of Aniou, so purchased for himselfe, that he got togither a certeine number of Britains and other soldiers, & comming to the frontiers of the princes land in Gascoigne, got a towne in Bigore, called Bannieres, and made war upon the princes subjects.

The prince returneth into Gascoigne.
An. Reg. 42.
A blasing starre.

The prince obteining passage for himselfe and his men, of the kings of Aragon and Nauarre, returned to Burdeaux, and then did the bastard Henrie forsake his garrison at Bannieres, and went into Arragon, and there got the king of Arragons assistance: & finallie, in the yeare 1369, returning into Spaine, recouered the kingdome, and slue his brother king Peter, as in the historie of Spaine it may appeare, which for that it apperteineth not to this historic of England, I doo here passe ouer. This yeare, in the moneth of March, appeared a blasing starre, betwixt the north and west, whose beames stretched towards France as was then marked, threatning (as might bethought) that within a small time after it should againe be wrapped and set on fire with new troubles of warre, and euen then, that countrie was not in quiet, but harried in diuerse parts, by such soldiers as had béene with the prince in Spaine, & were now out of wages. The leaders of which people were for the more part Englishmen and Gascoignes, as sir Robert Briquet, sir John Tresmelle, Robert Cenie, sir Gaollard Vigier, the bourge of Bertueill, the bourge Camois of Cominges, as Denise Sauage thinketh, the bourge of Lespare, Nandon or Nawdon of Bargerant, Bernard de la Salle, Ortigo, Lamut, and manie other.

The Duke of Clarence goeth into Italie. The ladie Violant.
His interteinement in Sauoy.

In this 42 yeare of king Edwards reigne, his second son the lord Lionell duke of Clarence and earle of Vlster passed the sea, with a noble companie of lords, knights, and gentlemen, and went thorough France into Lombardie, there to marrie the ladie Violant, daughter to the duke of Millane. He was honorablie receiued in all places where he came, and speciallie at Paris, by the dukes of Berrie and Burgognie, the lord Coucie and other, the which brought him to the court, where he dined and supped with the king, and lodged within the palace. On the next day he was had to a place where the quéene lodged, and dined with hir, and after was conueied to the court againe, and supped that night with the king, and on the morrow following, he tooke his leaue of the king and quéene the which gaue to him great gifts, and likewise to the noble men of England that came ouer with him, to the value of twentie thousand florens and aboue: he was conueied from place to place, with certeine of the French nobilitie, till he came to the borders of the realme and then entring into Sauoy, he came to Chamberie, where the earle of Sauoy was readie to receiue him, and there he remained foure daies, being highlie feasted amongst the ladies and damosels: and then he departed, and the earle of Sauoy brought him to Millane, to doo him the more honor, for his sister was mother to the bride, which the duke should marrie.

[Pg 686]

His receiuing into Millane.
Corio in the historie of Millane.
Ia. Meir.

To speake of the honorable receiuing of him into the citie of Millane, and of the great feast, triumph, and banketting, and what an assemblie there was in Millane of high states, at the solemnizing of the mariage betwixt him and the said ladie Violant, it were too long a processe to remember. The gifts that the father of the bride, the lord Galeas gaue vnto such honorable personages as were there present, amounted in value to an inestimable summe. ¶ The writers of the Millane histories affirme, that this marriage was celebrated on the fiftéenth daie of Iune, in the yeare 1367, which being true, the same chanced in the 41 yeare of this kings reigne, and not in this 42 yeare, though other authors agrée, that it was in the yeare 1368. But to returne to other dooings where we left.

The prince of Wales constreined to burden his subiects with a sore subsidie.
Coine not to be inhanced nor abased.

Ye haue heard how the Prince of Wales could get no monie of the king of Spaine, for the wages of his men of warre, which he had reteined to serue him in the reducing the said king home into his countrie, wherefore the prince hauing béene at great charges in that iournie, was neither able to satisfie them, nor mainteine his owne estate, without some great aid of his subiects, and therefore he was counselled to raise a subsidie called a fuage, through all the countrie of Aquitaine, to run onelie for the space of fiue yeares. To this paiment, euerie chimnie or fire must haue béene contributorie, paieng yearely one franke, the rich to haue borne out the poore. And to haue this paiment granted, all the states of the countrie were called togither at Niort. The Poictouins, and they of Xainctonge, Limosin, Rouergne, and of Rochell, agréed to the princes request, with condition, that he should kéepe the course of his coine stable, for the terme of seuen yeares.

The demand of this fuage the cause of ye Gascoignes reuolting to the French king.

But diuerse of the other parts of Guien refused that ordinance, as the earles of Arminake, and Gominges, the vicount of Carmaigne, the lords Dalbret, de la Barde, Cande, Pincornet, and diuerse other great barons: but yet to depart quietlie from the assemblie, they required a time to take better aduise, and so they repairing into their countries, determined neither to returne againe according to their promises, nor to suffer any fuage to run amongest them at all, and were so much offended with the motion, that they sought occasion forthwith to reuolt from the English obeisance and submission, knowing that

Pastores tondere boni haud deglubere cultris
Villosum assuescunt pecus.

And therefore diuerse lords of them went to the French king, and there exhibited into the chamber of the péeres of France, their complaints of the grieuous impositions & wrongs, which the prince went about to laie vpon them, affirming that their resort ought of speciall duty to be to the crowne of France, and to the king there, as to their lord Peramount. The French king, who would not séeme to breake the peace betwéene him and the king of England, dissembled the matter, and told them that he would peruse the tenor of the charters and letters of the peace, and so far foorth as he might by permission of the same, he would be glad to doo them good. The earles of Arminake, Perigourd, Gominges, and the lord Dalbret, with other that were come thither about this matter, were contented with this answer, and so staied in France, till they might vnderstand further, both of the French kings mind, and of the princes dooings. ¶ This yéere in October, was Simon Langham archbishop of Canturburie elected to the dignitie of a cardinall, and then William Witleslie, bishop of Worcester, was remooued vnto the sée of Canturburie.

The earle of Saint Paule.
The prince of Wales appealed to appeare.

About the same time, the earle of saint Paule, one of the hostages in England, stale from hence, without taking anie leaue, or saieng farewell. At his comming into France, he greatlie furthered the sute of the lords of Gascoigne, & finallie so much was doone on their behalfe, that the French king was contented that the prince of Wales should be appealed, and summoned to appeare before the French king as iudge in that point, for reformation of the wrongs which he offered to them that had[Pg 687] made their resort vnto him, as reason was they should. This appeale was written and dulie examined.

The tenor of the said prince of Wales his appeale or summons of appearance before the French king, &c.

Charles by the grace of God king of France, to our nephue the prince of Wales and Aquitaine, send gréeting. So it is, that diuerse prelats, barons, knights, vniuersities, communalties, and colledges of the marches and limits of the countrie of Gascoigne, and the dwellers and inhabitants in the bounds of our realme, besides diuerse other of the duchie of Aquitaine, are resorted and come to our court, to haue right of certeine gréefes, and vnlawfull troubles, which you, by vnaduised counsell, and simple information, haue purposed to doo vnto them, whereof we greatlie maruell. Therfore, to withstand, and to redresse such things, we are so conioined to them that we haue thought good, by our roiall power, to command you to repaire to our citie of Paris, in proper person, and there to shew and present your selfe before vs, in the chamber of our péeres, that you may be constreined to doo right to your people, concerning the gréefes which they alledge that you are about to oppresse them with, who claime to haue their resort into our court: and that you faile not thus to doo, in as spéedie manner as yée can, immediatlie vpon the sight and hearing of these present letters. In witnesse whereof, we haue to the same set our seale. Yeuen at Paris, the fiue and twentith daie of Ianuarie.

An. Reg. 43.
The princes answer to the messenger.

These letters were giuen to a knight and a clerke, to beare and present to the prince, which according to that they had in charge, went to Burdeaux, and there getting licence to come before his presence, they read the letters, wherewith he was not a little chafed, and openlie told them for a plaine answer, that he meant to accomplish the French kings request, for his comming to Paris, but that should be with his helmet on his head, and thréescore thousand armed men, to beare witnesse of his appearance. The messengers perceiuing the prince to be sore offended with their message, got them awaie, without taking their leaue: but before they were passed the limits of the English dominion, they were staied by commandement of the prince, and committed to prison, within the citie of Agen.

The duke of Berrie.
The lord Chandois.

About the same time, the duke of Berrie returned into France, hauing licence of king Edward for an whole yeare; but he bare himselfe so wiselie, that he returned not againe at all: for he excused himselfe, till time that the warre was open. In like manner, the more part of all the other hostages, by one meane or other were returned into France, and some indéed were deliuered vpon their ransomes, or other considerations, so that the French king being deliuered of that obstacle, was the more readie to breake with the king of England, and therefore vpon knowledge had of the princes answer, to those that he sent with the appeale, by such of the messengers seruants as were returned, and declared how their maisters were delt with, he couertlie prepared for the warre. The lord Iohn Chandois, and other of the princes counsell foresaw what would insue of leauieng the fuage, and therefore counselled the prince, not to procéed any further in it. But he hauing onlie regard to the reléefe of his souldiers and men of warre, would néeds go forward with it. ¶ Indéed, if he might haue brought it to passe, as it was denied, that euerie housholder should haue paid a franke for chimniage, the summe would haue growne to twelue hundred thousand frankes by the yeare, which had béene a great reléefe, and that made him the more earnest, bicause he might haue béene able so to haue paid his debts.

[Pg 688]

A letter published by the prince to appease the Gascoignes.

Now, when it was perceiued certeinlie that open rebellion would therof insue, and that king Edward was certified of the whole state of the matter, and how diuerse of the lords of Aquitaine were withdrawne vnto the court of France, in manner as before yée haue heard, he deuised a letter, which he caused to be published through all the parts of Aquitaine the effect whereof was this; That were the people of that countrie found themselues gréeued for such exactions as were demanded of them, he meant therefore vpon examination of their iust complaints, to sée their wrongs redressed. And further, he was contented to pardon all such as were withdrawne to the French king, so that within a moneths space they would returne home; requiring them that in no wise they should stirre anie seditious tumult, but to remember their oths of allegiance, and to continue in the same, according to their bounden duties; and as for him, he would be readie to sée them eased, that would shew by plaine proofe how they had béene otherwise gréeued than reason might beare. This was his meaning and this was the aduise of all his councellours.

Ia. Meir.
Philip duke of Burgognie marieth ye erle of Flanders daughter. The cause of his surname le Hardie.

But this courteous letter little auailed, for dailie the Gascoignes reuolted from the prince, and turned to the French part. Moreouer, another occasion of grudge chanced to renew the malice betwixt the K. of England, and the French king. For whereas yée haue heard, that the earle of Flanders had affianced his daughter and heire to the lord Edmund of Langlie, earle of Cambridge, a shift was made, namelie by the earles mother the countesse of Arthois, who was all French, that notwithstanding the same affiance, she was married to Philip duke of Burgognie, who was surnamed the Hardie, by this occasion, as I. Meir saith. It chanced, that whilest he was prisoner in England with his father, he was vpon a time appointed to wait at the table, where his father and the king of England sat togither at meat. And bicause a noble man of England that was appointed likewise to attend at the same table, serued first the king of England before the king of France, this Philip vp with his fist, and tooke the English lord a blow on the eare, saieng: "Wilt thou serue the king of England first, where the French king sitteth at the same table?" The Englishman out with his dagger, & would haue striken the said Philip, but the king of England streictlie charged him to the contrarie, and praising the déed of the yoong stripling, said vnto him, "Vous estes Philip le hardie," Thou art (said he) the hardie Philip. And so from that daie he bare that name euer after. There be other that saie, how he tooke that surname, bicause in the batell of Poictiers he abode still with his father till the end of the battell, without shewing any token of feare, or faintnes of courage.

The earles of Arminacke & Perigord.
The L. Wake discomfited.
The French king procéedeth against the prince in iudgement of the appeale.

The earles of Arminacke and Perigord, with the other lords of Gascoigne, that had made their appeale (as ye haue heard) to the chamber of the péeres of France, when they vnderstood that the prince had imprisoned the messengers, that brought to him the French kings letters, began to make warre on the princes lands. The first enterprise they made, was the discomfiting of the lord Thomas Wake seneshall of Rouergne, as he was riding from Agen vnto the citie of Rodais, with thréescore spears, and two hundred archers in his companie. Also the French king being now prouided for the war, and vnderstanding the minds of the people within certeine towns vnder the dominion of the Englishmen, in his high court of parlement holden at Paris, procéeded in iudgement vpon the appellation before made by the earles of Arminacke, Perigord, and others, against prince Edward. And moreover he sent ouer into England the earle of Salisbruch, and a knight called sir William Dorman, to signifie to the king of England, how he thought himselfe not honorablie vsed, & that the king of England did but slenderlie kéepe the couenants of the peace, considering that he did not find meanes to reforme such of his subiects Englishmen and Gascoignes, as dailie robbed and wasted the countries & lands belonging to the crowne of France.

[Pg 689]

The French king sent to defie the king of England.
A parlement assembled. Thrée fiftéens and thrée tenths granted.

These ambassadors were staied for the space of two moneths, & still they complained of the wrongs that the Englishmen had doone contrarie to the couenants of the peace, but the king made small account thereof, bicause he perceiued it was a forged matter that they alledged, and so in the end sent them awaie. At Douer being vpon their returne, met them a Britaine that was comming with letters of defiance to the king of England from the French king, and as he had in commandement, he declared to them the effect of his message, whervpon with all spéed they passed ouer to Bullongne, and were glad they had so escaped. The Britaine came to the court, and deliuered the defiance to the king, according to the instructions which he had receiued. When the king had heard the letters read, and perceiued by good view taken of the seale and signet, that the same were of authoritie, he licenced the messenger to depart, and fell in councell with the péeres of his realme, what he should doo in so weigthie a matter. Wherevpon it was thought necessarie by them, that he should assemble his court of parlement, and so he did. In the which (vpon declaration made how iniuriouslie the French king after manie wrongfull dealings had now broken the peace, and sent his defiance vnto the king in so despitefull wise as might be) there was granted towards the maintenance of the warre thus begun, thrée fiftéens of the temporaltie, and thrée dismes of the spiritualtie, to be paied in thrée yeares.

Sir Nicholas Louaigne taken. The countie of Ponthieu taken by the French king.

At the selfe same time that the defiance was made to the king here in England, the earle of S. Paule, and Guie de Chatillon master of the crosbowes in France, entered into the countie of Ponthieu, tooke Abuile, and an English knight called sir Nicholas Louaigne seneshall of that countrie vnder the king of England, as then being within it. They tooke also saint Valerie, Crotoie, Rue, Pont saint Renie, and to be short, reduced the whole countrie of Ponthieu vnder the French obeisance, which had remained in possession of the Englishmen for the space of a hundred and twelue yeares, euer since Edward the first had the same assigned to him in name of a dowrie, with his wife quéene Elianor, sister to Alfonse K. of Castile. And yet were the people of that countrie readie now to reuolt to the French dominion, not withstanding their former long continued obeisance to the Englishmen: for otherwise could not the Frenchmen so easilie haue come to their purpose, but that the people were couenanted before to receiue them, and betraie those few Englishmen that were amongst them.

The prince of Wales diseased with sicknesse.
The citie of Cahors reuolteth.

About the same time also, it fell so ill for the Englishmen, that the prince of Wales was troubled with a sore sickenesse, that had continued long with him, euer since his being in Spaine, by reason whereof his enimies were the more bold to make attempts against him, and dailie went about to allure and intise his subiects of the marches of Guien to reuolt from him, in somuch that the citie of Cahors, and diuerse other townes thereabout turned to the French part. Thus was the peace which had béene so suerlie made, and with so manie solemne oths confirmed, violated and broken, and the parties fallen togither by the eares againe in sundrie places, and namelie in Aquitaine, where sundrie armies were abroad in the fields, diuers sieges laid, manie townes taken, often incounters and skirmishes made, sometime to the losse of the one part, and sometime of the other, and the countries in the meane time harried and spoiled, that maruill it is to consider, and too long a processe it should be to rehearse the tenth part of such chances as dailie happened amongst them, so that it might well haue béene said of that sore & tumultuous time:

O quàm difficiles sunt sint pace dies.
Succors sent into Gascoigne.

[Pg 690]

Burdille besieged.
Sir Hugh Caluerlie.
Sir Iohn Chandois.
Burdille wonne.

King Edward sent ouer into Gascoigne the earls of Cambridge and Penbroke, with a certeine number of men of armes and archers, the which arriuing in Britaine, passed through that countrie by licence of the Duke, and came to the prince as then lieng at Angolesme in Poictou, by whom they were sent to ouerrun the earle of Perigords lands, and so they did, and after laid siege to Burdille, hauing with them about thrée thousand men one and other. There came with them foorth of England foure hundred men of armes, foure hundred archers, and (as Froissard saith) beside their capteins, these earles which he nameth, to wit, the lord of Tabestone (or rather Bradstone as I take it) sir Brian Stapleton, sir Thomas Balaster, and sir Iohn Triuet: Whilest the said earles went thus to make warre against the earle of Perigord, sir Hugh Caluerlie with two thousand men of warre was sent also to ouerrun the lands of the earle of Arminacke, and of the lord Dalbret; sir Iohn Chandois laie in the marches of Tholouse at Mountaubon, & afterwards besieged Terrieres, and in the end wan it; and so likewise did the earles of Cambridge and Penbroke win Burdille, by reason of a saillie that they within made foorth, and passed so far from their fortresse, that the Englishmen got betwixt them and home.

Sir Robert Knols.
Ba. Gerard.

Sir Robert Knols came from such lands as he had in Britaine, to serue the prince now in these warres of Gascoigne, and was by him made chéefe gouernor of all his men of warre, who bare himselfe right worthilie in that charge. The first iournie which he made at that time, was into Quercie, hauing with him beside his owne bands, certeine knights of the princes retinue, as sir Richard Ponchardon, sir Stephan Gousenton, sir Noell Loring, sir Hugh Hastings, sir Iohn Triuet, sir Thomas Spenser, sir Thomas Balaster, sir Nicholas Bond, sir William le Moine seneschall of Aigenois, sir Baldwin de Freuille, and others. At their comming into Quercie, they besieged a strong fortresse called Durmell, within the which were diuerse capteins of the companions, as Aimon d'Ortigo, the little Mechin, Iaques de Bray, Perot de Sauoie, and Arnaudon de Pons, the which so valiantlie defended the place, that although the lord Chandois, accompanied with sir Thomas Felton, the capitall of Beuf, sir Iohn de Pommiers, sir Thomas Percie, sir Eustace Daubreticourt, and others came with their retinues from Montaubon, to réenforce that siege, yet could they not obteine their purpose, but raising from thence after fiue wéekes siege (constreined thereto through want of vittels) they marched streight to a towne called Domme, which they besieged, hauing in their armie fiftéene hundred men at armes, beside two thousand archers and brigands, so called in those daies, of an armor which they ware named brigandines, vsed then by footmen, that bare also targets, or pauoises, and certeine darts or iauelines to throw at their enimies.

Aquitaine full of warre.

The towne and castell of Domme were so strong of themselues, and so well prouided of men of warre that were appointed to the gard of the same, with the lord thereof called sir Robert de Domme, that after the English capteins perceiued they should but lose time to linger about the winning of that towne, they raised their siege, and marching further into the countrie, wan Gauaches Freins, Rochmador, and Ville Franche, vpon the marches of Toulouzain, greatlie to the displeasure of the duke of Aniou that lay at the same time in the citie of Toulouze, & could not remedie the matter. ¶ But to recite euerie particular enterprise, as the same was atchiued by the English capteins and men of warre in that season, it should be more than the purpose of this volume might permit, and therefore I passe ouer diuerse things, which I find registred by Froissard and other writers, onelie aduertising you, that as the Englishmen thus made sore warres against their aduersaries abroad in those quarters: so the Frenchmen on the other part had assembled great numbers of men of warre, not onelie to defend their frontiers, but also by inuasions to win from the Englishmen towns and castels, and to wast such countries as would not turne to their side. Thus were all those countries in troubles of warre.

The duke of Bauier.

The two kings also of England and France, signified to their neighbours the causes of this warre, laieng the fault either to other, and excusing themselues as cleare and innocent therein. Edward duke of Gelderland, nephue to the king of England, as sonne to his sister, and the duke of Gulike cousine to the kings children by their mother that was daughter to the earle of Heinault, tooke great despite that the French king had broken the peace, as they were throughlie persuaded, and that he had defied king Edward (as before yée haue heard.) Wherevpon they sent their defiance vnto the French king, threatning to be reuenged on him to the vttermost of their powers. Duke Albert of Bauier, was once minded also to haue aided king Edward in this warre: but afterwards such persuasions were vsed on the French kings part, that he chose to remaine as neuter betwixt them both, refusing to take anie part.

[Pg 691]

The duke of Burbons mother taken.

Among the soldiers also called companions, which serued the prince in this season, there were thrée capteins, right hardie and verie expert men of warre, Ortigo, Bernard de Wiske, & Bernard de la Sale. These thrée remaining as then in Limosin, hearing that the duke of Burbons mother, which was also mother to the French quéene, laie within the castell of Belleperch in Burbonnois, with a small companie about hir, rode thither in one daie and a night, so that in the morning they approched the castell, scaled it, and tooke it, with the ladie within it. And though they were after besieged in the same castell by the duke of Burbon and other Frenchmen, yet they defended it, till the earls of Cambridge and Penbroke, with fiftéene hundred speares, and thrée thousand of other men of warre, came and offered the Frenchmen battell, lodging afore them fiftéene daies. And when they perceiued that the Frenchmen would not issue out of the bastide (in which they laie) to giue battell, the earles of Cambridge and Penbroke caused all them within the castell to come foorth, and to bring with them the duches of Burbon, whome they led awaie in sight of hir sonne, leauing the castell void and frée for him to enioy.

The French king prepareth a nauie.
The duke of Lancaster set into France with an armie.

The French king prouided a great number of ships to assemble togither at Harflew, and leuied a great power of men, minding to bestow them aboord in the same ships, that they might saile into England, and make warre against king Edward in his owne countrie. Chéefteine of this armie should haue béene his brother the duke of Burbon, but this iournie was broken, for the Frenchmen were eased of the paine to come to séeke the Englishmen at home in England, they comming ouer into France, and proffering them battell euen at their owne doores. For the king of England hauing leuied a power of archers, and other men of warre, sent them ouer vnder the leading of his sonne the duke of Lancaster. There went with him in this iournie, the earles of Hereford and Salisburie, the lord Ros, the lord Basset, the lord Willoughbie, the lord de la Ware, the lord de la Pole, the lord Walter of Mannie, the lord Henrie Percie, the lord Thomas Grantson, sir Alane Burhul, sir Richard Sturrie, & diuerse other. They went ouer about Midsummer. And after they had rested a little, the duke set forward and roded foorth into the countrie, spoiling and harrieng the same, and when he saw time, returned againe to Calis.

The Duke of Lancaster fortifieth his campe.
The duke of Burgognie.

The French king being at Roan, heard of the arriual of this armie at Calis, and that his countrie of Picardie was in great danger: he changed his purpose therefore of sending an armie into England, and with all spéed appointed that his power should with his brother the duke of Burgognie turne toward Calis, to resist the duke of Lancaster. Herevpon when the duke of Lancaster heard that the duke of Burgognie was thus comming toward him, he issued foorth of Calis, and comming into the vallie beneath the hill of Turneham, there tooke his field, and fortified the place with strong hedges and rampiers, the better to be able to resist his enimies if they would assaile him. The duke of Burgognie came still forward, till he approched verie néere to the duke of Lancasters campe, and pight downe his field aloft vpon the hill of Turneham, so that the fronts of both hosts were within lesse than a mile either of other.

Sir Robert de Namur.

[Pg 692]

The earle of Warwike.

There was come to the duke of Lancaster a knight of the marches of Almaine, called sir Robert de Namur with an hundred speares: but yet the duke of Lancasters host was but one handfull of men, in respect of the huge number of the French armie, wherin were (as Froissard writeth) foure thousand knights beside others. But yet for all his great puissance and number of men, he would not aduenture to assaile the Englishmen in their lodgings, as it was thought he would haue doone, but kept himselfe and his men vpon the hill, from the foure and twentith of August, vnto the twelfth of September, and then dislodged not much to his honour, howsoeuer writers doo excuse it, declaring how his brother had giuen him streight commandement, that in no wise he should fight with the Englishmen: and that when he had sent to his brother for commission either to fight, or to remooue, he was commanded to turne with all spéed vnto Paris, and to breake vp his armie for that time. Some there be that write, how that after both these hostes had lien the one against the other a long space, to the reproofe of both chiefteins, it chanced that the lord Thomas Beauchampe earle of Warwike came thitherward by sea, to be at the battell, which he heard would shortlie follow betwéene the two armies: but yer he was come to land, the Frenchmen for feare durst no longer abide, but secretlie in the night departed and fled towards Hesdin, and so to Paris, for the which their flight, the duke of Burgognie was after blamed of his brother the French king.

The quéene of England departeth this life.
Hir thrée petitions to the king.

In this meane while, that is to saie, on the euen of the Assumption of our ladie, died that noble princesse, the ladie Philip quéene of England. It is said that when she perceiued that she must néeds depart out of this transitorie life, she desired to speake with the king hir husband, and when he was come to hir with a sorowfull hart to sée hir in that state, she tooke him by the hand, and after courteous words of induction, she required of him to grant hir thrée requests.


The first request was, that all such merchants, and other men, with whom she had bargained in any condition, might be answered of all such debts as she owght them, whether they dwelled on this side the sea or beyond.


The second request was, that all such ordinances and promises, as she had made to churches, as well within this realme, as in the parts of the further side the sea, might be performed.


The third request was, that it might please him to choose out none other sepulchre when God should call him out of this world, but beside hir at Westminster.

The praise of quéene Philip.
The quéenes colledge.

This quéene, to traine the English youth vnto vertuous conuersation, & to giue occasion that they might be brought vp in learning and good instructions, founded a colledge at Oxford, furnishing it with goodlie buildings, and a church, that they might both serue God, and profit in their studies, wherevpon it is called the quéenes colledge euen to this daie.

The duke of Lācaster maketh a iournie into France.
S. Riquier.
The master of the crosbowes of France taken.

But now to returne to the duke of Lancaster. Ye shall vnderstand that after the departure of the French armie beside the hill of Turneham, the said duke returned to Calis, and there refreshed himselfe and his people the space of thrée daies. And then he set forward againe, & with him as marshals of the host, was the earle of Warwike, and the lord Roger Beauchampe, with the lords and knights before remembred. They tooke their iournie to S. Omers, and by Turwin, and then through the countie of saint Paule, still burning the countrie as they went. They rode not past thrée or foure leages in a daie, and kéeping on their waie, they came by saint Riquier, and at the planches vnder Abuile passed the riuer of Some, and then entered into the countrie of Vimew, in purpose to go vnto Harflew, and there to burne the French kings nauie. Thus passing forward thorough Vimew, and the countie of Ewe, they entered into the archbishoprike of Roan, and marching foorth by Déepe, came vnto Harflew: but the earle of saint Poule, and the lord of Fiennes constable of France which had coasted the English armie in all this iournie, with a great power of men, was gotten before them, and entred into this towne, so that they knew how they should but lose their paine, if they did assaile it, and so therefore after they had lien before it thrée daies, on the fourth day they dislodged, & went backe againe towards Calis, returning through the countrie of Ponthieu, and before Abuile chanced to incounter a number of Frenchmen, which gaue to the duke battell. In the which was taken sir Hugh de Chatellon, master of the crosbowes of France, with other knights, esquiers, and burgesses of that towne, and about sixtéene score of the French part slaine.

[Pg 693]

The third mortalitie.
The earle of Warwicke departeth this life.

There be that write otherwise herof, shewing how the said sir Hugh Chatellon was taken by an ambush laid by sir Nicholas Louaine, as the same sir Hugh was come foorth of the towne, with not past ten or twelue with him, to sée how the passage of Rowraie was kept by them that had charge thereof. How soeuer it came to passe, taken he was, & brought to the duke of Lancaster, that reioised greatlie of that good hap: and so marching forward, he passed the riuer at Blanchetaque, and drew towards the towne of Rew on the seaside, and so to Montreuill, and finallie to Calis. Then were the strangers licenced to depart: and bicause it was far in the winter, as about saint Martines tide, the duke and the most part of his armie returned into England. In this yeare chanced the third mortalitie, which was excéeding great both of men and beasts, that the like had not béene heard of. And amongst other people that perished of that pestilentiall sickenesse, that worthie knight and noble capteine the earle of Warwike died at Calis in the moneth of Ianuarie, after his returne from Harflew. ¶ The countrie of Aquitaine was full of trouble in this meane time, either part séeking to grieue other to the vttermost of their powers. ¶ Iohn Hastings earle of Penbroke, hauing with him certeine bands of men of warre, recouered diuerse towns and castels in those parts: but when he perceiued how the enimies that were not far from the place where he was lodged, shewed manifest tokens of feare, in marching one while vncerteinelie forward, and an other while fetching great compasses about, he somewhat vnwarilie setting vpon them in their campe, was discomfited and put to flight, so that getting him into a place of the Templers, that was closed about with a wall, he remained there in great danger to be taken prisoner of his enemies that assailed him, if the lord Iohn Chandois seneschall of Poictou had not come to the rescue, and pledged him foorth.

Thom. Wals.
Sir Iohn Chandois slaine.

But shortlie after, the said lord Chandois was slaine by the enemies (whom first he had ouercome) whilest without good aduise he put off his helmet, and so receiuing a stroke with a glaiue that entered into his head, betwixt his nose and his forhead, he neuer after spake word, not liuing past a day and a night after he was hurt. The death of this right famous, wise, and valiant knight, was bewailed as well of the Frenchmen as Englishmen. The French king himselfe, when he heard that he was slaine, greatlie lamented the mishap, affirming that now he being dead, there was not any left aliue able to agrée the kings and realmes of England and France: so much was he feared, estéemed, and beloued of all men. But alas what auailed all their mourning and lamenting against the necessitie of death, sith we know that

Est commune mori, mors nulli parcit honori.
Sir Thomas Percie. A dearth.
Hen. Marle.

After he was thus slaine, sir Thomas Percie was made seneschall of Poictou. By reason of the great wet and raine that fell this yeare in more abundance than had béene accustomed, much corne was lost, so that the price thereof was sore inhanced, in so much that wheat was sold at thrée shillings foure pence the bushell. But as concerning the death, the west parts of the realme was sorest afflicted with this mortalitie, and namelie at Oxford there died a great number of scholers.

The duches of Lancaster.
An. Reg. 44.

Somewhat before this time, the ladie Blanch daughter to Henrie duke of Lancaster, departed this life, and was buried on the north side of the high altar in the cathedrall church of saint Paule within the citie of London, where hir husband Iohn of Gant was after also interred. She ordeined for hir husband and for hir selfe a solemne obit to be kept yearelie in that church, where the maior being present with the shiriffes, chamberlaine, and sword-bearer, should offer each of them a pennie, and the maior to take vp a pound, the shiriffes either of them a marke, the chamberleine ten shillings, and the sword-bearer six shillings eight pence, and euerie other of the maiors officers two and twentie pence, and the number of eight officers belonging vnto the shiriffes (and by them to be appointed) eight pence a péece. ¶ This yeare was granted to the king in parlement assembled at Westminster of the spirituall mens liuings a tenth for the space of thrée yeares, and a fiftéenth of the temporaltie during the same tearme.

Sir Robert Knolles with an armie sent into France.
Truce with Scots.

This yeare, after that the king had gotten togither a great summe of monie, as well by borowing of the clergie as of the laitie, he leuied an armie, & sent the same ouer to Calis about Midsummer, vnder the gouernance of that worthie chéefteine sir Robert Knolles, accompanied with the L. Fitz Walter, the lord Granson, sir Alaine Buxhull, sir Iohn Bourchier, sir William Meuille, sir Geffrey Wourseley, and diuerse other noblemen, knights, and worthie capteins. About the same time, the king of England concluded an abstinence of warre with the Scots for the tearme of nine yeares, yet so that the Scots[Pg 694] might arme themselues, and at their pleasure serue and take wages, either of the English or French, by reason whereof, sir Robert Knolles had in his companie an hundred speares of the realme of Scotland.

Iac. Meir.
The number of men of war in this armie.

When this armie had lien and rested in Calis about the space of seauen daies, sir Robert Knolles caused euerie man to depart the towne, and to take the fields, marching the first daie néere to the castell of Fiennes, and there lodged for that night. The whole number of this armie was not aboue twelue thousand men. Froissard saith, they were but fiftéene hundred speares, & foure thousand archers. Within the castell of Fiennes was the constable of France, that was lord thereof, with such a number of souldiers and men of warre, that the Englishmen thought they should but lose their labour to assaile it. And so they passed foorth by Turrouane, and toward Arras, riding not past foure leages a daie, bicause of their cariages and footmen. They tooke their lodging euer about noone, and laie néere vnto great villages.

The suburbs of Arras burnt.
The towne of Roy burnt.
The French mē withdraw into their fortresses & strōg townes.

The French king had furnished all his townes and fortresses in Picardie with strong garrisons of souldiers, to defend the same against all chances that might happen either by siege or sudden assault. The Englishmen therefore thought not good to linger about the winning of anie of the strong townes, but passed by them, wasting or ransoming the countries. At Arras they shewed themselues before the barriers, and when none would issue to skirmish with them, they set fier on the suburbs, & departed. From thence they tooke the waie by Baupalmes, and so came into Vermendois, and burnt the towne of Roy. Then went they to Han in Vermendois, into the which all the people of the countrie were withdrawne, with such goods as they might carie with them. And in like manner had those doone which inhabited about S. Quintine, Peronne, and other strong townes, so that the Englishmen found little abroad, sauing the barnes full of corne for it was after haruest.

The Englishmen before Paris.

Thus they rode faire and easilie, two or thrée leages a daie, and sometime to recouer monie of their enimies, they would compound with them within strong townes, to spare the countrie from burning and destruction, for such a summe as they agréed vpon, by which meanes sir Robert Knolles got in that voiage aboue the summe of an hundred thousand frankes. For the which he was after accused to the king of England, as one that had not dealt iustlie in so dooing. In this sort passing the countrie, they came before Noion, and after they had rested a while afore the towne, they went foorth wasting and burning the countrie, and finallie passed the riuer of Marne, and so entered in Champaigne, and passed the riuer of Aube, and also diuerse times they passed to and fro ouer the riuer of Saine: at length drawing toward Paris, and comming before that citie, they lodged there in the field a day and two nights, and shewed themselues in order of battell before the citie. This was on the twentie fourth daie of September.

The French king was at the same time within the citie, & might behold out of his lodging of S. Paule, the fiers and smokes that were made in Gastenois, through burning the townes and villages there by the Englishmen, but yet he would suffer none of his people to go foorth of the citie, although there was a great power of men of warre within the citie, both of such as had coasted the English armie in all this iournie, and also of other which were come thither by the kings commandement, beside the burgesses, and inhabitants of the citie. When sir Robert Knolles perceiued that he should haue no battell, he departed and drew toward Aniou, where they wan by strength the townes of Vaas and Ruellie. But now in the beginning of winter, there fell such discord amongst the English capteins, through couetousnesse and enuie, that finallie they diuided themselues in sunder, greatlie to the displeasure of sir Robert Knolles their generall, who could not rule them.

Thom. Wals.
Sir Simon Minsterworth.

There was a knight among them named sir Iohn Minsterworth, that had the leading of one wing of this armie, a good man of his hands (as we call him) but peruerse of mind, and verie deceitfull, and to sir Robert Knolles (to whome he was much beholden) most vnfaithfull. This knight, perceiuing the wilfull minds of certeine yoong lords and knights[Pg 695] there in the armie, that repined at the gouernement of sir Robert Knolles, as the Romans did sometime at the gouerance of Camillus (the chéefe of whome were the lord Grantson, the lord Fitz Walter, and others) did his best to pricke them forward, sounding them in the eare, that it was a great reproch for them being of noble parentage, to serue vnder such an old rascall as he was, ech of them being able to guide their enterprise of themselues, without his counsell, by which flattering of them, and disgracing of him, the said Minsterworth did much mischéefe, for

Lingua loquax, odiosa, procax, parit omne molestum.
Bermondsey. Sir Robert Knolles borne in Cheshire.
Sir Robert Knolles counsell not followed.
Discord what commeth of it.

Indéed this sir Robert Knolles was not descended of anie high linage, but borne in the countie of Chester of meane ofspring, neuerthelesse through his valiant prowesse, and good seruice in warre, growne to such estimation, as he was reputed worthie of all honour due to a noble and skilfull warriour, so that it was thought the king could not haue made his choise of one more able or sufficient to supplie the roome of a chéefteine, than of him: but yet, although this was most true, his aduise could not be heard, nor the authoritie appointed him by the king beare anie swaie. For where he counselled that they should now vpon the approching of winter draw foorth of France into Britaine, and there remaine for the winter season, they would not so agrée, nor obeie his will. Wherevpon it came to passe, that sir Berthram de Cleaquin, at that time newlie made constable of France, vnderstanding this diuision to grow amongst the Englishmen, and that they were diuided into parts, set vpon them so much to their disaduantage, that he distressed them, and tooke or slue the more part of them: but sir Robert Knols with the flower of the archers and men of warre went into Britaine, and there saued himselfe, and those that followed him. ¶ Here you may sée, how those that before through amitie and good agréement were of such force as their enimies durst not once assaie to annoie them, now by strife and dissention among themselues were slaine or taken by the same enimies, and brought to confusion. To which purpose it is properlie and trulie said,

Lis odium gignit, charos concordia stringit.
The citie of Limoges besieged.

In this meane time that sir Robert Knols made this voiage through the realme of France, the prince of Wales laid siege to the citie of Limoges, which was reuolted to the Frenchmen. There were with him at the laieng of this siege, his brethren, the duke of Lancaster, and the earle of Cambridge, sir Guichard Dangle, sir Lois de Harecourt, the lord of Pons, the lord of Partenaie, the lord of Pinane, the lord of Tannaibouton, sir Perciuall de Coulongne, sir Geffrie de Argenton, Poictouins: and of Gascoignes, the lord of Mountterrant, the lord de Chaumount, the lord de Longueren, sir Amerie de Tharse, the lords of Pommiers, Mucident de l'Esparre, the Souldich de Lestrade, the lord of Gerond, and manie other: of Englishmen there were, sir Thomas Percie, the lord Ros, the lord William Beauchampe, sir Michaell de la Pole, sir Stephan Goussenton, sir Richard Pontchardon, sir Baldwin Freuille, sir Simon Burlie, sir Dangousse, sir Iohn Deuereux, sir William Menille or (as some copies haue) Neuille, and manie other. There was also sir Eustace Dambreticourt, and of the companions, sir Perducas Dalbreth, who in the beginning of these warres being turned French, was by the persuasion of sir Robert Knols procured to returne againe to the princes seruice before the siege of Durmelle.

Limoges taken by force.

The prince being thus accompanied, with these worthie capteins and men of armes, to the number of twelue hundred, beside a thousand archers and other footmen, indeuored by all waies he could deuise to indamage them within. In the end he caused the walles to be vndermined, and quite reuersed into the ditch, & then giuing assault, entered by the breach, and made an huge slaughter of them within, in somuch that of men, women, and children (for none were spared in respect of age or sex) there were slaine and beheaded that daie aboue thrée thousand. The bishop with certeine knights and capteins were taken and had their liues granted, though the bishop was in great danger to haue lost his head, bicause he was a chéefe dooer in yéelding the citie before vnto the Frenchmen.

[Pg 696]

The prince returned into England.
Thom. Wals.

Whilest the prince laie at siege before Limoges (a litle before he wan it) thither came to him his brethren, the duke of Lancaster, and the earle of Cambridge, the lord Ros, sir Michael de la Pole, sir Robert Rous, sir Iohn Saintlo, and sir William Beauchampe, with a faire number of men of war, spears, and archers. The prince then after he had woone Limoges, and executed some crueltie there to the terrour of other; his maladie which still continued vpon him, rather increased than diminished, so that he was aduised by physicians to returne into England, in hope that change of aire should restore him to health. For the which consideration and other causes of businesse which he had to doo with his father, touching certeine weightie affaires he tooke the sea, and came ouer into England, leauing the gouernement of Aquitaine vnto his brother the duke of Lancaster, as his lieutenant there: he landed at Plimmouth in the beginning of Ianuarie.

The king of Nauarre cōmeth ouer into England.
The king of Nauars constancie suspected.
An. Reg. 45.
A subsidie.
Spirituall men deposed.

Moreouer in this 44 yeare of king Edward, the king of Nauarre came ouer into England, and at Claringdon found the king, and there talked with him of such matters as they had to conclude betwixt them two. But for that the king of Nauarre could not assure the king of such couenants as should haue passed betwixt them two, it was not thought méet by the kings councell to worke too far vpon his bare word, that had before time shewed apparant proofes of his inconstant dealing. And suerlie this doubt arose not without cause, as his dooings shortlie after declared: for although he séemed now at this present to be a verie enimie to the French king, yet shortlie after he was reconciled to him againe, and became his great fréend for the time it lasted. This yeare in the moneth of Februarie was a parlement called, in the which there was demanded of the spiritualtie a subsidie of fiftie thousand pounds, and as much of the laitie. The temporall men soone agréed to that paiment, but the cleargie excused themselues with faire words and shifting answers: in somuch that the king tooke displesure with them, and deposed certeine spirituall men from their offices of dignitie, as the chancellor, the priuie seale, the treasuror, and such others, in whose roomes he placed temporall men.

Cardinals appointed to treat of peace.

The bishop of Winchester, and the bishop of Beauuois being both cardinals, were put in commission by pope Gregorie the eleuenth to treat betwixt the kings of England and France for a peace. But albeit they did their indeuour therein, and mooued both kings to the vttermost of their powers, yet their motions tooke none effect, and therefore was the warre pursued to the vttermost betwixt the parties, & namelie in Aquitaine, where the fortresses were so intermedled one with an other, some English, and some French, that one knew not how to beware of another, nor to auoid the danger, so that the countrie of Poictou and other the marches thereabout were in great tribulation. Sir Robert Knols, sir Thomas Spenser, sir Iohn Triuet, and sir Hugh Hastings, diuiding their powers insunder, went to recouer townes, some in one quarter, and some in an other, and certeine they assaied, but preuailed not: the inhabitants doubting to be punished for their vntruths, made such stout resistance.

The feare which the enimies had of sir Ro. Knols, Sir Berthrā de Cleaquin.

After this, the duke of Lancaster appointed sir Robert Knols to repaire againe to Calis, and by the waie (if occasion serued) to attempt the recouerie of Ponthieu. Sir Robert taking his iournie through France by Paris, came into the marches of Picardie: and bicause in comparison to this man, all the English capteins were litle feared of the Frenchmen, sir Berthram de Cleaquin, the constable of France, leauing the fortresses in the marches of Aquitaine sufficientlie stuffed with men of warre and munition, followed sir Robert Knols, still readie to assaile the hindermost companies, or else to set on the sides of his enimies. So that there chanced manie skirmishes betwixt them, & manie men were slaine on both parts; but at length, when sir Robert Knols saw no likelihood to atchiue his purposed intent in recouerie of the townes of Ponthieu, as Abuile and other, he drew streight to Calis, and the constable retired backe into France.

An. Reg. 46.

In this 46 yeare, sir Robert Ashton was sent into Ireland as lord deputie there, and in the same yeare, the duke of Lancaster being as then a widower, maried the ladie Constance eldest daughter to Peter king of Spaine, which was slaine by his bastard brother Henrie[Pg 697] (as before ye haue heard.) ¶ Also the lord Emund earle of Cambridge maried the ladie Isabell, sister to the same Constance. ¶ Their other sister named Beatrice, affianced to Don Ferdinando, son to Peter king of Portingale, was departed this life a little before this time at Baionne, where they were all thrée left as hostages by their father, when the prince went to bring him home into his countrie (as before yée may read.) Froissard writeth, that the duke married the ladie Constance in Gascoigne, and that shortlie after he returned into England with his said wife and hir sister, leauing the capitall de Bueffz, and other lords of Gascoigne and Poictou in charge with the rule of those countries. By reason of that marriage, the duke of Lancaster, as in right of his wife being the elder sister, caused himselfe to be intituled king of Castile, and his said wife quéene of the same realme.

The earle of Hereford being sent to the sea, with certeine ships of warre, was incountered by the Flemish fléet, before an hauen in Britaine called the Baie, where was fought a sore battell, and long continued for the space of thrée houres: howbeit finallie the victorie abode with the Englishmen, notwithstanding that the Flemings were more in number, and better prouided for the matter. There were taken of them fiue and twentie ships, with their Admerall Iohn Peterson. They had béene at Rochell for wine, and now were come to the Baie for salt vpon their returne homeward, and hearing that the Englishmen would come that waie, staied for them, and first gaue the onset. For yée must remember, that by reason that the earle of Flanders had married his daughter to the duke of Burgognie, which he had first promised to the earle of Cambridge, there was no perfect fréendship betwixt the realme of England, and the countries of the said earle of Flanders.

Sir Guichard Dangle made knight of the Garter.
The earle of Penbroke sēt into Guien.

Sir Guichard Dangle a knight of Poictou, that was come ouer with the duke of Lancaster, to procure the king to send some new aid into Aquitaine, was for his approoued valiancie and tried truth to the king of England, made knight of the garter. And moreouer at his instance the king rigged a nauie of ships, and appointed the earle of Penbroke as generall, to saile with the same into Aquitaine, and there to remooue the siege which the Frenchmen had laid to Rochell. The earle according to his commission tooke the sea with a fléet of fortie ships prepared for him: but yer he could enter the hauen of Rochell, he was assailed by an huge fléet of Spaniards, and there vanquished, taken prisoner, & led into Spaine. The Spaniards had for capteins foure skilfull warriours, Ambrose Bouquenegre, Cabesse de Vake or Vakadent, Dom Ferand du Pion, and Rodigo de la Rochell, who had vnder their gouernement fortie great carrauels, and thirtéene trim barkes throughlie furnished and appointed with good mariners and men of warre.

These foure last remembered came forth of Rochell to aid the earle.

The earle of Penbroke had with him nothing the like number of ships, nor men: for (as Froissard writeth) he had not past two and twentie knights with him, or (as other haue) not past twelue, being for the more part of his owne retinue or houshold: and yet those few Englishmen and Poictouins that were there with him, bare themselues right valiantlie, and fought it out to the vttermost. There were slaine sir Simon Houssagre, sir Iohn de Mortague, and sir Iohn Tuchet; and there were taken prisoners, besides the earle himselfe, sir Robert Buffort, sir Iohn Curson, sir Othes de Grandson, sir Guichard Dangle, the lord of Pinane, sir Iohn de Griueres, sir Iaques de Surgieres, the lord of Tannaibouton, sir Iohn de Hardane, and others. This battell was fought on Midsummer euen, in this six and fortith yeare of king Edwards reigne. The earle had (as Froissard writeth) treasure with him, to haue waged thrée thousand men of warre, which neuer did anie man good, for (as he was informed) the ship wherein he was aboord, perished with diuerse other being burnt or sunke. ¶ The English writers saie, that it was no maruell though this mishap chanced vnto him, bicause he had in parlement spoken against men of the church, in giuing counsell that they might be constreined to paie gréeuous subsidies, towards the maintenance of the kings warre, and that no lesse heauie paiments[Pg 698] and subsidies, should be imposed vpon them, than vpon the secular sort. Wherein he séemed to bewraie a malicious mind against the clergie, who as in no age they haue wanted foes, so in his time they found few fréends, being a generation appointed and ordeined in their cradels to be contemned of the world, speciallie of great men, of whose fauour and goodwill it is truelie & rightlie said,

Gratia magnatum nescit habere statum.

By reason of this misfortune thus happened to the English fléet, the Frenchmen recouered manie townes and castels out of the Englishmens hands, in the countries of Poictou, Xaintonge, Limosin, and other the marches of Aquitaine.

Yuans a Welsh gentleman. Sir Edmund Rous.
The prosperous successe of the Frenchmen in Poictou.

About the same time the French king sent foure thousand men to the sea, vnder the guiding of one Yuans a banished Welsh gentleman, the which landing in the Isle of Guernesey, was incountered by the captein of that Ile called sir Edmund Rous, who had gathered eight hundred men of his owne souldiers togither, with them of the Ile, and boldlie gaue battell to the Frenchmen: but in the end the Englishmen were discomfited, and foure hundred of them slaine, so that sir Edmund Rous fled into the castell of Cornet, & was there besieged by the said Yuans, till the French king sent to him to come backe from thence, and so he did, leauing the castell of Cornet, and sir Edmund Rous within it as he found him. The Frenchmen this yeare recouered the citie of Poictiers, Rochell also, and the most part of all Poictou, and finallie laid siege to Towars in Poictou, wherein a great number of the lords of that countrie were inclosed, the which fell to a composition with the Frenchmen to haue an abstinence of warre for themselues, and their lands, till the feast of saint Michaell next insuing, which should be in the yeare 1362. And in the meane time they sent to the king of England their souereigne lord, to certifie him what conditions they had agréed vnto, that if they were not aided by him, or by one of his sonnes within the said tearme, then they to yéeld them and their lands to the obeisance of the French king.

Towars in danger to be lost.
Th. Walsing.

Not long before this, the capitall of Bueffz was taken prisoner, and sir Thomas Percie, with diuerse other Englishmen and Gascoignes before Soubise by sir Yuans of Wales and other French capteins, so that the countries of Poictou and Xaintonge were in great danger to be quite lost, if spéedie succours came not in time. Where vpon king Edward aduertised of that agréement which they within Towars had made, raised an armie, rigged his ships, and in August tooke the sea, purposing to come before the daie assigned, to the succours of that fortresse: but the wind continued for the space of nine wéekes so contrarie vnto his intent, that he was still driuen backe and could not get forward toward the coast of Rochell, where he thought to haue landed, so that finallie when the daie of rescuing Towars came, he nor anie of his sonnes could appeare in those parts, and so to his great displeasure he returned home, and licenced all his people to depart to their houses. By this means was Towars deliuered to the Frenchmen, which ceassed not in such occasions of aduantage to take time, and follow the steps of prosperous fortune.

An. Reg. 47.
The duke of Britaine.

About this season the duke of Britaine being sore displeased in his mind, that the Englishmen susteined dailie losses in the parts of Aquitaine, would gladlie haue aided their side, if he might haue got the nobles of his countrie to haue ioined with him, but the lords Clisson and de la Vale, with the vicount of Roan, and other the lords and barons of Britaine, so much fauoured the French king, that he perceiued they would reuolt from him, if he attempted any thing against the Frenchmen. He therefore meaning by one way or other to further the king of England his quarell, and fearing to be attached by his owne subiects, and sent to Paris, dispatched messengers to K. Edward, requiring him to send some power of men of warre into Britaine, to defend him against the malice of such as were altogither French and enemies to England.

[Pg 699]

The lord Neuill sent into Britaine.
Englishmen discomfited by the constable of France.
Townes woone by him.
The constable of Frāce sent into Britaine.

King Edward forthwith sent ouer the lord Neuill, with foure hundred men of armes, and as manie archers, the which arriuing at saint Matthewes de fine Poterne, remained there all the winter. Wherevpon the Britaines being sore offended therewith, closed their townes and fortresses against their duke, and shewed much evil towards him. The constable of France sir Berthram de Cleaquin, laieng siege to the towne and castell of Sireth in Poictou, discomfited a number of Englishmen that came to raise his siege, by meanes whereof he got not onelie Sireth, but also Niort, Lucignen, and all other the townes and fortresses which the Englishmen held till that day within Poictou, Xaintonge, and Rochellois. Shortlie after this, the constable returned into France, and was appointed by the king there to go with an armie of men of warre into Britaine, and there to take into his hands all such townes and fortresses as belonged to the duke of Britaine, bicause he had alied himselfe with the king of England, and receiued Englishmen into his countrie, to the preiudice of the realme of France.

Sir Robert Knols.
The duke of Britaine cōmeth ouer into England.
The earle of Salisburie.

The duke being aduertised of the constables comming, was counselled by sir Robert Knols (whom the king of England had sent to aid him) that he should passe ouer into England, and there to be a suter in his owne cause for more aid to be sent into Britaine, to resist the Frenchmen that now sought to bring the whole countrie into their possession. The duke inclining to this aduise, went ouer into England, and in the meane time the constable came and wan the most part of all the townes and fortresses of that duchie, except Brest, where sir Robert Knols was, and certeine other. The earle of Salisburie with a great nauie of ships, well furnished with men of armes and archers, laie vpon the coast of Britaine all that time, and greatlie comforted them within Brest, in so much that he came on land, and offered battell to the constable if he would haue come forward & receiued it.

The duke of Lancaster sent over into France with an armie.
Ia. Meir.
Noble men that went with him in that iournie.

In the moneth of Iulie in this seuen and fourtith yeare of King Edwards reigne, the duke of Lancaster was sent ouer vnto Calis with an armie of thirtie thousand men (as some write) but as Froissard saith, they were but thirtéene thousand, as thrée thousand men of armes, and ten thousand archers. This voiage had béene in preparing for the space of thrée yeares before. The duke of Britaine was there with them, and of English nobilitie, beside the duke of Lancaster that was their generall, there were the earles of Warwike, Stafford and Suffolke, the lord Edward Spenser that was constable of the host, the lords Willoughbie, de la Pole, Basset, and diuerse others. Of knights, sir Henrie Percie, sir Lewes Clifford, sir William Beauchampe, the Chanon Robertsart, Walter Hewet, sir Hugh Caluerlie, sir Stephen Cousington, sir Richard Ponchardon, and manie other.

They passed through the countrie without assaulting any townes.

When they had made readie their cariages and other things necessarie for such a iournie which they had taken in hand, that is to say, to passe through the realme of France vnto Burdeaux, they set forward, hauing their armie diuided into thrée battels. The earles of Warwike and Suffolke did lead the fore ward: the two dukes of Lancaster and Britaine, the middle ward or battell, and the rereward was gouerned by the lord Spenser constable of the host. They passed by S. Omers, by Turrouane, and coasted the countrie of Arthois, and passed the water of Some at Corbie. They destroied the countries as they went, and marched not past thrée leages a day. They assailed none of the strong townes, nor fortresses. For the French king had so stuffed them with notable numbers of men of warre, that they perceiued they should trauell in vaine about the winning of them. At Roy in Vermandois, they rested them seuen daies, and at their departure set fire on the towne, bicause they could not win the church which was kept against them. From thence they drew towards Laon, and so marched forward, passing the riuers of Ysare, Marne, Saine, and Yonne. The Frenchmen coasted them, but durst not approch to giue them battell.

[Pg 700]

The Frenchmen meant not to fight with the Englishmen.
The order of the duke of Lancasters armie in marching.
He cōmeth into Burdeaux.

Néere to Ribaumount, about 80 Englishmen of sir Hugh Caluerlies band were distressed by 120 Frenchmen: & likewise beside Soissons, 120 English speares, or (as other writers haue) fiftie speares, and twentie archers were vanquished by a Burgonian knight called sir Iohn de Vienne that had with him thrée hundred French speares. Of more hurt by anie incounters I read not that the Englishmen susteined in this voiage. For the Frenchmen kept them aloofe, and meant not to fight with their enemies, but onelie to kéepe them from vittels, and fetching of forrage abroad, by reason whereof the Englishmen lost manie horsses, and were in déed driuen to great scarsitie of vittels. When they had passed the riuer of Loire, and were come into the countrie of Berrie, they vnderstood how the Frenchmen laid themselues in sundrie ambushes to distresse them, if they might espie the aduantage: but the duke of Lancaster placing his light horssemen, with part of the archers in the fore ward, and in the battell the whole force of his footmen with the men at armes, diuided into wings to couer that battell, wherein he himselfe was, the residue of the horssemen with the rest of the archers he appointed to the rereward, and so causing them to kéepe close togither, marched foorth till he came into Poictou, & then in reuenge of the Poictouins that had reuolted from the English obeisance, he began a new spoile, killing the people, wasting the countrie, and burning the houses and buildings euerie where as he passed, & so finallie about Christmasse came to Burdeaux.

The archb. of Rauenna sent from the pope.
Messengers sent to the pope about reseruations of benefices.

Whilest the duke of Lancaster was thus passing through the realme of France, pope Gregorie the eleuenth sent the archbishop of Rauenna and the bishop of Carpentras as legats from him, to treat for a peace betwixt the realms of England and France. They rode to & fro betwixt the French king and his brethren, and the duke of Lancaster: but the duke and the Englishmen kept on their waie, and so finallie kéeping forwards about Christmasse came to Burdeaux. The legats pursued their treatie, but the parties were so hard, that no reasonable offers would be taken. The two dukes of Lancaster and Britaine laie in Burdeaux all the residue of the winter, and the Lent following. The same yeare that the duke of Lancaster made this iournie thorough France, the king of England sent certeine ambassadors to the pope, requiring him not to meddle with the reseruations of benefices within his realme of England, but that those which were elected bishops might enioy their sées, and be confirmed of their metropolitaine and archbishop, as of ancient time they had béene accustomed.

Cathedrall churches.
Cōmissioners appointed to méet and commune of peace.

The pope would not at that present determine anie thing herein, but commanded them that were sent, that they should certifie him againe of the kings pleasure and further meaning, in those articles and other touching him and his realme. Also this yeare it was decréed in parlement, that cathedrall churches might inioy the right of their elections, and that the king should not hinder them that were chosen, but rather helpe them to their confirmations. ¶ In the same parlement was granted to the king a disme of the cleargie, and a fiftéenth of the laitie. ¶ Moreouer at the sute of the popes legats, a respit of war was granted betwixt the kings of England and France, but so that the Englishmen lost in Gascoine a great number of castels and townes, by reason of a composition made before, that if they were not rescued by the middest of August, they should then yéeld themselues French: and bicause the truce was agréed vpon to indure till the last of August, the Englishmen tooke no héed to the matter. It was further agréed vpon, that in the beginning of September, there should méet in the marches of Picardie, the duke of Lancaster, and other of the English part, as commissioners to intreat of peace; and the duke of Aniou and other on the French part, the popes legat to be there also as mediator. When this agréement was thus accorded, the duke of Lancaster, and the duke of Britaine, with the earls of Warwike, Suffolke and Stafford, the lords Spenser, Willoughbie and others, tooke the sea at Burdeaux the eight of Iulie, and returned into England.

Death of the archb. of Can.
Simon Sudberie elected archbishop.

This yeare the fifth of Iune, died William Wittelsey archbishop of Canturburie, after whose death the moonks chose to that sée the cardinall of Winchester, with which election the king was nothing contented, so that after much monie spent by the moonks to obteine their purpose, at length they were disappointed, and doctor Simon Sudberie was admitted to that dignitie, who before was bishop of London, being the seauen and fiftith archbishop that had ruled that sée. He was chosen by the appointment of the[Pg 701] king, and consent of the pope. For alredie was that decrée worne out of vse, whereby the elections of bishops haue rested in the voices of them of the cathedrall church: for not onelie this Simon archbishop of Canturburie, but other also were ordeined bishops from thencefoorth, by the will and authoritie of the popes and kings of this realme, till at length it came to passe, that onelie the kings instituted bishops, and the bishops ordeined other gouernours vnder them of meaner degrées.

Thus the popes within a while lost all their authoritie, which they had before time within this realme in the appointing of bishops, and other rulers of churches; and in like manner also they lost shortlie after their authoritie of leuieng tenths of spirituall promotions, the which they in former times had vsed, to the great detriment of the realme, which lost nothing by this new ordinance: for the English people were not compelled afterwards to depart with their monie vnto strangers, so largelie as before, to content the gréedinesse of that coruorant generation of Romanists, whose insatiable desires would admit no stint, as infected with the dropsie of filthie auarice, for

Omnia des cupido, sua non perit inde cupido,
Quò plus sunt potæ plus sitiuntur aquæ.
The begining of the statute of Premunire.

This restraining reformation concerned the benefit of the whole land verie much: for K. Edward the third was the first that caused an act to be made, that none vnder a great penaltie should séeke to obteine anie spirituall promotions within this realme of the pope, or bring anie sutes to his court, except by waie of appeale: and that those that were the aiders of any such offendors against this act, should run in danger of the same paine, which act by those kings that succéeded was not onelie commanded to be kept, but also confirmed with new penalties, and is called the statute of Premunire.

An. Reg. 49.
The commissioners méet at Bruges.
A truce taken betwixt England & Frāce.
Tho. Wals.
An armie sent ouer into Britaine with the duke.

About Candlemasse there met at Bruges as commissioners for the king of England, the duke of Lancaster, the earle of Salisburie, and the bishop of London. For the French king, the dukes of Aniou, and Burgognie, the earle of Salebruce, and the bishop of Amiens with others. Finallie, when they could not agrée vpon anie good conclusion for peace, they accorded vpon a truce, to indure to the first of Maie next insuing in all the marches of Calis, and vp to the water of Some; but the other places were at libertie to be still in warre: by report of other writers, the truce was agréed vpon to continue till the feast of All saints next insuing. About the same time that the foresaid commissioners were at Bruges intreating of peace, the duke of Britaine did so much with his father in law king Edward, that about the beginning of Aprill he sent ouer with him into Britaine the earles of Cambridge, March, Warwike, and Stafford, the lord Spenser, sir Thomas Holland, sir Nicholas Camois, sir Edward Twiford, sir Richard Ponchardon, sir Iohn Lesselles, sir Thomas Grandson, sir Hugh Hastings, and diuerse other worthie capteins with a power of thrée thousand archers, and two thousand men of armes, all verie well furnished to fight.

Townes woon.
Sir Iohn Deureux.
This truce was cōcluded to indure from midsummer in this 1375, vnto midsummer in ye yeare next insuing.
Tho. Wals.

They landed at saint Matthews or Mahe de fine Poterne, where they tooke the castell by force, and the towne by surrender. From thence they went to Pole de Lion, and wan it likewise by force of assault, and then went to Brieu de Vaux, a towne stronglie fensed, and well manned. In hope yet to win it, the duke of Britaine and the English lords laid siege to it, but hearing that an English knight, one sir Iohn Deureux was besieged in a fortresse which he had newlie made, by the vicount of Roan, the L. Clisson, and other of the French part, they raised from Brieu de Vaux, and hasted forward to the succor of sir Iohn Deureux, ernestlie wishing to find their enimies in the field, that they might giue them battell: but the British lords hearing that the duke and the Englishmen approched, made no longer abode, but got them with all spéed vnto Campellie a towne of great strength not farre off, and therein closed themselues for their more safetie. The duke of Britaine hearing that they were fled thither, followed them, and laid siege round about the towne, inforcing himselfe to obteine the place, and so had doone in déed by all likelihood verie shortlie, if at the same time, by reason of a truce taken for twelue moneths,[Pg 702] he had not béene commanded by the duke of Lancaster, without delaie to ceasse his war, and breake vp his campe: as he did.

The duke of Britaine disappointed by the truce.

There were sundrie méetings of the commissioners for this treatie of peace, and still they tooke longer time for continuance of the truce. And bicause that Britaine and all the other countries of France (as should séeme) were included in this truce, it séemeth that this was some second truce, and not the first truce, which included onelie the marches of Calis, and those parts vp to the water of Some. But howsoeuer it was, the duke of Britaine being in a great forwardnesse to haue recouered his duchie out of the Frenchmens hands, and to haue reduced his rebellious subjects vnder due obeisance againe, was now by this truce concluded out of time, greatlie disappointed, and so breake vp his siege from before Campellie, and sent home the English armie. He went himselfe to Aulroie, where his wife was; and taking order for the fortifieng and kéeping of those places, which were in his possession, he came backe againe into England, and brought his wife with him.

S. Sauiour le vicount yéelded.

A litle before the concluding of this truce, the Englishmen and others within the fortresse of saint Sauiour le vicount, in the Ile or rather Close (as they called it) of Constantine, which had béene long besieged, made a composition, that if they were not rescued by a certeine daie, then should they yéeld vp the place to the Frenchmen. Now bicause this truce was agréed before the daie appointed for the rescue of that place, with condition that either part should inioy and hold that which at that present they had in possession, during the terme of the truce; the Englishmen thought that saint Sauiour le vicount should be saued by reason of that treatie: but the Frenchmen to the contrarie auouched, that the first couenant ought to passe the last ordinance. So that when the daie approched, the French king sent thither six thousand speares, knights, and esquiers, beside other people: and bicause none appeared to giue them battell, they had the towne deliuered to them.

Thom. Wals.
The lord Spenser departeth this life.
The earle of Penbroke deceasseth.
Iohn Stow.

¶ In this 49 yeare of K. Edwards reigne, a great death chanced in this land, and in diuerse other countries, so that innumerable numbers of people died and perished of that contagious sickenesse. Amongst other the lord Edward Spenser died the same yeare, a man of great renowme and valiantnesse. Also the earle of Penbroke, hauing compounded for his ransome, as he was vpon his returne from Spaine, comming homewards through France, he fell sicke, and being brought in an horsselitter to Arras, he died there, on the 16 daie of Aprill, leauing a sonne behind him not past two yeares of age, begot of the countesse his wife called Anne, daughter vnto the lord Walter de Mannie. Polydor mistaking the matter, saith that Marie the countesse of Penbroke, who builded Penbroke hall in Cambridge, was wife to this Iohn Hastings earle of Penbroke, whereas in déed she was wife to his ancestor Aimer de Valence earle of Penbroke (as Iohn Stow in his summarie hath trulie noted.) She was daughter to Guy earle of saint Pole, a worthie ladie and a vertuous, tendering so much the wealthfull state of this land (a great part wherof consisteth in the good bringing vp of youth, and training them to the knowledge of learning) that for maintenance of students she began the forsaid commendable foundation, about the yeare of Christ 1343, vpon a plot of ground that was hir owne, hauing purchased licence thereto of the king, to whom she was of kin.

[Pg 703]

Commissioners eftsoones met to common of peace.
The demāds on both parts.

During that gréeuous mortalitie and cruell pestilence before remembered, the pope at the instant request of the English cardinals, granted vnto all those that died in England, being shriuen and repentant of their sinnes, cleane remission of the same, by two buls inclosed vnder lead. The duke of Lancaster about the feast of All saints met with the French commissioners againe at Bruges. There was with him the duke of Britaine, the earle of Salisburie, and the bishop of London. For the French king there appéered the duke of Burgognie, the earle of Salebruch, and the bishop of Amiens. And at saint Omers laie the duke of Aniou, the archbishop of Rauenna, and the bishop of Carpentras tooke great paine to go to and fro betwéene the parties: but they were sofar at ods in their demands, and as it were of set purpose on the French behalfe, that no good could be doone betwixt them. The French king required to haue Calis raced, and to haue againe fourtéene hundred thousand franks, which were paid for the ransome of king Iohn. The king of England demanded to haue all the lands restored to him in Gascoigne and Guien cléerelie exempt of all resorts. So when nothing could be concluded touching a final peace, the truce was renewed to indure till the feast of S. Iohn Baptist next insuing, which should be in the yeare 1376.

An. Reg. 50.
A parlement.
The lord Latimer. Dame Alice Perers. Sir Richard Sturrie. The request of the commons.

In this fiftith yeare, king Edward assembled his high court of parlement at Westminster, in the which was demanded a subsidie of the commons for the defense of the kings dominions against his enimies. Wherevnto answer was made by the common house, that they might no longer beare such charges, considering the manifold burthens by them sustained in time past. And further they said, it was well knowne the king was rich inough to withstand his enimies, if his monie and treasure were well imploied: but the land had béene of long time euill guided by euill officers, so that the same could not be stored with chaffer, merchandize, or other riches. The commons also declared whom they tooke and judged to be chéefe causer of this disorder, as the duke of Lancaster, & the L. Latimer lord chamberleine to the king; also dame Alice Perers, whom the king long time kept to his concubine; and also one named sir Richard Sturrie, by whose sinister meanes and euill counsell the king was misled, and the land euill gouerned. Wherefore the commons by the mouth of their speaker sir Péers de la Mere, required that those persons might be remooued from the king, and other more discréet set in their roomes about his person, and so put in authoritie, that they might sée to his honour and weale of the realme, more than the other had doone before them.

This request of the commons by support of the prince was allowed, and granted, so that the said persons and other of their affinitie were commanded to depart the court, and other (such as were thought méet by the prince, and the sage péeres of the realme) were placed in their stéeds. ¶ Shortlie after, the commons granted to the king his whole request, so that he had of euerie person, man and woman, being aboue the age of fourtéene yeares, foure pence, poore people that liued of almesse onelie excepted. ¶ Likewise the cleargie granted, that of euerie beneficed man, the king should haue twelue pence, and of euerie priest not beneficed foure pence (the foure orders of friers onelie excepted.) But yer this monie could be leuied, the king was constreined to borrow certeine great summes in sundrie places, and therefore he sent to the citie of London for foure thousand pounds. And bicause Adam Staple the maior was not diligent in furthering that lone, he was by the kings commandement discharged on the 22 daie of March, and Richard Whitington mercer chosen in his place.

The blacke prince departeth this life.
He is buried at Canterburie.

On the eight of Iune being Trinitie sundaie (the parlement yet continuing) that noble and famous prince Edward the kings sonne departed this life within the kings palace at Westminster. His bodie was conueied to Canturburie with great solemnitie, and there honorablie buried. He died in the 46 yeare of his age: a prince of such excellent demeanour, so valiant, wise and politike in his dooings, that the verie and perfect representation of knighthood appeared most liuelie in his person, whilest he liued, so that the losse of him stroke a generall sorrow into the harts of all the English nation. For such was his towardnesse, or rather perfection in princelie gouernement, that if he had liued and atteined to the crowne, euerie man iudged that he would suerlie haue excéeded the glorious renowme of all his ancestors. This princes death is bréefelie touched by C. Okland, who (after mention made of the great victories atchiued by his father the king against his enimies, and concluding him to be verie happie and fortunate in the issue of his attempts) saith

---- inclytus ille monarcha
Vn['d]iq; ter ['f]œlix, nisi quòd trux Atropos occat
Ante diem gnati fatalia stamina vitæ.

[Pg 704]

Sir Péers de la Mere.
The truce prolonged.

The French king kept his obsequie in most reuerend wise, in the chapell of his palace at Paris. After his death, the king called to him againe the foresaid persons, that had béene from him remooued, and the said sir Péers de la Mere that was speaker in the parlement (as before yée haue hard) for his eloquence shewed in reprouing the misgouernment of the said persons (and namelie of the said dame Alice Peres) was now committed to prison within the castell of Notingham. About the same time the truce was againe prolonged till the first daie of Aprill next following. ¶ King Edward, after the deceasse of his sonne prince Edward, created the lord Richard, sonne to the said prince, as heire to him, prince of Wales, and gaue to him the earledomes of Chester & Cornewall. ¶ Moreouer, bicause the king waxed féeble and sicklie through langor (as some suppose) conceiued for the death of his sonne, he appointed the rule of the relme to his sonne the duke of Lancaster, ordeining him as gouernour vnder him, and so he continued during his fathers life.

A riot.
The nobles sworne to the prince of Wales.

A great riot happened betwixt the seruants of the earle of Warwike, and the tenants of the abbat of Euesham, so that manie of the said abbats seruants were slaine and hurt. The fish-ponds and warrens belonging to the abbie were broken and spoiled, so that greater hurt would haue followed thereof, if the kings letters had not béene sent downe to the earle, commanding him to staie his men from such misdemeanours. All the nobles of the realme were caused to sweare, that after the kings decease they shuld admit and mainteine Richard prince of Wales for their king and souereigne lord. And vpon Christmasse day, the king caused him to sit at his table aboue all his owne children, in high estate, as representing the personage of the heire apparant to the crowne.

An. Reg. 51.
Comissioners sēt to Bruges.
Cōmissioners sent to Montreuill.
Truce eftsoones prolonged.

This yeare being the one and fiftith and last of king Edwards reigne, there were sent againe to Bruges as commissioners to treat of peace on the part of king Edward, Iohn lord Cobham, the bishop of Hereford, and the maior of London. And for the French part thither came the earle of Salebruch, monsieur de Chatillon, and Phillibert Lespoit. And still the two legats were present as mediatours betwixt the parties, moouing a mariage to be had, betwixt Richard prince of Wales, and the ladie Marie, daughter to the French king. But they departed in sunder for this time without anie conclusion. But shortlie after in Lent following, there was a secret méeting; appointed to be had at Montreuill by the sea, whither came from the king of England, sir Richard Dangle a Poictouine, sir Richard Stan, & Geffrie Chaucer. For the French king there appeared the lord Coucie, and others. These commissioners treated a long season concerning the mariage, and when they had vnderstanding and felt each others meaning, they departed and made report of the same to their maisters. The truce was againe prolonged till the first daie of Maie.

Sir Hugh Caluerlie lieutenant of Calis.
Tho. Walsi.
Sir Iohn Minsterworth beheaded.

And in the meane time, the earle of Salisburie, the bishop of saint Dauie lord chancellour of England, and the bishop of Hereford went ouer to Calis. In like case the lord of Coucie, and sir William Dorman chancellor of France came to Montreuill. But they durst not méet at anie indifferent place on the frontiers, for the doubt that either partie had of other, for anie thing the legats could saie or doo. Thus these commissioners abode in that state till the truce was expired. And when the warre was open, then sir Hugh Caluerlie was sent ouer to Calis, to remaine vpon safe kéeping of that towne, as deputie there. The earle of Salisburie, and the other commissioners returned into England, and with them the duke of Britaine. On the twelfth day of Aprill this yeare, one sir Iohn Minsterworth knight, was drawne, hanged, headed, and quartered at Tiborne, being first condemned and adiudged to suffer that execution before the maior of London, and other the kings iustices in the Guildhall, for treason by him committed, in defrauding souldiers of their wages: for where he had receiued great summes of monie to make paiment thereof to them, he reteined the same to his owne vse.

Thom. Wals.

Moreouer (as in the fortie foure yeare of this king yée haue heard) he was the chéefe procurer and setter forward of the dissention that rose in the armie, which vnder the lead[Pg 705]ing of sir Robert Knolles was sent into France. And when in that iournie he had lost most of his men, and was escaped himselfe into England, he laid all the blame on sir Robert Knolles, accusing him to the king of heinous treason; so as the king tooke no small displeasure against the said sir Robert, insomuch that he durst not returne into England, till he had pacified the kings wrath with monie, and that the knowne fidelitie of the man had warranted him against the malicious and vntrue suggestions of his enimies. Wherevpon the said Minsterworth perceiuing his craft to want the wished successe, he fled to the French king, and conspiring with him to annoie the realme of England by bringing the Spanish nauie to inuade the same, at length he was taken in the towne of Pampilona in Nauarre, and brought backe into England, where he tasted the deserued fruit of his contriued treason (as before yée haue heard.)

Thom. Walsi.
Iohn Wiclife.

About this season, there rose in the vniuersitie of Oxenford a learned man Iohn Wiclife, borne in the north parts, who being a secular préest, and a student in diuinitie, began to propone certeine conclusions greatlie contrarie to the doctrine of the church in those daies established, speciallie he argued against moonks, and other men of religion that inioied great riches, and large possessions. There were diuerse that gaue good eare to him, insomuch that sundrie learned men of that vniuersitie preached and set foorth the doctrine that he taught. ¶ Amongst other articles which they held, these were the chéefe and principall.

The chéefest articles preached by Wiclife.

1 That the sacrament of the altar, after consecration, was not the bodie of Christ, but a figure thereof.

2 That the church of Rome was no more head of the vniuersall church than any one other, nor more authoritie was giuen by Christ vnto Peter, than to anie other of the apostles, and that the pope had no more power in the keies of the church than anie other préest whatsoeuer.

3 That temporall lords might both lawfullie and meritoriouslie take the temporall goods and reuenues from the church, if it offended; and if anie temporall lord knew the church to offend, he was bound vnder paine of damnation to take from it the temporalties.

4 That the gospell is sufficient in this life to direct by rule euerie christian man.

5 That all other rules of saints, vnder the obseruing whereof diuers religious doo liue, ad no more perfection to the gospell, than washing ouer with lime dooth the wall.

6 That the pope, nor anie other prelat of the church, ought to haue anie prisons wherein to punish offendors.

Wiclife & his felowes mainteined by certeine lords.

These and manie other opinions did these men hold and mainteine, and diuerse lords and great men of the land fauoured their cause. But when these conclusions were brought before the pope, he condemned the number of 23 of those articles as vaine and hereticall, directing his buls to the archbishop of Canturburie, and to the bishop of London, that they should cause the said Wiclife to be apprehended, and examined vpon the said conclusions, which they did in presence of the duke of Lancaster, and the lord Percie, and hearing his declaration, commanded him to silence, and in no wise to deale with those matters from thencefoorth, so that for a time, both he and his fellowes kept silence: but after at the contemplation of diuerse of the temporall lords, they preached and set foorth their doctrine againe.

The duke of Lancaster in danger by the Londoners.
The lord Percie.

The same day that Wiclife was conuented thus at London, before the bishops and other lords, thorough a word spoken in reproch by the duke of Lancaster vnto the bishop of London, streightwaies the Londoners getting them to armour, meant to haue slaine the duke, & if the bishop had not staid them, they had suerlie set fire on the dukes house at the Sauoie: and with much adoo might the bishop quiet them. Among other reprochfull parts which in despite of the duke they committed, they caused his armes in the publike stréet to be reuersed as if he had béene a traitor, or some notorious offender. The duke and the lord Henrie Percie, whom the citizens sought in his owne house to haue slaine[Pg 706] him, if he had béen found, hearing of this riotous stur and rebellious commotion, forsooke their dinner and fled to Kenington, where the lord Richard, sonne to the prince, togither with his mother then remained, exhibiting before their presence, a grieuous complaint of the opprobrious iniuries doone vnto them, by the wilfull outrage of the Londoners. For this and other causes, the citizens were sore hated of the duke, in so much that he caused the maior & aldermen that then ruled to be discharged of their roomes, and other put in their places.

Tho. Walsi.
The deceasse of K. Edward the third.
Fabian, pag. 262, 263.

The king being more grieuouslie vexed with sickness from daie to daie, either increasing by the course therof, or renewed by some new surfet, finallie this yeare departed out of this transitorie life at his manour of Shéene, now called Richmond, the 21 daie of Iune, in the yeare of our Lord 1377, after he had liued 65 yeares, & reigned fiftie yeares, foure moneths, & 28 daies. His corpse was conueied from Shéene by his foure sonnes, namelie Lionell duke of Clarence, Iohn of Gant duke of Lancaster, Edmund of Langlie duke of Yorke, and Thomas of Woodstoke earle of Cambridge, with other nobles of the realme, and solemnelie interred within Westminster church, with this epitaph in his memoriall:

Hîc decus Anglorum, flos regum præteritorum,
Forma futurorum, rex clemens, pax populorum,
Tertius Edwardus, regni complens inbileum,
Inuictus pardus, pollens bellis Machabeum.
His issue.

He had issue by his wife quéene Philip 7 sonnes, Edward prince of Wales, William of Hatfield that died yoong, Lionell duke of Clarence, Iohn of Gant duke of Lancaster, Edmund of Langlie earle of Cambridge & after created duke of Yorke, Thomas of Woodstoke erle of Buckingham after made duke of Glocester, and an other William which died likewise yoong. He had also thrée daughters, Marie that was maried to Iohn of Mountford duke of Britaine, Isabell wedded to the lord Coucie earle of Bedford, and Margaret coupled in mariage with the earle of Penbroke.

His praise.
His proportion of bodie.

This king, besides other his gifts of nature, was aided greatlie by his séemelie personage. He had a prouident wit, sharpe to conceiue and vnderstand: he was courteous and gentle, dooing all things sagelie and with good consideration, a man of great temperance and sobrietie. Those he chiefelie fauoured and aduanced to honour, and roomes of high dignitie, which excelled in honest conuersation, modestie, and innocencie of life, of bodie well made, of a conuenient stature, as neither of the highest nor lowest sort: of face faire and manlike, eies bright and shining, and in age bald, but so as it was rather a séemelinesse to those his ancient yeares than any disfiguring to his visage; in knowledge of martiall affaires verie skilfull, as the enterprises and worthie acts by him atchiued doo sufficientlie witnesse.

In what estimation he was had among strangers it may appeare, in that he was not onelie made vicar of the empire by the emperour Lewes of Bauiere, but also after the decease of the same emperour, diuerse of the electours, as Lewes marques of Brandenbourgh, Robert or Rupert count Palatine of the Rhene, and the yoong duke of Saxonie, with Henrie archbishop of Mentz, elected him to succéed in place of the said emperour Lewes. Neuerthelesse, he giuing them hartie thanks for the honour which they did vnto him herein, refused to take the charge vpon him, alledging that he could not haue time to supplie the roome, by reason of the warres that he had in France, to recouer his right which he had to that realme.

[Pg 707]

Prosperitie vnstable.

This is noted by writers to be a token of great wisedome in this noble king, that would not go about to catch more than he might well gripe. Examples of bountious liberalitie, and great clemencie he shewed manie, and the same verie notable; so that in maner he alone amongst all other kings was found to be one, subiect to none, or at the least, to verie light and small faults. But yet he was not void of euill haps: for whereas, during the terme of fortie yeares space he reigned in high felicitie, and as one happie in all his dooings: so in the rest of his time that followed, he felt a wonderfull change in fortune (whom writers compare to the moone for hir variablenesse, and often alterations, as neuer at a staie, saieng,

Vultus fortunæ variatur imagine lunæ,
Crescit, decrescit, in eodem sisterè nescit)

shewing hirselfe froward to him in most part of his procéedings: for such is the state of this world, seldome dooth prosperitie continue, and guide the sterne of our worldlie dooings, as it well appeared by this noble prince. For in the first yeares of his reigne, after he once began to gouerne of himselfe, he recouered that which had béene lost in Scotland, by great victories obteined against his aduersaries in that land, and passed further into the same, than euer his grandfather king Edward the first had doone before him, subduing the countrie on each hand, so that he placed gouernors, and bestowed offices, lands, and liuings in that realme at his pleasure.

Iohn Stow vpon conference referreth this to the last yeare of king Edward the first.

¶ Amongst other (as I remember) there is yet remaining a charter vnder his great seale conteining a grant made vnto Iohn Eure and his heires for his good seruice doone in those parts, of a manour called Ketnes in the countie of Forfar (which lieth in the north of Scotland) with a market euerie mondaie, and a faire for thrée daies togither at Michaelmasse, as the euen, the daie, and the morrow after. Also he granted to the same Iohn Eure, frée warren thoroughout the same lordship. This Iohn Eure was ancestor vnto the lord Eure that now liueth, who hath the same charter in his possession. ¶ As for this kings victories in France, the same were such as might séeme incredible, if the consent of all writers in that age confirmed not the same. But as these victories were glorious, so yet they prooued not so profitable in the end: for whereas he had sore burdened his subiects with taskes and subsidies, at length they waxed wearie, and began to withdraw their forward minds to helpe him with such summes as had béene requisit for the maintenance of the warres, which the Frenchmen prolonged of purpose, and refused to trie their fortune any more in pight fields, wherby when he was constreined to be at continuall charges in such lingering warres, to defend that which he had erst gotten by force, and couenants of the peace; the sinewes of warre, to wit monie, began to faile him, and so the enimies recouered a great part of that which before time they had lost, both on the further side the seas, and likewise in Scotland.

This must néeds be a great gréefe vnto a prince of such a stout and valiant stomach, namelie sith he had béene so long time before accustomed to find fortune still so fauourable vnto him in all his enterprises. But finallie the thing that most gréeued him, was the losse of that most noble gentleman, his déere sonne prince Edward, in whom was found all parts that might be wished in a worthie gouernour. But this and other mishaps that chanced to him now in his old yeares, might séeme to come to passe for a reuenge of his disobedience shewed to his father in vsurping against him, although it might be said, that he did it by constraint, and through the aduise of others. But whether remorse hereof, or of his other offenses mooued him, it may séeme (as some write) that the the consideration of this worlds mutabilitie, which he tried to the full, caused him (as is thought) to haue in mind the life in the world to come, and therefore of a pure deuotion founded the church and colledge of saint Stephan at Westminster, and another at Cambridge called The Kings hall, giuing therevnto lands and reuenues, to the maintenance of them that would giue themselues vnto learning.

Mines of gold & siluer.

Towards the maintenance of his warres, and furnishing foorth of such other charges and expenses as he tooke in hand to beare out, he had some helpe by the siluer mines in Deuonshire and Cornewall, in like manner as his grandfather king Edward the first had. For one Matthew Crowthorne kéeper of his mines in those parts, yéelded diuerse accounts of the issues and profits of the same, betwéene the second and fiftéenth yeare of his reigne, as well for the siluer as for the lead, after the siluer was fined from it. Also Iohn Moneron succéeding in the same office, accomptant of the profits of the same mines, from[Pg 708] Michaelmasse in the ninetéenth yeare of his reigne, vnto the second of Nouember in the thrée and twentith yeare, yéelded vpon his accounts, both the siluer and the lead thereof remaining. Moreouer he let by indenture in the two and thirtith yeare of his reigne, vnto Iohn Ballancer, and Walter Goldbeater, his mines of gold, siluer, and copper, in the countie of Deuonshire, for terme of years. There is an account thereof remaining, and by the same (as it appeareth) was answered for the first yeare twentie markes. The second yeare the patentées died, and the king then disposed the same to others. In the eight and twentith yeare of his reigne, he committed by indenture his said mines in Deuonshire, to one maister Iohn Hanner, and one Herman Rainesthorpe of Boheme, minors, yéelding to the king the tenth part of the oare, as well of the gold and siluer, as of the lead and copper that should be gotten foorth of the said mines.

In this kings daies, there liued manie excellent men, both in learning, in vertue, and in martiall prowesse, as partlie is touched in this discourse of his reigne; and first, the said noble and most valiant king, the prince of Wales his sonne surnamed the blacke prince, the duke of Lancaster Iohn of Gant sonne to the king, and his father in law duke Henrie, Edmund earle of Cambridge, and after duke of Yorke; the earles of Warwike, Huntington, Salisburie, Stafford, Northampton, Arundell and others; the lord Reginald Cobham, the lord Basset, the lord Thomas Holland, the lord Walter de Mannie and Henuier, the lord Edward Spenser, the lord Iohn Chandois, the lord Iames Audeley, sir Iohn Copland, sir Thomas Felton, sir Robert Knolles, who (as I haue said) being born in Cheshire of meane parentage, through his manlie prowesse, and most skilfull experience in the warres, grew to be right famous.

Moreouer, sir Hugh Caluerlie borne in the same shire, the capitall de Beufe a Gascoigne, sir Thomas Percie, sir Hugh Hastings, sir Baldwine Freuill, sir Iohn Harleston, sir Iames Pipe, sir Thomas Dagworth, & that valiant English knight sir Iohn Hawkewood, whose fame in the parts of Italie shall remaine for euer, where (as their histories make mention) he grew to such estimation for his valiant atchiued enterprises, that happie might that prince or common-wealth accompt themselues, that might haue his seruice, and so liuing there in such reputation, sometimes he serued the pope, somtimes the lords of Millane, now this prince or common-wealth, now that, and other whiles none at all, but taking one towne or other, would kéepe the same, till some liking enterteinment were offered, and then would he sell such a towne, where he had thus remained, to them that would giue him for it according to his mind. Barnabe lord of Millane gaue vnto him one of his base daughters in marriage, with an honorable portion for hir dower.

This man was borne in Essex (as some write) who at the first became a tailor in London, & afterwards going to the warres in France, serued in the roome of an archer, but at length he became a capteine and leader of men of war, highlie commended and liked of amongst the souldiers, in so much that, when by the peace concluded at Bretignie, in the yeare 1360, great numbers of soldiers were discharged out of wages, they got themselues togither in companies, and without commandement of any prince, by whose authoritie they might make warre, they fell to of themselues, and sore harried and spoiled diuerse countries in the realme of France, as partlie yée haue heard: amongst whome this sir Iohn Hawkewood was one of the principall capteins, & at length went into Italie, to serue the marques of Montferrato, against the duke of Millane; although I remember that some write, how he came into that countrie with the duke of Clarance, but I thinke the former report be true: but it may well be, that he was readie to attend the said duke at his comming into Italie. And thus much concerning such famous capteins as serued this noble king Edward the third, although for bréefeness I passe ouer diuerse other, no lesse famous and worthie for their high manhood and tried valiancie to be remembred, than these afore mentioned.

Of learned men, these we find by Iohn Bale registered in the Centuries; Iohn Baconthrop borne in Blackney in Northfolke, a frier Carmelite, and prouinciall of his order, so excellentlie learned, as well in diuinitie, as in both the ciuill and canon lawes, that he procéed[Pg 709]ed doctor in either facultie at Oxenford and Paris, and wrote diuerse treatises, to his high and singular commendation; William Ockam, Iohn Bloxham a Carmelite frier, Nicholas Triuet borne in Northfolke, sonne to sir Thomas Triuet knight, & one of the kings iusticiers, prooued excellentlie learned, and wrote diuerse treatises, and amongst other, two histories, and one booke of annales, he was by profession a blacke frier, and departed this life about the second yeare of this king Edward the third, in the yeare of Christ 1328; William Alnewike borne in Northumberland, in the towne whereof he tooke name, a frier Minor; Iohn Tanet borne in the Ile of Tanet, an excellent musician, and a moonke in Canturburie; Hugh of saint Neot, a Carmelite frier in Hertfordshire, a notable diuine as those daies gaue; William Alton borne in Hampshire, a blacke frier and a diuine.

Furthermore, Richard Stradley borne in the marches of Wales, a moonke and a diuine, writing certeine treatises of the scripture; William Herbert a Welshman and a frier Minor, wrote also certeine goodlie treatises of diuinitie; Richard Comington a frier of the order of the Cordeliers, a preacher, and a writer of diuinitie; William Exeter a doctor of diuinitie, and a prebendarie canon in Exeter, whereas it is thought he was borne; Lucas Bosden a westerne man, and by profession a Carmelite frier; Thomas Walleis a Dominike frier, a great diuine, as by such bookes as he wrote it may appeare; Thomas Pontius a moonke of Canturburie, Iohn Ridewall a graie frier, Henrie Costesay or Cossey a frier Minor, Geffrie Aleuant borne in Yorkeshire, a frier Carmelite; Iohn Euersden, a moonke in Burie in Suffolke, an historiographer; Simon Burneston, a doctor of the Vniuersitie of Cambridge, and prouinciall of the friers Dominike or blacke friers, as they called them here in England; Walter Burlie a doctor of diuinitie, who in his youth was brought vp, not onlie in Martine college in Oxford, but also in the Vniuersities and schooles abroad beyond the seas, in France and Germanie, & afterwards for his wisedome, good demeanor, & learning, he was reteined with the bishop of Vlmes in Suabenland, a region in high Germanie.

Amongst other treatises which he compiled, being manie, and namelie of naturall philosophie, he wrote a commentarie of the ethikes of Aristotle, and dedicated the same vnto the said bishop, a worke which hath béene highlie estéemed, not onelie in the Vniuersities of Italie, Germanie and France, but also here in our Vniuersities of England. To conclude, such was the fame of this doctor Burlie, that when the ladie Philip, daughter to the earle of Heinault should come ouer into England to be married to king Edward, this doctor Burlie was reteined by hir, and appointed to be hir almoner, and so continued in great estimation, in so much that after Edward prince of Wales, eldest sonne to king Edward commonlie called the blacke prince, was borne, and able to learne his booke, the said Burlie among other was commanded to be one of his instructors.

By reason hereof, sir Simon Burlie, of whom I haue made some mention heretofore in this kings life, and more intend to speake, as occasion serueth in the next king, being sonne to sir Iohn Burlie, néere kinsman to the said doctor Burlie, was admitted among other yoong gentlemen, to be schoolefelow with the said prince, by occasion whereof he grew in such credit and fauour with the said prince, that afterwards when his son Richard of Burdeaux, that succéeded king Edward his father, was borne, the said prince for special trust and confidence which he had in the said sir Simon Burlie, committed the gouernance & education of his son the said Richard vnto him, whereby he was euer after highlie in fauour with the said Richard, and no lesse aduanced by him, when he came to inioy the crowne of this realme.

But now to other learned men of that age. Iohn Barwike a frier Minor, and reader to his fellowes of that order in Oxford; William Notingham, Roger Glacton, borne in Huntingtonshire, an Augustin frier; Iohn Polestéed borne in Suffolke, a Carmelite frier in Ipswich or Gippeswich as they write it; Walter Kingham a frier also of the order of those Dominikes, which they called pied friers; Roger of Chester a moonke of that citie[Pg 710] and an historiographer: Thomas de Hales a frier Minor, Robert Eliphat a graie frier, Geffrie Grandfield an Augustine or Blacke frier, Hugh Wirlie a Carmelite frier of Norwich, William Eincourt a blacke frier of Boston, Hugh Ditton borne in Cambridgeshire a frier preacher, Adam Carthusianus a doctor of diuinitie, Iohn Luttrell an excellent philosopher and well séene in the mathematicals, Walter Cotton and Thomas Eckleston both graie friers, Iohn Folsham a Carmelite frier in Norwich, Benet of Northfolke, William Southhampton so called of the towne where he was borne, a blacke frier.

Moreouer, Iohn Burgh a moonke wrote an historie, and certeine homilies; Adam Nidzard a master of art, Edmund Albon, Robert Counton a graie frier, William Lissie a frier Minor, Iohn Repingale borne in Lincolneshire a Carmelite or white frier, as they called them; Christopher Mothusensis a blacke frier, Richard Aungeruile borne in Suffolke, who was bishop of Duresme, and lord chancellor of England; Iohn Manduith, Walter Heminford a canon of Gisborne an historiographer, Iohn Olnie borne in Glocestershire, in an Ile so called, whereof he tooke his surname a Chartreux moonke; Thomas Staueshaw a frier Minor in Bristow, Robert of Leicester taking that surname of the towne where he was borne, a Franciscane or graie frier; Iohn of Northhampton borne in that towne, and a Carmelite frier, an excellent mathematician.

Adde to the foresaid learned men, Robert Worsop borne in Yorkeshire, and a blacke frier in Tickill; William Bruniard a blacke frier, Richard Chichester, a moonke of Westminster wrote an excellent chronicle, beginning the same at the comming in of the Saxons about the yeare of our Lord 449, and continued it till the yeare 1348; Richard Rolle aliàs Hampole an excellent diuine wrote manie treatises; Iohn Guent a Welshman, a Franciscane frier, and prouinciall of the order; Rodulph Radiptorius a frier Minor, Robert Holcoth a blacke frier, borne in Northampton, excellentlie learned, and wrote manie works, both of diuinitie and other arguments; William Miluerlie a logician or rather a sophister, Iohn Teukesburie, Thomas Bradwardin borne in Hartfield, a towne within the diocesse of Chichester, archbishop of Canturburie succéeding Iohn Offord, he wrote against the Pelagians; Richard Wetherset, William Breton a graie frier, a Welshman borne, as Bale supposeth; Iohn of saint Faith, borne in Northfolke, a Carmelite frier of Brumham.

Pope Vrban the fift.

Furthermore, Iohh Goodwicke borne also in Northfolke, an Augustine frier of Lin; William Rothwell a blacke frier, Geffrie Waterton moonke of Burie, Richard Fitz Rafe, whome some take to be an Irishman, but a student in Oxford, and scholer to Iohn Baconthrope profited highlie, & wrote manie treatises, he was first archdeacon of Lichfield, and after chancellor of the Vniuersitie of Oxford, and at length archbishop of Ardmachan in Ireland; Richard Kilington a doctor of diuinitie, William Grisant a notable physician, surnamed of the countrie where he was borne Anglicus, he led the later end of his life at Marseilles in Prouance, & had a son that was abbat of the regular canons of that citie, who at length was aduanced to gouerne the sée of Rome, & named Vrbane the fift; Iohn Paschall borne in Suffolke, a Carmelite frier in Gippeswich, and by K. Edward the third preferred to the bishoprike of Landaffe; Adam Woodham a frier Minor, Simon Henton a blacke frier, William de Pagula; of Iohn Wicliffe ye haue heard before.

Moreouer, Geffrie Hardebie a blacke frier of Leicester, William Binham, Roger Counwey a Welshman borne in Counwey a grey frier, Richard Billingham, William Doroch a lawier, Iohn Killingworth an excellent philosopher, astronomer, and physician; Willam of Couentrie a frier Carmelite, professed and borne in the same citie; Ranulfe Higden a moonke of Chester and borne in those parts, an historiographer; Iohn Eastwood aliàs Aschenton an excellent philosopher, Thomas Ratclife borne in Leicester, and an Augustine frier in Leicester towne; Bartholomew Glanuille descended of noble parentage, as of the linage of those Glanuilles that were sometimes earles of Suffolke, as Bale saith; Robert Computista a moonke of Burie, Iohn Wilton a moonke of Westminster, Simon Wichingham a frier Carmelite of Norwich, Iohn Deir a northerne man borne a notable diuine.

[Pg 711]

Furthermore, Simon Islep, founder of Canturburie colledge of Oxenford, wrote diuerse treatises, he was archbishop of Canturburie, as before yée haue heard; George Chadley, Iohn of Tinmouth vicar of that towne in the bishoprike of Durham, Peter Babion, Walter Wiborne or Wimborne, Nicholas de Lin borne in the towne of that name in Northfolke, a Carmelite frier by profession, but as excellent an astronomer as was in those daies: Iohn Ridington borne in Lincolneshire a frier minor in Stafford, Adam a moonke of the Cisteaux order, Roger Wihelpedale a mathematician, Simon de Feuersham parson of Birton in Kent, Matthew Westmonasterienses, who wrote the booke called Flores historiarum; Iohn Elin a Carmelite borne in Northfolke, liued in these daies, but departed this life in king Richard the seconds daies; Thomas de Sturey an Augustine frier, Sertorious Gualensis a Welshman borne.

Moreouer, Simon de Tunstéed a gray frier, borne in Northfolke, prouinciall of the gray friers in England; Thomas Stubs borne in Yorkeshire a blacke frier, Robert Langland a secular préest borne in Salopshire in Mortimers Cliberie, Lewes Kaerleon a Welshman an excellent astronomer and mathematician, Iohn Garanson, Nicholas Durham a Carmelite frier of Newcastell, William Fléet an heremite wrote sundrie treatises, exhorting his countrimen of England to repentance, to auoid the vengeance else likelie to come; Iohn Stafford a frier minor, borne in Stafford, whereof he tooke name; Thomas Rugstéed a blacke frier, Rafe Stride an excellent logician, William de sancta Fide, or of saint Faith, so called of the towne in Northfolke, where he was borne, a Carmelite frier.

To conclude, Iohn Mandeuille knight, that great traueller, liued in those daies, and departed this life at Liege, the seuentéenth of Nouember, in the yeare 1372. Thomas of Douer a moonke of the abbeie there, Henrie Knighton wrote an historie intituled De gestis Anglorum, Iohn Stokes borne in Suffolke an Augustine frier, Iohn Hornebie a frier Carmelite of Boston, Henrie Bederike or (as other rather will) of Burie an Augustine frier, Simon Alcocke a diuine, Vtred Balton borne in the marches of Wales a moonke of Durham, William Iordan an Augustine frier, Iohn Hilton a frier minor, William de Lincolne a Carmelite, borne and professed in that citie, whereof he tooke his surname; Adam Saxlingham a frier of the same order, but borne in Northfolke; Simon Mepham a prebend of Chichester, and a great diuine; Iohn Bamton a Carmelite, and student in Cambridge; Iohn Wichingham a gray frier: and diuerse other, which for that we are not certeine in what age they liued, we here passe ouer.

Thus farre Edward the third, sonne to Edward the second and quéene Isabell.

Transcriber's Notes:

Simple spelling, grammar, and typographical errors were corrected.

Punctuation normalized.

Anachronistic and non-standard spellings retained as printed.

The author's usage of accents was inconsistent. Specifically accented "ée" is far more prevalent than "ee" even for the same word. Changed all instances of "ee" to "ée"