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Title: The Scientific Tourist through Ireland

Author: Thomas Walford

Release date: April 20, 2015 [eBook #48757]

Language: English

Credits: Produced by Chris Whitehead, Demian Katz and the Online
Distributed Proofreading Team at (Images
courtesy of the Digital Library@Villanova University


Cover for The scientific tourist through Ireland, in       which the traveller is directed to the principal objects of antiquity, art, science and the picturesque

The cover image was restored by the transcriber with the addition of the book title and author's name, and is placed in the public domain.

Antiquities in Ireland

C. Warren sculp.

Antiquities in Ireland.

Title page

Book Description

This day is published in Two Volumes, Price 12s.,

Maps coloured 14s.

(Uniformly printed with this Work)

England, Wales, and Scotland:

By T. WALFORD, Esq. F.A.S. F.L.S.


PAGE Counties, viz.
Antiquities 8 Armagh.
Druidical Monuments 9 Carlow.
Cromlechs ib. Cavan.
Cairns 10 Clare.
Ogham Inscriptions ib. Cork.
Ancient Temples ib. Donnegal.
Caves 11 Down.
Round Towers ib. Dublin.
Raths 14 Eastmeath.
Religious Antiquities 16 Fermanagh.
Churches, Cells,
and Crosses

Castles 18 Kildare.
Mineralogy 19 Kilkenny.
Moss Earth 20 King's County.
Basaltes 21 Leitrim.
Granite ib. Limerick.
Temperature 22 Londonderry.
Travelling 23 Longford.
Topographical Division
into Provinces,
Baronies, Parishes,
and Acres

Meath; see Eastmeath.
Ecclesiastical Division;
and Churches

Queen's County.
Legal Division 28 Sligo.
Comparative Height of

List of Round Towers, with
their Measurements

Glossary 34 Wexford.
Value of English and Irish

Description of
and Direction
for Plates

Iters by various Persons.
Routes of Mail Coaches.

















August 31, 1818.




This interesting country becoming every day more and more the subject of inquiry and personal investigation, an Hibernian Tourist's Guide consequently forms a necessary adjunct to our original plan. In prosecuting this design, our object is, by method and selection, to enable even the casual six-weeks visitant to explore readily the most important and curious specimens of nature and art, and that without subjecting him to those travelling inconveniences which it has been too much the fashion to complain of. Whilst travelling, at all times and in all countries, the tourist must learn to suffer petty vexations, privations, and delays; but a very amusing ramble may be executed in Ireland, without more of these than the usual share. The MEANS OF CONVEYANCE are now varied, extensive, rapid, and generally convenient; not only from the capital in all directions, but also by means of provincial coaches diverging from all the principal points; whilst good roads and improving inns give facility and comfort to those who travel with their own horses and carriages. In some places also, the INLAND NAVIGATION affords a change of scenery and of general amusement to the independent traveller.

Ireland, being only about 300 miles in length, and 200 in breadth, containing 30,370 sq. m.[1], does not require a long period to traverse its most important routes. Its Climate is good, with a mean temperature from 48 to 52; its face mostly level, but with extensive ranges of mountainous tracts and rocky soil. It contains romantic Lakes, both fresh and salt, viz. Neagh, Erne, Killarney, Swilly, Foyle, Corrib, &c. &c.; also many majestic Rivers, Shannon, Liffy, Boyne, Blackwater, Suir, Barrow, Lagan, &c. Its Mountainous Tracts are principally in Donnegal and Tyrone in the north, with part of Antrim; also the Mourne Mountains in Down; the mountains of Wicklow; in Kerry, and the s.w.; together with the extensive ranges to the west of the Shannon. The Bogs are extensive, occupying[2] many of the mountains, indeed often undulating in hill and dale, particularly in Donnegal; whilst both they and the dry heaths are covered with wild myrtles, sedgy grass, rushes, saggons, or iris, orchis, wild rockets, &c. Of its Forests few remain, being now sunk under the turf-bogs or peat mosses; yet of minor Botany there is a great field for examination in the Ericæ, numerous alpine plants, and wild flowers on the heaths, bogs, and rocky fastnesses. Its Mineralogy is very varied, from the gold mines of Wicklow, down to the silver mines of the same county, those of copper at Cronbane, with marble, coal, slate; whilst its Mineral Springs, vitriolic, alkaline, saline, sulphureous, &c. offer frequent opportunities of analysis to the man of science.

The importance of any plan which will tempt Englishmen of fortune, especially the members of the legislative body, to visit Ireland, cannot be more clearly expressed than in Mr. Wakefield's introduction to his work on that country, where he observes, that a knowledge of the natural situation, of the political institutions, and of the local advantages even of a foreign nation, form an object of considerable magnitude, and must to an inquiring and enlightened mind be a source of no small gratification; but to become acquainted with these relations, as they respect the great divisions of the empire of which we are ourselves subjects, is of much greater importance.

It is impossible to tread the green sod of Erin, without a considerable portion of antiquarian enthusiasm,—at least not to traverse her wilds, without a portion of that spirit, even though we may be tempted to deny that extreme antiquity of record drawn from the earliest periods, and claimed by the Old Irish in the indulgence of their national vanity. But the true enthusiast requires not always absolute historical proof to justify his feelings; and it is well that he does not; for then many of his aërial pictures must fade from existence; and the sober truth certainly is, as the elaborate Leland has expressed himself, that it cannot be denied that no literary monuments, to confirm tradition, have yet been discovered in Ireland earlier than the introduction of Christianity into that country; and that the evidence of any transactions previous to that period, rests entirely[3] on the credit of Christian writers, and their collections from old poets, or their transcripts of records deemed to have been made in times of paganism. It seems indeed, as he adds, unreasonable to expect that any other domestic evidence of Irish antiquity should subsist at this day; but from these the antiquary forms a regular history of a long succession of kings and of romantic events from the earlier ages of the world. Still do these details impart considerable interest to the scenes where they are supposed to have been acted; and from the poetical annals that furnish the catalogue of monarchs, we have a lively picture of manners, most certainly of great antiquity, however low we reduce the scale of chronology, and highly worthy of attention, even though we smile at the tales connected with them, with a most profuse intermixture of giants, necromancers, obscure allegories, and extravagant fables. In those annals, we have an animated picture of a brave people, driven from their native land in search of new settlements, establishing themselves by their valour in a fair and fertile island; the chieftains parcelling out lands to their attendants, and the whole collection of adventurers, from the moment of their peaceful establishment, devising means to give stability to their acquisitions. As a bond of unity to the whole, they elect a monarch; but preserve their own individual sovereignty in their domains, forming a complete feudal system, and filling the land with little courts where politeness and chivalry, attended by poetry and romance, went hand in hand. Such is the sketch which arises from Leland's masterly delineation; who adds, that in this state of things a robust frame of body, a vehemence of passion, an elevated imagination, were the characteristics of the people; whilst noble instances of valour, generous effusions of benevolence, ardent resentments, desperate and vindictive outrages, abound in their annals. From hence too it is that scarcely a romantic dell or simple green knoll exists without its traditionary tale; sometimes stained with blood, but as often enlivened by love—for to verse and music they were particularly addicted. Hence arose that peculiar turn of character by which those who are possessed of any superior degree of knowledge, they who operate on their fancies and passions by the liveliest strains of poetry, have[4] long been held in extraordinary veneration; and hence, even at the present day, the ministers of their religion are accounted more than human. The effects of those early events may indeed still be traced by the modern tourist; and even the historian of cotemporary transactions is obliged to coincide with the elegant Littleton when he observes, that the songs of the bard had usually more power to incite and inflame, than the music of the harp to soften or mitigate the ferocity of the chief; so that even this recreation, which seems to indicate something gentle and approaching to politeness in the temper of the Irish, contributed to keep up that turbulent spirit, averse to order and peace, which no prince or legislator that their country ever produced, had sufficient skill to control. But still, from the remnants of these ancient customs will the modern tourist derive considerable advantages, and from none more than their proverbial hospitality, if he himself has sense enough to keep it within bounds of propriety. Of this hospitality much arises from the natural temper of the people; much from the natural curiosity connected with the arrival of a stranger in a district where intercourse is unfrequent; and some portion perhaps derivable from ancient custom; for, as Leland observes, hospitality was not only a principal virtue amongst these rude people, but was even enjoined by law; and as neither lords nor tenants were bound to each other, as the whole tribe might migrate to some more favourable district, the ancient Brehon laws expressly stipulate that no rath shall break up suddenly, lest the traveller should be disappointed of his expected reception. But neither the duties to be received by the lord, nor the entertainment he was to expect from his inferiors, were determined by his arbitrary will and pleasure. They were proportioned to the benefits received from him—nay, even the lowest of the people claimed reception and refreshment by an almost perfect right; and so ineffectual is the flux of many centuries to efface the ancient manners of a people, that at this day the wandering beggar enters the house of a farmer or gentleman with as much ease and freedom as an inmate. From this strict adherence to old customs, it arose that even on the introduction of Christianity, many of the Pagan and Druidical ceremonies of religion,[5] interwoven with secular ordinances, were preserved throughout the island. Indeed, as the author already quoted very justly affirms, the first Christian missionaries seem to have industriously avoided all unnecessary violence to the ancient manners of their converts; favouring and protecting their poets; avoiding all persecution towards the remains of the Druidical order; and even whilst thundering the divine vengeance against the worshippers of the sun, moon, stars, and wind, yet exercising indulgence towards many remains of Pagan superstition. In consequence of this, the inquisitive tourist will find many vestiges of those superstitions even in the most enlightened parts of the kingdom, where their origin is unknown or forgotten; and they are complied with in conformity to general custom, or prompted by the association of early ideas and prejudices. Of these the most conspicuous are the fires still lighted up at particular times, remnants of the worship of Baal or Apollo; the collecting oaken sprigs in May, a Druidical rite; and many others, which cannot fail to interest the observer.

As the inquisitive traveller will doubtless make statistical observations in his progress through the country, the following quotation from Mr. Wakefield's multifarious and very intelligent work may form the basis of a series of reasoning highly deserving the attention of the politician. Speaking of the county of Louth, vol. 2. p. 616, he says—"This county has two large towns, one of which, Drogheda, is of considerable extent, but its inhabitants are remarkably poor. To those who have compared this place with Belfast, where the population is nearly the same, the difference must be very striking; and nothing can more clearly evince the superior condition of the Protestants over that of the Catholics, there being as many Protestants in Belfast as there are Catholics in Drogheda. The humbler classes of the Protestants are ashamed to be seen dirty, or with bad clothes; but, being so much outnumbered, they in consequence find very little society amongst persons of their own faith, and have a stronger propensity to emigrate."—This pictorial contrast of two towns is, in fact, but a picture of the whole island. Let the tourist then examine the Protestant and Catholic districts with[6] impartiality—let him closely examine from what it is that the Catholics require to be emancipated! We do not anticipate—we are of no party; but the inquiry is of consequence and deserves attention, especially at a moment when the question of Emancipation is likely again to become a subject of parliamentary and public discussion.

To do justice to that subject requires facts, and not mere abstract reasoning. It cannot be the wish of any liberal Protestant to retain the Roman Catholics under undue subjection; but liberality has its bounds; and though a misplaced philanthropy may render us careless respecting our own individual rights, yet it must be remembered that it cannot justify us in yielding up the rights and the security of others. As far as Catholic Emancipation, as it is called, is consistent with Protestant Security, so far it is not only right but just and prudent to concede; but before Protestant Ascendancy is given up, let us be certain, from an accurate investigation of facts, that Protestant Security will remain inviolate. Let us examine the history of past times; and also examine mankind at the present day, with a strict reference to it. This cannot be done in a closet or editorial apartment in the metropolis; he who would investigate surely, and therefore safely, must visit the spot where, and the people by whom, these claims are made.

Again, we say, that it is not our wish to anticipate; but facts may be recorded. If the tourist ascertains that the Roman Catholic districts of Ireland are in greater penury than those where Protestantism predominates, he will not attribute that in the first instance to Protestant ascendancy, until he has examined the facts before his eyes. He will see that industry is the great agent in the one case; the want of it, the great and immediate agent in the other. Here then is a point for him from whence to start in his moral investigations; and he will at once observe, that in the Protestant districts six days in each week are dedicated to labour, and the sabbath dedicated to the offices of religion; whilst in other districts half the week is passed in the idleness or dissipation of holidays, and the sabbath neglected. It is true that in the breasts of the Irish Catholics he will find a strong sense of religion, agreeable to their modes of faith and ceremony; but he will also find[7] that those modes of faith and ceremony are subversive of the spirit of industry, whose stream to be generally useful must not be dammed up at particular points, and suffered to run waste at others. But let not the writer of these sheets be misunderstood. Though fully impressed with the truth and justice of the foregoing observations, it is far from his wish to throw any obstacles in the way of the Catholic Faith. That Faith is free and unshackled, as far as regards God and man; if political restrictions still exist, they exist upon an impression that to do them away must be injurious to Protestantism. To adduce the reasons for that impression would be beyond our limits, and beyond our plan; but until that impression is proved to be groundless, unlimited concession must be withheld. The true and liberal philanthropist will also inquire whether, under the peculiar circumstances of their religion, the great body of the Irish Catholics would absolutely be benefited by an accordance with the claims set up. Until that be ascertained, he will pause; and though he may deprecate any thing like coercion, he will still be careful to avoid any thing like encouragement, until he is convinced that its results will at least be harmless.

To form an accurate judgement on these points demands an Irish tour. The conviction on his own mind which the editor has here hazarded, without any wish to prejudge the case in the minds of others, is not formed on slight grounds. An early acquaintance with that island, and subsequent rambles over most parts of it, joined to actual observation in many parts of Europe, and indeed in the four quarters of the globe, have convinced him that wherever Protestantism exists, with some very few exceptions, there are to be found cleanliness, comfort, and industry:—the reverse of the picture, though he would be supported in it by the unanimous assent of many continental travellers, he will not attempt to draw. Let him who doubts, and who chooses to make the Irish tour, examine these hints, and compare them with actual observation. It is true wisdom to learn from experience and observation—it is true candour to acknowledge error when facts judiciously examined and liberally contrasted lead to truth; and the editor's wish will be fully answered, if these expressed opinions, whether[8] right or wrong, shall prompt the minds of his readers to that judicious and liberal examination. In either case the result must be beneficial to the empire; and the notice here taken of the very interesting subject, it is hoped, will neither be considered illiberal or misplaced. But it is now time to enter into details of the more prominent objects of curiosity to the tourist; and it must be acknowledged, with respect to our sister island, that, in taking a general view of its


we have not the same facility of correct chronological specification, as in our general introduction to this work; for the antiquarian disputes, still unsettled, claim different dates for many of the most interesting objects. We may however premise, that the order in which the island has been peopled and colonized is generally agreed upon to commence with the Celtes, Scythi, and Firbolgs; then the Phœnicians and Milesians in the south; the Romans, perhaps in a small degree; the Scots in the north; the Danes and Ostmen; the English invaders in the time of Henry II., followed by the Scottish and English colonists of James I., and during the civil wars.

It has even been supposed that the diversities of natural character, at the present day, in some measure illustrate the generally received chronological and topographical arrangement. Ledwich in his introduction to Grose's Antiquities, considers the Celtes as the primeval possessors of the country;—all under the system of Druidism, living a sylvan life, and worshipping the Deity in oaken groves, wherefore few memorials of them are left. In the north are to be traced, from the earliest ages, the Scoti; in the south, the Firbolgs, then the Milesians, and also the Phœnicians about two centuries before Christ; there also, according to Ptolemy, were the Menapii and Brigantes; and the Rhobogdii, Darni, &c. in the north, of a later date than the first Scoti, or Indo-Scythi, agreeable to Vallancey's theory. From these and other local circumstances connected with Ireland, there are few antiquities of very ancient date, with the exception of rude memorials, because nothing but wood was used in building until the 11th or 12th century; for until then, stone was only employed[9] in funeral monuments, or Cairns, in Cromlechs, and sometimes in the Barrows, Raths, and Danish forts; also in the Round Towers, if their antiquity is so great as some writers suppose. Of the antiquities of modern date, the greatest number consist of Castles, Churches, and Monasteries, principally to be found within the limits of the ancient English Pale. This is evident from what Sir John Davis asserts—"Yet, which is strange to be related, they did never build any houses of brick or stone, some few poor religious houses excepted, before the reign of Henry II."

Of the earlier English antiquities, those consist of Cathedrals, Churches, and Castles; some few Saxon, (at Kilcullen, Co. Kildare, and Disert, Co. Clare,) some Norman, but principally of later date.


are very numerous, particularly in some parts of the north. Dr. Drummond, in the scientific notes to his interesting poem on the Giant's Causeway, says that "numerous monuments of the Druidical superstition are still to be seen in the County of Antrim." The appearance of those agrees with the description in Mallet's Northern Antiquities; and also with the quotation from Wormius, copied by Ledwich,—"The structure of our altars is various; but generally a tumulus is formed, on whose summit three great stones are erected, and on them a fourth broader and more flat is laid, so that it exactly appears like a rude huge table resting on three feet." We may add, in respect to these


That both in Ireland and in Scandinavia, their erection is vulgarly ascribed to giants; an unerring mark, says Ledwich, of their Gothic origin. Sir R. C. Hoare says that the construction of stone temples and cromlechs has generally been attributed to the Druids, but without any certainty of proof. He also hazards the conjecture, and with great plausibility, that a temple like Stonehenge once existed on the Curragh of Kildare (See Tour in Ireland, p. 274.) Coeval with Cromlechs—perhaps—but absolutely so in the opinion of Ledwich, are the



Rude heaps of stones, composed partly also of earth, forming immense conical heaps, and evidently sepulchral. These are very numerous, and are generally erected on the summits of hills; but, though some of them may be Druidical, the greater part are of later date.

Sir R. C. Hoare considers the Irish Cairn or Carnedd to be of the same origin as the Barrow or Tumulus in various parts of England.

Under the period now treated of we may also enumerate the sculptured stones bearing


which Vallancey describes as ancient Irish, or Indo-Scythian remains. These are found in many parts of the island; one of the most curious of which is at Tory-hill, Co. Kilkenny, inscribed to the God Belus or Baal. They are very numerous in Co. Kerry. These and the ancient Irish Letters have given rise to more controversy than any other subject connected with Hibernian antiquities. In Miss Plumptre's Tour, p. 327 et seq., the curious reader will find much information, with good references to further analysis. Of the remains of the Phœnician era, we may perhaps specify the


one of which, the Ship Temple near Dundalk, is attributed by Vallancey to that people, or else to the sea rovers, Victi, or Picts, who paid divine honours to the form of a ship; but Governor Pownal supposed it to be the work of the Nani, a northern or Scandinavian nation.

That the Phœnicians or Carthaginians must have visited Ireland, is supported by Miss Plumptre upon the ground that amongst the relics of antiquity in possession of the Dublin Society are several heads of axes which were dug up in the south, corresponding exactly with some that have been found in the plain of Cannæ and in Egypt, and which are considered as Carthaginian. This, she adds, seems strongly to corroborate the idea that the Carthaginians, the most adventurous navigators of ancient days, actually traded to Ireland.


Cotemporary with these are many of the


evidently artificial, which served as habitations to the rude colonists. Many of these remain, in the north, on the sides of hills almost inaccessible, and are vulgarly called "Picts Caves" at the present day. Neat in chronological order to those are the


Conical erections, tall and slender, so frequently found adjoining to, or nearly in contact with, the ancient churches. Those antiquaries who give them a very recent date, suppose them to be the work of native builders, whilst the Castles and Churches are by English or French architects: but Vallancey claims for them a very ancient date, asserting that they were erected by the Phœnicians to contain the sacred fire, and copied from the pyramidal stones so frequent with that people and with the Druids. Ledwich, however, merely considers them as common appendages to the wooden churches; some at a distance of 8 feet, others 124; and one, at St. Kevins, actually joined to it. This latter writer assumes that they are Ostmanic, or Danish productions, "and from uninterrupted tradition, probably to have been belfries from the beginning." Of these about sixty-six remain. Except as to rotundity, every architect seems to have followed his own fancy both in height and in internal arrangement: the one at Antrim is 80 feet high, tapers about 18 feet from the top in form of a sugar-loaf, where it is about 36 feet in girth, and 52 near the base; some have their door 24 feet from the ground, but in general not more than 10 or 12. The Tower at Drumiskin is supposed to have been the highest in the island, upwards of 130 feet, and nearly equalled by those at Kildare and Kilkenny. That at Kilmacduagh in Galway is 110 feet, with the door 24 feet from the ground.

Much controversy has existed respecting the origin of these round edifices. The first writer who mentions them is Giraldus Cambrensis, who certainly calls them "Ecclesiastical Towers;" and some writers go so far as to assert, from the grammatical construction of the sentence in which[12] he describes them, that he saw the builders in the very act of raising them, in 1185. This at least is certain, that they were so early in existence; but Lynch, who wrote in 1662, asserts that they were erected by the Danes, as early as 838; in which he is followed by Peter Walsh, also by Molyneux in 1727, who ascribes them to the Ostmen or Danes, but supposes them to be of later date than the Raths and other earthen works, and erected solely as Bell Towers for calling the people of large districts to join in religious ordinances. But there are some circumstances which militate against that opinion, whilst others seem to confirm it. At the Giant's Ring in the County of Down, we have an instance of a Round Tower on a spot manifestly of Druidical superstition, without any Church in its vicinity; as if the churches were built near to the Towers, instead of these being built near to the churches, the early preachers of Christianity choosing to erect their new religious edifices on spots already consecrated in the eyes of the people. It must be acknowledged, however, that when the Round Tower at Downpatrick was pulled down in 1790, whilst repairing the cathedral, its foundation being cleared away, another foundation was discovered under it, and running directly across the site of the tower, which appeared to be a continuation of the church wall, and which, at some period prior to the building of that tower, seemed to have extended considerably beyond it. Further, that these towers, sometimes at least, had a connexion with Christianity, is evident from the fact of some of them being built upon vaults belonging to the churches; and on more than one, in the north of Ireland, may be traced the figure of the cross. One instance of this may be seen on the keystone of the door of the tower at Donoghmore. On the other hand, in regard to the tower at Drumbo, it is evident that at some former time, very strong fires have been burned within that building, and the inside surface, towards the bottom, has the appearance of vitrification. Indeed it is a fact recorded in the Down Survey, p. 290, that the ground floors of many towers have been opened, where the ashes of burnt wood have been found, supposed by some antiquaries to be the remains of the perpetual fire once kept burning there in honour of the Sun. It is also recorded by[13] Pennant, in his View of Hindostan, that the Pagodas, in the Circars, resembled the Round Towers, with tops pointed or truncated, and ornamented with a round ball to represent the Sun as an emblem of the deity of that temple. The idea of their being Christian penitentiaries seems at first sight to be whimsical; yet it is said that there are manuscripts in existence which prove it with respect to some of them. One of these manuscripts records the building of a tower at Kinath, in Cork County, in the year 1015; whilst the tower at Ardmore in Waterford has evidently been used as a belfry.

An idea is started in the Kilkenny Survey, p. 632, that they are connected with pilgrimages; a pilgrimage being called Turrish in Irish, as if in allusion to their Latin appellation of Turris.

Of other facts connected with them, it may be recorded that at Tulloher in Kilkenny, where the tower is only 8 feet from the church, yet that edifice is of limestone, whilst the tower itself is of siliceous breccia.

That some of them are comparatively of recent erection is evident from the fact that at Roscrea in Tipperary, the tower has a pointed or Gothic arch, 38 feet from the ground. Now the 12th century is generally allowed to be the era of the introduction of the Gothic architecture into this country; and from this a curious question arises. It is moreover a curious fact, not hitherto noticed by any writer upon this subject, that the isolated tower, probably of Moorish origin, which stands on the neutral ground at Gibraltar, bears a very striking resemblance, in all points, to the Irish round towers in general. This tower has been seen and examined by the editor, who was much struck by the similarity at the time, and has since endeavoured to procure all possible information upon the subject. It is well known that Gibraltar was not inhabited by the Phœnicians, Carthaginians, nor Romans, nor even by the Visigoths, but was first taken possession of by the Saracens in 711; fourteen years after which the Moorish castle was built, followed by other edifices, with the pointed Saracenic arch, until the rock returned to the dominion of Spain in 1462. It may be added here, that the Irish towers have a strong resemblance to the Oriental minarets, especially in[14] their supposed use as places for calling the people to worship. Where there are so many and so discordant opinions it is difficult to decide; but the tourist may avail himself of these hints in his further researches.

Of the precise antiquity of the


or Danish Mounts, few doubts exist. These are circular mounts of earth, from 40 to 150 feet in diameter at the base, and conically diminishing towards the top. Common tradition gives them to the Danes; and no doubt a great proportion of them are not older than the occupation of the northern and eastern coasts by the Ostmen. But some must be of the earliest Scandinavian date; particularly the Giant's Ring near Belfast, and the Rough Fort near Templepatrick, which have Druidical remains incorporated with them, and in their very centre. Besides, though the term Danish is universally applied to these works, yet some of them are also undoubtedly Norwegian, particularly one near Fore in Westmeath, called the "Fort of Turgesius," positively described by Giraldus as the work of a Norwegian chieftain, and raised for a castle, using the word "Castella," and not Castrum.

Before quitting the subject of the Raths, it may be useful to notice Ledwich's observations on that subject. Quoting Giraldus, The Irish, says he, had no castles, their woods served them for camps, and their marshes for ditches. It was Turgesius and his Ostmen who formed that infinite number of earthen forts and castles made of lime and stone. It is then to those northern invaders that Giraldus ascribes the high round earthen forts with deep ditches and often triple entrenchments. This is certainly in opposition to Mr. Harris, who argues for their Celtic origin, reasoning principally on the name of rath being of Celtic derivation. It has also been supposed that they may have been introduced by the Belgic colonists, as the name has some appearance of Teutonic origin. These raths are generally upon elevated spots, and of various dimensions, from 10 or 15 yards diameter, to an extent of 18 or 20 acres. Some of them have subterraneous chambers, with sally-ports; some are round, others square; the former supposed[15] by Spencer to be Danish, the latter Saxon. They are sometimes called Motes, a Gothic word signifying the place of meeting; and indeed it has been supposed that many of them were intended rather for civil legislation, or judicial purposes, than as works of military defence. These Raths, together with the Duns, or inclosures upon insulated rocks, and the Daingeans, or inclosures formed by deep ditches with ramparts and pallisadoes, are supposed by Ledwich to have been the only forts amongst the Irish antecedent to the invasion by the Norman barons in the reign of Henry II. In many parts of the island, the Irish chiefs had an inveterate dislike to fixed fortifications—one cogent reason why scarcely any castles exist except of English erection; a fact well illustrated by an anecdote of the famous De Courcy, who constructed two castles in Mac Mahon's country, a step which awed the latter into complaisance; and he having sworn fidelity, De Courcy bestowed on him the two castles with their appendant lands. But within a month Mac Mahon demolished both; and, on being asked his reason for doing so, replied that "he did not promise to hold stones but land; and that it was contrary to his nature to live within cold walls whilst the woods were so nigh."

It has often occurred to the writer of these sheets, from actual observation of some hundreds of these mounds, that the term "Rath," as generally applied, is often erroneous. Wolff in his Dictionary positively states the word "Raad" in the Danish language to signify a council; of course, by a common figure of rhetoric, putting the thing for the place, or the place for the thing, this term is properly applied to the larger eminences, some of which are as extensive as old Sarum, and therefore well adapted for assemblies of the people. But Lloyd, in his Dictionary of the Irish-English Language, considers the word even more figuratively, saying that it means a village, a prince's seat, also an artificial mount, or barrow. Now the fact is, that many of the smaller mounts, where placed singly, may be, and some of them by opening have been proved to be, Tumuli, or sepulchral monuments; but others, placed in lines of communication for miles together, for they are never found in groups as upon Salisbury plain, were evidently for exploratory[16] purposes or chains of military posts, a most remarkable instance of which may be seen on the road from Belfast towards Templepatrick, where there is a line of them within sight of each other for several miles, leading through the valley of communication from Belfast Lough towards Lough Neagh, between the Cave Hill and Carnmoney mountain, and connected with the very curious mount at the Rough Fort, which looks down upon a bog called King's Moss at the foot of the Carrantoll mountains, in the centre of which is a most extensive Rath, about 10 yards high, and at least 60 in diameter, with a raised bank round its summit faced with rough stones towards the area. Part of one side having been broken into, it seemed as if the whole had been raised upon rough stone-work, the materials for which must have been brought from a considerable distance. These, both large and small, are sometimes called moats; and some, of the largest size, are designated by the appellation of Dun or Doon.

We now come to monuments of more recent date, of which the


deserve the first consideration; and of these some

Churches may perhaps be as old as the 11th or 12th century, and not earlier; for although many were built immediately after the conversion by St. Patrick, about five centuries after Christ, yet all these were simply of wood or wattled, and therefore long extinct. Along with these we may class the

Cells and Hermitages, rude and composed of upright stones with an impost, where saints led an eremitic life, perhaps sometimes adapting the older Druidical cromlechs to their more modern purposes, just in the same manner as several of the

Crosses are supposed by Ledwich to have been carved upon the ancient upright pyramidal stones of pagan idolaters. These Crosses have neither that light and taper form nor elegant Gothic workmanship which distinguish our ancient specimens in England; but though simple in design they are yet rich in sculpture. Sir R. C. Hoare[17] thinks them coeval with the Round Towers, about the 9th or 10th century.

This part of the subject must not be dismissed without some notice of the stone-roofed Chapels of the ancient Irish, which Ledwich considers as exhibiting, along with other remains, some ideas of the Egyptian and Grecian styles of architecture; in which opinion he is more than sanctioned both by O'Halloran and Archdall, who claim an early knowledge of architecture for the aboriginal Irish. Mr. Ledwich, however considers these as the first specimens of stone and mortar ever seen in the island; as raised by the Ostmen, and intended solely for the preservation of reliques. Several of these present themselves to the tourist as objects of curiosity. One may be seen near the cathedral of Killaloe, supposed to have been the depository of the reliques of St. Flannan. The tourist in Ireland cannot fail to be struck with the number of monastic remains, of which the churches or chapels are mostly standing, though unroofed and in ruins. These he will always find surrounded by crowded cemeteries; and Sir R. C. Hoare observes that he was informed the great frequency of the fact proceeds from the consolidation of parishes at a period when the Catholic predominated over the Protestant religion. He adds, in direct opposition to modern assertions, that the latter now begins to gain ground, as application has been made for the restoration of many of those dilapidated churches, and some have already been rebuilt. Of these ancient specimens, some few are of Saxon architecture, particularly Kilsheel church in Tipperary, having a Saxon doorway, once rich in sculpture, but now defaced. In general the Church ruins consist of little more than the shell of a small edifice with two gable ends and scarcely any windows, always enveloped in ivy: in some places they appear at distances of every 4 or 5 miles. But Sir R. C. Hoare remarks, that although monastic architecture may be inferior to that of the sister kingdoms, yet Ireland, in her stone-roofed Chapels, Round Towers, and rich Crosses, may justly boast of singularities unknown and unpossessed by either of them.

The Church Monuments are by no means so numerous or[18] so ancient as to afford the antiquary, the genealogist, or the heraldic tourist, that amusement and instruction so frequent in the ecclesiastical edifices of England. Few antique monuments remain, and the authenticity of the so much boasted one of Strongbow, in Christ-church in the metropolis, is very doubtful. Sir R. C. Hoare has stated, p. 13, 14, in a note, the evidence for and against it. There we have the authority of an inscription of the restored monument, by Sir H. Sydney in 1570; to which Sir Richard adds a positive assertion of his being buried there, from Giraldus, but setting against it the "Hic jacet" of a tomb in Gloucester cathedral, recorded by Leland. Sir Richard, himself, doubts the fact of Strongbow having been buried in Dublin, as we do also, but not precisely for the same reason. Sir Richard's doubt springs from the circumstance of the knight on the Christ-church monument bearing a shield argent, on a chief azure three cross crosslets fitchée; whilst the family coat of the De Clares, Earls of Pembroke, were Or, 3 chevrons gules. But the fact is, that at the time in question there was a great license in the assumption of coat armour, then just beginning to be hereditary; and indeed there are frequent instances at that period of individuals adopting new coats for particular purposes. The present case is an instance of it; for the coat with the crosses was actually assumed by Gilbert, father of Strongbow, on his return from the Holy Land.

The remaining objects of antiquarian research are the


which are of various dates. Some of these may be as old as the 11th or 12th century, perhaps older, as it is said that the Scandinavian chiefs introduced stone into their fortified places, and there are several Norwegian round Castles still extant. Ledwich divides them into several eras; first, old Danish forts surrounded with earthen works, to which was afterwards added a keep of stone and lime, and sometimes a circular wall; then piles of building encompassed by a rampart, afterwards called a Bawn, and imitated by later colonists; then houses with battlements and turrets, flankers, &c. Of all these there is a[19] great variety, as well as number; and the author quoted is of opinion, that all the castles constructed by British settlers were by British architects.

The most remarkable of these will be found described in the following sheets.

If the MINERALOGIST does not find so great a variety of substances to repay his research as he may do in most parts of the sister-island of Great Britain, yet the geologist will discover many leading features upon a large scale that deserve his attention. Hitherto the little notice that has been taken on these two subjects, of the soil of Ireland, both superficial and fossil, has been in regard to agricultural purposes; but from casual discoveries hitherto made, there seems reason to hope that an accurate mineralogical research will be both interesting to science and beneficial in political and domestic economics. So far as general examination has yet gone, and in order to offer some leading hints to the scientific inquirer, it may be observed, that sandy soils, such as are frequent in England, are seldom seen except in maritime situations; but there are many inland beds of a red substance, too soft to be called stone, yet too compact to be called sand, though perfectly reducible to that state by the action of the sun or artificial heat. This however generally, if not always, lies below a thin stratum of soil more congenial to vegetation. Of argillaceous earths, clay is not uncommon, but seldom at the surface, and never so tenacious as in the eastern parts of England. Pipe-clay is also met with; and an indifferent kind of fuller's-earth. Calcareous matter is very frequent, as limestone; but chalk is unknown. Silex is found in limestone quarries; but the flints are generally in nodules. Loam is frequent, and now much attended to as a manure or top dressing. Marble and granite, also specimens of porphyry, exist in many districts; and the marble quarries in Kilkenny and Carlow in particular, will not fail to arrest the attention of the geologist, in consequence of the great deposition of sea-shells and marine exuviæ contained in them. Freestone is also often met with; presenting, when cut in particular directions, the semblance of fir-deal in the position of its strata. There is a geological observation[20] made by the Rev. Mr. Townsend in his Survey of Cork, which deserves the investigation of the geological tourist, and may serve to lead him to valuable facts in the course of his research. That intelligent writer remarks, that in many of the southern districts, the limits of limestone tracts are generally marked by the course of a river; and this he illustrates by the fact that the Blackwater river, in its course from Fermoy to Mill-street, runs at the south side of the limestone; whilst, for the far greater part of the way between Castlemore and Cork, a distance of about eleven miles, the course of the limestone is distinctly marked, first by the river Bride, and after its junction with the Lee, by the latter river. During this space, he states that the limestone invariably adheres to one side of the channel, which it follows in all its windings, without ever crossing it. At Kinmare the same circumstances may be observed; and also in the county of Waterford, where, however, the Blackwater runs to the north of its limestone tract. The bogs are also worthy both of mineralogical and geological notice; not only on account of the immense number of fossil oak and yew-trees which they contain; but also from the fact that many of them which extend for miles in length, consist, even to a depth of many feet, of a congeries of branches and twigs of trees, which seem to have required even a succession of forests for ages to have supplied them. Of these, perhaps, there can be little doubt that a great portion are actually antediluvian.

Before entering on this part of the investigation, the scientific tourist will do well to read Mr. Aiton's pamphlet on Moss Earth, where he will meet with many interesting hints for research. Even the antiquary will not pass these immense tracts unnoticed, since much light has been thrown upon the earlier periods of Irish history by the discovery of curious antiques at considerable depths, by the peat cutters. Some iron heads of arms, wooden bowls, three sacks full of nuts, and a coat of ancient texture and construction, were in 1737 dug from under a moss fifteen feet deep; all of which were in a high state of perfection. Indeed Mr. Aiton observes, that the singular antiseptic qualities of moss extend to every thing buried under its surface. Wood, when exposed to the atmosphere, or[21] buried under any other earth, will be totally decomposed or annihilated in a few years; but if it is enveloped in moss before putrefaction has made much progress upon it, it will remain but little impaired for many centuries. The underside of moss timber is generally found entire; and Mr. Aiton is of opinion, that the progress which corruption has made on the upper side of many specimens, must have taken place before the moss, in its progress of growth, rose above the trees. Facts of this kind may very properly lead to observations of the means of preventing the dry rot in timber; and the chemical tourist may devote an hour most usefully to the analysis of those substances which are found in the immediate vicinity of those fossil trees in the highest state of preservation.

Basaltes is another substance which deserves the notice of the tourist; for, though not peculiar to Ireland, it is perhaps more interesting here than in any other country, nature presenting it under the most awful forms; sometimes piled up in immense structures of stupendous height and extent, where its columns are arranged in various directions, as if deposited in regular series by the hand of men. It is principally however in the N.E. district that it is so found, extending from Carrickfergus-bay to Lough-Foyle, on the sea coast, and inland even to the southern shores of Lough-Neagh.

Granite forms the great bed of Ireland, and is seen bursting out in all the great ranges of mountains; not only in the central parts of the kingdom, but also in the basaltic district.

Ochres, both red and yellow, are found in considerable quantities in many places. Fuller's-earth has already been mentioned: there are also several other saponaceous earths, particularly near the Old-Head of Kinsale in the county of Cork.

Slates are found in most parts of Ireland; and flag-stones are worked in great quantities in many districts.

The tourist whose time does not admit of much mineralogical research, may yet be amply gratified on that subject whilst in Dublin, by examining the collection at the Society's house.

Before starting on an Irish tour, the traveller will naturally[22] be anxious to know what kind of weather he may expect. To this we shall answer shortly in the words of Mr. Aldworth of Cork, in a communication to Mr. Wakefield, wherein he observes that, as an old agriculturist, he is inclined to think that less rain falls in the interior of Ireland than in any of the other British Isles, and yet perhaps there are more wet days there than in the latter; a circumstance which certainly interferes with travelling in an open carriage. As the showers however, though frequent, are not, generally speaking, of very long duration, this inconvenience may be easily guarded against. To this we may add, that the winds which most usually prevail in Ireland blow from the west: they are mild in their temperature, and moist in their nature; but far from being insalubrious. It has also been well observed by the Rev. Horace Townshend, after a long residence, that along the sea coast the winter is disarmed of its severity by the softness of the southern wind, which mitigates the rigour of the frost, and seldom suffers the heaviest snow to remain many hours undissolved, except on the north sides of the high hills. This observation, however, applies principally to the southern coast; where also the sea breeze tempers the summer's warmth by its refreshing breath; so that the greatest degree of heat, as well as cold, is found in the northern districts of the island. The whole island is remarkably bare of trees, and exhibits a naked appearance; which is more striking to a traveller whose eye has been familiarized to the woody counties of England. Yet the varied aspect arising from the frequency of sea views, combined with the rude but grand scenery of the mountains, and the different tints they assume according to their distance, produces a number of beautiful and diversified prospects.

The Entomologist will also be certain of finding numerous sources of amusement. Mr. Hall, in his Tour, vol. 2. p. 268, asserts that with a tolerable glass, one sees animals grazing, like cattle in a meadow, on the leaves of every vegetable, and these also much larger than in Great Britain.

Some tourists have been deterred from penetrating into the wildest parts of the island, by prejudices founded on[23] misrepresentation and ignorance; but little cause for alarm exists if the tourist chooses to conduct himself with a little civility to the poor ignorant peasantry whom he shall meet, even in the loneliest places. On this subject, Mr. Wakefield records the fact, that when in the county of Mayo, he was advised not to cross a particular district in his way to Roscommon; he, however, experienced no inconvenience, except from the hardness of the roads and his ignorance of the Irish language, there universally spoken. With respect to the conveniences of travelling, we must not lead the tourist astray by inducing him to believe that, except upon the great frequented roads, he will meet with any thing like the accommodations so general in England. But if he can patiently bear with minor difficulties, he may pursue his route over great part of the island by mail and stage-coaches, and in general by post-chaises, if not provided with his own horses or carriages. The Inns, indeed, will often disappoint him, both in accommodation and cleanliness; yet he may always be certain of clean sheets, and his culinary comforts are clean, if he can content himself with plain dishes. Travelling however is so unfrequent, that in many places, when a visitor does arrive at an inn, he appears to be considered as an inexhaustible gold mine, not only by the landlord, but also by the numerous host of retainers, many of whom he never sees until going away. Before we take leave of the tourist, it may be proper to offer him a few hints from Sir R. C. Hoare's Work, which will be extremely useful to him.

If he chooses to go to the expense of his own carriage and horses, he will certainly ensure to himself much independence; especially if he takes care to select a judicious route. For a party also, this would perhaps be as cheap a mode as can well be adopted. But if he is a single traveller, or with one companion, and not averse to pedestrianism, then he may find a general facility by taking the direct and cross coaches from station to station, hiring horses for long excursions, and walking those of a shorter range. Before leaving Dublin, Belfast, or Waterford, the three points from whence an English tourist is likely to start, let him make a fair calculation of time and distance, allow a certain sum per mile and a certain sum per day,[24] and then supply his purse with the paper and coined currency most likely to answer in the district he intends to visit. This he will not find difficult at the places mentioned, or indeed at any of the larger towns; but let him be on his guard against bad money and forged notes; and also, if he has any Irish currency left at the end of his tour, let him change it for English when setting off to return.

It now only remains to add, that every writer, both ancient and modern, on the subject of Ireland, has been consulted; aided by the communications of friends and a general personal knowledge of the Topography of Ireland on the part of the Editor.

The tourist will observe that the distances are given in Irish miles, of which, eleven are equal to fourteen English. The distances of the county towns from the capital are taken on the authority of the latest surveys; whilst the distances in the vicinage of the several stations are from common computation or from the best maps, and may be depended on for every useful purpose to the inquisitive traveller, bearing in mind that bogs and mountains often render roads circuitous, in which cases local inquiry, and also for the best roads, will often be beneficial, and sometimes necessary. Reference to many of the authorities will be found in the work itself; but it may be added that the county surveys have been carefully examined and compared with earlier descriptions, independent of the general notices from Hoare, Hall, Plumptre, Curwen, Drummond, Weld, and all the recent topographical works, together with several recent anonymous tours, whose proved accuracy, in many points, renders them worthy of notice in all.



With the Baronies, Parishes, and Contents in Irish Acres.

Baron. Parish. Acres.
⎧ *Armagh contains 5 20 181,450
⎪  Down 8 60 348,550
ULSTER. ⎪  Antrim 8 77 387,200
9 Counties. ⎪  Londonderry 4 31 318,500
8928 ⎨  Donnegal 5 42 679,550
square miles. ⎪ *Tyrone 4 35 463,700
⎪  Fermanagh 8 18 283,450
⎪ *Cavan 7 30 301,000
⎩ *Monaghan 5 19 179,600
—— ——— —————————
54 332 3,143,000
Lough Neagh covers 58,200
⎧  Louth 4 61 110,750
⎪  Meath 12 147 327,900
⎪  Dublin 6 107 142,050
⎪  Wicklow 6 58 311,600
LEINSTER. ⎪  Wexford 8 142 342,900
12 Counties. ⎪ *Kilkenny 9 127 300,350
6936 ⎨ *Carlow 5 50 137,050
square miles. ⎪ *Kildare 10 113 236,750
⎪ *Queen's County 8 50 235,300
⎪ *King's County 11 52 282,200
⎪ *Westmeath 12 62 231,550
⎩ *Longford 6 23 134,150
—— ——— —————————
97 992 2,792,550
—— ——— —————————
CONNAUGHT. ⎧  Galway 16 116 989,950
5 Counties. ⎪  Mayo 9 68 790,600
7125 ⎨  Sligo 6 39 247,150
square miles. ⎪  Leitrim 5 17 255,950
⎩ *Roscommon 6 56 346,650
—— ——— —————————
42 296 2,630,300
—— ——— —————————
⎧  Cork 16 269 1,048,800
MUNSTER. ⎪  Kerry 8 83 647,650
6 Counties. ⎪  Clare 9 79 476,200
9000 ⎨  Limerick 9 125 386,750
square miles. ⎪ *Tipperary 10 186 554,950
⎩  Waterford 7 74 262,800
—— ——— —————————
69 816 3,377,150
—— ——— —————————
252 2,436   12,001,200†

* The thirteen inland counties are distinguished by an asterisk.
† All fractions having been excluded from this calculation, it is very
  much under the full number of acres in Ireland.

An Irish Acre contains                   7840 square yards.
   Scotch                   6130 ditto.
   English                   4840 ditto.

From Port Patrick to Donaghadee   25 English miles.
     Holyhead to Dublin                 63 ditto.
     Milford Haven to Waterford        85 ditto.
  No part of Ireland is more than fifty miles from the sea.



The Province of Armagh contains Ten Dioceses*.

663 Parishes, 446 Churches.

†16 Abpk. of Armagh 11 Bpk. of Raphoe
 23 Bpk. of Dromore  9 ——   of Clogher
  7 —— of Down  ) 12 ——   of Kilmor
    —— of Connor) united.  22 ——   of Ardagh‡
  6 —— of Derry  5 ——   of Meath

The Province of Dublin contains Five Dioceses.

658 Parishes, 217 Churches.

15 Abpk. of Dublin  3 Bpk. of Ferns    )
21 Bpk. of Kildare      —— of Leighlin ) united.
20 ——   of Ossory

The Province of Cashel contains Eleven Dioceses.

839 Parishes, 254 Churches.

17 Abpk. of Cashel) 8 Bpk. of Cloyne
    Bpk. of Emly  ) united.  2  —— of Limerick)
 19 —— of Waterford)    —— of Ardfert ) united.
    —— of Lismore  ) united.        and Aghadoe)
 14 —— of Cork) 4  —— of Killaloe )
    —— of Ross) united.     —— of Kilfenora) united.

The Province of Tuam contains Six Dioceses.

276 Parishes, 87 Churches.

 1 Abpk. of Tuam 18 Bpk. of Elphin
21 Bpk. of Clonfert    ) 10 —— of Killalla
    ——  of Killmacduagh) united.    —— of Achonry.

* The dioceses are placed with respect to contiguity, not according to rank; for the bishop of Meath has precedence of all bishops, and next to him Kildare; the other bishops take place according to the date of their consecration.
† The figures indicate the order in comparative extent of each diocese.
Ardagh, though in this province, is at present annexed to the archbishoprick of Tuam.




The Assize Towns are marked with an Asterisk, thus, (*).

From Dublin to  From Dublin to
*Waterford Waterford —— 74  Newbrook Mayo 5 166
 Carrick Tipperary 14 88  Holymount Mayo 4 170
*Clonmell Tipperary 10 98  Kilmain Mayo 3 173
*Cork Cork 42 140  Shrule Mayo 3 176
 Mill-Street Cork 22 162  Cahirmorres Galway 6 182
 Castle-Island Kerry 18 180 *Galway Galway 11 193
*Tralee Kerry 8 188  Gort Galway 17 210
 Castle-Island Kerry 8 196  Crusheen Clare 8 218
 Abbyfeale Limerick 8 204 *Ennis Clare 6 224
 Newcastle Limerick 2 213  Gort Galway 14 238
 Rathkeale Limerick 6 219  Loughrea Galway 12 250
 Adair Limerick 6 225  Kilconnel Galway 6 256
*Limerick Limerick 8 233  Ahascragh Galway 5 261
  Dublin Dublin 94 327  Mount-Talbot   Roscommon 9 270
 Roscommon Roscommon 7 277
 Dublin Dublin 69 346

From Dublin to  From Dublin to
*Roscommon Roscommon —— 69 *Wicklow Wicklow —— 24
 Tulsk Roscommon 9 78  Arklow Wicklow 12 36
 Elphin Roscommon 5 83  Gorey Wicklow 9 45
*Carrick Leitrim 7 90  Castlebridge Wexford 19 64
 Boyle Roscommon 7 97  *Wexford Wexford 2 66
*Sligo Sligo 17 114  Ross Wexford 19 85
 Ballisidare Sligo 3 117 *Kilkenny Kilkenny 19 104
 Coloony Sligo 2 119  Leighlin Bridge Carlow 12 116
 Tobercorry Sligo 11 130 *Carlow Carlow 6 122
 Banada Sligo 4 134 *Athy† Kildare 9 131
 Kilmateague Sligo 3 137 *Maryborough Queen's Co. 12 143
 Foxford Mayo 8 145 *Philipstown King's Co. 17 160
*Castlebar† Mayo 11 156  Dublin Dublin 38 198
 Balcarra Mayo 5 161

† At Ballinrobe generally in the Spring, and at Castlebar in the Summer.      † At Nass generally in the Spring,
     and at Athy in the summer.


ULSTER North East.  ULSTER North West.
From Dublin to  From Dublin to
*Drogheda Droghedaco. —— 23  Kilcock Kildare —— 14
*Dundalk Louth 17 40  Infield Meath 5 19
*Downpatrick Down 32 72  Kinnegad W. Meath 10 29
 Saintfield Down 8 80 *Mullingar W. Meath 9 38
*Carrickfergus Antrim 17 97  Ballinalack W. Meath 8 46
 Belfast Antrim 8 105  Edgeworth's-to. Longford 6 52
 Lisburn Antrim 7 112 *Longford Longford 6 58
 Lurgan Armagh 10 122  Granard Longford 12 70
 Portadown Armagh 5 127 *Cavan Cavan 13 83
 Richhill Armagh 5 132  Newtonbutler; Fermanagh 11 94
*Armagh Armagh 4 136  M'Gwire's bridge Fermanagh 7 101
 Tynan Armagh 6 142 *Enniskillen Fermanagh 7 108
 Glaslough Monaghan 3 145  Trillick Fermanagh 9 117
*Monaghan Monaghan 5 150 *Omagh Tyrone 11 128
 Castleshane Monaghan 3 153  Newtownstewart Tyrone 7 135
 Castleblayney Monaghan 8 161  Strabane Tyrone 7 142
 Peterborough Monaghan 7 168 *Lifford Donnegal 1 143
 Mill of Louth Louth 5 173 *Londonderry Derry 12 155
 Ardee Louth 5 178  Dublin Dublin 115 270
 Navan Meath 15 193
*Trim Meath 7 200
 Dublin Dublin 22 222

To Carlow.
From Carlow, Grangemellon, Andrie, Athy.
From Athy, Stradbally, Maryborough.
From Maryborough, Portarlington, Clonegowan, Geshil, Philipstown.
From Philipstown, Terrilspass, Rochfort, Mullingar.
From Mullingar, Killucan, Raharney, Trim.



Above the Level of the Sea.

Eng. feet.
M'Gillicuddy's Reeks, Co. of Kerry, 3404
Sleibh Dorm, Co. of Londonderry, 3150
Knockmeledown[2], dividing Cork, Tipperary, and Waterford, 2700
Croagh Patrick, Co. of Mayo, 2666
Nephin, Ditto, 2640
Mangerton, above the Lake of Killarney, Co. Kerry, 2505
Mourne Hills, Co. of Down, 2500
Commerach Ridge, Co. Waterford, 2160
Croaghan Kinshelly, Bar. of Arklow, 1850
Sawell, Co. of Londonderry, 1600
Slenish Mountain, Co. of Antrim, 1390
Alt-English-Hill, Co. of Londonderry, 1300
Benbradagh, Co. of Londonderry, 1300
Benyevenach,   Ditto, 1250
Sleibh Gallan, Ditto, 1250
Donald's Hill, Ditto, 1200
Kedy,          Ditto, 1100
Croneham, Co. of Wicklow, 1000
Croaghmore, Co. of Antrim, 600


Inafel, in centre of the Island,                                  1740


LIST of ROUND TOWERS; principally extracted from
Dr. Beaufort's Memoir, with an indication of those he had
seen marked with an Asterisk

Ht. = Height in Feet.
Cf. = Circumf.
Th. = Thickness of Walls.
Dr. = Door from ground.

Ht. Cf. Th. Dr.
Antrim, near *Antrim, at a place called Steeple.
        at Armoy.
        in *Ram Island, in Lough Neagh
Cavan, at Drumlane.
Down, at *Drumbo.
      at *Maghera, half only is standing
Fermanagh, in *Devenish Island, in Lough Erne 76 41 3-6
Monaghan, at Clones.
          at *Eniskeen.
Dublin, at *Clondalkin 84
        at *Lusk.
        at Rathmichael.
        at *Swords 73 55 4-8 2
Kildare, at *Castledermot.
         at *Killcullen 40 44 3-6 7
         at *Kildare 132 54 3-6 13
         at Oughterard 25 48 3 8
         at Taghadoe 71 38 3-8 11-6
Kilkenny, at *Aghavuller, part only remaining.
          at Fertagh, alias Beggar's Inn 112 48 3-8 10
          at *Kilkenny, or rather in Irishtown.
          at Kilree.
          at Tulloherin.
King's County, at *Clonmacnoise—two
Louth, at *Dromiskin, part of one 130
       at *Monasterboice 110 51 3-6 6
Meath, at *Donaghmore.
       at *Kells 99 48 3
Monaghan, at Clones—one perfect, one ruinous.
Queen's County, at *Dysert.
                at *Timahoe 35 53 4-4 14
Wicklow, at Glandelough—two, one of
them perfect.
Clare, at *Drumcliff.
       at *Dysart.
          in Iniscalthra, in Lough Deirgeart
          in Scattery Isle, in the Shannon 120
Cork, at *Cloyne 92 50 3-8 13
      at *Ballybeg, the stump of one.
      at Kineth 70
Kerry, at *Aghadoe.
       at Rattoo.
Limerick, at *Dysert.
          at *Kilmallock.
Tipperary, at *Cashel on the Rock 54 4 11
           at *Roscrea 80 45
Waterford, at Ardmore 100 45
Galway, at Feartamore.
           at *Kilmacduagh 112 57 24
Mayo, at Aghagower.
       at Ballagh.
       at *Killalla.
       at *Melick.
       at *Turlough 70 45 29
Roscommon, at Oran.
Sligo, at *Drumcliffe, the ruin of one.

These towers are all standing; there were five others still perfect within a few years.

1. Co. Down, at Downpatrick, lately taken down[3], was 66 feet high, 47 in circumference.


2. Co. Dublin, in Ship-street, Dublin, destroyed a few years since.

3. Co. Cork, at Cork, pulled down about fifty years.

4. Ditto, at Brigown, not long down.

5. Co. Kerry, at Ardfert, which fell in 1770.

A very ingenious friend remarks[4], that almost all our round towers are divided into stories of different heights; the floors supported in some by projecting stones, in others, joists put in the wall at building, and in many they are placed upon rests. The last are from four to six inches, carried round and taken off the thickness of the wall in the story above; and he very probably conjectures that these rests do not diminish the thickness of the wall as they ascend, because then it would not have been sufficiently strong to bear storms or support the conical cap which was generally solid and heavily constructed. They seem therefore to be swellings in the wall which rather add to its thickness upwards, and this Mr. Cooper confirms by the round tower at Lusk, whose wall is three feet thick at top. Cashel tower is divided into five stories, with holes for joists.

Fertagh has five stories and one rest.—Kilcullen has three stories and one rest.—Kildare has six stories and projecting stones for each.—Monasterboice has six stories and projecting stones.—Oughterard has five stories and projecting stones.—Taghadoe has six stories, the upper has projecting stones, the others rests.—Timahoe has seven stories, the second has projecting stones, the others rests.

The door of Cashel Tower faces the S.E., those of Kildare and Kilkenny the S., and the others vary.

Four small windows were placed at the top of Kells Tower pointing to the four cardinal points.

Kenith Tower stands 124 feet—Drumbo 20 feet—Downpatrick 48 feet—Kildare 90 feet—Kilkenny 8 feet—Dromiskin 90 feet, from their respective Churches. Ardmore, Castledermot, Cloyne, and other Towers were formerly and at present are used for belfries.



Or Explanation of some of those Irish Words which most frequently
occur in composition with the names of places.

Agh, a Field.
Anagh or Ana, a River.
Ard, a high Place, or rising Ground.
Ath, a Ford.
Awin, a River.
Bally or Ballin, a Town, or inclosed place of habitation.
Ban or Bane, White, or Fair.
Beg, Little.
Ben, the summit of a Mountain, generally an abrupt head.
Bun, a Bottom, Foundation, or Root.
Car or Cahir, a city.
Carrick, Carrig,
a Rock or Stony Place.
Cork, Corcagh, a Marsh, or swampy Ground.
Clara, a Plain.
Croagh, Croghan, a sharp pointed Hill resembling a Rick.
Clogh, Clough, a great Stone.
Curragh, a marshy or fenny Plain.
Clon, a Glade, or a level Pasture Ground.
Col, Cul, a Corner.
Derry, a clear dry Spot in the midst of a woody swamp.
Don, a Height or Fastness, a Fortress.
Donagh, a Church.
Drom, a high narrow Ridge of Hills.
Inch, Inis, an Island.
Ken, a Head.
Kill, a Church or Cemetery.
Knock, a single Hill, or a Hillock.
Lick, a flat stone.
Lough, a Lake, or a Pool.
Magh, a Plain.
Main, a Collection of Hillocks.
More, large, great.
Rath, a Mount or Entrenchment, a Barrow.
Ross, a Point of Land projecting into Waters.
Shan, Old.
Sliebh, a range of Mountain, a Hill covered with Heath.
Tach, a House.
Temple, a Church.
Tom, Toom, a Bush.
Tra, a Strand.
Tobar, Tubber, a Well or Spring.
Tullagh, a gentle Hill, a Common.
Tully, a Place subject to Floods.


TABLE showing the Difference in Value of English and Irish Currency.

English Money exchanged into Irish, at Par: One Pound English being 1l. 1s. 8d. Irish. Irish Money exchanged into English, at Par: 1l. 1s. 8d. Irish being 1l. English.
Eng. Irish Eng. Irish Irish English Irish English
£ £  s. d. s. s. d. q. £ £  s.  d. q. s. s.  d. q.
900 975  0  0 3  3  3  0 900 830 15  4  2 4  3  8  1
800 866 13  4 4  4  4  0 800 738  9  2  3 5  4  7  1
700 758  6  8 5  5  5  0 700 646  3  0  3 6  5  6  1
600 650  0  0 6  6  6  0 600 553 16 11  0 7  6  5  2
500 541 13  4 7  7  7  0 500 461 10  9  0 8  7  4  2
400 433  6  8 8  8  8  0 400 369  4  7  1 9  8  3  2
300 325  0  0 9  9  9  0 300 276 18  5  2 10  9  2  3
200 216 13  4 10 10 10  0 200 184 12  3  2 11 10  1  3
100 108  6  8 11 11 11  0 100  92  6  1  3 12 11  0  3
90  97 10  0 12 13  0  0 90  83  1  6  1 13 12  0  0
80  86 13  4 13 14  1  0 80  73 16 11  0 14 12 11  0
70  75 16  8 14 15  2  0 70  64 12  3  2 15 13 10  0
60  65  0  0 15 16  3  0 60  55  7  8  1 16 14  9  0
50  54  3  4 16 17  4  0 50  46  3  0  3 17 15  8  1
40  43  6  8 17 18  5  0 40  36 18  5  2 18 16  7  1
30  32 10  0 19  6  0 30  27 13 10  0 19 17  6  1
20  21 13  4 d. 20  18  9  2  3 d.
10  10 16  8 1  0  1  0 10   9  4  7  1 1  0  0  3
9   9 15  0 2  0  2  0 9   8  6  1  3 2  0  1  3
8   8 13  4 3  0  3  1 8   7  7  8  1 3  0  2  3
7   7 11  8 4  0  4  1 7   6  9  2  3 4  0  3  2
6   6 10  0 5  0  5  1 6   5 10  9  0 5  0  4  2
5   5  8  4 6  0  6  2 5   4 12  3  2 6  0  5  2
4   4  6  8 7  0  7  2 4   3 13 10  0 7  0  6  1
3   3  5  0 8  0  8  2 3   2 15  4  2 8  0  7  1
2   2  3  4 9  0  9  3 2   1 16 11  0 9  0  8  1
1   1  1  8 10  0 10  3 1   0 18  5  2 10  0  9  0
Sh. 11  0 11  3 Sh. 11  0 10  0
19   1  0  7 q. 1   0  0 11  0 q.
1   0  1  1 1  0  6  1 2   0  1 10  0 1  0  0  1
2   0  2  2 2  0  0  2 3   0  2  0  0 2  0  0  2
3  0  0  3 3  0  0  0


Description of FRONTISPIECE and other PLATES, with
Directions for placing them.

Frontispiece Irish Antiquities, viz.
1.—Oratory near Killaloe, supposed the oldest and most curious Monuments in Ireland; they are also to be seen at Glendaloch, Co. of Wicklow; St. Doulach's near Dublin; at Cashel, Co. of Tipperary; and Portaferry, Co. of Down. Vide Killaloe, Co. of Clare.
2.—Round Tower, a species of building peculiar to Ireland; that at Swords is here represented. Vide Swords, Co. Dublin.
3.—Sculptured Cross at Monasterboice, 18 feet high, of which Character there are several in Ireland Vide Drogheda, Co. of Louth.
4.—Chapel, Round Tower, and Cathedral, at Cashel—distant view. The Chapel is considered one of the most curious in the kingdom. The situation and antiquity of this place, as well as its picturesque beauty, constitute it a place of much interest. Vide Cashel, Co. of Tipperary.
5.—Hook Tower, founded upon a rock, surrounded by precipices on one side and shelving rocks on the other; the walls are of amazing thickness, with stairs to the top. This is similar to Reginald's Tower, Waterford, and other Danish Round Towers, or Forts, dispersed over the kingdom. Vide Fethard, Co. of Wexford.
6.—Giant's Causeway. Vide Co. of Antrim.
7.—Mountains as they appear in the distance from Dunlow Castle, Lake of Killarney. Vide Killarney, Co. of Kerry.
The Vignette. Vide The Scientific Tourist Through Ireland
Map of Ireland To face Antrim.
View from Warren's Point, near Narrow Water, Newry. To face Newry, Co. of Down.
View of Dublin from the Circular Road in the environs, with Richmond or Sarah Bridge in the foreground To face the City of Dublin, on the
2d page of Co. Dublin.
Map and Plan of the Lakes of Killarney, and surrounding objects To face Killarney, Co. of Kerry.
View of the Lake and Mountain at Killarney from Lord Kenmare's seat To face 4th Page of Co. of Kerry.
View of Eagles Nest, and site of wonderful Echo—Lake of Killarney To face 6th Page of Co. of Kerry.
Carlingford Harbour and Castle—a brisk gale To face Carlingford, Co. of Louth.
Glendaloch, or Valley of Seven Churches. To face Glendaloch, Co. of Wicklow.

Engraved for the Scientific Tourist.

Map of Ireland

London. Published by J. Booth, Duke Street, Portland Place, 1818.


42 m. from N. to S. 24 from E. to W. containing 430,000 Irish acres; bounded by the sea on the N. and E., by Down on the S. by Lough Neagh and Derry on the W. It contains much diversified scenery; is mountainous on the northern, and eastern coasts, but extends into fertile plains in the interior. Its great extent of sea coast affords every variety in science and the picturesque; mountains wild, covered with heath and bog, or frowning in abrupt and rugged cliffs; towards Lough Neagh all the mild beauties of cultivation: the vale of the Lagan, between Belfast and Lisburn, cannot be surpassed for beauty, cultivation, elegant villas, bleach-greens, and comfortable cottages, with all the varieties of hill, dale, wood, and water, by any tract of equal extent in the empire. Its ancient inhabitants were the Darni, succeeded by the Dalriadi, afterwards by the Ostmen, and finally by English and Scottish settlers. Lofty hills afford great amusement to the botanist and geologist, particularly the range near Belfast, amongst which Devis is 1400 ft. high; the Cave Hill 1140; Carmony 790; and the Knockagh 903. These and others consist principally of a compact body of limestone rock, over which, extending along the whole coast as far as the Giant's Causeway, a diffusion of vitrifiable stone has been superinduced in a state of softness, now forming a hard basalt, resting generally on a base of variegated sandstone dipping to the W.

Antrim, 16 m. from Belfast, 84 m. from Dublin.—On the banks of the Six-mile Water, near its confluence with Lough Neagh, see the Castle, a seat of the Massarene family. 2 m. W. ruins of Shane's Castle; near it, the field where a furious battle was fought in the late rebellion, in which Lord O'Neil fell by the hand of ingratitude; round tower. This ancient Castle has lately become a mass of ruins, in consequence of a most destructive fire; yet it is still worth visiting, being beautifully seated on the banks of Lough Neagh, facing the S.W. the waters of which formerly washed its walls, but were some years ago fenced off by an embankment, on which was erected a handsome green-house. Nothing can be more majestic than the view from the Castle of the vast expanse of water, and the neighbouring banks considerably enriched with trees and verdure, through which are many charming walks and rides. The demesne and park are of great extent, through which a fine stream runs, taking its rise from a small lake 10 m. distant. Near the small lake is an elegant cottage called Remon Lodge, originally fitted up for retirement and shooting-parties, shaded with large venerable trees, and altogether a delightful sequestered spot.

Ballinderry, 14 m. S.W. of Belfast.—Neat village. Good station for Lough Neagh; ruins of Portmore Castle. 3 m. N. in the Lough, Ram's Island with a round tower.

Ballycastle, 47 m. N. from Belfast.—Improving sea-port town, with a Colliery. Ruins of the old Castle; Abbey; and Gobbin's Heir, 1 m. S.E. See the Coal-pits and Kelp-works: also the ancient Coal-mine or Gallery lately discovered, supposed to be Danish. Chalybeate Spa. Danish Raths. Romantic scenery round the cliffs, with Raghery Island 6 m. N. in the distant horizon, presenting to the eye of taste, in a fine evening, a singular prospect, with its chalky cliffs crowned by a venerable covering of brown rock, broken into beautiful and picturesque variety by the turbulent ocean. On the road to Portrush a singular little fishing rock, always an object of interest to tourists, called Carrick-a-Rede; connected to the main land by an extraordinary flying bridge over an abrupt and romantic chasm 60 feet in breadth. See also the White Rocks about 1 m. E. from Port Rush, well worth examining, with a beautiful calcareous façade extending about ½ a m., capriciously hollowed into a vast number of magnificent caves of various sizes. Also the cliffs of Craigmillar. 5 m. S. Ardmoy village, with neat Ch. and curious round tower: on the road on the right, ruins of an old Castle. See Knocklede, recently a volcano, and Kinfane Castle.

Ballymena, 8 m. N. of Antrim.—See Gilgorm Castle, and the Moravian settlement at Grace-hill. Slemish mountain, an interesting object. 5 m. N. is Clough, a small neat village. See the Ch., plain but handsome, with ruins of two Castles.

Ballymony, 23 m. N. from Antrim.—Thriving village by linen manufacture. 4 m. N. village of Dervock, with the beautiful seats of Belleisle and Cloverhill. 6 m. E. is Lough Guill. See Ch., and Lissanoure Castle on the banks of the lake, a most romantic mansion and grounds.

Belfast, 84 m. N. from Dublin.—Flourishing commercial town at head of Carrickfergus Bay. Elegant Ch. and Chapel-of-ease. House of Industry. White and brown Linen-Halls. Academical Institution. Bridge of 21 arches over Lagan, with romantic prospect of the bay and surrounding hills. Exchange and Assembly Rooms. Various charitable Institutions. Philosophical and Musical Societies; the latter for revival of the Harp. Quays and Docks. Glass-houses and Iron-founderies. 3 m. N. the Cave-hill, with caves and romantic scenery, and a most extensive prospect from its summit. Delightful ride towards Carrickfergus, with numerous seats and villas; several Danish raths, and the ruins of White Abbey. 5 m. S.E. of Belfast, near Ballydrain, is the Giant's Ring, an extensive circular earthen mound 2256 feet in circumference, with a Druidical Cromlech in the centre. Near it Collin and Devis mountains, with ancient caves called the "Picts," and fine view of Lough Neagh: across the Lagan 3 m. is the elegant seat of Belvoir.

Bengore Head,—the most northern extremity of the island, and an object in the tour to Giant's Causeway, which it much resembles.

Bush Mills, 8 m. N.E. from Coleraine.—The nearest accommodation for the Giant's Causeway. 3 m. N.E. Ruins of Dunluce Castle on a romantic cliff. 3½ m. N.W. the seat of ancient Irish chieftains, and surrounded by the scenery of Ossian's first poem. Take a boat for view of the coast.

Carrickfergus, 8 m. N.E. of Belfast, the county and assize town.—Ancient Castle built by Hugh Lacy, Earl of Ulster, in 1178. Ch. with monuments of the Donnegall family. New Court-house and Gaol. Some remains of an ancient monastery: ancient walls and pier where K. William landed. Romantic scenery towards the N.E. and Island Magee, including Castle Dobbs, and Kilroot where Thurot landed. 3 m. N.W. ruins of Abbey at Monks Town, where tradition points out the grave of King Fergus.

Cushendun, 10 m. from Glenarm.—A small village in a romantic bay; grotesque caves, and a caverned rock on which Red Castle stands: it presents several specimens of whyn dykes to the geologist, containing veins of calcareous spar mixed with coarse-grained basaltes. Between it and Glenarm, about half way, rises the sharp promontory of Garron Point, exhibiting a beautifully diversified trapose outline, and projecting far into the sea, on a limestone base wrought into caverns by the restless surge. A little N. of the point is the romantic vale of Glenariff, containing red sandstone, porphyry intermixed with veins of jasper, and a curious breccia or pudding-stone; but, to the sentimental traveller it is even more interesting; for here he may conceive himself in the genuine country of Ossian, as nearly every romantic object in the vicinity bears a name connected with that hero.

Dunluce Castle, 5 m. W. of Bushmills.—The most striking ruin on the coast; on an isolated, abrupt rock, perforated by the waves which have formed under it a very spacious cavern. The approach to it is along a narrow wall; but it well repays the risk; its dark basaltic walls marked with the mellow tints of time, in some places forming a perpendicular line with the rock on which it stands, whilst its commanding situation, its numerous gables and turrets, (resembling the ruins of a village destroyed by fire,) excite a high idea of its former magnificence, and a feeling of regret for its lost splendour. It was built probably by De Courcey, afterwards enlarged by native chieftains, and finally by the Macdonnels in the time of Elizabeth. Though in total ruin, a particular chamber is said to be haunted, and to be the favourite abode of Mave Roe, a Banshee or such fictitious personage, who sweeps it every night; but, as Dr. Drummond observes, the sweeping winds that rush through that and the other desolate apartments, will sufficiently account for the cleanness of the room without the aid of supernatural agency.

Fairhead or Benmore, 4 m. N.E. of Ballycastle.—Is a most interesting object, towering magnificently with its massive columns of basaltes, forming a line of coast the most fantastically beautiful that imagination can conceive. It is strongly characterized by the savage wildness of its cliffs, at whose foot the ocean rages with uncommon fury. Scarce a single mark of vegetation has yet crept over the hard rock to diversify its colour, but one uniform grayness pervades its scenery, contrasting exquisitely with Bengore, about 9 m. distant to the W. The tourist must visit the Fhirleath or Gray Man's Path, a deep chasm dividing the solitary promontory in twain, with its solid walls of rude and threatening columns upwards of 200 feet in perpendicular abruptness.

Giant's Causeway, 8 m. W. from Ballycastle, and about 3 m. N. of Bushmills (the general station for tourists).—Is an object not to be described in small limits, being a most singular geological curiosity and one of Nature's most stupendous productions. Dr. Drummond briefly states it to consist of three moles, composed of basaltic columns projecting into the sea from the middle of the semicircular bay of Port Noffer; the longest of which, called the Grand Causeway, extends in a sloping direction from the base of the cliff about 300 feet, when it is lost in the ocean. The pillars of which the Causeway consists have been estimated at 30000; but that is too small a calculation. These are of different dimensions; 15 to 36 feet in height, and from 15 to 26 inches in diameter, chiefly pentagonal or hexagonal; each consists of joints or pieces concave and convex alternately at the ends. The pillars are a species of basaltes and kind of close grit, vitrifiable, of a dusky hue, contrasting finally with the surrounding verdant scenery, and continued, with interruptions, two miles along the precipitous shore. On the eastern side the Giant's Loom, a colonnade of 36 feet in height; and on the opposite cliff may be seen the Organ, so called from the resemblance to that instrument in the group of columns: also the Giant's Well, Chair, and Theatre, with the King and Parliament. Other objects of curiosity are,—the large rounded masses of irregularly prismatic basalt between the causeways, and the distinct globular concretions at Port Coon, a little to the westward: the curious whyn dyke at the head of the grand causeway: the generally romantic scenery of Port Noffer: then the cave of Port Coon, celebrated for its fine echo, continually resounding to the dash of the waves: the Cave of Dunkerry between Port Coon and the Bushfoot Strand, accessible only from the ocean, between two mural ridges of jet-black rock, with its lofty dome and sides overspread with a covering of green confervæ, suggesting the idea that it might have been scooped out of an emerald; a crimson zone of marine plants, five or six feet in breadth, surrounds and adorns it; and its extent has never yet been ascertained, its sides contracting into a narrow cleft where no boat can penetrate, but where the waves are heard rolling to a considerable distance.

Glenarm, 8 m. N. of Larne.—Castle of the Countess of Antrim, still venerable and magnificent, and on the site of an ancient Abbey: from the front is seen the Glen or Great Park 13 m. in circuit; extremely romantic and beautiful; consisting of wood and broken rock, with several waterfalls and salmon-leaps formed by a large serpentine river winding through the grounds, whilst its banks are adorned with various evergreens; myrtles, and the arbutus or strawberry-tree almost continually in blossom. From the park are fine views of the sea; a distant prospect of the Abbey in ruins, and the scenery considerably enriched by the singular appearance of the adjacent mountains, which are cultivated in corn to their very summits. In its vicinity are many rude antiquities, supposed to be of Danish origin.

See the Glens on the borders of Red Bay, with the ruins of Red Castle, 7 m. N. of Glenarm. The scenery around is very romantic, the village being secluded in a glen, where the limestone shores finely contrast with the azure ocean. To the northward is the site of Dunmall, a fortress where, tradition says, all the rent of Ireland was once paid; but its only memorials are a mound and fosse with the fragments of a wall. Beyond Garron Point see the curious grotesque rock called Clough-i-stookin, of chalky whiteness, bearing a striking resemblance to a female of gigantic stature: near it the ruins of a Castle on a caverned cliff, the echoes in which are curious: also Torr Point. On the beach near Glynn the Anomia Gryphus and the Vertebræ pentacrinites are found in abundance in a blue lime. To the N. of it stand the lofty and precipitous cliffs of Agnew's Hill, said to be the loftiest hill in the county. The vicinity of this romantic spot has been well described by Mr. Wakefield, who, on descending the hill to Cushendall, beholding on the one hand a cultivated mountain, and on the other a vale of rich land in a high state of tillage, declares that upon the whole a more extended and more delightful prospect of hill and dale intermixed in charming variety, is not often to be seen. He adds, that from Cushendall to Glenarm, passing Red Bay and coasting along the ocean, the whole way, the road exhibits the most romantic and beautiful scenery. On the one hand magnificent and widely extended views of the ocean, which on this coast rolls its swelling waves towards the shore with a peculiar and dangerous rapidity; and on the other, rocky mountains of considerable height, whose hanging cliffs, as the road extends partly up their sides, seem to threaten the traveller with destruction; and which in some places are thickly clothed with woods, through the openings between which the eye is sometimes surprised with the sight of a village as the road winds round the spacious bays and jutting promontories.

Lough Neagh is the largest lake of fresh water in Europe, with the exception of Ladoga, Onega, and Geneva, being 20 m. by 12; and the country round it being level, the furthest shores cannot be distinguished from any part of its circumference; so that it resembles an ocean, particularly in stormy weather, when the waves break suddenly and are dangerous for boats. See Ram Island with its Round Tower: inquire for Gems, Crystals, and Petrifactions. The ride from Belfast, of about 16 m. is delightful; and nothing can be finer than the view bursting on the tourist from the top of Mount Devis, whether he contemplates Lough Neagh, or turns round to admire the extensive prospect over the County Down and Irish Channel, towards the Isle of Man, and even the distant mountains of Wales. Though this extensive inland sea receives no less than eight rivers, yet the only outlet to the whole collected mass of water is on the N.W. extremity, at Toom, whence passing through a small lake, Lough Beg, it forms the river Bann, which runs into the sea at Coleraine. The great disproportion between the outlet and the influx has given rise to a conjecture of subterraneous passages; but not the smallest indication of such a phenomenon has yet been discovered,—so that the great means of reduction must be by exhalation: to this it may be added, that in the dry season the efflux is so trifling as to be waded at Toom, where it is less than knee-deep; whilst on the other hand, in the wet season, most of the rivers being mountainous, the influx is so sudden and so greatly extensive, that 10,000 acres are often covered, which were dry in summer. The geologist may also notice the well-authenticated fact that, the Lough often interrupts its own course to the sea, by the quantities of sand and gravel which it deposits in the channel: all those impediments are frequently accelerated, though sometimes removed, by the casual direction and force of the winds: hence the dilatation and contraction have not been as yet reduced to any role; but the fact is certain that its strongest tendency is towards expansion, its actual encroachments being marked and known; for in one place it has encompassed one Ch., (Ballyscullen) drowned great part of the parish, and still seems gaining on the land. It must be remembered that this Lough is perhaps the shallowest piece of water in the world of such an extent, being no where deeper than 11 fathoms. The trade carried on upon the Lough has of late years received considerable additions from three navigable canals; one of which leads to Newry, where a river runs into the sea at Carlingford; the second, through Lisburn, gains the sea at Belfast; and the third takes a direction westerly, for inland purposes. In stormy weather the waves break so short and dash with such violence against the shoals at the foot of Shane's Castle, that the spray is said often to have dashed into the highest windows. In consequence of this, shipwrecks of the craft are not unfrequent.

Pleaskin.—A Cape a little to the E. of Giant's Causeway; the most striking of all the semicircular precipices on this range of coast, in the opinion of Dr. Drummond and the ingenious but unfortunate Dr. Hamilton. In the sixteen different strata of which it is composed, beauty and sublimity are wonderfully blended and harmonised. Over a dark and rugged base fringed with incessant foam it lifts its sides adorned with various tints of green gray lichen, and vermilion rock, with a rapid declivity to about half its elevation, and thence becomes perpendicular. On a stratum of red ochre at the elevation of 200 feet, stands a magnificent gallery of basaltic columns, 44 feet in height, with others equally romantic; like a theatre of Nature harmoniously arranged, rock upon rock, gallery upon gallery, so magnificent, so solitary, and facing the wide Atlantic, as if formed for the temple of "spirits from the vasty deep!"

Larne, 8 m. N. from Carrickfergus,—worth notice for the fine scenery round its harbour and vicinity. Redhall; Olderfleet, and various ancient Castles in ruins; several Cromlechs on the E. side of Brown's Bay, where is also the Giant's Cradle, a large stone so nicely balanced that a small force will put it in motion, though the utmost strength of many men cannot overturn it. See Ballygelly Promontory 3 m. with masses of prismatic basalt, where the pillars first commence: to the W. ruins of Cairn Castle on an insulated rock; and the Salagh Braes.

Lisburne, 7 m. S.S.W. from Belfast.—Handsome, populous, and extensive, on the Lagan. Handsome Ch.; large Market-house; several neat Sectarian Chapels. Linen, diaper, and damask manufactories. 2 m. N.E. Lambeg with curious damask-works, and numerous bleach-greens. Near Lambeg numerous villas; Drum House and Ch.; Ballydrain, with lake and grounds; and the Giant's Ring, with round tower.

Randalstown, 88 m. from Dublin, 3 m. N.W. from Antrim.—A thriving town on the river Main. See Market-house and Assembly-rooms; also the scenery of Lough Neagh 2 m. distant. 3½ m. N. is Kells, a pleasant village, with ruins of an ancient Ch.; 3 m. E. of which, the dilapidated village, once the city of Connor and still an episcopal see united to Down. See ruins of the Cathedral.

Rathlin, or Raghery, a small island N. of Ballycastle.—See Doon Point; also the Tumulus on a plain in the centre, with stone coffins. The ruins of Bruce's Castle. Here also are seen optical aërial illusions, like the fata morgana in the Straits of Messina.

Temple Patrick, 10 m. N.W. from Belfast.—Road to Antrim, on which route the tourist may enjoy some fine mountain scenery, including the Bay of Carrickfergus, backed by the majestic mountains of Mourne. Close to the village see Castle Upton, the castellated mansion of Lord Templetown, with handsome park and mausoleum. 4 m. S.E. is the rough fort, an ancient memorial of uncertain origin, but partly Danish, perhaps partly Druidical; with wild scenery in its vicinity; and on the road to Belfast is a complete chain of Danish raths.


Basaltes:—along the coast from Belfast to Ballycastle.

Granite and porphyry:—in the glen between Devis and Collon mountains near Belfast.

Limestone:—very frequent throughout the county.

Coal:—near Ballycastle; containing pyrites.

Sandstone, and aluminous layers:—near Ballycastle; containing evident traces of zoophytes and other organic bodies.

Crystals:—very fine at Knocklaide mountain.

Calcedony variegated with marine plants:—frequent on the rocky shores.

Stalactites and tufa:—near Kinfane: also calcareous creeping stones near the Glynns.


Alopecurus pratensis:—in the levels near Lough Neagh.

Dactylis glomerata, Cock'sfoot Grass:—meadows near Lisburn.

Festuca fluitans, Float Fescue:—bogs and wet grounds in the S. and W. parts of the county.

Holcus lanatus, White Grass:—springs up in turf bogs.

Phleum pratense, Timothy Grass:—Castle Dobbs and Island Magee.

Plantugo, Narrow-leaved Plantain:—to be met with in every field or meadow.

Poa aquatica:—in the wettest bogs, where only it will grow.

Rhinanthus, Yellow Rattle:—on dry soils.


Is an inland county; the northern part bordering on Lough Neagh, consists of most extensive bogs of extraordinary depth and a remarkably black soil, and thereby affords no scenery worth attention. But in the immediate vicinity of the city of Armagh, the tourist is gratified by a richer prospect, where an abundant population finds employment in well inclosed and well cultivated fields. To the southward the appearance deteriorates, especially in that part called the Fews; a district of dark black mountains, where the hand of industry or the eye of taste has scarcely yet penetrated. Yet it is well worthy the notice of the picturesque tourist, from its alpine views, particularly round Slieve Gullien, which rivals the loftiest in England or Wales. In the vicinity of Armagh the soil is fertile, consisting generally of a rich brown loam with limestone and limestone gravel, and the appearance of the gently undulating grounds has been compared to eggs set in salt: bounded on the S.W. by Monaghan; W. by Tyrone; N. by Lough Neagh; E. by Down; S.E. by Louth. The two principal lakes are Carlough and Lough Clay.

Armagh, 62 m. from Dublin, the metropolitan see of all Ireland,—stands on the acclivity of a lofty mountain, the top occupied by the Cathedral which forms a fine object. The place is considerable; the new streets handsome. Archbishop's Palace adjoining the town, a modern edifice of unadorned simplicity: barracks large, airy, and even elegant: see the College; commodious Charter School: New Ch. of white stone with handsome spire: Public Infirmary, Public Library, and Observatory: curious market Cross. Examine improvements of the late Archbishop, aided by the judicious exertions of the present Primate. About 5 m. W. is Clonfeckle, on the borders of Tyrone, deserving the notice of the agricultural tourist as the residence and farm of Dr. Richardson, the cultivator of Fiorin grass. (Curwen's Letters, vol. ii. p. 319.) Also Lisnadell, 5 m. S. of Armagh: handsome Ch. and Glebe House, erected by the patriotic Archbishop Robinson. About 10 m. S. is Newton Hamilton, stated in tradition as the scene of a sanguinary battle between the great O'Neil and a chieftain of Louth, in consequence of the latter singeing the beard of his guest at a banquet, and in which O'Neil lost his life. See also near to it remains of an old Cromwellian encampment: and ruins of Black Bank Castle.

Charlemont, 7 m. N. of Armagh.—A good town and military depôt. See the fort and barracks.

Jonesborough, a small village, but a good station for the visitant of the wild mountain scenery in its vicinity, particularly Slieve Gullien. Rocks, caverns, glyns, from a bold ascent, are the features of the summit of this mountain, without the smallest appearance of any calcareous matter; and although there have not hitherto, says Sir C. Coote, been any minerals discovered here, yet there is a strong probability of their existence from the metallic tinge of the waters which burst from its sides, oozing in plentiful discharges even in the driest seasons. On its summit is a cairn of stones which form the roof of a cavern that at first view appears to be natural, but on minute investigation has evident testimony of being the work of art. The apartment is difficult of entrance, but is large within; and as there is a flagged way to the edge of the lake at the foot, it seems intended for other than sepulchral purposes. Sir C. Coote observes, that perhaps a bolder prospect is not presented by any mountain in Ireland than from its summit, comprising a great extent of country; the lakes and streams, the several towns and well-cultivated demesnes, together with the bay of Dundalk, where the declivity is terminated; these, with a thousand other natural beauties which are presented to view, will repay the fatigue of the ascent, and an awful and impressive pleasure is afforded in contemplating the bold promontories and rugged cliffs bared by the tempests, and arresting the floating meteors, throughout furnishing ample resources for the inquisitive philosopher.

Lurgan, about 14 m. N.E. from Armagh.—A large town, principally of one extensive and neatly kept street; surrounded by the linen manufacture, Ch. and Spire. See the house and handsome grounds of the Brownlow family, with good views of Lough Neagh. The mansion, an antique Castle.

Markethill, a thriving town about 4 m. S.E. from Armagh, with good Inn.—In the Fews a wild, barren, but romantic district, the admirers of Dean Swift will be gratified in tracing many spots noticed by that eccentric character; especially Hamilton's Bawn, Gosford Castle, and Draper's Hill, about 1 m. distant. Throughout these wild and romantic mountains there is something very interesting, awful, and grateful, to the lover of nature, elevating the inquisitive mind, and inspiring a strong desire to explore their inmost recesses, and a desire to become familiar with so sublime a solitude. (See further, Sir C. Coote's Survey of County, p. 35.)

Portadown, 3 m. S. of Lurgan,—is a neat town on the Bann, at the junction of the Newry canal with that river.

Rich Hill, about 4 m. N.E. from Armagh,—is a small village, but deserves notice for the beautiful residence of Sir Capel Molyneux at Castle Dillon, with extensive plantations, lakes, &c. and two handsome columns in honour of St. Patrick and the volunteers of Ireland. The appearance of the village itself is interesting, and considerably improved by the elegant demesne of Mr. Richardson, in full view of the street, with antique Castle. Proceed through a charmingly wooded country towards the Church of Kilmore, and thence by good roads to Loughgall village, where is Drummilly, an ancient mansion with extensive plantations.

Tanderagee, 10 m. E. of Armagh,—affords good specimens of the linen manufacture. Acton village, 5 m. S., the scene of many bloody contests in the feudal times, especially at Points Pass; and near to it is Scarvagh Pass on the borders of Down.

Tynan, about 6 m. S.W. of Armagh,—stands pleasantly on an eminence near a river of the same name. See excellent Ch. and lofty steeple: also in the Church-yard an oblong stone of about 18 inches square and 4 feet long, set upon a large block stone, and capped with another, divided into square compartments, and having vestiges of sculpture. 1 m. ruins of ancient Castle. About 6 m. S. Keady, a small village on the river Callen, crowded with mills and bleach-greens. See the handsome Ch., also the rich lead-mines.


Lead:—in the vicinity of Tynan; rich ore.

Iron exists, at least in small quantities, as evinced by the chalybeate springs in the mountainous districts.

Fossils are stated, in the County Survey, to be in great variety, as yet little known, but affording ample investigation to the geologist.


Colchicum autumnale, Meadow Saffron:—on the borders of the Blackwater and Callen rivers.

Euphrasia, Eyebright:—in low grounds near the Lough.

Hippuris, Marestail:—at the mouth of the Bann.

Iris, or Flag:—on the banks of the river Callen.

Lobelia Dortmanna, Water Gladiole:—in Lough Neagh.

Mentha aquatica, Water Mint:—common in low grounds.

Menyanthes, Purple Buckbean:—beautiful specimens in various places.

Nymphæa, Water Lily (White and Yellow):—on the borders of Lough Neagh, and in muddy ditches.

Parnassia, Grass of Parnassus:—on Tynan river.

Phellandrium aquaticum:—on the banks of Cushier and Blackwater rivers.

Potamogeton natans, Pondweed:—in stagnant waters near Lough Neagh.

Ranunculus, Crowfoot:—in the marshy grounds.

Scrophularia aquatica, Water Figwort:—on the banks of Newry Water.

Senecio paludosus, Bird's Tongue:—in low marshes.

Subularia aquatica, Awlwort:—under the water in Lough Neagh.

Thalictrum flavum, Meadow Rue:—on the lake side near summit of Slieve Gullien.

Typha angustifolia, Narrow-leaved Catstail:—very common.


Is a small county; interesting to the picturesque tourist from the variety, if not from the sublimity of its scenery; but even in that he may be gratified whilst rambling amidst the mountainous chain from Mount Leinster to Blackstairs on the S., a district awfully grand and majestic, and the range impassable except at Scullogh Gap, resembling the Ghauts or passes in the mountains of India. In the western part of the county also, on the banks of the Barrow, the rugged mountainous range is beautifully fringed with timber, even to the summits of some of its loftiest hills, agreeably chequered by cultivation, and studded with the mansions of opulence, whose snow-white chimneys peeping through the foliage give earnest of the national hospitality that reigns amongst them. Indeed all writers agree, that some of the most beautiful and picturesque scenery in Ireland is to be met with in this division of the county and around the town of Carlow. It is a curious remark of Mr. Wakefield respecting this county, that it has neither a temporal nor spiritual peer resident within it; and yet, though destitute of manufactures, it is tenanted by more wealthy people than almost any other county in the island. It is worthy of remark also, that the fee has been transferred more here than in any other part of the country, and that a great part of it belonged formerly to Quakers. Bounded on the N. by Kildare, E. by Wicklow and Wexford, S. by Kilkenny, W. by Queen's County.

Carlow, 39 m. from Dublin,—is a neat and flourishing town, well situated for inland commerce on the river Barrow. Wakefield describes it as abounding with "houses of entertainment, for almost every shop has attached to it a house which is used as an inn." Examine its Woollen manufactures: some slight remains of its ancient Castle, which recently fell, a mere heap of ruins: the venerable old Ch., from the vicinity of which is a very extensive view, commanding a fertile and well wooded country enlivened by the majestic windings of the river Barrow: ruins of the very fine Abbey founded before the English conquest: the Roman Catholic College, an extensive building, with good gardens and a park for the students' recreation, with the Gaol, Barracks, &c. Miss Plumptre says, that "Carlow is superior to most towns in the kingdom in the neatness of its appearance:" and Hall says that "the ground about it is better improved than in many parts of England." The town and immediate vicinity present some historical recollections; and though the English tourist may not be much interested in the disputes of the Earls of Kildare and Thomond, and the predatory exploits of O'More; yet events of a later date, connected with its siege by Ireton in the civil wars, may lead to inquiry and investigation. It was also the scene of a sanguinary battle, though on a small scale, in the year 1798, being assaulted by the rebels before day-break, and successfully defended by a small party of military and the loyal yeomanry. The visitor will not omit the pleasing domain of Mr. Cavanagh, in the immediate vicinity, from whence the Blackstairs mountains form a striking object; though not lofty, yet bold, bleak, and rugged. Mr. Curwen speaks highly of the scenery in the vale between Carlow and Leighlin Bridge, with enchanting and extensive prospects over a rich country of the most sublime and picturesque features. This valley is about six miles in breadth, bounded on each side by a chain of mountains finely wooded, well inclosed, and cultivated to their summits. Villages and gentlemen's seats to be seen on all sides, with whitewashed cottages well sheltered by trees, and presenting a pleasing air of rural comfort and industry. See Ardglass, 4 m. N., a high green hill, from whence there is a most enchanting prospect of the county, and also Kildare. On its summit is an ancient Catholic Chapel, built in form of a cross, but much resembling a dilapidated barn: read some justly-flattering epitaphs to the Grace family, not badly written. At Kellystown, on the east bank of the Barrow, extensive ruins of a Ch. said to have been first erected by St. Patrick. At Staplestown 2 m. S.E. a pleasing mansion of Mr. Bagnall, once intended to rival Versailles, the grounds owing much both to nature and art, and watered by the romantic little river Burrin.

Leighlin Bridge,—is a small village about 8 m. S. of Carlow, with remains of an ancient Castle and some monastic ruins, which have also been castellated. The view from the bridge with the Black Castle at one end is very fine, though the bridge itself is more venerable than picturesque; built in 1320, by a liberal canon of Kildare. The course of the river Barrow presents views of great fertility and beauty, though certainly not so romantic as many smaller streams. See Bally Ellen Castle in ruins about 8 m. S.; also Ballylaghan Castle, which presents a gateway between two lofty circular towers, in the style of Tunbridge Castle. Though the castle stands low, yet the view to the westward is very fine; and, as its walls are in pretty good preservation, it affords an amusing object of research to the antiquary, who may ascend some ruinous staircases into several of the apartments, and gratify his fancy by the recollection of past times. Ballymorn Castle, 5 m. distant, is an extensive ruin standing in a deep vale surrounded by lofty mountains. It is of the middle ages, but has Gothic windows in the interior, and has the peculiarity of its outer walls being perforated by a gallery from whence the garrison could discharge their missiles through numerous loop-holes. Only one large tower remains. Clonmore is an extensive and pleasing ruin, presenting a good idea of the arrangements, half military half domestic, of the earlier times, though unroofed and much dilapidated, but rendered venerable by the covering of thick ivy that mantles its walls, affording shelter to the birds of night. Fenough, 9 m. S.E., has an old Castle near the church, once a residence of the kings of Leinster. Garryhaddon, 2 m. N.E., a deserted mansion of the Ormond family, has an appearance of ancient magnificence, with an extensive park and gardens. Whilst the picturesque tourist is rambling through the Carlow mountains, he will not omit visiting a deep recess in the Slieumargah, where stand the remains of the Abbey of Old Leighlin, recorded in the earliest monastic legends, but now exhibiting no remnants of architecture anterior to the 12th century, when it was re-edified, after destruction by fire about the time of the Norman conquest. Here was once a celebrated episcopal city; but the ruins of the Abbey, of which the cathedral is still kept in decent repair as a parish Ch., alone remain. The Abbey, though not very extensive, is deserving of notice on account of its pinnacled spire and the rich tracery of its Gothic windows, being about the time of Hen. II. or at least re-edified after a destructive fire; but suffered to sink into ruin since the union of the Sees of Leighlin and Ferns. On the west side of the Ch. under some trees, see the once celebrated well of St. Laferian, now nearly filled up, and near it a rude stone cross. The antiquary will also find subjects of research in some old termini or stones of memorial erected by Bishop Harlewin about 1216, as boundaries of the liberties of the ancient city; one of these is close by Leighlin Bridge, another near Wells, and a third on the mountains. Ledwich gives a good engraving in his Antiquities. The antiquary will derive some pleasure from a visit to a small village, St. Mullins, about 15 m. S.E. from Leighlin Bridge and agreeably seated on the Barrow. This place, particularly its extensive burial-ground, possesses much sanctity in the opinions of the lower Irish, from its antiquity, having been founded as early as the 7th century by a saint of the name, who built the church here and was bishop of Ferns. This episcopal eremite long inhabited the gloomy vale of Glendaloch, was a great patriot, causing the remission of a tax of oxen, and a great prophet also. The ruins, though not very extensive, are picturesque, and the whole scene one of solemn meditation, backed by the lofty mountains of Blackstairs.

Tullow, 10 m. E. of Carlow.—A pleasant town on the Slaney. Bridge of six arches: close to it ruins of an Abbey: Castle converted into barracks: neat Ch. and Market-house:—taken by Cromwell after a sanguinary siege. Hackets Town, about 7 m. N.E., a small neat village, the scene of two violent assaults by the rebels in 1798. Mount Leinster, about 8 m. S., deserves the sportsman's notice, for its hares, foxes, and grouse; also a well said to be unfathomable, and much resorted to for medicinal purposes.


Limestone in great abundance.


Hitherto uninvestigated.


Cavan, though an inland district, possesses more water scenery and more diversified than any other in the island, with the exception of Kerry; for here the tourist meets with many beautiful and picturesque landscapes enlivened by small lakes, in some places spreading into expanse, in others assuming the form of rivers, proceeding from the lakes of Westmeath in their course to Lough Erne. The general face of the county consists of eminences, which, though not very lofty, yet rugged and uneven, afford a great variety of prospect, and swell into mountains on the borders of Fermanagh and Leitrim. This county came very late into civilization or even cultivation, being one of the most celebrated in the ancient feuds and wars for its fastnesses, woods, bogs, and all the natural impediments so formidable in warfare. It is exactly midway between the Atlantic Ocean and St. George's Channel; but its extremes are not more than 14 m. distant from the sea:—the tourist will find the roads rather indifferent. Bounded on the N. by Fermanagh and Monaghan, E. by Westmeath, S. by Longford, W. by Leitrim.

Belturbet, about 8 m. N.W. of Cavan; built upon an eminence above the river Erne, on which there is much romantic scenery.—See the Tower and Market-house, and some vestiges of an ancient fortification beyond the church. Ballyconnel, 5 m. W., is a good station for head-quarters in viewing this end of Lough Erne. Examine Ortnacullagh mountain for minerals and spars. Ballyhayes, though only a common village, possesses some antique and fantastical buildings that show it to have once been a place of considerable note. The Mansion-house is a curious specimen of Irish feudal splendour. Near it the poor but enchantingly situated village of Butler's Bridge. Drumlane Priory, 3 m. from Belturbet, is now little more than a large barn used as a church, but of considerable antiquity, being founded as early as the 6th century; though it is probable that the oldest part now remaining is the round tower which stands close to one corner of the sacred edifice. It was dedicated to the Virgin Mary, and long of great sanctity as a place of sepulture; but perhaps more remarkable in its being the birth-place of St. Maidoc, a celebrated legendary personage, respecting whose parents these holy legends are wisely silent.

Cavan, 54 m. N.W. from Dublin.—Sir Rich. C. Hoare describes it as situated in a vale near a small river, and making but a poor appearance as a county town. See the Court-house and Barracks. Ballyhedy Bridge, about 3 m. distant, crosses the Erne, in a pleasing country surrounded by beautiful mansions and highly improved demesnes. Near it see Farnham, the mansion of Earl Farnham, which Wakefield considers as one of the finest and best kept demesnes in the island. It affords abundance of views intermixed with some lake scenery; and the cottage at Killishandra not far distant, together with one called Lady Farnham's, an elegant retreat on the border of a small lake, are well worth seeing. At the latter in particular, the scenery is exceedingly romantic, the sides of the hills being covered with waving trees approaching close to the level of the water. Notice the pleasing views on the river Croghan; also the neat Ch. with the ruins of an old Castle on the western bank: also the richly wooded demesne of Castle Sanderson, with the spacious lake and grounds of Cloverhill, and the new mansion of Castle Hamilton. Visit the mountain of Bruce Hill. Kilmore, 2 m. S.W., is remarkable for the smallest Cathedral in the empire, being nothing but the parish church: near it is Lough Outer, where stand the ruins of an ancient Castle on a small island, remarkable as the prison of the good Bishop Bedell, during the rebellion of 1641. Sir C. Coote observes (in his Survey of the County), that the many beautiful islands encircled by this charming lake are crowned with the finest timber, which their undulating surface presents to view in a variety of shades; and their deep recesses and romantic scenery strongly picture to the mind the aptitude of these sequestered islands for the superstitious rites which formerly were celebrated there.

Cootehill, about 9 m. N.E. of Cavan,—is a smart well-built town, and shows the advantages resulting from the introduction of the linen manufacture. It contains nothing very remarkable; but is a good station for several objects in its vicinity. Baillieborough is 9 m. S.E., close to which is a pleasant lough; also a chalybeate spring. The view from the Ch. is good; and on the summit of a hill, between it and King's Court, is a pool long celebrated for its antiscorbutic qualities, the patients bathing in it and rubbing their bodies with the mud. It well deserves the notice of the geologist and the medical tourist. Bellamont Forest, the family seat of the Bellamonts, uniting with Dawson's Grove, forms a tract of romantic scenery that must not be neglected by the picturesque traveller. The views from it are very fine; and Bruce Hill is a most striking feature in the scenery. King's Court is a modern creation, rising fast into a thriving town, clearly exemplifying what may be done by a patriotic landlord. In its vicinity are several deep glens and valleys, within which flow rapid streams affording many romantic and interesting scenes. See ruins of Castle at Muff. Shircock, about 7 m. E., has some lakes in its neighbourhood. About 2 m. S. visit a narrow glen, in which the mineralogist will find much amusement. Specimens of coal and other fossils.

Dalys Bridge, about 12 m. S.E. from Cavan,—is a neat village, with several pleasing objects in its vicinity. Shaalan Lake, or Lough Shecklin, deserves a visit, being 7 m. long and 4 broad in some places; studded on the north side with gentlemen's cottages used as sporting-boxes, and extremely well planted: whilst on its southern verge, amidst lofty hills and fertile cornfields, may be seen the ruins of the ancient Castle of Ross, with the high hill or Ben of Fore. On an island are the ruins of an Abbey.

Swadlinbar, a neat village about 18 m. N.W. from Cavan,—has long been celebrated for its Spa, containing sulphur, earth, sea salt, and fossil alkali, being alterative and diaphoretic. Near it are the ruins of a Ch.; and a little further, but in Fermanagh, is the splendid mansion of Florence Court, a seat of the E. of Enniskillin. See and examine Quilca mountain, with its iron mines, and a spring of good water on its summit: its general appearance is very grand, overhanging the valley in towering magnificence. The tourist will here be amused with many legendary tales of feudal times, of sprites and faëry. Its summit was the ancient place of investiture for the MacGwyres, once the petty kings of this district.

Virginia, 12 m. S.E. of Cavan,—is a small village, and in the immediate vicinity of Lough Ramor, of great extent, studded with islands once clothed with foliage but now denuded, yet still possessing the ruins of several old Castles.


Lead and copper mines in the town land of Mayo: also coal, various ochres, manganese, spar, a species of jasper, iron, and some limestone. In Quilca mountain is a very rich iron mine; and in Ortnacullagh mountain, near Ballyconnel, lead and silver ores, pure sulphur, fullers' earth, white and red transparent spars, and slate quarries, with some indications of coal. There are mineral waters also at Derrylester; sulphureous at Derrindaff; alkaline at Owen Bruin; and also at Carrickmore. At Cootehill are rich veins of copper ore and pyrites.


Cicuta virosa, Long-leaved Water Hemlock:—in watery places.

Myrica Gale, Gale, Sweet Willow, or Dutch Myrtle:—near rivers.

Spergula arvensis, Small Spurrey:—in sandy places.


This county lies N. of the Shannon, containing also another river, the Fergus, and possessing great capabilities from its maritime situation. Its bays and harbours are numerous; but its coast is dangerous, consisting principally of basaltic cliffs, which frown destruction on the unhappy mariner who may be caught upon its lee shore. It is in most parts mountainous, yet deficient in woody landscape; but the barony of Burrin N. of Kilfernora is replete with rude magnificence; whilst the lake and river scenery offers many beauties to the painter: bounded on the S.E. by Limerick, W. by the Atlantic, N. by Galway Bay, E. by Galway and Tipperary, and is nearly insulated by the Shannon and the Ocean.

Clare is a small town 4 m. from Ennis.—See the Abbey, extensive in its ground plan and still venerable in decay, particularly a square lofty tower lately in good preservation: it is of high antiquity, having been founded as early as the 12th century by O'Brien, King of North Munster, but was taken from St. Peter and St. Paul by Henry VIII. and given to an ancestor of the Thomond family. The scene of many sanguinary feudal battles in the 13th century. Ruins of an old Castle 1 m. distant.

Ennis is the shiretown, and 112 m. W. from Dublin.—Curwen observes, that the approach to the town is delightful, on account of the apparent comfort of the lower classes; the town itself neat and thriving. See the neat modern Ch. surmounted by the ruins of the venerable Abbey, one of the finest in Ireland, whose long narrow windows, divided by stone railing, with the remnants of some delicate carving and other architectural ornaments, are considered by Grose as speaking its era, and the expense bestowed upon it in the 13th century. See also the handsome Charity School. About 8 m. W. is Callan mountain, where the antiquary may examine the tombstone, with the Ogham inscription on Conan the Swift-footed, whose death and burial-place are recorded in an historical tale supposed to have been written by Ossian in the year 296. See also the Druidical altar on the S. side of the mountain. Between Ennis and Lough Derg is Dromoland, the venerable and antique mansion of the O'Briens, baronets. Crusheen, 5 m. N.E., has the ruins of an ancient Castle nearly surrounded by a lake. Quin Abbey is 5 m. E., romantic and presenting a good portrait of monastic times, with sombre cloisters, private passages, ruined chapels, ancient monuments, and sainted statues. Near it is Spancel Hill; Castle in ruins; 5 m. from which see Tulla Castle.

Kilfenora, 12 m. N.W. of Ennis, is on the borders of the romantic district of Burrin. See the ancient Cathedral, with its numerous sanctified and heraldic ornaments: statue of St. Fechnan the founder, in the choir; seven crosses of a single stone each, with antique sculpture. Corcomroe Abbey, a few miles to the S.W., was the scene of many feudal battles between the O'Connors and O'Briens, of which there are some monuments. Near it is Ennistymond, a pleasant village, several Castles in ruins, particularly Inchiquin and Moyvore. The tourist must not omit the extensive and astonishing prospect from Hagshead, 1300 feet above the level of the ocean, exhibiting some of the grandest scenes of nature: near it were wrecked part of the Spanish Armada.

Killaloe, 20 m. E. of Ennis,—stands in a hilly country on the Shannon, which rolls rapidly over an irregular bed of rock. A bridge of 18 arches leads to the town, after which the ascent is steep; but the Cathedral stands at the bottom close to the river, and lately fitted up in a modern style. The southern portal, North Chapel, is a most curious and well sculptured specimen of rich Gothic architecture, of a grotesque and irregular design, and, though evidently a doorway, has been considered by some persons as a monument. The font has some curious arabesque ornaments. See the Oratory, a curious specimen of the religious architecture of the Ostmen in the 9th century, and one of the oldest structures of wood and stone in the island. Its rude walls are not very high, but the gables are pyramidal and lofty; and a small room is still pretty entire, where devotees have long resorted to offer prayers and religious bribes to the patron saint, St. Molva. See the Salmon Fishery and Eel Weir. Whilst in this vicinity, visit Lough Derg, and notice the bay of Skariff with a wooded peninsula, and island of 20 acres called Holy Island, on which are a round tower 70 feet high, and the ruins of seven churches. See also the demesne of Mr. Parker at Castle Lough, which affords to the artist a series of extensive and charming views. Some caverns of limestone rock at Mitchel's Town. At Cancora see the earth-works of the ancient palace of the kings of Thomond, first erected by the famous Brian Boroimhe. O'Brien's Bridge, a village on the banks of the Shannon, with a bridge of 14 arches; sometimes called Montpellier, on account of its medicinal springs of a sulphureous nature, much frequented by company in the season. The country round not very picturesque, but improving in cultivation, with many genteel residences: yet if the traveller in his route from Killaloe to Limerick takes the road by Castle Connel, which however is rather a detour, he will be amply gratified by the interesting scenery. In the vale 2½ m. from the springs, is Coolastigue Castle in ruins; a little further Rhin Row Castle; and beyond that Castle Troy, all emblems of the devastations of war and time. Nearer to Limerick stands Mount Shannon, the seat of Lord Clare.

Kilrush, about 22 m. W. of Ennis, and towards the mouth of the Shannon,—has nothing remarkable, but forms a station for many surrounding objects of curiosity. Towards Buncragy is a magnificent prospect from the summit of a hill, called Paradise, looking up as high as Limerick. Near it is the picturesque island of Canna with ruins of an Abbey. Carrigaholt, about 15 m. W., has some remains of an old Castle, of which many legendary tales are in existence. Iniscattery Island, towards the mouth of the Shannon, contains the ruins of 7 churches out of 11 erected by St. Senanus, a disciple of St. Patrick; also a round tower 120 feet high. In monastic times the fair sex were excluded from this island: near it is Miltown Malbay, a watering place coming into fashion; its vicinity most interesting to the geologist: where see the Puffing Hole, a curious cavern pervious to the ocean, which exhibits various extraordinary phænomena.

Sixmile Bridge, 15 m. E. of Ennis,—has nothing curious in itself; but see the seat of Mount Jevers, and 2 m. distant the ruins of the once famous Castle of Bunratty.


Iron evidently exists in many parts of the county; as there are many chalybeate springs, particularly Ballykett, Fierd, and Monmore, in the western district: also manganese; some indications of coal; black limestone near the mouth of the Shannon; and the earths would doubtless repay the investigation of the mineralogist.


Adiantum Capillus Veneris, True Maiden Hair:—on the rocky mountains of Burrin.

Arundo arenaria, Sea Matweed:—on the sandy beaches.

Asclepias Vincetoxicum, (Lin.) Swallow Wort:—on the rocky mountains of Burrin.

Butomus umbellatus, Flowering Rush:—in the vicinity of Clare and Correfin.

Crithmum maritimum, Samphire:—on sea cliffs.

Dryas octopetala, Mountain Avens:—found in Burrin on the limestone mountains in abundance, where scarce any other vegetable will exist.

Gentiana verna, Spring Gentian:—on limestone gravelly soils near Galway Bay.

Juniperus communis, Juniper:—in mountainous districts.

Ricinus communis, (Lin.) Palma Christi, or Greater Spurge:—in Burrin.

Rubus saxatilis, Stone Bramble:—in the woods of Cratulagh.

Satureja montana, (Lin.) Winter Savory:—on the mountains of Burrin.

Saxifraga granulata, White Sengreen or Saxifrage:—in dry meadows and pastures in Burrin.

Senecio saracenicus, Broad-leaved Ragwort:—near Corfin.

Spiræa Filipendula, Dropwort:—in Burrin barony.

Teucrium Chamæpitys, Ground Pine:—in the rocky mountains of Burrin.


Is the largest county in the kingdom, and is said to possess more good and more bad land than any other. The vales fertile; well watered with numerous rivulets: maritime also, and having a great extent of sea-coast broken into numerous excellent harbours. Its scenery affords great variety to the tourist, especially in the S.W. district, where a range of lofty mountains extend to the ocean on the borders of Dunmanus Bay. The general surface is indeed rugged and broken, but not so as to impede agricultural labour, except in some districts, and even there they extend cultivation by burning turf fires on the rocks, after which they pour cold water on them and split them readily—a fact which seems to throw some light upon Hannibal's passage of the Alps. Some of the bogs in winter are impassable, especially on the N.W.; yet even these are grazed in summer by immense herds of cattle. Miss Plumptre states that a number of new roads are now making in all parts of the county, which will much accommodate the tourist. It is bounded on the N.E. by Waterford, N. by Tipperary and Limerick, N.W. by Kerry, the remainder by the ocean.

Baltimore, 43 m. from Cork, has a good harbour; but having been plundered and burnt by the Algerines in 1631, is become a mean village. The country round it is rude and romantic, and there are many ancient Castles in decay. The tourist may from hence visit Cape Clear, the southernmost point of Ireland, on an island, where see ruins of Dunanore Castle, with the Cave and ruined Ch. of St. Kieran. Skibbereen, 5 m. from Baltimore, is described by Miss Plumptre as improving in its appearance. See Market-house and Ch.; also the ruins of Abbey Showery with ancient tombs.

Bandon, 12 m. S.W. of Cork,—is in a district not very interesting; it is extensive but ill built. See Castle Bernard, 1 m. W., also Dundanere Castle, and the chalybeate spring. Inishonan, a village, with a linen manufactory and bleach-greens. Miss Plumptre praises the scenery in the dell in which it stands, with good bridge, wooded slopes backed by the Ch., and venerable ruin of an ancient Castle.

Bantry, about 35 m. W. of Cork,—is situated on one of the finest bays in the world, and was noted by the defeat of the French squadron in 1796. The scenery amidst the mountains in which this town is embosomed, Mr. Wakefield thinks scarcely, if at all, exceeded by any other in the island, with the exception of Killarney. The views in all directions are bold, wild, and romantic; especially towards the head of the bay, which is mountainous, and abounding with scenes as rude and wild as imagination can paint or fancy anticipate. Miss Plumptre also describes it as highly worthy the notice of the picturesque tourist; and Mr. Wakefield observes, that the ride to Coolranny Bridge he thinks one of the most delightful that can be conceived. The ascent from that place to the Gowl mountains is very fine, from the gap of which the whole bay appears in its full extent, with lofty mountains on the opposite shore, and Cape Clear in the distant prospect rising above them all. Near this is Hungray Hill, 700 yards above the bay, being 20 miles from Bantry, but amply repaying by the most extensive prospect from its summit, whilst the falls of water down its sides in the winter season are extremely grand. But the greatest charm in the vicinity of Bantry is Glengariff, the road to which runs through some fine mountain scenery, and near it is the modern mansion of Mr. White, surrounded by extensive woods and standing on the edge of one of the finest indentations of the bay, perfect in its form and embosomed at the foot of lofty mountains: much of the surrounding beauty arises from the luxuriant foliage of arbutus, holly, and birch; whilst every turn opens a new glen, everywhere presenting varied and enchanting scenery, beautifully contrasted by the wildness of the opposite mountains. It is not a trifling addition to the amenity of this spot, that the mildness of the winter only strips the deciduous trees of their leaves for a very short time, whilst geraniums and myrtles, and many of the tenderest plants actually remain unsheltered during the whole year. Dursey Island in the bay has the ruins of a Castle. The Priest's Leap is a mountainous pass leading over Mangerton towards Killarney.

Castle Lyons, 15 m. N.E. of Cork.—A well built town in an agreeable vale on the banks of the Bride river. See Lord Barrymore's mansion erected on the ruins of O'Lehan's Castle; also ruins of a Franciscan Abbey, 1307. Near it Kilrea Castle in ruins, to the E. of which the venerable remains of an Abbey dedicated to St. Bridgid, about 1450, with ancient tombs and numerous awful indications of mortality.

Castlemartyr, 16 m. from Cork, a large manufacturing town.—See the ruins of the ancient Castle, and the seat and grounds of the Boyle family: the house itself is worth seeing, being antique and assimilating well with the richly clad wild remains of an ancient castle, whose venerable turrets in majestic ruin peep forth from the thick foliage at a short distance; add to this an extensive sheet of water, which gives life to the surrounding scenery. Let the botanical tourist pay particular attention to the flower-garden and green-houses, elegantly arranged under the taste and genius of the Countess of Shannon. Visit Ballycotton Bay, with extensive strand, good wild fowl shooting and excellent flat- and shell-fish. See there the Ch. and Castle of Ballycrenane. About 1 m. S.E. is the river Dour, which breaks out from a limestone rock, after a subterraneous course of near half a mile, and forms a small lake, where the Halcyon or Kingsfisher is found in great numbers: Charleville, 14 m. N. of Cork, on the borders of Limerick; see Charter School, Ch. and Barracks. The magnificent seat of the Earls of Orrery was burnt down in the wars of the Revolution by the Duke of Berwick after dinner, like the ancient Persepolis.

Cloghnakilty, 22 m. S.W. of Cork,—is seated on a shoal and dangerous bay. See the plain neat Ch. pleasingly situated, but the town is described by Miss Plumptre as poor and dirty. Dundedy or Galway Head has some curious caves worn out by the sea, also ruins of an old Castle. Iniskean, about 8 m. N., has close to it the ruins of Kinigh Ch. with remarkable round tower, a hexagon at the bottom and the upper part round, 70 feet high and 124 feet from the Ch. At Temple Bryan, 1 m. distant, are some remains of an ancient Temple; near the Ch. a stone circle with central pyramidal pillar, and two other pyramids in the immediate vicinity. At Timoleague, about 5 m. E., see ruins of O'Shaughnessy's Castle, and the extensive remains of a venerable Franciscan Abbey, 1350, with numerous tombs of Irish chieftains, Gothic cloisters, and romantic ruins of the ancient monastic apartments: see also the Holy Well.

Cloyne, about 16 m. from Cork.—See the Cathedral; the Bishop's Palace; a small Castle of the Fitzgeralds; a round tower near the Ch.; a Danish rath, and a deep extensive cave in a park near the town. 1 m. W. at Castle Mary, the seat of Lord Longueville, see the Druids' altar, a large stone 15 feet in length, 8 in breadth, and 9 feet from the ground. In the vicinity the mineralogist will find a white substance tinged with yellow ochre, which does not effervesce with acids, but forms a good white paint if mixed with linseed oil. Here also are quarries of fine gray marble. 2 m. W. is Rostellan, the seat of the Marquis of Thomond, with a fine view of Cork harbour, and built on the ruins of an ancient Castle. To the S.W. see Corkbeg, a modern seat with some ecclesiastical ruins near it. The tourist may also proceed to the strand of Ballycroneen to visit an ancient pillar on a hill; also Lascally, a strong moted Danish encampment; Bally Kendrick Castle, &c.

Cork, the second city of Ireland, is 124 m. S.W. of Dublin.—Sir Rich. C. Hoare describes it as affording more interest to the commercial than the antiquarian tourist; and Miss Plumptre observes that it is upon the whole recommendable to the eye only as having a general appearance of comfort and prosperity, not as offering any particular subjects to dwell upon. Mr. Curwen indeed views it with a more favourable notice, and finds many things to approve. Seated on the river Lea, the old town rising on a hill forms an amphitheatre; in the new town some of the streets are spacious, well-built, and handsome. See the Cathedral partly modernized; the Parade, a spacious street with equestrian statue of Geo. II.; the Exchange; Custom House; Botanic Garden belonging to the Literary Institution; Barracks; extensive Porter Brewery; manufactories of Paper, Glass, and Cloth; Market House, &c. The environs are thickly studded with mercantile villas, and present views of happy amelioration. See at Ballyvacadane, 4 m. from Cork, a ruined Abbey; and Ballincolly Castle built upon a rock. Barrymore Island in the bay deserves the notice of the geologist from the circumstance of having a stratum of limestone running through it, although nothing but a red gritty stone exists upon the main land in its vicinity. Blarney Castle, 3 m. distant, must not be forgotten by the tourist. It stands on a bold romantic rock, its walls 18 feet thick, and bore a long siege at the Revolution, but was taken by King William's troops. Part only of the ancient Castle remains, but with modern additions. Those who please may kiss the well-known stone on the summit of the tower, and acquire a perpetual license for flattery and fiction. Carigrohan Castle to the w. has still some remains on a high precipice over the river. The tourist may visit Cove, and the Giant's Stairs, a curious natural production. The marine views in an aquatic excursion to Cork Harbour are very fine; the whole of it is indeed surrounded by stations which command the most beautiful and diversified prospects. If approaching it direct from the sea, the grand panorama which opens to the view in sailing up the narrow entrance, has a most striking effect: on the right Cork Beg, a seat of the Fitzgeralds, with some Abbey ruins; beyond it the woods of Rostellan, the seat of the Marquis of Thomond; then Haulbowling Island, and the lofty hills to the left, forming altogether a grand and impressive scene. Glanmire, 5 m. distant, is a beautiful glen on a narrow arm of the sea, with neat village and Ch. and good view of the harbour. At Monkstown see the fine old Castle on a wooded eminence.

Doneraile, about 16 m. N. of Cork,—has a neat Ch. with lofty spire; see the Barracks on ruins of the old Castle; also some quarries of variegated marble near to it. See ruins of Castletown Roche, gallantly defended by Lady Roche against Cromwell's forces; also Carrigrocunny Castle and romantic ruins of an ancient Abbey at Bridgetown. Castle Saffron, 1 m. E., has several agreeable cascades on the river. Kilcoleman Castle in ruins, 2 m. N.W., will always be interesting to the lover of ancient British poetry, as the spot where Spenser wrote his Faëry Queen. The scenery is magnificent, and the prospect extensive. Monanimy, about 7 m. S., has the ruins of an old Castle and Abbey.

Fermoy, a newly built elegant town of four streets crossing each other at right angles, the work of a Scotch gentleman, Mr. Anderson, is about 15 m. N.E. of Cork; with a bridge of 13 arches mantled with ivy. See the extensive barracks; modern Ch.; ruins of ancient Castles in its vicinity. See Ballyhooly, a picturesque village; also Castle Hyde, a seat well wooded; and ruins of Creg Castle. Miss Plumptre and Mr. Curwen speak highly of the patriotic improvements in this town and vicinity.

Kinsale, 12 m. S. of Cork,—has a spacious harbour, and has been noted from the earliest times in Irish history. It was taken by the Spaniards in 1600, and stood a siege by the Duke of Marlborough in James's wars. See some remains of ruined Abbeys in the town: visit also Charles Fort, 1 m. E. in 1670. The picturesque tourist may visit the Old Head, 4 m. S., with Light-house, and ruins of Duncearma Castle, the old seat of Irish kings.

Kilworth, a thriving town about 20 m. N.E. of Cork,—has some good mountain scenery in its vicinity. Near it is Moorfield, the superb residence of Lord Mount Cashel, also ruins of Cloughleagh Castle.

Macroom, about 16 m. W. of Cork.—See ancient Castle built by King John, still inhabited; also the handsome Ch. In the river Sillane the sportsman will find good trout-fishing. At Agh-a-bollogue, see old Ch. and Holy Well, with the stone called St. Olan's Cap, about which are many superstitious and legendary tales. At Ballyvourney, 6 m. W., see ruins of Ch. with stone Cross and Holy Well. At Carig-a-drohid, 3 m. E., ruins of Castle on steep romantic rocks; and at Carrigafouky, 2 m. W., ancient ruins of MacCarty's Castle on a wild craggy precipice, with remains of a Druidical altar. Dunda Rock, 6 m. S., has a lofty Castle commanding a most extensive prospect. Glyncaum, or the crooked Glyn, is a deep hollow way between steep craggy rocky walls covered with forest trees and shrubby foliage, to the S. of which see ruins of Magshanagloss Castle. Gougenabera, 5 m. N., on the road from Cork to Killarney, presents most romantic scenery round the wild solitude of its secluded lake. Near it is Inchigeela, which offers considerable amusement to the mineralogist. At Lesecresig, on the summit of a hill 2 m. from Macroom, see an ancient cairn with Druidical altar.

Mallow, 12 m. N. of Cork, has long been celebrated as a watering-place. See ruins of an old Castle, Ch., and Barracks; also bridge over the Blackwater, and ruins of an ancient Castle in the well wooded Jephson demesne. Sir R. C. Hoare details some curious traditions respecting it. Also Ballyellis, handsome seat of the Hare family. At Ballynamona, 3 m. S. (so famed in Irish melodies), are ruins of Mourne Abbey. Buttevant, a few miles distant, will amply repay the antiquary for a visit, by the remains of its venerable Abbey; ruins of ancient towers and other picturesque scenery: near to it see Ballybeg, where are ruins of an ancient monastery of Augustines. Dromagh, about 10 m. N.W., has an old Castle of the O'Keefes, with ruins of a Nunnery: and at Kanturk, 3 m. distant, are several remnants of castellated antiquity. Liscarrol, about 5 m. W. of Buttevant, has an ancient Castle in ruins, and was the scene of sanguinary battles in the civil wars. See deep hole, supposed to be fathomless, called Kateshole. Lohort Castle is an old Elizabethan mansion of Lord Arden, fortified in the ancient style with a moat, having a fine terrace on its roof and surrounded with pleasing plantations. Newmarket in the vicinity has some good mountain scenery; and the tourist may visit Woodfort, a handsome seat, with a turret on a hill, from whence a most enchanting prospect.

Mitchelstown, a neat little town, 21 m. N.E. of Cork.—See the magnificent seat of Lord Kingston, and the College, a liberal charity. See in the vicinity, at Brigowne, 1 m., ruins of Ch. and round tower: 1½ m., ruins of Caherdriny Castle; 2 m., ruins of Carriganoura Castle. Castle Hyde near to Mitchelstown deserves a visit. The grounds are extensive, and the house is curiously seated at the base of a lofty rock. The park contains much diversified scenery, and is traversed by the romantic Blackwater. See the marble quarries, esteemed as handsome as any in Ireland; of a dark gray colour with various shades, and a rich display of shells. At Skehewrinky, see the cave in a limestone hill of dangerous descent, but beautifully encrusted with spar and resembling a vaulted cathedral.

Middleton, half way between Cork and Youghall, at the N.E. corner of Cork harbour. See some ancient ruins of a Castle and Abbey; the Market-house; public Freeschool, an elegant building; some remains of Danish works and a large rath at Ballinachora. Several of the curiosities are noticed under Cloyne.

Mill Street, 20 m. N.W. is a small village, with some appearance of the linen manufacture. The roads are bad; but it has near it a continued range of mountains that deserve investigation, particularly two amongst them called the Papps, from their singular resemblance to the human breast, and having two little protuberances on the very summit of each, which enforce the resemblance more strongly: these Sir R. C. Hoare suspects to be carnedds or Tumuli. Near it see ruins of Clodagh Castle, feudal seat of the Mac Swinneys, once distinguished for its hospitality by an inscription inviting all strangers to enter; at Clondrohid, ancient Ch. and Danish encampments; and 1 m. W., on Lessecresighill, vestiges of a Druidical altar. At Kilnamartery, curious white rocks, at a distance resembling the ruins of a magnificent city.

Rathcormuck, 12 m. N.E. of Cork, a decent town, with Ch. and neat Market-house. See to the N. Cairn Tierna, a range of mountains with an ancient cairn, forming a conspicuous object. Glanmire is described by Miss Plumptre as a village in a beautiful and romantic situation:—trace the rivulet through the deep and picturesque glen. Glanworth has spacious ruins of an ancient Castle, and some remains of a Dominican Abbey, with good river scenery. 1 m. distant is a most curious sepulchral monument called Labacally or the Hag's Bed, said by tradition to have belonged to a giantess of whom many ridiculous fables are related. Its real history and antiquity are unknown: it consists of several broad flag-stones supported by others, and most of them of an enormous size, one no less than 17 feet long and 9 broad. The whole length of this vast tomb, which is hollow underneath, is 40 feet; in breadth 14; and the whole seems to have been inclosed in a circle of flag-stones about 14 feet from the outside.

Ross, about 24 m. S.W. of Cork, may be visited from Clonakilty.—See a small Gothic Cathedral; ruins of Abbey, Barracks, and neat Market-house. Miss Plumptre describes the surrounding scenery as extremely pretty. See curious caves in the rocks by sea side. At Castlefreke good marine scenery. Castlehaven has ruins of several Castles, and remains of Spanish entrenchments in Elizabeth's time. At Dunmanway see some romantic scenery, with a curious natural wall of rocks. Glandore Bay is a most picturesque scene resembling an inland lake. At Kilmacabra see Lough Drine with Danish entrenchment on hill to the E. The lough is supposed by the peasantry to have the miraculous property of shifting all its islands on some holy day every year. At Miros are some curious rocks and caverns; see also Mount Gabriel with most extensive prospect, with a deep lough on its summit.

Youghall, about 24 m. E. of Cork,—is noticeable as the spot where the first potatoe was planted in Ireland. Some good scenery around it; and cheerful in the summer as a watering place. See the Ch. a large Gothic structure with six Gothic arches on each side of the nave; partly suffered to decay, particularly the chancel, where there is a very fine east window of the purest Gothic. Here are several ancient monuments. The mineralogist will be gratified by visiting Clay Castle, about 1 m. S.W. from the town; a bold hill, on the strata of loose sandy clay, pieces of which falling upon the beach become a hard firm grit like freestone.


Coal is to be met with in the barony of Duhallow; in the N.W. also iron. In Muskerry in the W. are curious red and white slaty pebbles, and in other parts are limestone and loam with symptoms of copper. But on the whole this district, though interesting to the geologist, is very deficient in mineralogy.


Althæa officinalis, Marshmallow:—at Cable Island.

Aquilegia vulgaris, Columbine:—plains near Kilbullane.

Arbutus Teredo, Strawberry Tree:—on the mountains.

Asplenium Adianthum nigrum, Common Black Maiden-hair:—on the mountains.

Asplenium Trichomanes, English Black Maiden-hair:—on rocky soils.

Cardamine bellidifolia, Daisy-leaved Ladies'-smock:—on old walls near Cork.

Cistus Helianthemum, Dwarf Cistus or Little Sun-flower:—on on limestone hills near Castlemore, and in the barony of Muskerry.

Cochlearia danica, Danish Scurvy-grass:—on Cape Clear and elsewhere.

Cochlearia officinalis, Common or Garden Scurvy-grass:—on rocks near the sea.

Convallaria majalis, May Sally:—on the river Bandon.

Dianthus Caryophyllus β, Common Pink:—on the walls of an old castle in the market-place at Kinsale.

Euphorbia hyberna, Knotty-rooted Spurge:—in the mountains.

Helleborus viridis, Wild Black Hellebore:—in a meadow near Doneraile.

Hypericum Ascyron (Lin.), Bruges-rose:—near Ballymaloe in the barony of Imokilly.

Lavatera arborea, Sea Tree Mallow:—on Cable Island near Youghall harbour in Cork.

Lepidium latifolium, Dittander or Pepperwort:—near Corkbeg.

Mentha rubra, Red Mint:—near the head of the river Lee near Lough Alloa.

Nymphæa alba, White Water-lily:—on the rivers Lee and Blackwater.

Pimpinella major, Great Burnet Saxifrage:—in woods and hedges on a chalky soil about Cork plentifully.

Pinus Abies, Common Fir:—in the mountains.

Sambucus Ebulus, Dwarf Elder or Danewort:—on the lands of Rathpecan near Cork.

Saxifraga umbrosa, London Pride, or None-so-pretty:—on all the rocks in the western districts.

Sedum dasyphyllum, Round-leaved Stonecrop:—on an old wall near Blarney Castle.

Sedum Telephium, Orpine or Live-long:—on walls and in pastures and hedges near Mallow and Doneraile.

Taxus baccata, the Yew-tree:—in several parts of Carbery.

Vaccinium Oxycoccus, Cran-berries, Moss-berries, or Moor-berries:—in moorish boggy grounds.


The N.W. extremity of Ireland, anciently inhabited by the Rhobogdii and Venicni; but in more modern history known as Tyrconnel. The whole of the western coast consists of a range of mountainous rocks, which in some places throw out branches that extend to the sea, or run between borders of sand. Between the mountains in the interior of the county there are extensive tracts of bog, in which are the remains of immense forests buried deep in the bosom of the vale, though at present the tourist travels for miles without a single tree to solace his eye. One part of the county, in the vicinity of Leichbeg and Glentes, presents a view of most singular appearance, consisting of an almost uninhabited waste of heath, with masses of granite protruding from the sides of the mountains; whilst here and there, wherever a little soil can be found, are small patches of cultivated land, with small cabins formed of dry stone, cement being unthought of. It is bounded by the Atlantic on the N. and W., by Tyrone and Londonderry on the E. and by Fermanagh and Leitrim on the S.

Ballyshannon, about 10 m. W. of Donnegal,—presents some pleasing scenery of beautiful landscapes, swelling hills cultivated, and with the bay flowing up between them. These hills are extremely picturesque, rising into various outlines, and dying away insensibly into one another. See Bridge of 14 arches; also the Salmon-leap, surrounded by most romantic scenery; a fine fall of water; perpendicular rocks forming the banks of the river, with bold views of the sea. Here also are some ruins of the once famous Castle of the O'Donnels, the turbulent feudal chieftains of Tyrconnel; and ½ m. distant, in a secluded but finely picturesque situation, the ruins of Asheroe Abbey. In the vicinity several Danish Raths. Belleek is a pretty village, 8 m. E. of Ballyshannon, and at the end of Lough Erne, whose waters here form two fine cataracts under perpendicular and well wooded rocks. Several handsome seats, particularly Castle Caldwell on the Lough, with ruins of several ancient Castles; but in Fermanagh.

DONNEGAL, the county town, is a decayed town 111 m. N.W. from Dublin.—It contains little worth notice, except an ancient castellated mansion of the Earls of Arran, which with the river and bridge is considered by Sir R. C. Hoare as forming a good subject for the pencil. Near it are the remains of a Franciscan Abbey (1505) in a most picturesque situation. See spacious market-place; mill-stone quarries in vicinity. The finest view of the Bay is from the bridge of Imber, whence towards the right is seen a lofty but distant mountain, with cultivated fields in the foreground: at the foot of another mountain a gentleman's seat with well grown plantations strikes the eye; and to the left the scene is diversified by a sand bank thrown up by the sea, and a high ridge of plantation on the western side of the river, with the bay appearing beyond it or seen through its waving interstices. Barnmoor pass is highly awful and grand, leading towards Lough Esk, about a quarter of a mile wide and 3 m. long, formed by mountains rising high on each side of a deep glen covered with heath, and frowning in deathlike silence. Lough Derg, 6 m. E. is remarkable for its Purgatory; founded as reported by St. Patrick, in a small island about 130 yards long and 50 broad. The Purgatory itself consists of a cave 16½ feet long by 2 wide, so very low that a tall man cannot stand erect in it. Around it are the remains of several Chapels and holy circles dedicated to various saints of both sexes. Lough Esk lies at the head of the valley which communicates with Donnegal, and at the foot of the magnificent Ross Mountains; round it the scenery is sometimes awfully sublime, and sometimes rich and cheerful. The sportsman will find red deer on the hills, and char in the lake.

Inishowen Barony.—Even in Ireland, it is considered wild, savage, and impassable, from want of good roads. But Mr. Wakefield represents it in a very different light, and worthy the notice of the tourist. The roads, he says, are very good; the land better cultivated than any other part of the county; whilst the views of Lough Swilly from it are exceedingly grand. See the agreeably situated house of the Bishop of Derry at Faun. Let the mineralogist visit the Arigal, on the eastern bound of the county, said to be the highest hill in the province; it is shaped like a sugar-loaf, and contains a quantity of mountain spar, with lead-mines in its vicinity. In this district is the parish of Cloncha, where are some remains of a large stone Cross sculptured with rude representations of various animals; also part of a Druidical circle of 12 stones, 6 feet high, forming a segment of a circle 60 feet in diameter. In the same parish see the great peninsular rock of Dunmore. In this parish are still preserved some traditionary fragments of Ossian. In Clonmany parish see the picturesque scenery round the Ch.; also a round tower forming part of the ruins of an ancient Castle; near it a castle on a pyramidal rock, not far from which is Mamore Gap, presenting the most sublime scenery of mountains, rocks, and ocean,—a district consecrated to the memory of Cuchullin and the heroes of other times: a Druidical altar here, is called Cuchullin's (or Fion Mac Cuil's) stone. Near Cromla, in this vicinity, is the site of the ancient Tura, so famed in those scattered traditionary fragments that form the basis of Mac Pherson's modern Fingal.

Killybegs, about 12 m. W. of Donnegal, offers some fine marine and mountain scenery. See ruins of Abbey.

Letterkenny, about 25 m. N.E. of Donnegal, and 15 m. W.N.W. of Londonderry, forms a good station for visiting the wild scenery towards the coast. At Ards Castle, see ruins of Castle and Baltimore Ch. Dunfanaghy has some castellated ruins in its vicinity. At Hornhead, 28 m. W. from Letterkenny, see a remarkable cavern called Mac Swine's Gun, on a rocky cliff 60 feet perpendicular. Of these rocks the lower stratum is porous sandstone, hollowed into a cavern by the violence and continual buffeting of the waves, from whence an aperture proceeds to the summit. When the wind comes from the N.W. the billows being driven with great violence into the cavern, the water thus forced to find a passage through the aperture, rises to the summit of the funnel, from whence it again descends with a most tremendous noise. Near this is MacSwine's Castle, an ancient edifice, now fitted up as a modern residence. See Rutland, a modern fishing-town, worthy the notice of the statistical tourist. Kilmacrenan, about 8 m. N., has some ecclesiastical ruins, founded by St. Columb, of which the parish Ch. forms a part. See the rock on which the O'Donnels, princes of Tyrconnel, were always inaugurated; also Lough Salt, in a romantic situation on the summit of a mountain. Murkish Mountain, situated within 4 m. of two deep and safe harbours, Dunfanaghy and Sheephaven, affords siliceous sand in great abundance. Rathmelton is a beautiful village on the banks of Lough Swilly: see Sir J. Stewart's handsome seat. The scenery around is delightful; much planting, a fine river, and every appearance of increasing industry and comfort. W. of Rathmelton is the bridge of Loughaugh, an arch of 52 feet span. Ascend Mount Alt, on the summit of which a lake with most extensive prospect, combining ocean and mountain scenery.

Lifford, 28 m. N.E. of Donnegal, is prettily seated on the river Foyle, and is the assize town for the county. The tourist will here find the inhabitants a complete Scotch colony.

Rapho, 24 m. N.E. of Donnegal, was an episcopal city, but now a dilapidated village.—See the Episcopal Palace, once a Castle which stood a siege in the Civil Wars: also the modernized Cathedral. Near Ballybofy see Lough Mourne, and the dreary mountains of Barnsmore.

Tory Island, which lies about 3 leagues from the main, N.W. from Sheephaven, contains the ruins of a monastery and of seven churches, having formerly been a "station," or place of Catholic penance.


Sandstone and basaltes or whinstone, with pieces of coal imbedded, are frequent in Kilbarrow and Kildoney. Emery is also found in the same vicinity, and the chalybeates announce the existence of iron. Lead and iron ore are to be found in the mountains.


Galium boreale, Crosswort Madder:—in mountainous meadows.

Gnaphalium sylvaticum, Upright Cudweed:—in sandy pastures and woods.

View from Warren Point Near Newry.

T. Fielding fc.

View from Warren Point Near Newry.


The modern picture of this county, as sketched by Mr. Wakefield, is flattering to Irish pride, and shows what may be done by industry. He observes that in the western side in particular, the land is in a high state of cultivation, and inhabited by a middle class of opulent manufacturers, whose appearance and condition would do honour to any country in Europe. Their habitations are well-built, display great neatness, and are all whitewashed. The whole tract is embellished with plantations; and, whether owing to the wealth created by the linen manufacture, or the trade carried on at Belfast and Newry, every thing exhibits evident signs of increased population and industry. The banks of the rivers Bann and Lagan are covered with bleach-fields, and present that cheerful and pleasing scenery which characterizes a manufacturing country, and excites in the mind an idea of improved civilization. The whiteness of the linen spread out in those fields, contrasted with the greenness of the surrounding sward, produces an effect on the eye not easily described; and the concomitant objects, added to the bustle and activity of the people employed, render the whole scene most interesting. In the S. the mountains of Mourne raise their majestic heads to the sky, and afford much entertainment to the picturesque tourist, who may visit them from Rosstrevor; and it is a curious fact recently noticed, that a road leading to Carlingford over one of the loftiest, is actually cut through a stratum of sea shells (Turbo littoreus) of considerable depth, and more than 1 m. in length. The roads are good in all parts, and the accommodations comfortable. Bounded on the N. by Antrim, E. by St. George's Channel, S. by Louth, and W. by Armagh.

Ballynahinch, 10 m. N.W. of Downpatrick, seated on a small river nearly in the centre of the county, has been long celebrated for its sulphurated chalybeate spa, at the foot of Slieve Croob mountain at about 2 m. dist. The vicinity is peculiarly romantic. See Ch., Charter-school, and Dissenting Meeting-house. See on the summit of Slieve Croob mountain a remarkable cairn, 80 yards in circumference at base, and 50 at top; another near Annadorn in its immediate vicinity with a rude stone chamber in the centre. The space between Slieve Croob and Ballynahinch is so completely occupied with rocks and hills, that anciently it bore the name of Magheradrol, or Field of Difficulties.

Banbridge, about 18 m. W. from Downpatrick, has a bridge over the Bann, and is in the heart of the linen manufacture. At Gilford, 5 m. distant, is a chalybeate; and the river scenery, especially in the vicinity of its bridge of 18 arches, deserves notice. At Warringston see Ch. with curious roof of Irish oak; also a Danish rath.

Bangor, a small town 21 m. N. of Downpatrick on Carrickfergus Bay. See ruins of Abbey founded by St. Carigel (555), with Ch. (1623). Near it is Groom's Port, where Schomberg landed with K. William's forces at the Revolution.

Comber, a thriving little town on Strangford Lough, 13 m. N. of Downpatrick, with pleasant lake scenery. See ruins of Mount Alexander Castle; fine strand at low water, and most excellent race-course. In this place the tourist will hear much of a famous female spinner, Anne MacQuillin, some of whose finest yarn, spun into 105 hanks to the pound of flax, actually measured 214 English miles per pound. To spin this required about a fortnight, and could only be done in mild weather. At Castlereagh, 4 m., see ruins of ancient Castle. At Drumbo, 5 m. S.W. of Castlereagh, see ruins of Ch. and round tower, formerly an Abbey founded by St. Patrick; and 2 m. N. the Giant's Ring, already noticed as in the vicinity of Belfast. It is an ancient circle and mound of earth 842 paces in circumference, with a Druidical altar in the centre, consisting of four masses of stone, with a larger one laid horizontally. On the bank are the remains of a round tower. It is worth observing, that although there are some lofty mountains in its vicinity, yet a person standing at the Cromlech in the centre has his view completely bounded by the earthen mound, beyond which the sky alone is visible, and the effect sublime. About 3 m. distant on the banks of the Lagan is Newtonbreda, a pretty village with extremely handsome Ch.; and near to it the elegant seat and park of Belvoir. Saintfield, 5 m. S.W. of Comber, is an improving town; near which is a Danish rath worth seeing.

Donaghadee, the station for the Scottish packets, about 22 m. N. of Downpatrick, a comfortable town. See Gothic Ch. and new market-place. The pier forms a pleasant walk. See the rath 70 feet high on a natural mount, 140 feet in all. The summit is capable of holding 100 persons, and the view, over the channel, of Scotland and the Isle of Man is very extensive. Whilst in this vicinity, the tourist will be amused by a marine trip to the Copland Isles, on one of which, Cross Island, containing about 30 acres, there is a light-house constructed of limestone found on the spot. In one of them is a cemetery with the ruins of a Ch., also several cairns. See Portavo and ruins of Temple Ch. on the beach, on the spot where St. Patrick landed.

Downpatrick, 74 m. N. of Dublin, is the county town, pleasantly seated on an arm of Strangford Lough. See remains of ancient Abbey and Cathedral, boasted of as the burial-place of St. Patrick, St. Columb, and St. Bridget: Town-hall; Market-house; Barracks; Gaol: on the N.W. is a conical rath, 60 feet high, inclosed by 3 ramparts; the race-ground 1 m. distant. Struel Wells, celebrated as a Penitentiary, about 1 m. from the town. At Ardglass, 5 m. S.E. in Irish Channel, ruins of several Castles. Ballycarn Bay in its vicinity has a beautiful grotto under a limestone hill, with an intensely cold well. W. of it is Ballyvaston. See an extensive tract of land, rendered sterile by sand from the ocean. Carreg Abbey; ruins of Abbey and St. Finian's Well are near Ardglass; also Castle Screan, built on a Danish rath, with several Druidical remains. Coil-bridge, the Port of Downpatrick, leads to Inis Courcey, where are some ruins of an Abbey (1180). Killough, 5 m. S.E., is a pleasant village, with good harbour on the Irish Channel. See Ch.; Horse-barracks; Charter-school, and near it a mineral spring. In a rock near the shore runs an oblong cavity, which at the ebbing and flowing of the tide emits a noise like a hunting-horn: St. Scordin's Well gushes out of a rock on the beach, and is never dry. Saul Abbey in ruins, with some castellated remains, is about 2 m. from Downpatrick.

Dromore, about 18 m. N.W. of Downpatrick, is a bishop's see, but now merely a village.—See the very small Cathedral and neat modern Episcopal Palace. Danish rath on hill at N. side, with a covered passage 260 feet to the Lagan river. Chalybeate spring, said to be good in gravelly complaints. Neat Market-house; Dissenting Meeting-houses, &c. Dromaragh, 6 m. S.E., has some curious artificial caves of considerable extent. S.E. towards Slieve-croob, at Leganeny, a curious cromlech, and ancient stone cross near Drumgooland Ch. Magheralin, 5 m. N.W., has a handsome Ch.; see marble quarries. At Moira, 4 m. N.W., the scene of a sanguinary battle in 637, which lasted six days, between Congal Claon and Donald King of Ireland; see Moira Castle.

Dundrum, 7 m. S.W. of Downpatrick, is seated on a large bay open to the Irish Channel—See extensive ruins of ancient Castle on a rock, built by the Knights Templars, but dismantled by Cromwell. Here the noble mountains of Mourne appear to great advantage. Clogh, a small village 2 m. N.E., has a Danish rath surrounded by a broad deep fosse, with plain strong Castle; and near it Mount Panther, seat of the Annesleys. Castle Wellan has a small lake with pretty scenery; near it, Briansford, a village seated midst romantic mountain landscape, rocks, cataracts, &c. New Castle has some castellated ruins at the foot of Slieve Donard, the highest of the Mourne mountains; and is a much frequented sea-bathing place. The vicinity wild and sterile, but alpine and highly romantic. S. of Dundrum, at Slidderyford, are remains of a Druidical circle. Tullymore Park, near to it, is the seat of the Earl of Clanbrassil, and is situated at one end of the mountains of Mourne, and within 2 m. of the sea. The country around it is wild and rocky, exhibiting some scenes of singular beauty in the romantic style. Two mountain torrents join in the Park, and form sundry cascades in their passage to the sea, into which they fall at Dundrum Bay. The house stands in the park, and, though not lofty in itself, yet commands a fine prospect from its elevated situation. It is an extensive edifice with four fronts of 130 feet each, inclosing a square area, and each front is different from the others; 10 m. from Downpatrick.

Hillsborough, 18 m. N.W. of Downpatrick, a modern built town with excellent inn. See elegant Ch. with stained glass windows; the mansion of the marquis of Downshire; remains of Castle; handsome Market-house; Maze course, 1 m. distant, one of the finest in Ireland, with a hill in the centre. At Anahilt, 3 m. S., the sportsman will find plenty of pike and trout in Lough Erin, and wild-fowl in the extensive bogs.

Killyleagh, 5 m. N.E. of Downpatrick, stands on Strangford Lough, and is a thriving place, with handsome Ch. &c. It was the birth-place of the venerable Sir Hans Sloane, founder of the British Museum. See the Castle. At Ardmillar, 6 m. N.E., is a chalybeate spring. Ringhaddy has some remains of a Castle, and has long been famous for its oysters.

Loughbrickland, on the Dublin road from Belfast, is about 24 m. W. of Downpatrick, on the borders of the Jonesborough mountains, where there is much wild scenery, and a small lake in its immediate vicinity where the sportsman will find plenty of speckled trout. It is noted as an encampment of K. William's army on their way to the battle of the Boyne. From Ellenmoney, a bog near it, towards Points Pass, run two rivers, one N. the other S. Near it and at Scarvagh are remains of fortifications in the Civil Wars.

Newry, a thriving commercial town at the head of Carlingford Bay, on the verge of the county, and about 25 m. S.W. of Downpatrick.—A pleasant cheerful vicinity, and a good central station. See canal, drawbridges, &c. ½ m. distant are the Creeve rocks, with ruins of old Chapel. The mineralogist may here examine specimens of metallic spar, ponderous and ferruginous. At Crownbridge, 1 m. E., a Danish rath; and near it some Druidical remains. At Narrow-water, the port of Newry, see ancient Castle and Salt-works. N. of it 5 m. is Tuscan Pass, with several small lakes in which are plenty of pike. The tourist may also visit Warren's Point, where large ships are obliged to lie, and where the whole line of coast presents a continuation of gentlemen's houses and whitened cottages, enlivened in the bathing season by numerous parties.

Newtonards, a comfortable town at the head of Strangford Lough, about 18 m. N. of Downpatrick. See venerable Ch., with some vestiges of an ancient monastery at Moville 1 m. distant. Gransha, about 5 m. E., has a good chalybeate, stronger than Tunbridge Wells, but little frequented being in a wild boggy district. Not far distant is Grey Abbey on the E. shore of the Lough, founded by a daughter of one of the kings of Man, whose statue is still preserved. Part of it is fitted up as a parish Ch., and the E. window is a noble specimen of Gothic tracery. About ½ m. S. of Newtonards is Scraba mountain, lofty, but cultivated nearly to the summit. Near to it are good freestone quarries; and 2 m. N. a loftier hill, sometimes confounded with it, called Karn Gaur or the Goat's Mount. The vicinity is famous for goat's whey. See Mount Stewart.

Portaferry, 10 m. N.E. of Downpatrick, is a town of some trade at the mouth of Strangford Lough.—See ancient Castle of the Savages; Ch. and two curious chapels. Near it is Echlinville. At Kirkistown, 4 m. N.E., ancient Ch. of Slane, and ruins of Castlebuy.

Rathfryland, about 21 m. W. of Downpatrick, is a large pleasant village.—On summit of a hill see ruins of a Castle. The country round it is very agreeable. See village of Hilltown: Lissize, seat of E. Clanwilliam; and Turkelly's Well, 2 m. N., a celebrated chalybeate for scrophulous complaints.

Rostrevor, about 22 m. from Downpatrick, is considered the Brighton of Ireland as a watering-place, and highly extolled for its romantic scenery; being seated on a well wooded bank on a small arm of the sea, which stretches into the country from Carlingford Bay. Sir R. C. Hoare describes the entrance to it as very striking on approaching from Dundrum; Carlingford Bay being so landlocked and surrounded by mountains as to resemble a large lake; and the tourist, passing through an irregular grove of tall and aged ash trees, with the sea and whitened houses glimmering between them, finds here a truly rural village retirement, commanding within its immediate vicinity more beauty than the generality of sea places; a dry soil, shady walks, diversified rides, and good bathing. He describes the most striking feature of this place to be a lofty mountain covered chiefly with oak wood, feathered down to the water's edge; underneath which is a little quay, from whence there is a walk of ¾ m. along the banks of the bay completely arboured by oak trees, with a good road continued along the coast under the Mourne Mountains to Dundrum Bay. We recommend this spot more particularly to the tourist, as Sir R. C. adds that he has seen no place with a more pleasing combination of rural beauties; mountains agreeably varied with wood, heath, and down, on one side; others on the opposite coast (Louth) singularly cultivated in small portions or strips resembling a quilt of patchwork; between them an extended channel of water, on the banks of which is the town of Carlingford with its ruined Abbeys and Castle; a purling brook, fine trees, neatly whitened cottages, &c. and a clean good inn. Miss Plumptre speaks of it in equally picturesque and admiring terms. 1 m. see ruins of Kilbreny Ch. The tourist may examine a romantic mountain road to Rathfyland; and the mineralogist will find ample amusement on the lofty mountains of Iveagh and Mourne, which extend far to the E. along the Irish sea.

Strangford, 7 m. N.E. of Downpatrick, is a small but very ancient town, at the entrance of the Lough.—See Charter School, and ruins of Castle Audley, and Walsh's Castle, from the former of which there is a most extensive view over the bay. Kilclief Castle has considerable remains. The Lough possesses some very fine scenery, especially towards its entrance, where through tracts of hilly grounds the Irish Channel is seen at intervals and the lofty hills of the Isle of Man. The town of Strangford in the bottom is pleasantly situated amongst trees, contrasting well with the bold mountains of Mourne in all their sublimity. Near is Castle Ward, the seat of Lord Bangor, with the peculiarity of two fronts, one Grecian the other Gothic. See the fine grounds and extensive prospects.


Copper ore in several places amongst the mountains. Lead in a mine near Newtonards; rich specimens of ore amongst the rocks at Killough; near Dundrum; and Portaferry.

Freestone quarries at Scraba and Kilwarlin; and slates at Bangor and other places. The mineralogist and geologist will find much amusement in the limestone quarries near Moira, containing specimens of marine exuviæ.

Granite amongst the Mourne Mountains.

Iron has not been found in ore, but the numerous chalybeates attest its presence.


Asplenium Adiantum nigrum, Black Maiden-hair:—on the mountains of Mourne.

Fucus esculentus, Broad esculent Sea Wrack:—on submarine rocks and stones.

Galega officinalis, (Linn.) Goat's Rue:—in the western parts.

Juniperus communis, Common Juniper:—on Mourne and Scraba.

Juniperus Sabina, Savine:—on the Mourne mountains.

Lycopodium alpinum, Mountain Club Moss:—in the Mourne district.

Lycopodium clavatum, Common Club-moss:—on the Mourne mountains.

Nymphæa alba, White Water Lily:—among the lakes in the western parts.

Orobus sylvaticus, Bitter Vetch:—in woods and hedges near Rosstrevor.

Pyrola rotundifolia, Wintergreen:—on Scraba.

Serapias longifolia γ, a variety of White-flowered Bastard Hellebore:—on a rotten bog by a lough side near Ballinahinch.

Teucrium Scordium, Water Germander:—in marshy places about Granshaw.

Valantia cruciata, Crosswort:—among the rubbish of the Cathedral of Downpatrick.


This county offers to the tourist a complete epitome of the whole Island. In the northern district are many bogs, yet in various points the most beautiful scenery opens to the view, presenting numerous villages with highly ornamented mansions and villas scattered around; except in some few spots, trees indeed are wanting; and extensive salt marshes spread towards the coast. S. of the Liffey there is very little tillage, but to the picturesque eye this is amply compensated by the wild uncultivated heaths, rocky mountains, winding glens, and sombre landscapes that extend on every side. The ancient inhabitants were the Voluntii and Eblani; after them came the Danes and Ostmen; in later times the county was always within the English pale. The Irish sea bounds it on the E., on the S. Wicklow, W. Kildare, and N. Eastmeath.

Balruddery, 15 m. N. of Dublin, lies on the coach road, and, though but a village in decay, may form a temporary station for the tourist to examine the northern district; or he may stop at the Man of War Inn, 2 m. nearer to the capital. Balbriggan, is a good fishing village 2 m. distant; see Cotton Manufactory; and the mineralogist may examine the veins of sparry micaceous stone, of copper, and sulphur, recently discovered. Near the sea coast is Baldungan Castle, now a mass of ruins, having been taken and dismantled by Cromwell; yet enough remains to give interest to the legendary stories connected with it. Its architecture is of the 13th century, combining the domestic with the castellated form as a baronial residence, and said by tradition to have contained a nunnery and a friary within its walls, whose religious occupants sought protection here during the intestine warfare of early times. The situation is pleasant, with a most extensive view in all directions; and there still remain two large towers at the west end with a parapet in front that covers the passage between them, the whole richly mantled with ivy: besides which many of the domestic apartments may be traced in the adjoining building, the approach to which is by staircases in the towers, leading also to the battlements. See also the Chapel and cemetery. At Grace Dieu are some remains of a Nunnery (1190). Holm Patrick has some venerable remains of a Ch. dedicated to the tutelar saint, who made this place his residence. Naul, a small village 14 m. N. from Dublin, upon the borders of Eastmeath, deserves a visit to its very beautiful glen, whose romantic rocks, cascade, and rugged caves, are finely contrasted by the picturesque ruins of its ancient castle. See the waterfall called the Roches, and ruins of Snowton Castle. Patrick's Isle has the ruins of an ancient Ch.

Dublin, says Sir R. Hoare, is more remarkable for its fine public buildings than for its squares or streets: the latter, though planned upon an extensive scale, want neatness and symmetry; but the former unite elegance of design and grandeur with good execution. As this is probably the first spot visited, we may observe that the view in approaching the bay is delightful. On the left is seen a rich and well-cultivated bank covered with villages and cottages, and backed by the Wicklow Mountains, towering to a considerable height and fading into the purple of distance. To the southward are seen Sea View and the Black Rock, about 4 m. from the capital, studded with white cottages for summer residents; to the north a more level country extends towards the Hill of Howth covered with villas, amongst which is the architectural bijou belonging to Lord Charlemont, known by the name of Marino. On approaching the harbour the stranger is agreeably struck with the appearance of commercial activity, the range of shipping extending nearly a mile into the city, their masts resembling an immense forest. As he advances the scene becomes more interesting; but to enable him to investigate it at his leisure we shall arrange all the objects of curiosity alphabetically under their various heads.

The Bridges are numerous, convenient, and the new ones elegant. Carlisle bridge forms a magnificent junction of the finest streets in the city. Essex bridge, near the Castle, is a miniature of Westminster bridge. Sarah bridge of one arch, 104 feet span, is compared to the Rialto at Venice. The quays are well built and extensive; but the river is an unpleasant object except at high water.

Dublin from the Circular Road.

T. Fielding del. et fc.

Dublin from the Circular Road.

The Churches are very numerous, besides Meeting-houses, and Catholic-chapels. Christ Church, the Priory of the Holy Trinity, is of ancient date, erected by a Danish prince in 1038, and much enlarged by the addition of various chapels by adventurers in the reign of Hen. II. Here they show a monument, said to be that of Strongbow Earl of Pembroke, the principal invading chieftain; an opinion certainly confirmed by Sir Henry Sydney, in 1570, who restored the monument after it had been broken by the fall of the roof; but Leland asserts that in his time an inscription in Gloucester Cathedral expressly stated that to be his place of sepulture. To the left of the high altar, see a costly marble tomb of an Earl of Kildare, in 1743; opposite to this, one of Secretary Agard in 1577; also the singular musical epitaph of Dr. Woodward. The architecture of the exterior is various, Saxon and Gothic; the inside an incongruous mixture of Gothic and Grecian. The Round Ch. deserves notice for the singularity of its form; and St. Catherine's on the S. side of Thomas-street has a handsome modern front. St. Patrick's Cathedral is a fine object of ancient ecclesiastical architecture, but surrounded by filth and poverty of the most disgusting kind. It is of various dates, from 1190 down to 1750, when the lofty spire was erected; and part, including the steeple, was re-edified in 1370, after partial destruction by fire. The Virgin's Chapel is of the year 1271; but the whole is now in such a ruinous state that Sir R. C. Hoare fears its speedy downfall. He recommends the Chapter-house and choir as the best specimens of its architecture. On the right of the altar see the very curious monument of the Boyle family, rising nearly to the ceiling; on the opposite side, the tomb of Lord Ranelagh; a tablet to the memory of Dean Swift, and near it one for Stella; another to Sir H. Wallop; and a bust of the celebrated but eccentric George Falkner.

The Hospitals are numerous and well regulated. The principal are, the Blue-coat Hospital at Oxmanton Green, for sons of decayed freemen; Foundling, spacious and airy; Kilmainham, for soldiers, on the plan of Chelsea on a grand scale; Magdalen, in Leeson-street, with Sunday service; Marine School, on Rogerson's Quay; Incorporated Society's Establishment, in Lower Bagot-street, for females educated at public expense, until apprenticed; with many others.

Literary Societies.—The Institution in Sackville-street has a good library, lecture- and news-rooms; good collection of minerals and marbles. The Dublin Society has a fine Museum of Natural History, particularly in minerals; good library, laboratory, lecture-room, exhibition of paintings; Botanic Garden at Glasnevin, and Observatory at Dunsink. Royal Irish Academy has literary meetings every Monday.

Private Edifices—are not very numerous. See Charlemont House; Leinster House, fine Corinthian front, rusticated, and Doric wings; Waterford House in Marlborough-street.

Public Edifices.—The barracks consist of 4 noble squares. The Castle, mean on the outside but splendid within, contains Public offices, an Arsenal and Armory; elegant modern Gothic Chapel, and Bermingham's Tower. Commercial buildings on N. side of Dame-street. To see the Custom House with striking effect, it must be viewed from the opposite side of the river, where the statues and decorations present a fine spectacle. The internal arrangements deserve notice. The long room is 70 feet square and of course a practical bull. The Exchange merits peculiar architectural attention, being a fine rotunda within a square, having in the interior 12 fluted pillars of the Composite order, 32 feet high, with a highly enriched entablature crowned by a handsome dome. The Law Courts form a magnificent pile; the approach grand, the hall noble, and the arrangements well suited to the purpose. Sir R. C. Hoare objects to the architectural effect produced by the dome, especially when viewed from the opposite side of the river. See the Linen Hall. The Parliament House, no longer used for its original purpose, presents a façade of fine architecture perfectly in unison with the handsome front of Trinity College. Post Office in Sackville-street. Stamp Office occupies an elegant mansion in William-street; once Powerscourt House. Trinity College forms a very striking object when approached from Dame-street. The tourist will notice the fine effect on entering the principal court, particularly of two elegant stone buildings with correspondent Corinthian porticoes on the right and left. See the Library, a magnificent room, surpassed only in Sir R. C. Hoare's opinion, by that of Trinity College at Cambridge: it is 269 feet long, 50 broad, and 40 high. The æra of the University is the reign of Elizabeth, but the edifice itself is modern. A handsome but not very extensive park belongs to the University, in which, see the celebrated Anatomical School, with wax preparations; also the Museum and the Provost's House.

Public Places are not very numerous. The Rotunda in Rutland-square, attached to the Lying-in Hospital, is open as a promenade with balls, concerts, &c. The Theatre Royal (Crow-street) is gloomy on the outside, but highly embellished and convenient within.

The Squares and Streets are often spacious. College Green has a statue of K. William III. in the centre. Fitzwilliam Square, small but pretty. Merrion Square, open and airy, with some good buildings. Mountjoy Square enjoys a most extensive prospect, and is elegantly laid out. St. Stephen's Green is the largest square in Europe. Sackville Street is also the widest street, having been originally a Mall, with houses built on each side. Great, however, as these are, Sir R. C. Hoare passes on them some severe criticisms, by no means unfounded.

In the Environs, see the Royal Canal and City Basin; ride round the circular road for good views of the city; visit the light-house at the extremity of a pier upwards of 3 m. in length; and ride over the Phœnix Park, 7 m. in circumference.

Excursions from Dublin, to the extent of a day's ride, may be arranged in 4 directions, N.E., S.E., S.W., and N.W.

In the N.E., Beldoyle is a pleasant little village 6 m. near the Hill of Howth, with enchanting marine prospects. Clontarf, a neat village 2½ m., a fashionable bathing-place. Here fell Brian Boru, the Irish king, in a battle with the Danes (1014). See the Castle and Ch.; also some lead ore in the neighbouring quarry. Drumcondra, a pleasant village, nearly unites with Dublin on the northern verge. The old Ch. is neatly modernized, and contains a handsome monument to the memory of Mr. Coghill, Chancellor of the Exchequer in the last century; but the picturesque tourist will be more interested by the grave of the late antiquary, Francis Grose, whose graphic hand here moulders in the dust. See the superb mansion of Santry, 1 m.; and the view from Cloghran Ch. on a lofty eminence. Howth, 7 m. E., is well worth visiting from the metropolis on account of its extensive prospects. See the Light-house; the rocky island of Ireland's Eye; the ancient Castle of the Earls of Howth; the ruins of an ancient Chapel. The botanist will also find several medicinal and fragrant plants among its rugged cliffs. Howth House presents a venerable picture of antiquity to the eye of taste. The surface of the peninsula on which it stands is sterile; but swelling into a lofty hill is usually denominated the Hill of Howth: its shores are rocky and precipitous, indented with creeks for small craft, and abounding with gloomy caverns in which seals and porpoises are often seen rolling their unwieldy bodies. Howth contains several religious fragments worthy of notice. The ruins of the Ch. are extensive and picturesque, and there is something interesting in tracing the vestiges of the ancient monastery which once stood close to its hallowed walls. Entering at the S. door the visitor passes into a hall, out of which a door opens into the church shaded by venerable foliage. Beyond this is the kitchen, with the ruins of several apartments. Close by it is an ancient moat; and a small rivulet flows beneath the old battlemented wall. See the new Pier; and make an excursion to Lambay Island, where are ruins of an old Castle, and plenty of shell-fish and rabbit shooting. Marino is a small Italian Casino, seated on a pleasing lawn, margined on the higher part by a luxuriant shrubbery. The whole possesses much elegance, lightness, and effect, and commands a fine prospect. The rising ground on which it stands slopes off to an agreeable accompaniment of wood, beyond which, on one side is the harbour, which here has the appearance of a noble river covered with shipping. See the venerable Ch. at Artane. Near it see the pleasant village of Raheny; and the venerable Ch. at St. Douloghs, built before the 11th century, most curious to the antiquary and architect.—In the SOUTH EAST see Black Rock, a pleasant watering village, 4 m. S.E., beautifully situated on the bay, with extensive prospects. Visit Sea point, and obelisk at Rochestown. Bullock is a village on the sea coast, 7 m. from the capital; much frequented as a watering place. On the cliffs are the extensive ruins of an old castle, of uncertain antiquity; also a Druidical cromlech in a glen, deserving the notice of the picturesque tourist. Dalkey, a village on the sea shore, contains the ruins of two old castles. The island opposite to it has the ruins of a Ch. and vestiges of an ancient sepulture. Also a martello tower. The iron-bound coast is very romantic towards Killeny Hill, from whence are some charming prospects, especially from the obelisk on the summit. In tracing the bold and striking scenery towards Bray, the tourist will not omit Mount Druid, the Circle, Gothic Tower, and ruins of Killeny Ch. Donnybrook, on the extreme limits of the city, has a venerable Ch.; go on to the magnificent mansion of Viscount Fitzwilliam, at Mount Merrion; and to Stillorgan, 4 m., with most extensive prospect from the Obelisk. Dundrum, 4 m., is noted for goats' whey: see deep Glen and ancient Castle; enchanting scenery, and extensive prospects. Dunleary, 5 m., is a thriving village, with numerous natural beauties and much recent improvement. See Martello Towers. At Rath mines, close to the city, see the ruins of Baggotsrath Castle, celebrated in the military history of this part of the island during the civil wars. Loughlinstown has in its vicinity the venerable ruins of Tallagh Ch., with curious sepulchral Crosses in an ancient cemetery, marked by legendary superstitions. Rathfarnam, 3 m., beautifully seated on an eminence, has near it the magnificent Castle of the Morgans of Ely. The elegant seat of Marloy, and Southwell's Glen, with most romantic scenery; Druids altar, and ancient Judgement Chair of the Brehon Laws. The pedestrian may here spend a day delightfully.—In the SOUTH WEST, Chapelizod, a handsome populous village, is close to the Phœnix Park, and famous for its Strawberries. See picturesque and venerable Chapel, and fine scenery towards Lucan. Clondalkin is a village about 4 m. from Dublin, and worthy the notice of the tourist for its round tower, 84 feet in height, close to a church of modern erection, but surrounded by ancient ruins supposed to belong to a Danish palace, and an archiepiscopal see. Tallagh, 5 m., a straggling village. See venerable archiepiscopal palace, now deserted: also fine prospect from summit of the hill; and Timoon Castle in ruins. In the NORTH WEST, see Castleknock, a small pleasant village, 4 m. W., and its old Castle in ruins, built in the reign of Hen. II. and commanding a fine view. Near it is the venerable ruin of Drymnagh Castle, in a most romantic spot; also Dunsink, where stands the Observatory. Glasmenogue, in the vicinity, is a station for the passage-boats on the Royal Canal; an excursion on which cannot fail to amuse the tourist.

Glasnevin is 2 m. N. of Dublin.—See the Botanic Garden of the Dublin Society, well laid out and conducted upon the Linnean System. Its hot-houses possess an immense variety of curious exotics, and the whole extent is little short of twenty acres. Luttrell's Town, 3 m. from Dublin, through the Phœnix Park: a fine seat, with handsome lawn bounded by rich woods, through which are many ridings 4 m. in extent, leading through a romantic glen by the side of a stream falling over a rocky bed, amidst the dark foliage of steep slopes through which the Liffey is heard or seen at intervals; the whole is of great extent, and forms a most picturesque retirement.

Leixlip is a pleasant town 8 m. W. of Dublin, on the very verge of the county, with a good Inn.—See Carton (Kildare), the elegant seat of the Duke of Leinster; also the Castle, with fine grounds and romantic scenery: the ruins of Confy Castle; and beautiful vale watered by the Liffey. Ballymore Eustace has a good bridge over the river, close by where the Liffey issues from the romantic dell of Phollaphuca (Wicklow). See ruins of a Castle. Lucan, 6 m., is a delightful village, with sulphureous chalybeate in a grove on the banks of the river. See the house and picturesque ground; also Iron-works, Calico-mills, and Limestone quarries.

Swords is 6 m. N. of the capital, on the great northern road, and contains several specimens of antiquity. See the Castle, of which a large square tower with massy fragments of walls still remains; also the ruins of the Ch., with a round tower 73 feet high and 55 in circumference, in very good preservation. Here also were an Abbey and Nunnery, of which some vestiges may yet be traced. At Brennanston, about 8 m. N.W., see Druidical Cromlech, six upright, and 1 horizontal stone, 14 feet long and 12 broad. Lusk, about 5 m. N., is highly deserving the notice of the antiquary for the curious architecture of its Ch., consisting of two long aisles, separated by a screen of seven arches. The east end only is at present appropriated to public worship; but the west end is remarkable for its square steeple with round towers at three of the corners, whilst opposite to the fourth is a round tower insulated, in very good preservation, and loftier than the others. About 3 m. W. on a rising ground near to the bay of Mallahide, is a curious old Castle, pleasantly situated on a rising ground, surrounded by fine timber, commanding a most extensive and beautiful view of the coast, together with a good prospect over the adjacent country; said to have been either built, or to have received considerable repairs and additions, in the reign of Edward IV. Latterly it has been solely used as a family mansion, but formerly as a place of defence. The edifice is large, irregular, and unequal in its height; it is nearly square, and has an area or court within. The entrance is on the east front, by a flight of stone steps; and the hall is large, its ancient appearance corresponding well with the outside. There are ten rooms on a floor; one of which, a parlour, is wainscoted with oak, which presents a curious specimen of antique carving. The lower story is vaulted, founded on a limestone rock, and contains the servants' offices.


Crystals:—near Robs Well.

Coal slate, full of sulphur mixed with micaceous stones:—at Portrain.

Copper ore:—near Castle Knock, Cloghran, Rathbeal, &c.

Gypsum striatum, answers every purpose of plaster of Paris, and is found in several places.

Iron manifests its presence in a coarse reddish earth:—at Turvey.

On the S.E. coast of Lough Shinney, between Rush and Skerries, there are large rocks of the Lapis Hibernicus, or Irish slate, which in some places exhibit a vitriolic efflorescence.

Lead ore:—in the quarry near Stephen's Green; at the Black rock; and at Cloghran Church.

Limestone, hard, veined with quartz, impregnated with ferruginous matter, and full of crystallizations:—at Howth.

Limestone quarries:—at Malahide.

Pearls are sometimes discovered in the Poolbeg oysters.


Agaricus alneus, Alder Agaric:—in woods.

Alchemilla vulgaris, Common Ladies Mantle:—in Closes between Glassmanogue and Finglass.

Alisma Damasonium, Star-headed Water Plantain:—in a pasture near Temple-oge in Dublin.

Allium vineale, Crow Garlic:—above Island Bridge, and in some meadows near Bally Griffin, in Fingall.

Anthyllis vulneraria, Kidney Vetch or Ladies Finger;—on dry hillocks near the Bay.

Asperula odorata, Woodroof:—among bushes between Ropers Rest and Mount Jerom.

Asplenium Ruta muraria, White Maiden-hair, or Wall-Rue:—at Tallagh Castle and Ball's Bridge.

Aster Tripolium, Sea Starwort:—underneath the Black Rock.

Brassica oleracea sylvestris, Sea Cabbage:—on sea cliffs.

Chrysanthemum segetum, Corn Marygold:—near Iniscore Hill, and in Patrick's Well Lane, Dublin.

Chrysosplenium oppositifolium, Common Golden Saxifrage:—near Harold's Cross.

Cochlearia anglica, Sea Scurvy-grass:—among the short grass below the Black Rock.

Cochlearia danica, Danish Scurvy-grass:—near Ringsend.

Cochlearia officinalis, Garden Scurvy-grass:—on the coast.

Cotyledon Umbilicus Veneris, Navel-wort, Kidney-wort, or Wall Penny-wort:—on old buildings at Mitchel's-town, and on the wall of a ruined Church at Lucan.

Crambe maritima, Sea Colewort:—on the sea beach near Dunleary.

Drosera longifolia, Long-leaved Sundew: near Edenderry.

Empetrum nigrum, Black-berried Heath, Crow or Crake-berries:—on mountainous heaths.

Erigeron acre, Blue-flowered Flea-bane:—in a dry hilly pasture facing the huts at the Black Rock.

Eryngium maritimum, Sea Holly or Eryngo:—Dublin.

Erysimum cheiranthoides, Treacle Wormseed:—about Temple-oge.

Euphorbia hyberna, Knotty-rooted Spurge:—on mountainous districts.

Euphorbia paralia, Sea Spurge:—on the sandy shore between the Warren House and Rahany.

Fucus palmatus, Handed Fucus:—on rocks about Dalkey Island.

Geranium sanguineum, Bloody Crane's-bill:—in a close near Simon's Court.

Glaux maritima, Sea Milkwort or Black Salt-wort:—above Bally-bough Bridge near the rivulet.

Hieracium murorum, French or Golden Lungwort:—under a hedge on Iniscore Hill.

Lathræa Squamaria, Toothwort:—on the sea shore between Dunleary and Newton.

Linum perenne, Perennial Blue-flax:—on the lands of Simon's-court.

Lysimachia tenella, Purple Money-wort:—in a rotten spongy pasture beyond Simon's-court and at Rathfarnham.

Lithospermum officinale, Gromwell:—at Iniscore Hills and above Palmerstown Mills.

Lycopodium clavatum, Common Club-moss:—on mountains.

Narcissus Pseudo-narcissus, Daffodil:—in closes near Clontarf, the Hill of Howth, and near Doulack's Well.

Ophioglossum vulgatum, Adders-tongue:—in moist places.

Orchis pyramidalis, Purple Lake-flowering Orchis:—on dry sea banks between Newtown and Dunleary.

Ornithogalum luteum, Yellow Star of Bethlehem:—in a low meadow between Finglass Bridge and Drumcondra.

Osmunda Lunaria, Moonwort:—on the hills, and in the pastures of Palmerstown.

Polemonium cæruleum, Great Valerian:—at Rathfarnam.

Rosa spinosissima, Pimpernel or Burnet Rose:—on the edge of the brow at Black Rock, and near Raheny Mills.

Salsola fruticosa, Shrub Stonecrop or Glasswort:—in Clontarf Island.

Salsola Kali, Prickly Glasswort:—near the Black Rock.

Samolus Valerandi, Round-leaved Water Pimpernel:—near Dalkey.

Scilla verna, Vernal Star Hyacinth:—in meadows and pastures, and near Temple-oge.

Statice Armeria, Thrift or Sea July Flower:—between the Black Rock and Dunleary.

Viola grandiflora, Yellow Violet or Pansies:—on the Hill of Howth.


This county, sometimes only called Meath by preeminence, is an inland district, except in one spot where it borders for a few miles on the Irish Channel, between the shires of Louth and Dublin. It is inhabited by a numerous and opulent gentry, with the mansions and highly cultivated demesnes of many noblemen; and also contains numerous scenes to please the antiquary, in its mouldering piles of ruined Castles and Abbeys, frowning over the landscape in gloomy grandeur. Bounded by Louth on the N., Monaghan and Cavan, W., Kildare, S., Dublin and the Channel, E.

Athboy, 8 m. W. of Trim, is a tolerable town with a good inn, where the tourist may fix his head-quarters whilst visiting the various objects in the vicinity, particularly a farm of near 6000 Irish acres, kept in hand by Sir Benjamin Chapman; also Ballinlough, the well wooded seat of Sir Hugh O'Reilly. From hence, a road completely shaded with trees leads to the seat of Mr. Tigh, at Mitchelstown, near which are the grounds of Mr. Wood at Rosmead: indeed the whole neighbourhood is well planted and populous.

Duleek, about 15 m. E. from Trim; once a famous episcopal city, now a paltry country town, but exhibiting in its ruin traces of former celebrity; particularly in the remains of the Abbey with its majestic tower, the first stone Ch. in Ireland. Grenogue, 4 m. S., has ruins of an ancient Ch. Gormanstown, 6 m. E., ancient seat of Lord G. Invercolpa, at the mouth of the Boyne, has some Abbey ruins. Kilbrue is an elegant mansion, 5 m. S.; near it ruins of Macetown Castle. Platten, 2 m., handsome seat built on the ruins of one of the largest Castles on the island. Ratoath, 10 m. S., a poor village. See Ch. erected on ruins of an ancient Abbey; also a lofty and conspicuous mount, celebrated for meetings of Parliaments in feudal times. St. John's Well, in this vicinity, is described by Mr. Wakefield as a penitentiary station for pilgrims for five days in the latter end of June.

Kells, 12 m. N.W. of Trim, being pleasantly seated on the Blackwater, forms a good station for the western part of the county. See the Market-house on the site of an ancient Castle; also curious stone Cross, much decayed, but decorated very richly with figures of men, beasts, flowers, &c. Here is a remarkable round tower, 90 feet in height and 16 in diameter, with walls 3 feet in thickness. It is close to the Church, at an opposite corner of which, and detached, stands a square tower with a spire, the remains of an ancient edifice now destroyed. At the back of the town there is another small round tower; also a small stone building arched with flags, called Columkill's Cell, supposed to be the first Christian oratory erected here. The Ch. is modern; and in the cemetery a curious sculptured cross. See the noble mansion of the Marquis of Headfort in its vicinity, and its extensive grounds.

Navan, 7 m. N.E. of Trim, stands very pleasantly on the Boyne, and has a considerable trade. Its vicinity has much picturesque scenery for the pedestrian tourist. See the Tholsel; and the remains of several ancient tombs in the Abbey cemetery, adorned with sculpture. The beautiful episcopal palace of Ardbraccan, 2 m. W., displaying simplicity of design with accuracy of execution, is built of a remarkable limestone with a very fine grain, found in the immediate vicinity. The quarry is worth visiting. The limestone is capable of being worked into any form for building; is susceptible of a fine polish; and though white when it comes from the chisel, acquires a sober grayish tint after exposure to the air. Its strata are horizontal and of various degrees of thickness, from four inches to two feet; and columns have been raised and worked of 9 or 10 feet in length, and from 15 to 18 inches in diameter. A short distance from Navan, close to the village of Donoghmore, and standing on an eminence near the road leading to Slieve, is a round tower adorned with sculptures of the Crucifixion over the doorway. It is not in very good preservation; and the ancient Ch. attached to it is totally in ruins. Dunmore Castle is a building of very early date, but almost new built as a castellated house at the close of the 17th century, and now presenting a curious specimen of those turbulent times in its lofty towers and heavy walls, diversified only by a few windows close to the battlements. In the vicinity of Dunshaghlen see Dunsany and Killeen Castles, mansions of Lords Dunsany and Fingal. Near the latter examine the Ch. and sepulchral antiquities. The tourist who is partial to extensive prospects, may visit the Hill of Screen, on whose summit is a Ch., presenting from the battlements of the ruined belfry a most delightful view over a richly cultivated country. The edifice itself is in a state of dilapidation, except part of a chapel fitted up for divine service; but the antiquary may amuse himself with examining an ecclesiastical figure in relief over the southern entrance; also some crosses and curious old tombstones scattered over the surrounding cemetery. At New Grange is a very curious specimen of early Celtic antiquity, consisting of a most extensive barrow composed of stones and earth, formed with infinite labour and exhibiting considerable artificial dexterity. In this there is a cave which well deserves the notice of the antiquary: from the horizontal floor of this cave to the summit of the mount, is about 70 feet; the circumference at top is 300; and the base covers two acres of ground; the whole founded on an amazing collection of stones, and covered with gravel and earth. Slane, about 6 m. N.E., on the N. side of the Boyne, presents several curious ruins to the lover of antiquity. Some remains of an Abbey or College; lofty tower with Gothic windows. Here is also a Hermitage, said to be that of St. Ere, consecrated by St. Patrick in 512. Near this, on the banks of the Boyne, see the magnificent seats of Earl Conyngham (Slane Castle), and Mr. Lambert (Beaupark), whose grounds have the appearance of one domain, being separated only by the river running between romantic rocks, the summits and sides of which are partly adorned with wood; and the union of this scenery, combined with the dressed lawns of these two seats, renders the whole prospect highly interesting. Tarah has long been celebrated in Irish history as the place of coronation of the Irish monarchs. Here are some remnants of Danish fortifications, and the ruins of a Ch., sombre and picturesque. See ruins at Trevet.

Trim, 22 m. N.W. of Dublin, is the assize town.—See picturesque ruins of an ancient Castle, celebrated through all the periods of Irish history; once the property of Mortimer Earl of March: situation romantic; many ruins of Monasteries. The ruins of Bective Abbey stand on a high bank of the Boyne, about 3 m. E. of Trim. Here the tourist may contemplate the domestic range of buildings connected with the Ch.; and, as the walls and division of the apartments are still pretty entire, may form a very good idea of monastic manners. The S. side a range of 12 arches, supported by clustered pillars, opens into a gallery which also runs along the W. From this gallery is an opening into a range of cells, gloomy and inconvenient, and seemingly fitter for the dead than the living. The whole place is indeed sombre in the extreme, with its Gothic doors and windows in several places, and projecting towers and turrets. The outline is picturesque, and deserves a visit. Clonard has some curious monuments in its Abbey ruins. At Newton are the remains of the Ch., belonging to a monastery founded in the 13th century; though much shattered, yet they have once been august, and are now sweetly enveloped in ivy. Tradition attributes (falsely) an ancient tomb to a daughter of King John. On the road from Trim to Mitchelstown see the ruins of a square fortress with circular turrets at the angles, called Scurlack's Town Castle, seated on the borders of the river Boyne, which is here a silent stream full of weeds and rushes.


Limestone:—quarries at Ardbraccean, resembling marble.

Potter's clay:—has been discovered near Dunshaghlin; is deemed superior to that of Staffordshire.

Vitrescent stone:—found in quarries near Slane.


Drosera anglica, Great Sundew:—on a bog near Isaac-tower.

Nymphæa alba, White Water Lily:—in the Boyne and other rivers.


This county will always be an object of interest to the tourist, on account of Lough Erne, besides several smaller pieces of water, on all of which are situated some of the finest mansions and demesnes in the island. Its general surface is mountainous, interspersed with extensive boggy tracts, which rendered it, in early times, almost impregnable, when possessed by the sept of M'Guires. Bounded, S. and W. by Leitrim; N. by Donnegal and Tyrone; E. by Monaghan and Cavan.

Bellcoo, 9 m. S.W. of Enniskillen, and on the verge of the county, though a small is yet a neat village, and may form a station for the tourist, being seated on a considerable stream that runs into Lough Mac Nean, and thence to Lough Melve. The well called Davugh Phedric is noted as a cold bath, and nearly equal to Holywell in force. See ruins of Ch. 1 m. From hence also the tourist may visit Florence Court.

Belleek, 18 m. W. of Enniskillen, is a pretty village, with a very fine waterfall: ascend a hill with a battery on its top, from whence is seen a woody eminence with an insulated rock covered with shrubs, along which the stream passes with great rapidity, falling about twenty feet, and forming a most enchanting prospect. See it also from the bridge. It stands at the outlet of the lake, close to the verge of Donnegal. See Castle Caldwell on the northern shore, seated amidst promontories of thick wood that shoot into Lough Erne, with every variety of wood and lawn and water that can delight the eye. Near it is Lewrel, a demesne of singular beauty.

Enniskillen, 80 m. N.W. of Dublin, is nearly in the centre of the county, and seated at the junction of the two divisions of Lough Erne, so as to form a convenient station for the whole county. It was celebrated in the wars of the Revolution by its heroic defence against James's army; and part of the military works yet remain near the bridge. See handsome barracks; superb school-house; and the Castle. Visit Bellisle, the romantic residence of the late Lord Ross; Castle Coole, 1 m. dist. Lord Belmore, an elegant mansion of Portland stone; Daughtons, 4 m. N.W., where are some curious caves; Florence Court, 7 m. S.E., on the southern shore, a very superb modern edifice, seated at the foot of lofty mountains, in the midst of a highly cultivated demesne, with most romantic prospects.

Lisnarick, about 10 m. N.W. of Enniskillen, is a small hamlet, but may suffice as a station for the northern bank of the lower lake. Close to it is Castle Archdall, a magnificent mansion; and 2½ m. further, see Cash, an inconsiderable village, but amidst fine scenery, with ruins of a Castle.

Lisneskea, 12 m. E. of Enniskillen, is a decayed village, but may serve as a temporary station for the Upper Lake; and as there are many genteel residences in its immediate vicinity, the tourist, if so inclined, may trust to Irish hospitality. See ruins of old Castle at Calla Hill, across the lake; ruins of an old Ch. at Donough, 2 m. S.E.; Gola, 5 m. W., with some remains of a Dominican monastery; Newton Butler with a handsome Ch.; and Wattle Bridge, where are some fragments of a Druidical temple on the banks of the river; also St. Mary's Ch., and two small lakes.

Lough Erne is 20 m. in length, and covers nearly 48,000 acres. It has been little noticed by tourists; yet its beauties deserve some leading directions. Those who have time to spare, or the artist who wishes to devote his time to study, may employ a few days very agreeably in perambulating its limits, so as to catch each point of view under the various effects of morning and evening tint, or even noon-tide radiance; but where a day only can be allowed for seeing it, that day will be most profitably spent on the island of Bellisle, where the Earl of Ross has a most delightful residence. Here we may introduce an observation, regard to which will often be highly useful to the picturesque tourist.—It is, that the same view presents a very different appearance when seen at the commencement and at the close of day. In no part of the world is this, perhaps, more noticeable, than in Ireland, owing to its moisture, raised into vapour by a meridian sun, condensed by cold winds rushing in through extended valleys, through the day, settling in the dells or fringeing the mountain tops in the still repose of evening, or rising like a curtain at the influence of the morning beam. In pursuance then of this hint, the hurried tourist, especially if pedestrian, should proceed to Bellisle at the earliest dawn, and he will find himself sufficiently occupied until the nightfall in traversing its limits round an extent of 200 acres consisting of all the variety of hill and dale, with partial sprinklings of lawn, interspersed with ancient woods of considerable extent, in some spots exhibiting all the deep majesty of shade, in others opening into more cheerful clumps, or scattered breaks of foliage. The varied surface exhibits the whole contents of this woody scenery to great advantage, presenting, even in what may be called the home views, sufficient amusement for a day; but much increased by its junction with the surrounding scenery at every break in the hills, and at every verdant point jutting into the lake, particularly so in front of the mansion, where a reach of it passes under the eye of the spectator, reflecting the fine woods and rising banks that give beauty to the scene and shelter to the house itself. This part of the lake, being 3 m. in length, possesses all the charms of distance, and has in front another island clothed thick with wood encircling a bold eminence, appropriated to the purposes of a deer park, in the rear of which a lofty mountain gives almost a magic relief to the whole. This is finely contrasted, on a short turn to the right, by some clumps of rich foliage, and by several pretty islands starting boldly from the surface, broken into a thousand picturesque forms by the windings of the lake, and the whole body of water is lost in a narrow defile where hill on hill closes the view. Here too is every facility for viewing the lake in a double route; as the walks most commodiously surround the island at its outermost limits, besides leading to the best points of view in the interior; and indeed it will be proper not to omit the prospect from a handsome temple which commands the whole of this enchanting scenery. The grotto ought also to be visited, and attention paid to the effect on coming out of it, when the contrast presents a beautiful effect, in two of these islands appearing to join, the streight between them having the semblance of a deep bay, whose extremity is lost amidst the sombre foliage in the back-ground. Behind these is the hill of the deer park, the lofty mountains behind which for a moment draw attention from the nearer beauties; but these latter must not be neglected, as their examination in all the neatness of artificial culture contrasts finely with the bleak and wild surrounding imagery of nature. The widest part of the loch is in the vicinity of Castle Archdall, where it resembles the sea, and presents a charming panoramic prospect if viewed from the little island of Ennismachcent, no less than 27 isles and islets surrounding the spectator. The prospect to the N. is the finest, when Castle Archdall is seen in all its glory of wood and water reaching on the left to a noble bay of considerable extent, bounded by lofty mountains softening into distance, and shrouding in their bosom a much venerated Roman Catholic cemetery, with a large stone cross standing on a pedestal at its entrance.

In Lough Erne, the most celebrated island for holy purposes is Devenish, in which there are a round tower and considerable ecclesiastical ruins, some as early as the 12th century. These buildings are of the Augustinian order of monks; and the most ancient part is called St. Molaise's House, a vaulted building of hewn stone; coeval with which, in Mr. Ledwich's opinion, is the round tower; and both, as he supposes, of Danish origin.


The mineralogist will find little here to interest him; but the geologist may discover much food for research; especially in the bogs that lie N. of Enniskillen, where sea shells are often found mixed in strata of white clay, 15 feet below the surface. This clay is calcareous; and the whole, in process of time, may become a bed of marble.


Bryum flexuosum, Soft Bryum:—on rocks.

Cicuta virosa, Long-leaved Water Hemlock:—in watery places and rivers, in Fermanagh.

Serapias latifolia:—a variety of broad-leaved Bastard Hellebore; in woods and hedges.

Vaccinium Myrtillus, Black Whorts, Whortle-berries, or Bilberries:—on heaths and in woods.


This county is maritime, and of great extent, being the second in the island. It contains several lakes; but as the scenery round these is not very romantic, they are but little known to the tourist; and the aspect is not improved by the dry stone walls or hedges; except in the western district, where the beautiful shores of Lough Corrib will repay the trouble of a visit, through an extensive tract of irreclaimable bog and mountain. On the sea coast it is picturesquely broken by numerous arms of the sea; and its rivers deserve the notice of the inquisitive tourist. Dr. Beaufort observes, that several of these rivers are subterraneous in part of their course: near the village of Shrull, on the borders of Mayo, the Black river runs under ground for about 3 miles; but the most remarkable fact is that of the Moyne and the Clare, which unite their streams under ground, alternately appearing and retiring from view at the Turlachmore, which in winter forms a lake and in summer a beautiful and sound sheepwalk, upwards of 6 m. in length and 2 in breadth. Bounded W. by the Atlantic; N. by Mayo; N.E. by Roscommon; E. by King's County, Tipperary, and the Shannon; S. by Clare, and Galway bay.

Aghrim, 24 m. E. of Galway, is a small village; but noticeable as the scene of battle between Ginkle and St. Ruth in the war of the Revolution, 12th July, 1691, when the latter, with his French and Irish army, was completely defeated. The scene of action was on Kilcomodon Hill. See the beautiful demesne of Ballydonnellan, also Ballydugan; ruins of old Castles; and the magnificent demesne of Wood Lawn. But this place and its surrounding scenery may be visited from Loughrea.

Athenry, 10 m. N.E. of Galway, now in decay; once a strong English fortification; its walls built in 1211. See Dominican monastery, noble even in its ruins. The tower and several of the gable windows are very fine; but its appearance is much altered by a part having been fitted up for the reception of the garrison, the cloisters forming the modern barrack-yard. Ancient Castle of the Lords Birmingham, in ruins; with lofty tower and ivy-mantled walls, affording a good idea of the feudal manners on the borders of the Pale. At Knockmoy, 7 m. N., see ruins of a monastery, with an ancient tomb of the O'Connors adorned with sepulchral mementos in fresco painting.

Ballinasloe, 30 m. E. of Galway, is on the very verge of the county, and interesting to the statistical tourist from its autumnal fair for cattle, under the immediate patronage of the Farming Society. (See further Mr. Curwen's Letters, vol. ii. p. 229.)

Clonfert, 30 m. E. of Galway, is an ancient bishopric.—Visit the beautiful ruins of the Cathedral, especially the W. front (1270). This was the scene of frequent battles during the irruptions of the Danes. Hall speaks highly of this place; observing, that the planting and improvement about the Bishop's Palace render Clonfert a little paradise. Visit Shannon Bridge and the round tower, at a place called the Seven Churches.

Galway, the county town, is 102 m. W. of Dublin, formerly fortified and celebrated in the wars of the Revolution; but now dismantled, and every trace disappearing. The architecture of the old town gloomy and massive; of the suburbs, elegant and airy. See 3 Nunneries, 3 Friaries, and 3 Barracks; Court-houses; Infirmary; magnificent Gothic Ch.; massy Gaol; and coarse woollen manufacture. The bay is very fine, sheltered at its entrance by the isles of Arran; but the country around is described by Mr. Curwen as having the most singular appearance he ever beheld, resembling the seat of a volcanic eruption from the immense blocks of limestone scattered over a space of great extent, with scarce a symptom of vegetation. See ruined tower of Ballensnave Castle; Caher Morres, a small hamlet, 11 m. N., but with good inn, as a station for the northern shores of Lough Corrib; Clare Galway, ancient Abbey, with lofty tower and fine Gothic east window; also splendid ruins of a strongly built castle; Dun Aengus in the greater isle of Arran, is a circle of large stones on a lofty cliff, a remnant of ancient fortification: Rosserally has extensive ruins of a monastery (1498). Turlaghmore, already alluded to, may from hence be visited.

Lough Corrib possesses some romantic scenery; and is about 20 m. long, and at the broadest part 11; being contracted in the middle so as to appear like two lakes. The collector may here pick up some very good specimens of pearls from a muscle peculiar to the lake. The scenery on its western shores is a chain of wild and stupendous mountains, with some few fertile valleys. It contains many pretty islands; and here is caught the gillaroo trout, with a gizzard like a fowl, esteemed a great delicacy. Headfort, on its northern shore, is a well-built village, with venerable Ch. and barrack; near it an ancient mansion of the St. George family.

Lough Derg is a wide reach of the Shannon, which may be visited from Portumna. In it is a beautiful island, on which is a round tower 70 feet high, and the remains of 7 Churches.

Lough Rea, 16 m. E. of Galway, is a well built village, and will receive the tourist in exploring the eastern district as a central station. See the fine lake; pleasing prospects; ruins of the old Castle of the De Burghs; various castle ruins in the vicinity. Dalystown, the handsome mansion and demesne of the Daly family. Gort, 10 m. S.W., is a neat though small village, 2 m. from which ruins of Cathedral at Kilmacduagh, and round tower 112 feet high, inclining 17½ feet from the perpendicular, being 4 more than the tower of Pisa. Here are places called the Swallows, into which several streams are engulfed, and rise afterwards into day. Kilconnel Abbey, in ruins, has a lofty tower and some fine arcades.

Ouchterard, 20 m. N.W. from Galway, is a small village, but forms a good station for the tourist who will persevere in examining the western district of the county. Here is a chalybeate, and its situation is considered peculiarly salubrious. If the tourist chooses, he may penetrate to Ballynahinch, a small village, but worthy a visit, being situated in that district called Connemara; mountainous, and intersected by numerous bays affording great diversity of scenery. It stands at the foot of the vast ridge of Beannabeola, or the Twelve Pins, consisting principally of perpendicular rocks, with a charming lake extending for several miles in its immediate vicinity; round which the hills are watered by rivers and small lakes, and sheltered by the venerable remains of ancient woods, among which are to be found a simple rude people, inhabiting what is generally called "Joyce's Country," forming a distinct class in manners and in appearance. The western shores of Lough Corrib may be visited from Ouchterard; also Lough Mask. See also the small district of Ross, N. of it, a sequestered spot, whose solitary wilds have scarcely yet been trod by civilized man.

Portumna, 30 m. S.E. of Galway, and on the banks of Lough Derg, forms a good station for that district.—A neat village with wooden bridge across the Shannon. See the Castle, a venerable mansion of the Clanricards: ruins of an Abbey, walls nearly entire, the choir of parish Ch. Eyre Court, 2 m., a straggling village. See the venerable Castle. Numerous ruins of Castles in the vicinity. At Tynagh see ruins of Palace Castle in the midst of a grove; also the Ch. Near it Flowerhill, a delightful residence of Lord Riverston. Spring Garden, and other good seats of the gentry.

Tuam, 16 m. N.E. of Galway; large and populous.—See Cathedral; venerable Palace; elegant Mall. See Claddagh Castle in a wild and sombre district; Dunmore, with ruins of an Abbey; Newton Butler and Castle Bellaw, a fine seat, with ruins of a Castle.


Aquilegia vulgaris, Columbine:—in woods near Clunetuescart.

Crithmum maritimum, Samphire:—in the Isles of Arran.

Cyclamen europæum, Sowbread:—at Milleek.

Erica Daboicia, Irish Heath:—on the mountains.

Gentiana campestris, Vernal Dwarf Gentian:—on the mountains between Gort and Galway.

Juniperus communis, Juniper:—on mountains.

Lycopodium Selago, Upright Fir-moss:—on the mountains near Galway.

Senecio saracenicus, Broad-leaved Ragwort:—in meadows and pastures and under hedges in Pallace near Tynagh.

Engraved for the Scientific Tourist.



Published by J. Booth, Duke Street, Portland Place, 1818.


Famous in Ireland as the landing-place of the Milesians. This county was long impassable for tourists; but much has been done by the resident gentlemen, who have shortened many of the old roads, carrying them in straight lines over rocks and morasses, deep glens and rugged mountains; so that not only the approach to the Lakes of Killarney, but also to many other interesting tracts, is much facilitated. It is a maritime district, indented with numerous bays and harbours; rugged and mountainous, but justly celebrated for its lake and mountain scenery. It has been observed indeed by Mr. Wakefield, that in this county the attention of the tourist is so much occupied with Killarney, that the romantic scenery in other parts is either overlooked or forgotten;—yet it ought not to be consigned to neglect, as there is a great deal of it (though inferior to that of Killarney) which is still worthy of being noticed. Bounded on the N. by the Shannon; on the S. and W. by the Atlantic Ocean; and on the E. by Cork and Limerick counties.

Ardfert, 4 m. N.W. of Tralee, is now a decayed village, though an episcopal see in early times. It has the ruins of a splendid Cathedral, with curious monuments and gravestones, and a sculptured figure of St. Brandon. Ruins of round tower. To the E., ruins of Franciscan Friary, a venerable structure, from whence follow road leading to the sea and mansion of the Crosbie family. Visit Ballyheigh bay with fine strand; ancient Castle of Ballykeal; Castle on Ferrit Island; Kerryhead surrounded by picturesque and savage wildness; Kilcroghan, where is a curious hermitage cut in the rock, also a Danish fortification; Lixnaw the ancient seat of the Earls of Kerry; Odorney Abbey in ruins; remains of Rahanane Castle, once an episcopal residence; and lofty round tower at Rattoo. The tourist must employ a guide in surveying this district.

Castle Island, 9 m. E. of Tralee, a decayed village on the route to Killarney, though anciently the shire town. See parish Ch.; roofless town house, barracks, &c.—As there are some decent inns, the tourist may from hence visit some of the scenery to the E. of Killarney.

Dingle, 16 m. W. of Tralee, forms a station for the wild western district.—See Gaol built on vaults of Old Castle. Notice the various houses built in Spanish fashion, with stone balconies. See the mansion of the Knight of Kerry; the ruins of an ancient Monastery; also of part of the old parish Ch. and monuments of the Fitzgerald family. 1 m. N.E. see the vitriolic spa of Ballybeg; also Burnham, or Ballingolin Castle. Whilst exploring the wild beauty of this vicinity, the tourist will be amply repaid for his labour, by a journey across the Brandon mountains towards Tralee Bay. The views which they afford are highly picturesque, and the prospects from almost every eminence are very extensive. Ventry Bay merits investigation; on the western point, Caher Trant, are remains of a Danish entrenchment, and another at Rathanane, near a ruined Castle of the Fitzgeralds; also a stone Cell near it. Some historical interest is given to this isthmus, by a tradition that it was the last ground in Ireland possessed by the Danes; and there is a curious story about it in Hanmer's Chronicle, illustrative of the manners of those early times. A little further west is what is esteemed the furthest extremity of the island, to which, like Johnny Groat's house in Caithness, is given "a local habitation and a name," its appellation being "Tyvorney Geerane," or Molly Geerane's house. From hence the tourist may visit Blasket Islands, remarkable for the simplicity of the inhabitants, for ancient religious ruins, and for a great variety of aquatic fowls, some rivalling the ortolan.

Iveragh Barony forms the S.W. extremity of Ireland, and will afford great delight to a tourist who fears not fatigue and privations. Visit the romantic Lake of Currane, of an oval form, 3 m. in length, surrounded by lofty mountains. In it are three small islands; on one of which, ruins of a Ch. and Cell, with marks of foundations under water. See the river Inny, with ruins of Ch. and Bridge. Dowles Head is near Valentine Island: here are several large Caves, one of which has an entrance so low as scarcely to admit a boat with a man standing up, but within it is as high as a Gothic cathedral. There is a most curious echo; and when a person speaks, his voice is so reverberated from side to side as to seem louder than a speaking-trumpet. Glanbehy parish, the easternmost of the barony of Iveragh, has a most romantic but dangerous road, resembling that of Penmonmawr in Wales; and over which indeed, according to the traditions of the country, none but poets should attempt to pass; since in the opinion of its neighbours it is necessary to make some verses to its honour, otherwise, as they affirm, the traveller will meet with some mischance. Perhaps it was some similar superstition that gave rise to the custom of the album in the monasteries situated in the mountainous passes of Switzerland and Italy. The Hags-tooth mountain is of great height, with many romantic lakes. Visit the Skelig Islands, containing several ecclesiastical ruins, and the scene of modern pilgrimages. They offer much amusement to the geologist. Valentia, in this district, affords slight accommodation.

Kenmare is a small neat town, within the compass of the Killarney tour, and a good station for much romantic scenery.—The approach to this town, even before it is seen, is very romantic; along a road winding up to the summit of a mountain, between which and another of tremendous altitude, is a deep glen, where the scenery is much improved by the contrast of the superincumbent rugged barrenness. "Here," says Mr. Wakefield, "the eye is sometimes attracted by a solitary herd of goats browsing among the heath below; while cultivation, gradually extending up the sides of the hills, forms a pleasing contrast with the desert and more prominent features of the prospect." In the vicinity are several small islands in Kenmare river, consisting of beautiful specimens of variegated marble. These islands are also interesting to the botanical tourist, from the varieties of Arbutus and Juniper, with the immense number of marine and aquatic plants which fringe their romantic sides. See the Fairy rock, and Glanerought vale.

Killarney, 12 m. S.W. of Tralee, and 144 from Dublin, is the general station for viewing the Lakes, which take from it their usual appellation; but properly Lough Lane. It is a pleasant little town, and affords every comfort required by the traveller; but its great charm is in the Lakes, about 1 m. distant. A minute description of this beautiful scene is beyond our limits: we shall therefore briefly record the objects that deserve examination—but, for the convenience of the solitary tourist, to whom the expense of the usual exploratory routine would be enormous, shall first point out a route that will amply gratify the finest taste and the most insatiable curiosity. After visiting Mucruss Abbey, take a guide at the foot of Turk's mountain, and by a circuitous path climb its almost precipitous sides covered with wood, pursuing the course of a little stream that dashes from rock to rock concealed amongst shrubs and trackless underwood, through which brush your way with some little exertion until you arrive at an eminence opposite Eagle-crag, from whence at one coup d'œil you take in the three lakes with their adjacent scenery. Here you view the lower lake like a circular bason, bounded on one side by romantic mountains, and having the rest of its banks finely studded with the town of Killarney, the seat of Lord Kenmare, Ross Castle stretching into the Lake, Mucruss Abbey, and villa, together with its numerous archipelago of islands, richly fringed with the arbutus tree. The lake is then seen contracting into a narrow passage with a small bridge, thence to Mucruss Lake at your feet, of an oval form, and perpetually wearing a gloomy and solemn appearance from the dark, sullen shadow of Turk's Mountain that frowns upon it, covered half way up with sombre firs. Beyond this is Mangerton, the highest mountain in Ireland, at whose foot a serpentine stream unites the upper lake with the others, traversing a valley or dell between Turk's Mountain and the Eagle's Nest; behind the latter of which, the seat of the celebrated echo, you will see the sublime chain of mountains called Macgillicuddy's Reeks. If your good fortune shall place you in this situation whilst visiting parties are traversing the lakes with their et-cetera of horns and swivels, then the effect is most sublime, infinitely more so than can be felt by the tourists on the bosom of the lake. Return by the Flesk bridge, and conclude the tour by a visit to Aghadoe, Ross Castle, and any other objects that may be pointed out by the numerous guides who frequent this interesting spot. To facilitate general investigation, we shall now sketch the routes, and record a few observations of the most recent tourists. The lakes are three in number: the largest, or Lower Lake, contains 3000 acres; Mucruss Lake, to the south, covers 640 acres; and the Upper Lake has 720. Mr. Wakefield observes that since Mr. Young's visit to Killarney, the timber which clothed the mountain Glenaa has been cut down, and the stumps are now copsed; but the young trees had not yet (1812) attained to a great size, being only twenty feet in height. At that period, however, they were sufficient to cover the mountain with foliage, which, waving before the breeze, gave it a much more lively and agreeable appearance. The trees also on the islands near the town have fallen under the destructive axe,—a loss much to be regretted by the lovers of sylvan beauty, as it cannot be repaired until after a lapse of many years. Mr. Wakefield adds, however, for the satisfaction of the picturesque tourist, that although it is a general complaint that the views of Killarney have been destroyed by those sweeping falls of timber, yet he only acknowledges them to be "injured, no doubt, in some small degree; but the views here are still almost unrivalled, particularly in regard to that species of beauty which arises from mountain scenery of the most magnificent kind, and which the hand of man has not the power to alter. It will therefore remain to delight every traveller who has the pleasure of seeing it, unless the face of the country should be changed by some grand convulsion of nature." As a further guide to the tourist it may be mentioned here that Mr. Wakefield recommends the bridge which joins the peninsula to Breechan Island, as a fine station for a view. The peninsula itself he considers as very fine: to the S., see Mangerton and Turk mountains in all their glory, sinking down to the rugged point at the Eagle's Nest, where there is a view of Glenaa, the immediate foreground being filled up with Breechan and Dyne's Islands, beyond which is seen the Lower Lake, with Ross Castle, whilst the distance is completed by the town of Killarney, and the island of Innisfallen. The Upper Lake he describes as an immense reservoir, in a hollow between stupendous mountains, the rugged, rocky, and almost perpendicular sides of which may be said to overhang the water, whilst the whole scenery is of the most awful and extraordinary kind, such as very seldom occurs, and on a scale of magnificence hardly to be equalled any where else, except in the wildest districts of Switzerland. Sir R. C. Hoare observes, that the collected beauties of this favoured spot are so great, so varied, and so superior to any thing that he had ever seen in Italy, Switzerland, or England, that to delineate or describe them he felt impossible. His route was to embark at Ross Castle, then stretch across to Innisfallen and see ruins of Abbey thickly embosomed in wood; thence in a westerly direction to O'Sullivan's Cascade, finely disposed in a thick forest, whence he coasted under Tomies mountain, where the view opens magnificently at Glenaa Point, where see the cottage. From thence to Turk's Lake under Brickeen bridge. See Turk's Mountain, majestic and perpendicular. Back to Glenaa Cottage to dine, and return to Killarney. On the following day proceed to Mucruss; ruins of Abbey: eminence in park, with bewitching view of Mucruss, Lower Lake, and distant mountains, a most exquisite panorama. The Upper Lake occupied a third day. Embark at Ross Island. Stretch across to Glenaa, where tourists must land whilst the boat is tracked or pushed up a shallow stream. Examine the arbutus. The boat is again tracked at the old weir bridge, where view the Eagle's Nest, and fire a swivel for the echo, or sound the bugle-horn. Enter the Upper Lake; view the Sugar-loaf, the reeks, and Purple mountain. Accommodation at cottage on Ronan's Island; but the tourist must carry his own provender. See long-extended range of rock and wood at Cromiglaun; descend the lake, and notice the numerous grotesque insulated rocks and romantic bays. A fourth day spent in visiting the N.E. shores of the lake by land, leads to the gap of Dunlo, scenery truly alpine, and highly deserving the artist's attention. Mr. Weld's routes can only be followed by a resident tourist; but we must record his recommendation to view the lakes by moonlight. Miss Plumptre first ascended Mangerton, and praises the effect of a bugle-horn at the Devil's Punch-bowl. On a second day she visited the Upper Lake; then the Lower; and on a third day, the Gap of Dunlo, Dunlo Castle; finishing on the fourth, by visiting Mucruss, the scenery in its vicinity, and Turk's Lake. Mr. Curwen embarked at Ross Island, visited the rock called O'Donoghue's prison, Cherry Island, Glenaa, the first day. The second day was spent on the Lower Lake; thence to Turk's Lake, Upper Lake, Eagle's Nest, Ronan's Island; alpine scenery of M'Gillicuddy's reeks, 3695 feet, and superior in effect of sublimity to Mont Blanc. Return by Turk's Lake and through the islands to Ross. Having recommended the ascent of Mangerton to the tourist, it may be proper to point out the objects which will then gain his attention; and, on this route, following Mr. Wakefield, it may be observed that on attaining a certain height, the Lower Lake, then the only one visible, has the appearance of an inundated marsh; but, ascending still further, the channel to the Upper Lake and a fine expanse of mountain scenery burst suddenly upon the view, as if by some magic charm; the whole forming a most extensive landscape, enriched by the variety of tints arising from the aërial perspective fading into the remotest distance. Near the summit is the crater of an extinguished volcano, now called the Devil's Punch-bowl, but little more than a large hole filled with water; proceeding a little beyond this, a new prospect opens with grand effect upon the eye, showing the Iveragh mountains like an ocean of wild confusion, with that large arm of the sea, called Kenmare river, stretching a great way inland, and beyond all, the wide expanse of the mighty Atlantic, seeming in the distant horizon to unite its azure surface with the fainter coloured sky: to the S. is seen Cape Clear; to the N. are the blue Dingle mountains, M'Gillicuddy's reeks immediately towering above the spectator, whilst the eye, glancing towards the interior of the island, catches a partial view of the far distant Galtee mountains of Tipperary. Grand as this panorama must be, the guides will hold out a strong temptation to the adventurous tourist to attempt the enjoyment of one still finer by the ascent of M'Gillicuddy's reeks, from whence the harbour of Cork appears like a map extended at the spectator's feet, whilst to the S.W. may be seen many of those huge headlands which form so conspicuous a feature in that part of the Irish coast. Here too the Dingle mountains dwindle into mere hills, and Brandon hill, which, when near it, seems so tremendous, now appears little more than a hillock; whilst the eye passes over Tralee bay as a small indentation of the sea, hardly worth while to notice, and lost in the extent of the bay of Galway and the mountains which surmount it. In short, says Mr. Wakefield—an observation highly deserving the tourist's attention—those who go to Killarney without ascending one of those commanding heights, though they may come away delighted with the high gratification derived from the rich scenery of Mucruss, the beautiful appearance of the islands emerging from the crystal flood, and astonished by the singularly wild and rugged views which the Upper Lake affords; yet will they know nothing of those grand, awful, and sublime scenes exhibited by nature, where objects of the most terrific kind are united in the wildest and most fantastical manner, exciting sensations not easily described in the mind of the admiring spectator. Nor will the ascent of Mangerton be found a difficult task even to the most timid: for various gulleys, hollowed out by the winter torrents, afford a road so easy, that the greatest part of the ascent may be accomplished on horseback. The tourist must expect to find his expenses considerable: he must carry his own provisions; and is expected to find provisions for his guides, or pay 2s. each per day extra. These guides will also force themselves upon him to a much greater extent than is necessary. The rates of the boats are regulated by Lord Kenmare's order; but the boatmen always expect more. The most remarkable objects in the vicinity are Aghadoe, 2 m. from Killarney, with fine view of the lake, with ruins of Ch.; at Ardtully, a geological curiosity of two rocks, one limestone upon a gritty soil, the other grit upon a limestone basis; Blackstones, a small village in the mountains amidst romantic scenery; Dunkerran Castle, of high antiquity; Dunlo, already mentioned: Glanfesk valley beyond the Upper Lake; Glanerought vale towards Kenmare bay, highly picturesque and romantic: at Kilgarvan, near it, the Fairy rock, amidst the mountains, with impressions of human feet; Killagh Abbey, a few miles E., in good preservation, a ruin with noble Gothic window; and ruins of Kilcolman Ch.

Lake and Mountains at Killarney

T. Fielding fc.

Lake & Mountains at Killarney

Tarbert, 20 m. N.E. of Tralee, is a thriving village, and contains a Sessions House, and a good inn with convenient accommodation. Upon a gentle eminence in the outskirts, stands the Ch. with a handsome steeple. Near to it is the Public School. To the left of it is Tarbert House, the seat of Sir Edward Leslie, in a situation which bears a striking resemblance to Mount Edgcumbe. Tarbert is a good station for those who wish to examine the romantic scenery at the entrance of the river Shannon; especially as extending westward towards the ocean. A ride along that coast first presents Rusheen, a pleasing seat and plantations, and Lislaghtin Abbey, with a good view of Scattery Island; then the island and Castle of Carrigfoile, anciently a fortified mansion of the O'Connors, almost impregnable in situation. Beyond this see the ruins of Beal Castle, the seat of a horrid murder detailed in the Pacata Hibernia. Its vicinity is romantic, commanding fine prospects, and abounding in game. To the west of it is a high cliff, called the Devil's Castle, inaccessible to all but the winged creation, whilst the shore at its base presents a great variety of romantic caverns formed by the dashing of the waves of a turbulent ocean, overshadowed by cliffs of most impressive grandeur.

Listowell, between Tarbert and Tralee, is a neat little town on the banks of the Feal, with a decent inn. See the remains of an old Castle with a very high circular headed arch. On the banks of the river, see Woodford, with some remains of an ancient Castle, the seat of the Knight of Kerry.

Tralee, 144 m. S.W. of Dublin, is a corporate and assize town, with a neat square in the centre surrounded by the Court-house and Gaol.—See the old Castle of the Desmonds, the Parish Ch., and some remains of an ancient Dominican Convent. The town is finely situated at the bottom of an extensive bay, surrounded by lofty mountains. Near it is a chalybeate spring. 2½ m. see Ballybegan, with ruins of ancient Castle, and some curious caves, with a subterranean river, and various specimens of stalactite; also a quarry of dark grey marble interspersed with spar. Mineralogists may trace a vein of potter's lead ore running amongst the limestone rocks. Castlemain, about 4 m. S., is an inconsiderable place, but presents some pretty scenery on the river Mang which falls into the bay. Between Tralee Bay and Castlemain, are the lofty mountains of Sliebhmish. On the top of Cahir Conregh is a circle of massy stones, by some supposed Druidical, by others Danish.


Mangerton mountain abounds in variety of minerals; whetstones; argillaceous iron ore; red and brown iron stones; spicular iron ore, adhering to quartz; and numerous siliceous stones, but no calcareous specimens.

Transparent crystals, generally known under the name of Kerry stones, are found in various parts. Many of these resemble the diamond in its property of cutting glass, but soon lose their hardness. The mineralogist must principally direct his search for them amongst the rocks and cliffs on the sea coast. Coloured crystals are found in the vicinity of the lakes: these often resemble emeralds, topazes, and sapphires. Some real amethysts have also been discovered.

Near Castle Island is found the once famous Lapis hibernicus, or Irish slate, formerly of some officinal reputation, abounding in common green copperas, or martial vitriol; also at Tralee.

At Dune, near Tralee, are pyrites, with sulphur, and iron ore.

Extensive iron works formerly existed at Glencarne, especially near Blackstairs.

A salino-nitrous spring at Magherybeg rises out of the sand; antiscorbutic.


Andromeda polifolia, Marsh Cistus or Wild Rosemary: in bogs in Iveragh and Dunkerron baronies, and near Isaac-town.

Arbutus Unedo, Strawberry-tree:—on rocks and mountains about Lough Lane.

Artemisia campestris, Field Southern-wood:—in a field near Castle Island.

Asplenium Adiantum nigrum, Common Black Maiden-hair:—on the mountains.

Asplenium Ceterach, Spleenwort or Milkwort:—on rocks.

Asplenium Ruta muraria, White Maiden-hair, Wall Rue or Tentwort:—in a rocky cavern near Blackstones.

Asplenium Trichomanes, English Black Maiden-hair:—on the rocks in various parts.

Astragalus arenarius, Purple Mountain Milkwort; on the mountains about the Lake of Killarney.

Atriplex portulacoides, Sea Purslane:—near the river Mang near Callinafersy.

Atriplex serrata, Indented Sea Orache:—on the banks of the river Galey, plentifully.

Cardamine bellidifolia, Daisy-leaved Ladies' Smock:—in the islands of Lough Lane.

Cheiranthus sinuatus, Sea Stock:—near Beal Castle towards the Shannon mouth.

Chenopodium maritimum, Sea Blite or White Glasswort:—on the shore near Callinafersy, the bottom of Castlemain harbour.

Cineraria alpina, Mountain Ragwort:—on the side of Knockanore mountain, near Fell's Spa, in the barony of Iragticonnor.

Cineraria palustris, Marsh Flea-bane:—in ditches in the barony of Clanmaurice.

Convallaria majalis, Lily Convally, or May Lily:—in the island of Innisfallen.

Cratægus Aria, White Beam Tree:—in woods and hedges in a mountainous or chalky soil, plentifully.

Cucubalus acaulis, Moss Campion:—on the rocky mountains in Dukerron near Blackstones.

Draba muralis, Speedwell-leaved Whitlow Grass:—on mountains near the southern part of Lough Lane.

Drosera rotundifolia, Round-leaved Sundew:—in moist grounds near Lixnaw.

Dryas octopetala, Mountain Elder:—on hills near passage into the upper lake at Killarney.

Echium italicum, Wall Viper's Bugloss:—in sandy ground in Ballyheigh Bay near Ferrit.

Equisetum hyemale, Rough Horsetail or Shave-grass:—in a bog through which the river Buck runs near Lixnaw.

Eryngium maritimum, Sea Holly or Eryngo:—on sandy shores.

Euphorbia hiberna, Knotty-rooted Spurge:—on the mountains.

Galeopsis villosa, Hairy Dead Nettle:—in fields near Castle Island.

Geranium maritimum, Sea Crane's-bill:—on the strand of Tralee.

Geranium moschatum, Musk Crane's-bill or Muscovy:—on the abbey walls of Lislactin.

Geum rivale, Water Avens:—on the hills near the passage into the upper lake of Killarney.

Herniaria glabra, Smooth Rupture-wort:—on Lamb-head near the mouth of the river Kenmare.

Hieracium paludosum, Succory-leaved Hawkweed:—in Ballybog.

Ilex Aquifolium (baccis luteis), Yellow-berried Holly:—on mountains near Lough Lane.

Inula crithmoides, Golden Samphire:—on rocks near Bolus-head in Iveragh, and elsewhere.

Jungermannia epiphylla, Broad-leaved Jungermannia:—in a wood near Beal Castle.

Juniperus communis, Juniper:—on the mountains.

Juniperus Sabina, Savine:—in islands at Killarney.

Lepidium latifolium, Dittander or Pepperwort:—near the head of Kenmare river.

Lichen islandicus, Eryngo-leaved Liverwort:—on the mountains of Iveragh near Blackstones.

Lichen tartareus, Welch Liverwort, Cork or Archill:—on rocks on the sea coast.

Lycopodium alpinum, Mountain Club Moss:—on the mountains of Toomesh and others near the Lake of Killarney.

Lycopodium clavatum, Common Club Moss:—on the southern districts on the mountains.

Lycopodium Selago, Upright Fir Moss:—on Mangerton and most other mountains near the Lake of Killarney.

Ophioglossum vulgatum, Adder's Tongue:—in moist meadows.

Osmunda crispa, Stone Fern:—on rocks among mountains in the southern baronies.

Osmunda regalis, Osmund royal or Flowering Fern:—in bogs of Irachticonnor; in a wood near Lixnaw and elsewhere.

Paris quadrifolia, Herb Paris, True-love, or One-berry:—in the wood near Ross Castle; near the Lake.

Peucedanum officinale, Hog's Fennel, Sulphurwort:—on the shores of Ballyheigh bay.

Pinus Abies, Common Fir or Pitch Tree:—in the mountains.

Pinus picea, Yew-leaved Fir:—in the mountains.

Pisum maritimum, Sea Pease:—on Inch Island in Castlemain bay.

Polemonium cæruleum, Greek Valerian, or Jacob's Ladder:—near Castle Island, in meadows.

Polygonum Bistorta, Greater Bistort or Snakeweed:—in a park near Tralee.

Polypodium fragile, Brittle Polypody:—on Mangerton mountains.

Polypodium fragile γ, a variety of the last; on the south side of the rocks called the Reeks.

Polypodium rhœticum, Stone Polypody:—on several mountains round the Lake of Killarney, near the new road to Glanerough.

Pulmonaria maritima, Sea Bugloss:—on the beach near Beal Castle.

Rubia peregrina, Wild Madder:—in the Island of Innisfallen.

Rubus idæus, Raspberry Bush or Framboise:—near Lough Lane, plentifully.

Salsola Kali, Prickly Glasswort:—on the sea shore at the bottom of Ballyheigh Bay.

Santolina maritima, Sea Cudweed:—on the shores of Ballyheigh strand.

Saxifraga oppositifolia, Mountain Heath-like Sengreen; among the rocks near Blackstones.

Saxifraga umbrosa, London Pride, or None-so-pretty:—on Mangerton mountain.

Scrophularia Scorodonia, Balm-leaved Figwort:—on the sea coast near the Magherie Islands in Tralee bay.

Smyrnium Olusatrum, Alexanders:—on a small bushy hillock near Crumlin Ch., about the shore near Dunkerton, the head of the river Kenmare, and elsewhere.

Sorbus domestica, True Service or Sorb; on several rocks about Killarney Lake.

Solidago cambrica, Welch Golden Rod:—near the Devil's Punch-bowl, on the west side of Mangerton mountain.

Tragopogon porrifolius, Purple Goat's-beard:—on the banks of the river Brick near Lixnaw.


Is an inland and small-sized county, soon traversed, and, with the exception of numerous Danish mounts, containing very little to interest the general tourist. It is, in short, little more than an extent of bog; and the famous Curragh of Kildare, so celebrated in the annals of sporting, is literally nothing more than a boggy down of about 3000 acres. Mr. Wakefield observes that the habitations of the poor are so extremely wretched that they add the appearance of misery and desolation to the general dulness exhibited by the face of the country. Unfortunately there is scarcely any thing to contrast with this; for the seats of the gentry, though much admired, are far from being numerous. Bounded by Meath on the N.; Dublin and Wicklow, E., Carlow S.; and W. by King's and Queen's Counties.

Athy, 10 m. S.W. of Kildare, celebrated as the scene of battles in early history.—See ruins of two Monasteries. At Ardee, 1 m., Danish Rath. At Carmen, 5 m. E., Rath on conical hill, with extensive prospect. See Kilberry Abbey, and Kildangon Castle, in ruins. At Maistean, field of battle where bones are still dug up, of great antiquity. Rheban, 2 m. N., has a quadrangular entrenchment, the remains of an ancient city.

Ballitore, a beautiful village, 12 m. S.E. of Kildare, situated in a valley on a winding stream. It is a colony of Quakers, with houses remarkable for neatness, cleanliness, and elegant simplicity, with highly cultivated gardens. See Belan House, the seat of the Earl of Aldborough, erected on, or near to the ruins of an old Castle which was demolished by Cromwell; after which another mansion was raised, since pulled down and rebuilt. It stands low, near the junction of two streams, which at the distance of 4 m. fall into the Barrow. Plainness and convenience seem to have been attended to on its erection, more than elegance, though handsome and substantial; the front and rear composed with breaks and ornamented with corner stone work; and the whole forming a good object at the end of a magnificent avenue. The visitor will be shown a bed which stood in the old mansion, in which it is said, by tradition, that both King William and King James slept in the course of the year 1690. The demesne is very extensive, and has the singularity of being in five counties, Kildare, Wicklow, Carlow, Queen's, and Dublin; and seven others may be seen from an eminence in the grounds, King's, Meath, Westmeath, Kilkenny, Wexford, Waterford, and Tipperary. Timolin, 3 m. S., see ruins of Castle, and Moone Abbey.

Castle Carberry, 12 m. N. of Kildare, is a station for the N.W. part of the county. See ruins of ancient Castle, (1180) with extensive prospect; also Newberry, a handsome seat of Lord Harberton.

Castle Dermot, 18 m. S.E. of Kildare.—See ruins of Franciscan Friary, and Ch., close to which a round tower in good preservation, and beautifully enveloped in ivy; also remains of Castle, two stone Crosses, and three Pillars of great antiquity. A place of early celebrity, but now in decay. Kilkea Castle, 5 m. N.W., the property of the Duke of Leinster, presents the tourist with the agreeable picture of an ancient Castle fitted up for modern residence. Grose gives a very interesting engraving of it; and he describes it as situated on a rising ground and commanding an extensive prospect: near it is a Ch., and the river Grisso runs at a small distance. Having been partly rebuilt in the 15th century, it has a bawn or inclosure entered by an arched gateway, defended by a round tower which projects from the castle itself. In the front of the castle is the principal entrance, with an outer staircase. The whole forms a very interesting object.

Clain, 10 m. N.E. of Kildare, stands pleasantly on the Liffey; Ch. with lofty steeple; ruins of Abbey; ancient Castle, and extensive Rath; Aqueduct Bridge near it.

Kilcock, 18 m. N.E. of Kildare, and on the verge of the county, is a populous but straggling village. Suffered dreadfully from the rebels in 1798. See Cloncurry, 4 m., with ruins of ancient Ch.; also Donadea Castle.

Kilcullen, Old and New, 7 m. S.E. of Kildare, with round tower, and remains of monastic buildings; bridge over the Liffey. At Castle Martin, curious Chapel and Mausoleum. Kilgowan, near it, has an ancient stone pillar on a hill. At New Abbey, see the ruins and monuments of the Eustace family. At Old Kilcullen examine the shaft of an antique Cross covered with rude sculptures, of which a good plate is given in Ledwich's Antiquities. The style is grotesque, and evidently Danish. Some of the figures are intended to represent priests engaged in religious offices; but the others are mere caricatures.

Kildare is the county town, about 28 m. from the metropolis.—The Abbey is a very fine ruin, consisting of part of the tower and a considerable portion of the walls, containing six Gothic arches and as many buttresses, but entirely modernized. It is said that the ruinous state of the steeple is in consequence of the siege during the civil war, when its north side was knocked down by a Cromwellian battery. The south wing is a mass of ruins, but the antiquary may still notice two statues in alto relievo; one of which is the representation clad in armour of an ancient knight of the Fitzgerald family, surrounded by heraldic escutcheons; the other a bishop with his pastoral staff, and his mitre supported by monkeys. Close to the ruins is a Round Tower 132 feet in height, with a light battlement in pretty good preservation, being one of the best specimens in the island. The monastic annals of this town present the extraordinary instance of a Sacred Fire having been preserved from the time of the Druids by Christian nuns of St. Bridget; a lady much celebrated for her virtues and her miracles. The place where this relic of heathen superstition was preserved, is still in existence, and now called the Fire-house. Of this fire many wonderful tales are related, especially that although it consumed great quantities of fuel, yet the ashes never increased. It was considered impious to blow the fire with the human breath, but only by a pair of bellows; yet people of plain sense might suppose that a holy miraculous flame would never require human assistance in any shape. It appears indeed that in the 13th century the Archbishop of Dublin performed a miracle in putting out this fire; but it was rekindled and continued in good preservation until the dissolution of the religious houses. The town stands pleasantly on the side of a hill; and the ancient Castle is partly habitable. The Curragh is a fine unequal down of short pasture, famous for its races; and contains 3000 acres; with remains of ancient Barrows or small Raths, which Sir R. C. Hoare supposes to be Druidical. The hill of Allen gives name to an extensive bog, and is celebrated for its cave where repose the remains of Oscar and other Ossianic chiefs, this being the hill of Temora in ancient times. Dunmurry presents great variety to the mineralogist. Kilmaoge has an ancient Ch. At Lackagh, 3 m. W., ancient cemetery with ruins of Ch. and Castle. Monasterevan, 5 m. S.W., has a modern built Ch. and Nursery for the Leinster Charter Schools: near it the venerable but beautifully repaired mansion of Moore Abbey, seat of the Marquis of Drogheda. At New Bridge, ruins of magnificent Abbey of Great Connell. Rathangan, on the banks of the canal, suffered greatly in the rebellion.

Leixlip, 8 m. from Dublin, near Lucan, a romantic scene of wood, rocks, and water.—Near it, at Castletown, is the finest house in Ireland, built by the late Mr. Conolly: a large handsome edifice situated on an extensive lawn surrounded by fine plantations, uniting with sombre woods and artificial scenery. From hence visit also Cartown, the picturesque seat of the Duke of Leinster; Summerhill; Dangan, &c. &c. See also the Salmon leap, with magnificent old Castle delightfully seated on a rising ground overhanging the Liffey, near which is the celebrated Aqueduct of the royal canal, being 85 feet above the river, equal to the famous Roman work at Pont de Gard in France. The village is picturesquely situated on the edge of the river, near a charming wild romantic dell, where high slopes covered with wood rise on each side above the water, having paths that lead to the Cascade. See at St. Woolstan's, 2 m. S.W., ruinous towers and gateways of ancient Priory (1208).

Maynooth, 11 m. from Dublin, has lately become famous for its Roman Catholic College, formed to receive a great number of students. It has a large Inn and fine Market-house; also a Protestant Charter School, and near it are the ruins of an ancient Castle. Bishop's Court may be visited along with the beauties of Leixlip: it is a magnificent mansion and highly cultivated demesne of Lord Ponsonby. Celbridge, a modern built village, is highly worth notice, with fine stone bridge over the Liffey, and at the lower extremity an elegant Ch. lately erected. See extensive woollen manufactory; also at the S. end of the village, remains of a magnificent Abbey, now repaired, and converted into a habitation presenting all the external appearance of its former character, in all the gloomy grandeur of Gothic architecture. Castle Browne, not far distant, has recently been purchased for a society of Jesuits. Furnace is a beautiful seat, lately much improved, with ruins of ancient chapel in the lawn, in which is a window of painted glass of high antiquity and extreme beauty. At Oughterard, see ancient Ch. and Round Tower on summit of a hill. Prosperous is another modern creation, being founded by Colonel Brook in 1780, for a Cotton Manufactory: ½ m. distant from which, at a place called the Cott, is a strong sulphureous spa, richly impregnated also as a chalybeate, useful in scrophulous and cutaneous diseases.

Naas, 10 m. N.E. of Kildare, was in ancient times the residence of the Kings of Leinster, of which it still retains evident marks in the existence of Moats or Raths of considerable elevation at its N. and S. extremities. See Court House; Parsonage House, built upon the site of an ancient Castle; and extensive Barracks. No remains of its original fortifications now exist; but the tourist will find a good inn, with a supply of post horses. Jigginstown, ½ m. distant, has been repeatedly noticed for the ruins of an elegant mansion begun by Lord Strafford in the unhappy reign of Charles I. It stands close to the road, and is vaulted underneath. At Johnstown is the ancient mansion and extensive demesne of Lord Mayo.


In the Red Hills on the southern limits of the bog of Allen, the mineralogical tourist may derive great satisfaction from an examination of the copper mines which were opened there about 30 years ago. Dunmurry forms a kind of headland to the north of the chain of hills, and the loose stones on its surface frequently appear as if calcined in the fire, of a red purple colour, and sometimes tinctured with sulphur, generally considered as certain indications of the existence of copper. Here shafts have been sunk to the depth of 15 fathom in the solid rock, which is calcareous in many places; and here is also found a white argillaceous alkaline earth; together with calcareous spar, and a fossil said to be a poor silver ore. On the conical hill of Allen, about a mile distant, the vestiges of partial vitrification are even more apparent, and many of the specimens are richly impregnated with blue and green vitriol. Near Williamstown the mineralogist may visit the deserted works of a silver mine, and amuse himself with scientific research.


Narthecium ossifragum, Lancashire or Bastard Asphodel:—in turfy bogs.

Pinguicula vulgaris, Butterwort, or Yorkshire Sanicle:—in pastures near Barberstown.

Samolus Valerandi, Round-leaved Water Pimpernel:—in marshes and moist meadows, at Monasterevan.


Is an inland and not very extensive county; but is highly worth visiting: for though much of it consists of furze-clad mountains, yet these are finely contrasted by the diversified scenery on the banks of the Suir and Barrow, its eastern and western limits, and of the Nore which divides it nearly in two. In several parts of the county the mineralogist will find petrifactions or incrustations similar to those of Derbyshire; especially on the banks of a stream which flows through the glen of Ballyragget; and the Derbyshire farmers may here learn a lesson from the Irish agriculturists, who have discovered that these incrustations or depositions, which form with great rapidity, make an excellent manure. In many parts also are found calcareous petrifactions of pectunculites, echinites, cochlites, and some Cornua ammonis; and in several places, particularly in the barony of Galmoy, (as stated by Mr. Wakefield,) are tubiporites in such size and plenty as to be often seen in the fields and on dry stone walls. The antiquities are very numerous; Raths, Druidical Monuments, Castles, Abbeys, &c. are scattered in all parts, but very ruinous. The rivers are on a large scale, and the scenery pleasing. Bounded on the N.W. by Queen's County; N. by Carlow; E. by Wexford; S.W. by Tipperary.

Callen, 7 m. S.W. of Kilkenny, has ruins of three Castles, and old Gothic Ch., all destroyed by Cromwell. 1 m. see Eve Castle in ruins; also very large Rath, 40 feet high, 46 yards by 24.

Castle Comer, 8 m. N. of Kilkenny; see the celebrated Kilkenny coal-pits; beautiful mansion of Lady Ormond, the scene of several battles during the rebellion. Town partly burnt down, but since rebuilt.

Castle Durrow, 12 m. N.W. of Kilkenny, a town pleasantly situated on the banks of the Erkin, a small river, with a good inn. Near it the large old-fashioned mansion of Lord Ashbrooke. Roads good. Country round well cultivated, with some wood. Several vestiges of Danish Mounts. Visit Ballyspellan, 6 m. S.W., a celebrated Spa, chalybeate, with much to amuse the mineralogist; also Druidical remains. Fertagh has curious old Ch., and Round Tower 96 feet high. At Freshford see Irish inscription over Ch. door. Galmoy has numerous Danish Raths in its vicinity.

Dunmore Cave, 5 m. N.W. of Kilkenny, is one of the most remarkable in the island. Proceed to the Ch. of Mothe, a little to the southward of which, in a field on the slope of a gently rising hill, is the mouth of the cave, which opens into a large oval pit, about 40 or 50 yards wide, apparently formed by the sinking in of the surface, at the eastern end. To this there is a descent of 70 feet from the opposite quarter, over the rubbish of stone and clay; but the other sides of the pit are perpendicular. Rabbits often burrow near the entrance; and the first cavern, which is spacious, but of an irregular form, is generally a shelter for wild pigeons. To the roof of this cavern is an altitude of at least 50 feet; the floor slopes downwards, and towards the left the tourist arrives at a narrow passage which leads by a slippery ascent to the interior cavern. The difficulty of approach to this spot is amply repaid by the wonders within, where a great variety of stalagmitic concretions, added to the rugged forms of the rocks, exhibit a most singular and striking appearance. The tourist who wishes to explore all the wonders, must now proceed to the upper end, which becomes much narrower, but soon expands into a larger apartment. Beyond this there are other winding passages and other caves; but as neither Mr. Wakefield nor Mr. Walker seems to have explored them, it perhaps remains for some adventurous tourist to discover wonders equal to the caves of Trophonius or even Montesinos. Those who choose not to proceed further may consult Mr. Tighe's Survey of the County, where various other circumstances are stated. It is said that one of those passages leads to the other side of the hill, where day-light may be seen to enter through a narrow chink. In another of the inner caverns, imagination supposes the calcareous concretions to have assumed the form of an organ; in another, of a cross and altar. A stream of water passes through the cavern at a considerable distance from its entrance; and many skulls and other human bones have been found near to it, also in the more interior passages beyond it. Some of these skulls have been seen petrified, as it is called, or covered with the calcareous spar. The mineralogist may here pick up some specimens of an indurated clay, tinted by carbon, and called in the vicinity black chalk. Upon the whole, a visit to this place cannot fail to be highly gratifying to the tourist; though he will meet with some difficulties in exploring it, as the bottom is always damp and slippery, and rugged withal, from the stalactites formed by the dripping water on its very irregular flooring.

Ennisteague, or Innistiogue, 12 m. S.E. of Kilkenny, has a handsome Bridge and some pleasing scenery.—See the enchanting and picturesque glen at Woodstock, near Glanmore, with ruins of Ch. and Castle, in whose winding recesses nature and art have done every thing possible to embellish the scene.

Gowran, 8 m. E. of Kilkenny, stands on a pleasant stream.—See Ch. in ruins, a fine specimen of the middle Gothic. In the cemetery are the bones of the officers of the Castle garrison shot by order of Cromwell for their gallant defence. See Low Grange, 1 m., modern mansion erected on ruins of ancient Castle. Visit Graignemanach lying in a sequestered vale on the romantic banks of the Barrow, which claims the tourist's notice by majestic ruins of an extensive Abbey, of which the architecture and sculpture excite our admiration even in its present dilapidated state. It is built in the form of a cross; and its outline pretty entire. The arch leading into the choir, rising to the roof with double mouldings and supported by clustered pillars, is a very fine specimen of the Gothic. It is impossible to view the two plates of it given by Grose, without wishing to explore its venerable arcades. It was a mitred Abbey, and founded in 1212; but particularly remarkable for having been the depository of a "Doomsday Book," or Survey of the Island, begun by Henry II., and finished under the orders of John.

Kilkenny, the county town, is 57 m. S.W. of Dublin.—The Castle is an interesting object to the inquisitive tourist, originally begun in the 12th century by Strongbow, and completed by William de Mareschal, Earl of Pembroke. Great part of the ancient edifice has survived the various convulsions of civil anarchy, now repaired and beautified so as to form a conspicuous ornament to the city, on a rising ground, with a rapid descent to the Nore, and on the other sides fortified by walls and towers, the Gothic grandeur of whose remains is disfigured in the eye of taste, by a lofty marble entrance gate of the Corinthian order. Much fine tapestry, in fresh and lively colours, representing the story of Decius, will interest the visitor on entering the breakfast-room. See also the alcove or presence-chamber, hung with tapestry, with a chair of state raised a step above the floor, a remnant of ancient pomp, now superseded by the simpler habits of modern nobility. The other parts of the mansion have also been well fitted up for the fashionable conviviality which has recently graced its walls. The ball-room or gallery is of great length, and contains pictures, many of which are highly interesting, being the portraits of the gay court of the 2d Charles. See also the Countess's Dressing-room in an octagon tower; the Chapel, and, if permitted, the Evidence Room, which contains an immense mass of valuable MSS., materials partially gleaned by Carte, the historian. Near the city is the Cathedral Ch. of St. Canice, of considerable antiquity, being, in its finished state, of the reign of Edward the 1st, and still in very good preservation. It stands on an eminence, with a descent on all sides; and the Ch. yard is entered, from the town, by a flight of marble steps. The cemetery being planted with trees has a romantic effect, and presents a very extensive prospect over a rich vicinage. In the interior the seats of the choir and gallery are of oak varnished, and the whole plain, but remarkably neat. The compass ceiling is adorned with fretwork, and has many modillions, and in the centre a group of foliage, festoons, and cherubim. In the nave and aisles are many beautiful sepulchral Monuments. It is the Cathedral of the see of Ossory; and close to it is a very curious Round Tower. The Dominican or Black Abbey, an extensive ruin, with the elegant ramifications of some of its Gothic windows in pretty good preservation, stands low, and is surrounded by squalid huts, which disfigure its outside and take off much of the sombre effect of its venerable walls. The windows, especially the east one, are light and elegant: the arcades are open and airy; and the towers spring up with an airy elegance that seizes at once upon the traveller's attention. The Abbey of St. Francis, with its square Tower springing from a lofty Gothic arch, is worthy the tourist's notice, though much disfigured in its interior by the squalid cabins of poverty and idleness, and by part of its precincts being turned into a horse barrack. The great altar is a marble slab of amazing size; but perhaps the most remarkable circumstance about the place is the legendary story of a sainted lady who built part of the choir, and whose extreme chastity induced her to descend a virgin into the grave at the age of 70, although she had been married young and to several husbands. The ruins of St. John's Abbey, part of which has been converted into a foot barrack, present some very fine specimens of the light Gothic in the windows and corridors. Founded in 1220. See the marble mill, about 2 m. from the city, and on the left bank of the river; a very ingenious invention, alike admirable for the simplicity of its construction, and for the power which it exerts. The saws are made of soft iron, and will last but a week; each cutting about ten or twelve inches per day, equal to the labour of two men. Not far from these mills are various marble quarries; but the most curious mineralogical specimen is called Sidero-calcite, so plentiful as to have been used for repairing the roads. Unlike the other marbles, it cannot be burnt into lime; but it contains a quantity of iron and manganese; and as it is brittle and friable, it has been proposed as an ingredient in mortar or cement used for building under water. Visit Clogmanta Hill, about 10 m. N.W., where are some extensive Druidical remains, with a magnificent prospect from the summit. Rathbeath, 5 m. N., is supposed to be the ancient Argat-Ross, where in early times a silver mine existed, whence the first Irish coinage took place.

Knoctopher, 9 m. S. of Kilkenny, stands pleasantly on the banks of a rivulet which flows into the Nore. Bessborough, 8 m. S., is a handsome seat of the Earl of that name, in a park of 500 acres; the house 100 feet in length, with elegant hall, saloon and parlour containing numerous fine paintings, of the Italian and Flemish schools. See various Cromlechs and other Druidical remains at Garryduff-hill, especially Leibe ne Cuhn, or the Priest's Grave, with stone cells. Grandison or Grany Castle, though apparently not older than the reign of Henry VIII., being in the style of domestic fortification of that period, and now almost a total ruin, is yet far from being an uninteresting object, not only in picturesque effect with its numerous towers, but as affording a good idea of the insecure state of society during that unsettled period. It has three Round Towers on the Suir, and two Courts; a large square Tower, connected to a great hall, and another Round Tower form the other side; in the inside of the arch of a window in the hall is a grotesque angel holding a shield with the arms of Butler. It was built by Margaret, the great Countess of Ormonde, at a period when ladies of high birth seem to have been proud of exercising the masculine authority of the other sex. Kells, a pleasant little place, 3 m. N., has some pretty river scenery. At Kilbeacon see Earl's Rath, a very large fort, oblong, and surrounded by a deep fosse, formerly filled with water, with a bank about 20 feet high; in the area are remains of buildings. Kilmogue has a curious Cromlech, the upper stone, 45 feet in circumference, supported by several others, nine in number. The stones are of siliceous breccia, and it is still known by the name of Lachan Scahl, the Great Altar Stone. At Mullinavat, the mineralogist will find considerable amusement in his researches. At Tory-hill, to the S.E. about 7 m., and called in the Irish, Sleigh Grian, or the Hill of the Sun, see a circular space on the very summit, covered with stones, in which is one large squared stone, 5 feet long, resting on three others, with an inscription in the ancient Pelasgic characters, BELIDIVOSE, supposed to be a dedication to the Deity, under the name of Bel, Baal, or Apollo.

Thomastown, 9 m. S.E. from Kilkenny, deserves the notice of the antiquary from its being one of the most ancient towns in the island, being founded by one of the chiefs of Henry II. in his first expedition. From this Thomas Fitz-Anthony it derives its nomenclature. Its principal remnant of antiquity is the Abbey, of which there are some considerable fragments; one end being fitted up as the parish Ch. There is a venerable Tower at one angle; and the Gothic arcades afford some fine specimens of the lancet arch, evidently of a date posterior to the foundation of the town itself. In the ruinous part of the edifice, the tourist will notice a large sepulchral stone, which is reported in traditionary legends to cover the body of a giant. Its trade is considerably increasing in consequence of the river navigation. The river Argula falls into the Nore, close by Ballyduff, where are ruins of an old Castle. About 2 m. above it, on the banks of the Nore, are the ruins of the Abbey of Jerpoint, a Cistertian establishment as early as 1180. Its remains, which are extensive, more resemble a fortress than an Abbey; and it has a very fine light and airy Tower with four pinnacles. The picturesque tourist when at this place must not omit a most romantic walk to a secluded dell and glen at Kilfaun, about 1½ m. in length, well described by Wakefield, who notices an elegant cottage placed in a situation truly delightful; opposite to which is a waterfall, the rivulet running through the lawn and flower garden, having on both sides rocks ornamented with large evergreens, the whole scene exhibiting numerous beauties both of art and nature. Near Thomastown is Mount Juliet, the seat of the Earl of Carrick, which, though in a neglected state as described by Mr. Wakefield, is deserving of notice; the house being built in the old fashioned style of architecture, and standing immediately on the banks of the romantic and rapid Nore.


Granite in various parts of the county; particularly on Brandon mountain near Gowran, with siliceous schistus, containing mica, crystals, and jasper. Pyrites and quartz near Inistioge. Black slate and hone-stones near Castle Durrow. Kilkenny coal near Castle Comer. Some pieces of very fine compact jasper, of various sizes, may be found on the borders of the granite district in the S. The specimens already discovered were of a deep red colour, for the most part obtusely angular, and squarer at one end than the other: they were imbedded in yellow clay, a few feet below the surface.

The mineralogist may feel gratified by the examination of a very fine granite quarry in the vicinity of Gowran. It is a beautiful stone of a light yellow cast, fine grained and compact, and may be taken up in blocks of any required size.

On the top of Drumdowny Hill, the extremity of an extensive range, there is a dry stone wall inclosing a space of about 300 acres, appropriated for quarrying a species of breccia, or pudding stone, which is cut into mill-stones.


Borago officinalis, Burrage:—on the ruins of Grandison Castle.

Erica cinerea, Female Heath; with white flowers:—on moist sides of hills.

Humulus Lupulus, or Hops:—indigenous evidently in many parts of the county.

Iris Pseud-acorus, Common Flags or Saggons:—in wet grounds.

Lichen, Common Mosses; with all the varieties of caninus, physodes, farinaceus, &c.:—in many places.

Lonicera var. fol. quercinis, Oak-leaved Honey-Suckle:—in the S.E. district, in meadows.

Lycopodium alpinum, Alpine Moss:—on the hills on western side of the Nore.

Lycopodium clavatum, Club Moss:—near Inistiogue.

Lycopodium Selago, Ladies' Shamrock:—in moist grounds on the banks of the Nore.

Rumex Acetosa, Sorrel:—in moist meadows.

Rumex acutus, Sharp Dock:—on clayey soils in the north.

Verbena officinalis, Vervain:—in pastures, and on road sides.


This is one of the small Irish inland counties, long and narrow, bordering in some degree upon the Shannon, and traversed by the canal intended to unite the Irish Channel with that river.—It is flat and often boggy, especially in that district called the Bog of Allen; with the exception of the range of hills that separate it from the Queen's County, called the Sliebh-bloom mountains. Bounded N. by East and West Meath; E. by Kildare and Queen's County; S. by Tipperary; and W. by Galway and the River Shannon.

Ballyboy, 17 m. S.W. of Philipstown, is nearly central to the county, on the Silver river, and but an inconsiderable village, with ruins of several Castles in its vicinity. See Anna lake and remains of Killinany Castle. At Ballycumber, ruins of a Castle, and a Ch. At Ferbane, beyond the Brosna, 10 m. N.W., see ruins of Cool and Killcolgan Castles; and near it are the ruins of Clonmacnoise, celebrated as the cemetery of numerous chieftains, priests, &c. These splendid remains are seated in the midst of delightful scenery, on a rising ground on the banks of the Shannon. See an ornamented Cross, fifteen feet high, standing near Teanpull Mac Diermid. It is in a rich style of sculpture, exhibiting the duties of Christianity, and some legendary stories of St. Kiaran, (A.D. 549,) the patron saint. The doors of the Ch. of Teanpull are also deserving of notice for their statues and ornamented architecture. Here are also two stone Crosses, and another nearer to Ferban, with ruins of several Castles. The episcopal palace is also in ruins, about ½ m. distant, besides some remains of a Nunnery. Many inscriptions in the Irish and the learned languages may be traced in the sepulchral Monuments; and the whole scene assimilates well with the wild and romantic landscape that surrounds it. Frankford is a small town, 3 m. N.W., with a Charter School, and some remains of a roofless Chapel.

Banagher, 30 m. S.W. of Philipstown, is seated on the E. bank of the Shannon, with pleasing river scenery and two bridges: a well built town, and good station for the tourist. Cloghan, 4 m., a village with a most comfortable inn, rendering it a convenient resting-place for the pedestrian artist wishing to examine the surrounding wild landscape. The statist may also derive considerable pleasure from investigating the progress of civilization and improvement resulting from the judicious planting and cultivation across the river Silver, by the Rev. Dr. Mullock, at Bellair, and from the erection of a village well planned, with neatness, cleanliness, and a good police as its main objects, in concert with the introduction of the Linen Manufacture.

Birr, 28 m. S.W. of Philipstown, and seated on a river of the same name, was formerly called Parsonstown, from the family to which it belongs, who have a castellated mansion in the outskirts. The town itself is new, and well built, of a good size, and the streets regularly laid out; with a square, called Duke's Square, from a statue of the Duke of Cumberland erected on a lofty stone column. The tourist will find a good inn at the King's Arms. See the fine old and venerable Castle, the mansion of the Earl of Ross, which stood a siege by General Sarsfield in the war of the Revolution. Excellent Market-house, and Infantry Barrack. Canger, to the S.E., towards the Sliebh-bloom mountains, manifests how much may be done in Ireland by the exertions of an individual. Here, by the judicious care of Mr. Atkinson, aided indeed by the neighbouring gentlemen, much has recently been accomplished; whiskey is giving place to malt liquor; the people quiet and loyal, though illiterate; and other improvements daily taking place. Excellent houses are also building for the tenants; labouring wages have been generously raised; the children constantly employed, and industry and content going hand in hand. Agricultural improvements and experiments are here practised, to the manifest instruction of the hitherto neglected farmer. At Drummoyle, 4 m., see the ancient Castle of Leap, with the incongruous addition of two modern wings to its Gothic centre. In the ancient part the walls are 14 feet thick. Dunkerron has a comfortable inn for those who wish to explore the southern angle of the county, and the Sliebh-bloom mountains. Near it see Franfort, the antique mansion of Mr. Rolleston, regularly defended with fortifications, a fosse and draw-bridge; also a modern, elegant, and spacious mansion house at Greenhills. In the Sliebh-bloom mountains, see a large pyramid of white stones, the emblem of the Sun-fire amongst the Celtic nations, from whence arose their ancient name of Bladhma, or Beal-di-mai, the necromancy of Baal's-day. They extend through a range of 15 miles, through which there is but one steep, narrow, and craggy pass, called Glandine Gap, not more than five feet wide, called by some the Irish Thermopylæ, and leading into Tipperary. At Rathmore, or the Great Rock, examine that extensive work once fortified by numerous towers, but now yielding to the hand of peaceful improvement. Shinrone has a handsome Ch., and Market-house, with a good Classical School.

Edenderry, 8 m. N.E. of Philipstown, a pleasant village inhabited by Quakers.—See ruins of Castle on a hill; and near it, spacious ruins of a Monastery.

Philipstown, 39 m. S.W. from Dublin, took its name from Philip of Spain, being in a new shire incorporated by Queen Mary.—See ruins of Castle on bank of the river, with the spacious Gaol,—this, though a sorry village, being the county town. Near it see Croghan-hill, conical, and beautifully clothed with the most luxuriant verdure to its top; with ruins of Ch. at the base, and ancient cemetery at the summit.

Portarlington, 10 m. S.E., stands partly in this county, partly in Queen's, being divided by the river Barrow.

Tullamore, 7 m. S.W. of Philipstown, is divided in two by the river Clodagh. Here the tourist will find a good inn and accommodations at the Charleville Arms near the bridge. The town was burnt down a few years ago, but is reviving rapidly, with a busy and flourishing aspect, under the auspices of Lord Charleville; intersected by a canal leading from Dublin to the Shannon, on which a covered boat is fitted for passengers. A short distance, and on the banks of the canal, see a small square fortress in good preservation. See Charleville Castle, a magnificent mansion in all respects, erected in the Gothic style, but yet wanting the hoary hand of time to darken its castellated battlements, being built of limestone, which does not yet harmonize with the foliage of a flat park, or with the artificial piece of water formed in its front. The scenery in the demesne is very fine, with cascades, grottoes, rustic bridges, &c., &c. Clara, 10 m. W., is a neat handsome village, surrounded by the Linen Manufactory. Geashill, 3 m. S.E., has ruins of an ancient lofty Castle, the residence of the O'Molloys, which, defended by a lady, made a strong resistance against Cromwell. Near it a celebrated spring, and ruins of an Abbey.


The Sliebh-bloom mountains offer a fine field of research to the mineralogical and geological tourist; being at present virgin ground. In other parts may be found, manganese, iron ore, ochres, with limestone and potter's clay.


Hypnum crispum, Curled Hypnum:—in woods, heaths, and rocks.

Melittis Melissophyllum, Bastard Balm:—in woods and hedges.

Pinus sylvestris, Scotch Fir:—in woods in various parts.

Pyrola rotundifolia, Wintergreen:—in a bog near Dunkerrin.


Borders on the sea at its N.W. extremity; almost entirely covered by groups of mountains, not completely barren, affording sufficient herbage for the feeding of cattle; whilst the vales between them are occupied by numerous lakes giving rise to equally numerous rivers. The picturesque tourist will here behold nature in her boldest features; and the antiquary may gratify himself with the examination of numerous ancient Castles in situations of the wildest and most savage grandeur. The lakes are numerous. Bounded on the S. by Roscommon and Sligo; W. by Bay of Donnegal; N. by Donnegal and Fermanagh; E. and S.E. by Cavan and Longford.

Carrick-on-Shannon, or Carrick Drumrusk, 78 m. from Dublin, is the largest and shire town of the county.—See the New Prison. Hall observes that many of the tombstones in the Ch.-yard are of a musical nature; for if struck with the knuckles, they ring like a dull metal.

Fenaught, 8 m. N.E. of Carrick, is a wild open district, presenting little worth notice except the venerable ruins of what was once a celebrated Divinity School of the Culdees. It is picturesquely overrun with ivy. The E. window is considered as a specimen of very curious workmanship; and the tourist must not fail to notice a line drawn across the middle of the eastern gable, with a figure on the N. side, about 12 feet from the ground, said to represent an evil spirit who was very troublesome to St. Cullin, the founder, during the period of its erection, this black gentleman acting the part of Penelope towards her suitors, and pulling down in the night what the Saint and his holy comrades had set up during the day. To check the troublesome intruder, the Saint blessed some ropes and drew them one night along the top of the building, when the Spirit, like a fly in a spider's nest, got entangled in the ropes, and being unable to extricate himself, was caught by the monks in the morning, who gave him some sound correction for his offence, but set him loose again upon the public, as is too often done by our modern police, and pretty much, perhaps, for similar purposes. ½ m. dist. two Druidical Altars.

Jamestown, 2 m. S.E. of Carrick, a small town with ruins of a Castle.—Visit Carrigallan and Clongorrin Castles, about 12 m. E. Lough Bofin lies to the S. About 1 m. from Rusky, is a view which Mr. Hall considers one of the finest in Ireland, looking into Roscommon across Lough Bofin or Achary.

Leitrim, 3 m. N. of Carrick, is a small town, or village, but gives name to the county.—Visit Lough Allen, encompassed by high mountains and more than 30 m. in circuit, presenting a most picturesque landscape. It is the first depository for the river Shannon, which rises a few miles distant on Quilca hill in Fermanagh, and tumbles down the mountains in tremendous cascades. On Inse Island see ruins of a Ch., a place of high religious estimation as a cemetery.

Manor Hamilton, 22 m. N.W. of Carrick, deserves notice from its romantic situation among mountains; a small neat village forming a good station to visit the western district. Here is a Castle built in the reign of Elizabeth. 3 m. N.W. a grotesque Castle of the O'Rourkes. Dromahaire is a small town seated on the river Boonid, worth visiting on account of its Abbey, (1508) which presents a pleasing specimen of Gothic ruins. Visit the romantic and picturesque Lough Gill; also Lough Melve, ornamented with wooded islands and venerable ruins. At Lurganbuy, the beautiful residence of Mr. Wynne.


The mineralogical tourist must visit the red stone river, with its various coloured clays. The mountains present ores of lead, iron and copper, particularly near Lough Allen; also coal, and pipe clay.


Cyclamen europæum, Sowbread:—in various places.

Eagles Nest and Echo, Lake of Killarney.

T. Fielding fc.

Eagles Nest & Echo, Lake of Killarney.


Is amongst the largest of the Irish counties, extending along the southern bank of the Shannon, and therefore, though not maritime, yet enjoying, or capable of enjoying, all the benefits of maritime intercourse. Those who are merely in search of the wild and romantic, may perhaps be disappointed by its scenery, as it cannot be esteemed mountainous, except in the W.; yet being diversified by small hills, it might soon become highly picturesque if ornamental cultivation were once to extend over its rich pasture land, having no inclosures but rude earthen banks almost entirely bare of foliage, and only diversified by the squalid cabins of wretched cotters. On the borders of Kerry there is a fine amphitheatre of low but steep hills stretching in a curve from Drumcollogher to Loghil. These hills give rise to the river Maigue, and several smaller fertilizing streams, which traverse the county and fall into the Shannon. The numerous Castles crowded together in this county strongly mark its ancient feudal state. Bounded N. by the Shannon; N.E. by Tipperary; S. by Cork; W. by Kerry.

Adare is an ancient town, 8 m. S.W. from Limerick, on the banks of the river Maigue, over which there is a good bridge, close to the ruins of the Abbey, whose lofty tower springs from a very curious arch, constructed with four diagonal ogives meeting in the centre. The ruins are yet in pretty good preservation, with beautiful Gothic cloisters, ornamented with escutcheons of arms. The edifice, being of limestone, has a curious yet venerable appearance. See the picturesque ruins of an ancient Castle, once the residence of the potent Earls of Desmond, and often the scene of hostile conflict during the early times, being often besieged and taken by the contending parties. There are vestiges of several other religious edifices; but the town itself is little more than a cluster of cabins, through which the tourist passes in his way to Killarney. In the vicinity is the demesne of the Quin family, beautifully diversified with wood and water, whilst its lawns, sloping down to both banks of the river, offer fine views of the ivied Abbeys nodding their venerable heads over the placid stream. Here too the tourist may wander delighted in silent contemplation through the long-drawn vistas of aged trees, and through shady walks, where once trod the saints and heroes of ancient times. See Mount Shannon, seat of Lord Clare, consisting of a large pile of building ornamented with plantations, near which are seen the environs of Limerick studded with neat houses belonging to its wealthy merchants.

Askeyton, 16 m. W. of Limerick, pleasantly situated on the Deel at its confluence with the Shannon; once fortified, now decayed. See the Castle, or rather its ruins; for of this ancient seat of the old Earls of Desmond, little more than one side wall remains. It stood on an island formed by the Deel river. The Hall, once the seat of hospitality, stands upon arches which are still pretty entire, but is now converted into a ball alley. Cross the river, and at the distance of a few hundred yards see the ruins of the Abbey, of which the cloisters still remain almost entire. These are described by Mr. Wakefield as extremely beautiful, being built of sculptured marble; and are perfect, with the exception of two pillars carried away some years ago by some person who considered them as holy reliques. See Bally England Castle ruins; also Ballymort, the beautiful seat of Mr. Massey; Courtferry Castle in ruins; Court, seat of Sir H. Harstonge. Glynn, 8 m. W., near Tarbert in Kerry, is a pleasant little village, seated at the mouth of a small romantic bay, surrounded by hills and high cliffs; with ruins of ancient Castle of the Knights of Glynn. The village of New Bridge, near it, is interesting as a colony of Palatines from Germany settled here by Lord Southwell about a century ago. Mr. Young speaks highly of their industry and cleanliness as superior to their Irish neighbours. Near it, the seat of Mr. Bateman. Rathkeal is a poor decayed village. See ruins of ancient Priory, with curious figure of a monk in a window, painted like Tom of Coventry. Extensive Barracks. Castle in ruins. 2 m. Shanagolden village in the vicinity affords shelter and refreshment. See ruins of Loughgill Castle, on a pleasant stream.

Kilmallock, 15 m. S. of Limerick, has by some been styled the "Balbec of Ireland," and Sir R. C. Hoare recommends it as an object highly worthy of the attention both of the artist and antiquary; but he adds, that as the former will find more than a day's work for his pencil, he must take up his abode either at Bruff or Charleville, in Cork, as the best accommodations at Kilmallock are but indifferent. Sir R. also observes that the first view of this place is singularly striking; with the appearance of a town suddenly deserted and left in ruins. Enter by the side of a lofty turreted gateway, leading into the principal street formed by a double line of houses excellently well built of stone, with a great uniformity in their style of architecture, evidently of the time of Elizabeth; but many of these are completely gutted, with nothing but the outward walls remaining. Once there was a strong wall with five gates; but only two remain. Parish Ch. in ruins, except the Choir; of Gothic architecture. See Monuments of the Vernons. Round Tower, and ruins of Friary. Visit St. Patrick's Well in the vicinity. Bruff is little better than a most miserable street of thatched hovels, with an indifferent inn, but affording post-horses to the traveller. Near it are a ruined Castle and Ch. The country flat and uninteresting. See Galbally village, 9 m. E., where are fragments of an extensive Monastery of Grey Friars, once splendid and magnificent in religious pomp. Kilfinnan, 6 m. S.E., has a Charter School, and ruins of an old Castle near it.

Limerick, 94 m. S.W. of Dublin, is seated on the Shannon. The Cathedral presents no very striking features either in architectural or monumental antiquities; the only piece of good old sculpture being the fragment of a monument in the S. aisle to the memory of the Galway family. On the N. side of the altar, the monument of the Thomonds. See the fine view of the Shannon and surrounding country from the ch. tower. Of the Castle, there are considerable remains on the banks of the river; but so blended with modern houses, as to produce no good effect or subject for the pencil. Public Edifices, Assembly Rooms, and Theatre, elegant and commodious. Improvements rapidly proceeding. Some remains of a Friary in Tan-yard, and Barracks. Linen and Paper Manufactories. See Thomond's bridge; Salmon-leap, 2 m. dist.; Marble and blue limestone Quarries; Glove Manufactory; handsome Custom-house; and Nunnery. Good hotel accommodations. See in vicinity, at Buan-rath, ancient monastic ruins. Cahirconlish has several castellated ruins. Carrigogunnel, 4 m. dist., stands proudly on a steep rock: its majestic ruins manifest the dignity of the ancient Earls of Desmond. Castle Connel, 6 m. E., boasts all the delights of a fashionable watering-place, celebrated for its medicinal water, and in the summer months much frequented by people from every part of the country. Mr. Wakefield describes it as a most beautiful village, deriving its name from an ancient Castle built on a rock. Connigar, 4 m. S., a delightful residence of the Bishop. Hospital has ruins of a Castle of those Knights, and of ancient Ch. Lough Gur, near Six-Mile-Bridge, deserves a visit for its romantic scenery, and the various Druidical monuments in its vicinity. On an island, ruins of Castle; also remains of Black Castle. See Cromlech and Rath on Knockfennel, with caves, and Round Tower on the Raven's Rock. Mungret has ruins of ancient Ch. and Abbey. Monister in Nenagh has ruins of magnificent Abbey; with Little Friars-town; and Balinaguard, with monuments of the Croker family.

Newcastle, 18 m. S.W. of Limerick, may serve as a station for those who wish to traverse the wild scenery of the S.W.—Market House and Assembly Rooms; elegant modern Ch. Wild, mountainous and desolate scenery leads to Abbeyfeile, a pleasant village, 9 m. W. See ruins of Port Castle.

Pallis, a small village in the S.E., 12 m. from Limerick, has a fine Ch. See ruins of Kilduff Castle.


Nothing remarkable.


Euphorbia hiberna, Knotty-rooted Spurge:—near Anakirk.

Helleborus fœtidus, Great Bastard Black Hellebore, Bear's-foot or Tetter-wort:—on Slieve Baghtine and near Drumcallagher.

Teucrium Scordium, Water Germander:—in marshy places: on the banks of the Shannon near Limerick.


The mountainous scenery of this county is described by Mr. Wakefield as presenting neither roughness nor green herbage, but exhibiting something between both, which may be called uncultivated vegetation; while the lower parts are inundated with water, and in some places have been converted into bogs. The arable land is seldom divided to any extent, and the scenery is little enriched by the seats of the gentry or the elegancies of cultivation. Limestone, both white and blue, is frequent in this county; and the latter is often used in building, being not unlike marble: yet it is sometimes found in so friable a state as to be capable of being spread as manure without burning. In a limestone rock on the coast, there is a remarkable cavern, called the Robbers' Cave, which contains apartments where a large banditti some years ago concealed themselves, as a hoard for their booty, and were extremely troublesome to the vicinage. There are numerous rivers. Bounded S. by Tyrone, W. by Donnegal, E. by Lough-Neagh, and N. by the ocean.

Coleraine, 23 m. N.E. of Derry, stands 4 m. from the sea, on the Bann; a general station for the Giants' Causeway, particularly when Bush Mills is crowded. See the Falls of the Bann, or Salmon Leap, well described in Dr. Drummond's poem on the Giants' Causeway. Near the bridge a small rath or mount like those on Salisbury Plain. Famous for fine linens. Extensive prospects from surrounding hills. Ch. pleasantly situated. Old-fashioned house and grounds of Jackson Hall; at Down Hill, seat of Sir Hervey Bruce, some good paintings; waterfall near the entrance of the grounds.

Londonderry is a city 115 m. N.W. of Dublin, about 1 m. in circumference, which the tourist will visit with interest, on account of its well known siege in 1690. Walk round the walls; see the Cathedral, of some antiquity (1633), the wooden bridge, 1/3 of a m. in length over a branch of Loch-Foyle, serving also as an aqueduct. Town-hall and Market-house; the Episcopal Palace, with the gardens outside of the walls, from whence there is a fine prospect. The view of the city from the bridge, with the shipping, and backed by lofty hills, is worthy of notice. The view of this town at the distance of a mile or two is most picturesque, seeming to be built on an island of bold land rising from the river, and backed by extensive hills. The philanthropic tourist will not fail to visit the Infirmary, a handsome spacious edifice under good regulations; also the Repository for Work, and the Institution for small loans to the industrious poor. (See Curwen, vol. i. p. 232, for rules and regulations.) Good accommodations and post-horses. At 3 m. N., see Aileach Neid, an ancient rath or castle of the O'Neils, constructed like the Danish forts, and destroyed by Murtogh O'Brian in 1101. Clady is a small village pleasantly seated on the river Faughan, with ruins of O'Cane's Castle near it. Lough Foyle is a fine expanse of water, 14 m. by 8, and forms a most commodious harbour.

Kilrea, 26 m. N.E. of Derry, on the borders of Antrim; stands pleasantly on the river Bann, and is a very cheerful little town, surrounded by opulence and industry from the linen manufacture.

Magherafelt, 30 m. E. of Derry, is a very neat village, and forms a good station for the eastern district, and for Lough-Neagh. Maghera is a small village, in an agreeable neighbourhood. The tract of land on this side of Carntogher Mountains, called the Braeface, exhibits some delightful scenery. The cottages are built in tufts of hawthorn-trees, the humble but happy abodes of an industrious peasantry; deep glens, lined with bushes and shrubs, winding from the higher parts of the mountain, mark the progress of the winter floods, and terminate in the Moyola which runs below. The Danish forts or raths are numerous; and there is some curious antique sculpture over the church door.

Newton Limavaddy, 12 m. N.E. of Derry, is a neat town of one street, seated in a woody glen watered by a stream, and surrounded by beautiful scenery. Between it and Derry are some very fine views of the latter city; the Lough appearing to great advantage, bounded by a bold and precipitous hill towards the north; also a seat of the Beresford family, with a fine approach through a wood of stately oaks, and a rich underwood of holly. Accommodations and roads good. At Dungiven, 6 m. S.E., see the quarry of Alknever, which produces very fine sandstone of the best quality and of a tawny colour, not unlike Portland stone. Extensive mountain scenery, and pleasing landscapes on the river Roe. See the Old Castle, ancient Ch. and Monuments; numerous Raths, and curious Cave 2 m. distant. Magilligan is famous for its rabbit-warren.


Iron ore:—near Castle Dawson. Small veins of lead and copper. Crystals found near Dungiven.


Agrostis stolonifera, Fiorin-grass, called in England Joint-grass.

Anthoxanthum odoratum, Sweet Vernal-grass:—in woods and coarse grounds.

Alopecurus geniculatus, Flute Foxtail:—in wet grounds.

Arundo arenaria, Sea Reed:—on the shores.

Alchemilla vulgaris, Ladies Mantle:—a plant of great elegance in high pastures.

Achillea Millefolium, Yarrow:—in pastures on the banks of the Fahan.

Angelica sylvestris, Wild Angelica:—an aromatic plant in woods and moist hedges.

Arenaria peploides, Sea Sand-wort:—an elegant plant, abounding on the coast.

Borago officinalis, Borage:—on the banks of the Bann.

Caltha palustris, Marsh-Marigold:—in most parts.

Campanula rotundifolia, Round-leaved Bell-flower:—on the barren pastures near Downhill.

Convolvulus Sepium, Great Bind-weed:—among plantations near the sea.

Digitalis purpurea, Foxglove:—very common near ditches.

Elymus arenarius, Sea Lime-grass:—on sandy grounds near the sea.

Epilobium angustifolium, Rosebay Willow-herb:—in hedges.

Erica cinerea, Fine Heath:—on moors and wastes.

Erica multiflora, Fir-leaved Heath:—on Magilligan Mountains.

Festuca elatior, Tall Fescue-grass:—in the woods of Aghanloo.

Galium palustre, White Ladies Bed-straw:—in moist meadows, and on the banks of the Bann.

Hypericum pulchrum, Upright St. John's Wort:—an elegant plant in woods and glens.

Iris Pseud-acorus, Common Flag:—a beautiful species in boggy meadows.

Leontodon Taraxacum, Dandelion:—in pastures.

Lychnis Flos Cuculi, Meadow Pink:—in low meadows at Aghanloo.

Melica uniflora, Single Wood-grass:—in wet wooded grounds.

Melampyrum sylvaticum, Wood Cow-weed:—in oak-woods.

Nymphæa alba, White Water-lily:—in lakes and rivers.

Orchis Satyrion, Orchis:—all the varieties to be found in high grounds and wet meadows.

Parnassia palustris, Grass of Parnassus:—in wet grounds.

Potentilla anserina, Silver Weed:—in dry pastures and meadows.

Ranunculus Flammula, Crowfoot:—in wet meadows.

Saponaria officinalis, Soapwort:—in dry ditches, but rare.

Tanacetum vulgare, Yellow Tansey:—in the river Roe, and sandy ditches in Drumbane.

Trifolium alpestre, Long-leaved Trefoil:—amongst the romantic fallen rocks of Bengevenogh.

Veronica maritima, Sea Speedwell:—several varieties on the coast.

Viola odorata, Sweet Violet:—under hedges, bushes, &c.

Zostera marina, Grass-wrack:—on shallow beaches.


One of the smallest counties. A great proportion is a rude bog, denuded of timber, and with scarcely a seat of any consequence to attract the notice of the traveller: yet it is an object of attention to the statist, as he will here perceive the rapid effects of industry from the linen manufacture. Bounded W. by Roscommon, N. by Leitrim and Cavan, E. and S. by Westmeath.

Ardagh, 5 m. S.E. of Longford.—See some slight remains of the Cathedral. Abbey Shrule has some ruins of a Convent of Cistertians, near which Tenelick, the handsome house and extensive demesne of the late Lord Annaly.

Ballimahon, 9 m. S. of Longford, is a small but neat town, standing on the river Inny, in the southern district, surrounded by some pleasing scenery.

Colehill, 10 m. S.E. of Longford, may be taken as the station for visiting Abbey Shrule, &c. Near it see Tashiny Church, and ruins of an old Castle.

Edgworthstown, 6 m. S.E. of Longford, is a considerable and improving village, enlivened by the residence of the literary family from whom it takes its name. Those who have derived pleasure from the productions of Miss Edgworth, may receive much amusement from particulars respecting that family in Hall's Tour, vol. ii. p. 15 et seq. See handsome Ch., and spire of cast iron. In the vicinity are extensive slate quarries. See Curwen, ii. 212.

Granard, 9 m. E. of Longford, is a neat town, consisting of one handsome street about half a mile long, at the head of which stands the Castle, built on a singular hill rising to a considerable height. It is called the Moat of Granard, and by some supposed to be artificial. The prospect from the summit extends into several counties. Near it ruins of Larna Abbey, founded by St. Patrick. The country round, bleak and mountainous. Lough-Shelon, in the vicinity, is 7 miles in length, and 4 broad. The artist may here select some wild scenery. In Lough-Garon; see some remains of an Abbey on an island; and another once noble edifice in another island—the Abbey of All Saints; and in the northern vicinity are the Lakes of Dernick and Earne, highly interesting to the picturesque tourist. The surrender of the invading French army and of the misguided rebels, to Lord Cornwallis in 1798, took place at Ballynamuck, a small village not far distant from Granard.

Lanesborough, 6 m. S.W. of Longford, is seated on the Shannon, where it spreads into Lough Ree or Reagh. See handsome stone Bridge, and Ch. Kenagh is a small village amidst pretty scenery on a river of that name; and near to it is Moss-Town, the splendid residence of the Newcomen family; with ruins of Ch. and Castle in the vicinity. Lough-Ree contains numerous islands and much picturesque scenery; and is well deserving an artist's attention. Rathcline, about 2 m. from the bridge, has an ancient Castle on the banks of the Shannon, at the foot of the beautiful hill of Rathcline, and one of the most ancient castles in the kingdom, but dismantled by Cromwell. From the summit of the hill the prospect is most extensive.

Longford, (the shire town,) 59 m. W. of Dublin, stands in the midst of pleasing scenery on the river Camlin. See Ch.; Gaol; Court-house; Market-house; Barracks, and Charter School. At Killashee, see ruins of old Ch. and Brianstown Castle; also Tomonbarry Bridge over the Shannon. Newton Forbes is a small but pleasing village, with a good Ch.


The soil generally consists of argillaceous, siliceous, and calcareous strata; with flags and slates, but there is a fine field of research for the mineralogist in the mountains.


Inula Helenium, Elecampane:—in meadows.

Lichen herbaceus, Green Lichen:—on ash-trees.

Oenanthe crocata, Hemlock Dropwort:—in marshy grounds.

Carlingford Harbour and Castle.

T. Fielding fc.

Carlingford Harbour & Castle.


Is a small maritime county, undulating in general, though some well wooded hills at intervals afford variety to the picturesque eye. It contains numerous relics of antiquity, being in the heart of what was the Old English Pale. Bounded S. and S.W. by Eastmeath; W. Monaghan and Cavan; N. Armagh and Down; E. by the Irish Channel.

Atherdee, or Ardee, 12 m. S.W. of Dundalk. See the Gaol, once an extensive fortress, gloomy and yet venerable. Ch., a mass of ruins except the chapel; a high wall encircles it, and its solemn appearance is much increased by the lofty trees which shade the sepulchral heaps that surround its mouldering walls. See Castle Guard, supposed by some to have been a sepulchral monument, perhaps a mote or meeting-place for the chiefs and people, 90 feet high, circumference at base 600, 140 at summit, with remains of two concentric octagonal buildings: the trench wide and deep, well planted. At Millextown, see ancient Ch. with gable end at some distance, reported to have been blown there in a gale of wind!

Carlingford, 7 m. E. of Dundalk, of great antiquity, seated on a bay 3 m. in length, capable of receiving the largest vessels; but yet so full of rocks as to be extremely dangerous. But even these rocks are advantageous to the epicurist, for here he will find the finest green-finned oysters, long so celebrated among the lovers of good eating. When first founded, it consisted entirely of castles, or fortified mansions, erected for the protection of the English Pale against the incursions of the unconquered northern Septs. The principal Castle has been attributed to King John, or perhaps to De Courcy; very well situated to defend a narrow pass at the foot of the mountains close by the sea, where only a few men can march abreast, as there are most dangerous rocks washed by the sea on one side, whilst the other consists of lofty mountains almost impassable. The Castle itself is now a mere mass of ruins, triangular in its shape, and seated on a solid rock, with walls 11 feet in thickness. On the S. side enough remains to mark the ancient apartments. The view from it is extremely fine, with the ocean on one side, and on the other the lofty mountains of Mourne, which present a sublime spectacle. At the S. side of the town are the picturesque ruins of an ancient Dominican Abbey, founded by De Burgh, earl of Ulster, in the 14th century. Of this abbey little remains but the Ch., whose ivyed towers and battlemented walls present a very interesting object, much heightened by the surrounding romantic mountain scenery. See the lime-quarry, ¼ m. distant, at the foot of a high mountain, mixed with basaltes, crystallizations of pyrites, shells, &c. From the situation of the town, the sun is lost several hours behind the hills after sunrise and before sunset.

Castle Bellingham, 7 m. S. of Dundalk, is seated on an extensive but shallow bay; pleasant village, with good Inn. Good station for the sportsman, plenty of aquatic wild fowl. See at Greenmount, curious earth-works on summit of hill, with a tumulus: prospect extensive.

Drogheda, 18 m. S. of Dundalk, (partly in Louth, partly in Eastmeath, being divided by the Boyne) is also a county of itself. Here are 9 Catholic chapels, 2 Friaries, 2 Nunneries, and 1 Ch. (St. Peter's) elegantly finished, near which, in churchyard, see remains of ancient castle. The view on approaching the town is beautiful; house of the Catholic primate a striking object. Harbour good; trade extensive; supply of fish excellent. See Tholsel, a handsome edifice. St. Mary's, now a mere mass of ruins, with the exception of a roofed chapel, which is used for divine service; but it deserves notice for a lofty arch at the S. end, which marks the former splendour of the edifice. Bevrac Mount, a large artificial tumulus, stands about 600 yards distant. It appears to have been one of the large Raths raised in ancient times. The town is interesting for the part it bore in the Irish wars; and sustained a memorable siege in Cromwell's time. Near it is a thin blue stone, shaped like the bottom of a boat, on which many of the Catholics believe St. Dennis sailed over to France. Ascend the Boyne 2 m., and visit the field of battle where William conquered, and where Schomberg fell, also Walker the patriotic defender of Derry. The view of the scene from a rising ground, looking down upon it, is extremely fine. Mark the vale losing itself amidst bold acclivities; on the right the Obelisk on a rising ground, a noble pillar and judiciously placed. Let the tourist place himself at its foot, and recall the events of past times! Then proceed further 9 m. W. of Drogheda, where is a beautiful wooded glen celebrated as the route through which King William's army marched to the ford in the Boyne water on the eventful 1st of July, 1690. The scenery around is highly interesting. Collon village, 6 m. distant, must not be omitted by the statistical tourist, as an instance of what can be done in Ireland by modern improvement. The exertions of Mr. Foster, in this place, have been well appreciated by Mr. Wakefield, who describes it as delightfully situated amongst hills, whilst the extensive plantations of its benevolent founder are conspicuous in every direction for many miles. Mr. W. adds, that this domain commands a prospect of singular magnificence; the immediate foreground, looking N.E., consists of a declivity of tilled land bordered on each side by beautiful plantations; and the eye, then passing over some miles of country, catches a view of Carlingford-bay, forming a watery expanse of great extent, and of the coast stretching to a considerable distance, with the mountains surrounding the bay, and those of Mourne, still higher, and which have a blacker appearance. The blue colour of the bay, contrasted with the yellow tint of the sandy beach by which it is bordered, the Carlingford mountains in the vicinity, and the more elevated dusky ones of Mourne, stretching inland in the form of an immense amphitheatre, form, in Mr. W's opinion, a spectacle grand and magnificent. The village, when he visited it, consisted of about one hundred neat houses, all whitewashed; with a Ch. surrounded by trees, and a river running through it, over which there is a stone bridge; the whole much enlivened by a bleaching-green on its banks. All this, together with a cotton manufactory, has been the labour of 40 years. It is highly worthy of notice, and is easily accessible by the good roads in its vicinity. The botanist will receive much pleasure from the inspection of the very fine collection of indigenous and exotic shrubs which Mr. Foster has collected round his comfortable mansion. See also Curwen's Letters, vol. ii. p. 292. Observe the Ch. tower, of chaste Gothic architecture; the curious winter garden. In a romantic valley, 5 m. W. from Drogheda and about 1½ m. from the banks of the Boyne, stand the once massy but now dilapidated ruins of Mellifont Abbey, founded for Cistertian monks, by O'Carrol prince of Uriel, in the 12th century, and a spot of great interest in the history of the English invasion of Ireland; for here died, and now lies interred, Dervorgilla, daughter of O'Malaghlin, king of Meath, a second Helen, who being married to Tigernach O'Rourke prince of Brefinny, was basely ravished by Mac Murrogh king of Leinster, who was in consequence forced to fly from his dominions, and sought that succour from Henry II. which led to the subjugation of the island. At the Dissolution it was given to Sir Edward Moore, who made it a castellated residence; but it afterwards became a ruin, and within the last fifty years has suffered extremely. The most curious part is a remnant of an octagonal baptistery. See Hoare, p. 242. Monasterboice, a village about 3 m. from Drogheda, has a good specimen of the ancient round towers, 110 feet in height and 51 in circumference, with walls of the thickness of 3 feet 6 inches. The door is at present only 6 feet from the ground; and it appears to have contained six stories, from the stones that project in the interior. The tower itself is built of a slaty stone, frequent in the hills in the vicinity; but the door is cased of freestone. Its summit is already in decay. Near it are the ruins of two Chapels; also two very curious crosses, the largest 18 feet in height, with a variety of sculptures. A good view is given by Grose. See Hoare, p. 237. Torfeckan village stands near the sea, and about 3½ m. from Drogheda. It was once a place of some importance, though now a paltry village, with nothing remarkable but some towers of its ancient Castle, fast falling into decay; and connected with some ruins of an Abbey founded for nuns in the 12th century. Till within these few years the Castle had been habitable, and was a frequent residence of the Archbishops of Armagh, to which see it belongs. See ruins of Glasspistol Castle.

Dundalk, 40 m. N. of Dublin, is one of the most ancient towns in Ireland, claiming an early foundation from its bay and harbour on the Irish Channel.—Being at the very extremity of what was called the "English Pale," it often became exposed to hostilities, and presented a mass of castles and towers, for the purposes of defence, of which some remains may still be traced. See the remains of an ancient monastery for Crouched Friars, since turned into an hospital: also some ruins of a house of Gray Friars, of which a curious square tower still remains; the prospect from its summit is rich and extensive. Notice the Market-house. Inquire for Dundalk cambrics. See handsome seat of Lord Roden, with curious antique portraits of Hen. VIII. and Anne Bulleyn; spacious gardens; extensive well wooded demesne. See Court-house, Gaol, Barracks, and Charter School. Town irregular, yet neat; many of the houses displaying considerable taste and elegance. About a mile westward, on the summit of a hill, seen for several miles along the great north road, and commanding a most extensive prospect of the Mourne and Carlingford mountains, are some remains of a fine old Danish station and rath; a little below which, the tourist will notice the ruins of an old Ch. or Chapel, enveloped in ivy, and pointing out a Catholic cemetery of great sanctity. On the side of the hill stands the Castle of Castletown, an ancient edifice with towers and battlements, but partly repaired and habitable, forming the offices to a more modern mansion close to it. This castle was taken and sacked in the 14th century by Edward Bruce; and there are some apparent vestiges of those times in earth-works on the side of the hill, towards the river. The village itself is small, and contains nothing else deserving of notice. Balrichan is a peninsula, about 2 m. from Dundalk, containing several curious antiquities; some Druidical remains; ruins of a Castle with subterraneous cave; the Giant's load, a massy stone 12 feet long, 6 feet square, resting on three uprights; Mount Albani, an earthen camp, with a tumulus: also Castle Rath, and the tower of Ballug. At Bellurgan, see the park. Piedmont, a beautiful residence of Lord Clermont; ruins of old Ch. and several Castles. Carrickasticken has several raths, or sepulchral mounts. Fanghar, 2 m. N., has curious artificial mount, composed of stones and tarras, 60 feet high. At Killincool, on the Atherdee road, a fine old Castle, with numerous vaults and secret passages. Lurgan Green, a smart agreeable village; and a few miles N., see the Jonesborough mountains, in all their native wildness. Near them is Ravensdale, romantically seated on the rise of a mountain, with fine hanging-woods on every side. On the summit of a rocky hill, 4 m. S., curious rath at Miltown; and, close to the frontier of the English Pale,—in appearance and situation very much resembling Bolsover Castle in England,—stand the majestic ruins of Roche Castle, now in a state of demolition, the victim of Cromwellian policy. It is well situated for defence; and the builder having adopted the form of the precipice on which it stands, for additional security, its form approaches near to a semicircle in the interior, though on the outside it more resembles a triangle. Its greatest length is 80 yards; its breadth at the broadest part is 40. At one corner is a lofty tower, once august but now in ruins. The view from it is not only extensive, but extremely fine.

Dunleer, 10 m. S. of Dundalk, is a decayed village, but with good inns, being on the high north road; may be made a station for many of the objects in this vicinity.

Louth, 7 m. S.W. of Dundalk, is now but a decayed village, though giving name to the county; once famous for an Abbey and Priory, but all vestiges swept away.


Nothing remarkable.


Artemisia maritima β, a variety of Sea Wormwood:—on sea-shore.

Bunias Cakile, Sea Rocket:—on the sands near Maiden Tower near Drogheda.

Cuscuta europæa, Dodder:—on dry sandy banks near Maiden Tower near Drogheda.

Lepidium ruderale, Narrow-leaved Wild Cress, or Dittander; near the sea.

Salicornia europæa herbacea, Jointed Glasswort:—on the sea shore.

Sambucus nigra, Elder:—in hedges.

Saponaria officinalis, Soapwort:—in ditches.


Forms the N.W. extremity of the island, and is one of the largest counties, with a great extent of coast. Great part of it is mountainous, boggy, and destitute of roads; but it contains much picturesque scenery highly deserving of investigation, particularly the two lofty mountains of Nephin and Croagh Patrick, the latter of which is an enormous pyramid, and may be seen 40 miles distant. This county abounds, especially in the rocky districts, with Turlachs, a name given to plains, some of them very extensive without any visible communication with brooks or rivers, which in the summer afford a rich and firm pasturage, but in the winter become perfect lakes; the waters rising and falling through rocky clefts in the bottoms. Bounded, S. by Galway; W. Atlantic Ocean; N. by Sligo; and E. by Roscommon.

Achill Islands, 16 m. W. from Castlebar, lie at the mouth of Clewbay, and afford much amusement to the sportsman. The scenery wild and rude.

Ballinrobe, 11 m. S. of Castlebar, a well-built town. See Charter School and ruins of Abbey; ancient Castle, now Horse Barracks; the inn clean and comfortable. At Ballaghadireen, wild and romantic scenery; ancient Castle in ruins. Ballyhannys, 16 m. N.E. has ruins of venerable Abbey. Cong, now an inconsiderable village, was once the capital of the Kings of Connaught; and stands in a romantic situation between the Loughs Corrib and Mask. It contains some ruins of an Abbey, which, in consequence of its arches being partly semicircular and partly Gothic or pointed, is supposed to be as early as the 12th century. Long celebrated for its sanctity, it became for ages the sepulchral depôt of the powerful and the holy, the chieftain and the priest, whose dust lies mingled with its sombre yet majestic ruins. Near it a broad river rushes at once from beneath a sloping bank, and after a rapid course loses itself in the Lough. This is supposed to be the outlet of a subterraneous channel, through which the superfluous waters of Lough Mask are discharged. The scenery around is most romantic. Hollymount, 6 m. N.E., has a neat Ch.; also Newbrook House, seat of Lord Clanmorris. Lough Carra, 3 m. N., has some wild scenery, especially a tract of rocky ground, at a distance like an immense sheet of white stone, deserving mineralogical notice. Lough Mask offers some good scenery:—inquire for the gillaroo trout with gizzards like a fowl. Neal village, 3 m. S., with magnificent mansion of Lord Kilmaine. About 16 m. N.E., visit the Abbey of Urlare in a wild, romantic, secluded district. The walls are still entire, and were never very lofty; the eastern window is very fine, with the remains of an altar beneath it. It was anciently a place of great sanctity; and the sepulchral depository of the surrounding chieftains. Archdall states, from tradition, that a town once existed in its vicinity.

Castlebar, 119 m. N.W. from Dublin, is the county town; of good appearance, and in a romantic situation on a river near the Lake of Raheens. See the venerable Castle of Lord Lucan; Barracks; two Bridges; and Ch. Memorable as being taken by the French in 1798. At Ball, or Ballagh, see remains of Abbey, lofty round tower, and holy well; and near to it the plains of Mayo, where once stood a city, with ruins of Cathedral and other vestiges. Belcarna, 2 m. S.E., in romantic situation on banks of a fine river; Ch., and mansion of Lord Tyrawley. Ballintubber Abbey has extensive remains, 5 m. S.W., a mass of ruins, but still offering some very fine specimens of ancient ecclesiastical architecture in its solemn Gothic arcades. Grose has given a fine view of the interior of the Abbey, which, he observes, was a noble structure, of excellent workmanship, and the whole admirably finished. The existing ruins are by no means equal to the original extent; but much gratification will be afforded by the examination of the chancel part, still in good preservation in consequence of the roof remaining, with two Chapels on each side into which the visitor is admitted through lofty Gothic arches. The roof of the chancel is curious, its groinings springing not from pillars, but from consoles in the side-walls, highly ornamented with sculpture. The great altar still remains under the east window, which consists of three arches; and the altars yet exist in the smaller chapels. See the noble arch, 45 feet in height, which once supported the now fallen tower; also the principal door, a pointed arch supported by pillars. In various parts of the thick walls are doors and passages, speaking of secrecy and seclusion, and dear to the lover of romance. Croagh Patrick mountain, 2660 feet high, presents a fine effect to the S.W. Foxford, 8 m. N.E., is in decay, but sweetly seated on the river Moy: near it are ruins of an old Castle, with lake, and ruins of Ch. At Kilkelly, 10 m. E. is a remarkable echo, repeating seven times clearly and distinctly, in a wild romantic glen, ornamented with thick foliage and a murmuring Stream. Lough Conn, 5 m. N.E., is surrounded by picturesque scenery; with ruins of Friary on Erew peninsula. Mount Nephin, a solitary mountain 2640 feet high, stands at the pass of Barnagee, with most extensive prospect, about 8 m. N. of Castlebar. At Strade, 5 m. E., are some very solemn ruins of an ancient Dominican Abbey of the 13th century, which contains some curious specimens of antique tombs of the superior order of Irish chieftains, adorned with figures in relief. See also the Gothic ornaments of the high altar. Whilst in this vicinity the antiquarian tourist will not neglect to visit the round tower of Turlogh, 70 feet in height, 9 in internal diameter, and having its entrance 29 feet from the ground. It is built close to the Ch.; or rather the Ch. has been erected so close to it as to touch it, and, though of more modern structure, is now in ruins.

Killala, a seaport, 15 m. N. of Castlebar, is memorable for the landing of the French in 1798. Situation pleasant. See Cathedral; episcopal palace; round tower. Ballina, 5 m. S.E., stands pleasantly on the river Moy, with a good salmon fishery; some ancient Castles in vicinity. Downpatrick, 12 m. W., has some remains of very ancient fortifications, with curious natural arch formed by the waves on the rocky shore; several other caverns and much romantic scenery in the vicinity. At Mullet in the western district is much scenery worth seeing, also a very ancient and curious monument in good preservation, called by Governor Pownall, in the 7th vol. of Archæologia, a ship Temple, upon the summit of a conical hill. The river Moy, which divides this county from Sligo, has on its banks three round towers, and ruins of several Abbeys. Moyne Abbey, 2 m. distant, has most venerable ruins in a romantic sequestered situation on the Moy. The ruins extensive and in good preservation; scenery most picturesque. 3 m. distant are some curious remains of an ancient Franciscan Monastery, called Rossarick. It is built of blueish stone, with arches principally Gothic. The tower remains, and has a confession-box of hewn stone with small oriels or little ears on each side, through which the penitents whispered their sorrows.

Westport, 8 m. S.W. of Castlebar, is a regular built modern town, with many handsome houses and a most excellent inn, which renders it a good station for the tourist, as it lies well for the whole western district, in which there is much romantic scenery, diversified by marine views, lakes, and rivers. See Marquis of Sligo's elegant residence. Aghagower, 10 m. S.E., has ruins of fine old Abbey and round tower. Burrishoole, 5 m. N., has extensive ruins of Abbey. Carigahooly has ruins of Grana Uile's Castle. Croagh Patrick must be visited. Glanmire interests the mineralogist by its slate quarries. Morisk on the sea coast is supposed to be the place where St. Patrick drove all the venomous reptiles into the ocean. Newport Pratt has a good harbour with most romantic scenery, of mountain, rock, sea, and islands. Rockfleet is an old Castle of Grace O'Malley, or Grana Uile.


Iron-ore in Clonean river.


Requires a scientific explorer.




Is a hilly county, not in ridges, but scattered without any form or regularity. It is well cultivated and populous; and has several handsome seats, whose surrounding plantations give a cheerful effect to the scenery. Linen manufacture extensive. Bounded S. and W. by Cavan and Fermanagh; N. by Tyrone; E. by Armagh; S.E. by Eastmeath and Louth.

Carrickmacross, 15 m. S.E. of Monaghan, is a considerable village, central to the southern district, with endowed school. Some small lakes in vicinity.

Castleblaney, 10 m. S.E. of Monaghan, is a considerable village with good Ch. Near it the Castle from whence it takes its name, the residence of Lord Blaney, a beautiful place, though on a small scale, seated on the banks of a well wooded lake, surrounded by pretty rising hills. Here are some ruins of the old Castle, but not of earlier date than the reign of James I. See neat Market-house, and examine the Improvement Farm at Blaney-lodge. Ballybay, 5 m. N.W., is a neat village, with 2 small lakes that merit notice.

Clones, or Clownish, 10 m. W. of Monaghan, is a comfortable village; station for the western district. See two Raths of Danish erection; remnants of Abbey for Augustines, also of ancient Castle. Market-cross of very antique appearance. Curious burial-places near the ruins of abbey, with ornamented tombstones. The Round Tower in the cemetery has walls four feet thick; contiguous to it a great tomb or stone coffin, with antique inscriptions. Close to it is an immense rath on summit of a hill. Numerous Danish forts all around. In Aghabeg, see numerous lakes: also the magnificent demesne of Dawsongrove, with mausoleum. Bellamont forest affords some very fine scenery. Near Clones is a well called Grana-buy-more, celebrated for curing the jaundice. Drum is a pleasant little village. Good plantations at Newbliss.

Glasslough, 5 m. N.E. of Monaghan, has a fine seat in vicinity, with a beautiful sheet of water. See Drumbanagher, to the W. a remarkable high hill, on the summit of which, remains of a fort, memorable in the rebellion of 1641. Emyvale is a pleasant little village in the vicinity; near it Eregil Ch., with numerous small lakes.

Monaghan, 63 m. N. of Dublin; the assize town. Town neat, but whimsically built, diverging triangularly from the centre. Handsome Market-house.


Lead; antimony; manganese; ironstone; marble; coal; various ochres; fuller's-earth, and potter's clay. The principal lead ores are at Castleblaney, and contiguous to the Ch. of Clontibrett.


Rich in aquatic plants generally, and in alpine plants on the Slievebaught or Slabay range of mountains, bordering on Tyrone.


Presents an immense variety of objects to the antiquary; whilst to the statist it exhibits the effects of modern improvement, having become a fruitful and pleasant district instead of bogs and deserts. Bounded W. by King's County; N. by Kildare; E. by Carlow; S. by Kilkenny and Tipperary.

Burros, 12 m. S.W. of Maryboro; a neat village, forming a good station for the western district, having an excellent inn. Ruins of Ballaghmore Castle, 3 m. W.; from whence may be visited Monaincha Abbey in Tipperary. Grantstown Castle near Rathdowny. On the hill of Kyle, a curious remnant of ancient judicature, the Brehon's Chair, or Fairy Chair, as called in the vicinity. It is very near the top of the hill, on its eastern side, and formed from the solid rock; was the judgement-seat and public court of the Brehon, or chief of the Fitzpatricks. See at Skirk, a very curious Pagan fane, situated on a lofty hill, from whence the eye has a most extensive range. It consists of an immense large earthen mound, the area surrounded by a deep entrenchment, and in the centre, a pyramidal stone 6 feet high, with the stumps of others which formed a temple. Towards the E. see a cromlech; and on the north side, contiguous to the Parish Ch., a high keep, or exploratory fort.

Maryborough, 40 m. S.W. of Dublin; the assize town. See ancient Castle, demolished by Cromwell. 9 m. S.W. is Abbey Leix, the seat of Lord de Vesci, a considerable domain covered with old timber, and intersected by the river Nore, which, with the woods, forms its principal charm, as the grounds are flat and unvaried. The statist will contemplate with pleasure several neat villages in its immediate vicinity, erected by the patronizing exertions of the noble landlord. Aghaboe, near Abbey Leix, has remains of ancient Abbey and Cathedral, of which little more than the chancel now exists; remnants of Gothic architecture, in the windows and various niches, canopies and concentric mouldings which yet adorn its mouldering walls; but much injured by a late rector. The Abbey of Aghamacart lies to the S. about 6 m. from Aghaboe, once very extensive, and now in ruins. At a distance nothing appears but the gloomy belfry; but the visitor soon arrives at an arch of good workmanship which opens into the body of the ruins, or rather into the remains of the chapel. There is, indeed, little to attract attention, were it not for a legendary tale, of a monk whose affection for a lovely nun was met with such reciprocity on the part of the lady, that gossip scandal would soon have spread her thousand wings. To expiate his crime and escape reproach, the monk flung himself from the battlements of a tower and perished; but the fate of the unhappy fair is wrapped up in oblivion. Aghamacart Castle, now forming a total yet picturesque ruin, is not of earlier date than the reign of Elizabeth. Ballinakill, 9 m. S., ruins of Castle, demolished by Cromwell. About 15 m. S.E., on a small point of land watered by the Barrow, stand the very picturesque ruins of Cloghgrennan Castle, deeply embosomed in foliage and entwined with ivy. About 4 m. E. is Dunamase, a hill fort, which, though almost in total ruins, affords to the antiquary and to the man of taste a very good specimen of the military manners of earlier times. Though standing on an insulated rock, its name signifies the "Fort of the Plain." This rock is inaccessible on all sides except the east, which, in its perfect state, was defended by the Barbican, of which a considerable part remains. Here began the principal defences, with ditches on each side, until stopped by rocks, where walls seem to have been erected, with two towers for the protection of the Barbican, from whence the visitor enters the Ballium or Bailey, the gate of which is 7 feet wide, with walls six feet in thickness, and the remains of a parapet crenelled and embattled. This leads to the upper Ballium, the gate of which is in a tower, from whence fragments of walls extend on both sides; here too was the keep, with a sally-port and prison. This fortress belonged to Dermod McMurrough, King of Leinster; but the present remains are rather of later date; perhaps the work of the Pembroke family in the 13th century. It is now repairing by Sir H. Parnell, with judicious attention to its gothic grandeur. Doonaun, a village about 16 m. S.E., has extensive coalpits, which claim the notice of the mineralogist by rocks of whinstone resting on a stratum or column of basaltes, 40 feet below the surface; below which are strata of slate and iron ore. Great Heath, or Rathean Common, 2 m. N. of Maryborough, is memorable for a battle in the 3d century between the people of Munster and Leinster; and the bones of the slain are often dug up at the present day. Killone Hill is conical, with curious cavern and subterranean lake, highly worth the tourist's notice. Near it a fine quarry of calcareous stone equal to Portland. The Maragah, or Margy Mountains in the S.E. present a fine field for the geologist. About 1½ m. N. of Dunamase, the tourist will descry a small fortress, called Shean Castle, standing on the summit of one of the high, steep, conical hills, so frequent in this part of the county. It is still habitable, though its surrounding defences have been long in ruins, demolished in the Civil wars. Stradbally, 6 m. S.E., neat village, handsome Ch., good Market-house, and Charter School. See Brockly Park, the magnificent seat of Earl Roden; and Stradbally Hall, that of Mr. Crosbie: about 4 m. S. is Dun-cliun-poic, or Dun of Clipoke, an insulated rock with curious caves; near it is a tombstone with Druidic inscription. About 6 m. S. from Stradbally, stands the Castle of Timahoe, an edifice not older than the reign of Elizabeth, but now completely in ruins, having stood a siege in the civil wars, at which time it was dilapidated. Its area is now filled with cabins of the peasantry: there is nothing very interesting to the tourist; but close to it there is one of the ancient round towers, now fast mouldering away. The entrance is at a height of fourteen feet from the ground, and is ornamented with a chevron or zigzag moulding, a circumstance which opens a wide field of conjecture as to date and origin.

Mountmellick, 6 m. N.E. of Maryborough, is a pretty little village, perfectly in unison with its inhabitants who are Quakers. Near it see Ballyfinn, a modern house of the Rt. Hon. W. W. Pole: fine lake; noble lawns; elegant apartments; well wooded demesne; and most extensive prospects. See ruins of Cloneslee and Cuffe Castles; also freestone quarry at Rosenallis.

Mountrath, 7 m. W. of Maryborough; pleasant little village on the Nore, with good river scenery. From hence the picturesque or geological tourist may visit the mountains of Slieve Boomy, or Bloom, in the N.W.

Portarlington, 9 m. N.E., stands partly in King's County, (where it has been noticed,) large, populous, and genteel. At Ballybrittas, ruins of Castle, demolished by Cromwell; with numerous country seats in vicinity; particularly Dawson's Grove, residence of Lord Portarlington. Near this town, see Lea Castle, famous in the wars of the 13th century, and standing on a rising ground. This edifice manifests the strength that was given to these dens; for its walls are 8 feet thick in some places, in others 10. It was 60 feet long, 46 feet broad; its arches all circular except one pointed one. The river Barrow secured one side, and filled the ditches of the other; so that it was only approachable by a narrow causeway 100 feet in length, a good defence before the introduction of artillery. See ruins of Morit Castle near Emo, in a wild valley, intersected by a rivulet.


Coal and iron ore in Slewmargy; Chalybeate Spa, near Portarlington.


Yet unexplored.


A small inland county, not remarkable for grandeur of scenery, consisting principally of rich, extensive pasturage, intermixed with considerable masses of bog. There are some pretty views on the banks of the Shannon, which forms its eastern boundary. For the mineralogist there is little to interest, as its basis throughout is almost one continued sheet of limestone. Bounded E. by the Shannon; S. by Galway; W. by Mayo; N. by Sligo; N.E. by Leitrim.

Abbey Boyle, or Boyle, 20 m. N. of Roscommon, pleasantly seated on the river Boyle. See two stone Bridges, on one of which is a pedestrian statue of William III.; fine Ch. and barrack. In Lord Kingston's demesne the attention of the antiquary will be turned to the ruins of the ancient Abbey, which stand within it at the back of the town, presenting a most elegant specimen of the architecture of the 13th century, when it was founded for Cistertian monks in honour of the Virgin. It is now a mere picturesque mass of ruin, filled with lofty trees and much thorny underwood. The approach from the bridge is very grand; especially the effect of the tower, covered with thick foliage, and springing from great arches which were 45 feet in height before the ravages of time had spread the floor with the relics of the mouldering walls. The interior has once been very fine; solid walls fill up the spaces between the pillars, supposed to have been erected in the reign of Elizabeth, when this dissolved monastery was turned into a fortified post, for which it was certainly well fitted, and actually stood a siege from the Earl of Tyrone in 1595. The east window, when in its glory, must have been extremely beautiful. Near to the Abbey are some vestiges of one of the round towers; and every thing around it would tend to produce a most impressive scene, were it not that the cloisters have been long occupied as a barrack: yet the silence and gloom of the interior, with the solemn arcades, and the emblems of mortality that lay scattered over its surface, will not fail to gratify the contemplative visitor. Cambo Castle is about 2 m. distant. About 7 m. from Boyle, and upon the edge of a very extensive bog, are the ruins of the Abbey of Clonshanville, now almost a total ruin. Of the cloisters no remnant exists; but the tower, 60 feet high, forms a pleasing object, with the few Gothic fragments at its base. Croghan is immortalized as the residence of Cathmor, the friend of strangers: here is an ancient Rath, also a sacred Cave of the Druids, and near to it Relig-na-Riagh, or the resting-place of the Kings of Connaught, an immense cemetery in a circle 200 feet diameter. Visit French Park. See Kingston Hall, an elegant mansion of Lord Lorton. Lough Arrow, 3 m. N. of Boyle, is beautifully studded with wooded islands: also Lough Gara to the W. Lough Glinn is also in this vicinity; on its banks stands a noble mansion of Viscount Dillon, with some extensive grounds, of modern erection and improvement; and on the opposite shore the tourist may visit two ruinous towers, which are all that remain of a once very extensive antique fortress, a feudal residence of the old barons of Ophaley. One of these towers has long been used as a temporary prison.

Athlone, 12 m. S.E. of Roscommon, is principally in Westmeath, where it will be described.

Elphin, 13 m. N. of Roscommon, though an episcopal see, is only a small neat village, celebrated as the birth-place of Oliver Goldsmith. See the magnificent palace; also the Diocesan school-house. Ballintobber was the residence of O'Connor, king of Connaught, but now a dilapidated village. Here are some very extensive ruins of the ancient Castle, built round a square, flanked by four towers of different forms. The vestiges are in a most dilapidated state, but possess some further interest from an anecdote recorded by Grose of a young Irish Gentleman, during the civil wars, who behaved with the most devoted bravery in an action fought close to the walls. When victory declared for the Parliamentary forces, this youth, disdaining to fly with his party, placed himself at the corner of a ditch, where he defended himself with his pike against five horsemen who fired on him, when a gigantic English soldier, getting behind him, slew him. Being stripped and his cap taken off, long tresses of flaxen hair fell down, which exciting further curiosity, it was at length discovered that this unhappy youth was a female. See Lough Kee, a romantic lake, adorned with finely wooded rising grounds; on a peninsula are the very picturesque ruins of St. John's Castle. In the Lough is an island called MacDermot's, after a chieftain of that name, stated by tradition to have been of a very jealous disposition, and to have confined his wife in it, whenever he was engaged in any of the warlike contests of those turbulent times. If the legends, however, are to be credited, the lady certainly gave him sufficient cause for his jealousy; and all his precautions were unavailing: for it is said that her lover used to swim to his nocturnal visits as Leander did to Hero. The obstacles he had to surmount were indeed numerous; for the island is surrounded by a wall close to the water's edge, encircling a gloomy tower now overgrown with ivy. At present the interior is filled with trees, and the island presents a picturesque and singular appearance. On another island are the ruins of a religious edifice, supposed to be founded by the Culdees, and now called Ennismacreeny Abbey. The walls of the Ch. are yet standing, solemn and sombre, the windows being only long loop-holes; at some distance is a little dark Chapel, which sufficiently marks the gloomy seclusion of those superstitious times. Round Tower at Oran. Strokestown is a neat village; near it the magnificent mansion of Ross Mahon, Esq. Visit Tulsk, a mere hamlet, but worth notice for its antiquities. Here are some remains of an ancient Abbey, little known, and supposed to have belonged to the Dominican order. Nothing exists now but some bare walls, marking the site of the Ch., and part of a square tower; but it seems never to have been very lofty nor very extensive. Near it is Tormonia, the ancient residence of O'Connor, of whose Castle there are some remains.

Roscommon, 70 m. W. of Dublin, is the assize town.—Ancient Castle stood several sieges in Elizabeth's reign and in the Civil wars; now an extensive mass of ruins. See the once august ruins of the ancient Abbey, founded by Cathal Crowdeargh O'Connor, king of Connaught, in the 13th century, whose tomb may be traced in its solemn aisle. Little remains except some shattered windows and ruined arcades. Near to the modern mansion of Castle Coote are some remains of the old Castle, erected by Sir Charles Coote in the reign of James the First. It stood two sieges during the Civil wars, but is at present a mere mass of ruins; forming, however, a picturesque object in the demesne. See elegant mansion at Castlereagh; and a curious battlemented house, called Donamon Castle, may be visited from Roscommon. Its appearance is extremely whimsical, being square with projecting turrets at the angles. A lofty range of stone steps leads up to a circular doorway, nearly as high as the roof; and within is a similar range leading to the upper apartments. It is in good repair and habitable. In front is the river Suck. About 7 m. N.E. of Roscommon, the tourist may visit the picturesque but not very lofty or extensive ruins of the Abbey of Clonthuskart, in such a state of dilapidation that little more can be accurately traced than the principal chapel, the eastern window of which must once have been extremely grand. Kilmaine is the demesne of the Crofton family, within whose bounds is the hill of Kilmaine, on the summit of which is a small ancient Ch., partly in ruins. The place is solemn and fitted for meditation, were not the visitor's attention completely engaged by the very extensive prospect which bursts upon him over no less than sixteen counties.


Nothing remarkable yet discovered.


Aristolochia Clematitis, Climbing Birthwort:—in the woods of Briole near Athlone.

Cyclamen europæum, Sowbread:—near Mount Talbot.


Nearly half the outline of this county is maritime. Very mountainous, especially in the Coolavin district, where the Curlew Hills offer their virgin bosoms to the mineralogist. The ox mountain (Sliebh Dham) with a long train of desolate hills extends from the boggy maritime plains of Tyreragh; whilst the rough mountain land, from Lough Gilly, stretching eastward, is marked by the lofty eminences of Samore and Benbulb. Much lake and river scenery. Bounded S. by Mayo; W. by Atlantic Ocean; N. by Leitrim; and E. by Roscommon.

Achonry, 14 m. S.W. of Sligo, may be made head-quarters for the examination of the S.W. district; or the tourist may apply at Tobercorry, a few miles distant. 5 m. W. of it, on the river Moy, are the very picturesque and ivied ruins of Bennada Friary, whose lofty square tower, 70 feet high, forms a very striking object, starting from the thick foliage with which it is surrounded, on a rising bank amidst a range of meadows. Whilst in this vicinity, the tourist will be gratified by a ramble to the ruins of Court Abbey close to a small village of that name, and about 3 m. W. from Achonry. The way to it is not very agreeable, being mostly through bogs: it is, however, an object not easily missed, as it stands conspicuously in a small field, where its lofty tower, fifty-three feet high, frowns over the ruins below. The interior sombre and solemn; used as an open cemetery. Proceeding a little further, the visitor arrives, through a lofty Gothic arch, at a Chapel the windows of which were once ornamented with paintings, now obliterated. Here are also several pedestals for the statues of saints, but now untenanted; in the south wall are some slight remains of a window once rich in tracery. Passing into the western Chapel, observe a curious octagonal inverted cone, supposed to have been the receptacle for the holy water; and on the northern side of the chancel are melancholy memorials of mortality, the recesses in the walls being entirely filled with human skulls: the whole presenting a scene of desolation perfectly in unison with the wildness of the surrounding country. Not far from the village of Tubbercorry are some remains of an old Castle of the O'Hara. The country around is flat and boggy, and there is nothing to repay the labour of a visit.

Ballinafadd, 15 m. S.E. of Sligo, is a small village, but will afford shelter to the tourist who wishes to examine its vicinity. See the ruins of ancient Castle, picturesque and pleasing, the feudal den of the clan MacDonough, with thick walls, circular tower, and most extensive prospects over the Curlew mountains, along Lough Arrow; and along a wild but romantic valley to the S. Ballymote, 5 m. N.W., has a Castle which presents a good specimen of ancient military architecture at the commencement of the 14th century, when erected by Richard de Burgo, the red Earl of Ulster, a man of high power and possessions. The ruins are still very extensive, and seem almost to bid defiance to time. Six round towers, one of which is 53 feet in height, flanked the walls that were 9 feet in thickness, with a gallery or covered way of communication all round. At the end of the town are some remains of the ancient Ch., with some finely pointed Gothic arches, and curious east window. Franciscan Friary. Somewhere in this vicinity is Corren, with curious caves called the Giant's House, with an approach cut in the rock, steep and difficult. Lough Arrow, already noticed under Roscommon, presents much romantic scenery. On its banks, in a wild open district, stood a Convent of Dominican nuns (1427) in honour of the Virgin. At present little remains except the Ch., called Ballindown Abbey, in sufficient preservation to show its ancient form, though unroofed. It consists principally of two Chapels united by a belfry, with this curious architectural whim, that the east and west windows only are Gothic, but all the others elliptical.

Enniscrowen, or Eniscrone, about 28 m. W. of Sligo, may be visited by those who venture to explore the wild recesses of the barony of Tyreragh. Castle Connor, near to it, has curious caves, lined and roofed with great stones, on a hill, as yet scarcely noticed by the antiquary. Close to the sea stand the remains of the ancient Castle of Roslee, sombre and solitary. Little more now exists than one lofty tower, in the thickness of whose walls is a curious staircase leading to the gloomy apartments within. The Castle was originally of considerable extent, and near it runs a rivulet, traditionally said to have once been fitted with a weir for the purpose of catching salmon; the fish, by an ingenious contrivance, ringing a bell as soon as caught, and thereby giving notice to the cook of their capture. At Screen, 15 m. N.E., see Danish-Stone Rath on a hill.

Sligo, 104 m. N.W. of Dublin, stands upon a river, by which the waters of Lough Gilly are discharged into a large bay, and which admits vessels of 200 tons up to its quay. See Court-House, Gaol, Barrack, Infirmary, and Charter School; Custom House and quays; much trade; good accommodations. Close to the town, and pleasantly seated on the river Gilly, near its confluence with the sea, stand the ruins of the ancient Abbey, of early foundation, but burnt down in the 15th century, and immediately afterwards rebuilt in a very superior style of sculpture and architecture. It has two large chapels divided by a square belfry, the tower of which is entire except the battlements, and resting on a lofty Gothic arch. The other arches of the Gothic colonnades are lofty, and enriched with foliage and angels. The Ch. is completely uncovered; three sides of the cloisters have an arched roof in pretty good preservation: their arches are semicircular; but a profusion of Gothic ornament exists in other parts of the edifice. The front and sides of the altar are ornamented with Gothic arches, foliage, and tracery; and there still remain pedestals for statues, whose sanctity could not work miracles against Time. The tourist must not neglect to notice the eastern window, which is very beautiful. Around the nave is a stone gallery; and at a height of several feet from the ground may still be seen the tomb of O'Connor, lord of Sligo, his figure and that of his lady kneeling on each side of an altar. Taking a ramble about 4 m. S. from the town, the tourist will see, at the foot of a small hill, the neat village and Abbey of Ballysadere, erected about the 12th century for Augustine monks. At present nothing can be traced but the arches of the belfry and a small part of the tower, built of black stone: not far distant are the picturesque remains of an ancient Chapel, with windows of cut stone, and some curious carved heads on the doorway. Visit Nymphsfield near Ballysadere, where there is a waterfall worth sketching. The Giant's Grave, or Lugne Clogh consists of several stones resembling Stonehenge. Innismurry is an island of the north coast, with curious subterraneous cells: also interesting to the sportsman. Lough Gilly abounding with romantic scenery; about 5 m. long, and 2 broad. Its greatest charm is Hazelwood, the beautiful seat of Mr. Wynn, at the end of a wooded peninsula which runs out into the water, and is seen to most advantage from the lake. On the opposite side of the lake, contrasting finely with the lawns and artificial arrangements of Hazelwood, is seen a range of rude mountains, partially planted and cultivated; beyond which is another range in fine retiring distance. In the island of Innismore are ruins of an old Ch. of the Culdees, covered with ivy, and marked by numerous superstitions. Knocknaree is a mountain of considerable altitude and extensive base, in a wide field of desolation. Malachwee hill has a curiously fantastic appearance, with extensive prospect. See Mercury, the modern castellated seat of Mr. Cooper, built of limestone.


Silver, copper, lead, and iron have been found in various places; and some symptoms of coal in the mountains near Sligo.


Dryas octopetala, Mountain Avens:—on the mountains.

Saxifraga umbrosa, London Pride:—in the hilly districts.


Is a very extensive inland county; but connected with the sea by means of the Shannon, which runs for a few miles along its N.W. boundary. It presents all the varieties of rude, uncultivated, mountainous districts, and of fertile plains, on a substratum of limestone, equalling any part of the island in richness and in verdure. There is also some beautiful and romantic scenery on the banks of the Suir, which becomes a magnificent river before it leaves the confines of the county. Bounded N. by King's and Queen's County; E. by Kilkenny; S. by Waterford and Cork; W. by Limerick, Clare, and Galway.

Carrick on Suir, 10 m. S.E. of Clonmel, is on the verge of the county, and partly in Waterford, surrounded by magnificent mountain scenery, intermingled with elegant cultivation. See remains of ancient walls; fine old Castle of the Ormond family; Ch. monument of Earl of Tyrone: examine woollen manufactures; visit Shliebnemon, one of the highest mountains in Ireland.

Cashel, 10 m. N.W. of Clonmel, affords much research for the antiquary, as it seems to have been dedicated, from the earliest times, both to religious and civil purposes: for here was a pagan temple, and here the monarchs of Munster were crowned, seated on a lofty stone. See modern Cathedral of handsome Grecian architecture; Episcopal Palace; Market House; Sessions House; Charter School. Examine ruins of old Cathedral seated on the rock of Cashel, particularly Cormac's Chapel, of which the inside length, says Ledwich, is 47 feet; the breadth 18; the height of the roof 54. This Chapel has a chancel and nave; and on square pillars, adorned with a lozenge net work, rest round columns as on their pedestals, from which spring the arches. These columns are short and thick, and have bases, tores, capitals, and entablatures, rudely executed: the portal is semicircular, with nail-headed and chevron mouldings; the windows are half circles also. Notice a crypt 53 feet long, and eighteen broad within divided into a nave and choir, the crypt itself being arched and supported by short and massy columns. A figure of an archer mounted on some ideal quadruped is placed over one of the doors, and the canonized bones of Cormac are supposed to lie under the altar. In the body of the cathedral, and on the S. side of the choir, is a lofty monument of the 16th century, of Milar Magrath, Archbishop of Cashel, with an epitaph written by himself. The approach to the cathedral is very fine. See lofty gate and western tower; chapel dedicated to the Apostles, and curious subterranean passage supposed to lead to Hore Abbey; steeple rising from four fine arches; ornaments round the windows. In the town, inquire for the remains of Franciscan Abbey, at the back of Friar-street; also of a Dominican Friary. Near the rock, on a flat amidst some rich scenery, are the ruins of Hore Abbey, of early erection. Its remains are still very fine; but when sketched by Grose, they were indeed noble, with a lofty tower 20 feet square, resting on two fine arches, 30 feet in height. The nave was 60 feet in length, with gothic arcades and lateral aisles; and there may still be traced a small low arched room, evidently a confessional, as it contains niches in the walls with holes for the penitents to speak through. About 3 m. from this city, see the ruins of Athassel Abbey, of the order of St. Augustine, founded by William Fitz Adhelm in 1200: one of the noblest religious structures erected by the early English invaders. These ruins are still very extensive, and present a good idea of Monkish times and manners: the choir, in particular, seems to have been of great magnitude and splendour, 44 feet by 26; and the nave nearly of the same dimensions; the whole having been 117 feet in length. See a curious small chapel in the S.W. corner; also the cloisters which were extensive; the steeple, square and lofty; and in short, the whole mass of arches, walls, windows, monuments, &c. A good engraving of it is given in Ledwich's Antiquities. Emly, about 14 m. W., on the borders of a lake, with ruins of Ch., a large stone cross, and holy well. In this district the picturesque tourist may visit the Galtees, a range of mountains with sides nearly perpendicular, and highly romantic. Golden, a small village, forms a station for several curiosities, with ruins of a Castle, on the river Suir. Sir R. C. Hoare says, "that a round tower, with the river, bridge, &c., form a good subject for the pencil." The accommodations are good, at the Castle Inn. Visit Thomastown, the demesne of Lord Landaff; an ancient mansion; also Suir Castle, residence of Lord Massy. At Shrone Hill, a large unfinished house of Lord Milton's. Tipperary contains merely one long street, but gives name to the county.

Clonmell, 82 m. S.W. of Dublin, is the county town, and stands pleasantly on the river Suir, with good trade and a woollen manufacture. Accommodations good. See Market-house; Court-house; gothic Ch.; modernized Barrack, and Bridge of 20 arches. Few remnants of antiquity, having suffered much from Cromwell. Memorable as the birth-place of the facetious Sterne. Examine Medicinal Well for scorbutic diseases. Ardfinnan is an ancient village 7 m. S.W. from Clonmell, existing previous to the first English invasion, and seated on the river Suir, over which there is a long bridge of 14 arches. The town itself stands low, but close to it is a high rock, bold and picturesque, overlooking the river, selected by King John as a fit situation for an extensive castle, which suffered much from the cannon of the Parliament army in the Civil Wars, yet still presents a very picturesque specimen of military antiquity. It is square, with two lofty towers overlooking the town, and a high ascent to it on all sides, and at a distance seems perfect, as the greatest part of the walls and the principal gate are yet standing; but the inside is a total ruin, no roof remaining except over one apartment. Cahir, 5 m. N.W. from Clonmell, stands upon both sides of the Suir, surrounded by the extensive domain of Lord Cahir, which Mr. Wakefield describes as bearing evident marks of the good effects that may be produced by the patriotic exertions of an ardent mind directed to laudable pursuits, and anxious for improvements, contributing particularly by extensive plantations to increase the beauty of the county, which, in this vicinity, naturally abounds with wild and romantic scenery. See the remains of the old Castle, also the ruins of a very large building at Somerstown, near to Cahir. The ride from Cahir to Clogheen is described by Mr. Wakefield as being an object of research to the inquisitive tourist. He says "that proceeding through a valley which extends from the Galtees, the traveller finds himself between that range on the N., and the Knockmeledown mountains on the S., wild also in the extreme, the whole district being divided into fields, either by grassy dykes or rough stone walls." The latter mountains are exceedingly barren. They are covered solely with heath, which in the spring season is extremely black; and as their great height, at the time when Mr. Wakefield visited this dreary vale, completely intercepted the rays of the sun which lay hid behind them, every thing assumed a dusky appearance, which threw a gloom over the whole visible face of nature. Clogheen is situated upon a stream close to the bottom of these mountains, and the road to it forms a gradual descent of nearly two miles, with a lofty black mountain in front. It is a considerable thoroughfare, and has good accommodations for the tourist either of picturesque or mineralogical research. Ascend a long and lofty mountain about 2½ m. to Baylough in a hollow, with a fine echo either from a bugle-horn or even a musquet. The view towards Clonmell very beautiful. At Kilshielan, see ancient tumulus, called a Fairy hillock. Knocklofty, residence of Lord Donoughmore; good house and grounds.

Fethard, 7 m. N.E. of Clonmell, is in a decayed state, but affords accommodation for the eastern district. See remains of ancient walls; and some ruins of monastery. At Kilcooly is a very fine Ch., in excellent preservation, once belonging to a Cistertian Abbey. It is still roofed and entire, with gothic windows of rich tracery, and a handsome square tower, whose light battlements are luxuriantly enveloped in ivy. At Killenaule, see ruins of several old Castles, in the midst of rich scenery.

Nenagh, 30 m. N.W. of Clonmell, is a good station for the northern district. The approach is thus described by Sir R. C. Hoare, who says, "that leaving Birr, he entered the county of Tipperary, passing through a village with mills, and a small Castle; another ruined fort on the left; corn lands; a Castle in ruins on the right; a line of road as straight as if it had been planned by a Roman engineer; an extensive plain, with distant hills; bog; a slight ascent; a large bog on the right; a Ch. rebuilt, with the ruins of the more ancient one annexed. Corn pastures, and bog; road rough in parts; a gentleman's seat on the right; more wood; another seat on the right; the country improves; plain, bounded by some high hills." After this flying picture, the tourist may alight at the New Inn, where he will find good accommodations. The town itself is large and regularly built, with the remains of a Castle, having a circular tower of strong masonry. The antiquary may trace the ruins of an Augustine Friary. In 1370, the English forces were defeated near this town, a small party having assisted Turloch O'Brian, by Brian, nephew of Turloch, who thence assumed his surname. See ruins of Knockalton Castle, 2 m. also Lough Derg, formed by the river Shannon, with fine scenery and antiquities, further noticed in Clare and Galway. Silver mines, so called from some virgin silver having been discovered in the lead ore: see Dunalty Castle. Toomavara, a small village, has ruins of a Preceptory of Knights Templars; also Blane and Knockane Castles.

Ninemile House, that distance N.E. of Clonmell, is merely a travelling stage, but forms a good station for much wild mountain scenery in the Sleivh na Manna range. Near it the ruins of an old Castle, with the handsome residence and well planted grounds at Kilcash.

Roscrea, 30 m. N. of Clonmell, stands on the very verge of the county, and is a thriving and wealthy town, on the post road from Dublin to Limerick, standing in a fertile and populous district. At the entrance of the town the tourist will notice the very curious architectural decorations of the Ch., with its Saxon doors and niches, its sepulchral crosses; and lofty round tower, 80 feet in height and 15 feet in diameter, possessing also the singularity of a window with a pointed arch at the height of 30 feet from the ground. The Castle (1213) is now a barrack. Monaincha, about 3 m. from Roscrea, and about 1 m. S. from the road leading to Burros in Ossory, cannot fail to be highly interesting to the antiquary as the birth-place of the long celebrated monastic order of the Culdees, a Christian but not Roman Catholic sect, that commenced in the 6th century, according to Ledwich, in this remote corner of the world, in a little island in the midst of a bog, sometimes called Innisnabeo, or the "Island of the living." Columba was their founder, as may be seen at large in Ledwich's Antiquities of Ireland, p. 56; and it is a curious fact at the present moment, that so adverse were the Culdees to the tenets and practice of the Church of Rome, as to draw down the wrath of the Vatican, and the festival of St. Columba was forbidden in the other parts of Ireland. The bog in which these ruins are now to be seen was formerly a lake: for Giraldus Cambrensis describes it as such in 1185, with two islands, one containing a Ch. and the other a Chapel; a fact that must render a visit interesting to the geologist. The geologist who directs his research to the bog of Allen will naturally visit this bog of Monela, which is but a continuation of it; and here he will not fail to notice the extraordinary fact, that what was the lesser is now become the greater isle. The easternmost of the two is the largest, and contains about 2 acres; in it stands the Culdean Abbey, of which considerable vestiges still remain. The tourist will particularly observe the arch of the choir, which is semicircular or Saxon, and on which sculpture seems to have exhausted her treasures: a nebule moulding adorns the outward semicircle of the portal, a double nebule with beads the second, a chevron the third, interspersed with the triangular frette, roses and other ornaments. It is also decorated with chalices, artfully made at every section of the stone, so as to conceal the joints. Here the ruins afford some research for the mineralogist, as part of the stones used are of a whitish grit, brought from the neighbouring hills of Ballaghmore, but being porous they have suffered much from the weather; whilst the columns of the choir are of a harder texture, close-grained, reddish in colour, and once highly polished. These have evidently been quarried on the S.W. side of the bog, and are a species of schistus, splitting into laminæ of six feet long, with which most of the abbey is cased without. Notwithstanding this, some ashen keys having in past ages been dropped on the walls and insinuated into the interstices, they have now become large trees, and add much to the solemnity and singularity of the place: unfortunately, the action of the roots on the walls threatens a speedy ruin to great part of this venerable edifice.

Thurles, 18 m. N. of Clonmell, is not only a place of considerable inland trade, but has long been a favourite residence of the Catholic primates of Munster, who carefully preserve various relics of St. Cormac. Here are the ruins of an ancient Castle, built upon a very extensive plan by the first Earl of Ormond in the 14th century. It surrounds a large area, and is flanked by several towers both round and square, with a lofty semicircular gateway. Like many other castles in this part of the country, it is a monument of the ravages of the Parliamentary forces during the civil wars. See ruins of St. Mary's Ch., built in 15th century, now falling rapidly into dilapidation; neat modern Ch.; good Market-house; Barrack, formerly a mansion of the Llandaff family; tower and some portion of an ancient Ch. of a Carmelite monastery. About 2 m. S.W. on the banks of the Suir are the very extensive remains of the Cistertian Abbey of the Holy Cross, founded before the 12th century by Donogh king of Limerick, and long esteemed as a spot of the greatest sanctity; and even in latter days considered as a very fine specimen of sacerdotal architecture. The Steeple, or Square Tower, is lofty, and attracts the eye at first approach: it is supported by a lofty Gothic arch, and its workmanship is highly finished. The body of the Ch. consists of a nave and aisles, not very profuse in decoration; but the chapels have been highly ornamented. The effect on entering the nave is very impressive, being a noble expanse of 58 feet by 49, with an arcade of 4 arches on each side opening into the lateral aisles. Passing through the choir, and turning to the S., the visitor discovers two small chapels, each about 10 feet square, and between which is a double range of Gothic arches, supported by twisted pillars, a spot supposed to be so holy that the monks were always waked there previous to interment. Two other chapels are seen on the north side; and in the eastern chapel, already noticed, there is a very curious Gothic tomb, without inscription, but said by tradition to be the sepulchre of a "good woman," who brought many holy relics to the abbey. Longford Pass, a small village on the road into Kilkenny, has ruins of several old Castles in its vicinity; also Newark Park. At Temple More, a neat and well built village, see handsome Ch. and spire; elegant mansion of the Carden family, and a romantic seat and demesne belonging to the Marquis of Lansdown; with numerous vestiges of ancient Castles.


Lead ore, with silver, and silver mines; also pipe-clay and fuller's-earth. Coal mines numerous.


Ammi vulgaris, (Linn.) Bishop's Weed:—on Killough Hill, near Cashell, plentifully.

Hypericum Androsæmum, Tutsan, or Park-leaves:—in woods.

Leonurus Cardiaca, Motherwort:—in hedges and among rubbish.

Ophioglossum vulgatum, Adder's Tongue:—in moist meadows.

Ophrys bifolia, Common Twayblade:—in woods.


Is completely an inland county, presenting nothing very grand or majestic; but the lands being divided into small parcels, an increased population gives much cheerfulness to its general aspect. The northern part towards Strabane is mountainous, other parts are rugged and uneven, but none very high. Bounded by Derry on the N.; E. by Armagh and Lough Neagh; S. by Fermanagh and Monaghan; W. by Donnegal.

Aughnacloy, 20 m. S.E. of Omagh, is a neat village, on the banks of the Blackwater, where the sportsman will find good trout-fishing. Near it are the ruins of Lismore Fort. It may be made the head-quarters for visiting the S.E. district.

Clogher, 20 m. S.E. of Omagh, is a poor village, yet an episcopal see of very high antiquity, once Druidical. See Bishop's Palace and handsome demesne; Cathedral, a plain building serving as the parish Ch. Augher near to it is a small village, once a borough.

Dungannon, about 30 m. E. of Omagh, a very handsome town with a pleasing vicinity. See Ch.; also remnants of Castle and Franciscan Monastery. Farm Hill, the magnificent mansion of Lord Northland, has a fine prospect of the town, with Lough Neagh in the distance. Arboe, 7 m. N., has remains of Ch. and noble Monastery founded by St. Colman, but destroyed by fire; with a curious cross 15 feet high. Caledon, a large village 8 m. S., has several handsome residences in its vicinity. Aghinnes, a fine seat of Lord Belmore; and Caledon, a pleasing mansion of Lord Caledon. Coal Island has extensive coal mines, with indications of iron ore. Near Cookstown, see Killyman, a very pleasant mansion and demesne. Stewart's Town, 6 m. N. of Dungannon, has some agreeable scenery. See Ardcreagh Ch. on a hill 3 m. distant; also Stewart Hall, 2 m. distant, a superb edifice with extensive park and gardens, the seat of Lord Castle Stewart.

Newton Stewart, 10 m. N.W. of Omagh, stands amidst pleasing river scenery on the Foyle. The picturesque tourist may amuse himself with much mountain landscape in its vicinity. See ruins of ancient Castle. The Marquis of Abercorn's seat at Baron's Court is supposed to be the handsomest model of a nobleman's residence in the kingdom. See the beautiful grounds and well wooded demesne, with a fine lake, from whence the ruins of ancient Castle, and the Ch. have a pretty effect.

Omagh, 87 m. N. of Dublin, is the shire town. See ruins of ancient Castle, and some remains of an Abbey and Franciscan friary; with ruins of a curious Ch. 4 m. dist. Hall, vol. ii. p. 118, speaks of it as a very thriving place, on account of the linen and other manufactures carried on there.

Strabane, 20 m. N.W. of Omagh, stands very pleasantly on the river Foyle, with some very fine prospects. A thriving place; forming a good station for much of the scenery of Tyrone, Donnegal, and Derry, with good accommodations; but Hall, vol. ii. p. 120, complains much of extravagant charges. See the remains of the once elegant ruins of Corock Abbey for Franciscan friars; also the seat of Lord Montjoy.


Coals only have as yet been discovered; but it is supposed that iron exists in many places, as there are numerous chalybeates.


Agrostis canina, Brown Bent Grass:—in very wet meadows in northern parts.

Aira cæspitosa, Turfy Bent Grass:—in the mountainous district near Strabane.

Astragalus glycyphyllos, Liquorice Vetch:—in upland pastures.

Achillea Millefolium, Yarrow:—on river sides.

Crepis biennis, Rough Hawk's-beard:—in meadows.

Erica cinerea, Fine Heath:—on moorlands.

Eriophoron polystachion, Cotton Grass:—in wet meadows.


Scarcely equals half the extent of some of the larger counties. It is bounded on the N. by the Suir, on the W. by the Blackwater, and on the E. and S. by the ocean. Mr. Wakefield observes, "that two such noble estuaries as the Suir and Blackwater are seldom seen, abounding with magnificent and romantic scenery, combining with lofty mountainous tracts."

Dungarvon, 21 m. S.W. of Waterford, is one of the greatest fishing-towns in Ireland, being situated near the Nymph Bank; but Mr. Curwen complains heavily of the bad accommodations which he met with: the town small; the streets narrow: yet persons returning from the lakes will do well to take this place in their route. Crossing the Ferry at Youghall, and passing through an uncultivated tract of mountain scenery, destitute of inhabitants, but highly susceptible of improvement, the tourist approaches this town, built on the beach, and appearing, from the descent of the mountain, as if it stood in the sea. Dungarvon itself will not detain him long. See Barrack on site of an ancient Castle; also ruins of Augustine Abbey of Gothic architecture; lofty steeple springing from a curious vault; ancient monument (1400). In the summer much company will be met with as a bathing-place. If the tourist is hurried, and without time to examine the whole county, he may take an interesting ride across it towards Clonmell. Leave Dungarvon, cross a valley of excellent land about 4 m. wide; turn round a projecting chain of mountains, and then see the small village of Kilmacthomas, from which village the first few miles exhibit the same face of country, till within a short distance of the banks of the Suir, where the eye is once more gratified with the appearance of trees. On the right, for nearly the whole of the way, there are magnificent views of the ocean, but not a gentleman's seat is to be seen in the whole distance between Youghall and Lord Waterford's seat at Curraghmore. Ardmore, 8 m. S.W. of Dungarvon, stands near the sea; a poor village, once episcopal. Examine ruins of two Ch. with curious sculpture; round tower, 100 feet high, 15 in diameter; St. Declan's dormitory in cemetery; St. Declan's stone, that swam from Rome to bring home his belt and vestments: Danish Raths. Dromana, the splendid mansion and demesne of Lord Grandison Duck's-pool, 1 m., ruins of Abbey. Kilmacthomas, 9 m. N.E., pleasing village, with good river scenery and fishing, and some remains of Castle. Whitchurch, 5 m. W., has curious cave called Con-a-glour, or the Pigeon-hole, 150 feet long, with subterraneous river, fantastical crystallizations, &c., from whence (or Lismore) the tourist may visit Oonamort.

Lismore, 30 m. from Waterford, and now a scene of desolation, formerly an university, bishop's see, and a city! Here is a handsome stone bridge of twelve arches, erected across the river by the munificence of the Devonshire family, to whom the castle and estate belong; the castle now undergoing a complete repair. On the approach towards the town of Lismore the road falls into a beautiful glen which proceeds in a winding direction; whilst the sides of the mountains by which it is formed, are clothed with a profusion of oak and ash. A stream of considerable size, which discharges itself into the Blackwater at the town, runs through the glen, and adds considerably to its beauties. This fine scenery lasts for about two miles. Near the town are the remains of the immense Castle once the residence of the brave but unfortunate Sir Walter Raleigh. It is an interesting object, and appears once to have been a place of some strength, boldly situated on the verge of a rocky hill, rising almost perpendicularly to a considerable height over the river Blackwater, upon which the principal window of the great room of the Castle looks down, and from whence, it is said, James II. started back with horror. This Castle is of very high antiquity, having been built by King John upon the ruins of the Abbey of St. Carthagh. Dr. Smith, speaking of the view from the great window of the Castle, observes, that "opposite to it there opens a wide glen wooded on both sides, and pleasantly watered by a small river which, at the distance of a mile, winds off to the west side of the great mountain of Knock-mill-down, 4 m. N. from it, and which exactly facing this window appears like a vast cone or sugar-loaf. To the west is a full prospect of the salmon-fishery, where the weirs are of a considerable length, traversing the river,—the working and the noise of the water through them (that here runs pretty rapid) forms a kind of artificial cataract, and resembles the sound of such, which, though not high, is of a considerable extent, and adds a lulling softness to the beauty of the scene. Above the weirs, the sides of the river are beautifully variegated with woods, lawns, and cornfields." See the old Cathedral fitted up as a modern Ch. See view from the noble bridge, particularly pointed out by Mr. Curwen, exhibiting the majestic rock on which the Castle stands, the valley on the S. side of the river, which, though confined, is extremely luxuriant, and the hills rising boldly on the northern bank towards Cappoquin. Sir R. C. Hoare observes, that though the scenery on the Blackwater cannot be compared with that on the Wye, the Dart, or the Tamar, in England, yet he is inclined to think it cannot, for the long continuance of 20 m., be surpassed or even rivalled by any other stream in Ireland. It affords some good subjects, he adds, for the portfolio; of which the most striking and best adapted to the pencil are those at Balinatry, Strancally, and Dromana; but all must yield to Lismore. The tourist will find a good inn and a good salmon fishery. Aglish, 4 m. S.E., is near Dromana, already noticed under Dungarvon. See ruins of ancient Castle; also ruins of venerable Abbey, 1 m. Cappoquin, 2 m. across the Blackwater, has a wooden bridge and ruins of ancient Castle, with a most enchanting and extensive prospect. Curwen describes it as a small neat town, with several handsome seats ornamented with timber and very picturesque scenery in its vicinity. Sir R. C. Hoare recommends to notice Dromana House, rising perpendicularly from a rock completely covered with trees; the character of that bend of the river being richness, with cultivated lands decked with trees, and distant mountains: also Turin, a modern house on an old Castle, seat of Mr. Kane, a finely wooded dingle in front backed with lofty mountains; ruined Ch. on the left; flat islands planted with willows; quarries of limestone, one fine mass of which bounds the river on the left. Modeligo, 7 m. E., has ancient Castles of the Magraths. Oon a mort is a small cave, similar to that of Con-a-glour. Strancally is 6 m. S. towards the mouth of the river, with ancient Castle and curious cave, respecting which there are some horrid legends: and near it the handsome seat of Headborough, with venerable ruins of Molana Abbey. Tallagh, 6 m. S.W., is a poor decayed village, with Lessfinny Castle near to it.

Waterford, 75 m. S. of Dublin, is episcopal and collegiate.—From Carrick-on-Suir to this place the road passes through a district which exhibits a great variety of picturesque views along the banks of that river. From the nature of the situation, the city itself is not seen until the traveller is within a short distance of it, standing apparently in the bottom of a basin, with the Suir, about a mile broad and crowded with shipping, flowing close to its side. See the noble quay, about 1 m. in length, with a wooden bridge which has a drawbridge in the centre, adding much to the beauty and convenience of the city. Elegant modern Cathedral. Handsome episcopal Palace. 3 Parish Ch. 4 Catholic Chapels. Court-House, erected on Black-friars Monastery. Tholsel. Gaol. Custom-House. Exchange. Coffee-Rooms. Assembly Rooms, and Theatre. Remains of Franciscan Friary. The earliest remnant of antiquity to be seen here, is a circular tower situated in the eastern angle of the city walls, said to be the work of a Danish chieftain in 1003, and (after him) called Reginald's Tower. The bridge is constructed of American oak. It is 832 feet long, 42 broad, has two sets of piers, each of seven pieces, besides cut-waters. The longest pile driven was 70 feet; the depth at low water is 37 feet, and the rise of the highest tides is 17 feet. Here is an existing Catholic Monastery. See the Woollen and Glass Manufactories; also Clonegan Tower, 72 feet high, erected by the late Marquis of Waterford to the memory of his son. Carrickbeg, 12 m. W., opposite to Carrick-on-Suir, has ruins of Franciscan Friary, with a leaning steeple. Whilst in this vicinity the tourist will be gratified by a ride over the large demesne of Curraghmore, which in many parts commands the most extensive prospects of the surrounding country. Mr. Wakefield notices that from the tower the eye can trace the Suir the whole way to Waterford, while the ocean, stretched out along the coast on the S., forms in the remote part of the picture a very fine object. The house is seen to most advantage in front, as it is backed by wood which exhibits very grand scenery. There are some good paintings. The demesne is stated by Mr. W. to contain 2800 acres, of which nearly one half is covered with wood. The whole of this extended property is surrounded by walls; and it excels in mountain scenery and woody wildness. Kilmanahan Castle, a mansion recently erected on the site of an ancient Castle, and preserving the old style of architecture, which gives it a very venerable appearance, rising from the summit of a rock at a bending of the Suir, which here divides the two counties. This position gives it the advantage of a very extensive prospect; and Mr. Wakefield declares that grandeur, united with elegance, renders this one of the completest residences that he had ever seen. Here too the Suir runs with great rapidity, and is seen rolling his waters beneath well wooded banks, with the Galtees mountains in the distance. Visit Kilmeaden Castle, Ch. and Spa. Passage is the place of embarkation for the Milford Haven packets, with ruins of Ch. and most extensive prospect from Faithleag-hill. Good inns. Tramore, 6 m. S., is an excellent bathing-place; delightful village, with neat Assembly Room and all the usual accommodations.


Granite is the basis; and here has been found a stratum of clay equal to that of Stourbridge for glass-house pots.


Allium carinatum, Purple-flowered Mountain Garlic:—on pasture lands.

Althæa officinalis, Marsh Mallow:—in the isles of Icane.

Asplenium Adiantum nigrum, Common Black Maiden Hair:—on mountains.

Carex dioica, Small Carex:—in bogs.

Carum Carui, Caraway:—in meadows and pastures:—near Woodhouse in the parish of Stradbally.

Canvallaria majalis, Lily Convally or May Lily:—in a wood near the river Collygan.

Crithmum maritimum, Samphire:—on sea cliffs.

Cucubalus otites, Spanish Catchfly:—in a grove near Lismore, near the Blackwater river.

Daphne Laureola, Spurge Laurel:—in a wood near Mogehy in the parish of Whitchurch.

Drosera longifolia, Long-leaved Sundew:—on a bog near Ballycaroge.

Eryngium campestre, Common Eryngo:—in the sand near Youghal harbour.

Gladiolus communis, (Linn.) Sword Grass or Corn Flag:—at the upper end of the Conegary, at Dungarvon.

Imperatoria Ostruthium, Masterwort:—on Slatwood Hill near Lismore, and Tallow.

Menyanthes trifoliata, Buckbean:—on bogs.

Osmunda regalis, Osmund Royal, or Flowering Fern:—near Ballycaroge.

Peuced"anum" officinale, Hog's Fennel, or Sea Sulphurwort:—in the barony of Gualtier.

Polemonium cæruleum, Greek Valerian, or Jacob's Ladder:—on a bank of the Blackwater between Cappoquin and Lismore.

Polygonum Bistorta, Greater Bistort or Snakeweed:—on Slatwood-hill near Lismore, and Tallow.

Solidago Virga aurea, A variety of common Golden Rod:—on Cushean-hill near Dungarvon.

Spiræa filipendula, Dropwort:—on Cumeragh mountains.


Is an inland county, not very large, but extremely rich in verdure, mostly flat, though in some places pleasingly intersected with hills, many of which are finely wooded. In short, if not so picturesque as many other districts, yet the tourist will not be in want of subjects for his portfolio, as it contains many lakes pleasingly fringed with rich plains and wooded scenery. Bounded N. by Cavan; E. by Eastmeath; S. by King's County; W. by Roscommon and the Shannon; and N.W. by Longford.

Athlone, 20 m. S.W. of Mullingar, stands pleasantly on the Shannon, with fine scenery, particularly in Lough Ree. Formerly rich in antiquities; but almost all destroyed by fire in the civil wars, though now a town of considerable extent, and nearly in the centre of Ireland. In the town there is a strong Castle defended by numerous guns. See the pontoon or floating bridge, consisting of between 30 and 40 boats. Examine chalybeate spa. Many beautiful prospects between this and Ballymenach. Inquire for ruins of Monastery at Drumrany, or Drumrath; also at Kilkenny West, a small village. At Maghretibot, or the Field of Theobald, see the field of battle where Sir Theobald de Verdon fell in a contest with the Irish clans. Moatagrenoge, 8 m. S.E., has an excellent inn as a station for those who wish to explore this district, where there are the ruins of numerous old Castles, a good modern Ch., a seat of Lord Sunderlin at Ballinabon, and the venerable remains of Garey Castle.

Ballymore, midway between Athlone and Mullingar, has several objects worth seeing. Village small. Ch. neat: ruins of Castle; also of Killinney Castle near it. Lough Scudy has on its banks the ancient Monastery of Plassey.

Castletown Delvin, 12 m. N.E. of Mullingar, is a small village, but a good station for several objects in its district. Near it is the ancient baronial seat of the Earls of Westmeath; of which a part is standing, consisting of an oblong square, with a lofty circular tower at each corner. Near it is a large Danish rath. See, in its vicinity, Baronston, the seat of Lord Sunderlin, a magnificent mansion, including the wings, 300 feet in front, seated in the midst of a considerable park, embosomed in excellent plantations, and surrounded by a charming country, richly diversified with lakes, hills, and mountain scenery. Clonmellon has an elegant Ch., with a steeple and spire, of modern erection, but in imitation of the Gothic. See small lakes to the N.W.

Fore, 9 m. N. of Mullingar, deserves a visit on account of Lough Lane in its immediate vicinity. See the ruined Ch. of Clonarney, and that of Archerstown, near a new-built seat of Mr. Battersby; also a seat of Mr. Smith. Between Archerstown and Fore, Sir R. C. Hoare notices a tumulus which appears to be sepulchral, surrounded by a fosse, but not so exactly executed as those on Salisbury Plain. But Fore also interests by its own ruins of parish churches, walls, and gateways, with the shell of a spacious Monastery seated in the vale below, dedicated to St. Fechin, first built in 630, and re-founded in 1209. Sir R. G. Hoare states that this Monastery presents a large pile of simple and unornamented masonry; the Chapel is still in a tolerable state of preservation, and has three narrow pointed windows. Lough Lane (already mentioned) a large piece of water with three wooded islands upon it: it produces good trout and pike. The scenery is not very romantic, for the banks are flat, but well cultivated. On its N. side the waters penetrate under the rock, and reappear on the opposite side of a hill near Fore, where they turn a mill. To the S. of the lake, at a short distance, is a raised earthen work, commonly called the "Fort of Turgesius," a chieftain of great military renown with the old historians. He lived in the ninth century. If any reliance can be placed upon topographical derivations, this vicinity must once have had a very literary character; for Foure signifies the town of books, and Lough Lane, the lake of learning! This lake gives birth to two rivulets, which discharge themselves into the sea on opposite sides of the island. There are fine rides through the well cultivated country in its vicinity, especially in the road to Rochford, commanding in succession a view of a pleasing lake, Lough Derrin; the "Crooked Wood," a hill so distinguished for its foliage, though now denuded; and the beautiful wooded hill of Knockdrin. See Castle Pollard, and Pakenham Hall; also Loughs Armagh and Drin.

Kilbeggan, 10 m. S. of Mullingar, is a pleasant village, with good river scenery in the Brosne. Some remains of Monastery. The artist may here find amusement.

Kinnegad, 10 m. E. of Mullingar, is a mere village, but has excellent accommodations for the wanderer. On a hill near to it see ruins of Ardmullan Castle; also Kilbride Pass, where are ruins of ancient Ch. and two Castles.

Mullingar, 34 m. W. of Dublin, is the shire-town, with good accommodations. Some ruins of a Dominican friary; also Baronston, the seat of Lord Sunderlin, may be visited from this place. See beautiful Ch. recently erected. The statistical tourist will do well to consult Curwen's Letters, vol. ii. p. 249. Inquire for Horse-leap, 6 or 8 m. S., where are some remains of a very stately Castle built by Sir Hugh de Lacy, one of the earliest English adventurers; and another 2 m. distant. To the N. inquire for the beautiful demesne and elegant mansion of the Nugents, with remains of a venerable Castle in vicinity. To see Lough Derryveragh in perfection, go to Wilson's Hospital, delightfully situated between that and Lough O'Whel, or Hoyle. From the Hospital notice charming view of Lord De Blaquiere's residence and the romantic lake scenery, with a prospect over five counties. The Hospital is supposed to be in the centre of Ireland; its revenues are large. About 2 m. from Mullingar, from an eminence, there is a most extensive prospect of Lough O'Whel and Lough Ennel, looking towards Belvidere, which has the celebrity of being one of the most enchanting spots in the island. Lough Ennel lies between Mullingar and Kilbeggan, and is pretty extensive, its eastern banks decorated by many gentlemen's seats. Near this is the late Lord Belvidere's seat, at Belvidere, perched on the crown of a beautiful little hill, half surrounded with others, variegated, and melting into one another. Lough Ennel, many miles in length and two or three broad, flows beneath the windows, spotted with islets, whilst a promontory of rock fringed with trees starts into it; the whole bounded by distant hills. "Greater and more magnificent scenes are often met with, but no where a more beautiful or a more singular one." Multifarnam possesses the magnificent ruins of an Abbey of Franciscans, highly interesting for its connection with a most important period of Irish history. When the monasteries were dissolved, this abbey was given to an alderman of Dublin, one of whose successors permitted the friars to assemble here again, with a splendour nearly equal to their former state, having their organ and choristers in the Ch., with fine apartments for themselves, barracks for soldiers, and a large establishment for the reception of those who chose here to seek for shelter; and it is asserted that within the walls of Multifarnam was first concerted that rebellion which broke out in massacre in 1641. Enough remains to gratify the lover of ancient architecture, in its pointed gables, Gothic windows, and lofty tower 60 feet in height, and in its solemn cloisters which may still be traced. New-Pass, not far distant, is a pleasant mansion with good lake scenery. See Tyril's-Pass, a neat village with ancient Castle ruins.


Nothing remarkable.


A virgin field; but promising great variety of aquatics.


Presents many interesting considerations to the English tourist, arising from its being the first active scene of invasion by the Anglo-Norman adventurers in the reign of Henry the Second. It is, however, a district very little noticed by casual travellers, who, perhaps from its apparent deficiency in mountain scenery, rashly pass it over en route, reserving all their admiration and praise for the more classical beauties of Killarney. Yet Wexford well merits investigation, not only for the magnificent and romantic views at every turn of the Slaney, one of the most beautiful rivers of the island, which divides it nearly in equal parts, but also for the immense number of Gothic castellated ruins which yet adorn its green eminences, the relics of feudal barbarism and of intestine hostility. Add to this, much of it is in a high state of cultivation; especially the baronies of Bargie and Forth, which yet are completely denuded of all kinds of timber. Bounded N. by Wicklow; E. by Irish Channel; S. by Atlantic Ocean; W. by Waterford, Kilkenny, and Carlow.

Bannow, 11 m. S.W. of Wexford, may be visited along with Feathard and Clonmines. Here Strongbow landed, temp. Hen. II. Those fond of aquatic sports may visit the Saltees.

Clonmines, 10 m. S.W. of Wexford.—In his excursions on the banks of the romantic Barrow, the tourist will not omit to visit the ruins of the once very extensive Abbey, with its light, lofty pinnacled tower, ivied walls, and elegantly ramified western window, formed of red grit, but completely whitened by the moss which enwraps it. Some fine specimens of ornamental sculpture are to be found in the architecture of the western door and in the arches of the cloisters, also on a monument within the Ch.

Clonegall, 21 m. N. of Wexford, is a small village: but here the tourist may commence his examination of the river Slaney. Visit Newtonbarry, the seat of Col. Barry, deriving great animation from the picturesque effect of river scenery combined with modern improvement, and the majestic range of Mount Leinster.

Enniscorthy, 8 m. N.W. of Wexford, stands agreeably on the Slaney. Ancient Castle fitted up as military depôt. Handsome bridge, six arches. Close to it is Vinegar Hill! A few miles to the E. is Courtown, remarkable for its evergreens, which grow to an immense size with a marine aspect. Near this also are the pleasing seats of Kyle and Bellevue, places of extraordinary beauty, and affirmed by Mr. Wakefield to be inferior to none in the British empire, abounding in magnificent scenery, richly planted, undulating and varied in their surfaces, and animated by the Slaney flowing between them, which often assumes all the grandeur of an expansive lake.

Fethard, 15 m. S.W. of Wexford.—Ancient Castle, once in ruins, lately altered and modernized. Principal tower is an elegant specimen of the ancient military architecture, with its crown and battlements supported by brackets or consoles, and fantastic embrasures from whence the enemy could be annoyed in the old system of defence. Visit Dunbrody Abbey, on the Barrow; ruins magnificent; fine sculpture in W. window. Several ruins of Castles and Danish raths. Duncannon Fort is a good specimen of modern fortification, though of early foundation, having been erected for the defence of the river against the threatened attacks of the Spanish Armada, in the reign of Elizabeth. It stands on the flat surface of a lofty rock which overlooks the bay forming the entrance of the river. See the Hook Tower. At a distance of about 3 m. from the fort stands one of the most noble religious ruins in the island, Tintern Abbey, in consequence of its first monks being brought from that abbey in Monmouthshire by the founder, William earl of Pembroke, whose piety was prompted to a vow during a threatened shipwreck.

Ferns, 13 m. N. of Wexford.—On an eminence in the town see the ruins of the ancient Castle, one of whose fine circular towers is almost entire, containing amongst other apartments a beautiful chapel, the groining of which springs from consoles in the wall, but the flooring is gone. Over it is an arched room with embrasures or loop-holes. See ruins of Abbey; elegant Episcopal Palace; modernized Cathedral, with ancient tomb of St. Meoloch. Camolin is the seat of Earl Mountnorris.

Gorey, 21 m. N.E. of Wexford, exhibits the effects of rebellion in the destruction of several elegant seats in its vicinity. Here were horrible scenes of massacre.

Ross, or New Ross, 15 m. W. of Wexford, stands amidst fine scenery on the Barrow, opposite to the junction of the Nore. Several ruins of religious houses, and an existing monastery. Elegant wooden bridge. Fine view from the hill. In the Ch. of St. Saviour, see a curious monument, of as early a date as the commencement of the 14th century, but falsely attributed by tradition to a lady of the name of Rose Macrae, who is called sister to Strongbow, an anachronism which confutes itself. The female figure lies on the monument, with the hair reticulated round the forehead; and on the breast is a solitaire, from which a curious ornament hangs pendant. Here was fought one of the bloodiest battles in the late rebellion. (See Hall's Tour, vol. i. 98, for many curious particulars.) Near it is Scullabogue, where near 200 protestants were burnt to ashes in a barn.

Wexford, 67 m. S. of Dublin, a very ancient town. Vestiges of walls. See elegant modern Ch.; Court-house; wooden Bridge 2100 feet long, where 97 protestants were butchered in the rebellion. Trade and manufacture considerable. Small obelisk, to the memory of Major Vallotton. See some ruins of the Ch. and Abbey of Selksar, or the Priory of St. Peter and St. Paul, supposed to have been founded by the Danes. The antiquary will not fail to visit the majestic ruins of the Ch. of St. Mary, of which Grose has given a good plate, representing it as small but of excellent workmanship; being remarkable for its elegant arches supported by round columns, the cases and capitals of which are of peculiar construction. The shafts of the pillars are of hewn stone; but the remainder of the ruin consists of plain walls and unornamented windows. Amongst the sepulchral monuments which remain, there is a tomb with some sculptures, and a female figure recumbent, but for whom it is unknown. The choir is entered by a circular arch, the others are Gothic. To enjoy a very fine prospect go to Ferry Carrick, where the stream becomes contracted between considerable rocks. Here the tourist ought to land, and ascend the rising ground on the west side of this narrow pass. An inland bay, which appears unexpectedly, and animates the scene in no common degree, then opens to the view. This noble expanse of water is bounded by steep banks, all cultivated, and in some places covered with timber. To the E. the distant mountains, which are softened into the purple of distance, add much to the effect of the surrounding scenery, which, indeed, abounds with uncommon beauties. Immediately beneath is seen a handsome wooden bridge, painted white, which makes a very pretty object in this natural picture, still further diversified by the ruins of an old Castle on an opposite rock; a situation that seems to bespeak a sense of taste, as well as a sense of danger in the steel-clad chieftain who once frowned within its sombre walls.


Schistus and argillite in the western districts. Siliceous pudding-stone in several places. Granite and limestone.


Yet uninvestigated.

Glendaloch, or Valley of Seven Churches.

T. Fielding fc.

Glendaloch, or Valley of Seven Churches.


Is one of the best known in the island for its beauties, on account of its vicinity to the capital, combining within itself all the rudeness of uncultivated nature, the romantic effect of wood and glen, the sublimity of mountain outline, and the charms of extended ocean. It must be confessed that the interior offers little beyond the variations of mountain and bog; but the sea-coast is rich in the splendour of marine villas and the busy neatness of crowded watering-places, presenting a variety of the most beautiful scenery, which would afford delightful occupation to the painter, the poet, or the tourist, fond of delineating nature as it appears, unassisted by the artificial aid of man. It is true that there are no navigable rivers, but it possesses abundance of smaller streams, which running down from the mountains with great rapidity, discharge their waters into the Irish Channel. Noblemen's and gentlemen's seats are numerous; as those fond of rural retreats are attracted hither by the vicinity of the capital, and by the romantic beauties which abound almost every where, as well as by the uncommon mildness of the climate, which is peculiarly remarkable for the luxuriance of its foliage in evergreens, myrtles, laurels, arbutuses, &c. The larch is a favourite in all modern plantations; and the oak flourishes in the rocky glens. Bounded N. by Dublin; E. by Irish Channel; S. by Wexford; W. by Carlow and Kildare.

Arklow, 10 m. S. of Wicklow.—See Bridge of 19 arches over the Avoca; modern Ch.; Barracks in commanding situation; ruins of Castle, an old Tower forming part of the Barracks; and general appearance of town picturesque. See the mausoleum near to it, to the memory of the Howard family, conspicuous on a lofty hill. The picturesque and poetic tourist may amuse himself with tracing the romantic scenery of the Avoca and Avonmore. See Ballyarthur, the prospect from which, as described by Mr. Wakefield, must not be omitted by the tourist. This view is best seen from the terrace, which runs along the summit of the northern bank that forms one side of the vale of Arklow. The walk is 1 m. in length, with a summer house in one part where the view is very fine, below which a slope of great extent, clothed in wood, runs down to the united streams of the Avoca and Derry, proceeding in one channel into the ocean at Arklow. This hollow or valley is much wider than to admit of being called a glen, being about 1½ m. in breadth; and from hence, looking directly inland, is a fine extent of mountain scenery, the most conspicuous feature of which is the Croan mountain fronting a woody bank which forms part of the vale and extends nearly 3 m. Following Mr. Wakefield's hints, the tourist will now direct his eye down the glen, where the river is seen pursuing its winding course until it is lost in cultivated fields, bounded by rocky heights of various forms and tint. On each side is a magnificent prospect of the ocean; and more immediately to the left lies a most delightful rising bank, covered with oaks, and forming the northern side of the river. Here, says Mr. W., the lively appearance of the woods, the tints of their waving foliage, the magnificence of the mountain scenery, and the wide expanse of the ocean displaying its surface, all combine to render this one of those extraordinary scenes of nature which rivet the attention with delight. The immediate foreground has a curious effect, being formed of the tops of trees; whilst the river lies below with slips of cultivated land scattered about its banks, and encompassed by the most beautiful woody scenery. Mr. W. then directs the tourist to follow the course of the river in an opposite direction towards Rathdrum, when the extent of the woods will almost induce him to imagine himself in the midst of one of those immense forests which extend over the wildest scenes of nature. Here too a rapid river, flowing from the mountains, rolls its shallow stream with wonderful rapidity along its rough and pebbly bed; whilst the opposite side of the glen is covered with wood to the very summit, behind which are lofty mountains that seem almost to touch the skies. Cross the river, pursue the road on the opposite side, and particularly notice a beautiful view of both sides of the glen in long perspective, with the river winding in the bottom of it, and the sea terminating the prospect. Visit Ballykin, seat of the Whaleys, erected on ancient Abbey. At Ballyrane, a Danish rath in high preservation. Carnew, 12 m. S.W., is a very strong situation, and was long the head-quarters of the sept of O'Toole, who preserved their independence for several centuries. It has a lofty square Castle with towers and battlements, still in tolerable preservation as far as regards the walls, which are of a blueish stone and of very good workmanship. The turrets are supported on consoles or brackets, and the whole has a commanding appearance, but is disfigured by the wretched cabins which crowd round the base of its venerable walls. Also ruins of old Ch. From hence the tourist may visit what remains of the ancient oak forest of Shillelagh. Cronebane, 7 m. W. from Arklow, possesses a mountain stream, a modern Pactolus, which separates the counties of Wicklow and Wexford. In the bed of this river large pieces of gold have several times been found; but when a regular search was instituted, the quantity taken did not pay the contingent expenses. Some lumps were also found in the Wicklow side of the mountain; and the tourist, if he picks up no specimens, may at least pick up health and amusement in his search. The waters of this place have been supposed to transmute iron into copper; but the fact is, that they precipitate the contained copper upon iron bars immersed therein; after which the precipitate is fluxed, and yields about one half pure copper. Examine the copper ore, which is found in one spot in a large vein at the depth of 390 feet; also the mode of procuring copper from the water, by its deposition on iron bars. Cronbane-house is a mansion highly deserving of notice, for its singular situation on a piece of land elevated, as Mr. Wakefield describes it, to nearly half the height of the mountain which forms the back-ground. The view from it is very fine; for two rivers, the Avon and the Avoca, wind round it in a semicircular form, exhibiting a broken outline, which gives them a romantic appearance, and shrouding the valley of Glendalough in their bosom. The home grounds and walks also possess many beauties. Kilcarra Castle, 3 m. from the sea, is the seat of the Earl of Carysfort, lately ornamented with towers and castellated front; in a retired spot on gentle declivity, with romantic glen. The new mail-coach road leading past this district affords many views of fine scenery. Shelton is the beautifully situated mansion of the Earl of Wicklow, at the base of a range of hills luxuriantly clothed in wood. Here are some of the finest beeches and chestnuts in Ireland. House ancient but modernized.

Baltinglass, 17 m. W. of Wicklow, is pleasantly seated on the Slaney, with a good trade and some manufactures. The Castle is in good repair, and now forms a comfortable mansion. Near it, on the banks of the Slaney, are the remains of the Abbey, consisting of a long Chapel totally in ruins, with a belfry tower, and a lofty plain E. window. Part of it is still roofed, and fitted up for divine service. Druidical remains in the vicinity; and the name is evidently derived from the worship of Baal, or Apollo; a circumstance that renders its antiquities highly interesting. Visit from hence a very curious Rath at Donard, on a hill called Slievh Guth or Church Mountain, about 6 m. distant. Here is a holy well to which numerous pilgrims repair. Stratford in the vicinity is a town of very recent erection, judiciously planned, but not successful as it ought to be. The cotton manufacture, however, flourishes.

Blessington, 18 m. N.W. of Wicklow, stands agreeably on the Liffey, on the verge of the county, with a handsome modern Ch.; and near it the ruins of the Marquis of Downshire's noble mansion destroyed in the rebellion. Ballymore Eustace has been already described in Kildare. Poll-a-phuca may be visited from this place, with a curious ruin of a Ch., and part of a Round Tower, and stone cross near it. The cascade at this place is considered by Miss Plumptre as much finer than the one at Powerscourt. It is formed by the Liffey amongst abrupt rocky scenery, well planted with shrubs, with shady walks, and prospect seats arranged by the taste and liberality of the late Earl of Milton, whose mansion at Russborough with a centre and wings extending 700 feet, of the Corinthian and Ionic orders, with a good collection of paintings, is worthy the tourist's notice.

Bray, 13 m. N. of Wicklow and 11 S. of Dublin, is a place of considerable fashion in the summer as a bathing-place, independent of its enchanting scenery and vicinity to some of the sweetest charms of the county. See the Martello Towers; also Bray-head, with marble and other extensive quarries: old Castle; and river with good trout-fishing; Ch. in bold romantic situation. A pleasant jaunt is to go to Kilmacannoch Ch. in ruins, 3 m.; thence to the Glen of the Downs; ascend a hill on the right, catching a delightful view of Delganny Ch. on a rising hill above the village, with the sea in the distance; thence proceed to Newton Mount Kennedy, 8½ m. from Bray, and to the vale of Dunran; then 4½ m. to the Devil's Glen, with fine views of Glendaloch, Luggela, &c.; further on to Rosanna and Newry Bridge and Wicklow. The Dargle, a most romantic glen about 1 m. in length, and amidst the Powerscourt scenery, is one of the usual Irish wonders; but its description would far exceed all possible limits. Let the tourist attend to the fine ranges of wood; to the river in the bottom tumbling from rock to rock; to the immense height and grandeur of the precipices; and to the various breaks of extended prospect which present themselves in several directions. See Miss Plumptre's Tour, p. 83: also further under Powerscourt. At Delgany, a handsome modern Ch. with a superb monument to the memory of Mr. Latouche. Ennisherry is a pretty little place much frequented by invalids, standing near a river at the base of a lofty hill. Near it is the Glen of the Downs, through which runs the new mail-coach road to Wicklow. The best mode of visiting this romantic spot is to proceed to Bellevue, the seat of Mr. Latouche, which is about a mile from the sea coast and commands a very fine view of Bray-head, with an extent of marine scenery of considerable interest stretching towards Wicklow-head. According to Mr. Wakefield's description, the principal objects of attention, on first entrance, are the green-houses, connected with the mansion, and exhibiting to the delighted botanist a most interesting display of exotics and tender indigenous plants, some of them extremely rare. Behind the house, though not within immediate view, is the Glen of the Downs. Proceed to a banqueting-house in the pleasure-grounds, from whence is a sudden but most delightful view of this romantic scenery, lying directly below the observer, one side of the glen lined with oaks, and the opposite rising into a considerable hill clothed with rich foliage, and backed by the lofty mountain of Thomond. The tourist, if returning to Dublin, may proceed by Kilternan, 6¾ m. from the city, 1 m. beyond which is the Scalp, a remarkable chasm in a mountain which appears as if rent asunder by an earthquake. See the Sugar-Loaves in the distance. Near this are the lead mines of Shankhill amidst granite rocks, with abundance of galena, or sulphuret of lead, and mica. Collect specimens of crystallizations of carbonate of lead; also of sulphate of barytes, of phosphate of lead, and hæmatite or oxide of iron. Kilruddery near Bray, on the old coach-road, is a romantic mansion seated in a deep valley in the midst of most picturesque scenery. Luggela, which may be visited from Powerscourt Park, has in its vicinity a lake of the same name, seated amidst an ocean of mountainous scenery, surrounded by dark and naked rocks, and presenting a sombre picture of silence and desolation: the rugged barrenness of the scene which encircles this abyss is finely contrasted, in one point, by an expanse of verdant lawn, together with some plantations, belonging to a cottage erected there by Mr. Latouche, as a banqueting retirement. A ride of a few miles, either from Dublin or Bray, leads to Powerscourt, a noble seat, the road to which is a glen between two vast ridges of mountains covered with wood, which have a very noble effect. The vale is no wider than to admit the road, a small gurgling river close to its side, with some narrow slips of rocky ground and shrubbery. The whole scenery is of a most magnificent character, and much improved by an immense conical mountain rising out of the glen, and seeming to forbid all exit or entrance. An excursion to this favoured spot combines within its arrangements the several beauties of the Scalp, the Sugar-Loaf Mountains, and the Dargle: the tourist may therefore bring them all within one day's visit, if time is short, or visit them in detail after a general view. The best method is to proceed from Dublin to Altadore, after which the road for a few miles leads over mountain scenery of a pleasing character until it approaches the head of a wide extended glen, with the ocean in front and the domain of Powerscourt covered with plantations and tillage; whilst the Scalp, a lofty mountain, shuts up the view in the north, and is finely contrasted on the opposite side of the compass by the Sugar-Loaf. Let the tourist now turn completely round, and he will discover a magnificent glen, richly covered with foliage, with an astonishing waterfall at its extremity, said to be 360 feet in height. Mr. Wakefield observes that these objects, however, form only a small part of the romantic scenery which fills this charming district; and he says that in the extent of about 6 m. from the Sugar-Loaf Mountains, and from the waterfall to the ocean, a similar distance, nature has scattered her picturesque beauties with so liberal a hand, that the view altogether reminds the spectator of some of those landscapes on canvas, in which the painter, indulging his genius, has collected such an assemblage of interesting objects as are seldom found combined together in nature. The glen already described is the far famed Dargle, or the Glen of the Oaks, so that it must have been as well wooded in ancient times, as its sides are now clothed with verdant oaks, which add considerably to its native beauties. On a closer investigation the tourist observes a mountain stream tumbling over its rocky bed with great rapidity, after issuing from the foaming spray at the foot of the waterfall. Let him then proceed to the Lover's-Leap, where he will enjoy a most extensive prospect over the delightful scenery of the woods beneath him. Turning to the right he will notice the Powerscourt demesne, which includes a park that extends from the waterfall to the spot on which he stands, a distance of about 4 m., being an expanse of ground exhibiting the most uneven and varied outline, and richly planted with different trees and shrubs of the most luxuriant growth. On all sides are deep glens whose sides are covered with foliage, contrasted again by smiling lawns; whilst the mansion itself, a noble edifice built of the finest granite, is seen embosomed in trees, and overtopped by lofty mountains in almost endless succession and in all the variety of outline, blending their tints with the ethereal vapours, and forming a most striking contrast with the highly cultivated verdure of the foreground. Formerly there was a most excellent station for the accommodation of resident visitors, at an inn at Tinnehinch, but the building has been fitted up as a villa by Mr. Grattan: the tourist, however, will find other accommodation sufficiently comfortable.

Glendaloch is a spot which cannot fail to excite high interest in the minds of all persons of taste or enthusiasm; for from the very earliest ages, Ledwich observes, it has been the favourite seat of Superstition. If visited from Wicklow, (from whence it is 11 m. N.W.,) proceed 2 m. to Newry-bridge; see Glenmore Castle to the right, seat of Mr. Synge; ascend an exceedingly steep hill, with fine prospect looking back to the sea, but in front a brown dismal waste, bordering on the Devil's Glen. Proceed across a boggy flat, wild and dreary, towards Anamoe, where is a curious square earthen embankment; the road dividing, on the right to Luggela, on the left over a country dreary and mountainous to the little village of Derrybaun at the confluence of two mountain rivers, a short distance from whence first gain a view of the once famous city, with its tall Round Tower in the centre of a large wild valley, encircled with vast rugged mountains. If you approach it direct from Dublin by the new road, fail not to notice a charming sheet of water, Lough Bray, with shores embraced by stupendous cliffs, overtopped by lofty mountains. If going by the Wicklow road, fail not to notice the Devil's Glen, already mentioned, which Miss Plumptre considers as the finest in the county. The vale is about 11 m. N.W. from Wicklow, and 22 m. S. from Dublin, from whence it forms an agreeable morning ride, and is surrounded on all sides, except to the E., by stupendous mountains, whose vast perpendicular height throws a gloom on the deep dell below, well suited to inspire religious dread and horror: for, being covered with brown heath, or more sable peat, their summits reflect no light whatever. As nothing facilitates the observation of the tourist more readily than a clear idea of the topography of the place he visits, it may now be stated to him, that on entering the vale, he will perceive towards the S. the mountains Lugduff and Derrybaun, separated only by a small cataract, opposite to which, and on the other side of the lake, is Kemyderry, between which and Broccagh on the north side is a road leading from Hollywood to Wicklow. At the west end of the upper lake he will observe a cascade called Glaneola Brook, falling from the hill; and further on St. Kevin's Keeve, a small stream from Glendason river, and in which Superstition still dips weak and sickly children every Sunday and Thursday before sunrise,—and certainly with an efficacy which an early cold bath must produce on any other day of the week. Looking into the bosom of the vale, the tourist will soon perceive that these and other cataracts form a junction when they assume the name of Avonmore or the Great River, sometimes so swelled with torrents as to be rapid and dangerous, but generally confined within narrower bounds, and merely feeding two romantic little lakes separated from each other by a rich and verdant meadow. It is evident from the names of the mountains, that these eminences were once a forest; but at present the gloom of foliage is much wanted by the venerable ruins of the religious edifices, or the "Seven Churches" that give so much interest to the vale. Here once stood an extensive city, but now almost extinct, except that from what can now be discovered by its walls and foundations, it is conceived to have extended from the "Refeart Church" to the "Ivy Church," on both sides of the river; and some idea of its ancient state may be formed from its remains in the road leading from the market-place into the county of Kildare, still in good preservation, being paved with stones placed edgewise, to the breadth of ten feet. Those who wish to know all the superstitious traditions respecting this holy spot, may consult the second article in Ledwich's Antiquities of Ireland, where they are related. One of these, however, must be noticed, as explanatory of one of the wonders of the place. Tradition tells, and Superstition believes, that St. Kevin, whilst ascending a neighbouring hill in a period of scarcity and famine, met a woman with a sack on her head, in which were five loaves. The woman, being rather churlish, when the saint inquired the contents of her sack, told him they were stones. "I pray they may be so," said the holy inquirer, when instantly five stones tumbled out, rolled towards Refeart Ch. where they were kept as sacred reliques for many years, but are now exhibited in the valley, weighing about twenty-eight pounds each, and certainly bearing a great resemblance to loaves, from whence this idle story has arisen. The tourist having now taken a general survey of the place, it remains to lead him through it in detail; and the first spot he meets, on approaching from the E. is the Ivy Ch., completely invested with evergreen foliage, where he observes a circular belfry, supposed by Ledwich to be one of the first attempts to unite the Round Tower with the body of the Ch. Passing on, or rather retracing his steps, a little to the S.E. is seen the eastern Ch. or Priory of St. Saviour, near which is a stone-roofed Chapel. Resuming his former route, and rambling about three hundred yards from the Ivy Ch., is a small square which was the market-place of the ancient city, with the pedestal of a stone Cross; to the southward of which he may pass the river on stepping stones, the ruins of a bridge, and then enter the solemn cemetery by a gateway with a Saxon arch, when he arrives at the Cathedral, evidently in the Saxon style of architecture. Here the E. window is deserving of notice from the curious sculptures which adorn it, representing the most miraculous actions of the patron saint. This window has the peculiarity of diminishing in size, until it becomes so narrow as to be almost impervious either to light or air; a peculiarity evidently adopted from the want of glass. Here notice a tomb of freestone on the S. side of the choir: at a short distance, the sacristy or priest's house, of which a closet, where the vestments and holy utensils were kept, still remains, to turn thrice round in which, is supposed by the vulgar to be a certain cure for the head-ache; also some remnants of crosses and sculptures worth noticing, particularly some on the tombs of the O'Tooles, ancient Irish kings, here and in the Lady's and Refeart Churches. Returning from Refeart Ch., observe a circle of stones piled up conically about three feet high, round which pilgrims still perform penance; then on a recess of the southern mountain, see St. Kevin's bed, excavated from the living rock in a projection from the mountain, also Teanpell-na-Skellis Ch. But the path to these holy curiosities is so evidently dangerous and difficult, especially in returning, from its extreme narrowness, that he who wishes to avoid the chance of a slip into the lake below will be content to admire them at a distance. Observe in the centre of the vale the ruins of the Abbey, north of which is Trinity Ch. with part of a Round Tower; also several smaller chapels and oratories. If time will not permit the tourist to complete this investigation, let him then approach this interesting scene by the bridge of Derrybaun, from whence the Seven Churches present a very picturesque and pleasing view. The bridge itself is a pleasing object in the landscape, being a modern erection of three elliptical arches over the Avonmore, covered to a great extent with an oak coppice on one side and the huge Broccagh on the other, which here confines the view up the valley, at the end of which the great Round Tower and other ruins appear to great advantage, whilst a remarkably smooth and high mountain forms a most singular and agreeable back-ground.

Newton Mount Kennedy, 7 m. S.W. of Bray, and 17 from Dublin, although placed here under a separate head, may be included in the beauties round Powerscourt and the Dargle. It is a pleasant village, on the mail-coach road, half way between Bray and Wicklow, and may therefore be made head-quarters, especially by the picturesque tourist, and even by the traveller. The tourist whose time will not permit visits beyond the immediate vicinity of the metropolis, must not fail to inspect Mount Kennedy, the seat of the late Lord Rosmore, to which there are few places in Ireland superior in beauty. The house itself, a design of Wyatt's, is finished in a high style of modern architecture; and the principal front is simple, extremely light, but enriched with an elegant portico of the Ionic order. It is seated on an eminence, and to the rear, commands a fine view of the sea at the distance of 2 m., whilst the country which the eye runs over in the interval, is extremely beautiful: from the principal front, looking towards the west, is seen the demesne, bounded at some distance by mountains which form a bold termination to the prospect. At distances from the demesne are spots which present the most striking scenes of natural beauty and ruggedness. On these the taste and fancy of the late proprietor have been exerted, so as to render them highly deserving the tourist's notice, who must not omit to inquire for Dunran, about 2 m. from the house, even if unable to visit the remaining interesting objects. This place forms a prominent feature in the list of curiosities to be visited in this very picturesque county. Dunran is indeed, by its peculiar beauties, rendered difficult to describe, and more appropriate to the pencil than the pen. Here are 200 acres of wood, water, rocks, and lawns highly dressed, in which the bold ruggedness of nature has been softened by the hand of culture so happily, as not to fritter away the characteristic grandeur of the original; whilst each romantic eminence presents a varied and extensive prospect of mountain, vale, and wood of this beautiful county, at intervals contrasted with the sublime and expansive line of the ocean. This glen has many miles of road winding through it; and the rambler will often find its deepest recesses enlivened by the cheerful parties which frequent it during the summer.

Rathdrum, 8 m. S.W. of Wicklow, forms an excellent station for the artist, with fine mountain and river scenery on the Avon; with romantic mountains towards Arklow, covered with luxuriant forests finely contrasting with the wild and savage landscape in other parts of the vicinity. See the Wool hill; some lead-mines near it, between which and Rathdrum in the valley is a romantic bridge, which Miss Plumptre strongly recommends as a subject for the pencil. Visit the beautiful grounds of Avondale, 1 m. distant: whilst here, the tourist will find a very agreeable excursion in a trip to Glenmolaur, about 14 m. from Wicklow, being a long strait glen, or valley, rude and barren, with a rivulet wandering through it between two mountains, whose tops are so broken and divided as to seem like an extensive chain, yet the sides are so smooth and steep that cattle frequently, by grazing too near, slip down and are killed by the fall. At the entrance of the glen is a lonely shepherd's cottage; and in proceeding towards its termination, the visitor finds a rugged ascent formed of huge pieces of rock loosely thrown together, whilst the ascent opens into an ample cove, or kind of amphitheatre, from the top of which descends a waterfall that feeds the stream below, and though inconsiderable in dry seasons, yet becomes a foaming cataract after heavy rains, adding greatly to the romantic wildness of the scene.

Wicklow, 24 m. S. of Dublin, stands agreeably on the side of a lofty hill. Tolerably good accommodations. See the Ch., with high steeple; modern Court-house; Gaol, and Market-house; ruins of Black Castle, on a huge rock rising from the sea; and some curious limestone caves at the base of Wicklow-head. Some remains still exist of the Abbey of Franciscan Friars, founded in the reign of Henry III. Little more is left than masses of broken walls with some fine arches; but being seated in private garden-ground, they have of late years escaped dilapidation. Wicklow ale is excellent. Ballybeg is a house and demesne near Wicklow, which to the lovers of mountain scenery cannot fail to afford gratification. Mr. Wakefield observes, that although destitute of lake or river, yet the magnificent prospect of mountain rising above mountain, until they fade in the distance, presents quite an alpine view, the distant hills clad with woody scenery, and the foreground well filled up with thriving plantations, verdant lawns, and other modern improvements. There is a very pleasant pedestrian ramble to the Devil's Glen. On the right appears the sea at some distance, extending from Wicklow-head to another headland: beneath the observer's eye is the glen with a mountain stream running along its bosom; beyond which are cultivated hills, rocky promontories, and fine plantations of evergreens surrounding the place of view;—the whole forming a scene of great beauty.


Trap; greenstone; hornblende; felspar; porphyry; and pyrites:—round Arklow.

Copper, with some recent discoveries of gold; pyrites:—at Cronbane.

Lead ore; large blocks of pure quartz; blocks of mica slate; foliated galena, and gneiss:—at Glenmolaur.

Gneiss; granite:—on Lugneguilla Mountain.

Lead ore; galena; carbonate of lead crystallized; sulphate of barytes:—at Shankhill.

Hornstone, and quartz:—in the Sugar-loaf mountains.


Asplenium Trichomanes, English black Maiden-hair:—on rocks.

Hieracium paludosum, Succory-leaved Hawkweed:—on the Mountain of the Three Rocks.

Juniperus communis, Juniper:—on mountains.

Pulmonaria maritima, Sea Bugloss:—on the Meneagh of Wicklow.

Saxifraga umbrosa, London Pride, or None-so-pretty:—on mountains.

Silene amœna, Sea Campion:—among stones near the sea.

The following Iters from Dublin, extracted from
Cumming's Traveller's Guide through Ireland,
may be found useful.

miles. miles.
From Dublin to Howth.    Chapel Midway 7
To Marino 2    Kilsaloghan
   Clontarf    Clonmethan 10
   Raheney 4    Garrelstown 14
   Beldoyle 6
   Howth From Dublin to Cloonee.
To Castleknock
From Dublin to Malahide.    Mullahedart
To Coolock 3    Cloonee 7
   St. Douloughs
   Malahide From Dublin to Lucan.
To Chapelizod
From Dublin to Balbriggan.    Palmerstown 4
To Drumcondra 2    Lucan
   Santry 3
   Swords 7 From Dublin to Tallagh.
   Turvey 9 To Crumlin 3
   Man of War 12    Tallagh 5
   Balruddery 14
   Balbriggan 15½ From Dublin to Waterford.
To Rathcool 8
From Dublin to Naul.    Johnstown 5½ 13½
To Glassnevin 2    Naas 2½ 16
   Forest    Kilcullen Bridge 5  21
   Brackenstown    Timolin 8 29
   Bally-boghill 10½    Castle Dermot 5 34
   Naul 14    Carlow 5 39
   Leighlin Bridge 6 45
From Dublin to Garrelstown.    Royal Oak 2 47
To Finglass 3    Gowran 5½ 52½
   Pass if you Can    Thomastown 7 59¼
   St. Margarets    Waterford 15 74¼
From Dublin to Limerick.        Fermoy 2 107
To Rathcool 8    Rathcormick 5 112
   Johnstown 5½ 13½    Cork 12 124
   Naas 2½ 16
   Kildare 9 25 From Dublin to Galway.
   Monasterevin 5 30 To Lucan 7
   Maryborough 10 40    Maynooth 5 12
   Montrath 7 47    Kilcock 2 14
   Burros Ossory 7 54    Clonard Bridge 12 26
   Roscrea 5 59    Terrilpass 14 40
   Toomovara 10 69    Killbeggan 5 45
   Newport 17 86    Athlone 15 60
   Limerick 8 94    Ballinasloe 12 72
   Aghrim 4 76
From Dublin to Cork.    Loughrea 11 87
To Rathcool 8    Oranmore 14 101
   Johnstown 5½ 13½    Galway 4 105
   Naas 2½ 16
   Kilcullen Bridge 5 21 From Dublin to Donaghadee.
   Timolin 8 29 To Swords 7
   Castle Dermot 5 34    Balruddery 7 14
   Carlow 5 39    Drogheda 10 24
   Leighlin Bridge 6 45    Dunlear 7 31
   Royal Oak 2 47    Dundalk 10 41
   Kilkenny 10 57    Newry 9 50
   Callen 9 66    Loughbrickland 8 58
   Ballypatrick 10 76    Dromore 8 66
   Clonmel 6 82    Hilsborough 4 70
   Ardsennan 7 89    Lisburne 3 73
   Clogheen 4 93    Belfast 7 80
   Ballyporeen 4 97    Bangor 10 90
   Kilworth 8 105    Donaghadee 4 94



miles. miles.
From Kilkenny to Cork.         Castle Island 2 5
To Kells 6 4    Killarney 9 7
   Callan 4 4    Cork 38 4
   Cashell 18 6    Cove 6 0
   Holy Cross 7 2
   Silver Mines 10 0 From Cork to Kilkenny. 7 0
   Killaloe   8 2 To Rathcormuck   13 1
   Limerick 9 7    Lismore 10 0
   Adare 9 0    Clonmell 11 4
   Askeyton 8 3    Callan 16 4
   Tarbert 14 3    Thomastown 10 2
   Listowel 19 4    Kilkenny 8 0


        Dublin    Killarney 15
To Black Bull Inn 10    Mill Street 16
   Trim 12    Cork 23
   Mitchelstown 11    Cloyne 18
   Mullingar 12    Youghall 12
   Kilbeggan 12    Lismore 15
   Tullamore 6    Fermoy 15
   Birr 19    Mallow 15
   Nenagh 19    Charleville 15
   Limerick (through

   Tipperary 21
   Cashel 10
   Adare 8    Johnstown 17
   Newbridge 8    Durrow 8
   Tarbert 16    Ballyroan 8
   Tralee 25    Emo Inn 9
   Kildare 10    Ballymony 7
   Naas 10    Ahoghill 14
   Racool 8    Antrim 12
   Dublin 8    Belfast 12
   Maynooth 12    Hillsborough   12
   Trim 14    Tullamore Park 21
   Mitchelstown        11    Hilltown 8
   Kells 12    Ross Trevor       6
   Virginia 9    Newry 7
   Cavan 13    Dundalk 10
   Belturbet 8    Dunleer 10
   Enniskillen 19    Slane 14
   Church Hill 9    New Grange 3
   Ballyshannon 14    Navan 6
   Donnegal 9    Trim 8
   Ballybofey 14    Killcock 11
   Derry 20    Dublin 16
   Newton Limavady 13 TOTAL Irish miles 810
   Coleraine 10
   Causeway 10

N.B. By the ratio of 11 to 14, or 16½ to 21, 40 to 50, this 810 Irish, makes rather more than 1030 English miles; but in travelling, the various length of miles, and the reputed distances between stages, often lead to much inconvenience.

Tour from Dublin through several of the Southern
Counties, and returning to Dublin: made in

To Enniskerry 10 To Rathdrum
   Bray 9    Arklow
   New Town Mt. Kennedy           Gorey or Newborough    
   Dunran 3    Ferns
   Turn leading to the     Enniscorthy
   Devil's Glen    Ferry Carrick 9
   Wicklow        5    Wexford 3
   Glendaloch 12    Fook's Mill       11½
To New Ross To Listowell     15
   Waterford 12    Rathkeale 20
Through Curraghmore:          Adare 6
To Carrick-on-Suir 17    Limerick 8
   Clonmell 11    Bird Hill   10
   Ardfinnan 7    Nenagh 11
   Clogheen        5    Roscrea 15½
   Lismore 10½    Burros in Ossory       6
   Youghall 14    Maryborough 13½
   Castle Martyr    Emo Inn
   Middletown 5    Monasteraven 5
   Cork 12    Kildare 5
   Macroom 19    Naas
   Mill Street 10    Johnstown 2
   Killarney 16    Dublin 13½
   Tralee 15



Starts a quarter before 8 in the evening.

To Naas,    Kilkenny,
   Kilcullen,    Clonmel,
   Castle Dermot,    Clogheen,
   Carlow,    Fermoy,
   Leighlin Bridge,    Cork—Arrives ¼ past
   Royal Oak,    9 following night.


Starts a quarter before 8 in the evening.

To Naas,    Burris,
   Kildare,    Roscrea,
   Monasteraven,    Nenagh,
   Maryborough,    Limerick—Arrives about 3
   Montrath,    in the afternoon.


Starts a quarter before 8 in the evening.

To Leixlip, To Athlone,
   Maynooth,    Ballinasloe,
   Clonard,    Loughrea,
   Kinnegad,    Galway—Arrives about 5
   Killbegan,    in the afternoon.


Starts a quarter before 8 in the evening.

To Leixlip, To Roosky Bridge,
   Maynooth,    Drumsna,
   Clonard,    Carrick-on-Shannon,
   Kinnegad,    Boyle,
   Mullingar,    Colloony,
   Rathowen,    Sligo—Arrives about 5
   Edgeworth Town,    in the afternoon.


Starts a quarter before 8 in the evening.

To Bray, To Ferns,
   Arklow,    Enniscorthy,
   Gorey,    Wexford.


Starts forty minutes after 7 in the evening.

To Balbriggan, To Dromore,
   Drogheda,    Hilsborough,
   Dunleer,    Lisburne,
   Castle Bellingham,    Belfast,
   Dundalk,    Donaghadee.
   Newry,    ——
   Banbridge,    Portpatrick.


Starts forty minutes after 7 in the evening.

To Dunshaughlin, To Newtown-Butler,
   Navan,    Lineskea,
   Kells,    Maguire's-Bridge,
   Virginia,    Enniskillen.


Starts at 6 in the morning, Mondays, Wednesdays, and

To Dunshaughlin, To Ballynaught,
   Navan,    Crossdoney,
   Kells,    Killeshandra—Arrives at 7
   Old Castle,    in the evening.
   St. Nugent,


Starts at half past 7 in the evening.

To Balbriggan, To Monaghan,
   Drogheda,    Aughnacloy,
   Collon,    Omagh,
   Ardee,    Strabane,
   Carrickmacross,    Derry,
   Castle Blaney,


Starts a quarter before 8 in the evening.

To Naas, To Gowran,
   Kilcullen,    Thomastown,
   Timolin,    Waterford.


Starts half past 7 in the morning, and returns the same day.





Abbey Boyle, Roscommon
Abbey Showery, Baltimore, Cork
Achill Islands, Mayo
Achoury, Sligo
Adare, Limerick
Aghadoe, Maryborough, Queen's County
Aghrim, Galway
Agnew's Hill (View from), Glenarm, Antrim
Aileach Neid, Londonderry
Anahilt, Hillsborough, Down
Ancient Abbey, Boyle, Roscommon
Ancient Abbey and Church, Sligo
Ancient Castle, Elphin, Roscommon
Ancient Castle, Swords, Dublin
Antique Cross, Kilcullen, Kildare
Antrim (Co. of), Antrim
Antrim Castle, Antrim
Ardagh, Longford
Ardbraccan, Episcopal Palace, Navan, Eastmeath
Ardfert, Kerry
Ardglass, Downpatrick, Down
Ardmillar, Killyleagh, Down
Ardmore, Dungarvon, Waterford
Ardmoy Tower, Bally Castle, Antrim
Arigal, Inishowen, Donnegal
Arklow, Wicklow
Armagh, Armagh
Ashbrooke's (Lord) Mansion, Castle Durrow, Kilkenny
Askeyton, Limerick
Athassel Abbey, Cashel, Tipperary
Athboy, Eastmeath
Athenry, Galway
Atherdee, Louth
Athlone, Roscommon
Athlone, Westmeath
Athy, Kildare
Aughnacloy, Tyrone
Baggotsrath Castle, Dublin
Balbriggan, Balruddery, Dublin
Baldungan Castle, Balruddery, Dublin
Ballinafad, Sligo
Ballinderry, Antrim
Ballinrobe, Mayo
Ballintubber Abbey, Castlebar, Mayo
Ballitore, Kildare
Ballyarthur Prospect, Arklow, Wicklow
Ballycotton Bay, Castle Martyr, Cork
Ballybeg, Wicklow
Ballybeg, Mallow, Cork
Ballybegan, Tralee, Kerry
Ballyboy, King's County
Ballygelly Promontory, Larne, Antrim
Ballymahon, Longford
Bally Castle, Antrim
Ballycarn Bay, Downpatrick, Down
Ballymena, Antrim
Ballymony, Antrim
Ballymore, Westmeath
Ballymote Castle, Ballinafad Sligo
Ballynahinch, Down
Ballynamona, Mallow, Cork
Ballynasloe, Galway
Ballyshannon, Donnegal
Ballyspellan, Castle Durrow, Kilkenny
Ballyvaston, Downpatrick, Down
Ballyvourney, Macroom, Cork
Balruddery, Dublin
Baltimore, Cork
Baltinglass, Wicklow
Banagher, King's County
Banbridge, Down
Bandon, Cork
Bangor, Down
Bannow, Wexford
Bantry, Cork
Barnmoor Pass Scenery, Donnegal
Barnsmore Mountain, Rapho, Donnegal
Baron's Court, Newton Stewart, Tyrone
Baronston, Castletown Delvin, Westmeath
Barrows or Small Raths, Kildare
Beal Castle, Tarbert, Kerry
Bective Abbey, Trim, Eastmeath
Belan House, Ballitore, Kildare
Beldoyle, Dublin
Belfast, Antrim
Belfast Bridge, Belfast, Antrim
Bellcoo, Fermanagh
Belleek, Fermanagh
Bellisle, Lord Ross's Seat, Lough Erne, Fermanagh
Belturbet, Cavan
Belvidere Scenery, Mullingar, Westmeath
Belvoir, Belfast, Antrim
Belvoir, Comber, Down
Bengore Head, Antrim
Bevrac Mount, Drogheda, Louth
Birr, King's County
Black Rock, Dublin
Blarney Castle, Cork
Blessington, Wicklow
Bray, Wicklow
Briansford, Dundrum, Down
Brighton of Ireland, Rostrevor, Down
Bruce's Castle (ruins of), Rathlin, Antrim
Bullock, Dublin
Burros, Queen's County
Bush Mills, Antrim
Buttevant Abbey, Mallow, Cork
Cairn on Slieve Croob, Ballynahinch, Down
Cairn Tierna, Rathcormack, Cork
Callen, Kilkenny
Carlingford, Rostrevor, Down
Carlingford Castle, Carling, Louth
Carlingford, Atherdee, Louth
Carlow, Carlow
Carnew, Arklow, Wicklow
Carreg Abbey, Downpatrick Down
Carrick-a-Rede, Bally Castle, Antrim
Carrickasticken, Dundalk, Louth
Carrickfergus, Antrim
Carrickmacross, Monaghan
Carrick-on-Shannon, Leitrim
Carrick-on-Suir, Tipperary
Carton, Leixlip, Dublin
Cashel, Tipperary
Castle Audley, Strangford, Down
Castlebar, Mayo
Castle Bellingham, Louth
Castle of Bunratty, Sixmile Bridge, Clare
Castleblany, Monaghan
Castle Caldwell, Ballyshannon, Donnegal
Castle Carberry, Kildare
Castle Comer, Kilkenny
Castle Connell, Limerick
Castle Connor, Enniscrowen, Sligo
Castle Dermot, Kildare
Castle Dillon, Rich Hill, Armagh
Castle Durrow, Kilkenny
Castle Guard, Atherdee, Louth
Castle Hyde, Mitchelstown, Cork
Castle Island, Kerry
Castleknock, Dublin
Castle Lyons, Cork
Castle Martyr, Cork
Castlereagh, Comber, Down
Castle of Roslee, Enniscrowen, Sligo
Castle Screen, Downpatrick, Down
Castletown, Delvin, Westmeath
Castle Upton, Temple Patrick, Antrim
Castle Ward, Strangford, Down
Castle Wellan, Dundrum, Down
Cavan, Cavan
Cave Hill, Belfast
Celtic Antiquity, New Grange, Navan, Eastmeath
Chalybeate Spring, Killyleagh, Down
Chapelizod Strawberries, Dublin
Charlemont, Armagh
Charleville Castle, Martyr, Cork
Charleville Castle, Tullamore, King's County
Clain, Kildare
Clare, Clare
Clay Castle, Youghall, Cork
Clodagh Castle, Mill Street, Cork
Clogher, Tyrone
Clogher Palace, Clogher, Tyrone
Clogh, Dundrum, Down
Cloghnakilty, Cork
Cloncha Cross, Inishowen, Donnegal
Clondalkin, Dublin
Clondrohid, Mill Street, Cork
Clonegall, Wexford
Clones, Monaghan
Clonfert, Galway
Clonmany, Inishowen, Donnegal
Clonmell, Tipperary
Clonmines, Wexford
Clonmines Abbey, Clonmines, Wexford
Clontarf, Dublin
Clough-i-stookin, Glenarm, Antrim
Cloyne, Cork
Coalpits, Castle Comer, Kilkenny
Coleraine, Londonderry
Coleshill, Longford
Columkill's Cell, Kells, Eastmeath
Comber, Down
Con-a-glour, Dungarvon, Waterford
Cong, Ballinrobe, Mayo
Conical Rath, Downpatrick, Down
Connor Cathedral, Randalstown, Antrim
Cootehill, Cavan
Copland Isles, Donaghadee, Down
Cork, Cork
Court Abbey, Achonry, Sligo
Courtown Evergreens, Enniscorthy, Wexford
Cove, Cork
Craig Millar Cliffs, Bally Castle, Antrim
Creeve Rocks, Newry, Down
Croagh Patrick, Westport, Mayo
Croan Mountain Scenery, Arklow, Wicklow
Cromlech, Burros, Queen's County
Cromlech, Kilmogue, Knoctopher, Kilkenny
Cromlech, Dromore, Down
Cromlech and Giant's Cradle, Larne, Antrim
Cromwellian Encampment, Armagh
Cronbane House, Arklow, Wicklow
Cronebane Mountain Stream, Arklow, Wicklow
Cross Island, Donaghadee, Down
Crownbridge, Newry, Down
Cuchullin's Stone, Inishowen, Donnegal
Culdean Abbey, Roscrea, Tipperary
Curious Cave, Strancally, Lismore, Waterford
Curragh Race-ground, Kildare
Cushendun, Antrim
Dalkey, Dublin
Dalys Bridge, Cavan
Danish Encampment, Cloyne, Cork
Danish Entrenchment, Dingle, Kerry
Danish Entrenchment, Rathanane, Dingle, Kerry
Danish Fortifications, Ardfert, Kerry
Danish Fortification, Navan, Eastmeath
Danish Forts, Clones, Monaghan
Danish Forts, Magherafelt, Londonderry
Danish Gallery, Bally Castle, Antrim
Danish Mount, Castle Durrow, Kilkenny
Danish Rath, &c. Abbey Boyle, Roscommon
Danish Rath, Athy, Kildare
Danish Raths, Bally Castle, Antrim
Danish Rath, Ballyrane, Arklow, Wicklow
Danish Raths, Ballyshannon, Donnegal
Danish Rath, Baltinglass, Wicklow
Danish Rath, Banbridge, Down
Danish Raths, Belfast, Antrim
Danish Rath, Callen, Kilkenny
Danish Rath, Castletown, Delvin, Westmeath
Danish Raths, Clones, Monaghan
Danish Rath, Clones, Monaghan
Danish Rath, Cloyne, Cork
Danish Rath, Comber, Down
Danish Rath, Donaghadee, Down
Danish Rath, &c. Downpatrick, Down
Danish Rath, Dromore, Down
Danish Rath, Miltown, Dundalk, Louth
Danish Rath, &c. Dundrum, Donnegal
Danish Raths, Dungarvon, Waterford
Danish Raths, Fethard, Wexford
Danish Raths, Castle Durrow, Kilkenny
Danish Rath, &c. Newry, Down
Danish Raths and Antiquities, Temple Patrick, Antrim
Danish and Druidical Remains, Mill Street, Cork
Danish Station and Rath, Dundalk, Louth
Danish Stone Rath, Enniscrowen, Sligo
Danish Works, &c. Middleton, Cork
Dargle, Bray, Wicklow
Devenish Isle, Lough Erne, Fermanagh
Devil's Castle, Tarbert, Kerry
Devil's Glen, Glendaloch, Wicklow
Dingle, Kerry
Donaghadee, Down
Donamon Castle, Roscommon
Doneraile, Cork
Donnegal, Donnegal
Downpatrick, Down
Drogheda, Louth
Dromagh, Mallow, Cork
Dromana, Dungarvon, Waterford
Dromaragh, Dromore, Down
Dromoland, Ennis, Clare
Dromore, Down
Druidical Altar, Macroom, Cork
Druidical Altars, Fenaught, Leitrim
Druidical or Danish Circle, Cahir Conregh, Tralee, Kerry
Druidical Circle, Dundrum, Down
Druidical Circle, Inishowen, Donnegal
Druidical Cromlech, Dublin
Druidical Cromlech, Swords, Dublin
Druidical Remains, Balrichan, Dundalk, Louth
Druidical Remains, Baltinglass, Wicklow
Druidical Remains, Castle Durrow, Kilkenny
Druidical Remains, Clogmanta Hill, Kilkenny
Druidical Remains, Knoctopher, Kilkenny
Druidical Temple, Lisneskea, Fermanagh
Druids' Altar, Cloyne, Cork
Druids' Altar, Rathfarnam, Dublin
Drumbanagher Hill, Glasslough, Monaghan
Drumbo, Comber, Down
Drumcondra, Dublin
Drumlane Priory, Belturbet, Carlow
Drummilly, Rich Hill, Armagh
Drymnagh Castle, Castleknock, Dublin
Dublin, Dublin
Dublin Botanic Garden, Glasnevin, Dublin
Duleek, Eastmeath
Dun Aengus, Galway
Dunamase, Maryborough, Queen's County
Duncannon Fort, Fethard, Wexford
Duncearma Castle, Kinsale, Cork
Dunda Rock Prospect, Macroom, Cork
Dundalk, Louth
Dundrum, Down
Dundrum, Dublin
Dungarvon, Waterford
Dungannon, Tyrone
Dunkerry Cave, Giant's Causeway, Antrim
Dunleary, Dublin
Dunleer, Dundalk, Louth
Dunluce Castle, Bush Mills, Antrim
Dunmall Fortress, Glenarm, Antrim
Dunmanway, Ross
Dunmore Cave, Kilkenny
Dunmore Castle, Navan, Eastmeath
Dunran, Newton Mount Kennedy, Wicklow
Eagle's Nest, Killarney, Kerry
Earl's Rath, Knoctopher, Kilkenny
Earth-Works, Greenmount, Castle Bellingham, Louth
Echo, Kilkelly, Castlebar, Mayo
Edenderry, King's County
Edgeworthstown, Longford
Elphin, Roscommon
Ennis, Clare
Enniscorthy, Wexford
Enniscrowen, Sligo
Enniskillen, Fermanagh
Ennisteague, Kilkenny
Fairhead, Antrim
Fairy Chair, on the Hill of Kyle, Burros, Queen's County
Fairy Hillock, Kilshielan, Clonmell, Tipperary
Fairy Rock, Kilgarvon, Killarney, Kerry
Farnham, Cavan
Faughan, Dundalk, Louth
Fenaught, Leitrim
Fenough, Leighlin Bridge, Carlow
Fermoy, Cork
Ferns, Wexford
Ferns Castle, Ferns, Wexford
Ferry Carrick Prospect, Wexford
Fethard, Tipperary
Fethard, Wexford
Fhirleath, Fairhead, Antrim
Flax, 1lb. spun 214 miles long, Comber, Down
Flying Bridge, Bally Castle, Antrim
Fore, Westmeath
Fort of Turgesius, Fore, Westmeath
Galway, Galway
Garron Point, Cushendum, Antrim
Garryhaddon, Leighlin Bridge, Carlow
Giant's Causeway, Antrim
Giant's Grave, Sligo
Giant's House, Ballinafadd, Sligo
Giant's Load, Balrichan, Dundalk, Louth
Giant's Loom, &c. Giant's Causeway, Antrim
Giant's Ring, Belfast, Antrim
Giant's Ring, Comber, Down
Giant's Ring, Lisburne, Antrim
Giant's Stairs, Cork
Gilford Scenery, Banbridge, Down
Gilgorm Castle, Ballymena, Antrim
Glandine Gap, Birr, King's County
Glandore Bay, Ross
Glasnevin, Dublin
Glasslough, Monaghan
Glenariff Vale, Cushendun, Antrim
Glenarm, Antrim
Glendaloch, Wicklow
Glendariff Scenery, Bantry, Cork
Glenmolaur, Rathdrum, Wicklow
Gobbins Heir, Bally Castle, Antrim
Gorey, Wexford
Gosford Castle, Market Hill, Armagh
Gougenabara, Macroom, Cork
Gowran, Kilkenny
Grace Dieu, Balruddery, Dublin
Graignemanach, Gowran, Kilkenny
Granard, Longford
Gransha, Newtonards, Down
Grey Abbey, Newtonards, Down
Groom's Port, Bangor, Down
Grose's Grave, Drumcondra, Dublin
Hags Bed, Rathcormack, Cork
Hogshead, astonishing Scenery, Kilfenora, Clare
Hamilton's Bawn, Market Hill, Armagh
Hillsborough, Down
Hilltown, Rathfrylaud, Down
Holm Patrick, Balruddery, Dublin
Holy Island, Killaloe, Clare
Hore Abbey, Cashel, Tipperary
Horse-leap, Mullingar, Westmeath
Howth Prospects, Dublin
Inchigeela, Macroom, Cork
Inis Courcey, Downpatrick, Down
Inishowen Barony, Donnegal
Iniskean, Cloghnakilty, Cork
Irish Chieftains (Seat of), Bush Mills, Antrim
Isle of Magee, Carrickfergus, Antrim
Iveagh and Mourne Mountains, Rostrevor, Down
Iveragh Barony, Kerry
Jamestown, Leitrim
Jonesborough, Armagh
Jonesborough Mountains, Loughbrickland, Down
Judgement Chair, Dublin
Kanturk, Mallow, Cork
Karn Gaur, Newtonards, Down
Kateshole, Mallow, Cork
Kells, Eastmeath
Kells, Curious Stone Cross, Kells, Eastmeath
Kenmare, Kerry
Kilbeggan, Westmeath
Kilcarra Castle, Arklow, Wicklow
Kilclief Castle, Strangford, Down
Kilcock, Kildare
Kilcoleman Castle, Doneraile, Cork
Kilcullen, Kildare
Kildare, Kildare
Kilfenora, Clare
Kilkenny, Kilkenny
Killaloe, Clare
Killala, Mayo
Killarney and Lake, Kerry
Killone Hill, Maryboro', Queen's County
Killough, Downpatrick, Down
Killybegs, Donnegal
Killyleagh, Down
Kilmacrenan, Letterkenny, Donnegal
Kilmallock, Limerick
Kilmanahan Castle, Waterford
Kilmore, Cavan
Kilrea, Londonderry
Kilrush, Clare
Kilworth, Cork
Kinnegad, Westmeath
Kinsale, Cork
Kirkistown, Portaferry, Down
Knights Templars (Castle of), Dundrum, Down
Knight of Kerry's Mansion, Dingle, Kerry
Knockdale, Bally Castle, Antrim
Knockmeledown, Lismore, Waterford
Knocktopher, Kilkenny
Kyle and Bellevue Seats, Enniscorthy, Wexford
Lake of Currane, Iveragh, Kerry
Lambay Island, Dublin
Lanesborough, Longford
Larne, Antrim
Lea Castle, Portarlington, Queen's County
Leitrim, Leitrim
Leixlip, Dublin
Leixlip, Kildare
Lesecresig, Macroom, Cork
Letterkenny, Donnegal
Lifford, Donnegal
Limerick, Limerick
Lisburne, Antrim
Liscarrol, Mallow, Cork
Lismore, Waterford
Lismore Castle, Lismore, Waterford
Lisnarick, Fermanagh
Lisneskea, Fermanagh
Lissanoure Castle, Ballymony, Antrim
Lissize, Rathfrylaud, Down
Listowell, Kerry
Lohort Castle, Mallow, Cork
Londonderry, Londonderry
Longford, Longford
Longford Pass, Thurles, Tipperary
Lough Bray, Glendaloch, Wicklow
Loughbrickland, Down
Lough Corrib, Galway
Lough Derg, Donnegal
Lough Derg, Galway
Lough Derryveragh, Mullingar, Westmeath
Lough Ennel, Mullingar, Westmeath
Lough Erin, Hillsboro', Down
Lough Erne, Ballyshannon, Donnegal
Lough Erne, Fermanagh
Lough Esk, Donnegal
Lough Lane, Fore, Westmeath
Loughlinstone, Dublin
Lough Mourne, Rapho, Donnegal
Lough Neagh, Antrim
Lough Outer, Cavan
Lough O'Whel, Mullingar, Westmeath
Lough Ramor, Virginia, Cavan
Lough Rea, Galway
Lough Salt Scenery, Letterkenny, Donnegal
Lough Scenery, Strangford, Down
Louth, Dundalk, Louth
Lucan, Leixlip, Dublin
Luggela Scenery, Bray, Wicklow
Lurgan, Armagh
Luttrell's Town, Dublin
MacCarty's Castle, Macroom, Cork
MacDermot's Island, Elphin, Roscommon
Macroom, Cork
MacSwine's Castle, Letterkenny, Donnegal
MacSwine's Gun, Letterkenny, Donnegal
Magherafelt, Londonderry
Magheralin, Dromore, Down
Maghretibot, Athlone, Westmeath
Mallow, Cork
Mamore Gap, Inishowen, Donnegal
Manor Hamilton, Leitrim
Marble Mill, Kilkenny
Marble Quarries, Dromore, Down
Marino, Dublin
Market Hill, Armagh
Maryborough, Queen's County
Maynooth, Kildare
Maze Course, Hillsboro', Down
Mellifont Abbey (Ruins of), Drogheda, Louth
Middleton, Cork
Mill Street, Cork
Milton's (Earl of) Mansion, Blessington, Wicklow
Mitchelstown, Cork
Moira Castle, Dromore, Down
Moira, Dromore, Down
Molly Geerane's House, Dingle, Kerry
Monaghan, Monaghan
Monaincha, Roscrea, Tipperary
Monasterboice, Drogheda, Louth
Monk's Town Abbey, Carrickfergus, Antrim
Monument (curious), St. Saviour's Church, Ross, Wexford
Moorfield, Kilworth, Cork
Moravian Settlement, Ballymena, Antrim
Mount Albani, Balrichan, Dundalk, Louth
Mount Alexander Castle, Comber, Down
Mount Alt, Letterkenny, Donnegal
Mount Gabriel Prospect, Ross
Mount Kennedy, Newton Mount Kennedy, Wicklow
Mountmellick, Queen's County
Mount Nephin, Castlebar, Mayo
Mourne Mountains View, Dundrum, Down
MSS. (Valuable), Kilkenny
Mount Panther, Dundrum, Down
Mullingar, Westmeath
Multifarnam Abbey, Mullingar, Westmeath
Murkish Mountain, Letterkenny, Donnegal
Naas, Kildare
Narrow Water, Newry, Down
Navan, Eastmeath
Naul, Balruddery, Dublin
Nenagh, Tipperary
Newark Park, Thurles, Tipperary
Newcastle, Limerick
New Castle, Dundrum, Down
New Market, Mallow, Cork
Newry, Down
Newton Barry, Clonegal, Wexford
Newtonards, Down
Newton-Breda, Comber, Down
Newton Limavaddy, Londonderry
Newton Mount Kennedy, Wicklow
Newton Stewart, Tyrone
Nine Mile House Scenery, Tipperary
Observatory, Dublin
O'Donnels (Castle of the), Ballyshannon, Donnegal
Ogham Inscription, Ennis, Clare
Old Cathedral, Cashel, Tipperary
Omagh, Tyrone
Optical Aerial Illusions, Rathlin, Antrim
Oratory, Killaloe, Clare
O'Shaughnessy's Castle, Clognakilty, Cork
Ossian's Poems (Scenery of), Cushendun, Antrim
Ouchterard, Galway
Oysters, Carlingford, Louth
Pagan Fane, Skirk, Burros, Queen's County
Pallis, Limerick
Papp's Mountains, Mill Street, Cork
Patrick's Isle, Balruddery, Dublin
Philipstown, King's County
Picts' Caves, Belfast, Antrim
Pleaskin, Antrim
Poll-a-phuca Cascade, Blessington, Wicklow
Pontoon, Athlone, Westmeath
Portadown, Armagh
Portaferry, Down
Portarlington, King's County
Portarlington, Queen's County
Portavo, Donaghadee, Down
Portcoon Echo, Giant's Causeway, Antrim
Portmore Castle, Ballinderry, Antrim
Portumna, Galway
Potatoes first planted at Youghall, Cork
Powerscourt, Bray, Wicklow
Priest's Leap, Bantry, Cork
Prospect, Cappoquin, Lismore, Waterford
Prospects (extensive), Curraghmore, Waterford
Puffing Hole, Kilrush, Clare
Purgatory, Donnegal
Pyramid of White Stones, Birr, King's County
Quakers' Colony, Ballitore, Kildare
Quakers' Village, Londonderry
Quarry of Alknever, Newton Limavaddy, Londonderry
Quilca Mountain, Swadlinbar, Cavan
Ram Island, Lough Neagh, Antrim
Ram Island, Ballinderry, Antrim
Randalstown, Antrim
Rapho, Donnegal
Rathbeath, Kilkenny
Rathcormuck, Cork
Rathdrum, Wicklow
Rathean Common, Maryborough, Queen's County
Rathfarnham, Dublin
Rathfryland, Down
Rathlin, Antrim
Rathmelton, Letterkenny, Donnegal
Reginald's Tower, Waterford
Remon Lodge, Antrim
Reverberating Cave, Iveragh, Kerry
Rich Hill, Armagh
Ringhaddy, Killyleagh, Down
Rivers running N. and S. Loughbrickland, Down
Roche's Waterfall, Balruddery, Dublin
Romantic Bridge, Rathdrum, Wicklow
Romantic Road, Glanbeny, Iveragh, Kerry
Roscommon, Roscommon
Roscrea, Tipperary
Ross, Cork
Ross, Wexford
Ross Castle, Dalysbridge, Cavan
Rostrevor, Down
Round Tower, 112 feet high, 17½ feet from
perpendicular, Lough Rea,
Rutland, Letterkenny, Donnegal
Sacred Fire, Kildare
St. Declan's Stone, Dungarvon, Waterford
St. Doulogh's Church, Dublin
St. Fechin's Monastery, Fore, Westmeath
Saintfield, Comber, Down
St. Finian's Well, Downpatrick, Down
St. Kevin's Keeve, Glendaloch, Wicklow
St. Mary's Church, Wexford
St. Olan's Cap, Macroom, Cork
St. Patrick's Cathedral, Dublin
St. Patrick's Grave, Downpatrick, Down
St. Scordin's Well, Downpatrick, Down
Salmon Leap, Ballyshannon, Donnegal
Sarah Bridge, Dublin
Saul Abbey, Downpatrick, Down
Scalp (The), Bray, Wicklow
Scraba Mountain, Newtonards, Down
Scullabogue, Wexford
Seven Churches (The), Glendaloch, Wicklow
Shaalan Lake, Dalysbridge, Cavan
Shanes Castle, Antrim
Shankhill Lead Mines, Bray, Wicklow
Shelton, Arklow, Wicklow
Shillelagh Forest, Arklow, Wicklow
Sixmile Bridge, Clare
Skehewrinky, Mitchelstown, Cork
Skellig Islands, Iveragh, Kerry
Slane, Navan, Eastmeath
Sleigh Grian, Tory Hill, Knocktopher, Kilkenny
Slemish Mountain, Ballymena, Antrim
Slieve Croob, Ballynahinch, Down
Sligo, Sligo
Sloane (Sir Hans) born, Killyleagh, Down
Snowton Castle, Balruddery, Dublin
Spanish Armada wrecked, Kilfenora, Clare
Spanish Entrenchment, Ross
Stewart Hall, Dungannon, Tyrone
Stone Bridge, Lismore, Waterford
Stone Cross (Ancient), Dromore, Down
Strabane, Tyrone
Strangford, Down
Struel Wells, Downpatrick, Down
Subterraneous Cave, Balrichan, Dundalk, Louth
Swadlinbar, Cavan
Swords, Dublin
Sugar-Loaf Mountains, Bray, Wicklow
Tallagh, Dublin
Tanderagee, Armagh
Tarah, Navan, Eastmeath
Tarbert, Kerry
Temple Bryan, Cloghnakilty, Cork
Temple More, Thurles, Tipperary
Temple Patrick, Antrim
Thomastown, Kilkenny
Thurles, Tipperary
Timahoe Castle, Maryborough, Queen's County
Tintern Abbey, Fethard, Wexford
Tory Island, Donnegal
Tralee, Kerry
Trim, Eastmeath
Tuam, Galway
Tullamore, King's County
Tullon, Carlow
Tullamore Park, Dundrum, Down
Tura (Site of) Inishowen, Donnegal
Turkelly's Well, Rathfryland, Down
Tuscan Pass, Newry, Down
Tynan, Armagh
Virginia, Cavan
Walsh's Castle (View of), Strangford, Down
Warren's Point, Newry, Down
Waterford, Waterford
Westport, Mayo
Wexford, Wexford
Wicklow, Wicklow
Woodfort Prospect, Mallow, Cork
Youghall, Potatoes first planted here, Cork

Printed by R. and A. Taylor, Shoe-Lane


[1] Dr. Beaufort.

[2] On the top of this mountain Henry Eles by his own desire was buried; he was an ingenious man, and published several tracts on electricity.

[From Rees's Cyclopedia.]

[3] The round tower of Downpatrick was taken down, in order to enlarge the west end of the cathedral, which is now repairing, after having lain in ruins for a great number of years. And it is very remarkable, that under the foundations of this tower, were found the vestiges of a more ancient church, which appears to have been of exceeding good masonry, and upon a larger scale than the present old fabrick; in the walls of which there are many pieces of cut stone, that have evidently been used in some former building. The same circumstance may also be observed in several of the ruined churches at Clonmacnoise.

[4] From Ledwich's Antiquities of Ireland.

Back cover


Numerous errors have been corrected and inconsistencies in spelling have been resolved where possible; otherwise the author's original spelling, punctuation and hyphenation have been left intact. In order to avoid ambiguity, abbreviated words in the Index have been written in full. Counties have been added where these are missing.