The Project Gutenberg eBook of The Art of Home Candy Making, with Illustrations

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Title: The Art of Home Candy Making, with Illustrations

Author: Home Candy Makers

Release date: April 30, 2015 [eBook #48826]

Language: English

Credits: Produced by Emmy, MWS and the Online Distributed
Proofreading Team at (This file was
produced from images generously made available by The
Internet Archive)
















In presenting to you, our third edition of “The Art of Home Candy Making,” we can safely say, that a more complete or practical book, on Home Candy Making, cannot be found. We strive not only to give you a larger variety of the finest candies that can be made, but to make each recipe, so thorough and simple that anyone with a little study before making them, can make every piece in this book with little or no trouble at all.

In presenting a thermometer with each book and telling you how to use it, we lessen the work to such an extent, that when once using one, you would never attempt to make candy without it. In using a thermometer in candy-making, all it is necessary for you to do, is to put it down in the kettle in the boiling candy, and when it registers the required degree, the candy is done and cannot possibly be wrong.

Every batch you make will be just the same, as we give you the exact degree to cook every recipe. This book is intended for those who make candy at home, and does not contain a single recipe, but that may be made right at home in your own kitchen with a very small outlay for tools, other than for cooking material.

We have endeavored to make all things clear to you, but we must insist that you read each recipe over and study it carefully before starting to cook, if you wish success.

With this explanation we think you will agree with us that this is the most complete book on home candy making ever written.

Hoping you will make a success of your efforts, and with our assistance in answering all questions you will surely do so, we remain,

Very Truly Yours,

Canton, O.



After reading the introduction to this book, you will understand that it is not written for professional candy-makers, but for those who make candy at home; and consequently it is necessary to go into every little detail, which of course, will make these instructions rather lengthy.

We will endeavor to make them as plain as though we were holding a personal conversation with you, and explain to you, how to put the style and finish to each piece of your home-made candies, that will equal any of the finest grades of candy that are made today.

In reading these instructions, do not get the idea that any single one of these recipes are too difficult for you to make, for you will find they are very simple when once you have begun.

Any of these may be cut down or increased as you desire, but always use the same proportions, and cook the batch to the same degree. Remember, the degree is always the same, no matter how large or small you make your batches.

Do not think it absolutely necessary to get everything in the line of tools that we mention in this book, to have success with your candy, as it is not. For our whole aim is to teach you how to make your candies with as little expense as possible. But to those who wish to go into it a little deeper than others, or who make their candy to sell, it would be well for them to have as many of these tools as possible, for while not being a necessity, are a great convenience.

These candies can be made at an average cost of from eight to fifteen cents per pound for the materials used in them. In bon-bons the cost is considerably lower than in chocolates as you will find out.

This chocolate coating you will use for dipping, is very expensive, but you will find your chocolate creams cost you about fifteen cents per pound in the end; and they are the same grade of chocolates that you pay from sixty to eighty cents per pound for in the best candy shops.


There is no way to cheapen your coating chocolate, but one pound of chocolate will cover two to three pounds of candy, according to the kind of candy to be dipped, as some are heavier than others.

By bon-bons we mean the fancy colored ones with the fancy centers, and coated with bon-bon cream; not chocolate coated ones, as we call those chocolate bon-bons.

The cooking question, which is three-fourths of candy-making, is here solved by the use of the thermometer, which accompanies this book. By cooking your candy with a thermometer, you are not only exempt from burning or overcooking your batches, but your candy will always be exactly the same; and after you have made the bon-bon cream alone, you would not take many times the cost of this book for your thermometer, if you thought you could not procure another.

If at any time you have trouble with any recipe, look and see if you have followed the instructions exactly as written, and if you have and it does not act right, drop us a line, enclosing a stamp for reply, telling us in as few words as possible, how it acts and where it is not right, and we will write at once where your trouble is. If one of your batches shows signs of turning to sugar or gets gritty, simply try it again and use a little more glucose than called for in the recipe. But we know that if you follow the instructions and read every recipe carefully before making it, that you will never have any trouble, as we make these candies ourselves every day, and we know that these recipes are correct. Therefore we repeat, that you must be exact in your weighing and the degree you cook the batch to, if you wish success.

These candies can be seen at any time, at either of Mr. Ned. R. Goldberg’s stores in Canton, O.

In giving you the following recipes we will no doubt shatter a great many ideas that you now have in regard to home candy making; especially as to the style of cooking, size of batch, and length of time you keep your fondants after being made.


In making your Christmas candies, commence from three to four weeks before hand, and make your chocolate creams first, as they will keep perfectly for that length of time, and even longer. Make your bon-bon cream at least two weeks before Christmas, and let it have a few days to season before making it into bon-bons. It will keep for six weeks in cold weather if necessary and all you have to do is to dampen the cloth about twice a week, and keep it in a cool, dry place; if you wish to make bon-bons or wafers at any time, just go to the crock, take out as much as you need, replace the cloth, and it is ready for the next time.

If you have a fair sized slab, you can make at least a five-pound batch of fondant at one time, but if you use a platter to cool it on, we would not advise you to make more than about two pounds at a time, as it will not cool quick enough, and is then liable to grain.

If you ever have a batch of fondant so grainy that you cannot use it, simply cream it up and use it for fudge or caramels in place of sugar as the recipe calls.


The number of tools absolutely necessary for making candy at home, are very few outside of your ordinary cooking utensils. But we will mention a few of them here, so that you may know just what to get in case you care to purchase them.

The Thermometer—You already have, (see article on “How to Use the Thermometer.”)

Marble Slab—The next most important thing both for its usefulness and convenience is a marble slab. While it is not absolutely necessary to have one, we would advise everyone to make an effort to get one. Almost any size or kind of a piece of marble will do. If you have an old marble top stand, dresser or some other piece of furniture with a marble top, use that. If you purchase one, see that it has a nice[8] smooth top, and the size about 18 x 18 inches. It does not matter if it is a little larger one way, but this is the standard size. You can buy candy slabs most any size of any marble dealer very cheap. If you have a large stone platter, you can use that for nearly every kind of candy in this book; but buy a slab by all means if you can.

Steel Bars for Slab—Get four steel bars ¾ x ½ inch in thickness, (they will cost you about thirty cents at any hardware store). Measure your slab before buying the bars in this way; if the slab is 18 x 18 inches, get two bars each 17 inches long, then get two each 16 inches long; these bars are shorter than the first ones, so that they may be set in between the long ones, making as large or small a dish as the individual batch requires.

Scraper—The best thing to use for creaming up the different kinds of fondants is an ordinary wall paper scraper, which can be bought for ten cents at any hardware store. A wooden butter paddle will answer the purpose if you cannot get a scraper.

Candy Paddle—A wooden paddle is better to use in stirring candy than a spoon, especially those candies that contain milk or cream, as they must be stirred continually while cooking to prevent scorching, and you are very liable to get burned. Take a piece of wood about 15 inches long and about 2½ inches wide on the paddle end, and about ½ inch thick and taper it towards the other end for a handle. Keep this paddle exclusively for stirring candy.

Spatula—A spatula is a very convenient tool for the kitchen and is really as useful for cooking as candy-making. It may be used for scraping out the candy kettle, cake bowl, removing pies or cookies from the pan, icing cakes and in various other ways. A spatula nine inches long will cost you about 25c at any hardware store.

Kettle—Take a granite kettle holding about 2½ gallons, and it will hold any size batch given in this book. Some candies boil up considerably and it is necessary to have a large kettle to avoid its running over. If you make only a pound or so of candy at a time, take a smaller kettle, so the syrup[9] will not scorch and that the bulb of our thermometer will be well down in the boiling syrup. If possible get a round bottom kettle, which is better than a flat one, because there are no edges for the syrup to stick to, and it is much easier to stir, especially those that must be stirred while cooking.


Funnel—If you make wafers frequently, you will find that a funnel will be a great help to you in dropping them, so that they will be uniform. Have a tinner make you one after these directions: Shape a piece of tin 8 inches long like a cornucopia, 6 inches at the top and tapering to the opening at the bottom, which should be ⅜ of an inch in diameter; the handle should be about 5 inches long and shaped like a dipper handle. A round stick, a flag stick, tapered to fit the opening is used in dropping the wafers. This funnel is also used for dropping the cream centers for chocolate. (See article on “How to Mold in Cornstarch.”)

drawing of  hook with two poking through the top sideways
Candy Hook

Candy Hook—In making all kinds of taffy, a hook is the best thing to pull it on, for taffy which is pulled in this manner, will be lighter and more fluffy than if pulled with the hands alone. Any blacksmith can make you one very cheap in this manner: Take a piece of tinned iron 17 inches long, and ½ or ¾ inch in diameter; commence a little over half way down and bend it up like a fish hook. Have the other end flattened out a little and have two holes bored about two inches apart so you can screw it on the wall.


Gloves—A pair of canvas gloves with a buckskin face, slightly greased is a great protection to the hands when pulling taffy or spreading out the different kinds of brittles. If they stick to your taffy, just dust them with a little cornstarch or flour.

Double Boiler

Double Boiler—It is not absolutely necessary to have a double boiler, but it is a great convenience to have one holding about a pint or a little more, in which to melt the fondant or chocolate. You may substitute an ordinary bowl and a pan of hot water in which to set it, and obtain the same results.

Dipping Wire—This is used in dipping bon-bons and accompanies the book. (See article on “Bon-Bons.”)

Plaster of Paris Moulds—These moulds accompany the book and are used for making the centers for chocolates. (See article on “How to Mold in Cornstarch.”)



The first thing necessary for you to do is to test your thermometer. They are supposed to register exactly 212[11] degrees in boiling water, as this is the standard they are made by; but in different altitudes, water boils at different degrees, so they are very liable to vary somewhat. The different degrees given in this book, to which it is necessary to cook the candies to, are based on the supposition that your thermometer registers exactly 212 in boiling water; so that if it registers either higher or lower than that, you must allow for the difference.

Learn to read it accurately the first thing you do. Put some water in a kettle on the fire, and as soon it comes to a boil, set your thermometer down in it with the bottom of the thermometer as near the center of the pan as possible, and let it lean over against the side. Let it remain there for a few moments and then look and see what it registers, and if it is exactly 212, always cook every recipe in this book to just the degree called for. It does not matter how long you let it remain in the boiling water, it will never go any higher after it comes to a good boil. The reason is this, that the water will evaporate if you allow it to boil long enough, and consequently it can never get any hotter. In candy there are other substances which, as the water evaporates, keep getting hotter and retain the heat, and for that reason the mercury in the thermometer will naturally rise higher than 212.

If your thermometer registers lower than 212 degrees in boiling water, notice very carefully just how many degrees it is off, and simply deduct that many degrees from the number given, to which each recipe must be cooked.

If it registers higher than 212, add the number of degrees it registers over 212, to the amount given for each recipe. For example: Supposing your thermometer should register 209 in boiling water. It would consequently be three degrees too low, and in cooking your candy, simply deduct three degrees from the number called for in the recipe. That is, if you are making fondant, which called for 240 degrees, only cook to 237, and it will be exactly the same as it would be, if you cooked it to 240 with a thermometer registering 212 in boiling water. In case your thermometer registers over 212, simply add the difference in the same manner as we have directed you to deduct, in case it was too low.


To avoid mistakes and spoiled candy, we would advise you to mark each recipe as soon as you have tested your thermometer.

In using it in candy, put it in the kettle just the same as directed for testing in boiling water, and it is always necessary to have enough candy in your kettle to come up over the bulb, or it will not register accurately. We mean by this, that if you cook only a small amount of candy, you must put it in a small kettle, so it will be deep enough to cover the bulb of the thermometer.

If the candy should cook up on the thermometer so it would cover the degree to which you intend it, just raise the thermometer a little, being very careful not to lift the bulb out of the syrup, wet your finger, pass it over the glass tube, and you will have no trouble in reading it.

In cooking fudge and such candies in which you use milk or cream, they will always boil up high on your thermometer at first, but by the time it is cooked enough to register the right degree, you will find it has boiled down enough, so the degree mark will be above the syrup, but you must wet your finger and wipe off the glass before you can read it.

When cooking candies that require stirring, occasionally slide the thermometer around the kettle and stir where it stood, to prevent scorching, being very careful not to lift the bulb out of the syrup.

While the thermometer is tested, and is subject to sudden changes of heat, it is always advisable to warm it slightly before putting it into the boiling syrup. The thermometer is too expensive to take any risks. There is no danger of its breaking when put into the boiling syrup, for that is the use for which it is intended.

Always remember when making candy, that as soon as the thermometer registers the right degree, lift it out of the syrup very quickly, and set it in a pan of water and get your batch off the fire as soon as possible. You must move quickly, or the candy is liable to go up one or two degrees and that is sufficient to spoil your batch.[13]

Never put it in cold water after taking it out of the batch, but have a pan of warm water ready so you can set it in as soon as your batch is done. This will keep your stove from getting smeared and also protect your thermometer. The thermometer will never make a mistake if you read it correctly.

Few people are aware that professional candy-makers use a thermometer, and are under the impression, that all candies are tested in cold water, better known as the hand test. Until a few years ago, the candy thermometer was almost unknown and candy makers everywhere used the hand test; but when the thermometer was introduced for candy-making, they were quick to see the possibilities of such an invention and abandoned the water test, because by cooking with a thermometer, the candy was always the same, no batches too hard or too soft, as was the case with the old way.

We will give you the different hand test degrees as compared with the degrees on a thermometer:

Hand Test.Thermometer.
Small Thread228°
Large Thread236°
Small or Soft Ball244°
Large or Hard Ball250°
Small or Light Crack254°
Hard Crack284°


Sugar. In all the recipes that call for sugar, use granulated sugar unless otherwise specified.

When cooking a small amount of sugar a small pan should be used or else the pan should be placed on an additional ring, so that the fire will only strike a part of the bottom of the pan. The heat should never strike the pan above the[14] sugar, this causing it to bake on the sides of the pan and sometimes dissolving the pan.

Slowly cooked sugar makes tough and sticky candy, so that candy of any description should be cooked as rapidly as possible.

Confectioner’s Sugar, sometimes called XXXX, is especially ground for candy making purposes. XXX sugar is a coarser grade and is not as satisfactory as the XXXX sugar. Pulverized sugar cannot be used as a substitute and give satisfactory results, because it hardens.

Water. Always use cold water when making candy. The quantity of water used must be regulated according to the sugar.

Milk. Use fresh milk in preference to Pasteurized or sterilized milk, because it is not so liable to curdle.

Glucose is a very thick, transparent, tasteless liquid extracted from corn; it is usually of a yellow tinge. Very few people know how glucose is made and are under the impression that it is an injurious adulteration. Because glucose is used extensively in cheap candy, there is a certain amount of prejudice against it. By using glucose sparingly in certain candies it imparts a smoothness and also prevents any stirred candy from turning to sugar.

It may be purchased from any confectioner that makes his own candy. When purchasing it, it is necessary to take a bucket or jar, because it must be put into something that will be easy to get it out on account of its sticky quality.

In putting it into the kettle, first weigh the kettle with the paddle, take out the glucose with the paddle and when you think you have the required amount, weigh the glucose, kettle and paddle. If you do not have scales to weigh it, be very careful not to use too much glucose, because it will spoil some candies.

Glucose is easily handled in cold weather, because it gets very thick. Dip your hand in cold water, scoop out a small quantity of glucose, keeping your hand moving all the time; by doing this it will not stick.


One pint of glucose weighs one and a half pounds.

Corn Syrup, which is ninety per cent. glucose, may be purchased at almost any grocery and may be used as a substitute for glucose. Use a little more than the amount of glucose called for. Corn syrup is of a yellow color, consequently all of the candies in which it is used will be of a cream color. (See cream of tartar.)

Acetic Acid. The addition of acid in candy, “breaks the grain” of the sugar, and brings out the flavor.

It may be purchased at a drug store. Ask for No. 8 and five cents worth will last a long time because it is only used for making fondant and oriental creams.

Cream of Tartar. (Substitute for glucose.) As a rule a fourth of a teaspoonful of cream of tartar is used for every five pounds of sugar in making various kinds of candies, such as butterscotch, brittle, center cream; it may also be used for making a grainy fudge, which is the only exception when it is used in a stirred candy.

Japanese Gelatine, a vegetable gelatine, is used in making the various jellies. The ordinary gelatine cannot be used as a substitute.

Nonparaf must be used instead of paraffine in all candy made for sale, on account of the pure food laws. It is used in chewing taffy and caramels; it keeps them in shape and preserves their good qualities. It may be omitted, but by so doing a certain chewing quality of the candy is destroyed.

Chocolate. Only coating chocolate should be used for candy making because it is stronger in flavor and imparts a delicate taste such as no other kind does. It may be bought of any confectioner, who makes his own candy, in ten pound cakes.

Flavors. The best candies may be spoiled by using cheap flavorings, and we strongly advise you to buy the very best. Only a few drops are required for flavoring candies and, by buying a few at a time you will be able to have a large assortment in a short while.


Color Pastes may be used for coloring ice cream, cakes, icings and desserts and they add a dainty touch to an otherwise ordinary dish. Those that are used for candy making are adapted for all other needs, are pure and strong, so that a two ounce jar will last a long time. Colors seem to be a necessity when making bon-bons, and we offer you a variety. Leaf green, fruit red, golden yellow, damask rose, caramel, violet, chestnut, mandarin orange and imperial blue.

Color pastes which we sell are made from vegetable colorings and are guaranteed under the pure food laws.

Almond Paste is used as centers for bon-bons.

Paper. Waxed or oiled paper. You may use the ordinary waxed paper that is found in all stores for covering butter, etc. Waxed paper is used to line candy boxes and also for wrapping candies.

Wafer Paper. For dropping purposes, a heavier paper is required, such as is found in cracker boxes, cookies, etc. Save all these papers, iron them flat and they will answer the purpose and save you the expense of buying wafer paper.

Rice Paper is only used when making nougat, and can be bought at a confectioner’s.

Wax paper bags are a neat and sanitary way of putting up salted and fresh nuts.


It is more convenient to buy your nuts already shelled, although it is more expensive. English walnuts are probably used more than any other nut, for tops of bon-bons and centers also. It is probably better to purchase these with shells on and crack them yourself, as they are very easily cracked.

In purchasing these nuts, get the smallest ones possible, as the smaller they are the prettier they will look on your candies. We advise you to always keep your bon-bons small in size.


The California English walnuts do not crack out as pretty as the Grenoble nut does, as the meat in them is a much prettier shape and rougher on top, and looks much nicer on the bons-bons. The Grenoble nut is an English walnut, imported from Germany, and you may always distinguish them from the fact that you can stand them on end; while a California English walnut is so pointed at the ends that it will not stand up. Crack carefully on the side which does not have the ridge running down it, as then the halves will come out perfectly whole. The ones that break may be chopped up and saved, to be used in the centers of the bon-bons.

Almonds are very easily cracked and you will have no trouble with them. Always crack hickory nuts on the edge. Black walnuts should be cracked on the broad side, as you never use them only in small pieces, and it is not necessary to use any care in cracking them. In some candies, these walnuts are finer than any other nut, as they give the candy a peculiar flavor, especially in caramels and different taffies. These are the ordinary walnuts that grow wild all over the country.

Pecans are a very hard nut to get out whole, but if you purchase as large thin-shelled ones as possible, put them in a pan, pour cold water over them, let them stand for about five hours, then pour off the water and let stand for a while, or even over night until they dry off on the outside, you will then be able to get the meats out very nicely without them breaking much. They are a very brittle nut, but by soaking them as directed, they do not break very easily. Crack on the side which does not have the small vein running from end to end, taking care not to hit them too hard, and you will find that the halves will split open very nicely; and if you will use a little care in removing them from the shell, by using a knife with which to loosen them around the edge, you will be able to get a great many of the halves out perfect.

Use the perfect halves for the tops of your bon-bons. Pick over the broken ones and save the largest pieces of them with which to make Chocolate Pecan Fritters (see recipe), and the small pieces you may chop up fine and use for centers. It[18] takes about two pounds of unshelled pecans, almonds, or English walnuts, to make one pound of shelled meats.

For peanut candy, always get if possible, the small unroasted Spanish peanut, and they may be purchased of any confectioner or candy factory, and at a great many of the large stores. They come already shelled and should cost you from twelve and one half to fifteen cents a pound. These nuts are much finer in flavor than the large peanut, and by using the raw ones and roasting them in the candy as we direct you in the recipe, you will find the flavor of your candy much nicer. Of course, if you wish to use peanuts for the centers of bon-bons or chocolate creams, any kind of roasted ones chopped up will answer the purpose.

In chopping your nuts, it is much better to lay them on the table and use a butcher knife with which to cut them up, than it is to put them in a bowl and use a chopping knife; as by chopping them in a bowl, you are unable to get them so uniform, as the ones at the bottom will be chopped up into a fine powder, for which you have no use, before the ones on top are small enough. By cutting them up with a knife as directed, you will be able to get them all about the same size. You will see the advantage of this after trying it once.

Pistachio nuts make one of the prettiest tops you can find for bon-bons. They are a small, dark green nut, which may be purchased at a great many large grocery stores in cities, if you live convenient to one. Also some confectioners have them on hand, but not many of them. They are an expensive nut, but a few of them go a great ways, as they must be split in two. After splitting them open, save the prettiest halves for the tops of the bon-bons, and all broken and off-colored ones you may chop up very fine, and use for sprinkling over the tops of your pink bon-bons and they also look very pretty sprinkled over chocolate creams before the chocolate hardens.



candy making supplies photo

Have all of these articles conveniently at hand: Place the table in a position where the air will strike it on all sides from a door or window. Be sure that it is level and that you can pass around it. Arrange the kettle in the most convenient manner, so that when you lift it off the stove you will not have to turn it about or jar it unnecessarily, as this is sufficient to spoil the syrup.


Put the sugar and water into the kettle and place it over a HOT FIRE (it must boil quickly and not be allowed to simmer), and stir constantly until it commences to boil. It is not necessary to stir quickly, but the sugar must not be allowed to settle. USE THE WOODEN PADDLE or spoon to stir with, and splash the syrup against the sides of the kettle to wash down the granulations. Just before the syrup begins to boil, wipe down the sides of the kettle with a damp cloth and BE SURE THAT THERE ARE NO GRANULATIONS ON THE SIDES OF THE KETTLE, because, unless they are removed they would make the fondant gritty. NEVER STIR THE SYRUP AFTER IT BEGINS TO BOIL. NEVER JAR OR MOVE THE KETTLE WHILE THE SYRUP IS COOKING.


When the syrup begins to boil, add the acetic acid. Drop it on a spoon because you might not drop it accurately. TOO MUCH ACID would spoil the candy. Put the lid on the kettle and let it steam for several minutes. This is done so that the steam will wash down the sides of the kettle and remove some remaining grains of sugar that might be sticking to the sides. IT IS VERY IMPORTANT THAT ALL OF THESE GRAINS SHOULD BE REMOVED. Do not remove the lid until the steam is coming out freely around the edges, because it does not matter if the lid is left on a little longer than three minutes. Remove the lid and put in the thermometer, so that the bulb is covered with the syrup. The thermometer may be read easier if it is fastened to the kettle by the hook on the back of the case. If a black scum appears on the surface do not disturb it until it gathers into a bunch, then carefully remove it by using a spoon and do not disturb the syrup.

While the syrup is cooking, prepare the slab by washing it with a damp cloth. Do not dry it and NEVER GREASE THE SLAB WHEN MAKING FONDANT. Place the bars in position. If you use a platter instead of a slab, it must be ice cold.

When the thermometer registers 240 (remember to make the correct allowance if your thermometer does not register 212 in boiling water), remove it quickly. See that your way is clear, lift the kettle off the stove and carry it to the slab, taking great care not to shake the syrup. Pour the syrup on the slab, beginning in the center at one end of the slab, pouring down toward the corner and while doing this, keep the kettle as close to the slab as you can, and at the end, quickly tip up the kettle so that it will not drip. NEVER ALLOW THE LAST OF THE SYRUP TO DRIP OUT OVER WHAT YOU HAVE ALREADY POURED ON THE SLAB. NEVER SCRAPE OUT THE KETTLE, because these drops and scrapings will granulate, and when the syrup is cold there will be sugared spots on top. If this should occur, they must be removed before the syrup is worked, because they would make the fondant gritty. NEVER MOVE THE TABLE OR PLATTER WHILE THE SYRUP IS[21] COOLING AS THIS WOULD RUIN THE CANDY. Allow the syrup to remain on the slab until cold. Test it by using the back of the hand, as it is more sensitive than the palm. WHEN THE SYRUP IS COLD IT IS READY TO BE WORKED. Then it should be as smooth as glass.


Remove the bars by running a corner of the scraper between them and the syrup.

With the scraper or wooden paddle commence by scooping or turning the syrup toward the center so as to get it into a mass in the center of the slab, as shown in Fig. 1. Continue turning it over and over; always work from the edge and keep the scraper in the position of Fig. 1. The mass will move from one end of the slab to the other, but by always working around the edge, you will be able to keep the syrup in a mass and prevent it from spreading over the slab. Each time that you turn up the syrup, scrape the slab clean and turn the scraper up and over the mass as shown in Fig. 2. This movement removes the syrup from the scraper and when it works up to the handle, clean the scraper with a knife. Sugar will soon appear on the under side of the scraper, but this is only an indication that the syrup is reaching the creamy stage, when it will become much thinner and easier to work; also it will require more rapid working to prevent it from running off the slab. (Fig. 3.)

photograph--scraping fondant with spatula
Fig. 1


photograph--spreading out fondant with spatula
Fig. 2
photograph--Pouring fondant off spatula
Fig. 3

When this stage is reached, work rapidly and in a short time it will become harder and finally become a hard ball when it is finished (Fig. 4). Scrape off any remaining particles on the slab; clean the scraper, and put this sugar on the batch. Wring out a heavy cotton cloth out of COLD WATER (such as a piece of toweling), so that it is damp, and place this cloth[23] over the fondant on the slab; tuck it in on all sides, allowing it to remain for a half hour. This sweats or seasons it and mellows the fondant. Remove the cloth and your efforts will be rewarded by a mass of snow-white fondant, smooth as velvet. Cut it into chunks and put them into a crock or stone jar. Wet the cloth, (wring it out well), and lay it over the top of the crock. It must not touch the fondant, because the cloth will draw the syrup and absorb the moisture of the fondant. In three days it will be ready for use.

photograph from here on--lump of fondant
Fig. 4

The fondant may be kept six months in a dry, cool place. Keep the cloth moist. You may have the delicious bon-bons at any time, as the fondant is always ready for immediate use.

If, after you have poured the syrup on the slab, you find that some scum has poured out with it, remove it just before you begin to work the syrup, because it will then be cold and there will be no danger of spoiling it.

If, when you begin to work the syrup and you find there are granulations on the bottom of the slab, or through the syrup, it indicates that you disturbed the syrup while cooking, jarred it too much when pouring it out, cooked it too high or did not cool it rapidly. If this should occur, work the syrup[24] according to the above instructions and the sugar may be used for cooking purposes or for any kind of candy EXCEPT FONDANT.

You never beat the fondant, but it may be kneaded before putting it into the crock, if you wish to make it finer grained.

When the fondant is kept for any length of time, a crust forms on top, if the cloth becomes dry, which may be melted with the rest of the fondant. It is not spoiled. The contact of the air is the cause of this crust forming. Moisten the cloth and the crust will soften in a short while.

IMPORTANT: Never begin to work the syrup until it is cold. This is one of the secrets of perfect bon-bon cream.

Before you pour the syrup on the slab, wet your hand a little in cold water and moisten the slab, but do not get it too wet.

If any of the syrup should run out, hold something at the place where it is running out underneath the bars (for a minute or two) until the syrup hardens a little and it will stop running out. NEVER PUT THE SYRUP THAT HAS RUN OUT IN THE BATCH ON THE SLAB, BECAUSE IT WOULD MAKE THE WHOLE BATCH GRAINY.

Always use the same side of the slab for fondant, and this side must never be greased.

Bon-bon cream should always be covered, so that it does not dry out.

It should not be used the same day that it is made.

Don’t allow the batch to get too cold, as that takes all the life out of the sugar.

The crock may be covered with wax paper and a lid.

Do not make a batch larger than what you can cool quickly on your slab, because it will take too long to cool properly. Sugar that is cooled slowly loses its strength and after it is melted, it will not keep a good string, and also will be dull looking within a few days.

If the fondant in the crock becomes hard from neglecting to keep the cloth damp with which it is covered, wet the[25] cloth, squeeze it slightly and place it over the crock. The moisture will be taken up by the fondant, which will be as good as before the moisture was evaporated.

If you should be so unfortunate as to spoil a batch of fondant, you can use the sugar for most any kind of candy, except fondant or orientals, by simply using the grained fondant in place of sugar.


If you cannot procure the maple sugar, use the following recipe:

Maple fondant is made in the same manner as bon-bon cream. There is no acid used with the maple fondant.

It is more sticky than the white fondant, but is delicious.


Follow the directions given for bon-bon cream.


You may use fillings of any kind you are particularly fond of, but we will mention a few, so as to give you an idea of the different kinds, and will tell you how to use them later on. One of the finest fillings is composed of candied cherries and candied citron ground up together, or chopped very fine. If you should have a food grinder in the house, use that for this purpose; but if you have none, a chopping knife and bowl will answer the purpose. About two parts cherries and one part citron makes a fine combination, but you may use any proportion you wish. A small amount of candied orange peel ground with them, gives a peculiar flavor, which is liked by many[26] Any kind of candied fruit, such as pears, plums, limes, or pineapple, ground very fine, make a nice filling. Figs, after removing the hard part around the stem, then ground up alone or with a little orange peel added to them, make a very fine filling. In fact, most any fruit of this order, such as raisins or dates, will do, but they are not so nice as the French candied fruits. It is best to prepare quite an amount of these different fillings while you are at it, as they will keep indefinitely without drying out, if put in a small jar of some kind with a tight cover on it. By doing this you will save a great deal of time and trouble, as your fillings are always prepared for you, and any time you wish to make a few bon-bons it will not be necessary to stop and grind your fillings.

Almond paste, which may be purchased at any bakery where they make macaroons, makes a very fine filling. It is all prepared when you buy it, and is to be worked in with the bon-bon cream the same as the chopped fruit. It is not expensive, and will also keep for a long time in a closed jar.

Ground pecans, English walnuts, hickory nuts, and Brazil nuts (sometimes called nigger toes), are about the best nuts to use for centers. It is also best to grind as many of these at a time as possible, as they will not spoil in cold weather. Fresh grated cocoanut may also be used, by working it in your bon-bon cream, for centers of cocoanut bon-bons; but we will tell you a much nicer way to make a cocoanut filling later on. Any bon-bon with the ground fruit center in it will keep fresh much longer than one in which you use only nuts. You will find that, if you put enough ground fruit in the centers, after your bon-bons are a week or ten days old, they are very soft and sticky inside, which is caused by the fruit sweating, and are delicious. Some people will wonder how you were ever able to get a center so soft.


Photograph woman making bon-bons



As nearly all bon-bons are made in the same manner, we will explain very carefully how to make one or two kinds, and after you understand the idea, you may make any shape, color, or flavor you desire. We will now tell you how to make pink, rose flavor bon-bons, in several shapes. Take a small amount of bon-bon cream, and from one third to one half as much ground cherries and citron (see article on Bon-Bon Fillings) as you have bon-bon cream, and with your hands work and knead them well together. This center, especially, is very sticky, and you will be obliged to work enough XXXX or confectioners’ sugar into it to make it stiff enough so that you can mould it up into different shapes easily. Right here we will say that in getting the XXXX sugar, do not allow them to give you XXX sugar, as it is a little gritty, while XXXX sugar is as smooth as flour. Of course, if you cannot obtain XXXX sugar the other will do, but is not so nice.

After you commence kneading this bon-bon cream and fruit, add a little sugar at a time, knead it in well and as soon as you get the mass so it feels a little dry, it is ready to mould up. You must use a little judgment in doing this, as you only need work sufficient sugar into it to make it stiff enough so that the centers will retain their shape after being moulded. If you wish any flavoring, put a few drops into it while you are working in the sugar. In centers where you use only chopped nuts, and no fruit of any kind, it is not necessary to use much, if any sugar at all, as the nuts have a tendency to make the cream work up dry. Sometimes bon-bon cream is stickier than it is at other times, so if necessary use the sugar, but never use any other than XXXX or confectioners’ sugar.

When worked sufficiently, cut off a piece and roll it with your hands into a long roll about as large around as a cigar; then cut in small pieces about one half inch long and roll each of them in your hands until they are perfectly round, then lay them on a piece of wax paper, and when they are all moulded, set them in a cool place for a while until they harden a little. We advise rolling out in this manner before cutting up to roll into balls, as it will enable you to get them all about[29] the same size. If you find upon starting to roll them into balls that it is still too sticky, you must knead in a little more sugar.

Do not get the centers too large, as your bon-bons are much prettier when small. Bear this in mind in all bon-bon making, as most amateurs have a tendency to make their bon-bons and chocolates too large, and the more dainty your candy looks, both as to size and color, the better it tastes. After making part of them round, take the remainder of the mass and pat it out into a flat piece about one-half inch thick and cut it up in strips seven-eighths inch wide; then take each strip and cut it into pieces about one-half inch wide and here you have oblong centers seven-eighths by one-half inch, which are for the centers of bon-bons, on top of which you put a nut. Remember, after these centers are coated they will be quite a little larger than this, and you must try and keep them small enough so that after they are coated, the half of an English walnut will almost completely cover the top of them. Of course if you use a smaller nut for the top, your bon-bons will necessarily be larger than the nut, and still they will not be large enough to look bad. The ones upon the top of which you use the half of a pistachio nut, must necessarily be considerably larger than the nut. We give you these little details, as they improve the looks of your candy so much, and you will be able to make them to look pretty the first time, and not be obliged to experiment any in order to get the correct size. If you wish to use a pistachio nut on these, they are prettier if you cut these centers square, instead of oblong, making them about five-eighths or three-fourths inch each way.

Experience alone will teach you as to how much bon-bon cream it will be necessary to melt up in order to cover the centers you have moulded. Put your bon-bon cream in the double boiler with boiling water under it, keep it on the fire and stir continually, that is, do not let it stand over a few minutes at a time without stirring, and when it is melted, flavor with a few drops of rose flavoring and color a delicate pink with Damask Rose coloring (Burnett’s), by adding a little at a time until you have the desired shade. It will probably be necessary to add a few drops of cold water to your fondant while melting in order to make it thin enough. Add the water very[30] sparingly, as it does not require much to thin it, and if you get too much in, your bon-bons will not harden for you after being coated, and neither will they, if the cream is not hot before dipping. Test it the same as you do center cream, by sticking your tongue to it, and you should not allow it to get as hot as you do the center cream. Practice alone will tell you about how thin it should be. You must have it so that when you dip the bon-bons out and lay them on wax paper, they will not stick to the dipping fork, but drop off readily, and as you lift the fork the cream will string out a little so that you may make any design you wish on the top. After dipping a a few, you will understand more about this and will have no trouble. As soon as thin enough, and colored and flavored, set the double boiler on your table, leaving it in the hot water to keep it warm. You must avoid sitting in a draught while coating these, as this cream hardens very quickly. Now pick up a center, and with the dipping fork in your other hand stir the cream thoroughly on one side to break the crust which forms on top, then drop in the center, push it under with the fork, then stick the fork underneath it so it will rest as near the end of the fork as possible, lift it up and scrape off most of the surplus cream hanging to it by drawing it over the edge of kettle, then quickly turn your fork over and lay the bon-bon on the wax paper, lift the fork, and with the cream that strings up with it, make the design on top, by twisting it in the form of a knot. Do this by moving your fork quickly in a circle. You will see by this, as you lift the bon-bon out of the cream, the side, or bottom rather, which you scrape off on the edge of the kettle, is the top of the bon-bon after you turn your fork over and lay it on the paper; so do not scrape it off too much, as it is necessary to leave a little cream hanging there in order to have some lift up with the fork with which to make the design on top.

This whole operation, after you set the cream over on the table to commence dipping, must be done very rapidly, and you will soon learn to drop these centers in, lift them out, lay them on the paper, and make designs, with almost one continual motion, which is very necessary, as the bon-bons harden in a few seconds after lifting them out of the cream, and must be[31] dropped from the fork very quickly or they will stick. You must stir this cream with a spoon occasionally while dipping, and it is necessary each time you throw a center in, to break this crust with the dipping fork first. When your cream commences to thicken so that they do not drop readily from the fork, add a few drops of cold water and stir it in well, and continue the dipping. If you have had it off the stove for quite a while, it is better to set it back until the water under it boils again, then add a little cold water, take it off, and continue the dipping. In dropping these off the fork, press it down so that your bon-bon will touch the paper, when it will stick a little, and you can easily lift your fork up. On these pink bon-bons, a little of the finely chopped pistachio nuts sprinkled over them, and pressed down slightly so that it will stick, makes them look very pretty. This must be done immediately after lifting the fork as they will harden in a few seconds.

In coating the oblong centers, when you lift the fork, simply allow the cream that comes up with it to drop back on the bon-bon, then quickly lay on the half of an English walnut and press it down a very little. These bon-bons do not stick to this wax paper a particle and are set perfectly in a few moments after dipping them. They should be perfectly smooth all over, and very glossy, and will be like this if you have your bon-bon cream the right consistency when dipping them.

All bon-bons are coated in the same manner, and after you have tried it once or twice it will be very easy, and you will be able to dip a great many of them in a few moments, as you must necessarily work rapidly after your cream is once melted up. These are the swellest bon-bons made, and putting the chopped fruit and nuts in the center in this manner, and dipping them as directed, seals them up perfectly air-tight, and consequently they will keep for quite a while. You may use any combination of nuts or fruit that you wish in these centers, but always put in enough of either in order to have them taste sufficiently. We will now give a few ideas in regard to making other colored and flavored bon-bons, but if you have any ideas of your own you may adopt them.

Many candy makers make fine cream, but spoil it when melting the same because no matter how good the cream is,[32] it can be spoiled when a little too much heat is applied. It is also a great mistake to reheat the cream more than once without getting it too watery and it will then dry out in a short time.

There is no dipping cream made that will keep the gloss for any length of time.

Do not attempt to make bon-bons at night, because it is difficult to get the colors the right shade. A color may look dainty at night, but be hideous in day time, especially yellow and lavender. Colors and flavors should be delicate as the taste of the candy seems to improve with its appearance. When adding colors always add a little at a time. More may be added but none can be taken out.

You will find from experience that it will always be necessary to melt more fondant than you will need to coat the centers you have made, because you must have a certain amount in the double boiler in order to dip them successfully. As you get to the bottom you will find it thickens very quickly and you will have to add more water. Do not get into the habit of adding too much water while dipping the bon-bons as it will spoil their looks; it is liable to dilute the coating so that it will not be hard enough.

If you have melted too much it is not wasted. Have some shelled nuts ready and coat them after you have finished with the centers, or flavor the remaining cream with either peppermint or wintergreen, as these flavors will kill any flavor that you have used. With a spoon, drop it on wax paper in wafers.

If, after you have centers for chocolate coating and do not wish to coat all that you have made, they may be dipped in melted fondant the same as any other center.

If bon-bons become soft when brought into a warm room, it indicates that too much water was used when dissolving the fondant, or it was not heated enough.


Use chopped figs to mix with bon-bon cream for centers, and cut them oblong shape and coat with bon-bon cream, flavored with lemon and colored yellow. You will find Burnett’s[33] Golden Yellow Paste makes a beautiful color. It is better to make this color in the daytime, as it is very difficult to get the desired shade at night. You must get your coating a pretty deep shade of yellow or it will not show up well on the bon-bons. Either an English walnut, or pecan, are very pretty on this bon-bon, and be sure to put it on just after you drop it from the fork, in order to have it stick.


Make same as others, using chopped pecans with bon-bon cream for the centers, and flavor slightly with nectar while kneading it. Roll it into small balls and coat with bon-bon cream colored pale green, and flavored with nectar.


Use any kind of chopped nuts to mix with bon-bon cream for centers, flavor slightly with violet if you have it, if not you may use nectar or vanilla. Make them round and coat with violet colored and flavored bon-bon cream. You will find when you are using violet colored cream with which to dip them, that by adding a small amount of the Damask Rose coloring to the cream after you get it a good violet shade, it will make them much prettier, as the violet shade will be a little brighter, more on the lavender order.


Use almond paste mixed with bon-bon cream for the centers, and do not use any flavoring, as the almond paste flavors it. Use about one-third as much paste as you do cream, in making the centers. It will be necessary to use more XXXX sugar in these than it is in the ones with nuts in, to enable you to get them stiff enough to retain their shape after cutting them in squares. Cut them in small squares as directed in first bon-bon recipe, and as soon as they dry a little, coat them in plain white bon-bon cream, flavored slightly with either pistachio or almond flavor, and put one-half of a pistachio nut or small piece of angelique on the top. Of course you may use any kind of nut on these if you have not the ones mentioned, but the green and white make a very pretty combination.[34] These bon-bons are very fine and will keep for a long time. This same center, coated with bon-bon cream which has been colored a Mandarin Yellow (Burnett’s), makes a very pretty bon-bon.


Take as large and as round candied cherries as possible, and coat them in the same manner as you do the other centers, using a rose colored and flavored bon-bon cream for the coating and sprinkle chopped pistachio nuts on top, or leave them plain if desired. These makes a delicious bon-bon, but will not keep as long as the others, as the coating becomes hard in a few days, whereas it does not on the ones with the chopped fruit or nut centers.


Buy some fig paste, or Oriental jelly, as it is similar, at any candy store, cut it in small pieces, and coat with any desired color or flavor of bon-bon cream you wish, or you may leave the pieces large and coat them, and when they are cool cut them in two with a sharp knife, and they make a very pretty bon-bon.


Buy some marshmallows, as that is much cheaper and easier than making them, and coat with bon-bon cream same as other centers, and unless you are able to buy the very small marshmallows, it is best to cut them in pieces before coating them. You may color the coating in any manner you wish. Blanch a few almonds, split them open, and put a half of one on the top of each bon-bon as soon as dipped, putting the flat side of the nut up, or you may leave them perfectly plain if you prefer to.


Mix chopped nuts with either maple or white bon-bon cream for the centers, cut in oblong pieces, and coat with maple bon-bon cream, putting either a half of a pecan or English walnut on top of each. In melting your cream for[35] the coating, it requires no coloring or flavoring but simply use it just as it is, and this really makes the finest bon-bon there is made.


Mix fresh grated cocoanut with bon-bon cream for your centers, mould in balls, and coat same as others. Flavor and color coating as you wish, and as a great many prefer these and other cocoanut bon-bons coated with chocolate colored coating, you may do that by simply adding enough melted chocolate to your bon-bon cream after it is melted up to give it the desired color. These make a very nice bon-bon, but I will tell you later on how to make a cocoanut center which is far ahead of these, but a little more trouble.


Take either English walnuts, pecans, or Brazil nuts, and coat them with bon-bon cream same as you do the other centers. You may use any flavor or color coating desired, but I think that the lemon flavored coating tastes the best on these nuts. Of course, if you use maple cream with which to coat nuts, they are much nicer.

Dates, with the seeds removed and then rolled up together, coated in the same manner, are very nice, and if you take a sharp knife and cut them in two diagonally after coating them, they look very pretty.


All kinds of cream wafers, such as peppermint, wintergreen, chocolate, and also maple, are made from bon-bon cream. Take the desired amount of fondant and put it in the double boiler, set it on the fire, keep stirring it, and when it has melted, flavor and color as you wish.

If you make peppermint wafers, leave it just a plain white. In wintergreen wafers, add a small amount of damask rose coloring, to make them a delicate pink.

If your cream is not thin enough to drop off the spoon readily, you may add a few drops of water, then drop out on[36] wax paper in small patties about as large as a half dollar. In dropping them out, if you have no funnel, you may use the spoon with which you stirred the cream, and try to take just enough each time on the spoon to make one wafer, but in case you dip out too much, when the wafer is the desired size, quickly turn your spoon up, in order to stop its running, and continue dropping them until your cream is too stiff to drop, when you may add a few more drops of water, stir in well and continue as before.

If you use a funnel, heat it with hot water; push the stick down into the funnel until it fits the opening tightly, because the stick keeps the melted fondant from running through. Pour the heated cream into the funnel; hold the funnel over the wax paper and with one hand raise the stick a trifle; let enough cream run out to form a wafer; push the stick into the opening immediately and continue to drop the wafers in the same manner. You must work rapidly, for the cream gets chilled in a few seconds.

These wafers are very easily made as you see, and by always having your bon-bon cream made up as we directed you, it is only a few minutes work to make up quite a number of these wafers.

In making chocolate wafers, simply add enough finely chopped chocolate to give them a good color, and finish same as the others.

Always lay the wax paper on wood, to prevent white spots in the wafers.


Put sugar, glucose, and water in the kettle, set on the fire, stir until it boils, wash down the sides of the kettle with a damp cloth, put in the thermometer and cook to 238, then set off stove and stir in the cocoanut, and a small lump of butter about the size of a hickory nut, and the vanilla flavoring. If[37] by pressing your hand down on the batch it does not stick much, it is about right, but if it should stick, simply work in a little more cocoanut. The idea is, that it is necessary to have this to the consistency where it may be moulded into balls; and of course if it is not thick enough, add cocoanut until it is. The amount of glucose you use in this prevents it from sugaring. As soon as you have mixed it thoroughly, scrape it out of the kettle and spread on slab or platter until it gets cold; then mould it into balls, lay them on wax paper, and allow to stand for a while until they dry off a little, then coat with either bon-bon cream the same as other bon-bons, or with pure chocolate the same as other chocolate dipping is done. If you do not get these centers too stiff, they sweat a great deal after being coated, and become very soft and sticky inside, and for anyone liking cocoanut, they make a fine piece of candy.

This center is not liable to turn to sugar for you, but if it should happen to grain a little, you will know that you have stirred it too much, when adding the cocoanut.


Put the sugar and water on the fire, stir until it commences boiling, but just before it boils, wash down the sides of the kettle with a damp cloth and cold water, then add the grated cocoanut, and continue stirring until it has boiled a little while, when you test it by lifting the paddle out, and if by taking a little of the candy between your thumb and forefinger it is good and sticky, and strings out when you pull your fingers apart, it has cooked enough. This is about the only method of testing it, and you need have no fear of spoiling it, as it is a very easy candy to make as you will see.

When it is cooked to the right consistency, set off the fire and add the bon-bon cream, and stir this through the[38] batch thoroughly until it is dissolved, and the batch becomes creamy looking and commences to stiffen up. In case it does not get stiff enough to dip out as directed later on, it is because it was not cooked quite enough, and you may overcome this by simply adding a little more bon-bon cream. Add the vanilla extract when creaming it. Now take an ordinary table fork, and commence at the edge and take up a small quantity of the candy on the fork, and lay it on wax paper, and as you lift the fork up from it, the same as bon-bons, the cocoanut will string up to some extent and make them rough looking, which improves their looks. As to the amount to take out on the fork each time, will say that you should take enough to make the kisses about the size of your thumb, as they will be oblong in shape, when dipping them out with an ordinary fork in this manner. They should retain their shape when dropped on the wax paper, but if they do not do so, simply work in a little more bon-bon cream. Always dip it from around the edge, as it gets harder there first. After dropping out about one-third of the batch in this manner, color the remainder a pink, and flavor with strawberry, but work it in well with the paddle, and in case the batch is a little too thick by this time, you may add a very little cold water to thin it. Now dip them out the same as before, until you have about half of it remaining, then into this remainder pour some melted chocolate, which you must have ready, add a little more vanilla, work it in well, and dip out the same as before. You now see you have three different colored and flavored kisses from the same batch, and these different flavors do not interfere with each other by putting them in as directed, as the strawberry kills the vanilla, and in the last instance the chocolate kills the strawberry. You may, if you prefer, make the whole batch one flavor, but you have more of a variety if you make them in this manner. You may use the ordinary desiccated cocoanut, which comes put up in packages if you wish, but if you use fresh grated cocoanut, you will find they are much nicer and will keep longer. While it is not necessary, it improves them greatly, by adding the well beaten whites of two eggs to the batch when you put in the bon-bon cream, and working it in at the same time. This has a tendency to make them a little lighter, smoother, and more fluffy.


If your batch gets too hard to drop out nicely before you have finished, it indicates that you either have cooked it too long, or you did not work fast enough after you had mixed in the bon-bon cream. But the chances are that you did not work fast enough.


Put the sugar, glucose, cream (or milk) and the butter in a kettle large enough to allow for its boiling up, set on the fire and stir constantly, and when it comes to a good boil put in the thermometer, see that the bulb is covered all the time, and cook to 236 or 238, being careful to slide the thermometer around the kettle occasionally, and stir where it stood or it will stick. Then set off the fire, and cream (or rub) it with a spoon against the sides of your kettle, until you see it just commences to grain a little; add the vanilla, and it is then ready to pour out, and it does not hurt this any to scrape the kettle when pouring.

Most people pour their fudge into a buttered platter, but the best way is to take a shallow square pan, or make a square place on your slab with the iron bars, and lay into it or into the pan, some old wax paper that has been used several times for dropping purposes, and pour the candy directly on it, and as soon as your fudge has set you can very easily lift the paper out with the fudge, and it may be peeled off without any trouble; in fact you may use any kind of a heavy paper with a gloss on it, in place of the wax paper, and you will find that this fudge will not stick to it at all. After you pour the fudge out, it should be set in fifteen or twenty minutes at the most, and then if you will take a knife and mark it into squares any size desired, it will readily break wherever marked, which is easier than cutting it up. If you use a glossy paper instead of a wax paper upon which to[40] pour it, it is best not to allow it to stand very long after it sets, before removing the paper; but in using wax paper you will have no trouble at all with it sticking. A shallow pan, about nine by fifteen inches, will hold a batch this size, and make it about the right thickness.

If the fudge gets sticky instead of creamy and is soft, cook it two degrees higher the next time. You may dilute condensed milk with one-half water, which may also be used instead of cream, but in using sweet cream you get a nice rich fudge, and there is not as much danger of its curdling.


Use the recipe for Vanilla fudge, and make it in the same manner, but do not add your chocolate until you take it from the stove and commence creaming it. Then add enough finely grated or chopped chocolate to give it a good chocolate color, also add the tablespoon of vanilla to it, and you will find that you have a much finer chocolate fudge than you would have by cooking the chocolate in it, as most people do, and also, they generally put too much chocolate in their fudge; so only put enough in it to give it a good color. As this is very hot when you put the chocolate in, it will readily melt, and work through the batch while creaming it.


Make a batch of vanilla fudge, and when it is creamed and just about to be poured out of the kettle, add a large handful of black walnut meats, stir them through, then finish just the same as the vanilla fudge.

You may also use any kind of nuts or candied fruit you have, in the same manner, but black walnuts are considered the best by the majority of persons.



Put all this in a kettle and follow the directions for making vanilla fudge, except be sure to cook this to 238. This makes a fine eating piece of candy, if you add a handful of pecans or English walnuts, just before you pour it out. If you use maple syrup, as in making maple bon-bon cream, take out a piece of glucose about the size of a whole English walnut, (not more), before you start to cook.


Put sugar and cream in kettle, set on hot fire, stir until it commences to boil, then add the cream of tartar, and put in the thermometer, and stir constantly but very gently until it is cooked to 238, being sure to move the thermometer very often with paddle, and stir underneath it, to prevent it from sticking; then pour on slab, moistened a little previously, but do not scrape out the kettle, and allow it to stand until it is perfectly cold, then cream or turn it exactly as directed for bon-bon cream, and when it works up into a hard ball, cover with a damp cloth for about thirty to forty minutes, when you will see that it has sweat enough so that it may be taken in the hands and moulded up in any way desired, or may be sliced down with the knife, cut into squares, and eaten at once if you wish. If you wish you may add a good teaspoonful of vanilla while creaming it, and thus have a vanilla fudge. If you wish to make a chocolate fudge out of this, as soon as you remove the damp cloth, take part or all of it, and work into it, with your hands, by kneading it, enough melted chocolate to color it well, then pat it out into a thin cake and put it into a small box cover previously lined with wax paper, smoothing it out to about three-fourths of an inch thick, then set it away for several hours to harden a little. To remove it, simply turn the lid over, letting it fall out, and then peel the wax paper from it, and cut it up in small squares. Take the remainder, after making part of it chocolate, and into it work sufficient chopped nuts or chopped cherries and citron to show up well, and if desired, color it pink and flavor with rose, and mould up in the same manner as directed for chocolate fudge.[42] As you see, you may make this fudge any color or flavor you desire; but the ones we have mentioned you will find about the best. You have probably noticed that this fudge is made about the same as bon-bon cream, only with this you do not cover and steam it, and also must stir it constantly but gently, or it will sugar for you. You will also notice that it takes longer to cream up than it does bon-bon cream, and is very stiff when you commence turning it, but do not notice that, nor get discouraged, because if you cooked it to the required degree, it will not fail to come out all right for you. You will find that fudge will keep fresh for quite a while, if you put it in a can or jar with a tight cover, and keep it in a cool dry place.

If the fudge sugars for you, you will know that you have either stirred it too much, started to cream it when too warm, or disturbed it while cooling; try adding a pinch more of the cream of tartar in your next batch.

Don’t forget to make the correct allowance, in case your thermometer does not register 212 in boiling water.

If it should sugar and not cream up into a hard ball, it must not be used for this fudge again, but add a little cream to it, also a small amount of glucose, and make the plain fudge out of it.

Don’t have the slab too wet when pouring out this fudge, but just moist, as it is liable to throw your batch back a few degrees.


Use the recipe for “Opera Fudge,” adding a tablespoonful of vanilla extract when starting to cream the batch. Follow the directions for making opera fudge exactly until you have poured the batch on the slab to cool, and when it is nearly creamed, pour on some melted chocolate and continue to cream until the batch sets. When it sets in a hard ball cover it with a damp cloth and allow it to sweat for thirty or forty minutes. Knead it with the hands until it is smooth, or if the chocolate, which you added while creaming it, did not mix thoroughly, keep working it with the hands until it is all mixed, adding more melted chocolate if necessary;[43] sufficient chocolate should be used to make it a nice brown color. Mould into balls at once, the size of a small nutmeg, and lay them on wax paper to dry a little, and then coat them in chocolate, and have someone lay a small round dragee on top of them immediately after being coated. This makes a swell topping piece for your Christmas boxes. You may also dip them all, or just about half of them, in chocolate bon-bon cream, as directed for dipping “Cocoanut Bon-bons,” only you may have to let these last centers, those to be dipped in the chocolate bon-bon cream, dry out a little longer than those to be dipped in the chocolate, for if very soft, they might break when being handled with the bon-bon fork. In making your Christmas candies it would be well for you to dip them this way and you will have a bigger assortment.


Put sugar, glucose and one pint of cream in the kettle, stir constantly before, and also after it commences boiling, until it will form in a soft ball when dropped in cold water. There is no exact degree necessary to which to cook this. Now add another pint of cream slowly, stir constantly and cook again to a soft ball, then slowly add the last pint of cream, and a piece of non-paraff about the size of a walnut, and cook again, being careful to stir all over the bottom of the kettle so that it will not stick, until it will form into a good firm ball in cold water, but not brittle, remembering that your caramels will be, when cold, the same consistency as this last ball, so you can get it just about as you wish. It is very unhandy to use a thermometer in making these, as they must be stirred continually from the time you put them on the stove until done. The non-paraff may be left out entirely if you wish, as that is simply put in to make them retain their shape after being cut up. In stirring it, do so very gently, but aim to cover the whole bottom of the kettle. If you stir it hard[44] they might possibly sugar for you, and your only idea in stirring is to keep them from sticking. It is very essential to use glucose in order to make a good caramel. If you should overcook it and they are too brittle, or undercook it and they are too soft, the batch may be put back in the kettle with a little more milk or cream, and cooked again. If you have the iron bars we mentioned, grease your slab thoroughly and lay the bars on it so as to form a small square place. Then into your candy, just after taking it off the stove, stir in the vanilla, being careful not to stir it too much while adding this, but just enough to mix it in good, and pour on slab between the bars. Always make the square with the bars small enough as you will want your candy to fill it up level full in order to have your caramels the correct thickness, which should be about three-fourths of an inch. If you have not made the place large enough it is very easy to move one of the bars just a trifle in order to hold all your candy. But if you made the square too large, it is almost impossible to move the bars closer together after pouring your candy out. If you do not wish to use cream, you may use milk or part milk and part cream. If you use all milk add a little butter after the batch begins to boil. These caramels may also be made by simply using only two pints of cream or milk and cooking them twice, instead of three pints and cooking them three times, but are not so rich. If your batch should happen to grain and turn to sugar, put it back in the kettle with a little more glucose and another pint of cream or milk, stir over a slow fire to dissolve, then cook up as before. When these caramels are set or cold, mark them in perfect squares with a knife and one of the bars, then cut up with a large knife, in a sawing motion. If the milk curdles, do not stop stirring and set the batch off, but simply cook according to directions, and the curd will not show. These caramels should be wrapped in wax paper to prevent sticking together. The kettle may be scraped lightly, when pouring these caramels out.


Use the recipe for vanilla caramels and, just after you add the last pint of cream, add enough grated chocolate to[45] give it a good chocolate color, and finish the same, adding the vanilla. Have the chocolate grated before starting to cook.


These caramels are very fine, especially when coated with chocolate. Make same as the vanilla caramel, excepting, when the batch is removed from the fire, color a deep red and flavor with strawberry.


Any kind of nuts may be used. Hickory, almond, filbert, English and black walnuts, are especially good. Chop the nuts up a little with a knife, which makes them look prettier when the caramels are cut, then add to the batch just before pouring on the slab.


Follow the directions exactly as given for vanilla caramels.


A pint can of unsweetened condensed milk, will cost you about ten cents, and can be purchased of most any grocer. Condensed milk is an absolute necessity in this kind of a caramel, for two reasons, namely: to get the peculiar flavor, and to make it hold together, so that it need not be wrapped, by which it is distinguished from the ordinary caramel. Mix the sweet milk or cream and the condensed milk before starting to cook, and in referring to this, we will simply use the[46] word milk. Put the sugar, glucose and one pint of the milk in a kettle, stir and cook until it will form a soft ball when dropped in cold water; then continue stirring and add one-half pint of the remaining milk, pouring slowly, and cook up again until it forms a soft ball, then slowly add the remainder of the milk, being careful to stir all over the bottom of the kettle so that it will not stick, and cook again until it will form into a good firm ball in cold water, but not brittle, remembering that your caramels will be, when cold, the same consistency as this last ball, so you can get it just about as you wish. Then take it off the fire, stir in the vanilla and any kind of nuts you desire, and scrape it out of the kettle on a greased slab, between bars, as directed for making vanilla caramels. When cold, they may be cut up and either wrapped, or just laid side by side on a slightly greased plate. If you make these caramels to sell, it would be well to add a piece of non-paraff about the size of an English walnut, when starting to cook. You may also make this a chocolate caramel, by adding enough grated chocolate, when you add the last half-pint of cream, to give it a good chocolate color. Do not have your fire too hot when cooking these, as they will scorch very easily, and also, stir continually from the time you start, till it is off the fire.


Put the sugar, glucose, and one-half of the cream in a kettle, stir and cook till it forms a soft ball when dropped in cold water, add one-half of the remaining cream, cook up again to a soft ball, then add the remaining half-pint of cream, stir and cook till it forms a good hard ball in cold water. Set off the stove, add the center cream and the vanilla, and stir in good. Rub the batch against the sides of the kettle with the paddle, until it gets pretty thick and grains, then pour out on a greased slab between bars, and let harden. It does not hurt[47] to scrape out the kettle in making these caramels. After these caramels are hard or set, cut up with a sharp knife, by drawing it through the batch, instead of sawing as in other caramels, and after they stand a few hours to dry, after being cut, they may be piled up on a plate, as they will not stick together.


Put all this on hot fire, stir till it commences to boil, wipe down sides of kettle with a damp cloth, cover and steam, put in thermometer and cook to 260. Then pour on greased slab, with bars around the edge to keep it from running off, and just as soon as it commences to cool or stiffen up a little, lift up the edges and fold toward center, and continue doing this until it is cool enough to handle, then pull on the hook until it is snow white. If you wish it vanilla, flavor by pouring the vanilla over it while on the hook, a little at a time, until you have it highly flavored. It is much easier to pull taffy on a hook and also improves it greatly. We have told you about the hook in the item regarding “tools.”


In pulling candy on a hook, first get it up in a ball on the slab, after it has cooled, lay it on the hook and pull it down as far as possible with both hands, then catch hold of the end with one hand, and with the other hand take hold of the batch about two thirds of the way up toward the hook, and then throw the part between your hands up over the hook with a quick motion, then pull batch down again and continue in this manner until it is very white. It is best to pour the flavoring on it when about half pulled, and it will work through the batch by the time it is finished.

Use a little corn starch on the hands quite often while pulling any kind of taffy, to keep them from sticking to the taffy.


Do not scrape out the kettle, except in making “Salt Water Taffy,” and “French Chewing Taffy,” and then, not too much as it will turn your batch to sugar.

If one of your batches should turn to sugar for you, you will know that you have either turned in the edges too soon or too often, or pulled it when too warm. It should be almost cold when you start to pull.

You may substitute corn syrup for glucose in any of these taffies, but you must use a little more than the recipe calls for. Corn syrup is about ninety per cent glucose.

Wrap these taffies in wax paper if you wish to keep them any length of time, and it will keep them from getting sticky.


If you wish to make a strawberry taffy use the recipe for plain vanilla “Taffy,” and while your batch is on the slab, add enough damask rose coloring, to give it a good pink color; but do not work the batch any more, in mixing in the color, than in making plain vanilla taffy. Add the strawberry flavor while pulling. With the exception of adding the color to this, make it exactly the same as plain “Taffy.”


Use recipe and directions for making plain taffy, and simply add grated chocolate to the batch just after you pour it on the slab, and it will easily melt and work through while folding it.


Cook sugar, glucose and water to about 245, steaming down the same as others previously mentioned, and when it is up to this degree, put in the molasses and butter, stirring constantly from this time on, and cook to 260. Pour on greased slab and pull same as others. If you wish nuts of any description in either this or any of the other taffies, they may be added by[49] sprinkling them over the slab just before you pour the candy out to cool.


First break the egg into the pint of cream and beat it thoroughly, and in no case must the egg be put into the candy except in this manner. Gelatine generally comes in one ounce boxes, so you must use just the half of one of these. Put it in a small dish or pan, and pour just enough warm water over it to dissolve it; then set it on the stove where it will not cook, but keep warm until needed. Now put sugar, glucose, cream with egg beaten in it, butter, and piece of paraffine wax about the size of a small walnut, into the kettle, set on fire and stir constantly until it is done. When it commences boiling, put in the thermometer and cook to 254, then take out thermometer, and pour in gradually the dissolved gelatine, and continue stirring until it boils up well again. It must be cooked for about three or four minutes after it boils up with the gelatine in it, then pour on well greased slab, which has previously been sprinkled over thoroughly with black walnuts, or you may use any other nuts you have, or in fact no nuts at all, if you prefer, but you will find the black walnuts greatly improve the flavor of the candy.

As soon as cool enough, fold in toward the center same as other taffies, and when you can handle it nicely, put on the hook and pull until you can pull it no more. It will be quite dark in color while on the slab, but will pull to a nice, creamy white color. This taffy will require considerably more vanilla than other taffies; so flavor it very highly, by pouring the vanilla over it while pulling. You will probably find this candy sticky at times and if the batch is so, and should stick to your hands while pulling it, loosen them with a quick jerk, and you will find the candy will easily pull off, whereas if you[50] should attempt to loosen your hands slowly, you would not have much success. If the batch should stick somewhat to the slab, take your scraper and pry it up by hitting it very quickly. In other words, simply scoop it up with the scraper, but instead of pushing the scraper underneath it slowly, jab it under very rapidly, and you will find you can readily get the candy up in a ball. You will find this candy very hard to pull if you do not use a hook. As soon as pulled sufficiently, take off the hook by cutting it off close to the hook with a pair of shears, then you may either lay it on a platter, put it in a crock previously lined with wax paper, or lay it on your kneading board and pull it out, a little at a time, into a strip about one inch wide, then cut the strip crosswise into small kisses about the size of your thumb, and when it is all cut up in this manner, wrap each piece in tissue paper. The paper will not stick to it in the least.

This candy is by far the finest taffy made, if you follow these directions carefully, as it never gets very hard, and you will be able to chew it a long time. Cutting it up into kisses, while it may be a little more trouble, is by far the nicest way to fix it.


Put sugar, glucose and water in kettle, stir until it boils, wash down sides of the kettle with a damp cloth, put in thermometer and cook to 260. Set off stove, add butter, glycerine and salt and stir in, then pour on a greased slab between bars. Let cool, then pull on hook as directed for other taffies, and flavor with vanilla while pulling. Be careful not to scrape out the kettle too much in pouring it on the slab, as it is liable to grain it.



Put sugar, glucose and one pint water on fire and cook to 260, then add the cream and cook up again to about 270. Stir gently after adding the cream until done. Pour on greased slab, and when cool enough, pull well on hook, and flavor and color to suit while pulling. Cut up in kisses or small strips. It will be nice and dry and mealy (inside) after standing a few hours. It is not chewy like other taffy, and it is a fine hot weather candy.


Put the sugar, water and cream of tartar into a kettle and cook to 275. Pour it on a greased slab and when cool enough pull it over the hook. Handle the batch as little as possible while cooling, and cool quickly so as to prevent it from turning to sugar as there is no glucose in the taffy. Flavor to taste. Pull out and cut in pieces. Wrap in wax paper. After standing a few hours it will become very creamy, retaining its shape, and not get sticky.

This is a summer taffy.


Cook all this at once, stirring constantly but very gently from the time you put it on the stove until it is done. When it commences boiling, put in thermometer and cook to about 256 or 258. Be careful to stir underneath thermometer to[52] prevent its sticking. When done, pour on slab, and when cool, pull same as others and flavor with vanilla.


Use the above recipe for “Cream Taffy.” Flavor strong with peppermint while on the slab. After the taffy has been pulled, place it on a table or slab dusted with XXXX sugar. Shape the batch round; pull it out in a long strip, cut into small pieces as you pull it out, and roll them in XXXX sugar. Leave the pieces spread out for a few hours. Place them in an air tight jar where they will turn mealy.


Put sugar, glucose and water in kettle on hot fire, stir until it boils, wash down sides of kettle, then put cover on until it steams well, remove cover and put thermometer in and cook to about 300, then set kettle off the fire and put in the butter, stirring it through the batch thoroughly, then put the kettle back on the fire, and you must now stir it constantly; but before you put the butter in it should not be stirred. Just before you put in the butter, take out the thermometer, as it is less trouble to stir the candy with the thermometer out, and it does not need to be cooked to any exact degree. In putting in the butter, you reduce the temperature of the batch about fifteen degrees, and it is necessary to cook it, after the butter is put in, up to about the point it was before; but you will have no trouble with this, and as soon as it boils up good and hard and commences to turn color a little, drop some off the spoon very quickly in cold water, and if it forms a mass of threads in the water it is done. Be very sure to stir this well after the butter is in it or it will stick. When done, set off the fire and add a good teaspoonful of lemon extract, stir it in well and if you have a funnel, pour it[53] in the funnel, and drop on greased slab in wafers, which is the nicest way to make this butterscotch; or you may pour the whole batch, if you wish, on the greased slab, putting your bars on edge of slab to keep it from running off, and let it run over as large a surface as possible, as the thinner it is, the nicer it will be. Mark it in squares, but do so very quickly, as it does not take it long to harden; and always remember this: that you must take your spatula or a long butcher knife, and loosen the whole batch thoroughly from the slab before it gets perfectly cold, as then it will not stick when cold and also loosen the wafers. Your slab must be well greased before pouring this on, but no matter how well you grease it, if you allow the candy to get perfectly cold before loosening it, you will find it will stick somewhat. In loosening this candy before it gets cold, we do not mean to take it off the slab, but just to simply run something under and loosen it, letting it remain on the slab afterward, and you will find that it does not stick.


Put sugar, glucose and water on the fire, stir until it boils, wipe down sides of the kettle, cover and steam same as other recipe, remove cover, put in thermometer and cook to about 245. You notice, probably, we say “about” in giving degrees in some recipes, which means that if they are one or two degrees either way, it does not hurt them. When the batch is up to 245, put in the molasses, butter, and ginger, and leave the thermometer in it and stir constantly, but not too hard, and cook to about 260, then remove the thermometer, and pour on greased slab and mark and cut up to suit. This candy does not get brittle like the other, but is nice and chewy; and if you put it in boxes, it must be wrapped in wax paper, or the pieces will stick together. We may as well mention[54] the fact here, that in most of these candies, you will find that in hot weather, or rather on warm days, it is necessary to cook them several degrees higher than it is on a very cool day. This only applies to candies of this nature, which are called hard boiled candies. In candies which are creamed up, such as fondant, you do not make this distinction, as those must always be cooked the same.


Put sugar, glucose and water on hot fire and stir until it commences boiling, wash down sides of kettle, cover until it steams well, remove cover, and put in thermometer and cook to 275, then take out the thermometer and put in the peanuts and butter, and stir constantly after you put the peanuts in. This of course will reduce the temperature of the batch, but it will soon boil up, and must be cooked until the peanuts are roasted, and the candy becomes a golden brown color, which it does about the time the peanuts are roasted sufficiently. Sometimes the peanuts will commence to pop, which indicates that they are roasted about enough, but if they do not pop, you can very easily tell when they are roasted sufficiently, as a great many of them break open, and by lifting the paddle occasionally with some of the peanuts on it, you can tell by their looks if they are roasted or not. There is no exact degree to which this second cooking must be done, but be careful and do not let your batch get too brown. After making one or two batches you will have no trouble in cooking it correctly. The proper peanuts to use in this candy are the small unroasted Spanish peanuts that we mentioned before. Do not attempt to put roasted peanuts in this candy in this manner but if you should use the roasted ones, they must be stirred in after the candy is cooked, as they would burn black if you put them in as we directed you in using the raw ones.


This candy is intended only to be made with the unroasted peanuts as directed, and if properly done, it is the finest peanut brittle made.

When the peanuts are roasted, set off the fire and stir the vanilla in well. Have your soda dissolved in just a very little water, using only enough to cover it. Immediately after stirring in the vanilla, pour in the dissolved soda and stir through the batch thoroughly, which will cause it to foam up considerably and get lighter in color. As soon as you have it stirred enough so that the batch is thoroughly mixed and foamy, pour on greased slab, and it will be necessary to scrape the kettle out in making this candy.

Always have your slab warm before pouring this candy on it, as it is cooked very high and will harden very quickly if your slab is cold, which you do not want it to do. If you stand your slab by the stove for a while, previous to making the candy, it will warm it enough. After being on the slab a very few moments, take hold of it all the way around the edge, lift it so as to free it from the slab, then catch hold of one side with both hands, one hand at each end of the batch, and quickly flop the whole batch right over, just the same as you would turn a pancake. Now commence around the edge and stretch it, by pulling it out as thin as possible, and you will find that the candy will stretch out very easily and leave all the peanuts completely covered with the candy.

Always work very rapidly in doing this, and also work around the edges first, as that hardens more quickly than the center of the batch. If your slab is not large enough to hold this candy after it is stretched out, as soon as you stretch part of it, cut that off with a knife and lay it on some smooth surface, so that the candy will be perfectly flat when cool, as it looks better. By cutting it off as you stretch it, in this manner, you will find that after you have worked around the edges, your slab will probably be large enough to hold the remainder of the batch after being stretched out. The thinner you stretch this the nicer it will be, so try and do not leave any thick places in it, and you will find you have the finest peanut candy you ever tasted, being as brittle as glass, and it may be eaten as easily as a soda cracker.


In making this candy, you must have a kettle large enough to allow for the foaming up, and a kettle holding two and one half gallons will easily hold a batch just twice the size of this. You will find it is very easy to flop the batch over, if you loosen it first as we directed you. This is essentially a cold weather candy, as it keeps brittle then, and is much better.


Cook sugar, glucose and water same as in peanut brittle, and when up to 275, remove the thermometer and stir in the butter only, and not the walnuts. Continue stirring after the butter is in until the candy is a golden brown color; then take off the stove and stir in the broken walnut meats, as many as you wish, but the more you put in the better it will taste. Stir them in thoroughly, and also the vanilla; then stir in the soda, the same as in peanut brittle, and pour out on greased slab. Do not flop this batch over and stretch it, as it is not necessary. As soon as batch is partly cool, mark in small oblong pieces and when cold, it will break very easily. This is very fine candy on account of the flavor the black walnuts give it. It is also very fine coated with chocolate.


Cook sugar, glucose and water on hot fire to 275 or 280. Then pour it on well greased slab or platter, which has previously been covered with figs cut up, or dates with seeds removed,[57] putting in just as many as you wish. You may also, if you wish, use nuts of any description in place of the fruit, or part of each. Just before pouring the syrup over them, stir into it a good teaspoonful of vanilla, but do not stir it much or it may sugar for you. When cold break up in small pieces.


Heat the nuts in an oven. Put the sugar, glucose and water into a kettle, stir until it begins to boil, and wash down the sides of the kettle with a damp cloth; put in thermometer and cook to 295. Turn out the fire and remove thermometer, add the butter, salt and essence of lemon, and stir in well, then stir in the warm nuts and scrape out on a greased slab. After it has been on the slab about thirty seconds, turn the batch upside down and commence pulling it out thin, as directed in making peanut brittle. You may use any kind of nuts in this, as they are all good in this kind of candy: English walnuts, black walnuts, roasted peanuts, almonds, filberts, pecans, or hickory nuts. This candy must be kept in air-tight cans or jars in wet weather or it will become sticky.


Cook sugar, glucose and water to 280, in the same manner as other candies; then take out thermometer and put in[58] the molasses and butter, and a good pinch of salt, and stir constantly after adding these. Cook until it is very brittle when dropped in water or until you can distinguish it just commencing to burn. Then take off the fire and pour it over about ten quarts of popped corn, stirring it constantly as you pour the syrup over it, so that it will all be covered, and as soon as this is done, it is best to scoop it out of the pan and spread it out on your slab somewhat, so that it will not pack down any, which it would do if you allowed it to remain in the pan. Before pouring this candy on the corn, it is best to have your corn free from all the small hard grains, and put the well popped ones in some very large pan before pouring the syrup over it.


Put the sugar in a small kettle with just enough water to dissolve the sugar, stir until it boils, put in thermometer and cook to 222. Have the corn ready in a good sized kettle, and as soon as the syrup is cooked, pour over the corn in a fine stream. Have someone stir the corn while you pour the syrup in it. Continue stirring briskly, until the corn separates, and turn out on your work board or wax paper and immediately pull the grains apart. You may also add a little red or green color to the syrup before pouring it on the corn. Have the corn slightly warmed in the oven, so that the sugar syrup will grain easily.


Put the sugar, glucose and water into a kettle and stir until it commences to boil. Put in the thermometer and cook to 240. Add vanilla. Pour the syrup slowly over the corn[59], stirring well. Moisten the hands with cold water and take out the desired amount of corn, pressing it into a ball.

Maple sugar may be used instead of the white. For a variety, color the white syrup pink and flavor with strawberry.

Have the corn slightly warmed in the oven, so that when the batch is done cooking, you can get the corn and syrup mixed good, and the balls moulded up before it gets too cold.


Put the sugar, glucose and water in a kettle, stir until it boils, wash down the sides of the kettle with a damp cloth and cook to 240. Take out the thermometer and add the raw peanuts and stir continually, until the batch turns a yellowish color, and the peanuts pop and are roasted. Simply lift out the paddle with a few peanuts on it occasionally, is a better way to tell when the peanuts are roasted enough. Do not try to get these peanuts too brown in the kettle, as they will roast considerably after being poured on the slab, but just until they turn a yellowish color and pop in the kettle. You must stir the batch continually after you add the peanuts, and do not use too hot a fire. They are liable to scorch a little but if your fire is right and you stir them enough, they will be all right. As soon as the peanuts are roasted, remove from the fire, take out the paddle and scrape out of the kettle onto a greased slab, between the bars. Take a knife and spread it out even, so that it will fill all the corners of the square made by the bars. Take a greased rolling pin, and run over the top to smooth it down a little. When almost cool, run a knife under the batch to loosen it from the slab. Then cut or saw the batch in bars as desired, but do this while it is yet warm. Have the raw peanuts ready so that when the thermometer registers 240 you can take it out, put in the paddle and peanuts[60] and start stirring immediately, and remember, if the fire is too hot, but not allowed to just simmer, it is liable to scorch the candy before the nuts are half roasted. It is best to wrap this candy in wax paper, or put it in air-tight cans or jars in wet weather. Do not make this candy in warm weather and expect to get good results, as it is essentially a cold weather candy.


Roast the almonds in the oven, (or peanuts if you desire) and chop fine, then set them where they will keep warm until needed. Put sugar, glucose and one-half pint of water in the kettle, set on fire, and stir until it commences to boil; then take out paddle, wash down sides of the kettle and cook to 295. Set off the fire and remove thermometer, put in the butter and essence of lemon, and stir in well. Have someone add the warm nuts slowly, while you stir them in, and when mixed good set the kettle back on the fire for a second or two, to loosen the batch in the kettle, then scrape out on a greased slab between bars, about three-quarters of an inch thick; roll it out even between the bars with a rolling pin quickly, and mark off into blocks three-eighths by one inch and cut while still warm. You will have to watch very close, so that your batch will not get too stiff before you get it cut up. You must use a sharp knife and use a sawing motion while cutting, as you cannot push the knife straight down and cut them right. If your batch should happen to get too cold before you get it cut up, hold it over the fire, turning it over to warm both sides, until it softens or bends easily, then finish cutting. This is an elegant piece, when dipped in chocolate, but they must not be coated until they are perfectly cold.



Put sugar, glucose and horehound tea, (the strength of the tea will depend upon the individual taste) into a kettle, stir until it boils, wash down the sides of the kettle with a damp cloth, put in thermometer and cook to 295 to 300; when it reaches that point, remove the thermometer and get it off the fire as quickly as possible. Then pour on a greased slab, with the bars set out far enough so that when the batch has been poured out evenly, it will be about a quarter of an inch thick. As soon as it cools a little, run a long knife underneath the batch, to loosen it from the slab; then mark it into squares any size desired, and keep going over the marks with a knife until it is cold, then break up with the hands. Pack in an air-tight jar and it will keep for a long time in a cool place. This also may be wrapped in wax paper.


Take about one pound of granulated sugar and one small tablespoonful of glucose, pour over it just enough water to dissolve it well, stir until it commences boiling, wash down sides, cover and steam, then remove cover, and cook without the thermometer until it just starts to turn straw color. Do not allow it to discolor any, but take it off the fire just at the moment it commences turning color. If you wish, you may use the thermometer in this and cook it to about 295, but you will have no trouble in doing it without the thermometer. Have your double boiler setting on the stove with boiling water underneath it, or else have a small bowl in a pan of boiling water in order that either of them will be very warm. Then stir a few drops of lemon extract into your syrup which you have just cooked, but do it very gently, then pour the syrup into the double boiler and set it on the table and commence dipping. Have handy your nuts, dates with seeds removed, figs cut in small pieces, any kind of candied fruit, especially[62] candied cherries, as they are very pretty prepared in this manner, and proceed to dip them in this syrup in exactly the same manner that we directed you to dip bon-bons, only in dipping these fruits and nuts in this syrup, you must be very careful and not disturb the syrup more than is absolutely necessary. Just drop your nut in, and quickly lift it out and lay on a piece of tin if you have it, or the bottom of a tin pan will do, as they do not stick a particle to tin and will harden in a very few seconds. Malaga grapes are also very nice dipped in this manner. Marshmallows cut in two and dipped are also very fine. Candied cherries are really the prettiest fruit that you can dip in this manner, as they show up very nicely in decorating a box. As soon as you see your syrup commencing to get cloudy looking, you must stop dipping, and as quickly as possible, scrape the remaining syrup out into a kettle, and it may be used for making table syrup but must not be used for this work again. It will be necessary for you to cook more sugar in the same manner as you did before, if you are not through dipping.


Take one pound of granulated sugar with enough water to dissolve it, and cook with the thermometer, in the same manner as other candies, to about 275, then set off the stove, and pour into it as many filberts or hazelnuts as this will cover, and stir them well until they sugar, and become very white, which will be in a few moments. Have your nuts previously roasted a little and the skins rubbed off. Do this by putting them in a pan in the oven, watch them closely, and as soon as they are nearly brown enough, take them out, and as they brown considerably after taken out of the oven, you will find, when cooled, they will be about right; but if you had allowed them to get good and brown in the oven, they would be roasted too much when cold. These are very fine eating, especially for a luncheon or tea party and also look very pretty if used in decorating your boxes. If some of them should stick together when sugaring, break them apart before serving.



Cut the gelatine in pieces about one inch long, with a pair of shears, and put into a kettle, and over this pour the boiling water, then set aside. Put sugar and glucose into another kettle and remember that this is the kettle you will cook the batch in. Now take the kettle with the gelatine in, and add enough warm water to cover the gelatine, which by this time has puffed up quite a bit, and set on the fire and stir until it starts to boil. Then turn out the fire and continue stirring until it is dissolved, then strain this through a sieve or collander, into the kettle which contains the sugar and glucose. Now set the batch on the fire, stir and cook to 220. Remember to stir this from the time you set it on the fire, until it is cooked, and try to cover the whole bottom of the kettle with the paddle while stirring to prevent scorching. When the exact degree is reached, set it off the fire and let stand about ten minutes, then add one-half teaspoonful essence of lemon, and one and one-half pounds of ground figs, and stir through. Prepare the slab by dusting it well with XXXX sugar. Pour the jelly on the slab, between the bars, about three-fourths of an inch thick. This size batch will fill a place about twelve inches square. Sprinkle the top with XXXX sugar and let it stand a few hours until it sets, when it can be cut as desired. This jelly may be made any flavor or color you want and you may want to change the flavors occasionally. Here are a few: Color red when the batch is cooked and flavor with strawberry. Color green and flavor either mint or lime. Color orange and flavor the same. For lemon, use no color and flavor lemon. Roll the pieces, after being cut, in XXXX sugar and it can either be packed away or eaten as it is. If your batch gets a little softer than you like it, simply cook it two degrees higher the next time.



Put sugar, glucose and water into a kettle, set on the fire, stir until it commences boiling. Then take out the paddle and wash down the sides of the kettle with a damp cloth, and cook to 252. Beat the egg whites while this is cooking, or better still, have someone beat them for you, and as soon as the thermometer registers 252, take the kettle off the fire. Put the well beaten egg whites into a pan and have them ready, then take your paddle or spoon and rub the candy against the sides of the pan, until the batch looks a little cloudy or shows white streaks, being careful not to work it too long, then put the paddle into the kettle with the eggs, and pour slowly about one-half of the batch into the eggs, and have someone stir the eggs continually while pouring. Then immediately put the paddle back into the other kettle, and pour the eggs into the kettle with the plain syrup, stirring the syrup continually. The kettle which held the eggs may be scraped out clean, but you must remember to do this double mixing as quickly as possible or the syrup is liable to sugar and harden for you before you get it mixed. Continue beating, and when it begins to stiffen a little, add one-half teaspoonful of essence of pineapple, and about a handful of candied pineapple, cut fine. When stiff enough to handle, drop out on wax paper or buttered plates in the following manner: With a large spoon, take a spoonful from around the edge, where it stiffens first and with a fork push off small portions of it onto the wax paper or plates. It should harden in a short time after being dropped. If it is slow in stiffening in the kettle, let it stand a few minutes. It should be stiff enough to stand and not flatten, when dropped on the paper. Do not allow the syrup to cool before starting to grain the batch in the kettle, but start rubbing it against the sides of the pan as soon as you take it off the fire. If the puffs are too hard, cook them two degrees lower, the next time.



Use the recipe for Pineapple Puffs, and simply add the nuts in place of the pineapple, and vanilla flavor instead of the essence of pineapple. Hickory nuts or pecans are considered the best.


Make the same as pineapple puffs, using candied cherries and vanilla flavor in place of the pineapple fruit and flavor. This may also be colored a delicate pink and are fine when dipped in chocolate.


Put the sugar, glucose and cream into a kettle, stir until it boils, then put in thermometer, keep stirring and cook to 234. Set off the fire and add the bon-bon cream and beat until the bon-bon cream is all melted, and the batch stiffens a little. Chop the nuts a little and work them in the batch. Beat slowly until the candy is stiff enough to stand and not flatten out when dropped on wax paper or buttered plates, then spoon out as directed in dropping pineapple puffs. English walnuts are the standard nuts to use for penoche, but pecans or hickory nuts are excellent. If you do not use fresh milk or cream, your batch is very liable to curdle. If you keep stirring it continually and do not let it stand, you may even prevent it from curdling at all. But if it should, you will know that the milk or cream was not fresh. If it curdles, cook it up just the same, and while not being as smooth, will taste all right.



Melt some fondant in a double boiler and flavor it with vanilla. Choose perfect halves of shell bark nut meats. Dip each nut meat in the cream, giving it a thin coat. Drop them on wax paper. After they are all dipped in this manner, put some fresh fondant in the double boiler and heat the cream just enough so that you can use it for dipping. Flavor with vanilla. Dip them a second time and drop them on wax paper.


Melt some fondant in a double boiler. Color a light yellow and flavor with grated rind of lemon. Choose perfect halves of white English walnuts. Dip them into the fondant and drop them on wax paper. If they are not coated sufficiently thick, dip them a second time. One dipping is usually sufficient.


First Batch

Put the sugar, water and cream of tartar into a kettle, set on the fire, and stir until it commences to boil, then take out the paddle and wash down the sides of the kettle with a damp cloth, put in the thermometer and cook to 248. Have someone beat the egg whites stiff, so that they will be ready when this batch is done cooking. Put the egg whites in a kettle large enough to hold the eggs and both of these batches, and allow room for beating. Have the eggs in the kettle ready, and as soon as the batch reaches 248, remove the thermometer and get the batch off the fire as quickly as possible, so that the batch does not cook up one or two degrees while you are doing this, as that is sufficient to spoil the whole thing. As soon as the batch is cooked and off the fire, pour at once very slowly, into the beaten egg whites, and have[67] someone stir the egg whites while you are pouring, in order to mix the batch with the eggs thoroughly, but do not let the syrup drip out, and under no circumstances scrape out the kettle after it is all poured out and will not run out easily or in a fine stream. Continue stirring the eggs for a minute, then stop stirring, and let it stand undisturbed until you pour in the second batch. Do not wash out the kettle after the first batch is done, but set it on the scales the way it is, then weigh up the second batch and cook at once.

Second Batch

Set on the fire, stir until it boils, wash down sides of the kettle, put in the thermometer and cook to 258. Take out the thermometer quickly and get off the fire, as directed in the first batch, and immediately pour slowly into the first batch with the eggs, stirring the egg batch continually, and it does not hurt to scrape out the kettle a little in this last batch. Now beat the batch until it begins to get a little stiff, then add a good tablespoon of vanilla flavor; keep beating until it gets pretty thick and then add about one and one-half pounds of English walnuts, candied cherries and pineapple cut fine, or just walnuts alone. Mix through well and scrape out of the kettle into a small bucket or a deep bread pan, which has been previously lined with rice paper. This paper need not be taken off but can be eaten right with the candy. After it has stood for a few hours it may be cut up as desired. If your batch is a little too dry, but not too hard, add a trifle more glucose than the recipe calls for, the next time. Keep this in a crock, with a damp cloth on top of the crock, and it will stay fresh a long time. This is an elegant piece, when coated in chocolate.



Put the sugar, glucose and water into a kettle and set on the fire. Stir until it begins to boil, wash down the sides of the kettle with a damp cloth, put in the thermometer and cook to 254. Have someone beat the egg whites stiff and put them into another kettle and have them ready. As soon as the thermometer registers 254, take off the fire quickly and begin at once to rub the syrup against the sides of the kettle, to grain it a little, occasionally splashing the batch up against the sides to wash down that which is creaming. When the batch begins to look cloudy and shows white streaks, stop graining, put the paddle into the pan with the eggs, and commence pouring slowly about one-half of the syrup into the eggs, stirring the eggs while pouring, then immediately pour the eggs back into the syrup, stirring the syrup very fast. Scrape out all the eggs and syrup that sticks to the pan that originally held the eggs, and keep beating the batch. Scrape down the syrup that splashes on the sides of the kettle occasionally, and beat until it begins to stiffen a little, then add a teaspoonful of vanilla and a teaspoonful of orange flower water. Beat through well, then add about a pound and a half of almonds, walnuts, candied cherries and pineapple, cut fine. Mix in well and scrape out of kettle into a pan which has been previously dusted with XXXX sugar and let set a few hours. When set or hard cut up in pieces weighing about thirteen ounces, shape round and long with flat ends about two inches thick, dusting with XXXX sugar. Then dip in milk chocolate and when the chocolate hardens, cut up as desired. Do not grain the batch too much before pouring into the eggs or it will harden before you can get it mixed. You can also use your own judgment about the kind of nuts or fruit you like, but we simply tell you to use candied fruit and nuts together as that seems to be the most popular.



Remove the seeds from the dates. Color and flavor some fondant. Form it by rolling it in small pieces and lay it in the date; press it together firmly. Dust with XXXX sugar. Pistachio flavor with a delicate color of green is especially nice.


Remove the seeds from the dates and fill them with nuts; press together firmly and roll in granulated sugar.


Keep the peel of the fruit as you use it, in a weak brine until enough has collected to preserve. Wash it thoroughly in several waters. Let it boil in plenty of water until tender, changing the water several times. If the peels are fresh, they need be boiled in one water only. When they can be pierced with a straw, drain off the hot water. Let them cool and scrape out the white pulp with a spoon. Make enough syrup to cover the yellow peels, using the proportion of a pound of sugar to a pint of water. When the syrup is boiling, drop in the peels and let them cook slowly until they are clear. Then boil rapidly until the syrup is reduced to dryness, using care that it does not burn. Spread the peels on a flat dish and place them in a warm place to dry for 12 hours or more. When perfectly dry pack them into preserve jars. They are cut into shreds and used in cakes, puddings, and wherever raisins and citron are used. The boiled peel may be cut into shreds before being cooked in the syrup.


Although spinning sugar has been called the climax of the art of sugar work, you need not be deterred from trying it. It cannot be made on a damp day or in a moist atmosphere.

Spun sugar makes a beautiful decoration for ice creams, glace fruits and other cold desserts.


Put the sugar, water and cream of tartar into a kettle and stir until it commences to boil. Wipe down the sides of the kettle and steam. Put in the thermometer and cook to 310. Care must be used so that it does not burn. Remove it from the fire. Place the pan in a pan of cold water to stop the boiling, because the heat of the pan and sugar might cause it to boil higher.

Place two of the steel bars (which you use for the slab) on a table so that the ends project a little way; spread some papers on the floor under them. For spinning, two forks may be used, but some wires drawn through a cork are better because they give more points. After the syrup has cooled a little; take the pan in the left hand, the wire or forks in the right; dip them into the syrup and spin it over the rods, and on the return motion, under the rods; fine threads of sugar will fly off the points and remain on the rods. If the syrup gets too cold, it may be reheated. Take the spun sugar carefully off the rods from time to time and fold it around a pan turned over, or roll it into nests or any form desired. Place the spun sugar under a glass globe as soon as made. Under an air tight globe with a piece of lime, it may be kept crisp for a day or two, but it readily gathers moisture, and it is better to make it the day it is to be used. Do not attempt to make it on a damp or rainy day, and do not have a boiling kettle in the room.


Put one tablespoonful butter in your kettle, for each pint of nuts you have, and set the kettle on the stove until the butter melts and is very hot, then put the nuts in the kettle with the butter, and stir constantly until nearly done, or brown enough, as they cook somewhat after taking off the stove, then sprinkle well with salt, and pour them out in a sieve which has been set over a pan, so as to allow any remaining butter to run off. If you wish, you may first blanch your almonds by pouring boiling water over them, and then rubbing off the skins, as you all know how.

You will find these nuts far nicer, when roasted and salted in this manner, than by doing it in the oven, as they are more brittle and nicer in every way.



Use the raw Spanish peanuts, without blanching them, and roast and salt in the same manner as directed for almonds.


crawing of what looks like pastry scraper
Bon-Bon Divider

Dainty looking candy may be spoiled in packing, and what would be a nice appearing box of candy loses its charm because it is not packed with care and taste.

Candy boxes may be bought in almost every town, but if you have saved some that you have received, these may be used as well. Paste an appropriate postal card over the name of the firm on the lid.

Line the box with wax paper and cut it so that it will be large enough to fold over the top of the full box of candy.

Put chocolates, fudge and creams in the bottom of the box. If you have made some of the brittles, you will find them very convenient to fill in hollows so that the bottom is level.

Cut a piece of white cardboard to fit between the layers. Bristol board or two pieces of heavy writing paper will answer the purpose. Fold the strips of white paper, as illustrated.


beautiful box of chocolates: The Home Candy Makers


Illustration on previous page will give you a good idea how to arrange the candy in diagonal rows. Be very careful not to put rows of candy near each other which do not harmonize. Fill in the corners of the box with coated nuts, grilled nuts and candied cherries so that it looks well filled.

Ornament the top of the box with crystalized mint and rose leaves, crystalized violets, large silvered dragees and chocolate coated nuts wrapped in tin foil; two or three is sufficient for one box.

Fold over the wax paper, and cover the box with a candy box lace. Tie a piece of embroidery floss, white, around the box and put on the lid.

Cut white paper the correct size of your box, making it long enough so that when the ends are folded up they will just come to the top of the box. Tie the box with gilt cord.

Sometimes bon-bons with a soft center are put in bon-bon cases, which adds to the appearance of the box.


Put the sugar, glucose and water in the kettle and set on hot fire. Stir this and wipe down sides of kettle same as bon-bon cream, and when it starts to boil, cover until it steams well, remove cover, put in thermometer, and cook to 238, then remove from the fire and pour on slab which has previously been moistened a little. You will see that so far, you handle this the same as bon-bon cream, but it is not necessary to use quite so much care with it, as the glucose in it has a tendency to keep it from sugaring any, but do not get careless with it simply because we tell you this. This fondant must not stand until perfectly cold, but commence creaming it when about half cold, and cream it in the same way that you do bon-bon cream. It is better to scoop this fondant off into your crock just before it sets firmly. When you see it is up to that point, quickly scoop it into the crock, for if you allow it to remain on the slab until it sets perfectly hard, and sweat it same as bon-bon cream, it is very sticky to handle. If you[74] should happen to scoop it into the crock a few seconds too soon, it does not matter, as it will come out just the same in the end. It will take longer to cream this fondant than it does bon-bon cream. When you put it in the crock, cover with a damp cloth the same as the other. This is a snow white, very soft, smooth, and sticky fondant, and is used for the centers of chocolate creams, as it makes a much softer center for them than bon-bon cream does. We will tell you farther on how to handle it, but always remember, we will speak of this as center cream and the other, bon-bon cream.


Make exactly same as above, only instead of white sugar, use two-third maple and one-third white. If you use maple syrup instead of maple sugar, allow two pounds of syrup for every pound of sugar desired. You will find this cream very sticky, and it takes longer to cream it up than the other, but it makes a delicious chocolate cream. Do not get discouraged and think it is not going to cream for you, for if you cooked it to the right degree, it will never fail to cream.


As you use the center cream for the inside of chocolate creams, you must have some method of moulding them on account of that cream being so soft and sticky. This is done in cornstarch, the same kind as you use for cooking purposes, as that does not stick to the candy in the least. Get the cheapest grade possible, as that answers the purpose. It should cost you from five to eight cents a box, and we would advise you to get four or five boxes at once, as it never spoils and may be used indefinitely, over and over again. When you are through with it, scoop it out into a large jar until you need it again.

Take a square, shallow pan, from one-half to one inch deep, or a pie pan will answer the purpose as well, and sift starch into it until you have enough in to fill it. Then with a smooth stick that extends over each side of the pan, smooth it off very even. By having the stick extend over edges of the pan, you will not pack the starch down, which is very necessary[75] to avoid, as you cannot make your impressions perfect if your starch is packed in the least, and consequently this starch must be sifted into the pan and not scooped in. In smoothing it off, place your stick on the pan at one end and push it across, and in that manner you will not pack the starch in the least. Now take your stick with the style of moulds glued on you intend using, take hold of each end of it, and press the moulds down into the starch until the stick strikes the sides of the pan; carefully raise the stick and you will then find your impressions in the starch ready to be filled. Continue in this manner until you have the pan full of impressions, always remembering that every time you make a new row of impressions, you must, when pressing the moulds down in the starch, press away from the ones you just made, the least trifle, so you will not spoil them, as this cornstarch is very treacherous, and if you should happen to press the moulds the least bit toward the impressions previously made, you would cause them to cave in. By having the ends of your stick protrude over the edges of the pan as directed, you will thus get all the impressions the exact depth. You must be very careful and do not jar the table a particle or attempt to move the pan before filling the impressions with center cream, for if you do, you are liable to spoil them.

Take as much center cream as you wish, and put it into the double boiler with hot water underneath it, set on the fire and stir until it melts, and do not allow any water to get in with the cream. As soon as it is thin, color and flavor any way you wish, and let it remain on the stove until it gets good and hot. It must be hot or it will not harden in the starch, but remember the hotter you get it, the harder it will be after it is cool, and as you do not wish them to be too hard, be careful and not allow it to get too hot. The best way to test this, is to take some out upon your spoon and touch your tongue to it and if it is very warm it is ready to use. Now set off the stove, but do not take the inside boiler with the cream in it out of the water, as it must be kept warm. Dip a little out in a spoon and pour it into the impression. In doing this you will soon get an idea about how much to dip out each time in the spoon in order to fill the impression. If you have[76] dipped out too much to fill it, as soon as it is full, quickly turn the spoon up, as you only want the impression level full. Continue in this manner until you fill them all. You must work rapidly, and will soon be able to drop the cream in the impressions without striking the edges and breaking them down. If you use a funnel to drop these centers, you must warm it a little over a fire, but do not get it hot, just warm; then take the handle of the funnel in your left hand, and with your right hand push the stick down into the end of the funnel, and have someone else pour the heated center cream into the funnel. Hold the end of the funnel over one of the impressions in the starch, and lift the stick with your right hand, allowing enough cream to run into the mould to fill it. Continue in this manner till all have been filled. If the cream becomes too thick to run out of the spoon, or funnel, readily, set it back on the stove a few moments, until the water under it boils again, then it will be thin enough to run out as before. If you made this cream correctly in the first place, it will never be necessary to add any water to it in order to have it run out of the spoon; but in case you misread your thermometer and cooked it a little too much, it may be so thick that it will require a few drops of water, but add very little. In from ten to twenty minutes, the centers will be hard enough to pick out of the starch and blow off. Very little of the starch will stick to them as you lift them out, but what does will blow off easily. You may do this with your mouth, or better still, if you have any kind of a small bellows in the house, put the centers in a pan as you take them from the starch, and when they are all taken out, squeeze the bellows on them several times, and they are perfectly clean. In blowing this starch off, we would advise you to take them outdoors and do it, as the starch makes quite a dust in the kitchen. They are now ready to coat with chocolate, and do this as directed in article on Chocolate Coating.

All chocolate creams are moulded in this manner, excepting Orientals. You may make these any shape or size centers that you have moulds for. These centers should be coated within several hours after being moulded.


If you wish chopped nuts of any kind in the centers, stir them in well, just before you commence dropping them in the starch, or you may if you wish, drop a large piece or a whole half of a nut in each impression, then pour the cream on top of it.

If you use a funnel, and wish to use nuts in the centers, do not add the nuts to the cream before being run in the starch, but simply drop them in the empty mould before hand, and run the cream on top, till it fills the mould.

If they do not harden in the starch, it is because of the water you added or else because you did not get the cream hot enough, and they may be picked out, blown off, and re-melted again without hurting the cream in the least. These centers will mellow up a great deal after being coated with chocolate, and are better after they stand a few days.

If you should have more cream melted up than you have impressions made for, you may flavor it highly with wintergreen or peppermint, and with a spoon, drop it out in wafers.

While it really does not come under this heading, we will say here that centers moulded in this manner and coated with bon-bon cream make a very nice cheap bon-bon, but are not to be compared with the ones made after the style we direct you to, in article on Bon-Bon Making. A great many confectioners never make bon-bons in any other manner than this, but you will see the others are much finer.

It is a failing of many persons to heat the center too hot so that it will run through the funnel more readily, but the result is a hard center that will never get soft, and nothing can be done to soften it after it is once hard. A chocolate center becomes soft within three or four days.


You may make them any flavor or color you desire. You may, if you wish, roll bon-bon cream up into balls and coat them with chocolate, but this does not make a nice chocolate cream, and the proper way is to mould the centers in cornstarch as directed, using the center cream for this purpose. Either rose, wintergreen, peppermint, strawberry, vanilla, or lemon make a fine chocolate cream. It is best to make each[78] flavor a different shape. Color the rose, strawberry, and wintergreen a delicate pink and the lemon a deep yellow. The vanilla should be left uncolored, and you may put chopped nuts in any of these in the manner we directed, in article on Cornstarch Work.

When moulded, blow off the starch, and coat with chocolate as directed in article on Chocolate Coating. If you desire a nut on the top of any of your chocolates make a flat shaped center, and put the nut on before the chocolate sets, and press down very gently, so as not to make a base on them. Maple chocolates, made from maple center cream in this manner, are very fine. English walnuts, pecans, or almonds, blanched and split in two, are the prettiest nuts for this purpose; however, we do not advise putting nuts on chocolate creams, except on rare occasions, as you will notice the finest grades of chocolate creams do not have nuts on them.

If you are able to purchase any silver dragees, which are kept only in large candy stores, they are very pretty on the tops of chocolate creams. As you see by this, there is no limit to the many different styles of chocolate creams possible to make, by adopting any ideas you have of your own and following this recipe.


Buy your marshmallows, as that is cheaper and much easier than making them, and coat them with chocolate the same as chocolate creams. If they are very large, it is best to cut them in two before coating, as they will look prettier. Pistachio nuts, chopped very fine and sprinkled over them before the chocolate sets, look very nice.


Make some caramels, either vanilla or strawberry flavor, which are the best for this purpose, and coat same as directed for other chocolates.


Remove the seeds from dates, roll them up, and coat with chocolate as directed. If you stuff these dates with chopped hickory nuts after removing seeds, then press firmly together and coat with chocolate, they are very fine.



Buy some fig paste or Oriental jelly, and coat with chocolate same as others, and you will find it makes a very fine piece of candy.


Cut freshly made fudge up in squares and coat with chocolate. Chocolate fudge, coated in this manner, is probably better than the other flavors. Opera fudge, cut into squares and coated with chocolate, is much nicer than the other kind of fudge.


Drop out some wintergreen or peppermint wafers in the manner described before, only use center cream instead of bon-bon cream, then coat with chocolate. It is best to use the center cream in making these, as it mellows up more after being coated than bon-bon cream, as it is much softer.


Make a batch of walnut brittle as directed, and cut into oblong pieces about one inch long, then coat with chocolate. These are very brittle and nice eating.


Select large candied cherries, and coat with chocolate same as other centers. These are probably the finest chocolates you can make, and also the most expensive, and I would advise you to only use them in dressing off the top layer of your boxes.


Either English walnuts, pecans, or Brazil nuts are very fine when coated with chocolate. Do it in the same manner as other chocolate coating, but do not roast these nuts before coating them.


Roast the almonds in the oven, being careful about getting them too brown, and when cool, coat with chocolate.[80] Never coat nuts of any description with anything but sweet coating; if you should use chocolate on them that is the least particle bitter, they would not taste good at all. The best way to coat these small nuts, is to work your chocolate, then put in quite a number of the nuts, roll them around a little, then with a pair of tweezers, lift them out one at a time and lay on your oilcloth. This is much quicker than lifting them out with your hands, one at a time.


Roast the filberts in the oven, same as you do other nuts, then coat with chocolate, and in laying them on the oilcloth, lay three of them in the form of a triangle so that they will touch each other, then lay another one on top and when the chocolate is set, they will stick firmly together and look very pretty in a box. If you have a pair of tweezers, they are very convenient with which to pick the nuts out of the chocolate, and lay them so that they will touch each other. In laying the last filbert on top, if you will allow quite a little chocolate to stick to it as you lift it out, it will improve the looks of the pyramid, as it will run down over the other nuts.


Pour out a little chocolate coating, work it until nearly cold, then mix into it broken pecan meats until it is pretty thick, then with a spoon drop it in the form of patties on the oilcloth, and make them about the size of a silver dollar. Have enough nuts mixed in the chocolate so that they will be thick enough to hold their shape after being dropped out and will not spread any, and consequently they will be very rough looking, which they should be. These are about the finest candy in this line which it is possible to make, providing of course that you use the Sweet Coating for this purpose.


Make them in the same manner as pecan fritters. Always use roasted peanuts, and if you have the raw Spanish peanuts, roast them in the oven first, as they are better than the large peanuts.



Cut some candied pineapple into points and coat with chocolate.


Molasses and Moonlight Kisses are greatly improved when coated with chocolate. Cut the kisses into pieces about two inches long and coat with chocolate.


Buy a few Nabisco wafers, cut them in four pieces and dip in sweet chocolate.


Make a batch of cocoanut centers as given in this book, roll them round and dip in chocolate. This makes a nice topping piece for your boxes. You may also set a small round dragee on top of the ball, while the chocolate is still warm.


Drain the liquor from red or white Maraschino cherries. Melt some fondant, and dip each cherry in the melted fondant. It is well to add a little of the liquor to the fondant while melting, as this has a tendency to make the fondant watery in about a day. As soon as you have dipped all the cherries, and the fondant on them has cooled, commence at once to coat with chocolate. If after you have finished coating, and you find little drops of syrup standing out on the chocolate coated cherries, simply cover these holes with a little cooled chocolate and it will stop at once; for if allowed to drop out, the cherries would be dry in a few days. These are best wrapped in wax paper.


photograph of woman spreading chocolate on slab



For coating chocolates, confectioners use what is called “Sweet Coating Chocolate,” which is prepared expressly for this purpose, and you will be able to purchase it of any confectioner who makes his own candy, or any candy supply house, if you live convenient to one, and also in some of the large grocery stores.

There are a great many different grades of coating chocolate, and we strongly encourage using a good chocolate, as the better grades give the best results; because there is less sugar in it, and it lends itself more readily to the manipulations, gives a more glossy finish, and has a much richer taste than the cheaper chocolates, which are adulterated. Chocolate which sells for about forty cents a pound is a good quality. You may, if you are unable to procure this coating, use the ordinary cooking chocolate, which you will find in all grocery stores. This is not so nice or satisfactory to use as the other coating, and if you use it, we would advise you to add enough XXXX sugar, after it is melted, to sweeten somewhat, and also to thicken it which improves it. In writing these directions, we take it for granted you will use the sweet coating, and will write them accordingly; but if you should use the cooking chocolate, handle it in the same manner.


The condition of the weather plays an important part in candy making, especially in the chocolate coating. Never attempt to coat on a rainy day, as the moisture in the air, prevents the chocolate from setting quickly, and the chocolates become grey. Dry weather is by far the most satisfactory, as the chocolate is easier to handle, works better, and coats with more luster.

As no doubt you will do the most of your chocolate work in the winter time, you must pay strict attention to the conditions under which you work. To begin with, the temperature of the room in which you work, must be about 75. Do[84] not attempt to coat in a room that is cold, for your chocolate will harden on your hands and on the slab, before you can get it worked enough. The room should at least, be comfortable enough to sit in. Let us caution you right here, not to have your slab, nor the centers to be dipped, too cold. Warm the slab a little, before you pour the chocolate on it, but be careful not to get it hot, just warm enough to take the chill off. The centers, or whatever you are going to coat, should not be heated, but by merely leaving them set in the same room for awhile, they will be about right. Remember, it is just as bad to dip freshly run centers, or anything that has just been made, while they are still warm, as it is to dip the cold ones; the heat must have left them entirely before you coat them, or they will be grey and streaked. If you dip in warm weather, you will have to cool the chocolates in a refrigerator for about five or ten minutes. That is, when you have dipped about a dozen pieces of candy, you must set them in the refrigerator, so that the chocolate on them will harden quickly. In cold weather you will not have to use a refrigerator, but you must set the chocolates in a cool place as soon as you have about a dozen pieces coated. In real cold weather they may harden very quickly after being placed on the tray. Remember, you must have them cool quickly after being coated, for if they do not, it is liable to make them grey or streaked, and this is as important as working the chocolate.

It is best to lay these chocolates in boxes, with wax paper between the layers, and keep them in a cool place. If you lay them in the boxes carefully, they will not get scratched, and will keep fresh for several weeks if kept in a cool place.

The slab you use for making the other candies cannot be used for chocolate coating, because the chocolate will absorb the butter which has been used to grease the slab, and it will cause the chocolate to become rancid, if the bon-bon is kept for a length of time. If you have a piece of marble about twelve inches square, use that. If you have a large, heavy platter, it will do just as well as a slab.

If you wish to make the chocolate bon-bons for your own use, you can either use heavy wax paper to lay the coated[85] chocolates on, or buy enough white table oilcloth, to cover the under side of about six trays. Flat kettle lids, cake and pie pans may be utilized for this purpose. Pieces of heavy tin, cut to fit the shelves of your refrigerator, is about the best. If you wish to make the chocolate bon-bons for profit, we would advise you to equip yourself with conveniences for the work.


This chocolate coating is very easily and quickly done, and is exactly the same as all fine hand-made chocolates are coated, and it is practically all done by girls; so you will have no trouble in soon mastering it. Do not think it too difficult, for it is so simple that a child can coat after these directions.

The methods for working the chocolate as illustrated, are those used by a professional chocolate coater. Notice how the chocolate is kept in the palm of the hand. These pictures were taken after she had completed her work of preparing the chocolate, and at the end of the day her hand is just as free from chocolate as in the pictures.

Take the desired amount of chocolate; break it into pieces, put them in a double boiler, and place it over the fire. The heat of the water in the lower part of the boiler melts the chocolate. Do not put on a lid or add water because moisture or water that gets into the chocolate ruins it for chocolate coating, but it may be used for cocoa or baking. In most cases where the chocolate becomes too thick to coat with, you can save it by adding cocoa butter, of which we will tell you later on. Stir the chocolate occasionally while melting, to help break up the lumps. As soon as the water in the lower part of the boiler comes to a boil, turn the fire down very low, so that the water does not boil and cause steam to fly over the top of the chocolate, as that is sufficient to thicken the chocolate. When it is about half melted, draw it to the back part of the stove, and stir it until all the lumps are dissolved. If you wish, you may test the chocolate with the thermometer. Put the thermometer in the chocolate as[86] soon as you set the double boiler off the fire. The required degree is 125. If the chocolate is cooler than this, heat it until it registers 125. If it happens to get a little too hot, lift the upper part of the boiler out of the water for a few minutes, but do not leave it out long. After you have a little experience, it will not be necessary to test with the thermometer, as you can tell with the hand when it is about the required degree.

If you wish to coat a large amount of candy, it is best to melt all the chocolate at the same time. It can be kept the correct temperature by allowing it to stand on the back part of the stove, or if you use gas for cooking, keep a simmering flame under the double boiler. It is always necessary to melt more chocolate than you expect to use, because you must allow for that which cools around the edges, forms the base on the slab, and clings to the sides of the kettle.

Orientals are the favorite chocolate candy and that is why we use it in illustration. Three-fourths of a pound of chocolate is the actual amount of chocolate needed to coat a batch, but as you will put it on thicker, and use more when you are a beginner, melt 1½ pounds.

You will learn from experience only, about how long it is necessary to work and knead the coating before using it. This is done for two purposes: One is, to break up the small globules of oil in the chocolate to prevent them from being spotted when coated, and the other is, to get your chocolate thick enough, so it will not run off the cream after you lay it on the oilcloth or wax paper. As you all know, if you dip chocolate creams in thin chocolate, it runs off and forms a base on the bottom of them.

If you should use a bowl and a pan of water instead of double boiler, be very careful and do not get any water in it, and also in pouring the chocolate out in order to work it, do not pour it on a cold slab or platter, as that chills it too quickly, but have it lukewarm.



chocolate covered hand above melted chocolate on slab
Fig. 1
Chocolate covered hand in chocolate
Fig. 2
back of fist in chocolate
Fig. 3
hand sideways in chocolate to scoop some up
Fig. 4

Pour on the slab 1½ pounds of the melted chocolate. Assume the position of the hand as shown in figure 1; draw the fingers through the chocolate with a “pawing” motion as shown in figure 2. Each time that the fingers touched the chocolate on the downward motion, close the hand, and lightly squeeze the chocolate that is held between the fingers and the palm. The chocolate flows through the fingers and from the[88] sides of the closed hand. Repeat this motion until the chocolate is spread out over the slab, (it will only be a few times), then encircle the outer edge, drawing the chocolate toward the center, as shown in figures 3 and 4. The thin layer of chocolate which remains is the foundation for the base which keeps the chocolate within bounds. Never draw into the center any of the chocolate that has become hard or that which is getting stiff. It will spoil the entire lot. Continue the “pawing” process, following it with the operations as shown in figures 3 and 4. Occasionally take up a handful and[89] squeeze it as shown in figure 5. The chocolate in these illustrations was allowed to become cold, so as to give you a better idea how it should be done.

fist of choclate oozing back onto slab
Fig. 5

When the chocolate is warm it is thin, but by the time it has cooled enough it will be thick enough not to run off the center. You must continue working the mass of chocolate until the heat has all left it. There are several ways of telling when it is cooled enough.

For a beginner, we might advise you to use the thermometer until you have had a little experience. Slide the scale with the glass on, out of the case, so that the chocolate will cover all of the bulb, and after you have worked it for about five minutes, stand the thermometer in the center of the mass of chocolate until the mercury stops rising. If it registers about 82, it is then ready. If it is higher, continue working until it has reached the required degree. In cool weather the chocolate may be cooled sufficiently in from five to eight minutes, but in warm weather it may even take as long as twenty minutes. After you have used the thermometer a few times, you will know just how cool the chocolate should be, and then you can get along without it.


Another way to tell when the chocolate is cooled enough is, when you have worked it for five or six minutes, and it seems cold to the hand that is in it, simply dip the back of the fingers of the other hand in the chocolate, and if it is in reality cold, or you are sure the heat has all left it, then dip a piece or two, and cool them quickly, and you can soon tell. The chocolate has a high gloss, and retains the markings if it is cooled sufficiently.


Dipping bon-bons into chocolate with chocolate covered hand
Fig. 6

When the chocolate has been worked as directed, take a cream, (see directions “How to Mold in Cornstarch”), an Oriental center, or a nut and drop it on the mass of chocolate near the edge of the slab in front of you. Cover it thoroughly by using the thumb and first three fingers, as shown in figure 6. Pick up the cream from the mass of chocolate, wipe the side and back of your hand on the slab (or use the back of a knife) to clear it from the excess of chocolate which clings to it, otherwise this will drip over the paper when you lay down the cream. Smooth the chocolate covered cream by rolling it between your thumb and fingers until it is evenly covered with[91] chocolate. Hold it with the tips of your fingers as shown in figure 7, and place it on the oil cloth at your right. In doing this, do not hurry or you will have strings of chocolate over the table and paper.

Voila, chocolate covered hand holding chocolate covered bon-bon
Fig. 7

In laying the bon-bons on the oil cloth, LAY THEM DOWN SQUARELY. Do not allow them to slide or a base will form, which you wish to avoid. It is essential that the tray be level.

Coat the bon-bons as rapidly as possible so that it will not be necessary to reheat the chocolate before you have finished. If the chocolate is reheated, it must be worked again, as in the beginning.


In ornamenting bon-bons it is necessary to have some one help you. The ornament must be placed on each bon-bon as soon as coated, before the chocolate is set. Your helper can do this while you must continue with the work of coating.

A nut or silvered dragee, as shown in figure 8, may be put on top as an ornament. Do not press the ornament on the bon-bon, but place it lightly, otherwise it will form a base.


To acquire this skill in marking, begin by trying to mark the coated nuts. Roast some almonds in the oven with the skins on, which need not be removed when coating. English walnuts or pecans may also be used. The thread of chocolate is carried with the thumbnail across the top, as shown in figure 11. There is enough chocolate on the thumb, so that it is not necessary to touch the coated nut as you do when you mark the bon-bons.

bon-bon with dragee on top
Fig. 8
bon-bon oval shaped with line on  top
Fig. 11
triangular shaped bon-bon with swirl on top
Fig. 9

After you have coated for some time and become an expert, you can learn to make the pretty markings seen on chocolate bon-bons, as shown in figure 9, which always distinguishes the hand-coated bon-bon. After you have placed the chocolate coated bon-bon on the paper, touch the top[93] lightly with the chocolate covered middle finger. Carry the thread of chocolate that lifts up with your finger in a circle as shown in figure 10.

last photo of completelly chocolate -covered hand adding top decoration to bon-bons
Fig. 10

Do not be discouraged with your work, if you do not succeed the first few times. Many persons prefer the rough appearing candies, because in their opinion they look more “home-made.”


When you coat begin by using the chocolate which is directly in front of you, and keep this cleared space to wipe the chocolate from your hand after you pick up the cream center from the mass of chocolate.

When you have used about one-third of the chocolate, sweep around the inside edge, as you did when working it, so that you may keep the entire mass the same temperature. Do this quite frequently.

Coating candies in the manner described here, your creams will have no base on them whatever, and will be very glossy, and not spotted in the least. If they are spotted after being coated, it is probably because you did not thoroughly work the chocolate, or because you worked in some of that around the edge that was too cold. Never mind how much there is around the edge of the slab, as none of it is wasted.

If they are not glossy, it is either because you commenced coating them before your chocolate was cool enough, or allowed it to get too cool, which would spoil the gloss, or did not put them in a cool place soon enough after coating them in order to set the chocolate.

When you are through coating, take your scraper and scrape all the chocolate off the slab, and also with a knife scrape it from your hand, and put it back in double boiler, and you will find that there is not enough chocolate wasted with which to coat one chocolate cream.


There is absolutely nothing necessary to put in this coating, but simply melt it and handle as described. If the chocolate is too thick to coat with, it is because you have allowed some of the steam, or a drop of water to get mixed in it, and you may then add a little melted cocoa butter to thin it a little. Do not get it too thin; remember that.

In using milk chocolate, you will find that it is much thicker than the sweet coating, and also, full of little lumps, which will be broken and worked through by the time it is cooled. If you wish you may add a very little melted cocoa butter to this coating, about the time you start to work it.

The bitter-sweet coating you will use in making Orientals, is thinner than most of the other coatings, and if you wish to thicken it a little, simply add a very little XXXX sugar to it, when you start to work it.

We will repeat again, that you must work the chocolate as much as you possibly can before you begin to dip; for, while it is absolutely necessary to have the chocolate cool, or until the heat has all left it, before you begin to coat. It is essential to work the chocolate as much as possible, until it is cool, even if it takes fifteen to twenty minutes. Otherwise your chocolates will be grey.

The secret in successful chocolate coating, is in working the chocolate properly, having it cool enough before you begin to dip, then cooling the dipped candies as soon as they have been dipped.

Never lift the dipped chocolates off the boards or trays, until they are set; you can tell this by lifting one piece off the wax paper or oilcloth, and if the bottom is glossy, then they are set.



The Finest Chocolate Cream Made.

This is acknowledged by everyone to be the finest Italian chocolate cream made, and when coated with the proper coating, it is a delicious confection, with a very brittle coating, and when broken open, the center is as smooth and soft as whipped cream.

We put this recipe last for the reason that you should learn to do the other chocolate coating before attempting this. The coating is done in exactly the same manner, except with these it is necessary to handle them very quickly, and consequently you must have a little experience in this line before attempting these, but after making them once, we do not think you will ever make the other different kinds, except for the purpose of filling your Christmas boxes, when it is very nice to have an assortment. With enough practice to enable you to coat them nicely, and if you are so disposed, you will have no trouble in selling all you can make at sixty cents per pound, to private customers only, as there are very few stores in the country where it is possible to purchase them. One reason of this is, they are too delicate to stand being boxed up and shipped around the country to the different dealers, and probably be kept for months, as some candies are, before being sold.

We tell you this to impress upon you how really fine they are, and the possibilities of profit, if you expect to make candy to sell. The formula is very simple, and known only to a very few, but you must follow directions very closely and cook it to the exact degree. The thermometer will do the cooking accurately, and the other part is not difficult in any manner. For the coating, it is best if possible, to get what is called a Bitter-Sweet Coating. This may be purchased in any large city, also of a great many candy manufacturers, or of any candy supply house or chocolate manufactory. If it is not possible to get the Bitter-Sweet Coating, you may make one which is nearly as nice as the other, by simply getting the pure unsweetened or bitter chocolate, which all confectioners[96] handle, and sweeten it partly with XXXX sugar (never use granulated), in the proportion of one-fourth pound sugar to two and one-half pounds chocolate, by simply stirring the sugar in the chocolate after it is melted. If you should be unable to procure any other kind of chocolate, you could use the ordinary bitter baking chocolate, sweetened somewhat with XXXX sugar, but do not use it if you can possibly avoid doing so.

These creams should never be coated with a sweet coating, but always a bitter-sweet of some description, as the intensely sweet center, and the bitter coating, form a combination that makes them delicious.

They are made in the following manner, and a batch this size will use up about one pound of chocolate, but of course it will be necessary for you to have more melted up for reasons we mentioned before:

Put sugar and water in kettle, set on hot fire, stir until dissolved, then put in the glycerine, continue stirring and wipe down kettle same as for fondant, and when it commences to boil add the acid, then cover the kettle until it steams well, remove the cover, put in thermometer and cook to exactly 236, then pour on moistened slab and allow it to remain undisturbed until all the heat has left it, the same as you do bon-bon cream. Now beat the whites of the eggs until dry, or will stand alone, then pour them on top of the batch, add the vanilla, and cream the batch in exactly the same manner as you do bon-bon cream, working the eggs right into it. If some of the syrup should be a little thick and not seem to mix with the eggs well, just take the scraper or whatever you are turning it with, and break the hard syrup a little, when it will readily mix.


Of course this will be thinner than bon-bon cream, and will require more attention in order to keep it in a mass and not allow it to spread all over the slab. It will be a little thinner just before it commences to set, the same as bon-bon cream does, and now turn it very gently in order to give it all the chance possible, as this is the delicate point. Keep turning it over and over very slowly, always working from the edge, and gradually work it up in a mass until it will stand alone and not spread any, and it is then done. About the only trouble you will have in making these will be at this point. The egg whites have a peculiar action on the cream, and sometimes it sets very quickly and gets hard enough to handle easily, and at other times it seems as though it never will set, and even when it does, on such occasions it is very soft and difficult to coat. Each batch you make will probably vary a little from the other, owing to the peculiar nature of it, but it will all come out the same when coated, and allowed to stand awhile. When properly made, this cream at this stage is an intensely white, rather fluffy mass, about the consistency of a soft marshmallow, only it is very tender, and not tough as they are. When creamed up, cut the batch in two after allowing it to stand for three or four minutes in order to set a little more, and to one-half of it work in some chopped English walnuts by kneading them in with your scraper, and allow the other half to remain plain; then cut both halves into several pieces so as to allow the air to strike it as much as possible, which has a tendency to dry it and make it easier to handle. It is now ready to mould up, and must be done so at once. Have a small dish with some XXXX sugar in it, take a knife and cut off a small portion of the cream, and with your fingers shape it up slightly into a ball, then as it will probably be a little sticky, lay it in the XXXX sugar and turn it over in order to get the sugar all over it, then lay it on wax paper, and proceed in this manner until you get them all moulded. The ones with nuts in should be made just a trifle oblong, so as to distinguish them after being coated. In moulding these up, remember that the less they are handled, the easier they will be to coat, as handling them has a tendency to make them softer. After they are moulded, it is[98] best to turn them all over, as they lay on the wax paper, before coating them, in order to allow the bottom to dry off a little. These must be coated immediately after being moulded, and the better way is to have someone mould them and you coat them as fast as they are moulded. The person moulding, will do so faster than you can coat them, and thus they will be able to dry off a little by the time you are ready for them.

Coat them in the same manner as other chocolate creams, but remember that it must be done rapidly, for you cannot hold them in your hand but a few seconds, as they get too soft, and will lose their shape and spread out after dropping on the oilcloth.

They have a tendency to pop out, after the chocolate is set, if there is a thin spot anywhere in the coating, but this does not hurt them. They will be very soft inside, several hours after being coated, and are best if eaten within a week after they are made. If you should put them in boxes, it is better to wrap each one separately in a small piece of thin wax paper, as they are so soft inside. If one should break it would run out and spoil the looks of the others.

The length of these directions may cause you to think they are very difficult to make, but such is not the case, as you will see after trying them, for the thermometer does the most difficult part, it being necessary to cook them to the exact degree. In moulding them, do not try to get them all the same size or the same shape, as they look prettier made in odd shapes and this sized batch will make about one hundred ordinary sized creams.


Put both kinds of sugar and the water into a kettle, stir till dissolved, add the glycerine, continue stirring and wipe down kettle same as for fondant, and when it commences to[99] boil add the acid, then cover the kettle until it steams well, remove the cover, put in the thermometer and cook to exactly 238, then pour on a moistened slab, and finish exactly the same as vanilla Orientals. You will notice that we tell you to cook this to 238, while the vanilla Orientals are only cooked to 236. The reason of this is, that the maple sugar always has a tendency to make candies softer than white sugar, and most necessarily must be cooked to a higher degree.


This is not a cook book; but as it is intended principally for ladies, we will include in it a few ideas we have in regard to cake baking, and also a few recipes for refreshments to be served when entertaining.

We are not advertising any particular brand of baking powder, as we use none, neither are we advertising any particular brand of flour. In place of baking powder, we use cream of tartar and soda, and as all pure baking powder is composed practically of nothing but these two ingredients mixed with rice flour, they will, when used in the following manner, give you the same results as baking powder, and also prevent your cake from falling.

Always use winter wheat flour for cake baking. One pound of pure baking powder is composed of one-half pound cream of tartar, one-fourth pound of soda, and one-fourth pound of rice flour. In all recipes that call for baking powder, use just one-half as much cream of tartar as it calls for baking powder, and one-half as much soda as you use of cream of tartar; that is, if a recipe calls for two teaspoonfuls baking powder, you simply use one teaspoonful of cream of tartar and a scant half teaspoonful soda. In measuring soda, always level your spoon off, and in cream of tartar, have it slightly rounding. Always sift your soda with the flour two or three times, and always put the cream of tartar in the eggs. If you use only yolks, when beating them beat the cream of tartar with them, but if your cake calls for the whites, then put in[100] the cream of tartar and beat them until they are stiff. In order to tell when your whites are beaten sufficiently, lift your whipper or beater, turn it over quickly, and the whites that lift with it should stand up perfectly straight, and if they do this, your eggs are beaten sufficiently.

The heat of your oven has everything to do with successful cake baking and you must be careful and not allow it to get too hot. Your cake should first raise in the oven, before it commences to brown on the top, if you wish to make a success of it. If you follow the directions exactly as written here, you need have no fear of your cake falling, from opening the oven doors and looking at it at any time, or from jarring the oven in any manner, as you may take any of these cakes out of the oven when they are only partially done, shake them around, then put them back in the oven, and they will raise perfectly, providing your oven is not too hot, and you mix these cakes exactly as we direct you. This may seem a rather broad assertion, and shatter a great many ideas you now hold in regard to cake baking, but it will only cost you the time and trouble of making one cake to find out that this is correct. We have done this with cakes repeatedly in order to convince people it would not hurt them, and they would come out of the oven as light and as perfect as any cake ever baked.

It does not make a particle of difference which way you beat your cake, or whether you put all of the flour or milk in at once or a little at a time, as some cake makers direct you to, so long as you beat it thoroughly, which is a very essential point. Always put all of the flour and milk in at once, as it is much easier than adding a little at a time. If your cake falls a particle, or fails to come out perfect in any way, the fault beyond a doubt is with your oven, providing you have followed the directions. A gas or gasoline oven is by far the best for cake baking, as you are able to get the heat more regular with them. If you will measure and sift your sugar on a plate, then set it in the oven for just a few moments, until it gets warmed through, you will find it will cream nicer with the butter, as the heat in the sugar softens the butter.

You may take any cake recipe you have, and apply these same directions in making it, using cream of tartar and soda[101] in the proportions directed, follow other directions carefully, and you will never experience any trouble with your cakes.

If you are much of a cake baker, this article alone is worth a great deal to you, and if you never had much success with your cakes, you will find it a very easy branch of domestic science to learn, instead of a difficult one, as some have led you to believe.


Sift your flour three or four times. If you have powdered sugar, use it for this cake; if not, use granulated and sift it two or three times. Add a pinch of salt to your whites of eggs, beat them a little, then add the cream of tartar and beat until stiff; then stir the sugar and vanilla into the beaten whites, and in doing this always stir from the bottom, as it keeps them fluffy, and do not stir it any more than is necessary. Remember this in all cake recipes where you stir sugar into whites of eggs. Now gently fold in the flour, and put in pan and bake in moderate oven, and it will require about forty-five minutes.



Sift the flour and soda together three times, and remember in all cake recipes, in measuring soda to use scant measure. Put cream of tartar in yolks and beat them stiff as possible. Sift your sugar on a plate, warm it in the oven a little and then cream it and the butter together thoroughly and add the flavoring while doing this; add beaten yolks to this and beat in well. Now add the milk and flour and beat it hard for about two minutes, then bake in two layers and lay up with white frosting. Have oven moderate and it will bake in thirty or forty minutes. This cake is also very fine when baked in loaf form, and in that, only use two and one-half cups flour, making it otherwise just the same.


Grate your chocolate, and to it add half of the milk, and set on stove and stir until dissolved. Then stir in half cup of your sugar and set away to cool. Sift the soda in the flour three times. Beat the yolks very stiff. Warm the remainder of the sugar in the oven a little; then cream thoroughly with[103] the butter, then add the beaten yolks to this and stir in well. Add the cream of tartar to the whites of the eggs after beating them a little and then beat until stiff. Add the remainder of the milk to the chocolate and stir in well, and then pour it into the creamed butter and sugar, add flour and beat very hard. Then stir in the egg whites and bake in two layers and lay up with Oriental frosting.


Beat the yolks very stiff. Add pinch of salt to the whites, beat a little, then add cream of tartar and beat stiff. Then stir in gently the sugar and vanilla, and the beaten yolks, then fold in the flour and bake in a very moderate oven. This makes a delicious sponge cake.


Beat yolks very stiff; add pinch of salt to whites, beat a little, then add cream of tartar and beat until stiff. Sift your sugar once or twice, then add it and the beaten yolks to the whites and stir in gently, adding the vanilla when doing this, then fold in the flour carefully and bake in a moderate oven. This cake is very fine to use in making Charlotte Russe, as follows: cut it up in very thin strips, then cut the strips just long enough to fit around the inside of the cup, then fill center with the whipped cream as we direct you in recipe.



Sift first, then warm the sugar as directed before, and cream thoroughly with the butter and add vanilla while doing this. If you wish, you may add a little violet flavoring, as it improves it. Put the soda in the flour and sift three or four times. Then add it and the milk to the creamed butter and sugar and mix well. Beat the whites a little, then add the cream of tartar and beat until stiff; then mix them with the other ingredients, and bake in a deep pan in a moderate oven, and will require from forty-five to sixty minutes.


Cook the sugar with just enough water to dissolve it to 236, and do this operation the same as directed in making fondant or Oriental cream for centers, adding the glycerine when the sugar is dissolved and the acid when it commences boiling, and be sure and wipe down sides of kettle and steam it. When cooked to 236 pour out on slab or platter, which has been dampened a little, and allow it to get cold; then beat your eggs white and put it on the syrup and cream up the same as in Oriental creams, adding the vanilla when you commence to cream it. When you see this is just commencing to set or thicken a little, it must be put on the cake, and done very rapidly. If you attempt to put it on the[105] cake too soon, it will run off, and if it should commence running off, simply cream it up a little more before putting any more on, and also if you should allow it to get too stiff before putting it on the cake, it would make your cake rough looking. There is just a certain point where you really should commence putting this on the cake, and after trying it once, you will have no difficulty in telling when you have creamed it to the right consistency.

This is beyond a doubt the finest icing made, in every respect, as it is smoother than other icings, and also does not get hard and chip off, as other icings do when you cut the cake. It forms a slight crust on the outside, but next to the cake it remains soft, and will keep nicely for about a week. In using this on a layer cake, the better way is to ice your top first, as the first icing you put on is much smoother than the last, then use the last of the icing for the middle of your cake, as that does not show. After making this icing once, in this manner, we do not think you will ever attempt the other icing which everybody makes. This amount will cover one cake.


Beat the cream stiff enough to stand alone, and this cannot be done unless you have very thick cream; add the sugar and the vanilla to it and mix thoroughly; beat the whites after adding a pinch of salt to them, until very stiff, then mix them well with the whipped cream, and with a spoon, fill your cups which have previously been lined with the Sunshine cake, cut up as directed, or with Lady Fingers, split open. This makes a delicious dessert, and putting a candied cherry on top of each one, sets them off a great deal.



Mix the water, lemon juice, and orange juice together, and add enough sugar to sweeten to suit the taste. Then strain it and add enough green coloring to make it a very pale green; then add the peppermint, which will give it a peculiar flavor that is very fine.

Claret punch may be made in the same manner, only leave out the peppermint and green coloring, and in their place add enough claret to flavor and color it. Serve these cold.


Mix sugar and cocoa well together, then add the hot water, set on stove, stir until it commences to boil, then add a pinch of salt and stop stirring, and cook exactly two minutes after it starts boiling. Set off the stove, and when cool stir into it the vanilla. Then pour it into a glass jar and put away until needed. This syrup is to use in making hot chocolate or cocoa, and is done in the following manner: put a tablespoon of the syrup in your cup, then put in two tablespoonfuls of cream, and stir them together thoroughly, then fill your cup with boiling water, and you have a cup of hot cocoa which is very hard to beat, and is made as you see, much easier than stopping to cook it each time, as by having the syrup on hand, the only thing necessary, when you wish a cup of hot cocoa, is to simply have some boiling water. A little whipped cream put on top, after adding the hot water, improves it very much.


This recipe alone, to anyone fond of this drink, is worth a great deal. If the syrup gets too thick at any time, thin it a little with a syrup made of sugar and water. You may also use it in making chocolate icing. It is also used in making chocolate ice cream; and you use for this purpose, one-half pint of the syrup to each gallon of cream, putting it in when the cream is partly frozen.


Put all this in a kettle, stir till it boils, then wash down sides of kettle, and cook to about 218 or 220. Set in a cool place, and do not disturb till cold. If it is a little too thick when cold, add a little water. This makes a fine syrup and with the thermometer, it can be made the same every time. If it is allowed to cool without being disturbed, it will not sugar, and will keep indefinitely.



Acetic Acid 15
Almond Paste 16
Alakuma 66
Angelica 33
Baby Cream 51
Black Walnut Fudge 40
Bon-Bons 28
Lemon Fig 32
Nectar 33
Violet 33
Pistachio 33
Coated Cherries 34
Fig Paste 34
Marshmallow 34
Maple 34
Cocoanut 35
Bon-Bon Centers 25
Bon-Bon Cream 19
Brittle 54
Black Walnut 56
Date 56
Fig 56
Nut 57
Peanut 54
Brownies 42
Butterscotch 52
Butterscotch (soft) 53
Cakes 101
Angel Food 101
Brides 104
Devil’s Food 102
Golden 102
Sponge 103
Sunshine 103
Cake Baking 99
Cake Icing (Oriental) 104
Candied Cherries 25
Fruits 25
Orange Peel 69
Candy Hook 9
Paddle 8
Caramels 43
Chocolate 44
Full Cream 45
Mexican Grain 46
Maple 45
Nut 45
Strawberry 45
Vanilla 43
Center Cream 73
Maple 74
Centers (Making) 74
Charlotte Russe 105
Cherry Bounce 65
Chocolate 15
Chocolate Caramels 44
Chocolate Coated Almonds 79
Brittle 79
Caramel 79
Cherries 79
Dates 78
Fudge 79
Fig Paste 79
Filberts 80
Kisses 81
Marshmallow 78
Nabisco 81
Nuts 79
Peanut Fritters 80
Pecan Fritters 80
Pineapple 81
Maraschino Cherries 81
Wafers 79
Chocolate Creams 77
Chocolate Syrup 106
Citron 25
Cocoanut Centers 36
Kisses 37
Cocoa (hot) 106
Color Pastes 16
Corn Syrup 15
Cream of Tartar 15
Coffee Fondant 25
Cream Wafers 35
Chocolate Fudge 40
Chocolate Taffy 48
Cream Taffy 51
Dates 25
Nutted 69
Stuffed 69
Dipping Wire 10
Double Boiler 10[109]
Dragees (silver) 91
Filbert Pyramids 80
Flavors 15
Fondant 19
Maple 25
Coffee 25
Fondant (working) 21
Fruit Loaf 68
Fritters 80
Filbert 80
Pecan 80
Figs 25
Fudge 39
Chocolate 40
Black Walnut 40
Maple 40
Opera 41
Vanilla 39
Funnel 9
French Chewing Taffy 49
Fig Brittle 56
Gelatine 15
General Instructions 5
Glace Nuts 61
Gloves 10
Grilled Nuts 62
Glucose 14
Horehound Candy 61
How to Blanch Almonds 70
Coat Chocolates 83
Crack Nuts 16
Make Bon-Bons 28
Mould in Cornstarch 74
Pull Taffy 47
Read Thermometer 10
Iced Lemon Walnuts 66
Iced Shell Barks 66
Kettle 8
Kisses 49
Cocoanut 37
French Chewing 49
Molasses 48
Salt Water 50
Marble Slab 7
Maraschino Cherries 81
Materials for Candy Making 13
Mexican Penoche 65
Milk 14
Mould 10
Moulding in Cornstarch 74
Nougatines 60
Nougat (Turkish) 66
Nonparaf 15
Nutted Dates 69
Nut Brittle 57
Nut Puffs 65
Nuts 16
Almond 17
Black Walnut 17
English Walnut 16
Filbert 17
Hickory nut 17
Peanut 18
Pecan 17
Pistachio 18
Opera Fudge 41
Ornaments for Bon-Bons 33
Oriental Jelly 63
Orientals 95
Nut 97
Maple 98
Coating 83
Moulding Centers 97
Packing Candy 71
Paddle 8
Paper 16
Rice 16
Wafer 16
Wax 16
Peanut Bar 59
Peanut Brittle 54
Peppermint Reception Mints 52
Pineapple (Chocolate) 81
Pop Corn 57
Balls 58
Crisp 57
Sugared 58
Punch (Oriental) 106
Puffs 64
Nut 65
Pineapple 64
Reception Mints 52
Salted Almonds 70
Salted Peanuts 71
Scraper 8
Spatula 8
Spinning Sugar 69
Steel Bars 8
Sugar 13
Table Syrup 107
Taffy 47
Chocolate 48
Baby Cream 51[110]
Cream Taffy 51
Ice Cream 51
Salt Water 48
Molasses 48
Strawberry 48
Thermometer 7-10
Tools 7
Turkish Nougat 66
Water 14
Wafers 35
Butterscotch 53
Peppermint 35
Wintergreen 35
Chocolate 36


Funnel 9
Candy Hook 9
Double Boiler 10
Thermometer 10
Utensils for Fondant 19
Working the Fondant—
Figure 1 21
Figures 2 and 3 22
Figure 4 23
Making Bon-Bons 27
Box of Candy 72
Bon-Bon Divider 71
Coating Chocolates 82
Figures 1 and 2 87
Figures 3 and 4 88
Figure 5 89
Figure 6 90
Figure 7 91
Figures 8, 9, 10, 11 92


Flavoring Extracts

Are so strong that only a small quantity may be used to give a delicious flavor. Consequently they are well adapted to be used in candy, as the flavors will not evaporate when heat is used.

Guaranteed absolutely pure by Joseph Burnett Company under Pure Food and Drugs Act of 1906, Serial No. 91.

We recommend and sell Burnett’s
Standard Flavoring Extracts.





“U. S. Certified”

Nothing can take their place. Absolutely harmless, perfectly pure, bright in hue, and much stronger than any liquid colors.

Burnett’s Standard Color Pastes are made in accordance with the very severe U. S. Government Regulations regarding the manufacture of colors.

We recommend and sell Burnett’s
Standard Color Pastes.



Transcriber’s Notes:

Obvious punctuation errors repaired. Some printing errors were resolved using the fourth edition, 1915.

Page 5, “convenence” changed to “convenience” (are a great convenience)

Page 5, “matreials” changed to “materials” (for the materials)

Page 8, “awys” changed to “ways” (in various other ways)

Page 13, “244” changed to “254” for soft or light crack for candies.

Page 15, “paraffin” changed to “paraffine” to match rest of usage in text (instead of paraffine in all)


Page 25, “composced” changed to “composed” (is composed of candied)

Page 28, “ind” changed to “kind” (no fruit of any kind)

Page 29, “necessray” changed to “necessary” (probably be necessary)

Page 30, “the” added to text (stick the fork underneath)

Page 30, “enge” changed to “edge” (over the edge of kettle)

Page 32, “heatd” changed to “heated” (was not heated enough)

Page 40, repeated word “and” removed from text. Original read (size, and and make it)

Page 42, text for “BROWNIES” had a repeated line from the “OPERA FUDGE” recipe preceding. The original text read:

Use the recipe for “Opera Fudge,” adding a tablespoon-
in a can or jar with a tight cover, and keep it in a cool, dry
batch. Follow the directions for making opera fudge exactly

Page 44, “puring” changed to “pouring” (after pouring your candy)

Page 54, “it” changed to “is” (the candy is cooked)

Page 55, “hraden” changed to “harden” (will harden very quickly)

Page 64, a repeated line makes the recipe hard to understand. Original read:

and pour the eggs into the kettle with the plain syrup, stir-
ring the syrup continually. The ettle which held the eggs
ring the syrup continually. The kettle which held the eggs
double mixing as quickly as possible or the syrup is liable to
sugar and harden for you before you get it mixed. Continue

The corrected version was copied from the 1915 edition.

Page 67, “so” changed to “no” (under no circumstances)

Page 67, “boiles” changed to “boils” (fire, stir until it boils)

Page 70, “drown” changed to “drawn” (wires drawn through)

Page 75, “you” changed to “your” (if your starch is packed)

Page 77, “reult” changed to “result” (result is a hard center)

Page 84, “entrely” changed to “entirely” (left them entirely before)

Page 85, “choclate” changed to “chocolate” (the chocolate is kept)

Page 85, “prat” changed to “part” (lower part of the boiler)

Page 90, “qiuckly” changed to “quickly” (cool them quickly)

Page 95, “you” changed to “your” (filling your Christmas)

Page 96, “o” changed to “or” (until dry, or will)

Page 97, “kneeding” changed to “kneading” (walnuts by kneading)

Page 108, “Alkuma” changed to “Alakuma” (Alkuma 66)

Page 109, “Non-Paraf” changed to “Nonparaf” to match usage in text (Nonparaf 15)

Page 109, “Hickorynut” changed to “Hickory nut” to match usage in text (Hickory nut 17)

Page 110, “Figure” changed to “Figures” (Figures 1 and 2)