The Project Gutenberg eBook of Newark's Last Fifteen Years, 1904-1919. The Story in Outline

This ebook is for the use of anyone anywhere in the United States and most other parts of the world at no cost and with almost no restrictions whatsoever. You may copy it, give it away or re-use it under the terms of the Project Gutenberg License included with this ebook or online at If you are not located in the United States, you will have to check the laws of the country where you are located before using this eBook.

Title: Newark's Last Fifteen Years, 1904-1919. The Story in Outline

Author: Newark Public Library

Release date: January 2, 2016 [eBook #50825]

Language: English

Credits: Produced by Charlene Taylor, Tom Cosmas and the Online
Distributed Proofreading Team at (This
file was produced from images generously made available
by The Internet Archive/American Libraries.)


Transcriber Note

An Index has been added at the end to facilitate location of subjects.


Newark's Last Fifteen Years, 1904-1919.

The Story in Outline.

« 1 »

Newark's Last Fifteen Years, 1904-1919.

Interesting Facts, arranged Alphabetically by Subjects

This compilation is an attempt by a busy library staff to put into form convenient for use a large group of such facts and figures as experience shows are often asked for. The notes which follow tell how we happen to be so interested in Newark's story, why so many questions on that story come to us, and what kind of help we hope Newarkers may get from it.

About seventeen years ago the Library began to collect information about Newark. We began with a search for good topical poetry and for historical stories so written as to appeal to young people. Of these we found very little; though poor verse and poor history were both abundant.

Then we extended our search to the field of Newark as a going concern. In this field we found so little in print that was fairly descriptive of the actual Newark of the time, from water supply to sewers, and from parks to jails, that we began to write it ourselves.

We were moved to do this largely because certain changes in school work led many pupils and teachers to come to us for information. Our brief, typed and multigraphed statements about subjects like the city hospital, paving and street cleaning, proved to be very welcome. We gathered a vast deal of Newark information and, in time, cast much of it into convenient form for use in the Library and for lending. In these days we held in the Library several annual exhibits illustrative of and calling attention to events of both early and recent days in Newark's history.

Mr. Frank J. Urquhart, one of the editors of the Newark Sunday Call, had long been an advocate of the study of Newark by its citizens, both old and young. At the request of the Library, he wrote a brief history of Newark for the use of young people, which later the Board of « 2 » Education adopted as a text-book in the schools. Mr. Urquhart helped the Library very materially in the collection of historical data and in exhibits of Newark life and customs in the past.

Several years ago the schools took over this Newark work and, of course, vastly expanded it, and made of it a Course, running through all grades, on the City of Newark, and supplied for it a text-book and more than forty pamphlets of Newark information.

Dr. A. B. Poland, then Superintendent of our Schools, approved heartily of all this Newark study work, and at his request Assistant Superintendent J. Wilmer Kennedy prepared the Course of Study and the pamphlets just mentioned.

The demand for Newark information which came to the Library was, of course, rather increased than diminished by this adoption of a Newark Study Course by the schools.

Moreover, Newark has now a much larger number of persons who are interested in its development and its character and its recent self-improvement than it had fifteen years ago. Consequently, the requests received from adults for facts and figures concerning recent events in our city are much more numerous than they were formerly.

Looking back over the world's history with the perspective of many years, you would not find it an easy matter to select any fifteen-year period about which you might wish to write even the briefest review. That is, events appear to lose their importance or to produce unexpected results with the passing years, and only a comparatively few happenings remain conspicuous for all time and for all peoples.

There is, however, a peculiar fascination about history in the making, and especially local history within one's own memory. Perhaps it may be compared to the study of a dead language as an intellectual pursuit and the study of a live language for the pleasure or profit of human intercourse. Both are desirable—the one, as a background, the other, as a foreground of education.

Newark's history from the days of Robert Treat was so thoroughly reviewed at the time of the 250th Anniversary Celebration, 1916, that we have elected to treat as background everything prior to 1904 and to concern ourselves with the story of Newark from that year to the present. This means that the high school graduate of June, 1919, should find between the covers of this pamphlet a record of the city from the time he or she entered the kindergarten. With these dates in mind it was really astonishing to find how many changes and what material advances « 3 » had been made within the fifteen years. As you thought of the building of the City Hall and Court House; the changed appearance of the "Four Corners"; the opening of the Hudson and Manhattan Tubes; the new Public Service Terminal; the adaptation of automatic appliances in fire fighting; the impetus given movements like "Safety First", vacant lot cultivation and thrift with its school banks; the bigger civic undertakings like City Plan, Passaic Valley Sewer; Port Newark and the unexpected trend of its development due to the war; the war itself, representing the effect of a world event on a city's activities; the 250th Anniversary, a local celebration, but illustrative of Newark's relations with the outside world; and, finally, of the change of city administration to Commission Government—you wonder whether history at close range invariably presents so much of interest, or whether 1904-1919 happens to be a particularly progressive period, or whether Newark, suddenly conscious of its backwardness in many lines, is now making up for lost time.

So many facts presented themselves that the pamphlet soon outgrew our original conception of it, becoming much larger than was originally intended. It is still, however, a succession of facts and in no sense a consecutive history. Because it grew from fact to fact, suggested by one assistant and perhaps set down by another; and because from the first day the idea was suggested to the day when work stopped, a lapse of three months, we were daily expecting that copy must go to the printer on the morrow, the entries are not as complete, or the whole as well balanced as we should wish. One consideration which delayed our work, but which should contribute to any value it may have, was the fixed desire to avoid loose, indefinite statement and to resist the inclination to make irrelevant comment when real information is wanting or difficult to acquire. This determination grew as our own searches and questionings showed how common is this looseness of statement. For the facts and information which it was impossible or very difficult to get from records on file, we wish to make grateful acknowledgment to city departments, newspapers, societies and individuals who responded promptly and graciously to our calls for assistance.

August, 1919.

C. V. D.

« 4 »

Newark: 1904-1919.

All-Year School: Established at Belmont Ave. and McKinley schools, June 1, 1912. Each year's work divided into four 12 week terms instead of two 20 week terms. Enables pupil to complete 8 grades' work in 6 years instead of 8, as he ordinarily would. Attendance during summer term is not compulsory.

Almshouse: New home for aged and infirm poor at Ivy Hill, beyond Irvington, erected 1913-14 and opened Jan. 1916. Accommodates 400 to 500 people. Has farm of 70 acres so those who are able can work and help to support themselves. Surveyed by Russell Sage Foundation, Dept. of Surveys and Exhibits, 1918-19.

Alternating Plan: Introduced in Cleveland and Madison Schools, 1913. Nov. 1915, Cleveland and Abington Ave. schools organized on complete plan with daily vocational and recreational activities.

Essential feature consists in so co-ordinating work of two teachers that each may make alternate use of classroom, court and auditorium. Makes for economy in erection of buildings, since under the alternate plan, it is possible to accommodate in any fully equipped building from 40% to 50% more pupils than under the regular system. Broader curriculum with longer school day. Modification of the "Wirt" system practiced in the schools of Gary, Indiana.

Apartment Houses: City directory for 1906 lists apartment houses, 41, separately for the first time; now over 300.

Athletic Association, Public School: Formed April 26, 1904.

Athletic Field, Public School: Bloomfield and Roseville Aves. Annual meet held here for first time June, 1913.

Automobiles: N. J. Dept. of Motor Vehicles was established 1906 for the registration and supervision of automobiles. Prior to that time this work had been done in the secretary of state's office and originally applications for car registrations were signed by the county clerk. In 1900, as far as the first records show, there were not more than 10 or 12 motor-drawn vehicles in the entire state. In 1918, the number registered was 155,519 exclusive of motorcycles.

Band Concerts: First given, 1903, 25 in a year; appropriation, $3,000. 1918 appropriation, $5,000; 60 concerts; attended by 350,000 persons.

« 5 »

Bank Buildings: See Buildings.

Baths, Public: Public Bath Assoc. formed, 1907. By courtesy of Bd. of Street and Water Commissioners undertook supervision of 3 old bath houses on Summer Ave., Morris Ave., and Walnut St.

Bill passed N. J. Legislature, 1910, permitting Newark to issue bonds for public baths, up to $250,000.

Site of Montgomery St. bath purchased and work begun, 1911. Opened, Sept. 1913. Cost, $100,000.

Placed under the control of Playground Commission, 1913.

Hamburg Pl. (now Wilson Ave.) bath opened, July, 1917.

Baths closed by order of Mayor on account of lack of coal, Dec. 10, 1917. Re-opened by vote of Commission, Jan. 25, 1918.

Birth Rate:

Population Rate per Thousand
1904 272,000 25.8
1905 283,000 25.1
1906 290,000 26.3
1907 300,000 27.9
1908 305,000 29.2
1909 311,000 30.8
1910 347,469 29.6
1911 352,000 30.9
1912 370,000 29.3
1913 380,000 29.4
1914 395,000 29.0
1915 375,000 29.2
1916 385,000 29.7
1917 405,000 30.4
1918 430,000 27.0

Blind, Work for: N. J. Commission for the Blind created by act of Legislature, 1909, to supervise and encourage work for the blind. State headquarters, originally established at 54 James St., Newark, now located at 147 Summer Ave.

Here the Commission conducts classes in reading, writing, stenography, typewriting, basketry, cane-seating, weaving, piano tuning, and other manual arts. It also sends out teachers to instruct the adult blind in their homes. First public school class for blind in Newark inaugurated, Sept., 1910, in Washington St. School.

« 6 »

Under act of 1918, creating State Dept. of Charities and Corrections (now Dept. of Institutions and Agencies), this Commission is given entire charge of all state matters relating to the blind.

Boy's Vocational School: Opened April, 1910, in Warren St. School, at Warren and Wickliffe Sts.

Building of new school, to be located on Sussex Ave., bet. 1st and 2nd Sts., and known as the Seymour Vocational School, in honor of James M. Seymour, Mayor of Newark, 1896-1903, has been postponed by war. Building plans and curriculum will follow recommendations made by an Advisory Committee to Bd. of Education (appointed Aug., 1916) in its survey, Vocational Overview of Newark, New Jersey, which was prepared by Charles H. Winslow.

Buildings: (This list is here entered to show how many municipal, educational and notable commercial buildings have been erected within the last few years.)

American Insurance Co., Park Place and E. Park St. Present building completed Feb., 1904.

Merchants' National Bank, 770 Broad St., moved to new building Feb. 22, 1905.

New City Hall, Broad St., between Green and Franklin Sts., cornerstone laid Aug. 5, 1903, formally opened Dec. 20, 1906. Cost $2,500,000.

New Court House, junction of Springfield Ave. and Market St., completed 1907. Cost $2,000,000.

Mutual Benefit Life Ins. Co.'s new building. Broad and Clinton Sts., completed 1908.

Firemen's Office Building, 16-story, at "Four Corners", completed 1910.

Ironbound Trust Co., Market and Ferry Sts. Present building opened July 25, 1910.

N. Y. Telephone Co., 281 Washington St. New building completed Nov. 1, 1910.

East Side High School, Van Buren St., bet. Warwick and Nichols Sts., opened March 1, 1911.

Broad St. Theatre, Broad St., opp. Central Ave. Opened under name of Shubert Theater, Jan. 8, 1912.

Lehigh Valley Railroad Station, Meeker Ave., Weequahic Park section, opened Jan. 27, 1912. Cost $60,000.

« 7 »

Central High School, High St., bet. New and Summit Sts., opened Feb. 1, 1912.

Essex Co. National Bank Building, 753 Broad St. Now occupied by Fidelity Trust Co. Completed June, 1912.

National State Bank, Broad and Mechanic Sts. Present building completed Oct. 1, 1912.

L. Bamberger & Co.'s Department Store, Market, Halsey and Washington Sts., opened Oct. 15, 1912.

Kinney Office Building, 12-story, at "Four Corners", completed 1913.

New Board of Health Building, William and Plane Sts., completed 1913.

Young Women's Christian Association, 53 Washington St., completed 1913, and dedicated Nov. 3, 1913.

Washington Trust Co., 477 Broad St., completed Sept. 1913.

South Side High School, Johnson Ave., cor. Alpine St., opened Sept. 8, 1913.

N. J. State Normal School, Belleville and 4th Aves., opened Sept. 16, 1913.

West Side Trust Co., Springfield Ave. and High St. Present building opened July 1, 1914.

Public Service Terminal, Park Place, completed, 1916. Cost, $5,000,000.

Robert Treat Hotel, Park Place, named for founder of Newark. Completed during the 250th Anniversary Celebration, May, 1916.

Federal Trust Co., 740 Broad St., adjoining Mutual Benefit Life Ins. Co.'s building and erected by Mutual Benefit Life Ins. Co. Completed 1918.

Central Railroad of N. J. Station, South Broad St. Work begun on new building, Nov., 1916; completed Feb., 1919. Total cost, including property acquired, $650,000.

Carteret Book Club: Established for printing fine editions and study of art of book making, Dec. 12, 1908. Published, 1917, a volume "Newark", containing "a series of engravings on wood by Rudolph Ruzicka, with an appreciation of the pictorial aspects of the town by Walter Prichard Eaton". Limited edition of 200 copies printed by Merrymount Press, Boston.

Catholic Children's Aid Association of N. J.: Organized 1904 and headquarters established in Newark with paid agent. Proceeded to « 8 » withdraw children from Catholic institutions and to place them in private Catholic homes. Instituted work to prevent separation of families and placing of children in institutions, by prosecuting parents and perpetuating homes. Headquarters now located at 776 Broad St.

Charities: Bur. of Associated Charities, organized 1882, reorganized 1904. Private organization, supported by voluntary contributions, but with work so far-reaching and constructive that it has become a center for co-operative effort among all charitable agencies in the city. Has a visiting Housekeeper Department, Provident Savings Fund, General Information Bureau and trained social workers to study causes and conditions. In 1903-04 there were 239 contributors and contributions amounting to $3,000. In 1918-19 there were 3,000 contributors and contributions of $48,000.

In 1906, at suggestion of Bureau, Bd. of Trade appointed a committee to examine claims of charities soliciting contributions, and to try to name those worthy of support. This is now known as the Bd. of Trade Endorsement Committee. In 1917 there were 63 endorsed charities.

In 1912 and again in 1916, the secretary of the Associated Charities published a classified directory of the philanthropies of Newark, a genuine contribution to the study of social problems.

For facts about distinct lines of work or particular undertakings consult this directory or the Associated Charities Bur.

Charter, City: A city charter is the constitution or frame of government of a city conferred on that city by the state legislature.

First charter incorporating township of Newark, granted by Queen Anne to Robert Treat, 1713. Legislature incorporated township of Newark, 1798. Legislature incorporated it under name of Mayor and Common Council of City of Newark, 1836. The 1857 revision, authorized by act of Legislature, embodied all changes made since 1836.

Mayor Haussling appointed a committee which formulated and published draft of new city charter, 1911.

Mayor Raymond appointed "Charter Revision Commission", which presented its proposed charter to Legislature, 1917. It provided for a mayor, and Commission of five, elected at large. Mayor to have veto power and to appoint heads of departments. This was defeated in Assembly, March, 1917.

See also Commission Government.

« 9 »

Child Hygiene Division, Board of Health: Established Aug., 1913, to supervise care of new-born babies, to study causes of infant mortality and to teach art and science of mothercraft. Chief, 4 clinic physicians and 14 nurses now in attendance. Has continued work of consultation stations, formerly directed by general board, at which advice is given expectant mothers and mothers of children up to school age. Supervises boarding-homes of infants up to 3 years of age, which by ordinance of July 6, 1915, must be licensed by Health Bd. Also supervises unmarried mothers and is planning convalescent home for them at Ivy Hill.

A supervisor of midwives was appointed Nov., 1914, to investigate and report on practice of midwifery and has continued to direct work of midwives, who attend 50% of the births of the city.

Christmas Trees, Municipal: The first tree, a Norway spruce, 48 ft. high, with spread of 30 ft., was set up in Military Park, Christmas, 1913. Illuminated at night with 800 electric lights, and 50 in star shape at top. Week of festival followed. Similar festivities held around trees set up in the park next 2 years.

In 1916 a great Norway spruce was set up in south lawn fronting City Hall. Inside the building, a smaller tree was placed in rotunda for week of festival. These City Hall Christmas Festivals brought together old and young, rich and poor, for singing and games and Christmas good cheer of all kinds. For the past 2 years there has been no municipal Christmas Tree, but Christmas festivities have been held in the City Hall.

Churches: Items of church history,—buildings erected, parish houses annexed, missions established, etc.,—are too numerous to be recorded in a brief, general outline. Detailed sketches of individual churches have been written by Rev. Joseph F. Folsom and appended to Urquhart's History of Newark, Vol. II., pp. 949-1020.

City Home: See Delinquent Children.

City Plan Commission: "City planning means development of our city according to carefully prepared plans; stopping all further random development, all haphazard extensions, and all improvements for certain favored sections or limited localities. It means considering every suggested change or improvement as to its effect on the entire city and all suburbs and nearby towns.

"City planning is for all, and especially for the man of modest income. It means better housing and attractive and healthful surroundings « 10 » for the humblest homes. It means securing for the cheapest tenement the sunny, airy, sanitary conditions which health, science and common sense demand.

"It means a City Efficient, a City Clean and a City Enjoyable."

An act providing for city plan commissions passed N. J. Legislature and became a law March 30, 1911. On June 1, Mayor Haussling appointed the Newark City Plan Commission. For its investigations and work, $10,000 was annually appropriated until the adoption of Commission Government. Under this form of government there were no further appropriations for special boards and the City Plan Commission went out of existence, Dec. 31, 1917.

Some of the subjects studied and reported on by the Commission aside from street arrangement, were Centre Market, Housing Problems, Municipal Recreation, Interurban Improvement and Harbor Development. The Commission issued "City Planning for Newark" and "A Comprehensive Plan". Both are valuable documents and rich in Newark facts.

Civil Service Reform: The system by which public offices are filled and promotions made through competitive examinations held under federal, state or city government. It is known as the "merit system", since it looks toward the appointment of men to office because of their competency. It is a reaction from the "spoils system" or the practice of giving public offices to political favorites. The state measure was adopted, 1910, by Newark, by popular vote.

Coal Shortage: 27,000 emergency coal cards, entitling each person to 1,000 pounds of coal, were issued by Bd. of Health during coal shortage in the winter of 1917-18. U. S. government instituted Workless Mondays to conserve coal, and boards of education closed school buildings for lack of fuel.

College of Technology: See Technical School.

Comfort Stations: First public comfort station, in Military Park, ready for use July, 1910. Cost $14,734. Maintained by Shade Tree Commission, now a division of Dept. of Parks and Public Property.

Commission Government: Adopted Oct. 9, 1917, at a special referendum election. Vote 19,069 for, and 6,053 against.

Present commissioners elected Nov. 13, 1917, to serve until May, 1921, are:

« 11 »

Mayor Charles P. Gillen. Dept. of Public Affairs.

Alexander Archibald. Dept. of Revenue and Finance.

William J. Brennan. Dept. of Public Safety.

Thomas L. Raymond. Dept. of Streets and Public Improvements.

John F. Monahan. Dept. of Parks and Public Property.

Change of government authorized under Walsh Act, passed by the N. J. Legislature April 25, 1911. 5 commissioners, elected by the people and responsible to them, replace a mayor, 32 common council members, numerous departments and boards. The commission names one of its members to be mayor. He becomes chief Commissioner, but has no veto power.

Contemporary, The: Organized April 23, 1909, by representatives of Sesame, Philomathean, Irving, Saturday and Municipal Art Clubs. To meet need for single large organization of Newark women, working toward a better knowledge of civic conditions and for the development of good fellowship among women.

204 active and 198 associate members enrolled at first regular meeting, Oct. 19, 1909. Admitted to State Federation of Women's Clubs, Oct. 24, 1909. Legally incorporated, April 19, 1915. Total membership, Sept., 1918, was 1,461.

Among its activities have been the institution of a social hygiene movement; the organization of the Housewives' League; advocacy of the founding of a State College for Women; opening a boarding home for girls; and work for prison reform, mothers' pensions, child welfare and delinquency, emergency relief and food conservation.

Co-operative School: First established April 3, 1916, in Fawcett School of Industrial Arts. Wrappers from several department stores given lessons in salesmanship during working hours without loss of wages.

Course of Study: Uniform course for high schools adopted May 27, 1915. Educational and cultural value of manual arts recognized by requiring them in all curricula. Arts curriculum carrying full credit in music and art introduced as major subjects. All other courses modified and adjusted to meet more adequately needs of students preparing for office, shop, home or higher institution of learning.

Crippled Children, School for: Opened July 7, 1912 in Home for Crippled Children. 17 pupils ranging in age from 4 to 13 years. Heretofore no schooling had been provided.

« 12 »

Deaf, Public School Classes for: First class organized in Chestnut St. School with 11 pupils, 1910. In Oct., 1915, classes in lip-reading for adults were organized as part of evening school program.

Death Rate: Statistics for this period are noteworthy because they show effects of infantile paralysis epidemic in 1916, and of influenza in 1918, which, though less alarming in its symptoms, had more fatal results.

Population No. Deaths Death Rate
1904 272,000 5,378 19.77
1905 283,239 5,025 17.74
1906 290,000 5,551 19.14
1907 300,000 5,724 19.08
1908 305,000 5,207 17.07
1909 311,000 5,529 17.77
1910 347,469 5,784 16.64
1911 352,000 5,337 15.16
1912 370,000 5,423 14.65
1913 380,000 5,562 14.63
1914 395,000 5,809 14.70
1915 375,000 5,382 14.30
[A]1916 385,000 6,357 16.50
1917 405,000 5,205 15.30
[A]1918 430,000 8,482 19.70

[A] See Infantile Paralysis; Influenza.

Delinquent Children: Juvenile court act, providing for separate trial of all offenders under 16 years, passed by N. J. Legislature, 1903. Essex Co. Juvenile Court established in Newark the same year. To prevent association of young offenders with hardened criminals. Judge may commit the boy or girl to a reformatory institution or refer the case to a probation officer. In the latter case the child is released but must report regularly to the officer until the probation period is passed.

House of Detention, 120 Newark St., county institution maintained in connection with juvenile court, was opened Dec., 1910. For accommodation of children awaiting trial, and for those held as witnesses. Were formerly kept at police station or jail.

Essex Co. Parental School, Sussex Ave., bet. Hecker and Duryee Sts., authorized by N. J. law of 1912, was opened May 1, 1916. Supersedes House of Detention now used only for juvenile witnesses. Provides a temporary home for juvenile delinquents and neglected children « 13 » and aims to be an educational rather than penal institution. Here juvenile court is held and probation cases reported.

Ungraded Schools, No. 1 (So. 10th St.), and No. 2 (Chestnut St.), were erected, 1911, for better accommodation of classes of truants and incorrigibles. Curriculum provides for usual common school branches with particular emphasis placed upon manual and vocational studies. These 2 schools, with the classes in Academy St., established 1898, are the only schools of this kind under direction of the Bd. of Education. In addition there is the Newark Parental School, at Verona, formerly known as the City Home. Maintained by the city for the most difficult cases from ungraded schools. Provides a home as well as schooling like the Essex Co. Parental School, except that it takes boys only.

Dental Clinic Association: Organized 1909 and financed from private sources. Later supported by city under N. J. law of 1910, with amendments 1911 and 1913, allowing Common Council to appropriate $10,000 annually. Provides free dental services for children under 16, unable to pay for treatment. 3 clinics opened at 74 Newton St., 346 Ferry St., and 297 Orange St. 7,623 individuals treated and 24,878 operations performed in 1918.

Orange St. Clinic closed Nov. 1, 1918, because of insufficient funds and scarcity of operators, is expected to re-open. Appropriation increased to $20,000 by N. J. law of 1919.

Detention, House of: See Delinquent Children.

Education Board: Change from elective board of 32 members, 2 from each ward for term of 2 years, to present board of 9 members appointed by Mayor for term of 3 years, made at general election held Nov. 5, 1907.

Employment Bureau, Municipal: Established Nov. 15, 1909. Merged its activities with U. S. Dept. of Labor and N. J. Dept. of Labor, July 1, 1918.

Shortly after the armistice was signed, a Soldiers' and Sailors' Dept. was organized to assist discharged men to secure positions, advising and aiding the injured to obtain compensation and vocational training.

Exhibitions: Newark History, Free Public Library, May 17-June 1, 1905. Review of the city's growth from a little settlement of a few houses to prosperous industrial center. Maps, portraits, pictures, curios. « 14 » Exhibit repeated in subsequent years as school children's interest in local history developed.

Industrial Expositions, 1st Regiment Armory, (1) May 13-25, 1912 (the first since Aug., 1872); (2) Sept. 12-26, 1914; (3) May 13-June 3, 1916, 250th Anniversary event.

Industrial, L. Bamberger & Co.'s store, Feb., 1913; Feb., 1914; Feb., 1915.

Fire Prevention, City Hall. First exhibit held Nov. 12, 1913. Exhibits held annually since that date for week beginning Oct. 9th. This date, the anniversary of the great Chicago fire, 1871, is generally known throughout the country as Fire and Accident Prevention Day. In 1918 the date was changed to Nov. 11th that it might not interfere with the 4th Liberty Loan. See also Safety Movement.

Municipal, City Hall. March 1-7, 1915. Showing work of various departments of the city government and their inter-relations. Held in connection with an exhibit of foreign and American city planning.

Clay Products of N. J., Newark Museum, Feb. 1-March 28, 1915. Brick, tile, sanitary ware, electrical ware, table ware, crucibles, earthenware, etc., and demonstration of casting, pressing and turning on the potter's wheel.

Textiles, Newark Museum, Feb. 1-March 28, 1916. Machine weaving, hand weaving, old and new, tapestry and weaving and embroideries, and a special group of textiles lent by foreign-born Newarkers.

School Work, South Side High School, July 5-Aug. 4, 1916. Feature of 250th Anniversary. Showed (1) organization of public school system. (2) equipment, appliances, supplies, etc. (3) work of all elementary grades, high schools, special classes and special subjects.

Homelands, Newark Museum, Feb. 1 to March 28, 1916. Costumes and textiles from foreign lands, mainly secured through the schools. Burnet St. School, July 10-Aug. 5, 1916. Jewelry, costumes, textiles, furniture, pottery, etc., from foreign lands, lent by Newarkers of foreign birth, representing, among others, France, Belgium, Switzerland, Germany, Poland, Lithuania, Ruthenia, Russia, Slovakia, Bohemia, Hungary, Italy, Armenia, and China. Plays, songs and native dances were part of the entertainment.

Colonial Kitchen, Newark Museum, Nov. 27, 1917-Feb. 28, « 15 » 1918. A room 16 ft. × 20 ft., completely furnished as in colonial days, with colonial domestic tools and utensils in cases.

The Soldier and Sailor, Newark Museum, March 14-April 1, 1918. Complete modern equipment as required by Army and Navy regulations; model of Camp Dix, comparison of uniforms and equipment from Revolution to date.

Industrial Housing and Better Homes Exposition, Krueger Auditorium, July 20-27, 1918. Many models made by manual training departments of Newark schools. Food conservation and war cookery, also features.

Colombia, South America, Newark Museum. June 1-Nov. 30, 1918. Products, manufactures, life and customs of this rich but little known neighbor.

Feebleminded, Public School Classes for: 5 classes established at College Pl., Lafayette St. and 7th Ave. Schools, Sept., 1910.

Fire Department, 1906: First self-propelled steam engine, "Mount Pelee", placed in service, Nov. 22, 1906. Cost $6,000, weight 8½ tons, built by Manchester Locomotive Works. Strangely enough the engine itself sent forth so many sparks, thereby setting fire to numerous awnings and other things along its route, that it was later converted into a tractor engine and is now part of the reserve.

1907. Central office Fire Alarm Telegraph Office installed in City Hall. Cost $55,000.

Bur. of Combustibles and Fire Risks established. Originated Fire Prevention Code which marked beginning of that important movement. Effective Dec., 1910.

1911. School of instruction for firemen established.

First motor-driven fire engine, of general type now in use, placed in service.

1917. Two platoon system inaugurated, whereby the fireman's working schedule is so arranged that he has 24 consecutive free hours every week.

1918. First fire boat, "William J. Brennan", named for the director of Dept. of Public Safety, placed in service June, 1918. On the night of its first day of service it was successful in extinguishing a dock fire, which might otherwise have resulted in $100,000 loss.

Flag, City: Officially adopted by Common Council, March 24, 1916. The field is white, with Jersey blue border. The city seal in gold, with gold-blue scroll and blue band beneath, occupies the center of the field.

« 16 »

Food and Drug Division—Board of Health: Established, 1913. Prior to that, only work carried on consisted of taking a few milk samples wherever suspicion was directed. Today the chief of division, chemist, 2 veterinarians, 4 milk inspectors, 4 food inspectors and a meat inspector keep close watch over food in every form, especially milk. Food-handling places, including restaurants, are supervised and scored; food handlers physically examined; live stock supervised.

Gary Schools: See Alternating Plan.

German Language: War led to decision May 27, 1918, that no new classes in German would be formed, although study would be continued in those classes already organized.

Girls' Vocational School: Recommended 1912. Opened Sept., 1914, in former Normal School building, Washington and Linden Sts.

Gymnasium, Public School: First gymnasium installed in new addition to Hamburg Place School during school year 1906-7. Barringer High School gymnasium annex opened 1909.

Health: See Birth Rate; Child Hygiene Division—Board of Health; Death Rate; Food and Drug Division—Board of Health; Infantile Paralysis; Influenza; Little Mother's League; Medical History, Museum of; Mental Hygiene, Bureau of—Board of Health; Milk Supply; Tuberculosis, Campaign Against; Venereal Diseases, Bureau of—Board of Health; Whooping Cough.

High Schools: Barringer, formerly Newark High School, was the only high school in the city, 1838-1904. In 1907 the name was changed to Barringer High School, in memory of Dr. William N. Barringer, city superintendent of schools for about 20 years.

East Side, opened March 1, 1911.
Central, opened Feb. 1, 1912.
South Side, opened Sept. 8, 1913.
See also Junior High Schools.

Housing: U. S. Homes Registration and Rent Profiteering Committee created July, 1918, with office in City Hall, branch of national organization for equitable protection of home rent payers and owners of dwellings. Undertook compilation of list of homes where war workers could obtain rooms. Conducted "Rent-a-Room" campaign as war expedient. Originally planned to aid war workers, service has broadened so that office has become a general housing bureau.

« 17 »

Basing its figures on local buildings reports Jan. 1, 1915-June 30, 1919, Sunday Call has estimated that Newark has shortage of 3,000 homes.

See also Apartments.

Indeterminate Sentence: See Prison Reform.

Industrial Expositions: See Exhibitions.

Industrial Schools: See Boys' Vocational School; Girls' Vocational School; Technical School.

Industry: Added celluloid to the world's products; built first locomotive engine to travel up grade; leads in manufacture of umbrella frames.

Produced first malleable cast iron; made first patent leather; is largest fine jewelry manufacturing centre; ranks 11th in U. S. in annual aggregate value of products.

Ranks 1st in N. J. in number of wage earners, amount of capital invested in manufacturing, amount paid in wages to workers, and value of goods produced.

Has one firm employing over 10,000 persons, 8 employing over 1,000, 19 employing over 500, 73 employing over 200, and 123 employing over 100 each.


1. Stores and Factories:

1904 1914 1918
Grocery stores 950 1,619 1,455
Dry goods stores 166 288 336
Automobile dealers 21 145 195
Machine and machinery mfrs. 79 99 125
Printers 68 116 129

2. Finance. Newark as a Financial Centre:

1904 1914 1918
Banks & Trust Cos. 17 28 27
"  "  "    "  Deposits $  48,593,824 $  91,881,371 $  150,584,502
Insurance Agencies 50 96 110
Fire insurance in force $  585,496,689 $1,823,849,317 $2,472,090,772
Life  "  "  " $1,416,345,076 $3,306,711,318 $4,879,947,621
Building & Loan Associations 111 245 259
Postal Savings Deposit (Begun Sept.
15, 1911)
$27,573 $42,587

« 18 »

3. General Growth:

1904 1914 1918
Population (Bd. of Health estimates) 272,000 395,000 430,000
Names listed in Newark directory 105,631 172,756 201,894
Corporations listed in Newark directory 573 1,695 1,751
Building permits granted 2,155 2,104 1,696
Amount spent on buildings $6,000,000 $10,610,277 $5,000,000

4. Factories:

1904 1914 1917
Establishments not
729 820
Total capital invested " $ 141,796,120.00 $ 204,249,525.00
Cost value of material used " $ 89,998,186.00 $ 203,732,015.00
Selling value of goods made " $ 167,793,408.00 $ 332,426,904.00
Average number persons employed " 57,156 69,066
Total amount paid in wages " $ 30,714,116.00 $ 53,277,897.00
Average yearly earnings of workers " $ 537.37 $ 771.41

Infantile Paralysis: Epidemic occurred during July, Aug. and Sept. 1, 1916. 1,360 cases with 363 deaths. Greatest number of cases reported week ending Aug. 12, 260. Highest prevalence under 5 years of age.

Necessitated closing all-year and summer schools, July 19, 1916, and postponing the opening of fall sessions until Sept. 25.

Influenza: Outset of epidemic apparent during last 4 days of Sept., 1918, when 435 cases were reported. Simultaneously a remarkable increase in pneumonia. Greatest daily number of influenza cases reported was 1,626, on Oct. 14. Most prevalent in Oct. but continued through Nov. and Dec. with a total of 29,269 cases of influenza and 3,853 cases of pneumonia. High prevalence was between 20 and 30 years. Total deaths, Oct.-Dec., 1918, were 1,354 from influenza and 829 from pneumonia.

All public drinking places, theaters, churches, dance halls, billiard rooms and other public places of assemblage closed Oct. 10-22. Schools closed Oct. 11, reopened Oct. 28.

Institute of Arts and Sciences, 367 High St. Incorporated 1910. Merging of Newark University Courses, given 1909, and College Extension Courses given for several years. To meet widespread demand for courses of university grade in Newark and nearby towns. Has co-operative support of New York University which supplies Institute with regular members of the N. Y. U. instructional staff. Credits courses taken for degrees in Washington Square College of N. Y. U.

« 19 »

Italian Language: 3 year study course introduced at Barringer High School, Feb. 1, 1919.

Jitneys: Or passenger auto-buses. First run in spring of 1916. 349 in operation July, 1919. Name originated in California, where a 5 cent piece, the fare, is commonly known as a "jitney".

Receipts Tax Passengers
1916 (7 months) $133,043.22 $  5,556.92 2,660,963
1917 409,774.86 17,332.74 8,195,491
1918 855,832.82 36,151.22 17,120,652
1919 (7 months) 959,473.69 39,940.61 19,189,472

Junior College: Established at South Side High School with 50 students Sept., 1918. Public school system thus extended to include the first two years of regular college course.

Junior High Schools: Established at Robert Treat, Madison and Cleveland Schools, Sept., 1917. 9th grade, equivalent to 1st year high school, added to grammar course, with departmental system in 7th and 8th grades. Experiment of teaching modern languages as early as the 7th grade tried with success, 1919.

Junior Museum Club: Founded June, 1916, by boy and girl delegates from 8B public school classes and members of the Irvington Museum Assoc., under leadership of Dr. Henry H. Rusby, of Newark, and the staff of the Newark Museum Assoc. Purpose: to collect and to study animals, insects, aquatic life, birds, botany, mineralogy, stamps and coins, electricity, photography, etc. Membership open to any boy or girl between 10 and 18 years of age. Affiliated with the Newark Museum Assoc. Headquarters, Public Library building.

Juvenile Court: See Delinquent Children.

Juvenile Delinquency: See Delinquent Children.

Lectures, Public: 25 years ago, the lecture system was a feature of the evening schools, and continued as such, until 1906, when it was decided to have the lectures for the people given in school buildings, designated as lecture centers. In 1907 there were 15 lecture centers, including the First Presbyterian Church, the Free Public Library and 13 school buildings.

During the season of 1907-08 there were 245 lectures with a total attendance of 105,210. For the season 1915-16 there were 30 « 20 » centers and 400 lectures, with an aggregate attendance of 160,890. During the war period, 1917-18, the attendance decreased.

Subjects treated in the lectures are history, patriotism, art, music, literature and geography. Many are illustrated by stereopticon views and a few by motion pictures. Musical programs have always proved popular.

Library, Public: Building completed, March, 1901. Cost of building, $315,000; cost of land, $100,000. Architects, Rankin & Kellogg, Philadelphia.

Number of books lent in 1904, 465,674. In 1911 the number passed the million mark and held it until, in 1918, the library's income was found to be inadequate, branch libraries were closed, and the number of books lent dropped, accordingly, 37%.

Art Department and Picture Collection, which were getting well under way in 1904 and lent 3,000 pictures that year, now lend over 100,000 small pictures, photographs, lithographs and prints. These pictures are used by teachers in 36 different schools for classroom work; also by artists, designers, jewelers, newspapers and journals, advertising men and others in trades and professions, needing illustrative material.

Barringer High School Branch. Opened, 1900, under management of Public Library. Management taken over by Bd. of Education and books purchased from the Public Library, 1915.

Business Branch. First opened in 1904 at 16 Academy St., with a collection of directories and a general book collection. First public library of business literature and information for business men ever established. Similar branches have since been established by libraries of other large cities. During the 15 years it moved 4 times, always near the business center at Broad and Market Streets, and special development along business lines has been steadily carried on.

Branch Libraries, General. Delivery stations were the Library's first attempt to reach people in sections distant from the main building. They were opened in drug stores at various centers as early as 1891 and were intended only for the collection and delivery of books borrowed by people in the neighborhood. Readers left their cards with a list of call numbers, taken from the old "finding list" or printed catalog. Requests were filled at the Library and books delivered to the station daily.

In 1906, because of increased use, delivery stations were replaced by deposit stations. At these deposit stations, still operated in stores, « 21 » the Library placed collections of several hundred books and continued the delivery system. When the lending of books outgrew deposit stations, branch libraries were the natural result. After branches were established, deposit stations were discontinued, Nov., 1914.

From 1905 to 1915, seven general branches in rented stores and two school branches, were opened for the convenience of residents in neighborhoods two or more miles from the main library. All branches closed in 1918 because of insufficient funds to carry on the work, which had grown to large proportions. For notes about branches, see chronological "Story of the Branches", in pamphlet "The Roseville Branch", published 1917.

Children's Books. The Children's Room at the Main Library always has a special collection of children's books to lend to children who live near enough to visit it. The branch libraries lent books also to children in their neighborhoods. The School Dept. sends to any teacher who wishes it, a school or classroom library of 25-40 books to lend to the children in her class. 400 or 500 of these libraries go into schools every year and 15,000 children read the books.

Civil Service law in operation since Dec. 22, 1910.

Fiction. Moved from the main Lending Room on 2nd floor to separate department on 1st floor Oct., 1912, for the convenience of borrowers.

High School Room, on 1st floor of Main Library. Contains books on the required reading lists of the four high schools. Opened March 13, 1918, for convenience of high school students. The whole Library is open to them for general use as before.

"The Library and the Museum Therein," first issued June 28, 1918. An eight page journal, illustrated, describing the activities and acquisitions of Library and Museum. Five numbers have appeared to date.

Music collection added April, 1907. Over $500 raised by friends for nucleus of collection.

"The Newarker", a "house organ", published "To introduce a City to itself and to its Public Library". Contained notices and articles on library activities and on local matters of public interest. Issued by the Library, Nov., 1911-Oct., 1915. Was taken over as news sheet of 250th Anniversary Committee of 100, Nov., 1915-Oct., 1916, and discontinued thereafter.

« 22 »

North Lawn. $53,750 appropriated by Common Council for purchase of 25 ft. lot, May 8, 1906.

Periodical Dept. Moved to 2nd floor corridor, Sept., 1918, for convenience of readers.

Registration Dept. Special room for registering new borrowers, adults and children, and for general registration work; opened on 1st floor, Oct. 14, 1912. Put the clerical work of the Library in one place, under one head.

Technical Dept., with books, magazines and pamphlets on trades and sciences, established Nov. 15, 1908.

Time limit on the borrowing of books, extended from 2 weeks to 1 month, March, 1904. One of the first libraries in the country to do this.

Lincoln Highway: Ocean-to-ocean highway from New York to San Francisco, named in honor of Abraham Lincoln. Formally opened in Jersey City and Newark, Dec. 13, 1913. Route through Newark: From city line east to city line south, on Old Plank Road, Ferry, Merchant, Lafayette, Broad, Clinton Ave., Astor St. and Frelinghuysen Ave. Section between Jersey City and Newark, formerly called Old Plank Road, now 100 ft. boulevard, cost $1,000,000. Turns marked by red, white and gold signs.

Little Mother's League: Organized in Belmont Ave. School, May 10, 1915, with 46 members, and in Montgomery School, May 26, 1915, with 29 members. Under direction of Health Bd.'s Div. of Child Hygiene. Members, girls between 11 and 13 years of age, volunteer to help care for city's babies. Each member undertakes the care of one mother and baby in her own neighborhood, visits them once a week and reports at consultation meetings held in the schools. Since May, 1915, over 1,151 girls have received and given instruction in the care, feeding and management of babies.

Lunches, Public School: Penny lunches served at Hawkins St. School, beginning Dec. 23, 1914. Average daily cost during first months, $1.80; average receipts, $1.51, and cost of free portions, 29 cents. Later provided in Lawrence and South St. schools.

Medical History, Museum of: In 1916, steps were taken by Dr. W. S. Disbrow, then President of the Bd. of Health, to collect and exhibit "everything which would illustrate the history of medicine in our city, from its foundation".

« 23 »

A large room on the top floor of the Bd. of Health Building, at 94 William St., was set aside for this purpose.

Medical Inspection: Inaugurated in public schools, 1901, under joint control of Bd. of Education and Bd. of Health. Entire control passed to Bd. of Education, 1908-09. Originally organized as a means to control spread of contagious disease, activities have been enlarged to include all matters relating to the health of school children. In 1914 the number of school physicians was reduced from 38 to 8, and the number of nurses increased from 8 to 26. Public school clinic, 25 Market St., was opened April, 1916, and a trained psychologist added to the staff of experts, Feb., 1918. Medical inspection in parochial schools is carried on by Bd. of Health.

Medical Library Association: Organized Nov. 18, 1905. The library is housed in and administered by Free Public Library.

Memorial Tablets: See Tablets, Memorial

Memorial Trees: See Trees, Memorial

Mental Hygiene, Bureau of—Board of Health: Established May, 1919. Movement started by establishment of a psychopathic ward in City Hospital as early as 1908. Purpose is to provide a clearing house for cases of mental or nervous disorder and of defectives coming to attention of courts, charitable associations or other city agencies. Will study and contend against drug addiction, enforce prohibition, observe neuro-psychiatric cases among former soldiers and care of psychological cases in parochial schools.

Mexican Border Uprising: First N. J. Regiment entrained for Sea Girt to prepare for border service, June 21, 1916.

Milk Supply: Thoroughly supervised by Food and Drug Division of Board of Health, established 1913. Dairies and creameries are inspected and scored. Milk, except from exceptionally good dairies, must be pasteurized. Sale of unbottled milk prohibited by city ordinance, adopted Feb. 1, 1916.

Present supply estimate is 100,000 quarts daily. About 25,000 less than 2 years ago. Decrease in quantity due to increased cost. 3 municipal depots, where milk is on sale at lowest possible price, opened by Mayor, Jan., 1919.

Monuments: See Statues and Monuments

Moving Pictures: First show licensed, Feb. 1, 1906, in 1919, 39. « 24 » City ordinance under which "Shows and Exhibitions" are regulated, amended, 1910, to include moving picture houses.

Municipal Christmas Trees: See Christmas Trees, Municipal

Municipal Employment Bureau: See Employment Bureau, Municipal

Municipal Exhibition: See Exhibitions

Museum Association: Founded through the efforts of the members of the Fine Arts Commission, the Committee on Art and Science Collections, and John Cotton Dana, of the Public Library.

Incorporated, April 29, 1909, with 50 elective trustees and 5 ex-officio trustees representing the city government and the Bd. of Education, by special act of N. J. Legislature. Established for the reception and exhibition of articles of art, science, history and technology and for the encouragement of the study of the arts and sciences. Rockwell Japanese Collection purchased for $10,000 and Museum formally opened in rooms in the Library lent by Library trustees, Feb. 24, 1910.

With annual appropriations, collections, cases and equipment have been acquired, valued at over $100,000. Paintings, sculpture, pottery, glass, textiles, bronzes, American Indian material, models of the habitations of man, and many examples of art and industry. Collections also include over 3,000 objects lent to schools for classroom use. Systematic lending of objects. for classroom use began in 1914. In 5 years, 19,012 objects were lent. Largest number lent in one year, 1918, was 7,357.

Disbrow Science Collections held in trust by the Library, were turned over to the Museum, 1912.

Membership in the Museum Assoc. open to all. Dues paid used for maintenance of the collections and purchase of new objects. 10 or 12 special exhibitions are held each year in addition to permanent exhibitions of objects owned by the Museum. Admission, free.

See also Exhibitions; Junior Museum Club; Medical History, Museum of.

Music Festivals: First, held at 1st Regiment Armory, 1915. World-famous artists attracted thousands. Dates for the first and succeeding festivals, with the names of the leading soloists, follow:

1st. May 4, 5, 6, 1915. Anna Case, Pasquale Amata, Gadski, Witherspoon, Matzenauer, Kreisler.
2nd. 250th Anniversary Event, May 1, 2, 3, 4, 1916. Anna Case, Ethel Leginska, Freida Hempel, Julia Culp.
3rd. May 1, 2, 3, 1917. John McCormack, Lucy Gates (in place of Galli-Curci), Ysaye. « 25 »
4th. April 30, May 1, 2, 1918. Geraldine Farrar, Lucy Gates, Arthur Middleton, Clarence Whitehill, Giovanni Martinelli.
5th. May 16, 17, 19, 1919. Anna Case. Reinald Werrenrath, Caruso, Toscha Seidel.

Naturalization: Public school evening classes preparing foreigners for U. S. citizenship organized, 1912.

Newark Day: For the purpose of studying history and development of Newark, Nov. 7, 1910, the day before Election Day, was set aside by Bd. of Education. At the board meeting, Oct. 27, 1910, it was recommended that principals and teachers and, whenever possible, citizens and officials lecture to the pupils about the city in which they live. The day before Election Day was chosen because local interest would naturally be increased at that time.

Since then interest in the day has grown through the action of the Schoolmen's Club, composed of men teachers, principals and educational officials, which adopted the suggestion of Mr. Frank J. Urquhart, of the Newark Sunday Call, to mark by tablets important historical spots in the city.

See also Tablets, Memorial.

Newspapers and Journals:


News, evg. circ. 92,044, 1919. Est. 1883
Call, Sun. " 50,000, " " 1872
Star-Eagle, evg. " 50,000, " " [B]
Ledger, morn., Sun. " 32,245, " " 1914
Roseville Citizen, wkly. " 5,958, " " 1915

[B] Evg. Star, successor to Daily Advertiser, consolidated with Morn. Eagle, Jan. 28, 1916, and from Jan. 31, 1916, published under name Star-Eagle.

Foreign Newspapers.

N. J. Freie Zeitung (German) morn. circ. 11,000, Sun. 15,000, Est. 1857
Kronika (Polish)      wkly. " 15,538, " 1908
L'Ora (Italian)            " " 2,000, " 1902
Montagna (Italian)     " " " 1894
Revista (English and Italian) " 2,000, " 1905

« 26 »

School Journals.

Acropolis, Barringer High School; Orient, East Side High School; The Pivot, Central High School; The Optimist, South Side High School; Polymnian, Newark Academy; St. Benedict's College Quarterly, St. Benedict's College; "Fratech", Newark Technical School; "The Worker", Boys' Industrial; "The Pioneer", Robert Treat School; "Lafayette Messenger", Lafayette School; "Cleveland Alternate", Cleveland Grammar and Junior High School; "Onward", Newark City Home, Verona, N. J.

Normal School, N. J. State: Formerly Newark Normal School. Transferred from city to state, July 1, 1913. New building on Belleville and 4th Aves., opened Sept. 16, 1913. $500,000 finally agreed upon March, 1919, as purchase price acceptable to city in transfer.

Open Air Classes: Inaugurated Feb., 1911, in Elizabeth Ave. School building for weak, sickly and anaemic children. This school was later set apart for children in incipient cases of tuberculosis and classes for anaemic children were organized in 13 regular schools.

Pageant: See 250th Anniversary

Parades: See 250th Anniversary

Parental School, Essex Co.: See Delinquent Children

Parental School, Newark: See Delinquent Children

Parks, City: Under care and supervision of Shade Tree Div. of Dept. of Parks and Public Property. Distinct from county-controlled parks, like Branch Brook, Weequahic, East Side, West Side and Riverbank, which happen to lie within city boundaries. Largest and most familiar are Lincoln, Military and Washington, all bordering on Broad St. Besides these parks, there are, in business and residential sections, green squares and triangles, to serve as breathing spaces and recreation centers.

1905 1919
No. of parks 19 29
Park area in acres 19.18 21.77
Value of park land $9,267,000

Among parks added to the system since 1905, when Shade Tree Commission first took charge of the parks, are Wallace Park, a triangle of land bounded by Wallace St., Wallace Pl. and Bank St., purchased by city, 1907; Court House Park, fronting Court House, between Market St. and Springfield Ave., deeded to city by county, 1907; « 27 » Herper's Park, Randolph and So. 15th St., given to city by Mr. and Mrs. Henry Herpers, 1914, and named in their honor. Ground about drinking fountain, which marks the first landing place of Robert Treat and his followers, cultivated and known since 1916 as Landing Place Park. Name of Madison Park, bounded by Clinton, Belmont and Madison Aves., changed to McKinley Circle when Hiker Statue was unveiled Memorial Day, 1914, in memory of the President who called the Hiker Men to service. Triangle, between Central Ave., Fourth St. and Warren St., previously known as Central Ave. Park, Central Square, etc., named Liberty Square, 1913.

Parks, Essex County: Parks within the boundaries of Newark, but controlled by the Essex Co. Park Commission, are Branch Brook, Eastside, Westside, Weequahic and Riverbank.

Weequahic Park enlarged by 50 acres, 1908; Municipal Golf Course of 9 holes opened, 1914, and used by 14,000 players during 1915.

Riverbank Park opened, 1911. Land cost $200,000.

Essex Co. Park Commission Administration Building erected in Branch Brook Park, 1914.

Parkways: Parking strips or green cultivated stretches running through street centers. First deeded to city, 1911. Originally constructed by private land companies. When taken over by the city, they came under the care of the Shade Tree Commission. These parkways to be found on Belmont, Chadwick, Fourth, Seymour, Hawthorne and Vassar Aves. and Heller Parkway, and a number of other streets. Park Ave. Parkway is under county park management. City parkways in 1919 add 8.58 acres to the park area.

Parochial Schools: See Schools, Parochial

Passaic Valley Trunk Sewer: Passaic River became so polluted by the sewage of Newark and other cities lying along its course from Paterson south, that in 1896 a movement was started by Paterson and Newark Boards of Trade, for the purification of the river. After 16 years of litigation, 15 municipalities joined in building a great trunk sewer to collect the sewage of towns in Passaic Valley District, carry it across Newark Bay and discharge it into upper New York Bay. Work began July, 1912, under direction of the Passaic Valley Sewerage Commission, authorized by act of N. J. Legislature, 1907. The cost, estimated at $12,000,000, will be met by assessments on the municipalities joined in the project. In 1919, 90% complete.

« 28 »

Paving: See Street Paving

Physical Training: Made an essential part of elementary school curriculum, Sept., 1904.

Playgrounds: Until July, 1919, there were 3 systems of playgrounds in Newark: 1. Under Control of Bd. of Education, conducted on school grounds; 2. Under control of Essex Co. Park Commission on playfields in all county parks; 3. Under control of Dept. of Playgrounds, under the Bd. of Recreation Commissioners. The last are generally called "City Playgrounds".

In July, 1919, control of the city playgrounds passed to the Bd. of Education, a transfer under active consideration for a number of months.

Playgrounds, City: The Bd. of Playground Commissioners was established by act of N. J. Legislature, 1907, to provide playgrounds and recreation places. It was composed of 5 members appointed for 5 years. In 1915 the name was changed to Bd. of Recreation Commissioners, in charge of playgrounds and public baths. Under commission government this board was responsible to the Dept. of Public Affairs, but in 1919, as has been stated, control and ownership of the city playgrounds passed to the Bd. of Education in line with the carrying out of a comprehensive recreation program.

  1. Canal St., Canal & Commerce Sts.
          113' × 112'. Owned. Opened Oct. 1, 1907.
  2. Prince St., Prince St. & Waverly Ave.
          100' × 103'. Owned (partly). Opened May 1, 1908.
  3. Newton St., Nos. 68-70 Newton St.
          100' × 100'. Owned. Opened Dec. 10, 1908.
  4. Lafayette St., Lafayette St. & N. J. R. R. Ave.
          210' × 90'. Leased. Opened Sept. 6, 1911 (closed).
  5. Oliver St., Oliver & Chestnut Sts.
          156' × 241'. Leased. Opened Sept. 6, 1912.
  6. Belleville Ave., Belleville & Arlington Aves.
          149' × 359'. Leased. Opened Aug. 15, 1913 (closed).
  7. Summer Ave., Summer Ave. & D'Auria St.
          50' × 99'. Lent. Opened Sept. 17, 1913.
  8. Vailsburg. So. Orange Ave. & Boylan St.
          518' × 235'. Owned. Opened July 24, 1915.
  9. Avon Ave., Avon Ave. & So. 10th St.
          246' × 175'. Lent. Opened 1915 (closed).
  10. Broad St., Bet. Emmet & Wright Sts.
          118' × 89'. Leased. Opened Sept. 1, 1915.
  11. Morton St., Morton St. & College Pl. & Howard St.
          87' × 121'. Lent. Opened Dec. 1, 1914.
  12. West End, So. Orange Ave. & 12th St.
          550' × 530'. Lent. Opened Sept., 1916 (closed).
  13. East Side, Wilson Ave.
          Owned. Opened July 1, 1918.

« 29 »

Police Department:

1904 1919
444 members of force. 842 members of force.
4 precincts. 8 precincts.
6 bicycle officers. 29 motorcycle officers.
8 mounted officers. 29 mounted officers.

1910.  Oct. 1, Autos replaced horse-drawn vehicles.
1916.  Replacement completed.
1919.  17 autos.
1904.  Cost of administration, $   509,644.
1918.     "    "            "              $1,414,098.

First policewoman appointed Aug. 1, 1918. 3 on force Aug., 1919. Called in cases involving the handling of girls or women.

Poor and Alms Department and Almshouse Survey: Made by Dept. of Surveys and Exhibits—Russell Sage Foundation under direction of Francis H. McLean, 1918-1919. Considers whole family welfare problem of the city,—poverty, relief and social agencies. $1,400 appropriated by Bd. of Commissioners for Work.


1904. 272,000, Bd. of Health estimate.
1905. 283,000, State Census.
1910. 347,469, Federal   "
1915. 366,729, State       "
1918. 430,000, Bd. of Health estimate.

Port Newark: Development involved: (1) Reclamation of 4,000 acres of tide marshland on Newark Bay. (2) Construction of ship channel 7,000 ft. long, 400 ft. wide at bottom, and 20 ft. deep at mean low water, the channel to extend into marshland for a distance of ½ to 1 mile. (3) Building of dock frontage of 4,500 ft. with derricks, tracks, and other equipment for handling freight. (4) Building « 30 » of pier 1,200 ft. long and 150 ft. wide, extending into bay from end of dock, equipped with tracks, etc., to accommodate ocean vessels. (5) Railway distributing and transfer system covering the reclaimed area and connecting with at least 3 trunk lines. Central Railroad of N. J., Pennsylvania and Lehigh Valley already cross this area. (6) At least 1 wide paved avenue of approach from center of city.

Actual work begun March, 1914. Under City Dept. of Docks and Meadows, with Morris R. Sherrerd, Chief Engineer, and James C. Hallock, engineer in charge. Funds provided by $2,000,000 bond issue authorized by N. J. Legislature.

Oct. 20, 1915, named Port Newark Terminal Day and declared a public holiday by the Mayor. Marked by first public inspection of the work.

U. S. government in 1917 leased land in this area for Submarine Boat Corporation and also 133 acres for the Quartermaster's Supply Depot.

Course of development changed by war, and future plans now uncertain.

See also Shipbuilding.

Postal Service:

1904 1918
Sub-stations 26 68
Carriers 170 328
Pieces of mail handled 85,978,300 181,584,236
Total receipts $634,197 $2,115,549.87

Opening of aerial mail station at Heller Field in Forest Hill Section, originally set for July 1, 1919, has been postponed.

Prices, Food:

1904 1914 1918
Rib Roast (per lb.) (Not available for Newark) $.22 $.39
Flour, wheat (per lb.) .03 .07
Eggs (per doz.) .35 .52
Butter (per lb.) .33 .55
Sugar (per lb.) .05 .09
Milk (per qt.) .09 .14

Prison Reform: (Here are recorded a few facts about N. J. procedure, selected because of their connection with the administration of law for Newark. Complete review of state conditions and progress « 31 » will be found in the Report of the Prison Inquiry Commission, published 1917.)

Indeterminate Sentence: Or sentence to imprisonment without a fixed time for its termination. Adopted by act of N. J. Legislature April 21, 1911. Is in accordance with the principle that imprisonment is primarily for reformation and that offenders should be released as soon as they have shown themselves again ready to be fit members of society. Provides for a maximum and minimum term, the maximum varying with nature of offense and the minimum not less than a year and not more than two-thirds of the maximum.

Prior to 1911 this practice had applied only to the State Reformatory.

Prison Labor: Law abolishing private contract system of labor directing that work of convicts should be employed in manufacture of goods for state-use was passed by N. J. Legislature, June 7, 1911. Prison Labor Commission created March 28, 1912, to direct development of "state-use" system and control its operation, but without sufficient authority to assure its success. Act passed, April 4, 1913, provided that unfilled contracts might be continued until state-use industries had been established. In view of the practical failure to introduce "state-use" system within the prisons, outside employment of prisoners was authorized by act of April 11, 1910, and subsequent amendments. Since 1913, 4 road camps have been opened for employment of convicts on state roads and have proved a relative success. Farming has also proved profitable. This system not only aims to prevent waste of state resources but to provide industrial training for inmates of correctional institutions of the state.

Employment of county prisoners and payment of earnings to their families was provided for by N. J. law passed 1915. Wardens of jails are instructed to give preference to men serving terms for nonsupport. At Essex Co. jail in Newark, $3,000 or $4,000 have thus been contributed to prisoners' families otherwise left destitute. Benefits will increase as practice is further systematized.

Probation System: Probation and suspended sentence first introduced by act of Legislature, April 2, 1906. Authorizes courts and magistrates to suspend sentence of persons convicted of criminal offenses, to release them on probation and for such time and under such conditions as the court determines instead of imposing penalty provided by the law. « 32 » Reformatory for Women, N. J. State: At Clinton Farms, Hunterdon Co. Provided for by act of N. J. Legislature, 1910. Opened Jan., 1913. To which the criminal court judges may, at their discretion, send females about the age of 17, who have committed a State Prison offense. Aims to return women to a self-respecting, self-supporting life. All commitments are for an indefinite term limited only by the maximum period of imprisonment fixed by law.

Social Investigation: Investigation of social facts regarding prisoners to be sentenced and circumstances attending Crime was begun in 1908. Made part of probation office work. No sentence is now passed by Essex Co. Court judge until a written statement of all such facts has been presented. Judge no longer tries to make the punishment fit the crime but to make the punishment fit the prisoner and restore him to his normal place in society.

Probation System: See Delinquent Children: Prison Reform

Public Baths: See Baths, Public

Public Comfort Station: See Comfort Station, Public

Public Lectures: See Lectures, Public

Public Schools: See Schools, Public

Public Service Corporation of N. J.: Maintains gas, electric and railway departments. Through its subsidiary companies it furnishes gas, electric light and power, and street railway facilities to most of the people of the state.

See also Public Service Terminal; Trolleys.

Public Service Terminal: Work on new Public Service Terminal, Park Pl., begun June 24, 1914. Opened for street railway operation, April 30, 1916. Cost, $5,000,000. Terminal arrangements and tunnel system are President Thomas N. McCarter's solution of Newark's traffic problem, especially at the "Four Corners". It is estimated that 400 cars, carrying in both directions 50,000 people, may pass in and out of the Terminal during one hour.

See also Trolleys.

Reformatory for Women, N. J. State: See Prison Reform

"Safety First" and the Schools: American Safety League gave talks in all public schools, Feb., 1912, distributing blue and white buttons to pupils as reminders of the organization in which they are enrolled.

N. J. Legislature passed a law that school children be instructed in self protection and accident prevention, April 7, 1913.

« 33 »

Complying with this law, N. J. Dept. of Public Instruction issued a monograph for use in schools on "Dangers and Safeguards," Feb., 1915. Prepared in collaboration with Newark Bur. of Combustibles and Fire Risks, Public Service Corporation, Employers' Liability Commission and State Bd. of Health, teaches how fires may be prevented, many street and railway accidents avoided, industrial workers safeguarded, diseases combated and first aid administered.

Law providing that no vehicle should travel at a greater speed than six miles an hour when approaching a schoolhouse, provided signs easily visible were placed on the highway, indicating school locations, passed by N. J. Legislature, April 6, 1915.

Public Service Corporation furthered "Safely First" campaign by talks in public and parochial schools, May, 1915.

Public School Safety Patrol established April, 1917. A member of the city police force has charge of this work under attendance department of Bd. of Education. Members are appointed each term from students of upper grades in schools. A chief is chosen in each school. The chief and other members take a pledge and each is furnished with an arm band as emblem of authority. There are 50 girls and 600 boys in the force. Duties: To prevent taking of unnecessary risks by pupils in going to and returning from school; To guard younger children against traffic accidents and to prevent disorderly conduct among school children on the street; To aid in keeping streets and sidewalks clean.

48% decrease from previous year in number of accidents by cars to children going to and from school in Newark, Feb.-Sept., 1918, credited to instruction by Safety League.

School Houses as Social Centers: Authorized by rules adopted by Bd. of Education, Aug. 31, 1915, under act of N. J. Legislature, passed, 1913. First used as polling places in 1917 primaries.

« 34 »

School Names Changed:

Alyea St. to Binet No. 3.
Ann St.  " John Catlin.
Coes Pl.  " Binet No. 2.
Park Ave.  " Dayton.
18th Ave.  " Milford.
Elliot St.  " Elliot.
15th Ave.  " Moses Bigelow.
Hamburg Pl. (Wilson Ave.)  " Monteith.
Hawthorne Ave.  " Hawthorne.
Lafayette St.  " Lafayette.
Madison St.  " Madison.
Miller St.  " Hamilton.
Montgomery St.  " Montgomery.
Morton St.  " Joseph E. Haynes.
Newton St.  " Newton.
No. 7th St.  " Garfield.
Oliver St.  " Carteret.
Peshine Ave.  " Berkeley.
Ridge St.  " Ridge.
7th Ave. " McKinley.
State St. " Binet No. 1.
13th Ave. " Robert Treat.
Webster St. " Webster.

School Savings Banks: Purpose: To inculcate and encourage thrift.

Essential features of plan: To have pupils themselves manage banks' work as far as possible.

To organize a board of savings bank directors, appointed for each school by its principal.

To place school accounts, over $1.00, with such Newark banks as have endorsed the school bank plan.

To open individual accounts with the same banks for those pupils who have deposited a sum that shall be thought sufficient and to require that no sum be withdrawn without the parent's written consent.

1st bank established in East Side High School, March, 1915.

Randall Law, authorizing school savings banks, passed by N. J. Legislature, Feb., 1916.

9 schools, now operating school banks: East Side High, Central High, Abington Ave., Cleveland, Lafayette, Monteith, Newton St., Warren St., Washington St.

1917-18 Total to
July, 1918
Deposits made $14,082.83 $29,855.57
Interest credited 78.66 188.43
Transferred to local banks 9,492.20 16,305.70
Withdrawn by pupils 4,777.99 9,207.97
Balance in banks 4,528.33
No. of depositors 2,461 7,312
Depositors closing accts. 1,847 2,529
Remaining depositors 4,783

* * * * *

« 35 »

Idea originated in Belgium. Introduced in U. S. in Beloit, Wis., 1876. Permanently established in U. S. by John Henry Thiry, a Belgian, 1885. Amount of school deposits in U. S., $5,000,000, 1915.

School Survey: Made by Bur. of Municipal Research under direction of Essex Co. Public Welfare Committee and with approval of Bd. of Education, 1914.

Schools, Parochial:

1904 1919
Total number of pupils enrolled 7,202 14,741
Teaching force:
Sisters 114 229
Brothers 8 9
Lay Teachers 14 31
Number of schools 21 26

Rev. John A. Dillon was appointed superintendent of schools for the Diocese of Newark, January 2nd, 1910.

Schools, Public:

1903-04 1918-19
Total number of pupils enrolled 43,742 75,461
High school enrollment 1,264 5,398
Evening school enrollment 7,377 12,100
Summer school enrollment (1904) 8,546 19,199 (1919)
Teaching force (day schools) 967 2,071
Number of schools 56 69
Number of high schools 1 4 -Senior
3 -Junior
Number of evening schools 15 23
Number of summer schools (1904) 15 34 (1919)

Dr. David B. Corson was elected superintendent July 1, 1918, to succeed Dr. Addison B. Poland, city superintendent from 1901 until his death, Sept. 15, 1917.

See also under name of subject, All-Year School, etc.

Shade Tree Commission: Organized, 1904. Composed of three members, residents, appointed by mayor to serve without compensation. « 36 » Charged (1) with planting, care, protection and maintenance of street trees. (2) with care, maintenance and improvement of the parks. Under commission government, known as Shade Tree Div. of Dept. of Parks and Public Property.

1904  1918
Shade trees on highways 36,800 66,000
Shade trees set out 750 30,580

Trees sprayed against insect enemies by Shade Tree Commission as part of its routine work at request of property owners, without charge. Cost of spraying, about 15 cents a tree.

Trees are planted along streets where more shade seems to the Commission desirable. Property owner in front of whose property tree is placed assessed for the cost of the tree and planting, recently averaging about $5 a tree. Called "assessment planting". Assessment collected as are other taxes. When owners ask to have trees planted on their property, expense is met by bill rendered to owner. Price varies with size of tree, but averages $5. Called "request planting".

See also Parks, City; Parkways.

Shipbuilding: Since Sept., 1917, the Submarine Boat Corporation at Port Newark has equipped, set in motion and run at high speed a plant covering 113 acres and requiring the services of 15,000 workers.

By July 31, 1919, 63 boats had been launched.

"Agawam", the first modern steamship built by the company, was launched at Port Newark, May 30, 1918.

See also Port Newark Terminal.

Ship Yard Workers, Evening Classes for: Established by Bd. of Education, Jan. 2, 1919, at Robert Treat, Central, East Side and Bergen St. High Schools, Boys' Vocational School and Fawcett School of Industrial Arts.

Smoke Abatement Department: Established, 1907, to prevent unhealthful and unsightly clouds of dense smoke and soot. Under commission government, a division of the Dept. of Parks and Public Property.

Social Service Survey: Searching investigation of population, municipal administration, social influences, industrial conditions, community problems—saloons, dance halls, crime, housing, health, political life,—and public and private charities. Made by John P. Fox for Men and Religion Forward Movement. Oct. 21-Dec. 7, 1911. Limited edition of typed copies.

« 37 »

Statues and Monuments: (For list complete to 1914, see Bd. of Education Leaflet No. 31, Sculpture and Stone Carving in Newark.)

Felix Mendelssohn-Bartholdy. Bronze bust erected in Branch Brook Park on promenade in front of Barringer High School. By J. M. Didusch. First prize awarded to United Singers of Newark at twentieth National Saengerfest, Baltimore, Md., 1903, and presented by them to the city. Erected, May 22, 1904.

Robert F. Ballantine. Bronze bas-relief. In Eye and Ear Infirmary, Central Ave. By Jonathan Scott Harley. Unveiled June, 1906.

Liberty Pole erected in 1793 in Military Park, replaced by present iron mast, 112 feet high; dedicated Thanksgiving Day, 1906.

Court House Statues. 8 marble figures symbolizing aspects of Law on front of building and 2 heroic bronze figures representing Power and Truth beside the steps. By Andrew O'Connor, Jr. Court house erected in 1907.

Mgr. George Hobart Doane, for fifty years rector of St. Patrick's Cathedral. Bronze statue in Rector Park, opposite Trinity Church. By William C. Noble. Erected by popular subscription. Unveiled, Jan. 9, 1908.

Wisdom instructing the Children of Men. High relief in bronze over entrance of Free Public Library. By John Flanagan. Subscriptions raised by Mgr. Doane. Placed, May, 1909.

Abraham Lincoln. Bronze statue. By Gutzon Borglum. On Court House plaza, where Newark citizens of 1861 met and pledged themselves to help preserve the Union. Bequest of Amos H. Van Horn, citizen of Newark, soldier in the Union army, and member of the Lincoln Post, G. A. R. Dedicated by surviving members of the Post. Tendered to the city by Ex-President Theodore Roosevelt and unveiled Memorial Day, 1911.

George Washington. Bronze equestrian statue in Washington Park. By J. Massey Rhind. Bequest of Amos H. Van Horn. Unveiled, Nov. 2, 1912.

John F. Dryden, founder of the Prudential Insurance Co. and pioneer of industrial insurance in America. Bronze statue, a third more than life size, called heroic, in rotunda of main Prudential building. By Karl Bitter. Given by field and home office force. Unveiled, Sept. 24, 1913.

Normal School, Grotesques. Eight decorative figures representing « 38 » Mathematics, Study, Botany, Thought, Chemistry, Writing, Music, History. By G. Grandelis. Placed around cornice. Aug., 1912.

"The Hiker". Bronze statue in memory of Spanish-American War soldiers, at Clinton and Belmont Aves. By Allen G. Newman. Given by United Spanish War Veterans. Unveiled, Memorial Day, 1914.

"Our Lady of Loretto", limestone statue, on 3rd story front of Loretto Hall, hotel for working girls, on Belleville Ave., near 4th Ave. By Alfred Kenney. Given by Rev. F. M. O'Neil, of St. Michael's Church. Placed, Aug. 31, 1915.

Branford Place Shaft. To mark center of first settlement near first church, college and court house. Shaft for street illumination, with bronze tablets on isle of safety, Branford Place. By Gutzon Borglum. Erected by 250th Anniversary Committee of One Hundred. Unveiled, May 10, 1916.

Colleoni. Full-sized reproduction in bronze and marble of the world's most famous equestrian statue and pedestal of Bartolomeo Colleoni, by Verrocchio, the original of which stands in Venice. Erected in Clinton Park, opposite Lincoln Park. Given by Christian W. Feigenspan. Made under direction of J. Massey Rhind. Unveiling, July 26, 1916, a feature of the 250th Anniversary celebration.

Puritans' Landing Place. Drinking fountain at foot of Saybrook Place. Designed by Gutzon Borglum. Erected by 250th Anniversary Committee of One Hundred. Unveiled, May 10, 1916.

Puritan and Indian. Bronze shaft for street illumination, with stone figures of Indian and Puritan at base, site of old Market Place, Broad St. at Bridge. By Gutzon Borglum. Erected by 250th Anniversary Committee of One Hundred. Unveiled, May 10, 1916.

Stone seat in Military Park to mark Training Place site, set aside in 1669. Military Park was used for training soldiers in colonial days. Given by N. J. Daughters of the Revolution. Unveiled, May 13, 1916.

Street Names Changed: During war period, 1917-18.

Hamburg Wilson Ave.
Bismarck Ave. to Pershing Ave.
Dresden St. to London St.
Bremen St. to Marne St.
Berlin St. to Rome St.
Frankfort St. to Paris St.

« 39 »

Street Paving: Market St. repaved with bitulithic pavement from Court House to Pennsylvania Railroad Station. Paved from Railroad Pl. to Broad St., in 1911. Paved from Broad St. west to Pierson's Alley and work completed, June 29, 1912.

Broad St. repaved with wood block from Belleville Ave. to South St. Work begun June, 1914. Completed, Oct. 5, 1914.

Total mileage of paved streets, Jan. 1, 1904, 151.17 miles.
    "        "        "        "        "      Jan. 1, 1919, 269.22 miles.
Activities, Repair Dept., 1904
Repairs to bridges $ 1,106.54
Supervision of sidewalks 846.00
Repairs to crosswalks 2,910.98
Repairs to pavements other than asphalt 9,179.06
Asphalt pavement repairs 5,915.64
$ 19,958.22
Activities, Repair Dept., 1918
Granite pavements repaired, 21,908 sq. yds. $ 18,314.57
Brick pavement repaired, 5,755 sq. yds. 8,283.08
Telford pavement repaired, 21,897 sq. yds. 7,517.57
Wood block pavement repaired, 529 sq. yds. 1,054.54
Asphalt pavement repaired, 37,970 sq. yds. 80,199.69
Building safety isles 1,228.79
Stone crusher, producing 1,225 cu. yds. broken stone 1,826.62
Cross walks laid and relaid 1,537.62
Streets graded by hand 1,252.39
Repairing roads with broken stone 9,247.23
Miscellaneous repairs 20,864.06
Sidewalks, 1918
Cost of supervision $ 2,612.00
Cost of work done under city contract 334.77
$ 2,946.77

On account of war conditions little work was ordered by city. Property owners under city supervision laid walks costing about $15,000.

« 40 »

Summer High Schools: Opened at Barringer High School, 1914, with 947 students. 1st and 2nd year classes only. 1915, full 4 year course introduced. 1919 enrollment, 1,520 students, with 800 at Central High School and 720 at Barringer.

Surveys: See Boys' Vocational School; Poor and Alms Department and Almshouse Survey; Public School Survey; Social Service Survey.

Tablets, Memorial: (The tablets noted as given by Schoolmen's Club were after first year purchased from a penny fund collected from school children, but were erected under direction of the Club.)

Gen. Philip Kearny, for service rendered Italian nation, 1859, when he fought with forces that drove Austria from the peninsula. Placed on Kearny statue in Military Park. Given by Italians in Newark, Memorial Day, 1911.

John Catlin, Newark's first schoolmaster. Placed at Broad and Commerce Sts., where he opened his first school in 1876. Given by Schoolmen's Club. Unveiled, Newark Day, Nov. 6, 1911.

Gen. Philip Kearny, New Jersey leader in the Civil War. Placed on Normal School (built on site of Kearny homestead), Belleville and 4th Aves., 1912. Given by Bd. of Education.

Robert Treat, founder of Newark. Placed on Kinney building, on site of Robert Treat's home lot, at Broad and Market Sts., by Schoolmen's Club. Unveiled, Newark Day, Nov. 4, 1912.

John G. Shea, Catholic historian. Placed on St. Patrick's' Cathedral by Knights of Columbus, Columbus Day, 1912.

Camp Frelinghuysen, used by the Union volunteers in 1861. Set in boulder in Branch Brook Park nearly opposite Barringer High School, on west side of lake, for lack of suitable spot on actual site of original training quarters, which extended west of park from Lackawanna Railroad toward Bloomfield Ave. Given by pupils of Barringer High School. Unveiled, May 29, 1912.

Elias G. Heller, who built first schoolhouse in Forest Hill. Placed in Ridge St. School. Given by his sons. Unveiled, Feb. 11, 1913.

First Meeting House, built in 1668. Placed on building on south side of Branford Pl., near Broad St. Given by Schoolmen's Club. Unveiled, Newark Day, Nov. 3, 1913.

First Sunday School, founded by Anna Richards, 1814. Placed by First Presbyterian Church, on exterior wall of Sunday School building, So. Broad St., opp. Branford Pl. To mark centennial of school's founding. Dedicated, June Sunday, June 13, 1915.

« 41 »

Work of Jane E. Johnson in Newark schools. Placed in Normal School, Belleville and 4th Aves. Given by Nathaniel King, of Bd. of Education, May 13, 1914.

Washington's route from Philadelphia to Cambridge in 1775, to take command of Continental Army. Placed on Firemen's building, Broad and Market Sts., June 25, 1914. Given by N. J. Sons of the American Revolution.

Hannibal Goodwin, inventor of photographic film and Newark clergyman. Placed in Public Library corridor by Newark Camera Club, Nov. 28, 1914.

Washington's retreat in 1776. Placed on Trinity Church by N. J. Sons of American Revolution, March 7, 1914.

Newark's part in War for American Independence. Placed on Prudential Building by Schoolmen's Club, Flag Day, 1915.

Rev. Moses Newell Combs, pioneer in industrial education and first shoe manufacturer in Newark. Dedicated, Newark Day, Nov. 1, 1915, and placed on building at 75 Market St., by Schoolmen's Club, March 10, 1916.

Aaron Burr's parsonage, where first classes of College of New Jersey, now Princeton University, were held, 1748-1756. Placed on Koenig building, Broad and William Sts., by Princeton Club, May 10, 1916.

Revolutionary camping ground, in Phillips Park. Set in a boulder from Fox Hill. Given by N. J. Daughters of American Revolution, May 19, 1916.

Site of first academy in city built in 1774 by gifts of citizens. Set in boulder in Washington Park. Given by Newark Academy. Placed, July 19, 1916. Dedicated the following fall.

Col. Peter Schuyler, leader of "Jersey Blues". Set in boulder in Military Park. Given by N. J. Society of the Order of the Founders and Patriots of America. Unveiled, Flag Day, 1916.

Justice Joseph Hedden, Revolutionary martyr. Placed on building at 536 Broad St., site of Hedden Colonial home. Given by Barringer High School students. Unveiled, May 25, 1916.

Divident Hill in Weequahic Park, where boundary between Newark and Elizabeth was fixed in 1668. Placed on exterior of small marble building. Given by pupils of South Side High School. Unveiled, May 20, 1916.

Spot where Lincoln spoke on journey to his inauguration in 1861. « 42 » Placed at Broad and Division Sts., by Schoolmen's Club. Unveiled, Newark Day, Nov. 6, 1916.

Newark founders who were Congregationalists. Placed in First Congregational Jube Memorial Church, Clinton Ave. and Wright St., by its members, May 10, 1916.

Participation of Newark men in the European war. Placed on City Hall by Schoolmen's Club, Newark Day, Nov. 5, 1917.

Barringer boys who gave their services to their country in the great world war. Given and placed in Barringer High School auditorium by pupils, alumni and teachers of the school. Unveiled, Memorial Day, 1919.

Technical School: Given right to grant its graduates collegiate degrees in science, Jan. 4, 1919. Name changed to College of Technology.


1904 1918
Instruments in use 8,935 41,567
Local calls, 1905 11,387,490 39,797,745
Out of town calls, 1905 1,591,785 7,858,685

Trade, Board of: Unofficial organization; present membership, 1,500; established, 1868, to promote industrial, commercial and financial welfare of Newark.

« 43 »

The following summary by the board, represents their interests during the past fifteen years:


Advocated legislation which created Tenement House Commission.


Started agitation for building of Central High School.

Obtained appropriation for 12 ft. depth in Passaic River.


Advocated law limiting public franchise rights to 25 years.


Brought about creation of Bur. of Combustibles and Fire Risks.


Obtained extension of high pressure system.


Caused city to start a public bath house system, by establishing one.

Caused city to start a municipal employment bureau.


Obtained medical inspection in public schools.


Started agitation for improvement of Plank Road, later carried out.


Held successful Industrial Exposition.

Lighterage case begun by Board.

Directory of "Newark Made Goods", published at cost of $10,000.


Brought about establishing of Federal Court in Newark.

Influence of Board used to establish Public Service Terminal.

New Jersey sea-level ship canal advocated.


Opposed purchase of East Jersey Water Plant, and advocated Wanaque extension.

Opposed placing Newark in the Philadelphia Regional Bank Zone.

Filed complaint against detrimental credit loan companies.


Favored excess condemnation.

Filed formal complaint in lighterage case.

Protested against increase in Ferry tolls on Hudson River.


Opposed site proposed for Memorial building. Held a successful "Buy-in-Newark Week".

Started agitation for safety isles in Broad St.


Had bill introduced in the U. S. Senate providing for dependents of soldiers.

Favored connection of Hudson and Manhattan and Public Service Railway lines.

Obtained $10,000 appropriation from Board of Freeholders for surveys for vehicular tunnels under Hudson.

Created sentiment for Commission government.


Sought government aid in providing homes for industrial workers.

Outlined an industrial labor policy.

Transportation: See Hudson and Manhattan Tubes; Jitneys; Lincoln Highway; Public Service Terminal; Trolleys.

Trees, Memorial: Doane Oak. Planted in Lincoln Park by Shade Tree Commission, 1907. In memory of Mgr. George Hobart Doane (1830-1905), rector of St. Patrick's Cathedral, and one of the most widely known Catholic ecclesiastics in the country.

Lincoln Highway Sycamores. 40, set out on Lincoln Highway, near Plank Road Bridge, April, 1917, by N. J. State Federation of Women's Clubs.

« 44 »

State Federation of Women's Clubs Sycamore. Planted on City Hall Plaza in honor of Federation, by The Contemporary, April, 1917.

Roosevelt Oak. Planted by Boy Scouts in Washington Park, May 3, 1919. In memory of Theodore Roosevelt, president of U. S., Sept. 14, 1901-1909. Born, Oct. 27, 1858. Died, Jan. 6, 1919.


1904 1918
Essex Division
(Includes Essex Co. & West Hudson towns)
Miles of tracks 198.2 227.2
No. of cars 362 658 [C]
Passengers carried 88,215,000 174,154,820

[C] All cars put in service during last ten years were much larger than those formerly used.

Opening of new trolley terminal April 30, 1916, one of the most important improvements in system since Corporation was formed in 1903. See also Public Service Terminal.

Women first employed as conductors, 1918. War measure due to labor shortage.

Skip-stops instituted at request of national and state fuel administrators, April 1, 1918. Another war measure.

Port Newark route to and from Submarine Boat Corporation, first operated, Sept. 1918.

Strike of motormen and conductors for increased wages called June 6, 1918. Arbitrated by National Labor Bd. Service resumed June 8. Second strike, March 12-17, 1919.

Transfer charge in addition to 5 cent fare first authorized April 1, 1918. 7 cent fare raise effective, October 15, 1918. Reduction to 6 cents with 1 cent extra charge for transfer, April 1, 1919. 7 cent fare with 1 cent extra charge for transfer restored, May 4, 1919.

Tuberculosis, Campaign Against: State Tuberculosis Sanatorium at Glen Gardner, Hunterdon Co., provided for by act of N. J. Legislature, 1902. Building completed, 1907. Cost, $300,000. $89,500 appropriated for new buildings, 1912.

City Sanatorium for Incipient Tuberculosis, Verona, was opened Jan., 1908, in the remodelled girl's cottage of the City Home, which had been discarded for that use.

« 45 »

Newark Anti-Tuberculosis Assoc., 45 Clinton St., established Feb. 1, 1909. To educate public concerning prevention and treatment. Employs nurses to visit patients discharged from state home at Glen Gardner.

Tuberculosis Dept. of Essex Co. Hospital for Contagious Diseases at Soho, was opened May, 1911.

N. J. Anti-Tuberculosis League, 45 Clinton St., organized Oct. 16, 1913, to take place of former state association. A clearing house of information, publicity bureau, education, aid, etc.

Bur. of Tuberculosis, established as separate department of the Newark Bd. of Health, July, 1915, has reorganized city sanatorium, maintains additional clinics and investigates housing conditions.

Tunnels: See Hudson and Manhattan Tubes; Vehicular Tunnel

250th Anniversary: The first settlers, led by Robert Treat, came to Newark from Connecticut, May 17, 1666. In 1916, from May 1 to Oct. 31, the city celebrated its 250th birthday with a succession of ceremonies and festivities.

Preliminary plans were laid in 1914, when the N. J. Legislature approved an act, March 9, providing for such a celebration. In accordance with this act, and by authority granted under an ordinance of the Common Council, Mayor Haussling, in the summer of the same year, appointed the Committee of One Hundred to raise money and plan, through its sub-committees, for the anniversary program.

Newark and the forthcoming celebration became subjects of national interest and importance. Thousands of people from all over the country entered competitions for the best posters and poems, symbolizing the city's history and industrial progress. The competitions resulted in the spread of information about Newark and brought recognition of the city's standing.

The most notable single feature of the anniversary was the Pageant of Newark, an historic and allegorical review of the growth of the city, presented in Weequahic Park.

There were innumerable parades, of which none was more pleasing to the spectators, or more creditable to the city, than the School Children's Parade, June 6.

Annual or recurrent events like the Music Festival and Industrial Exposition were included in the anniversary program and made particularly attractive.

230 athletes from all parts of the United States and Canada « 46 » participated in the athletic events held at Weequahic Park, September 8, 9 and 16, and succeeded in breaking six world records. The Ninth International Fly and Bait Casting Tournament, held in Newark, Aug. 23-26, was likewise a great success. Athletic meets of all kinds were the order of the summer months.

As was natural, Newark became the popular convention city for 1916, all manner of organizations being glad to avail themselves of the special attractions offered their members.

250th Anniversary Competitions:

1. Street & Building Decorations. Committee of 100 offered $500 for best plan submitted. Won by Jordan Green, architect, 81 Lincoln Park, Newark.

2. Poetry. Poems on Newark and its 250th Anniversary. Committee of 100 offered $250, 1st prize; $150, 2nd; $100 3rd; 10 prizes of $50 each. 1st prize, Clement Wood (Vulcan Smith, pseud.), New York City, "Smithy of God". 2nd prize, Anna Blake Mezquida (Anne Grinfill, pseud.), San Francisco, Cal., "City of Heritage". 3rd prize, Albert E. Trombly (Edmond St. Hilaire, pseud.), Philadelphia, Pa., "Newark—1916". These poems and many others have since been collected in a volume entitled, "Newark Anniversary Poems". Published, 1917. Price, $1.25.

3. Poster. Committee of 100 offered $1,000, 1st prize; $500, 2nd; $300, Special, awarded by popular vote. 1st prize won by Adolph Treidler, New York City, "Robert Treat directing the landing of settlers in Newark"; 2nd, won by Helen Dryden, of New York City; Special, won by E. A. Foringer, of Grantwood, N. J.

4. New York Times Essay on Newark History. Open to pupils in public, private and parochial schools. $10 selection of books, prize for high school winners; Tiffany silver medals, prizes for grade school winners. 1,000 prizes awarded.

5. Photography. Newark Camera Club conducted "Amateur Photographic Contest and Exhibition". Grand prize for best picture of entire exhibit, solid silver loving cup, donated by Franklin Murphy, Chairman of Committee of 100; 4 gold and 4 silver medals as first and second awards for pictures in four classes—Class A, Street Decorations and Parades; Class B, Night Illuminations; Class C, Feigenspan Colleoni Statue; Class D, Miscellaneous. Grand prize won by Edward J. Brown, member of the Club. Class A. 1st prize, Edward J. Brown; 2nd, Peter J. Schweikert; Class B, 1st prize, Edward J. Brown; 2nd, « 47 » George Hahn, Jr.; Class C, 1st prize, Reuben B. Ashderian; 2nd, George Hahn, Jr.; Class D, 1st prize, Alfred R. Jayson; 2nd, Edward J. Brown.

6. Emblem. Committee of 100 offered $50, 1st prize; $30, 2nd; $20, 3rd. Open to pupils of all schools in Newark.

7. City Flag. Committee of 100 offered $100 prize. Open to any resident of N. J.

250th Anniversary Industrial Exposition: See Exhibitions

250th Anniversary Music Festival: See Music Festival, 1916

250th Anniversary Notable Parades: Opening day, May 1, 1916, at 10 a. m. Local National Guard, Boy Scouts and other organizations, with Gen. Edwin C. Hine, commanding.

Founder's Day, May 17, 1916, at 2 p. m. N. J. National Guard, civic organizations and fraternal bodies.

School Children's, June 6, 1916, at 2 p. m. 11,000 public and 4,000 parochial school children. Time, 3½ hours. Included 22 historical and symbolic floats, 23 bands, 12 fife and drum corps.

250th Anniversary Pageant: Pageant of Newark by Thomas Wood Stevens.

4,000 performers.

Given May 30, 31, June 1, 2, 1916, at 8 p. m., in Weequahic Park. Seating accommodations for 40,000, including 20,000 free seats. Attended by the greatest crowds ever handled by police department.

Prologue showed the passing of the explorers Cabot, Verrazano, Hudson, and the Peace Legend of the original Indians of N. J.

1st to 3rd Movements showed landing of Robert Treat, purchase of land, land riots of 1746, revolutionary times, Marquis de Lafayette's visit, first signs of industrial growth, and Lincoln's visit.

4th Movement was symbolic of the forces which have shaped the life of the city.

Music composed for this occasion by Henry C. Hadley.

250th Anniversary School Work Exhibit: See Exhibitions

Ungraded Schools: See Delinquent Children

« 48 »

Vacant Lot Cultivation:

1915 550 10 175 $   4,200
1916 550 22 375 10,600
1917 540 193 3,288 114,572
1918 540 225 4,000 135,000

1918. 18,000 backyard gardens, 20' × 25', also cultivated, with total value of crop, $180,000. 23 school garden plots planted and cared for by pupils in manual training, physical culture and science classes. This work is carried on by the Vacant Lot Assoc.

Vailsburg: Annexed, Jan. 1, 1905. Area thus added, 885.1 acres or 1.383 sq. miles.

Vehicular Tunnel: Act giving power to the N. J. Inter-State Bridge and Tunnel Commission, acting jointly with the N. Y. Commission, for construction and operation of a tunnel for vehicular traffic under the Hudson River, from New York to Jersey City, passed by both N. Y. and N. J. Legislatures, 1919.

By this means traffic congestion will be relieved, difficulties of fog and ice overcome to a great extent, freight handled more cheaply and mails expedited. Interstate freight traffic will no longer be entirely dependent on ferry and barge service, as was the case during the harbor strike in the winter of 1918.

Gen. Goethals, builder of the Panama Canal, has estimated that a tunnel wide enough to allow 3 trucks to travel side by side and providing for a foot path will cost $12,000,000. Maintenance will amount to about $125,000 annually. About 2 years will be required for construction.

As U. S. Congress has voted against federal aid, the expense will be met jointly by New York and New Jersey.

Venereal Diseases, Bureau of—Board of Health: Established July, 1918. Clinics already in operation were developed, attendants and nurses appointed.

Vocational Schools: See Boys' Vocational School; Girls' Vocational School; Technical School.

« 49 »

Wages: Comparison as illustrated by 7 important trades. These figures for Newark drawn from U. S. Bur. of Labor Statistics:

1904 1914 1918
Hours per week 44 44 44
Wages per hour $.58 $.65 $.75
Hours per week 44 44 44
Wages per hour $.41 $.50 $.70
Hours per week 54 54 50
Wages per hour $.29 $.36 $.45
Hours per week 54 54 54
Wages per hour $.33 $.38 $.55
Pattern maker
Hours per week 54 44 48
Wages per hour $.39 $.49 $.75
Hours per week 48 44 44
Wages per hour $.36 $.44 $.62
Hours per week 48 44 44
Wages per hour $.44 $.62 $.75

War, The—Military Organizations: Local enlistments are estimated:

Army, 9,000; Navy, 4,000; Marines, 250.

9,591 Newark men, 21-31 years of age, were called for service between April, 1917, and Sept., 1918, under first draft.

59,937 Newark men, 18-45 years of age, were registered for second draft, Sept. 12, 1918.

Casualties: (Unofficial record) Killed 120 Died from wounds 53 Died from disease 65 Died from other causes 17 Wounded 870 Missing 27 ——- 1,152

« 50 »

War, The—Relief Organizations: The following organizations, and many others, did war work of all kinds.

American Red Cross.
Y. M. C. A.
Y. W. C. A.
Knights of Columbus.
Jewish Welfare Board.
Salvation Army.
War Camp Community Service.
U. S. Food Administration.
U. S. Fuel Administration.
National League for Women's Service.
Red Cross Motor Corps.
National Service Motor Corps.
Woman's Motor Corps of America.
Catholic Women's Committee.
Contemporary Civics Committee.
Woman's Volunteer Service League (colored).
Junior Red Cross.
Girl's Patriotic League.

War, The—Financial Support: Every Newark drive for war work funds and liberty loans was over-subscribed:

Liberty Loans:
Newark's Quota Raised
1st May 15-June 15, 1917 $20,670,000 $23,054,300
2nd Oct. 1-Nov. 1, 1917 31,005,000 36,728,450
3rd Apr. 26-May 4, 1918 18,876,100 31,298,500
4th Sept. 28-Oct. 19, 1918 38,198,200 60,130,450
5th Apr. 21-May 10, 1919 31,225,900 41,383,450
Red Cross:
1st drive, June 18-25, 1917 750,000 784,570
2nd     "     May 20-27, 1918 750,000 1,325,000
United War Work Drive,
Nov. 11-21, 1918
1,000,000 1,051,752

War, The—Industrial Aspect: It is impossible to get figures covering Newark alone. There were 4 munition plants, 3 plants making uniforms, 10 making chemicals, 3 making military airplanes and one making ships. Some indication of the extent of the activity induced by the war is indicated by the number of applications received by federal—state—municipal« 51 » employment bureau. In 1917, there were 47,022, in 1918 there were 94,830, an increase of over 101%. The following table for N. J. is included to show the great part taken by the state in war industries.

Capital Stock &
High explosives
1914 $13,489,358 $ 7,677,803 $ 14,330,232 $ 1,517,425
1917 55,316,876 37,548,303 245,816,880 24,041,236
1914 1,158,639 1,136,331 1,813,898 338,440
1917 25,450,672 35,924,958 47,055,229 9,688,348
1914 34,286,142 4,851,539 10,475,245 4,714,375
1917 57,300,609 24,944,468 39,738,072 14,920,054
Employees Average
salary earnings
High explosives, 1914 2,156 $ 703.81
"        " 1917 21,153 1,136.54
Munitions 1914 609 555.73
" 1917 14,623 662.54
Shipbuilding 1914 6,014 783.90
" 1917 11,545 1,292.34

Over 50% of all the military explosives produced in the U. S. were made in N. J.

War, The—Public School Activities: Over a million dollars' worth of liberty bonds were sold, and over a quarter of a million dollars' worth of thrift stamps.

Nearly $100,000 were contributed to the various auxiliary causes, such as Surgical dressings, Armenian and Syrian relief. Y. M. C. A. and War Camp Community Service.

There were 35 Junior Red Cross organizations in schools; over twenty thousand articles were made for the Red Cross by domestic art classes; 3,000 cards of cotton wound; and 5,000 button holes made.

3,500 pupils enrolled in the Home Garden division of the Junior Industrial Army.

2,300 home gardens and 21 school gardens were cultivated.

Many thousand magazines were collected in the schools and « 52 » 20,000 text books not needed in the schools, were given to the soldiers through the Public Library.

71 pupils and 26 teachers enlisted in the army and navy or other branches of war service.

War, The—Library Service: From Sept. 1, 1917 to July 30, 1919, 41,575 books and 201,842 magazines were collected by the Public Library, for the army and navy. Of these 40,705 books and 42,175 magazines were sent in over one hundred shipments, to 36 different camps, hospitals and other military posts in N. J. For example, 6,106 books went to Camp Merritt; 1,560 to A. L. A. Dispatch Office at Hoboken for Transport Service; 842 to Port Newark; 9,597 to Camp Dix, and over 1,500 each to Cape May Naval Training Station, Fort Hancock, Camp Morgan and Camp Vail. The proceeds of the sale of magazines, etc., not wanted by soldiers, were used for purchasing technical books and magazine subscriptions for military hospitals.

The three "book drives" were in Sept., 1917; May, 1918, and May, 1919.

War, The—Notable Parades: Universal Service Registration Day, June 5, 1917. To mark enrollment of the first draft army, 7,000 school children marched in the morning, 8,000 men, representing military, fraternal and civic organizations, in the afternoon.

Soldier's Day, April 27, 1918. 312th Regiment of Infantry of the National Army from Camp Dix entertained by the city. Escorted by thousands of civilians in line from Lincoln Park to First Regiment Armory. 16,000 in parade, 300,000 spectators. Greatest demonstration of the kind in Newark's history.

Italy Day, May 24, 1918. 8,000 Italian citizens in parade, expressed their allegiance to the U. S. Many Red Cross workers and 400 children from McKinley School in line.

War Savings Stamps, June 15, 1918. 7,500 school children and Red Cross divisions of commercial and industrial concerns, followed by 106 of the famous French Chasseurs d'Alpines, called Blue Devils, then on a visit to the U. S.

113th Infantry of the 29th, or Blue and Gray Division, welcomed home May 20, 1919. The 113th left Newark Sept. 4, 1917, as the First Infantry, National Guard of New Jersey. Their parade was the first to celebrate the return of Newark men from France. A public holiday was proclaimed by Mayor Gillen. Other home-coming « 53 » parades followed with the 312th Infantry, of the 78th, or Lightning Division, in the line of march, Memorial Day, 1919.

War, The: See also Coal Shortage; Industry; Shipbuilding; Wages

Water Supply: Since 1892, drawn from headwaters of Pequannock River in northern N. J., 26 miles from city. From time to time city has purchased large tracts of land around this watershed to protect it. Total acreage, 25,000; valuation, $20,000,000; 9 reservoirs; average daily water supply available, 50,000,000 gallons. Average daily consumption, 47,341,000 gallons.

For many years there has been agitation for new source of supply, as population and industries increase. In 1918, permission was granted by the Capital Issues Committee of the Federal Reserve Board to proceed with the development of the Wanaque watershed on condition that no construction work be undertaken during the war. Supply from the Wanaque watershed would be 50,000,000 gallons, equal capacity to Pequannock. Cost estimated at $9,047,250.

Whooping Cough: An ordinance passed Sept. 15, 1915, requires children under 10 years of age with whooping cough to wear in the street or any other public place, a yellow band around the arm, marked "Newark Health Department, Whooping Cough". This is a measure to prevent the spread of disease.

Woman Suffrage: In view of the recent adoption of the Susan B. Anthony amendment by U. S. Congress, a review of the suffrage movement in N. J. from earliest times to the present, may be of sufficient interest to warrant the disregard of limiting dates.

N. J. had woman suffrage up to 1807.

1884. Petition for restoration of original suffrage rights and for school suffrage.
1887. Suffrage for school officials in villages and for county officials:
Senate—ayes, 15; nays, 2.
House—unanimously in favor.
Passed and became a law. Declared unconstitutional in 1894.
1895. Petition for Full Suffrage and School Suffrage rights.
1897. Resolution for a referendum on School Suffrage:
Senate—ayes, 15; nays, 1. Passed.
House—ayes, 42; nays, 5. Passed.
Submitted to referendum and rejected.
1912. Resolution for Full Suffrage:
Senate—ayes, 3; nays, 18.
1913.[D] Resolution for Full Suffrage:
Senate—ayes, 14; nays, 5. Passed.
House—ayes, 44; nays, 7. Passed. « 54 »
1914. Suffrage Resolution:
Senate—ayes, 15; nays, 3.
House—ayes, 49; nays, 4.
1915. Suffrage Resolution:
Senate—ayes, 17; nays, 4.
House—unanimously passed.
Submitted to referendum:
N. J., 133,281 for; 184,390 against.
And defeated, Oct. 19:
Newark, 13,125 for; 24,147 against.
1916. Presidential Suffrage Bill introduced in Senate. Referred to Committee on Judiciary and unfavorably reported.

[D] This resolution through error was not advertised in time, so that a Resolution had to be introduced in the Legislature of 1914.

Young Men's Christian Association: Since 1904 the Y. M. C. A. of this city has added two stories over its gymnasium building, increasing its capacity of living rooms for young men to 125.

It has purchased four lots on Warren St., comprising a plot 80 × 100 ft., which is to be the site for the annex building to be erected within the next 5 years.

In the Educational Dept. there have been organized and conducted the accountancy school, automobile schools, classes in electricity, salesmanship, modern production methods, personal efficiency and memory training.

A most important advance was made when the City-Wide Community Work was organized in 1914. There are now 3 districts being operated. Eventually the city and suburbs are to be organized with 7 distinct districts, each with a competent secretary doing work for the whole community.

Young Women's Christian Association: New administration and recreation building, 53 Washington St., opened Sept. 2, and dedicated Nov. 3, 1913. $300,000 for its erection raised in 14 days by a "whirlwind campaign" for popular subscriptions. Has gymnasium, assembly hall, cafeteria, roof garden, swimming pool, classrooms, and offices.

Association residence, or boarding home, 304 Broad St., opened March, 1917.


All-Year School 4
Almshouse 4
Alternating Plan 4
Apartment Houses 4
Athletic Association, Public School 4
Athletic Field, Public School 4
Automobiles 4

Band Concerts 4
Bank Buildings 5
Baths, Public 5
Birth Rate 5
Blind, Work for 5
Boy's Vocational School 6
Buildings 6

Carteret Book Club 7
Catholic Children's Aid Association of N. J. 7
Charities 8
Charter, City 8
Child Hygiene Division, Board of Health 9
Christmas Trees, Municipal 9
Churches 9
City Home 9
City Plan Commission 9
Civil Service Reform 10
Coal Shortage 10
College of Technology 10
Comfort Stations 10
Commission Government 10
Contemporary, The 11
Co-operative School 11
Course of Study 11
Crippled Children, School for 11

Deaf, Public School Classes for 12
Death Rate 12
Delinquent Children 12
Dental Clinic Association 13
Detention, House of 13

Education Board 13
Employment Bureau, Municipal 13
Exhibitions 13

Feebleminded, Public School Classes for 15
Fire Department, 1906 15
Flag, City 15
Food and Drug Division—Board of Health 16

Gary Schools 16
German Language 16
Girls' Vocational School 16
Gymnasium, Public School 16

Health 16
High Schools 16
Housing 16

Indeterminate Sentence 17
Industrial Expositions 17
Industrial Schools 17
Industry 17
Infantile Paralysis 18
Influenza 18
Institute of Arts and Sciences 18
Italian Language 19

Jitneys 19
Junior College 19
Junior High Schools 19
Junior Museum Club 19
Juvenile Court 19
Juvenile Delinquency 19

Lectures, Public 19
Library, Public 20
Lincoln Highway 22
Little Mother's League 22
Lunches, Public School 22

Medical History, Museum of 22
Medical Inspection 23
Medical Library Association 23
Memorial Tablets 23
Memorial Trees 23
Mental Hygiene, Bureau of—Board of Health 23
Mexican Border Uprising 23
Milk Supply 23
Monuments 23
Moving Pictures 23
Municipal Christmas Trees 24
Municipal Employment Bureau 24
Municipal Exhibition 24
Museum Association 24
Music Festivals 24

Naturalization 25
Newark Day 25
Newspapers and Journals 25
Normal School, N. J. State 26

Open Air Classes 26

Pageant 26
Parades 26
Parental School, Essex Co. 26
Parental School, Newark 26
Parks, City 26
Parks, Essex County 27
Parkways 27
Parochial Schools 27
Passaic Valley Trunk Sewer 27
Paving 28
Physical Training 28
Playgrounds 28
Playgrounds, City 28
Police Department 29
Poor and Alms Department and Almshouse Survey 29
Population 29
Port Newark 29
Postal Service 30
Prices, Food 30
Prison Reform 30
Probation System 32
Public Baths 32
Public Comfort Station 32
Public Lectures 32
Public Schools 32
Public Service Corporation of N. J. 32
Public Service Terminal 32

Reformatory for Women, N. J. State 32

"Safety First" and the Schools 32
School Houses as Social Centers 33
School Names Changed 33
School Savings Banks 34
School Survey 35
Schools, Parochial 35
Schools, Public 35
Shade Tree Commission 35
Shipbuilding 36
Ship Yard Workers, Evening Classes for 36
Smoke Abatement Department 36
Social Service Survey 36
Statues and Monuments 37
Street Names Changed 38
Street Paving 39
Summer High Schools 40
Surveys 40

Tablets, Memorial 40
Technical School 42
Telephones 40
Trade, Board of 40
Transportation 43
Trees, Memorial 43
Trolleys 44
Tuberculosis, Campaign Against 44
Tunnels 45
250th Anniversary 45
250th Anniversary Competitions 46
250th Anniversary Industrial Exposition 47
250th Anniversary Music Festival 47
250th Anniversary Notable Parades 47
250th Anniversary Pageant 47
250th Anniversary School Work Exhibit 47

Ungraded Schools 47

Vacant Lot Cultivation 48
Vailsburg 48
Vehicular Tunnel 48
Venereal Diseases, Bureau of—Board of Health 48
Vocational Schools 48

Wages 49
War, The—Military Organizations 49
War, The—Relief Organizations 50
War, The—Financial Support 50
War, The—Industrial Aspect 50
War, The—Public School Activities 51
War, The—Library Service 52
War, The—Notable Parades 52
War, The 53
Water Supply 53
Whooping Cough 53
Woman Suffrage 53

Young Men's Christian Association 54
Young Women's Christian Association 54

Transcriber Notes

On Page 37, "Court House Statutes" was corrected to "Court House Statues". Tables were standardized to have italicized column titles. All "Subjects" titles were standardized. There are links to a subject "Hudson and Manhattan Tubes" which does not appear to have been designated as such. The Trade, Board of was set as the target of these links as it details the timeline and decisions given to build them.