The Project Gutenberg eBook of History of Ancient Pottery: Greek, Etruscan, and Roman. Volume 2 (of 2)

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Title: History of Ancient Pottery: Greek, Etruscan, and Roman. Volume 2 (of 2)

Author: H. B. Walters

Samuel Birch

Release date: February 7, 2015 [eBook #48155]

Language: English

Credits: Produced by KD Weeks, Chris Curnow and the Online
Distributed Proofreading Team at (This
file was produced from images generously made available
by The Internet Archive)


Transcriber’s Note:

Minor errors in punctuation and formatting have been silently corrected. Please see the transcriber’s note at the end of this text for details regarding the handling of any textual issues encountered during its preparation. The end note also discusses the handling of the many Greek inscriptions.

Volume I of this text is available separately at Project Gutenberg at:

References to Volume I are linked as well for ease of navigation.



(British Museum).



Figured vases in ancient literature—Mythology and art—Relation of subjects on vases to literature—Homeric and dramatic themes and their treatment—Interpretation and classification of subjects—The Olympian deities—The Gigantomachia—The birth of Athena and other Olympian subjects—Zeus and kindred subjects—Hera—Poseidon and marine deities—The Eleusinian deities—Apollo and Artemis—Hephaistos, Athena, and Ares—Aphrodite and Eros—Hermes and Hestia 1–53
Dionysos and his associates—Ariadne, Maenads, and Satyrs—Names of Satyrs and Maenads—The Nether World—General representations and isolated subjects—Charon, Erinnyes, Hekate, and Thanatos—Cosmogonic deities—Gaia and Pandora—Prometheus and Atlas—Iris and Hebe—Personifications—Sun, Moon, Stars, and Dawn—Winds—Cities and countries—The Muses—Victory—Abstract ideas—Descriptive names 54–92
Kastor and Polydeukes—Herakles and his twelve labours—Other contests—Relations with deities—Apotheosis—Theseus and his labours—Later scenes of his life—Perseus—Pelops and Bellerophon—Jason and the Argonauts—Theban legends—The Trojan cycle—Peleus and Thetis—The Judgment of Paris—Stories of Telephos and Troilos—Scenes from the Iliad—The death of Achilles and the Fall of Troy—The Odyssey—The Oresteia—Attic and other legends—Orpheus and the Amazons—Monsters—Historical and literary subjects 93–153
Religious subjects—Sacrifices—Funeral scenes—The Drama and burlesques—Athletics—Sport and games—Musical scenes—Trades and occupations—Daily life of women—Wedding scenes—Military and naval subjects—Orientals and Barbarians—Banquets and revels—Miscellaneous subjects—Animals 154–186
Distinctions of types—Costume and attributes of individual deities— Personifications—Heroes—Monsters—Personages in everyday life—Armour and shield-devices—Dress and ornaments—Physiognomical expression on vases—Landscape and architecture—Arrangement of subjects—Ornamental patterns—Maeander, circles, and other geometrical patterns—Floral patterns—Lotos and palmettes—Treatment of ornamentation in different fabrics 187–235
Importance of inscriptions on vases—Incised inscriptions—Names and prices incised underneath vases—Owners’ names and dedications—Painted inscriptions—Early Greek alphabets—Painted inscriptions on early vases—Corinthian, Ionic, Boeotian, and Chalcidian inscriptions—Inscriptions on Athenian vases—Dialect—Artists’ signatures—Inscriptions relating to the subjects—Exclamations—Καλός-names—The Attic alphabet and orthography—Chronology of Attic inscriptions—South Italian vases with inscriptions 236–278
Early Italian civilisation—Origin of Etruscans—Terramare civilisation—Villanuova period—Pit-tombs—Hut-urns—Trench-tombs—Relief-wares and painted vases from Cervetri—Chamber-tombs—Polledrara ware—Bucchero ware—Canopic jars—Imitations of Greek vases—Etruscan inscriptions—Sculpture in terracotta—Architectural decoration—Sarcophagi—Local pottery of Southern Italy—Messapian and Peucetian fabrics 279–329
Clay in Roman architecture—Use of bricks—Methods of construction—Tiles—Ornamental antefixae—Flue-tiles—Other uses—Inscriptions on bricks and tiles—Military tiles—Mural reliefs—List of subjects—Roman sculpture in terracotta—Statuettes—Uses at Rome—Types and subjects—Gaulish terracottas—Potters and centres of fabric—Subjects—Miscellaneous uses of terracotta—Money-boxes—Coin-moulds 330–392
Introduction of lamps at Rome—Sites where found—Principal parts of lamps—Purposes for which used—Superstitious and other uses—Chronological account of forms—Technical processes—Subjects—Deities—Mythological and literary subjects—Genre subjects and animals—Inscriptions on lamps—Names of potters and their distribution—Centres of manufacture 393–429
Introductory—Geographical and historical limits—Clay and glaze—Technical processes—Stamps and moulds—Barbotine and other methods—Kilns found in Britain, Gaul, and Germany—Use of earthenware among the Romans—Echea—Dolia and Amphorae—Inscriptions on amphorae—Cadus, Ampulla, and Lagena—Drinking-cups—Dishes—Sacrificial vases—Identification of names 430–473
Roman Pottery mentioned by ancient writers—“Samian” ware—Centres of fabric—The pottery of Arretium—Characteristics—Potters’ stamps—Shapes of Arretine vases—Sources of inspiration for decoration—“Italian Megarian bowls”—Subjects—Distribution of Arretine wares 474–496
Distribution of Roman pottery in Europe—Transition from Arretine to provincial wares—Terra sigillata—Shapes and centres of fabric—Subjects—Potters’ stamps—Vases with barbotine decoration—The fabrics of Gaul—St. Rémy—Graufesenque—“Marbled” vases—Vases with inscriptions (Banassac)—Lezoux—Vases with medallions (Southern Gaul)—Fabrics of Germany—Terra sigillata in Britain—Castor ware—Upchurch and New Forest wares—Plain pottery—Mortaria—Conclusion 497–555


(Except where otherwise noted, the objects are in
the British Museum)
XLIX. Attic black-figured hydria: Harnessing of horses to chariot (colours) Frontispiece
L. Contest of Athena and Poseidon: vase at Petersburg (from Baumeister) 24
LI. Kotyle by Hieron: Triptolemos at Eleusis 26
LII. The Under-world, from an Apulian vase at Munich (from Furtwaengler and Reichhold) 66
LIII. Helios and Stars (the Blacas krater) 78
LIV. The Sack of Troy: kylix by Brygos in Louvre (from Furtwaengler and Reichhold) 134
LV. Scenes from funeral lekythi (Prothesis and cult of tomb) 158
LVI. Early Etruscan red ware 300
LVII. Etruscan hut-urn and Bucchero ware 302
LVIII. Etruscan imitations of Greek vases 308
LIX. Etruscan antefix and sarcophagus 316
LX. Sarcophagus of Seianti Thanunia 322
LXI. Roman mural reliefs: Zeus and Dionysos 366
LXII. Roman mural reliefs: Theseus; priestesses 370
LXIII. Roman lamps (1st century B.C.) 402
LXIV. Roman lamps: mythological and literary subjects 412
LXV. Roman lamps: miscellaneous subjects 416
LXVI. Moulds and stamp of Arretine ware 492
LXVII. Gaulish pottery (Graufesenque fabric) 520
LXVIII. Gaulish pottery from Britain (Lezoux fabric) 526
LXIX. Romano-British and Gaulish pottery 544


111. Gigantomachia, from Ionic vase in Louvre Mon. dell’ Inst. 13
112. Poseidon and Polybotes, from kylix in Berlin Gerhard 14
113. The birth of Athena Brit. Mus. 16
114. Hermes slaying Argos (vase at Vienna) Wiener Vorl. 20
115. Poseidon and Amphitrite (Corinthian pinax) Ant. Denkm. 23
116. Apollo, Artemis, and Leto Mon. dell’ Inst. 30
117. Aphrodite and her following (vase at Athens) Ἐφ. Ἀρχ. 43
118. Eros with kottabos-stand Brit. Mus. 48
119. Hermes with Apollo’s oxen (in the Vatican) Baumeister 51
120. Dionysos with Satyrs and Maenads (Pamphaios hydria) Brit. Mus. 59
121. Maenad in frenzy (cup at Munich) Baumeister 63
122. Charon’s bark (lekythos at Munich) Baumeister 70
123. Thanatos and Hypnos with body of warrior Brit. Mus. 71
124. Nike sacrificing bull Brit. Mus. 88
125. Herakles and the Nemean lion Brit. Mus. 96
126. Herakles bringing the boar to Eurystheus Brit. Mus. 97
127. Apotheosis of Herakles (vase at Palermo) Arch. Zeit. 107
128. Peleus seizing Thetis Brit. Mus. 121
129. Judgment of Paris (Hieron cup in Berlin) Wiener Vorl. 122
130. Capture of Dolon Brit. Mus. 129
131. Pentheus slain by Maenads Brit. Mus. 142
132. Kroisos on the funeral pyre (Louvre) Baumeister 150
133. Alkaios and Sappho (Munich) Baumeister 152
134. Scene from a farce Brit. Mus. 161
135. Athletes engaged in the Pentathlon Brit. Mus. 163
136. Agricultural scenes (Nikosthenes cup in Berlin) Baumeister 170
137. Warrior arming; archers (Euthymides amphora in Munich) Hoppin 176
138. Banqueters playing kottabos Brit. Mus. 181
139. Maeander or embattled pattern 212
140. Maeander (Attic) 212
141. Maeander (Ionic) 212
142. Maeander and star pattern 212
143. Maeander (Attic, 5th century) 213
144. Maeander (Attic, about 480 B.C.) 213
145. Net-pattern 215
146. Chequer-pattern 216
147. Tangent-circles 216
148. Spirals under handles (Exekias) 217
149. Wave-pattern (South Italy) 218
150. Scale-pattern (Daphnae) 218
151. Guilloche or plait-band (Euphorbos pinax) 219
152. Tongue-pattern 219
153. Egg-pattern 220
154. Leaf- or chain-pattern 221
155. Ivy-wreath (black-figure period) 222
156. Ivy-wreath (South Italian) 222
157. Laurel-wreath (South Italian) 223
158. Vallisneria spiralis (Mycenaean) 224
159. Lotos-flower (Cypriote) 224
160. Lotos-flowers and buds (Rhodian) Riegl 225
161. Palmette-and lotos-pattern (early B.F.) 225
162. Lotos-buds (Attic B.F.) 226
163. Chain of palmettes and lotos (early B.F.) 226
164. Palmettes and lotos under handles (Attic B.F.) 227
165. Palmette on neck of red-bodied amphorae 228
166. Enclosed palmettes (R.F. period) 228
167. Oblique palmettes (late R.F.) 229
168. Palmette under handles (South Italian) 230
169. Rosette (Rhodian) 231
170. Rosette (Apulian) 231
171. Facsimile of inscription on Tataie lekythos Brit. Mus. 242
172. Facsimile of Dipylon inscription Ath. Mitth. 243
173. Scheme of alphabets on Greek vases 248
174. Facsimile of inscription on Corinthian pinax Roehl 251
175. Facsimile of signatures on François vase Furtwaengler and Reichhold 257
176. Facsimile of signature of Nikias Brit. Mus. 259
177. Figure with inscribed scroll (fragment at Oxford) 264
178. Etruscan tomb with cinerary urn Ann. dell’ Inst. 285
179. Villanuova cinerary urns from Corneto Notizie 286
180. Painted pithos from Cervetri in Louvre Gaz. Arch. 293
181. Canopic jar in bronze-plated chair Mus. Ital. 305
182. Etruscan alphabet, from a vase Dennis 312
183. Terracotta sarcophagus in Brit. Mus. Dennis 318
184. Painted terracotta slab in Louvre Dennis 319
185. Askos of local Apulian fabric Brit. Mus. 326
186. Krater of “Peucetian” fabric Notizie 328
187. Concrete wall at Rome Middleton 338
188. Concrete wall faced with brick Middleton 339
189. Concrete arch faced with brick Middleton 339
190. Diagram of Roman wall-construction Blümner 340
191. Roman terracotta antefix Brit. Mus. 343
192. Method of heating in Baths of Caracalla Middleton 347
193. Flue-tile with ornamental patterns 348
194. Stamped Roman tile Brit. Mus. 354
195. Inscribed tile in Guildhall Museum 359
196. Inscribed tile from London 363
197. Mask with name of potter Brit. Mus. 377
198. Gaulish figure of Aphrodite Blanchet 383
199. Gaulish figure of Epona Blanchet 386
200. Terracotta money-box Jahrbuch 390
201. Terracotta coin-mould Daremberg and Saglio 392
202. Lamp from the Esquiline Ann. dell Inst. 399
203. “Delphiniform” lamp 399
204. Lamp with volute-nozzle 400
205. Lamp with pointed nozzle 400
206. Lamp with grooved nozzle 401
207. Lamp with plain nozzle 401
208. Lamp with heart-shaped nozzle 402
209. Mould for lamp Brit. Mus. 405
210. Lamp with signature of Fortis Brit. Mus. 424
211. Stamps used by Roman potters 440
212. Roman kiln at Heddernheim Ann. dell’ Inst. 444
213. Kiln found at Castor 447
214. Plan of kiln at Heiligenberg Daremberg and Saglio 450
215. Section of ditto Daremberg and Saglio 450
216. Ampulla Brit. Mus. 466
217. Lagena from France 467
218. Arretine bowl in Boston: death of Phaëthon Philologus 484
219. Arretine krater with Seasons Brit. Mus. 488
220. “Italian Megarian” bowl Brit. Mus. 491
221. Gaulish bowl of Form 29 500
222. Gaulish bowl of Form 30 501
223. Gaulish bowl of Form 37 502
224. Vase of St.-Rémy fabric Déchelette 517
225. Vase of Aco, inscribed Déchelette 518
226. Vase of Banassac fabric from Pompeii Mus. Borb. 525
227. Medallion from vase of Southern Gaul: scene from the Cycnus Brit. Mus. 531
228. Medallion from vase: Atalanta and Hippomedon Gaz. Arch. 532
229. Jar from Germany, inscribed Brit. Mus. 537
230. Roman mortarium from Ribchester Brit. Mus. 551



Figured vases in ancient literature—Mythology and art—Relation of subjects on vases to literature—Homeric and dramatic themes and their treatment—Interpretation and classification of subjects—The Olympian deities—The Gigantomachia—The birth of Athena and other Olympian subjects—Zeus and kindred subjects—Hera—Poseidon and marine deities—The Eleusinian deities—Apollo and Artemis—Hephaistos, Athena, and Ares—Aphrodite and Eros—Hermes and Hestia.

The representation of subjects from Greek mythology or daily life on vases was not, of course, confined to fictile products. We know that the artistic instincts of the Greeks led them to decorate almost every household implement or utensil with ornamental designs of some kind, as well as those specially made for votive or other non-utilitarian purposes. But the fictile vases, from the enormous numbers which have been preserved, the extraordinary variety of their subjects, and the fact that they cover such a wide period, have always formed our chief artistic source of information on the subject of Greek mythology and antiquities.

Although (as has been pointed out in Chapter IV.) ancient literature contains scarcely any allusions to the painted vases, we have many descriptions of similar subjects depicted on other works of art, such as vases of wood and metal, from Homer downwards. The cup of Nestor (Vol. I. pp. 148, 172) was ornamented with figures of doves[1], and there is the famous description in the first Idyll of Theocritus[2] of the wooden cup (κισσύβιον) which represented a fisherman casting his net, and a boy guarding vines and weaving a trap for grasshoppers, while two foxes steal the grapes and the contents of his dinner-basket; the whole being surrounded, like the designs on some painted vases, with borders of ivy and acanthus. The so-called cup of Nestor (νεστορίς) at Capua[3] was inscribed with Homeric verses, and the σκύφος or cup of Herakles with the taking of Troy[4]. Anakreon describes cups ornamented with figures of Dionysos, Aphrodite and Eros, and the Graces[5]; and Pliny mentions others with figures of Centaurs, hunts and battles, and Dionysiac subjects[6]. Or, again, mythological subjects are described, such as the rape of the Palladion[7], Phrixos on the ram[8], a Gorgon and Ganymede[9], or Orpheus[10]; and other “storied” cups are described as being used by the later Roman emperors. But the nearest parallels to the vases described in classical literature are probably to be sought in the chased metal vases of the Hellenistic and Roman periods.[11] We read of scyphi Homerici, or beakers with Homeric scenes, used by the Emperor Nero, which were probably of chased silver[12]; and we have described in Chapter XI. what are apparently clay imitations of these vases, usually known as “Megarian bowls,” many bearing scenes from Homer in relief on the exterior.

In attempting a review of the subjects on the painted vases, we are met with certain difficulties, especially in regard to arrangement. This is chiefly due to the fact that each period has its group of favourite subjects; some are only found in early times, others only in the later period. Yet any chronological method of treatment will be found impossible, and it is hoped that it will, as far as possible, be obviated by the general allusions in the historical chapters of this work to the subjects characteristic of each fabric and period.

Embracing as they do almost the whole field of Greek myth and legend, the subjects on Greek vases are yet not invariably those most familiar to the classical student or, if the stories are familiar, they are not always treated in accordance with literary tradition. On the other hand, it must be borne in mind that the popular conception of Greek mythology is not always a correct one, for which fact the formerly invariable system of approaching Greek ideas through the Latin is mainly responsible. The mythology of our classical dictionaries and school-books is largely based on Ovid and the later Roman compilers, such as Hyginus, and gives the stories in a complete connected form, regarding all classical authorities as of equal value, and ignoring the fact that many myths are of gradual growth and only crystallised at a late period, while others belong to a relatively recent date in ancient history.[13]

The vases, on the other hand, are contemporary documents, free from later euhemerism and pedantry, and presenting the myths as the Athenian craftsmen knew them in the popular folk-lore and religious observances of their day. It cannot be too strongly insisted upon that a vase-painter was never an illustrator of Homer or any other writer, at least before the fourth century B.C. (see Vol. I. p. 499). The epic poems, of course, contributed largely to the popular acquaintance with ancient legends, and offered suggestions of which the painter was glad to avail himself; but he did not, therefore, feel bound to adhere to his text. This will be seen in the list of Homeric subjects given below (p. 126 ff.); and we may also refer here to the practice of giving fanciful names to figures, which obtains at all periods, and has before now presented obstacles to the interpreter.

The relation of the subjects on vases to Greek literature is an interesting theme for enquiry, though, in view of what has already been said, it is evident that it must be undertaken with great caution. The antiquity and wide popularity of the Homeric poems, for instance, would naturally lead us to expect an extensive and general use of their themes by the vase-painter. Yet this is far from being the case. The Iliad, indeed, is drawn upon more largely than the Odyssey; but even this yields in importance as a source to the epics grouped under the name of the Cyclic poets. It may have been that the poems were instinctively felt to be unsuited to the somewhat conventional and monotonous style of the earlier vase-paintings, which required simple and easily depicted incidents. We are therefore the more at a loss to explain the comparative rarity of subjects from the Odyssey, with its many adventures and stirring episodes; scenes which may be from the Iliad being less strongly characterised and less unique—one battle-scene, for instance, differing little from another in method of treatment. But any subject from the Odyssey can be at once identified by its individual and marked character. It may be that the Odyssey had a less firm hold on the minds of the Greeks than the Iliad, which was more of a national epic, whereas the Odyssey was a stirring romance.[14] It may also be worth noting that scenes from the Odyssey usually adhere more closely to the Homeric text than those from the Iliad.

Another reason for the scarcity of Iliad-scenes may be that the Tale of Troy as a whole is a much more comprehensive story, of which the Iliad only forms a comparatively small portion. Hence the large number of scenes drawn both from the Ante-Homerica and the Post-Homerica, such as the stories of Troilos and Memnon, or the sack of Troy. The writings of the Cyclic poets begin, as Horace reminds us, ab ovo,[15] from the egg of Leda, and the Kypria included the whole story of the marriage of Peleus and Thetis, the subsequent Judgment of Paris, and his journey to Greece after Helen, scenes from all these events being extremely popular on the vases.[16] The Patrokleia deals with the events of the earlier years of the war, the Aithiopis of Arktinos with the stories of Penthesileia and Memnon, and the death of Achilles, and the Little Iliad of Lesches with the events of the tenth year down to the fall of Troy. All provided frequent themes for the vase-painter, as may be seen by a reference to a later page (119 ff.). The Iliupersis of Arktinos and Lesches might almost be reconstructed from two or three large vases, whereon all the episodes of the catastrophe are collected together (see p. 134); but when we come to the Nostoi of Agias and the Telegonia, the vase-painters suddenly fail us, the stories of Odysseus’ wanderings and Orestes’ vengeance seeming to supply the deficiency.

Luckenbach[17] has pointed out that the only right method of investigating the relation is to begin with vase-paintings for which the sources are absolutely certain, as with scenes from the Iliad and Odyssey. In this way the subjects from other epics can be rightly estimated and the contents of the poems restored. Further, in investigating the sources of the vase-painters, and the extent to which they adhered to them or gave free play to the imagination, the three main periods of vase-painting must be separately considered, though the results in each case prove to be similar. By way of exemplifying these methods he enters in great detail into certain vase-subjects, their method of treatment on vases of the different periods, and their approximation to the text. Thus, the funeral games for Patroklos (Il. xxiii.) are depicted on the François vase (see p. 11) with marked deviations from Homer’s narrative; and not only this, but without characterisation, so that if the performers were not named the subject could hardly have been identified. To note one small point, all Homeric races took place in two-horse chariots (bigae), but on B.F. vases four-horse quadrigae are almost invariably found.[18]

Subjects of a more conventional character, such as battle scenes, farewell scenes, or the arming of a warrior, present even more difficulty. Even when names occur it is only increased. We must assume that the vase-painter fixed on typical names for his personages, without caring whether he had literary authority. In some cases the genre scenes seem to be developed from heroic originals, in others the contrary appears to be the case.[19] It is not, however, unfair to say that the Epos was the vase-painter’s “source.” The only doubtful question is the extent of his inspiration; and, at all events, it was a source in the sense that no other Greek literature was until we come to the fourth century.

Turning now to the consideration of later literature,[20] we find in Hesiod a certain parallelism of theme to the vases, but little trace of actual influence. Indirectly he may have affected the vase-painter by his crystallisation of Greek mythology in the Theogony, where he establishes the number of the Muses (l. 77), and also the names of the Nereids.[21] It is, however, interesting to note the Hesiodic themes which were also popular with the vase-painters: the creation of Pandora; the fights of Herakles and Kyknos, and of Lapiths and Centaurs, and the pursuit of Perseus by the Gorgons; the contest of Zeus with Typhoeus (or Typhon); and the birth of Athena.[22]

The influence of lyric poetry was even slighter. Somewhat idealised figures of some of the Greek lyrists appear on R.F. vases, such as Sappho and Anakreon (see p. 152); but this is all. In regard to Pindar and Bacchylides, the idealising and heroising tendencies of the age may be compared with the contemporary tendency of vase-paintings, and the latter may often be found useful to compare with—if not exactly to illustrate—the legends which the two poets commemorate. For instance, in the ode of Bacchylides in which he describes the fate of Kroisos, there is a curious deviation from the familiar Herodotean version, the king being represented as voluntarily sacrificing himself.[23] The only vase-painting dealing with this subject (Fig. 132, p. 150) apparently reproduces this tradition.

With the influence of the stage we have already dealt elsewhere.[24] With the exception of the Satyric drama, it can hardly be said to have made itself felt, except in the vases of Southern Italy, in the fourth century B.C., but indications of the Satyric influence may be traced in many R.F. Attic vases, no doubt owing to their connection with the popular Dionysiac subjects. On a vase in Naples[25] are represented preparations for a Satyric drama. When we reach the time of tragic and comic influence, we not only find the subjects reproduced, but even their stage setting; in other words, the vases are not so much intended to illustrate the written as the acted play, just as it was performed.

The whole question is admirably summed up by Luckenbach[26] in the following manner: (1) The Epos is the chief source of all vase-paintings from the earliest time to the decadence inclusive, and next comes Tragedy, as regards the later vases only; of the influence of other poetry on the formation of myths in vase-paintings there is no established example. (2) Vase-paintings are not illustrations, either of the Epos or of the Drama, and there is no intention of reproducing a story accurately; hence great discrepancies and rarity of close adherence to literary forms; but the salient features of the story are preserved. (3) Discrepancies in the naming of personages are partly arbitrary, partly due to ignorance; the extension of scenes by means of rows of bystanders, meaningless, but thought to be appropriate, is of course a development of the artist’s, conditioned by exigencies of space. Anachronisms on vases are of frequent occurrence. (4) Such scenes as those of warriors arming or departing are always the painter’s own invention, ordinary scenes being often “heroised” by the addition of names. But individuals are not necessarily all or always to be named; and, again, the artist often gives names without individualising the figures. (5) In the archaic period successive movements of time are often very naïvely blended (see p. 10); the difference between art and literature is most marked in scenes where a definite moment is not indicated. (6) Vase-paintings often give a general survey of a poem, the scene not being drawn from one particular passage or episode. The features of one poem are in art sometimes transferred to another.

The attention that has been paid now for many years to collecting, assorting, and critically discussing the material afforded by the vases has much diminished the difficulties of this most puzzling branch of archaeology. It has been chiefly lightened by the discovery from time to time of inscribed vases, though, as has just been noted, even these must be treated with caution; and even now, of course, there are numerous subjects the interpretation of which is either disputed or purely hypothetical. But we can at least pride ourselves on having advanced many degrees beyond the labours of early writers on the subject, down to the year 1850.

When painted vases first began to be discovered in Southern Italy, the subjects were supposed to relate universally to the Eleusinian or Dionysiac mysteries, and this school of interpretation for a long time found favour in some quarters, even in the days of Gerhard and De Witte. But it was obvious from the first that such interpretations did not carry the investigator very far, and even in the eighteenth century other systems arose, such as that of Italynski, who regarded the subjects as of historical import.[27] Subsequently Panofka endeavoured to trace a connection between the subjects and the names of artists or other persons recorded on the vases, or, again, between the subjects and shapes. The latter idea, of course, contained a measure of truth, as is seen in many instances[28]; but it was, of course, impossible to follow out either this or the other hypothesis in any detail.

The foundations of the more scientific and rational school of interpretation were laid as early as the days of Winckelmann, and he was followed by Lanzi, Visconti, and Millingen, and finally Otto Jahn, who, as we have seen, practically revolutionised the study of ceramography. Of late, however, the question of the interpretation of subjects has been somewhat relegated to the background, owing to the overwhelming interest evoked by the finds of early fabrics or by the efforts of German and other scholars to distinguish the various schools of painting in the finest period.

Millingen, in the Introduction to his Vases Grecs, drew up a classification of the subjects on vases which need not be detailed here, but which, with some modifications, may be regarded as holding good to the present day. He distinguishes ten classes, the first three mythological, the next four dealing with daily life, and the three last with purely decorative ornamentation. A somewhat similar order is adopted by Müller in his Handbuch, by Gerhard in his Auserlesene Vasenbilder, and by Jahn in his Introduction to the Munich Catalogue (p. cc ff.). In the present and following chapters the arrangement and classification of the subjects adhere in the main to the system laid down by these writers; and as the order is not, of course, chronological in regard to style, reference has been made where necessary to differences of epoch and fabric.[29] It may be convenient to recapitulate briefly the main headings under which the subjects are grouped.

  I. The Olympian deities and divine beings in immediate connection with them, such as Eros and marine deities.

(a) In general; (b) individually. (Chapter XII.)

 II. Dionysos and his cycle, Pan, Satyrs, and Maenads. (Page 54 ff.)

III. Chthonian and cosmogonic deities, personifications, and minor deities in general. (Page 66 ff.)

 IV. Heroic legends and mythology in general.

(a) Herakles; (b) Theseus, Perseus, and other heroes; (c) local or obscure myths; (d) the Theban and Trojan stories; (e) monsters. (Chapter XIV.)

  V. Historical subjects. (Page 149 ff.)

 VI. Scenes from daily life and miscellaneous subjects (for detailed classification see p. 154). (Chapter XV.)

The number of subjects to be found on any one vase is of course usually limited to one, two, or at most three, according to the shape. Usually when there is more than one the subjects are quite distinct from one another; though attempts have been made in some cases, as in the B.F. amphorae, to trace a connection.[30] On the other hand, the R.F. kylikes of the strong period often show a unity of subject running through the interior and exterior scenes, whether the theme is mythological or ordinary.[31] It was only in exceptional cases that an artist could devote his efforts to producing an entire subject, as on some of the large kylikes with the labours of Theseus,[32] or the vases representing the sack of Troy.[33] The great François vase in Florence is a striking example of a mythology in miniature, containing as it does more than one subject treated in the fullest detail. And here reference may be made to the main principles which governed the method of telling a story in ancient art, and prevailed at different periods.[34] The earliest and most simple is the continuous method, which represents several scenes together as if taking place simultaneously, although successive in point of time. This method was often employed in Oriental art, but is not found in Hellenic times; it was, however, revived by the Romans under the Empire, and prevailed all through the early stages of Christian art. Secondly, there is the complementary method, which aims at the complete expression of everything relating to the central event. The same figures are not in this case necessarily repeated, but others are introduced to express the action of the different subjects, all being collected in one space without regard to time, as in the continuous style. This is of Oriental origin, and is first seen in the description of Achilles’ shield; it is also well illustrated in the François vase, in the story of Troilos. Here the death of Troilos is not indeed actually depicted, but the events leading up to it (the water-drawing at the fountain and the pursuit by Achilles) and those consequent on it (the announcement of the murder to Priam and the setting forth of Hector to avenge it) are all represented without the repetition of any figures. Lastly, there is the isolating method, which is purely Hellenic, being developed from the complementary. This is best illustrated by the Theseus kylikes, with their groups of the labours, which, it should be remembered, are not continuous episodes in one story, but single events separated in time and space, and collected together with a sort of superficial resemblance to the other methods.

Some description of the François vase has been given elsewhere (Vol. I. p. 370)[35]; but as it is unique in its comprehensiveness, and as a typical presentation of the subjects most popular at the time when vase-painters had just begun to pay special attention to mythology, it may be worth while to recapitulate its contents here. The subjects are no less than eleven in number, arranged in six horizontal friezes, with figures also on the handles, and there are in all 115 inscriptions explaining the names of the personages and even of objects (e.g. ὑδρία, for the broken pitcher of Polyxena). Eight of these subjects belong to the region of mythology:—(1) On the neck: the hunt of the Calydonian boar, and (2) the landing of Theseus and Ariadne at Naxos, accompanied by dancing youths and maidens. (3) On the shoulder: chariot race at the funeral games of Patroklos, and (4) combat of Centaurs and Lapiths (with Theseus). (5) On the body: the marriage of Peleus and Thetis, attended by the gods in procession. (6) On the body: the death of Troilos (see above), and (7) the return of Hephaistos to Olympos. (8) On each of the handles, Ajax with the body of Achilles. On the flat top of the lip is represented (9) a combat of pigmies and cranes; on either side of the foot (10) a lion and a panther devouring a bull and stag, Gryphons, Sphinxes, and other animals; and on the upper part of the handles (11) Gorgons and figures of the Asiatic Artemis (see p. 35) holding wild animals by the neck.

It is, of course, impossible to indicate all the subjects on the thousands of painted vases in existence; and it must also be remembered that many are of disputed meaning. The succeeding review must therefore only be considered as a general summary which aims at omitting nothing of any interest and avoiding as far as possible useless repetition. In the references appended under each subject the principle has been adopted of making them as far as possible representative of all periods, and also of selecting the most typical and artistic examples, as well as the most accessible, publications.[36]

In dealing with the subjects depicted on Greek vases, we naturally regard the Olympian deities as having the preeminence. We will therefore begin by considering such scenes as have reference to actions in which those deities were engaged, and, secondly, representations of general groups of deities, either as spectators of terrestrial events or without any particular signification. It will then be convenient to deal with the several deities one by one, noting the subjects with which each is individually connected. We shall in the following chapter proceed to consider the subordinate deities, such as those of the under-world and the Dionysiac cycle, and personifications of nature and abstract ideas. Chapter XIV. will be devoted to the consideration of heroic legends, mythological beings, and historical subjects; and in Chapter XV. will be discussed all such subjects as relate to the daily life of the Greeks.

The Olympian Deities

One of the oldest and most continuously popular subjects is the Gigantomachia, or Battle of the Gods and Giants, which forms part of the Titanic and pre-heroic cosmogony, and may therefore take precedence of the rest. The Aloadae (Otos and Ephialtes), strictly speaking, are connected with a different event—the attack on Olympos and chaining of Ares; but the scenes in which they occur are so closely linked with the Gigantomachy proper that it is unnecessary to differentiate them. We also find as a single subject the combat of Zeus with the snake-footed Typhon.[37]

The locus classicus of Greek art for the Gigantomachia is of course the frieze of the great altar at Pergamon (197 B.C.), but several vases bear representations almost as complete, though it is not as a rule possible to identify the giants except where their names are inscribed.[38] Most vases give only one to three pairs of combatants.


Some pairs are found almost exclusively together, e.g. Athena and Enkelados, or Ares and Mimas; Artemis and Apollo are generally opposed to the Aloadae Otos and Ephialtes, Zeus to Porphyrion, and Poseidon to Polybotes (Fig. 112) or Ephialtes. Hestia alone, the “stay-at-home” goddess of the hearth, is never found in these scenes, but Dionysos, Herakles, and the Dioskuri all take their part in aiding the Olympian deities. Zeus hurls his thunderbolts[39]; Poseidon is usually depicted with his trident, or hurling the island of Nisyros (indicated as a rock with animals painted on it) upon his adversary[40]; Hephaistos uses a pair of tongs with a burning coal in them as his weapon[41]; and Dionysos is in some cases aided by his panther.[42] Aeolus occurs once with his bag of winds.[43]


The following groups can be identified on vases by inscriptions or details of treatment:—

Zeus and Agasthenes, Hyperbios, and Ephialtes: Louvre E 732 (Fig. 111).
Zeus and Porphyrion: Berlin 2531.
Hera and Harpolykos: Louvre E 732.
Hera and Rhoitos (miswritten Phoitos): Berlin 2531.
Poseidon and Polybotes: Louvre E 732; Berlin 2531 = Fig. 112.
Poseidon and Ephialtes: Reinach, ii. 188.
Apollo and Ephialtes: Berlin 2531.
Artemis and Otos: Reinach, ii. 164.
Artemis and Aigaion: Berlin 2531.
Hephaistos and Euryalos: B.M. E 47.
Hephaistos and Klytios: Berlin 2293.
Athena and Enkelados: B.M. B 252; Louvre E 732; Él. Cér. i. 8.
Ares and Mimas: Berlin 2531; B.M. B 617.
Hermes and Hippolytos: Berlin 2293.
Hermes and Polybios (?): Louvre E 732.
Dionysos and Eurymedon: Bull. de Corr. Hell. xx. pl. 7.
Athena with arm of Akratos: Berlin 2957 = Él. Cér. i. 88.
Death of Otos (supposed): Bibl. Nat. 299 = Reinach, ii. 255.

Among scenes supposed to take place in Olympos, the most important is the Birth of Athena from the head of Zeus.[44] Usually she is represented as a diminutive figure actually emerging from his head, but in one or two instances she stands before him fully developed,[45] as was probably the case in the centre of the east pediment of the Parthenon. This subject is commoner on B.F. vases, and does not appear at all after the middle of the fifth century.[46] In most cases several of the Olympian deities are spectators of the scene; sometimes Hephaistos wields his axe or runs away in terror at the result of his operations[47]; in others the Eileithyiae or goddesses of child-birth lend their assistance.[48] On a R.F. vase in the Bibliothèque Nationale Athena flies out backwards from Zeus’ head.[49]

In accordance with a principle already discussed (Vol. I. p. 378), the composition or “type” of this subject is sometimes adopted on B.F. vases for other groups of figures, where the absence of Athena shows clearly that the birth scene is not intended, and no particular meaning can be assigned to the composition.[50]

Representations of the Marriage of Zeus and Hera cannot be pointed to with certainty in vase-paintings. On B.F. vases we sometimes see a bridal pair in a chariot accompanied by various deities, or figures with the attributes of divinities[51]; but the chief figures are not in any way characterised as such, and it is better to regard these scenes as idealisations of ordinary marriage processions. On the other hand, there are undoubted representations of Zeus and Hera enthroned among the Olympian deities or partaking of a banquet.[52]


The story of the enchaining of Hera in a magic chair by Hephaistos, and her subsequent liberation by him, is alluded to on many vases, though one episode is more prominent than the others. Of the expulsion of Hephaistos from heaven we find no instance, and of the release of Hera there is only one doubtful example[53]; but we find a parody of the former’s combat with Ares, who forces him to liberate Hera.[54] The episode most frequent is that of the return of Hephaistos in a drunken condition to Olympos, conducted by Dionysos and a crowd of Satyrs; of this there are fine examples on vases of all periods.[55] On earlier vases Hephaistos rides a mule; on the later he generally stumbles along, leaning on Dionysos or a Satyr for support.

On the François vase we see Zeus and Hera, with an attendant train of deities, Nymphs, and Muses, going in a chariot to the nuptials of Peleus and Thetis; on many vases we have the reception of the deified Herakles among the gods of Olympos[56]; and on others groups of deities banqueting or without particular signification.[57] But on the late Apulian vases it is a frequent occurrence to find an upper row of deities as spectators of some event taking place just below: thus they watch battles of Greeks and Persians,[58] or such scenes as the contract between Pelops and Oinomaos,[59] the madness of Lykourgos,[60] the death of Hippolytos,[61] and others from heroic legend, which it is unnecessary to specify here; only a few typical ones can be mentioned.[62] They also appear as spectators of scenes in or relating to the nether-world.[63]

Zeus appears less frequently than some deities, and seldom alone; but still there are many myths connected with him, besides those already discussed. As a single figure he appears enthroned and attended by his eagle on a Cyrenaic cup in the Louvre[64]; or again in his chariot, hurling a thunderbolt[65]; in company with his brother-gods of the ocean and under-world, Poseidon and Hades, he is seen on a kylix by Xenokles.[66] He is also found with Athena,[67] with Hera, Apollo, Artemis, Aphrodite, and Hermes[68]; and frequently with Herakles at the latter’s reception into heaven.[69] In one instance he settles a dispute between Aphrodite and Persephone.[70] He receives libations from Nike,[71] or performs the ceremony himself, attended by Hera, Iris, and Nike,[72] and is also attended by Hebe and Ganymede as cupbearers.[73] His statue, especially that of Ζεὺς Ἑρκεῖος at Troy, sometimes gives local colour to a scene.[74]

Most of the scenes in which he appears relate to his various love adventures, among which the legends of Europa, Io, and Semele are the most conspicuous; but first of his numerous amours should perhaps be mentioned his wooing of his consort Hera. He carries her off while asleep from her nurse in Euboea,[75] and also appears to her in the form of a cuckoo.[76] The rape of Ganymede by his eagle appears once or twice on vases,[77] but more generally Zeus himself seizes the youth while he is engaged in bowling a hoop or otherwise at play.[78] On a fine late vase with Latin inscriptions Ganymede appears in Olympos,[79] and he is also depicted as a shepherd.[80]

Semele Zeus pursues and slays with the thunderbolt[81]; the birth of her son Dionysos from his thigh is represented but rarely on vases, and is liable to confusion with other subjects. This story falls into three episodes: (1) the reception of the infant by Hermes from Dirke, in order to be sewn into Zeus’ thigh[82]; (2) the actual birth scene[83]; (3) the handing over of the child to the Nymphs.[84] Of his visit to Alkmena there are no certain representations, but two comic scenes on South Italian vases[85] may possibly refer to it, and one of them at least seems to be influenced by the burlesque by Rhinton, from which Plautus borrowed the idea of his Amphitruo. The apotheosis of Alkmena, when her husband places her on a funeral pyre after discovering her misdeed, is represented on two fine South Italian vases in the British Museum; in one case Zeus looks on.[86] His appearing to Leda in the form of a swan only seems to find one illustration on a vase, but in one case he is present at the scene of Leda with the egg.[87]

He is also depicted descending in a shower of gold on Danaë[88]; or as carrying off the Nymphs Aegina and Thaleia[89]; or, again, with an unknown Nymph, perhaps Taygeta.[90] In the form of a bull, on which Europa rides, he provides a very favourite subject, of which some fine specimens exist.[91] One variation of the type is found on an Apulian vase, where Europa advances to caress the bull sent by Zeus to fetch her.[92] The story of Io[93] resolves itself into several scenes, all of which find illustration on the vases: (1) the meeting of Io and Zeus when she rests at the shrine of Artemis after her wanderings[94]; (2) Io in the form of a cow, guarded by Argos[95]; (3) the appearance of her deliverer Hermes[96]; (4) Hermes attacks and slays Argos (Fig. 114).[97]

From Wiener Vorlegeblätter.


In addition, the presence of Zeus may be noted in various scenes from heroic or other legends, which are more appropriately discussed under other headings[98], such as the freeing of Prometheus[99], the combat of Herakles and Kyknos[100], or the weighing of the souls of Achilles and Hector[101]; at the sending of Triptolemos, the flaying of Marsyas, the death of Aktaeon, and that of Archemoros[102]; at the creation of Pandora and the Judgment of Paris[103]; the rape of the Delphic tripod and that of the Leukippidae, at Peleus’ seizing of Thetis,[104] and with Idas and Marpessa.[105] The story of the golden dog of Zeus, which was stolen by Pandareos, is referred to under a later heading.[106]

Hera apart from Zeus appears but seldom, but there are a few scenes in which she is found alone; of those in which she is an actor or spectator some have been already described, the most important being the story of Hephaistos’ return to heaven.[107] As her figure is not always strongly characterised by means of attributes, it is not always to be identified with certainty. As a single figure she forms the interior decoration of one fine R.F. kylix,[108] and her ξόανον, or primitive cult-idol, is sometimes found as an indication of the scene of an action.[109] On one vase she is represented at her toilet.[110]

There is a vase-painting which represents Hera on her throne offering a libation to Prometheus, an aged figure who stands before her.[111] She is also present at the liberation of Prometheus[112]; in a scene probably intended for the punishment of Ixion[113]; at the creation of Pandora[114]; and in scenes from the story of Io.[115] She suckles the child Herakles in one instance,[116] and in another appears with him in the garden of the Hesperides[117]; she is also present at his reconciliation with Apollo at Delphi,[118] and at his apotheosis,[119] receiving him and Iolaos.[120] On an early Ionic vase she appears contending with him in the presence of Athena and Poseidon, and wears a goat-skin head-dress, as in the Roman type of Juno Sospita or Lanuvina.[121]

The scene in which she appears most frequently is the Judgment of Paris (see below, p. 122); she is also present at the birth of Dionysos[122]; at the stealing of Zeus’ golden dog by Pandareos[123]; at the contest between Apollo and Marsyas[124]; at the slaughter of the Niobids[125]; and with Perseus and Athena.[126]

She appears sometimes with Hebe, Iris, and Nike, from whom she receives libations[127]; and in one scene, apparently from a Satyric drama, she and Iris are attacked by a band of Seileni and rescued by Herakles.[128]

From Ant. Denkm.


Poseidon is a figure somewhat rare in archaic art as a whole, especially in statuary, but is more frequently seen on vases, mostly in groups of deities, or as a spectator of events taking place in or under the sea, his domain. Among subjects already discussed, he is present at the birth of Athena,[129] at the nuptials of Zeus and Hera,[130] and in assemblies of the Olympian gods, generally with his consort Amphitrite[131]; he also takes part in the Gigantomachia and the reception of Herakles into Olympos.[132] He is represented in a group with his brother deities of the higher and nether world, Zeus and Hades[133]; with Apollo, Athena, Ares, and Hermes[134]; among the Eleusinian deities at the sending forth of Triptolemos[135]; and occasionally in Dionysiac scenes as a companion of the wine-god.[136] As a single figure he is frequently found on the series of archaic tablets or pinakes found near Corinth, and also in company with Amphitrite (Fig. 115)[137]; on later vases not so frequently.[138] In one instance he rides on a bull,[139] in others on a horse, sometimes winged[140]; elsewhere he drives in a chariot with Amphitrite and other deities[141]; he watches the Sun-god in his car rising out of the waves[142]; and one vase has the curious subject of Poseidon, Herakles, and Hermes engaged in fishing.[143]


From Baumeister.

Athena and Poseidon Contending for Attica; Vase from Kertch (at Petersburg).

Among scenes in which he plays an active part the most interesting is the dispute with Athena for the ownership of Attica, also represented on the west pediment of the Parthenon[144]; his love adventures, especially his pursuit of Amymone[145] and Aithra,[146] are common subjects, but in many cases the object of his pursuit cannot be identified.[147] He receives Theseus under the ocean,[148] and possibly in one case Glaukos, on his acceptance as a sea-god[149]; he is also present at the former’s recognition by Aigeus.[150] He is seen at the death of Talos,[151] and with Europa crossing the sea.[152] In conjunction with other deities, chiefly on late Italian vases, he is present as a spectator of various episodes, such as the adventures of Bellerophon, Kadmos, or Pelops, the rape of Persephone, the creation of Pandora, the death of Hippolytos, and in one historical scene, a battle of Greeks and Persians.[153] He superintends several of the adventures of Herakles, notably those in which he is specially interested, as the contests with Antaios and Triton[154]; and he supports Hera in her combat with that hero.[155] He is also seen with Perseus on his way to slay Medusa,[156] and among the Gorgons after that event.[157]

In connection with Poseidon it may be convenient to mention here other divinities and beings with marine associations—such as Okeanos, Nereus, and Triton, and the Nereids or sea-nymphs, daughters of Nereus, with the more rarely occurring Naiads. Of these the name of Okeanos occurs but once, on the François vase. The figure itself has disappeared, but the marine monster on which he rides to the wedding of Peleus and Thetis, and the inscription, remain. Nereus appears as a single figure, with fish-tail and trident,[158] but is most frequently met with in connection with the capture of his daughter Thetis by Peleus, either as a spectator or receiving the news from a Nereid.[159] He also watches the contest of Herakles with Triton,[160] himself encountering the hero in some cases.[161] On one vase Herakles has seized his trident and threatens him by making havoc of his belongings.[162] He appears at Herakles’ combat with Kyknos,[163] and at his apotheosis,[164] and also offers a crown to Achilles.[165] In one case he is found in Dionysos’ company.[166] With his daughter Doris he watches the pursuit of another Nereid by Poseidon.[167]

Triton is found as a single figure,[168] and (chiefly on B.F. vases) engaged in a struggle with Herakles.[169] He also carries Theseus through the sea to Poseidon,[170] and watches the flight of Phrixos and Helle over the sea.[171] The group of deities represented by Ino and Leukothea, Palaimon, Melikertes, and Glaukos appear in isolated instances,[172] as do Proteus[173] and Skylla[174]—the latter as single figures, without reference to their connection with the Odyssey. A monstrous unidentified figure, with wings and a serpentine fish-tail, which may be a sea-deity (in one case feminine), is found on some early Corinthian vases[175]; possibly Palaimon is intended.

The Nereids, who are often distinctively named, are sometimes found in groups,[176] especially watching the seizure of Thetis or bearing the news to Nereus[177]; or, again, carrying the armour of Achilles over the sea and presenting it to him.[178] On one vase they mourn over the dead Achilles.[179] They are also present at the reception of Theseus,[180] the contest of Herakles and Triton,[181] and with Europa on the bull.[182] Kymothea offers a parting cup to Achilles[183]; the Naiads, who are similar beings, present to Perseus the cap, sword, shoes, and wallet.[184] They are also found grouped with various deities,[185] and even one in the under-world.[186] Thetis appears once as a single figure, accompanied by dolphins[187]; for her capture by Peleus and relations with Achilles, see p. 120 ff.

The Eleusinian deities Demeter and Persephone (or Kore) are usually found together, not only in scenes which have a special reference to their cult, but in general assemblies of the gods. They once appear in the Gigantomachia.[188] Scenes which refer to the Eleusinian cycle are found exclusively on later examples,[189] and as a rule merely represent the two chief deities grouped with others, such as Dionysos and Hekate, and with their attendants, Iacchos, Eumolpos, and Eubouleus.[190] One vase represents the initiation of Herakles, Kastor, and Polydeukes in the Lesser Mysteries of Agra[191]; another, the birth of Ploutos, who is handed to Demeter in a cornucopia by Gaia, rising from the earth, in the presence of Persephone, Triptolemos, and Iacchos[192]; and others, the birth of Dionysos or Iacchos—a very similar composition.[193] Demeter and Persephone are represented driving in their chariot, with attendant deities and other figures,[194] or standing alone, carrying sceptre and torches respectively,[195] or pouring libations at a tomb (on a sepulchral vase).[196] They are present at the carrying off of Basile by Echelos (a rare Attic legend),[197] and Demeter alone is seen, once at the birth of Athena,[198] once at the slaughter of the dragon by Kadmos,[199] once enthroned,[200] and once with Dionysos as Thesmophoros, holding an open roll with the laws (θεσμοί) of her cult.[201]


Kotyle by Hieron: Triptolemos at Eleusis (British Museum).

Closely connected with Eleusis is the subject of the sending forth of Triptolemos as a teacher of agriculture in his winged car. This is found on vases of all periods,[202] but is best exemplified on the beautiful kotyle of Hieron in the British Museum (Plate LI.), where, besides Olympian and Chthonian deities, the personification of Eleusis is present. Besides the other Eleusinian personages, Keleos and Hippothoon are also seen.[203] Triptolemos is generally seated in his car, but in one or two cases he stands beside it[204]; in another he is just mounting it.[205] On the latter vase Persephone holds his plough. On a vase in Berlin Triptolemos appears without his car, holding a ploughshare; Demeter presents him with ears of corn, and Persephone holds torches.[206]

Persephone is also seen with Iacchos,[207] who, according to various accounts, was her son or brother. She appears with Aphrodite and Adonis,[208] and one vase is supposed to represent the dispute between her and Aphrodite over the latter, which was appeased by Zeus.[209]

The story of the rape of Persephone by Hades, her sojourn in the under-world, and her return to earth is also chiefly confined to the later vases, especially the incident of the rape.[210] In the elaborate representations of the under-world on late Apulian vases she generally stands or sits with Hades in a building in the centre.[211] She is often depicted in scenes representing the carrying off of Kerberos by Herakles,[212] or banqueting with Hades.[213] On both early and late vases Hermes, in his character of Psychopompos, is seen preparing to conduct her back from the nether world (see Plate XLV.),[214] or actually on his way.[215] In another semi-mystical version of the return of Persephone, signifying the return of spring and vegetation, her head or part of her body emerges from the earth,[216] in one case accompanied by the head of Dionysos, whereat Satyrs and Maenads flee affrighted.[217] The interpretation of some of these scenes, however, has been much questioned.[218]

The number of vases with subjects representing the three Delphic deities—Apollo, Artemis, and Leto—is considerable. The appearances of Apollo, at any rate, are probably only exceeded in number by those of Athena, Dionysos, and Herakles. It is, in fact, impossible to make a complete enumeration of the groups in which Apollo occurs, and a general outline alone can be given.[219]

Apollo as a single figure is often found both on B.F. and R.F. vases, usually as Kitharoidos, playing his lyre; sometimes also he is distinguished by his bow.[220] As Kitharoidos he is usually represented standing,[221] but in some cases is seated.[222] He is sometimes accompanied by a hind[223] or a bull (Apollo Nomios?).[224] He is represented at Delphi seated on the Pythoness’ tripod,[225] or is seated at an altar,[226] or pours a libation.[227] He rides on a swan[228] or on a Gryphon,[229] and also crosses the sea on a tripod.[230] In some scenes he is characterised as Daphnephoros,[231] holding a branch of laurel, or is represented in the attitude associated with Apollo Lykeios, resting with one hand above his head.[232] In one scene the type of Apollo Kitharoidos closely resembles that associated with the sculptor Skopas.[233]

From Mon. dell’ Inst. ix.

When he is grouped with Artemis, the latter deity usually carries a bow and quiver,[234] or they pour libations to one another;[235] but more commonly they stand together, without engaging in any action. They are also depicted in a chariot.[236] More numerous are the scenes in which Leto is also included (as Fig. 116), though she is not always to be identified with certainty.[237] In this connection may be noted certain scenes relating to Apollo’s childhood: his birth is once represented,[238] and on certain B.F. vases a woman is seen nursing two children (one painted black, the other white), which may denote Leto with her infants, though it is more probably a symbolic representation of Earth the Nursing-mother (Gaia Kourotrophos; see p. 73).[239] Tischbein published a vase of doubtful authenticity, which represents Leto with the twins fleeing from the serpent Python at Delos[240]; but in two instances Apollo certainly appears in Leto’s arms, in one case shooting the Python with his bow.[241]

With these three is sometimes joined Hermes—in one instance at Delphi, as indicated by the presence of the omphalos[242]; or, again, Hermes appears with Apollo alone, or with Apollo and Artemis.[243] Poseidon is seen with Apollo, generally accompanied by Artemis and Hermes, also by Leto and other indeterminate female figures.[244] In conjunction with Athena, Apollo is found grouped with Hermes, Dionysos, Nike, and other female figures; also with Herakles.[245] With Aphrodite he is seen in toilet scenes, sometimes anointed by Eros.[246] In one case they are accompanied by Artemis and Hermes,[247] and on one vase Apollo is grouped with Zeus and with Aphrodite on her swan.[248] He accompanies the chariots of various deities, such as Poseidon, Demeter, and Athena,[249] especially when the latter conducts Herakles to heaven.[250]

Apollo, in one case, is associated with the local Nymph Kyrene on a fragment of a vase probably made in that colony.[251] He frequently receives libations from Nike,[252] and in one case is crowned by her.[253] With Nymphs and female figures of indeterminate character he occurs on many (chiefly B.F.) vases, sometimes as receiving a libation.[254] On several red-figured vases he is accompanied by some or all of the nine Muses, one representing their contest with Thamyris and Sappho.[255] He and Artemis are specially associated with marriage processions, whether of Zeus and Hera or of ordinary bridal couples.[256] Apollo also appears in a chariot drawn by a boar and a lion at the marriage of Kadmos and Harmonia.[257]

In Dionysiac scenes he is a frequent spectator[258]; he greets Dionysos among his thiasos,[259] joins him in a banquet,[260] or accompanies Ariadne’s chariot[261] or the returning Hephaistos[262]; listens to the Satyr Molkos playing the flutes,[263] or is grouped with Satyrs and Maenads at Nysa.[264] More important and of greater interest are the scenes which depict the legend of Marsyas, and they may fitly find a place here. The story is told in eight different episodes on the vases, which may be thus systematised:

1. Marsyas picks up the flutes dropped by Athena: Berlin 2418 = Baumeister, ii. p. 1001, fig. 1209: cf. Reinach, i. 342 (in Boston).

2. First meeting of Apollo and Marsyas: Millin-Reinach, i. 6.

3. The challenge: Berlin 2638.

4. Marsyas performing: B.M. E 490; Reinach, i. 452 (Berlin 2950), i. 511 (Athens 1921), ii. 312; Jatta 1093 = Reinach, i. 175 = Baumeister, ii. p. 891, fig. 965.

5. Apollo performing: Jatta 1364 = Él. Cér. ii. 63; Wiener Vorl. vi. 11.

6. Apollo victorious: Reinach, ii. 310; Petersburg 355 = Reinach, i. 14 = Wiener Vorl. iii. 5.

7. Condemnation of Marsyas: Naples 3231 = Reinach, i. 405; Reinach, ii. 324.

8. Flaying of Marsyas: Naples 2991 = Reinach, i. 406 (a vase with reliefs); Roscher, ii. 2455 = Él. Cér. ii. 64.

Among other scenes in which Apollo (generally accompanied by Artemis) plays a personal part, the following may be mentioned: the slaying of the Niobids by the two deities[265]; the slaying of Tityos by Apollo[266] (in one case Tityos is represented carrying off Leto, who is rescued by Apollo)[267]; and various love adventures in which Apollo is concerned.[268] The name of the Nymph pursued by him in the latter scenes cannot, as a rule, be identified; one vase appears to represent him contending with Idas for the possession of Marpessa.[269] He also heals the Centaur Cheiron (this appears in burlesque form),[270] and protects Creusa from the wrath of Ion.[271] He is seen seeking for the cattle stolen from him by Hermes, and contending with that god over the lyre.[272] He frequently appears in Birth of Athena scenes as Kitharoidos,[273] and also at the sending forth of Triptolemos[274] or in the under-world.[275] In one case he appears (with Athena, Artemis, and Herakles) as protecting deity of Attica, watching a combat of Greeks and Amazons.[276] On one vase there is a possible reference to Apollo Smintheus, with whom the mouse was especially associated.[277]

Like other deities, Apollo and Artemis are frequently found on Apulian vases as spectators of the deeds of heroes, or other events in which they are more or less interested; some of these subjects have already been specified (see above, p. 17). Apollo especially is often seen in connection with the story of Herakles, or the Theban and Trojan legends. One burlesque scene represents his carrying off the bow of Herakles to the roof of the Delphic temple,[278] and the subject of the capture of the tripod, with the subsequent reconciliation, is of very frequent occurrence.[279] As Apollo Ismenios, the patron of Thebes, he is a spectator of the scene of the infant Herakles strangling the snakes[280]; in one case he is represented disputing with Herakles over a stag,[281] which may be another version of the story of the Keryneian stag, a scene in which he also occurs.[282] He is seen with Herakles and Kyknos,[283] Herakles and Kerberos,[284] and is very frequently present at the apotheosis of the hero.[285]

Apollo and Artemis watch Kadmos slaying the dragon,[286] and one or other of them is present at the liberating of Prometheus[287]; Apollo alone is seen with Oedipus and Teiresias,[288] and watches the slaying of the Sphinx by the former.[289] Among Trojan scenes he is sometimes present at the Judgment of Paris,[290] also at the sacrifice of Iphigeneia, the pursuit of Troilos, the combats of Achilles and Ajax with Hector, and the recognition of Aithra by her sons.[291] He is, of course, frequently seen in subjects from the Oresteia, both in Tauris and at Delphi,[292] and at the death of Neoptolemos before the latter temple.[293] The pair are also seen at the carrying off of Basile by Echelos (see p. 140).[294]

The ξόανον, or primitive cult-statue, of Apollo is sometimes represented; in one case Kassandra takes refuge from Ajax before it, instead of the usual statue of Athena.[295]

The appearances of Artemis, as distinct from Apollo, need not detain us long; she is sometimes found in mythological scenes, but frequently as a single figure, of which there are some fine examples.[296] A winged goddess grasping the neck or paws of an animal or bird with either hand frequently occurs on early vases, and is usually interpreted as Artemis in her character of πότνια θηρῶν or mistress of the brute creation, sometimes called the Asiatic or Persian Artemis.[297] On an early Boeotian vase (with reliefs) at Athens is a curious representation of Artemis Diktynna, a quasi-marine form of the goddess, originally Cretan (?); on the front of her body is represented a fish, and on the either side of her is a lion.[298] As a single figure she appears either with bow or quiver, or with lyre, sometimes accompanied by a stag or hind, or dogs[299]; she also rides on a deer[300] or shoots at a stag.[301] Or, again, she is attended by a cortège of Nymphs[302] or rides in a chariot.[303] Like that of Apollo, her ξόανον is sometimes introduced into a scene as local colouring.[304]

The myth with which she is chiefly associated is that of Aktaeon, which may find a place here, though in most cases Aktaeon alone is represented, being devoured by his hounds.[305] A curious subject on a vase at Athens appears to be the burial of Aktaeon, Artemis being present.[306] She is also represented at the sacrifice of Iphigeneia, for whom a stag was substituted by her agency,[307] and in connection with the same story at her shrine in Tauris.[308] She is especially associated with Apollo in such scenes as the contest with and flaying of Marsyas,[309] the rape of the Delphic tripod by Herakles[310] and the subsequent reconciliation,[311] or the appearance of Orestes at Delphi.[312] The two deities sometimes accompany nuptial processions in chariots, Artemis as pronuba holding a torch, but it is not easy to say whether these scenes refer to the nuptials of Zeus and Hera or are of ordinary significance.[313] A scene in which she pursues a woman and a child with bow and arrow may have reference to the slaughter of the Niobids.[314]

Other scenes in which she is found are the Gigantomachia[315] and the Birth of Athena[316]; or she is seen accompanying the chariots of Demeter[317] and Athena,[318] and with Aphrodite and Adonis.[319] She disputes with Herakles over the Keryneian stag[320]; and is also present when he strangles the snakes,[321] and at his apotheosis in Athena’s chariot.[322] She attends the combat of Paris and Menelaos,[323] and as protecting deity of Attica she watches a combat of Greeks and Amazons.[324] A vase in Berlin, on which are depicted six figures carrying chairs (Diphrophori, as on the Parthenon frieze) and a boy with game, may perhaps represent a procession in honour of Artemis.[325]

Hephaistos is a figure who appears but seldom, and never as protagonist, except in the case of his return to Olympos,[326] a subject already discussed (p. 17), as has been his appearance in the Gigantomachia[327] and at the birth of Athena.[328] In conjunction with the last-named goddess he completes the creation and adornment of Pandora on two fine vases in the British Museum[329]; he is also present at the birth of Erichthonios.[330] His sojourn below the ocean with Thetis and the making of Achilles’ armour also occur.[331] Representations of a forge on some B.F. vases may have reference to the Lemnian forge of Hephaistos and his Cyclopean workmen.[332] He is also seen with Athena,[333] at the punishment of Ixion,[334] and taking part in a banquet with Dionysos.[335]

More important than any of the other Olympian deities, for the part she plays in vase-paintings, is Athena, the great goddess of the Ionic race, and especially of Athens. Of her birth from the head of Zeus we have already spoken, as also of the part she plays in the Gigantomachia (p. 15). The separate episode of her combat with Enkelados (her invariable opponent) is frequently depicted on B.F. vases[336]; but in one instance she tears off the arm of another giant, Akratos.[337] We have also seen her assisting at the creation of Pandora,[338] and contending with Poseidon for Attica.[339] She receives the infant Dionysos at the time of his birth,[340] and is also generally present at that of Erichthonios,[341] and once with Leto at that of Apollo and Artemis.[342] She is, of course, an invariable actor in Judgment of Paris scenes, in one of which she is represented washing her hands at a fountain in preparation for the competition.[343]

From assemblies of the gods she is rarely absent, and she is also associated with smaller groups of divinities, such as Apollo and Artemis (p. 31), with Ares or Hephaistos,[344] or with Hermes,[345] or in Eleusinian[346] or Dionysiac scenes.[347] Thus she assists at the slaying of the Niobids,[348] and on one vase is confronted with Marsyas, before whom she has just dropped the flutes.[349] Scenes in which she appears receiving a libation from Nike are extremely common[350]; and she is also found with Iris and Hebe.[351] In one instance she herself pours a libation to Zeus.[352]

Generally the companion of princes and patroness of heroes, she protects especially Herakles, whom she aids in his exploits and conveys finally in her chariot to Olympos, where he is introduced by her to Zeus.[353] Some scenes represent the two simply standing together[354]; in others she welcomes and refreshes him after his labours,[355] and in one case he is supposed to be represented pursuing her.[356] It is unnecessary to particularise here the various scenes in which she attends Herakles (see p. 95 ff.); but one may be mentioned as peculiar, where she carries him off in her chariot with the Delphic tripod which he has just stolen.[357] Another rare scene connected with the Herakles myths is one in which, after the fight with Kyknos (see p. 101), Zeus protects her from the wrath of Ares.[358] Another of her favourite heroes is Theseus,[359] and she is even more frequently associated with Perseus, whom she assists to overcome and escape from the Gorgons.[360] She gives Kadmos the stone with which to slay the dragon,[361] and is also seen with Bellerophon,[362] Jason and the Argonauts,[363] and Oedipus.[364] She is present at the rape of Oreithyia by Boreas,[365] at the punishment of Ixion,[366] and at the setting out of Amphiaraos[367]; at the stealing of Zeus’ golden dog by Pandareos[368]; also at the rape of the Leukippidae by the Dioskuri,[369] and of Basile by Echelos (see p. 140),[370] and in a scene from the tragedy of Merope.[371]

The scenes where she is assisting the Greek heroes in the Trojan War are almost too numerous to specify, her favourite being of course Achilles; her meeting with Iris (Il. viii. 409) is once depicted,[372] and she also appears in connection with the dispute over Achilles’ arms.[373] She is not so frequently seen with her other favourite, Odysseus, but in one instance she is present when he meets with Nausikaa,[374] and also when he blinds Polyphemos.[375] On the numerous vases representing Ajax and Achilles (or other heroes) playing at draughts, the figure or image of the goddess is generally present in the background.[376] The same type on B.F. vases is adopted for the subject of two heroes casting lots before her statue[377]; lastly, she appears as the friend and patron of Orestes when expiating the slaying of his mother.[378]

As a single figure Athena is represented under many types and with various attributes, seated with her owl[379] or in meditation,[380] writing on tablets[381] or holding the ἀκροστόλιον of a ship[382]; playing on a lyre[383] or flutes,[384] or listening to a player on the flute or lyre[385]; with a man making a helmet,[386] or herself making the figure of a horse,[387] and in a potter’s workshop.[388] On an early vase she appears between two lions[389]; or she is accompanied by a hind (here grouped with other goddesses).[390] She is depicted running,[391] and occasionally is winged[392]; or she appears mounting a chariot, accompanied by various divinities.[393] As the protecting goddess of Attica she watches a combat of Greeks and Amazons[394]; she also attends the departure or watches combats of ordinary warriors,[395] or receives a victorious one.[396] In one instance she carries a dead warrior home.[397]

There are many representations of her image, either as a ξόανον or cultus-statue, or recalling some well-known type of later art. Among the former may be mentioned her statue at Troy, whereat Kassandra takes refuge from Ajax,[398] and the Palladion carried off by Odysseus and Diomede.[399] Among the latter, three can be traced to or connected with creations of Pheidias: viz. the chryselephantine Parthenos statue[400]; the Lemnian type, holding her helmet in her hand (Plate XXXVI.)[401]; and the Promachos, in defensive attitude, with shield and spear.[402] The last-named type (earlier, of course, than the famous statue on the Acropolis) is that universally adopted for the figure of Athena on the obverse of the Panathenaic amphorae, on which she is depicted in this attitude between two Doric columns surmounted by cocks (on the later examples by figures of Nike or Triptolemos).[403] Her statue is also represented as standing in a shrine or heroön[404]; or as the recipient of a sacrifice or offering.[405] Her head or bust alone appears on several vases.[406]

Ares, in the few instances in which he appears on vases, is generally in a subordinate position; he is a spectator at the birth of Athena[407]; and appears twice on the François vase, at the wedding of Peleus and Thetis, and again in an attitude of shame and humility, to indicate the part he played in the story of Hephaistos and Hera; of his combat with the former god mention has already been made (p. 16). In the Gigantomachia his opponent is Mimas, with whom he also appears in single combat[408]; and he aids his son Kyknos against Herakles and Athena.[409] He is seen in several of the large groups of Olympian deities,[410] or in smaller groups, e.g. with Poseidon and Hermes,[411] with Apollo, Artemis, and Leto,[412] or with Athena[413] or his spouse Aphrodite[414]; also with Dionysos, Ariadne, and Nereus.[415] He also receives a libation from Hebe.[416] He is seen at the birth of Pandora,[417] the punishment of Ixion,[418] the slaying of the Niobids,[419] the apotheosis of Herakles,[420] and the contest of that hero with the Nemean lion.[421] In some cases his type is not to be distinguished from that of an ordinary warrior or hero, as in one case where he or a warrior is seen between two women.[422]

Aphrodite seldom appears as a protagonist on vases, and in fact plays a small personal part in mythology. Apart from scenes of a fanciful nature she is usually a mere spectator of events; but as she is not often characterised by any distinctive attribute, there is in many cases considerable difficulty in identifying her personality. This is especially the case on B.F. vases, on which her appearances are comparatively rare. One vase represents her at the moment of her birth from the sea in the presence of Eros and Peitho[423]; she also appears (on late vases only) with Adonis,[424] embracing him, and in two instances mourning for him after his death[425]; but caution must be exercised in most cases in identifying this subject, which is but little differentiated from ordinary love scenes. One scene apparently represents Zeus deciding a dispute between her and Persephone over Adonis.[426]

More commonly she is seen riding over the sea on a goose or swan,[427] of which there is one exceedingly beautiful example in the British Museum; here she is to be recognised as the Heavenly Aphrodite (Ourania), whereas in her character of Pandemos (profane or unlicensed love) she rides on a goat.[428] In other instances the swan draws her chariot over the sea,[429] or she is borne by a pair of Erotes,[430] or sails in a shell, as in the story of her birth and appearance in the island of Kythera[431]; in others, again, her chariot is drawn (on land) by the Erotes,[432] or by a lion, wolf, and pair of boars.[433] She is also represented at her toilet[434] or bathing,[435] in the latter case in the attitude of the Vénus accroupie of sculpture; in these instances again there is often difficulty in distinguishing from scenes of ordinary life. Again, she is represented spinning,[436] playing with a swan,[437] or caressing a hare,[438] or in company with a young hunter,[439] possibly meant for Adonis.

From Ἐφ. Ἀρχ. 1897.

In many scenes she is grouped with a cortège of attendant Nymphs and personified figures, often with names attached.[440] Besides Eros, the following are found on these vases: Pothos (Longing) and Himeros (Charm), Hygieia (Health), Peitho (Persuasion), Paidia (Play), Pandaisia (Good Cheer), Eunomia (Orderliness), Euthymia (Cheerfulness), Eudaimonia (Happiness), Hedylogos (Winning Speech), and Kleopatra (a fancy name). Eros himself she embraces[441] and suckles,[442] and in some cases he assists in her toilet, perfuming her hair from an unguent flask,[443] or adjusting her sandals[444]; he is seldom absent from her side on the later vases. In one instance Aphrodite and two Erotes make a basket of golden twigs.[445] Their heads or busts are also found on late vases, as is that of Aphrodite alone.[446]

In relation to other mythological subjects she is frequently found in assemblies of the gods, especially in the spectator groups on Apulian vases[447]; also at the birth of Athena (rarely),[448] at the marriage of Zeus and Hera,[449] and in the Gigantomachia (very rare).[450] She is seen among the Eleusinian deities,[451] and in scenes from the nether world[452]; and she accompanies the chariots of Athena and Demeter.[453] She also accompanies Poseidon in his wooing of Amymone,[454] and is present at the slaying of Argos by Hermes,[455] the punishment of Aktaeon[456] and the contest of Apollo and Marsyas,[457] and the wooing of Europa by Zeus.[458] She is also grouped with Apollo and the Muses listening to Thamyris and Sappho.[459]

She is seldom seen with Herakles, but is present at his apotheosis,[460] and also with him in the Garden of the Hesperides[461]; she is once seen with Theseus,[462] and is present at the rape of the Leukippidae by the Dioskuri.[463] Other heroes with whom she is connected (chiefly as a spectator on the Apulian vases) are Kadmos, Meleager, Perseus, and Pelops.[464] In the tale of Troy, however, she plays a more important part. The Judgment of Paris is, of course, the scene with which she is chiefly connected[465]; in one instance she appears alone with Paris, unless Anchises be here meant.[466] She is present at the first meeting and wedding of Peleus and Thetis[467]; at the toilet of Helen, and at her carrying off by Paris[468]; she assists her son Aeneas in his combat with Diomede,[469] and is present at the rape of Kassandra.[470] Helen takes refuge from Menelaos with her in her temple[471]; and finally she assists Aeneas to escape with the aged Anchises from Troy.[472]

Besides the scenes in which he appears with Aphrodite, Eros is a sufficiently important personage on vases to demand a section to himself. On the black-figured vases he never appears, nor on the earlier red-figured ones is it possible to find many instances, but towards the end of the fifth century his popularity is firmly established, while on the Italian vases, especially the the later Apulian, his presence is almost invariable, not only in mythological scenes, but in subjects from daily life. As a single figure he occurs again and again, generally holding a wreath, mirror, box, fan, or some object which may be regarded as signifying a lover’s present.

Concurrently with his increasing popularity we note the change that comes over the conception of his personality. Beginning as a full-grown youth of fair proportions, his form gradually attenuates and becomes more juvenile, or even in some cases infantile, as in Hellenistic art; while on the Apulian vases it assumes an androgynous, altogether effeminate character. His hair is arranged in feminine fashion, and his person is adorned with earrings, bracelets, anklets, and chains, remaining otherwise entirely nude, except that he sometimes wears soft shoes of a feminine kind (see Plate XLIV. and Fig. 118).

On the red-figured vases he generally appears as a single figure, though on those of the “fine” style he is often in attendance on Aphrodite; roughly speaking, it may be said that he figures in all scenes that deal with the passion of Love, such as the Judgment of Paris,[473] the story of Adonis,[474] the marriage of Dionysos and Ariadne,[475] or the love-affairs of Zeus, Poseidon, and other gods.[476]

In other legends in which Love plays a part, such as the stories of Jason and Medeia,[477] Phaidra and Hippolytos,[478] Peleus and Thetis (or Theseus and Ariadne),[479] Pelops and Hippodameia,[480] Paris and Helen,[481] he is also to be seen; as also at the carrying off of Persephone.[482] Moreover, he occurs in several scenes where the reason is not so apparent, as at the birth of Erichthonios,[483] in the Garden of the Hesperides,[484] at the suckling of Herakles by Hera,[485] with Herakles and a Centaur,[486] and in the nether world[487]; also with deities such as Zeus, Athena, Nike, Helios and Selene, and Dionysos[488]; anointing the head of Apollo.[489] The cosmogonic conception of Eros and his connection with Gaia is referred to in the next chapter under the latter heading (p. 73). Two Erotes draw the chariot of Demeter and Persephone[490]; and he is also seen in company with the Nereids.[491] His presence in Dionysiac scenes, especially on the later vases, is often to be noted, though without any special meaning to be attached to it[492]; in one instance he is carried on the back of a Seilenos.[493] In many of these scenes he merely accompanies Aphrodite, and they do not therefore require enumeration. Lastly, he is seen in company with Sappho,[494] the great poetess of Love.

In non-mythological scenes he is found almost as frequently, especially in toilet scenes,[495] or what we may regard as “scenes of courting”; but on the later vases these exhibit little or no action, and are not worth considering in detail, with a few exceptions. Thus we see Eros in marriage processions,[496] in musical scenes,[497] and at banquets[498]; at a sacrifice to a term[499]; watching girls play the game of morra[500] (“How many fingers do I hold up?”); swinging them, or being danced on their feet[501]; in scenes of fruit- and incense-gathering[502]; or pouring wine into a krater.[503] He appears with Agon (see p. 89) training in the palaestra.[504] He pursues a youth or a girl,[505] embraces a girl,[506] or is carried by her pick-a-back[507]; offers a hare to a youth,[508] or drives a youth with a whip from an altar[509]; and in one instance is about to chastise with a slipper two youths who are playing with a top and hoop[510]; these two latter scenes may be regarded as implying the power of Eros over youth. He is also seen shooting an arrow at a woman,[511] an idea characteristic of Anacreontic and Alexandrine poetry. Another scene which recalls the wall-paintings of the Hellenistic Age is on a vase in the British Museum, representing two Erotes being weighed in scales.[512]

As a single figure he pursues a hare or kills a snake[513]; crouches before a plant[514]; is represented armed with shield and spear[515]; or places a sash or wreath on a tripod.[516] He is borne in a chariot by horses or swans,[517] or rides on a horse, deer, dog, or swan.[518] He is also seen playing various games, such as the kottabos or morra,[519] see-sawing or playing knucklebones,[520] or with a ball or hoop or toy-boat.[521] Or he plays the flute or lyre[522]; or plays with animals, such as a deer, dove, swan[523]; or finally (on Apulian vases) with a toy which resembles a wheel, and was probably used for magic purposes, as several passages of literature indicate.[524]


Lastly, we must give a survey of the frequent representations of Eros flying through the air carrying some attribute, which are so universal on the Italian vases, though some of the earliest types also represent him in this manner. Thus he carries a hare, or dove or other bird[525]; fruit (such as grapes or pomegranates), flowers, and branches[526]; wreaths, dishes of fruit, baskets, vases of various forms, and a spit of meat[527]; thyrsi, tambourines, lyres, torches, incense-burners, strigils, and ladders[528]; fans, parasols, mirrors, toilet-boxes, strings of beads, and sashes, or balls.[529]

Among the other associates of Aphrodite the chief are Peitho, Pothos, and Himeros, of whom mention has already been made. Peitho, except where her name is given, is not always easy to identify; the other two are not differentiated from Eros in form, and are, in fact, only variations of the conception of Love, as are the more rarely occurring Phthonos (Amor invidiosus)[530] and Talas (Amor infelix), the latter of whom is associated with Sappho.[531] Peitho is found with Himeros in one instance,[532] and in another with Eukleia[533]; she also accompanies Aphrodite in Eleusinian and other scenes,[534] at the deliverance of Andromeda,[535] in the Garden of the Hesperides,[536] and at the rape of Helen[537] and the Leukippidae,[538] and at the recovery of Helen by Menelaos[539]; she consoles her when mourning for Adonis[540]; and is present at the moment of her birth.[541] Like Eros, she is seen in company with Sappho,[542] and she also appears with Meleager and Atalante.[543]

Pothos and Himeros are seen floating over the sea with Eros on a fine R.F. vase in the British Museum,[544] and at the Judgment of Paris[545]; and grouped together generally as Erotes, they may be distinguished on some late vases. Pothos attends at the toilet of Helen,[546] and plays the flutes in a Dionysiac scene.[547] Himeros is seen swinging Paidia (another of Aphrodite’s following)[548]; at the marriage of Herakles and Hebe[549]; presenting a crown to Dionysos,[550] or removing his shoes,[551] and accompanying him in a scene of preparation for the Satyric drama.[552]

Hermes, the messenger of the gods, is a common figure on vases of all periods, but chiefly as a subordinate agent, though he plays a leading part in some scenes, and frequently occurs as a single figure.[553] Some small vases are decorated merely with his head, wearing the winged petasos.[554] He is represented passing over the sea with a lyre,[555] carrying a ram,[556] riding on a ram or goat,[557] or reclining on the latter animal[558]; also as making a libation[559] or sacrificing a goat.[560] He presides over the palaestra,[561] and is also seen standing between Sphinxes,[562] or again (apparently as a statue) standing by a fountain.[563] In one scene he leads a dog disguised as a pig,[564] and he is also represented tending a flock of sheep,[565] or fishing.[566]

The story so vividly recounted in the Homeric hymn of his infantile theft of Apollo’s oxen is given in several scenes, including his taking refuge in his cradle (Fig. 119)[567]; he is also represented with his mother Maia,[568] and disputing with Apollo over the lyre which he invented.[569] The only other myth in which he plays a chief part is his pursuit of the Nymph Herse in the presence of her father Kekrops and her sister Aglauros.[570] He appears in the Gigantomachia (in one instance as Zeus’ charioteer),[571] frequently at the birth of Athena,[572] and with the bridal cortège of Zeus and Hera[573]; also in numerous assemblies of the Olympian deities, especially on the Apulian vases.[574] He is present at the seizing of Ganymede,[575] and defends Hera against an attack of Seileni.[576] His slaying of Argos and deliverance of Io has already been mentioned[577]; and he assists in recovering the golden dog of Zeus which was stolen by Pandareos.[578]

From Baumeister.


He is present at the return of Hephaistos,[579] at Poseidon’s capture of Amymone,[580] with Aphrodite mourning for Adonis,[581] and with Apollo slaying Tityos and the Niobids and contending with Marsyas,[582] also at his reconciliation with Herakles.[583] He accompanies the chariots of Poseidon, Apollo, and Athena,[584] and also those of mortals, especially in wedding processions[585]; and he is also seen with Eos and Selene,[586] Kastor and Polydeukes,[587] Prometheus,[588] Leda at the finding of the egg,[589] and at the birth of Pandora.[590] He is specially associated with Zeus, Apollo, Athena, and Dionysos,[591] and also appears with Aphrodite Pandemos[592]; he is not infrequently found in Dionysiac scenes[593]; and to him is entrusted the newly born Dionysos to be handed over to the Nymphs of Nysa.[594] On B.F. vases he is frequently seen leading a procession of Nymphs.[595]

As a Chthonian deity he is present in many scenes relating to the nether world, especially on the large Apulian vases,[596] and in connection with the Eleusinian myths, such as the carrying off of Persephone.[597] As Psychagogos or Psychopompos he is seen in Hades waiting to conduct Persephone to earth, or actually en route with her.[598] He frequently performs the same office for mortals, conducting them to Charon’s bark.[599] He is also found in company with Thanatos,[600] and with Herakles bringing back Alkestis.[601] A unique scene with Hermes in his Chthonian capacity is on a vase where he is represented chaining up Kerberos[602]; and another, yet more curious, depicts him standing by a jar (πίθος) from which a number of small winged figures (εἴδωλα or ghosts) are flying out, with a supposed reference to the Athenian festival of the Πιθοίγια.[603]

In the stories of Herakles he plays an important part, as also in those of Theseus and other heroes, and he is frequently visible in scenes from the Trojan legends. He conveys the infant Herakles to Cheiron for instruction,[604] and conducts the hero to Hades to fetch Kerberos[605]; he is also seen feasting or bathing with him,[606] and in company with him and Athena,[607] and most frequently in connection with his apotheosis.[608] With Theseus he is found more rarely[609]; but he frequently accompanies Perseus in his flight from the Gorgons.[610] In other heroic scenes he is often one of the spectator deities on Apulian vases. In one instance he is seen banqueting with an unidentified hero.[611]

In the Trojan legends his chief appearance is as conductor of the goddesses to the Judgment of Paris[612]; and in one case he accompanies Peleus when bringing the infant Achilles to Cheiron.[613] He also assists Zeus in weighing the souls of Achilles and Hector,[614] conducts Priam to Achilles,[615] and is present in many other scenes which need not be recounted in detail. A scene difficult of explanation represents him accompanying Odysseus in a chariot.[616]

A Herm or terminal figure of Hermes is a not uncommon feature on vases, especially of the R.F. period,[617] and generally as the object of a sacrifice made to it.[618]

Last of the Olympian deities comes Hestia, who is usually coupled with Hermes; she, however, only appears on a few vases in gatherings of the Olympian deities,[619] as on the François vase, where she attends the nuptials of Peleus and Thetis, and at the marriage of Herakles and Hebe.[620]

1.  Il. xi. 635: cf. Athen, xi. 489 F.

2.  i. 27 ff.: cf. Vol. I. p. 180.

3.  Athenaeus, xi. p. 489 B.

4.  Ibid. p. 782 B.

5.  Od. 5.

6.  H.N. xxxiii. 155.

7.  Ibid. 156.

8.  Mart. viii. 51: cf. Juv. i. 76.

9.  Stat. Theb. i. 543.

10.  Virg. Ecl. iii. 46.

11.  Schreiber, Alexandr. Toreutik, passim; Robert in 50tes Winckelmannsfestprogr. 1890.

12.  Suet. Ner. 47: see Vol. I. pp. 134, 185, 499.

13.  Cf. Miss Harrison, Mythol. and Monum. of Athens, p. ii; and see Vol. I. p. 13.

14.  See on this subject J.H.S. xiii. p. 83.

15.  Art. Poet. 147.

16.  See Luckenbach in Jahrb. für Class. Phil. Suppl.-Bd. xi. (1880), p. 575 ff.

17.  Op. cit. p. 493 ff.

18.  The only exceptions are in the Panathenaic contests, which are of course not epic: cf. B.M. B 130–31.

19.  See on this subject Comm. in hon. T. Mommseni, p. 163 ff.; Arch. Zeit. 1876, p. 116; Dumont-Pottier, i. p. 366, and, J.H.S. x. p. 13 ff.

20.  Luckenbach, op. cit. p. 560 ff.

21.  There is only one vase (Naples 2296 = Reinach, Répertoire, i. 476) on which the names of the Nereids are derived from Homer.

22.  Op. et Di. 60 ff.; Scut. 345 ff., 178, 216; Theog. 820, 924 ff.

23.  See J.H.S. xviii. p. 267.

24.  Vol. I. p. 472: see also below, p. 159. On the subject generally see Vogel, Scenen Eur. Trag.; Huddilston, Gk. Tragedy in Vase-paintings; Engelmann, Arch. Studien zu den Tragikern.

25.  Reinach, i. p. 114.

26.  Op. cit. p. 636.

27.  See for further details of early theories Vol. I. p. 21.

28.  E.g. the B.F. hydriae with water-drawing scenes; the funeral lekythi; and the R.F. cups with their subjects relating to banquets and revels.

29.  See also Chapters VI.–XI. throughout.

30.  Morgenthau, Zusammenhang d. Bilder auf gr. Vasen.

31.  Cf. for instance E 39, 45, 47, 48, in B.M.

32.  See below, p. 108.

33.  See p. 134.

34.  This subject has been admirably treated by Wickhoff in his Roman Art (Eng. edn.), p. 13 ff.

35.  The publication of this vase by Furtwaengler and Reichhold, Gr. Vasenmalerei, pls. 1–3, 11–13, with full discussion of subjects and technical details, has now superseded all previous illustrations. The only other complete ones were in Mon. dell’ Inst. iv. 54–8 (Reinach, i. p. 134–36) and Wiener Vorl. ii. pls. 1–5. The general view given in Plate XXVIII. is reproduced from the first-named work.

36.  For the abbreviations used in the following notes see the Bibliography (Vol. I.).

37.  Munich 125 = Reinach, ii. 120 = Furtwaengler and Reichhold, pl. 32; B.M. F 237: cf. also B.M. B 62.

38.  The best and most complete examples are as follows:—B.F.: B.M. B 208; Reinach, i. 162 = Louvre E 732. R.F.: B.M. E 47, 469; Berlin 2293, 2531 (both in Wiener Vorl. i. pls. 8 and 5; the latter very good); Bibl. Nat. 573 = Reinach, ii. 256. Best of all (late R.F.), a grand vase found in Melos (Monum. Grecs, 1875, pt. 4, pls. 1–2 = Wiener Vorl. viii. 7), on which no less than eighteen deities are engaged, but none of the giants are named. Hera, Hephaistos, and Amphitrite are absent. Figs. 111 and 112 give two of these—E 732 in Louvre, and the interior of Berlin 2531.

39.  Arch. Anzeiger, 1890, p. 8.

40.  Reinach, ii. 188 = Él. Cér. i. 5.

41.  B.M. E 47; Berlin 2293.

42.  B.M. B 253, E 443 (and see p. 56).

43.  Bull. de Corr. Hell. xx. (1896), pl. 7: cf. the archaic frieze of the Siphnian treasury at Delphi.

44.  B.F.: B.M. B 147 (a very fine early example, but much restored), 244 (Fig. 113), 424; Berlin 1704 (also good). R.F.: B.M. E 15, E 410 (fine); Reinach, ii. 207.

45.  Reinach, i. 171.

46.  Reinach in Revue des Études Grecques, 1901, p. 127, traces the subject to a Megarian origin.

47.  B.M. Vases, ii. p. 11.

48.  B.M. B 147, 218, 244.

49.  Cat. 444.

50.  See B.M. B 157, B 341; also Berlin 1899 (= Él. Cér. i. 22) and Reinach, ii. 21, 2.

51.  E.g. B.M. B 197 (a fine vase, by Amasis?) and B 298: see on the subject Foerster, Hochzeit des Zeus und Hera.

52.  B.M. E 82; Wernicke, Ant. Denkm. pl. 1, 7 = Reinach, ii. 266.

53.  Petersburg 355 = Reinach, i. 14 = Wiener Vorl. iii. 5 (also interpreted as a sculptor finishing off a statue of Hera).

54.  B.M. F 269 (gods nicknamed respectively Daidalos and Enyalios).

55.  B.F.: François vase; B.M. B 42 (Plate XXI.), 264; Vienna 218; Athens 628 = Ath. Mitth. 1894, pl. 8. R.F.: Bibl. Nat. 539 = Reinach, ii. 261; Reinach, ii. 3 = Millin-Reinach, i. 9; Reinach, ii. 311; Munich 776 = Baumeister, i. p. 644, fig. 714 = Furtwaengler and Reichhold, pl. 29; Munich 780 = Él. Cér.: i. pl. 46 A = Wiener Vorl. i. 9, 3.

56.  See below, p. 107; the best examples are Berlin 2278 = Ant. Denkm. i. 9 (Sosias); B.M. B 379; Reinach, ii. 76 (in Berlin).

57.  B.M. B 345; E 67, 444; Berlin 2060; Reinach, i. 157, 1, 2 and 203 = Baumeister, iii. pl. 93, fig. 2400 (by Oltos and Euxitheos, a very fine example); a late instance, Petersburg 419 = Reinach, i. 161.

58.  Reinach, i. 98; 194 (Dareios in council).

59.  B.M. F 278; Reinach, i. 379.

60.  B.M. F 271.

61.  B.M. F 279.

62.  Numerous examples will be found in the pages of Reinach’s Répertoire.

63.  Rape of Persephone: Reinach, i. 99; other scenes, ibid. i. 355; B.M. F 270.

64.  E 668 = Reinach, i. 435; and cf. Jatta 1405 = Reinach, i. 483; Bibl. Nat. 489.

65.  Reinach, ii. 287.

66.  B.M. B 425: cf. Mus. Greg. ii. 21, 1.

67.  Él. Cér. i. 82 (also i. 22?), and Vienna 329.

68.  Él. Cér. ii. 30 (may be Poseidon); Micali, Mon. Ined. 37, 3; B.M. E 432 (Artemis); Naples S.A. 702 = Reinach, i. 499 and Reinach, ii. 183 (Aphrodite); Bibl. Nat. 229 (Zeus with Hera, Athena, Ares, and Hermes); Arch. Anzeiger, 1898, p. 189, and Boston Mus. Report, 1899, No. 15 (with Hermes).

69.  B.M. B 166, B 379, B 424, E 262; Furtwaengler and Reichhold, 20; Berlin 1857 (H. plays lyre); Petersburg 1775 = Wiener Vorl. iii. 9, 1 = Reinach, i. 302 (parody): and see below, p. 107.

70.  Reinach, i. 156, 1.

71.  Él. Cér. i. 14 (now in B.M.); Munich 345 = Reinach, i. 66.

72.  Arch. Anzeiger, 1895, p. 38 (fine polychrome pyxis in Berlin).

73.  B.M. E 381; Él. Cér. i. 20.

74.  B.M. F 278; Roscher, iii. p. 969.

75.  Hartwig, Meistersch. pl. 68 (in Louvre): cf. Eusebius, Prep. evang. iii. 84b.

76.  Él. Cér. i. 29A (doubtful).

77.  Reinach, i. 335, 2.

78.  Él. Cér. i. 18 (= Helbig, ii. p. 310, No. 104); Bibl. Nat. 416 = Reinach, i. 472; Berlin 2032 = Reinach, i. 334.

79.  Röm. Mitth. 1887, pl. 10.

80.  B.M. F 542.

81.  B.M. E 313; Reinach, i. 408.

82.  Petersburg 1792 = Reinach, i. 1: see Robert, Arch. Märchen, pl. 2, p. 179 ff.

83.  Petersburg 1793 = Reinach, i. 3; Bibl. Nat. 219 = Mon. Ant. di Barone, pl. 1; Boston Mus. Report, 1895, No. 27: see also for the first Robert, Arch. Märchen, pl. 3, p. 189.

84.  B.M. E 182; Bibl. Nat. 440 = Reinach, ii. 260; and see p. 55, note 644.

85.  B.M. F 150; Jahrbuch, i. (1886), p. 276 (see Vol. I. p. 473).

86.  B.M. F 149 (signed by Python) = J.H.S. xi. pl. 6; B.M. F 193.

87.  B.M. F 286; Reinach, i. 278.

88.  B.M. E 711; Petersburg 1723 = Baumeister, i. p. 406, fig. 447 (both R.F.).

89.  Aegina: Helbig, ii. p. 311, No. 113 = Wernicke, Ant. Denkm. 6, 4; Berlin 3239 = Él. Cér. i. 17; Boston Mus. Report for 1895, No. 39 (a sister brings the news to her father Asopos). Thaleia: Reinach, ii. 285 = Él. Cér. i. 16 = Wernicke, 6, 3.

90.  Reinach, ii. 144: see below, p. 82.

91.  B.F.: Louvre E 696 = Reinach, i. 162; Athens 853 = Reinach, i. 507; id. ii. 49. R.F.: B.M. E 231; Munich 208 = Jahn, Entführung d. Europa, pl. 7 (polychrome on white); Petersburg 1637 = Reinach, i. 24, and 1915 = Reinach, i. 22 (Europa brought to Zeus). Late: B.M. F 184; Naples 3218 = Jahn, op. cit. pl. 1 (Eros on bull).

92.  Helbig, ii. p. 312, No. 118 = Overbeck, Kunstmythol. Atlas, pl. 6, fig. 13.

93.  See generally Boston Mus. Report, 1900, p. 62, and Jahrbuch, 1903, p. 37; also Wiener Vorl. 1890–91, pl. 12.

94.  Berlin 3164, and Reinach, ii. 16 = Él. Cér. i. 25, 26.

95.  Reinach, i. 407.

96.  Ibid. i. 111, 1 = Berlin 2651 (R.F.), and 111, 2 = Munich 573 = Wiener Vorl. 1890–91, pl. 12, 1 (B.F.); Boston Mus. Report, 1900, No. 21.

97.  B.M. B 164; Bibl. Nat. 302 = Él. Cér. iii. 97; Reinach, i. 363; Vienna 338 = Wiener Vorl. 1890–91, pl. 11, 1 = Fig. 114; ibid. i. 111, 4 = Jatta 1498 = Wiener Vorl. 1890–91, pl. 12, 2.

98.  See generally Overbeck, Kunstmythol. ii. p. 27 ff., 181 ff.

99.  Reinach, i. 388.

100.  See p. 101; Zeus defending Athena against Ares after the combat, Arch. Anzeiger, 1898, p. 51 (Boston vase).

101.  See p. 130.

102.  B.M. E 140; Reinach, i. 342, 405, 452; ibid. i. 229; i. 235.

103.  B.M. E 467 and J.H.S. xxi. pl. 1; Petersburg 1807 = Reinach, i. 7.

104.  B.M. B 316; E 224; Naples 2638 = Reinach, i. 78.

105.  Munich 745 = Furtwaengler and Reichhold, pl. 16.

106.  See p. 141.

107.  See above, p. 16.

108.  Munich 336 = Overbeck, Kunstmythol. Atlas, pl. 9, 19; head only, Él. Cér. i. 29; also perhaps in Naples 2900 = Baumeister, iii. p. 1653, fig. 1714; but more probably Aphrodite is intended.

109.  Overbeck, op. cit. iii. p. 18; Reinach, i. 231, ii. 16.

110.  Él. Cér. i. 34.

111.  Bibl. Nat. 542 = Reinach, i. 141.

112.  Reinach, i. 388.

113.  B.M. E 155.

114.  B.M. E 467.

115.  B.M. B 164; Berlin 3164; Reinach, i. 111, 4.

116.  B.M. F 107.

117.  Naples 2873 = Millin-Reinach, i. 3: cf. B.M. F 148 and Reinach, i. 301.

118.  Reinach, ii. 4.

119.  B.M. B 379; Berlin 2278; Furtwaengler and Reichhold, 20.

120.  Bibl. Nat. 253 = Reinach, i. 399.

121.  B.M. B 57: cf. the Hera αἰγοφάγος at Sparta (Paus. iii. 15, 9).

122.  Petersburg 1792 = Reinach, i. 1; Bibl. Nat. 219.

123.  Bull. de Corr. Hell. 1898, p. 586.

124.  Jatta 1093 = Reinach, i. 175.

125.  Reinach, i. 463.

126.  Naples 2202 = Dubois-Maisonneuve, Introd. pls. 45–46.

127.  Reinach, ii. 9, 321 and Él. Cér. i. 30 (Hebe); Reinach, ii. 325 (Iris).

128.  B.M. E 65 = Reinach, i. 193.

129.  B.M. B 147, E 410.

130.  B.M. B 197.

131.  B.M. E 82; Berlin 2278 = Ant. Denkm. i. 9.

132.  See above, p. 13 (esp. Berlin 2531 (Fig. 112), Reinach, ii. 188 = Él. Cér. i. 5, Boston Mus. Report, 1898, No. 41, and Helbig, ii. p. 304, No. 81 = Mus. Greg. ii. pl. 56, 1); B.M. B 166; Berlin 2278; Reinach, ii. 76; Louvre F 30 = Rev. Arch. xiii. (1889), pl. 4 (by Amasis).

133.  B.M. B 425: cf. Mus. Greg. ii. 21, 1.

134.  B.M. B 212, B 262, and Reinach, ii. 23, 30 = Munich 145 (Apollo); Boston Mus. Report, 1896, No. 1, and Athens 750 (Hermes); Athens 838, Él. Cér. ii. 30(?), iii. 13, 36 A (Athena and Hermes); B.M. B 191 (Ares and Hermes), B 228 (Athena, Ares, Herakles); Bourguignon Sale Cat. 41 (Apollo, Eros, Nereids, Papposilenos).

135.  B.M. E 140.

136.  Reinach, ii. 35; and see B.M. E 445.

137.  Berlin 347–473 (alone), 474–537 (with A.): see also 787–833; specimens published in Ant. Denkm. i. pls. 7–8 (e.g. Fig. 115 = Berlin 495).

138.  B.M. E 322; Berlin 2164; Bibl. Nat. 363 = Reinach, ii. 257, 4; ibid. ii. 22, 8; Petersburg 1531, 2164. With Amphitrite pouring a libation: Wiener Vorl. vii. 2 (Duris in Louvre).

139.  Reinach, ii. 35.

140.  Athens 880; Bibl. Nat. 314.

141.  Berlin 1869; Athens 836; Reinach, ii. 22; B.M. B 254 (Ἀφροδίτη inscribed by error for Ἀμφιτρίτη).

142.  Naples 3219 = Reinach, i. 125.

143.  Él. Cér. iii. 14.

144.  Plate L.: cf. Bibl. Nat. 222 = Reinach, ii. 251 = Rayet and Collignon, p. 121.

145.  Reinach, i. 124, 465, ii. 22 (Jatta 1346), 181; Athens 1171 = Heydemann, Gr. Vas. pl. 2, 1. Amymone alone may be intended on Bibl. Nat. 359.

146.  B.M. E 174; Reinach, ii. 23 = Helbig, ii. p. 309, No. 102.

147.  Bibl. Nat. 432 = Millin-Reinach, ii. 20; Él. Cér. iii. 20–25; Bibl. Nat. 370; Reinach, i. 286 = Wiener Vorl. viii. 2, by Brygos (perhaps the Nymph Salamis: cf. J.H.S. ix. p. 56; the scenes on the exterior of this cup may refer to Kychreus, the son of Poseidon and Salamis, and the snake slain by him). Athens 1551 = Heydemann, Gr. Vas. pl. 1, fig. 2, seems to represent Poseidon pursuing a Nereid.

148.  J.H.S. xviii. pp. 277–79, and cf. pl. 14 (Louvre G 104, by Euphronios), where Theseus is received by Amphitrite.

149.  Bibl. Nat. 418 = J.H.S. xviii. p. 278.

150.  B.M. E 264.

151.  Reinach, i. 361.

152.  E.g. i. 36.

153.  Reinach, i. 108, 195; Berlin 2634; Reinach, i. 379; i. 99; B.M. E 467; B.M. F 279; Reinach, i. 98.

154.  B.M. B 196, Munich 114 = Reinach, i. 422; Reinach, ii. 61; and see B.M. B 228; Reinach, i. 301; ii. 66 (Kyknos).

155.  B.M. B 57.

156.  Ath. Mitth. 1886, pl. 10 (with the Graiae); Mon. Grecs, 1878, pl. 2 (in Louvre).

157.  Millin-Reinach, ii. 4.

158.  B.M. B 428 = Roscher, iii. 247.

159.  B.M. E 9, 73; Reinach, i. 64, i. 78 (= Naples 2638), ii. 278; Wiener Vorl. vii. 2 (Duris in Louvre); Munich 369 = Furtwaengler and Reichhold, 24 (Hieron): all R.F. See also p. 120.

160.  B.M. B 201; Reinach, i. 346, 6–7.

161.  B.M. B 225, E 162; Bibl. Nat. 255 = Reinach, ii. 61. See p. 101.

162.  Reinach, i. 339.

163.  Berlin 1732 = Reinach, ii. 66 (inscribed Ἅλιος Γέρων).

164.  Reinach, ii. 76.

165.  Naples 3352 = Reinach, i. 485.

166.  B.M. B 551.

167.  Athens 1551.

168.  B.M. E 109; Berlin 1676 = Reinach, ii. 22; Louvre F 148.

169.  B.M. B 223, 311; Reinach, i. 227, ii. 61, 1. See p. 101.

170.  J.H.S. xviii. p. 277.

171.  Naples 3412 = Reinach, i. 498.

172.  B.M. B 166 (Palaimon?), E 156 (Leukothea: see p. 136); Reinach, i. 319 (Ino?): for possible instances of Melikertes see Berlin 779, 780, 914, and Roscher, ii. p. 2635.

173.  Naples 1767 = Engelmann-Anderson, Atlas to Homer, Od. pl. iv. 22; B.M. B 201.

174.  B.M. F 218.

175.  Berlin 1007, 1008; Él. Cér. iii. 31 and 32 B (fem.); see Vol. I. p. 314.

176.  Ant. Denkm. i. 59 (Branteghem Coll. 85); B.M. E 774 (names given to fancy scene): see also Munich 331; Naples 2638 = Reinach, i. 78, 2; and Kretschmer, Gr. Vaseninschr. p. 200.

177.  See p. 25, note 159; also Reinach, p. 231.

178.  B.M. F 69; Jatta 1496 = Reinach, i. 112; Reinach, i. 300; Roscher, iii. 221–24: see generally Heydemann’s Nereiden mit Waffen.

179.  Louvre E 643 = Reinach, i. 311.

180.  Reinach, i. 83, 232.

181.  Ibid. ii. 61.

182.  Berlin 3241 = Roscher, iii. 218; Petersburg 1915 = Reinach, i. 21.

183.  Reinach, i. 286.

184.  B.M. B 155.

185.  Bourguignon Sale Cat. 41; and in assemblies of the gods, Reinach, ii. 76.

186.  Naples 3222 = Reinach, i. 167.

187.  Vase in Boston (1900 Report, No. 4): cf. for a Nereid(?) with dolphins, Louvre G 3.

188.  Mon. Grecs, 1875, pt. 4, pls. 1–2.

189.  The best example is a votive plaque found at Eleusis in 1895 (Athens 1968 = Ἐφ. Ἀρχ. 1901, pl. 1): see also Petersburg 1792 and 525 = Reinach, i. 1 and 11 = Baumeister, i. pp. 474–75.

190.  For other deities in Eleusinian scenes, see under Aphrodite, Hermes, Dionysos, Hekate.

191.  B.M. F 68.

192.  Rev. Arch. xxxvi. (1900), p. 93.

193.  Petersburg 1792–93 = Reinach, i. 1, 3.

194.  Reinach, ii. 32; B.M. F 90.

195.  Reinach, ii. 321; Athens 1844 = Ath. Mitth. 1881, pl. 4.

196.  Athens 1626 = Dumont-Pottier, pl. 37.

197.  Arch. Anzeiger, 1895, p. 39 (Berlin): cf. Ἐφ. Ἀρχ. 1893, pl. 9, and see p. 140 below.

198.  Berlin 1704 = Reinach, i. 197.

199.  Berlin 2634.

200.  Athens 1120 = Ath. Mitth. 1901, pl. 8.

201.  Reinach, ii. 329 (very dubious): cf. a terracotta from Cyprus in B.M. (A 326).

202.  B.F.: Reinach, ii. 32–33. R.F.: B.M. E 140 (Plate LI.); E 183, E 281, E 469; Petersburg 1207 = Reinach, i. 10; Wiener Vorl. iv. 7, 4. Late: Petersburg 350 = Reinach, i. 12; Helbig, 127 = Millin-Reinach, ii. 31, and 152 = Reinach, ii. 34; Wiener Vorl. i. 6.

203.  Él. Cér. iii. 62; a newly acquired R.F. amphora in B.M.: see also Roscher, E.g. Keleos, p. 1028; Reinach, i. 286 (?); Munich 336.

204.  B.M. E 274 and Munich 299: see Overbeck, Kunstmythol. iii. p. 535.

205.  Bibl. Nat. 424 = Reinach, i. 463.

206.  Ath. Mitth. 1899, pl. 7.

207.  Naples S.A. 11 = Reinach, i. 401.

208.  Reinach, i. 124.

209.  Ibid. i. 156, 1: see Apollod. iii. 14, 4, and Hygin. Astron. ii. 7.

210.  B.F.: B.M. B 310. R.F.: Reinach, i. 99, 156, 2; B.M. F 277; Baumeister, i. pl. 7, fig. 462: and see Helbig, 144 = Overbeck, Kunstmythol. Atlas, 18, 12.

211.  See below, p. 67; also Berlin 1844 and Mus. Greg. ii. 21, 1, for earlier examples.

212.  Reinach, i. 389 and 401 (= Naples S.A. 11); ibid. ii. 70.

213.  B.M. E 82, F 68.

214.  B.F.: B.M. B 261; Munich 728 = Reinach, ii. 48. Late: B.M. F 332 = Plate XLV.

215.  Reinach, i. 522, 1 = Roscher, ii. p. 1378; Baumeister, i. p. 423, fig. 463 (inscribed).

216.  Reinach, i. 228 (Berlin 2646) and 348 (Boston); Arch. Anzeiger, 1895, p. 37 (Berlin); Harrison, Prolegomena to Gk. Religion, p. 277 (vase in Dresden; Satyrs astonished; Hermes present).

217.  Reinach, i. 144 = Louvre F 311 = Baumeister, i. p. 445, fig. 493.

218.  Robert, Arch. Märchen, p. 198 ff.: see J.H.S. xix. p. 232, xx. p. 106 ff., and Jahrbuch, vi. (1891), p. 113; also below, under Ge-Pandora (p. 73), and Harrison, Prolegom. to Gk. Religion, p. 277 ff.

219.  For a more complete tabulation see Overbeck, Kunstmythologie, vol. iv., especially pp. 42 ff., 322 ff.; also the plates of vol. ii. of the Él. Cér., and the Atlas to Overbeck, pls. 19 to end.

220.  Bibl. Nat. 367 = Reinach, ii. 257.

221.  B.M. B 260, 681.

222.  B.M. B 592; Berlin 1868.

223.  Él. Cér. ii. 3; ii. 6A = Petersburg 411.

224.  B.M. B 195, F 145(?); Berlin 1867; Reinach, ii. 29.

225.  Reinach, ii. 286.

226.  B.M. E 80.

227.  B.M. E 516; Él. Cér. ii. 4.

228.  B.M. E 232; Reinach, ii. 157, 296; Wiener Vorl. A. 10, 2.

229.  B.M. E 543; Reinach, ii. 228; Berlin 2641 = Él. Cér. ii. 44.

230.  Helbig, 97 = Reinach, i. 79 = Baumeister, i. p. 102, fig. 108.

231.  Millin-Reinach, i. 46; Petersburg 411 = Él. Cér. ii. 6A.

232.  B.M. F 311; Naples 2902 = Él. Cér. ii. 97A.

233.  Reinach, ii. 310 = Él. Cér. ii. 65.

234.  B.M. B 260, 548, E 274, 383, 514; Brygos vase in Louvre = Reinach. i. 246; Naples R.C. 169 = Reinach, i. 313 (Artemis with torch; localised at Delphi by a crow on the omphalos).

235.  Él. Cér. ii. 10 (Berlin 2206) and 32; Vienna 331; Reinach, ii. 27; B.M. E 579; Forman Sale Cat. 356.

236.  B.M. E 262; Reinach ii. 26 (= Louvre F 297), 284 (?); on Melian amphora (Athens 475 = Rayet and Çollignon, pl. 3), Apollo in chariot, before which stands Artemis with stag.

237.  B.M. B 680, E 256; Reinach, ii. 27–8, 45 (Naples S.A. 192); Athens 1342.

238.  Athens 1962 (Leto about to bring forth, assisted by Eileithyia).

239.  B.M. B 168, 213; Mus. Greg. ii. 39, 1 a; Él. Cér. ii. 2. Nyx (Night) was similarly represented on the Kypselos chest (Paus. v. 18, 1).

240.  Reinach, ii. 310.

241.  Berlin 2212 = Overbeck, Kunstmythol. iv. p. 378; Bibl. Nat. 306 = Él. Cér. ii. 1 A.

242.  Berlin 2645 = Reinach, i. 397 (Apollo on omphalos, with hind); Reinach, ii. 26 (Louvre F 297), 28 (Bibl. Nat. 443), i. 184 (Fig. 116); B.M. E 502 (omphalos); Athens 1362 (by Mys, a fine example).

243.  Reinach, ii. 29; B.M. B 215, 245; Petersburg 9 = Reinach, ii. 24 (Apollo crowned by woman); Él. Cér. ii. 39; Bibl. Nat. 428; Munich 157.

244.  B.M. B 212, 262; Reinach, ii. 23, 323; Él. Cér. ii. 30 (?), 36 C: and cf. Bourguignon Sale Cat. 41.

245.  B.M. B 238; Reinach, ii. 24 (Munich 47), 25, 30; Naples 1891 = Él. Cér. ii. 35; Munich 609 = Reinach, ii. 42.

246.  B.M. F 311, 399.

247.  B.M. E 785.

248.  Reinach, ii. 183.

249.  Ibid. ii. 25 (?), 32, 72–73; B.M. B 203, and Wiener Vorl. 1889, pl. 6, 1; and see generally Overbeck, Kunstmythol. iv. p. 51.

250.  B.M. B 199–201, 211, etc.; Reinach, ii. 72; Berlin 1827 (all B.F.).

251.  B.M. B 6; see Vol. I. p. 344.

252.  Reinach, i. 253; Él. Cér. ii. 47–48 (also Iris).

253.  Naples 1762 = Millingen-Reinach, 29.

254.  B.M. B 259, 261; E 323, 415; Él. Cér. ii. 13 (= Reinach, ii. 27). In some of these Artemis may be intended.

255.  Berlin 2388; Él. Cér. ii. 79, 80, 83, 86 (a fine example); Jatta 1538 = Reinach, i. 526; Helbig, 133 = Mus. Greg. ii. 15, 2; and cf. Boston Mus. Report for 1898, No. 54 (A. as a neat-herd?).

256.  B.M. B 197, 298; B.M. B 257, Reinach, ii. 154, and Millingen-Reinach, 44.

257.  Wiener Vorl. C. 7, 3 = Roscher, ii. 842.

258.  B.M. B 195, 255–56, 258; F 77; Reinach, ii. 23.

259.  Petersburg 1807 = Reinach, i. 8 = Baumeister, i. p. 104, fig. 110.

260.  Munich 62 = Reinach, ii. 75.

261.  B.M. B 179.

262.  Reinach, ii. 31.

263.  Reinach, ii. 287 = Él. Cér. ii. 62 (inscribed ΑΕΛΙΟΣ: see below, p. 78).

264.  Millin-Reinach, i. 54.

265.  B.F.: Ant. Denkm. i. 22. R.F.: B.M. E 81; Reinach, i. 227 = Vol. I. p. 442. Late: Jatta 424 = Reinach, i. 463; Naples 3246 = Roscher, iii. 407 (Niobe at grave of children).

266.  B.F.: Reinach, i. 244 (= Louvre E 864), 245; Bibl. Nat. 171 = ibid. ii. 252. R.F.: B.M. E 278.

267.  Louvre G 42 = Reinach, ii. 26.

268.  B.M. E 64 (= Reinach, i. 111), E 170 (= E.g. i. 185); Él. Cér. ii. 21; and see Millin-Reinach, i. 71.

269.  Munich 745 = Reinach, i. 67 = Furtwaengler and Reichhold, 16: see also Bibl. Nat. 171 = Reinach, ii. 253.

270.  B.M. F 151.

271.  Reinach, i. 375.

272.  Helbig 227 = Reinach, i. 357; E.g. ii. 259 = Bibl. Nat. 820 (?).

273.  B.M. B 147.

274.  Naples 690, 3245.

275.  Reinach, i. 355.

276.  Millin-Reinach, ii. 25.

277.  Reinach, ii. 297.

278.  Petersburg 1777 = Reinach, i. 153.

279.  See below, p. 103.

280.  B.M. F 479.

281.  Reinach, ii. 56, 3: see p. 97.

282.  Ibid. i. 233.

283.  Berlin 1732 = Reinach, ii. 66.

284.  Reinach, ii. 69.

285.  See p. 106, note 1219, for B.F. scenes; for R.F. (in Olympos), Reinach, i. 222 and ii. 76.

286.  Berlin 2634.

287.  Reinach, i. 388.

288.  Overbeck, Her. Bildw. pl. 2, 11 = Wiener Vorl. 1889, 9, 6.

289.  B.M. E 696.

290.  Berlin 2633; Reinach, ii. 87 (?); Wiener Vorl. E. 11 = Jahrbuch, 1894, p. 252.

291.  B.M. F 159; François vase; Helbig 106 = Reinach, ii. 101; Wiener Vorl. vi. 7 (Duris in Louvre); B.M. E 468, Helbig 232 = Reinach, ii. 59; Reinach, i. 218.

292.  Reinach i. 105 (Naples 3223) and i. 504; B.M. F 166, Berlin 3256, Naples 1984 = Reinach, i. 390, 2, and Anzeiger, 1890, p. 90 (Berlin).

293.  Reinach, i. 321.

294.  Arch. Anzeiger, 1895, p. 39 (Berlin).

295.  B.M. E 336: cf. Reinach, i. 218 and Overbeck, Kunstmythol. iv. p. 15.

296.  Röm. Mitth. 1888, pl. 1; Hartwig, Meistersch. pl. 67, 2; E.g. p. 602 ff. (cultus-statue of the moon-goddess, Artemis Munychia); and see note 299.

297.  Vol. I. p. 289; Berlin 301 = Reinach, i. 380; Naples 304 = Reinach, i. 380; Baumeister, i. p. 132, fig. 139; François vase; Arch. Anzeiger, 1890, p. 2 (Karlsruhe).

298.  Athens 462 = Reinach, i. 517: see $1$2 1892, p. 219 ff.

299.  Él. Cér. ii. 7 (with hind and lyre); Bibl. Nat. 365 = Reinach, ii. 257 (drawing arrow from quiver); Bibl. Nat. 491 = Gaz. Arch. 1885, pl. 32; Reinach, i. 494 (with two dogs); Froehner, Musées de France, pl. 4.

300.  Él. Cér. ii. 8, 43; Naples 3253 = Reinach, i. 194; B.M. F 274; Reinach, ii. 228.

301.  B.M. E 432.

302.  Millin-Reinach, ii. 77.

303.  B.M. E 262 = Reinach, ii. 45; and see Él. Cér. ii. 9 (in Louvre).

304.  Naples 2200 = Reinach, i. 379; Berlin 3164; Reinach, ii. 16 (?).

305.  B.F.: Athens 882 = Heydemann, Gr. Vas. pl. 8, 3; Él. Cér. ii. 103 C. Late: B.M. F 176, F 480 (Etruscan); Berlin 3239 = Él. Cér. ii. 103 B; Reinach, i. 229 and 250 (the former of these now at Boston).

306.  Athens 835 = Ath. Mitth. 1890, pl. 8.

307.  B.M. F 159.

308.  Reinach, i. 104, 133, 158, 504.

309.  Athens 1921 = Reinach, i. 511.

310.  B.M. B 195, B 316, E 255; Bibl. Nat. 251 = Reinach, ii. 252.

311.  Reinach, ii. 4.

312.  Ibid. i. 132.

313.  B.M. B 197, B 298; Reinach, ii. 154: cf. B.M. B 257.

314.  Él. Cér. ii. 90.

315.  See above, p. 15.

316.  B.M. E 410.

317.  Reinach, ii. 32.

318.  B.M. B 203.

319.  Reinach, i. 499.

320.  B.M. B 231; Reinach, i. 233.

321.  B.M. F 479.

322.  B.M. B 320; Reinach, ii. 72; in Olympos, B.M. B 379, Berlin 2278, and Reinach, ii. 76.

323.  Wiener Vorl. vi. 7 = Duris kylix in Louvre.

324.  Millin-Reinach, ii. 25.

325.  Arch. Anzeiger, 1895, p. 36.

326.  See note 326 on p. 17.

327.  B.M. E 47; Berlin 2293.

328.  B.M. B 147, B 244; B.M. E 410; Bibl. Nat. 444.

329.  E 467 and D 4.

330.  Berlin 2537 = Reinach, i. 208; ibid. i. 66 (Munich 345), 113.

331.  Berlin 2294; and see below, p. 130.

332.  B.M. B 507; Él. Cér. i. 51: cf. p. 171.

333.  Bibl. Nat. 820 = Reinach, ii. 259 (?).

334.  Reinach, i. 330.

335.  B.M. B 302, and cf. F 68.

336.  B.M. B 252: see Arch. Journ. ii. p. 67.

337.  Berlin 2957 = Él. Cér. i. 88 (Etruscan).

338.  B.M. D 4; E 467.

339.  Plate L.; and see p. 24.

340.  B.M. E 182; Petersburg 1792 = Reinach, i. 1.

341.  Berlin 2537; B.M. E 372; Munich 345 = Reinach, i. 66; Wiener Vorl. iii. 2 = Reinach, i. 113.

342.  Athens 1962.

343.  Reinach, i. 126: for other examples see p. 122.

344.  Bibl. Nat. 216 = Él. Cér. iv. 96 (Ares); Bibl. Nat. 820 = Reinach, ii. 259 (Hephaistos).

345.  B.M. E 268; Bibl. Nat. 220 (= Reinach, ii. 211) and 229; and see under Hermes, p. 52, note 591.

346.  Reinach, i. 11.

347.  B.M. B 552; Berlin 2179 = Wiener Vorl. iii. 6; Mus. Greg. ii. 38, 2E.g. (with Poseidon and Dionysos).

348.  Reinach, i. 463.

349.  Berlin 2418 = Baumeister, ii. p. 1001, fig. 1209: cf. B.M. E 490 and Reinach, i. 342 (in Boston); Reinach, i. 175, 510, 511 (Athens 1921).

350.  Él. Cér. i. 68, 76 A; with N. sacrificing, Boston Mus. Report, 1898, No. 51.

351.  B.M. E 324 (Hebe?); Reinach, ii. 323 (Hebe?); ibid. 324 (Iris).

352.  Vienna 329: cf. Él. Cér. i. 82 (A. with Z., but not pouring libation).

353.  See p. 106 for these scenes, in which she is almost invariably present.

354.  B.M. B 198, B 498; Helbig 93 = $1 ii. 54, 2.

355.  B.M. D 14; Berlin 2626 = Coll. Sabouroff, i. 67; Millin-Reinach, ii. 41.

356.  Reinach, ii. 75 (doubtful).

357.  Stackelberg, pl. 15.

358.  Arch. Anzeiger, 1898, p. 51 (vase in Boston).

359.  B.M. E 48; Berlin 2179 = Wiener Vorl. iii. 6; Boston Mus. Report, 1900, No. 25; Reinach, i. 55, 6 (Petersburg 116), 91, 421 (Petersburg 2012), ii. 271; and see Wiener Vorl. E. 12, 2.

360.  B.M. B 155, 248, 380, E 181, 493, F 83; Bibl. Nat. 277 = Reinach, i. 290; Mon. Grecs, 1878, pl. 2.

361.  B.M. E 81; Petersburg 2189 = Reinach, i. 5(?).

362.  Reinach, i. 108, 195, 331.

363.  Ibid. i. 102, 226.

364.  B.M. E 696.

365.  Reinach, i. 184.

366.  B.M. E 155.

367.  Reinach, i. 480.

368.  Bull. de Corr. Hell. 1898, p. 586.

369.  Reinach, i. 231.

370.  Arch. Anzeiger, 1895, p. 39 (Berlin).

371.  Reinach, i. 363.

372.  Ibid. ii. 296: see pp. 77, 128.

373.  At meeting of Paris and Helen, Athens 1942 = Reinach, i. 402; at combat of Ajax and Hector, Wiener Vorl. vi. 7 (Duris in Louvre); at dispute over the arms, B.M. E 69; and see for other instances, Reinach, i. 3, 82, 138, 174, 218; ii. 59, 266.

374.  Reinach, ii. 110.

375.  Vase in Boston: see 1899 Report, No. 16.

376.  See below, p. 124.

377.  B.M. B 541, E 160.

378.  Reinach, i. 5 (?), 158, 390; Arch. Anzeiger, 1890, p. 90 (Berlin).

379.  Berlin 2313 = Reinach, i. 416 = Wiener Vorl. vii. 4, 3.

380.  B.M. E 316 = Plate XXXVI.

381.  Reinach, ii. 123 (= Munich 1185), 262 (= Bibl. Nat. 369).

382.  B.M. E 299.

383.  Berlin 1846 = Reinach, ii. 30 (before Dionysos).

384.  Reinach, i. 342.

385.  Ibid. ii. 166; Boston Mus. Report, 1896, No. 1.

386.  Él. Cér. i. 83.

387.  Berlin 2415 = Reinach, i. 343 (the Trojan horse?).

388.  Vol. I. p. 223, Fig. 72.

389.  Reinach, i. 501.

390.  Ibid. ii. 44.

391.  B.M. E 515, 519.

392.  Röm. Mitth. 1897, pl. 12; Bibl. Nat. 260; Louvre F 380.

393.  B.M. B 203; Reinach, ii. 73; with Poseidon, Athens 836; with Hermes, Benndorf, Gr. u. Sic. Vasenb. pl. 4, 1.

394.  Millin-Reinach, ii. 25.

395.  Reinach, ii. 125, 130; Bibl. Nat. 232, 256 = Rein. ii. 254.

396.  Ibid. i. 44.

397.  Bibl. Nat. 260.

398.  B.M. B 242, 379, 541, E 160, 470, F 160, 209, 278; Munich 65 = Reinach, i. 76; Naples 2422 = Furtwaengler and Reichhold, 34.

399.  See below, p. 133.

400.  B.M. E 494, E 696; E 716 (moulded vase); and cf. B 611 (Nikephoros).

401.  B.M. B 222, E 305 (Pl. XXXVI.), E 324, E 515; Él. Cér. i. 82; Bibl. Nat. 219; Bull. de Corr. Hell. 1898, p. 586.

402.  For a fine example of Athena Promachos see Athens 1169 = Benndorf, Gr. u. Sic. Vasenb. 31, 2.

403.  See Vol. I. p. 389, and Plates XXXIII., XXXIV.; also the B.M. examples B 130–46, 602–12.

404.  Él. Cér. i. 67.

405.  B.M. B 80; Berlin 1686 = Rayet-Collignon, pl. 7; Reinach, ii. 122; Athens 1858 = Reinach, i. 396 (identified as Athena Nike or Onka); for the trophy-like form of the figure on the last-named cf. the coins of Pergamon inscribed Ἀθηνᾶς Νικηφόρον: see also for a curious subject Benndorf, Gr. u. Sic. Vasenb. pl. 31, fig. 1.

406.  B.M. D 22; Bibl. Nat. 472 = Reinach, i. 131, 4.

407.  B.M. B 147; Reinach, i. 156.

408.  B.M. B 617; Berlin 2531; Bibl. Nat. 573 = Reinach, ii. 256; Athens 1259 = Reinach, i. 506.

409.  See p. 101; for his subsequent attack on Athena, Arch. Anzeiger, 1898, p. 51 (vase in Boston).

410.  B.M. E 67, E 82; Reinach, i. 203.

411.  B.M. B 191, B 228.

412.  Amer. Journ. of Arch. 1896, p. 6, fig. 4.

413.  Bibl. Nat. 216 (= Él. Cér. iv. 96) and 229.

414.  Él. Cér. iv. 94–95; B.M. E 82, and Berlin 2278 (in assemblies of gods); Gaz. Arch. 1876, pl. 34.

415.  B.M. B 551; and see Athens 903.

416.  Él. Cér. iv. 98.

417.  B.M. E 467.

418.  B.M. E 155.

419.  Reinach, i. 463.

420.  B.M. B 379; Berlin 1961 (= Reinach, ii. 43) and 2278; Bibl. Nat. 254.

421.  Reinach, ii. 91.

422.  Él. Cér. iv. 99.

423.  Röm. Mittheil. 1899, pl. 7: cf. Paus. vii. 8.

424.  B.M. F 108, 373 (?); Millingen-Reinach, 26; Reinach, i. 119, 265, 325, 479 (?); Él. Cér. iv. 66 (?).

425.  Reinach, i. 499 = Naples S.A. 702; also Naples 2900 = Millingen-Reinach, 41 = Baumeister, iii. p. 1653, fig. 1714.

426.  Reinach, i. 156.

427.  B.M. D 2; J.H.S. xii. pl. 13; Jahrb. 1886, pl. 11, 2; Berlin 2636 (Él. Cér. iv. 5) and 2688 (= Benndorf, Gr. u. Sic. Vasenb. 37, 3); Reinach, ii. 7, 183. Late: B.M. F 240, 556.

428.  Berlin 2635 = Jahrbuch, 1889, p. 208 = Roscher, iii. 1514.

429.  Berlin 2660.

430.  Él. Cér. iv. 6.

431.  Arch. Anzeiger. 1898, p. 137 (Dresden vase): cf. Paul, E.g. Fest. iii. E.g. Cytherea and the B.M. terracottas D 89–91.

432.  B.M. E 712, 775; Athens 1944; Reinach, i. 124, ii. 323; Inghirami, Vasi Fitt. 324.

433.  Reinach, i. 353.

434.  B.M. E 230, F 311; Athens 1588 = Roscher, iii. p. 2119 (Fig. 117); Reinach, i. 39, ii. (290; Burlington Fine Arts Club Cat. 1903), p. 108, No. 46.

435.  Reinach, ii. 301, 320; Berlin 2707 = Coll. Sabouroff, pl. 62, 2.

436.  Petersburg 1983 = Reinach, i. 15.

437.  Froehner, Musées de France, pl. 13, 4.

438.  Berlin 4126 = Reinach, i. 128.

439.  B.M. E 699 = J.H.S. xi. pl. 4.

440.  B.M. E 224, 697, 698, 775; Berlin 3257 (with Eunomia and Euthymia at marriage of Herakles and Hebe); Naples S.A. 316 = Reinach, i. 477 (with Eukleia, Klymene, and Pannychis); Mon. Grecs, 1889–90, pls. 9–10 (without names); Fig. 117 = Athens 1588 = Roscher, iii. p. 2119 (with Kore, Hebe, Eudaimon, Harmonia, and others).

441.  Reinach, ii. 315; Millin-Reinach, i. 65.

442.  Reinach, i. 198.

443.  B.M. E 230, E 289, and cf. F 311; Baumeister, i. p. 618, fig. 687 (? see p. 57, note 710).

444.  Él. Cér. iv. 38.

445.  Stackelberg, pl. 30: cf. B.M. E 697.

446.  Reinach, i. 129; B.M. F 258; Bibl. Nat. 1005, 1133 (head of A. adorned by two Erotes).

447.  See above, p. 17.

448.  B.M. E 15; Reinach, i. 156(B.F.).

449.  B.M. B 197.

450.  Mon. Grecs, 1875, pls. 1–2.

451.  Petersburg 350, 525 = Reinach, i. 11–12; Rev. Arch. xxxvi. (1900), p. 93.

452.  B.M. F 270, 332; Reinach, i. 355–56, 479.

453.  B.M. B 203; F 90.

454.  Reinach, i. 124, 465; ii. 181.

455.  Berlin 3164; Reinach, i. 111, 4 and 416.

456.  Berlin 3239.

457.  Reinach, i. 405, 452 (Berlin 2950); ii. 197.

458.  Helbig 118 = Overbeck, Kunstmythol. Atlas, 6, 13.

459.  Reinach, i. 526.

460.  Reinach, i. 481; Berlin 2278; Furtwaengler-Reichhold, 20; at marriage with Hebe, Berlin 3257.

461.  B.M. E 224.

462.  Reinach, i. 91.

463.  B.M. E 224.

464.  Naples 3226 = Millin-Reinach, ii. 7 (Kadmos); B.M. F 271 (Pelops); Reinach, i. 188, and Jahrbuch, 1896, pl. 2 (Perseus); Naples S.A. 11 = Reinach, i. 401 (Meleager).

465.  See below, p. 122.

466.  Millingen-Reinach, 43: cf. Berlin 3244 for another possible Anchises.

467.  B.M. E 424; François vase.

468.  Reinach, i. 437.

469.  B.M. E 73; Tyszkiewicz Coll. pl. 18 (now in Boston).

470.  B.M. F 209.

471.  Reinach, i. 222, and cf. i. 437 and B.M. F 278 (statue of A.); Noel des Vergers, Étrurie, iii. pl. 39.

472.  B.M. B 173, 280; Reinach, ii. 116.

473.  B.M. E 289; Reinach, i. 7, 15, 126; Wiener Vorl. A. 10, 3.

474.  B.M. F 108 (anointing Adonis’ hair).

475.  B.M. E 129.

476.  Zeus and Danaë: B.M. E 711; Europa: B.M. E 231, F 184, Naples 3218 (Eros on bull); Reinach, i. 22, 24.

477.  Reinach, i. 449.

478.  B.M. F 272, 279; Arch. Anzeiger, 1890, p. 89 (Berlin).

479.  B.M. E 424; Plate XXXIX. fig. 2.

480.  B.M. F 271, 331; Reinach, i. 235.

481.  Reinach, i. 9, 402 (Athens 1942), 437.

482.  Reinach, i. 156, ii. 309.

483.  Ibid. i. 66.

484.  B.M. E 227.

485.  B.M. F 107.

486.  Reinach, i. 22.

487.  B.M. F 270; Reinach, i. 355, 455 (with Orpheus).

488.  Reinach, i. 66; E.g. i. 100, 167; B.M. F 152, 194; Gerhard, Akad. Abhandl. pl. 7, fig. 1 = Inghirami, Vasi Fitt. 394 (with Helios and Selene ?see p. 79, note 954); B.M. F 74 and F 102 (Herakles).

489.  B.M. F 311: cf. F 399.

490.  B.M. F 90.

491.  B.M. F 69: cf. Bourguignon Sale Cat. 41.

492.  B.M. E 228, 428, 435, 703; F 58, 60, 72, 382; Millin-Reinach, ii. 16 (offers wreath to D.).

493.  Millin-Reinach, i. 20.

494.  Reinach, i. 525, 526.

495.  B.M. E 225, 229, 705; F 138, 308, 310, 332.

496.  Reinach, i. 206.

497.  B.M. E 126, 189, 191.

498.  B.M. F 48.

499.  Athens 1946 = Dumont-Pottier, i. pl. 21, 5.

500.  B.M. E 205 (?); Reinach, i. 412.

501.  B.M. F 123 (cf. p. 50, note 547); Reinach, ii. 315 = Baumeister, ii. p. 780, fig. 834.

502.  B.M. E 704; E 721.

503.  Reinach, i. 232.

504.  Bull. de Corr. Hell. 1899, p. 158 = Burlington Club Cat. 1903, p. 97, No. 11.

505.  B.M. E 397, Reinach, ii. 142; B.M. E 217, 360, 702, Reinach, ii. 315.

506.  Reinach, ii. 317; Hartwig, Meistersch. pl. 22, fig. 1 (? see p. 80, note 970).

507.  Reinach, ii. 191.

508.  Naples 2961.

509.  B.M. E 297.

510.  Hartwig, Meistersch. pl. 27, p. 262.

511.  Petersburg 1181 = Reinach, ii. 318: cf. Reinach, i. 250, and Arch. Anzeiger, 1890, p. 89 (see p. 46, note 478).

512.  F 220.

513.  B.M. E 293; Reinach, i. 465.

514.  B.M. E 652.

515.  Bibl. Nat. 366 = Él. Cér. iv. 51.

516.  B.M. E 526, 528.

517.  Reinach, i. 479; Ibid. i. 57.

518.  Reinach, i. 55, Millin-Reinach, ii. 59; Reinach, ii. 324, Él. Cér. iv. 53; Reinach, i. 347; E.g. ii. 248, B.M. F 555.

519.  B.M. F 579 = Fig. 118; Reinach, i. 277.

520.  Baumeister, iii. p. 1573, fig. 1633; B.M. E 501.

521.  B.M. E 706, Naples 2872 = Reinach, ii. 169; B.M. E 296, Él. Cér. iv. 49; B.M. F 221.

522.  B.M. E 241, Reinach, i. 229, ii. 302; Él. Cér. iv. 50.

523.  B.M. E 213; Reinach, i. 36; B.M. F 68, F 441.

524.  B.M. F 223, 279, 373: cf. Theocr. ii. 30 (ῥόμβος); Hor. Epod. xvii. 7 (turbo).

525.  B.M. E 118, 571; F 219, 257, Reinach, i. 312 (dove), Él. Cér. iv. 49 (cock).

526.  B.M. E 13; F 294, 340, 378; Reinach, i. 528, B.M. F 17, 308, 409.

527.  B.M. F 132, 225, 278, 280, 258 (two Erotes holding wreath); F 165, 176, 329, 389; F 310; F 234, 257, 306, 414, 440; E 518.

528.  B.M. F 349; E 242, F 391; Baumeister, i. p. 498, fig. 540; B.M. F 387, 481; F 294, 382, Millin-Reinach, i. 20 (torch and bow); B.M. F 443; E 239; F 308, 414 (Plate XLIV.).

529.  B.M. F 420, 434; F 456; F 13, 219, 292, 325; F 31, 280, 317, 323; F 37; E 293, 388; F 31, 63, 234, 278; F 280, 315, 337, 373.

530.  Naples S.A. 11 = Reinach, i. 401 (at death of Meleager).

531.  Abhandl. d. k. sächs. Gesellsch. viii. pl. 1, fig. 1 (with Sappho).

532.  B.M. E 222; also at the toilet of Aphrodite (Fig. 117 above).

533.  Raoul-Rochette, Mon. Inéd. 8.

534.  Petersburg 350 = Reinach, i. 12; Rev. Arch. xxxvi. (1900), p. 93; Reinach, i. 124.

535.  Reinach, i. 188.

536.  B.M. E 224.

537.  Reinach, i. 437.

538.  B.M. E 224.

539.  Noel des Vergers, Étrurie, iii. pl. 39.

540.  Naples 2900 = Millingen-Reinach, 41.

541.  Röm. Mitth. 1899, pl. 7.

542.  Reinach, i. 526.

543.  Roscher, iii. p. 1811.

544.  B.M. E 440.

545.  Berlin 2633.

546.  B.M. E 226.

547.  Reinach, ii. 302: see also Boston Mus. Report, 1900, No. 11, and Jatta 1093 = Heydemann, Satyr- u. Bakchennamen, pl. 1 (holding grapes).

548.  Munich 234 = Reinach, i. 298 = Baumeister, iii. p. 1571, fig. 1632.

549.  Berlin 3257.

550.  Reinach, ii. 200.

551.  Jatta 1093.

552.  Naples 3240 = Reinach, i. 114.

553.  B.M. B 32; Louvre G 10; Reinach, ii. 276.

554.  Berlin 4003 = Coll. Sabouroff, i. pl. 50.

555.  B.M. E 58.

556.  Louvre F 159; Él. Cér. iii. 87.

557.  Berlin 2727 and Reinach, i. 159; Berlin 1881.

558.  B.M. B 549.

559.  Él. Cér. iii. 73 (Hermaios), 76.

560.  Millin-Reinach, i. 51.

561.  Reinach, ii. 276.

562.  B.M. B 32; Athens 592 = Ath. Mitth. 1893, pl. 2.

563.  B.M. B 332.

564.  Vienna 321 (cf. Ar. Ach. 729 ff.).

565.  Reinach, ii. 25.

566.  Él. Cér. iii. 14 and 75.

567.  Louvre E 702 = Reinach, i. 354; Helbig, 227 = Reinach, i. 357 = Baumeister, i. p. 680, fig. 741 (Fig. 119).

568.  Reinach, ii. 25; De Witte, Coll. à l’Hôtel Lambert, pl. 1.

569.  Bibl. Nat. 820 = Reinach, ii. 259.

570.  Él. Cér. iii. 93; Millin-Reinach, i. 70; Reinach, ii. 330.

571.  B.M. F 237, and see above, p. 15.

572.  Berlin 1702 (Hermes Kyllenios), and see p. 15.

573.  B.M. B 197; Reinach, ii. 266.

574.  See above, p. 17.

575.  Reinach, i. 472.

576.  B.M. E 65.

577.  See p. 20.

578.  Louvre A 478 (Hermes, 1898, p. 638); Bull. de Corr. Hell. 1898, p. 586.

579.  Reinach, i. 234.

580.  Ibid. i. 124.

581.  Ibid. i. 499.

582.  Ibid. i. 244; i. 463; i. 175.

583.  Ibid. ii. 4.

584.  B.M. B 203 (Athena); Reinach, ii. 22, 26, 73; Benndorf, Gr. u. Sic. Vasenb. 4, 1.

585.  B.M. B 340; E 44, 459; Reinach, ii. 125, 152, 275.

586.  Athens 1345 = J.H.S. xix. pl. 10; Millin-Reinach, ii. 37 (Lasimos in Louvre).

587.  Millin-Reinach, ii. 44.

588.  Reinach, i. 388.

589.  Ibid. i. 380.

590.  B.M. E 467; J.H.S. xxi. pl. 1.

591.  See generally under those deities; for H. and Athena: B.M. B 144, Reinach, i. 257, ii. 42 (Panathenaic); B.M. E 268, Reinach, i. 520 (Athens 477), ii. 25, 211 (Bibl. Nat. 220).

592.  Berlin 2635 = Jahrbuch, 1889, p. 208.

593.  B.M. B 257, 259, 267, 302 (banqueting); Berlin 2160 (with the Satyr Oreimachos); Reinach, i. 129 (playing lyre).

594.  B.M. B 424, E 492; Petersburg 1792, 1793 (= Reinach, i. 1 and 3); Helbig, 103 = Rayet and Collignon, p. 223; Reinach, i. 93, ii. 310; and see Ath. Mitth. 1889, pl. 1, p. 1 ff, and p. 55, note 642.

595.  B.M. B 230; Oxford 222; Reinach, ii. 29.

596.  See p. 69.

597.  B.M. F 277; Reinach, i. 99: cf. Rev. Arch. xxxvi. (1900), p. 93.

598.  See p. 28; also Naples 1989 = Él. Cér. iii. 91, and Reinach, i. 522.

599.  Reinach, i. 456; Berlin 2455; Munich 209 = Fig. 122, p. 70.

600.  Athens 1093 = Roscher, ii. p. 2678; Berlin 2991.

601.  Louvre F 60.

602.  Bibl. Nat. 269.

603.  J.H.S. xx. p. 101: cf. the story of Pandora’s “box,” and see Vol. I. p. 152 and p. 75 below.

604.  Munich 611 = Reinach, i. 419.

605.  Reinach, i. 389, ii. 32, 70.

606.  B.M. B 167, B 301; B 229.

607.  Reinach, i. 297, 323, ii. 70, 74–75.

608.  B.M. B 166, 318, 379; Louvre F 116–117; Reinach, i. 222, 368, ii. 76.

609.  Bibl. Nat. 172; Reinach, i. 91, ii. 271.

610.  B.M. B 248, B 280, E 493; Bibl. Nat. 277 = Reinach, i. 290; E.g. ii. 48; Mon. Grecs, 1878, pl. 2 (represents an earlier episode).

611.  Bibl. Nat. 224.

612.  See p. 122.

613.  Athens 966.

614.  Reinach, i. 89, 144.

615.  Ibid. i. 138, ii. 99.

616.  Wiener Vorl. 1890–91, 10 (Louvre).

617.  Él. Cér. iii. 78–81; Bibl. Nat. 839: see Roscher, i. p. 2393.

618.  B.M. B 362, 627, E 585; Berlin 1928, 2172; Schreiber-Anderson, 16, 8, and 14, 3.

619.  B.M. B 345, E 444; Berlin 2278; Reinach, i. 203; Ath. Mitth. 1889, pl. 1.

620.  Forman Sale Cat. 364.


Dionysos and his associates—Ariadne, Maenads, and Satyrs—Names of Satyrs and Maenads—The Nether World—General representations and isolated subjects—Charon, Erinnyes, Hekate, and Thanatos—Cosmogonic deities—Gaia and Pandora—Prometheus and Atlas—Iris and Hebe—Personifications—Sun, Moon, Stars, and Dawn—Winds—Cities and countries—The Muses—Victory—Abstract ideas—Descriptive names.

§ 1. Dionysos and his Associates

The most important deity in Greek mythology outside the Olympian circle is undoubtedly Dionysos; but the part that is played by him and his attendant train in Greek art is out of all proportion even to this, at least in the vase-paintings. Apart from what we may regard as strictly mythological subjects, such as the Birth of Dionysos and scenes in which other gods or heroes are introduced, the number and variety of the themes are so great that an exhaustive enumeration is quite impossible; nor indeed would it repay the trouble to give a complete list of what may for convenience be termed Dionysiac scenes. Suffice it to say that they occur with equal frequency on the vases of all periods from the middle of the sixth century onwards.

The personages with whom we have to deal in this section are, besides Dionysos himself, his spouse Ariadne, Pan, with his “double” Aegipan, and the motley rout of Satyrs, Seileni, and Maenads, who appear either in the wine-god’s company or by themselves. Dionysos is generally accompanied by one or more Maenads or Seileni, whether engaged in some definite action, such as pouring wine or playing flutes, or no; but he is also not infrequently seen as a single figure.[621] On the earlier vases he is elderly and bearded, but on the later youthful and beardless. He is occasionally represented with horns,[622] or in the form of a man-headed bull.[623] He is depicted sacrificing at an altar,[624] pouring a libation,[625] or slaying a fawn[626] or goat χιμαιροφόνος[627]; banqueting,[628] or playing on the lyre.[629] He rides on a bull,[630] goat,[631] mule,[632] or panther,[633] or in a winged chariot[634]—in one case drawn by Gryphons, in another by a Gryphon, bull, and panther[635]—or in a chariot shaped like a ship[636]; or is carried by a Seilenos.[637] On a beautiful cup by Exekias[638] he sails over the ocean in a boat, the mast of which grows into a vine. We are reminded in this scene of the Homeric hymn (xix.) and the story of the Tyrrhenian pirates, a subject which, according to one interpretation, is represented on a vase at Athens.[639]

His birth is not often represented, and chiefly on R.F. vases[640]; it has been referred to already in detail, in reference to Zeus. When handed over to Hermes,[641] the newly born infant is conveyed by that god to Nysa, where he is finally delivered to a Seilenos, to be nursed by the Nymphs of that place.[642] Or he is handed directly to a Nymph by Zeus,[643] or, by a curious error or confusion on the artist’s part, to Ariadne, his future bride.[644] There is a possible representation of the Indian Dionysos or Bassareus,[645] India being the land whence he was fabled to come; and other vases represent various events connected with his first manifestation of himself in Greece: such as the madness he brought on Lykourgos, who refused to receive him,[646] and his subsequent sacrifice after his triumph[647]; the death of the similarly contumelious Pentheus (the story on which the plot of the Bacchae turns)[648]; or his supposed visit to the Athenian Ikarios.[649] He sometimes appears with his mother Semele, whom he brings back from Hades[650]; in one or two instances their heads are seen rising from the ground to indicate their return from the nether world.[651] They are then solemnly introduced into Olympos.[652]

Dionysos is frequently grouped with various deities, such as Apollo, Athena, and Hermes[653]; or they are seen in his company at a banquet.[654] He sometimes appears at the birth of Athena,[655] the apotheosis of Herakles,[656] and his marriage with Hebe[657]; or in heroic scenes, such as the Judgment of Paris,[658] or the combat of Herakles and Kyknos.[659] He appears with the Seileni who attack Hera and Iris,[660] and brings back Hephaistos to Olympos.[661] He frequently takes part in the Gigantomachia, usually in single combat,[662] being aided by his panther, and sometimes by Seileni and Maenads.[663] Sometimes he is seen preparing for this event, wearing a cuirass, while Satyrs or Maenads hold the rest of his armour.[664] He is also grouped with Gaia Κουροτρόφος,[665] and with Poseidon and Nike[666]; or accompanies the chariot of Athena[667]; and is seen in more than one assembly of the Olympian deities.[668]

His wooing and consoling of the deserted Ariadne[669] is an attractive and popular subject, and several vases seem to represent the nuptial ceremonies between the pair,[670] or the preparations for the same, with Eros assisting at the bride’s toilet.[671] Numerous are the instances in which he is seen grouped with Ariadne, often in loving embrace,[672] and generally surrounded by his cortège,[673] but also alone. Or, again, he and Ariadne drive in a chariot drawn by lions,[674] panthers,[675] stags,[676] or goats[677]; in two cases Ariadne drives her own chariot alone,[678] in another Dionysos is seen alone in a four-horse chariot.[679] They are also seen reclining together at a banquet,[680] sometimes accompanied by Herakles and other deities.[681] On a vase of quasi-Etruscan style[682] we see the sleeping Ariadne surrounded by Dionysos, Satyrs, and Maenads. This presumably refers to the scene in Naxos.

The numerous vases on which Dionysos appears, with or without Ariadne, accompanied by a throng of Satyrs and Maenads, sometimes in high revelry, sometimes in more peaceful circumstances, may next be mentioned, though it is not necessary to cite more than a few typical examples[683]; equally numerous are smaller groups, where only one or two followers appear, but only a few of these need be particularised.[684] Thus we see him in peaceful converse with Maenads or Nymphs[685]; seizing them with amorous intent[686]; listening to a Satyr playing the lyre or flute[687]; or going to a banquet, accompanied by Satyrs with torches[688]; or feeding a bird.[689] In banquet scenes he receives drink from a Satyr,[690] or plays at the kottabos (see p. 182)[691]; or Seileni steal his food and drink.[692] He watches a Lydian woman dancing in armour,[693] or dances himself to the flutes played by an actor.[694] In one instance he is seen leaving his chariot to join in the revels of his followers[695]; in another he takes part in the orgies of the Scythian Agathyrsi,[696] and he is seen in a drunken condition, supported by one of his followers.[697] He is not infrequently grouped with Eros, from whom he receives drink or a wreath[698]; also with Pan,[699] or with semi-personified figures such as Komos (Revelry)[700] or Oinopion (Wine-drinker).[701]

Pan only makes his appearance on late vases, usually in Dionysiac groups,[702] or as a single figure on the smaller Apulian wares; when he is depicted with goat’s legs and squat proportions, he is usually called Aegipan[703]; or, again, Paniskos, when he has the form of a beardless youth.[704] He surprises a Nymph asleep,[705] and is sometimes associated with the Nymph Echo.[706]


Dionysos’ connection with the Attic drama is more specially indicated by scenes in which he appears as the inventor or patron of tragedy, presenting a tragic mask to a young actor[707]; he also appears in an elaborate scene representing the preparations for a Satyric drama.[708] As the object of worship he is sometimes seen in a form which implies a reference to some primitive cult, as an aniconic pillar-image (ξόανον or βαίτυλος)[709]; or, again, in the form of a tree (Dionysos Dendrites), and homage is paid to him by Maenads.[710] Besides sacrifices to his image, we see sacrificial dances performed,[711] or choragic tripods consecrated to him.[712] His statue is once seen at a fountain.[713]

We must now treat of the scenes in which Seileni and Satyrs, Maenads and Nymphs, appear independently of Dionysos, or in particular actions without relation to him. They are, indeed, often, if not invariably, present in all scenes in which he takes part, whether mythological or of a less definite character; as, for instance, the return of Hephaistos to Olympos,[714] in which the gods are usually accompanied by a more or less riotous escort of Satyrs, and others as already mentioned. The attack of the Satyrs on Iris and Hera has been alluded to in connection with the latter[715]; and they seldom elsewhere appear in relation to the Olympian deities or other myths, except in those scenes which depict the rising of Persephone or Ge-Pandora from the earth.[716] But Satyrs and Maenads are sometimes represented as performing sacrifices, not only to Dionysos,[717] but also to Herakles,[718] or to a terminal figure of Hermes.[719] We turn next to scenes of more general character.

There are numerous vases, especially of the R.F. period, on which groups of Satyrs and Maenads are represented in revels of a more or less wild and unrestrained character, or else in more peaceful association. Those in which Dionysos himself is present have already been enumerated, but the general types may be now considered. It may, perhaps, be possible to distinguish two, or even three, classes of this subject: the inactive groups of Satyrs and Maenads[720]; those in which they rush along in frenzy and unrestrained licence, brandishing their thyrsi, or with tambourines (tympana) and other musical instruments[721]; and, lastly, scenes of convivial revelry (κῶμοι), in which they are engaged in drinking from all sorts of vessels.[722] Sometimes these revels are strictly confined to Satyrs, and then they become absolutely licentious in character[723]; or, again, a group of Maenads unattended tear along with torches, thyrsi, and musical instruments[724]; or, lastly, both join in dances hand-in-hand, a subject which on early vases is often adopted for a long frieze encircling a vase.[725]

As a pendant to these, many subjects and single figures must here be mentioned which seem to be excerpts from the larger compositions, as well as independent motives presenting special features found in the more elaborate scenes. We begin with subjects in which both Satyrs and Maenads take part, among which we find a favourite subject to be the gathering of fruit,[726] especially grapes, and the processes of the vintage.[727] Satyrs offer drink to Maenads,[728] or play the flutes for them to dance to[729]; and there is a favourite series of subjects of an amorous character, in which the Satyrs pursue the objects of their passion,[730] or surprise them asleep,[731] seize them and overcome their struggles to escape,[732] and finally enfold them in embraces,[733] or carry them on their shoulders.[734] Satyrs are also seen surprising women while bathing[735]; and a group of them appear astonished at the sunrise.[736]

We may next dismiss briefly the scenes which depict Maenads alone, usually as single figures. They sometimes appear in a state of frenzy (Fig. 121),[737] dancing with snakes twisted round their arms,[738] or playing castanets,[739] or tearing a kid to pieces (χιμαιροφόνος).[740] In quieter fashion they ride on a mule[741] or bull,[742] or are seen accompanied by hinds, goats, and panthers,[743] or playing with a cat and bird.[744]

From Baumeister.


Satyrs in independent scenes often appear in burlesque guise, attired and acting as athletes,[745] or as warriors,[746] with the Amazonian pelta,[747] or even enacting the part of Herakles in the Garden of the Hesperides[748]; and are present in other scenes of a burlesque nature, which may often be derived from the Satyric drama, such as one in which they carry ghosts (εἴδωλα) with torches.[749] There is also a long list of scenes of miscellaneous character: a Seilenos washing,[750] or piling up bedding(?)[751]; fishing[752]; as potter, poking a furnace[753]; acting as footman to a girl and carrying a parasol[754]; flogging a youth,[755] or holding a boy Satyr on his hand[756]; caressing a hare[757]; and so on. Satyrs fight with torches[758]; sport with deer and other animals[759]; ride on goats, asses, and mules,[760] or lead them along[761]; and in one instance a Satyr has fallen off his mule, and a companion runs to help him[762]; in another, two Satyrs draw a third in a cart.[763] They are seen carrying chairs[764] and vessels of various kinds, such as amphorae, situlae, kraters, rhyta,[765] or wine-skins[766]; also seated on wine-skins or wine-jars,[767] playing games with jugs and wine-jars,[768] balancing drinking-cups on their backs,[769] pouring wine into a jar[770] or drawing it out from the mixing-bowl,[771] or playing games, such as see-saw or ball.[772] Many of these scenes are from the interiors of R.F. cups, to which they were well adapted, the varied attitudes giving so much scope for the ingenuity of the daring artists of the period. Scenes in which Satyrs play the lyre or flute are, very numerous.[773]

A feature of the numerous Dionysiac subjects on vases is the tendency to individualise Satyrs and Maenads by means of names, sometimes meaningless, sometimes names otherwise known in mythology, and frequently personifications of abstract conceptions, such as we shall see later to be very common on vases of all periods; in these cases they usually have some relation to the character or occupation of the personages to whom they are attached. The Satyrs Marsyas and Olympos sometimes appear in the larger compositions[774]; the former has been already mentioned in another connection. There is also a curious representation of Akratos,[775] the deity of unmixed wine (a liquid which to the Greeks implied an extravagance of revelry, owing to the intoxicating nature of the undiluted beverage). A type of Seilenos covered from head to foot with shaggy skin, and known as Papposeilenos, is often found on the later vases.[776] It is difficult to distinguish in all cases between Seileni and Satyrs on the vases, and the exact differences between the various types have not yet been properly elucidated, so that the terms are of necessity somewhat conventional.[777] The equine type of Satyr, with horse’s hoofs as well as tail, which is so frequently found on the sixth-century Ionic vases, has been noted elsewhere.[778] The young beardless Satyr is mostly found in the later period.

The number of vases on which Satyrs and Maenads are distinguished by name is very large, but only a few of the more important need be mentioned, along with some of the more curious names from the isolated instances.[779] On a vase in Berlin[780] no less than ten Maenads are named—Anthe (Flower), Choro (Dance), Chrysis (Gold), Kale (Beauty), Kisso (Ivy), Makaria (Blessed), Naia, Nymphe, Phanope, and Periklymene (Renowned); on one at Leyden[781] six—Dorkis, Io, Klyto, Molpe (Song), Myro, and Xantho (Fair-hair). On the former vase a Seilenos is expressly so named, and on the latter are four Satyrs with names; on a kylix by Brygos in the British Museum[782] the Seileni attacking Iris are styled Babacchos, Dromis, Echon, Terpon, etc.[783]

Other Satyr-names are Briacchos,[784] Dithyrambos,[785] Demon,[786] Hedyoinos (Sweet Wine),[787] Hybris (Insolence),[788] Hedymeles (Sweet Song),[789] Komos (Revelry),[790] Kissos (Ivy),[791] Molkos,[792] Oinos,[793] Oreimachos,[794] Simos (Snub-nose),[795] Tyrbas (Rout).[796]

The Maenads’ names are if anything more numerous: Bacche,[797] Choiros (Pig!),[798] Doro,[799] Eudia (Calm),[800] Eudaimonia (Happiness),[801] Euthymia (Good Cheer),[802] Erophyllis,[803] Galene (Calm),[804] Hebe (Youth),[805] Komodia (Comedy) and Tragoedia (Tragedy),[806] Kalyke (Bud),[807] Lilaia,[808] Mainas,[809] Nymphaia,[810] Opora (Harvest) and Oreias (Mountain-Nymph),[811] Oinanthe,[812] Pannychis (All-night Revel),[813] Polyerate (Well-beloved),[814] Philomela,[815] Sime (Snub-nose),[816] Terpsikome,[817] Thaleia,[818] Rodo (Rose),[819] Paidia,[820] and Kraipale,[821] a name which is not easy to render in classical English, but which denotes the results following on a night’s debauch.


From Furtwaengler and Reichhold.

The Under-World, from an Apulian Vase at Munich.

§ 2. The Nether World

The Chthonian character of Dionysos brings us by a natural transition to the deities of the under-world, and in connection therewith it will be convenient to treat of Death-deities of all kinds, as well as scenes representing the life of the nether regions.

Of Demeter and Persephone, the Chthonian goddesses par excellence, we have already spoken (p. 27), and of the myths connected with them, such as the rape of the latter by Hades or Pluto, the king of the realms named after him. It is owing to this connection with Persephone that Hades is found in such scenes as the sending forth of Triptolemos,[822] or at her return to the upper world,[823] as well as at the rape of his consort. He is frequently seen in company with her, as the rulers of the nether world,[824] especially on the large Italian “under-world vases” referred to below, and sometimes they are represented banqueting together.[825] As king of the nether world he is appropriately grouped with his brothers Zeus and Poseidon, the rulers of the air and ocean.[826] He is occasionally carried by Herakles on his shoulders,[827] but the meaning of this subject is uncertain. He also appears as a single figure, with sceptre and cornucopia.[828]

The only general representations of the under-world are to be found on the large Apulian vases made for sepulchral purposes (Vol. I. p. 476), of which some half-dozen are conspicuous for the number of subjects and figures they contain. All these are collected together in the Wiener Vorlegeblätter, Series E., the list being as follows:—

(1) Munich 849 = Wiener Vorl. E. pl. 1 = Reinach, i. 258
(2) Naples 3222 = pl. 2 = i. 167
(3) Karlsruhe 388 = pl. 3, 1 = i. 108
(4) Naples S.A. 709 = pl. 3, 2 = i. 455
(5) Petersburg 424 = pls. 4 and
5, 1 = i. 355
(6) Petersburg 426 = pl. 6, 2 = i. 479

No. (1) is reproduced in Plate LII. On a smaller scale, or fragmentary, are the following:—

(7) Petersburg 498 = Wiener Vorl. E. pl. 5, 2
(8) B.M. F 270 = pl. 6, 1 = Reinach, i. 356
(9) Karlsruhe 256 = pl. 6, 3 = i. 455
(10) Jatta Coll. 1094 = pl. 6, 4 = i. 356
(11) Naples S.A. 11 = pl. 6, 5 = i. 401

There are also three B.F. vases having reference to the under-world, though in the first two cases it is probable that the scene relates to the return of Persephone (see p. 28), the accompanying figure of Sisyphos only being introduced to mark the locality:—

(12) B.M. B 261 (Hades, Persephone, Hermes, Sisyphos).

(13) Munich 728 = Wiener Vorl. E. pl. 6, 6 = Reinach, ii. 48 (similar scene).

(14) Berlin 1844 (Persephone and Sisyphos only).

On the Apulian vases there is usually in the centre a pillared building representing the palace of Hades, in which he and his spouse stand or sit; round this are grouped various figures and episodes connected with the nether regions: Herakles carrying off Kerberos[829]; Orpheus with his lyre, sometimes accompanied by Eurydike[830]; persons undergoing punishment, such as Sisyphos with his rock[831]; Tantalos threatened with a rock, not as in the usual legend suffering from thirst[832]; the Danaids with their hydriae[833]; and Theseus and Peirithoös sitting with their hands bound behind them.[834] In one instance a Fury, at the instance of Hades and Hekate, is binding one, the other having already entered on his punishment[835]; in another we see Theseus liberated and about to depart from his friend (see below, p. 111).[836]

Among the administrators of these penalties are Aiakos, Minos, and Rhadamanthos, the judges of the souls[837]; the Erinnyes or Furies[838]; and allegorical personages, such as Dike (Justice),[839] Ananke (Necessity),[840] or Poinae (Punishments).[841] Of the Chthonian deities, Hermes,[842] Hekate,[843] Triptolemos,[844] and Iacchos[845] are present. Olympian deities are also sometimes introduced as spectators.[846] Other figures introduced are Megara with the two children of Herakles[847]; Pelops with Myrtilos and Hippodameia[848]; a group of the Blessed Shades[849]; and (but not on this class of vase) Oknos with his ass, a subject depicted by Polygnotos in his great fresco at Delphi.[850] The subject of Ixion on the wheel is usually found by itself, but occurs on the neck of one of the Apulian vases.[851]

Another subject which may be associated with the above scenes is that of Charon and his bark; on the vases, however, its significance is purely sepulchral, as it is confined to the Attic white lekythi (Vol. I. p. 459), on some of which the dead man is represented entering the ferry-boat.[852] Some vases of Etruscan fabric also represent groups of Chthonian deities, especially Charon, who in the mythology of that people is no longer “the grim ferryman that poets write of,” but Charun, a hideous demon wielding a huge hammer.[853] In one instance he separates Alkestis from Admetos[854]; in another he watches Ajax stabbing a captive Trojan.[855]

From Baumeister.


The Erinnyes or Furies play an important part in the nether-world scenes,[856] and one is also represented at the punishment of Ixion.[857] They pursue Orestes after the slaughter of his mother and Aigisthos to Delphi and Tauris,[858] and even when with Pylades he comes to make himself known to Electra.[859] Among other mythological scenes they are found at the combat of Herakles and Kyknos[860]; with Pelops,[861] and with Medeia and Jason[862]; and threatening with punishment the hero Agrios, who is seized and bound upon an altar by Oineus and Diomedes.[863] Kerberos is once seen without Herakles in the under-world vases[864]; and there is a very curious representation of his being chained up by Hermes.[865]

Hekate as a Chthonian deity frequently appears on the under-world vases[866]; she is also connected with Eleusinian scenes and legends,[867] such as the sending of Triptolemos,[868] the birth of Dionysos or Iacchos,[869] or with the rape and return of Persephone.[870] She appears also as a single figure.[871] Allusion has already been made to the Chthonian associations of Hermes, Triptolemos, and Iacchos (pp. 27, 52).


Thanatos, the personification of Death, appears on vases[872] almost exclusively in one aspect, as the bearer of souls in conjunction with Hypnos (Sleep); they convey the body of Memnon from Troy to his home in Egypt,[873] and this type is borrowed for other scenes (e.g. on the funeral lekythi) in which an ordinary warrior is borne “to his long home.”[874] In one instance Thanatos is seen urging Ajax on to commit suicide[875]; he also appears on another vase where the subject may relate to the story of Ixion.[876] Representations of Death-demons or Harpies,[877] and of Κῆρες θανάτοιο, or small winged figures boding or signifying death,[878] are by no means uncommon. It has been held by some writers that the personifications of Thanatos above referred to are more properly to be regarded as Κῆρες θανάτοιο.[879] These small winged figures are also employed to represent a soul escaping from a deceased person[880]; or, again, to indicate the souls of Achilles and Hector (or Memnon) when weighed by Zeus (see below, pp. 130, 132).[881] We also find actual representations on B.F. vases of the ghost of a hero, especially in Trojan scenes; he floats through the air fully armed, with large wings.[882]

§ 3. Cosmogonic and other Deities

In the next instance it will be found appropriate to discuss sundry representations which are connected with the earlier or Titanic cosmogony, although, with the exception of the Gigantomachia, already discussed, allusions thereto are comparatively rare on vases.

Chief among these personages is Ge or Gaia, the Earth-mother, half Titanic, half Chthonian, who is usually represented as a figure rising half out of the ground, with flowing hair. She thus appears in several Gigantomachia scenes (as the mother of the giants, who were Γηγενεῖς, earth-born),[883] and at the birth of Dionysos and Erichthonios, where she hands the child to Athena.[884] As a full-length figure she appears protecting her sons Tityos and Antaios against Apollo and Herakles respectively[885]; also in certain doubtful scenes on B.F. vases as the Nursing-mother (Κουροτρόφος), with two children in her arms,[886] though we have already seen (p. 30) that these are susceptible of another interpretation. Finally, the series of scenes in which men are represented hammering on the head of a female figure rising from the earth[887] may be regarded as referring to Gaia, with allusion to the custom of smiting on the earth to raise spirits. In this connection Gaia is undoubtedly to be identified with Pandora (see below).[888] A cognate subject is that of a similar female head or bust in company with Eros, sometimes found on late Italian vases.[889] If Gaia is here intended, her connection with Eros finds some support in the poetic cosmogonies[890]; otherwise it may be Aphrodite.

The story of Kronos, who swallowed the stone given to him by his wife Rhea in place of his children, is possibly depicted on one vase,[891] though the genuineness thereof is open to doubt. The stone is enveloped in drapery to prevent discovery. A bust of Kronos has also been identified on a vase.[892] The story of Zagreus and his destruction by the Titans, which belongs to the same cycle, also finds one or two representations. One vase appears to represent them devouring him piecemeal.[893]

Another personage who may perhaps be regarded as of pre-Olympian origin is Themis, who comes between Gaia and Apollo in the occupation of the prophetic stool at Delphi (Aesch. Eum. 2). Aigeus, the father of Theseus, is represented as consulting her seated on her tripod,[894] and one vase has been supposed to depict her conversing with Zeus before the birth of Dionysos.[895] She also appears at the Judgment of Paris.[896]

Kybele, the mother of the gods, only occurs in one or two doubtful instances, with the lion which is usually associated with her.[897]

Among the primitive and recondite Greek cults which go back to a remote origin, that of the Kabeiri may perhaps be mentioned here. Previous to the discovery, in 1887–88, of their sanctuary near Thebes, little was known, either from literary or monumental sources, of these mysterious deities; but the excavations on this site yielded large quantities of pottery with scenes relating to their cult, mostly of a burlesque character.[898] Among these was one very interesting fragment representing (with names inscribed) the Kabeiros and his son (Pais) banqueting, and attended by two deities known as Mitos and Pratoleia.[899] Lenormant noticed that the spectator-deities on an under-world vase in the British Museum correspond exactly to the four Cabeiric deities as described by certain ancient authorities.[900]

Turning next to myths which treat of the semi-divine personages of the earliest cosmogony, we have the legends given by Hesiod of Prometheus and the creation of Pandora; and we may include with them the Titan Atlas. Pandora, it has been already noted, is only a variation of Gaia,[901] and this is borne out by the name given to her on a beautiful polychrome cup in the British Museum representing her creation, completed by Hephaistos and Athena.[902] She is there named Ἀνεσιδώρα, “She who sends up gifts,” E.g. from the earth. The subject is not so popular as might have been expected, but appears on two other vases in the Museum, in each case with Olympian deities as spectators of the event, and on a beautiful vase now at Oxford.[903] The story of the opening of the πίθος has not found its way into art, but its connection with the Athenian feast of the πιθοίγια is curiously illustrated in one instance.[904]

Prometheus too is seldom seen, and chiefly on B.F. vases. In one case he receives a libation from Hera,[905] and there are two or three representations of his liberation by Herakles.[906] On a Cyrenaic cup he is grouped with Atlas, the vulture pecking at his breast, while the other groans under the burthen of the heavens.[907] Atlas is found almost exclusively with Herakles in connection with his visit to the Garden of the Hesperides. Either he is actually present in the Garden[908] or is confronted with the hero, who in some cases bears his burden for him while he obtains the apples.[909] He is also seen in company with a Sphinx.[910]

We now come to discuss a few subordinate deities or semi-divine personages who do not fall into any of the preceding categories.

Asklepios, chiefly a figure of later art, is exceedingly rare on vases. There is, in fact, only one on which he can certainly be identified. This is a late R.F. vase at Athens, on which he is seen reclining on a couch feeding a serpent and accompanied by Hygieia.[911] Nor does the latter occur elsewhere, though her name, as already noted (p. 43), is sometimes given to one of the personified figures attending on Aphrodite.[912] Eileithyia, the goddess of childbirth, generally appears, in duplicated form, assisting Zeus at the birth of Athena,[913] or Leto at that of Apollo and Artemis.[914] She is closely related to Artemis, and a representation of a goddess who has been identified as Artemis-Eileithyia may be seen on an early Boeotian vase with reliefs at Athens.[915]

Iris, the messenger of the gods, is usually distinguished from Nike by her caduceus or herald’s staff, and from Hebe by her wings. She is often depicted as a single figure,[916] or pouring a libation to Hera, Athena, or other deities.[917] She is associated more especially with Hera, as Hermes is with Zeus, and attends on the former in several scenes of assemblages of the gods.[918] In company with Hera she is attacked by a troop of Seileni and defended by Herakles,[919] and on another vase she is similarly surprised by a troop of Centaurs.[920] She assists at the creation of Pandora,[921] at the Judgment of Paris,[922] and at the wedding of Peleus and Thetis,[923] and also appears in the Garden of the Hesperides.[924] She is also seen with Paris carrying off Helen[925]; and with Menelaos fetching her back[926]; and in another scene, apparently drawn from a Homeric source (Il. viii. 397 ff.), where she dissuades Athena and Hera from taking sides in the war, at the behest of Zeus.[927] She conveys the infant Herakles to the Centaur Cheiron,[928] and is also seen in company with a warrior.[929]

Hebe in Olympos performs somewhat similar functions to Iris, more particularly that of pouring out wine for the gods.[930] She is also specially associated with Herakles at and after his apotheosis,[931] appearing as his bride in several instances.[932] Besides these, she frequently appears in assemblies of the gods,[933] or at the punishment of Marsyas,[934] or the Judgment of Paris.[935]

§ 4. Personifications

The next group of deities with which we have to deal is that of the various personifications which are to be found in great numbers on vases of all periods, especially the later. These naturally fall under several headings, which, following the lines of the classification adopted by M. Pottier in a valuable article on the subject,[936] we may distribute as follows:—

1. Physical (Sun, Moon, Dawn, Winds, etc.). 2. Geographical (Cities, Rivers, Mountains, etc.). 3. Products of earth (Wine, Harvest, etc.). 4. Groups of various kinds (Muses, Nymphs, etc.). 5. Physical conditions (Health, Old Age, etc.). 6. Social advantages (Wealth, Peace, Victory, etc.). 7. Ethical ideas (Justice, Envy, Strife, etc.). 8. Metaphysical ideas (Necessity, Law, etc.). 9. Social enjoyments (Comedy, Tragedy, Revelry, etc.). 10. Descriptive names.

Of some of these, indeed, we have already treated—such as the beings included in the following of Aphrodite and Dionysos, Ge-Pandora, Hebe (Youth), and the deities of the nether world. The rest we now proceed to consider in order, beginning with natural phenomena, and firstly those of an astronomical character.

I. Helios, the Sun, who in some senses, especially in the mythology of the Roman poets, is identical with Phoebus Apollo, is only once so identified on vases.[937] He is usually depicted in his four-horse chariot rising out of the sea (as on the eastern pediment of the Parthenon), either as a single figure or in connection with some myth, indicating that the action takes place at sunrise. As a single figure he appears both on early and late vases, on the latter, usually, as an upper decoration on the large Apulian kraters.[938] He is also accompanied by Eos (Dawn) and Selene (Moon), by Hemera (Day), or by Eros[939]; but in most cases he and Selene appear together, the latter descending as he rises (as on the Parthenon pediment). Thus on R.F. vases they denote the time of the action, as when Theseus descends below the sea to visit Poseidon,[940] or as on the Blacas krater in the British Museum, when Eos pursues Kephalos.[941] On the latter vase four stars are also depicted diving into the sea, to indicate their setting. On Apulian vases he is present at the seizure of Persephone,[942] at the flight of Pelops from Oinomaos,[943] at the madness of Lykourgos,[944] at the Judgment of Paris,[945] and in the Garden of the Hesperides.[946] In one instance a group of Satyrs start back affrighted at his appearance.[947] There are two instances of his encounter with Herakles, who endeavoured to stay his progress with his bow.[948]


Helios and Stars, from the Blacas Krater in the British Museum.

Selene, the Moon, appears in many of the scenes already described under Helios, as on the Blacas krater. She is depicted under two types, either on horseback[949] or driving a chariot like Helios,[950] both as a single figure and in other scenes; and she is sometimes characterised by the lunar disc or crescent. Besides the scenes already referred to, she appears on horseback at the birth of Dionysos[951] and at the pursuit of Medeia by Jason.[952] The magic arts used by Thessalian witches to draw down the moon from heaven are also the subject of a vase-painting,[953] where two women essay to perform this feat by means of a rope, addressing her, “O Lady Moon!”

Stars are occasionally represented with an astronomical reference, as on the Blacas krater, where they appear in the form of youths, or grouped with Helios, Selene, and Eos.[954] Phosphoros, the Morning Star, may be identified in this connection, represented as a youth running[955]; but in other cases they are not personified, as on a vase which represents the moon and stars with the constellation Pegasos.[956]

Hemera, the Day, we have already once noted; but in art she is hardly to be distinguished from Eos (Dawn). Nor can Nyx (Night) be identified with certainty on vases.[957] Eos is not an uncommon figure, especially on R.F. vases, and she also plays a part in certain myths. As a single figure she appears rising from the sea in, or driving, a four-horse chariot like Helios,[958] her steeds in one case being named Phlegethon and Lampon. She is also represented flying with two hydriae, from which she pours out dew upon the earth.[959] She is frequently seen pursuing or carrying Kephalos[960] or Tithonos,[961] and is present at the apotheosis of Alkmena.[962] At the combat of her son Memnon with Achilles she and the other mother, Thetis, are generally present.[963] She also pleads with Zeus for her son’s safety,[964] and bears away his body after the fatal issue of the fight.[965]

Next we have to deal with the Winds, as personified by the figures of Boreas, Zephyros, etc. As single figures they seldom appear, though we have possible instances of Boreas, with the unusual type of a serpent’s tail,[966] or simply as a winged male figure.[967] A wind-god is seen in an episode from the Gigantomachia opposing the chariot of Zeus,[968] and another in an assemblage of deities round Apollo Kitharoidos.[969] Zephyros is seen pursuing Hyakinthos,[970] and he and Boreas together bear the body of a warrior to the tomb in the same manner as Hypnos and Thanatos.[971] But the most important subject connected with Boreas is his pursuit of the Athenian maiden Oreithyia, a frequent scene on the later R.F. vases,[972] some being very fine examples. Erechtheus, Kekrops, and the Nymphs Aglauros, Herse, and Pandrosos, are usually present, and the latter in one case announce the news to Kekrops or Erechtheus.[973] Boreas is also depicted in the act of punishing Phineus by blinding him, and attacked by the latter’s friend Parebios.[974]

On some early B.F. vases we find winged beings which may be styled Boreades, in conjunction with Harpies, apparently representing the influences of good and evil winds respectively.[975] Zetes and Kalais, the sons of Boreas, will be treated of in the story of the Argonautika.[976] The Aurae or breezes have been identified on a well-known vase in the British Museum,[977] and on an Apulian vase in the same collection is a head undoubtedly intended for Aura.[978] The Hyades or rain-goddesses in two instances extinguish the flames of a funeral pyre at the bidding of Zeus, at the apotheosis of Alkmena[979] and of Herakles[980]; in one of the latter instances they are named Arethusa and Premnusia. They also receive the infant Dionysos.[981] Echo belongs perhaps rather to the Dionysiac cycle, appearing as the beloved of Pan.[982]

II. We may next consider the personifications of cities and countries, which are, indeed, in some cases more than merely symbolical figures, being actual goddesses with a definite cult, such as the Nymph Kyrene, who often appears on works of art.[983] On the great Naples vase representing Dareios in a council of war, personifications of Hellas and Asia are placed among the spectator-deities,[984] and the former seems also to be indicated on a similar vase with a battle of Greeks and Persians.[985] On one of the late vases with the subject of Pelops and Oinomaos, a personification of the locality Olympia appears to be similarly present,[986] just as on the Hieron kotyle the personification of Eleusis is included among the Eleusinian and other deities at the sending forth of Triptolemos.[987] The city of Thebes is personified in several instances, especially as a spectator of Kadmos slaying the dragon[988]; also on a “Megarian” bowl with reliefs in the British Museum, the subjects on which are taken from the Phoenissae of Euripides.[989] Nemea, the scene of Herakles’ victory over the lion, and of the death of Archermos, is similarly personified as a Nymph in the representations of both subjects,[990] and the town of Krommyon as a Nymph protests against the slaying of the sow by Theseus.[991] The Nymph Sparta occurs once, dismounting from her horse.[992] Two cups of the early B.F. class usually known (from their subjects) as Cyrenaic, bear representations of the Nymph Kyrene (see above)—in one case with Apollo, in the other holding a branch of silphium (the local product) and surrounded by Boreads and Harpies (see above).[993]

Among the Greek islands, Aegina and Salamis were supposed to have derived their names from Nymphs beloved of Zeus and Poseidon, who are represented pursuing these quasi-personified figures[994]; we may also regard Europa as coming under that category.[995] Zeus also pursues Taygeta, who is connected with the mountain in Laconia.[996] On one vase we find the names of the islands Delos, Euboea, and Lemnos,[997] given, presumably in pure fancy, to two Maenads and a Satyr in a Dionysiac scene where all the figures are named. A more genuine instance is that of the Nymph Krete on the Talos vase, indicating the locality.[998]

Turning to other geographical features, we have Mount Olympos transformed into a lyre-playing companion of Satyrs[999]; or, again, river-gods such as Acheloös, who as a combination of man and bull, or with a fish-body like Triton, wrestles with Herakles.[1000] The river Nile appears once, but not personified—only as an indication of landscape.[1001] In connection with the city of Thebes we find personifications of the local river Ismenos and the local fountain-Nymphs Dirke and Krenaia.[1002]

III. Natural products, such as Oinos (Wine) and Opora (Harvest), are only found personified among the Dionysiac conceptions with which we have already dealt (p. 65); to these two names we may add those of Hedyoinos (Sweet Wine), Kissos (Ivy), Kalyke (Bud), and Rodo (Rose), the three latter coming more under the heading of pet-names than of strict personifications.

IV. Our next class includes certain groups of personages (all feminine) which for the most part hold their own throughout all periods of art and literature, and are, so to speak, more crystallised into definite mythological personages, associated with the gods and human beings of the legendary ages. These are the Muses, the Charites or Graces, the Horae or Seasons, the Moirae or Fates, and the Erinnyes or Furies.

The Muses do not appear so frequently in vase-paintings as in sculpture, and mostly on later vases. Two fine R.F. examples of the whole nine (with their appropriate attributes) call for mention[1003]; other vases give a more limited number, or even single figures[1004]; but it must be remembered that in such cases identification is difficult, as characterisation by means of a lyre or scenic mask does not necessarily connote the presence of a Muse. On one vase Terpsichore is seen with two figures inscribed as Mousaios and Melousa[1005]; but these may be no more than fancy names for an ordinary group of musicians. Five of them are seen in a group with Apollo, Thamyris, and Sappho,[1006] and elsewhere they accompany Apollo.[1007]

The Graces can nowhere be identified on Greek vases, though they form a well-known type in sculpture; but there is an Etruscan kylix in the British Museum (probably copied from a Greek original), which appears to represent them as an interior group.[1008] The Horae or Seasons appear (without distinctive names) on the François vase at the nuptials of Peleus and Thetis, and on the Sosias cup[1009] in an Olympian assemblage (three in each case); also two of them at the sending forth of Triptolemos.[1010] The three Moirae (Fates) appear on the François vase (as above), and once also at the birth of Athena[1011]; the Furies have already been discussed.[1012]

V. The personifications having reference to physical conditions (as distinguished from ethical ideas) are comparatively few in number. They include Hebe (Youth), who by virtue of her divine attributes has already been discussed in another section (p. 77); Hygieia (Health), who is also a fully developed goddess, but only once occurs on a vase, except among the somewhat vague personifications surrounding Aphrodite (see pp. 43, 76]); and three others, regarded as of masculine sex. These are Geras (Old Age), Hypnos (Sleep), and Thanatos (Death). Geras is seen in combat with Herakles[1013]; Thanatos has already been discussed (p. 71). Hypnos as a winged youth hovers over Alkyoneus, whom Herakles overcame while asleep[1014]; causes Ariadne to sleep while Theseus escapes[1015]; and with Thanatos carries the body of Memnon,[1016] or an ordinary mortal,[1017] to the tomb.

VI. Social advantages as apart from ethical qualities are perhaps difficult to determine exactly; but we may fairly rank under this heading such ideas as are suggested by Chrysos (Gold) and Ploutos (Wealth); Eirene (Peace); Nike (Victory); and the numerous attendants of Aphrodite and Dionysos, such as Eunomia, Eudaimonia, and others already named (pp. 43, 65). Chrysos and Ploutos as boys accompany Nike in her chariot[1018]; Eirene’s appearance on vases is doubtful, but she may appear in one instance carrying the infant Ploutos.[1019] The birth of Ploutos seems to be represented in one instance.[1020]

But by far the most important personage in this class is Nike (Victory), whose appearance as a winged female figure is so often attested by inscriptions on R.F. vases that she can generally be identified with certainty. She is especially popular as a single figure on the Nolan amphorae and lekythi of the “severe” and “strong” periods, some of which are conspicuously beautiful examples.[1021] Altogether her appearances rival those of Eros in number, though on the Italian vases they are far fewer. Whether Nike ever occurs on B.F. vases is a very doubtful point, and has been denied by many scholars, but some figures are not easy to explain in any other way.[1022] On other works of art she does not appear before 480 B.C., unless the “Nike” of Archermos is to be so identified; it seems probable that she was an offshoot from Athena, whom we know to have been worshipped under the name of Nike, as in her temple on the Athenian Acropolis.

She is frequently associated with the gods, either in scenes from mythology or in groups apart from action[1023]; usually she pours libations to them, or crowns them in reference to some achievement. Thus we find her with Zeus,[1024] with Hera,[1025] with Athena,[1026] with Poseidon and Dionysos,[1027] with Apollo (especially at his victory over Marsyas),[1028] with Artemis Elaphebolos,[1029] and with Aphrodite.[1030] She frequently crowns or pours libations to Herakles, or attends him at his apotheosis[1031]; on the later vases she takes Athena’s place in conveying him in a chariot to Olympos.[1032]

Among the numerous mythological events in which Nike plays a more or less symbolical part may be mentioned the Gigantomachia, in which she drives Zeus’ chariot,[1033] the birth of Athena,[1034] the sending of Triptolemos,[1035] the Judgment of Paris,[1036] the birth of Dionysos[1037] and that of Erichthonios,[1038] and the punishment of Ixion.[1039] Among Trojan scenes she appears with Achilles arming,[1040] at his (supposed) fight with Telephos and possibly also at that with Memnon,[1041] and at the carrying off of the Palladion.[1042] She is also seen with Herakles in the Garden of the Hesperides,[1043] with the Dioskuri,[1044] with Perseus and Bellerophon,[1045] with Orestes at Delphi[1046]; crowning Hellas as the victor over the Persians[1047]; and in many scenes with Dionysos.[1048]

More numerous and characteristic, however, are the scenes in which she appears as a single figure, or associated with mortals, usually victorious warriors or athletes. As a single figure she most commonly pours a libation over an altar,[1049] or flies towards the altar bearing a torch, incense-burner, lyre, tripod, sash, or other attribute[1050]; in one case (unless Iris is intended) a jug and caduceus.[1051] Especially characterised as the goddess of Victory, she often holds a palm-branch.[1052] She frequently takes part in religious and sacrificial ceremonies, such as the decoration or dedication of a choragic tripod,[1053] or burns incense,[1054] or herself sacrifices a ram or bull.[1055] The last-named subject is, however, commoner on gems and a certain class of terracotta reliefs.[1056] On one vase she gives drink to a bull[1057]; or, again, she rides on a sacrificial bull[1058]; or places a hydria on a fountain or altar.[1059] She pursues a hare, doe, or bird,[1060] or offers a bird to a youth.[1061] On the later Panathenaic amphorae and elsewhere she holds the ἀκροστόλιον or stern-ornament of a ship[1062]; and sometimes she erects a trophy.[1063]


She appears in a chariot drawn by female Centaurs,[1064] or accompanied by Chrysos and Ploutos (see above),[1065] and she also conducts a victorious warrior in this manner.[1066] In other instances she pours a libation to a warrior,[1067] who is sometimes inscribed with a fanciful name[1068]; or, again, as anticipating his victory, she brings him his helmet.[1069] She is, however, more frequently seen in athletic scenes, crowning a victorious athlete,[1070] rider,[1071] or charioteer,[1072] or superintending the games in the palaestra,[1073] torch-races,[1074] or the taking of an oath by an athlete.[1075] In musical contests she performs the same functions, crowning or pouring libations to a successful performer.[1076] She crowns a successful potter in his workshop,[1077] and also a poet (?).[1078] A being of similar character, who may perhaps be recognised in the figure of a winged youth on some B.F. and early R.F. vases, is Agon, the personification of athletic contests.[1079]

On the later R.F. vases the figure of Nike is often duplicated, probably more to produce a balanced composition than for any other reason.[1080]

VII. The next class of personifications is that of abstract ethical ideas. Even on the earlier vases there are found a considerable number of these, such as Eris (Strife); but on the later, unlimited play is given to the tendency of the age (seen also in sculpture and painting) to invest every abstract idea with a personality, apart from any idea of deification or mythological import.

Among these, by far the most numerous examples are, of course, those relating to the passion of Love. We have already traced the development of the type and conception of Eros in vase-paintings, and in the same place we have had occasion to speak of the associated ideas which became personified as subsidiary conceptions to that of Love, such as Peitho (Persuasion), Pothos (Yearning), and Himeros (Charm), Phthonos (Envy or Amor invidiosus), and Talas (Unfortunate or Unrequited Love).[1081] Of a similar type are the feminine conceptions associated with Aphrodite-Eudaimonia (Happiness), Euthymia (Cheerfulness), and the like.[1082]

Among other abstract ideas are those of Arete (Virtue) and Hedone (Pleasure), which have been suggested as represented on one vase.[1083] On a R.F. vase in Vienna, Dike (Justice) is seen overcoming Adikia (Injustice)[1084]; Apate (Deceit) on the vase with Dareios in council beguiles the goddess Asia with bad advice,[1085] and also leads Tereus astray[1086]; Phobos (Fear) drives the chariot of Ares when he assists Kyknos against Herakles[1087]; he is specially associated with the god of war, the idea being that of inducing panic among enemies; and in many cases his head appears, like that of the Gorgon, as a device on shields.[1088] In one instance he appears as a lion-headed monster.[1089] Artemis, in the capacity of Aidos (Shame), hinders Tityos from carrying off Leto.[1090] Eris (Strife) appears on B.F. vases as a winged female figure running, in scenes of combat, chariot-races, etc., or as a single figure.[1091] But the identification is not always certain; in some combat scenes it is possible that Ate or a Ker is meant, and in those of an agonistic character we may see Agon, the personification of athletics (see above, p. 89).[1092]

VIII. The metaphysical ideas next to be discussed are almost exclusively punitive agencies, either connected with scenes in the under-world (Ananke, Poinae, and the Furies), or bringing down penalties and disasters on the heads of wrong-doers, such as the personifications of madness which occur in many of the tragic subjects on Apulian vases.

In the first group we reckon Ananke (Necessity) and the Poinae (Punishments), who appear with the Furies in a scene from the under-world,[1093] Ate or Ker (Destiny), a winged figure seen at the death of Hector[1094] and at the madness of Lykourgos[1095]; and Nemesis (Vengeance) in the scene between Atreus and Thyestes,[1096] with reference to its fate-fraught character. In less tragic circumstances the latter is present in a bridal scene, with attributes of a flower and an apple.[1097] The Moirae or Fates have already been mentioned (p. 83), as has Themis or Divine Ordinance (p. 74).

The second group includes Lyssa (Frenzy), who drives Aktaeon, Hippolytos, and Lykourgos to madness or destruction[1098]; Mania (Madness), who similarly drives Herakles to slay his children[1099]; and Oistros (E.g. a Gad-fly), who performs similar functions when Medeia is about to slay hers.[1100]

IX. Personifications relating to social enjoyments, such as games, the drama, or banquets, are closely analogous to many of those described under headings III. and VI., and occur in the same connection. Thus in Dionysiac scenes we find Choro (Dance), Molpe (Song), Dithyrambos, Hedymeles (Sweet Song), Komos (Revelry), Komodia and Tragoedia (Comedy and Tragedy), and Pannychis and Kraipale, typifying all-night revels and their consequences.[1101]

X. Finally, there are what M. Pottier has described as personifications of individualities, under which heading fall many conceptions which do not find a place in any of the classes already discussed. Among these are many of the names given to Maenads and Satyrs (p. 65), which are intermediate between personal names and embodiments of abstract or physical ideas, some inclining more to one side, some to the other. Of these it is only necessary to mention as illustrative of the present subject the Mainas[1102] and the Nymphe[1103] found as names of individuals on several vases, and the Oinopion or “Wine-drinker” on vases by Exekias.[1104]

To the same class belong the names given to Nymphs of various kinds, such as the Nereids (see p. 26) or the Hesperides. The latter are named on one vase[1105] as Asterope, Chrysothemis, Hygieia, and Lipara; on another[1106] as Aiopis, Antheia, Donakis, Kalypso, Mermesa, Nelisa, and Tara.

Of more general signification, and sometimes perhaps to be regarded as descriptive titles rather than names, are such as Archenautes (Ship-captain),[1107] Komarchos (Master of Revels),[1108] or Paidagogos (Tutor).[1109] On the other hand, Neanias, Komos, Paian (given to boys at play),[1110] and Eutychia (on the tomb of a woman)[1111] may be merely fanciful personal names.

621.  B.M. B 589, B 693; B 180 (between vine-poles); Bibl. Nat. 176; Hartwig, pl. 30, fig. 2 (Hieron); Branteghem Coll. No. 28 (Hermaios); Athens 1583 = Rayet and Collignon, p. 291; Amer. Journ. of Arch. 1900, pl. 1, p. 185 (Duris in Boston).

622.  Petersburg 880 = Reinach, i. 13.

623.  B.M. F 194.

624.  B.M. E 257.

625.  Wiener Vorl. 1890–91, pl. 7, fig. 2 (Nikosthenes in Boston).

626.  B.M. E 439.

627.  B.M. E 362.

628.  Athens 1583 = Rayet and Collignon, p. 291.

629.  Bibl. Nat. 576 = Hartwig, Meistersch. pl. 33, 1.

630.  Reinach, ii. 35.

631.  Ibid. i. 159.

632.  B.M. B 225, B 378, B 426, E 102; Louvre F 133; Petersburg 855 = Reinach, i. 18.

633.  B.M. E 429; Millin-Reinach, i. 60, ii. 17; Reinach, i. 168, ii. 302.

634.  Reinach, ii. 32 (cf. Triptolemos).

635.  Bourguignon Sale Cat. 57; Mon. Grecs, 1879, pl. 3.

636.  B.M. B 79.

637.  Mus. Greg. ii. 3, 3E.g..

638.  Munich 339 = Reinach, ii. 36 = Wiener Vorl. 1888, 7, 1.

639.  Cat. 969 = Reinach, i. 415: see p. 178.

640.  B.M. E 182; Bibl. Nat. 219 = Mon. di Barone, pl. 1; Reinach, i. 1 and 3 = Petersburg 1792 and 1793; and see p. 19.

641.  B.M. E 492; Reinach, i. 93, 122; Helbig 103 = Rayet and Collignon, p. 223.

642.  Petersburg 2007 = Reinach, i. 7.

643.  Bibl. Nat. 440 = Reinach, ii. 260.

644.  Reinach, i. 93.

645.  Baumeister, i. p. 434, fig. 483: cf. B.M. E 695 (doubtful).

646.  B.M. F 271; Naples 3219 = Reinach, i. 125 and 3237 = Millingen-Reinach, 1 = Baumeister, ii. p. 834, fig. 918.

647.  Naples 3237 = Millingen-Reinach, 2 = Baumeister, ii. p. 835, fig. 919.

648.  B.M. E 775 = Fig. 131; Munich 807 = Baumeister, ii. p. 1204, fig. 1396; Jahrbuch, vii. (1892), pl. 5, p. 154 (Dionysos not present); and see below, p. 142.

649.  B.M. B 149, B 153, E 166.

650.  B.M. F 194 (D. with bull’s head).

651.  Naples S.A. 172 = Reinach, i. 498: cf. Louvre F 136 and F 311 (Reinach, i. 144).

652.  Berlin 1904.

653.  B.M. B 347 (Hermes and Apollo); Bibl. Nat. 231; Athens 903 (Ares, Hermes, Herakles); Munich 157; Reinach, i. 8 (Petersburg 1807), 203, ii. 24, 42, and 75 (Munich 47, 609, 62), 30, 35, 74.

654.  B.M. B 302; E 66 (Herakles).

655.  B.M. E 410.

656.  B.M. B 200, B 201, B 318–21; Berlin 1961, 2278.

657.  Berlin 3257.

658.  Munich 773; and see Overbeck, Her. Bildw. p. 210.

659.  Berlin 1732 = Reinach, ii. 66.

660.  B.M. E 65.

661.  See p. 17.

662.  B.M. B 253, E 8, E 303, E 443; Bibl. Nat. 230; and see p. 14.

663.  Boston Mus. Report, 1900, No. 14 (Maenads); Froehner, Musées de France, pl. 6 (Seileni).

664.  Petersburg 1600 = Reinach, i. 25; Bibl. Nat. 391 = Froehner, Musées de France, pl. 8.

665.  B.M. B 168 (?): see Reinach, ii. 38 and p. 30.

666.  B.M. E 445.

667.  B.M. B 203.

668.  B.M. E 444; Reinach, i. 203: see note 653, p. 56.

669.  Berlin 2179 = Wiener Vorl. iii. 6.

670.  B.M. F 171 (crowned by Nike); Athens 667; Forman Sale Cat. 356.

671.  Millin-Reinach, ii. 43 (doubtful); Baumeister, i. p. 618, fig. 687.

672.  B.M. B 198, B 256–59, E 129, E 279, F 307; Reinach, i. 161 = Baumeister, i. p. 441, fig. 491; Millin-Reinach, ii. 16, 49 A (D. throws himself into arms of A.).

673.  B.M. B 204, 206, 208, F 1, 69.

674.  Würzburg, Phineus cup = Reinach, i. 201 = Furtwaengler and Reichhold, pl. 41 (lions and stags).

675.  B.M. E 546; Jatta 1092 = Reinach, i. 482.

676.  Petersburg 1427 = Reinach, i. 18.

677.  Reinach, ii. 37, 6.

678.  B.M. B 179; Micali, Storia, 86.

679.  B.M. B 206.

680.  B.M. B 302, B 476, B 556; Bibl. Nat. 433 = Millin-Reinach, i. 38; Cambridge 48.

681.  Millin-Reinach, i. 37.

682.  Reinach, i. 215.

683.  B.F.: B.M. B 206, B 300 = Fig. 120, B 427; Reinach, ii. 141 and i. 203 = Wiener Vorl. D. 1, 3 (D. in chariot). R.F.: B.M. E 16, 55, 75, 228, 362, 462; Berlin 2471 = Coll. Sabouroff, i. 55; Bibl. Nat. 357 = Monuments Piot, vii. pl. 2; Roscher, iii. p. 2118. Late: B.M. F 1, 77, 179, 303–4; Reinach, ii. 200. See also p. 61.

684.  See B.M. Cat. and Reinach, E.g.; B.M. B 148, E 110, 253, 503, F 149; Berlin 2174; Bibl. Nat. 222 = Reinach, ii. 251; Louvre F 3, F 5, F 101, F 124, F 204, G 43.

685.  B.M. E 350 (receiving wine from Nymph).

686.  B.M. E 184.

687.  Berlin 2402 = Coll. Sabouroff, i. 57; Berlin 2290 = Baumeister, i. p. 555, fig. 592 (Hieron); Reinach, ii. 155 = Wiener Vorl. 1889, 4, 5 (Taleides), and ii. 289, 6.

688.  B.M. E 465, F 153.

689.  Reinach, ii. 301.

690.  B.M. E 511, F 56.

691.  B.M. F 37, 275; in F 273 Ariadne similarly occupied.

692.  B.M. E 66, E 786.

693.  Anzeiger, 1895, p. 40.

694.  Jahrbuch, i. (1886), p. 278: cf. B.M. F 188.

695.  Hartwig, Meistersch. pl. 6 = Louvre G 34.

696.  Ibid. pls. 38–39, 1, and see p. 181.

697.  Athens 1282–83 = Bull. de Corr. Hell. 1895, p. 98.

698.  B.M. E 703, F 152; Millin-Reinach, ii. 16 and ii. 40.

699.  B.M. F 114; Millin-Reinach, ii. 21.

700.  Reinach, ii. 38.

701.  B.M. B 210; Bourguignon Sale Cat. 18 (both Exekias).

702.  B.M. E 228, 241, 435, F 163, 270; Reinach, ii. 301; Millingen-Reinach, 2.

703.  B.M. E 228, F 203, F 253.

704.  B.M. F 437.

705.  Petersburg 2161.

706.  B.M. F 83, 381.

707.  B.M. F 163; Munich 848 = Reinach, i. 383.

708.  Naples 3240 = Reinach, i. 114 = Baumeister, i. pl. 5, fig. 422.

709.  Minervini, Mon. du Barone, pl. 7.

710.  B.M. E 451–52, 471; Berlin 1930, 2290 (= Wiener Vorl. A. 4); Naples 2419 = Furtwaengler and Reichhold, pls. 36–7 (see Vol. I. p. 141); Schreiber-Anderson, pl. 14, 8.

711.  Berlin 2029; Naples 2411 = Reinach, i. 154.

712.  Bologna 286.

713.  B.M. B 332.

714.  See p. 17; and cf. B.M. B 42 (Plate XXI.).

715.  See pp 22, 76; also Berlin 2591.

716.  Froehner, Musées de France, pl. 21 and p. 69 ff.; Reinach, i. 144, 228; Harrison, Prolegomena to Gk. Religion, p. 277; and see pp. 29, 73.

717.  See p. 60, note 710.

718.  B.M. E 505.

719.  Reinach, i. 472, ii. 198.

720.  B.M. B 203–4, 206, 427, F 58, 77, 80–1, 156.

721.  B.M. F 75–6, 276; Louvre F 120, F 124 (= Wiener Vorl. 1890, 5, 3), G 33, G 57; Naples 3113, 3241 (= Reinach, i. 384); Munich 184 = Furtwaengler and Reichhold, pl. 46 (Hieron); Gaz. Arch. 1887, 15 (Hieron in Brussels); Hartwig, Meistersch. pls. 6, 31–2.

722.  Hartwig, E.g. pl. 5; Wiener Vorl. E. 12, 1; Mus. Greg. ii. 79, 2E.g.; B.M. B 297 (Plate XXX.); Satyr as single figure, Louvre G 24.

723.  B.M. E 35, E 768; Hartwig, E.g. pl. 45 (Hieron); Cambridge 48.

724.  B.M. F 133; Naples 2419 = Furtwaengler and Reichhold, pl. 37; Forman Sale Cat. 352.

725.  B.M. B 296; Reinach, ii. 75 (Munich 62), 141; Karlsruhe 259 = Furtwaengler and Reichhold, pl. 30; Amer. Journ. of Arch. 1900, pp. 188–189; Vienna 231.

726.  Louvre F 334.

727.  B.M. B 426; Bibl. Nat. 320; Petersburg 9 = Reinach, ii. 24; J.H.S. 1899, pl. 5; Wiener Vorl. 1890–91, pl. 3, 2 (Nikosthenes).

728.  B.M. E 510.

729.  B.M. E 437, E 439, F 49, F 227.

730.  B.M. E 319; Mus. Greg. ii. 72, 2E.g.; Munich 408 = Furtwaengler and Reichhold, pls. 44–5.

731.  B.M. E 555; Berlin 2241; Naples S.A. 313; Reinach, i. 340, ii. 261 (Bibl. Nat. 852).

732.  B.M. B 265, E 368; Bibl. Nat. 539 = Reinach, ii. 261; Él. Cér. i. 45; Louvre F 161, F 381, G 34 (= Hartwig, pl. 6), G 46.

733.  B.M. F 192; Munich 184 = Furtwaengler-Reichhold, pl. 46 (Hieron); Reinach, i. 223 = Wiener Vorl. D. 5; and cf. Adamek, Vasen des Amasis, pl. 2 (in Berlin).

734.  Sale Cal. Hôtel Drouot, 11 May, 1903, No. 62.

735.  Reinach, i. 201.

736.  Roscher, i. 1998.

737.  Munich 332 = Baumeister, ii. p. 847, fig. 928.

738.  B.M. E 253, and cf. E 510; Bibl. Nat. 357 = Monuments Piot, vii. pl. 3; Munich 372 = Reinach, ii. 117; and cf. J.H.S. xix. p. 220.

739.  B.M. E 357; Karlsruhe 242; Reinach, i. 281 (?); Hartwig, Meistersch. p. 32.

740.  Athens 1353 = Bull. de Corr. Hell. 1895, p. 95; Bibl. Nat. 357 = Monuments Piot, vii. pl. 2; Munich 807 = Millingen-Reinach, pl. 5.

741.  Louvre F 311 = Reinach, i. 144.

742.  B.M. B 284 (?), B 486 (?); Reinach, ii. 77; Millin-Reinach, ii. 12.

743.  B.M. B 515, E 567.

744.  Millin-Reinach, ii. 49 A.

745.  Munich 542; Stackelberg, 24; Forman Sale Cat. 331 (as racing charioteers, driving Maenads).

746.  B.M. E 377; Louvre G 73 (trumpeting); Froehner, Musées de France, pl. 6; and see p. 56, note 663.

747.  B.M. E 3 (with pelta and trumpet); Louvre G 89.

748.  B.M. E 539.

749.  Millin-Reinach, i. 20.

750.  Inghirami, Mus. Chius. 208.

751.  B.M. E 487.

752.  B.M. E 108.

753.  See Vol. I. p. 216, Fig. 68.

754.  Berlin 2589 = Baumeister, iii. p. 1684, fig. 1766.

755.  Helbig, 186 = Mus. Greg. ii. 80, 1E.g..

756.  Berlin 2550.

757.  B.M. B 148.

758.  Berlin 2578.

759.  B.M. B 168; Reinach, ii. 98; with a mouse, Reinach, i. 500.

760.  B.M. E 102; B 168.

761.  B.M. E 139, E 338.

762.  Millingen-Reinach, 59.

763.  Boston Mus. Report, 1900, No. 14.

764.  Inghirami, Vasi Fitt. ii. 199.

765.  Berlin 2240; B.M. F 363; Wiener Vorl. C. 7, 1; Hartwig, Meistersch. pl. 45, p. 28; Forman Sale Cat. 331.

766.  B.M. E 24, E 261; Hartwig, E.g.

767.  Munich 139; Reinach, i. 460; Hartwig, pls. 7 and 44, 1.

768.  B.M. E 35, E 530, E 768.

769.  Berlin 2267 = Hartwig, E.g. pl. 2, 1.

770.  Reinach, ii. 303.

771.  Bourguignon Cat. 57; Louvre G 91.

772.  B.M. E 387, E 467.

773.  B.M. B 560, E 583; Berlin 2243; Louvre F 204 = Amer. Journ. of Arch. 1896, p. 14; Baumeister, i. p. 555, fig. 592.

774.  Naples 3235 = Reinach, i. 103 = Roscher, iii. 861.

775.  J.H.S. vii. pl. 62, p. 54.

776.  B.M. F 273; Reinach, ii. 201, 235; Naples 2846; Bourguignon Cat. 41, 57.

777.  See Loeschcke in Ath. Mitth. 1894, p. 521.

778.  Vol. I. pp. 353, 355, and p. 208 below.

779.  See generally Heydemann, Satyr- u. Bakchennamen.

780.  Cat. 2471.

781.  Reinach, ii. 268.

782.  E 65.

783.  See also Jatta Coll. 1093; B.M. E 253; Naples 2369; Roscher, iii. p. 2118; De Witte, Coll. à l’Hôtel Lambert, pls. 13, 27. For Terpon see also Reinach, i. 203, and Hartwig, Meistersch. pl. 6.

784.  B.M. E 253.

785.  Reinach, i. 249; Roscher, iii. p. 2115.

786.  De Witte, Coll. à l’Hôtel Lambert, 27.

787.  Reinach, ii. 200.

788.  Munich 384 = Reinach, i. 130 (see Heydemann, E.g. pp. 25, 36: cf. Hydris, B.M. E 65).

789.  Heydemann, Satyr- u. Bakchennamen, p. 29 (E.g.).

790.  B.M. E 82; Berlin 2471, 2532; Naples 2369; Reinach, i. 426, ii. 6, 38, 200.

791.  Berlin 2532.

792.  Reinach, ii. 287 (name also read as Molpos).

793.  Ibid. ii. 302.

794.  Berlin 2160.

795.  Munich 780; Naples 2369, 3235; Jatta 1093; Reinach, ii. 268.

796.  Naples 3235.

797.  Bologna 286.

798.  Naples 2369.

799.  Heydemann, E.g. p. 28 (x).

800.  Jatta 1093; Reinach, ii. 302.

801.  Jatta 1093.

802.  Berlin 3257.

803.  B.M. E 253.

804.  Reinach, ii. 6.

805.  Jatta 1093.

806.  Reinach, ii. 3 = Millin-Reinach, i. 9; Reinach, ii. 38.

807.  Heydemann, E.g. p. 29 (β).

808.  Ibid. (α).

809.  B.M. E 492; Naples 2419; Karlsruhe 208; De Witte, Coll. à l’Hôtel Lambert, 13.

810.  B.M. E 350: cf. Nymphe on Berlin 2471.

811.  Jatta 1093.

812.  B.M. E 182; Heydemann, p. 20 (X) = Dubois-Maisonneuve, Introd. 22.

813.  Naples S.A. 316; Heydemann, p. 19 (U).

814.  Heydemann. p. 19 (U).

815.  Gerhard, Ant. Bildw. pl. 59.

816.  Naples S.A. 172 = Reinach, i. 498.

817.  Pourtalès Cat. 29, 2.

818.  Naples 3235, 2419.

819.  Heydemann, p. 29 (z).

820.  Naples 2883.

821.  Strena Helbigiana, p. 111 = Boston Mus. Report, 1900, No. 20.

822.  B.M. E 183.

823.  B.M. B 261, B 425, F 332 (Plate XLV.).

824.  Munich 728; Mus. Greg. ii. 21, 1; and see Nos. 1–7 in the list given below.

825.  B.M. E 82, F 68.

826.  B.M. B 425: cf. Mus. Greg. ii. 21, 1.

827.  Millin-Reinach, ii. 10; Ber. d. sächs. Gesellsch. 1855, pls. 1–2.

828.  Roscher, i. p. 1802.

829.  See below, p. 99, and J.H.S. xviii. p. 296 (Hades is frequently present).

830.  See Nos. 1–4, 7, 8, 11; for Eurydike, Nos. 7–9.

831.  See Nos. 1–3 and 12–14; also Munich 153, and Louvre F 382.

832.  See No. 1; for the rock version of the legend, cf. Pind. Ol. i. 90.

833.  Nos. 2, 3, 5, 6; B.M. F 210; Munich 153 = Baumeister, iii. p. 1924, fig. 2040; Reinach, i. 408 (parody).

834.  Nos. 3, 4, 9 (P. only), and 11.

835.  No. 10.

836.  No. 1.

837.  Nos. 1, 2, 5, 9.

838.  Nos. 1–6, 10, 11.

839.  Nos. 1, 4, 10.

840.  No. 2 (see Baumeister, iii. p. 1928).

841.  No. 3.

842.  Nos. 1–5, 8.

843.  Nos. 3, 6, 10.

844.  Nos. 2, 3, 9.

845.  No. 11.

846.  See Nos. 5 and 8.

847.  Nos. 1–3: cf. Od. xi. 269, and Paus. x. 29, 7.

848.  No. 2.

849.  No. 1.

850.  Reinach, i. 408 (parody): cf. Paus. x. 29, 1.

851.  B.M. E 155; Berlin 3023 = Reinach, i. 330 = Baumeister, i. p. 767, fig. 821; and No. 5 above.

852.  B.M. D 61; Berlin 2455, 2680, 2681 (= Reinach, i, 457); Munich 209 = Baumeister, i. p. 378, fig. 414 (Fig. 122); Athens 1660–62 (= Ant. Denkm. i. 23); ibid. 1663, 1665 (= Bull. de Corr. Hell. i. pls. 1–2).

853.  B.M. F 486; Vienna 448 = Reinach, i. 343; Reinach, i. 220; Helbig, 121 = Reinach, ii. 121 is doubtful.

854.  Bibl. Nat. 918 = Reinach, i. 395 = Dennis, Etruria, ii. frontispiece.

855.  Bibl. Nat. 920 = Reinach, i. 88.

856.  See above, p. 69, note 838.

857.  See No. 5 above.

858.  See below, p. 138.

859.  Boston Mus. Report for 1899, No. 38.

860.  Reinach, i. 475.

861.  Ibid. i. 204, 290 (Berlin 3072).

862.  Naples 3221 = Ibid. i. 402.

863.  B.M. F 155: see below, p. 141.

864.  No. 8 above.

865.  Bibl. Nat. 269.

866.  See above, p. 69, note 843.

867.  B.M. F 68; Petersburg 525 = Reinach, i. 11.

868.  B.M. E 183; Reinach, ii. 324.

869.  Petersburg 1792 = Reinach, i. 1: cf. Rev. Arch. xxxvi. (1900), p. 93.

870.  B.M. F 277; Reinach, i. 99 (and see i. 155); E.g. i. 522, 1, and Baumeister, i. p. 423, fig. 463.

871.  Él. Cér. iii. 37 A.

872.  See Ubell, Thanatos, p. 22 ff. He doubts the possibility of the identification of Thanatos on Greek vases.

873.  Athens 1093 = Roscher, ii. 2678; Reinach, i. 149 = Baumeister, i. p. 727, fig. 781: cf. Louvre F 388 (where Pottier identifies the warrior as Sarpedon).

874.  B.M. D 58 (= Fig. 123), E 12 (= Wiener Vorl. D. pl. 3, figs. 1–2); Athens 1654 = Dumont-Pottier, i. pl. 29; Arch. Anzeiger, 1893, p. 86 (in Berlin); with body of woman, Athens 1653 = Dumont-Pottier, i. pls. 27–28, and Jahrbuch, 1895, pl. 2. All but two of these are funeral lekythi.

875.  Reinach, i. 278.

876.  B.M. E 155.

877.  Berlin 2157 = Jahrbuch, i. p. 211; Arch. Anzeiger, 1895, p. 37 (see under Herakles, p. 103, note 1172).

878.  See J.H.S. xii. p. 340 (Ker seizing soul of fallen warrior); also for a Ker in combats, Reinach, ii. 63, 126 (Munich 781), 97 (in the latter case protecting Aeneas against Diomede); also i. 113 (Berlin 1713, 1714), 223, where they represent demons of good or evil according to the will of the gods.

879.  See Robert, Thanatos, and J.H.S. xii. p. 345. The Ker hovering over Alkyoneus (see below, p. 100) in Reinach, i. 255, 451, may be a Hypnos (see Koepp in Arch. Zeit. 1884, p. 42 ff.).

880.  B.M. D 54; Benndorf, Gr. u. Sic. Vasenb. pls. 14, 33; Athens 688 = Reinach, i. 165 = Roscher, ii. 1147; Stackelberg, pl. 48: and cf. Reinach, i. 347 (= Bourguignon Cat. 19) and Benndorf, E.g. pl. 42, 2; in the former the soul is armed; in the latter the winged figure may be the Κήρ. There often seems to be a confusion between the εἴδωλον or ghost and the Κήρ or Δαίμων, both in its functions and its art-form. Thus, on the vase given in J.H.S. xx. p. 101 (see p. 52), small winged figures like souls are seen flying out of the jar, which are here intended to represent evil spirits or maleficent ghosts, like the evils let out of the jar by Pandora.

881.  B.M. B 639; Reinach, i. 89; Millin-Reinach, i. 19.

882.  B.M. B 240, B 543; Berlin 1921.

883.  Fig. 112, p. 14; Naples 2883 = Reinach, i. 181: cf. the beautiful conception on the Pergamene frieze.

884.  B.M. E 182 and Petersburg 1792 = Reinach, i. 1; Reinach, i. 66, 113, 208.

885.  B.M. E 278, Reinach, i. 244 (Louvre E 864), 245, 249; B.M. B 196.

886.  B.M. B 168, B 213; Él. Cér. ii. 1, 2.

887.  Bibl. Nat. 298 = Reinach, i. 249, 4 = J.H.S. xx. p. 106, fig. 2 (and cf. ibid. xix. p. 235); Naples 3355 = Reinach, i. 248; Él. Cér. i. 53 = Reinach, i. 249, 6: cf. also B.M. F 147; Froehner, Musées de France, p. 69; Harrison, Prolegomena to Gk. Religion, p. 277; and see above, p. 29.

888.  As on the vase J.H.S. xxi. pl. 1, p. 5: cf. Schol. in Ar. Av. 971, and Sophocles’ drama of Pandora or the Hammerers (Σφυροκόποι): see also Jahrbuch, vi. (1891), p. 113 ff., and for another explanation, Robert, Arch. Märchen, p. 194 ff. A vase in Berlin (Cat. 2646 = Reinach, i. 229 = J.H.S. xix. p. 232) represents the Ἄνοδος of Ge-Pandora, with Satyrs astonished at the sight.

889.  Munich 558; Naples S.A. 287; Reinach, i. 129.

890.  Hes. Theog. 116; Ar. Av. 696 ff.

891.  Gaz. Arch. 1875, pl. 9.

892.  Roscher, ii. p. 1550.

893.  B.M. E 246: see J.H.S. xi. p. 343.

894.  Berlin 2538 = Reinach, ii. 162.

895.  Petersburg 1793 = Reinach, i. 3; but see below, p. 125.

896.  Petersburg 1807 = Reinach, i. 7.

897.  B.M. B 49 = Reinach, ii. 122; Millin-Reinach, i. 50.

898.  See Ath. Mitth. xiii. (1888), p. 412 ff. and J.H.S. xiii. p. 77 ff.; also Vol. I. p. 391.

899.  Ath. Mitth. 1888, pl. 9.

900.  B.M. F 270: see Daremberg and Saglio, Dict., E.g. Cabeiri.

901.  See above, p. 73, note 888, for representations of Ge-Pandora rising from the earth, which may be considered in connection with the creation of Pandora.

902.  D 4.

903.  E 467, 789; J.H.S. xxi. pl. 1 (here P. rises out of the ground, assisted by Epimetheus with his hammer; Zeus and Hermes are present).

904.  J.H.S. xx. p. 101: see above, p. 52.

905.  Bibl. Nat. 542 = Reinach, i. 141.

906.  Berlin 1722 = Wiener Vorl. D. 9, 8, and another B.F. vase in Reinach, i. 388; Jahrbuch, iv. (1889), pls. 5–6, fig. 1.

907.  Helbig, 275 = Reinach, ii. 48 = Baumeister, iii. p. 1411, fig. 1567.

908.  B.M. F 148; Naples 3255 = Reinach, i. 236.

909.  Berlin 3245 = Gerhard, Ges. Akad. Abhandl. pl. 19; Athens 957 = J.H.S. xiii. pl. 3 (H. bears the heavens).

910.  Reinach, i. 471.

911.  Athens 1926 = Reinach, i. 515. Possibly also on a Berlin vase (Arch. Anzeiger, 1890, p. 89) with a similar subject, which may, however, denote a “sepulchral banquet.” See Harrison, Prolegomena to Gk. Religion, p. 349.

912.  B.M. E 224, E 698.

913.  B.M. B 218, 244 (Fig. 113), E 410; Louvre E 861 and Berlin 1704 = Reinach, i. 156, 198.

914.  Athens 1962.

915.  Ibid. 466 = Plate XLVII.

916.  B.M. E 720; Munich 351 = Reinach, ii. 46; Berlin 2248 = Benndorf, Gr. u. Sic. Vasenb. 27, 2; Bibl. Nat. 841 = Millin-Reinach, i. 62; Roscher, ii. p. 350 (with tablets; B.F. in Louvre).

917.  Reinach, ii. 324; ibid. 325 = Él. Cér. i. 32 (may be Nike).

918.  B.M. E 67; Bibl. Nat. 444; Reinach, i. 99, 339, 463: and see Arch. Anzeiger, 1895, p. 38 (Berlin).

919.  B.M. E 65 = Reinach, i. 193; Berlin 2591: cf. Bibl. Nat. 840 = Reinach, ii. 260.

920.  J.H.S. i. pl. 3.

921.  B.M. E 467.

922.  Berlin 1895.

923.  François vase.

924.  Reinach, i. 301.

925.  B.M. R.F. amphora (uncatalogued).

926.  Reinach, ii. 34.

927.  Ibid. ii. 296: see p. 39.

928.  Ibid. ii. 47.

929.  Ibid. ii. 279.

930.  B.M. E 381(?); Él. Cér. i. 20, 31 (= Reinach, ii. 9), 33 (= E.g. ii. 321).

931.  B.F. (H. in chariot): B.M. B 201, 317; Bibl. Nat. 253 = Reinach, i. 399; Reinach, ii. 76, 161. In Olympos: B.F.: B.M. B 379. R.F.: Reinach, ii. 186.

932.  Berlin 3257 = Baumeister, i. p. 630, fig. 700; Forman Sale Cat. 364; Reinach, ii. 8: see p. 108.

933.  Berlin 2278 = Ant. Denkm. i. 9; Reinach, i. 157, 203; Roscher, iii. p. 2119 (with Aphrodite).

934.  Jatta 1093; Reinach, i. 175.

935.  Petersburg 1807 = Reinach, i. 7.

936.  Mon. Grecs, 1889–90, p. 5 ff.: see also on the subject generally the article Personifikationen in Roscher’s Lexikon.

937.  Él. Cér. ii. 62 = Reinach, ii. 287: see above, p. 32.

938.  B.F.: Berlin 1983; Bibl. Nat. 220 and Reinach, ii. 211 = Él. Cér. ii. 115–116 (in the former case the solar disc is on his head). Late: B.M. F 305; Reinach, i. 258 (Karlsruhe 388), 368; Millin-Reinach, i. 16, ii. 49.

939.  Reinach, i. 99, 100, 312 (Naples 3222), 291 = Él. Cér. ii. 114 (Hemera); Inghirami, Vasi Fitt. 394 (?see p. 79, note 954). In the last but one they step out of a boat.

940.  Reinach, i. 232.

941.  B.M. E 466 = Plate LIII. A general view in colours, Art Journal, Sept. 1904.

942.  Reinach, i. 99.

943.  Ibid. i. 100.

944.  Ibid. i. 125.

945.  Wiener Vorl. E. 11 = Jahrbuch, 1894, p. 252.

946.  Reinach, i. 236.

947.  Ibid. i. 109.

948.  Cambridge 100 = Stackelberg, pl. 15; Athens 900 = J.H.S. xix. pl. 9.

949.  B.M. E 252, 466, 776; Berlin 2519 = Coll. Sabouroff, i. 63; Reinach, i. 312 (Naples 3222), 451.

950.  Berlin 2293 = J.H.S. xix. p. 268 (a fine R.F. kylix); Athens 1345 = J.H.S. xix. pl. 10. The figure in the chariot may be perhaps identified as Nyx; see Berlin 2519, where Selene rides a horse and another goddess drives a chariot; also B.M. E 776. See Art Journal, Sept. 1904, p. 290.

951.  Petersburg 1793 = Reinach, i. 3.

952.  Reinach, i. 402.

953.  Ibid. ii. 319 = Él. Cér. ii. 118.

954.  B.M. E 466 (Plate LIII.); Naples 3256 = Reinach, i. 100 (here as stars).

955.  B.M. E 466; Reinach, i. 236, 291 (?), 339; Inghirami, Vasi Fitt. iv. 394 (?).

956.  Bibl. Nat. 449 = Reinach, i. 129: cf. B.M. F 573, E 658, E 659, and Art Journal, Sept. 1904, p. 289.

957.  But see above, note 950; p. 30, note 239.

958.  R.F.: B.M. E 449, E 776 (? Nyx; see above); Helbig, 132 = Reinach, ii. 46. Late: Millin-Reinach, ii. 37 (with Hermes; vase by Lasimos in Louvre).

959.  Millingen, Anc. Uned. Mon. i. 6 = Él. Cér. ii. 108 A = Roscher, i. 1257; De Witte, Coll. à l’Hôtel Lambert, pl. 6.

960.  B.F.: Louvre E 702 = Reinach, i. 354. R.F.: B.M. E 72, 466; Reinach, i. 463 (= Bibl. Nat. 423), and ii. 81 (= Helbig, 80); Reinach, i. 107 = Hartwig, Meistersch. pls. 39–40 (by Hieron; may be either K. or T.); Bibl. Nat. 374 = Millin-Reinach, ii. 34. Late: Millin-Reinach, i. 48. Eos carrying K.: Berlin 2537 = Reinach, i. 208.

961.  Oxford 275 = J.H.S. xiii. p. 137; Bibl. Nat. 846.

962.  B.M. F 149.

963.  Reinach, ii. 105; B.M. E 468: see Reinach, i. 144, ii. 254 (Bibl. Nat. 207).

964.  Reinach, i. 156, 1.

965.  Reinach, i. 347 = Bourguignon Sale Cat. 19; Millingen, Anc. Uned. Mon. i. pl. 5; Roscher, i. 1265 = Wiener Vorl. vi. 7.

966.  B.M. B 104 = Vol. I. p. 351; and cf. Él. Cér. iii. 31 ff.

967.  B.M. B 431, B 445; Forman Sale Cat. 318.

968.  B.M. F 237.

969.  B.M. B 212.

970.  B.M. F 39; Berlin 2305 = Hartwig, Meistersch. pl. 72, 1; ibid. pl. 22, 1 (see p. 47, note 50612); and cf. Reinach, ii. 248; Philologus, 1893, p. 211.

971.  B.M. D 59.

972.  B.M. E 480, E 512; J.H.S. xviii. pl. 6; Berlin 2165 = Reinach, i. 352; Munich 376 = Reinach, i. 240 = Baumeister, i. p. 352, fig. 373; Reinach, i. 305; Helbig, 101 = Reinach, ii. 78 = Wiener Vorl. ii. 9; Rayet and Collignon, p. 299 (in Louvre).

973.  Berlin 2165 = Reinach, i. 352.

974.  Reinach, i. 346: cf. Serv. ad Aen. iii. 209; Ann. dell’ Inst. 1882, p. 90 ff.; Roscher, iii. p. 1566.

975.  B.M. B 4, B 104: see Studniczka, Kyrene, p. 26, and J.H.S. xiii. p. 109 ff.

976.  See below pagelink?], pp. 115, 116.

977.  B.M. E 804 = J.H.S. xiii. p. 135.

978.  B.M. F 277.

979.  B.M. F 149.

980.  Munich 384 = Reinach, i. 130; Reinach, i. 481.

981.  De Witte, Coll. à l’Hôtel Lambert, pl. 11: cf. Reinach, i. 1.

982.  B.M. E 228 (see note in Cat.); F 381.

983.  See especially Studniczka, Kyrene, and on the subject generally, J.H.S. ix. p. 47 ff.

984.  Naples 3253 = Reinach, i. 194.

985.  Naples 3256 = Reinach, i. 98.

986.  B.M. F 271.

987.  B.M. E 140 = Plate LI.

988.  Naples 3226 = Millingen, Anc. Uned. Mon. i. pl. 27; Millin-Reinach, ii. 7 (in Louvre); Berlin 2634 = Roscher, ii. 837.

989.  G 104.

990.  B.M. B 319; Naples 3255 = Reinach, i. 235; ibid. i. 466 (Petersburg 523), ii. 51.

991.  B.M. E 48, 74, 84; Ant. Denkm. ii. 1: see Arch. Zeit. 1885, p. 116, and Loeschcke in Dorpater Programm for 1887.

992.  Boston Mus. Report, 1900, p. 63.

993.  B.M. B 4, B 6. See Vol. I. p. 341 ff.

994.  See above, pp. 19, 24.

995.  See above, p. 19.

996.  Reinach, ii. 144: see Paus. iii. 1, 2, and 18, 10; Apollod. iii. 10, 3, 1; Hartwig, Meistersch. p. 491, note.

997.  De Witte, Coll. à l’Hôtel Lambert, pl. 28.

998.  Jatta 1501 = Furtwaengler and Reichhold, pl. 38.

999.  Naples 3235 = Reinach, i. 103 = Roscher, iii. 861.

1000.  B.M. E 437 (fish-body); and see p. 101.

1001.  Petersburg 350 = Reinach, i. 12.

1002.  Naples 3226 = Millingen, Anc. Uned. Mon. i. pl. 27 (Ismenos and Krenaia): cf. Millin-Reinach, ii. 7. The nymph Dirke is, according to Robert, represented in the figure rising from the ground to receive the child Dionysos at his birth on the vase Petersburg 1792 = Reinach i. 1 (otherwise Gaia): see his Arch. Märchen, p. 185.

1003.  Él. Cér. ii. 86; Munich 805 = Reinach, i. 391 (see ibid. p. 277) = Wiener Vorl. iv. 4.

1004.  François vase (at Peleus and Thetis’ nuptials); B.M. E 805; Berlin 2391, 2401 (Klio and Terpsichore): cf. Bull. de Corr. Hell. 1895, p. 102 (in Louvre; three figures named Ourania, Kalliope, and Melpomene).

1005.  B.M. E 271.

1006.  Reinach, i. 526 = Jatta 1538.

1007.  See p. 32.

1008.  F 478; and see Jatta 654 = Gaz. Arch. 1880, pl. 19, for a possible instance.

1009.  Berlin 2278 = Ant. Denkm. i. 9.

1010.  Petersburg 350 = Reinach, i. 12.

1011.  Louvre E 861 = Reinach, i. 156.

1012.  See p. 70; and also p. 137, under Orestes.

1013.  B.M. E 290.

1014.  Reinach, i. 255, 451 (but see note 879 on p. 72).

1015.  Reinach, i. 222 = Plate XXXIX.; Boston Mus. Report, 1900, No. 25.

1016.  B.M. E 12; Reinach, i. 149 = Baumeister, i. p. 727, fig. 781.

1017.  B.M. D 58 = Fig. 123; Jahrbuch, 1895, pl. 2; Dumont-Pottier, i. pls. 27–8.

1018.  Berlin 2661 = Rayet and Collignon, p. 257. For Ploutos see also Reinach, i. 1 (at birth of Dionysos), and the following notes.

1019.  Munich 291 = Reinach, ii. 47 (more probably Iris).

1020.  Rev. Arch. xxxvi. (1900), p. 93.

1021.  See e.g. B.M. E 287, E 574 (Plate XXXVI.), E 643; Oxford 312–314.

1022.  Studniczka, Siegesgöttin (1898), and in Roscher’s Lexikon, iii. p. 318: see also Sikes, Nike of Archermos (Cambridge, 1890), and J.H.S. xiii. p. 111 ff. Studniczka regards the following as certain B.F. instances: B.M. B 1, B 1063, B 1252, B 334; Jahrbuch, 1889, pls. 5–6, figs. 2, 2a; Jahn, Entführung d. Europa, pl. 5. The instances on late careless B.F. vases, such as B 356, B 357, B 652 in B.M., are not to the point, as these belong to the fifth century.

1023.  B.M. E 444; Reinach, i. 157, 1; Mus. Greg. ii. 21, 1; Berlin 2278 = Ant. Denkm. i. 9.

1024.  Él. Cér. i. 14 (in B.M.); Reinach, i. 66, 194, 417, ii. 266 (N. crowning Z.); Berlin 2167 (Z. and Poseidon).

1025.  Él. Cér. i. 32 and iii. 38 (= Berlin 2317); Petersburg 355 = Reinach, i. 14.

1026.  Naples 3373; Él. Cér. i. 76 A: cf. Reinach, i. 1, 3, 5, 37, 158; B.M. B 608, 610, E 523; Él. Cér. i. 68.

1027.  B.M. E 445.

1028.  Reinach, i. 14, 253 (Bibl. Nat. 392), 406, 511, ii. 310; Naples 1891 = Él. Cér. ii. 35; ibid. ii. 48.

1029.  B.M. E 432.

1030.  Reinach, ii. 290.

1031.  B.M. E 262; Reinach, i. 22, 251; B.M. F 178, Athens 1346 = Dumont-Pottier, i. pl. 15, Jahrbuch, 1892, p. 69 (N. crowning H.).

1032.  See p. 107, note 1222.

1033.  Mon. Grecs, 1875, pls. 1–2; Petersburg 523 = Reinach, i. 467.

1034.  B.M. E 410.

1035.  Reinach, i. 286 (?), 398 (Berlin 2521).

1036.  B.M. F 109; Reinach, i. 7.

1037.  B.M. E 182; Reinach, i. 1, 3.

1038.  Reinach, i. 113; and cf. BM. E 788.

1039.  Berlin 3023 = Reinach, i. 330.

1040.  Overbeck, Her. Bildw. 18, 7.

1041.  Millingen, Anc. Uned. Mon. i. 22; Reinach, i. 358 (unwinged figure; may be Eris).

1042.  Naples 3231 = Reinach, i. 299.

1043.  Reinach, i. 236.

1044.  Ibid. i. 361 (crowning them); Inghirami, Vasi Fitt. 187.

1045.  Reinach, ii. 49; i. 108, 195.

1046.  Ibid. i. 390.

1047.  Ibid. i. 98.

1048.  B.M. F 163; Reinach, i. 197, 8, ii. 198, 287.

1049.  B.M. E 574 = Plate XXXVI.; B.M. E 287, E 643; Reinach, ii. 7.

1050.  Reinach, i. 254 (Bibl. Nat. 392), 340, Athens 1018 = Benndorf, Gr. u. Sic. Vasenb. 19, 3 (torch); B.M. E 251, E 513, Roscher, iii. 329, Benndorf, op. cit. 47, 2 (incense-burner); B.M. E 574 (lamp); Oxford 274, Athens 1362, Reinach, ii. 235, 310, De Witte, Coll. à l’Hôtel Lambert, pl. 4, Benndorf, op. cit. 47, 1 (lyre); Athens 1362, Reinach, i. 410 (tripod); Benndorf, op. cit. 48, 1 (wreath). On Oxford 312 she plays on a lyre. On her costume and attributes generally see Roscher, iii. p. 330.

1051.  Munich 351 = Reinach, ii. 46: see above, p. 76, note 1048.

1052.  Petersburg 355 = Reinach, i. 14; B.M. F 109; Jatta 1050.

1053.  B.M. E 455–56; Reinach, i. 195, ii. 180; ibid. i. 403, 428; Roscher, iii. 330; Cab. Pourtalès, pl. 6.

1054.  Reinach, i. 492.

1055.  B.M. F 66 = Fig. 124; Naples 2684 = Reinach, i. 474; Reinach, ii. 206; Boston Mus. Report, 1898, No. 51.

1056.  J.H.S. vii. p. 275 ff.

1057.  Munich 386 = Reinach, ii. 46 = Furtwaengler and Reichhold, pl. 19.

1058.  Inghirami, Vasi Fitt. 361.

1059.  Athens 1026 = Benndorf, Gr. u. Sic. Vasenb. 23, 2.

1060.  Oxford 265; B.M. E 538; Él. Cér. i. 100.

1061.  Reinach, ii. 216.

1062.  B.M. B 608; Berlin 2211 = Él. Cér. i. 96.

1063.  B.M. E 700; Reinach, ii. 326 = Roscher, iii. 326 (here she is putting on the inscription).

1064.  B.M. F 550.

1065.  Berlin 2661 = Rayet and Collignon, p. 257.

1066.  Reinach, ii. 4; Millin-Reinach, i. 24; Jatta 1050.

1067.  B.M. E 264, 275, 476, 576.

1068.  B.M. E 379.

1069.  B.M. E 128; Reinach, i. 268.

1070.  B.M. F 170; Reinach, i. 45, 378, 2, ii. 187, 230, 292.

1071.  Reinach, ii. 262 (Bibl. Nat. 364), 291; and see 298.

1072.  Millin-Reinach, ii. 72.

1073.  B.M. B 607; Stackelberg, pl. 25 (Hegias); Oxford 288 (Cat. pl. 15); Louvre F 109 (? Agon).

1074.  Reinach, ii. 320; Tyszkiewicz Coll. pl. 35 (now in B.M.); Inghirami, Vasi Fitt. 363.

1075.  Reinach, i. 322.

1076.  B.M. E 460, 469; Reinach, i. 49, 378, ii. 274.

1077.  Vol. I. p. 223.

1078.  Reinach, i. 63.

1079.  B.M. B 1 (?); Petersburg 183 = Micali, Storia, pl. 87; Reinach, ii. 126 (?); Daremberg and Saglio, Dict. s.v. Agon, fig. 180; Louvre F 109: see also Burlington Fine Arts Club Cat. (1903), pp. 92, 97.

1080.  B.M. F 20; Berlin 3023; Millingen-Reinach, 36; Helbig, 90 = Mus. Greg. ii. 60, 3; and see Knapp, Nike, p. 37.

1081.  See above, p. 49.

1082.  See p. 43.

1083.  Jahreshefte, 1899, p. 16 = Reinach, i. 279; but more probably the scene refers to Orestes and Pylades in Tauris.

1084.  Vienna 319 = Reinach, i. 353: for Dike in under-world see p. 69.

1085.  Naples 3253 = Reinach, i. 194.

1086.  Naples 3233 = Reinach, i. 239.

1087.  Berlin 1732 = Reinach, ii. 66; B.M. B 364, B 365: see Reinach, i. 223.

1088.  See Roscher, iii. p. 2934.

1089.  Louvre E 723: see Ath. Mitth. 1902, p. 255.

1090.  Reinach, ii. 26, 4 (in Louvre).

1091.  B.M. B 334; Berlin 1775; Karlsruhe 259; Petersburg 1807 = Reinach, i. 7 (at Judgment of Paris); Reinach, i. 100 (with Pelops), ii. 26, 1, 161; Baumeister, i. p. 18, fig. 20.

1092.  For unidentified winged deities see Louvre F 54 = Wiener Vorl. 1888, pl. 5, fig. 2 (Exekias); Wiener Vorl. 1890–91, pl. 3, fig. 2 (Nikosthenes).

1093.  Naples 3222 = Baumeister, iii. p. 1927, fig. 2042 A: see p. 69.

1094.  Reinach, ii. 100 (now in B.M.: see Class. Review, 1899, p. 468).

1095.  Naples 3237 = Baumeister, ii. p. 834, fig. 918 (?): see below, p. 91, note 1098, for other interpretations.

1096.  Millingen-Reinach, 23.

1097.  Reinach, i. 173.

1098.  Ibid. i. 229 (in Boston); B.M. F 279; B.M. F 271 and Naples 3237 = Baumeister, ii. p. 834, fig. 918: cf. Reinach, i. 331, 1. The name of Typhlosis (Blindness) has also been suggested for the figure on the Naples vase.

1099.  Vol. I. p. 480 (Assteas vase in Madrid).

1100.  Munich 810 = Reinach, i. 363.

1101.  See above, p. 65, for instances.

1102.  B.M. E 492; Naples 2419; Karlsruhe 208.

1103.  Berlin 2471.

1104.  B.M. B 210: see p. 58, note 701.

1105.  B.M. E 224.

1106.  Naples 2873 (Assteas).

1107.  B.M. E 455.

1108.  Munich 378.

1109.  Naples 3255 = Reinach, i. 235.

1110.  Berlin 2658 = Reinach, i. 375.

1111.  B.M. F 111.


Kastor and Polydeukes—Herakles and his twelve labours—Other contests—Relations with deities—Apotheosis—Theseus and his labours—Later scenes of his life—Perseus—Pelops and Bellerophon—Jason and the Argonauts—Theban legends—The Trojan cycle—Peleus and Thetis—The Judgment of Paris—Stories of Telephos and Troilos—Scenes from the Iliad—The death of Achilles and the Fall of Troy—The Odyssey—The Oresteia—Attic and other legends—Orpheus and the Amazons—Monsters—Historical and literary subjects.

In treating of the subject of heroic legends, we propose to deal first with the more prominent heroes, such as Kastor and Polydeukes, Herakles, Theseus, and Perseus, and with the tales of Thebes and Troy; next with the series of myths connected specially with Attica or other localities; then with semi-mythical personages, such as Orpheus and Thamyris, which lead us on to the next division of the subject—scenes connected with Greek history.

Kastor and Polydeukes do not play a very extensive part on vases; and as they are not further characterised than by the petasos and two spears, which are the ordinary equipment of young horsemen, they are not always to be identified with certainty, except in mythological scenes. Among these they appear in the Gigantomachia,[1112] or in company with Herakles are initiated into the lesser mysteries at Agra[1113]; they are also seen at the apotheosis of Herakles.[1114] They are present when Leda discovers the egg laid by Nemesis,[1115] and on two B.F. vases appear with Leda and Tyndareus in a family group[1116]; they are also seen in company with Hermes,[1117] with Paris and Helen,[1118] with Danaos taking refuge in Attica,[1119] in a scene from the Merope of Euripides,[1120] and at the slaying of the Sphinx by Oedipus.[1121] They take part in the hunt of the Calydonian boar,[1122] and in many scenes from the Argonautika, such as the death of Talos,[1123] the punishment of Amykos,[1124] and others of doubtful meaning.[1125] There is more than one representation of their carrying off the Leukippidae,[1126] the best being the beautiful Meidias vase in the British Museum (Plate XLI.), where all the figures are named.[1127] They appear as hunters,[1128] as deified beings present at a Theoxenia (lectisternium), or feast of the gods,[1129] and are crowned by Nike (with stars over their heads).[1130]


Of all the heroic legends the most numerous and the most important are those of the Herakleid. They appear on vases of all periods, though in the largest proportion on the black-figured varieties, and include every event in his life, from his birth to his deified life in Olympos. Of the visit of Zeus to his mother Alkmena we have already spoken, as also of her apotheosis.[1131] As an infant we see Herakles engaged in strangling

the serpents sent by Hera, while his brother Iphikles recoils in terror[1132]; later on Hera appears to be reconciled to his existence, for she is actually seen suckling him at her breast.[1133] Next he is carried off by Hermes to Cheiron the Centaur for his education,[1134] and we see him undergoing instruction on the lyre from Linos,[1135] or on his way, accompanied by an old woman carrying his lyre.[1136] By the time when his series of labours begins he is usually represented as a full-grown bearded man, especially on the archaic vases; but he appears in a few instances as a quite youthful beardless figure.

Of all the achievements of Herakles the most famous are the Twelve Labours, to which he was subjected by Hera at the hands of Eurystheus. We find them all represented on vases, with the exception of the cleansing of the Augean stables, which may be presumed to have offered too many difficulties to the painter; it only occurs once in the whole history of Greek art, on a metope at Olympia. The horses of Diomede only occur once, the Keryneian stag thrice, and the Stymphalian birds five times; but the rest may be described as common. In all these scenes Herakles is usually accompanied by Athena; also, but less frequently, by Iolaos and Hermes.

I. The Nemean Lion.

Of this subject we find two “normal” types on B.F. vases,[1137] with one or two abnormal versions; on R.F. vases the treatment is less stereotyped.

B.F. (1) Standing type:—Herakles plunges sword into lion’s neck (both upright): B.M. B 160, B 232, B 621 (Plate XXX.). H. strangles lion: Berlin 1720 = Wiener Vorl. 1888, 6, 3 (Exekias); Wiener Vorl. 1889, 6, 3 (Charitaios).

(2) Crouching type:—Herakles stoops and strangles lion: B.M. B 159, B 199, B 318 (Fig. 125); Petersburg 68 = Wiener Vorl. 1889, 4, 6 (Taleides).

(3) Abnormal:—Lion on its back; Herakles slays it with club: Reinach, ii. 52. Herakles pursues lion: Louvre F 108 = Wiener Vorl. 1890–91, pl. 1, 5 (Nikosthenes).

R.F. (1) Herakles with lion over shoulder about to hurl it on Eurystheus (type borrowed from Erymanthian Boar, see below): B.M. B 193 = Plate XXXII. (Andokides).

(2) Crouching type: Munich 415 = Reinach, i. 150 = Baumeister, i. p. 656, fig. 723; B.M. E 168; Röm. Mitth. v. (1890), pl. 12 = Wiener Vorl. 1890–91, 7, 2 (Nikosthenes, in Boston). See also B.M. E 104 (abnormal).


We may also note here a curious B.F. vase, on which Herakles is seen in the forests of Nemea preparing the lion’s skin for his own wear.[1138]

II. The Cretan Bull.

Type: Herakles seizes the bull from the front and ties its legs with a cord.

B.F. B.M. B 309; Berlin 1886, 1898; Helbig, 31; Reinach, ii. 55, 5 = Baumeister, i. p. 660, fig. 727.

R.F. B.M. E 104; Wiener Vorl. 1890–91, pl. 7, 2 (Nikosthenes, in Boston) = Röm. Mitth. v. (1890), p. 324.

Late. Berlin 3145 = Millingen-Reinach, 11; Athens 1931.

See also a very remarkable vase in Forman Sale Cat. No. 305 (now at Boston), where the same subject appears each side, one B.F., the other R.F. (by Andokides).[1139]

III. The Erymanthian Boar (see Klein, Euphronios, p. 87).

(1) The capture:

B.M. B 462; Louvre F 236; Berlin 1981, 2034; Naples 2705 and S.A. 150; Athens 858, 860 (all B.F.).

(2) The bringing back of the boar (Eurystheus absent; Athena usually receives the hero):

B.M. B 447, 492; Cambridge 57; Munich 694; Athens 1097 (all B.F.).


(3) Herakles hurls the boar upon Eurystheus, who hides himself in a large sunk jar (πίθος):

B.F. B.M. B 161 (Fig. 126); Reinach, ii. 55, 1; Helbig, 37; Louvre F 59, 202.

R.F. B.M. E 44 (Euphronios) = Furtwaengler and Reichhold, pl. 23; Louvre G 17 = Wiener Vorl. 1890, pl. 10.

IV. The Keryneian Stag.

B.F. B.M. B 169, B 231.

R.F. Reinach, i. 233.

A dispute between Apollo and Herakles over a stag (Rein. ii. 56, 3: see p. 34) may perhaps be referred to this subject, as the myth is not otherwise known, but it is more usually Artemis who endeavours to thwart Herakles’ capture.

V. The Stymphalian Birds.

Found only on four B.F. vases (B.M. B 163; Louvre F 387; Arch. Anzeiger, 1892, p. 172; and Munich 1111 = Reinach, ii. 58) and one late example (Reinach, ii. 297). Herakles shoots the birds with bow and arrow.

VI. The Lernaean Hydra.

This subject, occurring only on archaic vases, has no very fixed type; the Hydra has seven or nine heads, and the body of a serpent or of a cuttle-fish. Iolaos sometimes assists Herakles, and in two cases the crab sent by Hera is also visible.

B.F. Early: Reinach, i. 389; Jahrbuch, 1898, pl. 12; Reinach, i. 118 (6) = Louvre E 851.

Later: Reinach, i. 118 (1) = Berlin 1854 (crab); ibid. 118 (3); 118 (5) = Louvre F 386 = Millin-Reinach, ii. 75 (Athena slays crab); Reinach, ii. 53 = Baumeister, i. p. 657, fig. 724; Berlin 1801 = Wiener Vorl. 1889, 7, 3: see also Athens 792 = Heydemann, Gr. Vasenb. pl. 4, 1, where two successive scenes are given.

R.F. Reinach, ii. 76. Hydra has cuttle-fish body and ten or eleven heads.

VII. The Horses of Diomede.

Naples 2506; Reinach, ii. 297 (?).

VIII. The Augean Stables.

Not found on vases.

IX. The Combat with Geryon and Capture of his Cattle.

A very favourite subject on B.F. and early vases, including some of the finest specimens. Geryon is at first winged and only three-headed, then triple-bodied, represented as three armed warriors united,[1140] one or two of whom generally fall wounded. Herakles attacks with bow.

Early B.F. “Proto-Corinthian”: B.M. A 487 = J.H.S. v. p. 176. Chalcidian: B.M. B 155; Bibl. Nat. 202 = Reinach, ii. 58 and 253 = Plate XXII.

Late B.F. B.M. B 156, B 194; Louvre F 53 = Reinach, ii. 59 = Baumeister, i. p. 662, fig. 729 (Exekias); J.H.S. xviii. p. 299, and Bibl. Nat. 223 (abnormal types).

R.F. Munich 337 (Plate XXXVIII.) = Furtwaengler and Reichhold, 22 (Euphronios); Noel des Vergers, Étrurie, pl. 38.

Late. Berlin 3258; Naples 1924 = Millingen-Reinach, 27.

The driving off of the cattle by Herakles is also represented:

B.M. E 104; Reinach, ii. 58, 5; and see Klein, Euphronios, p. 61.

X. The Girdle of Hippolyta.

B.F. B.M. B 533.

Late. Naples 3241 = Reinach, i. 384.

Besides the scenes in which Herakles is evidently capturing the girdle, there are many vases on which he is seen in combat with Hippolyte and other Amazons, such as Andromache or Alkaia, assisted himself by Iolaos or Telamon.

B.F. B.M. B 154, B 426; Louvre E 875; Cambridge 44; Bourguignon Sale Cat. 18 (Exekias); Berlin 3988 = Coll. Sabouroff, i. pl. 49.

R.F. B.M. E 45; Reinach, i. 166; Bibl. Nat. 535 = Reinach, ii. 265; Bologna 322; Reinach, i. 353 = Wiener Vorl. vii. 4, 1 (Duris).

Late. Jatta 423 = Reinach, i. 206.

XI. Fetching Kerberos from Hades.

The various types and methods of representing this subject have been collected in J.H.S. xviii. p. 296; as typical examples may be given:

Early B.F. Louvre E 701 = Reinach, i. 153; Reinach, i. 389, ii. 32.

Late B.F. J.H.S. xviii. p. 295 (in B.M.); Reinach, ii. 69.

R.F. Jahrbuch viii. (1893), pl. 2 (in Berlin) and p. 160 (in Boston).

Late. On several of the “under-world” vases, see p. 68, Nos. 1–4, 11.

XII. Fetching the Golden Apples from the Garden of the Hesperides.

There are two versions of this myth. In one, which seems to be the earlier, Atlas fetches the apples, while Herakles supports the universe for him (see above, p. 75). The vases representing Herakles in the Garden surrounded by the Nymphs (for whom see p. 92) are almost all of the later period:

B.F. Benndorf, Gr. u. Sic. Vasenb. pl. 42, 1.

R.F. B.M. E 224 = Furtwaengler-Reichhold, 8–9 (Plate XLI.).

Late. B.M. F 148; Naples 2873 = Millin-Reinach, i. 3 = Wiener Vorl. viii. 12, 3 (Assteas); and Naples 3255 = Reinach, i. 236 = Baumeister, i. p. 686, fig. 745.

Parody. Athens 1894 = Reinach, i. 506 (?).

Besides the somewhat insignificant part that he plays in the Gigantomachia,[1141] Herakles had several independent combats of his own with gigantic monsters and such-like beings. Of these the most popular subjects are Antaios and Alkyoneus. The legend of Herakles’ wrestling with the former is familiar from Pindar[1142]; on the vases Antaios is not characterised as a giant in size or otherwise, but his mother Gaia is generally present.[1143]

Alkyoneus, on the other hand, is represented as a being of gigantic size, lying asleep in a cave[1144]; a small winged figure which sometimes hovers over him has been interpreted by some as Hypnos (Sleep), but might also be a Κὴρ Θανάτοιο, or harbinger of death.[1145] Herakles generally attacks him with club or bow and arrow, but on one vase is depicted gouging out his eye[1146]; on another he is assisted by Telamon with a stone.[1147] Another giant with whom we find the hero contending is Cacus, whose oxen he carried off. This is a purely Roman myth, and belongs rather to the legends of the Roman Hercules, but curiously enough it finds a place on one Greek vase of Sicilian origin, which represents Cacus in a hut with the oxen and Herakles playing a lyre in triumph.[1148]

One of the commonest subjects connected with Herakles is his combat with Kyknos, the son of Ares, described at length in the Hesiodic Scutum Herculis. It is mostly found on B.F. vases, the usual “type” showing the two combatants supported by Athena and Ares respectively in their chariots, while Zeus appears in the midst to interrupt them.[1149] One late R.F. vase seems to show the preparations for the combat, in the presence of an Amazon, a Fury, and other personages[1150]; another vase, the subsequent attack made on Athena by Ares.[1151]

We find him in combat with Acheloös, the river-god, represented as a bull with the face of a bearded man,[1152] or occasionally, by confusion with a sea-deity, with the body and tail of a fish.[1153] This latter form is assumed by Triton, with whom also the hero contends,[1154] though the myth is unknown in literature. Of similar import is his combat with Nereus, the old man of the sea (Ἁλιος Γέρων), who appears in human form as an aged man[1155]; the “type” employed on B.F. vases is similar to that of Peleus wrestling with Thetis (see below, p. 120), with similar indications of the sea-god’s transformation into animals. In one case an air of humour is imparted to the scene, and Herakles is represented smashing the furniture in Nereus’ house.[1156]

Another important group of subjects is concerned with Herakles’ adventures with the Centaurs, which fall under several headings. Allusion has already been made to his early education by Cheiron, and again we see him paying a visit of a peaceful nature to the aged Pholos, who entertains him by opening a jar of wine.[1157] The smell therefrom attracted the other Centaurs and led to a combat, which we see vividly depicted on many early B.F. vases, on which it was a favourite subject, as also on later ones.[1158] We also find him in combat with particular Centaurs, from whom he rescues a woman carried off by them. Thus we see Hippolyta delivered from Eurytion,[1159] and Deianeira from Nessos[1160] or Dexamenos[1161] (the latter appears on later vases only, and there seems to be no distinction between them in the myth).

Other adventures in which he engages include the freeing of Prometheus from the vulture, which he slays with his bow[1162]; the bringing back of Alkestis from Hades[1163]; the seizure of the Kerkopes, a pair of brigands, whom he carries off head downwards over his shoulders[1164]; and his capture by Busiris in Egypt,[1165] with his escape after slaying the king’s negro attendants.[1166] Among rarer myths may be mentioned the destruction of the vines of Syleus[1167]; a possible representation of his contest in drawing water with Lepreos[1168]; and his combat with Erginos, the king of Orchomenos, and the capture of his heralds.[1169] A vase in Athens, on which he is depicted dragging two Satyrs in a leash,[1170] depicts an unknown myth; as do those which represent him contending with Geras, a personification of Old Age,[1171] and beating a winged Ker with his club.[1172] In company with Athena he attacks an unknown man,[1173] and he is also seen leading a Sphinx.[1174]

Next we turn to the relations between the hero and the Olympian or other deities, which often take the form of disputes or combats. Of these the most famous and important is his capture of the Delphic tripod, for which he fights with Apollo, generally in the presence of Athena and Artemis[1175]; in one instance Herakles is seen in Athena’s chariot, carrying the tripod off with him[1176]; other vases represent the final reconciliation with Apollo.[1177] There is a curious representation of a combat between Herakles and Hera (depicted as the Roman Juno Sospita, wearing a goatskin on her head), with Athena and Poseidon assisting on either side.[1178] Another rare and interesting subject is that of his attack on Helios, whom he interrupts at sunrise to prevent his journey after Geryon’s cattle from becoming known. Herakles is shown waiting for the chariot of the sun-god as it rises from the waves, and preparing to discharge his arrows.[1179] A later stage of the story is illustrated by a fine R.F. vase, where he voyages over the sea in the golden bowl given him by Helios.[1180] Lastly, he defends Hera and Iris against the attacks of a troop of Seileni.[1181] In other scenes where he is associated with the gods, it is in his divine capacity after his apotheosis.

His relations with women are not so frequently depicted but we have at least one representation of his visit to Omphale[1182]; or, again, of his entertainment by Eurytos,[1183] the carrying off of his daughter Iole,[1184] and the subsequent fight with Eurytos.[1185] His rescue of Deianeira from the Centaur has already been alluded to, and there may also be a reference to his carrying her off from her father Oineus.[1186] Hesione is not found with him on vases, but he is seen carrying off Auge[1187]; he is also associated with a Nymph, who may be Nemea.[1188] On one vase he pursues, with amorous intention, a woman, who may possibly be intended for Athena.[1189]

A remarkable vase-painting by Assteas of Paestum depicts Herakles in a fit of madness destroying his children by hurling them on a fire, on which he has already thrown the household furniture; his mother and others look on, expressing various emotions.[1190] In more peaceful mood he is seen grouped with his wife Deianeira and their son Hyllos,[1191] or with Oineus, his father-in-law.[1192]

We now proceed to note a few subjects which do not admit of more exact classification. Herakles is initiated into the lesser mysteries at Agra, together with Kastor and Polydeukes,[1193] and is conducted by Hermes to the revels of the Scythian Agathyrsi (cf. p. 179).[1194] He is also sometimes seen carrying Hades on his back, the latter bearing a large cornucopia[1195]; but the signification of this subject is unknown. He accompanies the Argonauts on their wanderings,[1196] and appears as a single figure shooting from a bow.[1197] He is often represented performing an act of sacrifice, either as a single figure[1198] or in groups, sacrificing a ram or other animal.[1199] Some of these scenes, where he sacrifices to the xoanon of Chryse,[1200] a local Lemnian goddess, must refer to the story of Philoktetes, with which he was connected. Or, again, conversely, we see a statue of Herakles made the subject of offerings from others.[1201] A scene from the story of Antigone (see below, p. 119) is represented as taking place before a shrine, in which stands the deified hero interceding with Kreon for her life.[1202] He also appears as protecting god of Attica,[1203] and also of the palaestra, with reference to his traditional founding of the Olympian games.[1204] Finally, there is a series of subjects which (as in the case with most of the preceding section) may be concerned with Herakles either before or after his apotheosis.

Among these are the numerous vases (especially B.F.) where he is represented as being greeted by Athena or conversing with her,[1205] or receiving a libation from her.[1206] These may either refer to his receiving visits of encouragement from her in the intervals between his labours, or to his reception by her in Olympos (see below). Many vases represent him banqueting, usually in company with Dionysos and other deities.[1207] With Hermes and Iolaos he takes part in a procession accompanied by music[1208]; and he is also represented overcome with wine and forming a subject for mockery,[1209] while Satyrs steal his weapons[1210] (this subject being probably taken from a Satyric drama). Or he is represented bathing at a fountain[1211]; and in one case fishing with Hermes and Poseidon.[1212] He also takes part in the Gigantomachia,[1213] and is present at the birth of Athena,[1214] in both cases by a curious anticipation of his deified character. Exceedingly common are his appearances with a lyre, as Kitharoidos.[1215]

The last scenes of Herakles’ earthly life are his last sacrifice on Mount Kenaion,[1216] the wearing of the poisoned robe which led to his death,[1217] and the subsequent burning of his body on the funeral pyre. The last scene is occasionally combined with his apotheosis; the Hyades quench the flames among which his body is consuming, while the deified hero ascends in the chariot of Athena or Nike to Olympos.[1218]

The vases relating exclusively to his apotheosis fall into two main classes, which admit of more than one sub-division: (1) his ascent into heaven in the chariot of Athena or Nike; (2) his reception in Olympos. The ascent in the chariot of Athena is almost confined to B.F. vases; on those of the R.F. period it rarely occurs; and on the Italian vases her place is usually taken by Nike, who is also represented crowning him with a wreath. On the B.F. vases the “type” is almost invariable (see Plate XXIX.): Herakles mounts the four-horse chariot in which the goddess stands ready; on the farther side of it stand various deities, the commonest being Apollo, Dionysos, and Hebe, with Hermes at the horses’ heads; more rarely Zeus, Hera, and Artemis are seen.[1219] In one or two cases Iolaos acts as charioteer, Athena standing at the side[1220]; or, again, Hebe performs the same office.[1221] On the late red-figured vases the attendant deities are almost limited to Hermes and Eros; the chariot is here usually represented as on its way.[1222]

From Arch. Zeit.

The first stage of the hero’s introduction into Olympos is his introduction to Zeus by Athena, a scene common on both B.F. and R.F. vases (Fig. 127). The attendant deities vary very greatly: Hermes, Apollo, Hebe, and Artemis are most often seen; also Hera, Poseidon, Ares, and Dionysos.[1223] Besides these there are numerous scenes in which he is grouped with various deities, usually Athena and Hermes, but also Poseidon, Ares, Dionysos, and Hebe, apparently in the enjoyment of his new life among the welcoming gods[1224]; and to this group may be added the scenes in which he is crowned by Nike.[1225] The completion of his bliss is the marriage with Hebe, found on two or three fine R.F. vases,[1226] with a numerous company of attendant deities.

The adventures of Theseus, the peculiarly Attic hero, are portrayed on vases of all dates; they are rare on the later kinds, but are most popular on the R.F. vases of the “strong” and “fine” periods, as would naturally be expected at a time when his cult was coming into special prominence in Athens (see Vol. I. p. 418). Of his seven labours the only one commonly found on the B.F. vases is the combat with the Minotaur, but some of the finest R.F. kylikes give a complete series. They are given in the order of his progress from his birthplace Troezen through the Isthmus to Athens. It should be noted that the Cretan legends, which alone are common on the early vases, are clearly older than the more purely Attic.

The first subject to be mentioned in connection with the story of Theseus is that of his father Aigeus consulting the oracle of Themis.[1227] His finding of Aigeus’ sword and sandals beneath the stone (cf. Plate LXII.) is not depicted on vases, but we have a possible representation of his recognition by Aigeus,[1228] and an unintelligible scene where he pursues or attacks his mother Aithra, apparently wielding the newly found sword.[1229]

There are only two R.F. kylikes which give the complete series of adventures, including that in Crete; the Duris kylix in the British Museum (Vol. I., frontisp.) omits two (the bull and Prokrustes), and others give a varying number of scenes, omitting sometimes one, sometimes another. The adventure with Periphetes appears to be confined to literature. We give the list as follows, with the vases on which they may be seen[1230]:

(1) The pine-bender Sinis.

B.F.: Athens 879. R.F.: Reinach, i. 313 (= Naples R.C. 180) and ii. 280.

(2) The sow of Krommyon, sometimes accompanied by a Nymph or old woman, the personification of the locality.

Reinach, i. 459; Noel des Vergers, Étrurie, pl. 14.

(3) The brigand Skiron (in Megara); this scene is usually to be identified by the foot-pan and the tortoise.

Reinach, i. 119.

(4) The wrestling with Kerkyon (at Eleusis).

Reinach, i. 324.

(5) Prokrustes and his bed (near Athens).

B.F.: Athens 879. R.F.: B.M. E 441–42; Athens 1166 = J.H.S. 1889, pl. 1; Millingen-Reinach, 9–10.

(6) The Marathonian bull.

B.F.: Bibl. Nat. 174. R.F.: B.M. E 442; Naples 2865 = Inghirami, Vasi Fitt. 54; Millin-Reinach, i. 43: Noel des Vergers, Étrurie, pl. 35 (in Brussels).

(7) The slaying of the Minotaur.

A very early representation (about 610 B.C.) on the Polledrara hydria in the British Museum (J.H.S. xiv. pl. 7: see Chapter XVIII.).

B.F.: B.M. B 148, B 205; Munich 333 = Reinach, ii. 119 = Wiener Vorl. 1889, 2, 2, and 1155 = Wiener Vorl. iii. 7, 2; Berlin 1698 = Wiener Vorl. iii. 7, 1; Millin-Reinach, ii. 61 (Taleides).

R.F.: B.M. E 441; Helbig, 80 = Reinach, ii. 81 = Baumeister, iii. p. 1790, fig. 1874.

The complete set of seven is to be found on the following:

B.M. E 84, where the scenes are duplicated on the exterior and interior of the kylix; here the Minotaur forms the central scene of the interior.

Ant. Denkm. ii. 1 (kylix by Aeson).

The following are more or less complete:

B.M. E 48 = Frontispiece, Vol. I. (by Duris; five scenes).

Louvre G 104 (Euphronios).

Reinach, i. 528–32.

After the labours on his journey comes the purification of Theseus on reaching Athens.[1231] To this time may perhaps be referred a scene in which he receives a palm-branch from Athena.[1232] There is a subject which cannot be placed in literary tradition, but probably comes in point of time immediately before or after the labours; this is the visit to Poseidon and Amphitrite under the sea, whither he is borne by Triton. It occurs on the beautiful Euphronios kylix in the Louvre (G 104) and elsewhere.[1233]

Next in point of time we have to deal with the story of Theseus’ voyage to Crete and his marriage with and desertion of Ariadne. It begins with a scene in which he bids farewell to Aigeus[1234]; then on his arrival in Crete he slays the Minotaur, as already described. We next see the meeting with Ariadne,[1235] followed by the nuptial ceremonies; the latter scene, together with the subsequent arrival at Delos, and a dance of boys and maidens liberated by Theseus, is vividly depicted on the François vase. His desertion of the sleeping Ariadne in Naxos and the appearance of Dionysos as her consoler form the subjects of two very beautiful R.F. vases[1236]; but the return to Athens and the death of Aigeus are not depicted.

The reign of Theseus at Athens is signalised by his combats with the Amazons and Centaurs. In the former story he carries off their leader Hippolyta as his queen, assisted by his friend Peirithoös[1237]; and in another version it is Antiope whom he overcomes,[1238] or the subject is treated in a more general fashion.[1239] This scene is supposed to take place in Attica; but the story of the Centaurs belongs to Thessaly, the home of Peirithoös. The Centaurs are represented interrupting a banquet, throwing everything into confusion, and carrying off Laodameia and other female victims. It occurs on the François vase, and is treated in a vivid pictorial fashion on several vases of a later period.[1240] The episode of the death of Kaineus (see p. 145) belongs to this group of subjects. To the same period belongs a vase representing the rape of a girl named Korone by Theseus and his friend.[1241] In the story as told by Plutarch (Thes. 31) it was Helene[1242] whom Theseus carried off; curiously enough, a figure thus inscribed is also present on this vase,[1243] as well as Antiope (see above). The rape (as described by Plutarch) was followed by their descent into Hades to seize Persephone. For this they were doomed to punishment, to sit for ever with hands bound behind them[1244]; but in one version Theseus is allowed to depart after a time, as is seen on one of the Apulian under-world vases.[1245] A vase signed by Xenotimos represents Peirithoös seated in a chair holding two spears[1246]; but its mythological significance is open to question.

Closely linked with the story of Theseus is that of the love of Phaidra for Hippolytos and the death of the latter, confined to late Italian vases; but Phaidra has not been certainly identified in any case.[1247] There is, however, an undoubted representation of the appearance of the bull which overthrew Hippolytos’ chariot.[1248]

Next in importance as a hero of Greek legend comes Perseus, born from the golden shower in which Zeus visited Danae (see p. 19). We find representations of the scene so touchingly sung of by Simonides, the placing of Danae and her child in the wooden chest and sending them adrift[1249]; and next we find Perseus as a full-grown youth, about to set forth on his mission of slaying the Gorgon, and receiving from the Naiads the cap, sandals, and wallet, which were to aid him in his quest.[1250] On later vases he receives from Athena the sickle (harpe) with which he slays the monster.[1251] On his way he seizes the eye and tooth of the Graiae, a subject rarely depicted in art.[1252] The actual slaying of the Gorgon[1253] is not so often represented as the subsequent flight of Perseus, generally accompanied by Athena and Hermes[1254]; in one or two instances we see Perseus approaching his victim unobserved.[1255] Other vases depict the headless corpse of Medusa, from which springs the young Chrysaor or Pegasos, and the other two Gorgons, Stheno and Euryale, either pursuing Perseus or remaining with the corpse[1256]; in one instance they appeal to Poseidon for help.[1257]

We next see Perseus arriving at the court of Kepheus to deliver Andromeda[1258]; she is generally represented chained to a column in the palace itself. On other vases he is depicted in the act of slaying the monster, but this is a somewhat rare subject.[1259] Finally, we have the return to Seriphos and the petrifaction of the king Polydektes by showing him the Gorgon’s head.[1260] Perseus is also represented showing the head to Satyrs,[1261] or placing it in the wallet (κίβισις),[1262] or in combat with Maenads[1263]; or, again, he is accompanied by Athena, who holds the Gorgon’s head while he looks at the reflection.[1264] Lastly, on some small R.F. vases, a bust of Perseus is depicted wearing his winged cap.[1265]

The story of Pelops is chiefly connected with Olympia, and his visit to Oinomaos; but the subjects are almost exclusively confined to the later Apulian vases. On one B.F. (Cyrenaic) kylix Pelops is depicted with the winged horses given him by Poseidon,[1266] but this is exceptional. The Olympia scenes include five episodes: (1) the arrival of Pelops at Olympia[1267]; (2) the sacrifice or compact with Oinomaos[1268]; (3) the race[1269]; (4) the death of Myrtilos[1270]; (5) the carrying off of Hippodameia.[1271] Pelops also occurs with Myrtilos and Hippodameia in the under-world.[1272]

The adventures of Bellerophon are not so popular as those of other heroes, especially in the R.F. period. The story told in the sixth Iliad appears in several scenes, beginning with Bellerophon’s taking leave of Proitos[1273]; next we see him delivering the letter with its σήματα λυγρά to Iobates, the king of Lycia,[1274] and then, mounted on Pegasos, slaying the Chimaera.[1275] Subsequent events represented on vases are the death of the perfidious Stheneboia, who falls from the back of Pegasos,[1276] and the marriage of Bellerophon with Philonoë.[1277]

Nor need the story of Meleager detain us long. Scenes from his life are practically confined to the Calydonian boar-hunt, a subject popular at all periods, especially on early vases.[1278] Kastor and Polydeukes, Peleus, and other heroes, together with Atalante, are represented as taking part, as well as Meleager. There is also a vase on which Meleager is represented with the boar’s hide, accompanied by Atalante, Peitho, and Eros.[1279] Other scenes where a boar-hunt is represented, but no names given, or only names of a fanciful kind, may or may not be identified in this way.[1280] There is one vase which appears to represent the death of Meleager.[1281]

The next of the Greek heroes with whom we have to deal is Jason, with whom we must include the whole cycle of subjects relating to the Argonautika—such as the stories of Helle, Phineus, and Talos. The legend of the golden fleece which gave rise to the famous quest of Jason is first illustrated by scenes representing Helle or Phrixos in flight on the ram,[1282] or the former grouped with her mother Nephele and her brother Phrixos,[1283] who accompanied her on her flight. The pursuit of Phrixos and the ram by Ino is also represented.[1284] Lastly, there is a vase which may represent the setting out of Jason.[1285]

In the earlier history of the Argonautic expedition the most interesting subject found on the vases is the story of Phineus, who had been blinded for impiety by Boreas,[1286] and was subsequently deprived of his food by the Harpies until he was delivered by the sons of Boreas, Zetes, and Kalais.[1287] Another event is the chastisement of Amykos by Kastor and Polydeukes,[1288] and a fine vase of “Polygnotan” style in the Louvre represents a group of Argonauts apparently without any special signification.[1289] In all these scenes Kastor and Polydeukes and the Boreades are present together with Jason. There is also a scene which has been interpreted as belonging to the Argonautika: Herakles is represented sacrificing to a statue of Chryse on the island of Lemnos.[1290]

Then we have the arrival of Jason and his companions in Kolchis,[1291] and the subsequent feats performed by the hero—his slaying the dragon[1292] (in one version he enters into its mouth[1293]), his contest with the bull,[1294] and finally the capture of the fleece,[1295] which he is also represented as bringing to Pelias on his return.[1296] The only important event relating to the homeward journey is the death of Talos.[1297]

Among the events of his later life are the boiling of the ram by Medeia,[1298] and the subsequent destruction of the aged Pelias[1299]; the renewal of Jason’s own youth[1300]; the death of his wife Glauke by Medeia’s agency[1301]; and the latter’s slaughter of her children,[1302] with her pursuit by Jason.[1303] Medeia also appears in another connection at Theseus’ leave-taking of his father Aigeus,[1304] and among the Athenian tribal heroes on the vase by Meidias.[1305] Though not necessarily connected with Jason, the funeral games held after the death of Pelias[1306] must also find mention here. Scenes therefrom are represented on more than one vase—such as the chariot-race conducted by Kastor and others in the presence of three judges (Pheres, Akastos, and Argeos), and the wrestling of Peleus and Hippalkimos.[1307] On another Zetes is victorious over Kalais in the foot-race.[1308]

The Theban Legend

The “tale of Thebes” falls into various episodes, more or less connected, especially those which relate to the story of Oedipus and his line.[1309] Conspicuous as founder of the city is the Phoenician Kadmos, whose encounter with the dragon is depicted on vases of various periods. On some he receives from Athena the stone with which he is to slay the monster[1310]; on others he is seen approaching the fountain of Ares, where he was to meet it[1311]; and, lastly, we have the actual slaying of the dragon,[1312] sometimes in the presence of Harmonia and various deities and personified figures, including Thebes. After the slaying of the dragon Kadmos sacrifices to Athena Onka.[1313] The completion of the story is seen in his marriage with Harmonia.[1314] A rarer subject is the punishment of Dirke by her brothers Amphion and Zethos, who tied her to a wild bull[1315]; while a later episode of the story is the pursuit of her sister Antiope by her lover Phokos.[1316]

The story of the Oidipodia is introduced by the subject of Laios (the father) carrying off the young Chrysippos.[1317] Then we have the exposure of the infant Oedipus and his discovery by the shepherd Euphorbos.[1318] Of later events in the life of Oedipus, the only one that attained to any popularity is the slaying of the Sphinx. The actual deed only occurs once,[1319] and the usual “type” is that of Oedipus (usually a young man) standing before the Sphinx, which is seated on a rock or column.[1320] It is not always to be identified with certainty.[1321] In one instance Oedipus is represented with Teiresias[1322]; in another with persons named Sikon and Kalliope—a subject hitherto unexplained.[1323] We need only make passing reference here to a vase supposed to represent the tomb of Oedipus, inscribed with a couplet of verses, at which stand two youths.[1324]

Before continuing the story of the house of Oedipus, we must digress to that of Amphiaraos, the warrior-seer, whose departure from his wife Eriphyle to the Theban War is a favourite subject on vases.[1325] It becomes, in fact, a “type” adopted in ordinary scenes.[1326] We also find on the reverse of one of the vases with this subject the departure of another warrior, perhaps intended for the hero’s son Alkmaion, or for Adrastos.[1327] On an early vase Amphiaraos is seen bringing home Eriphyle in his chariot. The names of his horses, Thoas and Dion, are given.[1328] A curious subject is that of the hero in the bosom of his family, with his wife Eriphyle suckling her son Alkmaion, and a maiden spinning.[1329] His death is represented on one B.F. vase[1330]; on another his slaying of Eriphyle.[1331] Another event is the death of the child Archemoros, caused by a serpent.[1332] A fine late vase in Naples depicts the prothesis or laying out of his body by his mother Eurydike and others.[1333] The subsequent fight of Tydeus and Lykourgos, interrupted by Adrastos, also occurs,[1334] and the reception of the fugitive Tydeus by Adrastos.[1335] Tydeus appears once more as the slayer of Ismene[1336]; but according to another version she and her sister Antigone are attacked by Laodamas when the Epigoni return to Thebes many years later.[1337] We can only point to one possible representation of the combat of Eteokles and Polyneikes on vases,[1338] though it is common enough, e.g. in Etruscan art; but there is at least one representation of Antigone being brought before Kreon after the burial of her brother,[1339] which also forms a burlesque subject on the comic stage.[1340]

The Trojan Cycle

We now come to the story of the Trojan War, linked with which are the events which led up to it and those which immediately followed upon it—such as the Judgment of Paris on the one hand, and the stories of Odysseus and Orestes on the other. These events are so numerous that they require careful classification. They may be divided into three main sections: (1) Ante-Homerica, including the events that led to the war and those that took place during the first nine years of it; (2) Homerica, or the events of the Iliad; (3) Post-Homerica, or the stories of the death of Achilles, the fall of Troy, the Odyssey and other Νοστοί, and the Oresteia. The literary authorities for these events, on the lines of which our classification follows, are discussed elsewhere (p. 4 ff.).

In spite of the warning of Horace that in writing of the story of Troy it is not necessary to begin ab ovo, it is impossible here to avoid reference to the earliest event which bears at all on the subject—namely, the birth of Helen from the egg, which was the result of Zeus’ amour with Nemesis. The subject is referred to on several vases, the moment chosen being that when the egg is found by Leda.[1341] Her husband Tyndareus and her other offspring, Klytaemnestra and the Twin Brethren, are usually present. There is one undoubted instance of the nuptials of Helen and Menelaos.[1342]

The first event, however, which can be regarded as having a direct effect on the outbreak of the war is the marriage of Peleus and Thetis, at which the apple of discord was flung by Eris among the goddesses, and which brought about the birth of the hero of the war, Achilles. In ancient art, especially on vases,[1343] Peleus is depicted forcibly capturing Thetis from the company of her sister Nereids, while she tries to elude him by assuming various shapes, all conventionally indicated in the vase-paintings. Some vases represent the approach of Peleus and his pursuit of Thetis,[1344] the majority the actual struggle (Fig. 128),[1345] and one or two the announcement of the issue to Nereus and the company of Nereids (who are named).[1346]

The next stage is the introduction of Thetis to the Centaur Cheiron by Peleus.[1347] Then we have the celebration of their nuptials, with the assembling of the gods, as described by Catullus, and vividly, if quaintly, depicted on the François vase,[1348] followed in due course by Peleus bringing the young Achilles to be educated by Cheiron,[1349] and his subsequent sojourn in Skyros.[1350] There is one possible representation of the seething of Achilles in the caldron to secure his immortality.[1351]


The next event is the Judgment of Paris, perhaps of all the scenes from the story of the Trojan War the most popular with the vase-painters of all periods. The story of the forsaken Oenone, in the telling of which Tennyson has familiarised us with the scene of the Judgment, did not appeal to the unromantic Greeks in the same way. We only find one vase on which she is possibly represented.[1352] Curiously enough, the vase-paintings seldom show the central act of the story—the award of the golden apple. In fact, in the earlier examples Paris is omitted altogether, and we only see the three goddesses led in procession by Hermes. One vase, again, represents the preparations of the goddesses for the trial, Athena washing at a fountain and Aphrodite performing her toilet with the assistance of Eros.[1353] The rest may be classified as follows (the order adopted showing a rough chronological development of the type[1354]):

From Wiener Vorlegeblätter

(1) Hermes leads the three goddesses, Athena alone being characterised; Paris absent. Only on B.F. vases.[1355]

(2) Procession-type preserved, but Paris is present, standing. Type modified on R.F. vases.[1356]

(3) Procession-type; Paris seated; landscape introduced (see Fig. 129).[1357]

(4) Procession-type abandoned; goddesses picturesquely grouped, with attendant figures. Only on R.F. and later vases.[1358] In one instance two stages seem to be represented: first, the goddesses grouped for the Judgment, accompanied by Apollo, Helios, and Selene; secondly, the victorious Aphrodite crowned by Eros.[1359]

Parodied renderings of the subject also occur.[1360]

The reward of Paris for his judgment was, as we know, “the fairest wife in Greece.” Accordingly we next find him arrived at Sparta and carrying off the fair Helen as his bride. The vases (all of the R.F. and late periods) depict him on his arrival at Menelaos’ palace introduced to Helen,[1361] or else we see Helen at her toilet making preparations for her new consort[1362]; next, Paris leads away Helen or carries her off in his chariot,[1363] and finally introduces her to his father Priam on his return home.[1364]

The war having now broken out, we are introduced to the two chief heroes on the Greek side, Achilles and Ajax, as they bid farewell to their family and friends and set out in full equipment. Achilles, accompanied by Patroklos, Menoitios, and other heroes, bids farewell to his parents Peleus and Thetis[1365]; he also pays a farewell visit to his grandfather Nereus, who presents him with a crown,[1366] and receives a valedictory libation from a Nereid.[1367] Again, we see Achilles and Patroklos taking leave of Nestor, accompanied by Antilochos.[1368] Ajax is represented taking leave of Lykos,[1369] and also of his father Telamon[1370]; but as in one of the latter cases the names are wrongly applied on the vase, it may only represent an idealised departure of an ordinary warrior. There is also a vase which represents Nestor arming (putting on a greave) in presence of Euaichme.[1371]

We next find the warriors gathered in Aulis, waiting for the favouring breeze, and whiling away the time (as Euripides describes[1372]) in the game of πεσσοί or draughts, which is played by Ajax and Achilles (names usually given) seated at a raised board in full armour, with the statue of Athena behind them.[1373] There is another variety of the type, in which the presence of Athena seems to have more meaning. Here the two heroes cast lots with dice before the statue, and there may be some reference to the dispute of Ajax and Odysseus for the arms of Achilles, which was settled by Athena.[1374] The story of the sacrifice of Iphigeneia, though popular with poets and painters, for some reason never found its way on to the vases until the influence of great pictures and plays was beginning to make itself felt; and then only appears in one instance, where the transformation into a deer is indicated.[1375] The only other incident of the voyage which concerns us is the halt at Lemnos and the sacrifice to the local goddess Chryse, where Philoktetes is bitten by the serpent and has to be left behind on account of his wound.[1376] This island was also the scene of the carrying off by Achilles of Chryseis, the daughter of Chryses, the priest of the local goddess, of which there is one possible representation.[1377]

Two doubtful references to opening scenes of the war are to be found in a supposed consultation of Zeus with Themis among the Olympian deities,[1378] and a representation of the Greeks formally demanding back Helen,[1379] a demand which of course was not granted. The story of Telephos also belongs to an early stage, and three incidents therefrom are found. In one case he is represented as wounded by the spear of Achilles[1380]; again, entering the Greek camp disguised as a beggar, in order to apply to Agamemnon for aid[1381]; and, lastly, he is seen seizing the infant Orestes, whom he threatens to destroy if his request is not granted.[1382] A R.F. kylix in Boston represents in the interior Odysseus persuading Achilles to heal Telephos’ wound; on the exterior the wounded hero comes, not to Agamemnon’s tent, but to his palace at Mycenae.[1383]

At a much later stage of the war comes the incident of Troilos, a subject which attained to great popularity, especially with the B.F. vase-painters. It falls into five distinct scenes: (1) the departure of Troilos, with his two horses[1384]; (2) the ambuscade of Achilles behind the fountain to which Polyxena comes to draw water[1385]; (3) the flight of Troilos and Polyxena, and pursuit by Achilles[1386]; (4) the death of Troilos[1387]; and (5) the fight over his body.[1388] Of these, the ambuscade and the pursuit are the most commonly represented.

A few incidents which are not to be traced in literature probably belong to the Ante-Homeric period. They are (1) Achilles bandaging the wounded Patroklos, on the well-known Sosias cup[1389]; (2) the wounded Achilles tended by Patroklos and Briseis[1390]; (3) a combat of Hector and Achilles attended by Sarpedon and Phoinix (in one case Phoinix interrupts)[1391]; (4) a general combat of Greeks and Trojans.[1392]

It will be most convenient to deal with the various scenes which can be traced to the Homeric poems (or to co-ordinate traditions) in tabular form, noting where possible the actual passages which they appear to illustrate. But it must be borne in mind that the vase-painter was never an illustrator; he rather looked to literature for suggestions, which he worked out on his own lines, and consequently coincidences with or divergencies from the Homeric text must not be too closely insisted upon.

Book I. 187 ff. The dispute of Agamemnon and Achilles.

Possibly to be identified in such scenes as on B.M. B 327, 397, and E 13; but very doubtful: see below, p. 133, and Robert, Bild u. Lied, p. 213.

320 ff. Agamemnon and Briseis.

Reinach, i. 148 = Baumeister, i. p. 721, fig. 776 (Hieron in Louvre); and see B.M. E 76. Achilles and Briseïs are found grouped together on two R.F. vases, but without any particular allusion: see B.M. E 258 and Helbig, 84 = J.H.S. i. pl. 6 = Reinach, ii. 91.

430 ff. Chryses propitiating Apollo.

Engelmann-Anderson, Atlas to Iliad, iii. 12.

Book II. 50 ff. Agamemnon in council.

B.M. B 149.

212 ff. Thersites insulting Agamemnon.

B.M. E 196.

Book III. 259 ff. Priam setting out in his chariot.

Jahrbuch, iv. (1889), pl. 10.

340 ff. Combat of Menelaos and Paris.

B.M. E 20; Duris kylix in Louvre (Wiener Vorl. vi. 7 = Engelmann-Anderson, vi. 23).

Book V. 95–296. Combat of Diomedes and Pandaros (a reminiscence of).

Berlin 764 = Ant. Denkm. i. pl. 7, fig. 15; and see Hermes, 1901, p. 388; actually here Diomedes and Aeneas fight over the body of Pandaros.

312 ff. Combat of Diomedes and Aeneas, the latter protected by Aphrodite.

B.M. E 73; Tyszkiewicz Coll. pl. 18 (very fine R.F. vase, now in Boston); Reinach, i. 120 = ii. 97 (B.F.).

Book VI. 215 ff. Diomedes and Glaukos exchanging arms.

Stackelberg, pl. 11, 1.

258 ff. (1) Hector arming.

Munich 378 = Reinach, ii. 94 = Furtwaengler and Reichhold, pl. 14.

(2) Hector bidding farewell to Priam and Hecuba.

Helbig, 134 = Reinach, ii. 94 = Engelmann-Anderson, iii. 38.

(3) Hector bidding farewell to Andromache and Astyanax.[1393]

J.H.S. ix. pl. 3 = B.M. E 282; Reinach, ii. 255 = Bibl. Nat. 207.

(4) Departure of Hector.

B.M. B 76, B 235 (?); Louvre E 638 (= Reinach, i. 243), E 642; Reinach, ii. 160; Jahrbuch, iv. (1889), p. 260.

321 ff. Hector conducting Paris to battle.

Bibl. Nat. 207 = Reinach, ii. 255.

Book VII. 162 ff. Combat of Ajax and Hector.

Munich 53; Helbig, 6 = Reinach, i. 104 (see under xiv. 402 ff.); Baumeister, i. pl. 13, figs. 779–80; B.M. E 438 (Smikros); and see Duris kylix in Louvre (Wiener Vorl. vi. 7 = Engelmann-Anderson, vii. 42).

Book VIII. 89 ff. Combat of Hector and Diomedes.

Reinach, ii. 96.

261 ff. Teukros and Ajax son of Telamon.

Robert, in Hermes, 1901, p. 390, mentions a fragment of a Corinthian pinax in Berlin with these two figures, which may either belong to the above passage, or to xii. 370 ff., or to xv. 415 ff.

397 ff. Iris interrupting Athena (see pp. 39, 77).

Reinach, ii. 296.

Book IX. Achilles lying sick (apparently a contaminatio or confusion of ix. 168 ff. and xviii. 35 ff.).[1394]

Jahrbuch, vii. (1892), pl. 1.

173 ff. Embassy of Odysseus and Phoinix to Achilles (R.F. vases only).

B.M. E 56 = Wiener Vorl. C. 3, 3; Berlin 2176 (= Reinach, i. 282), 2326 (= Reinach, i. 431 = Roscher, iii. 658); Millin-Reinach, i. 14; Reinach, i. 148 = Wiener Vorl. C. 6 (Hieron) and 149.

Book X. 330–461. Episode of Dolon; his capture by Odysseus.

Oxford 226; Munich 583 = Jahrbuch, v. (1890), p. 143; Bibl. Nat. 526 = Reinach, i. 89 = Wiener Vorl. v. 5 (Euphronios); Reinach, i. 334 = Petersburg 879; B.M. F 157 = Fig. 130. Dolon as single figure: Reinach, i. 306 = Wiener Vorl. iii. 1.

469–525. Rhesos and his horses.

B.M. B 234–35; Naples 2910 = Baumeister, i. p. 728, fig. 782 (Odysseus and Diomedes with the horses); Wiener Vorl. C. 3, 2.

566 ff. The horses of Rhesos brought to the tent of Diomedes.

Munich 583 = Jahrbuch, v. (1890), p. 146 (a slave waters the horses; another brings drink to Diomedes).

Book XI. The fight at the ships.

Munich 890 = Reinach, ii. 99 = Baumeister, i. p. 729, fig. 783.

Book XIV. Combat of Ajax and Aeneas (? l. 402 ff.).

Reinach, i. 306 = Wiener Vorl. iii. 1; id. i. 104 = Helbig, No. 6 (? see above, under vii. 162 ff.).


Book XVI. 666 ff. Sarpedon carried off by Hypnos and Thanatos.

See Louvre F 388; but this scene is hardly to be distinguished from those with Memnon (see below, p. 132).

Book XVII. 60 ff. Combat of Menelaos and Euphorbos, and fight over his body.

B.M. A 749 = Baumeister, i. p. 730, fig. 784[1395]; and see E 20.

123 ff. Combat over body of Patroklos.

Exekias kylix (Munich 339 = Reinach, ii. 36); Reinach, ii. 95; Millin-Reinach, i. 49; Berlin 2264 (Oltos and Euxitheos) = Wiener Vorl. D. 2, 1 = Engelmann-Anderson, xiv. 76.

Book XVIII. 367 ff. (1) Thetis in the smithy of Hephaistos.

Berlin 2294 = Overbeck, Her. Bildw. 18, 6.

(2) Hephaistos polishing Achilles’ shield.

Röm. Mitth. ii. (1887), p. 242.

Book XIX. 1–18. Thetis and the Nereids bringing the armour to Achilles.

(a) Riding on sea-monsters over the waves (all late vases).

B.M. F 69; Jatta 1496 = Reinach, i. 112; Roscher, iii. 221–24; and see Heydemann, Nereiden mit Waffen.

(b) Presenting the weapons to Achilles.

B.M. E 363; Millin-Reinach, i. 14.

364 ff. Achilles arming.

Athens 671 = Wiener Vorl. ii. 6; Overbeck, Her. Bildw. xviii. 4, 7; vase by Amasis at Boston (Report for 1901, No. 5).

Book XXI. 114 ff. Combat of Achilles and Lykaon.

B.M. F 173.

Book XXII. 188 ff. Achilles pursuing Hector round the walls of Troy.

Reinach, ii. 102 (now in Boston: see Museum Report for 1898, No. 42).

209 ff. Zeus weighing the heroes’ souls in his scales.[1396]

B.M. B 639; Bibl. Nat. 385 = Reinach, i. 89; Millin-Reinach, i. 19 = Baumeister, ii. p. 921, fig. 994.

306 ff. Death of Hector.

B.M. E 468; Munich 421; Reinach, ii. 101 = Helbig, 106; Boston Mus. Report for 1899, p. 79, No. 31 (parody). Cf. Millingen, Anc. Uned. Mon. i. 4 = Engelmann-Anderson, Odyss. iii. 15.

437 ff. Andromache suckling Astyanax (compare only).

B.M. E 509.

Book XXIII. 157 ff. Funeral games for Patroklos.

François vase (chariot-race, etc.).

175 ff. Sacrifice of Trojan captives on the pyre of Patroklos.

Naples 3254 = Reinach, i. 187.

Book XXIV. 16 ff. Achilles dragging Hector’s body past the tomb of Patroklos.

B.M. B 543 and Forman Sale Cat. 306 = Reinach, ii. 100 (now in B.M.)[1397]; Berlin 1867 = Reinach, ii. 99; Naples 2746.

141 ff. Achilles offering his hair to the river Spercheios.

B.M. E 555 (?).

448 ff. Priam begging Achilles for the body of Hector; the Achaean princes deliberating over the ransom.

Munich 404 (= Overbeck, Her. Bildw. pl. 20, 3), and 890 (= Reinach, ii. 99); Petersburg 422 = Reinach, i. 138 = Baumeister, i. p. 739, fig. 792; Reinach, i. 172 = Vienna 328; Athens 889 = Ath. Mitth. 1898, pl. 4 (B.F., but poor).

580 ff. Hector’s body carried out to prepare for burial.

Petersburg 422 (as above).

Among the events of the war between the death of Hector and the final fall of Troy, those which relate to the final exploits of Achilles are most prominent, and especially the encounters with Memnon, and with Penthesileia, his death and the events arising out of it. The story of Achilles’ fight with Penthesileia, and the death of the Amazon queen, is less frequently depicted, but there are some very fine examples remaining.[1398] Other representations of Amazons arming, setting out, or in combat may be placed here, but except where Penthesileia is specially indicated it is better to regard them as having no definite reference to the Trojan story.[1399] A remarkable painting on an Apulian amphora depicts the slaying of Thersites by Achilles in the presence of Phoinix and Diomedes. Thersites had insulted Achilles after his slaying of Penthesileia.[1400]

The story of Memnon is related on the vases in several scenes, beginning with his equipment and departure for the fray.[1401] Next we see the great fight of Achilles and Memnon over the body of Antilochos,[1402] at which the respective mothers of the heroes, Thetis and Eos, are usually present as spectators.[1403] The result of the fight was fatal to Memnon, whose body we see carried off by Thanatos and Hypnos,[1404] or by Eos herself,[1405] for burial in his native land. Eos is also represented mourning over him.[1406] The Psychostasia, or weighing of souls by Zeus (see p. 130), has also been referred to this event. The body of Antilochos is finally rescued and carried off by Nestor.[1407]

Lastly, we find a few possible representations of the death of Achilles,[1408] and others, more certainly to be identified, of the battle raging round his body, in which Diomedes is wounded[1409]; also of Ajax carrying the body off out of the battle,[1410] and the subsequent mourning of the Nereids over it.[1411] A representation of the ghost of a warrior, winged and fully armed, flying over a ship,[1412] is to be regarded as that of Achilles, though to what event it alludes is not clear. The dispute over the hero’s armour and the suicide of the disappointed Ajax are introduced by a scene representing the fetching of Neoptolemos, his son, from Skyros, where he bids farewell to Lykomedes and Deidameia[1413]; of the quarrel between Ajax and Odysseus there are also several representations.[1414] It was decided finally by Athena, who is represented presiding over the Greek chiefs as they vote[1415]; or, according to another version, they cast lots before her statue.[1416] The armour is then awarded to Neoptolemos,[1417] who, according to an oracle, was indispensable for the capture of Troy. Ajax goes mad with disappointment, and finally commits suicide by falling on his sword[1418]; the episode of his slaying the sheep is not, however, represented.

The Ἰλίου Πέρσις, or sack of Troy, which is so vividly represented on many of the vases of advanced and late style, may be said to begin with the episode of the seizure of the Palladion by Odysseus and Diomede.[1419] It is rapidly followed by the construction of the wooden horse and its entry into the city.[1420] There is, however, only one certain representation of the death of Laokoön to be traced,[1421] and none of the traitorous Sinon.

Several vases, especially of the later epoch, collect the chief episodes in a frieze or in a series of groups, including the rape of Kassandra by Ajax, son of Oileus, the death of Priam and Astyanax, the recapture of Helen by Menelaos, and the flight of Aeneas; other scenes represented are the leading back of Aithra by Akamas and Demophon, and the sacrifice of Polyxena and subsequent blinding of Polymestor by Hecuba.

I. General.

Berlin 1685 (= Overbeck, Her. Bildw. pl. 26, 1) and 2281; Plate LIV. = Furtwaengler and Reichhold, pl. 25 (Brygos in Louvre); Naples 2422 = Furtwaengler and Reichhold, pl. 34 = Baumeister, i. pl. 14, fig. 795; B.M. F 160, F 278.

II. (a) Ajax seizing Kassandra at the altar of Athena.

B.F. B.M. B 242, 379; Berlin 1698; Roscher, ii. p. 979.

R.F. B.M. E 336, E 470; Reinach, i. 221, 338 = Roscher, ii. pp. 985, 981; Bourguignon Sale Cat. 33.

Late. B.M. F 209; Roscher, ii. p. 983.

(b) Death of Priam and Astyanax.[1422]

(1) Priam only.

B.M. B 241; Röm. Mitth. iii. (1888), pp. 108–9; Reinach, ii. 109; Berlin 3996. [Priam dead in all except second.]

(2) Priam usually seated on altar; Neoptolemos swings body or head of Astyanax.

B.M. B 205; Berlin 2175, 3988; Reinach, i. 221, ii. 109; J.H.S. xiv. pl. 9. [See also under I.]

(3) Andromache or Hecuba with body of Astyanax.

Millin-Reinach, ii. 37 (Lasimos in Louvre; also identified as Archemoros: see p. 118).

(c) Menelaos and Helen.

B.M. E 161, 263; Reinach, i. 437, 3 (Hieron), ii. 34; Helbig, 43 (= Mus. Greg. ii. 49, 2), and ii. p. 325 (= Baumeister, i. p. 746, fig. 798); Millingen, Anc. Uned. Mon. pl. 32; Louvre G 3 (Pamphaios); Reinach, i. 222 = Wiener Vorl. D. 8, 1; Noel des Vergers, Étrurie, iii. pl. 39.

(d) Akamas and Demophon with Aithra.

B.M. B 244 (?), E 458; Overbeck, Her. Bildw. pl. 26, 13.

(e) Flight of Aeneas with family.

B.M. B 173, B 280; Reinach, ii. 110 (= Munich 903), 116, 273; Baumeister, i. p. 31, fig. 32; Helbig, 201 = Mus. Greg. ii. 85, 2; Naples 2481; Bibl. Nat. 261; Louvre F 122 = Wiener Vorl. 1890–91, pl. 5, 1.

(f) Sacrifice of Polyxena.

Plate XXIII. = J.H.S. xviii. pl. 15 (B.M.); Overbeck, Her. Bildw. pl. 27, 19.

(g) Polymestor blinded.

Reinach, i. 91 = Hill, Illustrations of School Classics, p. 170 (now in B.M.).

(h) Ajax stabbing a captive (?).

Reinach, i. 88.


From Furtwaengler and Reichhold.

The Sack of Troy; Kylix by Brygos in Louvre.

Among the various adventures described by the Cyclic poets in the Νοστοί, few seem to have found their way into the vase-paintings except the fate of Agamemnon, the interview of Menelaos with Proteus (told in the Odyssey), and, of course, the adventures of Odysseus.

The house of Atreus and its story will be dealt with later under the heading of the Oresteia: we turn now to the Odyssey, scenes from which are surprisingly few in Greek art, and appear to have attracted the painter less than the more stirring events of the Iliad. The following, however, have been identified:

Book II. 94 ff. Penelope at her loom.

Reinach, i. 191.

Book III. 12 ff. Arrival of Telemachos at Nestor’s house in Pylos.

Berlin 3289 = Roscher, iii. 298 = Engelmann-Anderson, iii. 13.

Book IV. 349 ff. The story of Menelaos’ interview with Proteus.

Naples 1767 = Mus. Borb. xiii. 58 = Engelmann-Anderson, iv. 22.

Book V. 228 ff. Odysseus navigating the sea on a raft.

Oxford 262, Cat. pl. 26 (burlesque). See also B.M. E 156 (Odysseus and Leukothea).

Book VI. 126 ff. Nausikaa washing clothes.

Munich 420 = Reinach, ii. 110 = Roscher, s.v.

Alkinoös and Nausikaa (parody).

Reinach, i. 153.

Book IX. 345 ff. Odysseus offering wine to Polyphemos.

Boston Mus. Report, 1899, p. 60.

371 ff. Odysseus putting out the eye of Polyphemos.

Plate XVI. = Helbig, i. p. 435, No. 641 (Aristonoös); Bibl. Nat. 190 = Reinach, i. 64; B.M. B 154; Louvre F 342 = Gaz. Arch. 1887, pl. 1; Berlin 2123; Arch. Anzeiger, 1895, p. 35; Jahrbuch, 1891, pl. 6: see Bolte, Monum. ad Odyss. pert. p. 2.

420 ff. Odysseus escaping under the ram.

B.M. B 407, 502, 687; Karlsruhe 167 = J.H.S. iv. p. 249; Louvre A 482; Reinach, i. 64: see also Ath. Mitth. 1897, pl. 8 (a very early instance); generally, J.H.S. iv. p. 248 ff., and Rev. Arch. xxxi. (1897), p. 28 ff.

Book X. 210 ff. Odysseus and Kirke (see J.H.S. xiii. p. 82).

(a) Arrival of Odysseus.

Reinach, i. 142 = Roscher, ii. 1195.

(b) Transformations of comrades.

Reinach i. 396; Berlin 2342 = ibid. i. 418; Boston Mus. Report, 1899, pp. 59, 61 (both early B.F.).

(c) Odysseus and Kirke.

J.H.S. xiii. pls. 2 (Athens 956), 4 (in B.M.), p. 81 (Oxford 262); and see Reinach, i. 142.

Book XI. 23 ff. Odysseus sacrificing before his visit to Hades.

Bibl. Nat. 422 = Reinach, i. 126 = Baumeister, ii. p. 1040, fig. 1254.

Book XII. 164–200. Odysseus passing the Sirens.

Athens 958 = J.H.S. xiii. pl. 1; B.M. E 440; and see J.H.S. vi. pl. 49, p. 20 (= Louvre F 123); Corinthian aryballos in Boston (Strena Helbigiana, p. 31).

Scenes from the last twelve books are even rarer:

Book XVIII. 35 ff. Odysseus and Iros.

Reinach, ii. 357.

Book XIX. 385 ff. Odysseus recognised by Eurykleia.

Reinach, i. 191.

394 ff. The story of Autolykos.

In connection herewith see Munich 805 = Reinach, i. 277 for a possible representation of the betrothal of Laertes and Antikleia (Hermes, 1898, p. 641; Robert, Homer. Becher, p. 90 ff.; Hyginus, Fab. 201).

Book XXI. 393—XXII. 5 ff. The slaying of the suitors.

Berlin 2588 = Reinach, i. 217.

The scenes from the Oresteia cover roughly the same ground as the great trilogy of Aeschylos, together with the Iphigeneia in Tauris and the Andromache of Euripides. We have first the murder of Agamemnon by Klytaemnestra with her axe.[1423] Next, Elektra making her offerings at the tomb of Agamemnon, sometimes accompanied by her sister Chrysothemis.[1424] It must be borne in mind that the “type” of this scene does not differ in any respect from ordinary scenes of “offering at a stele,” and therefore, where the names are not given or are obviously modern additions, this interpretation is at best a doubtful one. The same applies to the next series of vases, on which Orestes meets Elektra at the tomb[1425]; but there seems to be one undoubted instance of Orestes and Pylades with the urn containing the supposed ashes of the former (cf. Soph. Electra, 1098 ff.).[1426] The next group to be dealt with shows us Orestes slaying Aegisthos,[1427] while Klytaemnestra is held back by Talthybios[1428]; and, finally, the death of Klytaemnestra herself.[1429]

Orestes is then pursued by the Furies,[1430] and seeks refuge at Delphi, where he is purified by Apollo at the Omphalos[1431]; and he is also seen at Athens, where he afterwards sought the protection of Athena.[1432] Other vases, nearly all of late date, and therefore under the influence of the Euripidean tragedy, represent Orestes accompanied by Pylades, arrived at the temple of the Tauric Artemis, where Iphigeneia presents Pylades with the letter.[1433] Lastly, we have the death of Neoptolemos at the hand of Orestes at Delphi.[1434]

Attic Legends

It will now be necessary to deal with sundry isolated subjects, which do not admit of being grouped together round the name of any one great hero or any particular legend. There are, however, a certain number which may perhaps be regarded as having a special connection with Athens, and with these we will begin.[1435] Some of the specially Athenian myths have already been discussed in other connections, notably the story of Theseus (p. 108), the dispute of Athena and Poseidon (p. 24), the sending of Triptolemos (p. 27), and the rape of Kephalos by Eos[1436] and of Oreithyia by Boreas (p. 80). There remain then the following:

(1) The birth of Erichthonios, who is represented as received by Athena from Gaia emerging out of the earth, in the presence of Kekrops and his daughters. It only occurs on the later R.F. vases; the type closely resembles that of the birth of Dionysos (p. 19).

B.M. E 372; Berlin 2537 = Reinach, i. 208 = Wiener Vorl. B. 12; Munich 345 = Reinach, i. 66; and Reinach, i. 113 = Wiener Vorl. iii. 2. Also a scene from the childhood of Erichthonios: B.M. E 788.

(2) The reception of Dionysos in Attica (by Ikarios or Amphiktion).

B 149, B 153, and E 166 in the British Museum appear to refer to this, but not certainly. See above, p. 56.

(3) The story of Tereus and his daughters, Prokne and Philomela.[1437]

(a) Tereus meeting Apate (Deceit); Prokne and Philomela in chariots.

Naples 3233 = Reinach, i. 240.

(b) Prokne and the dumb Philomela:

Reinach, i. 308 (in Louvre).

(c) Aedonaia slaying Itys.

J.H.S. viii. p. 440 (= Munich 799a).

(4) The three sons of Pandion, Lykos, Nisos, and Pallas,[1438] with Orneus the son of Erechtheus.

Reinach, i. 510 = Roscher, ii. 2187.

(5) The death of Prokris by the agency of Kephalos.

B.M. E 477 (with Siren as soul of Prokris or death-deity).

(6) Kreousa defended by Apollo from the attack of Ion.

Reinach, i. 375: cf. Eur. Ion. 1250 ff.

(7) Danaos taking refuge in Attica (?).

Reinach, i. 244 = Wiener Vorl. iii. 4, 2 (in Louvre).

(8) Echelos carrying off Basile.[1439]

Arch. Anzeiger, 1895, p. 39: see p. 27.

(9) The story of Diomos, the eponymous deme-hero (?).

B.M. B 178 = J.H.S. xiii. p. 116.

(10) Kodros, the last king of Athens.

Bologna 273 = Baumeister, iii. p. 1998, fig. 2148 = Jahrbuch, 1898, pl. 4.

The Kodros cup (completely published in Wiener Vorl. i. 4) is decorated with groups of figures intended to illustrate the legendary history of the great Attic families, in accordance with the genealogising tendencies of the period (about 450 B.C.). The outer scenes represent Theseus taking leave of Aigeus, and Ajax taking leave of Lykos; and Aigeus and Ajax (Aias) are eponymous heroes of two Attic tribes. On the Meidias vase in the British Museum[1440] we see a group of Athenian tribal heroes, such as Akamas, Antiochos, Demophon, and Hippothon, together with Medeia, who is also connected with Athens in the Theseus scene of the Kodros cup.

Other isolated myths which occasionally appear on vases, but defy more exact classification, may be briefly recorded here:

(1) Admetos and Alkestis.

Bibl. Nat. 918 = Reinach, i. 395 = Dennis, Etruria2, ii. frontispiece. See also p. 69.

(2) Agamedes and Trophonios as prisoners fed by Augias.

Louvre E 632 = Reinach, i. 349 (see Paus. ix. 37, 5; Ann. dell’ Inst. 1885, p. 130).

(3) Agrios seized by Oineus and bound on the altar.

B.M. F 155: see Anton. Liber. 37 and Vogel, Scenen Eur. Trag. p. 125.

(4) Atalante offering a cup to her antagonist Hippomenes.

R.F. kotyle in B.M.

(5) Atreus and Thyestes (the latter as suppliant in the former’s palace?).

Millingen-Reinach, 23 = Wiener Vorl. B. 4, 1.

(6) Daidalos and Ikaros, flight of.

Naples 1767 = Gaz. Arch. 1884, pls. 1–2.

(7) Glaukos in the tomb brought to life by the seer Polyeidos.

B.M. D 5 = Plate XL.: see Apollod. iii. 3, 1.

(8) Kanake’s suicide.

Reinach, i. 448.

(9) Laios, Keleos, Kerberos, and Aigolios stung by bees when stealing the honey on which the infant Zeus was fed.

B.M. B 177: cf. Anton. Liber. 19 and Roscher, i. p. 154.

(10) Lykourgos destroying his children in a frenzy.

B.M. F 271; Naples 3219 = Reinach, i. 125, and 3237 = Baumeister, ii. pp. 834–35. See also Reinach, i. 333: Lykourgos slaying Thoas; and p. 56.

(11) Melampus healing the daughters of Proitos from their madness at the altar of Artemis Lusia, in the presence of Dionysos.

Naples 1760 = Millingen-Reinach, 52 = Wiener Vorl. B. 4, 3.

(12) Merope (a scene from the tragedy of that name).

Munich 810 = Reinach, i. 363: see Vogel, Scenen Eur. Trag. p. 118.

(13) Pandareos with the golden dog of Zeus, which he stole.

Louvre A 478 = Hermes 1898, p. 638; Bull. de Corr. Hell. 1898, p. 586.

(14) Peleus wrestling with Atalante.

Munich 125 (= Reinach, ii. 120 = Furtwaengler and Reichhold, pl. 31), and 584 = Reinach, ii. 88; Bibl. Nat. 818 = Gaz. Arch. 1880, pl. 14; Micali, Mon. Ined. pl. 41.

(15) Peleus hunting a stag.

Berlin 2538 = Reinach, ii. 162: cf. Apollod. iii. 13, 3.


(16) Pentheus torn to pieces by his mother Agave and the frenzied Maenads.

B.M. E 775 = Fig. 131; Munich 807 = Baumeister, ii. p. 1204, fig. 1396; Jatta 1617 = Müller-Wieseler, Denkmaeler, ii. 37, 436; Jahrbuch, 1892, pl. 5 (and see p. 154); Gaz. Arch. 1879, pls. 4–5 (?).

(17) Phaon with Chryse and Philomele.

Furtwaengler and Reichhold, pl. 59 (vase in Palermo, formerly interpreted as Dionysos and Ariadne: see text, p. 296, for the correct interpretation).

(18) Phineus invoking the gods.

B.M. E 291 = Wiener Vorl. C. 8, 1. For other Phineus scenes, see pp. 81, 115.

(19) The madness of Salmoneus.

Amer. Journ. of Arch. 1899, pl. 4 (interpreted as Athamas): cf. Class. Review, 1903, p. 276 and Harrison, Prolegomena to Gk. Religion, p. 61.

(20) Thoas placed in the chest by Hypsipyle.

Berlin 2300 = Reinach, i. 273: see Ap. Rhod. i. 622, and Hartwig, Meistersch. p. 374.

(21) Aktor and Astyoche (uncertain reference).

Jahrbuch, 1902, pl. 2 (in Boston): see ibid. p. 68, Il. ii. 513 and 658; Schol. in Pind. Ol. vii. 42.

(22) The foundation of Boiae in Laconia by the appearance of a hare.

Reinach, ii. 333 = Inghirami, Vasi Fitt. 120 (this is exceedingly doubtful).

(23) Two boys delivered to a Nymph (unknown myth).

Wiener Vorl. E. 12, 3.

The story of Orpheus often finds a place on vases of the R.F. period,[1441] but is chiefly confined to two episodes, his playing the lyre among a group of Thracians[1442] (the men recognisable by their costume, see p. 179), and his pursuit by the Thracian women[1443] and subsequent death at their hands.[1444] In one scene his head after his death is made use of as an oracle.[1445] He is often present in under-world scenes (see p. 68), but not always in connection with the fetching back of Eurydike.[1446]

Thamyris, a quasi-legendary figure, appears contending with the Muses for pre-eminence with the lyre[1447]; on one fine R.F. vase he is accompanied by Sappho,[1448] who, though strictly an historical personage, appears among the Muses in quasi-mythical guise; he also plays the lyre among Amazons.[1449] Other semi-historical persons enveloped in a cloud of fable are: Taras, the founder of Tarentum[1450]; Midas, who is generally represented with asses’ ears, and is depicted judging the Seilenos who was caught in his rose-garden and is led before him with hands tied[1451]; and Minos, who appears at the slaying of the Minotaur by Theseus,[1452] and in the under-world as one of the judges of souls.[1453]

Nor must we omit to mention the Amazons, who play such a large part on Greek vases; besides their connection with various legendary events, they are often employed purely as decorative figures. Mention has already been made of their combats with Herakles and Theseus, and of the part played by their queen Penthesileia in the Trojan War[1454]; and we also find them in such scenes as the Judgment of Paris[1455] and Herakles’ fight with Kyknos.[1456] They also contend with Gryphons[1457]; and many battle scenes in which they are opposed to Greek warriors may also be here alluded to as not admitting of more definite identification.[1458] They are further represented arming and preparing for the fray,[1459] or setting out on horseback,[1460] or defending a besieged city[1461]; and as decorative figures we see them charging,[1462] stringing bows[1463] and discharging arrows,[1464] blowing a trumpet,[1465] running by the side of a horse or checking a restive animal,[1466] or fastening a shoe[1467]; or in peaceful converse with a Greek warrior,[1468] or else without any distinguishing action.[1469] Nearly all these subjects belong to the R.F. and later periods.

We may conclude this section with an account of the monstrous semi-human, semi-bestial creatures, which play a large part in the decoration of Greek vases, and appear in connection with many legends. Such are the Centaurs, half man, half horse; the Gorgons, winged women with snaky locks; the Harpies, also found on early vases in the form of winged women; and mythical creatures like Pegasos, the Chimaera, or the Minotaur.

The Centaurs, who probably symbolise mountain torrents or other forces of nature, appear (mostly on early vases) in combat with Herakles, either in troops or in single combat, as in the stories of Nessos, Dexamenos, and Eurytion[1470]; or, again, in the scenes so often celebrated in the sculptured friezes and metopes of Greek temples, where they contend with Theseus and Peirithoös,[1471] or with the Thessalian Lapiths.[1472] Among the latter a common episode is the death of Kaineus, whom the Centaurs buried in the earth, showering rocks upon him.[1473] In a more peaceful aspect appear the aged Centaurs, Pholos and Cheiron, especially in the stories of Herakles and Achilles,[1474] both of whom are brought to the latter for their youthful education.[1475] As the friend of Peleus Cheiron often assists at his capture of Thetis.[1476] Centaurs, especially Pholos, are sometimes represented returning from the chase,[1477] or as single decorative figures[1478]; in one case they fight with cocks.[1479] Nike in one or two instances is drawn in her chariot by male or female Centaurs[1480]; and, finally, representations of youthful Centaurs are found, though usually they are middle-aged.[1481]

The Gorgons appear almost exclusively in connection with the Perseus legend,[1482] but are besides frequently found as decorative figures, especially on B.F. vases,[1483] in the running attitude characteristic of archaic art, in one case between two Sphinxes.[1484] Besides these, the head or mask of the Gorgon Medusa, familiar at all periods as a decorative motive of Greek art—first with an ugly and grotesque face, afterwards refined and beautiful—is often found by itself on Greek vases, especially as an interior central ornament of B.F. kylikes.[1485]

Harpies, conventionally associated through the medium of the Roman poets[1486] with the human-headed bird-form which really denotes the Siren, are found invariably on vases in the form of winged women.[1487] They are, as has been elsewhere noted (p. 81), associated with the Boreades[1488] as symbolical of evil and good influences of winds, and probably should be regarded as personifications of the southern breezes (the malevolent influence of which is seen in the sirocco). Traditionally they were supposed to guard the Garden of the Hesperides in Africa, whence the hot baleful winds come. The story of Phineus is probably to be explained on these lines.[1489] A Harpy appears at the recovery of Zeus’ golden dog from Pandareos.[1490]

That the human-headed bird represents a Siren in Greek art is amply attested by the representations of Odysseus’ adventure with the vocal enchantresses.[1491] Their appearance on the so-called Harpy monument of Xanthos, however, shows them in another aspect, that of death-deities[1492]—not necessarily of a violent and rapacious character, as on a vase in Berlin,[1493] but gentle and kindly. So, again, a Siren is represented in connection with a tomb[1494]; and in a scene representing a banquet in Elysium they are depicted crowning the dead.[1495] On some vases we find a Siren playing a flute or a lyre (probably merely fanciful subjects)[1496]; or, again, two Sirens kissing each other.[1497] As mere decorative motives their appearances are countless, and many early vases are modelled in the form of Sirens[1498]; sometimes they have human arms[1499]; in one case a bird’s wings and a fish-tail[1500]; or, again, more anomalously, bearded masculine heads.[1501] More rarely they are seen flying.[1502]

The Sphinx is familiar in the first place as the monster, half woman, half dog, which vexed the city of Thebes till slain by Oedipus; this story is often alluded to on vases,[1503] but many groups of a man and a Sphinx have probably no special meaning.[1504] The Sphinx has sometimes a sepulchral reference,[1505] and is grouped with other figures, such as Atlas[1506] or a Seilenos[1507] (the latter probably a scene from a Satyric drama). Like the Siren, she is exceedingly common as a decorative figure,[1508] especially in the friezes of animals and monsters so dear to the early vase-painters. Her invariable form is that of a winged lion or dog with a woman’s bust.

The Gryphon, a kind of dragon composed of an eagle’s head and lion’s body and legs (occasionally a bird’s), is almost exclusively decorative[1509]; but on the later vases we find the fabulous combat of the Oriental Arimaspi with the Gryphons who guarded the mountain of gold in the Far East (cf. Plate XLII.)[1510]; or, again, they contend with the Amazons,[1511] with Scythians,[1512] or with ordinary Greek warriors.[1513] In one instance an Arimasp woman is seen shooting at a Gryphon of curious type.[1514] Further, they draw the chariots of deities, such as Persephone,[1515] and Dionysos[1516]; and we have already seen Apollo coming on a Gryphon from the Hyperborean regions.[1517]

Pegasos, the winged steed of Bellerophon, and the monster Chimaera which he slew, also appear as decorative figures[1518]; and the former draws the chariots of Apollo and of a woman,[1519] and also appears as a constellation with the moon and stars.[1520] A human-headed monster attacked by a hero seems to have been suggested by the Chimaera on a companion vase.[1521] The Minotaur is generally seen in connection with Theseus, but also appears as a single or decorative figure,[1522] and one vase appears to represent the youthful monster in his mother’s lap.[1523] Other monsters found occasionally on vases are Skylla, who appears, not in connection with the story of Odysseus, but with those of Perseus and Andromeda,[1524] and Phrixos and Helle,[1525] or as a single figure[1526]; and Lamia, a vampire or ogress in the form of a hideous old woman, who is seen undergoing torture from Satyrs,[1527] and in another unexplained scene.[1528] Another type of monster, the serpent-footed giant Typhon, has already been mentioned.[1529] Yet another and a unique type is that of the Nymphs with serpent bodies which protect vines from the attacks of goats.[1530]

Lastly, another creation of fancy, though not strictly mythological, is the ἰππαλεκτρύων or “cock-horse,” a bird with horse’s head, which appears on some B.F. vases ridden by a youth.[1531] This may also be a convenient place for mentioning the common decorative subject of Pygmies fighting with cranes.[1532]

Historical Subjects

The number of vases on which undoubted historical subjects have been discovered is very limited, though the old systems of interpretation exerted much ingenuity in eliciting an historical meaning from many scenes of daily life, with or without names inscribed over the figures. In the instances given below, the names are given in most cases, obviating all doubts. It is worth noting that the subjects chosen are not as a rule those that would most obviously suggest themselves. They fall into two classes, one relating to historical events and persons, the other to literary celebrities:

I. (1) The weighing of silphium by Arkesilas, one of the descendants of Battos, who ruled at Kyrene—probably the second of the name (B.C. 580–550). This scene occurs on a Cyrenaic cup in the Bibliothèque at Paris (Cat. 189: see Vol. I., p. 342, Fig. 92), which is probably a contemporary production.

(2) Kroisos, the king of Lydia, on the funeral pyre (B.C. 545). See above, p. 6.

Fig. 132 = Reinach, i. 85 = Baumeister, ii. p. 796, fig. 860 (in Louvre).

From Baumeister.

(3) Harmodios and Aristogeiton slaying the tyrant Hipparchos (B.C. 510).

B.F.: Arch.-epigr. Mitth. aus Oesterr. iii. (1879), pl. 6. R.F.; Reinach, i. 449; and see a late Panath. amph. in B.M. (B 605).

(4) Diitrephes shot to death with arrows, B.C. 479 (?). See Paus. i. 23, 3, and Frazer’s note.

Bibl. Nat. 299 = Jahrbuch, 1892, p. 185 (but see Reinach, ii. p. 255, and p. 15 under Gigantomachia).

(5) The Persian king and queen.

Helbig, p. 281 = Reinach, i. 275 (see Hartwig, Meistersch. p. 525).

(6) The Persian king hunting.

Petersburg, 1790 = Reinach, i. 23 (Xenophantos): cf. Naples 2992.

(7) Dareios in council, with various deities and personifications as spectators.

Naples 3253 = Reinach, i. 194 = Baumeister, i. pl. 6, fig. 449.

(8) Battle of Greeks and Persians (with spectator-deities, etc.).

Naples 3256 = Reinach, i. 98: see also p. 179; Reinach, ii. 84; Hartwig, Meistersch. pls. 55–56 and p. 518.

(9) Battle of Greeks and Messapians.

Berlin 3264 = Reinach, i. 270.

II. (1) Sappho.

(a) As single figure.

De Witte, Coll. à l’Hôtel Lambert, pl. 3.

(b) With Alkaios.

Fig. 133 = Munich 753 = Baumeister, iii. p. 1543, fig. 1607.

(c) Reading her poems.

Athens 1241 = Dumont-Pottier, pl. 6 = Reinach, i. 526.

(d) In rivalry with Muses.

Jatta 1538 = Reinach, i. 526.

(e) With Eros (named Talas).

Abhandl. d. k. sächs. Gesellsch. viii. (1861), pl. 1, fig. 1: see p. 49.

(2) Aesop.

Helbig, 154 = Jahn, Arch. Beitr. pl. 12, fig. 2.

(3) Anakreon.

B.M. E 18: cf. E 266–67, 314–15; and see generally Jahn, Gr. Dichter auf Vasenb. in Abhandl. d. k. sächs. Gesellsch. viii. (1861), p. 699 ff.

From Baumeister.

(4) Kydias of Hermione (a lyric poet: cf. Schol. in Ar. Nub. 967) and Nikarchos (a contemporary flute-player) are to be seen, according to Jahn (op. cit. p. 740) on a psykter in the British Museum (E 767), on which these names are inscribed over two revellers; but the identification is exceedingly doubtful. See also Munich 1096 = Jahn, op. cit. pl. 4, fig. 1.

III. Mention should also here be made of the names of historical renown which often appear on R.F. vases with the word καλός (see Vol. I. p. 403, and below, p. 267), such as Alkibiades, Glaukon, Hipparchos, Kleinias, Leagros, Megakles, and Miltiades. The question is dealt with elsewhere, and it has been shown that only in one or two cases—e.g. Leagros, Glaukon, and Kleinias (the father of Alkibiades)—can an identification with the historical personages be certainly maintained; it is, however, of sufficient interest for reference in this chapter, because the inscribed names may in some cases possibly refer to the figures depicted on the vases.[1533]


Religious subjects—Sacrifices—Funeral scenes—The Drama and burlesques—Athletics—Sport and games—Musical scenes—Trades and occupations—Daily life of women—Wedding scenes—Military and naval subjects—Orientals and Barbarians—Banquets and revels—Miscellaneous subjects—Animals.

It is hardly possible to give within brief limits all the illustrations that the vases afford, either directly or indirectly, of the religious and secular life of the Greeks. It is, however, feasible to classify these subjects under several headings, and to give a list of the most typical and popular in each case. Thus we have:

1. Religious ceremonies and sacrifices.
2. Funeral scenes and offerings at tombs.
3. Subjects connected with the drama.
4. Athletic contests, games and sport, and musical scenes.
5. Trades and occupations.
6. Scenes from daily life of women and children.
7. Military and naval subjects.
8. Oriental and barbarian figures.
9. Miscellaneous subjects and compositions of no particular import.
10. Animals (mostly only decorative).

1. Religious Subjects

These mostly appear in the form of sacrifices, either before a simple altar, or before the statue of some deity, a cult-image, or terminal figure. Thus we have representations of the offering of a bull to Athena,[1534] sacrifices to a primitive image of Dionysos[1535] or to a terminal figure of Hermes,[1536] or a sacrifice or libation to Persephone, Apollo, or other deities.[1537] A procession of six maidens carrying chairs and a boy with game is probably in honour of Artemis[1538]; and in another scene we have the Dioskuri coming to the Theoxenia or feast prepared in their honour.[1539] Many other examples may be found under the heading of the various Olympian deities. In other instances we see the preparations for a sacrifice,[1540] or a procession of figures with victims and sacrificial implements[1541]; the victims are either rams,[1542] bulls,[1543] goats,[1544] or pigs.[1545] Other scenes of sacrifice represent the roasting of a piece of meat held on a spit over a blazing altar[1546]; or two men stand over a large krater on a stand, accompanied by a flute-player.[1547] In many cases the sacrifice is doubtless intended to celebrate a dramatic, agonistic, or other victory.[1548]

Among other religious scenes we have the dedication of a tripod,[1549] religious festival dances,[1550] praying figures,[1551] men or women burning incense over an altar or incense-burner[1552]; or scenes of libation,[1553] a Metragyrtes or mendicant priest praying before devotees,[1554] and a priest examining the entrails of a ram.[1555] An ephebos is initiated and purified by the Διὸς κῴδιον[1556]; oaths are taken over a tomb,[1557] or omens from birds on a tumulus[1558]; and here perhaps may be mentioned a man making a gesture against the evil eye.[1559] There is also a scene illustrative of the Πιθοίγια, an Athenian feast[1560]; and a possible representation of the feast of Adonis, and the “gardens” or pots of flowers exhibited on that occasion.[1561] Lastly, there are scenes relating to votive offerings, such as a figure of a child on a column offered to Athena,[1562] a youth carrying a votive tablet,[1563] and others in which similar votive tablets occur.[1564] The number of scenes which can be shown to relate to Athenian festivals, or bear on Greek religious belief and ritual, might be greatly expanded and multiplied, but at present little has been done in this direction.[1565]

2. Funeral Scenes

Closely connected with these religious subjects are those which played so large a part in the life of the Greeks, and found such a strong reflection in their decorative art—namely, those which relate to the burial and cult of the dead. The relation of Greek vases to the tomb has been discussed elsewhere (Vol. I. p. 141 ff.), and it is sufficient here to repeat that there are only three or four classes of vases which yield undoubted evidence that they were expressly made for funeral purposes, each belonging to a different period of the art.

In the earliest period we have the great Dipylon vases (Vol. I. p. 285), many of which represent funeral processions and rows of mourning women[1566]; these were made for standing outside the tomb. In the B.F. period there are the prothesis-amphorae, made likewise for placing first round the bier and then on the tomb, as plainly shown in one instance[1567]; and in the R.F. period the Athenian white lekythi are decorated almost exclusively with sepulchral scenes. Among the vases of the decadence a whole series of Lucanian and Campanian hydriae and Apulian kraters and amphorae, as well as some late Athenian vases, the Apulian examples being usually of enormous size, equally betray the special purpose for which they were made.

On the B.F. vases the commonest subject is the prothesis or conclamatio, where the body is exposed on the bier and the mourners stand round in attitudes of grief,[1568] a subject also occasionally found on the lekythi.[1569] Elsewhere we have the carrying of the bier to the tomb,[1570] accompanied by warriors, and the depositio or placing of the body therein.[1571] On the vases of this period the tomb invariably assumes the form of a mound (χῶμα or tumulus),[1572] as it appears in some mythical scenes already described.[1573] On the lekythi, on the other hand, the tomb is in the form of a tall plain stele, on a stepped base, crowned with an ornament of acanthus-leaves or a palmette, and wreathed with coloured sashes, while vases and baskets of flowers are sometimes placed on the steps.[1574] On the vases of Southern Italy it is developed either into a tall column with altar-like base,[1575] or into a large shrine or heroön, with columns in front and gabled roof, within which stands the figure of the deceased,[1576] or sometimes an acanthus-plant[1577] or several vases.[1578]

The subjects on the white lekythi and later vases almost invariably take the form of mourners,[1579] or men and women making offerings to the dead, or placing sashes, wreaths, and vases on the tomb.[1580] Or, again, we may note interesting parallels with the Athenian sepulchral reliefs of the fourth century, which are mostly contemporaneous with the vases.[1581] Thus we have “farewell scenes” between a man and woman,[1582] or between two women[1583]; or the equestrian figure of a warrior, as on the famous stele of Dexileos,[1584] or a warrior charging with his spear[1585]; or, again, a hare-hunt at a tomb, perhaps with reference to the occupations of the deceased.[1586] Sometimes the tomb of a warrior is indicated by his armour.[1587] The interior of a tomb is occasionally shown, with a dead boy in it,[1588] or a series of vases,[1589] or as in the story of Polyeidos.[1590] In one instance a group of figures is placed on the top of the tomb.[1591] Mythological figures are sometimes introduced, as Charon ferrying the dead in his bark,[1592] or Hermes Psychopompos[1593]; or the type of Thanatos and Hypnos (or that of Boreas and Zephyros) with Memnon is borrowed for that of a warrior, a youth, or a woman whom they place in the tomb.[1594] Occasionally we see the soul of the deceased as a small flitting winged figure.[1595] On the Italian vases the figure of the deceased usually appears inside the heroön, painted white, as if to indicate a sculptured marble figure: a warrior with armour,[1596] or a youth with his horse or dog,[1597] or pouring a libation from a kantharos.[1598] These heroa are always surrounded by figures of women bearing baskets of offerings, unguent-vases, and wreaths, and by youths as mourners.[1599]


Scenes from Funeral Lekythi (British Museum).
1, Prothesis; 2, Cult of Tomb.

Apart from the under-world scenes already described,[1600] the future life is not illustrated by the vases, except in a curious scene on a B.F. Cyrenaic cup, representing a banquet of the blessed, attended by Sirens.[1601] There is also one single representation of the subject so common on later Greek reliefs—the sepulchral banquet.[1602]

3. The Drama

The relation of vase-paintings to the drama has already been discussed in Chapter XI., in which it has been shown how the tragedies of Euripides and the farces of Rhinthon influenced the artists of Southern Italy. It may, however, be worth while to recapitulate here the actual representations of actors or of scenes taking place on a stage, together with some account of the numerous burlesques of mythical subjects.

On one curious B.F. vase (probably late and imitative) we see a rude representation of a tragic and a comic chorus,[1603] and occasionally on vases of this period we find figures of actors dressed up as birds, or otherwise in comic fashion.[1604] More important in this connection are the fifth-century vases found on the site of the Cabeiric temple at Thebes, several of which have parodies of well-known subjects, such as Odysseus and Kirke, or Peleus bringing the young Achilles to Cheiron.[1605] It seems probable that these scenes are actual reproductions of burlesque performances connected with the worship of the Kabeiri.

We look in vain for representations of scenes from Aristophanes and the Old Comedy, though there are one or two vases which recall (if nothing more) episodes in the Acharnians[1606] and Frogs.[1607] But for the rest, these comic scenes are almost confined to the vases of Southern Italy, especially those made at Paestum, with their presentations of the φλύακες or fourth-century farces. A fairly exhaustive list of these was made some years ago by Heydemann,[1608] and probably requires little emendation as yet; we repeat below a number of the more interesting subjects, and others may be collected from the foregoing pages in which myths are burlesqued (the Judgment of Paris, the apotheosis of Herakles, Oedipus and the Sphinx, etc.).[1609]

(1) Zeus visiting Alkmena: Schreiber-Anderson, 5, 8 = Heydemann, loc. cit. p. 276: cf. B.M. F 150.

(2) Apollo healing the Centaur Cheiron: B.M. F 151.

(3) Herakles at Delphi; Apollo takes refuge on the roof of the temple: Reinach, i. 153, 2 = Rayet and Collignon, p. 318.

(4) Combat of Hephaistos (Daidalos) and Ares (Enyalios): B.M. F 269.

(5) Herakles with the Kerkopes: Schreiber-Anderson, 5, 2 = Heydemann p. 281.

(6) Herakles seizing Auge: Fig. 105, Vol. I. p. 474 = Reinach, i. 123 = Heydemann, p. 279.

(7) Burlesque of the story of Antigone: Reinach, i. 273.

(8) Rape of the Palladion: B.M. F 366.

(9) Death of Priam: Berlin 3045 = Reinach, i. 370, 8.

(10) Odysseus and Kirke: Jatta 901 = Heydemann, p. 271.

(11) Odysseus in Phaeacia: Reinach, i. 153, 1.


Other scenes represent single figures, such as Herakles,[1610] or Taras on the dolphin[1611]; or subjects from farces of daily life, such as an actor with a table of cakes[1612] or the drunken return from a revel.[1613] Many scenes, again, have some reference to the Satyric drama, as on the fine vase in Naples, where Dionysos and other figures attend the preparations for a performance of that kind[1614]; or such scenes as that of Hera and Iris attacked by Seileni,[1615] or those relating to adventures of Herakles and Perseus with Satyrs.[1616] Other subjects have no particular significance, such as an actor attired as a Seilenos playing on the flute, or dancing, or with a Sphinx,[1617] groups of actors[1618] (in one case dressing[1619]), a comic actor among Satyrs and Maenads,[1620] and single figures.[1621] Some, which are apparently mythological, defy explanation.[1622]

The influence of Tragedy on vase-paintings is an indirect one, and entirely confined to the vases of Southern Italy on the one hand, and to the plays of Euripides on the other. The subject has been discussed at length elsewhere in this work,[1623] and it is unnecessary here to give a list of the subjects on South Italian vases which can be traced to the influence of Euripides. It has also been pointed out that this influence made itself felt, not only in the actual choice of subjects, but generally in their treatment and arrangement, in the quasi-architectural setting of many scenes, and in the elaborate costumes of the figures.


4. Athletics and Sport

From the theatre we naturally turn to the palaestra and gymnasium, which played so important a part in the public and private life of the Greeks, and, like the former, may be said to be vested with a religious significance, as exemplified in the Olympic and other great games. Hardly any class of subject is found so frequently and consistently on the vases. The series of Panathenaic amphorae alone supply instances of every form of athletic exercise in which the Greeks indulged.[1624] Many vases, especially the R.F. kylikes, represent groups of athletes in the palaestra engaged in various exercises, such as boxing, wrestling, running, and leaping[1625]; in other cases we have single groups of boxers[1626] or wrestlers,[1627] or of the παγκράτιον, a somewhat brutal combination of the two.[1628] A boxer is sometimes seen putting on his caestus.[1629] The πένταθλον, which played so important a part in the national games, is not infrequently found, though often only three or four out of the five contests appear.[1630] Here, again, we also find single figures of diskos-throwers[1631] or javelin-throwers,[1632] representations of the long-jump,[1633] and men marking the ground with a pick-axe or poles.[1634] An athlete is seen binding round his javelin the cord or ἀγκύλη by which it was thrown,[1635] and the pick-axe afore-mentioned also appears in such a way as to indicate its general use by athletes—viz. for digging up the ground over which jumps were made, by way of exercising the limbs.[1636] A variation of the javelin contest was one in which the competitors were mounted, and aimed at a shield set up as a target as they rode past.[1637] Other important contests are the foot-race[1638]; the horse-race, generally taken part in by boys (κέλητες)[1639]; the chariot-race[1640]; the torch-race (λαμπαδηδρομία)[1641]; and the race of armed warriors (ὁπλιτοδρομία).[1642] In the latter contest various types may be distinguished: the arming for the race[1643]; the start[1644]; the race itself, with runners turning at the end of the stadion[1645]; the finish[1646]; and a variation in which the runner carried his armour.[1647] On the earlier vases this race is run in full armour; on the later, only with helmets and shields. Frequently the victorious athlete, horseman, or hoplite is seen proclaimed as winner,[1648] and receiving his prize[1649]; also receiving a crown from Nike.[1650]

Among more miscellaneous scenes may be mentioned athletes anointing themselves[1651] and using the strigil[1652]; the κωρυκομαχία or quintain[1653]; an athlete expiring[1654]; a girl-runner wounded in the foot[1655]; men rolling discs[1656]; acrobats[1657] and female tumblers performing contortions over swords, or lifting objects with their feet.[1658] To the list of palaestra scenes may be added those where Nike or another deity appears as patron of the palaestra watching the athletes,[1659] and scenes of ephebi washing or bathing in preparation for or after their contests.[1660] The athletes are often accompanied by trainers, who use a forked stick to direct their movements.[1661] On the later R.F. and the Italian vases it is a regular thing to find on the reverse a roughly painted group of two or three athletes or ephebi, usually wrapped in himatia and conversing together[1662]; in such cases the palaestra is indicated by a pair of jumping-weights or a ball suspended.

Subjects coming under the heading of what we call Sport are not so common, and are practically limited to hunting scenes. They include hare-hunts,[1663] stag-hunts,[1664] wolf-hunts and fox-hunts,[1665] lion-hunts,[1666] and boar-hunts[1667]; in the latter on early B.F. vases the figures often have fancy names, with a reference in some cases to the hunt of the Calydonian boar, which created the type. Some, especially B.F. vases, depict the departure of a hunter for the chase,[1668] or his return loaded with game[1669]; or we see a party of hunters resting (all with fancy names).[1670] A group of youths capturing and taming a bull may also be mentioned here,[1671] and horse-taming is similarly depicted.[1672] We see horses being unharnessed, groomed, and watered,[1673] or exercised,[1674] and a man with a backing horse[1675]; and we may also perhaps include among these subjects scenes representing riding-lessons, a school for ephebi,[1676] or a boy learning to mount a horse.[1677] A favourite subject for the interiors of R.F. cups is that of a young Athenian on horseback,[1678] often in Oriental or Thracian costume (see p. 179).[1679] On the B.F. vases a horseman or a chariot is sometimes depicted in front view, a notable exception to the preference of the time,[1680] and sometimes a three-horse chariot takes the place of the quadriga.[1681] Among miscellaneous chariot-scenes may be mentioned a goddess (?) and a hero mounting chariots,[1682] a girl in a chariot drawn by hinds[1683]; and people travelling in a country cart.[1684]

Among the various Games popular with Greek youths the favourite is, perhaps, that of ball, which was often played by men mounted on each other’s shoulders in two parties, this being known as ἐφεδρισμός[1685]; a rougher variant, in which the ball was omitted and victory was probably gained by overthrowing the opponent pair, was known as ἐγκοτύλη.[1686] Women and children also play at ball, as does Eros.[1687] Equally popular was cock-fighting[1688]; and we also see a group of boys shooting with bow and arrows at a popinjay or figure of a bird.[1689] Of indoor amusements the favourite is the κότταβος, a popular relaxation after a banquet, often seen on kylikes and other R.F. vases.[1690] Other games, more suitable to younger boys, are top-spinning[1691] and bowling a hoop[1692]; others, again, in which boys and girls join, or even occasionally Eros and Satyrs, are the games of morra (micare digitis, or “How many fingers do I hold up?”),[1693] and its variant, the ὤμιλλα, played with knucklebones[1694]; swinging[1695] and see-sawing[1696]; and flying a kite.[1697] A game of similar character to the morra is played by a winged girl, who places her hands over the eyes of a boy in a chair.[1698] The so-called magic wheel, which was twirled on a string, is almost exclusively used by Eros on the vases of Southern Italy.[1699] Children with their toys, such as go-carts, vases of various shapes, etc., are often depicted on the smaller R.F. vases of the fine style, some of which were perhaps actually made for playthings[1700]; and we often see them accompanied by pet dogs, tortoises, and other animals.[1701] Similarly there are representations of birds and beasts kept in cages,[1702] and of grown-up people playing with pets: a youth and girl with a mouse or jerboa,[1703] or a man with a Maltese dog.[1704]

Equal in importance in the eyes of the Greeks was the other great division of their education, μουσική; the wider sense in which they used the word, the culture of the mind as opposed to that of the body (γυμναστικη), admits of including under this heading school scenes as well as musical performances. Among the former is the well-known kylix of Duris in Berlin (Plate XXXIX.),[1705] where a teacher is seen unrolling a manuscript on which appears an epic hexameter (see Chapter XVII.); a pupil is about to write on tablets; and others undergo instruction on the flute and lyre. Elsewhere we see a youth writing on a tablet,[1706] or on his way to school[1707]; a man reading from a roll[1708]; and a vivid representation of a schoolmaster giving a writing lesson.[1709]

Lessons in music,[1710] singing,[1711] and dancing[1712] are by no means infrequently represented, especially on R.F. vases; we have already seen the young Herakles and Iphikles receiving instruction of this kind,[1713] and on the vases both boys and girls take part in the lessons. Dancing scenes include dances of maidens (very common on early B.F. vases), or single figures of dancers[1714]; a girl dancing to the flute or with castanets,[1715] or a youth to the music of a girl[1716]; a woman dancing the Pyrrhic dance in the attire of a warrior,[1717] and a sacred Lydian dancer with her wicker head-dress.[1718] The grotesque dancers on some early B.F. vases appear to be performing the kordax.[1719]

Groups of musicians with no particular signification are often found, generally playing the lyre and flute,[1720] or single figures, such as a lyre-player in female costume,[1721] or in the distinctive ὀρθοστάδιον of the musician.[1722] Other scenes relate to agonistic and musical competitions, which often formed part of the great games; thus we have on some Panathenaic vases and elsewhere contests for victory with the lyre[1723] or flute.[1724] Sometimes the victorious musician appears receiving the prize[1725] or a crown from Nike[1726]; he usually stands on a bema or raised platform. On one vase a poet recites an epic to the sound of the flute; the opening words appear proceeding from his mouth.[1727] On another a man is seen tuning his lyre.[1728] Singing was a common recreation of banqueters or revellers, especially as seen on R.F. vases.[1729]

From Baumeister.

5. Trades and Occupations

The trades and occupations represented on vases are very varied, ranging from mining to shoemaking. The representations of miners in caves which appear on some of the early Corinthian pinakes[1730] most probably refer to the digging out of the clay for the potteries rather than to mining for metals. This seems the more probable when it is taken into consideration that potters’ workshops and furnaces are so frequently depicted in the same series.[1731] Besides these we find later instances of potters turning vases on the wheel,[1732] painting them, or finishing them off,[1733] as already described in a previous chapter: one vase represents the interior of a potter’s workshop with vases in various stages[1734]; another, a man painting the design with a sort of quill.[1735] Young men and girls are depicted negotiating the purchase of completed vases in the shop.[1736] Another of the Corinthian pinakes[1737] represents the exportation of vases in a ship. Metal-work is represented by a well-known R.F. kylix in Berlin,[1738] showing a bronze foundry, with statues in various stages of completion; there are also representations of a smithy,[1739] in some of which writers have seen an allusion to Hephaistos and the Kyklopes (see p. 37). A man is depicted finishing off a bronze helmet,[1740] or carrying a completed terminal figure[1741]; and of similar import is the subject of Athena modelling a horse.[1742]

Agriculture is represented by vases in Berlin and the Louvre with scenes of men ploughing with oxen (Fig. 136) or hoeing, sowers, and mules carrying sacks of grain[1743]; and certain vase-paintings have been interpreted as referring to the digging of a well.[1744] A man is seen cutting down a tree,[1745] and another birds’-nesting.[1746] Shepherds with flocks of sheep and goats are seen on two early Boeotian vases,[1747] and also fishermen,[1748] and men crushing grapes in a wine-press.[1749] The various stages of oil-making include the gathering of the olives from a tree,[1750] the pressing in an oil-press,[1751] and lastly the merchant measuring out and selling his oil.[1752] A butcher is represented cutting up meat,[1753] and also the preparing and cutting up of a tunny-fish,[1754] and the baking of bread[1755]; on a B.F. vase two men weigh goods in a balance[1756]; and the export of the silphium (?) on the Arkesilas vase may also be mentioned here.[1757] Lastly, we have a shoemaker in his shop,[1758] a carpenter working with an adze,[1759] and a boy going to market with two baskets carried on a pole.[1760]

6. Daily Life of Women

Scenes from the daily life of women form our next heading, and we include therewith those relating to marriage or preparations for nuptials, which play so important a part in woman’s life. The “type” of a marriage procession on B.F. vases is, as we have seen (p. 16, and Vol. I. p. 378), liable to be confused with the subject of the marriage of Zeus and Hera; the bride and bridegroom appear in a four-horse chariot, accompanied by persons who, if not deities, at any rate bear similar attributes, such as the caduceus of Hermes or the torches of Artemis (as pronuba).[1761] In scenes of simpler character the wedding party walk in procession or drive in a cart.[1762] On later vases the bride is generally led by the hand by her husband, accompanied as before in appropriate fashion.[1763] We also find scenes representing the bridal pair on their marital couch (lectus genialis),[1764] and the return of the bride after the ceremonies.[1765] Other scenes may possibly represent a betrothal,[1766] a bridal toilet,[1767] or a nuptial sacrifice,[1768] and, finally, the arrival of the bridal pair at their house, with a servant preparing the marriage-bed.[1769]

More common, especially on R.F. vases of the fine style, are scenes taken from the life of the women’s apartments (γυναικωνῖτις),[1770] such as women at their toilet,[1771] spinning wool,[1772] or bleaching linen,[1773] or embroidering.[1774] Under the heading of toilet scenes are included single figures of women arranging their hair,[1775] painting their faces,[1776] fastening on their girdles[1777] or shoes,[1778] or putting clothes in a wardrobe.[1779] They also play with cats or dogs[1780] or pet birds,[1781] and there is a subject identified as a “consolation” scene.[1782] Again, we see women bathing both in private and public baths,[1783] or even swimming[1784]; but in some of these scenes the bath merely forms part of the toilet. Many of these toilet scenes may perhaps be idealised and regarded as groups of Aphrodite, the Graces, etc.[1785]

A favourite subject, but almost confined to the B.F. hydriae, is that of maidens with pitchers on their heads fetching water from a fountain, which is usually in the form of a building with columns and lion’s-head spouts of water; the maidens, five or six in number, carry the empty hydriae flat on their heads, the full ones upright.[1786] Women are sometimes seen in gardens or orchards, gathering fruit[1787] or (on late R.F. vases) frankincense.[1788] Other miscellaneous scenes which cannot be classified are: a woman in bed,[1789] woman with foot-pan,[1790] at a meal,[1791] reading from a scroll,[1792] burning incense,[1793] spinning a top,[1794] balancing a stick,[1795] riding in a mule-car[1796]; two or more women wrapped in one large cloak[1797]; and an accouchement scene.[1798] Those in which children appear include a nurse and child[1799]; a child learning to walk[1800]; a mother, and a child in a high chair[1801]; and a woman beating a child with a slipper[1802]; subjects of children playing with toys, etc., have already been discussed (p. 167). Finally, there are the scenes in which women appear as jugglers[1803] or performing dances in armour,[1804] of which mention has been made; these were probably amusements associated with banquets (see p. 182; also ibid. for banquets in which women, i.e. courtesans, take part).

A very common decoration of vases, especially the inferior ones of Apulia, is that of a woman’s head, either as the main subject or in some subsidiary part of the decoration; these, however, are so common that they hardly call for detailed description.[1805]

7. Military and Naval Subjects

Subjects of a military character on vases are chiefly confined to three—the arming of warriors,[1806] their setting out in chariots, on horseback, or on foot,[1807] and combats of two or more figures.[1808] In all these cases we are confronted with the often-recurring difficulty as to when such subjects have a mythological significance. Especially on B.F. vases, familiar types—such as the departure of Hector or the combat of Achilles and Memnon, to be identified in other cases by inscriptions—occur again and again in the same form, only diversified by the varying number of bystanders, which is generally regulated by the space at the painter’s disposal. Even when names are added they are often of a fanciful kind; and thus, for instance, we find combats between Homeric heroes which have no counterpart in literary record.[1809]

In the scenes of warriors arming we may note certain motives as recurring with more or less frequency—such as that of a warrior putting on his greaves,[1810] helmet,[1811] or cuirass (Fig. 137),[1812] or lacing up his helmet.[1813] Kindred subjects are that of a warrior taking his shield out of his case,[1814] or an archer drawing an arrow from his quiver,[1815] testing an arrow,[1816] or stringing his bow.[1817] We may also note the rarer occurrence of such scenes as the harnessing of a chariot (Frontispiece)[1818] or the equipping of a war-horse.[1819] In the departure scenes the usual type on B.F. vases is that of a four-horse chariot to the right, which the warrior is mounting or has mounted; a woman sometimes give him drink, and an old man stands at the horses’ heads. This “type” is used for the departure of Amphiaraos (cf. Berlin 1655), Hector, or other heroes.[1820] It is sometimes varied by placing the quadriga to the front.[1821] Or, again, the warrior is seen on horseback, accompanied by his groom,[1822] or a company on foot set out in marching array.[1823] On later vases the more usual version is that of a warrior receiving a libation or “stirrup-cup” from a woman before his departure, but the same scenes might be interpreted as referring to his successful return.[1824] Unmistakable instances of the return are those scenes where he receives a crown,[1825] or is brought back as a corpse by his comrades.[1826] There are scenes representing warriors taking oaths or omens at a tomb, or omens by the inspection of the liver of a victim, all before departure for battle[1827]; and single figures are countless, especially inside R.F. kylikes.[1828]

From Hoppin.

Among the various scenes incident to warfare may be mentioned an ambuscade,[1829] a wounded warrior dragged out of battle,[1830] a warrior protecting himself from darts,[1831] the capture of a prisoner,[1832] warriors carrying dead bodies,[1833] or human heads as trophies of victory.[1834] Besides single figures of warriors, heralds,[1835] trumpeters,[1836] slingers,[1837] and archers[1838] often appear; or representations of the armour of a warrior[1839]; or of the Δοκιμασία or parade of Athenian knights.[1840] Of a somewhat burlesque character is a scene depicting warriors riding on ostriches and dolphins.[1841]

Naval scenes are very rare, but we find occasional early representations of sea-fights,[1842] as on the Dipylon vases, the vessels on which appear to be biremes.[1843] On the B.F. and R.F. vases we find war-galleys[1844] or merchant-vessels,[1845] usually in places suitable for a row of ships—such as the outer edge of a kylix[1846] or the broad rim of a deinos or large bowl.[1847] These are specially common on vases of “mixed” technique. The subject of “keel-hauling,” the punishment administered to refractory sailors, must also find a place here.[1848]

8. Orientals and Barbarians

Oriental figures which can neither be classified as mythological, historical, or genre subjects sometimes appear on vases. We have already made mention of such quasi-mythological subjects as combats of Gryphons with Arimaspi or other figures in Oriental attire.[1849] Phrygian warriors, too, may be seen in some Trojan scenes—such as the sack of Troy or the flight of Aeneas[1850]—but their presence in scenes of departure or combat does not necessarily make the subject mythological.[1851] It is not always easy to identify the nationality of these barbarians, and the names usually given to them—Persian, Phrygian, or Scythian—must in many cases be regarded as somewhat conventional, except where details of costume are unmistakable.[1852]

Archers in Oriental costumes, wearing peaked caps with long lappets, and close-fitting costume of jerkin and trousers (ἀναξυρίδες), stippled over to indicate skin, are seen shooting arrows, on foot or on horseback,[1853] or accompanying the chariots of Greek warriors,[1854] or taking part in general combats[1855]; as also warriors blowing trumpets.[1856] Persian warriors in combat with Greeks appear on R.F. vases of the strong period,[1857] and may have some reference to the historical events of the time. It is even suggested that one is copied from the famous painting by Mikon of the battle of Marathon.[1858] One vase represents a sort of triumphal procession, perhaps of a Persian king, riding on a camel[1859]; and others depict Persians riding.[1860] Those of undoubted historical signification have already been mentioned.[1861] Scythians appear as mounted or unmounted archers,[1862] a Scythian horseman is attacked by a lion,[1863] a Scythian pursues two courtesans,[1864] and there is a curious scene depicting the revels of the Scythian Agathyrsi.[1865] Thracians, in the typical local costume of ζεῖρα (a thick cloak) and ἀλωπεκῆ (a fox-skin cap), appear by themselves or with Orpheus and Boreas[1866]; Thracian horsemen are represented setting out[1867]; and after the conquests of Miltiades the local costume appears to have become fashionable among the Athenian youth, as they are depicted wearing it on some contemporary vases.[1868] The Thracian custom of tattooing is suggested in some of the Orpheus scenes.[1869]

Figures of negroes are not very common on vases, though many of fifth-century date and later are modelled in the form of negroes’ heads; but there is a small class of B.F. alabastra on which they are represented in the traditional barbarian costume of trousers, etc., and are armed with the Oriental battle-axe.[1870] In one case a negro accompanies a camel.[1871] Ethiopians are seen conveying the body of Memnon or an ordinary warrior to his grave,[1872] and one vase represents an Ethiopian with a jug.[1873] A pair of Egyptian combatants can be identified on a fragmentary vase from Daphnae (Defenneh).[1874] Lastly, many of the vases of Southern Italy, especially those of Campania, represent combats or leave-takings of native Osco-Samnite warriors, in their typical costume of triangular cuirass, gaily plumed helmet, and scanty tunic.[1875]


9. Banquets and Revels

A group of subjects which play an important part on vases of all periods, especially the height of the R.F. style, but which do not exactly fall under any of the headings so far enumerated, is that of scenes connected with banquets and revels, especially of Athenian ephebi. In the ordinary “type” of banquets at all periods (as in other branches of art) the participants recline on couches on their left elbows, the right arm being free to use, and that hand often holding a drinking-cup or other appropriate attribute.[1876] In this fashion the gods—such as Dionysos, Hermes, or Herakles after his apotheosis—indulge in the pleasures of the banquet and the wine-cup.[1877] There are scenes which represent the preparations for a banquet,[1878] or young men on their way thither[1879]; and in those depicting the feast itself a table is often placed before the couch, on which viands of various kinds are seen[1880]; or the krater (mixing-bowl) stands by, ready for the drinkers to replenish their cups.[1881] Vases are also filled by means of a funnel.[1882] The results of over-indulgence are sometimes realistically indicated on the R.F. cups.[1883] After the drinking-bouts come amusements of various kinds, notably the game of the kottabos.[1884] No instances of this occur before the middle of the R.F. period, and on the cups of that time it is usually only indicated by the manner in which the banqueters twirl their kylikes with a finger crooked in the handle,[1885] preparatory to throwing the remaining drops of liquid at the little figure on the top of the kottabos-stand, the hitting of which caused part of the apparatus to fall with a ringing noise.[1886] On the latest Athenian and many Apulian vases the stand is often represented as well,[1887] not only in position for the game, but borne along by revellers.[1888] It is also carried by Seileni, Maenads, or Eros, and used by Dionysos at his banquets.[1889]

Other amusements take the form of music and dancing. The banqueters themselves play the lyre or flute,[1890] or listen to male and female performers on those instruments,[1891] or a young girl dances for their amusement.[1892] The women jugglers, tumblers, and acrobatic sword-dancers who often appear on late vases[1893] no doubt often contributed to the entertainment of the “gilded youth” of their day. Sometimes a banqueter is represented reclining on his couch and singing, the words in one or two cases being inscribed as proceeding out of his mouth.[1894] Not only men but women are represented banqueting, as on the psykter by Euphronios at Petersburg, which has a group of courtesans.[1895] This character also appears on the R.F. vases at the men’s banquets.[1896]

The κῶμος or revel is equally popular with the banquet. It usually takes the form of a procession of young and elderly men in various unrestrained attitudes,[1897] dancing,[1898] singing,[1899] playing the lyre, flute, or other instruments,[1900] carrying drinking-cups and other vessels,[1901] or balancing them in sportive manner.[1902] Frequently these κῶμος scenes are of a Dionysiac character, the god himself, Seileni, Satyrs, and Maenads taking part,[1903] and sometimes human beings are mingled with them. On a vase of the series connected with the comic stage (Fig. 134, p. 161) a father is seen dragging a drunken youth home from a banquet; but these scenes of rioting are not always necessarily conceived as taking place before or after social festivities. On a red-figured cup at Petersburg the subject of the return from the feast of the Brauronian Dionysos is depicted in most realistic fashion, the revellers indulging in all sorts of buffoonery and fantastic actions, which suggest an Athenian counterpart of modern Bank Holiday amusements[1904]!

To turn to a subject of a quieter character, what may be termed “love scenes” are not uncommon on vases, especially of the later period. On the Apulian vases indeed such subjects are innumerable. The usual type, occasionally found on earlier vases,[1905] is that of a youth and a seated girl exchanging presents, such as mirrors, wreaths, baskets of fruit or jewel-boxes, Eros being frequently present.[1906] Scenes of this kind were originally interpreted somewhat fantastically, as having some reference to the Eleusinian or other mysteries,[1907] an idea which no one would now seriously hold. Similar scenes which have no particular import, such as groups of women, often with Eros, occur on many R.F. vases of the later fine style, especially the pyxides and lekythi.[1908] They are all clearly fanciful, and belong to an age when tastes resembled those of the eighteenth century in their artificiality. There are also some instances, especially on the R.F. vases, where the sentiment is more definitely expressed, and couples are seen embracing or caressing one another in amorous fashion.[1909] It is not necessary to make more than passing allusion to the many vases on which this harmless sentiment is replaced by coarseness and open indecency of treatment, some of which, however, belong to the very finest stage of red-figure painting.

Finally, we may mention here a few subjects of a genre character which seem to defy classification, and yet are sufficiently definite to require separate mention. Such are the scenes so common on the interiors of R.F. kylikes, which represent ephebi in all kinds of attitudes, or carrying all sorts of objects, the great aim of the artist being to find the most suitable design to fill in the circular space.[1910] Thus we have such subjects as a youth putting on a greave or sandals,[1911] carrying a wine-amphora[1912] or a lyre,[1913] playing with castanets,[1914] or pursuing a hare[1915]; reclining at a banquet[1916]; armed with a club or a large stone[1917]; a man leading a leopard,[1918] and a man who seems from his gestures to be treading unawares on a snake[1919]; and others of an athletic or military character, of which mention has already been made. There are also many subjects which appear to have a meaning, yet are not mythological, and cannot be satisfactorily explained; such instances it would, however, hardly be profitable to describe in detail.

10. Animals

The last class of subjects with which this section has to deal is that of animals, as considered apart from human beings, or objects of what modern painters term “still life.” In the historical chapters of this work it has been shown what a large part the animal world played in the decoration of vases down to the sixth century B.C., and also which were the animals most frequently selected for the friezes and other decorations of early vases. Most noteworthy in this respect are the Mycenaean vases (Vol. I. p. 273), with their representations of cuttle-fish (Plate XV.), the nautilus or argonaut,[1920] and other marine subjects. But to these early vases in the present case no further allusion need be made; as subjects they have not as a rule sufficient interest. On the Attic vases of the B.F. and R.F. periods animals rarely form a principal subject on vases, though they still sometimes appear in small friezes on the less important parts of the vase; it may, therefore, be of interest to note a few typical instances in which this feature retains its prominence. Sometimes we have subjects with action: as, for instance, one in which a panther tears a stag, and is attacked by an archer and an armed warrior[1921]; or a lion attacks a panther, a bull, or a deer.[1922] Again, the interior of a B.F. kylix is sometimes filled with an animal subject, such as a wounded stag,[1923] or a deer scratching itself or grazing,[1924] or other animals[1925]; and in a similar position on one R.F. kylix we have an ass with its pack.[1926] Other animal subjects worth mentioning are a sea-serpent,[1927] goats browsing on vines,[1928] a fox caught in a trap,[1929] cats and mice,[1930] the appearance of the swallow.[1931]

There is a class of ware made in Southern Italy which takes the form of flat plates or dishes, decorated with representations of fish and molluscs, such as the pike or mullet, the cuttle-fish and various shell-fish; these were clearly used for eating fish off, and they have in the centre a hollow to receive the sauce.[1932] Friezes of fish are not infrequently found on the vases of Apulia. Animals, especially birds, sometimes appear in friezes on the early Ionic vases, such as geese, quails, or guinea-fowl[1933]; cocks and hens confronted are more common, especially in the B.F. period,[1934] and one late Italian vase has an amusing group of a cock and goose greeting one another with the words, “Ah, the goose!” “Oh, the cock!”[1935]

Lastly, of subjects from still life, distinct from their appearance in figure subjects, we find the armour of a warrior,[1936] a washing-basin,[1937] a flute-case,[1938] a lyre,[1939] a table with bread upon it,[1940] and a collection of objects for the toilet.[1941]

1112.  Athens 1259 = Reinach, i. 506; Mon. Grecs, 1876, pls. 1–2.

1113.  B. M. F 68.

1114.  Reinach, ii. 186.

1115.  Petersburg 2188 = Reinach, i. 8; Reinach, i. 279 (= Baumeister, i. p. 635, fig. 706) and 380. In Ant. Denkm. i. 59 (now at Boston) and in Berlin 2430 they do not appear in this connection.

1116.  B.M. B 170; Helbig, 78 = Reinach, i. 96 = Wiener Vorl. 1888, pl. 6, 1 (Exekias).

1117.  Millin-Reinach, ii. 44 (doubtful; perhaps Zethos and Amphion).

1118.  Petersburg 1924 and 1929 = Reinach, i. 9.

1119.  Reinach, i. 244.

1120.  Ibid. i. 363.

1121.  B.M. E 696.

1122.  François vase; Reinach, i. 230, ii. 119.

1123.  Reinach, i. 361 = Furtwaengler and Reichhold, pls. 38–39.

1124.  Bibl. Nat. 442 = Reinach, ii. 79 = Wiener Vorl. 1889, 12, 5.

1125.  Jatta 1095 = Reinach, i. 119 (Phineus scene); Reinach, i. 226 (in Louvre).

1126.  Reinach, i. 231, 507 (= Athens 853), ii. 1: see generally Roscher’s Lexikon, s.v. Leukippiden.

1127.  B.M. E 224 = Furtwaengler and Reichhold, pls. 8–9; probably influenced by the painting by Polygnotos of this subject (see Vol. I. p. 443).

1128.  Reinach, i. 484: cf. Bibl. Nat. 388.

1129.  B.M. B 633 = Wiener Vorl. iv. 9, 3.

1130.  Inghirami, Vasi Fitt. ii. 187: cf. Reinach, i. 361 (rev. of vase).

1131.  See p. 19.

1132.  B.M. F 479; Reinach, i. 229; Gaz. Arch. 1875, pl. 14 (in Louvre).

1133.  B.M. F 107.

1134.  Munich 611 and 291 = Reinach, i. 419, ii. 47.

1135.  Munich 371 = Ber. d. sächs. Gesellsch. 1853, pl. 10, 1, p. 145. He is represented as attacking Linos, who had found fault with his playing.

1136.  Reinach, i. 326 (Iphikles here with Linos).

1137.  See B.M. Cat. of Vases, ii. p. 13.

1138.  Reinach, ii. 70.

1139.  Furtwaengler, however, thinks the subject is Herakles sacrificing a bull (Gr. Vasenmalerei, p. 16: see below, p. 106).

1140.  Cf. Paus. v. 19, 1: τρεῖς ἄνδρες ἀλλήλοις προσεχόμενοι.

1141.  See p. 106.

1142.  Isthm. iii. 90.

1143.  B.F.: B.M. B 196, B 322; Munich 3 = Reinach, ii. 62; an early Athenian example in J.H.S. xxii. pl. 2. R.F.: Reinach, i. 242 = Wiener Vorl. v. 4 = Louvre G 103 (Euphronios); Athens 1166. See also Vienna 322 = Reinach, i. 339 and Munich 605 = Ber. d. sächs. Gesellsch. 1853, pl. 8, fig. 1.

1144.  B.M. B 314; Berlin 2057; Louvre F 208 = Reinach, i. 452; Munich 1180 = Reinach, i. 255, 2, and Helbig, 228 = Ber. d. sächs. Gesellsch. 1853, pls. 5, fig. 2, and 8, fig. 2; Reinach, i. 255, 1 = Baumeister, i. p. 49, fig. 56; Reinach, i. 451. The only R.F. examples published are Munich 401 (= Furtwaengler and Reichhold, pl. 32) and 605 (= Ber. d. sächs. Gesellsch. 1853, pl. 7, fig. 1).

1145.  See above, p. 72.

1146.  Bibl. Nat. 322.

1147.  Cambridge 43: cf. Pind. Nem. iv. 46.

1148.  J.H.S. xiii. pp. 71–2.

1149.  B.F.: B.M. B 197, B 364 (= Wiener Vorl. 1890–91, pl. 6, 1, Nikosthenes); Berlin 1732 = Reinach, ii. 66 = Wiener Vorl. 1889, 1, 2 (Kolchos). R.F.: B.M. E 73; Reinach, ii. 47, 68, 1 (?), and i. 223 = Wiener Vorl. D. pl. 5 (Pamphaios).

1150.  Jatta 1088 = Reinach, i. 475 = Wiener Vorl. iii. 4: see Röm. Mitth. 1894, p. 285.

1151.  Arch. Anzeiger, 1898, p. 51 (vase in Boston).

1152.  B.F.: B.M. B 228, B 313; Berlin 1851–52. R.F.: Munich 251 = Reinach, i. 259.

1153.  B.M. E 437 = Reinach, ii. 62 = Wiener Vorl. D. 6, 2.

1154.  B.F.: B.M. B 223, B 311; Berlin 1906; Louvre F 38 = Wiener Vorl. 1889, pl. 5, fig. 3 (Timagoras); Reinach, i. 227. No good R.F. examples (see Reinach, i. 346).

1155.  B.F.: B.M. B 225; Bibl. Nat. 255 = Reinach, ii. 61. R.F.: B.M. E 162; Athens 1202 = Benndorf, Gr. u. Sic. Vasenb. pl. 32, 4.

1156.  Reinach, i. 339 (R.F.).

1157.  B.M. B 226; Helbig, 27; Reinach, ii. 64 (one = Bologna 195). R.F.: Reinach, i. 221 and i. 41 (= Petersburg 1272, curious).

1158.  B.F.: Amer. Journ. of Arch. 1900, pl. 6 (Proto-Corinthian); J.H.S. i. pl. 1; Berlin 336 (= Reinach, i. 448), 1670 (= ibid. ii. 64, 1), 1737. R.F.: Reinach, i. 221. Late: B.M. F 43; Millin-Reinach, i. 68.

1159.  Petersburg 1787 = Reinach, i. 40.

1160.  B.F.: B.M. B 30; Berlin 1702; Helbig, 5; Athens 657 = Ant. Denkm. i. 57; Louvre E 852 = Reinach, i. 156. R.F.: B.M. E 42, E 176; Boston Mus. Report for 1900, p. 49, No. 17 (Aristophanes and Erginos).

1161.  Mon. Antichi, ix. pl. 3 (in B.M.); Naples 3089 = ibid. p. 10 = Millingen-Reinach, 33.

1162.  Berlin 1722; Reinach, i. 388.

1163.  Louvre F 60.

1164.  Oxford 249; Berlin 766–67; Munich 783; Reinach, ii. 59, 10. Late R.F.: Berlin 2359. Parody: Schreiber-Anderson, pl. 5, 2 = Jahrbuch, i. p. 280.

1165.  Bibl. Nat. 393 = Reinach, i. 397.

1166.  B.F.: Vienna 217 = Reinach, i. 169 (Caeretan hydria). R.F.: B.M. E 38; Athens 1175 = Dumont-Pottier, i. pl. 18; Berlin 2534. See Hartwig, Meistersch. p. 53, note 1.

1167.  B.M. E 364; Reinach, i. 229, 338, 392.

1168.  Berlin 4027 = Reinach, i. 338: cf. Aelian, Var. Hist. i. 24.

1169.  Reinach, i. 384, and see i. 475 and ii. p. 423; Louvre E 633 (capture of heralds): see for the myth, Paus. ix. 17, 2, ix. 25, 4; Diod. Sic. iv. 10; Apollod. ii. 4, 11.

1170.  Athens 970.

1171.  Berlin 1927 (?); B.M. E 290.

1172.  Arch. Anzeiger, 1895, p. 37 (R.F. in Berlin).

1173.  Bibl. Nat. 174.

1174.  Boston Mus. Report for 1898, No. 33.

1175.  B.F.: B.M. B 195, B 316; Bibl. Nat. 251 = Reinach, ii. 252. R.F.: B.M. E 255 (= Hoppin, Euthymides, pl. 5); E 318, E 458; Berlin 2159 = Wernicke-Graef, Ant. Denkm. pl. 27, fig. 3; Munich 401 = Furtwaengler and Reichhold, pl. 32 (Phintias); Reinach, i. 224. Late: Naples 1762 = Millingen-Reinach, 30.

1176.  Stackelberg, pl. 15.

1177.  Munich 1294 = Reinach, i. 403; ibid. ii. 4 = Wiener Vorl. ii. 8.

1178.  B.M. B 57.

1179.  Cambridge 100; and see J.H.S. xix. pl. 9.

1180.  Helbig, 232 = Reinach, ii. 59; a B.F. example in Röm. Mitth. 1902, pl. 5.

1181.  B.M. E 65 = Reinach, i. 193.

1182.  B.M. F 494; Berlin 3291; heads of Herakles and Omphale, Bibl. Nat. 866.

1183.  Louvre E 635 = Reinach, i. 151 = Rayet and Collignon, pl. 6; Mon. Grecs, 21–2 (1893–94), pl. 14 (in Louvre).

1184.  B.M. B 165; Athens 477 = Reinach, i. 519 (Melian vase): see note 1186 below.

1185.  J.H.S. xii. pl. 19; Jahreshefte, 1900, p. 64. The slaying of Iphitos is represented on a white-ground cup in the Louvre, Monuments Piot, ii. p. 53.

1186.  Athens 477, according to Pottier in Revue des Études Grecques, 1895, p. 389.

1187.  Anzeiger, 1891, p. 119 (in Berlin); a burlesque of the subject is given in Fig. 105, Vol. I. p. 474.

1188.  Millin-Reinach, ii. 71.

1189.  Reinach, ii. 75.

1190.  Fig. 107, Vol. I. p. 480.

1191.  Oxford 322; Reinach, ii. 62 = Roscher, iii. p. 762.

1192.  Naples 3359 = Reinach, i. 400; and see note 1186.

1193.  B.M. F 68.

1194.  Hartwig, Meistersch. pl. 38, p. 422.

1195.  Bibl. Nat. 822 = Millin-Reinach, ii. 10; Ber. d. sächs. Gesellsch. 1855, pls. 1–2. See above, p. 67.

1196.  Reinach, i. 226.

1197.  Berlin 2164: cf. Athens 1119 = Ath. Mitth. 1901, pp. 146, 149.

1198.  B.M. B 473; Berlin 1856, 1919.

1199.  Berlin 3256 (Argonautic?).

1200.  B.M. E 494 (? see p. 106, note 1216); Reinach, ii. 180 = Millingen-Reinach, 51. On Chryse see Class. Review, 1888, p. 123; the same figure occurs on the B.M. vase E 224 in connection with the rape of the Leukippidae.

1201.  B.M. E 505: cf. for statue B.M. F 233.

1202.  Jatta 423 = Reinach, i. 205.

1203.  Millin-Reinach, ii. 25.

1204.  Reinach; i. 257; and cf. B.M. F 211, F 278 for H. at Olympia; also Stackelberg, pl. 42.

1205.  B.M. B 198, B 498; Reinach, ii. 74–5; Louvre F 116–117 = Reinach, i. 297 (Nikosthenes); Helbig, 93 = Mus. Greg. ii. 54, 2.

1206.  B.M. D 14; Munich 369 = Furtwaengler and Reichhold, pl. 24 (Duris); Benndorf, Gr. u. Sic. Vasenb. 42, 4; Reinach, ii. 298.

1207.  B.M. B 301, B 497, E 66; Berlin 1961 = Reinach, ii. 43; Berlin 2534 (with Seilenos); Munich 388 = Furtwaengler and Reichhold, pl. 4 (B.F. and R.F. “bilingual”); Reinach. ii. 39; Millin-Reinach, i. 37; Athens 764 = Heydemann, Gr. Vasenb. pl. 3, 1.

1208.  B.M. B 167.

1209.  Benndorf, Gr. u. Sic. Vasenb. pl. 44 (in Petersburg).

1210.  Reinach, ii. 318; Helbig, ii. p. 327 = Millingen-Reinach, 35; Philologus, 1868, pl. 2.

1211.  B.M. B 229: cf. Berlin 4027 and B.M. E 814.

1212.  Él. Cér. iii. 14.

1213.  Berlin 2293, 3988; Petersburg 523 = Reinach, i. 467; Él. Cér. i. 1; Mon. Grecs, 1875, pl. 1.

1214.  B.M. B 147; Reinach, ii. 21.

1215.  B.M. B 228; Berlin 1857; Helbig, 25; Reinach, ii. 43: cf. Athens 791 = Heydemann, Gr. Vasenb. pl. 3, 2.

1216.  See B.M. E 494; J.H.S. xviii. p. 275; Roscher, Lexikon, i. p. 2235; Bacchylides, Od. 16; also p. 96, note 1211.

1217.  B.M. E 370.

1218.  Munich 384 = Reinach, i. 130 = Baumeister, i. p. 307, fig. 322; Reinach, i. 481.

1219.  B.F.: B.M. B 199–201, 211 (Pl. XXIX.), 230, 317–21; Reinach, ii. 72; Oxford 212 (no deities). R.F.: Helbig, 230 (A. about to mount chariot).

1220.  Bibl. Nat. 253 = Reinach, i. 399 and 254.

1221.  Berlin 1827 = Reinach, ii. 74; Reinach, ii. 161.

1222.  With Athena: B.M. F 238; Millingen-Reinach, 36. With Nike: B.M. F 64, F 102; Reinach, i. 368, 481, and ii. 204; Wiener Vorl. E. pls. 7, 8, fig. 3 = Mon. Grecs, 1876, pl. 3 (in Louvre; parody; chariot drawn by Centaurs).

1223.  B.F.: B.M. B 166, B 379, B 424; Berlin 1691, 1857; Reinach, i. 359, 1, ii. 76 (in Berlin). R.F.: B.M. E 262 = Reinach, ii. 75; Berlin 2278 = Reinach, i. 70 = Ant. Denkm. i. 9 (Sosias); Furtwaengler and Reichhold, pl. 20; Reinach, i. 222, 408 (Fig. 127). Late: Naples 2408 = Reinach, i. 323; Petersburg 1775 = Reinach, i. 302 (parody).

1224.  B.F.: Louvre F 30 = Rev. Arch. xiii. (1889), pl. 4 (Amasis); F 116–117 = Reinach, i. 297 = Wiener Vorl. 1890–91, pl. 4, figs. 1–2 (Nikosthenes); Bibl. Nat. 254; Berlin 1961 = Reinach, ii. 43. R.F.: Berlin 2626; Reinach, ii. 76, 186.

1225.  B.M. E 262; Bonn 720 = Jahrbuch, 1892, p. 69; Athens 1346 = Dumont-Pottier, i. pl. 15; B.M. F 178; Reinach, i. 251 (all R.F. or late).

1226.  B.M. E 244; Berlin 3257; Forman Sale Cat. 364: see p. 77.

1227.  Berlin 2538 = Reinach, ii. 162.

1228.  B.M. E 264 = Wiener Vorl. 1890–91, 8, 1; a similar vase in Röm. Mitth. 1894, pl. 8, has been otherwise interpreted (see below, p. 110, note 1233).

1229.  Petersburg 830 = Reinach, i. 150 = Wiener Vorl. A. 8 (Hieron).

1230.  See on the subject generally Museo Ital. iii. p. 235.

1231.  Gaz. Arch. 1884, pls. 44–6.

1232.  Wiener Vorl. E. 12, 2.

1233.  See J.H.S. xviii. pl. 14, and pp. 277–79 for three other instances; the last, however, is susceptible of other interpretations.

1234.  Bologna 273 = Baumeister, iii. p. 1999, fig. 2149. The B.M. vase E 264 (see p. 108, note 1228) may have the same meaning, in which case the woman holding the clue is a sort of “short-hand” allusion to the adventure awaiting him. See also Reinach, ii. 81 (Theseus receiving libation from Aithra).

1235.  B.M. E 41 = Reinach, i. 532 (Chachrylion).

1236.  Berlin 2179 = Wiener Vorl. iii. 6; Reinach, i. 222 = Plate XXXIX. (also interpreted as Peleus and Thetis, see p. 120); Harrison and Verrall, p. cxxxi (in Vienna): see also Boston Mus. Report for 1900, p. 67, No. 25.

1237.  Reinach, i. 91; ii. 264 (= Bibl. Nat. 421).

1238.  Munich 7; B.M. E 41; Reinach, i. 87.

1239.  B.M. E 157, 272, 450; Reinach, ii. 163 (now in B.M.; a complete and magnificent example); Millin-Reinach, i. 10; Naples 2421, 3253, and R.C. 239 = Reinach, ii. 278, i. 330, i. 482 (the first of these given by Furtwaengler and Reichhold, pls. 26–8).

1240.  B.M. F 272; Munich 368 = Hartwig, Meistersch. pls. 59, 60, and 805 = Reinach, i. 391; Reinach, ii. 181–82; Boston Mus. Report for 1900, p. 50, No. 17 (Erginos and Aristophanes); and see under Centaurs, p. 145.

1241.  Munich 410 = Reinach, ii. 86 = Furtwaengler and Reichhold, pl. 33.

1242.  Berlin 1731 = Roscher, iii. p. 1782, has been interpreted as the rape of Helene.

1243.  See Furtwaengler, op. cit. p. 177; and cf. Bibl. Nat. 256 = Reinach, ii. 254. Berlin 3143 = Reinach, i. 373, may also represent a rape by Theseus.

1244.  Jatta 1094 = Reinach, i. 356: see also Reinach, i. 108, 455, and above, p. 68.

1245.  Munich 849 = Reinach, i. 258.

1246.  Ant. Denkm. i. 59 (in Boston).

1247.  See B.M. F 123 and F 272; also a vase in Berlin (Arch. Anzeiger, 1890, p. 89), where Eros shoots with his bow at Phaidra; Hippolytos is present. Cf. also Naples 2900 = Millingen-Reinach, 41.

1248.  B.M. F 279.

1249.  Petersburg 1357 = Reinach, i. 244, and 1723 = Baumeister, i. p. 406, fig. 448; Naples 3140 = Mus. Borb. ii. 30, 4; Monuments Piot, x. pl. 8 (in Boston); and cf. Berlin 2300 = Reinach, i. 273.

1250.  B.M. B 155, F 490 (?).

1251.  B.M. F 83.

1252.  Athens 1956 = Ath. Mitth. xi. (1886), pl. 10.

1253.  B.M. B 471 = Fig. 97, Vol. I. p. 382; Berlin 3022 = Reinach, i. 172; Munich 1187 = Reinach, ii. 109: cf. Bibl. Nat. 456.

1254.  B.M. B 248, B 380; E 181, E 399; F 500; Berlin 1682 = Reinach, i. 441; Bibl. Nat. 277 = Reinach, i. 290; Munich 619 = Reinach, ii. 48.

1255.  B.M. E 493; Mon. Grecs, 1878, pl. 2 (a fine example in the Louvre).

1256.  Munich 619, 910 = Reinach, ii. 48–9; Ant. Denkm. i. 57. For Chrysaor see Reinach, i. 172 (Louvre E 857), ii. 49, and Stackelberg, 39.

1257.  Millin-Reinach, ii. 4.

1258.  B.M. E 169 = J.H.S. xxiv. pl. 5, and F 185; Engelmann, Arch. Studien, p. 6; and cf. Naples 3225; Millin-Reinach, ii. 3; Jahrbuch, xi. (1896), pl. 2 (in Berlin). For the correct explanation of the first-named vase see Petersen in op. cit. p. 104 ff.

1259.  Berlin 1652 = Reinach, i. 217; Roscher, iii. p. 2053 (in Berlin; a fine instance); Naples 3225, S.A. 24, S.A. 708 = Reinach, i. 188.

1260.  Reinach, i. 344; Jahrbuch, vii. (1892), p. 38: cf. Philologus, 1868, pl. 1, fig. 1, and pl. 3.

1261.  Millingen-Reinach, 3: see Philologus, 1868, pl. 1, figs. 2–3, p. 16.

1262.  Berlin 2377 = Reinach, i. 289.

1263.  Jahrbuch, 1892, p. 33.

1264.  Naples 2202 = Dubois-Maisonneuve, Introd. pl. 46; Reinach, i. 284.

1265.  B.M. E 610, E 715 (Plate XLVI., fig. 4).

1266.  B.M. B 2: cf. Bibl. Nat. 977 for a similar figure inaccurately (?) inscribed Oinomaos.

1267.  B.M. F 331; Naples 1982 = Reinach, i. 292 (very doubtful; Oinomaos absent: see p. 123, note 1361).

1268.  B.M. F 271, 278; Naples 2200 = Reinach, i. 379; Athens 968 = Jahrbuch, 1891, p. 34 (B.F.); Reinach, i. 290 = Wiener Vorl. i. pl. 10, 2; Naples 2858 = ibid. pl. 10, 1 (subject doubtful).

1269.  Naples 3255 = Reinach, i. 235; Reinach, i. 163 = Baumeister, ii. p. 1203, fig. 1395; Naples S.A. 697.

1270.  Berlin 3072 = Reinach, i. 204.

1271.  Naples 2200 = Reinach, i. 379.

1272.  Naples 3222 = Reinach, i. 167.

1273.  Jatta 1499 = Reinach, i. 127 = Wiener Vorl. viii. 8; Boston Mus. Report, 1900, p. 68, No. 25.

1274.  Naples 2418 = Dubois-Maisonneuve, Introd. pl. 69; Wiener Vorl. viii. 9, 1 = Roscher, ii. 282; Reinach, i. 287, ii. 318.

1275.  Amer. Journ. of Arch. 1900, pl. 4; Louvre A 478; Reinach, i. 108 (Karlsruhe 388), 517 (Athens 1589), 331 (four late examples), and ii. 279; and see B.M. B 105, B 162; Naples 3253 = Reinach, i. 195; Berlin 3258.

1276.  Petersburg 427 = Inghirami, Vasi Fitt. 3 (see Vol. I. p. 478 and Ann. dell’ Inst. 1874, p. 35).

1277.  Baumeister, i. p. 303, fig. 319; and see Reinach, i. 331, and Munich 805 = ibid. i. 277 (the latter so interpreted by Flasch, Angebl. Argonautenbilder, p. 30 ff.).

1278.  B.F.: François vase; Munich 333 = Reinach, ii. 119 = Wiener Vorl. 1889, 2, 2; Berlin 1705; Helbig, 34 = Mus. Greg. ii. 90; Reinach, i. 230. R.F.: Reinach, ii. 162, 210.

1279.  Roscher, iii. p. 1811.

1280.  E.g. B.M. B 37 (Plate XXI.), F 154; Vienna 217 = Reinach, i. 170. See also p. 166.

1281.  Naples S.A. 11 = Reinach, i. 401.

1282.  Naples 3412 = Reinach, i. 498 = Wiener Vorl. B. 2, 1 (Assteas; Phrixos also on ram); Reinach, ii. 309. For Phrixos on ram see Berlin 3345, and Festschr. für Overbeck, p. 17.

1283.  Tyszkiewicz Coll. pl. 12 (the antiquity of this vase is very questionable).

1284.  Naples S.A. 270 = Reinach, i. 319.

1285.  Reinach, i. 226, 1–3: see Festschrift für O. Benndorf, p. 67 and p. 133, note 5.

1286.  See p. 81.

1287.  Ionic cup in Würzburg, Reinach, i. 201 = Furtwaengler and Reichhold, pl. 41; B.M. E 302; Jatta 1095 = Reinach, i. 119; Stackelberg, pl. 38 = Millingen, Anc. Uned. Mon. i. 15; and see Berlin 1682.

1288.  Bibl. Nat. 442 = Reinach, ii. 79 = Wiener Vorl. 1889, 12, 5.

1289.  J.H.S. x. p. 118 = Reinach, i. 226.

1290.  Millingen-Reinach, 51 = Reinach, ii. 180: see above, p. 105.

1291.  Munich 805 = Reinach, i. 277 = Wiener Vorl. iv. 3; but see Flasch, Angebl. Argonautenb. p. 30 ff., and p. 137 (Laertes and Antikleia).

1292.  Petersburg 422 = Reinach, i. 139; Baumeister, i. p. 123, fig. 128; Millingen-Reinach, 6.

1293.  Helbig, ii. p. 328 = Reinach, i. 102 = Baumeister, i. p. 124, fig. 129; Reinach, i. 137; but see Flasch, Angebl. Argonautenb. p. 24 ff.

1294.  Naples 2413 = Roscher, ii. 81, and 3252 = Reinach, i. 449.

1295.  Naples 3248 = Roscher, ii. 83.

1296.  Millingen-Reinach, 7 = Wiener Vorl. ii. 8.

1297.  Jatta 1501 = Reinach, i. 361 = Furtwaengler and Reichhold, pls. 38–39.

1298.  Helbig, 179 = Reinach, i. 359 (ram led to caldron). B.M. B 221, B 328; Berlin 2188; Reinach, ii. 81 (ram placed in caldron; daughters of Pelias usually present).

1299.  Reinach, i. 336; ibid. 359 = Helbig 179 (P. led to slaughter by daughters; M. waiting with knife).

1300.  B.M. E 163 (J. as old man; ram in caldron).

1301.  Naples S.A. 526.

1302.  Munich 810 = Reinach, i. 363 = Baumeister, ii. p. 903, fig. 980; Reinach, i. 402.

1303.  Naples 3221 = Reinach, i. 402.

1304.  Bologna 273 = Baumeister, iii. 1999, fig. 2149.

1305.  B.M. E 224.

1306.  Cf. the poem by Stesichoros, Ἄthla ἐpὶ Pelίa

1307.  Berlin 1655 = Reinach, i. 199: see Vol. I. p. 319.

1308.  Bull. de Corr. Hell. xxiii. p. 158; but see Burlington Fine Arts Club Cat. (1903), p. 92, for another explanation; also p. 47.

1309.  The only literary source for these stories (before Roman times) is in the tragic poets. But subjects from the Septem of Aeschylus are not found on vases; and it is not until the Hellenistic period that any real references to the Sophoclean and Euripidean plays occur. On some of the Megarian bowls (Vol. I. p. 500) the subjects adhere very closely to the text.

1310.  B.M. E 81; Petersburg 2189 = Reinach, i. 5.

1311.  B.M. B 505–6.

1312.  Louvre E 669 = Reinach, i. 435, 1; Berlin 2634 = Wiener Vorl. i. 7 = Roscher, ii. 837; Naples 3226 = Millingen, Anc. Uned. Mon. i. pl. 27 (Assteas); Millin-Reinach, ii. 7 (in Louvre); Röm. Mitth. v. (1890), p. 343.

1313.  Athens 1858 = Reinach, i. 396: see p. 155, note 1548, for another interpretation; also Arch. Zeit. 1865, p. 68, and Frazer, Pausanias, v. p. 49.

1314.  Wiener Vorl. C. 7, 3 = Roscher, ii. 842.

1315.  Berlin 3296 = Reinach, i. 421 = Baumeister, i. p. 456, fig. 502. The vase given in Millin-Reinach, ii. 44, may represent Zethos and Amphion with Antiope.

1316.  Reinach, i. 379.

1317.  Berlin 3239; Naples 1769; Wiener Vorl. vi. 11 = Roscher, i. p. 903.

1318.  Bibl. Nat. 372 = Reinach, i. 92 = Baumeister, ii. p. 1049, fig. 1266.

1319.  B.M. E 696 = J.H.S. viii. pl. 81.

1320.  B.F.: B.M. B 539; Stackelberg, pl. 16. R.F.: B.M. E 156; Vienna 336 = Reinach, i. 177; J.H.S. xxiv. p. 314 (Oxford); Helbig, 186 = Hartwig, Meistersch. pl. 73. See also parodies in Philologus, 1897, pl. 1 (in Boston), and Arch. Anzeiger, 1891, p. 119 (Berlin).

1321.  See p. 147; q.v. also for Sphinx seizing Theban youth.

1322.  Wiener Vorl. 1889, 9, 6.

1323.  Ibid. pl. 8, 8 = Reinach, i. 376: see Roscher, iii. p. 736.

1324.  Naples 2868 = Wiener Vorl. 1889, 9, 10. See also Chapter XVII.

1325.  B.F.: Berlin 1655 = Reinach, i. 199 = Wiener Vorl. 1889, 10; Kopenhagen 112 = Millingen-Reinach, 20; J.H.S. xviii. pl. 16 (?); Roscher, i. p. 295. R.F.: Munich 151 = Overbeck, op. cit. iii. 5; Petersburg 1650 = Reinach, i. 120, and 406 = ibid. i. 480.

1326.  B.M. B 247; Berlin 1712.

1327.  Millingen-Reinach, 20.

1328.  Ath. Mitth. 1899, p. 361.

1329.  Berlin 2395 = Reinach, i. 461: see Arch. Zeit. 1881, p. 258.

1330.  Athens 960 = Wiener Vorl. 1889, 11, 8.

1331.  Jahrbuch, viii. (1893), pl. 1: see Thiersch, Tyrrhen. Amphoren, p. 56.

1332.  B.M. D 7; Petersburg 523 = Reinach, i. 466 = Wiener Vorl. 1889, 11, 1.

1333.  Naples 3255 = Reinach, i. 235 = Baumeister, i. p. 114, fig. 120; perhaps also Millin-Reinach, ii. 37 (Lasimos in Louvre).

1334.  Munich 144: cf. Naples 1766 = Overbeck, Her. Bildw. pl. 4, 4; and see Reinach, ii. 284, Roscher, i. p. 296, and Stat. Theb. v. 699 ff.

1335.  Kopenhagen 64 = Reinach, i. 259 = Baumeister, i. p. 17, fig. 19.

1336.  Louvre E 640 = Reinach, i. 147 = Wiener Vorl. 1889, 11, 4; Millingen-Reinach, 22 (?).

1337.  Petersburg 452 = Reinach, i. 161 = Wiener Vorl. iii. 3.

1338.  J.H.S. xviii. pl. 17, 1 (?).

1339.  Jatta 423 and Berlin 3240 = Reinach, i. 205, 409 = Wiener Vorl. 1889, pl. 9, figs. 14, 12; B.M. F 175 (?): see also Jatta 414 = Reinach, i. 467 = Wiener Vorl. B. 4, 2.

1340.  Reinach, i. 273.

1341.  Petersburg 2188 = Reinach, i. 8; Berlin 2430 = ibid. i. 287 (Helen coming forth); Reinach, i. 279 (= Baumeister, i. p. 635, fig. 706) and 380; Micali, Mon. Ined. 38; Ant. Denkm. i. 59 (in Boston). For the various versions of the myth see Roscher, s.v. Helena.

1342.  Boston Mus. Report for 1900, p. 70, No. 27; and cf. Reinach, i. 173.

1343.  For a collected list of all vase-paintings connected with this story see Jahrbuch, i. (1886), p. 201 ff.

1344.  B.M. E 647; Munich 807 = Millingen-Reinach, 4; Louvre E 639 = Jahrbuch, 1886, pl. 10, 1; Reinach, ii. 91; and see ibid. i. 222 = Plate XXXIX. (otherwise interpreted, p. 111).

1345.  B.F.: B.M. B 215 (Fig. 128); Munich 380 = Reinach, ii. 115 = Baumeister, iii. p. 1799, fig. 1882. R.F.: B.M. E 424; Berlin 2279 = Baumeister, iii. p. 1797, fig. 1881 (Peithinos); Athens 1202 = Benndorf, Gr. u. Sic. Vasenb. 32, 4; Athens 1588 = $1$2 1897, pl. 9; Munich 369 = Furtwaengler and Reichhold, pl. 24 (Duris); Overbeck, Her. Bildw. pl. 7, fig. 8 (in Vatican).

1346.  B.M. E 9, E 73; and see above, pp. 25, 26.

1347.  Palermo 1503 = Overbeck, Her. Bildw. pl. 8, fig. 6: see also for Cheiron p. 146.

1348.  Furtwaengler and Reichhold, pl. 1.

1349.  B.M. B 620; Berlin 4220; De Witte, Coll. à l’Hôtel Lambert, pl. 1; Athens 966 (with Athena and Hermes); Louvre G 3 (Pamphaios); Micali, Storia, pl. 87; B.M. B 77 = Fig. 98 (parody).

1350.  Bibl. Nat. 538 = Reinach, i. 90 (doubtful); Jahn. Arch. Beitr. pl. 11 (?), and see p. 352 ff.

1351.  Reinach, ii. 43.

1352.  Bibl. Nat. 1047 = Reinach, i. 87.

1353.  Reinach, i. 126 = Bibl. Nat. 422.

1354.  See J.H.S. vii. p. 196 ff., whence this classification is taken.

1355.  B.M. B 236–38; early Ionic vase in Munich, 123 = Furtwaengler and Reichhold, pl. 21; Overbeck, Her. Bildw. pl. 9, fig. 2 (Xenokles); J.H.S. vii. pl. 70, p. 198.

1356.  B.F.: B.M. B 312. R.F.: B.M. E 445; Berlin 2536 = Roscher, iii. p. 1615.

1357.  B.F.: B.M. B 171; Munich 1269 = Overbeck, op. cit. 9, 6. R.F.: Berlin 2291 = Fig. 129 (Hieron); Reinach, i. 246 = Roscher, iii. p. 1610 (Brygos, in Louvre); Roscher, iii. p. 1617 (fine pyxis in Kopenhagen; the goddesses in chariots).

1358.  Berlin 2633; Petersburg 1807 = Reinach, i. 7; B.M. F 109, F 167; Berlin 3240; Karlsruhe 259 = Furtwaengler and Reichhold, pl. 30; Ath. Mitth. xxiv. (1899), p. 67 (R.F. kotyle in Berlin, Hermes omitted).

1359.  Wiener Vorl. E. 11 = Jahrbuch, ix. (1894), p. 252.

1360.  Boston Mus. Report for 1899, No. 30, and 1901, p. 35 (both from the Kabeirion, Thebes).

1361.  B.M. F 175; Athens 1942 = Reinach, i. 402; Petersburg 1924 = Reinach, i. 9 = Wiener Vorl. C. 1, 3; Naples 1982 = Reinach, i. 292 (? See p. 113, note 1267); Reinach, i. 375.

1362.  B.M. E 226; Jatta 1619 = Él. Cér. iv. 72 = Roscher, i. 1961.

1363.  B.M. E 69 = Wiener Vorl. vi. 2; Berlin 2291 = Reinach, i. 437, 1 = Baumeister, i. p. 637, fig. 709 (Hieron); Petersburg 1929 = Reinach, i. 9; Reinach, i. 437, 2 (Hieron and Makron): see also Rev. Arch. xxxiii. (1898), p. 399.

1364.  B.M. F 175 (?).

1365.  Millingen, A.U.M. i. 21 (fine R.F. vase in Louvre); Röm. Mitth. ii. (1887), pls. 11–12, 4; Berlin 1737 = Wiener Vorl. B. 9, 4.

1366.  Naples 3352 = Reinach, i. 485; and see Bibl. Nat. 418 = Reinach, i. 83; also Roscher, s.v. Nereus.

1367.  Reinach, i. 286 = Bibl. Nat. 851 = Wiener Vorl. B. 9, 2 (Epigenes).

1368.  Berlin 2264 (Oltos and Euxitheos) = Wiener Vorl. D. 2, 1; Bibl. Nat. 851 = Reinach, i. 287 = Roscher, iii. 295: see also Roscher, iii. 1697–99 (setting out of Patroklos). As Nestor himself went to the war, it is possible that this scene is to be regarded as taking place during and not before it.

1369.  Bologna 273 = Wiener Vorl. i. 4.

1370.  B.M. E 16; Baumeister, i. p. 683, fig. 743; and see Overbeck, Her. Bildw. pl. 13, 7, p. 276.

1371.  Jahrbuch, 1902, pl. 2 (in Boston).

1372.  Iph. in Aul. 192 ff.

1373.  B.M. B 193 (Plate XXXI.), B 211, E 10; Helbig, 78 = Reinach, i. 96 = Wiener Vorl. 1888, 6, 1 (Exekias). A “bilingual” example in Boston (by Andokides? B.F. and R.F.): see Amer. Journ. of Arch. 1896, pp. 40–41, figs. 15–16. The latest example seems to be Arch. Anzeiger, 1892, p. 102.

1374.  B.M. B 541, E 160: see below, p. 133, and B.M. Cat. iii. p 36.

1375.  B.M. F 159 = Wiener Vorl. v. 9, 3.

1376.  Reinach, i. 358 = Millingen-Reinach, 50; ibid. i. 145 = Baumeister, iii. p. 1326, fig. 1479; Milani, Mito di Filottete, frontispiece.

1377.  Bibl. Nat. 256 = Reinach, ii. 254: see p. 111, note 1243.

1378.  Petersburg 1793 = Reinach, i. 3: for a more probable interpretation (birth of Dionysos) see p. 19.

1379.  Dubois-Maisonneuve, Introd. pl. 63; Engelmann, Arch. Stud. zu den Trag. p. 17; and see Urlichs, Beiträge, pl. 4.

1380.  Petersburg 1275 = Reinach, i. 152: cf. Millingen, Anc. Uned. Mon. i. pl. 22 (Overbeck, Her. Bildw. p. 296).

1381.  Overbeck, Her. Bildw. 13, 9.

1382.  B.M. E 382; Naples 2293 and R.C. 141 = Baumeister, iii. p. 1725, fig. 1807.

1383.  Boston Mus. Report for 1898, No. 40 (signed by Hieron).

1384.  B.M. B 153.

1385.  B.M. B 324, 542; Forman Sale Cat. 282 (= Reinach, i. 285, 1) and 308 (both in B.M.); Athens 620 = Reinach, i. 394 = Wiener Vorl. 1888, 1, 1 (Timonidas); B.M. F 493 (caricature).

1386.  Louvre E 703 = Reinach, ii. 92 (early Ionic); B.M. B 307; François vase; Berlin 1685; Helbig, 130 = Mus. Greg. ii. 22, 1; B.M. E 10, E 13, and Forman Sale Cat. 339.

1387.  Reinach, ii. 114–15 = Baumeister, iii. p. 1901, fig. 2000 (Euphronios); Reinach, i. 285, 3; Louvre G 18 = Reinach, i. 203, 3; Louvre E 703 = Reinach, ii. 92; B.M. B 326.

1388.  Munich 124 = Reinach, ii. 113.

1389.  Berlin 2278 = Ant. Denkm. i. 10; and see Overbeck, Her. Bildw. p. 297.

1390.  Reinach, ii. 198.

1391.  Ibid. i. 306 = Wiener Vorl. iii. 1 (the names may be fanciful); ibid. i. 77 (cf. Overbeck, Her. Bildw. p. 333).

1392.  Louvre E 609 = Reinach, i. 395 = Wiener Vorl. 1888, 1, 3 (Chares pyxis).

1393.  Like others of the Homeric scenes on B.F. vases, this type is sometimes used for an ordinary warrior taking leave of his family, and unless names are given it is difficult to distinguish.

1394.  Robert, in Hermes, 1901, p. 391, connects this scene with Book xix. 320 ff.

1395.  The text is not exactly followed here. Menelaos kills Euphorbos in the Iliad, but does not fight over his body with Hector as he does on the vase. Possibly there is a confusion with the Patroklos episode below.

1396.  The “Psychostasia” is also referred to the combat of Achilles and Memnon (p. 132).

1397.  See, for a revised drawing of this vase, Hill, Illustrations of School Classics, p. 105.

1398.  B.M. B 209–10 (= Wiener Vorl. 1888, pl. 6, 2, 1889, pl. 3, 3 = Reinach, ii. 105), B 323 (?), E 280; Munich 478 = Reinach, ii. 105, and 370 = Furtwaengler-Reichhold, 6.

1399.  See below, p. 144.

1400.  Boston Mus. Report, 1903, No. 70: cf. Quint. Smyrn. i. 741 ff.

1401.  Overbeck, Her. Bildw. 21, 16 = Roscher, ii. 2674; and see B.M. B 209 = Reinach, ii. 105.

1402.  Millingen, A.U.M. i. 4 = Engelmann-Anderson, Atlas to Od. iii. 15 (? see above, under Il. xxii. 306 ff.); Reinach, ii. 105, 2.

1403.  B.F.: Berlin 1147; Helbig, 8, 31 = Mus. Greg. ii. 28, 1, and 38, 1; Bibl. Nat. 207 = Reinach, ii. 254. R.F.: B.M. E 468; Millingen-Reinach, 49 = Reinach, i. 358; Tyszkiewicz Coll. pl. 17 (now in Boston). In the last-named the subject is slightly varied.

1404.  B.M. E 12 = Wiener Vorl. D. 3, 1; Reinach, i. 149; Louvre F 388 (?): see p. 71.

1405.  Millingen, A.U.M. i. 5; Wiener Vorl. vi. 7 = Roscher, i. p. 1265 (in Louvre); Reinach, i. 347 = Bourguignon Cat. 19: cf. also Athens 1093 = Roscher, ii. 2678 (Eos, together with Thanatos and Hypnos, two Keres).

1406.  Helbig, 43 = Mus. Greg. ii. 49, 2.

1407.  Reinach, ii. 106.

1408.  B.M. E 808 (?).

1409.  Reinach, i. 82.

1410.  B.M. B 172; Munich 380 = Reinach, ii. 115; Helbig, 77 = ibid. ii. 107 (see below, p. 177); Bibl. Nat. 537 = Reinach, i. 90; Boston Mus. Report for 1899, No. 28 = Arch. Anzeiger, 1898, p. 51. (Thetis present)

1411.  Louvre E 643 = Reinach, i. 311; ibid. ii. 107 (?).

1412.  B.M. B 240 = Reinach, ii. 99.

1413.  Reinach, i. 304 (and i. 226, 1–3 (?), see p. 115); Engelmann, Arch. Stud. zu d. Trag. p. 37: cf. Sale Cat. Hôtel Drouot, 11 May, 1903, No. 100.

1414.  Athens 475 = Baumeister, iii. p. 1955, fig. 2086 (Melian vase); B.M. B 327, B 397, E 13; Forman Sale Cat. 298; Berlin 2000 = Robert, Bild u. Lied, p. 217; Baumeister, i. p. 29, fig. 30; Wiener Vorl. 1889, 5, 2 (in Louvre); Naples 3358 = Reinach, i. 313 = Wiener Vorl. C. 8, 2. The type is derived from that of Herakles and Kyknos (p. 101).

1415.  B.M. E 69 = Wiener Vorl. vi. 2; Millin-Reinach, i. 66.

1416.  B.M. B 541, E 160: see above, p. 124.

1417.  Vienna 325 = Reinach, i. 174 = Wiener Vorl. vi. 1.

1418.  Two Corinthian vases, Arch. Anzeiger, 1891, p. 116, and Boston Mus. Report, 1899, No. 12; Louvre E 635 = Reinach, i. 151 = Rayet and Collignon, p. 69; B.M. F 480 = Plate LVIII.; Reinach, i. 278.

1419.  Petersburg 830 = Reinach, i. 150 = Wiener Vorl. A. 8; Naples 3231, 3235 = Reinach, i. 299, 102; parody, B.M. F 366.

1420.  Bibl. Nat. 186 = Jahrbuch, vii. (1892), pl. 2; Munich 400 = Reinach, ii. 116; Roscher, i. 1279.

1421.  Mon. Antichi, ix. pl. 15: see Jahrbuch, 1891, pl. 4, p. 190.

1422.  See for the various types J.H.S, xiv. p. 171.

1423.  Berlin 2301 = Reinach, i. 381; Petersburg 812 = Reinach, i. 381 = Millin-Reinach, i. 58 (doubtful).

1424.  Reinach, ii. 16; Naples 2858 = Overbeck, Her. Bildw. pl. 28, 5; ibid. 1755 = Baumeister, iii. p. 1848, fig. 1939; ibid. 1761 = Millingen-Reinach, 16.

1425.  B.M. D 33, F 57.

1426.  Reinach, ii. 175: cf. Boston Mus. Report for 1899, No. 38.

1427.  Vienna 333 = Reinach, i. 169; Berlin 2184 = Reinach, i. 296 = Baumeister, ii. p. 1113, fig. 1310; Reinach, i. 143; Roscher, iii. 969 (in Berlin).

1428.  Vienna 333 = Reinach, i. 169 = Roscher, iii. 971; Reinach i. 381; Millin-Reinach, ii. 24.

1429.  B.M. E 446.

1430.  Petersburg 349 = Reinach, i. 19; ibid. ii. 9, 316; Naples 1984 = Baumeister, ii. p. 1116, fig. 1313.

1431.  B.M. F 166; Reinach, i. 132 (in Louvre); Millin-Reinach, ii. 68; Naples 1984; Helbig, 117 = Reinach, i. 390; Arch. Anzeiger, 1890, p. 90 (Berlin); and cf. B.M. B 641 (possibly Orestes and Pylades at Omphalos?).

1432.  Petersburg 2189 (according to Roscher, iii. p. 993); but see Reinach, i. 5, and above under Kadmos.

1433.  Reinach, i. 105 = Naples 3223; ibid. 133 = Baumeister, i. p. 757, fig. 808; ibid. i. 158 = Petersburg 420; Naples S.A. 24; and see B.M. F 155, and Reinach, i. 279.

1434.  Reinach, i. 321 = Baumeister, ii. p. 1009, fig. 1215 (Jatta Coll.).

1435.  See generally on Athenian cults, as illustrated by vase-paintings, Harrison, Mythol. and Mon. of Athens, Introd. p. xxi ff.

1436.  On one of these vases the scene (in the interior of a cup) is watched by a group of Athenians at the foot of a hill, round the outside of the cup (Reinach, i. 107 = Hartwig, Meistersch. pls. 39–40).

1437.  See Harrison, op. cit. p. lxxxiv ff.

1438.  Cf. Strabo, ix. § 392, and see for Lykos in another connection p. 124 above. In the vase here given they witness the exploits of their kinsman Theseus (on the obverse).

1439.  Cf. $1$2 1893, pl. 9, p. 130 ff., and Frazer’s Pausanias, ii. p. 203.

1440.  E 224 = Plate XLI. = Furtwaengler and Reichhold, pls. 8–9.

1441.  Furtwaengler (50tes Winckelmannsfestprogr. p. 163) refers the Orpheus scenes to the Aeschylean tetralogy of the Lykourgeia.

1442.  B.M. E 390; Naples 1978, 2889, 3143 (see Reinach, i. 176); Reinach, i. 403 = Roscher, iii. p. 1181; Roscher, iii. p. 1179 (in Berlin).

1443.  Munich 383; Reinach, i. 63; ii. 80.

1444.  B.M. E 301; Naples 3114; Reinach, i. 186, 327 (= Roscher, iii. p. 1185–86); Roscher, iii. p. 1184: see also J.H.S. ix. p. 143.

1445.  Reinach, i. 493 = Roscher, iii. p. 1178.

1446.  She occurs on B.M. F 270, Petersburg 498, and Karlsruhe 256.

1447.  Reinach, i. 96 = Helbig, 99; Röm. Mitth. 1888, pl. 9; and see Naples 3143 = Reinach, i. 176.

1448.  Jatta 1538 = Reinach, i. 526.

1449.  Athens 1344 = Dumont-Pottier, i. pl. 14.

1450.  Schreiber-Anderson, Atlas, pl. 5, 10 = Reinach, ii. 333, 5 (burlesque scene with actor as Taras on dolphin: see p. 160).

1451.  B.M. E 447; Louvre F 166; Helbig, 189 = Reinach, i. 268; Reinach, i. 122; Benndorf, Gr. u. Sic. Vasenb. 53, 2; Naples 1851 = Jahrbuch, 1887, p. 113; Ath. Mitth. xxii. (1897), pl. 13: see for the myth, Hdt. viii. 138 and Roscher, s.v.

1452.  Reinach, i. 147, 509; ii. 81, 271.

1453.  Munich 849 = Reinach, i. 258.

1454.  See pp. 99, 111, 132.

1455.  Wiener Vorl. A. 10, 3.

1456.  Ibid. iii. 4: see Röm. Mitth. 1894, p. 285.

1457.  B.M. F 6, 85, 230; Reinach, i. 492, ii. 295.

1458.  B.M. F 158, 278; Naples R.C. 239 (= Reinach, i. 482), 3253 (= Reinach, i. 330 = Wiener Vorl. vii. 6b, 1), and 2421 (= Reinach, ii. 278 = Furtwaengler and Reichhold, pls. 26–8); Millin-Reinach, i. 56 (= Bibl. Nat. 427) and 61; Millingen-Reinach, 37.

1459.  B.M. E 12; Naples 2613; Louvre F 203; Munich 4 = Reinach, ii. 57; Reinach, ii. 56.

1460.  Wiener Vorl. 1889, 6, 2; B.M. B 158, 566; Micali, Storia, 91.

1461.  Inghirami, Vasi Fitt. iv. 304 = Thiersch, Tyrrhen. Amph. p. 64.

1462.  B.M. E 40; Hartwig, Meistersch. pl. 2, fig. 2 (Louvre G 35); ibid. pl. 22, 2; Reinach, i. 166.

1463.  Engelmann-Anderson, Iliad, v. 24, vi. 25.

1464.  B.M. E 19; Vienna 231 = Wiener Vorl. 1890–91, 1, 6.

1465.  B.M. B 591; Berlin 2264 = Reinach, i. 508, 4.

1466.  Boston Mus. Report for 1899, No. 22: see Hartwig, Meistersch. p. 119, note 1.

1467.  Louvre A 256 = Jahrbuch, 1887, pl. 11.

1468.  B.M. E 253, E 295.

1469.  B.M. E 573.

1470.  See above, p. 102.

1471.  See above, p. 111.

1472.  François vase; B.M. B 176, F 162, F 277; Reinach, i. 154 (= Naples 2411), 309 (Louvre E 700), 391 (Munich 805); Furtwaengler and Reichhold, pl. 15 (a fine R.F. example).

1473.  François vase; B.M. E 473; J.H.S. xvii. pl. 6; Munich 846 = Millingen-Reinach, 8; Mon. Antichi, ix. pl. 2; Reinach, i. 22, 474, ii. 272.

1474.  For Herakles and Pholos see p. 102.

1475.  B.M. B 620 (Achilles); Munich 611 = Reinach, i. 419 (Herakles); Reinach, ii. 91 (Achilles); B.M. B 77 = Fig. 98 (parody).

1476.  See Jahrbuch, 1886, pp. 202–4, Nos. 51–9, 94.

1477.  Reinach, ii. 209, 289; Athens 1246: cf. B.M. B 226.

1478.  Reinach, i. 58, 452; Helbig, 237 = Mus. Greg. ii. 82, 2b; Benndorf, Gr. u. Sic. Vasenb. 8, 2.

1479.  Arch. Anzeiger, 1890, p. 2.

1480.  B.M. F 550; Wiener Vorl. E. pls. 7–8, fig. 3 (cf. p. 88).

1481.  B.M. F 370.

1482.  See above, p. 112.

1483.  François vase; Athens 644; Reinach, i. 332, 429.

1484.  Reinach, i. 259.

1485.  E.g. B.M. B 427, 428, 430, 436, 679, 680: cf. E 180.

1486.  Cf. Virgil, Aen. iii. 216 (virgineae vultus) and 241 (obscenae volucres).

1487.  See, J.H.S. xiii. p. 103 ff.

1488.  B.M. B 4, B 16 (?): see Vol. I. p. 344.

1489.  See p. 115; B.M. E 302; Reinach, i. 119, 201; and for two Harpies, with name inscribed, in connection with this story, Berlin 1682 = Reinach, i. 441.

1490.  Louvre A 478.

1491.  B.M. E 440; J.H.S. xiii. pl. 1; Strena Helbigiana, p. 31.

1492.  On Sirens generally, and especially as death-deities, see Weicker, Der Seelenvogel (1902).

1493.  Berlin 2157 = Jahrbuch, 1886, p. 211; on B.M. E 477 a Siren of the ordinary decorative type appears with allusion to the death of Prokris, perhaps as indicating her departing soul.

1494.  B.M. B 651.

1495.  Louvre E 667 = Bull. de Corr. Hell. 1893, p. 238.

1496.  B.M. B 510: cf. Weicker, p. 48.

1497.  Weicker, p. 120, fig. 46.

1498.  E.g. B.M. A 1135; Cat. of Terracottas, B 291, 292, 479.

1499.  Louvre E 667, 723; Vienna 318; Munich 1077.

1500.  Munich 1050.

1501.  B.M. B 215; Louvre A 441, E 858; Berlin 1727: cf. Athens 531 and Wilisch, Altkor. Thonindustrie, pl. 3, fig. 38.

1502.  B.M. B 429.

1503.  See above, p. 117; and cf. Bibl. Nat. 278 and Athens 1480 = Wiener Vorl. 1889, 9, 8.

1504.  B.M. B 125, B 539, etc.

1505.  B.M. B 650; Reinach, i. 319; J.H.S. xix. p. 235.

1506.  Reinach, i. 471.

1507.  Naples 2846 = Festsehr. für Overbeck, p. 103.

1508.  B.M. B 32 and Athens 592 (with Hermes); Naples 3254 = Reinach, i. 327 = Wiener Vorl. 1889, 9, 7.

1509.  Reinach, i. 54, 258, 480, ii. 236.

1510.  B.M. E 434; Reinach, i. 23, 53.

1511.  See above, p. 144.

1512.  Ath. Mitth. 1887, pl. 11.

1513.  Reinach, ii. 319.

1514.  Boston Mus. Report, 1899, p. 64, No. 21 (B.F.).

1515.  Reinach, i. 220; and see ii. 314.

1516.  Bourguignon Cat. 57.

1517.  See p. 29 above.

1518.  B.M. B 45, B 65, E 11, E 35, Bibl. Nat. 177, Benndorf, Gr. u. Sic. Vasenb. 8, 1 (Pegasos); B.M. B 105, B 417, and Louvre A 307 (Chimaera).

1519.  B.M. E 170; Reinach, ii. 309.

1520.  Bibl. Nat. 449 = Reinach, i. 129.

1521.  Amer. Journ. of Arch. 1900, pl. 5 (cf. pl. 4).

1522.  Benndorf, Gr. u. Sic. Vasenb. 12, 2; B.M. B 308 (three Minotaurs).

1523.  Bibl. Nat. 1066 = Gaz. Arch. 1879, pl. 3: see, J.H.S. xi. p. 349.

1524.  Reinach, i. 188.

1525.  Ibid. i. 498.

1526.  B.M. F 218.

1527.  Athens 961 = Ath. Mitth. xvi. pl. 9 (probably taken from a Satyric drama).

1528.  Reinach, i. 459.

1529.  See above, p. 12.

1530.  Munich 468 = J.H.S. xix. p. 217 = Philologus, 1898, pl. 1.

1531.  B.M. B 433; Berlin 1770; Athens 713 = Heydemann, Gr. Vasenb. pl. 8, 4; Louvre F 100, 104 (between Sirens): cf. Ar. Av. 800.

1532.  François vase; Reinach, i. 27, 54, 61, 470, ii. 295; B.M. B 77; Millin-Reinach, i. 63; Wiener Vorl. ii. 5, 2; and cf. B.M. G 178 and Jahn, Arch. Beitr. pl. 12, 1.

1533.  Cf. Naples 2609 (Hipparchos); B.M. E 46, Athens 1162, and Louvre G 103 (Leagros); Athens 1020 = Jahrbuch, ii. p. 163 (Glaukon); B.M. E 300 and Oxford 309 (Kleinias); Reinach, i. 513, 6 (Megakles).

1534.  B.M. B 80; Berlin 1686 = Rayet and Collignon, pl. 7, and 1882 = Reinach, ii. 122.

1535.  See p. 60.

1536.  See p. 53; also Reinach, i. 472 and ii. 198, 4 (both Dionysiac).

1537.  Oxford 292 (Persephone); Reinach, ii. 321, 4; ibid. 122, 2 (= Berlin 2129): see Hartwig, Meistersch. p. 48, note; also Él. Cér. ii. 108, and Reinach, ii. 286.

1538.  Anzeiger, 1895, p. 36 (in Berlin).

1539.  B.M. B 633.

1540.  B.M. E 284 = Mon. Antichi, ix. pl. 1.

1541.  B.M. B 80, B 585, B 648.

1542.  Naples 2858; Mus. Greg. ii. 71, 1 a.

1543.  B.M. B 79; Louvre F 10; Reinach, i. 428; Mus. Greg. ii. 71, 1 a; Munich 386 = Furtwaengler and Reichhold, pl. 19; and see under Nike, p. 87.

1544.  Bologna 275; B.M. B 362.

1545.  Berlin 1727 = Reinach, i. 429; Athens 1428 = Heydemann, Gr. Vasenb. pl. 11, 3 (sacrifice to Hekate?); Hartwig, Meistersch. pl. 3, fig. 2.

1546.  B.M. E 455, 456, 494; Él. Cér. ii. 105, 108; Millin-Reinach, i. 8; Micali, Storia, pl. 97, fig. 2; Bull. de Corr. Hell. 1895, p. 100 (Louvre).

1547.  B.M. B 3.

1548.  B.M. E 455; Athens 1858 = Baumeister, i. p. 211, fig. 165 = Reinach, i. 396.

1549.  B.M. E 284; Bologna 286; Reinach, i. 403 = Schreiber-Anderson, 25, 8 (referred to the Thargelia by Reisch, Gr. Weihgeschenke, p. 80).

1550.  Berlin 1727, 2010.

1551.  B.M. E 114, E 291; Bibl. Nat. 94; Reinach, ii. 135.

1552.  B.M. E 88; Mus. Greg. ii. 78, 2 b; and see Stackelberg, pl. 35.

1553.  Reinach, ii. 286; Wiener Vorl. 1890–91, pl. 7, 2 = Röm. Mitth. v. (1890), p. 324; Mus. Greg. 71, 1 b.

1554.  Naples 3358 = Reinach, i. 313 = Schreiber-Anderson, 20, 3: see Miss Harrison’s Prolegomena to Gk. Religion, p. 157.

1555.  De Witte, Coll. à l’Hôtel Lambert, pl. 29.

1556.  De Witte, op. cit. pl. 22.

1557.  J.H.S. xix. p. 228 (in Naples).

1558.  Naples 2458 = J.H.S. xix. p. 227: cf. B.M. B 641.

1559.  Athens 695.

1560.  J.H.S. xx. p. 101.

1561.  Karlsruhe 278 = Reinach, i. 271.

1562.  Benndorf, Gr. u. Sic. Vasenb. pl. 31, 1.

1563.  Fig. 17, Vol. I. p. 140 = Munich 51.

1564.  B.M. E 494, E 585; Bull. de Corr. Hell. 1895, p. 103; Berlin 2213; Naples 1760 (= Millingen-Reinach, 52), and S.A. 647 (= Él. Cér. iv. 19); Gerhard, Akad. Abhandl. pl. 63, figs. 1, 4, 5; Él. Cér. iii. pls. 79, 80. They appear to be especially associated with terminal figures.

1565.  Miss Harrison’s comprehensive Prolegomena to Greek Religion (Cambridge Press, 1903) appeared too recently for the writer to be able to make detailed use of it in this section. It must, of course, be borne in mind that many of the interpretations in that work are only conjectural.

1566.  Athens 199, 200 = Jahrbuch, 1899, p. 201; ibid. 214 = Reinach, i. 190 = Baumeister, iii. p. 1943, fig. 2071.

1567.  Athens 688 = Reinach, i. 165.

1568.  B.M. B 63 = Plate LVIII.; Forman Sale Cat. 279 (now in B.M.); Baumeister, i. p. 238, fig. 217 = Benndorf, Gr. u. Sic. Vasenb. pl. 1; Athens 688 = Reinach, i. 164.

1569.  B.M. D 62 = Plate LV. fig. 1; Athens 1651 = Dumont-Pottier, i. pl. 32; Benndorf, Gr. u. Sic. Vasenb. pl. 33. A fine R.F. example in Monuments Piot, i. pls. 5–6 (in Louvre).

1570.  Bibl. Nat. 353; Micali, Storia, pl. 96, figs. 1–2.

1571.  Athens 688 = Baumeister, i. p. 306, fig. 321 = Reinach, i. 164; Anzeiger, 1893, p. 86 (Berlin). Cf. Fig. 123, p. 71.

1572.  Jahrbuch, 1891, pl. 4; J.H.S. xix. p. 228; Athens 688.

1573.  B.M. B 543, D 5 = Plate XL.

1574.  B.M. D 65 ff. and Athens 1672–1836 passim: cf. B.M. F 93. Plate LV. fig. 2 = B.M. D 70.

1575.  B.M. F 93 (Fig. 20, Vol. I. p. 144), 212.

1576.  B.M. F 276, 279–85, 352 (Fig. 106, Vol. I. p. 477).

1577.  B.M. F 353.

1578.  Millin-Reinach, ii. 29.

1579.  B.M. D 39, 41, 43–45, 56, 70, F 93–96; Benndorf, Gr. u. Sic. Vasenb. pl. 34. See Plate LV. fig. 2 and Fig. 19, Vol. I. p. 143.

1580.  B.M. D 54, 65, 67–86; F 212–13, 336; Athens 1692 = J.H.S. xix. pl. 2, and 1694 = Benndorf, op. cit. pl. 18, 1; ibid. pl. 19, 2.

1581.  A unique instance of a sculptured stele copied on a white lekythos is Burlington F.A.C. Cat. (1903), p. 104, No. 25.

1582.  B.M. D 51.

1583.  B.M. F 352 = Fig. 106.

1584.  B.M. (uncatalogued).

1585.  B.M. D 21.

1586.  B.M. D 60.

1587.  B.M. D 58.

1588.  B.M. D 35; Engelmann-Anderson, Odyssey, iii. 10.

1589.  B.M. D 56 = Fig. 19.

1590.  B.M. D 5 = Plate XL.

1591.  Athens 1689 = Reinach, i. 512.

1592.  See above, p. 69.

1593.  See p. 52; also B.M. (uncatalogued).

1594.  B.M. D 58–9; Athens 1093 (= Roscher, ii. 2678), 1653–54 (= Dumont-Pottier, i. pls. 27–9); Jahrbuch, 1895, pl. 2. Cf. Fig. 123, p. 71.

1595.  B.M. D 54; Benndorf, Gr. u. Sic. V. pls. 14 and 33. See above, p. 72.

1596.  B.M. F 279, 280, 282.

1597.  B.M. F 276, 284; Millin-Reinach, ii. 32–33.

1598.  B.M. F 281.

1599.  B.M. F 276, 279–84, 352 (Fig. 106); Millin-Reinach, ii. 38.

1600.  See p. 68.

1601.  Louvre E 667 = Bull. de Corr. Hell. 1893, p. 238.

1602.  Anzeiger, 1890, p. 89 (Berlin); but see p. 76, under Asklepios.

1603.  B.M. B 80: see for other parodies of processions or sacrifices Athens 1132, 1136, 1138.

1604.  B.M. B 509; Berlin 1830 = J.H.S. ii. pl. 14, and 1697 (as horses).

1605.  J.H.S. xiii. pl. 4, and p. 81; B.M. B 77 = Fig. 98: see generally J.H.S. xiii. p. 77 ff. and Vol. I. p. 391.

1606.  Vienna 321 (cf. Ar. Ach. 729 ff.), Hermes with dog got up as a pig.

1607.  B.M. F 99; Berlin 3046 = Baumeister, ii. p. 821, fig. 904 (see Jahrbuch, i. p. 283).

1608.  Jahrbuch, i. (1886), p. 260 ff.

1609.  See for instance pp. 107, 118, 123.

1610.  B.M. F 233: cf. Reinach, i. 114.

1611.  Schreiber-Anderson, 5, 10 = Heydemann, p. 307 = Reinach, ii. 332, 5.

1612.  B.M. F 543.

1613.  B.M. F 189 = Fig. 134.

1614.  Naples 3240 = Reinach, i. 114 = Baumeister, i. pl. 5, fig. 422.

1615.  B.M. E 65.

1616.  See Philologus, 1868, pls. 1–4, p. 1 ff.

1617.  Jatta 1528 = Jahrbuch, 1886, p. 273; B.M. E 790; Naples 2846 = Festschr. für Overbeck, p. 103.

1618.  B.M. E 467 (Satyric chorus); Reinach, ii. 324, 5; ii. 288.

1619.  Boston Mus. Report, 1898, No. 50.

1620.  Jatta 1402 = Reinach, i. 413.

1621.  B.M. F 233, F 289.

1622.  Wiener Vorl. B. 3, 5 c; Millin-Reinach, i. 20.

1623.  Vol. I. p. 472: see also B.M. Cat. of Vases, iv. p. 10; Vogel, Scenen Eurip. Tragödien (where an exhaustive list is given), and Huddilston, Gk. Tragedy in the Light of Vase-paintings, where the subject is also treated in detail.

1624.  See Vol. I. p. 389, and Plates XXXIII.-IV.; for a complete series of illustrations, Mon. dell’ Inst. x. pls. 47–8 = Reinach, i. 210–15.

1625.  B.F.: B.M. B 48, B 64; Berlin 1655, 1805; Bibl. Nat. 252, 354; Reinach, ii. 129. R.F.: Reinach, i. 223 (= Wiener Vorl. D. 5), 424 (Berlin 2180), 454, ii. 134 (Berlin 2262), 137 (men with dogs); Hartwig, Meistersch. pls. 15–6 = Bibl. Nat. 523.

1626.  B.M. B 271, B 295, B 607; E 39, 63 (parade of boxers before judges); Athens 1169 = Benndorf, Gr. u. Sic. Vasenb. 31, 2 a; Reinach, ii. 292.

1627.  B.M. B 191, B 295, B 603; E 94, 95; Bibl. Nat. 522 = Hartwig, Meistersch. pl. 15, 2; Mus. Greg. ii. 16, 2 a; Vienna 332 = Wiener Vorl. 1890–91, 1, 4.

1628.  B.M. E 78 (very realistic), B 604, B 610; Louvre F 276, 278, 314; Hartwig, Meistersch. pl. 64.

1629.  Arch.-epigr. Mitth. aus Oesterr. 1881, pl. 4.

1630.  B.M. B 48, B 134 (= Fig. 135), B 326; Munich 795 = Reinach, i. 422 = Baumeister, i. p. 613, fig. 672; Reinach, i. 433, 1 = Baumeister, i. p. 573, fig. 611; Reinach, i. 272, ii. 128. See on the subject generally J.H.S. xxiii. p. 54 ff.

1631.  B.M. B 136, E 164; Louvre F 126; Athens 1188 = Reinach, i. 511; Hartwig, Meistersch. pl. 21 (Duris, in Boston); De Witte, Coll. à l’Hôtel Lambert, pl. 23; Mus. Greg. ii. 43, 2 b.

1632.  B.M. B 380; Louvre F 126, G 37; Mus. Greg. ii. 69, 4 c, 70, 2 a; De Witte, op. cit. pl. 24.

1633.  B.M. B 48; Reinach, ii. 145, 175, 330; Mus. Greg. ii. 70, 1 a, 2 b; 73, 1 b. Athlete exercising with halteres: Louvre G 15; Forman Sale Cat. 332.

1634.  B.M. B 361. See J.H.S. xxiv. p. 70.

1635.  B.M. E 164.

1636.  B.M. E 63, 113, 164; Forman Sale Cat. 358; and see Bull. de Corr. Hell. xxiii. p. 164.

1637.  Athens 1478; Millin-Reinach, i. 45; Panathenaic amphora in B.M.

1638.  B.M. B 137, B 609; Munich 498 = Reinach, i. 215; Mus. Greg. ii. 42, 2 b; 43, 1 a. Starter in foot-race: B.M. E 6, E 101; Reinach, i. 433, 2; Hartwig, Meistersch. p. 45, fig. 6; Jahrbuch, 1895, pp. 185–88; J.H.S. xxiii. p. 268 ff.

1639.  B.M. B 133, B 144; Berlin 1655, 1722, 2282; Munich 805; Athens 1546; Reinach, i. 12, 100, 199, ii. 61, 253; and see Hartwig, Meistersch. p. 491, note 2.

1640.  B.M. B 130–32, B 677; Berlin 1655; Louvre F 216, F 283; Reinach, ii. 68, 70, 125, 133; François vase.

1641.  B.M. E 389, F 59; Tyszkiewicz Coll. pl. 35; Reinach, ii. 298, 320; Baumeister, i. p. 522.

1642.  B.M. B 143; E 6, E 22; B 608; Benndorf, Gr. u. Sic. Vasenb. 43, 4 b; Reinach, ii. 128, 129 (= Berlin 2307); Munich 476 = ibid. ii. 127, and 803 = Jahrbuch, 1895, p. 196; Hartwig, op. cit. pl. 62, 1. Runner with trainer: Bourguignon Sale Cat. 31. See on the subject generally J.H.S. xxiii. p. 268 ff., and Jahrbuch, 1895, p. 182 ff.

1643.  Hartwig, op. cit. pl. 1 and pl. 16 (= Bibl. Nat. 523); B.M. E 22; Burlington Fine Arts Club Cat. (1903), p. 100, No. 17.

1644.  Berlin 2307 (one fig.); Reinach, i. 494 (Louvre); Jahrbuch, 1887, p. 99: cf. B.M. B 628.

1645.  Bourguignon Sale Cat. 49; Berlin 2307 = Reinach, ii. 129; Hartwig, op. cit. pl. 16 (Bibl. Nat. 523); Jahrbuch, 1895, p. 190; J.H.S. xxiii. p. 278.

1646.  See J.H.S. xxiii. p. 285 (runners with helmet in hand).

1647.  Mus. Greg. ii. 71, 4 b; Jahrbuch, 1895, p. 191; Munich 803 and 1240; Hartwig, op. cit. pl. 12. See J.H.S. loc. cit.

1648.  B.M. B 144; Reinach, ii. 262, 291, 298, 320 (horsemen): cf. B.M. B 628.

1649.  Reinach, i. 346 = Bourguignon Cat. 17; Louvre G 17, G 36.

1650.  See under Nike, p. 88, note 1070.

1651.  Berlin 2180 = Reinach, i. 424, and 2314; Karlsruhe 242 (Psiax and Hilinos).

1652.  Berlin 2178; Louvre G 38 = Hartwig, Meistersch. p. 25; Arch.-epigr. Mitth. 1881, pl. 4; Reinach, i. 324.

1653.  Petersburg 1611 = Baumeister, i. p. 247, fig. 226.

1654.  Munich 895 = Reinach, ii. 106.

1655.  Millin-Reinach, i. 47: cf. the athlete extracting a thorn on Berlin 2180 = Reinach, i. 424.

1656.  Bibl. Nat. 283 (unexplained subject).

1657.  Salzmann, Nécropole de Camiros, pl. 57, 2 = Schreiber-Anderson, 24, 2.

1658.  B.M. F 232; Naples 2854; Reinach, i. 473; Baumeister, i. p. 585.

1659.  Oxford 288; B.M. B 607; Louvre F 109 (with judges): and see p. 88.

1660.  B.M. E 83; Louvre G 36; Athens 1156 = Reinach, i. 514; ibid. ii. 292 = Baumeister, i. p. 242, fig. 219 (basin inscribed ΔΗΜΟΣΙΑ); Schreiber-Anderson, 21, 9 = Reinach, ii. 275; Hartwig, Meistersch. pl. 67, 1, p. 206 (using sponge); Reinach, ii. 134, 275. Youth with bath utensils: Berlin 2314.

1661.  B.M. B 271; E 78, 94, 164; Hartwig, op. cit. pp. 416–17; Wiener Vorl. vi. 9; B.C.H. xxiii. p. 158 (trainer marking goal).

1662.  See B.M. Cat. of Vases, iv. passim.

1663.  Three types:—(1) Hare seized by birds: Louvre E 701 = Reinach, i. 153; Naples 2458; Athens 618. (2) Hare pursued by dogs: B.M. B 119; Berlin 340, 1753, 1799; Karlsruhe 170; Petersburg 310, 386; Reinach, i. 34; Bull. de Corr. Hell. 1893, p. 227. (3) Dogs accompanied by hunters: B.M. B 678, D 60; Berlin 306, and 1727 = Reinach, i. 431; Oxford 189 (Oikopheles); Bibl. Nat. 187; Naples S.A. 200; B.M. A 1050 = Plate XIX. fig. 3; Reinach, ii. 333; Ant. Denkm. ii. 44–5.

1664.  B.M. B 147 (cover); Helbig, 7; Munich 411 (Amasis); Reinach, ii. 275; Millingen, Anc. Uned. Mon. i. 23; Anzeiger, 1895, p. 40.

1665.  B.M. B 7; Schreiber-Anderson, pl. 80, 3.

1666.  Ant. Denkm. ii. 44–5.

1667.  B.M. B 37 (= Plate XXI.), F 154; Louvre E 696 = Reinach, i. 162; Vienna 217 = Reinach, i. 170; Munich 211 = Fig. 90, Vol. I. p. 316: cf. Burlington Fine Arts Club Cat. 1903, p. 115, No. 62, for B.F. jug with man hiding in tree and attacked by boar and lion.

1668.  Reinach, ii. 144, 223.

1669.  B.M. B 52 = Rev. Arch. xviii. (1891), p. 367; Louvre F 26 = ibid. p. 369; Millin-Reinach, i. 18.

1670.  Millin-Reinach, ii. 11.

1671.  Berlin 1900; Reinach, ii. 293.

1672.  Louvre F 223.

1673.  Munich 583 = Jahrbuch, 1890, p. 146 (see p. 129); Forman Sale Cat. 285.

1674.  Mélanges Perrot, p. 252 (in B.M.).

1675.  Boston Mus. Report, 1899, No. 22; Mon. Grecs, 14–16 (1885–88), p. 10.

1676.  Hartwig, Meistersch. pl. 53; Bibl. Nat. 277 = Reinach, i. 290.

1677.  B.M. E 485; Berlin 2357 = Reinach, i. 423; ibid. ii. 179.

1678.  B.M. E 3 (Hischylos), E 60; Munich 111; Forman Sale Cat. 336; Reinach, i. 454, 4 (Pamphaios): see p. 177.

1679.  Munich 337 = Reinach, i. 238 = Furtwaengler and Reichhold, pl. 22 (Euphronios); Hartwig, Meistersch. pls. 53–4; Jahrbuch, 1888, pl. 4 (Onesimos); Mon. Grecs, 14–16 (1885–88), pl. 5, and see p. 1 ff.; Monuments Piot, i. pls. 5–6 (in Louvre). Cf. also Louvre G 26.

1680.  See under Warriors, p. 176.

1681.  B.M. F 70, F 306; Berlin 2154: cf. Benndorf, Gr. u. Sic. Vasenb. pl. 32, 5.

1682.  B.M. B 127; Reinach, ii. 125.

1683.  Benndorf, Gr. u. Sic. Vasenb. pl. 32, fig. 5.

1684.  B.M. B 17; Munich 903: see J.H.S. xxiii. pp. 139, 142.

1685.  B.M. B 182; Berlin 2417 = Reinach, i. 425 = Baumeister, ii. p. 781, fig. 836; Reinach, ii. 191; Oxford 250.

1686.  Reinach, i. 81.

1687.  B.M. E 467 (Satyrs); E 339, F 197, F 245; Berlin 2710 = Reinach, i. 425 (Eros); Naples 2872 = Millingen, Anc. Uned. Mon. pl. 12 = Reinach, ii. 169 (Eros); Louvre G 36 (ephebos).

1688.  Louvre F 90 and F 368 = Rev. Arch. xxi. (1893), pl. 5; Helbig, p. 327 = Baumeister, i. p. 622, fig. 695; Reinach, i. 310, 423 (Berlin 2030).

1689.  Naples 922 = Schreiber-Anderson, 80, 7.

1690.  B.M. E 70, 453–54, 495, F 37, 273, 275; Berlin 2416 and Jatta 1291 = Reinach, i. 337, 178; Baumeister, ii. p. 793, fig. 857; Archaeologia, li. pl. 14; Louvre G 30. See also below, p. 181.

1691.  Branteghem Sale Cat. 167 (here a woman); Hartwig, Meistersch. pls. 27, 72, 2.

1692.  Louvre G 81; Reinach, i. 420; Hartwig, op. cit. pl. 27, 2.

1693.  Berlin 2177; J.H.S. xviii. p. 130.

1694.  B.M. E 205 (?).

1695.  B.M. F 123; Louvre F 60; Berlin 2589 (= Harrison, Mythol. and Monum. of Athens, p. xliv) and 2394; Millingen, Anc. Uned. Mon. pl. 30; Boston Mus. Report, 1898, No. 27.

1696.  B.M. E 387 (Seileni); Baumeister, iii. p. 1573, fig. 1633 (Eros); Gerhard, Ant. Bildw. pl. 53.

1697.  Naples 3151 = Reinach, i. 400.

1698.  Anzeiger, 1890, p. 89 (in Berlin).

1699.  See B.M. Cat. of Vases, iv. p. 110 (F 223, etc.), and Jahn in Ber. d. sächs. Gesellsch. 1854, p. 256.

1700.  B.M. E 527, 534–37, 548–53 (see Plate XLII.); Baumeister, ii. p. 779; Él. Cér. ii. 89; Gaz. Arch. 1878, pl. 7; Stackelberg, pl. 17; Reinach, i. 425: see generally Jahn in Ber. d. sächs Gesellsch. 1854, p. 243 ff., pl. 12.

1701.  B.M. F 101 = Fig. 15, Vol. I. p. 137; Reinach, i. 294.

1702.  Bibl. Nat. 361 = Reinach, ii. 262; Bourguignon Cat. 52 (in B.M.); Reinach, i. 207 (hare).

1703.  Inghirami, Vasi Fitt. iv. 387.

1704.  Reinach, i. 294: cf. ii. 137 = Baumeister, i. p. 705, fig. 765, and for women with pets see below, p. 173.

1705.  Berlin 2285 = Reinach, i. 196: cf. B.M. E 525 and Brit. School Annual, 1898–99, p. 65 (Fig. 177).

1706.  Naples 2004 = Reinach, i. 323.

1707.  Ibid. ii. 333.

1708.  Berlin 2322 = Micali, Storia, 103, 1.

1709.  Hartwig, Meistersch. pl. 46.

1710.  B.M. E 171–72; Oxford 266; Baumeister, i. p. 554, fig. 591 (flute): cf. ibid. iii. p. 1993, fig. 2138 (Iphikles taught the lyre by Linos) and the Duris kylix (Plate XXXIX.).

1711.  Reinach, i. 248.

1712.  B.M. E 185; Gerhard, Ant. Bildw. pl. 66.

1713.  See p. 95.

1714.  Athens 467 = Ath. Mitth. 1892, pl. 10; B.M. E 467, E 804; Furtwaengler and Reichhold, pls. 17–8. Single figure: B.M. F 343.

1715.  B.M. E 61; Louvre G 18 (castanets).

1716.  Forman Sale Cat. 361 (in Boston).

1717.  Stackelberg, pl. 22; Reinach, i. 61, 372, 469 (Naples 3010); Rev. Arch. xxvi. (1895), p. 221.

1718.  Anzeiger, 1895, p. 40: cf. B.M. Cat. of Terracottas, p. 412.

1719.  B.M. B 42, 44; Berlin 1662; and see J.H.S. xviii. p. 287.

1720.  B.M. E 271; Berlin 1686; Bologna 271 = Reinach, ii. 150; Él. Cér. ii. 16; Athens 1019 = Ath. Mitth. 1891, pl. 10, 2; Anzeiger, 1892, p. 172. Girls playing lyre: Monuments Piot, ii. pls. 5–6 (in Louvre).

1721.  B.M. E 308; and see Reinach, ii. 187, 3.

1722.  B.M. E 270, E 469; Hartwig, Meistersch. pls. 65–6.

1723.  B.M. B 139, B 141; Louvre G 1 = Amer. Journ. of Arch. 1896, p. 9; Petersburg 1603 = Schreiber-Anderson, 7, 14; Vienna 234.

1724.  B.M. B 188, E 354; Reinach, ii. 274; Louvre G 103 = Atlas, pl. 101 (Euphronios).

1725.  B.M. E 460; Bologna 286; Athens 1260 = Dumont-Pottier, i. 16; Helbig, 90 = Mus. Greg. ii. 60, 3; Benndorf, Gr. u. Sic. Vasenb. 43, 4 a.

1726.  Mus. Greg. ii. 22, 2 a.

1727.  B.M. E 270.

1728.  B.M. E 132.

1729.  B.M. B 192, B 299, E 37; Athens 1158 = Baumeister, iii. p. 1984, fig. 2127; Él. Cér. ii. 16: see also Hartwig, Meistersch. p. 255, note 2.

1730.  Berlin 639, 871, 885 = Ant. Denkm. i. pl. 8, Nos. 7, 14, 23.

1731.  Berlin 608 ff.; 800 93: cf. op. cit. pl. 8, Nos. 14 b, 17, 18 (= 885, 869, 868); also Nos. 1, 4, 12, 19 b, 22, 26 (= Berlin 608, 802, 616, 893, 827, 611). See also Chapter V., Figs. 65, 69.

1732.  B.M. B 432; Munich 731 = Fig. 67, Vol. I. p. 213; Gaz. Arch. 1880, p. 106.

1733.  Figs. 67, 71, Vol. I. pp. 213, 223.

1734.  Fig. 70, Vol. I. p. 218.

1735.  Fig. 74, Vol. I. p. 228.

1736.  Hartwig, Meistersch. pl. 17, 1, and see ibid. p. 174; Kopenhagen 125; Millingen, Anc. Uned. Mon. pl. 37.

1737.  Berlin 831 = Ant. Denkm. i. pl. 8, fig. 3 a. See on the subject Rev. Arch. iii. (1904), p. 45 ff.

1738.  Berlin 2294 = Baumeister, i. p. 506, fig. 547.

1739.  B. M. B 507; Reinach, i. 224 = Baumeister, iii. p. 1582, fig. 1639 (in Boston).

1740.  J.H.S. xxiv. p. 305; Branteghem Cat. 44. See also Él. Cér. i. 83.

1741.  Kopenhagen 119 = Schreiber-Anderson, 73, 7.

1742.  See p. 40: cf. also for a sculptor, p. 16, note 53.

1743.  Berlin 1806 = Fig. 136 (Nikosthenes); Louvre F 77 = ibid. fig. 13; Froehner, Musées de France, pl. 13, 1 (sowing).

1744.  B.M. F 147: see p. 73, and Robert, Arch. Märchen, pl. 5, p. 198 ff.

1745.  Berlin 2274 = Él. Cér. ii. 74.

1746.  Louvre F 68.

1747.  Louvre F 69 = Wiener Vorl. 1888, pl. 1, figs. 9–10; ibid. pl. 1, figs. 2, 7.

1748.  Vienna 335 = Schreiber-Anderson, pl. 64, figs. 1, 3; ibid. pl. 64, fig. 6 (in Naples); Hartwig, Meistersch. pl. 5; and see under Hermes and Seilenos.

1749.  Reinach, ii. 90.

1750.  B.M. B 226; Berlin 1855 = Baumeister, ii. p. 1047, fig. 1259.

1751.  Forman Sale Cat. 323 (now in Boston): cf. B.M. Cat. of Terracotta, D 550.

1752.  Helbig, 70 = Reinach, i. 106 = Baumeister, ii. p. 1047, figs. 1260–1261; Boston Mus. Report, 1899, p. 69, No. 24.

1753.  Louvre E 635 = Reinach, i. 151; Boston Mus. Report, 1899, p. 70, No. 25.

1754.  Berlin 1915 = Reinach, ii. 155.

1755.  Froehner, Musées de France, pl. 13, 2; Eranos Vindobonensis, p. 381 (woman kneading dough).

1756.  Millin-Reinach, ii. 61.

1757.  Vol. I. p. 342: see also p. 149.

1758.  B.M. E 86; Reinach, i. 224 = Baumeister, iii. p. 1587, fig. 1649 (in Boston).

1759.  B.M. E 23.

1760.  Micali, Storia, pl. 97, fig. 3.

1761.  B.M. B 339; Louvre F 10, F 56.

1762.  B.M. B 160, B 174, B 257; B 485; J.H.S. xxiii. pp. 133, 137, 142.

1763.  B.M. E 810, D 11 (Plate XLIII.); Berlin 2372 (= Coll. Sabouroff, i. pl. 58), 2373 (= Reinach, i. 440); Athens 1224 and 1225 = Heydemann, Gr. Vasenb. pl. 10, 1, and Reinach, i. 206; Athens 1588 = $1$2 1897, pl. 10, 2 (preparations for marriage, with fancy names): see generally Wiener Vorl. 1888, pl. 8.

1764.  Baumeister, i. p. 313, fig. 328.

1765.  Millingen-Reinach, 44 (in Louvre); Inghirami, Vasi Fitt. iv. 314.

1766.  Berlin 2374 = Reinach, i. 128.

1767.  Reinach, i. 173; J.H.S. xxiii. p. 133.

1768.  Athens 693.

1769.  Petersburg 151 = Thiersch, Tyrrhen. Amph. pl. 5.

1770.  Berlin 1841 = Reinach, ii. 44 (B.F.); Athens 1552 = Heydemann, Gr. Vasenb. pl. 8, 5; Berlin 2261 = Reinach, i. 440, and 2720 = Coll. Sabouroff, i. pl. 64; Reinach, i. 2 (Petersburg 1791), 472 (= Jatta 1526), 477 (= Naples S.A. 316, with fancy names).

1771.  B.M. E 225, 773–74, F 308, 310; Schreiber-Anderson, 83, 4.

1772.  B.M. B 598, E 87, E 193, E 215, D 13; Athens 1550, 1552, and 1589 = Reinach, i. 517 (note the use of the ἐπίνητρον); Louvre F 224 = Él. Cér. iii. 36 B; Stackelberg, 34; Reinach, i. 420, ii. 7, 4: see Hartwig, Meistersch. p. 340.

1773.  Dumont-Pottier, i. pl. 8 = Schreiber-Anderson, 82, 4.

1774.  Baumeister, iii. p. 1711, fig. 1796.

1775.  Boston Mus. Report, 1900, p. 41, No. 10.

1776.  Baumeister, iii. p. 1583, fig. 1641.

1777.  Ibid. i. p. 609, fig. 668.

1778.  B.M. E 18; Louvre G 2; Berlin 2272 = Hartwig, Meistersch. p. 89; Reinach, ii. 146, 7.

1779.  Baumeister, iii. p. 1919, fig. 2034 = Reinach, ii. 148.

1780.  Louvre F 114 = Plate XXX.; B.M. F 101, 207.

1781.  Schreiber-Anderson, 82, 12; B.M. F 139, 207, 342.

1782.  Schreiber-Anderson, 83, 14.

1783.  Berlin 1843 (= Baumeister, i. p. 243, fig. 221), and 2707 (= Coll. Sabouroff, i. 62, 2); Jatta 654 = Gaz. Arch. 1880, pl. 19; Millin-Reinach, ii. 9 (frontispiece); Reinach, ii. 146, 328, 1; Baumeister, i. p. 242, fig. 220; B.M. D 29, E 90, 201–2; and see generally Hartwig, op. cit. p. 599.

1784.  Louvre F 197 and F 203 = Amer. Journ. of Arch. 1896, p. 3 = Schreiber-Anderson, 57, 5.

1785.  B.M. F 311; and see Él. Cér. iv. 10–22.

1786.  B.M. B 329–38; Louvre F 296; Reinach, ii. 151: cf. B.M. E 159 and Athens 1429 = Heydemann, Gr. Vasenb. pl. 9, 2.

1787.  B.M. D 6; Munich 142: cf. Berlin 1841 = Reinach, ii. 44.

1788.  B.M. E 241, E 721; Branteghem Sale Cat. 98–9.

1789.  Athens 1550 = Heydemann, op. cit. pl. 9, 5.

1790.  B.M. E 34.

1791.  B.M. E 769.

1792.  B.M. E 190.

1793.  B.M. E 88.

1794.  Branteghem Cat. 167.

1795.  Naples R.C. 117 = Reinach, i. 490, 22.

1796.  Munich 903 = Reinach, ii. 110.

1797.  B.M. B 53, B 163, B 409; Berlin 3993 = Coll. Sabouroff, i. pl. 51.

1798.  Bibl. Nat. 94; Athens 466 = Plate XLVII.

1799.  Oxford 320.

1800.  B.M. E 396.

1801.  Branteghem Cat. 163.

1802.  Petersburg 875 = Reinach, i. 39: cf. Hartwig, Meistersch. pl. 27.

1803.  B.M. F 232; Athens 1031 = Heydemann, Gr. Vasenb. pl. 9, 3; Reinach, i. 473; Mus. Borb. vii. 58; Mon. Barone, pls. 3, 9; and see pp. 165, 182.

1804.  See p. 169.

1805.  See on the subject Winter in Arch. Zeit. 1885, p. 187 ff.; and Mon. Grecs, 1885–88, p. 25 ff.

1806.  B.F.: B.M. B 165, B 657; J.H.S. xviii. p. 293; Bibl. Nat. 172 and 203 = Reinach, ii. 95. R.F.: Louvre G 47–8; Bologna 274; Helbig, 167 and 174 (= Reinach, ii. 133); Reinach, ii. 114; Vienna 324 = Wiener Vorl. vii. 1 (Duris).

1807.  B.F.: B.M. B 147, B 309, B 360; Louvre F 12, F 39, F 53, F 150; Reinach, ii. 124, 131. R.F.: B.M. E 254, E 276, E 448; Louvre G 44; Baumeister, iii. p. 2034, fig. 2207 (Duris). Late: B.M. F 158, F 174; Munich 382 = Furtwaengler and Reichhold, pl. 35.

1808.  B.F.: Ant. Denkm. ii. 44–5 (Proto-Cor.); B.M. B 75, B 199, B 212, B 400; Athens 623; Bourguignon Cat. 14. R.F.: B.M. E 7, E 33, E 43, E 808; Röm. Mitth. 1890, p. 332. Late: B.M. F 175, F 215. Horseman and foot-soldier: two uncatalogued in B.M.

1809.  See pp. 3, 7, 126.

1810.  B.M. B 224, B 243; Athens 1161 = Hartwig, Meistersch. p. 87; Reinach, ii. 129, 131, 4, 133.

1811.  J.H.S. xviii. p. 293; Bibl. Nat. 203 = Reinach, ii. 95.

1812.  Munich 374 = Fig. 137; Millin-Reinach, i. 39; and see under Hector, p. 127.

1813.  B.M. E 405.

1814.  Anzeiger, 1892, p. 165: cf. Reinach, ii. 133 and Ar. Ach. 574.

1815.  Louvre G 5: see Hartwig, Meistersch. p. 122, note.

1816.  B.M. E 33; Munich 1229; Forman Sale Cat. 337 (in Boston); Hartwig, op. cit. pl. 14, 1: cf. Berlin 2296 = Reinach, i. 428, and B.M. E 598.

1817.  See note 1815; also Festschrift für O. Benndorf, p. 66.

1818.  B.M. B 303–05; Berlin 1897 = Reinach, ii. 124; Jahrbuch, iv. (1889), pl. 10; Louvre F 285, F 345.

1819.  Reinach, ii. 198.

1820.  See pp. 118, 127.

1821.  B.M. B 15, B 206, B 523; Louvre F 9; Reinach, i. 462, 1; ii. 255 = Bibl. Nat. 227; Burlington Fine Arts Club Cat. 1888, No. 108 = 1903, No. 21, p. 102 (Andokides).

1822.  Athens 618 = Baumeister, iii. p. 1963, fig. 2098.

1823.  Reinach, ii. 128; B.M. B 24; Louvre E 609 = Reinach, i. 395 (Chares); and Fig. 88, Vol. I. p. 297.

1824.  B.M. E 476: Louvre G 54 = Reinach, ii. 7; Petersburg 1692, 1711 = Reinach, i. 43–4: see B.M. E 65, Louvre F 19, F 70, and Vienna 324 = Wiener Vorl. vii. 1 (Duris).

1825.  B.M. B 51: see under Nike, p. 88.

1826.  Berlin 1718 = Reinach, i. 393; Helbig, ii. p. 301, No. 77 = Reinach, ii. 107 (may be Ajax with body of Achilles).

1827.  J.H.S. xix. pp. 227–28; and cf. B.M. B 171 (inspection of liver), B 641; Bibl. Nat. 400; Reinach, ii. 131, 1 (hoplite taking oath); Louvre G 46.

1828.  Reinach, i. 203 = Wiener Vorl. D. 2, 2–3; B.M. B 380; Louvre F 127, G 5: bust of warrior, Louvre F 137.

1829.  B.M. B 470, B 618; Louvre F 292, G 25; Engelmann-Anderson, Od. xiii. 71: see Hartwig, Meistersch. pl. 9, p. 106, note.

1830.  Berlin 1879.

1831.  Berlin 2304.

1832.  Reinach, i. 372.

1833.  See Jahrbuch, 1901, pl. 3.

1834.  B.M. B 658.

1835.  B.M. B 149, B 360.

1836.  B.M. B 590–91; Louvre G 70; Helbig, 292; Munich 4 = Reinach, ii. 57; Jahrbuch, iv. (1889), pl. 4. As shield-device: Vienna 332 (a negro); Reinach, i. 77; Benndorf, Gr. u. Sic. Vasenb. pl. 46, 1.

1837.  B.M. E 285; Hartwig, Meistersch. pl. 18, 1, and see p. 185.

1838.  See p. 179, note 1853; also Plate XXXVII. fig. 2, and Jahrbuch, 1889, pl. 4.

1839.  Anzeiger, 1889, p. 93; B.M. E 759; Hartwig, p. 368, note: cf. p. 186.

1840.  B.M. B 426; Berlin 2296 = Reinach, i. 428; Helbig, 54; Mon. Grecs, 1885–88, p. 11: see also Helbig, Eine Heerschau des Peisistratos, and Les Ἱππεῖς Athéniens, p. 71 ff.

1841.  Reinach, i. 486 = Boston Cat. p. 137.

1842.  B.M. B 60; Louvre A 526; Plate XVI. (Aristonoös krater); Reinach, i. 190, 4, 328, 6, and 459 (Dipylon).

1843.  J.H.S. xix. pl. 8; Louvre A 525–532; Mon. Grecs, ii. (1882–84), pl. 4, pp. 44–57; and see Chapter VII.

1844.  B.M. B 436; Berlin 836; Louvre E 735 and F 123 (= J.H.S. 1885, pl. 49); Forman Sale Cat. 322; Reinach, ii. 19 = Baumeister, iii. p. 1599, fig. 1662.

1845.  B.M. B 436; Berlin 646 ff., 831; Louvre F 145 (?).

1846.  B.M. B 679, E 2 (Plate XXXVII.); Bibl. Nat. 322; Bourguignon Sale Cat. 14; Louvre F 123, F 145.

1847.  Louvre F 62; Vienna 235; Naples R.C. 246; Munich 781 = Reinach, ii. 126; Petersburg 10 and 86; Würzburg 337 = Reinach, ii. 141; Rev. Arch. xxxvi. (1900), p. 323; Wiener Vorl. 1888, pl. 5, 3.

1848.  Athens 969 = Reinach, i. 415.

1849.  See above, p. 148.

1850.  B.M. B 173, B 280, B 323; F 278.

1851.  Cf. B.M. B 184, 207, 243, 246, etc.

1852.  See generally Zahn, Die Barbaren, and Hartwig, Meistersch. passim.

1853.  B.M. E 6; Louvre F 126, F 388, G 45; Jahrbuch, 1889, pl. 4; and see above, p. 177.

1854.  B.M. B 184, B 207, B 426; Reinach, i. 376 (?).

1855.  Wiener Vorl. vi. 5; Bourguignon Cat. 14.

1856.  B.M. B 590–91.

1857.  B.M. E 233; Berlin 2295; Reinach, ii. 84; Hartwig, Meistersch. pls. 55–56.

1858.  Ath. Mitth. 1898, pl. 5.

1859.  B.M. E 695.

1860.  Ath. Mitth. 1892, pl. 1; Oxford 310 = Klein, Lieblingsinschr.2 p. 87.

1861.  See p. 151.

1862.  Röm. Mitth. ii. (1887), pl. 9, p. 172; Munich 374 = Fig. 137; Plate XXXVII. fig. 2.

1863.  Bibl. Nat. 473 = Reinach, i. 131.

1864.  Boston Mus. Report, 1900, p. 72.

1865.  Hartwig, Meistersch. pls. 38–9; and see ibid. p. 422.

1866.  B.M. E 481–82; and see pp. 80, 143.

1867.  Louvre G 26: cf. Mon. Grecs, 1885–88, pl. 6, p. 11.

1868.  Munich 337 = Klein, Euphronios, p. 82; Mon. Grecs, 1885–88, pl. 5; and see pp. 166, 177.

1869.  B.M. E 301; J.H.S. ix. pl. 6; Reinach, i. 63.

1870.  B.M. B 673–74; Athens 1088; Ath. Mitth. 1889, p. 45: cf. Louvre G 93; another unarmed, G 100. On Vienna 332 a negro trumpeter occurs as a shield-device.

1871.  Petersburg 1603.

1872.  Benndorf, Gr. u. Sic. Vasenb. pl. 42.

1873.  Louvre G 100.

1874.  B.M. B 106_1.

1875.  B.M. F 197, 241–42 (see Plate XLIV.), 297, 301, 525; Reinach, i. 292–93.

1876.  B.F.: B.M. B 46, B 382, B 679; Louvre F 2, F 216, F 314; Gaz. Arch. 1887, pl. 14, 1. R.F.: B.M. E 38, 49, 68, 70; Munich 272 = Hartwig, Meistersch. pl. 15, 1; Helbig, 225 and 227; Reinach, ii. 4. Late: B.M. E 495, F 303; Naples 2202 = Dubois-Maisonneuve, Introd. pl. 45, and R.C. 144 = Schreiber-Anderson, 76, 2; ibid. pl. 76, 4 = Millingen-Reinach, pl. 8; Millin-Reinach, ii. 58.

1877.  See pp. 57, 105.

1878.  Bibl. Nat. 94.

1879.  B.M. E 351, E 474.

1880.  B.M. B 46, 301–2, 382, 679, E 66, E 454.

1881.  Louvre G 98; Athens 691 = Ath. Mitth. 1889, pls. 13–4 (Xenokles and Kleisophos); Cab. Pourtalès, 34; Mus. Greg. ii. 81, 1 a.

1882.  Reinach, ii. 247: see Jahrbuch, 1893, p. 180.

1883.  Louvre G 25; Mus. Greg. ii. 81, 1 b; Hartwig, Meistersch. pls. 14, 2, 48, and p. 332; Wiener Vorl. viii. 5.

1884.  See Klein, Euphronios,2 p. 115, for a collected list of examples; also the following notes.

1885.  Louvre G 30; B.M. E 70 = Fig. 138, E 161, E 454, E 795; Berlin 4221; Naples 822, 965, 972, 2415, S.A. 281.

1886.  It is worth noting that on the best R.F. vases mortals play the game; on the later ones gods and Satyrs. It must have disappeared from social life about the end of the fifth century.

1887.  B.M. F 37; Naples 903, S.A. 302, R.C. 144, 145, 2308; Berlin 2416 = Reinach, i. 337; Archaeologia, li. pl. 14; and see Vol. I. p. 452 for a curious variant.

1888.  B.M. F 50, 175–77; Inghirami, Vasi Fitt. ii. 197.

1889.  B.M. F 161, F 273, F 275, F 304, F 425; F 579 = Fig. 118 (Eros).

1890.  Louvre G 30; Mus. Greg. ii. 83, 1b, and 85, 2b.

1891.  Louvre F 216; Reinach, ii. 329, 5: see also ibid. ii. 6, 304, 5; Mus. Greg. ii. 81, 1a; Inghirami, Vasi Fitt. pls. 273, 356.

1892.  B.M. E 14, 38, 61, 68; Reinach, ii. 4.

1893.  See pp. 165, 174.

1894.  Athens 1158; and see p. 169.

1895.  Petersburg 1670 = Reinach, i. 32 = Wiener Vorl. v. 2; Reinach, ii. 290, 2 (κῶμος of women).

1896.  B.M. E 61 (Hieron).

1897.  B.M. E 71, 474, 484, 489, 506, 767; Reinach, ii. 94, 7; Mus. Greg. ii. 84, 2 a; Hartwig, Meistersch. pl. 11 and p. 41; Wiener Vorl. viii. 5 (Brygos in Würzburg).

1898.  B.M. E 33, 46, 53, 508; Forman Sale Cat. 317; Reinach, ii. 120.

1899.  B.M. B 299; and see above, p. 169.

1900.  B.M. E 137, E 488; Reinach, ii. 68, 290, 301, 313; Mus. Greg. ii. 54, 1 a, 2 a; 78, 2 a; Hartwig, op. cit. pl. 36, pp. 333, 335; Inghirami, Vasi. Fitt. 198.

1901.  B.M. E 54; Hartwig, op. cit. pls. 11, 20.

1902.  B.M. E 37; Louvre F 129, G 73; Hartwig, op. cit. pls. 8, 11; and see Berlin 2265, and Jahrbuch, 1891, pl. 5, fig. 2.

1903.  See above, p. 57 ff.

1904.  Hartwig, op. cit. pl. 49.

1905.  B.M. B 41; Berlin 2171; Froehner, Musées de France, pl. 40, 2.

1906.  B.M. Cat. of Vases, iv. passim; Bibl. Nat. 905 is a good typical example.

1907.  See Vol. I. p. 21: cf. Christie, Disquisitions, passim.

1908.  B.M. E 648, 705–9, 778–83 (see Plate XLII.); Athens 1941 = Jahn, Vasen mit Goldschmuck, pl. 1.

1909.  B.M. E 61; Munich 819 = Millingen-Reinach, 26; Berlin 2279 = Hartwig, Meistersch. pl. 25 (very fine); Reinach, i. 207; Helbig, 218 = ibid. ii. 146; and see Hartwig, p. 238.

1910.  See Klein, Euphronios, p. 26, and Hartwig, Meisterschalen, passim; also Vol. I. p. 426.

1911.  Athens 1161 = Hartwig, op. cit. p. 87; Hartwig, pl. 27 (from exterior of kylix).

1912.  B.M. E 2: cf. E 16, E 27; Louvre F 129 (youth balancing amphora).

1913.  Athens 1162 = Hartwig, op. cit. p. 87; Hartwig, pl. 19, 2 (in Louvre), and p. 178; Louvre G 17 = Wiener Vorl. 1890, pl. 10.

1914.  Cambridge 71 = Hartwig, pl. 2, fig. 3.

1915.  B.M. E 46; Hartwig, p. 86; and see Wiener Vorl. vi. 8.

1916.  Louvre G 40.

1917.  Louvre G 70, 96.

1918.  B.M. E 57.

1919.  Hartwig, pl. 70, 1: cf. Il. iii. 33.

1920.  J.H.S. xvii. p. 75 = Fig. 82; Amer. Journ. of Arch. 1890, pl. 22, p. 437 ff.; Arch. Anzeiger, 1893, p. 9 (vase in Marseilles).

1921.  Berlin 2324 = Wiener Vorl. 1890–91, pl. 7, 1.

1922.  B.M. E 1; Bibl. Nat. 128; Boston Mus. Report, 1899, No. 21; Mus. Greg. ii. 31, 2; Reinach, ii. 225 (lion and panther fighting).

1923.  Gsell, Fouilles de Vulci, pl. 9 (in Boston).

1924.  B.M. B 382, E 4; Louvre F 84 and F 54 = Fig. 96, Vol. I. p. 381.

1925.  Louvre F 125 (ram); Berlin 4042 (bull) and 2266 (horse); Munich 1171 and Mus. Greg. ii. 64, 3 a (cock). Also on exterior of B.F. kylikes: cocks and hens, B.M. B 391–92; Louvre F 92, F 380; Bibl. Nat. 317; Reinach, ii. 171. Lion and bull, Louvre F 313. Apes, Sale Cat. Hôtel Drouot, May 1903, No. 71. See generally Hartwig, Meistersch. p. 565.

1926.  Hartwig, op. cit. pl. 63, 1.

1927.  Bibl. Nat. 175–76.

1928.  Munich 468 = Philologus, 1898, pl. 1.

1929.  Schreiber-Anderson, pl. 80, 3.

1930.  Berlin 2517 = Coll. Sabouroff, i. pl. 65.

1931.  Reinach, i. 96 = Baumeister, iii. p. 1985, fig. 2128. For the inscription on this vase, see Chapter XVII.

1932.  See Schreiber-Anderson, pl. 63, 6; B.M. Cat. of Vases, iv. p. 19, F 254–68, and references there given; also Vol. I. pp. 194, 487, Plate XLIV.

1933.  B.M. B 57, B 58; Louvre E 703 = Reinach, ii. 92; Bibl. Nat. 172.

1934.  B.M. B 28, B 31; and see p. 185, note 1925.

1935.  Rayet and Collignon, p. 330 = Reinach, i. 503: see p. 273.

1936.  R.F. kalpis in Louvre; Anzeiger, 1889, p. 93; B.M. E 759: see for this and the following subjects Hartwig, Meistersch., p. 368, note; also p. 177 above.

1937.  Louvre F 127 (Pamphaios).

1938.  Munich 1170.

1939.  Munich 1223.

1940.  B.M. E 771.

1941.  In South Kensington Museum.


Distinctions of types—Costume and attributes of individual deities—Personifications—Heroes—Monsters—Personages in every-day life—Armour and shield-devices—Dress and ornaments—Physiognomical expression on vases—Landscape and architecture—Arrangement of subjects—Ornamental patterns—Maeander, circles, and other geometrical patterns—Floral patterns—Lotos and palmettes—Treatment of ornamentation in different fabrics.

It may be profitable to supplement the foregoing account with a few general considerations, such as the attributes, emblems, and costume by which the different figures may be distinguished, the general treatment of the subjects at different periods, and the use of ornamental motives in the various stages of Greek vase-painting.

§ 1. Distinctions of Types

In the earlier vase-paintings deities are often not only indistinguishable from one another, but even from kings and other mortal personages, attributes and subtle distinctions of costume being ignored; and in the period of decline a similar tendency may be noted, due in this case not so much to confusion of ideas as to a general carelessness of execution and indifference to the meaning of the subject. In the former vases it was, doubtless, largely the result of conventionality and limitation in the free expression of forms; but it is a peculiarity not confined to painting, and may be observed not only in the minor arts, in terracotta and bronze figurines, but even in sculpture of a more exalted kind—as, for instance, in the female statues from the Athenian Acropolis. Thus, all the deities are draped, and their costume differs in no respect from that worn by mortals; all alike wear the chiton, himation, or chlamys, and ornamentation of the drapery with embroidered patterns is no mark of distinction. It is only as the art advances in the B.F. period that the necessity for differentiation makes itself felt, and each deity becomes individualised by some peculiarity of costume or special attribute which makes it possible to recognise them without difficulty. To give a brief survey of these characteristic marks will be the object of the following pages.[1942]

Among the Olympian deities, Zeus is generally bearded, and fully draped in long chiton and mantle; on R.F. vases he wears a laurel-wreath. He fights the giants from his chariot, but otherwise is standing, or seated on a throne, which is often carved and ornamented with figures.[1943] He usually holds a thunderbolt, or a sceptre, surmounted by an eagle or otherwise ornamented; in one or two cases the termination is in the form of a lotos-bud, curiously conventionalised.[1944] Hera is distinguished by the stephane or broad diadem, often ornamented, and covered with the bridal veil, the edge of which she draws forward with one hand in the attitude considered typical of brides. Her sceptre is sometimes surmounted by her emblem—the cuckoo.

Poseidon, on the Corinthian and Attic B.F. vases—on which he is but a rare figure—is often hardly to be distinguished from Zeus, the approximation of the types extending even to their emblems. Where he holds in addition a dolphin or tunny-fish, there is, of course, no doubt as to his presence; nor, again, in the Gigantomachia, where he wields a rock (see p. 13, and Fig. 112); but his trident, which subsequently becomes the unmistakable evidence of his identity, often assumes (as on the Corinthian pinakes) the form of a sceptre ending in a lotos-bud,[1945] which is typical of Zeus, and, indeed, of Olympian deities generally. The other sea-deities are, however, of a more clearly defined type. The essential feature of Triton is the fish-tail in which his body terminates. Nereus, on the other hand, is represented as an old man, bald and grey-bearded. In this form he contends with Herakles (see p. 101), and it may be that the differentiation was necessary to avoid confusion with the Triton type. As attributes he often holds a dolphin or tunny-fish, and a trident or sceptre. The winged deity with a long sinuous fish-tail seen on early Corinthian vases is probably Palaemon (see p. 26); but in one case this deity is feminine.[1946] Amphitrite, as the feminine consort of Poseidon, holds a sceptre or tunny-fish, and Thetis and the Nereids appear in ordinary female form. The former, however, in her struggles with Peleus, is accompanied by lions, serpents, and other animals, which indicate the transformations she was supposed to assume. Skylla appears as described in Homer, with fish-tail and the fore-parts of dogs issuing from her waist, which is encircled by a fringe of scales or feathers.

Demeter and Persephone are not always distinguishable from one another, both having the same attributes—a torch or ears of corn (cf. Plate LI.). Their identification depends rather on the nature of their respective actions in the scenes where they appear. Triptolemos is always seen in his winged two-wheeled car (sometimes drawn by serpents), and usually holds ears of corn or a libation-bowl; on B.F. vases he is bearded. The other Eleusinian deities, on the late R.F. vases where they occur, are marked by the large torches which they hold.

Apollo on the B.F. vases almost invariably occurs in his character of Kitharoidos,[1947] the lyre which he holds being of the form known as kithara (on later vases it is a chelys); he is therefore, like all musicians, fully draped in long chiton, and his hair falls in curls on his shoulders, or is gathered in a κρώβυλος. Unlike most gods, he is at all times youthful and beardless.[1948] He is also represented holding a laurel-branch, shooting an arrow from his bow, or riding on a swan or Gryphon, or accompanied by a hind or other animal. His sister Artemis is draped in long chiton and mantle, and often wears a high cap on B.F. vases; it is not until the later R.F. period that she appears in hunting costume, with knotted-up hair, short chiton, and high laced-up hunting-boots or endromides; sometimes also a fawn-skin. She is usually distinguished by her bow and arrows, and is accompanied by a hound, deer, goat, or other animal.[1949]

Hephaistos is usually bearded,[1950] and often appears in the workman’s dress of the exomis or short chiton covering one shoulder, and high conical cap; his craft is further symbolised by a hammer or tongs, or by the axe with which he brings Athena forth from the head of Zeus. In the Gigantomachia he uses his tongs with savage violence against an unfortunate opponent (see p. 14). Ares is the typical Greek fully-armed warrior, bearded, with helmet, short chiton, cuirass, and greaves, sword, spear, and shield; but is not otherwise to be distinguished. Hermes, as the messenger of the gods, appears in appropriate costume of chlamys and petasos (the Greek travelling-hat), and carrying the caduceus or herald’s staff; he usually wears high boots, and on the earlier vases a short chiton in addition. He is occasionally winged, but it is more usual to find the wings attached to his petasos or boots. On B.F. vases he is always bearded, but not after the sixth century. Hestia, who but rarely occurs on vases, forms a pair to Hermes in assemblies of the gods, but is not distinguished further than by the Olympian lotos-sceptre.

Athena on the earlier B.F. vases is not always distinguished from an ordinary woman; later, the helmet, spear, shield, and aegis become inseparable adjuncts of her costume, the shield being always circular in form. The spear, which is sometimes her only characteristic, is usually brandished or couched in her right hand, and sometimes she holds her helmet in her hand (see Plate XXXVI. and p. 40). Her costume consists of a long girt chiton, over which the peplos or small mantle is thrown, and the aegis round her chest. The latter is covered with scales and has a fringe of rearing serpents, and sometimes, on later vases, the Gorgon’s head in the centre of the front. On the Panathenaic amphorae she is always represented in the Promachos attitude, at first to left, but later to right, brandishing her spear. At either side of her are columns surmounted by an owl, a cock, or other emblems. On the later specimens her figure is greatly elongated, and her drapery is often elaborately embroidered with patterns in purple and white. Her statue when represented is usually a mere reproduction of the living type; but on some later vases there seems to be a reminiscence of the Parthenos or other statues (see p. 40).

Aphrodite is less individualised than any other deity, at any rate on the earlier vases, on which she is invariably draped in the ordinary manner. She sometimes carries a lotos-headed sceptre (as in Judgment of Paris scenes). Occasionally she is represented armed. On the later vases the influence of fourth-century sculpture becomes apparent in the treatment of this, as of other deities. She now first appears nude (when bathing or washing), scantily clad or half draped, and in transparent Coan draperies, through which the outlines of her form are visible. She has no characteristic attribute, but is frequently represented with a dove or other bird. The types of Eros have already been fully discussed (p. 45); briefly it may be said that on the Attic R.F. vases he is a full-grown nude youth with wings; on those of Southern Italy the type is more boyish, though never the child or putto of the Hellenistic Age, and in Apulia the androgynous type, with hair arranged in feminine fashion and jewellery profusely adorning his person—earrings, necklace, chains, and anklets—is invariable.

Dionysos is distinguished primarily by the ivy-wreath which crowns his head; he generally wears a long chiton and mantle, but on the latest vases is frequently nude. On all B.F. vases, and often on those of the R.F. period, he is bearded, and it is only on those of Southern Italy that he appears as a somewhat effeminate youth, half draped like Apollo, with rounded and graceful limbs. His attributes are the rhyton or keras (only on B.F. vases), the kantharos, a form of drinking-cup specially associated with him, a vine-branch, and the thyrsos; he is accompanied by panthers and other animals, or swings the limbs of a kid (χιμαιροφόνος). Usually he maintains a calm and unmoved attitude amid the wild revelries of his followers. Ariadne is undistinguished except by her association with him. Pan, who only occurs on later vases, is almost invariably represented as a beardless youthful figure, with goat’s horns, but human legs; when, however, he has goat’s legs or feet, he is usually called Aegipan, and in this aspect he assumes a somewhat dwarfish and more bestial aspect.[1951]

Satyrs are either elderly and bearded, or youthful; in all cases with pointed ears and horses’ tails, and undraped except for the fawn-skins which they frequently wear. They carry a thyrsos, drinking-cups, or musical instruments, according to the circumstances in which they are depicted. In Ionic art (Vol. I. p. 353 ff.) the Satyrs invariably have horses’ feet as well as tails, and are usually of repulsive appearance. The Seileni are really aged Satyrs, depicted as bald or white-haired, but not otherwise differentiated, except in the case of Papposeilenos, who is covered with shaggy skin.[1952] The Maenads are often represented (especially on B.F. vases) as ordinary draped women, or only with the addition of a fawn-skin or panther-skin over their chiton; they carry the thyrsos, or frequently on later vases a large tambourine (tympanon).

Of the personages associated with the under-world, Hades is usually an elderly bearded deity of the Zeus type. He carries a sceptre, often with ornamented top, and sometimes from his Chthonian association with Dionysos holds a kantharos, vine-branch, or cornucopia. Kerberos has three heads only on two Cacretan hydriae and the Apulian under-world vases; his usual number is two, but once or twice he has only one.[1953] Hekate has torches for her customary attribute, and the Furies, who only occur on South Italian vases, wear short chitons with cross-belts and have rough hair, in which and round their arms serpents are intertwined. Charon the ferryman is represented as an elderly man in short chiton and conical cap (cf. Fig. 122), but the grim Etruscan Charun is a repulsive and savage hook-nosed demon, wielding a hammer. Thanatos and Hypnos, the two Death-deities, are both winged men, but only the former is bearded (cf. Fig. 123); there is usually nothing forbidding in his appearance. The question of the representation of ghosts or souls (εἴδωλα) has been fully discussed (p. 72); most commonly they are diminutive winged figures, and in other cases they appear as in ordinary life,[1954] but possibly they sometimes appear in the form of birds.[1955]

Gaia is represented half rising out of the earth, a beautiful but not young woman, with long hair (Fig. 112); or, as Pandora, her head alone is seen (see p. 73). Kybele occasionally appears, with her attendant lion, and an even rarer figure is Asklepios, with his serpent. The Eileithyiae, who attend at the birth of Athena, are ordinary women, distinguished by the appropriate gestures of their hands (Fig. 113). Iris, the female messenger of the gods, appears winged, with short chiton to allow of rapid movement, and carrying the caduceus or herald’s staff; Hebe, on the other hand, is an ordinary woman. Nike is usually to be distinguished from Iris by her long flowing draperies, even when in flight; the various attributes usually associated with her have already been dealt with in detail (p. 87).[1956]

Among personifications, Helios is a youthful figure in a chariot, usually with rays round his head (as on Plate LIII.); in one or two cases his head is surmounted by a white disc; Selene appears on horseback, and is sometimes indicated by a crescent moon; where Helios is accompanied by a goddess in a chariot, it is probable that Nyx (Night) is intended (see p. 79). The Stars are represented as nude youths. The Aurae or breezes appear as girls floating through the air; the Hyades or rain-Nymphs are identified by their water-pitchers. A group of winged gods and goddesses is formed by Eos, Agon (the masculine counterpart of Nike), Eris, Lyssa (Frenzy),[1957] and the various wind-gods, such as Boreas and Zephyros. These are found at all periods, but the types vary. Eris, who is only found on B.F. vases, resembles the Gorgons (see below), a somewhat grotesque figure with wings, rough hair, and short girt chiton; Lyssa only occurs on Apulian vases, and is akin in type to the Furies—in two instances her figure is enclosed in a circle of rays of light, perhaps to express the blinding effect of her action, and she holds a goad.[1958] Oistros, a kindred figure, rides in a car drawn by serpents, and carries torches. The type of Agon is assimilated to that of Eros on R.F. vases; on those of earlier date (if this is the correct interpretation) he wears a short girt chiton and holds a wreath. The Wind-gods on B.F. vases wear the petasos and high boots, and short girt chiton; Zephyros is represented as a youth; and Boreas, who only occurs on R.F. vases, wears Thracian costume; he is bearded, and his hair is often rough and shaggy. But these winged deities cannot always be identified with certainty. Among other personifications, Geras is a somewhat ugly old man; the Muses are distinguished by their various musical instruments; and Cities and Countries are occasionally individualised. For instance, Thebes, on a vase by Assteas, wears a turreted crown; Sparta appears as a Nymph on horseback; and, generally speaking, their presence is usually indicated not only by inscriptions, but by their relation to the scene depicted.[1959] River-gods, such as Acheloös, appear as human-headed bulls, with horns, but the last-named on a stamnos by Pamphaios (E 437 in B.M.) has a fish-tail.

Kastor and Polydeukes usually appear on horseback and in hunting costume, with petasos, chlamys, and spears; on later vases they sometimes wear the pileus, a conical cap which often appears as their emblem on coins. Herakles on earlier vases is always bearded, and wears the lion’s skin fastened round his waist with a belt, the forepaws knotted round his throat[1960]; the head covers his head like a cap, leaving his face only exposed, and under it he wears a short girt chiton; he is armed with his club, or bow and quiver, and sometimes with a sword. On R.F. vases he is often nude, or only wears the skin in chlamys fashion. On the earlier vases he is often less characterised, and the same applies to the later R.F. vases, on which he is frequently beardless; in many cases he is only to be identified by his club. Theseus always appears as a youth, and on the R.F. cups usually wears a short loose chiton of crinkly material (cf. Vol. I., Frontisp.); his arms are a sword, or sometimes a club. Perseus wears the winged petasos or cap of darkness and high boots (the shoes of swiftness), sometimes winged; he carries the wallet or κίβισις, and sometimes the ἅρπη or curved sword with which he slew Medusa. Pelops on the Apulian vases is usually characterised as an Oriental, with richly embroidered costume and a tiara or embroidered cap. The Homeric heroes are only to be identified by inscriptions, or by the actions in which they take part, but Paris is usually in Oriental costume; in Judgment scenes he holds a lyre, but when he takes part in combats he is attired as an archer, with bow and quiver, Phrygian cap, jerkin, and trousers. Kekrops, the mythical king of Athens, usually ends in a serpent’s tail, to denote his autochthonous origin; Midas has ass’s ears; Orpheus is recognised by his lyre, and sometimes wears, as a musician, feminine costume (see below, p. 197).[1961]

Of other mythological types the Amazons are, of course, always armed, frequently in the Oriental fashion, with Phrygian cap or kidaris and trousers; their weapons are the crescent-shaped shield or pelta, and a peculiar type of battle-axe, the sagaris. The Giants on B.F. vases are ordinary armed warriors, not even of exceptional size, but in later times they often end in serpents, as on the Pergamene frieze. Typhon appears in this form on a Chalcidian vase.[1962] Geryon is represented in the manner described by Pausanias (vi. 19, 1), as “three men joined together,” with distinctive arms and legs; on Chalcidian vases he has four wings, and is only triple from the waist upwards. The Centaurs on the more archaic vases, as on those of Ionia, appear as men with the body and hind legs of a horse attached behind; by the middle of the sixth century they appear in the familiar form of a human bust conjoined with a horse’s body. The Gorgons are always rendered in grotesque fashion, with grinning faces and dishevelled hair intertwined with serpents; they wear short girt chitons and high winged boots, and have four wings, the upper pair recurved; usually on B.F. vases they appear in what is known as “the archaic running attitude,” or, as the Germans more expressively phrase it, “Knielaufschema,” the figures being represented as if kneeling on one knee. The same grotesque type of face,[1963] with the protruding tongue and teeth, appertains to the Medusa’s head or Gorgoneion, which is at all periods such a favourite decorative motive on vases, either as the interior design of a B.F. kylix, or as a medallion in relief on late vases. The more beautiful type of Medusa head is a creation of later date than most of the painted vases, but in the medallions on Italian vases much of the grotesqueness has disappeared.

Much confusion at one time existed between the conceptions of the Harpy and the Siren, both names being indiscriminately applied to the female-headed bird so common on vases of all periods. But there is ample evidence for the representation of the Harpy more in the style of the Gorgons, as a purely feminine type, with the short chiton suited for rapid movement, high boots, and wings, and often in the conventional running attitude.[1964] In this form they appear in one instance as feminine counterparts of the male Boreades.[1965] The Siren types vary at different times, the earlier Sirens frequently having human arms.[1966] The Sphinx is always a woman-headed winged four-footed beast; sometimes on Corinthian and Ionic vases she wears a high head-dress. The Gryphon[1967] is a winged lion with eagle’s beak, and often with erect ears; the winged Pegasos and the bull-headed Minotaur require no description.

Turning now to personages concerned in events of every-day life, we find great variety of costume and equipment, especially at different periods and under different circumstances. The vases, in fact, may be said to supply the most instructive locus classicus for Greek dress and ornament, as well as for minor details—such as weapons, implements, and furniture—of which they provide contemporary illustrations.

Kings are usually distinguished by dignified flowing robes, by the wearing of a wreath or head-dress, or by the sceptre which they hold.[1968] Oriental potentates wear the costume of their country, with lofty ornamented tiaras, or the Persian kidaris or kyrbasia—a peaked cap decorated with fringes and lappets. Their dress is often very elaborate on the later vases. Actors and musicians both wear appropriate costumes. The former, who hardly occur except on the Italian vases, wear the dress of the Old Comedy, with grotesque mask, padded stomach, loose jerkin, and trousers.[1969] Tragic actors are seldom represented; but it has already been pointed out[1970] that in the setting of the mythological scenes on the vases of Southern Italy there is an unmistakable reflection of the tragic stage, especially in the elaborate and somewhat exaggerated details of costume. Musicians invariably wear a long chiton, over which on R.F. vases they sometimes wear a short loose garment called the ὀρθοστάδιον, embroidered with patterns.[1971] There are also a few instances of male performers (recognisable by their beards) in distinctively feminine costume.[1972]

Athletes are invariably nude when performing their exercises, except in the case of the armed foot-race (see p. 164); in the torch-race they seem to have worn high crowns; on the reverse of late R.F. vases they appear inactive, wrapped in mantles and conversing in groups. Hunters wear a distinctive costume of petasos and chlamys, and usually carry two spears. Boys on horseback are usually represented nude, and on Ionic vases have their hair tied in a tuft behind.[1973] Charioteers are always attired in a long girt chiton reaching to the feet, which on Attic B.F. vases is painted white. They usually hold a goad in the right hand, the reins in the left. Heralds wear the attributes of Hermes—the petasos, caduceus, and high boots, with a chlamys or short girt chiton. Warriors on the early and B.F. vases are equipped in a fashion which tallies to some extent with the descriptions of Homer.[1974] Their armour usually consists of a crested Corinthian helmet, a metal cuirass, under which is a short chiton, and greaves, to which are sometimes added the thigh-coverings known as parameridia. Some peculiarities may also be noted—such as the hooked projection on the front of helmets on the Ionic vases of Daphnae and the Clazomenae sarcophagi,[1975] the linen cuirasses (indicated by white paint) sometimes worn on Attic B.F. vases,[1976] or the heavy helmets with large cheek-pieces seen on the Caeretan hydriae (Plate XXVI.). The R.F. vases often represent the fully armed Athenian hoplite equipped in the same fashion as the B.F.; but in these, and more especially in the Italian vases, there is a tendency to omit much of the defensive armour. Cuirasses on R.F. vases are often decorated with patterns of scales or panelling.[1977] Helmets on Italian vases often assume a local character, with conical crowns and two or three lofty plumes.[1978]

Of offensive armour, the full equipment consists of sword, spear, and shield. The two former call for no comment, but the shields, which are of two forms, the circular Argive or the indented oval Boeotian, present one feature of great interest—the devices with which they are adorned.[1979] Investigations have failed to discern in these any symbolical or heraldic significance; they are not appropriated to particular personages, and all that can be noted about them is that they usually seem to suggest rapid movement. Thus we find an eagle or other flying bird, wheels, balls, chariots, a bent leg, a serpent, Pegasos, and so on. The passage in the Septem of Aeschylus (387 ff.), in which the shield-devices of the combatants are described, is of course familiar, and similar allusions are not wanting in Greek writers.[1980] They are universal on B.F. vases, being painted in white on black ground, and are often found on the earlier R.F. vases in black on red; but they seem to disappear at an early stage of the R.F. period. Sometimes they consist only of letters of the alphabet, as on a Panathenaic amphora, where Athena’s shield has the letters Α to Θ; on a B.F. vase in the British Museum are the letters ΑΘΕ.[1981] Other peculiar subjects are a winged boar, two rams butting, a figure of Artemis, a white-bordered square, and a ladder.[1982] Some of those on R.F. vases are somewhat elaborate—a Seilenos,[1983] a fox eating grapes,[1984] an armed runner,[1985] or a warrior