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Title: Spons' Household Manual

Publisher: E. & F. N. Spon

Release date: August 3, 2018 [eBook #57630]

Language: English

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SPONS’


HOUSEHOLD MANUAL:

A TREASURY OF

DOMESTIC RECEIPTS

And Guide for

HOME MANAGEMENT.

London:
E. & F. N. SPON, 125 STRAND.

New York:
SPON & CHAMBERLAIN, 12 CORTLANDT STREET.

1894


[Pg iii]

PREFACE.

Time was when the foremost aim and ambition of the English housewife was to gain a full knowledge of her own duties and of the duties of her servants. In those days, bread was home-baked, butter home-made, beer home-brewed, gowns home-sewn, to a far greater extent than now.

With the advance of education, there is much reason to fear that the essentially domestic part of the training of our daughters is being more and more neglected. Yet what can be more important for the comfort and welfare of the household than an appreciation of their needs and an ability to furnish them. Accomplishments, all very good in their way, must, to the true housewife, be secondary to all that concerns the health, the feeding, the clothing, the housing of those under her care.

And what a range of knowledge this implies,—from sanitary engineering to patching a garment, from bandaging a wound to keeping the frost out of water pipes. It may safely be said that the mistress of a family is called upon to exercise an amount of skill and learning in her daily routine such as is demanded of few men, and this too without the benefit of any special education or preparation; for where is the school or college which includes among its “subjects” the study of such every-day matters as bad drains, or the gapes in chickens, or the removal of stains from clothes, or the bandaging of wounds, or the management of a kitchen range? Indeed, it is worthy of consideration whether our schools of cookery might not with very great advantage be supplemented by schools of general household instruction.

Till this suggestion is carried out, the housewife can only refer to books and papers for information and advice. The editors of the present volume have been guided by a determination to make it a book of reference such as no housewife can afford to be without. Much of the matter is, of course, not altogether new, but it has been arranged with great care in a[iv] systematic manner, and while the use of obscure scientific terms has been avoided, the teachings of modern science have been made the basis of those sections in which science plays a part.

Much of the information herein contained has appeared before in lectures, pamphlets, and newspapers, foremost among these last being the Queen, Field, Lancet, Scientific American, Pharmaceutical Journal, Gardener’s Chronicle, and the Bazaar; but it has lost nothing by repetition, and has this advantage in being embodied in a substantial volume that it can always be readily found when wanted, while every one knows the fate of leaflets and journals. The sources whence information has been drawn have, it is believed, in every case been acknowledged, and the editors take this opportunity of again proclaiming their indebtedness to the very large number of lecturers and writers whose communications have found a place within these covers.

The Editors.


[v]

CONTENTS.

Hints for selecting a good House, pointing out the essential requirements for a good house as to the Site, Soil, Trees, Aspect, Construction, and General Arrangement; with instructions for Reducing Echoes, Water-proofing Damp Walls, Curing Damp Cellars 

Page 1

Water Supply.—Care of Cisterns; Sources of Supply; Pipes; Pumps; Purification and Filtration of Water 

12

Sanitation.—What should constitute a good Sanitary Arrangement; Examples (with illustrations) of Well- and Ill-drained Houses; How to Test Drains; Ventilating Pipes, &c. 

35

Ventilation and Warming.—Methods of Ventilating without causing cold draughts, by various means; Principles of Warming; Health Questions; Combustion; Open Grates; Open Stoves; Fuel Economisers; Varieties of Grates; Close-Fire Stoves; Hot-air Furnaces; Gas Heating; Oil Stoves; Steam Heating; Chemical Heaters; Management of Flues; and Cure of Smoky Chimneys 

55

Lighting.—The best methods of Lighting; Candles, Oil Lamps, Gas, Incandescent Gas, Electric Light; How to Test Gas Pipes; Management of Gas 

82

Furniture and Decoration.—Hints on the Selection of Furniture; on the most approved methods of Modern Decoration; on the best methods of arranging Bells and Calls; How to Construct an Electric Bell 

95

Thieves and Fire.—Precautions against Thieves and Fire; Methods of Detection; Domestic Fire Escapes; Fireproofing Clothes, &c. 

108

The Larder.—Keeping Food fresh for a limited time; Storing Food without change, such as Fruits, Vegetables, Eggs, Honey, &c. 

112

Curing Foods for lengthened Preservation, as Smoking, Salting, Canning, Potting, Pickling, Bottling Fruits, &c.; Jams, Jellies, Marmalade, &c. 

123

The Dairy.—The Building and Fitting of Dairies in the most approved modern style; Butter-making; Cheese-making and Curing 

154

The Cellar.—Building and Fitting; Cleaning Casks and Bottles; Corks and Corking; Aërated Drinks; Syrups for Drinks; Beers; Bitters; Cordials and Liqueurs; Wines; Miscellaneous Drinks 

168

The Pantry.—Bread-making; Ovens and Pyrometers; Yeast; German Yeast; Biscuits; Cakes; Fancy Breads; Buns 

207

The Kitchen.—On Fitting Kitchens; a description of the best Cooking Ranges, close and open; the Management and Care of Hot Plates, Baking Ovens, Dampers, Flues, and Chimneys; Cooking by Gas; Cooking by Oil; the Arts of Roasting, Grilling, Boiling, Stewing, Braising, Frying 

221

[vi]

Receipts for Dishes.—Soups, Fish, Meat, Game, Poultry, Vegetables, Salads, Puddings, Pastry, Confectionery, Ices, &c., &c.; Foreign Dishes 

244

The Housewife’s Room.—Testing Air, Water, and Foods; Cleaning and Renovating; Destroying Vermin 

518

Housekeeping, Marketing

563

The Dining-Room.—Dietetics; Laying and Waiting at Table; Carving; Dinners, Breakfasts, Luncheons, Teas, Suppers, &c. 

583

The Drawing-Room.—Etiquette; Dancing; Amateur Theatricals; Tricks and Illusions; Games (indoor) 

648

The Bedroom and Dressing-Room.—Sleep; the Toilet; Dress; Buying Clothes; Outfits; Fancy Dress 

699

The Nursery.—The Room; Clothing; Washing; Exercise; Sleep; Feeding; Teething; Illness; Home Training 

746

The Sickroom.—The Room; the Nurse; the Bed; Sickroom Accessories; Feeding Patients; Invalid Dishes and Drinks; Administering Physic; Domestic Remedies; Accidents and Emergencies; Bandaging; Burns; Carrying Injured Persons; Wounds; Drowning; Fits; Frostbites; Poisons and Antidotes; Sunstroke; Common Complaints; Disinfection, &c. 

755

The Bathroom.—Bathing in General; Management of Hot-Water System. 

828

The Laundry.—Small Domestic Washing Machines, and methods of getting up linen; Fitting up and Working a Steam Laundry 

848

The Schoolroom.—The Room and its Fittings; Teaching, &c. 

862

The Playground.—Air and Exercise; Training; Outdoor Games and Sports 

870

The Workroom.—Darning, Patching, and Mending Garments 

890

The Library.—Care of Books 

903

The Farmyard.—Management of the Horse, Cow, Pig, Poultry, Bees, &c. 

907

The Garden.—Calendar of Operations for Lawn, Flower Garden, and Kitchen Garden 

930

Domestic Motors—A description of the various small Engines useful for domestic purposes, from 1 man to 1 horse power, worked by various methods, such as Electric Engines, Gas Engines, Petroleum Engines, Steam Engines, Condensing Engines, Water Power, Wind Power, and the various methods of working and managing them 

936

Household Law.—The Law relating to Landlords and Tenants, Lodgers, Servants, Parochial Authorities, Juries, Insurance, Nuisance, &c. 

955


[Pg 1]

SPONS’

HOUSEHOLD MANUAL.

THE DWELLING.

It is both convenient and rational to commence this volume with a chapter on the conditions which should guide a man in the choice of his dwelling. Unfortunately there is scarcely any subject upon which ordinary people display more ignorance, or to which they pay so little regard. In the majority of instances a dwelling is chosen mainly with regard to its cost, accommodation, locality, and appearance. As to its being healthy or otherwise, no evidence is volunteered by the owner, and none is demanded by the intending resident. The consequences of this indifference are a vast amount of preventible sickness and a corresponding loss of money. The following remarks are intended to educate the house-seeker in the necessary subjects, being subdivided under distinct headings for facility of reference.

Site.—Of modern scientists who have studied the great health question, none has more ably treated the essentials of the dwelling than Dr. Simpson in his lecture for the Manchester and Salford Sanitary Association. This Association has done wonders in improving sanitation in the Midlands, and we cannot do better than follow Dr. Simpson’s teaching.

Soil.—He insists, first of all, on the great importance of the soil being dry—either dry before artificial means are used to make it so, or dry from drainage. To this end some elevation above the surrounding land conduces. A hollow below the general level should, as a matter of course, be avoided; for to this hollow the water from all the adjacent higher land will drain, and if the soil be impervious the water will lodge there. It will thus be damp, and, as is well known, it will be a colder situation than neighbouring ones which are a little raised above the general level. Those who live where they can have gardens will find the advantage of the higher situation in its being much less subject to spring and early autumn frosts than the hollow just below. This is due not only to the former being damper, but to the fact that the heat of the ground on still nights passes off into space (is “radiated”) more rapidly than from the higher situation, where there is more movement in the air. The soil should not be retentive of moisture, as clay is when undrained; nor should it be damp and moist from the ground water (concerning which a few words will be said farther on), as is much alluvial soil, i.e. soil which has been at some former time carried down and deposited by rivers or floods. On the whole, sand or gravel, if the site be sufficiently elevated, is probably the best, as it allows all water to get away rapidly. Then come various rocks, as granite, limestone, sandstone, and chalk.

Towns often present one specially dangerous, and therefore specially objectionable[2] soil—that where hollows have been filled up with refuse of all kinds. This refuse is made up of all kinds of vegetable, and, more or less, animal matter, often of the most noxious character, together with cinders, old mortar, and no one knows what besides. This becomes a foul fermenting mass, which is often built upon and the houses inhabited before the process of decomposition is completed, and the noxious gases cease to be given off. Many outbreaks of disease have been traced most unmistakably to this criminal act of putting up jerry buildings on pestilential sites. It is easy for any one to understand how this may be when he thinks of the way the house acts on the soil it is built upon, or rather on the moisture and gases contained in the soil. The house is warmed by the fires and by the people living in it, and the heated air has a tendency to rise. The pressure on the gases in the soil is lessened, and they are drawn up into the house, which acts as a suction pump. This could not happen if the foundation were air-tight; but this is rarely the case, and too often indeed “cottage property” is built without any foundation at all. Drs. Parkes and Sanderson recommended that such soil should not be built upon “for at least two years,” but it would be well to give it another year. Attention must also be paid to the “ground water”—the great underground sea of which we find evidences almost anywhere that we seek for them. Sometimes it is found even a foot or two only from the surface, in other places at 15, 20, or 40 ft. This water rises and falls in some places rapidly, rising after heavy rains, and falling in dry weather. If it is always near the surface, the place must be damp and unhealthy; and we should try to find out something about the ground water before fixing on the site of our house. If possible, do not live where it is less than 5 or 6 ft. from the surface.

Trees.—Vegetation assists in rendering the soil healthy. Trees absorb large quantities of moisture from the soil, and sometimes, as in the case of the blue gum-tree of Australia, they seem even to do something more than this. It is said that the common sunflower of our gardens has a considerable influence in this way. Trees should not be crowded close to a house, as they keep off much sun, and so neutralise some of their good effects, but at a reasonable distance they are beneficial.

Aspect.—The aspect of a dwelling will necessarily be made to vary with the climatic conditions of the locality in which it is situated. In northern latitudes, such as Great Britain occupies, we are rarely oppressed by sunshine, and need not seek special protection from it. We should rather be anxious not to be deprived too much of its genial and life-giving rays. On the other hand, we are often visited by bleak and bitter winds, and though a free circulation of air is desirable round a dwelling, there should be some shelter to break the violence of a cold prevailing wind. In the country, where in all probability there is no system of drainage for the district, we should be careful not to place the house so as to receive our neighbour’s drainage, nor that from our own outbuildings. In a town the situation should be as open as can be obtained. The wider the street and the greater the open space at the back the better, and the back-to-back houses should be avoided altogether. (Simpson.)

As Eassie remarks, in one of the Health Exhibition Handbooks, aspect and prospect have very much to do with comfort in housebuilding, since a dwelling may be designed so as to fully command the scenery while its plan might be very ill-adapted to the prevalent weather, and the sun’s daily course. A house having a pleasant prospect may be a decidedly unpleasant dwelling if the rooms have been arranged without regard to the points of the compass. This will become quite evident from a careful study of the annexed representation of Prof. Kerr’s “aspect compass” (Fig. 1), which illustrates most clearly the direction and character of the prevailing winds of this country, and the sunny and shady quarters, the imaginary window of the dwelling occupying the centre of the circle.

Obviously, as Eassie points out, the effects of aspect will not be the same on the inside and outside of the room. Looking from a window in the north, the prospect or landscape will be lighted from behind; to the spectator looking from the south, it will[3] never be go lighted; looking from the east, the landscape will be so lighted at sunset; and looking from the west, it will be well lighted throughout the day. The great thing is to reconcile aspect and prospect in the choice of a house; but this can seldom be done, and where it cannot, the question of aspect must be first attended to, as being of importance to the rooms, and the question of prospect made secondary. The north is not suitable for a drawing-room, because the aspect is cold; it is more suitable for a dining-room, as during the winter the prospect is not seen so much. When the room used for morning meals looks to the north, a bay window erected to the east will catch the early sunbeams, and render it pleasant. The northern aspect is too cold as a rule for bedrooms; but it is quite suitable for the servants’ day apartments, and admirably adapted to the larder and dairy. It is especially suited for staircases, as no blinds are requisite, and the passages can be maintained in a cool state.

1. Aspect Compass for Great Britain.

The north-east aspect—next to the north—is best for a dining-room; it is better for the servants’ offices than even the north; and when an end window is wanted for a drawing-room, this forms no unpleasant aspect. Bedrooms which face north-east enjoy the morning sun, and during the summer range are agreeably cool at night. With regard[4] to the east, this is also a good aspect for the dining-room, especially when no distinction is made between the dining-room and the breakfast-room; and with regard to a sitting-room the more eastward tendency it has the better. It is not adapted for a drawing-room, because in the afternoon there is an entire want of sunshine, and on account of the unhealthy east winds. This point of the compass is suitable, however, for a library or business-room, because by the time breakfast is over the sun will fairly have warmed the interior of the room. It is also a good aspect for the porch, and one side of a conservatory should always face the east.

The south-east aspect is most suitable for the best rooms of a house, because it escapes some of the east wind, and part of the scorching heat and beating rain of the south. It is admirably adapted, therefore, for a drawing-room or day-room, is the most pleasant aspect for bedrooms, and is best suited for the nursery or for the rooms of an invalid. The south-west aspect is the least congenial of all, because it is so open to a sultry sun and blustering winds. This aspect should never be chosen for a dining-room; in summer it is unpleasantly hot for bedrooms; and it is not suitable for a porch or entrance, on account of the driving rains which prevail during a portion of the year. The south aspect is not very desirable for the windows of a dining-room, and is unpleasant for a morning-room, unless a verandah has been provided. The larder and dairy should never face the south. The west aspect is not quite agreeable for a dining-room, on account of the excessive heat prevailing in the summer afternoons; neither is it desirable for the drawing-room; and it should never preferably be chosen for bedrooms, although it is very agreeable for a smoking-room. One side of a conservatory should always face to the west. The north-west aspect is very good for a billiard-room, also for a dining-room, if the windows are fitted up with blinds to shade the sun.

Construction. Foundation.—Bearing in mind what Dr. Simpson has said as to the house acting as a suction pump, drawing up moisture and gases, often most noxious, from the soil on which it is built, it is clear that the foundation ought to be air-tight and water-tight; for besides the emanations due to the soil, we must remember that escape from the gas-pipes laid in the street is a very common occurrence, that sewers are apt to leak, and so the soil in the neighbourhood of houses may become saturated with filth. Fatal instances are known where coal gas and other foul vapours have been drawn, as it were, long distances and poisoned the air of a house or houses. The only way of guarding against this is to have the foundations, and some distance outside the foundations, laid in concrete. There should also be a space between the basement wall and the surrounding earth. No one, in Eassie’s opinion, would think of building a dwelling on a patch of ground without first removing the vegetable mould to some depth below the level of the floor; and however good the soil, it is very desirable to cover the site with a layer of concrete to keep out damp and bad exhalations. Rawlinson even advises a bed of charcoal below the concrete. Simpson insists that if a cottage floor has to be laid on the bare ground, there ought at least to be a bed of good concrete below the tiles. Cellars add to the dryness and healthiness of a house if the walls and floors are made impervious to air and water, and are properly ventilated. The walls of the house ought to have a damp-proof course to prevent the moisture rising in them. To show the importance of this, Simpson quotes a well-known fact, but one seldom thought of when we look at the brick walls of our houses. An ordinary well-baked brick, which is 9 in. long, 4½ in. broad, and 2½ in. deep, though apparently solid, is not really so. It contains innumerable minute spaces through which air may pass, and into which water may enter; and when it is soaked in the latter, and all the air is driven out, it will contain nearly 16 oz. (the old pint) of water. If one brick will retain in its pores so large a quantity, it is easy to see that a large wall may hold what most people would at first think an incredible amount. As Dr. de Chaumont says, “A cottage wall only 16 ft. long by 8 ft. high, and only one brick thick, might hold 46 gallons of water!”

Walls may be made damp not only by water rising in them, but by rain driving[5] against them, and by water running down from the roof in consequence of the stoppage of a rain-water pipe. The latter cause is simple and easily remedied, but the former is far too frequent in cheaply-built houses. It may be prevented by having cavity walls, as they are called—that is, a double wall with a space between. There are several advantages from this. The air space, besides helping to keep the inner wall dry, is a good non-conductor, and so the house is all the warmer. There are other methods which may be used in addition to this, as cementing, plastering, or covering with slates or boards. There is some difference of opinion as to the advantage or disadvantage of the walls of a house being porous, as bricks are when dry; and Prof. de Chaumont seems to think that in our climate the porosity of the walls is not a point we need trouble ourselves about maintaining. Still, in Simpson’s opinion, with the ordinary arrangements of houses as regards supply of air and ventilation, some porosity of the walls is desirable. Without the freest and most perfect ventilation, walls absolutely impervious to air, and therefore to water in a gaseous form, will almost always be more or less damp on the inside.

2. Damp Course and Area Wall.

Another source of dampness in dwellings, as pointed out by Eassie, is to be found in the practice of building the house walls close against the earth, without taking the precaution to erect a blind area-wall between the house wall and the earth excavation. Fig. 2 exhibits both these important improvements—the damp-course and the area-wall—applied to the same dwelling: a represents the main wall of the house, and b the area-wall, which is built against the excavated subsoil, leaving the space c between the two walls; the thick black line underneath the floor-joist represents the damp-proof course, which interposes between the subsoil d, with the foundations built upon it, and the main wall of the house. This damp-proof course usually consists of a layer of pitch or asphalte, or slates bedded in cement, or specially glazed tiles, known as Taylor’s or Doulton’s manufactures. By the use of this impervious course, the upward passage of the ground water is effectually arrested. The intervening area c it is also well to drain, but this water should never drain into the soil drain, if avoidable, and certainly not until it has been thoroughly disconnected. There should always, also, be a current of air introduced from the outer air, by way of ventilators put at the top of the blind area c, and an air brick placed above or below the damp-proof course—preferably above—in order that the space between the ground and the joists or stone flooring of the basement may be thoroughly ventilated. This ventilation is shown by the arrows between e and e. Such air currents should always be provided under floors, whether there be a basement or not, and also always between the joists of the upper floors, and in the roof, in order to ward off dry-rot and ensure a constant circulation of air. (Eassie.)

Roof.—The first detail to be decided on is the “pitch” or slope to be given to the roof, and this will depend both on the nature of the covering material and the character of the climate. In the tropics, where rain falls in torrents, a flat pitch helps to counteract the rush of water; in colder regions the pitch must be such as to readily admit of snow sliding off as it accumulates, to prevent injury to the framework by the increased weight. The pitches ordinarily observed, stated in “height of roof in parts of the span,” are as follows:—Lead, 1/40; galvanized iron or zinc, ⅕; slates, ¼; stone, slate, and plain tiles, 2/7; pantiles, 2/9; thatch, felt, and wooden shingles, ⅓ to ½.

In country districts the roofs of cottages and outbuildings are frequently covered with thatch. This consists of layers of straw—wheaten lasts twice as long as oaten—about 15 in. in thickness, tied down to laths with withes of straw or with string.[6] Thatch is an excellent non-conductor of heat, and consequently buildings thus roofed are both cooler in summer and warmer in winter than others, and no better roof covering for a dairy can be found. Thatch is, however, highly combustible, and as it harbours vermin and is soon damaged, it is not really an economical material, though the first cost is small. A load of straw will do 1½ “squares” of roofing, or 150 superficial feet. First class thatching is an art not readily acquired. While really good thatching will stand for 20 years, average work will not endure 10.

A convenient roofing material when wood is cheap and abundant consists of a kind of “wooden slates,” split pieces of wood measuring about 9 in. long, 5 in. wide, and 1 in. thick at one end but tapering to a sharp edge at the other. Shingles, or wooden slates, are made from hard wood, either of oak, larch, or cedar, or any material that will split easily. Their dimensions are usually 6 in. wide by 12 or 18 in. long, and about ¼ in. thick.

Roofing felt is a substance composed largely of hair saturated with an asphalte composition, and should be chosen more for closeness of texture than excessive thickness. It is sold in rolls 2 ft. 8 in. wide and 25 yd. long, thus containing 200 ft. super in a roll. Before the felt is laid on the boards (¾ in. close boarding), a coating composed of 5 lb. ground whiting and 1 gal. coal tar, boiled to expel the water, is applied, while still slightly warm, on the boards themselves; the felt is then laid on, taking care to stretch it smooth and tight, and the outside edge is nailed closely with ⅞ in. zinc or tinned tacks. The most common application to a felt roof is simple coal tar brushed on hot and sprinkled with sharp sand. It is not well adapted to dwellings.

Dachpappe is a kind of asphalte pasteboard much employed in Denmark; it is laid on close boarding at a very low pitch, and forms a light, durable covering, having the non-conducting properties of thatch. It is sold in rolls 2 ft. 9 in. wide and 25 ft. long, having a superficial content of 7½ sq. yd., at the rate of 1d. per sq. ft. When laid, it requires dressing with an asphalte composition called “Erichsen’s mastic,” sold at 9s. 9d. per cwt., 1 cwt. of the varnish sufficing to cover a surface of 65 sq. yd.

Willesden paper is another extremely light, durable, and waterproof roofing material, which differs essentially from the 2 preceding substances in needing to be fixed to rafters or scantling, and requiring no boarding on the roof. It is a kind of cardboard treated with cuprammonium solution, and has become a recognized commercial article. It is made in rolls of continuous length, 54 in. wide, consequently, when fixing the full width of the card (to avoid cutting to waste), the rafters should be spaced out 2 ft. 1 in. apart from centre to centre, so that the edge of one sheet of card laid vertically from eaves to ridge will overlap the edge of the adjoining sheet 4 in. on every alternate rafter.

By far the most important and generally used roofing material in this country is slate. Its splitting or fissile property makes it eminently useful as a roofing material, as, notwithstanding the fact that it is one of the hardest and densest of rocks, it can be obtained in such thin sheets that the weight of a superficial foot is very small indeed, and consequently, when used for covering roofs, a heavy supporting framework is not required. Slate absorbs a scarcely perceptible quantity of water, and it is very hard and close-grained and smooth on the surface; it can be laid safely at as low a pitch as 22½°. In consequence of this, the general introduction of slate as a roofing material has had a prejudicial effect upon the architectural character of buildings. The bold, high-pitched, lichen-covered roofs of the middle ages—which, with their warm tints, form so picturesque a feature of many an old-fashioned English country town—have given place to the flat, dull, slated roofs. The best roofing slate is obtained from North Wales, chiefly in the neighbourhood of Llanberis. Non-absorption of water is, of course, the most valuable characteristic; an easy test of this can be applied by carefully weighing one or two specimens when dry, and then steeping them in water for a few hours and weighing them again, when the difference in weight will of course represent[7] the quantity of water absorbed. The light-blue coloured slates are generally superior to the blue-black varieties. (J. Slater.)

Some architects bed the roofing slates in hydraulic cement, instead of having them nailed on dry in the usual way, which leaves them subject to be rattled by the wind, and to be broken by any accidental pressure. The cement soon sets and hardens, so that the roof becomes like a solid wall. The extra cost is 10 or 15 per cent., and it is good economy, considering only its permanency, and the saving in repairs; but, besides this, it affords great safety against fire, for slate laid in the usual way will not protect the wood underneath from the heat of a fire at a short distance.

Tiles are much used in some districts, and are often made of a pleasant tint; but a great objection to all tiles is their porosity, which causes them to absorb much water, rotting the woodwork and adding to their own already considerable weight.

Metallic roofing embraces sheet copper, sheet zinc, sheet lead, “galvanised” iron, and thin plates of “rustless” (Bower-Barff) iron. These materials are only used on flat or nearly flat spaces.

Floors.—Tiles or flags are most frequently used for the floors of kitchens, sculleries, and lobbies. They serve this purpose very well, as they are easily washed and not likely to be injured, but the joints should be made impervious to moisture. In some parts of the country, concrete is used; this answers very well for the same purpose, but it is not good for bedrooms, as it is so cold to the feet. Wood makes the most comfortable floor for sitting or bed rooms, and the best is hard wood capable of bearing a polish. From its convenience and cheapness, common deal is used very generally, and too often in a damp and unsound state, so that the boards shrink and wide gaps are left between. This allows all the foul air from any space—as a cellar or a cavity between the floor and the soil—to ascend into the room. The boards ought to be as close together as possible, and any spaces left between them should be packed tightly with oakum. If this is done, the floors may be stained and varnished, when they can be swept and rubbed clean, and do not require such frequent washing as the ordinary unvarnished floors. This is an important gain, for there is no doubt that emanations rising with the damp from newly-washed floors are often most injurious. If a varnished floor is washed, it dries almost at once. Spaces must be left under the floors, on the ground level, if they are of wood, or they will soon decay; and they ought to be well ventilated. Ceilings, leaving a space between them and the boards of the room above, have come into use, most likely to deaden sound. They often fail of this, while affording fine playgrounds to mice, and even rats. Well-laid boards, of sufficient thickness, and plugged with oakum, would, as regards health, be preferable. (Dr. Simpson.)

General Arrangement.—The chief points to be insisted on in a dwelling are enumerated by Simpson as follows:—Every room should obtain light and air from the outside, and there should be free communication from front to back, so that a current of air may pass through the house. What are called back-to-back houses are very objectionable, and to be carefully avoided. If there is a closet attached to the house, it should, as a matter of course, be ventilated by a window opening both above and below, and, if possible, should be built in a projecting wing or tower, and have double doors, with space between them for a window on each side, so as to have cross ventilation. When there is no closet in the house, it should be completely detached from it, and all piggeries, middens, &c., should be as far removed as possible. Speaking even of large houses, Eassie remarks that they are often very faultily planned in respect to the position in that portion of the interior which is usually appropriated to sinks and water-closets. In the basement, for instance, closets are often placed almost in the middle of the house, and the same mistake is committed on the floors above, a worse error by far; because then the closet would be placed on the landing of the stair opposite the best ground-floor, and chamber-floor rooms—the only ventilation from the closet-rooms being into the staircase, and consequently into the house.

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Precaution against Snakes entering Dwellings.—There is no regular system adopted to prevent snakes entering dwelling-houses in Ceylon, as it is of rare occurrence to find any but rat snakes in European dwellings, and these are not venomous; but it is usual to clear away a portion of space about each bungalow and put on sharp gravel, and also to have coir matting laid down upon the verandahs, as snakes dislike crossing over rough surfaces such as gravel and coir. Trees should be at such a distance from the house (or bungalow) as to prevent the possibility of snakes dropping from the branches on to the roof.

Reducing Echoes and Reverberations.—The report of a committee of a Würtemberg association of architects upon the deadening of ceilings, walls, &c., to sound, gave rise to considerable debate, after which the following conclusions were reached. The propagation of sound through the ceiling may be most effectually prevented by insulating the floor from the beams by means of some porous light substance, as a layer of felt, a filling of sand, or of stone coal dust, the latter being particularly effective. It is difficult to prevent the propagation of sound through thin partitions, but double unconnected walls filled in with some porous material have been found to answer the purpose best. Covering the walls and doors with hangings, as of jute, is also quite serviceable.

To those who carry on any operations requiring much hammering or pounding, a simple means of deadening the noise of their work is a great relief. Several methods have been suggested, but the best are probably these:

1. Rubber cushions under the legs of the work-bench. Chambers’s Journal describes a factory where the hammering of fifty coppersmiths was scarcely audible in the room below, their benches having under each leg a rubber cushion.

2. Kegs of sand or sawdust applied in the same way. A few inches of sand or sawdust is first poured into each keg; on this is laid a board or block upon which the leg rests, and round the leg and block is poured fine dry sand or sawdust. Not only all noise, but all vibration and shock, is prevented; and an ordinary anvil, so mounted, may be used in a dwelling-house without annoying the inhabitants. To amateurs, whose workshops are almost always located in dwelling-houses, this device affords a cheap and simple relief from a very great annoyance.

Echoes are broken up by stretching wires across the room at about 4-5 ft. above the heads of the audience. Often there is strong echo from the windows, which is lessened by the use of curtains, but with some sacrifice of light. Very thin semi-transparent blinds would check echo a good deal, but architects should not have large windows in the same plane; large unbroken surfaces of any kind are very apt to reflect echoes, yet we constantly see rooms intended for public meetings so built as to be spoiled by the confusing echoes.

Waterproofing Walls.—In many badly constructed houses with thin walls there is a tendency for damp to make its way into the interior. Several remedies for this inconvenience have been published at various times. The following procedure is described by a German paper as a reliable means of drying damp walls. The wall, or that part of it which is damp, is freed from its plaster until the bricks or stones are laid bare, next further cleaned off with a stiff broom, and then covered with the mass prepared as below, and dry river-sand thrown on as a covering. Heat 1 cwt. of tar to boiling-point in a pot, best in the open air; keep boiling gently, and mix gradually 3½ lb. of lard with it. After some more stirring, 8 lb. of fine brickdust are successively put into the liquid, and moved about until thoroughly disintegrated, which has been effected when, on dipping in and withdrawing a stick, no lumps adhere to it. The fire under the pot is then reduced, merely keeping the mass hot, which in that state is applied to the wall. This part of the work, as well as the throwing on of the river-sand against the tarred surface, must be done with the trowel quickly and with sufficient force. It must be continued until the whole wall is covered both with the tar mixture and the sand.[9] The tar must not be allowed to get cold, nor must the smallest possible spot be left uncovered, as otherwise damp would show itself again in such places, and where no sand has been thrown the following coat of plaster would not stick. When the tar covering has become cold and hard, the usual or gypsum coating may be applied. It is asserted that, if this covering has been properly dried, even in underground rooms, not a sign of dampness will be perceived. About 300 sq. ft. may be covered with the quantities above stated.

An excellent asphalte or mortar for waterproofing damp walls or other surfaces is the following patented composition:—Coal tar is the basis, to which clay, asphalte, rosin, litharge, and sand are added. It is applied cold, and is extremely tenacious and weather-resisting. The area to be covered is first dried and cleaned, then primed with hot roofing varnish—chiefly tar. The mortar is then laid on cold with trowels, leaving a coat ⅜ in. thick. A large area is then coated with varnish and sprinkled over with rough sand. To frost or rain this mortar is impervious. The cost is 5d. per sq. ft., and for large quantities 4d. In the case of stone walls the following ingredients, melted and mixed together, and applied hot to the surface of stone, will prevent all damp from entering, and vegetable substance from growing upon it. 1½ lb. rosin, 1 lb. Russian tallow, 1 qt. linseed-oil. This simple remedy has been proved upon a piece of very porous stone made into the form of a basin; two coats of this liquid, on being applied, caused it to hold water as well as any earthenware vessel.

For brickwork, the Builder gives the following remedy:—¾ lb. of mottled soap to 1 gal. of water. This composition to be laid over the brickwork steadily and carefully with a large flat brush, so as not to form a froth or lather on the surface. The wash to remain 24 hours to become dry. Mix ½ lb. of alum with 4 gal. of water; leave it to stand for 24 hours, and then apply it in the same manner over the coating of soap. Let this be done in dry weather.

Another authority says, coat with venetian red and coal tar, used hot. This makes a rich brown colour. It can be thinned with boiled oil.

A Devonshire man recommends “slap-dashing,” as is often done in Devon. The walls are, outside, first coated with hair-plaster by the mason, and then he takes clean gravel, such as is found at the mouth of many Devonshire rivers, and throws—or, as it is called locally, “scats” it—with a wooden trowel, with considerable force, so as to bed itself into the soft plaster. You can limewash or colour to your liking, and your walls will not get damp through.

Perhaps no application is cheaper or more efficacious than the following. Soft paraffin wax is dissolved in benzoline spirit in the proportion of about one part of the former to four or five parts of the latter by weight. Into a tin or metallic keg, place 1 gal. of benzoline spirit, then mix 1½ lb. or 2 lb. wax, and when well hot pour into the spirit. Apply the solution to the walls whilst warm with a whitewash brush. To prevent the solution from chilling, it is best to place the tin in a pail of warm water, but on no account should the spirit be brought into the house, or near to a light, or a serious accident might occur. The waterproofed part will be scarcely distinguishable from the rest of the wall; but if water is thrown against it, it will run off like it does off a duck’s back. Whilst it is being applied the smell is very disagreeable, but it all goes off in a few hours. On a north wall it will retain its effect for many years, but when exposed much to the sun, it may want renewing occasionally. Hard paraffin wax is not so good for the purpose, as the solution requires to be kept much hotter.

Curing a Damp Cellar.—A correspondent inquired of the editor of the American Architect what remedy he would suggest for curing a damp cellar. The difficulty to be overcome, presents the questioner, in a new house is the wet cellar. Conditions present, concrete not strong enough to resist the hydraulic pressure through a clay soil. No footings under wall (which are of brick.) No cement on outside of wall. The water evidently, however, forces its way through the concrete bottom.

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(a) Will reconcreting (using Portland cement) resist the pressure of water and keep it out?

(b) If not, will a layer of pure bitumen damp-course between the old and new concrete do the work?

(c) Will it do any good to carefully cement the walls on the inside with rich Portland cement, say 3 ft. high, to exclude damp caused by capillary attraction through the brick wall?

In reply to the above queries the editor gave the following hints, which are equally applicable to builders of new houses as to those occupying old houses with damp cellars:

It is doubtful whether even Portland cement concrete would keep back water under sufficient pressure to force it through concrete made of the ordinary cement. The best material would be rock asphalte, either Seyssel, Neufebatel, Val de Travers, Yorwohle, or Limmer, any of which, melted, either with or without the addition of gravel, according to the character of the asphalte, and spread hot to a depth of ¾ in. over the floor, will make it perfectly water-tight. The asphalte coating should be carried without any break 18 or 20 in. up on the walls and piers, to prevent water from getting over the edge; and if the hydrostatic pressure of the water should be sufficient to force the asphalte up, it must be weighted with a pavement of brick or concrete. This is not likely to be necessary, however, unless the cellar is actually below the line of standing water around it.

This, although an excellent method of curing the trouble, the asphalte cutting off ground air from the house, as well as water, will be expensive, the cost of the asphalte coating being from 20 to 22 cents (10-11d.) a sq. ft.; and perhaps it may not be necessary to go to so much trouble. It is very unusual to find water making its way through ordinary good concrete, unless high tides or inundations surround the whole cellar with water. If the source of the water seems to be simply the soakage of rain into the loose material filled in about the outside of the new wall, we should advise attacking this point first, and sodding or concreting with coal-tar concrete, a space 3 or 4 ft. wide around the building. This, if the grade is first made to slope sharply away from the house, will throw the rain which drips from the eaves, or runs down the walls, out upon the firm ground, and in the course of two or three seasons the filling will generally have compacted itself to a consistency as hard as or harder than the surrounding soil, so that the tendency of water to accumulate just outside the walls will disappear; while the concrete, as it hardens with age, will present more and more resistance to percolation from below.

For keeping the dampness absorbed by the walls from affecting the air of the house, a Portland cement coating may be perhaps the best means now available. It would have been much better, when the walls were first built, to brush the outside of them with melted coal tar; but that is probably impracticable now. If the earth stands against the walls, however, the cement coating should cover the whole inside of the wall. The situation of the building may perhaps admit of draining away the water which accumulates about it, by means of stone drains or lines of drain tile, laid up to the cellar walls, at a point below the basement floor, and carried to a convenient outfall. This would be the most desirable of all methods for drying the cellar, and should be first tried.

Construction for Earthquake Countries.—The conditions will vary somewhat according to the nature of the climate.

R. H. Brunton, who was for many years resident lighthouse engineer in Japan, follows the principles enunciated by Mallet and Prof. Palmieri, giving the buildings weight and great inertia, coupled with a good bond between their various parts. Prof. Palmieri states that, although solidity and strength in a building do not afford perfect protection, still, so long as fracture does not occur, overthrow is impossible. Dyer states[11] that in his opinion, for dwelling-houses in Japan, the modifications of external design required, as compared with those in Britain, arise not so much on account of the earthquakes as from the heats of summer, the colds of winter, and the typhoons of autumn. Iron roofs are good from a merely structural point of view; but in summer it would be impossible to live in the houses provided with them. If a non-conducting material of the same strength and durability as iron could be found, it might be used. “If the houses are so designed as to be comfortable as regards temperature, and the construction made in good brick, or equally strong stone and mortar, so that the walls are of nearly a uniform strength; if no unnecessary top weights are used, and if the various parts do not vibrate with different periods, they will withstand all ordinary earthquakes, and other precautions will be unnecessary, as these generally produce results more serious than those due to the earthquakes.”

The city of Arequipa, Peru, is particularly liable to earthquakes, owing to its proximity to the great volcano, the Misti, 19,000 ft. in height above sea-level, the city being 7000 ft. above sea-level. The general construction of the houses is peculiar. A light coloured volcanic stone is largely used; this, when quarried, is easily shaped, and it hardens gradually. The roofs are for the most part strong arches, a very good mortar being used. In the earthquake of 1868, it was not so much those arches which failed as the walls, and the spandrels between the arches at front and rear. In some parts of the city, arches extending in one direction stood, while those at right angles to these were thrown down. Since 1868, a good many corrugated iron roofs have been introduced; but they are not suitable to the climate, and are not durable.

Earnshaw, from an experience of 25 years in Manila, where the earthquakes are sometimes very severe, comes to the conclusion to build as strongly as possible, and chiefly in wood, tied and bolted together as in a ship, stone and brickwork only being used in the lower story and in the foundations, and especial attention ought to be paid to the quality of the lime and mortar used in construction. Many materials have been used as roofing, such as the heavy tiles made in the country and others imported there. When, in 1880, fully 60 per cent. of the buildings in Manila had been ruined, an order was issued by the municipal authorities to use corrugated iron or zinc sheeting for that purpose. A diversity of opinion existed as to which was the best and most suitable, for not only had earthquakes to be guarded against, but intense heat and disastrous typhoons. With reference to the latter, in 1881, sheets of iron were flying about in the air like paper. He thinks, therefore, that a light, strong tile roofing is preferable to any other.

Prof. C. Clericetti, of Milan, and W. H. Thelwall relate that after the earthquake in the island of Ischia in 1883, which was of a most destructive character, and caused an enormous amount of damage in the island, 2000 persons having lost their lives, and many more being injured, a commission was appointed by the Italian Government to obtain information, and to frame rules for the rebuilding of the structures. It was ascertained that, speaking generally, buildings founded on hard, solid lava had withstood the shock successfully, whilst those founded upon looser or lighter materials, such as tufa or clay, had suffered very much, and therefore in regard to the re-erection of buildings it was pointed out that the first thing to do was to select eligible sites, and to build, wherever possible, upon lava; and, where that was not possible, to dig down to comparatively solid ground, and then fill in a heavy platform of masonry or concrete, 3 ft. or 4 ft. thick, extending over the whole area of the building, and projecting 3 ft. or 4 ft. beyond. The building of any kind of vaulting above ground was forbidden. Light arches were only to be allowed over window’s and openings of that kind. The heavy flat roofs formerly used to a large extent were condemned. The commission recommended that buildings should be chiefly constructed with an iron or wooden framework, carefully put together, joined by diagonal ties, horizontally and vertically, with spaces between the framework filled in with masonry of a light character. The[12] joists and the roof trusses were to be firmly connected together. In plan, buildings should be square, and where the direction of the last shock could be traced, one diagonal should be placed in this direction. Not more than two stories above ground were to be allowed, and there might be one under ground, but it must be of very moderate height. In no case was the height from the lowest point of the ground to the top of the walls to exceed 31 ft. Openings for doors and windows were to be vertically over each other, the jambs being not less than 5 ft. from the corner of the building. No openings for flues were allowed in the thickness of the walls, and no projections from the face of a building, except light balconies of wood or iron. If solidly built structures, and particularly if there was only one story above ground, the roofs might be covered with tiles; but these must be light, and fastened with nails or hooks, so as not to be displaced even by violent shocks.

Water Supply and Purification.—The supply of water to both town and country houses has been dealt with at length by Eassie and Rogers Field in essays written for the Health Exhibition Handbooks, and the following information is mainly condensed and adapted from their papers.

The conditions of supply in the two cases differ in being from a general and public source in the one and from a special and private source in the other. In each case, the consumer has to control the purity and application of the supply after its delivery into the dwelling; and in the second case he is further responsible for the character and quantity of the supply before delivery. The second case, therefore, in a great measure covers the first, and demands extended treatment.

Amount required.—The first consideration is the quantity of water required. The supply to towns from waterworks is usually expressed in “gallons per head of population per diem,” and varies exceedingly, much of the variation being due to waste. This is especially the case in towns where the supply is intermittent. In several towns having a constant supply, steps have been taken systematically to measure the water supplied to different streets and districts, and it has been found that, without restricting the supply in any way, the consumption of water has been immensely reduced, simply by sending inspectors to make a house-to-house visitation and search out and repair leaky pipes and defective taps and ball-cocks. It is by no means an unusual thing for the consumption to be reduced one-half by inspections of this kind, showing that at least one-half of the water which was previously supplied to the houses was simply wasted through leaky fittings.

Many people are inclined to think that waste of this kind is not a bad thing, as it must help to keep the drains flushed. Field points out that this is quite a mistake. A small dribble of water from a leaky pipe or a leaky tap, though it will waste a great deal of water in the course of 24 hours, is perfectly useless for flushing the drains. What is wanted for this is the sudden discharge of a large quantity of water. The dribble of water from leaky pipes and taps does no good in any way, but simply wastes what might be usefully employed, and in many cases causes a supply to run short which would otherwise be ample for all legitimate uses. Another point that it is difficult to realise is the large quantity of water which will run to waste through what is apparently a very small leak. The quantity leaking looks so small in comparison with the quantity running when a tap is open, that one is inclined to think it perfectly insignificant, forgetting that the leakage goes on continuously night and day, whereas the tap is only open for a few minutes. In country houses, where it is often difficult to obtain a sufficient supply of water, it is particularly important to bear in mind the serious influence that leaky pipes and taps have on the consumption, and never to allow such leakage to go on for any length of time.

While useless waste should be prevented, it is most important that the legitimate use of water should be encouraged in every way. As Dr. Richardson has well pointed out, absolute cleanliness, properly understood, is the beginning and the end of sanitary design,[13] and thorough cleanliness, of course, can never be obtained without an ample water supply. Not only should there be sufficient water for baths, lavatories, and washing of all kinds, but there should be a liberal allowance for flushing water-closets and all other sanitary appliances. Taking these sanitary considerations into account, as well as giving due weight to the observations which have been made by engineers and others on the quantity of water actually used in houses under different circumstances, it may be assumed that, if waste is efficiently prevented, a supply of 20-25 gallons per head per diem is sufficient in ordinary cases for houses with baths and water-closets. If horses are kept, a separate allowance should be made for them, and for stable purposes (a useful approximate rule being to reckon a horse as a man); and if water is used for watering gardens or ornamental purposes, this must also be reckoned separately. If earth-closets are adopted instead of water-closets, less water will be required, and 15-20 gallons per head per diem will be sufficient. In cottages with earth or other dry closets, the quantity of water required will be still less: 10 gallons per head will be an ample supply, and even 5-6 gallons may do in cases where it is absolutely necessary to limit the quantity used.

Sources of Supply.—Water for country houses is, in the vast majority of cases, derived from springs or wells. Rain-water collected from roofs is very frequently used as an auxiliary, and occasionally as the main supply. There are instances in which the supply is taken from streams or rivers, and even some in which water running off the surface of the ground is collected in “impounding reservoirs” (a mode often adopted for the water supply of towns); but these cases are exceptional, and attention will here be confined to springs, wells, and roof-water.

The real source of all fresh water supply is rain. Springs and wells form no exception to this rule, though in their case the connection with the rainfall is not so clear at first sight as it is in the case of streams and open watercourses, because the passages by which the rain reaches springs or wells are not visible, and heavy rainfalls often have no apparent effect on their yield. In various parts of the country occur curious intermittent springs (locally called “bournes”), which burst out in some years and not in others, and the connection between which and the rainfall is still more obscure. Rain-water, before it issues from the ground as springs, accumulates in the porous strata beneath, and forms, as it were, large underground reservoirs; it is from these reservoirs that wells, sunk into the porous strata, derive their supply.

The amount of rain varies enormously in different parts of the world, some districts being either absolutely rainless, or having only a very few inches of rain in the year, whereas others have some hundreds of inches in the year. Even in England itself there is considerable variation. The average rainfall for the whole country is about 30 inches a year, but the amount in different parts of the country varies from about 20 inches to nearly 200 inches a year. The eastern side of England, as Field remarks, has much less rain than the western side, and, roughly speaking, if a line be drawn from Portsmouth to Newcastle-on-Tyne, it will divide the country into a dry portion and a wet portion. The portion of the country on the east of this imaginary line will (with the exception of the south coast, which is wetter) have only 25 inches of rain or less, and the portion on the west of the line will have from 30 to 50 inches, with much larger amount in the Cumberland and Welsh mountains, and at Dartmoor.

The rainfall of the wettest year is about double that of the driest year. This gives a very useful rule for roughly ascertaining the extreme rainfalls, which are really more useful for the purpose of water supply than the rainfall for an average year. The fall in the driest year may be assumed to be one-third less than the average, and for the wettest one-third more. Thus, with an average rainfall of 30 inches, the fall of the driest year would be 20 inches, and that of the wettest year 40 inches.

A portion only of the total rain which falls is available for water supply, as there is always more or less loss. In the case of rain falling on roofs, the loss is comparatively[14] small, but in the case of rain falling on the surface of the earth the loss is considerable. The latter is disposed of in three different ways: part of it runs directly into open watercourses and streams, part is taken up by vegetation or lost by evaporation, and part percolates through the surface ground and accumulates in the water-bearing strata which feed the springs and wells.

From observations made on the amount of percolation in different cases, it has been found that the amount of percolation does not depend so much on the amount of rain as on the conditions under which it falls. By far the greater portion of the percolation takes place in winter and comparatively little in summer, the reason being that in winter the ground is wet, evaporation is small, and vegetation is inactive, so that a large proportion of the rain sinks into the ground; whereas in summer the reverse is the case, so that most of the rain is taken up before it can percolate. So great is the difference between summer and winter as regards percolation, that one may generally leave the summer rainfall altogether out of consideration, and assume that, in this country, it depends on the amount of rain which falls during the six months from October to March, whether the underground store of water will be fully replenished or not.

The height of the accumulated underground water is indicated by the level at which water stands in wells: and it is found that this height varies considerably, the variations usually following a regular course: the water is generally lowest in October and November, it then rises till it reaches its highest point in February or March, and after this it falls slowly till the following autumn.

A condition to be studied in selecting a spring as a source of water supply is its “seasonal” variation. As Field points out, a spring which will give an ample quantity of water in the winter may give an insufficient quantity in the autumn, so that the measurement of a spring in winter should never be depended on for determining whether it will do as a source of water supply. The only safe way is to wait till the autumn yield has been ascertained; even then an allowance must be made for the previous winter, if it has been a very wet one, the yield of the spring becoming abnormally high.

Wells may be either shallow or deep. The latter are always preferable, but sometimes the former must be relied on. The great and serious danger in connection with shallow wells is their liability to pollution from cesspools and drains, whose liquid contents (fully as poisonous as the solid) filter through the surrounding soil and go to swell the volume of water in the well, especially if, as nearly always happens, the cesspool is much shallower than the well.

In country villages, frequently the cesspools and wells are so intermixed that the entire bed of water is polluted, and hence all the wells are unsafe. But in isolated houses, if the well and cesspool are some distance apart, pollution of the well will depend chiefly on the direction of the movement of the underground water. If this movement is from the cesspool towards the well, the polluted water will flow towards the well; if the movement is in the contrary direction, the polluted water will flow away from the well. Hence Field’s caution, that before sinking a shallow well where sources of contamination are in the neighbourhood, the direction of the flow of the underground water must first be carefully ascertained, bearing in mind that it is not safe to assume that this flow is in the direction of the fall of the land, though it very frequently is so: if there is the slightest doubt, levels must be taken of the underground water in different places, and the source of contamination be accurately localised. Contamination from surface soakage can frequently be prevented by raising the top of the well above the adjoining ground, and paving the surface round the well with a slope so that the rain-water runs away from it. Norton Tube wells, which consist of an iron tube driven into the ground and surmounted by a pump, are useful for excluding surface pollution. If the pollution is sufficient to contaminate the subsoil and reach the underground water, no precautions that can be taken in constructing the well will keep the pollution out.

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Generally, deep wells are safer from contamination than shallow wells, but may still, under certain circumstances, be polluted.

On the question whether a well which has been-polluted by a cesspool will become fit for use after the cesspool has been removed, no rule can be laid down. If the removal of the sources of pollution has been thorough, the well will frequently recover its purity; but under other circumstances the well may remain impure. As to the least distance between wells and cesspools compatible with safety, while the Local Government Board of London is content with 20-30 yards, Dr. Frankland insists on at least 200 yards. It would be more rational to forbid cesspools of all kinds; at the same time, possible leakages from drains, through injury or otherwise, must not be omitted from the estimate of risk of pollution. Again, the effect of increased demand upon the contents of the well at once extends the danger, because as the water in the well is lowered so is the area from which the well draws its supply increased, the ratio varying from 20 to 100 times the depression. Where a whole day’s supply is pumped at once into an elevated tank, the maximum figure will be reached.

Those who intend sinking wells are advised first to read a little book by Ernest Spon, on the ‘Present Practice of Sinking and Boring Wells,’ 2nd edition, 1885.

Rain-water collected from roofs forms a valuable auxiliary supply too often disregarded. In towns it is rarely pure enough for domestic use, but in country districts it is generally wholesome.

A country resident thus describes the manner in which he utilises rain-water, falling upon an ordinary tin roof, covered with some sort of metallic paint, said to contain no lead, and flowing into a large cemented brick cistern, whence it is pumped into the kitchen. The cistern differs from the usual construction in this manner: across the bottom, about 3 ft. nearer one side than the other, is excavated a trough or ditch about 2 ft. wide and 2 ft. deep; along the centre of this depression is built a brick wall from the bottom up to the top of the cistern, and having a few openings left through it at the very bottom. The whole cistern, bottom, sides, and canal included, is cemented as usual, excepting the division wall. Upon each side of the wall, at its base, 6-12 in. of charcoal is laid, and covered with well-washed stones to a further height of 6 in., merely to keep the charcoal from floating. The rain-water running from the roof into the larger division of the cistern, passes through the stone covering, the charcoal, the wall, the charcoal upon the other side, lastly, the stones, and is now ready for the pump placed in this smaller part. It is much better that the water at first pass into the larger division, as the filtration will be slower, and the cistern not so likely to overflow under a very heavy rainfall. He has used this cistern for many years, and was troubled only once, when some toads made their entrance at the top, which was just at the surface of the ground, soon making their presence known by a decided change in the flavour of the water.

If the house chances to be in a dusty situation, several plans will suggest themselves whereby a few gallons at the first of each rain may be prevented from entering the cistern. Should the house be small, and therefore the supply of water from its roof be limited, do not lessen the size of the cistern, but rather increase it, for with one of less capacity some of the supply must occasionally be allowed to go to waste during a wet time, and you will suffer in a drought, whereas a cistern that never overflows is the more to be relied upon in a long season without rain.

Rainfall varies exceedingly in different places, and even in the same situation it is impossible to foretell the amount to be expected during any short period of time, but the most careful observations show that about 4 ft. in depth descends at New York and vicinity every year, or nearly 1 in. a week. If this amount were to be furnished uniformly every week, the size of a cistern need only be sufficient to contain one week’s supply, but we often have periods of 4 weeks without receiving the average of one, and we must build accordingly.

The weekly average of 1 in. equals 1 cub. ft. upon every 12 ft. of surface, or[16] 3630 cub. ft. upon an acre, weighing about 113 tons. Upon a roof 40 ft. by 40 ft., 1600 sq. ft., it would be 133 cub. ft., 1037 gal., or about 26 barrels of 40 gal. each. A cistern 8 ft. across and 10 ft. deep would contain 502 cub. ft.; and one of 10 ft. across and 10 ft. deep, 785 cub. ft., or 6120 gal.—about the average fall upon a roof of the above size for 6 weeks; while the smaller cistern would hold 3900 gal., or a little less than 4 weeks’ rainfall. The weekly supply of 1037 gal. is equal to 148 gal. per day, or nearly 15 gal. to each individual of a family of 10. This is certainly enough, and more than enough, if used as it should be; but where water is plentiful it is wasted, and in our capricious climate, whether we depend upon wells or cisterns, it is wise to waste no water at all, at least during the warm summer months, and lay by not for a wet but a dry day. For this country, Field estimates 2-3 gallons of tank capacity for every square foot of roof area.

3. Rain-water Tank.

In Fig. 3 a b c d show the excavation that must be made for the cistern, and supposing the diagram to exhibit, as it does, a section of the cistern, the receptacle for the water will be, when finished, taking the relative proportions of the different parts into consideration, just about 9 ft. wide and 4½ ft. deep. Of course, the excavation must be made greater in breadth and depth than the dimensions given, to allow for the surrounding walls and the bottom. The walls may be of brick, cemented within, and backed with concrete or puddled clay without, or of monolithic concrete; but the bottom, in any case, should be made of concrete. The trench e f g h running across the bottom of the cistern is 2 ft. broad and 2 ft. deep. In the middle of this opening is built up a 9 in. brick wall, or a party-wall of concrete, i k. Along the bottom of the wall openings l are left at intervals. The party-wall divides the entire space into the larger outer cistern m, and the smaller inner cistern n. Supposing the breadth from e to f to be 2 ft., and the wall 9 in., spaces of 7½ in. will be left on each side of the wall. These are filled to ¾ the height, or for 18 in., with lumps of charcoal, smooth pebbles, 1-3 in. in diameter, being laid along the top of the charcoal till the trench is filled up. The cistern is so constructed that the water from the roof enters m; it passes downwards through the stones and charcoal, as shown by the arrow at f, goes through the opening and forces its way upwards in the direction of the arrow at e into the cistern n, in which it rises to the level of the water in m, to be drawn thence for use by a small pump.

Various modifications of this form of tank-filter will suggest themselves to readers possessing any mechanical genius. The great point is to prevent contamination from the soil by using good material and making sound work. Further, the overflow pipe of the tank must not communicate with any drain or sewer.

4. Rain-water Separator.

Recently several inventors have introduced apparatus for separating rain-water from impurities. One of these, bearing the name of Roberts, is illustrated in Fig. 4. Its principle of action is to reject the first portion of the rain which falls (as it is this[17] which chiefly washes the dirt off the roof), and only to collect the latter portion of the rain. The water from the roof first runs on to a strainer, that intercepts rubbish; it then passes through one of two channels in the upper part of the canter, balanced upon a pivot. At the commencement of a shower, the canter is raised in the position shown in Fig. 4, “running to waste,” and the bulk of the water passes through a channel which directs it into the lower or wastewater outlet. Meanwhile, a very small proportion of the water is accumulating in the lower part of the canter, very slowly in light rain but more rapidly in heavy rain, so that it is filled up by the time the roof has become clean. Then the weight of water causes it to fall down as shown in Fig. 4A “running to storage,” so that the clean water may run through the upper storage outlet pipe. This very useful little apparatus is made and sold by C. G. Roberts, Collards, Haslemere, Surrey.

4A. Rain-water Separator.

Perhaps this affords as good an opportunity as any of drawing attention to the highly artistic rain-water heads that have lately been introduced by Thomas Elsley, of 32 Great Portland Street, W. These are made to suit every style of architecture and every variety of roof and guttering, and practically without limit as to size. Their quality is beyond praise.

It is essential to bear in mind that rain-water is liable to exert considerable solvent action on lead, consequently pipes and cisterns of this metal must be avoided. The pipes may be of iron, or of specially lead-encased block-tin, and the cisterns of “galvanised” iron or slate.

As Eassie has pointed out, there is much to be considered in the arrangement of rain-water pipes from a sanitary point of view, where a separator and storage tank are not in use, because the foul air delivered from them is sucked into the rooms near the roof, on which the sun’s heat pours. A fire lighted in a room develops the same danger when the rain-water pipe terminates near the windows of the room. Another danger accruing from rain-water pipes which connect directly with the drain is due to the fact that the joints of the iron rain-water pipes are seldom air-tight, and foul air is therefore often driven or sucked into the rooms when the windows are open. It is easy to imagine how dangerous this must be in houses which have been fitted up with iron (or even lead) rain-water pipes running down the interior walls, and having their terminations close to a dormer window, skylight, or staircase ventilator on the roof, with the foot of the rain-water pipe taken direct into a drain leading to a town sewer. But the risk is greatly increased when the rain-water pipes are connected with a closed cesspool, to which the rain-water pipe is acting as a ventilator.

When rain-water pipes deliver into the drain directly, they are often made to act as soil pipes from the closets, in which case the evil is intensified. The soil from the closets is apt to adhere to the interior of the pipe, generally on the side opposite to that traversed by the rain-water, and the poisonous smell escapes at any bad joints and always at the roof orifice.

When the rain-water pipe is of cast iron, other sources of danger are present if the pipe is used also for conveying soil from a closet. Unless the rim of the soil pipe from the closet is joined to the rain-water pipe by a proper cast-iron socketed joint, the connection must be made by means of a piece of lead pipe which receives the soil pipe, and the joint between the lead soil pipe and the upper and lower parts of the cast-iron pipe cannot be properly soldered. Here sometimes grievous calamity follows cases where the combined pipe is ventilating the drain and sewer; the pipe joints are frequently open, and when the windows are unclosed for ventilation the foul air is whisked into the[18] house. Eassie insists that it is cheaper to owner and dweller alike to have a separate soil-pipe erected at first.

5. Outlet of Rain-water Pipes.

All rain-water pipes should deliver into the open air, and have no connection with the drains, except when they are disconnected. They should discharge their contents over a gully grating as at a, Fig. 5, or underneath the grating as at b, the ends of the pipes in both cases being in the open air. Every householder should insist upon this being carried out. But occasionally the rain-water pipes descend inside the house and there is no open yard where a disconnecting gully can be fixed. In such a case a separate drain should be laid to the nearest area or yard, and separation ensured. In laying down new drains in a house, where the rain-water pipes must descend in the interior, it will be better to provide a separate or twin drain to the nearest open-air space.

Provision must be made at the roof for keeping foreign matters out of the rain-water pipes. Leaves, soot, and dirt will accumulate round the pipe orifices, and very often will cause the gutter to be flooded during a storm. The usual way to avert this is to fix over the opening of the pipe in the bottom of the gutter a galvanised open wire half-globe, or a raised cap of thick lead pierced with tolerably large holes. The cost for this is trifling, but the value is great. Whenever rain-water pipes must run down the inside wall of a house, lead should be adopted. Sometimes rain-water pipes are taken down in the interior, when a very little initial study could have brought them to the exterior face of a wall—where alone they should be taken, whenever it is possible to do so.

On attic roofs, and where only one side of the house can be used for the attachment of rain-water pipes, the water from one side is brought across the roof by means of a “box” gutter of wood, lined at the bottom and sides with lead or zinc, and covered with a board. This often emits a very foul smell, owing to the accumulation of decaying matter. When such guttering cannot be avoided, it should occasionally—say once a week—be carefully cleaned out. The same matters will sometimes silt up and stop the gullies, shown at the foot of the rain-water pipes (Fig. 5), hence it is equally necessary to see that these traps are cleaned out, say monthly.

Rain-water pipes are often made the waste pipes of lavatories, baths, sinks, and slop-pails. When properly disconnected at the foot, in the open air, and when the top of the rain-water pipe does not terminate under a window of an inhabited room, this does not much matter; but when the court-yard is limited in area, and there is a window belonging to a living or sleeping room just overhead, where the rain from the roof delivers itself into the upright pipe, an offence will arise from the decomposing fats of soap, which form a slimy mess adhering to the interior of the pipe, that no amount of rainfall will dislodge.

Cisterns.—Cisterns should be in a cistern-room if possible, but, at all events, placed where they can be got at, covered over with suitable fittings, and ventilated to the open air. A drinking-water cistern should never be placed in a water-closet, for no amount of disconnection in such a case will suffice to counteract its evil surroundings. Neither should it be placed in a bath-room, which is liable to a steam-laden atmosphere. Nothing can be said against a site out of doors, on the flats, or below (if away from dustbins and ash-heaps); but in such cases the cistern, with its service pipes, should be[19] well protected from frost. The position of a cistern should be equally carefully chosen no matter whether the supply be constant or intermittent, or whether there be a high or a low pressure cistern. And not only should it be made certain that the “standing waste” pipe of the cistern delivers in the open air, but that any “overflow” pipe of the cistern delivers in like cleanly fashion. It is too common to take these wastes down to the nearest sink. It might prove expedient to thus disconnect a cistern waste when time presses, and when the alternative is costly, but the practice is not to be commended.

Eassie’s strictures with regard to cisterns apply equally to those feed cisterns which supply hot-water circulating cisterns or boilers where water is heated for kitchen, scullery, still-room, or bath-room uses. It is too common to find the feed cistern, which is the small iron cistern that automatically keeps the kitchen or other basement boiler full, placed in the darkest corner of the commonest stowaway cupboard, with its overflow pipe joined to the drain.

The materials of which cisterns are constructed vary much in town and country. In old houses will be frequently found cisterns formed of slabs of stone, just as they have been raised from the quarry, and sometimes of slabs of rough slate, and than these, provided they are regularly cleaned out and the waste pipes disconnected, probably no better basement cistern could be found. The same might perhaps be said of brickwork cemented inside. Cisterns composed of slate possess a drawback in their weight, which sometimes prevents them from being adopted upstairs. It has become a frequent practice now to have them enamelled white inside, so that the slightest discoloration of the water, or sediment at the bottom, can be instantly detected.

Cisterns composed of metal throughout embrace old cisterns of cast lead, dated early in the 18th century; these are quite harmless, on account of their natural silver alloy, and they may be trusted, all other conditions being satisfactory. Cast-iron cisterns, made of plates bolted together, if kept full, and not subject to rust, are unobjectionable. Wrought iron, which has afterwards been “galvanised,” is a very common form of cistern, and appears to be the cheapest. Little can be said in its disfavour, although experiments made in America have proved that some waters attack the inner coating. The commonest form of cistern is composed of wooden framing lined inside with sheet lead. This is not the best for storing drinking-water, and slate would be preferable; but no one would say that all water drawn from leaden cisterns would injuriously affect health. The interior of a lead-lined cistern will be found to acquire a whitish coating, and it is due to this chemical alteration of its surface that the contained water can be drunk with more or less impunity. Nevertheless, there are some waters which very readily attack lead, and care should be exercised in this respect. In cleaning out a lead cistern the surface should never be scraped, but simply washed down with a moderately hard brush. Sometimes houses are provided with zinc-lined wooden cisterns; this metal for several reasons is one of the worst materials for water storage, and should never be used for drinking-water. Neither should wooden butts or barrels be employed for storing water anywhere in a house, as they speedily become lined with a low vegetable growth detrimental to health.

A great mistake consists in storing away a great quantity of water in abnormally large cisterns, in consequence of which the tap is drawing off for a very long period the water first delivered to it, and which is not the cleanest water. This does not so much matter in cisterns which supply closets or baths, but it is reprehensible when the water is for the bedroom decanter and the nursery.

Pipes.—Pipes for conveying water are generally of lead, because it is more easily bent than any other metal; but frequently iron pipes are substituted when the water main has to be brought from a great distance. Eassie remarks that the conveyance of some waters in long lengths of leaden pipe, in which the water must necessarily stand, and the use of leaden suction pipes in wells, is not a thing to be looked upon with great favour. Hence it is that galvanised iron pipes are used by some, and in the case of[20] water conveyance from a long distance, the cast-iron pipes coated inside with Dr. Angus Smith’s solution, or subjected to the Bower-Barff system of protection against rust, are now very largely adopted. Glass-lined pipes of the American pattern have also been introduced into this country, but have not yet made much headway, which is a pity, seeing that glass forms the best of all conduits for water. Much depends upon whether the water is of such a character as to rapidly decompose lead.

Leaden pipes, of sufficient weight per lineal foot, may fitly conduct the flushing water for closets and the cold water to baths and lavatories; but what is called “lead-encased block-tin pipe” should be used in conveying water from the separate drinking-water cistern. The cost is some 50 per cent. more than for leaden pipe, and there is more difficulty in making the joints, but these points are overbalanced by the certainty of non-pollution of the water. Water pipes should be fixed in separate wall chases, easy of access. Service pipes should also be kept separate from each other, and provided with proper stop-cocks in case of accident.

Pumps.—It will not be out of place here to offer a few remarks on the construction, capacity, and working of the 3 kinds of common pump in everyday use—i.e. (1) the lift-pump; for wells not over 30 ft. deep, (2) the lift and force, for wells under 30 ft. deep, but forcing the water to the top of the house, and (3) the lift and force, for wells 30-300 ft. deep.

The working capacity of a pump is governed by the atmospheric pressure, which roughly averages 15 lb. per sq. in. It is also necessary to remember that 1 gal. of water weighs 10 lb. The quantity of water a pump will deliver per hour depends on the size of the working barrel, the number of strokes, and the length of the stroke. Thus, if the barrel is 4 in. diam., with a 10 in. stroke, piston working 30 times a minute, then the rule is—square the diameter of the barrel and multiply it by the length of stroke, the number of strokes per minute, and the number of minutes per hour, and divide by 353, thus:—

42 in. × 10 in. stroke × 30 strokes × 60 minutes

353

= 815 gal. per hour. About 10 per cent. is deducted for loss. The horse-power required is the number of lb. of water delivered per minute, multiplied by the height raised in ft., and divided by 33,000. Thus:—

815 gal. × 10 lb. × 30 ft. lift    = 7·4 H.P.

33,000

6. Lift Pump.

Fig. 6 shows a vertical section of the simple lift-pump. a is the working barrel, bored true, to enable the piston or bucket b to move up and down, air-tight. The usual length of barrel in a common pump is 10 in. and the diameters are 2, 2½, 3, 3½, 4, 5, and 6 in.; a 3 in. barrel is called a 3 in. pump. The stroke is the length of the barrel; but a crank, 5 in. projection from the centre of a shaft, will give a 10 in. stroke at one revolution; but in the common pump shown, use is made of a lever pump handle, whose short arm c d is about 6 in. long, and the long arm or handle d e is usually 36 in., making the power as 6 to 1; f is the fulcrum or prop. Improved pumps have a joint at f, which causes the piston to work in a perpendicular line, instead of grinding against the side of the barrel. The head g of the pump is made a little larger than the barrel, to enable the piston to pass freely to the barrel cylinder; in wrought-iron pumps, the nozzle is riveted to the heads, and unless the head is larger than the barrel these rivets would prevent the piston from passing, and injure the leather packing on the bucket. The nozzle h, fixed at the lower part of head, is to run off the water at each rise of the piston. There is 1 valve i at the bottom of the barrel, and another in the bucket b.

The suction pipe k should be ⅔ the diameter of the pump barrel. A rose l is fixed at the end of the suction pipe to keep out any solid matter that might be drawn into the pump and stop the action of the valves. The suction pipe must be fixed with great care.[21] The joints must be air-tight: if of cast flange-pipe, which is the most durable, a packing of hemp, with white and red lead, and screwed up with 4 nuts and screws, or a washer of vulcanised rubber ⅜ in. thick, with screw bolts, is best. If the suction pipe is of gas-tube, the sockets must all be taken off, and a paint of boiled oil and red-lead be put on the screwed end, then a string of raw hemp bound round and well screwed up with the gas tongs, making a sure joint for cold water, steam, or gas.

Many plumbers prefer lead pipe, so that they can make the usual plumbers’ joint. The tail m of the pump is for fixing the suction pipe on a plank level with the ground. Stages n are fixed at every 12 ft. in a well; the suction pipe is fixed to these by a strap staple, or the action of the pump would damage the joints. There are two plans for fixing the suction pipe; (1) in a well o directly under the pump; (2) the suction pipe p may be laid in a horizontal direction, and about 18 in. deep under the ground (to keep the water from freezing in winter) for almost any distance to a pond, the only consideration being the extra labour of exhausting so much air. In the end of such suction pipe p it is usual to fix an extra valve, called a “tail” valve, to prevent the water from running out of the pipe when not in use. The action is simply explained. First raise the handle e, which lowers the piston b to i; during this movement the air that was in the barrel a is forced through the valve in the piston b; when the handle is lowered, and the piston begins to rise, this valve closes and pumps out the air; in the meantime the air expands in the suction pipe k, and rises into the barrel b through the valve i; at the second stroke of the piston this valve closes and prevents the air getting back to the suction pipe, which is pumped out as before. After a few strokes of the pump handle, the air in the suction pipe is nearly drawn out, creating what is called a vacuum, and then as the water is pressed by the outward air equal to 15 lb. on the sq. in., the water rises into the barrel as fast as the piston rises: also the water will remain in the suction pipe as long as the piston and valves are in proper working order.

The following table of dimensions for hand-worked simple lift-pumps will be found useful:—

Height for Water to be raised.Diam. of Pump Barrel.Water delivered per Hour at 30 Strokes per Min.Diam. of Suction Pipe.Thickness of Well Rods for Deep Wells.
ft.in.gal.in.in.
146164041
205111031
304732
40555¾
5034122¾
752602
1002183

[22]

7. Lift and Force Pump.   8. Deep-well Pump.

Fig. 7 shows a lift- and force-pump suitable for raising water from a well 30 ft. deep, and forcing it to the top of a house. The pump barrel a is fixed to a strong plank b, and fitted with “slings” at c to enable the piston to work parallel in the barrel, a guide rod working through a collar guiding the piston in a perpendicular position, d is the handle. The suction pipe e and rose f are fixed in the well g as already explained. At the top of the working barrel is a stuffing-box h, filled with hemp and tallow, which keeps the pump rod water-tight. When the piston is raised to the top of the barrel, the valve i in the delivery pipe k closes, and prevents the water descending at the down-stroke of the piston. The valve in the bucket l, also at m in the barrel a, is the same as in the common pump. The pipe k is called the “force” for this description of pump.

Fig. 8 shows a design for a deep-well pump, consisting of the usual fittings—viz. a brass barrel a, a suction pipe with rose b, rising main pipe c, well-rod d, wooden or iron stages e f g, and clip and guide pulleys h. The well-rod and the rising main must be well secured to the stages, which are fixed every 12 ft. down the well. An extra strong stage is fixed at i, to carry the pump—if of wood, beech or ash, 5 ft. × 9 in. × 4 in.; the other stages may be 4 in. sq.

The handle is mounted on a plank k fitted with guide slings, either at right angles or sideways to the plank. The handle l is weighted with a solid ball-end at m, which will balance the well-rod fixed to the piston. By fixing the pump barrel down the well about 12 ft. from the level of the water, the pump will act better than if it were fixed 30 ft. above the water, because any small wear and tear of the piston does not so soon affect the action of the pump, and therefore saves trouble and expense, as the pump will keep in working order longer. It is usual to fix an air-vessel at n. The valves o are similar to those already described. In the best-constructed pumps, man-holes are arranged near the valves to enable workmen to clean or repair the same, without taking up the pump. Every care should be given to make strong and sound joints for the suction pipe and delivery pipe, as the pump cannot do its proper duty should the pipes be leaky or draw air.

To find the total weight or pressure of water to be raised from a well, reckon from[23] the water level in the well to the delivery in the house tank or elsewhere. For example, if the well is 27 ft. deep, and the house tank is 50 ft. above the pump barrel; then you have 77 ft. pressure, or about 39 lb. pressure per sq. in. That portion of the pipe which takes a horizontal position may be neglected. The pressure of water in working a pump is according to the diameter of the pump barrel. Suppose the barrel to be 3 in. diam., it would contain 7 sq. in., and say the total height of water raised to be 77 ft., equal to 39 lb. pressure, multiplied by 7 sq. in., is equal to 539 lb. to be raised or balanced by a pump handle; then if the leverage of the pump handle were, the short arm 6 in. and long arm 36 in., or as 6 to 1, you have (539 × 1) ÷ 56 = 90 lb. power on the handle to work the pump, which would require 2 men to do the work, unless you obtained extra leverage by wheel work. When the suction or delivery pipe is too small, it adds enormously to the power required to work a pump, and the water is then called “wiredrawn.” When pumps are required for tar or liquid manure, the suction and delivery pipe should be the same size as the pump barrel, to prevent choking.

The operations of plumbing and making joints in pipes will be found fully described and illustrated in ‘Spons’ Mechanics’ Own Book’; and many other methods of raising water for household and agricultural purposes are explained in ‘Workshop Receipts,’ 4th series.

Purification.—At a recent meeting of the Institution of Civil Engineers, Prof. Frankland read a paper dealing with the question of water purification, in which he remarked that the earliest attempts to purify water dealt simply with the removal of visible suspended particles; but later, chemists have turned their attention to the matters present in solution in water. Since the advance of the germ theory of disease, and the known fact that living organisms were the cause of some, and probably of all, zymotic diseases, the demand for a test which should recognise the absence or presence of micro-organisms in water had become imperative. It was, however, only during the last few years that any such test had been set forth, and this was owing to Dr. Koch, of Berlin. By this means the only great step which had been made since the last Rivers Pollution Commission had been achieved. It had been supposed that most filtering materials offered little or no barrier to micro-organisms; but it was now known that many substances had this power to a greater or less degree. It had also been found that, in order to continue their efficiency, frequent renewal of the filtering material was necessary.

Vegetable carbon employed in the form of charcoal or coke was found to occupy a high place as a biological filter, although previously, owing to its chemical inactivity, it had been disregarded. Being an inexpensive material, and easily renewed, it was destined to be of great service in the purification of water. Experiments were also made by the agitation of water with solid particles. It was found that very porous substances, like coke, animal and vegetable charcoal, were highly efficient in removing organised matter from water when the latter came in contact with them in this manner. Also, it was found that the well-known precipitation process, introduced by Dr. Clark, for softening water with lime, had a most marked effect in removing micro-organisms from water. In the case of water softened by this process, it was found that a reduction of 98 per cent. in the number of micro-organisms was effected, the chemical improvement being comparatively insignificant.

Water which had been subjected to an exhaustive process of natural filtration had been found to be almost free from micro-organisms. Thus, the deep-well water obtained from the chalk near London contained as few as eight organisms per cubic centimetre, whereas samples of river water from the Thames, Lea, and Wey had been known to contain as many thousands.

The same well-known authority on water published the following statements in the Nineteenth Century. He described the subject of domestic filtration as one which, in a town with a water supply like that of London, possesses peculiar interest, and is of no[24] little importance. Most people imagine that by once going to the expense of a filter they have secured for themselves a safeguard which will endure throughout all time without further trouble. No mistake could be greater, for without preserving constant watchfulness, and bestowing great care upon domestic filtration, it is probable that the process will not only entirely fail to purify the water, but will actually render it more impure than before. For the accumulation of putrescent organic matter upon and within the filtering material furnishes a favourable nest for the development of minute worms and other disgusting organisms, which not unfrequently pervade the filtered water; whilst the proportion of organic matter in the effluent water is often considerably greater than that present before filtration.

Of the substances in general use for the household filtration of water, spongy iron and animal charcoal take the first place. Both these substances possess the property of removing a very large proportion of the organic matter present in water. They both, in the first instance, possess this purifying power to about an equal extent; but whereas the animal charcoal very soon loses its power, the spongy iron retains its efficacy unimpaired for a much longer time. Indeed, in spongy iron we possess the most valuable of all known materials for filtration, inasmuch as, besides removing such a large proportion of organic matter from water, it has been found to be absolutely fatal to bacterial life, and thus acts as an invaluable safeguard against the propagation of disease through drinking-water.

It is satisfactory to learn that in countries where the results of scientific research more rapidly receive practical application than is unfortunately the case amongst us, spongy iron is actually being employed on the large scale for filtration where only a very impure source of water supply is procurable. This refers to the recent introduction of spongy-iron filter beds at the Antwerp waterworks. It would be very desirable that such filter beds should be adopted by the London water companies until they shall abandon the present impure source of supply.

Animal charcoal, on the other hand, far from being fatal to the lower forms of life, is highly favourable to their development and growth; in fact, in the water drawn from a charcoal filter which has not been renewed sufficiently often, myriads of minute worms may frequently be found.

Thus spongy iron enables those who can afford the expense to obtain pure drinking-water even from an impure source; but this should not deter those interested in the public health from using their influence to obtain a water supply which requires no domestic filtration, and shall be equally bright and healthful for both rich and poor.

In a publication by Prof. Koch (Med. Wochenschrift, 1885, No. 37) on the scope of the bacteriological examination of water, it is asserted that a large proportion of micro-organisms proves that the water has received putrescent admixtures, charged with micro-organisms, impure affluxes, &c., which may convey, along with many harmless micro-organisms, also pathogenous kinds, i.e. infectious matters. Further, that as far as present observations extend, the number of micro-organisms in good waters ranges from 10 to 150 germs capable of development per c.c. As soon as the number of germs decidedly exceeds this number the water may be suspected of having received affluents. If the number reaches or exceeds 1000 per c.c., such water should not be admitted for drinking, at least in time of a cholera epidemic.

Dr. Link has lately examined a great number of the Dantzig well-waters chemically and bacterioscopically. The results obtained agree, however, very ill with the above opinions of Koch. On the contrary, it appears very plainly that regular relations between the chemical results and those of the bacterioscopic examination do not obtain. Many well-waters, chemically good and not directly or indirectly accessible to animal pollutions, often contained considerable numbers of microbia, whilst other waters, chemically bad and evidently contaminated by the influx of sewage, showed very small numbers of bacteria undergoing development. If we further consider that, by far the majority,[25] indeed, as a rule the totality of the bacteria contained in well-water, are indubitably of a harmless nature, and that when a pollution of the water by pathogenous germs has actually occurred, such germs will not in general find the conditions necessary for their increase, especially a temperature approximating to that of the body and a sufficient concentration of nutritive matter, but that they will rather perish from the overgrowth of the other bacteria inhabiting the water, we shall see that a judgment on the quality of water—according to the results of a bacterioscopic examination extending merely to a determination of the number of germs capable of development—must lead to inaccurate conclusions, which contradict the results of chemical analysis.

The attempt to put forward bacterioscopic examination as a decisive criterion for the character of a water is therefore devoid of a satisfactory basis. For the present, Dr. Link thinks the decision must be left to chemical analysis.

At any rate it is doubtful whether the test of the number of micro-organisms should determine the question whether a water is or is not safe to drink. Dr. Koch’s gelatine peptone test has enabled the analyst to recognise the absence or presence of microphytes; but, as was stated at a recent meeting of the Society of Medical Officers of Health, a sample of river water which might be marked “very good” by this test would develop an enormous number of colonies if kept for a few days, even in a “sterilised flask” protected from aerial infection. Prof. G. Bischof says, in fact, that a sample of New River water kept for six days in the above manner compares unfavourably as regards the number of “colonies” with a sample taken from the company’s main and polluted with one per cent. of sewage, or with a sample of Thames water taken at London Bridge. It seems certain too that the water stored on board ship must develop an enormous number of “colonies”; but no special amount of disease is attributable to them, and it would seem to follow that, unless the number of microphytes can be shown to indicate, or to be a measure of, pollution, Koch’s test is of little utility except as a guide to waterworks’ engineers, by pointing out that the filters want cleaning. In the laboratory the test is no doubt of considerable value; but in analysing water it must be applied with discrimination, and waters of a totally different character should not be compared by the number of organisms. For instance, the water from Loch Katrine might contain large numbers of micro-organisms, and yet be perfectly safe as compared with a water in which few microphytes could be found, but which had been accidentally polluted by some of those pathogenous germs which undoubtedly exist, and which produce disease when they find a suitable environment. Not until we are able to discriminate between the harmless and the disease-producing microphytes, shall we be able to test a water supply and declare it practically pure.

The foregoing paragraphs will suffice to show what a very unsatisfactory state our present knowledge of water is in. The only useful fact to be deduced from all the argument is that every household should filter its own drinking-water and take care that the filters are always kept clean and in good working order. There is one simple test for the purity of water, introduced by Dr. Hager in 1871, consisting of a tannin solution, directions for which will be found in the Housekeeper’s section. It remains to notice the chief kinds of filter.

Filtration is destined to perform three distinct functions, at least where the water is required for domestic use; these are (1) to remove suspended impurities; (2) to remove a portion of the impurities in solution, and (3) to destroy and remove low organic bodies.

The first step is efficiently performed by nature, in the case of well and spring water, by subsidence and a long period of filtration through the earth; in the case of river water supplied by the various companies, it is carried out in immense settling ponds and filter beds of sand and gravel. This suffices for water destined for many purposes. The second and third steps are essential for all drinking-water, and are the aim of every domestic filter. The construction of water filters may now be discussed according to the nature of the filtering medium.

[26]

Gravel and Sand.—The usual plan adopted by the water companies is to build a series of tunnels with bricks without mortar; these are covered with a layer of fine gravel 2 ft. thick, then a stratum of fine gravel and coarse sand, and lastly a layer of 2 ft. of fine sand. The water is first pumped into a reservoir, and after a time, for the subsidence of the coarser impurities, the water flows through the filter beds, which are slightly lower. For the benefit of those desirous of filtering water on a large scale with sand filtering beds, it may be stated that there should be 1½ yd. of filtering area for each 1000 gal. per day. For effective work, the descent of the water should not exceed 6 in. per hour.

This simple means of arresting solid impurities and an appreciable portion of the matters in solution, may be applied on a domestic scale, in the following manner.

Procure an ordinary wooden pail and bore a number of ¼ in. holes all over the bottom. Next prepare a fine muslin bag, a little larger than the bottom of the pail, and about 1 in. in height. The bag is now filled with clean, well-washed sand, and placed in the pail. Water is next poured in, and the edges of the bag are pressed against the sides of the pail. Such a filter was tested by mixing a dry sienna colour in a gallon of water, and, passing through, the colour was so fine as to be an impalpable powder, rendering the water a deep chocolate colour. On pouring this mixture on to the filter pad and collecting the water, it was found free of all colouring matter. This was a very satisfactory test for such a simple appliance, and the latter cannot be too strongly recommended in cases where a more complicated arrangement cannot be substituted. The finest and cleanest sand is desirable, such as that to be purchased at glass manufactories.

This filter, however, at its best, is but a good strainer, and will only arrest the suspended particles. In a modern filter more perfect work is required, and another effect produced, in order that water containing objectionable matter in solution should be rendered fit for drinking purposes. Many persons when they see a water quite clear imagine that it must be in a good state for drinking. They should remember, however, that many substances which entirely dissolve in water do not diminish its clearness. Hence a clear, bright water may, despite its clearness, be charged with a poison or substances more or less injurious to health; such, for instance, as soluble animal matter.

To make a perfect filter, which should have the double action of arresting the finest suspended matter and removing the matters held in solution, and the whole to cost but little and capable of being made by any housewife, has long been an object of much attention, and, after many experiments and testing various substances in many combinations, the following plan is suggested as giving very perfect results, and costing only about 8s.

Purchase a common galvanised iron pail, which costs 2s. Take it to a tin-shop and have a hole cut in the centre of the bottom about ¼ in. diameter, and direct the workman to solder around it a piece of tin about ¾ in. deep, to form a spout to direct the flow of water downward in a uniform direction. Obtain about 2 qt. of small stones, and, after a good washing, place about 2 in. of these at bottom of pail to form a drain.

On this lay a partition of horse-hair cloth or Canton flannel cut to size of pail. On this spread a layer of animal charcoal, sold by wholesale chemists as boneblack at about 5d. a lb. Select this about the size of gunpowder grains, and not in powder. This layer should be 3 or 4 in. A second partition having been placed, add 3 in. of sand, as clean and as fine as possible. Those within reach of glassmakers should purchase the sand there, as it is only with that quality of sand that the best results can be obtained. On this place another partition, and add more fine stones or shingle—say for 2 or 3 in. This serves as a weight to keep the upper partition in place, and completes the filter. By allowing the filtration to proceed in an upward instead of a downward direction much better results are obtained.

[27]

Charcoal, simple.—All kinds of charcoal, but especially animal charcoal, are useful in the construction of filters, and have consequently been much used for that purpose. Charcoal, as is well known, is a powerful decolorising agent, and possesses the property in a remarkable degree of abstracting organic matter, organic colouring principles, and gaseous odours from water and other liquids. It has been shown that it deprives liquids, for example, of their bitter principles, of alkaloids, of resins, and even of metallic salts, so that its usefulness as a medium through which to pass any suspected water is undoubted. The one point to be observed is that it does not retain its purifying power for any great length of time, so that any filter depending upon it for its purifying principle must either be renewed or the power of the charcoal restored from time to time, and this the more frequently in proportion to the amount of impurity present in the water. A combination filter of sand or gravel and granulated charcoal is a good one; but the physical, or chemico-physical, action of such compound filters, or of the other well-known filter, composed of a solid porous carbon mass, differ in no respect from that of the simple substances composing them; that is to say, such combinations or arrangements are much more a matter of fancy or convenience than of increased efficiency.

Experiments on the filtration of water through animal charcoal were made on the New River Company’s supply in the year 1866, and they showed that a large proportion of the organic matter was removed from the water. These experiments were afterwards repeated, in 1870, with Thames water supplied in London, which contains a much larger proportion of organic matter, and in this case also the animal charcoal removed a large proportion of the impurity. In continuing the use of the filter with Thames water, however, it became evident that the polluting matter removed from the water was only stored up in the pores of the charcoal, for, after the lapse of a few months, it developed vast numbers of animalcula, which passed out of the filter with the water, rendering the latter more impure than it was before filtration. Prof. Frankland reported in 1874 on these experiments as follows:—“Myriads of minute worms were developed in the animal charcoal, and passed out with the water, when these filters were used for Thames water, and when the charcoal was not renewed at sufficiently short intervals. The property which animal charcoal possesses in a high degree, of favouring the growth of the low forms of organic life, is a serious drawback to its use as a filtering medium for potable waters. Animal charcoal can only be used with safety for waters of considerable initial purity; and even when so used, it is essential that it should be renovated at frequent intervals, not by mere washing, but by actual ignition in a close vessel. Indeed, sufficiently frequent renovation of the filtering medium is an absolutely essential condition in all filters.”

9. 10. Atkins’s filters

Fig. 9 shows Atkins’s filter, in which a is the unfiltered and b the filtered water, c being a block of charcoal formed by mixing powdered charcoal with pitch or resin, moulding and calcining. The filter is capable of being taken to pieces and can thus be easily and frequently cleaned. The block should on such occasions be scraped, washed, boiled, and baked.

Fig. 10 illustrates another form of Atkins’s, in which powdered charcoal is used, retained between movable perforated earthenware plates.

11. 12. Sawyer’s Filters.

Figs. 11, 12 represent Sawyers filters, in which a is unfiltered water; b, filtered[28] water; c, charcoal hollow cone; d, filtered water tap; e, sediment tap; f, mass of granular charcoal. The most important feature here is the upward filtration.

Charcoal modified.—Several substances have been proposed for combination with carbon to improve its filtering capacity or increase its germ-destroying powers.

13. Silicated Carbon.   14. Silicated Carbon.

Silicated Carbon.—This was one of the earliest modifications of the simple carbon block. Figs. 13, 14 show respectively the forms adopted for downward and upward filtration. In the former, the stoneware receptacle is divided into two parts by a diaphragm upon which there is fixed, by a porcelain stay, a silicated carbon block, which entirely closes the apertures in the diaphragm. The upper surface and corners of the filtering block are non-porous, consequently the water has to enter at the edges and follow the course indicated by the arrows, before it can reach the clear water compartment below. In cleaning the filter, it is only necessary to unscrew the nut, when[29] the block can be lifted out and soaked in boiling water, after which the surface can be scrubbed.

The ‘Army Medical Report’ says of filters employing carbon in porous blocks that “These are powerful filters at first, but they are apt to clog, and require frequent scraping, especially with impure waters. Water filtered through them and stored, shows signs of the formation of low forms of life, but in a less degree than with the loose charcoal. After a time, the purifying power becomes diminished in a marked degree, and water left in contact with the filtering medium is apt to take up impurity again, though perhaps in a less degree than is the case with the loose charcoal.” The advantages of combining silica with the carbon are not at first sight apparent.

15. Maignen’s Filter.

Maignen combines charcoal with lime to produce a compound which he calls “carbo-calcis.” At the same time he employs an asbestos filtering cloth. The arrangement of his filter is shown in Fig. 15. The hollow, conical, perforated frame a is covered with asbestos cloth b; c is a layer of finely powdered carbo-calcis, deposited automatically by being mixed with the first water poured into the filter; d is granular carbo-calcis filling up the space between c and the sides of the containing vessel; e, unfiltered water; f, filtered water; g, tube for admitting air to aërate the water and correct the usually vapid flavour of filtered water. This filter has remarkable power; wine passed through it will come out colourless and tasteless. Moreover the cleansing and renewal of the filtering media are simple in the extreme.

Prof. Bernays, of St. Thomas’s Hospital, has taken out a patent for a new filtering material, consisting of charcoal combined with a reduced manganese oxide. The well-known purifying action of charcoal (animal and vegetable), which in its ordinary state is liable to certain difficulties and objections, is in this invention supplemented and improved by heating it in covered crucibles with 5 to 15 per cent. or more of powdered manganese black oxide (the mineral pyrolusite), together with a very small quantity of some fixed oil, resin, or fat. Having ascertained that the simple admixture of the manganese dioxide with the charcoal without previous heating had no utility as a filtering medium, and was even injurious by reason of the diminution of the porosity of the charcoal, Prof. Bernays devised the above method with the object of oxidising the hydrogen and other oxidisable impurities of the charcoal, and hence approximating it to pure carbon in a state similar in efficacy to platinum black rather than in its ordinary less powerful analogy to spongy platinum. The heating is of course out of contact with air, and the temperature sufficiently high to cause the reduction of the manganese dioxide at least to manganous-manganic oxide, which afterwards acts as a carrier of oxygen, and thereby much prolongs the purifying action of the medium. Another method of obtaining charcoal in combination with manganous-manganic oxide is to saturate charcoal with manganous chloride (or even manganese residues) and afterwards subject it to a strong heat in closed crucibles. The charcoal prepared in the above manner may be employed in the filtration of water in layers with sand and other filtering material in the usual manner.

A filtering material which has all the properties of animal charcoal, and is said to give higher results, is magnetic carbide, discovered by Spencer, many years ago, and consists of iron protoxide in chemical combination with carbon. It is considered that the purifying effect is produced by its power of attracting oxygen to its surface without the latter being acted on, the oxygen thus attracted being changed to ozone, by which the organic matter in the water is consumed.

[30]

There can be no doubt of the value of this filtering material. Its manufacture is very simple, as it is obtained by roasting hematite iron ore with granulated charcoal for 12 to 16 hours at a dull red heat, and used in a granular form. Another form for making this material is to heat the hematite (iron red oxide) with sawdust in a close vessel. The product is magnetic, and never loses its activity until the pores are choked up. The Southport Water Company formed their filtering beds of this material, and after years of use it is still giving satisfaction.

Iron.—From experiments made by allowing water to filter through spongy iron on to meat, it has been found that after 6 weeks the meat remained fresh. Another test was made by preparing a hay infusion, which was kept till it showed abundance of organic life. The infusion was filtered through spongy iron with layers of pyrolusite, sand, and gravel, and then was kept in contact with meat for many weeks. The meat showed no signs of putrescence. In some of the experiments filtered air was supplied, which proves conclusively that bacteria or their germs are not revived when supplied with oxygen after the filtration; this is a result of importance, as it demonstrates that by filtration through spongy iron, putrefaction of organic matter is not only suspended for a time, but that it ceases entirely until reinstated by some putrefactive agent foreign to the water. The peculiar action of spongy iron is believed to be thus explained. If a rod be inserted into a body of spongy iron which has been in contact with water for some time, gas bubbles are seen to escape. These are found to contain carbon and hydrogen, and experiments lead to the conclusion that the carbon is due to the decomposition of organic matter.

The material was introduced for filtration purposes some years ago by Prof. Bischof. His ordinary portable domestic filter consists of an inner, or spongy iron, vessel, resting in an outer case. The latter holds the “prepared sand,” the regulator arrangement, and the receptacle for filtered water. The unfiltered water is, in this form of filter, mostly supplied from a bottle, which is inverted into the upper part of the inner vessel. After passing through the body of spongy iron, the water ascends through an overflow pipe. The object of this is to keep the spongy iron, when once wet, constantly under water, as otherwise, if alternately exposed to air and water, it is too rapidly oxidised.

On leaving the inner vessel, the water contains a minute trace of iron in solution, as carbonate or ferrous hydrate, which is separated by the prepared sand underneath. This consists generally of 3 layers, namely, commencing from the top, of pyrolusite (manganese black oxide), sand, and gravel. The former oxidises the protocompounds of iron, rendering them insoluble, when they are mechanically retained by the sand underneath. Pyrolusite also has an oxidising action upon ammonia, converting it more or less into nitric acid.

The regulator arrangement is underneath the perforated bottom, on which the prepared sand rests. It consists of a tin tube, open at the inner, and closed by screw caps at its outer end. The tube is cemented water-tight into the outer case, and a solid partition under the perforated bottom referred to. It is provided with a perforation in its side, which forms the only communication between the upper part of the filter and the receptacle for filtered water. The flow of water is thus controlled by the size of such perforation. Should the perforation become choked, a wire brush may be introduced, after removing the screw cap, and the tube cleaned. Thus, although the user has no access to the perforation allowing of his tampering with it, he has free access for cleaning. Another advantage of the regulator arrangement is that, when first starting a filter, the materials may be rapidly washed without soiling the receptacle for filtered water. This is done by unscrewing the screw cap, when the water passes out through the outer opening of the tube, and not through the lateral perforation.

Various modifications had, of course, to be introduced into the construction of spongy iron filters, to suit a variety of requirements. Thus, when filters are supplied by a ball-cock from a constant supply, or from a cistern of sufficient capacity, the inner vessel is[31] dispensed with, as the ball-cock secures the spongy iron remaining covered with water. This renders filters simpler and cheaper.

As the action of spongy iron is dependent upon its remaining covered with water, whilst the materials which are employed in perhaps all other filters lose their purifying action very soon, unless they are run dry from time to time, so as to expose them to the air, the former is peculiarly suited for cistern filters.

Cistern filters are frequently constructed with a top screwed on to the filter case, by means of a flange and bolts, a U-shaped pipe passing down from this top to near the bottom of the cistern. This tube sometimes supplies the unfiltered water, or in some filters carries off the filtered water, when upward filtration is employed. This plan is defective, because it practically gives no access to the materials; and unless the top is jointed perfectly tight, the unfiltered water, with upward filtration, may be sucked in through the joint, without passing at all through the materials. This is remedied by loosely surrounding the filter case with a cylindrical mantle of zinc, which is closed at its top and open at the bottom. Supposing the filter case to be covered with water, and the mantle placed over the case, an air valve is then opened in the top of the mantle, when the air escapes, being replaced by water. After screwing the valve on again, the filter is supplied with water by the siphon action taking place between the mantle and filter case and the column of filtered water, which passes down from the bottom of the filter to the lower parts of the building. These filters are supplied with a regulator arrangement on the same principle as ordinary domestic filters. The washing of materials, on starting a filter, is easily accomplished by reversing 2 stop-cocks, one leading to the regulator, the other to a waste pipe.

The use of spongy iron has now been applied on a large scale to the water obtained from the river Nette, for the supply of the city of Antwerp. Dr. Frankland has visited the Antwerp Waterworks at Waelheim, about 15 miles above that city, and reported on the result of his inquiry. He attaches especial value to the fact that spongy iron filtration “is absolutely fatal to Bacteria and their germs,” and he considers it would be “an invaluable boon to the Metropolis if all water supplied from the Thames and Lea were submitted to this treatment in default of a new supply from unimpeachable sources.”

Many preparations of iron have long been known to possess a purifying influence on water containing organic impurities. Thus Scherer, years ago, recommended a solution of iron sulphate where the impurities were present in large quantity. Later still, iron chloride was proposed as suitable, the salt being precipitated in the presence of organic matter as ferric oxide, the oxide thus formed acting also mechanically on the suspended impurities in course of precipitation, very much as white of egg acts in clarifying liquids, when it coagulates and carries impurities with it to the bottom. Other iron preparations have a similar action, notably dialysed iron, while several oxidising agents, such as potash permanganate, are also well known to possess a powerful effect on organic impurities. It will at once be seen, however, that all such substances are inadmissible as filtering media, or purifying agents for potable waters, for the reason, that in the case of some at least of the agents mentioned, decompositions take place, which in themselves might prove dangerous, while in the case of all an excess (and it would be almost impossible to avoid an excess) of the purifying agent would be equally bad, and would render the water quite unfit for domestic purposes. It has been found, however, that various kinds of native rock containing iron protoxide effect the filtration of water very completely, and Spencer, acting on this idea, after experimenting, found that when the iron protoxide was isolated as magnetic oxide, it both freed the water from turbidity and effected decoloration very quickly. Thus bog-water, as dark as porter, when filtered through it speedily lost its colour and became clear and sweet, the carbonic acid given off during the process of decomposition rather tending to improve the water. The purifying power of the magnetic oxide does not deteriorate with use. The oxide gets coated with[32] a slimy deposit, owing to the deposition of decomposed organic matter, but this being removed, it is as powerful as ever in its purifying action. Unfortunately this iron rock is not found native to any extent, but the fact of its action being determined, Spencer continued his experiments with the result that it can now be produced artificially, and forms one of the most efficient and useful filters for domestic purposes.

Metallic iron is employed by Jennings & Hinde. The filtering material consists of fine iron or steel shavings, filings, turnings, or borings obtained from the swarf or skin of cast iron, wrought iron, or steel; this material may either be used by itself, or it may be used with other materials, either mixed with them or in separate layers. The iron or steel shavings, &c., are obtained from iron or steel that has been brought to a state of fusion either by melting or the processes necessary for making cast iron, wrought iron, or steel, and being separated from many of the impurities contained in the ore from which it was obtained, will have but a comparatively small portion of earthy impurities mixed with it, and will be for this reason superior to iron which is obtained from native ores or oxides without fusion.

By filtering water through small divided swarf or skin of cast iron, wrought iron, or steel, free oxygen will be withdrawn from the water, and consequently any insects or animalculæ contained in the water will be deprived of life, and any germs contained in the water will be deprived of the oxygen necessary for their development and life, and the water will be consequently purified and rendered wholesome. A convenient way of forming a filter is to use a layer of the turnings, shavings, &c., together with layers of other filtering material resting upon a perforated partition placed across a closed vessel. The materials are cleaned by boiling them in hot water with a small quantity of ordinary washing soda, to remove any oil or grease that might accidentally be associated with the materials above mentioned. Afterwards the iron borings should be well washed before being put into the filter. The filter vessel may be of any ordinary construction and shape. If sand is used in conjunction with the above-mentioned materials, it is preferable to place some of the sand at the bottom of the filtering vessel, and the iron or steel materials, or both, over the sand, and then more sand over them. These materials are disposed so that they may be partially separated from each other by perforated plates of earthenware, glass, or other suitable material. But this partial separation, though convenient, is not essential, as the perforated plates may be dispensed with and the material placed over and under each other in layers without plates to separate them.

Porous Pottery.—Chamberland has found that the liquid in which microbes have been cultivated becomes absolutely pure if passed through unglazed porcelain. Its purity can be demonstrated by mixing it with liquids sensitive to the action of microbes, such as veal broth, milk, and blood, in which it produces no alteration.

16. Chamberland Filter.

A tube a (Fig. 16) of unglazed porcelain is enclosed in another b of metal, and the water to be filtered is admitted to the space between the two by turning a stop-cock. Thence it slowly filters through to the inside of the porcelain tube, and flows out at the bottom. Under a pressure of 2 atmospheres, or 30 lb. to the sq. in., a tube 8 in. in length, with a diameter of 1 in., will yield about 5 gal. of water daily. For a larger supply, it is only necessary to increase the size or the number of the tubes.

In cleansing the filter, the porcelain tube is removed, and the microbes and other matter that have accumulated on the outer face of it are brushed off. The tube may also be plunged in boiling water in order to destroy any germs that may be supposed to have penetrated beneath its surface; or it may be heated in a gas[33] jet or in a furnace. In fact, it can be more readily and more thoroughly cleaned than most of the domestic filters in ordinary use.

It is interesting to remark that some of the earliest filtering vessels of which we have any knowledge are simply made of porous earthenware. After all our modern researches after antiseptic filtering media, we are reverting to the ways of our remotest forefathers.

Filtering Cisterns.—The following is a description of a filter which purifies foul water from organic impurities held in solution as well as from suspended solids. Take any suitable vessel with a perforated false bottom, and cover it with a layer of animal charcoal, on the top of that spread a layer of iron filings, borings, or turnings, the finer the better, mixed with charcoal dust; on the top of the filings place a layer of fine clean siliceous sand, and you will have a perfect filter. Allow the foul water to filter slowly through the above filter, and you will produce a remarkably pure drinking-water. Before placing the iron filings in the filter, they must be well washed in a hot solution of soda or potash, to remove oil and other impurities, then rinse them with clean water; the filings should be mixed with an equal measure of fine charcoal. If the water is very foul, it must be allowed to filter very slowly. The deeper the bed of iron filings is the quicker they will act.

In Bailey-Denton’s cistern filter, the principal novelty is that it runs intermittently, and thus allows the aëration of the filtering material, and the oxidation of the impurities detached from the water. The oxidation is effected by the perfect aëration of the filtrating material, which may be of any approved kind, through which every drop of water used in the kitchen, bedrooms, and elsewhere must pass as it descends from the service cistern for use. As water is withdrawn from this filter, fresh water comes in automatically by the action of a ball-tap; and this fresh water immediately passes through the aërated material into a lower chamber, forming the supply cistern of filtered water for the whole house. The advantages claimed for the filter are that it secures pure water for the whole house. It is attached by pipe to, but is distinct from, the service cistern; it can be placed in any part of the house, and it cannot get out of order. Any approved filtering material may be used, and being aërated between each passage of water through it, oxidation is made certain.

A slate or iron cistern and filter combined may be made by dividing the cistern with a vertical partition perforated at the bottom, and placing in the half of the cistern which receives the water, a bed of filtering material, say 6 in. of gravel at the bottom, 6 in. animal charcoal in granular form in the middle, and 6 in. clean sharp sand at the top, covering all by a perforated distributing slab.

17. Filter Cistern.

Fig. 17 illustrates a method of preparing an ordinary house cistern for filtering. The pipe and fittings should be of galvanised iron; black or plain iron is better as long as it lasts, as it rusts fast; in either case it is better to waste the water first drawn, for the water absorbs both the zinc and the iron when standing overnight. The zinc is not healthy, and the taste of the iron is unpleasant.

The perforations should equal 3 or 4 times the area of the suction pipe, which in ordinary cisterns may be 1¼ in. pipe, while the branches may be ¾ in. pipe. The holes, if ⅛ in., should number at least 200, distributed along the lower half of the pipes. Smaller holes are preferable; of 1/16 in. holes, 800 will be required.

For the filtering material we recommend a layer of fine gravel or pebbles for the bottom, 3 or 4 in. in depth, or heaped up over the perforated pipes; upon this a layer[34] of sharp, clean sand, 9 in. in depth; upon this a stratum of pulverised charcoal, not dust, but granulated to size of peas or beans, or any of the material above mentioned, 4 in. deep; and upon this a stratum of fine, clean sand 6 to 12 in. in depth.

Such a filter should be cleansed at least twice in a year by pumping out all the water, taking out the mud or settlings, and one-half the depth of the top layer, and replacing with fresh sand.

The double filter cistern, Fig. 18, has much to recommend it, having a large receiving basin which in itself is a filter placed in a position for easy cleaning. The recess at the bottom may be covered with a perforated plate of galvanised sheet iron, upon which may be laid a filter bed of gravel, sand, charcoal, spongy iron, and sand in the proportions as stated above. This enables the frequent cleaning by removing the top layer of the filter bed without disturbing the water supply. The cover should fit tight enough to keep out insects and vermin.

A double-bottomed basin perforated and filled with clear, sharp sand and charcoal should be attached to the bottom of the pump pipe, as shown.

This enables the small filter to be drawn up and cleaned, without the necessity of emptying the cistern or interrupting the water supply.

18. Filter Cistern.   19. Keg Filter.

The half barrel or keg filter, as illustrated in Fig. 19, is a convenient form of cistern filter where filtered water is required from cisterns already filled.

This is also a convenient form for readily cleaning or changing the filter without the necessity of discharging the water from the cistern.

This filter can be made from an oak keg or half barrel, such as is used for liquors or beer. Take out one of the heads and cut away the edge, so that it will just drive into the end of the keg, fasten 2 battens of oak across the head with oak pins left long enough to serve for legs for the filter to rest upon.

Bore this head full of holes ¼ in. diameter. In the other head bore a hole 1¼ in. diameter, and bolt an iron flange into which the pump pipe is to be screwed. Let the bolts also fasten upon the inside a raised disc of galvanised sheet iron, perforated with a sharp point or chisel. Proceed to charge the filter by turning the top or flanged head down, and placing next the perforated plate a layer of fine gravel 3 in. thick, then a layer of sharp, clean sand 3 in. thick, then a layer of pulverised charcoal free from dust, 3 in. thick, then a layer of sharp clean sand mixed with spongy iron, pulverised magnetic[35] iron ore, or blacksmiths’ scales, followed by a layer of coarse sand, gravel, and broken stone, or hard burnt bricks broken into chips to fill up. Place the perforated bottom in as far as the head was originally; bore and drive a half-dozen oak pegs around the chine to fasten the head. Then turn over the filter, screw the pump pipe into the flange, and let it down into the cistern.

Such a filter requires to be taken out and the filtering renewed in 6 to 12 months, depending upon the cleanliness of the water catch. With the precautions mentioned above in regard to the care of the roof, such a filter should do good work for one year.

Sanitation.—This heading is intended to embrace the removal and disposal of the various kinds of refuse and waste produced in the dwelling from day to day. Endless volumes have been written on the subject, but in plain words the whole art resolves itself into sound pipes for the conveyance of the fluid portion and efficient ventilation of the receptacles and conduits.

House Drains.—It was pointed out by Burton,[1] before the Society of Arts, that where, as in London, the sewerage system is fairly good, dangers to health arise not from the sewers direct, but either from the sewers by means of the house drains, or even more often from the house drains themselves. It is quite agreed by medical authorities that diseases may arise from gases evolved from the drains, or even discharge pipes in a house, entirely apart from any specific infection such as may be conveyed by means of sewers.

This being the case, it will be seen that the thing which most behoves us is to make sure that the house system is efficiently doing its work. It is evident that the objects to be aimed at in constructing a system of house drainage, are as follows:—

First. All matter placed in any of the sanitary appliances in the house must be carried, with the greatest possible expedition, clear of the premises, leaving behind it as little deposit as possible.

Second. All sewer air must be prevented from entering the houses by the channels which serve to carry away the sewage.

Third. Since it is impossible to have house drains absolutely clean, that is, devoid of all decomposing matter, all air from house drains, and even from sink, bath, and other waste pipes must be kept out of the dwelling-rooms.

To which might be added a fourth, that a constant current of fresh air must be established along every pipe in which it is possible that any decomposing matter may remain, so that such matter may be rapidly oxidised, or rendered innocuous.

The number of houses in which sanitary inspectors find the drainage arrangements to be thoroughly good, and to be fulfilling these conditions, is surprisingly small. In fact, in all the houses they are called upon to examine, except those which have been arranged, within the last dozen years or so, by some engineer, builder, or plumber who has made a special study of the matter, are found defects which interfere with the due fulfilment of one or other of these conditions.

Attention is called to Fig. 20, in which the drainage arrangements are shown to be defective. Here Burton has taken such a state of affairs as is by no means uncommon in a London house. Alongside it is a drawing which illustrates a well-drained house (Fig. 21). By their juxtaposition, the defects exhibited will be made more patent.

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20. Ill-arranged House.

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21. Well-arranged House.

The first point demanding attention is the condition of the main drain. It will be seen that it is little other than an elongated cesspool. The size is unnecessarily large. As a consequence, even if it were perfect in all other respects, it would not be self-cleansing, inasmuch as there can never pass down the drain which serves for a single house enough water to scour out pipes of the size illustrated, namely, 9 in. diameter.

It will be seen, however, that the state of affairs is far from correct, apart from the[38] size of the pipes. In the first place, the joints are not tight; sewage will soak out into the ground through them. In the second place, although there is ample allowance between the two ends of the drain for a good fall, or incline, this fall has all been confined to a few feet of its length, the part underneath the house being laid almost level. This is done simply to avoid the trouble of excavating the ground to a sufficient depth.

Let us now follow the action of a drain of this kind, and see what it will lead to. Sewage matter finds its way into it. As we all know, this matter depends on water to carry it forward. It is probable that, while the drain is new and the ground comparatively solid around it, sufficient water will remain in it to carry the greater part of the sewage to the sewer. But this state of affairs will not last. Before long, some unusually heavy or obstinate matter will get into the drain. It will be carried only so far, and will then stick. Any water now coming behind it will “back up,” to a certain extent, and will very soon find its way into the soil, from one or more points behind the obstruction—not yet amounting to a stoppage. As a consequence, sewage now passing into the drain, loses its carrying power, and gets no farther than a certain distance. Before long, a complete stoppage takes place, and all the sewage of the house soaks into the ground under the basement. After this, things go from bad to worse. The saturated ground no longer properly supports the pipes, which, as a consequence, will become more and more irregular, and all hope of the drain clearing itself is lost. It is only a question of time, with a drain such as that shown, and the inmates of the house will be living over a cesspool.

As a matter of fact, total obstruction or stoppage has been discovered in 6 per cent. of the houses which have been inspected.

The next point worthy of attention is the soil pipe; this term being at present used to signify the vertical portion of the drain only, although it very often is also used as meaning the almost horizontal drain under the house.

The soil pipe is of lead. This is an excellent material if the pipe be properly arranged, but here it is not. The great fault is that there is no ventilation. As a consequence, the upper part of the pipe will always be filled with sewer gas, which tends to rise in a somewhat concentrated state. Now, sewer gas has a powerful action on lead, and, therefore, a soil pipe arranged without ventilation never stands many years before it becomes “holed,” that is to say, is worn through at its upper part. When this occurs, of course, there is ventilation enough, but it is into the house. The ventilation in this case will, in fact, be most active, because every house, on account of the fires in it, acts, especially in winter, as a chimney, and draws in sewer or other gas from every possible crevice.

At the top of the soil pipe will be found the commonest of all water-closet arrangements, namely, the pan-closet with D trap. This arrangement is exceedingly well known: it is a most skilfully devised piece of apparatus for retaining sewage in the house, and distilling sewer gas from the same, and it is the cause of probably nine out of ten of the actual smells perceived in houses, even if it does not (as some say) give rise to much actual disease.

The soil pipe discharges over a small cesspool at the foot. This is a very common arrangement. The cesspool is usually dignified by the name of a dip trap. The percentage of houses showing leaky soil pipes is 31.

Now, observe that, although our constructor has not ventilated his soil pipe, he has been careful not to leave the system entirely without ventilation. On the contrary, by the simple device of leaving a rain-water pipe untrapped at the foot, he has ventilated the drains, and also the public sewer, into the back bedroom windows! This is a quite common arrangement, and frequently results in typhoid fever.

Next, in order, we may take the case of the discharge pipes from baths, sinks, basins, and all such appliances. It has been laid down as a rule by the best sanitary authorities that these appliances must discharge not into the soil drains, but into the open air over[39] trapped gullies, as it has been found that this is the only way of being absolutely certain that no sewer air shall enter the rooms by the discharge pipes. It is quite true that if a trap be fixed on a discharge pipe of, say, a sink, the greater part of the sewer air may be kept back from the house; but traps, however excellent they may be in assisting to keep out sewer air, are not alone sufficient. There are several reasons for this. In the first place, there is the fact that a certain amount of sewer gas will pass through the water of a trap, or, to speak more strictly, will be absorbed by the water on one side, and afterwards given off on the other side. It is true that in the case of a well-ventilated drain this amount will be infinitesimal, and might even be disregarded, but there are other causes for the uncertainty of a trap. If the appliance, on the discharge pipe of which it is, be disused for a long time, there is the possibility that the water in the trap may dry. In this case, of course, there is no further security. Besides this, however, there is an action known as siphonage, in which the rush of water through a pipe carries with it the water which ought to remain in the trap and form a seal. In Fig. 21 are shown several different ways of connecting sinks, &c., with drains. The discharge pipe often carries an apology for a trap, in the form of a little apparatus called a bell trap. But, as a matter of fact, it is the commonest thing possible to find the bell trap lying on the sink. It has been lifted out of its place to let the water run down the waste pipe more quickly. It is no unusual thing to go into the scullery of a house, and to find the discharge pipe of the sink quite open, and a blast of sewer air issuing from it which will extinguish a candle.

In other cases the sink has an arrangement which is called a grease trap, but is, in reality, nothing more nor less than a particularly foul cesspool. It calls for little remark. The pipe from the sink dips into the foul water to make a trap. In many cases, the pipe does not dip into the water; but there is a bell at the top. Sometimes the drain is at various places made up with bricks. This is a very common thing to find in houses. The bricks are used to save the trouble of getting special junction bends, &c. The other sinks and baths in the house are shown as discharging into the closet traps. This is a very common and objectionable arrangement. Sixty-eight per cent. of houses examined show the defects last mentioned; that is to say, the sinks, baths, or fixed basins are connected with the drain or soil pipe, a trap of some kind generally, but not always, forming a partial security against sewer gas.

As mentioned before, the only ventilation in this case is such as will permit the issuing sewer gas to find its way into the house. It is by no means unusual to find no provision at all for ventilation, or to find the ventilating pipes so small that they are totally useless. In more cases than one, Burton found the soil pipe carried up as a rain-water pipe into the attics, where it received rain-water from two gutters, one from each side of the roof, and discharged all the sewer gas which escaped by it. Generally, the drinking-water cisterns are situated in such attics.

It may be noted, in the other drawing (Fig. 21), that a trap is fixed on the main drain, which will keep back almost all sewer gas, and that ventilating pipes are so arranged that a constant circulation of fresh air exists through the whole drainage system, and will carry away with it any little sewer gas which passes through the trapping water.

The most perfect water-supply arrangement does not necessitate the existence of cisterns in the house at all. This is beside the mark, for the reason that in London, to which Burton confines his remarks, the supply of water to the greater portion of the town is intermittent, so that cisterns are a necessity.

Water, even in London, is almost always delivered in a sufficiently pure state to be drunk, but it is a very common thing for it to be contaminated in the cisterns. Even if there be no actual disease germs carried into the water, there is liability of deterioration from the mere fact of a large quantity of water being stored for a long time before use. If the cisterns are of so great size as to hold as much water as is used in, say, three or[40] four days, it follows that all water drawn has remained in these cisterns for an average time of several days. This is by no means likely to improve its quality, but, on the contrary, if it does nothing else, it renders it flat. There are far more dangerous causes of contamination than this, however. The commonest of these is to be found in direct communication between the drains and the cisterns through the overflow pipes of the latter. This is shown in Fig. 20. It will be seen that there is a trap on the pipe by way of protection against the sewer gas. This is a by no means uncommon arrangement; but, as will be readily understood, such a trap is absolutely of no good. An overflow pipe to a cistern is merely an appliance to be put in use in case of an emergency; that is, in case of derangement of the ball valve through which the water enters. As a matter of fact, an overflow may not occur from year’s end to year’s end—probably does not—and, as a consequence, the trap soon becomes dry, and the temporary security afforded by it is lost. In 37 per cent. of houses inspected, Burton found direct communication between the drain or soil pipes and the drinking-water cisterns.

Another means by which the water of cisterns is contaminated is by their being placed in improper positions. Quite frequently, a cistern in which drinking-water is stored, is situated in, or even under the floor of a w.c. Burton has known more than one case in which the drip tray under a closet actually discharged into a cistern.

It is even possible for contamination of water to occur through the mere fact that a water-closet is supplied from a certain cistern. With a water-closet supplied by the modern regulator-valve apparatus, this is most unlikely; but it will be readily seen how it may occur with such an arrangement as that shown in Fig. 20, which is common. Here it will be seen that for each water-closet there is a plug in the cistern. This plug is so arranged that when it is raised by the wire which connects it with the water-closet branch, it suddenly fills what is called a service box, this being a subsidiary cistern fixed under the body of the main cistern, and in direct communication with the water-closet. After the water has run out of the service box, this is free to fill itself with foul gas from the water-closet by the service pipe, and the next time the plug is lifted this same foul gas passes into the water, which absorbs a part of it.

There are many other points in the drainage arrangements of a house which may possibly become causes of danger, such as surface traps in areas, &c. In speaking of the drain of a house, it has been considered as a single length of pipe; but it must be remembered that in any drainage system, except the most simple, there are branch drains, often many of them, and that these are liable to the same evils as the main drains, and require the same attention. In fact, seeing that less water is likely to pour down them, they require more attention.

Burton concludes his paper with a brief description of the methods in use for discovering defects in house sanitation.

One thing that is absolutely necessary for such inspection, and without which it would be quite incomplete, is to open down to the drain. This should be done at the nearest point to that at which it leaves the premises. There is no absolute guide to tell where this point is, but after some experience it is generally possible to hit upon the spot with very little searching. In the house illustrated in Figs. 20, 21, it would be under the front area or cellar. The ground should be entirely removed from the drain for at least two lengths of pipe. It is also very desirable that a portion of the ground over the top of the drain should be removed.

We may next take the point of trapping of the main drain and ventilation of the system. It will be seen that, in the case of the drawing of the imperfect arrangements, the drain is shown to be in direct communication with the sewer. The consequence is that any leakage which may exist in the house drain permits gas not only from the drain itself, but from the sewer also, to find its way into the house.

The engineer will now be able to tell much of the state of affairs. He will see of what size the drain is; he will be able to tell of what material the joints are made,[41] taking those exposed as samples; he will, in all probability, find the ground under the pipes soaked with sewage, and be able at once to say that the drain is in a leaky and bad condition; he will find whether it is properly supported on concrete, or has been “tumbled” into the soil; he will be able readily to discover what is the total fall in the drain from back to front. At this stage of the proceedings, the drain itself should not be opened; but, on the contrary, if the taking up of the ground should have exposed any joints which are evidently leaking, these should be made temporarily good with clay. The reason is, that it is desirable, before anything has been disturbed, to test the system for the purpose of discovering what amount of leakage there is into the house.

There are various ways of doing this, but the two commonest, which Burton describes and illustrates, are those known as the “peppermint test,” and the “smoke test.”

The smell of peppermint is well known, possibly to some of us unpleasantly well known, but probably its excessive pungency when in the form of the oil, and when brought into contact with hot water, is not generally understood. It will readily be believed that if such an excessively pungent mixture as this be introduced into the drainage system of a house, even the smallest leakage will become evident. Suppose the least possible defect to exist in any joint of any of the pipes, a strong smell of peppermint will be evident near the defect. The only difficulty is in finding a place to introduce the peppermint. It will be quite evident that it is no use to pour it into any of the appliances in the house, as, were such done, this smell would so rapidly permeate the whole of the premises, by way of the staircase, passages, &c., that time would not be allowed to detect the leakages. Some means must be discovered of getting the peppermint in from the outside. This is not always possible, but generally it is. In the case illustrated, there would be no difficulty. The rain-water pipe at the back admirably suits the purpose. One person gets out on the flat roof, near the top of the pipe, and provides himself with peppermint, and 4 or 5 gallons of water, as nearly boiling as possible. Meantime, all doors and windows are closely shut, and persons are stationed about the house to observe if the smell expected becomes evident, and to locate, as far as possible, the point from which it issues. The man on the roof pours about ½ oz. of the oil down the pipe, and follows it with the hot water. He need then retreat from the place a little, for the peppermint-laden steam which will come from the pipe is blinding in its pungency. As soon as possible, he plugs up the top of the pipe with a towel, or some such thing, to prevent the occurrence of the vacuum which would otherwise be in the pipes, and which would tend to draw air from the house into the pipes instead of from the pipes into the house at any leakage. It would probably not be a minute before the people in the house would perceive the smell at various places. The manipulator of the peppermint must remain perched on the roof until those inside have had time to make their observations, otherwise he will infallibly bring the smell with him.

The test described is an excellent one. It is searching, and is simple in application, but it has one drawback. It is impossible by means of it exactly to localise a leakage. This drawback does not apply to the smoke test. A smoke machine is nothing more nor less than a centrifugal pump attached to a vessel for generating smoke. The pump pumps smoke out by a pipe, which may be inserted in any pipe in direct communication with the drain or in an aperture made for the purpose. The test is, in all respects, similar to the peppermint one, except that the leakage is not smelt but seen.

After the test has been performed the drain may be opened. This may be done by breaking into a pipe in front, by breaking off a collar, or by punching a round hole in the pipe. In any case it will be possible to judge much of the condition of the drain by the manner in which water runs through the pipes. If we have discovered that there is sufficient total fall, we can now see whether or not it is uniform. We shall, as remarked before, find in six cases out of every hundred examined that there is total stoppage, that no sewage whatever leaves the premises, and that consequently it must all be depositing under the basement.

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If the drain, after all tests so far applied, and from what can be seen of it, appear to be in good condition, it may be further tested by filling, or attempting to fill it with water. There is probably not an average of one drain in a thousand in London which would remain full of water for an hour. For the rest it is necessary to examine all appliances, to trace the pipes from them, and sometimes to test these pipes.

The engineer has now completed his inspection, and has but to consider how he will make the best of a bad job, and put things to rights. At the beginning of his paper Burton expressed his intention of confining himself to a description of defects, and said he should not describe what he considered a perfect system; he, however, points out one or two of the chief features of the arrangements in the house which he calls well drained.

22. Disconnecting Chamber.

Most notable, probably, is the small size and sharp fall of the drain pipes. Further than this, it will be seen that the drain is disconnected from the sewer by a trap, and that it is accessible for inspection throughout, simply by lifting certain iron covers (Fig. 22). A close examination would show that every foot of drain pipe and discharge pipe is so ventilated, that there will be a current of air through it; that no appliance discharges into the drain direct, but that there is an atmospheric disconnection in every case; that air from discharge pipes of sinks, &c., is all trapped from the house; that there is separate water supply for closets, and for other purposes; and that no cistern has any connection with the drains. Further will be noticed, the difference in construction of the closets, &c.

The foregoing abstract of Burton’s paper is replete with valuable information. One obvious inference to be drawn from it is that where the occupant of a dwelling has serious doubts as to its sanitary conditions and cannot rely on his own observation for ascertaining the facts, he should forthwith engage the services of a specialist like the author of the paper to aid him in coming to a decision.

One of the most instructive lectures on house sanitation was that delivered by Prof. Corfield at the Parkes Museum in 1883. He considers that the best plan in the examination of a house is to begin at the top of it, proceeding downwards, and noting the different mistakes that are likely to be made in the sanitary arrangements in various parts of the house. Following out this idea, we will deal with each item in descending order.

Rain-water.—The first thing which we must consider is that we have to get rid of the water that falls on the roof. The water from the gutter in front of the house may be disposed of in one of several ways. It may be conducted by a pipe outside of the house down the front into the area; or it may be conducted by a gutter through the roof, or, perhaps, through one of the rooms in the upper story into a gutter, over the middle of the house, between two parts of the roof, and down the middle of the house by a pipe into the drain; or it may be conducted direct from the gutter by a pipe, not outside the house, but inside the house, passing down through one or two stories, inside the rooms, perhaps through the best bedroom in front of the house, through the drawing-room, carefully hidden by some casing made to look like an ornament, through the dining-room and kitchen into the drain in the basement. Smells having been perceived in[43] different parts of the rooms, especially in the bedrooms, various sanitary arrangements may be improved, and even made as perfect as they can be, by a kind of amateur tinkering prevalent nowadays in sanitary matters; and yet this defect which is so exceedingly serious, which is known to give rise to serious disease, is entirely overlooked—perhaps for years. The same is the case when the rain-water is carried in a gutter through the roof into a gutter between the two roofs in the middle of the house, and down by a rain-water pipe inside the house. In such cases similar disasters may occur.

But there is an additional danger from the fact that these inside gutters are in themselves most pernicious things. Soot and rotten leaves collect in them, and air blows through them into the house; and especially when these gutters are under the floors of bedrooms, this foul air is often the cause of illnesses which occur in these rooms. Even gutters which are not themselves directly connected with the drains, and which are open at both ends, but in which decayed leaves and soot accumulate and give off foul air into the rooms, may be the cause of sore throats.

Another plan to dispose of the rain-water is to carry it in a gutter right through the house to the back (the gutter may pass through the roof or the garrets), and the same remark applies to this method of construction as to those just described, except that it does not imply necessarily a defective pipe running down to the drain.

Well, then, the rain-water from the roof should be conducted by pipes placed outside the house; and there is no reason why this should not be always the case. If these pipes are not disconnected from the drains below, but are connected with them either directly, or even indirectly (with a bend in the pipe to hold water), in either instance cases of disease will arise in the rooms, the windows of which are near the rain-water pipes.

It is exceedingly difficult to persuade people upon this point; but such is the case. When the rain-water pipes starting from the top of the house below the bedroom windows, and frequently behind parapets, so that any air that comes out at the top comes out exactly close to the bedroom windows, and when these pipes come down straight into the drains and so ventilate the drains, foul air from the drains gets into the house, and disease is the result. But it is more difficult to make people understand that even when these rain-water pipes are trapped at the foot they are almost as dangerous as the untrapped ones, because foul air from the drains will pass gradually through the water in the traps into the pipes, so that these pipes are always filled with foul air and contain gases that have come from the drains.

As soon as it rains, water passes down, and the air of these pipes is displaced, comes out at the top, and so if these tops are near the windows of rooms, cases of disease will happen in those rooms.

The rain-water pipes ought to discharge on to the surface of the areas, where there ought to be siphon gullies connected with the drains.

Ventilating Pipes.—While on the roof we can look around and observe the ventilating pipes: 1st, whether there are any or not; 2nd, of what size; 3rd, whether they have cowls or not; and 4th, in what positions they are. If we observe that they end at the top, near to chimneys, we shall see that there is liability, on account of the down draught, of the foul air from these ventilating pipes passing down the chimneys.

Chimneys often have down draughts, and if ventilating pipes are placed near them, the foul air may pass down into the rooms. If, on the other hand, although not ending near the tops of the chimneys, they are placed close to the chimneys or to walls so that their tops are sheltered, they will not act properly, and they ought to be carried above the ridge of the roof, and end away from walls or chimneys. The same rule applies to chimney tops, they should not be sheltered by higher buildings.

Cistern.—The first thing we come to inside or just below the roof (or perhaps on the roof), is the cistern.

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The first point to observe is the material of which it is made. Lead cisterns (and so, too, galvanised iron cisterns) are affected by certain kinds of water; and it is important, in certain places, that cisterns should be used which are not capable of being affected by the water. Galvanised iron cisterns cause certain forms of poisoning with some waters. However, as a matter of fact, both lead and galvanised iron cisterns are used enormously, without any serious results following from their use.

A cistern is provided with an overflow and waste pipe. If the cistern is on the roof you would think it the natural thing that the overflow pipe should discharge on to the roof or leads, or into an open head; but, as a matter of fact, it is generally not the case. (By an “overflow” pipe is meant a pipe from the top, and by a “waste” pipe a pipe starting above the level of the water and passing through the bottom of the cistern.)

Overflow pipes were not in fashion at all until recently. The fashion was to have a waste pipe, and the most convenient place to take that into was some pipe passing down the house, which might be a rain-water pipe, but more frequently it was the pipe into which the water-closets discharged, which is called the “soil” pipe.

When this is the case the waste pipe of the drinking-water cistern becomes the ventilator of the pipe into which the water-closets discharge; and so in nine cases out of ten the ventilator of the house drain and of the sewer under the street, and, indeed, one of the ventilators of the main sewer. So foul air passes continually by means of this ventilator into the drinking-water cistern at the top of the house. Now foul air in sewers and drains contains matters in suspension, and often the poisons of certain diseases, such as typhoid fever; it gains access to the water in the cistern and contaminates it, and the main cause of typhoid fever in London and many other large towns is the connection of the drinking-water cisterns with the drains by means of the waste pipes.

Of course the remedy for this—the first remedy—is to put a trap on the waste pipe, as, for instance, connecting it with the trap in one of the closets or sinks. This, of course, is only a palliative, it is not the true remedy. The true remedy is to disconnect this pipe and make it discharge by itself, no matter where, in the open air. Sometimes this pipe is made to discharge into the same pipe that the sink waste-pipe discharges into. It is the practice in London to have a separate pipe for the various wastes and sinks not discharging directly into the drain, and usually carried outside the house. It is also the practice to make the waste pipes of cisterns to discharge into the same pipe. This is entirely wrong. Because, although disconnected at the foot, it is to be regarded as a foul-water pipe, and foul air passes through it up the waste pipe into the cistern. So this practice is to be condemned.

Now from the cistern, besides the waste pipe, there are pipes which supply the water to different parts of the house; there are pipes from the cistern to supply water to the taps, which are called “draw-off” pipes; and pipes from the cistern to supply water to the closets; and, as a rule, the same cistern is used for the supply of water to the closets direct and the taps at the upper part of the house. This plan may or may not be very dangerous.

There are two ways of supplying the water-closets in the upper part of the house with water. The one is to have what is called a spindle valve in the cistern, which fits a hole in the bottom of the cistern, and which is raised by a ball lever being pulled by a wire, which arrangement necessitates a contrivance called a valve box, which has a small air pipe, and with this arrangement there is liability for foul water to be jerked in the cistern. Moreover, the pipe from this valve box passes into the pan of the water-closet and becomes full of air, which air is liable to get into the valve box in the cistern. This arrangement, therefore, is decidedly bad. But there is another, in which the valve which supplies the water-closets is under the seat, and the pipe from the cistern is full of water; and that is now becoming the more usual plan. With that plan there is[45] nothing like so much danger as with the other method; in fact, so little, that many people hesitate to condemn this arrangement.

However, to put it on no other grounds, it is clearly desirable not to have cisterns supplying drinking-water and the water-closets direct. It is better to lay down a right principle, and abide by it, than to see how you can avoid it. The best rule is that water-closets should not, for the reasons stated, under any circumstances be supplied direct from the cistern supplying the taps; Prof. Corfield lays down the rule that every tap is a drinking-water tap, because any one may draw water at it.

Housemaid’s Sink.—The housemaid’s sink is often placed in a small closet just under the stairs, without any window or any sort of ventilation whatever (and we know what kind of things are kept in the sink!), so that in such a position it has not by any means a very savoury odour. The housemaid’s sink should under no circumstances be in such a position. It should be against an outside wall, and have a window. As a rule, the material used for the sink itself is lead, wood lined with lead. Now lead is not a good material. Grease, soap, and so on, have a tendency to adhere to lead, and it is very difficult to keep such sinks clean, and it would be better to have the sink of glazed stoneware.

The waste pipe of the housemaid’s sink, as a rule, is connected directly with the trap of the nearest w.c. There is a grating in the sink, and there is no trap in or under the sink, but the waste pipe is connected with the trap of the nearest water-closet. This is a bad arrangement. A worse arrangement is for the waste pipe to be connected with the soil pipe of the water-closet, in which case some kind of trap is generally placed on the waste pipe of the sink. This trap is frequently what is called a “bell” trap, and is placed in the sink. The disadvantage of the bell trap is, that when you take the top of it off you take the bell with it. The bell is the arrangement which is supposed to form the trap by the edges of it dipping in the water in the iron box; and you see at once, when the bell is removed, the trap is removed and the waste pipe, wherever it goes, is left wide open, and, if connected with the soil pipe of the water-closet, the foul air comes up into the house. Very frequently also the waste pipe of the sink has underneath it what is called a D trap. A D trap is a trap which the water passing through it can never clean; so it retains foul water; and therefore, even under sinks, such traps ought not to be allowed on account of the foul matters which accumulate in them.

The waste pipe of the housemaid’s sink should not be connected with the water-closet or soil pipe; neither with any pipe that goes directly into the drain. Its own pipe should not go directly to the drain, which is very frequently the case, but through the wall of the house into an open head or a gully outside. Very frequently the housemaid’s sink is supplied with water, not from the cistern on the roof, but from the cistern not only supplying the nearest water-closet, but actually inside the nearest water-closet, in which case, no matter what valves you have, you are supplying your sink with water which is kept in a cistern inside the water-closet, and that is far worse than supplying a sink with water from a cistern which also supplies the water-closet, with a reasonably protecting valve.

Close to the housemaid’s sink, and very frequently over it, is the feed cistern to the hot-water apparatus, which has also an overflow pipe, and the same remarks refer to this overflow pipe, except that it is a thing much more liable to be overlooked, as to the overflow pipe of the drinking-water cistern.

Water-closets.—In the great majority of instances, the apparatus of this closet is what is known as the “pan” closet, that is, a closet apparatus which has a conical basin with a tinned copper bowl, called the “pan,” from which the closet gets its name. In order that this “pan” which holds water, may be moved, there is a contrivance underneath called a “container,” which is generally made of iron, and allows room for the pan to be moved. On pulling the handle the water is discharged into the pipe below. The container being generally made of iron it is liable to rust. Now the disadvantage of this[46] apparatus consists in this large iron box, which is under the seat of the closet, being generally full of foul air. The contents of the pan are splashed into it, and it becomes coated with foul matters which decompose and continually give off foul air. Every time the handle of the closet is pulled some foul air is forced up into the house. That foul air is kept in this box between the trap which is below it and the pan which contains the water above it. In order to allow of the escape of this foul air it is not uncommon to have a hole bored in the top of the container. You would suppose that hole was intended to fix a ventilating pipe to, but nothing of the kind; the hole has been made merely to allow the escape of foul air into the house. Sometimes a ventilating pipe is attached to this hole and taken out through the wall, but that is the exception. This form of closet is the worst form of closet apparatus yet devised, and is very generally in use.

An attempt has been made to improve it by having a stoneware container, with a place for ventilation at the side, only it is an attempt to improve a radically bad arrangement, and not worth further consideration. Underneath this closet apparatus you will, as a rule, find, if you take the woodwork down, a tray of lead, called the “safe” tray. But there is no other word in the language that would not be a better description of it than this word! This tray is intended to catch any water that may escape from leaky pipes, or any slops that may be thrown over; and so it is necessary that this tray should have a waste pipe. The waste pipe in nine out of ten cases, probably in much greater proportion, goes into the trap immediately underneath the closet, and so it forms a communication for foul air from this trap to get into the house.

In some instances it goes directly into the soil pipe, and forms a means of ventilation of the soil pipe into the house. Sometimes a trap is put on this waste pipe, and it is then connected with the soil pipe, which goes on well so long as there is any water in the trap; but as soon as the water becomes evaporated, foul air gets into the house again.

Sometimes (to show the ingenuity which people often expend upon bad things) this waste pipe has a trap, and a little pipe from the water supply fixed to feed the trap; but all these ingenious plans have been devised in order to improve upon a principle radically wrong. The pipe should be carried through the wall and end outside the house as a warning pipe.

Scarcely any water ever comes out at all; if any does come out, it shows there is something wrong, so that this pipe should pass through the wall, and be made to discharge outside the house.

In order to prevent wind blowing up the pipe, it is usual to put a small brass flapper on the end. Its weight keeps it shut, and the pressure of water opens it.

Underneath the safe-tray you will find as a rule a trap of some kind, and generally the trap that is found is a D trap, a trap whose name indicates its shape, and which cannot be washed out by the water that passes through it. The pipe from the closet passes so far in it that it dips below the level of the out-going pipe, and thus forms a sort of dip-trap. The pipe which is the inlet from the closet is not placed close to the edge, but a little way in, to form a receptacle for all kinds of filth!

You will see it is impossible for the water that passes through it to clear the contents out, so that the trap is simply a small cesspool, nothing more nor less. Into that trap various waste pipes are frequently connected.

There is another form of D trap in which there are two waste pipes going into the water near the bottom of the trap (probably the waste pipe of the safe and the waste pipe of the cistern).

The D trap, then, is a bad form of trap, because it is not self-cleansing. The water cannot possibly keep it clear of sediment. So that some trap should be used which is self-cleansing, and the water which passes through it is capable of keeping it clean. Now that trap is a mere ∾-shaped bend in the pipe, to which we give the name of siphon, not because we want it to act as a siphon—for if it acts as a siphon it is of no use!

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A curious thing about siphon traps and pan closets is, that the form of trap which was used first in connection with water-closets was the siphon trap, which we now praise; and the form of trap which supplanted it was the D trap, which we are now condemning and taking out wherever we can. A still more curious thing is that the form of water-closet which we now condemn (the pan closet) was the form of closet which supplanted the closet we are now using (the valve closet). The valve closet was invented long before the pan closet. Bramah valve closets fixed forty years ago often act tolerably well now, and at the present day they are only taken out because they are really actually worn out.

The valve closet, which we often find upstairs in old houses instead of the pan closet, has no large iron container under the seat, but it has a water-tight valve under the basin, and so requires a small valve-box; so that there is no great collection of foul air immediately under the basin of the closet. The valve closet, however, has a disadvantage in that it requires an overflow pipe; because the valve is water-tight, and if servants throw slops into it, or the supply pipe to it leaks, the water goes on running and the basin fills, and, if there were no overflow pipe, it would overflow on to the floor; so that probably the pan closet ousted the valve closet because it was found that people could go on throwing in any amount of slops and using it in the roughest manner without getting their ceilings damaged. However, the valve closets, as they were originally made, generally had overflow pipes which went into part of the apparatus below. Occasionally these overflow pipes are connected with soil pipes or the trap of the closet below, but these are exceptional instances.

One of the water-closets in the basement is very frequently in an exceedingly improper position—either in the scullery or actually in the kitchen. These w.c.’s ought all to be outside the house.

If closets are in the middle of the house they ought to be done away with, and should be put against an outside wall. This might be done by sacrificing a bit of some room which can be spared, or by converting some small bedroom into a bath-room and closet, or still better, by making a sort of tower outside the house.

The merits and demerits of the various kinds of water-closet were discussed in a paper by Emptage before the Congress of the Sanitary Institute at Glasgow. To be rightly considered wholesome and adapted for general use, a closet should, in Emptage’s opinion, possess the following qualifications:—

1st. The water seal of its trap should be in sight, should stand up in the basin, and be quite safe from either momentum or siphonage.

2nd. It should be so thoroughly flushed that at each discharge every part of the basin and trap would be properly cleansed.

3rd. It should be as well adapted for the discharge of slops as for a w.c.

A closet possessing these advantages is perfectly safe to use anywhere, and the only kind which, in his opinion, comes up to this standard, is that known as the “direct action.” Within the last few years several inventors have turned their attention to the manufacture of this kind of closet, and there are now several in the market to choose from, each of which has some advantage peculiar to itself.

Emptage has found:

1st. That these closets, when properly trapped, flushed, and ventilated, are perfectly safe and wholesome, and are free from the evils and annoyances attendant upon most other forms.

2nd. That to ensure a thorough flush out, the water must fall with an avalanche-like action direct upon the surface of the water in the basin.

3rd. That those basins which show an O G section are more readily flushed than those which have sides in the form of inclined planes.

4th. That with a suitably shaped basin 2 gal. of water, delivered in 5 seconds, will thoroughly cleanse the closet.

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5th. That the ordinary round P or half S trap should never be used beneath these closets, because no reliance can be placed upon the safety of its seal.

6th. Care is required in fixing these closets to ensure adequate ventilation to the trap, because, owing to the exposed position of its seal, it is liable, unless so guarded, to be destroyed at any moment by the discharge of a pail of slops: but if properly protected, it is quite safe from this action.

Where the position is such that this necessary protection cannot be given, on no account should a “direct-action” closet be used. It is better, under such circumstances, of the two evils to choose the lesser, and fix a good “Bramah” pattern valve closet and D trap.

One word with respect to closet seats. It is the prevailing fashion to have them fit as closely as possible, and to keep the lid shut. Emptage thinks this is a mistake. If there are any gases to escape, they should be allowed to do so at once, rather than be kept boxed in, ready to belch forth into the face of the next visitor. For this reason, he would discard lids altogether, and, provided a suitably finished apparatus could be introduced, the riser also, and allow the floorcloth to run right under the seat, leaving no space in the room where bad air could be detained.

Eassie recommends one of the various kinds of “wash-out” closet, and specifies Jennings’s as being good in every respect, especially for nurseries. For general household use he favours the valve closet on the Bramah pattern. In other details he directly opposes Emptage, warning the householder above all “not to fix a D trap under the apparatus, but only a P trap or S trap of cast lead.” Care should also be taken to make sure that the waste pipe from the leaden tray, or “safe”—which is usually placed under a closet in order to avoid any damage to the ceiling below should the basin overflow—is not led into the trap underneath the closet, but taken direct through the outer wall, and with a small copper flap at the end of the 1 in. pipe, in order to keep out the cold air. A sufficient supply of flushing water is indispensable, and many houses can be much improved in this respect by simply enlarging the service pipe which conveys water to the basin. See also p. 991.

In country dwellings, where earth-closets can be used, the following system works well. The refuse to be disposed of embraces rain and surface water, wash-waters, ashes, and excreta. The water is partly stored and partly run into the nearest brook. The ashes and excreta (no closet being fitted inside the dwelling) are carried to the garden. The wash-waters are emptied into a sink, which communicates directly with either a small trap, through a grating (the pipe being disconnected with the trap), or, if there be a sufficient fall, to a garden, by an open gutter, or open tile drain. The ashes and excreta are mixed together, and removed by the agency of one or other form of “earth-closet,” taking that term generally for an apparatus which is not a cesspool, which has to be frequently emptied of its contents in a more or less dry state, and which is wholly above ground.

The contents of the water-closet are discharged, as a rule, into a separate pipe, called the soil pipe; but sometimes into a rain-water pipe with an open head near the windows, or even inside the house. The soil pipe is usually inside the house—probably because it ought to be outside! Even where water-closets are against an external wall, the pipe is often carried down inside the house. The closets themselves, like sinks, ought not to be placed in the middle of the house. They are very frequently under the stairs, close to bedrooms, or in the middle of the house, sometimes ventilating into a shaft. It is of course inevitable in these cases that the pipe must either be carried inside throughout the whole length of the house, or must run nearly horizontally under the floors of bedrooms, &c. Under such circumstances it is often not properly ventilated; and if not ventilated at all, the foul air makes its way out through holes, which it is capable of perforating in lead pipes.

The soil pipes are then frequently inside the house, and they are as a rule made of[49] lead. They are very frequently not ventilated at the top, and the pieces are jointed together by merely being slipped into one another, with perhaps a little putty or red-lead. Of course these joints are not sound joints. The soil pipe goes down into the drain, and so the foul air gets into the house. The soil pipe, whether inside or outside the house, ought to have sound joints. If a lead pipe, soldered joints; if an iron pipe, the joints ought to be made secure in a proper way.

If any part of the soil pipe must pass inside the house, it should be of lead, and it can be made sound so long as it will last (and is not damaged by driving nails into it).

Iron pipes should not be allowed to be inside the house. It is so very likely that the joints will not be made perfectly tight, so that it is more undesirable to have iron pipes inside the house than it is to have lead pipes.

Of course it is practicable to plug the pipe at the bottom and to fill it with water to ascertain if it is water-tight; but all that is only a device to retain a thing which ought to be altered.

Soil pipes ought always to be ventilated by a pipe as large as the soil pipe carried up above the roof.

The soil pipes ought to be outside the house, and connected with the drain by plain stoneware bends, or, under certain circumstances, disconnected from the drains themselves by a trap with an open grating. Such a trap is called a disconnecting trap.

Bath-room.—The first thing to mention in connection with the bath-room is that the inlet and outlet openings for the water should not be the same. Very frequently in a bath the water goes out by the same apertures as it comes in. This is a bad plan, for some of the dirty water comes back with the clean. The waste pipe should be treated in the same way as the waste pipe of a sink.

Frequently on the best bedroom floor there is a water-closet actually in one of the bedrooms, or opening directly out of it by a door. This ought not to be countenanced under any circumstances whatever.

On the drawing-room floor there is generally a balcony, the pipes from which go very frequently straight down to the drain, or they are connected with rain-water pipes from the top of the house, which themselves discharge into the drain; so that these pipes from balconies and lead flats are not at all infrequently connected with the drains.

Bell-wire Pipes.—There is sometimes an unaccountable smell in the drawing-room, and people puzzle themselves in all kinds of ways to account for it. It is generally noticed when people are sitting in a particular chair—which particular chair is a chair possibly most frequently sat in—one near to the fireplace. The smell noticed is a smell which comes up the tube that the bell-wire goes down. The bell-wire goes down into the basement. It may go into some part of the basement which is not very savoury, and foul air may be, and frequently is, taken up into the drawing-room or best bed-room. Or the wire may be in the basement passage close to the gas-light, and the products of combustion of the gas may pass up the wire-tube into the drawing-room or bedroom.

Kitchen Waste.—Accumulation of waste animal and vegetable matter should be strictly forbidden; what cannot be used as food, even for domestic animals, ought to be burned daily. Where there is a large garden, refuse may be buried. The objection frequently raised to burning is the unpleasant smell which is caused by it; this may, with a little care, always be avoided. Where a close range is used, choose a time when the fire is bright but low; draw out all the dampers and put everything into the fire, close the door in front, and a very large amount of rubbish can be got rid of in a quarter of an hour. In open fireplaces this is a little more difficult, but may still be accomplished. Put all vegetable matter under the grate to dry, then put it on the fire. The oven dampers must be drawn out; the strong draught up the oven flue will carry off the smell. Fish-bones and other scraps may thus be burned. The habit prevalent in many country places of keeping a swill-tub cannot be too strongly condemned. A day or two of damp summer weather is enough to cause a most offensive smell to be given off.[50] Dwellings in large towns become dangerous in warm weather from their close proximity to ashpits, which are made the receptacle of all kinds of decaying animal and vegetable matter. Much sickness might be prevented during the summer months if it could be made compulsory to have ashpits, &c., well sprinkled with chloride of lime or some similar disinfectant at least twice a week.

Sinks.—The stoppage of drains by grease may be partially prevented by the use of soap-powder, which combines with the grease; but at least twice a week there should be poured down kitchen sinks one or two bucketfuls of boiling water, in which common soda has been dissolved. A much better plan is to use potash instead of soda, as potash makes a soft soap with fats. The application of one or two doses of potash lye in hot water will almost always effect a clearance in stopped drains, which at first appear to be irremediably choked, and at the same time no injury whatever results to the pipes.

23. Kitchen Sink.

The proper arrangement and disconnection of a kitchen sink is shown in Fig. 23; a, stoneware trough; b, 2 in. stoneware waste pipe; c, stoneware gully or trap; d, iron grating; e, house wall; f, pipe leading to sewer.

The sinks in the basement have their waste pipes very frequently either directly connected with the drains or connected with the drains by bell traps. Of course this is a most dangerous state of things. For when the top of the bell trap is taken off, an opening into the drain is directly made. If the bell trap gets broken, no one is told of it, and the drain is ventilated into the house for months. On the other hand, if the top is left on and the bell trap is in a place where water does not get into it continually, or at all, the trap will get dry, and so become a ventilator of the drains into the house; so that this plan of having ventilating pipes in the sinks, or of having bell traps in the floor of basements, is most dangerous, still more dangerous if the sinks are not used. Some think in this way:—Oh! this sink is not used, there cannot be any harm in it! But there is, and much more harm too. For the water in the trap dries up, and so foul air comes into the house.

The sinks, then, ought not to be directly connected with the drains, but should discharge through trapped gullies in the area; and not only so, but the waste pipes of the sinks, whether upstairs or downstairs, ought to have siphon traps, with traps and screws fixed immediately under the sinks. These waste pipes are foul pipes even when not connected with the drains, and if you do not have siphon traps immediately under the sinks, foul air will come in, especially during the night, and you will have a very serious nuisance caused in the house in this way. The same remarks about cisterns upstairs apply to cisterns in the basement. The water-closets in the basement are simpler forms of closets, and they are very frequently supplied from water cisterns by means of pipes which have merely a tap which you may turn off or on. This is a most mischievous plan, as the cistern may be emptied and foul air enter it. The closets in the basement, therefore, ought to be supplied by means of water-waste preventers, the best kind being the siphon-action water-waste preventers, which discharge two gallons of water as soon as you pull the chain. These “preventers” are not only to prevent the[51] water being wasted by the handle of the closet being fastened up, but also cut off the direct supply of the closet from the drinking-cistern water.

Grease Traps.—A much-discussed subject is the grease trap. In small houses it is not needed; but in large houses, unless some provision is made for catching the grease sent down the scullery sink, the drains will soon be choked. Eassie gives a caution against having the grease trap too large for its work, and as to the importance of cleaning it out regularly, say once a week.

Disconnection Traps.—Whether the house drains into a sewer, a stream, a cesspool, or upon a piece of irrigation ground, one thing which must never be omitted is a disconnection trap or chamber between the house drain and the outfall. These traps—which should be placed close to the house—prevent any smell from the outfall passing into the house, and inasmuch as they have an inlet for the taking in of fresh air between the siphon and the house, this fresh air will course along the underground drains, and be discharged at the ventilating continuations of the soil pipes, or at the tops.

24. Disconnection Chamber.   25. Disconnection Chamber.

Where the house is so large that the air inlet of these siphons would not suffice, the latter are replaced by a chamber as shown in Fig. 24. The sewage flows into the air chamber formed by the half-open pipe a, being ventilated through the grating b; thence it passes through the siphon c to the sewer in the direction of the arrow. There is a raking entry into the sewer side of the siphon at d, closed by a plug, thus preventing any smell from the sewer or drain beyond the siphon entering the air chamber a. If the sewers are at a great depth, the walls of the air chamber are made thicker, and a manhole is built the length of the open channel, an arch being turned over when the siphon is fixed, as in Fig. 25. The sewage passes from a through the siphon b to the drain c, d being the air inlet. (Eassie.)

26. Houghton’s Trap.

One of the best modern traps is that introduced by Houghton (Fig. 26), in which the outlet a at the bottom of the gully can be pointed in any direction, and the inlet b to the basin c of the gully, forming a movable half, can be turned round to accommodate the entering waste pipe b; d is the open grating which covers the gully.

Drains.—Tho drain itself is got at by opening down to it in the front area. It may be found to be an old brick-drain, in which case it ought to be taken out. Brick drains are pervious, they allow the escape of foul air, and with contaminated air rats also get in the house. Wherever rats can get, foul air can go; and rats coming in through these holes may carry with them the poison of disease, such as typhoid fever. Rats generally go to the larder, and carry with them often the poison[52] of such diseases, which are very largely spread by their poisons being taken in this way by rats into the milk and other foods, and also into the water in the cisterns.

Whether a brick drain or a pipe drain, it should be trapped before it is connected with the main sewer or cesspool. This trap, in the case of a brick drain called a “dipstone” trap, is a brick pit with a stone across it from one side to another, and dipped into the water which remains in the pit. The object of this stone is to prevent foul air coming into the house. As a matter of fact, the pit holds a large collection of foul matter and becomes a small cesspool, indeed, there is no difference between them.

A drain may be made of glazed stoneware pipes, which may be joined together in one of several ways. They may be laid “dry,” i.e. without any jointing material between the ends, in which case they are, of course, not water-tight; or they may have clay in the joints, in which case you cannot fill them with water—that is to say, they will not hold water under pressure. (If you fill them with water, by plugging at the lower end, the water will come out at the joints.) Or they may be laid with the pipes the wrong way. When the joints are made with clay they will very soon become leaky; and when that happens, the water oozes through the joints, filth collects in the trap, and it gradually plugs up the whole drain from one end to the other. This may go on for years without being found out, and so cause the ground under the house to gradually become a large cesspool. This is an extreme case. Or they may be jointed with cement, and there are some other ways. They may be perfectly well jointed with cement, so as to be water-tight. The drains, then, should answer to this test, i.e. you should be able to plug them at the lower end, and fill them with water. They should not be under the house, if possible. In London we cannot help it as a rule. If under the house, the straighter the course of the drain the better. Do not let it wind about in order to get away from different rooms. The best thing is to have a straight course through and to see that it is water-tight. It should hold water like a teacup. The drain must not be directly connected with the main sewer or merely separated by a siphon trap; but there should be an air inlet into the drain between the siphon trap and the house. This opening may be of different kinds. The best kind is that of a manhole for access to the drain and trap (so that the trap can be examined and cleared out at any time); the air inlet should be a grating either over the manhole or in the nearest wall opening into a pipe leading into the manhole.

People who are afraid of foul air coming out of these inlets put on a valve with mica flaps, so that the air can blow in, but foul air cannot go out. But, if there are no D traps under the water-closets and sinks, if the pipes are straight and sufficiently large ventilators are used, if the ventilating pipes go up above the roof and are not protected from the action of the wind, you will never find foul air coming out at the air inlet though you will find that fresh air is drawn in. There can be no accumulation of foul air, and the air that may be occasionally forced out is the last fresh air that has entered. Should you, however, find foul air coming out you will know that there is something wrong with the drain, that the drain or siphon is plugged, so that this air inlet becomes most valuable in pointing out when anything is going wrong.

Brick drains, says Eassie, are variously shaped. The worst sections are those upon which two upright sides of brick have been built upon flat stones, so as to form a bottom, and then covered over with other flat stones, because the bricks can never joint tightly with the stone, and there is always a leakage going on into the surrounding subsoil. One great objection to brick drains is due to the fact that they cannot be constructed sufficiently small to meet the requirements of a house, and consequently are seldom found less than 9 inches in diameter, which is far too large a sectional area to properly drain a house.

However compactly and well-burnt the clay has been made into bricks, a brick drain has only a certain life, so to speak, before its decadence begins with the usual attendant danger. Its lifetime is longer or shorter according to the subsoil in which it is placed, the material used as mortar, the gradient at which it is laid, the sewage[53] which it removes, and the quantity of water, and especially of heated water, which passes through it, but the consensus of opinion in their disfavour for use in the interior of a house is overwhelming, and a universal preference is accorded to drains formed of earthenware pipes. A second objection to brick drains, however well they may have been built, is their want of smoothness, especially at the bottom, whereby the effete matters are not carried easily away; and this want of smoothness is aggravated by the roughness due to the unequal perishing of the bricks.

One of the first proofs of the perishing of a brick drain, making it past redemption, is the appearance of rats. Rats will go always to that place which affords them most food; and it is the brick barrel drain which receives the washings from meat plates, and the grease from the scullery pots, which rats most commonly frequent. They will leave a drain, and nest themselves in the thatched roof of a farmhouse, and they will form whole villages under the floors of a town house. Rats generally find their way into houses by means of holes which have been formed in brick drains by the falling down of perished bricks from the arch, or owing to their having contrived to make a passage through the brick drain above the usual wetted perimeter. These rats, in the case of country houses, may come from the stables, the barns, or the brooks; but in town houses they chiefly emanate from the sewer. No matter whence originally derived, they soon become habituated to a house and its dainty scraps, and having once engineered their way thither, are seldom effectually dislodged, especially in country residences. As fast as a hole is discovered and stopped up, another is made by these persistent vermin, until the foul air evolved from the house drain becomes so distressful, and the rats so multiply, that some further steps are necessary in dealing with them. Where the evil has not yet grown formidable, traps are made use of, or poison; but this last is a dangerous resource, as the rats are apt to die underground and emit during decomposition, which lasts for months, the most horrible smells.

It may be added that rats are remarkably clean animals, and will never allow their fur to come in contact with anything that cannot easily be immediately cleaned from it; hence, very often a dairy, larder, or granary is surrounded by a trench outside the brick walling to a certain depth, by broken glass and gravel, well grouted with tar. Never rely upon a siphon trap in the drain, as a means of keeping out these voracious and fast-breeding animals. They will eat even through lead pipes ⅛ inch in thickness.

Having shown the necessity for discarding brick drains underneath a house, Eassie next considers alternative clay-derived materials, such as pipes formed of baked clay, after the latter has been worked to a consistency which would not naturally allow of an escape of their contents. There are, however, two or three subdivisions of this class. First of all come those kinds whose ends are merely abutted together, and not, as at the present day, socketed at the joints. These are almost equally faulty with brick drains, because when once they are poisoned and become the habitat of life-destroying germs, their normal tone cannot possibly be recovered. The only kind of earthenware drains which ought to be permitted inside a house are glazed socketed pipes, well formed, well kilned, and properly laid down, the whole of the pipes having been set on a concrete bed, and afterwards covered over with properly made concrete, so as to prevent any possibility of sewage reaching the subsoil, and especially water-tanks. It is not every glazed socketed drain-pipe that is fit for laying down, for the most abominably shaped pipes are often met with. There are many makers beyond reproach, and there are scores of pipes showing patent methods of jointing more or less complicated. The majority of the improvements refer to the fast seating of the ends of the pipes in cradles, well covered in cement, and one especially much in use, Stanford’s, provides a ring of material fitting truly upon a ring of similar material in the socket of the pipe, so that when the two ends are put together, with a little grease or resin between them, the pipes fit closely in every direction, and require but little other luting. These pipes are generally adopted for use under a house, and ordinary socketed pipes for outside.

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Cast-iron drains are now very often used in place of earthenware pipes, and there is a great deal to be said in their favour, especially since the invention of several processes whereby the interior is prevented from rusting and scaling. Pipes of this material are useful underground in rows of houses, and wherever straight lines of delivery are obtainable, and compared with drain pipes of earthenware, with their necessary surrounding of concrete, they would prove not more expensive. Unfortunately, however, this system cannot always be adopted, unless the house has been planned with a view to this method of drainage; and in most houses it will be observed that the pipes would have to run in front of fireplaces and across doorways if above ground. When iron piping is used, great care should be taken with the jointing, to see that it is properly packed, and with material calculated to last as long as the pipe itself. Iron pipes with merely leaded joints are subject to galvanic action, whereby the iron, sooner or later, thins out by corrosion, the iron perishing by “abnormal local oxidation,” as has been very forcibly stated by B. H. Thwaite. When iron is contiguous with lead, a galvanic action is set up, and, the latter being electro-negative to the iron, the iron suffers. There ought, therefore, always to be an assistant packing in the pipe, and the majority of engineers make use of this. Eassie advises in addition, a luting of Portland cement with the other materials, which may include a previous stuffing of fibrous packing material together with the old-fashioned iron filings and acids.

Given the best kind of drain to lay down, there is still the question as to where to lay it, and here lamentable errors are frequently made. The chief fault perpetrated in this particular is the laying of drains inside a house, when they might just as easily have been laid outside. When a drain is laid down, care is exercised to get the pipes as much as possible in straight lines; and at each departure from a straight line a manhole is formed, enabling any one to inspect the drain at any time, by lifting the manhole cover. If a lighted candle is placed at the bottom of the drain in the manholes, the freedom of the drain from obstructions can be ascertained by looking from manhole to manhole. These inspection chambers should be placed at every departure from a straight line, and where several drains junction together; thus each drain delivery is open to sight, and rods can easily be introduced up the drain pipe should any obstruction occur. These inspection chambers are always best protected by an iron manhole cover, fitting down perfectly into their iron frames, which are sunk into the stone floor.

Most houses in connection with a large brick sewer have a “flap-trap,” just where the house drain enters into the sewer; this flap opens to allow the house sewage to enter the sewer, whereupon it should immediately close again to exclude foul air and rats from invading the house. They sometimes, however, do not shut closely, and in that case their action for good is almost at an end. A householder can have an occasional inspection made of the trap by the sewer men, by paying a small fee to the vestry.

Precautions after Floods.—Dwellings which have been invaded by the waters should receive special care, so that those whom the flood has expelled should not occupy them before they have been made sufficiently healthy for habitation. They should first be cleaned out as quickly and thoroughly as possible, and freed from all dirt and debris deposited in different parts by the water. Continuous aëration and the most active ventilation are the best and most energetic agents. To increase these as much as possible, where it can be done, a large fire should be maintained on the hearth, and the doors and windows opened, so that the light and heat of the sun may contribute their part to purifying the air. At the same time care must be taken to dig a ditch 10-15 in. deep around each house, whose interior is in many cases below the level of the ground. It will also be well, after having torn down all plastering, which will be in a bad condition, to scrape to their bottom all joints in the walls, and to replaster them in the parts of the house most injured, and where bad deposits have principally accumulated. The floors, where such exist, should be carefully attended to, and the soil under them covered with a disinfecting substance, such as pounded charcoal, or sand, or else with an impermeable[55] material, such as flagging, paving blocks, cement, &c. Where the house is several stories high, the top stories should be the first occupied.

Great precautions should also be followed in the treatment of certain articles of furniture, such as beds and mattresses, which must be renovated or replaced, and which should never on any account be used until thoroughly dried. Sanitary treatment, such as adopted for houses, should be applied with no less vigilance to stables and barns. One peculiar feature it is important to note, though it can only be accidentally produced: it is the possible alteration of the water of wells and springs of potable water, in whose neighbourhood matter in a state of decomposition may have been deposited, or piles of excrementitious and organic debris, or sources of water supply which may have been contaminated by the contents of privy vaults. Attention should be directed to this danger. To disinfect cellars into which, by agency of the inundations, the contents of privy vaults may have penetrated, commercial zinc sulphate may be used, either by sprinkling it in powder in the cellar, or by watering the ground when the water has gone down with a concentrated solution of this salt. Concentrated solution of iron sulphate does well, but the disinfection is not so complete as with salts of zinc; it is, however, cheaper.

Ventilation.—The objects of ventilation are twofold—first to get rid of the poisonous gas (carbonic acid) exhaled from our lungs, and second to furnish a supply of life-supporting gas (oxygen, as it exists in fresh air) to our lungs. For healthy living, every adult individual requires at least 1000 cub. ft. of space, or a room 10 ft. square and 10 ft. high; into this room should pass 3000 cub. ft. of air every hour.

In dwelling-rooms, and especially in bedrooms, the fireplace should always be left unclosed, and the flue or damper open for ventilation. The windows should pull down from the top, and a piece of wire gauze should be fixed along the open space at the top; or a pane of glass should be perforated with holes capable of being closed in stormy weather. All rooms, and especially sleeping apartments, should be well aired during the day.

A good and simple test for impure air is to take a clear glass bottle with a glass stopper, holding about 10 oz., and wipe it carefully inside and out. On entering a room, the air of which you wish to test, stuff a linen cloth into the bottle and rapidly withdraw it, so as to allow the air of the room to enter the bottle. Then carefully place a tablespoonful of clear lime water in the bottle, and replace the stopper. Shake it for a few minutes; then, if the air is pure, the lime water will remain clear. If bad, and loaded with carbonic acid, the lime water will become turbid, or even milky. This is because lime and carbonic acid together form chalk, which gives the milky appearance. It must be remembered that this test has no reference to the ammonia which often exists abnormally in the bad air of towns, nor does it indicate the presence of disease germs or poisons due to paint, wall-paper, &c.

A fire in an open fireplace is a good ventilator in a way. We may ventilate a room easily by raising the lower window sash, and by placing inside the frame a piece of wood 3-4 in. high, and 1 in. in thickness, and reaching from one side of the frame to the other. When the inside sash is brought down to rest on this piece of wood, it is thus raised 3-4 in. A current of fresh air moves inwards and upwards to the ceiling between the sashes, and if a piece of wood or glass, sloping upwards, be attached to the top of the lower sash, the current of air will be sent upwards to the ceiling, whence it will diffuse itself through the room.

Draughts must be avoided; and it is wonderful how easily they may be prevented. Pettenkofer has shown that if air at ordinary temperatures does not move at a greater rapidity than 1½ ft. per second, its movement is not felt. What is needed, therefore, is some kind of screen that will not prevent the entrance of air, but that will break its force, divide its currents, and make it flow unfelt into the room.

Perhaps the simplest plan of effecting this is the following: Open your window at the top to whatever degree is necessary to prevent closeness in the room, but if there is a draught open it wider still; place a little loosely-packed cotton-wool between the upper[56] and lower sash, and in the open space above the upper sash place a strip of perforated zinc, with its lower edge turned upwards, so as to direct the draught towards the ceiling. If there is still too much draught, open it still wider, but fasten in front of the perforated zinc a screen of gauze containing loosely-packed cotton-wool. It is noteworthy that there must be a sufficient current to carry the air upwards along the slanting piece of zinc, and towards the ceiling, otherwise, as Corbett has pointed out, the cold air will trickle over the edge and cool the feet of the inmates of the room.

In the hot months it is worth while to bear in mind the plan adopted by Martin in order to keep the rooms of the sick in a state of freshness. This consists in opening the windows wide, and then hanging wet cloths before them. The water, as it vaporises, absorbs the heat, and lowers the temperature of the apartment by several degrees, while the humidity which is diffused renders the heat much more supportable. By adopting this plan, the inmates find themselves, even in the height of summer, in a freshened atmosphere, analogous to that which prevails after a storm. This fact is well known to and utilised by the natives of India. Another plan is to close all windows facing the sun and cover them with blinds or curtains, to exclude the sun’s rays and the heated external air. Carpets may be replaced by matting, and the latter may be sprinkled with plain or perfumed water.

In very cold weather it is equally desirable to close all cracks and chinks against the influx of draughts. Cracks in floors, around the skirting board, or other parts of a room, may be neatly and permanently filled by thoroughly soaking newspapers in paste made of 1 lb. flour, 3 quarts of water, and a tablespoonful of alum, thoroughly boiled and mixed. The mixture will be about as thick as putty, and may be forced into the cracks with a case knife. It will harden like papier-maché. Old windows that do not close tightly may be remedied by smearing the edge on which they close with putty, and that of the sash with chalk, and then closing them as firmly as possible. The putty will fill up the crevices, and the excess pressed out at the sides may be removed with a knife, whilst the chalk prevents adhesion to the sash.

A system in very general use is Moore’s patent glass louvre ventilator, consisting of a number of louvres (or slips of glass), which can be opened to any angle up to about 45°, thus always directing the incoming current of air upwards. They are easily regulated and secured by a cord, which when released allows the louvres to close practically air-tight. Moore’s circular glass ventilator, which consists of (usually five) pear-shaped openings, neatly cut in the window square, and fitted with a circular glass cover with corresponding holes working on a centre pivot, are also very effective for admission or extraction of air. Moore’s sliding ventilator consists of oblong vertical holes, with the cover sliding between guides horizontally, the principle being the same as in the circular ventilator, but it is more suited for the top of shop fronts or shallow fanlights. These are all made by J. Moore and Sons, Sekforde Works, St. James’s Walk, Clerkenwell Green, E.C.

Another simple method of admitting fresh air to a room consists in leaving an aperture in the external wall, at a level between the ceiling of one apartment and the floor of the room immediately above, then to convey the fresh air through a channel from the external wall to the centre of the ceiling of the apartment below, where the air can be admitted by an opening, and dispersed by having a flat board or disc to impinge against, suspended 4 in. or 6 in. below the opening of the ceiling, and so scattered over the room. The cold air, however, thus admitted, plunges on the heads of the occupants of the room and mixes with the hot air which has risen near the ceiling. A top window-sash lowered a little to admit fresh air has the same disagreeable effect, the cold air being drawn towards the floor by the chimney draught, and leaving the hot air to stagnate near the ceiling. In any siphon system placed vertically the current of air will enter by the short arm, and take its exit by the long arm, and thus the chimney flue acts as the long arm of a siphon, drawing the fresh air from the nearest opening. Fresh air may be[57] introduced through perforations made in the woodwork of the bottom rail of the door to the room, or through apertures in the outer wall, admitting the fresh air to spaces behind the skirting board, and making the latter perforated. The only objection to this plan is the liability for vermin to lodge between the skirting board and the wall. This may be prevented by covering the outside apertures with perforated zinc, but such covering also helps to keep out the full supply of fresh air.

Butler recommends, while admitting the cold air through side walls near the floor level, and allowing the foul air to escape at the ceiling, that the fire draught should be maintained quite independent of the air inlet to the room, the requisite amount of air for combustion being supplied by a separate pipe led through the hearthstone with its face towards the fire, the latter acting as a pump, which is sure to procure its own allowance from the nearest source; thus the draught which would otherwise be felt by the fire drawing its supply from the inlet across the room is considerably reduced. The foul air may enter the ceiling in the centre, and be conducted by an air-flue either to the outside or to the chimney. The chimney is the best extractor, as its heated condition greatly favours the ventilating power.

Dr. Arnott was one of the first to draw attention to the value of a chimney as a means of drawing off the foul air from the interior of an apartment. He invented a ventilator consisting of a well-balanced metallic valve, intended by its instantaneous action to close against down draught and so prevent the escape of smoke into a room during the use of fires. If the fire is not alight, what is known as the register of the stove should be closed, or a tight-fitting board placed in front of the fireplace, with the adoption of all chimney-ventilators fixed near the ceiling.

27. Harding’s Ventilator.

Harding’s ventilators are better known in the north of England than the south. They are recommended by Pridgin Teale, surgeon to the General Infirmary at Leeds, as a means of securing freshness of atmosphere without draught, and free from all mixture of dust, soot, or fog. The outside air is conducted through a grate and aperture in the wall about 7 ft. 6 in. above the floor level, where it is made to pass through a series of small tubes fixed at an angle of about 30° with the wall. The currents of air are said to be compressed while passing through the tubes, but to expand and diffuse in all directions as soon as they are liberated into the apartment. In all filtering arrangements it must be remembered that if air is to pass through a screen or filter without retarding the current entering the room through a tube, the area of the screen must be greater than the area of section of the tube. This can be effected by placing the screen diagonally within the tube which admits the air. In some buildings the filter is dispensed with, and the apparatus is used simply to diffuse the air as it enters the room. An outlet for the vitiated air is provided by the chimney flue, either through the fireplace or by a mica valve placed in the flue near the ceiling. In rooms where[58] flues do not exist an air extractor is provided, consisting of two perforated cones and a central tube. The external air impinging upon the perforated cones is deflected, creating an induced current up the vertical tube, drawing the foul air from the interior of the room, and expelling it through the perforations. In fixing the extractor, a wooden base or frame is placed on the ridge and covered with lead to make it watertight; the extractor is then placed over this and fixed in the ordinary manner. A small inner cone is provided simply to prevent rain from getting into the tube. Harding’s extractors are so designed that they may be easily fixed inside an ornamental turret without in any way affecting their action. They can be obtained in London from Strode & Co., at prices varying from 15s. to 6l. and upwards. Their action is illustrated in Fig. 27: a, wall; b, grating outside; c, filter.

Another system for admitting fresh air into a room, free from fog and other impurities, is that recommended by the Sanitary Engineering and Ventilating Co., 115, Victoria Street, Westminster. They provide for the introduction of fresh air in vertical currents by means of a suitable number and disposition of vertical tubes, varying in size, section, and weight according to each special case. The current can be regulated in amount by throttle valves, and the heated or vitiated air is removed by means of exhaust ventilators, placed directly over the roof or in connection with air flues and shafts. The exhaust ventilator is thus described by the makers: There are no working parts to get out of order, and no attention is required to ensure its constant action. In this respect, a great improvement is claimed over the numerous forms of revolving cowls, which require occasional lubrication, otherwise the working parts become corroded and the cowl ceases to act. They are made of circular or rectangular section, or other shapes to suit special circumstances. One great merit of the system is the element of length which is introduced by means of the tube arrangement, and thus a current is continually passing which diffuses itself over the room. The system admits of a patent air-cleansing box being built into the wall at the foot of the tube, fitted with special deflector plates and a tray to hold water or, when necessary, disinfectants. When the arrangements of furniture or fittings in a room preclude the use of vertical tubes fixed near the ground, they recommend the substitution of a ventilating bracket fixed at 6-7 ft. above the floor. This bracket may contain an air purifying or cleansing box; if required, a valve is provided for regulating the admission of fresh air, and a 9 in. by 6 in. hinged air grating to cover the opening outside. The air-cleansing box is illustrated in Fig. 28: a, inside of room; b, floor; c, trough or tray for holding water or disinfectant fluid; d, tube.

28. Sanitary Ventilating Company’s Ventilator.

Boyle’s patent self-acting air-pump ventilators are well known, and are found to answer well in their continuous action under all varieties of wind pressure; they are often adopted without any inquiry being made as to the scientific principles on which they are constructed. They consist of 4 sections, each acting independently of the other. The exterior curve baffle-plate prevents the wind blowing through the slits formed in the immediate interior plates, and tends to concentrate the current. These interior plates are curved outwards, so as to take the pressure off the vertical slits,[59] which form a communication with the internal chambers, through which the air impinges on inner deflecting plates, and is further directed by the radial plates. The external air impinging on the radial plates is deflected on to the side plates, and creates an induced current. In its passage it draws the air from the central vertical chambers, expelling it at the opposite opening. The vitiated air immediately rushes up the shaft connecting the ventilator with the apartment to be ventilated, extracting the air and producing a continuous upward current without the possibility of down draught. The partitions separating the chambers prevent the external air being drawn through the slits upon which the wind is not directly acting. The whole arrangement being a fixture, with no mechanical movement, it is never liable to get out of order, and the apparatus can be easily fixed over a wood base or frame covered with zinc or lead to secure a good water-tight connection. Where Boyle’s ventilators are used the air is renewed imperceptibly, the vitiated air being extracted as rapidly as it is generated.

A somewhat similar arrangement to Boyle’s ventilator is patented by Arnold W. Kershaw, of Lancaster, and consists of 3 rims of deflectors or plates with openings in each, so arranged that the openings in one rim are opposite the deflectors in the next inner or outer rim, the effect being that whatever the direction of the wind, it passes through the ventilator without being able to enter the central shaft, and in passing creates a partial vacuum, which induces an upward current in the upcast shaft without the possibility of down draughts. Both Boyle’s and Kershaw’s roof ventilators are suitable for fixing in ventilating towers or turrets. While Kershaw’s is somewhat simpler in construction, Boyle’s is said to possess the additional advantage of preventing the entrance of snow by the curve in which the inner plates are fixed. In the case of chimney flues where there is any obstruction that breaks the wind and produces a swirl, such as would be caused by close proximity to higher buildings or raised gables, a down draught may be prevented by the use of a properly-constructed chimney cowl. Kershaw’s chimney cowl is a modification of his pneumatic ventilator, and consists of deflecting plates so arranged that there is no possibility of a down draught. Boyle’s chimney cowl is better known than Kershaw’s, and is very effective. It consists of deflecting plates so fixed that if a body of air is forced in at the false top, instead of passing down the vent, it is split up by an inner diaphragm, deflected over the real top, and passed over at the side openings, thus checking the blow down and assisting the up draught. Kershaw’s patent inlet and air diffuser consists of a tube connection between the outside and inside of an apartment rising vertically on the inside, the upper extremity having radiating plates, which diffuse the incoming current. Generally speaking, a sufficient amount of fresh air enters under the door to a room or between the window sashes or frames; but in apartments where doors and windows fit tightly, some arrangement for the admission of fresh air becomes indispensable. In this climate, during 7 months of the year, the external air is usually too cold to be admitted directly into the room.

The plan of admitting fresh air to a space behind the grates, leading up the air through channels on each side of the fireplace, and ultimately passing it through perforated gratings within the wall or through perforations in the skirting board on each side of the fireplace cannot be commended, as the passages are apt to get choked up with dust, and the temperature of the air cannot be well regulated in its passage into the room. The true object of a fire and chimney flue should not be to supply fresh air, but to extract it after it has done its work.

29. Boyle’s Air-cooler.

Fig. 29 illustrates Boyle’s arrangement for cooling the air entering a room in hot weather. It consists of an air-inlet tube of bracket form, made of iron. The part[60] which penetrates the hole in the wall has an outer casing, so that a space of about ½ in. is left between, which is packed with a non-conducting substance, for the purpose of preventing the heat from the wall penetrating into the interior of the opening and acting upon the blocks of ice, which are placed in a movable drawer, and kept in position by means of open galvanised iron or copper-wire netting. The front of the drawer is also double, and packed same as casing. The outer air entering through the grating is deflected by a metal shield on to the suspended blocks of ice, and from thence on to the ice at the bottom of the drawer, and thence up the tube into the room. The air is not only cooled, but purified thoroughly from dust. See also p. 991.

Warming.—In connection with warming an apartment, it is obviously a necessary condition that the warmth shall be conserved as much as possible. Hence there is an evil in having too much glass, as it cools the room too fast in the winter season: 1 sq. ft. of window glass will cool 1½ cub. ft. of warm air in the room to the external temperature per second; that is, if the room be warmed to 60° F., and the thermometer stands at 30° F. outside, there will be a loss of 90 cub. ft. of warm air at 60° per second from a window containing a surface of glass of 60 sq. ft. In colder climates than that of England, this subject is of much greater importance. In America, for instance, during the cold weather, there will always be found, no matter how tightly or closely the sashes are fitted and protected with weather-strips, a draught of cold air falling downward. This arises from the contact of the heated air with the cold glass, which renders the air cooler and heavier, and causes it to fall. The air, at the same time, parts with a considerable proportion of its moisture by condensation upon the glass. The cold air thus formed falls to the floor, forming a layer of cold air, which surrounds the feet and legs, while the upper part of the body is enveloped in overheated air. The layers of cold and warm air in an apartment will not mix. The warm air will not descend, and the cold air cannot go upward, except the one is deprived of its heat by radiation, and the other receives its heat by actual contact with a heated surface. This radical difference in the upper and lower strata of atmosphere of the rooms, in which people live during the cold season, is the prolific cause of most of the throat and lung diseases with which they are afflicted. Double windows to the houses, therefore, would not only be a great economy as to fuel, but highly conductive to human longevity.

There are only two ways in which dwelling-houses can be heated, namely, by radiant heat and by hot air. The former is produced by the open fire, and by it alone. The latter is obtained in various ways. The question whether we shall use hot air or radiant heat in our rooms is by no means one to be lightly passed over. Instinct tells us to select radiant heat, and instinct is quite right; it is so because radiant heat operates in a very peculiar way. It is known that as a matter of health it is best to breathe air considerably below the natural temperature of the body—98° F.; in air heated to this temperature most persons would in a short time feel stifled. But it is also known that the body likes, as far as sensation is concerned, to be kept at a temperature as near 98° F. as may be, and that very much higher temperatures can be enjoyed; as, for example, when we sit before a fire, or bask in the sun. Now radiant heat will not warm air as it passes through it, and so, at one and the same time, we can enjoy the warmth of a fire and breathe that cool air which is best suited to the wants of our system. Herein lies the secret of the popularity of the open fireplace. But in order that the open fireplace may succeed, it must be worked within the proper limits of temperature. If air falls much below 40° F. it becomes unpleasant to breathe; and it is also very difficult to keep the body warm enough when at rest by any quantity of clothes. In Russia and Canada the temperature of the air outside the houses often falls far below zero, and in the houses it cannot be much above the freezing-point. Here the open fire fails; it can only warm air by first heating the walls, furniture, and other materials in a room, and these, in turn, heat the air with which they come in contact. But this will not do for North American winters; and accordingly in Canada[61] and the United States the stove or some other expedient for warming air by direct contact with heated metal or earthenware is imperatively required. But this is the misfortune of those who live in cold climates, and when they ask us to follow their example and take to close stoves and steam-pipes, and such like, they strongly remind us of the fable of the fox who had lost his tail. How accurately instinct works in the selection of the two systems is demonstrated by the fact that a succession of mild winters is always followed in the United States by an extended use of open grates; that is to say, the English system becomes, or tends to become fashionable, while, on the other hand, a succession of severe winters in this country brings at once into favour with builders and others a whole host of close stoves and similar devices which would not be looked at under more favourable conditions of the weather. While English winters remain moderately temperate, the open fireplace will enjoy the favour it deserves, as not only the most attractive, but the most scientific apparatus available for warming houses. (Engineer.)

Heat radiated from a fire passes through the air without increasing its temperature, in the same manner that the sun’s rays in warming the earth pass through and leave the atmosphere at the higher altitudes so bitterly cold that water and even mercury will freeze: it is for this reason that open fires should be lighted some time before the apartment is required for use, so that firstly a glowing fire be obtained (flames do not radiate any material quantity of heat, and practically heat by contact only), and secondly the surrounding objects, walls, &c., be heated by radiation, and these in their turn warm the air.

In discussing the various methods of warming, it will be convenient to classify them under general heads.

To put the reader upon a more familiar basis with this subject, a short explanation of the cause of heat will be here given. Combustion is the chemical union of oxygen (contained in the air) with some other substance for which it has an affinity; as applied to coal, it is the combining of oxygen and carbon producing carbonic acid gas, and it is known to every one that all chemical combinations evolve heat.

Combustion may be said to be complete when coke, wood charcoal, or anthracite coal is burnt, as there is no smoke, the up current is colourless, and these fuels burn quite away, leaving nothing except a little ash, &c., which originally consisted of earthy impurities in the fuel. Ordinary coal contains bitumen (pitch) in its composition, which at a temperature of about 500° to 600° F., distils off as a smoky gas (carbon and hydrogen), but at a higher temperature this is ignited, forming flame by the union of oxygen with the smoke (carbon); the main principles of underfed, smoke-consuming grates are based upon this, with the object of causing all gaseous products from the fuel to pass through the incandescent portion of the fire and so render the consumption of the fuel complete, as will be explained later on.

A good authority says that “the correct method of warming is to obtain everywhere, at will, the warmth most congenial to the constitution with air as pure as blows at the mountain top,” and it might have been added “without an unreasonable consumption of fuel.”

Open Grate.—The ordinary open grate is too familiar to need any description, but it is wasteful of fuel to a degree that could only be tolerated in a mild climate where fuel was cheap. As a matter of fact, only some 10-12 per cent. of the heat generated in an open grate is utilised, the remainder going up the chimney. But this very fault is in one sense a virtue, in that it performs the ventilation of the apartment in an eminently satisfactory manner. By the addition of a contrivance for regulating the combustion in au open grate, the fuel consumption is much reduced, the combustion is rendered more perfect (diminishing or preventing smoke), the radiated heat is much increased, while the appearance of an open grate is retained, though it is in reality converted into an open stove.

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It would not be out of place to explain the cause of draught. After a chimney has been used, the brickwork surrounding and forming it becomes warmed and retains its heat for a very considerable period even if no fire is lighted; this heat is slowly radiated, and warms the air contained in the chimney, rendering it lighter and causing it to rise and flow out at the top; this is immediately replaced by cold air from below, which is warmed and rises as before, and so continues, causing an up current of air to be passing through the flue, its swiftness varying with the heat. The more intense the heat produced by the fire, and the greater the height of the chimney, the more swift is the current of air known as the “draught”; and when once the draught is established it will remain for a very long time without any fire being lighted. A good draught is not to be despised, as can be certified by those who have suffered from the annoyance of a smoky chimney; yet too strong a draught is a disadvantage, as consuming the fuel too rapidly, robbing the fire and apartment of its heat, and causing draughts of another kind, which materially cool the room and tend to cause discomfort; this only applies to the old form of grate, as all or nearly all modern grates have a means of regulating the draught; even the common and old form of grate is provided with a “register” or flap at the back, immediately over the fire (certainly not an economical position for it), through which the smoke passes into the chimney. This flap is provided with the view of having it full open to assist combustion when fire is first ignited, and afterwards partially closing it when fire is established, and so prevent undue loss of heat, but although this “register” is provided with every stove of its kind, it has not, nor never has had, any means of regulating it. If the reader has one of these stoves in his residence, as most probably he has, for they are still used in the upper rooms of nearly every building, he can by a simple experiment experience the benefit of regulating this flap. By placing a piece of coal, or stone, or metal, with the tongs, after the fire is established, at the joint or hinge of the register, and then drawing the register forward and letting it rest, so that it is closed all but about 1½ in., it will be immediately found that one-fourth or one-third more heat is thrown into the room, for a similar result is brought about as with the modern projecting or overhanging brick backs, which cause the heat to be deflected forwards which would otherwise have passed directly up the chimney. If an existing stove of this description be fitted with a rack adjustment for the register flap and with an “economiser,” an advance of 30 to 40 per cent. in economy and comfort will be experienced, for in the ordinary manner in which these stoves are fitted and used, it can be taken that one-half the heat passes directly up the chimney; a good proportion of the heat radiated is drawn back by the current of air proceeding from the room towards and up the chimney; a proportion is lost by conduction, the heat being passed away to the walls and surrounding parts, and a fair proportion is lost by the smoke, which is really unconsumed fuel; but this form of stove is improving rapidly in various ways, as will be described hereafter.

Open Stove.—This subject has been most ably discussed by Dr. Pridgin Teale, in connection with the economising of fuel in house fires. His remarks will well bear repeating.

“It is hardly possible to separate the two questions of economy of fuel and abatement of smoke. None who, in their own person, or as the companion or nurse of friends and relatives, have gone through the miseries of bronchitis or asthma in a dense London fog, can fail to perceive that this is a serious medical, not less than a great economical, question. Nine million tons of coal—one-fourth of the domestic fuel consumption in this kingdom—is what I estimate as a possible reward to the public if they will have the sense, the energy, and the determination to adopt the principles here advocated, and which can be applied for a very small outlay. Much has been said by scientific men about waste of fuel, and strong arguments have been advanced which make it probable that the most economical and smokeless method of using coal is to convert it first of all into gas and coke, and then to deliver it for consumption in this form instead of coal. Theoretically, no doubt, this is the most scientific and most[63] perfect use of fuel, and the day may come when its universal adoption may be possible. But before that time arrives many things must happen. The mode of manufacture, the apparatus on a mighty scale, and the mode of distribution must be developed, nay, almost created, and a revolution must be effected in nearly every fireplace in the kingdom. At present its realisation seems to be in a very remote future. Meantime I ask the public to adopt a method which is the same in principle, and in perfection not so very far short of it. It is nothing, more nor less, than that every fireplace should make its own gas and burn it, and make its own coke and burn it, and this can be done approximately at comparatively little cost, and without falling foul of any patent, or causing serious disturbances of existing fireplaces. We must, first of all, do away with the fallacy that fires won’t burn unless air passes through the bottom or front of the fire. The draught under the fire is what people swear by (aye, and many practical and scientific men too), and most difficult it is to sweep this cobweb away from people’s brains. They provide 2 or 3 times as much air as is needed for combustion, ⅓, perhaps, being the necessary supply of oxygen, the remainder serving to make a draught to blow the fire into a white heat, and to carry no end of waste heat rapidly up the chimney; ⅔ of cold air chilling the fire, ⅔ more than needful of cold air coming into the room to chill it; and much of the smoke and combustible gases hurried unburnt up the chimney. The two views which I am anxious to enforce upon the attention of the public, of builders, of ironmongers, and of inventors, are these: that the open grating under the fire is wrong in principle, defective in heating power, and wasteful of fuel, and that the right principle of burning coal is that no current of air should pass through the bottom of the fire, and that the bottom of the fire should be kept hot. This principle is violated by the plan of closing the slits in the grate by an iron plate resting on the grate, which cuts off the draught, but allows the chamber beneath the fire to become cold, and when cinders reach the plate they become chilled, cease to burn, and the fire becomes dead. The right principle is acted upon by the various grates with fire-brick bottoms, and the English public owes much to the inventor of this principle as carried out in the Abbotsford grates, which have done much to educate the British public in the appreciation of the fact that a fire will burn well with a current of air passing over it, and not through it. But there is a better thing than the solid fire-brick bottom, and that is a chamber underneath the grating, shut in from the outer air by a shield resting on the hearth and rising to the level of the bottom bar of the range. This hot-air chamber, into which fine ash can fall, produces on the whole a brighter and cleaner fire, and one which is more readily revived when low, than the solid fire-brick. There is another mighty advantage in the principle of the ‘economiser’—an unspeakable advantage, it is applicable to almost every existing fireplace, and it need not cost more than 3-4.s This idea has now been long on its trial. It has been applied in hundreds of houses. It has been submitted to the very severe test of being applied to an infinite variety of grates, under a great variety of circumstances, and tried with coke, anthracite, and coal, good, bad, and indifferent. The effect has been, in an enormous number of instances, a marked success in saving coal and labour, and in more comfortable uniform warmth to the room. The failures have been very few indeed. I have drawn up 7 rules for the construction of a fireplace, all of which are pronounced to be sound:—

“1. As much fire-brick, and as little iron as possible.

“2. The back and sides of the fireplace should be fire-brick.

“3. The back of the fireplace should lean or arch over the fire, so as to become heated by the rising flame.

“4. The bottom of the fire or grating should be deep from before backwards, probably not less than 9 in. for a small room nor more than 11 in. for a large room.

“5. The slits in the grating should be narrow, perhaps ¼ in. wide, for a sitting-room grate, ⅜ in. for a kitchen grate.

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“6. The bars in front should be narrow.

“7. The chamber beneath the fire should be closed in front by a shield or economiser.

“There is one caution which should be given. There is no doubt about the fact that immediately beneath the fire the hearthstone is hotter, and the ashes remain much hotter when the ‘economiser’ is used. This may increase the risk of fire whenever wooden beams lie under the fireplace. In any case of doubt, the best plan would be to take up the hearthstone and examine, and relay with safe materials; but should this be impossible, safety may be secured by covering the hearthstone with a sufficient thickness of fire-brick, just within the space enclosed by the ‘economiser’—leaving a space of 2 or more in. between the fire-brick hearth and the bottom of the fire. In lighting the fire, if there be no cinders on which to build the fire, it is well to draw away the ‘economiser’ for a short time until the fire has got hold; but, if there be cinders left from the previous day, on the top of which the paper and wood can be placed, then the fire may be lighted with the ‘economizer’ in its place. There is a great art in mending a fire. It is wasteful to throw lumps of coal higgledy-piggledy on the fire. The red embers should be first broken up so as to make a level surface, then pieces of coal should be laid flat on the fire and fitted in almost like pavement; lastly, if the fire is intended to burn slowly and last very long, small coal should be laid on the top. An ‘economised’ fire so made will, in a short time, heat the coal through, and give off gases, which will ignite and burn brightly on the surface of the black mass, and when the gases are burnt off there is a large surface of red-hot coke.”

30. Kitchen Economiser.   31. Bedroom Economiser.

The annexed illustrations show the application of the economiser. Fig. 30 is a kitchen range, a being the economiser and b the front damper. The latter should always be used in warm weather, unless the front of the fire is needed for roasting and should be put on at night. Fig. 31 is a bedroom fireplace having fire-brick sides a, fire-brick back b leaning over the fire, narrow front bars c movable, grating d with[65] narrow slits, chamber under the fire closed by economiser e, and front damper f which can close the lower ⅔ of the front of the fire at night or when a slow fire is needed.

The “economiser” is a shield of sheet iron which stands on the hearth, and rises as high as the lowest bar of the grate, against which it should fit accurately, so as to shut in the space or chamber under the fire. If the front of the range be curved or angular, as in most register stoves, the economiser will stand, owing to its shape—but if the front be straight, the economiser needs supports such as are shown. “Ordinary economisers” are made of 16-gauge charcoal iron plate, with ⅜ in. bright steel moulding at the top, ½ in. moulding at the bottom, and 1 or 2 knobs as required. “Kitchen economisers” are made of 16-gauge iron, with ½ in. semicircle iron at the top edge; and with supports in scroll form of ½ in. semicircle iron. Some makers use rather thinner iron plate and give strength by the mouldings. Some have used too thin plates, little better than tin, which have warped and so become more or less useless. Great care should be spent in taking the dimensions—as every grate has to be measured—as a foot for a boot. This renders it almost impossible to send orders to a maker by post. Some skilled person must take the measure, and take it accurately. The dimensions to be taken are: firstly, the outline of the bottom bar of the grate. If it be curved, or angular, the outline can be well taken by a piece of leaden gas-pipe, which, moulded to the outline can then be traced upon paper or carried carefully away to the makers; secondly, the height must be measured from the hearthstone to the bottom bar. This is the “economiser” in its simplest and cheapest form, as applicable to nearly every ordinary range.

Ornament can be added to taste. It is obvious that the adaptation of the economiser need not displace the old-fashioned ash-pan, and that the two can be combined, or that the economiser may be made like a drawer and catch the ashes. All such variations will work well, provided that the main principles be adhered to of “cutting off the under current,” and “keeping the chamber under the fire hot.” But the simplest form is the best.

32. Some Modern Open Grates.

Fig. 32 illustrates a few typical specimens of modern improved open grates devised to increase the radiation of heat and perfect the combustion of the fuel: A is a combination of Parson’s grate and economiser with a Milner back; B is Nelson and Sons’ “rifle” back; C is a Galton back; D, Jaffrey’s grate.

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“The Manchester Warming and Ventilating Grate” (E. H. Shorland, St. Gabriel’s Works, Manchester) is somewhat similar in principle to Captain Galton’s grate, i.e. the warm fresh-air inlet is at the ceiling, and the vitiated air is carried off by the chimney, or in some instances ventilation at a lower part of the room is provided. Fig. 33 will acquaint the reader with the details: a, fireplace; b, outer wall; c, inner wall; d, smoke flue; e, f, cold-air inlets; g, h, warm-air passages; i, inlet for cold or warm air into room.

33. Shorland’s Manchester Warm-air Grate Back.

The shape of the back brick advocated by Dr. Teale (first invented by the celebrated Count Romford, to whom much is owing for the various means undertaken by him to promote the consideration of the question of improving our fire-grates and to abate the smoke nuisance) has since its discovery met with universal favour, and is coming into general use by all makers, as the expense of the stove is scarcely increased and its result in use is a most decided improvement. The actual shape or section of this brick varies with the different stove makers, but the result is the same; the brick is made to slope forward from the bottom up to about 15 or 16 in. high; at that height the top of the brick overhangs the bottom by about 5 to 6 in.; its section is appropriately defined by a maker, who likens it to a “dog’s hind leg.” Some makers shape the brick like a curved scallop-shell, inclining forward at the top; the effect is that as the heat ascends from the fire, it strikes or comes in contact with the projecting part, and rebounds or is deflected into the room; it is a similar action to that which takes place if an object, say a ball, is thrown upon a wall and comes in contact with a similar projection—it would bound off or be deflected.

It would be impossible to describe all the existing improvements upon the ordinary or old form of open-fire stove (commonly known as a “register grate”), but the following are some that are tolerably well known and have a good share of favour.

“The Abbotsford Slow-combustion Grate” (Mappin and Webb, Cheapside, London), which has now been used some years, was about the first recognised form of stove that had the bottom closed, so that the supply of air for combustion is carried through the front only. This is a great improvement (as explained by the economiser), by lessening the consumption of fuel without decreasing the efficiency or its heat-giving properties. The bottom of the fireplace is a solid fire-brick slab, and the chief property of this stove is truly named “slow combustion.” Many people have tried to apply this[67] advantage to existing stoves by having a piece of iron cut to lie upon the bottom grate; but iron is too rapid a conductor, and failure is experienced by having the lower part of the fire dull and dead. It cannot, however, be said that a solid bottom is the best, for it permits of accumulation of ash, and it is slow lighting.

34. Wharncliffe Grate.

“The Wharncliffe Patent Warming and Ventilating Grate” (Steel and Garland, 18 Charterhouse Street, London, E.C.) Fig. 34, is an excellent form of grate, and is fixed back against the wall, wholly projecting into the room, an air-chamber surrounding the fire-box; this air-chamber is, whenever convenient, connected with the outer air by means of a pipe, and within the chamber gills or ribs are provided, attached to the fire-box (the principle and advantages of these gills or ribs, which are to increase the heat-giving surface and to prevent over-heating of air, will be explained under Gill stoves).

When the fire is established, the metal of the fire-box becomes heated, which then heats the air contained in the air-chamber, rendering it lighter, whereupon it rises and flows out into the room through the perforations provided in the pattern of the ironwork; cold air immediately flows in to take its place, which is then heated, and passes out, so that as its name implies it is a ventilating as well as warming grate, and has the further advantage of the cheerful open radiating fire; but it must be remembered that with ventilating stoves there must be provision made for the removal of vitiated air, which in this case is taken up the chimney along with the products of combustion.

Another improved form of warming and ventilating grate is that invented by and named after Captain Douglas Galton (makers, Yates, Hayward & Co., Upper Thames Street, London). The principle advocated in this instance is contrary to that generally adopted, insomuch that the warmed fresh air is admitted into the room near the ceiling, and the abstraction of vitiated air is performed through the grate by the chimney draught. This is an open-fire grate fitted within a mantel in the usual way, and is provided with an air-chamber at the back, and which is connected with the outer air as before explained. From this air-chamber a perpendicular shaft or flue is carried, terminating by being turned into the room with an inlet grating or louvre. As before explained, the air within the air-chamber is warmed, and rises and passes into the room close to the ceiling; from there it is drawn down towards the fire, and eventually passes up the chimney, so that there is always a current of warm fresh air from the ceiling downwards. There are as many advocates for this down-current system as for the up current, as in the Wharncliffe and others. The Captain Galton has had about 14 years’ trial, and is still largely used. A rather peculiar and advantageous action takes place, by the fact that the apartment becomes fully charged with fresh air and the supply for combustion and draught is not drawn from the crevices beneath doors, &c., so[68] that when a door is opened no inrush of cold air is experienced. This and the Manchester grate can most conveniently be used for warming another apartment also from the same fire.

35. Nautilus Grate.   36. Nautilus Grate.

“The Nautilus Grate” (Jas. B. Petter & Co., Yeovil), Figs. 35 and 36, is, as the name signifies, shell-shaped. The products of combustion rise from the fire, and after revolving within the centre or axis pass off by two concealed flues at the back of the grate to a flue prepared in the back of the fireplace; the ashes fall through a small grating into a closed ash pan. The warmth radiated direct from the cheerful open fire and indirectly from the outer case is considerable, and the results are very satisfactory, as no heat is lost by conduction. This grate is also cleanly, economical, and portable. The back, cheeks, and hearth should be tiled; the extra expense is fully compensated for by the handsome appearance.

37. Eagle Convertible Grate.

The “Ingle Nook,” Wright’s Patent (George Wright & Sons, 113 Queen Victoria Street, E.C.), Fig. 38, is a combination of all the most recent improvements, with two new features never before introduced into this class of grate, viz. the regulation of[69] draught by means of an ordinary damper, and the complete independence of the actual working part of the stove, so that it may be removed at any time for repairs without disturbing the outer casing or brickwork.

Special features and advantages.

38. PLAN through line C.D.
  SECTION through line A.B.

Radiation and complete utilisation of the heat generated from all parts of the grate, as not only the heat given off from front of fire, but also all heat radiated from sides and back of grate, which is usually absorbed in brickwork, is here passed into warm-air chambers and thence into the room. Economy of fuel, with increase of heating power. Prevention of down-draught, and partial consumption of smoke. Simplicity of construction and fixing, so that easy access is afforded to all parts of the grate, more especially those likely to want renewing. Pleasing appearance of the ordinary open fire, with heating power of a warm-air stove. This stove being complete in itself can be fixed by any ordinary workman without removing the mantel-piece or in any way interfering with the decorations of the room. The whole construction and principle of the grate are so simple that they can be readily understood by reference to the plan and section annexed. The interior portion of fire-box is of fire-brick, and can readily be removed from the front without disturbing any other portion of the grate. The back leans forward, deflecting the radiant heat into the room, and contracts the throat of the flue so as to quicken the draught directly the fire is lighted, which flue then expands and is again contracted at the top by means of the damper. Less than half the quantity of fuel is required to warm any given space, and more than double the quantity of heat is given off than from an ordinary grate with the usual supply of fuel. By introducing a fresh-air flue where practicable the perfection of ventilation may be obtained. The cost does not greatly exceed that of an ordinary grate, and is very much below that of any other grate of this description at present in the market. See advertisement in front of title page.

“The Rumford-Teale Grate” (made by Verity Bros., 98 High Holborn, London), is made nearly wholly of fire-brick, upon strictly scientific principles, as the name[70] indicates. There is very little iron in its construction, the front being a steel wire trellis instead of bars; this permits free radiation from the front and reduces loss by conduction. This front, apparently fragile, lasts for a considerable time (4 or 5 years), and is easily replaced by any one at an extremely small cost.

An improvement upon the Rumford-Teale grate is the “Eclat,” by the same makers, shown in elevation and section in Fig. 39. Its distinguishing features are a double flue (one for quick and the other for slow draught), and the projection of the fire in advance of the chimney breast. The figure shows: A, damper for regulating combustion; B, perforated fire-clay back; C, tiles to taste; D, economiser; E, ashpit; F, chimney breast; G, frieze; H, removable bottom grate with fine mesh; J, valve for regulating combustion.

There are several forms of combined open- and close-fire stoves, which stand independent of any brickwork, and are generally known as “American stoves.” These stoves are good heat givers, ornamental, and have several advantages, and can be obtained at almost any hardware stores; they do not work upon strictly hygienic principles, as they are apt to get overheated when closed, and render the air unpleasantly dry; but this can be remedied to some extent by using a vaporising pan, as will be explained later on.

39. Éclat Grate.   Éclat Grate.

There is another form of open-fire grate that should be mentioned, viz. those that have the fire replenished by placing the fresh fuel underneath, and are known as underfed smokeless grates. This idea, which deserves high commendation, has been rendered practical, but cannot be said to be perfected yet. It originated in Dr. Arnott’s stove, which was made with the usual set of front bars fixed about 12 in. high from the hearth, and the space under the bars closed in front. The bottom of the fire, which is movable, is lowered down to the hearth and the space filled with coal: the fire is laid, and ignited on the top of this store of fuel. As the fire burns down, the bottom grating is raised by means of a lever bringing fresh fuel within the fire-basket, and this bottom is raised as often as the fire burns down; it will be seen that the gaseous products given off by the fresh fuel must pass through the incandescent fire, and so be perfectly consumed, and the space below the front bars is sufficiently large to hold fuel for one day’s consumption.

“The Kensington Smoke-consuming Grate” (Brown and Green, Finsbury Pavement, London) is an underfed grate, and has received high commendation from good[71] authorities; it has not the complication of Dr. Arnott’s, and is of good appearance, being fixed in a similar manner to any ordinary grate.

“Hollands’ Patent Underfed Grate” (Hollands & Co., Stoke Newington) is a still further improvement, and, except for a little complication in construction, may be considered the best in action and results. The advantages of underfed grates are, firstly, an abatement of the smoke nuisance, full utilisation of the fuel, and more powerful radiation from the top of fire, which is always incandescent. There is commonly no provision made for the supply of air for combustion, nor to replace that which is taken from the apartment by the draught in the chimney—the cracks and fissures around doors and windows sufficing for this purpose, is the too commonly general idea; but for perfection in warming upon hygienic principles, there must be a proper supply from external sources; but this will be more fully treated under Ventilation; it will, however, be noticed that some of the ventilating stoves make provision for this in themselves; this particularly applies to Captain Galton’s principle.

Close-Fire stoves.—The old form of close-fire warming and ventilating stove is that known as the “Cockle.” It consists of a closed circular fire-box with a dome top and a similar shaped outer casing; between the fire-box and the casing is a space of a few inches all round, known as the air-chamber, which by means of a pipe is connected with the outer air. The action is similar to a flue; the air within the air-chamber, being in contact with the heated surface of the fire-box is warmed, and rises and flows out at the top through an aperture provided at the top (as explained with the Wharncliffe grate), or it is made with a nozzle at top to attach a pipe and carry the warm air wherever required, so making it a hot-air furnace, in which case it would be fixed in a basement or cellar as at the best it is not ornamental, but this primitive form of stove has gone somewhat into disuse.

40. Thames Bank Iron Co.’s Stove.

Where a continual genial warmth is required at little cost in an apartment, the slow-combustion stove, such as that made by the Thames Bank Iron Company, London, (Fig. 40), may be employed. The external air is drawn in by a smoke-pipe channel and impelled through orifices in the stove. The smoke can be made to pass out at any level in the stove that may be found most convenient, but unless there is a high chimney shaft 25 to 30 ft., an underground flue connection is not recommended. The fuel, consisting of coke or cinders broken small, is supplied at the top, the ashes or cinders being removed through a sliding door at the base; a special soot-door is provided for clearing the flue before lighting the fire.

This appears an appropriate moment to mention that additional results can be obtained from close-fire stoves, by carrying the smoke flue down, and just below the floor level, in a properly made channel, and covered by a grating, as with hot-water pipes. It is known that a good proportion of the heat must be carried away by the flue, so that by this means nearly the whole of the heat evolved by combustion can be utilised; but it is necessary to bear in mind that the Building Act prescribes that no hot-air or smoke-pipe shall be nearer than 9 in. from any woodwork or inflammable material, and it is necessary that the main flue be high, as a good draught is needed to withdraw this nearly cold smoke or vapour, and in many instances where the under-floor horizontal flue is of good length, a pilot stove or rarifier is necessary at the foot of[72] the main up-flue to keep up the draught, but in most cases the rarifier is only needed at first lighting. This arrangement is rarely applicable in dwelling-houses.

Improved forms of close-fire stoves are as multitudinous as improvements in open-fire grates; they are made either wholly closed, generally called “slow-combustion stoves,” and are arranged to burn many hours without feeding; or, as convertible open and closed; the latter have the advantage of the cheerful radiating fire when open.

“The Tortoise Slow-combustion Stove” (makers, Portway and Son, Halstead, Essex) is finding a ready sale and considerable favour, as maybe judged by the fact of its being obtainable at nearly any ironmonger’s. This stove, as with the majority of slow-combustion stoves, consists of an ornamental outer casing (cylindrical, square, or hexagonal), the height being about 2½ times the diameter; this casing is lined with fire-brick, and constitutes the fire-box; there is an ash-box and door below, in which is fitted a ventilator or damper to regulate the draught and speed of combustion. The fuel is supplied through a door provided at the top, and the smoke outlet is also placed near the top. In use, the fire-box is filled with coke and cinders, and the draught is regulated by the ventilator; it will then burn, and heat an apartment for many hours without attention. It is a very useful form of stove for greenhouses (in which case it would be fitted with a vaporising pan), halls, offices, &c., but hardly suited for living-rooms; the fire-brick lining tempers the heat, but if in use where children or dresses would come in contact, a guard must be provided. Slow-combustion stoves are made in a variety of forms, and the effect is very pleasing when externally fitted with tiled panels, &c.

For slow-combustion stoves that are required to burn for a longer than usual period without attention a chamber or hopper is fitted on top to take a further charge of fuel; it is taper-sided and open at the bottom, very much like an inverted pail, but about 2½ ft. high. It will be readily understood that as the coke is consumed, the upper supply gradually sinks down until the whole is consumed; this would utterly fail with a fuel that cakes, such as soft or bituminous coal.

41. Musgrave’s Stove.

“Musgrave’s Patent Warming and Ventilating Stove,” Fig. 41 (Musgrave & Co., Limited, 97 New Bond Street, London), is made upon the slow-combustion principle, to burn from 8 to 24 hours, but is much more highly finished than the last named, and is constructed in so many patterns and sizes as to be suitable for almost every purpose, from small dwellings to the largest buildings. The stove consists of an outer casing, within which is contained the fire-box and an air-chamber. The latter is provided with gills to increase the heating surface (see Gill stoves). The smoke and heat when leaving the top of the fire-box is carried down a flue-way to the bottom of the stove, and then up to the top again into the smoke-pipe; this flue-way is within the air-chamber, and so utilises the major portion of the heat passed into the flue; the fuel to be used is coke, which is the most suitable fuel for all slow-combustion stoves.

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For conservatories or where the air requires moistening these stoves are very neatly and effectually fitted with vaporising pans; and these stoves are also made to act as hot-air furnaces, and in combination with hot-water-pipe heating apparatus.

Roberts’ patent terra-cotta stoves operate also by slow combustion and are self-acting, but possess the additional advantage of purifying and radiating the heat by the terra-cotta, which is contained between 2 concentric cylinders of sheet iron united at the base and top, the outer cylinder being perforated to allow of direct radiation of heat from the terra-cotta. The stove consists of 4 separate parts, namely, the stove body, its top or cover, the fire-box, which can be lifted in and out, and the stand, with draw and damper. The fire is lighted at the top and burns downwards, the air sustaining it being drawn upwards through the bottom of the fire-box and thence through the fuel. The stove can be placed in any position on an iron or stone base and connected with the nearest chimney flue by an iron pipe provided with soot-door elbows, care being taken to form a complete connection by abandoning any other open fire-grate in the room and screening it off by an iron or zinc plate. They emit no effluvium, as the terra-cotta gradually and completely absorbs all the caloric in its permeation through the shell before it is communicated to the outer air, which is thus warmed and diffused in a healthy condition over the room. The top of the stove is movable, so that the fire-box can be removed to be cleaned and recharged without moving the stove body, and a sand groove is inserted at the top where the cover rests, which is filled with fine dry sand to prevent any escape of smoke.

Close-fire stoves, consisting of a strong iron fire-box, on to the outside of which is cast a series of vertical, parallel plates or ribs, are known as “Gill” stoves, as the plates or ribs referred to somewhat resemble the gills of a fish. These stoves are provided with a door for replenishing the fire, with ash-pan and ventilator below, and the iron base upon which the stove stands is made hollow, and has a series of holes or perforations opening between the gills, and provision is made for connecting the base with the outer air whenever convenient. It must now be explained that the object of the gills is to extend the heat-giving surface of the stove. It is known that iron is a very rapid conductor of heat, and consequently when the iron of the fire-box becomes heated, the heat is as quickly transferred to and felt at the extremities of the gills. It will be readily understood that only a certain amount of heat is given off by the fire, and the greater amount of metal it is transferred to, the lower must be its temperature; this is the chief and real advantage, as instead of a small volume of air being heated to a very high temperature, off a plane surface that would possibly get red hot, there is a larger volume of air at a lower temperature, and this has the further decided advantage that the air does not become unpleasantly dry, and the particles of dust, &c., in the air do not get scorched and burnt, and cause the unpleasantness commonly known as “burning the air.”

A further advantage possessed by these stoves is that they are not so much a source of danger, as the size of the gills is so proportioned to the size of the fire-box, that in ordinary use they cannot become excessively hot, and this is especially desirable where children or ladies’ dresses, &c., might come in contact.

These stoves can be obtained at any ironmonger’s or stove maker’s. A good form is that made by the London Warming and Ventilating Co., 14 Great Winchester Street, London, and is called the “Gurney” stove (Fig. 42). This is circular or cylindrical in form, with a dome top, and the gills, which are perpendicular, extend around the stove. A novel feature with this stove is that it is provided with a water-pan or trough carried round the base of the gills; when this pan is charged, the lower ends of the gills are immersed, and the heat that is conducted there causes the water to slowly evaporate. The advantage of a vaporising pan is this: before being warmed by an ordinary stove, fresh air holds a certain and proper amount of moisture, but as it becomes heated by such a stove the temperature is raised without proportionately increasing the moisture,[74] and this is apt to make it unpleasantly dry, particularly to those suffering from asthma or any bronchial affection. The reverse is the case when the air becomes heated naturally (except when the wind is in the east); the proper proportion of moisture increases as the temperature rises; for instance, the atmosphere at 80° F. would contain about four times as much moisture as when at 32° F. The principle of the Gurney stove is such that the natural degree of moisture is always maintained in the heated air. The greater proportion of modern close fire-stoves and furnaces have gills applied in some form or other.

It might be mentioned that 13 Gurney stoves have effectually coped with the problem “How to heat St. Paul’s.”

42. Gurney Stove.   43. Convoluted Stove.

Another good form is “Constantine’s Convoluted Stove” (J. Constantine and Son, 23 Oxford Street, Manchester), Fig. 43. Instead of solid gills, there are a series of perpendicular convolutions which double the heating surface, and the makers’ claim to greater efficiency is no doubt correct. This stove, however, should be classed with hot-air furnaces, as it is not made in small sizes for direct heating; but for warming large buildings, churches, &c., for heating laundry drying-rooms, Turkish baths, &c., it is to be highly recommended.

The German principle, which might advantageously be adopted to a greater extent in England, is to build a fire-brick structure with the furnace at the base and the flue winding from side to side 3 or 4 times, and terminating at the top into an ordinary brick chimney; this structure projects into the apartment and is covered with porcelain ware, and the appearance often exhibits great taste and skill, as it will be understood that the structure is not rigidly square, but is often very beautiful from an architectural point of view. The good effect experienced is that after 3 or 4 hours’ firing, the mass of brickwork becomes thoroughly heated and the fire is permitted to go out; communication with the chimney is stopped by means of a damper, and every confidence can then be placed in the stove giving out abundance of warmth for the remainder of the day, as the brickwork takes hours to become moderately cool, and the whole of the heat[75] it contains must be diffused into the apartment. It will be noticed that a minimum of heat is lost by this arrangement, and the result is very satisfactory from an economical standing; but it has not the cheerful appearance of our open fires, and efficient ventilation is required. This plan can, however, be satisfactorily adopted for halls or cold situations; in the former it has the further advantage in most instances of warming the stairways and landings in the upper part of the house by the ascension of the heated air. Fire-brick stoves are made by Doulton & Co., Lambeth, London, and are finished in their majolica and Doulton ware; it is needless to add, these wares give the stoves a very handsome appearance.

Hot-air Furnace.—The close stove is really a hot-air furnace, but it is restricted to heating the air in the room. Other hot-air furnaces are designed to obtain a supply of fresh air and heat it before passing it into the room. The heated air from a fireplace is available to the apartment for only about 12 per cent. of the total amount of heat produced; all the rest passes up the chimney. The close stove, on the contrary, utilises 85-90 per cent. of the heat produced, and loses through the smoke-pipe only about as much as the open fireplace saves—10-15 per cent. And herein lies the striking difference between the relative healthiness of the atmosphere heated by a close stove and an open fireplace. The amount of air which hourly passes through a close stove, heated with a brisk fire, is, on an average, equal to only about 1/10 the capacity of the room warmed, and consequently such stove requires, if unaided, 10 hours to effect a change of the atmosphere in every such apartment. Thus stagnant and heated, the air becomes filled with the impurities of respiration and cutaneous transpiration.

Moisture, too, is an important consideration. The atmosphere, whether within doors or without, can only contain a certain proportion of moisture to each cub. ft., and no more, according to temperature. At 80° F. it is capable of containing 5 times as much as at 32° F. Hence, an atmosphere at 32° F., with its requisite supply of moisture, introduced into a confined space and heated up to 80° F., has its capacity for moisture so increased as to dry and wither everything with which it comes in contact; furniture cracks and warps, seams open in the moulding, wainscoting, and doors; plants die; ophthalmia, catarrh, and bronchitis are common family complaints, and consumption is not infrequent. But this condition of house air is not peculiar to stove-heat. It is equally true of any overheated and confined atmosphere. The chief difference is, that warming the air by means of a close stove is more quickly accomplished and more easily kept up than by any other means. Sometimes, by the scorching of dust afloat in the atmosphere, an unpleasant odour is evolved which is erroneously supposed to be a special indication of impurity, caused by the burning air. It is an indication of excessive heat of the stove. But the air cannot be said to burn in any true sense of the word, for it continues to possess its due proportion of elementary constituents. Such is the close stove and its dangers, under the most unfavourable circumstances.

The essentials for healthy stove-heat are brick-lined fire-chamber, ventilating or exhaust-flue for foul air, means for supplying moisture, and provision for fresh-air supply. A brick lining is requisite for the double purpose of preventing overheating, and for retaining heat in the stove. For the supply of moisture the means are simple and easy of control, but often inadequate. An efficient foul-air shaft may be fitted to the commonest of close stoves by simply enclosing the smoke-pipe in a jacket—that is, in a pipe of 2 or 3 in. greater diameter. This should be braced round the smoke-pipe, and left open at the end next the stove. At its entry into the chimney, or in its passage through the roof of a car, as the case may be, a perforated collar should separate it from the smoke-pipe. For stoves with a short horizontal smoke-pipe, passing through a fire-board, the latter should always be raised about 3 in. from the floor. A smoke-pipe thus jacketed, or fire-board so raised at the bottom, affords ample provision for the escape of foul air.

Hot-air furnaces are simply enclosed stoves placed outside the apartments to be[76] warmed, and usually in cellars or basements of the buildings in which they are used. The manner of warming is virtually the same as by indirect steam heat—by the passage of air over the surface of the heated furnace or steam-heated pipes, as the case may be, through flues or pipes provided with registers. The most essential condition of satisfactory warming by a hot-air furnace is a good chimney-draught, which should always be stronger than that of the hot-air pipes through which the warmed air is conveyed into the rooms, and this can be measured by the force with which it passes through the registers. A chimney-draught thus regulated effectively removes all emanations; for, if the chimney-draught exceeds that of the hot-air pipes, all the gaseous emanations from the inside of the furnace, and if it have crevices, or is of cast iron and overheated, all around it on the outside will be drawn into the chimney. Closely connected with this requirement for the chimney-draught is the regulating apparatus for governing the combustion of fuel—the draught of the furnace. This should all be below the grate; there should be no dampers in the smoke-pipe or chimney, and all joints below and about the grate should be air-tight. The fire-pot should be lined with brick and entirely within the surface, but separate from it, so that the fresh air to be warmed cannot come in contact with the fuel-chamber.

An excellent plan for economising a good portion of the waste heat from a kitchen range is to have (previous to the range being fixed, or after, in some instances) a sheet-iron box or chamber made to fit at the back of the oven flues or wherever the most intense heat is felt. This box, which we may call an air-chamber, should be connected with the outer air, and a pipe for the warm air carried from the top of the box to the part where warmth is required; the heat from the range warms the air in the box and it ascends in exactly the same manner and upon the same principle as a hot-air furnace, but great care must be exercised to see that this box and all connections are made air-tight, or this plan will prove an unusually speedy means of indicating what is being cooked for dinner.

The Americans adopt what is called the “drum” principle of heating by means of a furnace; they not only encase the stove with an air-chamber, but the smoke-pipe is surrounded with a larger pipe encasing it all the way up; the space between the smoke-pipe and the outer pipe is thus an air-chamber and has free connection with the furnace air-chamber, but of course is closed at top; from the chamber surrounding the smoke-pipe, branch pipes are taken to the apartments, terminating in perforated cylindrical “drums,” from which the heated air is emitted.

It should go without saying that the air which passes from furnaces into living-rooms should always be taken from out of doors, and be conveyed in perfectly clean air-tight shafts to and around the base of the furnace. Preferably, the inlet of the shaft, or cold-air box, should be carried down and curved at a level (of its upper surface) with the bottom, and full width of the furnace. Thus applied, the air is equally distributed for warming and ascent through the hot-air pipes to the apartments to be warmed. On the outside the cold-air shaft should be turned up several feet from the surface of the ground, and its mouth protected from dust by an air-strainer. A simple but effectual way is to cover the mouth with wire cloth, and over this to lay a piece of loose cotton wadding. This may be kept in place with a weight made of a few crossings of heavy wire, and it should be changed every few months. And here, too, outside the house, should be placed the diaphragm for regulating the amount of cold-air supply, and not, as commonly, in the cellar.

As the best means of regulating the temperature and purity of the atmosphere from hot-air furnaces, it is necessary to provide sufficiently large channels for both the inlet of fresh air and its distribution through the hot-air pipes. The area of the smallest part of the inlet (or inlets, for it is sometimes better to have more than one) should be about ⅙ sq. ft. for every lb. of coal estimated to be burnt hourly in cold weather; and to[77] prevent, in a measure, the inconvenience of one hot-air pipe drawing from another, the collective area of the hot-air pipes should not be more than ⅙ greater than the area of the cold-air inlet. These proportions will admit the hot air at a temperature of about 120° F. when at zero outside, and the velocity through the register will not exceed 5 ft. per second.

A large heating surface of the furnace is a well-recognised condition of both economy and efficiency. As a rule, there should be 10 sq. ft. of heating surface to every lb. of coal consumed per hour, when in active combustion; and the grate area should be about 1/50 of that of the heating surface. For the deficiency of heat, or the failure of some of the hot-air pipes of hot-air furnaces in certain winds and weathers in large houses or specially exposed rooms, the best addendum is an open fire-grate. With this provision in northerly rooms, to be used occasionally, hot-air furnaces may be made to produce all the advantages of steam heat in even the largest dwelling-houses.

44. Boyle’s Warm-air Stove.

Boyle’s system of warming fresh air is suitable where hot air, water, or steam pipes are not available. The arrangement (Fig. 44) consists of a copper or iron pipe a about 1½ in. diam. placed in an inlet tube b, preferably of the form of a bracket. This pipe is not vertical, as in the so-called Tobin’s shafts, but of zigzag shape, crossing and recrossing the tube from top to bottom, and so causing the incoming air to repeatedly impinge in its passage through the tube. At the bottom of the tube an air-tight chamber, so far as the interior of the tube is concerned, is fixed, in which a Bunsen gas-burner c is placed, the flame of which plays up into one of the lower ends of the pipe, the upper portion being about 5 ft. 9 in. from the floor. The other lower end of the pipe either dips into a condensation box d in the bottom of the tube or is continued into an existing flue or extraction shaft. If the pipe terminates in a box, the vapour is condensed there and carried off through the outside wall by means of a small pipe. At the bottom of the box is placed some loose charcoal, which needs renewing at intervals. This charcoal absorbs any products of combustion which have a tendency to rise. The heat thus passes through the entire length of the pipe, and warms the air as it travels through the tube to the room or hall as required.

Heating by gas is now growing in favour, and under favourable circumstances is to be recommended. There are two general methods adopted; firstly, by gas fires, which are asbestos or metal made incandescent by gas heat; these are made either portable, or by fitting a specially made burner to an existing fireplace, and filling the grate with Lumb asbestos (which is made for the purpose, and when heated has the appearance of glowing coals); and secondly, by gas stoves acting upon a similar principle to a hot-air coal stove. The former are now made in great variety; they chiefly take the form of an ornamental iron frame, in the centre of which is fitted a fire-brick thickly imbedded in front with asbestos fibre; the burner beneath comes immediately under the front of the fire-brick, and when the gas is ignited, the asbestos at once becomes incandescent, making it of cheerful and fire-like appearance, and the fire-brick in a few minutes becomes highly heated, radiating its warmth into the room. This description of stove[78] and also the burner for existing fireplaces can be obtained at any ironmongers or gas-fitters.

In nearly all gas fires and stoves the gas is burnt with an admixture of air (atmospheric gas, 1 of gas and 2 of air), by means of an atmospheric burner; this is not only a source of economy, but atmospheric gas has the very great advantage of being smokeless; but for this, a gas fire would be an impossibility; it must, however, be borne in mind that although smokeless this gas gives off products of combustion (carbonic acid, watery vapour, &c.), which must be carried away by a flue or other means. The portable stoves are always provided with a nozzle for attaching a smoke-pipe. There is still a doubt as to which is most economical, coal or gas: we cannot do better than quote the words of a well-known gas-stove maker, Chas. Wilson, of Leeds. He says, speaking of heating by gas: “It is not cheaper than coal, taking fuel for fuel and continually used, unless, as in the case of offices where labour has to be employed to light fires, clean grates, &c.; but it is cheaper than coal if occasionally used, as in the case of bedrooms, or sitting-rooms used by visitors, or rooms used by children for music, &c.; for bedrooms it is especially adapted for use for an hour or two at night or in the morning or for giving an unvarying heat all night. It is preferable in the matter of cleanliness, and a true solution of the smoke-abatement problem” (probably a coal-stove manufacturer would speak as much in favour of fire-grates).

It should be seen when purchasing gas fires that they have silent burners, as some make an objectionable hissing noise when in use.

45. Calorigen Stove.

“The Calorigen” Gas Hot-air Stove, Fig. 45 (Farwig & Co., 36 Queen Street, Cheapside, London), consists of an outer sheet-iron casing with a burner at the base inside, and proper accommodation for exit of products of combustion. A coil of good-sized sheet-iron pipe is affixed within the stove; the lower end of the coil is connected with the outer air and the upper end opens into the apartment, thus producing a free inflow of fresh air at any temperature desired, from 60° to 200° F. or higher at will. The chief advantage of a gas stove is the immediate lighting and extinguishing, and needing no attention.

Another modern and very useful application of gas as a heating medium is the “Geyser” or rapid water heater for the supply of hot or boiling water to baths, lavatories, &c., or for business purposes where it is not convenient or desirable to fit up a circulating boiler (see hot-water apparatus). These heaters can be obtained from any ironmonger’s or gasfitter’s. The principle is somewhat different in the various makes, but it all results in the same thing, which is to bring a small volume of water in contact with a large heating surface. The apparatus is generally cylindrical in form. A cock is at one side for attaching the cold supply, and the heated water flows out from a spout at the other side; there is also a cock for attaching the gas supply; they are made in various sizes to supply and fill a bath three parts full of water at 100° F. in 5, 10 or 15 minutes, or to boil water at the rate of ½, 1 or 2 gal. per minute. These are extremely useful appliances where gas is available, being ready for use at a moment’s notice, and the water can be had at any temperature at will; with a modern and properly constructed “Geyser” the water is quite suitable for drinking purposes.

The Marsh-Greenall Gas Heating Stove, Fig. 46 (makers, Greenall and Company, 120 Portland Street, Manchester), is both regenerative and radiating, the heat developed and utilised per foot of gas by this system being far greater than by the ordinary[79] atmospheric stoves. Ordinary luminous flames are used, these being fed by superheated air. There is no smell and no danger “of lighting back.” The great heat obtained by this system is radiated from a polished reflector. The consumption of gas is only 12 ft. per hour. See Gas Heating also, p. 994.

46. Marsh-Greenall Gas Stove.   47. Eureka Oil Stove.

Oil Stoves.—Warming stoves which burn oil fuel are to be commended for many purposes, but are not generally considered suitable for living rooms—bedrooms, for instance—unless the air is continually changed by open doors, &c., as there is a noticeable odour from the burning oil. Rippengille’s are considered the best, and are obtainable at almost any oil, lamp, or ironmonger’s store, or at the chief retail agents, the Holborn Lamp Co., 118 Holborn, London. Fig. 47 is their “Eureka” cheerful reflector stove, suitable for office or shop use. These stoves are adapted for warming conservatories where a high temperature is not required, as a very small stove will suffice to keep the frost out; they are also suitable for servants’ bedrooms and attics where no fireplaces exist. They are made with metal (unbreakable) oil containers, which slide out for lighting, trimming, &c., and they burn the ordinary petroleum oil; it naturally follows that the better and more refined oils give the best results with these stoves, with less liability of smell.

Flues.—It will not be out of place to give a short treatise upon flues, as the flues in a residence govern the efficiency of the stoves and the comfort of the whole household.

There is a common error in blaming the flue for all faults. It can be asserted that half the smoky chimneys are in no way the fault of the flue at all, and when a smoky chimney does exist, nearly every one flies to the chimney top with some device to govern the wind, and this in very many cases is a total failure.

Flues are now generally constructed of two sizes, 9 in. and 14 in. A 7 in. flue would be sufficient for most warming stoves, but it has to be borne in mind that the accumulation of soot quickly diminishes the size internally, so that they are now never built less than 9 in. internal diameter. In building a residence, the following plan is often adopted when cheapness is not the primary object, that is, to build the usual square brick chimney, and within this to carry up a 9 in. flue of glazed earthenware[80] pipe (drain pipe), and the space outside this pipe filled with concrete: this pipe flue is so easily cleaned and is much less quickly fouled, and improves the draught.

The very general cause of smoky chimneys is that the chimney top is below the level of some adjacent building, tree, or other object that obstructs the free passage of the wind. In this instance the trouble is only experienced when the wind is in certain quarters, and sometimes this can be cured by a wind-guard or cowl (no particular make can be recommended, as their efficiency differs under different circumstances); but the only reliable remedy is to raise the chimney either by pipe or brickwork to the required height. The manner in which the annoyance is brought about is, that when the wind passes over the chimney top its progress is arrested by the higher object, and it may be said to rebound (the action is rarely quite alike in any two instances), causing either a portion of the gust to pass a short way down the chimney or to momentarily stop the up draught; this will be noticed by the gusts of smoke that come from the stove into the room.

When the smoke slowly oozes into the room, it is caused by sluggish draught, or often by the construction of the grate. If the grate has considerable distance between the fire-bars and the opening into the chimney above, it permits the heavy cold air to accumulate and obstruct the heated up-flow from the fire; this generally is only noticeable when the fire is first lighted or heavily fed. It is exactly the same result as is experienced with the old-fashioned open kitchen ranges, which nearly always require a sheet of metal or “blower” across the opening to prevent their smoking. The above-mentioned grates require a strong draught to work them perfectly; or if a strong draught does not exist, a small piece of sheet-metal should be provided to fit over the open space above the front bars when necessary to establish the fire, as explained with the “Eagle” grate.

Sluggish draughts are from a variety of causes, among which might be named, insufficient height of chimney; chimneys which by any cause may become damp or cold, or lose their heat rapidly; leakages, holes or fissures, and a variety of causes too numerous to mention here. The interior surface of a chimney should be as smooth as possible, and should be swept at regular and moderately frequent intervals, otherwise the draught will be reduced.

Every fireplace should have a distinct and separate flue; sometimes two fireplaces can be successfully worked into one chimney, but provision must be made for tightly closing off either one when not in use.

Hot Water.—Heating by means of the circulation of hot water has been in vogue many years, but has not found favour for warming living-rooms and apartments, owing chiefly to the want of the air of comfort, and the warmth is not quite so agreeable as that radiated from an open fire; but this mode of heating is especially well adapted for conservatories, cold halls, public buildings, &c., as the heat-giving surface can be extended wherever desired, and so heat the place equally throughout; and upon the low-pressure system there is no danger, as the water cannot heat higher than boiling-point, 212° F., an advantage that the hot-air system does not possess. The principle and cause of hot-water circulation will be found fully described under hot-water apparatus; but in this arrangement there are no draw-off taps, the services being for circulating only. For small purposes the apparatus can be attached to the ordinary bath boiler of the kitchen range; but there is a serious disadvantage in this when the heat is for conservatories or where warmth is particularly required at night, as that is the time when the kitchen fire is not in use. For larger purposes, independent boilers are used, varying in size according to the requirements. Portable boilers with fire-box, &c., complete, can be obtained almost anywhere, and most slow-combustion stoves (the “Tortoise,” for instance) can be fitted with boilers for this purpose. It will be understood that these boilers do not require cleaning out like kitchen-range boilers, as there is no appreciable deposit, the same water being heated day after day and only losing say a quart per month by evaporation.

[81]

The arrangement for a hall with an independent boiler is to have several horizontal pipes suitably fixed one above the other and known as a “coil,” from which the heat is radiated, and this coil is connected by a “flow” and “return” pipe with the boiler: a small cistern of about 2 gallons capacity is connected with, and fixed a little above the level of the highest part of the coil in some convenient place. The apparatus is charged through this cistern, and a small quantity of water is added thereto periodically to make good loss by evaporation and to keep the coil full; these coils are usually covered with an iron grated casing, with a metal, slate, or marble top, which is both a useful and ornamental adjunct to the hall.

For conservatories the coil is not used, the radiating pipes being run along the wall near the ground; a portion of the pipe has a shallow open trough cast upon it, and this is filled with water. As the apparatus becomes heated, evaporation takes place, and this saturates the air, moisture being essential for this purpose.

For public buildings, &c., coils are sometimes used; but more often the pipes are run in grated-topped channels just beneath the floor, the grating being level with the floor-boards; they are taken around or across the building, as is most desirable to obtain an equable heat.

The radiating pipes, whether single or forming coils, are generally 4 in. diameter, of cast iron (cast iron being a better conductor or dissipator than wrought), and at the highest point m the apparatus a hole is drilled and a small cock is inserted; this cock is opened when charging, to allow of the free escape of the air in the pipes, and it is sometimes of service to discharge any steam that is generated. The pipes are made with a socket at one end, into which the plain end of the next pipe is inserted and packed with yarn, &c.; but a modern and rapid method of joining the pipes is that patented and manufactured by Jones and Attwood, of Stourbridge; this joint consists of two flanges with indiarubber packing between, which makes a perfectly secure joint by tightening the flanges together; in this method the ends of the pipes are of equal size.

As explained, the principle of circulation is exactly the same in this as in a domestic hot-water supply apparatus. The most popular form is that known as the Desideratum. The makers have also introduced a singularly useful tool for cutting all pipes from 2 to 13 in. diameter.

High-pressure Heating, or which might be correctly termed steam heating, consists of piping wholly, the pipe is smaller and of wrought iron unusually strong, and a coil of it placed within the fire-box fulfils the duty of a boiler (no boiler or large container can be used on account of high pressure); from the furnace coil the pipe is carried wherever required, a small quantity of water is put within the apparatus and the air is driven out, after which the apparatus is sealed or closed air and steam tight. When the heat is applied, the water quickly forms steam, which at once finds its way throughout the apparatus and heats it to a much higher temperature than boiling water; and there is comparatively no danger whatever pressure is exerted, as at the worst the pipe only splits, and no disastrous explosion can occur; but this mode of heating cannot be recommended, as it rarely works for any length of time without requiring attention or repairs.

Bacon’s system of heating by water under pressure (J. L. Bacon & Co., 34 Upper Gloucester Place, London, N.W.) is very good, as the pressure is regulated by a valve, and the temperature and pressure never become excessive. This system is worked by small, strong wrought-iron pipes, and the apparatus is wholly filled with water. The great convenience of the small-pipe system recommends it for all purposes, as it can be carried into almost inaccessible places, and can be utilised for warming air, as it passes through inlet ventilators, and for small drying and airing closets, towel dryers, and for numberless small but exceedingly convenient purposes which large cast-iron pipes would be very unsuited for; and the advocates of this system contend that as much heat is radiated from their small pipes as from the ordinary large ones, as the former are heated[82] to a much higher temperature than the latter: in Bacon’s system the highest limit is about 300° F.

The subject of a supply of hot water for baths and other purposes will be discussed in the chapter dealing with the Bath-room. See also p. 995.

Steam Heat.—Steam heat may well be compared with stove and furnace heat. Stove heat corresponds to direct radiation by steam, and furnace heat to indirect. The supply of fresh air from the outside to and over the hot-air furnace, and through hot-air flue into the rooms through registers, is virtually the same as when it is conveyed by means of steam-heated flues in the walls. Exhaust flues, for getting rid of foul air, are equally essential. The stove, as representing direct radiation in the same manner as the steam coil, or plate, in the room, has the advantage over the latter of some exhaust of foul air, however little, even when the smoke-pipe is not jacketed, for the steam heat has none. In comparison with open-stove heat, steam heat is at still greater disadvantage; for open stoves supply all the qualities of complete radiation—the introduction of fresh air and the escape of foul—to a degree wholly unattainable by steam heat, whether direct or indirect, or by hot-air furnaces, which always require special provision for the escape of foul air.

The advantage of stove and furnace heat over steam may be summed up thus:—It is more economical, more uniform, more easy of management, more suitable for small areas to be warmed, and is free from the noises and dangers of steam. Irregularities of the fire in steam heating are a constant source of inconvenience, and sometimes of danger. The going down of the fire during the night-time, or its neglect for a few hours at any time, is followed by condensation of the steam. On the addition of fuel and increase of heat, steam again flows quickly into the pipes where a partial vacuum has formed, and here, on coming in contact with the condensed water, it drives the water violently, and creates such shocks as sometimes occasion explosions; or, at least, produces very disagreeable noises and general uneasiness, and frequently causes cracks and leaks. Hence direct steam heat, which for warming purposes alone is altogether superior to indirect, has been well-nigh abandoned. Indirect steam heat places the leaks out of sight, but they commonly lead to mischief, and require special and expensive provision for access and repair.

Chemical Heaters.—Many salts in solution are capable of absorbing a considerable amount of heat and slowly giving it off as they resume a crystalline state. That most generally used is soda acetate, but an improvement consists in mixing 1 lb. of soda acetate with 10 lb. of soda hyposulphite, the latter assisting the melting of the mass and retarding crystallisation. The mode of applying this principle is to nearly fill a sheet copper or other metallic vessel, such as a foot-warmer, with the solution, and seal it up. When required for warming purposes, the vessel is placed in boiling or hot water till the contents are quite fluid, after which it may be used as a source of heat for 12-15 hours. Obviously the vessel may be placed in an ornamental structure resembling a stove, or used as a foot-warmer, or a muff-warmer, and in many other ways where fire is inadmissible.

Hints on Fuel, &c.—Suggestions for materials which may be used to eke out a scanty supply of coal cannot fail to be useful. One plan consists in well bedding lumps of chalk under small coal. This gives a long-lasting fire, but is apt to emit an unpleasant odour. Another plan is to make clay fire-balls, using common clay, coal dust and cinders with sand, in about the following proportions:—1 cwt. coal dust, 2 cwt. sand, 1½ cwt. clay, well mixing the ingredients, shaping into fist-like lumps, and drying over night before the fire; to be put on when the surface of the fire is clear.

Some further hints for reviving fires will be found under the Sick-room.

Lighting.—The illumination of a dwelling is a most important consideration, as regards comfort and health.

Daylight.—Natural lighting is provided for by windows. The window area of a room should be well proportioned. In dwelling-rooms, it may amount to half the area[83] of the external wall containing the windows; in churches, &c., ⅓ will suffice. Too great a window area is objectionable, as it considerably lowers the interior temperature in winter, unless very thick glass and double windows are provided. When windows become steamed or covered with condensed moisture in frosty weather, this can be cured by applying a very thin coat of glycerine on both sides of the glass. When direct daylight cannot be got, great advantage may be derived from using polished metallic reflectors.

Luminous Paints.—Several bodies possess the property of absorbing a certain amount of light and emitting it slowly. The most important of these is calcium sulphide. This property has been utilised by mixing the mineral with paint as a covering for surfaces where the light is required. The illumination, however, is very feeble.

Candles.—Candles will long retain a place in domestic lighting from their safety and convenience for carrying about. At the same time they are an expensive source of light, and not very powerful. It may here be mentioned that there is a right and a wrong way of blowing out a candle. If the candle is held on a level with the blower’s mouth, or blown down upon, as usual, as it stands on a shelf or table, the wick will smoulder and smoke till the room is filled with its disagreeable smell, and the wick burned away so that it can be lit next time with difficulty. If the candlestick is held well above the blower’s head, and the flame blown out from below, the ignited wick will almost immediately be extinguished, and no trouble will be found in re-lighting the candle. Avoid cheap candles; they burn rapidly to waste and play havoc with clothes and furniture by “dropping.” The best form of candlestick yet introduced is the “silver torch,” made by Wm. Nunn & Co., 204 St. George Street, London, E. By this the candle is converted into a lamp, with or without a globe as desired; the candle is completely consumed, leaving no ends, and guttering and dropping are quite prevented. Nightlights should always be burned under a glass shade, such as Clarke’s.

Oil Lamps.—All lamps intended for burning animal, vegetable, or mineral oils as illuminants should have the following objects in view:—To supply oil regularly to the wick; to apportion the supply of air to the description and quantity of oil to be burnt; to provide simple means for regulating the height of the wick, and consequently, the flame; and finally, to place the burning portion of the lamp in such a position as not to be obscured by the reservoir and other portions. The oldest lamps, as the antique Etruscan, and the cruisie of Scotland, were on the suction principle, and the wick depended for its supply upon its own capillary action. As the level of the oil was constantly varying, so the light varied also, and the first attempts of inventors were directed to maintaining an equal level of oil. The bird-fountain and hydrostatic reservoirs partly attained this end, and the Carcel and Moderator systems were perfect of their class, mechanical or pressure lamps. It is evident that suction lamps depend for their efficacy upon the gravity of the combustible. A spirit lamp, with a good wick, will burn very well, though the wick be several inches above the liquid. With liquids volatilising at low temperatures, there is always a danger of the formation of explosive mixtures.

In the Silber lamp the burner is a simple aggregation of concentric tubes. The use of these, especially of the innermost, bell-mouthed pipes, becomes very apparent in the lighted lamp. Remove the interior tube, and immediately the flame lengthens and darkens, wavers and smokes. The current of air which is, by this internal conduit, directed into the interior flame surface, is the essential principle of Silber’s invention. The wick is contained in a metal case, surrounded by an air-jacket, which passes down the entire length of the lamp, leaving a small aperture at the base, through which the oil flows from the outer reservoir to the wick chamber. Thus, by the interposition of an atmospheric medium, the bulk of the oil is maintained throughout at a low temperature; 2 concentric bell-mouthed tubes pass down the interior of the wick case, and communicate with the air at the base of the lamp, which[84] is perforated for the purpose; 2 cones, perforated, the inner and smaller throughout, the largest only at the base, surround the wick, and heat the air in its passage through the holes to the flame. The effect of these appliances is, firstly, by the insulation of the outer reservoir, to avoid all danger of vaporisation of the oil, till actually in contact with the wick. As it is drawn nearer and nearer the seat of combustion, the hot metal wick-holder heats, and ultimately vaporises the luminant, so that at the opening of the wick tube concentrically with the air conduits—all of which are exceedingly hot—a perfect mixture of vapour and hot air is formed, and burned. An all-important feature is the shape and position of the chimney, which influences the flame to the extent of quadrupling its brilliancy if properly adjusted. (Field, Cantor Lecture.)

48. Hinks’s Safety Lamp.

The many fires and fatal accidents arising from explosions of mineral oil lamps has drawn official attention to the subject of rendering them safe. Sir F. Abel has stated that all channels of communication between the burner and the reservoir of mineral oil lamps should be protected on the principle of the miners’ safety lamp; he added that a simple arrangement which effected the desired object “with perfect safety” was to attach to the bottom of the burner a cylinder of wire gauze of the requisite fineness, which prevented the transmission of fire from the lamp flame to the air-space of the reservoir. Acting upon this suggestion, Hinks and Son, 60 Holborn Viaduct, have introduced a wire-gauze cylinder for use with their duplex lamps, which renders them absolutely safe. Another advantage with their lamps is the ease with which they are lit and extinguished, as shown in Fig. 48: for lighting, a turn of the thumb-key a gently raises the cone, globe, and chimney, giving free access to the wicks; to extinguish them, it is only necessary to press the lever b.

The Defries safety lamp (Defries Safety Lamp and Oil Co., 43 Holborn Viaduct) is attracting much notice, on account of economy, safety, and illuminating power. The construction of the lamp is such that neither ignition of the vapour, nor outflow of the oil in the event of the lamp being overturned, can occur. Moreover, the oil reservoir, being of metal, is not liable to fracture. It therefore follows that the risks attaching to the employment of mineral oils as illuminating agents in lamps of the ordinary description are non-existent in this lamp. The light emitted is remarkably white, the flame is perfectly steady, and the combustion is effected without the production of the slightest odour or smoke. Results of photometric tests by Prof. Boverton Redwood were more favourable than any he had hitherto obtained with mineral oil lamps of other forms. The illuminating power is, for the size of the burner, in each case very high, while the consumption of oil per candle light per hour is remarkably small. The products of combustion are odourless, even when the normal size of the flame is much reduced by lowering the wick. Any mineral oil, as well as the Defries safety oil, can be used in these lamps. This is quite odourless when spilled or heated, requires a temperature of 308° F. (or 96° F. above the boiling point of water) for its ignition, and does not vaporise below 270° F. Such oil is no more inflammable than colza oil, and is moreover free from the risk of spontaneous combustion. Its price is 1s. 6d. per gal. The absolute necessity for using, in any and every lamp, the most refined and safest grades of mineral oil cannot be too seriously insisted upon, Cheap low oils mean personal risk.

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Gas.—Though gas is long since established as one of the most successful and general illuminants, it is surprising what ignorance exists as to the simple rules which should govern its use.

This section is not intended for the guidance of the professional gasfitter, yet some of the points to be noticed are really within his province, and are mentioned because the householder should be in possession of such knowledge as will enable him to discover or prevent faulty work.

Coal gas, being much lighter than air, flows with greatest velocity in the upper floors of houses; hence the supply pipe may diminish in size as it rises, say from 1¼ in. at the basement to ¾ in. on the 3rd floor. At a point near the commencement of the supply pipe it should be provided with a “siphon,” which is simply a short length of pipe joined at right angles in a perpendicular position and closed at the lower end by a plug screwed in. As all gas-tubes should be fixed with a small rise, this siphon will collect the condensed liquids, which may be drawn off occasionally by unscrewing the plug end. When the lights flicker, it shows there is water in the pipes: the siphon prevents this. The number of gas-burners requisite for lighting a church or other large building may be computed thus. Take the area of the floor in ft. and divide by 40, will give the number of fish-tail burners to be distributed according to circumstances. Example: a church 120 ft. long by 60 ft. wide, contains 7200 ft. area; divided by 40, gives 180 burners required for the same. Burning gas without a ventilator or pipe to carry off the effluvia, is as barbarous as making a fire in a room without a chimney to carry off the smoke. If a pipe of 2 in. diameter were fixed between the joists, with a funnel elbow over the gaselier, and the other end carried into the chimney, it would be a general ventilator. Of course, an open ornamental rosette covers the mouth of the tube; or an Arnott valve ventilator over the mantelpiece would answer the same purpose. In turning off the gas-lights at night, it is usual, first, to turn off all the lights, except one, and then turn off the meter main cock, and allow the one light to burn itself out, and then turn it off. The evil of this system is this,—by allowing the one light to burn itself out, you exhaust the pipes and make a vacuum, and of course the atmospheric air will rush in. The proper way is to turn off all lights first, and finally the meter, thus leaving the pipes full of gas and ready for re-lighting. These few remarks have been derived from Eldridge’s ‘Gas-Fitter’s Guide,’ an eminently useful and practical handbook.

It was formerly the practice to make all gas-burners of metal; the openings, whether slits or holes, from which the gas issued to be burned being small, in order to check the rate of flow. This was an error, for heat and light go together, and the metal, being a good conductor of heat, kept the lower part of the flame cold. The part of burners actually in contact with the flame is now invariably of some non-conducting material, such as steatite; and the effect of this simple improvement is most noteworthy. Bad burners show a great proportion of blue at the lower part of the flame, and the upper or luminous portion is small and irregular in shape, and dull in colour. These effects are due to gas issuing at too great velocity from small holes in burners, as well as to improper material in the latter. The illuminating power of coal gas depends upon the incandescence, at the greatest possible heat, of infinitesimal particles of carbon which it contains, invisible until heated. In the lower, or blue portion of the flame, the heat is not sufficient to render these particles incandescent; and it is necessary that this effect should be secured at the nearest point to the burner. Unless this is done, the light is not only lessened, but the unconsumed carbon passes off and is deposited as soot on ceilings and furniture. Blackened ceilings are a measure of the badness of the burners. It will now be seen why a material which cools the flame should not be used for a burner, for the hotter the flame, the more perfect is the incandescence of the carbon for which in reality the consumer pays, and the less danger there is of blackened ceilings. But in addition to the better material, the construction of even the cheapest[86] modern burners is very greatly improved; although even a good burner may be subjected to such conditions—e.g. allowing gas to be driven through it at a high velocity, a condition usually accompanied by a hissing or roaring sound—as to give a bad result. The capacity of burners should moreover bear a reasonable proportion to the quality of the gas for which they are required to be used. Thus with rich Scotch gas, burners with very small holes, consuming only about 1½ cub. ft. hourly, are sometimes adopted for economical reasons. Occasionally these burners find their way South, but their use for the ordinary qualities of English gas is the worst possible economy. It is difficult to lay down hard and fast rules for the sizes of burners, the purposes for which gas-light is required being so various. For an ordinary apartment, however, wherein distributed lights are adopted, 5 ft. burners with 14 or 15 candle gas, 4 ft. burners with 16 or 17 candle gas, 3 or 3½ ft. burners with 18 or 20 candle gas, and 2½ ft. burners with richer gas will be found to give satisfactory results. It may be remarked that these figures apply to burners regulated in some way to the given rates of consumption, and not to those merely reputed to be of the stated sizes. Various means are adopted for checking the flow of gas, not at the point of ignition, but at some prior point of its course; because it has been found that the slower the rate of flow at the commencement of combustion, the better the result obtained.

Clustering of gas-lights is bad. All parts of a room should be as nearly as possible equally lighted, the only noteworthy exception to this rule being in the case of a dining-room, where concentration of light upon the table is not only permissible but is even demanded. Hence in most cases wall brackets give the best effect, and such masses of light as are afforded by pendants of many arms are to be avoided, or are only required in very large rooms where portions of the floor area would otherwise be insufficiently lighted. When it is desired to light a drawing-room with wax candles—than which nothing is more beautiful—they are distributed wherever support can be found for them. As every gas flame may be considered equal to 12 or 15 candles, with all their wicks together, the inadvisability of further concentration is evident. In fact, gas is if anything too brilliant for living-rooms, and if it were always properly distributed, many a dimly-lighted apartment would be perfectly illumined with the same number of burners which, when massed, appear insufficient. Where concentrated ceiling lights are needed for dining-rooms, many-armed pendants are seldom satisfactory, owing to the shadows which most of them cast. In these cases a single powerful argand light in a suitable reflecting pendant, or a cluster of flat flames similarly provided, will give a better result than the usual branched chandelier, and with a material saving in gas. For it is a curious and valuable property of gas, that large burners can be rendered much more economical in proportion than smaller ones. Thus, if the 4 burners of a branched chandelier give altogether the light of (say) 50 candles, the same illuminating power may be obtained from a greatly reduced quantity of gas when concentrated in a single burner of the most improved kind.

With regard to the smaller flat flames, which are the most general for ordinary lighting, the selection of glass globes is a very important matter. It may be said at once that all the old-fashioned style of glasses, with holes in the bottom about 2½ in. diam., for fitting into the brass galleries of the older pattern pendants and brackets, are objectionable. The reasons for this condemnation are few and simple. It seems never to have occurred to the makers of these things that the gas flames inside the globes are always wider than the openings beneath them, through which the air required for combustion passes; and that, as a rule, the light of the flame is required to be cast downward. Gas flames always flicker in these old-fashioned glasses, because the sharp current of entering air blows them about. And the light cannot come downward because of the metal ring and its arms, and the glass, which is always thicker and generally dingier at this part of the globe. Perfectly plain and clean glass absorbs at least 1/10 of the light that passes through it; ground glass absorbs ⅓; and the ordinary[87] opal obstructs at least ½, and generally more. Only those globes should be chosen therefore which have a very large opening at the bottom, at least 4 in. wide, through which the air can pass without disturbing the flame. The glass then fulfils its proper duty, screening the flame from side draughts, and not causing mischief by a perpetual up-current of its own. Good opal or figured globes of this pattern may be used without disadvantage, because the light is reflected down through the bottom opening more brightly than if there were no globe, while the flame is shaded and the light diffused over other parts of the room.

The degree to which the luminosity of gas is utilised depends very largely upon the burner, people too often setting down as the fault of the gas, defects which should really be ascribed to the burner. In 1871, the Commission appointed by the Board of Trade to watch over the London gas supply, and whose prescriptions in these matters are more or less recognised by the whole country, made an examination of a collection of gas-burners from a large number of sources, and including those in general use. The greater portion of these gave only ½, some even only ¼ of the light that the gas was actually capable of affording. Two points very often neglected are: (1) that the size of the burner should be proportionate to the quantity of gas required to be consumed by it, and (2) that the gas should issue at a very low velocity. In good argands, the pressure at the point of ignition is almost nil; and in flat-flame burners, the pressure should be only just sufficient to blow the flame out into the form of a fan. It is also very necessary that the body of the chamber below the point of ignition should be of material with low heat-conducting power, so that the gas may undergo no increase in volume which would occasion a proportionate increase of velocity, and that the heat may not be conducted away from the flame. To establish this, Evans had 2 argand burners made, differing only in that one had the combustion chamber of brass, and the other of steatite. The latter gave more light than the former in the proportion of 15 to 13 for the same quantity of gas. As another example a No. 8 metal flat-flame burner, consuming 5 cub. ft. of gas per hour, gave a light equal to 11·5 candles, while a steatite burner of corresponding size, with non-conducting combustion chamber, gave 14·6 candles. Another metal burner of a description somewhat generally used, gave about ⅜ of the light that the gas was capable of yielding. Worn-out metal burners generally give the best results, as the velocity of the issuing gas is lower than when the burners are new. A much better result is obtained by burning, say 20 cub. ft. of gas from one burner, than by using 5 burners, each of which consumes 4 cub. ft. This is the reason why the modern argands give so much more light than the older ones, which were drilled with a very large number of holes, and were more suitable for boiling water than for illuminating. If the air which is to support the combustion be heated before it reaches the flame, especially in the case of flat-flame burners, better results are produced, as was pointed out by Prof. Frankland more than 10 years ago, and this principle is now being carried out by some Continental burner makers. Of modern argands there are many excellent varieties, which can evolve 15-30 per cent. more light for the same quantity of gas than the best flat-flame burners. One kind consisting of 3 concentric rings of flame with steatite gas chambers was first used in the public lighting of Waterloo Road in 1879. In another the products of combustion are brought down in a flue fastened round the burner, so as to heat the air which supports the combustion as it passes in pipes through the flue above mentioned to the flame; while a third kind has an arrangement for admitting separate currents of cold air to keep the chimney cool. There seems little doubt that the argand lamp will play a leading part in the gas lighting of the future. An important point connected with the use of gas is that the heat generated by combustion, may be made to do the work of ventilation, as in the fish-gill ventilator invented by the late Goldsworthy Gurney. In this strips of calico are nailed, by the two upper corners, across an opening in the wall, in such a way that each strip laps over the strip next below it. This[88] contrivance, opening and closing like the gills of a fish, is self-acting, as the heated air passes away through the porous material, and cold air is admitted without draught.

Gas is often accused of heating the rooms; but if persons, when burning candles would increase the number of the candles so as to equal the light of the gas-flame, the heat given out would be found to be less when burning gas than when burning lamps or candles.

49. Stott’s Governor.

It is very beneficial to regulate the pressure at which gas reaches the burners, and many complaints of impurity of the air of a room, caused by gas, arise from this want of regulation of pressure. It can be attained by the use of a governor, placed either at the meter or in proximity to the light itself. These are of many forms. Those adapted for placing near the meter are Stott’s, Fig. 49 (174 Fleet Street, E.C.), Parkinson’s, Fig. 50 (Cottage[89] Lane Works, City Road), Strode’s, Fig. 51 (67 St. Paul’s Churchyard), Hargreaves and Bardsley’s (Hobson Street, Oldham), Hulett’s, Fig. 52 (55 High Holborn), Peebles’ (Tay Works, Edinburgh), and Smith’s (130 Fleet Street). Self-regulating burners are the “Christianson,” made by Sugg (Grand Hotel Buildings, Charing Cross), and those made by Bolding—Heran’s patent—(South Molton Street, Oxford Street), Milne, Sons, and Macfie (2 King Edward Street, E.C.), Parkinson (Fig. 53), Peebles, and Kinnear (91 Finsbury Pavement). A little steel blade, costing only a penny, is made by W. H. Howorth, Cleckheaton, Yorkshire, for use on 2-holed burners, which has the effect of silencing a roaring flame and increasing the luminosity. Another contrivance[90] having some of the effects of a regulator, augmenting the light and consuming the smoke (therefore lessening the contamination of the air), is the Spencer Corona, Fig. 54 (3 Hyde Street, New Oxford Street), fitting closely on the top of ordinary gas globes.

50. Parkinson’s Governor.

51. Strode’s Governor.

52. Hulett’s Governor.   53. Parkinson’s Burner.

54. Spencer Corona.

The most practical methods which have been devised for combining the purity of air in a room with artificial light produced from ordinary coal gas, may be classed under four heads:—

(1) The sun burner, in which the products of combustion are removed rapidly from contact with the air of the room.

(2) The globe light, in which the fresh air is supplied and the products of combustion are removed to the outside without any contact with the air of the room.

(3) The regenerative gas light.

(4) The incandescent gas light.

Their several merits are thus discussed in one of the Health Exhibition Handbooks.

The sun burner is practically a powerful ventilator, which, by means of the great heat generated, draws a large volume of air away with the fumes of the gas; it thus relieves the air of the room of the impurities caused by combustion, and at the same time removes impurities generated from other causes. This burner is indeed a sufficiently powerful ventilator to continue acting even in the face of the counteracting draught of an open fireplace; and is consequently much used for crowded rooms. For this dual purpose, it requires to have its fumes carried up through a straight vertical tube direct to the open air. This burner is made by Strode & Co., 67 St. Paul’s Churchyard, and shown in Fig. 55.

55. The Sun Burner.

The globe light has been designed to prevent the products of combustion from mingling at all with the air of a room, but it does not provide for the ventilation of the room at the same time. The principle of the best form is that it should be burned in a glass globe separated from the air of the room; that is to say, the air required for supporting combustion is brought into the globe from the outer air, and the products of combustion are carried away into the outer air without mixing with the air of the room. This light, like the sunlight, is limited in its application. It can be placed near an outside wall, or in a room directly under a roof. If fed with fresh air from the room itself, and if a fire-proof flue be constructed in the ceiling leading into a vertical flue, this light can be put in any part of a room; but the draught from the open fire would be very likely to draw the products of combustion back into the room. This is also made by Strode & Co.

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The Grimston regenerative burner looks like an inverted argand burner. The gas is brought down a central tube, and the products of combustion are carried away through a tube which lies round it, and the air required to feed the burner is brought through passages in this latter tube which are heated by the products of combustion in their course. The light is enclosed in a half globe, and the products may be carried away into the outer air, so that the light need not injure the air of the room in which it is burned. A very remarkable feature about these regenerative arrangements is that the temperature of the outflowing products of combustion at the top of the tube is so low that the hand can be held over the top of the tube without any unpleasant sensation of heat; and the combustion appears to be so perfect that even if the products are not removed from the room, there is much less unpleasantness than with ordinary gas-burners. Other very important regenerative burners are that bearing the name of F. Siemens, the Fourness (S. Gratrix, jun., and Bro., Alport Town, Manchester), and the well-known Wenham (Wenham Co., 12 Rathbone Place, W., and Milne, Sons, and Macfie, 2 King Edward Street, E.C.), two forms of which are shown in Figs. 56 and 57. Sugg’s “London Argand” and “Cromartie” burners are sufficiently familiar to need no description, and are made in a great variety of designs. The “Osborne” pattern is shown in Fig. 58.

56. Wenham Pendant Light.   57. Wenham Standard Light.

Incandescent gas lamps, even if burned in contact with the air of a room, present certain hygienic advantages. In the first place, the air required for combustion is brought into the room from the outside, in the proportion of six volumes of air to one of gas, and therefore the oxygen in the air of the room is not consumed for combustion. In the second place, the gas is consumed in a very perfect manner, so that the injury to the air of a room produced by the combustion is reduced to a minimum. These lights[92] can be placed wherever ordinary gas-lights can, and it is probable that from the hygienic and photometric value of this class of light it is destined at no distant date to replace ordinary gas-burners. The principle of construction is as follows. In the flame of a Bunsen burner is placed a hood of cotton webbing, previously steeped in a solution containing oxides of zirconium, lanthanum, &c. The average consumption in each burner is 2 ft. gas per hour at 9/10 in. pressure, with an illuminating power of 17 candles.

The Albo-carbon light, Fig. 59, (74 James Street, Westminster), consists in superheating ordinary gas and carburetting it by admixture of the vapour generated from the albo-carbon material, which is stored in a reservoir that can be attached to any existing fittings. By its means, the light is very much intensified, steadied, and purified, at very small cost for albo-carbon with a reduced consumption of gas.

58. Sugg’s “Osborne” Burner.   59. Albo-carbon Light.

When gas has been laid on to a house, and the main connected with the meter or even before the latter has been done, it is extremely important to have all the gas-pipes tested, in order to ascertain whether any leakage exists. A very good method is as follows:—All the brackets and pendants, with one exception, are first stopped up with plugs or screwed caps, and the meter is turned off or disconnected. Upon the one outlet not stopped up a force-pump is attached, into the interstices of which have been poured a few drops of sulphuric ether. The force-pump is then connected with a gauge, and is worked until a high pressure has been registered upon it, in order that should the pipes have any latent weaknesses, the pressure exerted will develop and discover them. When the gauge indicates a certain figure, the pumping is stopped, and if the mercury is noticed to fall, it is evident that there are palpable leaks, which are at once searched for. The escaped ether will guide the operator to the whereabouts of these leaks, and the defaulting pipes are at once replaced by others. The pumping is then continued, and the same routine recommences. If the mercury still descends in the gauge glass, and the sense of smell cannot detect where the leak exists, the joints and portions of the pipes are lathered over with soap, whereupon the weak places will be found indicated by bubbles. These parts where the bubbles escape are then marked, heated by means of a portable spirit lamp made for the purpose, and covered over with a durable cement. After a short time, the pump is once more set in action,[93] and if the pipes are tight, and the column of mercury in the gauge maintains itself at the same figure, the soundness of the pipes is assured.

An excellent portable gas-making apparatus is made by H. L. Müller, 22 Mary Ann Street, Birmingham. See also p. 998.

Matches.—An American writer, speaking of the defacement of paint by the inadvertent or heedless scratching of matches, says that he has observed that when one mark has been made others follow rapidly. To effectually prevent this, rub the spot with flannel saturated with any liquid vaseline. “After that, people may try to strike their matches there as much as they like, they will neither get a light nor injure the paint,” and, most singular, the petroleum causes the existing mark to soon disappear, at least when it occurs on dark paint. Matches should always be kept in metallic boxes, and out of the way of children and mice.

Countless accidents, as every one knows, arise from the use of matches. To obtain light without employing them, and so without the danger of setting things on fire, an ingenious contrivance is now used by the watchmen of Paris in all magazines where explosive or inflammable materials are kept. Any one may easily make trial of it. Take an oblong vial of the whitest and clearest glass, and put into it a piece of phosphorus about the size of a pea. Pour some olive oil heated to the boiling point upon the phosphorus; fill the vial about one-third full, and then cork it tightly. To use this novel light, remove the cork, allow the air to enter the vial, and then re-cork it. The empty space in the vial will become luminous, and the light obtained will be equal to that of a lamp. When the light grows dim, its power can be increased by taking out the cork and allowing a fresh supply of air to enter the vial. In winter it is sometimes necessary to heat the vial between the hands in order to increase the fluidity of the oil. The apparatus thus made may be used for six months. (Chicago Times.)

Electric Lighting.—This must not be undertaken without due knowledge or the assistance of skilled workmen. The subject is altogether too large for discussion here with any chance of making it clear and simple. The reader should refer to the works of Hospitalier and others who have made it a study. Allusion may here be made, however, to an essentially domestic system recently introduced by Hospitalier. His object is to provide 10 volt and 1½ ampère lamps operating 3 or 4 hours daily. The result aimed at is that the pile shall daily furnish a quantity of electric energy equal to that expended, and keep the accumulators continually charged. The accumulators form a reservoir, and compensate for the differences between the daily production (which is sensibly continuous) and the irregular production according to needs. This demands a continuous pile of slow discharge, in which the products consumed can be easily renewed, while repairs and supervision are minimised. The choice is a potash bichromate battery.

In a single liquid potash bichromate pile, the elements to be renewed are the zinc and the liquid which contains at once the excitant (sulphuric acid) and the depolariser (potash or soda bichromate). In order to obtain an easy renewal of the zinc, Hospitalier employs the metal in the form of a rod 18 in. in length that dips for about 3 in. only into the liquid, and that is placed in a perforated porous vessel which supports it and prevents all contact with the carbon. A certain mobility is secured to it by means of flexible attachments, so that as it wears away it descends into the liquid. Its lower extremity dips into a mass of mercury, and this keeps it amalgamated. When one rod is used up, another may be substituted for it in a few seconds. The remaining portion of the old zinc is thrown into the porous vessel. The mercury suffices to set up a perfect electric communication with the new rod that has just been introduced. The zincs are thus entirely utilised. The flow secures the continuous renewal of the exciting and depolarising liquid. The precaution to be taken is to cause the liquid to enter at the upper part, and to remove it from the lower. This prevents the elements from getting choked up, and so they may remain mounted several months, operating day and night, without any attention having to be paid to them.

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The positive pole consists of three or four carbon plates which surround the porous vessel that contains the zinc, and which are connected with each other by a strip of copper and screw clamps. The connection of a zinc with the following carbon is made by means of flexible wires, in order to permit the zinc to descend into the liquid as it wears away, as has already been seen.

The four elements are mounted one above another. The liquid enters them from an earthenware reservoir of 5-6 gal. capacity, through a rubber tube. The discharge is regulated by means of a pinch-cock.

Practice has shown that it is useless to make the solution of bichromate. It is only necessary to throw some crystals into the upper reservoir and to pour into the latter some water, acidulated with a tenth of its volume of sulphuric acid. A sufficient quantity of the salt dissolves every time to assure depolarisation. The same liquid may serve 10-12 times before renewal.

There are no precise directions to be given as to the velocity of the discharge, since this must vary according to the needs of consumption. A good average is 1-1½ gal. per day. When the liquid is nearly exhausted, it is well to cause it to circulate a little more quickly. The regulation of the velocity of the flow by the Mohr pinch-cock is one of the simplest operations. After traversing the four pile elements in succession, the liquid enters glass bottles of 2 gal. capacity provided beneath with a pipe to which is affixed a rubber tube.

It is only necessary to take a full bottle, place it over the reservoir, and put the pipe into the reservoir, in order to empty it in a few minutes.

An inspection of the piles is advisable every two days. Were a larger reservoir employed and the velocity of flow moderated, the interval might be still longer.

The four elements in tension alternately charge two series of accumulators each containing three elements. This arrangement allows the use of two kinds of lamps, 6 volt ones in the cellar and small rooms, and 10 volt ones in the dining-room and office.

The cellar lamp is so arranged that it is lighted by opening the door, and extinguished by closing it. Aside from the lamps just mentioned, another is arranged for lighting a dark ante-room, and which lights up for three minutes, only, whenever a button near the door is pressed.

The use of accumulators and flowing piles presents the following advantages: (1) Convenience, the apparatus being always ready to furnish light upon turning a tap; (2) Ease of keeping in repair and of supervision, the flow and the dimensions being capable of regulation so that the consumer need look after the piles only at irregular intervals. (3) Better utilisation of the products as a result of the use of a pencil of zinc instead of wide plates. The surface attacked is reduced to the dimensions that are strictly necessary for the production of a current, and local action is thus diminished. On the other hand, the active liquor is not thrown away until completely exhausted. (4) Quality of the light. This remains steady during the entire time of the lighting, without any manipulation of the pile or any special appliance.

A few hints may be culled from Preece’s lecture on Domestic Electric Lighting, read before the Society of Arts last session.

Makers of lamps seem to consider that there is great credit in securing long life. Unfortunately, glow lamps deteriorate sadly with age. The carbon wastes imperceptibly away, and we are scarcely conscious of the fact that, after 200 or 300 hours, the lamp gives only half the light it did at first. The fact is lamps last too long. The price of a lamp should be such that we could afford to give them a short and merry life. Long life is therefore an objection.

Lamps fail in giving their light occasionally from having an imperfect vacuum. This is very easily detected by feeling the globe. If the vacuum is bad it gets quite hot. Occasionally, but very rarely, lamps explode with a loud report when the current is first[95] put on. This is, perhaps, due to a slight leakage of air making an explosive mixture with the residual gas.

At the present moment, both the nomenclature and the efficiency of glow lamps are in a very unsatisfactory state, and we are buying pigs in a poke at a very high price.

Considerable difference of opinion exists as to the character of the globe enveloping the carbon filament. Some like them clear, some like them ground; others envelope them in shades, or make the globe of a beautiful opal glass. It is very objectionable to have the optic nerve irritated by a brilliant glowing filament; but it is equally absurd to produce a good thing and then strangle it. Grounding and shading mean loss of light. Lamps can be placed so high that they need not affect the eye, and if they do, the light can be so reflected as to be useful elsewhere. The art of lighting a room is to flood it with light without the delicate eye being offended with the direct rays from the source of light.

Switches to turn the lamps on and off are a source of great trouble in a house. As a rule, they are cheap and nasty. When fixed away from the lamps, they introduce into the circuit additional resistance, and therefore waste energy, but they are distinctly serviceable when they are fixed outside the door of a room, so that you can light it before you enter it.

In many cases the lamp is its own switch, but it is objectionable to handle a lamp, and attempts have been made to utilise the weight of the lamp itself when suspended from the ceiling to maintain contact, and to break that contact when the weight is released.

Cuts-out or safety-valves are essential to the security of a house. Short circuiting ought not to occur, but it does, and generally when showing off. It may occur when cleaning. The cut-out is so cheap and so effective that there is no excuse for its neglect. They should be fixed on every circuit.

No one must imagine that electric lighting is absolutely safe from fire. It certainly possesses elements of danger, but elements that are perfectly under control. It is very simple to secure safety if the rules and regulations to avoid fire risks be carefully followed. The simplest rule is to use nothing but the best insulated wire, and to employ none but experienced men to put it up. All accidents that have occurred have arisen from careless wiring and ignorant handling.

The design of the circuits of a house, the dimensions of conductors, the quality of the materials used, the provision against fire risks, the testing of the work done, the adaptability of means to an end, should come within the province of the professional adviser, and not be left to the successful competing contractor, however eminent the firm may be.

Estimates for furnishing electric light installations, ranging from about 3l. upwards, can be had from Messrs. Woodhouse and Rawson United, Limited, 88 Queen Victoria Street, London, E.C., and of Messrs. Appleton, Burbey, and Williamson, of 91 Queen Victoria Street, London, E.C. See also p. 1001.

Furniture and Decoration.—Obviously half the benefit to be derived from good sanitary arrangement of the house itself will be lost if the internal fittings are not arranged with similar regard to healthy conditions. Good drainage and ventilation are thrown away if every corner is to be a receptacle for accumulated dirt and every carpet and curtain a resting-place for dust. Yet that is just the condition of ninety-nine houses out of every hundred. Existing systems of furnishing and decorating are faulty to a degree in this respect, and have called down the strictures of many sanitary reformers. Foremost among them is Edis, who has made this branch of sanitary science a special study. His suggestions for improvements in furnishing and decorating our homes are worthy the attention of every housewife. The following remarks are mainly culled from his paper in one of the Health Exhibition handbooks, and deserves to be more generally known.

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Kitchen Walls.—Commencing at the bottom of the house, Edis advises lining the whole of the scullery walls, and, as far as possible, those of the kitchen also, with glazed tiles, so that there be no absorption and retention of the smells, which must necessarily accrue with the ordinary work of this portion of the house. For a large house, he strongly advocates finishing all the walls in a London basement, so far as the working portion of it, together with the passages, are concerned, with glazed tiles; they are cleanly, absolutely non-absorbent, reflect and give light, are easily washed, and tend to make the house sweet and healthy. The pantries and larders should be so arranged that they have continual ingress of fresh air, and should in all cases be lined with glazed tiles or bricks, so that the smells arising from the contents should not be allowed to be absorbed in the distempered walls, and to render them stuffy and unhealthy. The shelves should be of slate, or better still, of polished marble, so as to be absolutely non-absorbent and easily cleaned.

In every basement a comfortable room for servants should be provided: some small sitting-room fitted up with book-shelves and cupboards, and, if possible, facing the street, so that the workers of the house may have some sort of spare room, in which they may be at rest from their ordinary duties; for, if we want good servants, we must treat them as ordinary beings like ourselves.

Floors.—It is particularly desirable to counteract as far as possible the deleterious influences which are brought about by the absorption of offensive odours in the common deal floors of the various rooms, by having all the joints carefully stopped in, and the whole surface painted over with three or four coats, so that the pores of the wood may be effectually closed, and the crevices, through which dirt and filth of all kinds can enter, and lodge in the spaces between floor and ceiling, practically sealed up. Or the floors may be stained and varnished all over, for varnish of the cheapest kind, whether made with resin in place of hard gums, or petroleum in place of turps, is not only healthy in its application, but cleanly and economical, as it can be readily cleaned of all impurities by a wet cloth, and lasts longer than a mere painted surface, if done properly at the onset, and every coat left to dry and become thoroughly hard before a second coat is put on. Good varnish will dry and be free from all stickiness in one or two days, if the general atmosphere is free from damp. (Edis.)

Boarded floors are at present much more fashionable than carpeted. Whether they are stained or not is a secondary consideration. In hospital wards it is, no doubt, desirable that the boards should be as closely laid as possible, and well waxed, to obviate the necessity of scrubbing, and the possibility of any organic matter sinking into the floor. But in private houses, so long as the carpets are loose and can be taken up, and the boards either scrubbed, dry rubbed, or waxed, we have all that health demands. Were it practised by some Continental nation, and not by ourselves, we should be horrified at the custom of keeping carpets nailed down for a year or more to collect all the dirt that falls throughout that time. Of course, a stained floor looks better than plain deal boards, and oak parquet looks better than either. But in a bedroom the appearance is of secondary importance, and staining, however it is put on, does not last long in a room where there are children or schoolboys. A strip of carpet by the side of the bed, and a square of matting or linoleum before the washing-stand, is sufficient for health. All carpets, of whatever kind, wear better if the boards are perfectly even, and if they are laid down over “carpet lining,” brown paper, or coarse canvas; but this plan is not feasible unless the carpet is fastened down, and a much better plan than nailing is to have loops on the carpet and nails in grooves on the floor, when it can so easily be unhooked, that there is no excuse for not taking it up frequently. Very often carpets and heavy furniture are left untouched because of the difficulty of getting a man in to help where a man-servant is not kept. Of the different sorts of carpeting, those that cost most to start with are certainly not the dearest in the end. Compare, for instance, a good Brussels with a tapestry of about half the first cost,[97] and probably not a sixth part of the durability. The only rooms where tapestry carpets are admissible are where there is little or no traffic, and where the mistress desires much appearance for little money. Inferior floor coverings of whatever kind are dear. A small pattern cuts to greater advantage, usually looks better, and always shows dirt less than a large one,—looks better because the floor is not the part of the room where we wish all eyes to be at first directed; and, therefore, though a light ground often wears better than a dark, we cannot venture to recommend it. Kidderminster is now fashionable; it wears well and can be turned. Small patterns in Kidderminster, as in all double wool fabrics, wear best, because the threads decussate more frequently. Felt carpets wear much better if the colour runs through; if it is only stamped on the top, white patches appear long before the carpet is in holes, which, however, are not long in coming with even a moderate amount of wear. The cheapest carpets have cotton or jute woven in them, and very quickly fade. As to matting, it, too, is of many kinds. The coconut matting, with a coloured pattern or border, looks well on dark wood stairs, and wears better than any other, but it is too rough for most sitting-rooms, even if we do not experience its rapid fraying of skirts and wearing out of thin house shoes that walk over it. India matting of good quality wears a long time, especially if it is kept damp. It is made of grass fibre, and if it gets too dry it quickly splits. In hot weather it must be washed over with water once or twice a week and left wet, and the fibre will absorb enough moisture to keep it fairly tough. Oilcloth, kamptulicon, linoleum, and similar floor coverings, are made of canvas with layers of oil paint. It must be kept for some time after it is made, to harden the paint; if this is not done it splits, and soon wears out. The quality can be judged by the weight, and the heaviest is generally the best. It can be scrubbed with soap and water, and then polished with a dry cloth and a little oil; as little water as possible should be used, or it runs underneath, and causes the cloth to rot. In the country it is a good plan to wash oilcloth with a little skim milk, thus cleaning and polishing it at the same time. (E. A. B., in the Queen.)

Furniture.—It must be evident to common-sense people, that all furniture which collects and holds dust and dirt, which cannot be easily detected and cleaned; that all window valances and heavy stuff curtains with heavy fringes, which cannot be constantly shaken; and that all floor coverings which are fastened down, so that it is impossible to clear away the dust, that gradually, but surely, finds its way under them, and prevents the coverings themselves from being constantly shaken, are objectionable and unhealthy. Such people will therefore avoid all wall coverings which offer resting-places for dirt—such as the high-relief flock patterns, which, however good artistically, are certainly to be avoided on sanitary grounds; will not cover the whole of the floor surfaces with thick carpets, which absorb and retain dust and disease germs, and which cannot be easily removed and cleaned, or shaken, at least once a month; will do away with all heavy window-curtains and valances, which, in small rooms, add so materially to their stuffiness and unhealthiness; and will, as far as practicable, avoid filling their rooms with heavy lumbering furniture, which cannot easily be moved for cleaning purposes, and under and above which dust and other impurities may collect and remain. (Edis.)

Second-hand furniture is often preferable to new. The warps and started joints are plainly visible if bad wood has been some time in use; no more warping will take place, and the price, in comparison with that of new, is often much less than the amount of wear and tear would indicate. There are circumstances that give to old furniture a distinct excellence, quite apart from the existence of a fashion for buying it. It was made by hand; generally the same man worked on each piece throughout, acquiring a special interest in every detail, and thinking no trouble too great to make it more perfect. (E. A. B.)

In choosing chairs and tables for the drawing-room, the more varied they are in size and shape the better. Let the wood be all fairly similar, but the materials may be as[98] widely different as possible, and a judicious blending of several colours is the one thing aimed at by those who have good taste. Let me warn my readers against cheap cretonnes; they wear atrociously, and only look well for the first few months. Plush and Utrecht velvet last for ever, but, as they are rather expensive, less costly material can be used for the sofa and a few of the chairs. Do not get one of those dreadful curved sofas that only admit of being sat on, for the primary object of a sofa is to allow of your reclining at full length when fatigued or ill. In a good-sized drawing-room a centre ottoman is allowable, but never in a small room, as it would take up too much space; it is a good plan to have the ottoman made to come to pieces, it will then form several small couches in the event of a large “at home” or dance being given.

With regard to dining-room furniture, get a suite of some light wood—ash or oak—and leather seats to the chairs, or American leather. Sideboards of the present day are very handsome and rather elaborate. You can sometimes pick up very good second-hand dining-room suites, upholstered in the best style, for half their original price. If you intend to have a mirror over your dining-room mantelpiece, see that it is framed in wood similar to your chairs and table, and eschew gilt mirrors in any form, as they are the very acme of bad taste and vulgarity. In choosing the dining-room curtains, bear in mind the colour of the wall paper, or they may clash most inharmoniously. The cheapest way of getting these curtains would be to buy some tapestry stuff by the yard, and make them up at home. Everything in a dining-room should match, see therefore that the curtain pole, bell handles, and coal scuttle are all of the same wood as the rest of the furniture.

If the drawing-room is on the first floor, with a small landing outside, cover the latter entirely with carpet, do not simply continue the stair carpet across it, it will look as well again covered. Should it be a good sized landing, put a square carpet down and stain the edges of the floor. By way of keeping out draughts, and making the hall and staircase look less bare than is usually the case, get some curtains and hang them outside the dining-room and drawing-room doors. Indian dhurries are useful, as they are so cheap, but the objection to them is that there are none made between 6 ft. 6 in. and 11 ft. in length.

There are no special rules to be laid down about furnishing a morning room or boudoir: the remarks made on drawing-rooms would apply to a great extent; the furniture should be suitably small, and only very cosy and comfortable chairs and couches allowed, and no great expense should be incurred. If the lady of the house cannot afford to have more than one bedroom handsomely furnished, it should be the one occupied by herself. Many advocate most strongly a “half tester” bedstead, as in the event of sickness, the hangings and curtains keep away draughts and shade the eyes from any strong light. Brass and black bedsteads look best, with some pretty coloured dimity hangings, and of course a spring mattress. Be particular about the stuffing of the pillows, and if you decide on feathers, have them of the very best, as the inferior ones are apt to have a slight smell, besides being hard and uncomfortable to sleep on. Choose a suite of some light wood, consisting of a wardrobe with a plate-glass door, a washstand with tiled back, and a toilet table with a fixed glass and with plenty of small drawers, the latter being invaluable for keeping light easily crushed articles, such as feathers, flowers, &c., which otherwise are apt to litter about the room in cardboard boxes. For the windows, Syrian curtains are the cheapest, and have the extra advantages of being fashionable and pretty, but coloured dimity to match the bed look the nicest, though of course they would never do in London. Buy (second-hand) a comfortable, old-fashioned armchair, covering it with some serviceable material; and a small table, the height of the bed. It is a good thing to have a small cupboard under lock and key, to hold medicine bottles, &c. You can get very artistic-looking oak ones, quite small, with a shelf above for books, and they form a handsome ornament to the walls.

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The spare room or rooms need never necessarily have the “half tester” bedsteads, and so you are saved the expense of buying a quantity of bedhangings and what follows in their train—a heavy washing or cleaning bill. In the event of your not wanting to spend much money on the furnishing of your spare bedroom, remember that at sales very often good things can be picked up at a low price. If you will have a charming bedroom suite at a low rate, be on the look-out for some common deal furniture—never mind its being second-hand and the paint dirty, so long as the wood is whole. Perhaps a friend has an old toilet table or a chest of drawers that she wants to get rid of, or you come across a cheap lot at a broker’s; do not be dismayed at the paint being gaudy, perhaps, or dirty, for this is the secret—have them all painted some uniform neutral colour (grey, picked out with dark mouldings, looks well), and then varnished, and you will be delighted with the result. In conclusion, a good substitute for a wardrobe may be made in this way. If there is a small recess in the room (there very often is one by the chimney), put across it a deal board, stained or painted, and varnished, about 6 ft. from the ground, with an ornamental moulding depending from the front edge, and hang curtains in front, putting up underneath as many dress pegs as the width of the recess will allow. (C. H. D., in the Queen.)

Ceilings.—If the cornices of the rooms be deeply recessed and filled with heavy plaster ornaments, they must of necessity hold dust and other impurities, which are increased by the action of damp air causing decomposition, and by mixing with the air in the room, when stirred or blown away from their resting places by draught from opened door or window, must render it impure and unhealthy. In addition to this, they are more or less choked up by every coat of so-called distemper decoration, and this again, by absorbing damp and obnoxious exhalations, adds materially to the sense of stuffiness and foulness which can be appreciably felt on first opening up the room after it has been closed for some hours. It is better, if possible, to paint all ceilings and cornices than to distemper them, so as to render them as non-absorbent as possible; by painting, the plaster-work is covered with a non-absorbent coating, on which if desired a coat of distemper may afterwards be added.

Walls.—As a rule it is desirable as far as possible not to disturb the general flatness of wall surfaces, and to avoid all patterns which obtrude themselves too prominently upon the eye, or cause the space, whether covered with paper or painted decoration, to be broken into groups of ornament, or into distinct lines cutting it transversely or horizontally. The wall surface may be divided either by a chair or frieze rail and be treated in different shades of colour with good effect; or the upper portion may be covered with good artistic painting, which will add to the beauty and picturesqueness of the room. Where the upper space is covered with paper or distemper, the pattern or colouring should offer no startling contrasts, and the lower portion may be painted and varnished, so as to be readily cleaned. The colour of the wall surfaces of the different rooms must naturally depend upon the purposes for which the rooms are used, as the apparent warmth and pleasurable appearance of the room is materially enhanced or detracted from by the treatment of the wall-colouring; and while it is necessary to treat the surface of one room as a background for pictures, it may be desired to have another brighter and more decorative; but wherever possible, in passages, halls and staircases, it is desirable to varnish as much of the wall surface as possible, so as to render it non-absorbent and readily cleaned.

In the selection of paper or other hangings, and in the arrangement of all ornament in wall or panel decoration, it becomes a matter of importance to select none which shall have distinct and strongly marked patterns, in which the ornament stands out and repeats itself in endless multiplication and monotony. All staring patterns should be avoided. Almost all papers may now be considered practically free from arsenic; the largest printers of machine-printed papers now use little or no arsenical colours; the principal manufacturers of block-printed papers allow on colours with a known trace of[100] arsenic to enter their factories; and, as the colours of this class of paper-hangings are more thoroughly bound with size than those which are machine-made, they are to be recommended for house decoration in preference to the cheaper kinds, as being to a certain extent more lasting.

Paper-hangings must enter largely into the decoration of all the wall surfaces of our houses; but, on sanitary grounds, all flock papers, however beautiful in design, are especially to be avoided, for, from the very nature of their design and treatment, they are detrimental to the healthy condition of the room. The patterns stand out in relief, and offer innumerable spaces for dust and dirt, while the generally fluffy nature of the material, practically powdered wool, renders it more absorbent and therefore more unhealthy; and the surface holds dust and dirt to a much larger degree than the ordinary printed papers, thus tending to a stuffy and unwholesome feeling, which is essentially at variance with all laws of health and comfort.

Stamped papers, in which the pattern is raised in relief, offer the same objections in a minor degree, as the surface is smooth and can be readily cleansed; and in the case of the imitation leather papers, the surface is varnished, and can be readily gone over with a damp cloth without injury. These papers can be well used for the dados of rooms or frieze decoration, and as such are exceedingly effective, although, of course, from the very nature of the manufacture, much more expensive than plain painting and varnishing. A good deal of illness often arises from the bad nature of the size and paste with which the ordinary wall-papers are hung, and great care should be taken that no such inferior, and practically stinking materials are allowed.

Cupboards.—In most houses it is common to have the store places for clothes and other household goods, practically self-contained in every room, and therefore we put therein furniture sufficient for our requirements; but we all know how soon our drawers and wardrobes get overcrowded, and the nuisance and annoyance it often is to have to take out coat after coat, or dress after dress, until we reach the particular one we want, which may be stowed away at the bottom of the drawers or chest, and it surely must appeal to ordinary common sense, to utilise in every way, with constructional fittings as far as possible, all spaces which, as a rule, are practically useless. If the cupboards are taken up to the ceiling line, that is to say an extra tier added to the ordinary wardrobe fitting, increased storeroom would be provided for clothing not immediately required. There would be less crowding up of the existing cupboards and drawers, and the ills of the flat exposed tops of the ordinary fittings, to which Edis before referred, would be done away with. Why not, in the window recesses of every bedroom, provide fixed ottoman boxes which can be used as seats, as well as store places, and if covered with stuffed tops, may thus not only be made useful, but comfortable; while in the sitting-rooms they might be used for store places for papers and magazines until bound up, and thus help to do away with the littering of our rooms, or the storing away of all such things in inaccessible places, where they are seldom dusted, and only help to breed dirt and disease.

Windows.—If instead of the usual heavy and ugly valances, which so many people still insist upon placing over their windows, as a top-finish to the curtains, we were to provide framed recesses constructed with the architraves, or mouldings, which run round the window-openings, with slightly arched heads, leaving room for a slight iron rod to be fixed behind and out of sight, with space for the proper and easy running of the curtain, we should have not only a much more artistic, but certainly a much more healthy and less expensive arrangement; and these arched heads would form part of the constructive finishing, at no more cost than the framed and panelled window linings and architraves, and if carried up to the ceiling, with the cornice returned round, would leave no spaces for the accumulation of dirt and dust, such as are now provided by the projecting boxed linings and the heavy valances, fringes, and poles, which the modern upholsterer provides.

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Bedrooms.—The wall surfaces of bedrooms should be hung with some small and simple decorative paper of one general tone, but with no particularly emphasised design, so that we are annoyed at night with flights of birds, or symmetrical patterns of conventional primroses, daisies, or fruits, which might in any way suggest a countless and never-ending procession along the walls. Any pattern or design which shows prominently any set pattern, or spots which suggest a sum of multiplication, or which, in the half-light of night or early morning, might be likely to fix themselves upon the tired brain, suggesting all kinds of weird forms, are especially to be avoided. The design should be of such a description that, saving as regards colour, it should offer no specially marked pattern.

The general wall surfaces should be varnished if possible, so that they may be easily cleaned down and be made practically non-absorbent.

The general woodwork of the doors, windows, and skirtings should be painted in some plain colour to harmonise or contrast with the wall decoration, and the whole varnished; woodwork finished in this way can be easily washed or cleaned, and the extra expense of varnishing will be saved in a few years. The bedstead should be of brass or iron, the furniture of light wood, varnished or polished; and, now that good painted tiles can be obtained at small expense, they may be used in washing-stands with good effect, or the wall above may be lined entirely with them to a height of 2 or 3 ft.

As regards the general floor surfaces, let them be entirely painted, or stained and varnished, so as to present non-absorbent and easily cleaned surfaces, or better still, finished with parquet flooring, which is almost entirely non-absorbing, and which can be cleaned by a damp cloth every day; with rugs or simple homespun carpets laid down beside the bed, and elsewhere, where required, so as to be easily taken up and shaken every day without trouble. There is one objection to square carpets in a bedroom, and that is, if you are lightly shod, or, as is often the case, barefoot, the polished floor is very unpleasantly cold; and also, as it is not every one who can indulge in the luxury of a bedroom fire, a wholly carpeted floor tends to keep out draughts and make the room generally warmer.

If you do away with all resting-places for dirt and dust on the tops of wardrobes and hanging closets, and behind and under chests of drawers and other heavy furniture, there will naturally be much less labour required in cleaning and purifying the rooms. Heavy curtains should be avoided, indeed it is difficult to see why curtains are needed at all in bedrooms, if the window-blinds be of some dark-toned stuff sufficient to hide light, and to keep out the glare of the morning sun.

Nurseries.—In all the upper rooms of a house, which may be used as nurseries, Edis would, where practicable, construct semi-octagonal projecting bays, so as to provide for the greatest possible light and sunshine; and if this cannot be arranged, the windows should be as widely splayed inside as possible, and no light or sunshine shut out by heavy curtains or venetian blinds; and here, too, as in the best rooms of the house, should be thick plate, instead of the miserably thin glass, which is considered sufficient in the upper portions of so many houses; the thick glass gives truer light, is less penetrated by sound, and helps to retain the warmth of the room after the fires have gone out, and the house is left to cool in the long night hours.

The walls of the nurseries should be hung with some bright and cheerful pattern paper, varnished for health’s sake, while the upper portion should be distempered; the upper space or frieze should be divided from the general wall surface by a small deal painted picture rail, but the ceilings and frieze should be cleaned off and re-distempered every autumn, as nothing tends so much to sweeten the rooms as this annual cleaning off and re-doing of the ceilings, which naturally are more impregnated with the impurities of the shut-up rooms than any other portion of them. Paint or varnished papers are always more healthy than distemper, as they can be readily washed, and do not absorb and hold dirt and other impurities.

[102]

The walls of the night nurseries should be hung with a soft, general toned paper, varnished, so as to be sponged every week, or distempered all over, so as to be re-done at small cost at frequent intervals, for it is essential in the ordinary low-pitched upper rooms of town houses, generally devoted to nurseries, to wash out as often as possible, the peculiar stuffy bedroom atmosphere, which must be absorbed in the walls and ceilings of all low rooms. The tone of colouring or pattern on the walls should above all not be spotty or glaring, with strongly defined forms presenting nightmare effects to drive away sleep, or disturb our little ones in the hours of feverish unrest or sickness. But in the rooms they live in there is no reason why the “writing on the walls” should not be the earliest teaching of all that is beautiful in nature, art, or science, and by good illustrations of fairy lore and natural forms incline the thoughts of our children to all that is graceful and beautiful in nature or imaginative faculties.

Bells and Calls.—No house can now be considered complete without it is fitted with call-tubes or bells, especially the latter. Call-tubes are more general in places of business, but they might often replace bells in a house with advantage to all concerned. The wires for bells are carried in tubes and boxes concealed by the finishing of the walls and skirting. These tubes are often of tinned iron or zinc, but they ought to be either of brass or strong galvanised iron. Zinc cannot be depended on: in some places it will moulder away; if not soldered, it opens, and the wires work into the joinings of the tube, which stops their movement. The old-fashioned system of bells is being largely supplanted by electric bells.

Electric Bells.—An ordinary electric bell is merely a vibrating contact breaker carrying a small hammer on its spring, which hammer strikes a bell placed within its reach as long as the vibration of the spring continues. The necessary apparatus comprises a battery to supply the force, wires to conduct it, circuit-closers to apply it, and bells to give it expression.

60. Battery.

The Leclanché battery (Fig. 60) is the best for all electric bell systems, its great recommendation being that, once charged, it retains its power without attention for several years. Two jars are employed in its construction: the outer one is of glass, contains a zinc rod, and is charged with a solution of ammonium chloride (sal-ammoniac). The inner jar is of porous earthenware, contains a carbon plate, and is filled up with a mixture of manganese peroxide and broken gas carbon. When the carbon plate and the zinc rod are connected, a steady current of electricity is set up, the chemical reaction which takes place being as follows:—The zinc becomes oxidised by the oxygen from the manganese peroxide, and is subsequently converted into zinc chloride by the action of the sal-ammoniac. After the battery has been in continuous use for some hours, the manganese becomes exhausted of oxygen, and the force of the electrical current is greatly diminished; but if the battery be allowed to rest for a short time the manganese obtains a fresh supply of oxygen from the atmosphere, and is again fit for use. After about 18 months’ work, the glass cell will probably require recharging with sal-ammoniac, and the zinc rod may also need renewing; but should the porous cell get out of order, it is better to get a new one entirely, than to attempt to recharge it.

On short circuits, 2 cells may suffice, increasing up to 4 or 6 as required. It is false economy to use a battery too weak to do its work properly. The battery should be placed where it will not be subject to changes of temperature, e.g. in an underground cellar.

The circuit wire used in England for indoor situations is “No. 20” copper wire, covered with guttapercha and cotton. In America, “No. 18, first-class, braided, cotton-covered, office wire” is recommended, though smaller and cheaper kinds are often used.[103] The wire should be laid with great regard to keeping it from damp, and ensuring its perfect insulation. Out of doors, for carrying long distances overhead, ordinary galvanised iron wire is well adapted, the gauge running from “No. 4” to “No. 14,” according to conditions. Proper insulators on poles must be provided, avoiding all contact with foreign bodies; or a rubber-covered wire encased in lead may be run underground.

The circuit-closer, or means of instantaneously completing and interrupting the circuit, is generally a simple press-button. This consists of a little cylindrical box, provided in the centre with an ivory button, which is either (1) attached to a brass spring that is brought into contact with a brass plate at the back of the box on pressing the button, or (2) is capable of pressing together 2 springs in the box. A wire from the battery is attached to the spring of the press-button, and another from the bell is secured to the brass plate. Platinum points should be provided on the spring and plate where the contact takes place. While the button is at rest, or out, the electric circuit is broken; but on being pressed in, it completes the circuit, and the bell rings.

61. Bell.

The relative arrangement and connection of the several parts is shown in Fig. 61. a, Leclanché cell; b, wire; c, press-button; d, bell. When the distance traversed is great, say ½ mile, the return wire e may be dispensed with, and replaced by what is known as the “earth circuit,” established by attaching the terminals at f and g to copper plates sunk in the ground.

The bells used are generally vibrating ones, and those intended for internal house use need not have a higher resistance than 2 or 3 ohms. At other times, single-stroke and continuous-ringer bells have to be provided, the latter being arranged to continue ringing until specially stopped. The bell may or may not be fitted with an annunciator system; the latter is almost a necessity when many bells have to ring to the same place, as then 1 bell only is requisite. A single-stroke bell is simply a gong fixed to a board or frame, an electro-magnet, and an armature with a hammer at the end, arranged to strike the gong when the armature is attracted by the magnet. A vibrating bell has its armature fixed to a spring which presses against a contact-screw; the wire forming the circuit, entering at one binding-screw, goes to the magnet, which in turn is connected with the armature; thence the circuit continues through the contact-screw to the other binding-screw, and out. When set in motion by electricity, the magnet attracts the armature, and the hammer strikes the bell; but in its forward motion, the spring leaves the contact-screw, and thus the circuit is broken; the hammer then falls back, closing the circuit again, and so the action is continued ad libitum, and a rapid vibratory motion is produced, which makes a ringing by the action of the successive blows of the hammer on the gong.

The following useful hints on electric bell systems are condensed from Lockwood’s handy little volume on telephones.

With regard to the battery, he advises to keep the sal-ammoniac solution strong, yet not to put so much in that it cannot dissolve. Be extremely careful to have all battery connections clean, bright, and mechanically tight, and to have no leak or short circuit. The batteries should last a year without further attention, and the glass jars never ought to be filled more than ¾ full.

(a) 1 Bell and 1 Press-button.—The simplest system is 1 bell operated by 1 press-button. The arrangement of this is the same whether the line be long or short. Set up the bell in the required place, with the gong down or up as may be chosen; fix press-button where wanted, taking all advantages offered by the plan of the house; e.g. a wall behind which is a closet is an excellent place to attach electrical fixtures, because[104] then it is easy to run all the wires in the closets, and out of sight. Set up the battery in a convenient place, and, if possible, in an air-tight box. Calculate how much wire will be requisite, and measure it off, giving a liberal supply; joints in inside work are very objectionable, and only admissible where absolutely necessary. Cut off insulation from ends of wire where contact is to be made to a screw. Only 3 wires are necessary, i.e. (1) from 1 spring of the press-button to 1 pole of the battery, say the carbon, (2) from the other spring of the button to 1 binding-screw of the bell, (3) from the other pole of the battery to the other binding-screw of the bell. In stripping wires, leave no ragged threads hanging; they get caught in the binding-screw, and interfere with the connection of the parts. After stripping the wire sufficiently, make the ends not only clean but bright. Never run 2 wires under 1 staple. A button-switch should be placed in the battery-circuit, and close to the battery, so that, to avoid leakage and accidental short circuiting when the bells are not used for some time, it may be opened.

(b) 1 Bell and 2 Press-buttons.—The next system is an arrangement of 2 press-buttons in different places to ring the same bell. Having fixed the bell and battery, and decided upon the position of the 2 buttons, run the wires as follows:—1 long covered wire is run from 1 pole of the battery to 1 of the springs of the most distant press-button, and where this long wire approaches nearest to the other press-button it is stripped for about 1 in. and scraped clean; another wire, also stripped at its end, is wound carefully around the bared place, and the joint is covered with kerite tape; the other end of the piece of wire thus branched on is carried over and fastened to the spring of the second press-button. This constitutes a battery wire branching to 1 spring of each press-button. Then run a second wire from 1 of the bell binding-screws to the other spring of the most distant press-button, branching it in the same manner as the battery-wire to the other spring of the second button; connect the other pole of the battery to the second binding-screw of the bell, and the arrangement is complete—a continuous battery-circuit through the bell when either of the buttons is pressed. Before covering the joints with tape, it is well to solder them, using rosin as a flux.

(c) 2 Bells and 1 Press-button.—When it is required to have 2 bells in different places, to ring from 1 press-button at the same time, after erecting the bells, button, and battery, run a wire from the carbon pole of the battery and branch it in the manner described to 1 binding-screw of each bell; run a second wire from the zinc pole of the battery to 1 spring of the button, and a third wire from the other spring, branching it to the remaining binding-screw of both bells. It will not answer to connect 2 or more vibrating bells in circuit one after another, as the 2 circuit-breakers will not work in unison; they must always be branched, i.e. a portion of the main wire must be stripped, and another piece spliced to it, so as to make 2 ends.

(d) There are other methods, one of which is, if more than 1 bell is designed to ring steadily when the button is pressed, to let only 1 of the series be a vibrating bell, and the other single-strokes; these, if properly set up and adjusted, will continuously ring, because they are controlled by the rapid make and break of the 1 vibrator.

(e) Annunciator system.—To connect an indicating annunciator of any number of drops with a common bell, to be operated by press-buttons in different parts of a house, is a handy arrangement, as one drop may be operated from the front door, another from the drawing-room, a third from the dining-room, and so on. The annunciator is fastened up with the bell near it. All the electro-magnets in the annunciator are connected by 1 wire with 1 binding-screw of the bell, and the other binding-screw of the bell is connected with the zinc of the battery. It is a good plan to run a wire through the building from top to bottom, at one end connecting it with the carbon pole of the battery. It ought to be covered with a different coloured cotton from any other, so as to be readily identified as the wire from the carbon. Supposing there are 6 press-buttons, 1 in each room, run a wire from 1 of the springs of each of the press-buttons to the main wire from the[105] carbon pole, and at the point of meeting strip the covering from both the main wire and the ends of the branch wires from the press-buttons, and fasten each branch wire to the main wire, virtually bringing the carbon pole of the battery into every press-button. Next, lead a second wire from the other spring of each press-button to the annunciator screw-post belonging to the special drop desired. This will complete the circuit when any of the press-buttons is pushed; for, as each annunciator magnet is connected on 1 side to its own press-button, and on the other side to the common bell, it follows that when any button is pressed, the line of the current is from the carbon pole of the battery, through the points of the press-button, back to the annunciator, thence through the bell to the zinc pole of the battery; and that, therefore, the right annunciator must drop and the bell must ring. In handsome houses, run the wires under the floor as much as possible, and adopt such colours for wire covering as may be harmonious with the paper and paintings. Also test each wire separately, as soon as the connection is made.

(f) Double system.—A system of bells in which the signalling is done both ways, that is, in addition to the annunciator and bell located at one point, to be signalled by pressing the button in each room, a bell is likewise placed in each room, or in a certain room, whereon a return signal may be received—transmitted from a press-button near the annunciator. This is a double system, and involves additional wires. One battery may furnish all the current. Run the main carbon wire through the house, as before, in such a manner as to admit of branch wires being easily attached to it. Run a branch wire from it to the spring of one of the press-buttons, a second wire from the other spring of the same button to the screw-post of the bell in room No. 2, and from the other screw-post of the said bell to the zinc pole of the battery. This completes one circuit. The other is then arranged as follows:—The main carbon, besides being led, as already described, to the spring of the press-button in room No. 1, is continued to one of the binding-screws of the bell in the same room; the other terminal of that bell is carried to one spring of the press-button in room No. 2; the complementary spring of that press-button is then connected by a special and separate wire with the zinc of the battery, and the second circuit is then also completed.

An alternative method is to run branches from the main carbon wire to all the press-buttons, and from the main zinc wire to all the bells, connecting by separate wires the remaining bell terminals with the remaining press-button springs. In the latter plan, more wires are necessary. Although the connections of but one bell either way have been described, every addition must be carried out on the same principle.

When 2 points at some distance from one another, e.g. the house and a stable 100 yd. distant, are to be connected, it is easy to run 1 wire, and use an earth return. If gas or water pipes are in use at both points, no difficulty will be found in accomplishing this. A strap-key will in this case be found advantageous as a substitute for a press-button. The connecting wire at each end is fastened to the stem of the key; the back contact or bridge of the key, against which when at rest the key presses, is connected at each end with one terminal of the bell, the other terminal of each bell being connected by wire with the ground. A sufficient amount of battery is placed at each point, and 1 pole of each battery is connected with the earth, the other pole being attached to the front contact of the strap-key. If impossible to get a ground, the second terminal of both bell and battery at each end must be connected by a return wire.

(g) Bell and Telephone.—It is a very easy matter to add telephones to bell-signalling appliances, when constructed as here described. The only additions necessary are a branch or return circuit for the telephones, and a switch operated by hand, whereby the main wire is switched from the bell return wire to the telephone return wire. A very simple plan for a bell-call and telephone line from one room to another, can be made as follows: Apparatus required—2 bells, 2 telephones, 2 3-point switches, 2 strap-keys with back and front contacts, and 1 battery. Run 1 wire from the stem of the key in room No. 1 to the stem of the key in room No. 2. This is the main wire. Fix the bell[106] and 3-point switch below it in each room. Connect the back contact of each key by wire to the lever of the 3-point switch, attach 1 of the points of the switch to 1 of the bell terminals, and the other bell terminal to a return wire. The return wire will now connect the second bell terminal in one room with the second bell in the other room. The other point of the switch in each room is now connected by a wire with 1 binding-screw of a telephone, and the other telephone screw is attached by another wire to the bell return. Connecting 1 pole of the battery also to the return wire, and the other pole to each of the front contacts of the keys, the system is complete. When at rest, each switch is turned on to the bell. To ring the bell in the other room, the key is pressed. The battery circuit is then from battery, front contact of the pressed key, stem of key, main wire, stem of distant key, switch, bell, and through return wire to the other pole of the battery. After bell signals are interchanged, the 3-point switches are transferred to the telephone joint, and conversation can be maintained. (Lockwood.)

Making an Electric Bell.—The following description applies to 3 sizes—viz. for a 2 in. bell, hereafter called No. 1; 2¾ in., or No. 2; 4 in., or No. 3, which sizes are sufficient for most amateurs’ purposes, and, if properly made, a No. 3 Leclanché cell will ring the largest 2 through over 100 yd. No. 24 (B. W. G.) wire.

The Backboard and Cover.—This may be of any hard wood, by preference teak, oak, or mahogany, and if polished, so much the better; the size required will be—

No. 1,5½ in.long,3¾ in.wide,½ in.thick.
No. 2,7   in.3¾ in.¾ in.
No. 3,8½ in.5 in.¾ in.

The cover must be deep enough to cover all the work, and reach to within about ¼ in. of the top and sides of back, and allow ⅜ in. to ¾ in. between the edge of bell and cover; the making of this had better be deferred until the bell is nearly complete.

62. Electro-Magnet.

The Electro-Magnet.—This should be of good round iron, and bent into a horse-shoe shape (Fig. 62). The part a b must be quite straight, and not damaged by the forging; the bend should be as flat as possible, so as to make the magnet as short as may be (to save space). When made, the magnet is put into a clear fire, and when red hot, taken out and laid in the ashes to slowly cool; care must be taken not to burn it. Lastly, 2 small holes are drilled in the centre of the ends at c, about 1/16 in. deep; drive a piece of brass wire tightly into the holes, and allow the wire to project sufficiently to allow a piece of thin paper between the iron and the table when the iron is standing upon it; this is to prevent the armature adhering to the magnet from residuary magnetism, which always exists more or less. The measurements are—

No. 1size iron¼ in.,d to e⅝ in.,a to b1¼ in.
No. 25/16 in.,¾ in.,1⅜ in.
No. 37/16 in.,¾ in.,1½ in.

The Bobbins or Coils.—These are made by bending thin sheet copper round the part a b of the magnet; the edges at a (Fig. 63) must not quite meet. The thickness of this copper must be such that 4 pieces just equal in thickness the edge of a new threepenny-piece (this is rather an original gauge, but then all can get at the thickness this way). The hole in the brass end b must be just large enough to push on firmly over[107] the copper when on the iron; they must then be set true, and soldered on. The brass for the ends may be about as thick as a sixpence; a 1/16 in. hole must be drilled at c, close to the copper. The other measurements are as follows:—

No. 1,diameter⅜ in.,length over all1⅛ in.
No. 2,¾ in.,1¼ in.
No. 3,1 in.,1⅜ in.

The brass ends should be neatly turned true and lacquered.

63. Bobbin.   64. Winding Bobbin.

To fill the Bobbins with Wire.—For this purpose, No 28 wire should be used, which is better if varnished or paraffined. The bobbins should be neatly covered with paper over the copper tube and inside of ends, to prevent any possibility of the wire touching the bobbin itself; the bobbin is best filled by chucking it on a mandrel in the lathe, or a primitive winding apparatus may be made by boring a hole through the sides of a small box, fit a wire crank and wooden axle to this, and push the bobbin on the projecting end—thus (Fig. 64): a, crank; b, box; c, bobbin; d, axle. The box may be loaded to keep it steady; on any account do not attempt to wind the wire on by hand—the bobbin must revolve. Leave about 1½ in. of wire projecting outside the hole d, in end of bobbin, and wind the wire on carefully and quite evenly, the number of layers being respectively 6, 8, and 10; the last layer must finish at the same end as the first began, and is best fastened off by a silk or thread binding, leaving about a 3 in. piece projecting. Both bobbins must be wound in the same direction, turning the crank from you, and commencing at the end nearest the box. The bobbins must now be firmly pushed on the part a b of the magnet, and the two pieces of wire projecting through the hole c soldered together.

To put the Bell together.—First screw on the bell. This should be supported underneath by a piece of ¼ in. iron tube, long enough to keep the edge of the bell ⅜ to ⅝ in. above the backboard. Cut off the hammer-rod, so that when the head is on it will come nearly as low as the bell screw, and in a line with it. Make a hole in the backboard, and drive the armature post in tightly—it must be driven in so far that when the magnet is laid upon the backboard, the centre of the magnet iron and the armature are the same height. Place the magnet so that when the armature is pressed against it, the hammer-head all but touches the bell; screw it into its place by a wooden bridge across the screw passing between the bobbins. By afterwards easing this screw, any little adjustment can be made. The armature spring should tend to throw the hammer-head about ⅝ in. from the bell. The contact-post should be so placed that when the armature touches the magnet, there is a slight space between the platinum point on the screw and the platinum on the spring. In putting in the posts, a piece of copper wire must be driven in with them to attach the wire to. One post can be moved round a little either way to alter the tension of the spring; the screw in the other post can be turned in or out, to just allow the proper break to take place. By screwing it in and out, the ear will soon judge where the bell rings best. (Volk.)

Those desiring further information on batteries, telephones, and all electrical matters,[108] are referred to the Third Series of ‘Workshop Receipts,’ where diffuse instructions are given.

Thieves and Fire.—It would be difficult to name two subjects demanding more attention and forethought from the housewife than the means to be adopted for protecting her household from the incursions of thieves and the horrors of fire. Some years ago, the well-known inventor of Chubb’s locks published a little book on these topics, from which we have taken the liberty of condensing a few paragraphs which are full of import to the safety of the dwelling and its inmates.

First with regard to thieves. Chubb remarks that most of the house-robberies so common in all large towns are effected through the common street-door latches in ordinary use being opened by false keys. It is a notorious fact that thousands are made year after year, but which do not afford the least security, as they are all so made that any one key will open the whole. Burglars are sometimes assisted by dishonest servants, but are more often unaided in this way. Frequently some coal-cellar window is left conveniently unbarred, although all other windows and doors are barred and bolted; or perhaps all the windows have safety-fasteners but one, which, of course, will be the one used by the burglars. Beggars or hawkers are often in the pay of thieves, endeavouring to get information—that may not be used perhaps for a long time; and such visitors should never be allowed inside one’s house, though their visits are too often encouraged by the weakness of the domestics.

The remedies best adapted to prevent robbery in these various ways are:—(1) Be careful to have trustworthy servants, or all other precautions are unavailing. (2) Have plate-glass to all windows in the house, for this cannot be broken, as common sheet-glass can, without noise. (3) As shutters are really no protection at all, and frequently are not fastened at night, let all windows and openings that can be reached easily from the ground have strong bars built into the stone or brickwork, not more than 5 in. apart, where this can be done without disfigurement; and let the windows on every upper floor have either Hopkinson’s or Dawes’s patent window fasteners, which cannot be opened from the outside, and are simple and strong in construction and cheap in price. (4) Keep a dog, however small, inside the house; this is a wonderful safeguard, and extremely disliked by burglars. (5) Have any number of bells on shutters, electric wires, or other gimcracks that you please, and place no reliance on any of them. (6) Never allow a stranger to wait inside the door. (7) Leave as little property as possible, certainly no silver plate or jewellery, lying about, so that if a thief should overcome all obstacles to entrance, he may not find much ready to hand.

Precautions against fire are of still greater importance. A few of the commonest causes of fire are guarded against by observing the following simple rules:—(1) Keep all matches in metal boxes, and out of the reach of children; wax matches are particularly dangerous, and should be kept out of the way of rats and mice. (2) Be careful in making fires with shavings and other light kindling. (3) Do not deposit coal or wood ashes in a wooden vessel, and be sure burning cinders are extinguished before they are deposited. (4) Never put firewood upon the stove to dry, and never put ashes or a light under a staircase. (5) Fill fluid or spirit lamps only by daylight, and never near a fire or light. (6) Do not leave a candle burning on a bureau or a chest. (7) Always be cautious in extinguishing matches and other lighters before throwing them away. (8) Never throw a cigar-stump upon the floor or spitbox containing sawdust or trash without being certain that it contains no fire. (9) After blowing out a candle never put it away on a shelf, or anywhere else, until sure that the snuff has gone entirely out. (10) A lighted candle ought not to be stuck up against a frame-wall, or placed upon any portion of the woodwork in a stable, manufactory, shop, or any other place. (11) Never enter a barn or stable at night with an uncovered light. (12) Never take an open light to examine a gas-meter. (13) Do not put gas or other lights near curtains. (14) Never take a light into a closet. (15) Do not read in bed, either by candle or lamp[109] light. (16) The principal register of a furnace should always be fastened open. (17) Stove-pipes should be at least 4 in. from woodwork, and well guarded by tin or zinc. (18) Rags ought never to be stuffed into stove-pipe holes. (19) Openings in chimney-flues for stove-pipes which are not used ought always to be securely protected by metallic coverings. (20) Never close up a place of business in the evening without looking well to the extinguishing of lights, and the proper security of the fires. (21) When retiring to bed at night always see that there is no danger from your fires.

A few other unsuspected causes of fire may be mentioned. A common habit with some people, when ironing, is to rub the hot iron clean with a piece of stuff, paper, or “anything” at hand, and then throw the same aside without further thought. The small piece of stuff, usually more or less scorched, may lie smouldering for hours unsuspected in some corner, especially if shut up in a cupboard or drawer. The danger here alluded to applies equally to the careless throwing aside of anything likely to smoulder, such as cloths caught up at random for holding hot baking tins, kitchener handles, &c. No room ought ever to be left unoccupied without a guard being placed on the fire. Most of us have had experience of sudden small explosions of the coals, and holes being burnt in the hearthrug, even when there is some one at hand to stamp out the fire at once; and we can imagine what the consequences would be if the hearthrug had been left to smoulder. In the case of steam-pipes, after wood has remained a long time in contact with steam, hot-water, or hot-air pipes, the surface becomes carbonised. During the warm season, the charcoal absorbs moisture. When again heated, the moisture is driven off, leaving a vacuum, into which the fresh air current circulating around the pipes rapidly penetrates, and imparts its oxygen to the charcoal, causing a gradual heating and eventually combustion. The rusting of the pipes contributes also to this result, inasmuch as the rust formed during the hot season may be reduced by the heat of the pipes to a condition in which it will absorb oxygen to the point of red heat.

With respect to the detection of fires there is very little to say; but every one should acquaint themselves with the best means of getting from the house in case of fire cutting off the usual exit. At such a critical moment, when, perhaps aroused from a sound sleep, one finds oneself in a house on fire, presence of mind is the first thing required, yet a few simple suggestions that will start to the memory may be of value. If, on the first discovery of the fire, it is found to be confined to one room, and to have made but little progress, it is of the utmost importance to shut, and keep shut, all doors and windows. If the fire appears at all serious, and there are fire-engines at a reasonable distance, it is best to await their arrival, as many buildings have been lost from opening the doors and attempting to extinguish fires with inadequate means. If no engines are within reach, and you have not a hand-pump or an extincteur, the next best thing is to collect as many buckets outside the room on fire as can be obtained, keeping the door shut while more water is being collected. A rough-and-ready protection from breathing smoke may be had by thoroughly wetting a towel and fastening it firmly round the face over the mouth and nostrils. But if the flames have too great a hold to allow of escape by the staircase or roof, and the window of the room is the only means of egress, the situation becomes serious, unless its possibility has been foreseen and guarded against.

Only as the last resource should a person run the risk of jumping to the ground; either endeavour by tying the bedclothes together to make some sort of rope, fastening one end to a heavy piece of furniture, and going down the rope hand-over-hand—a rather difficult thing to do without practice—or, if within reach of one, wait as long as possible for the arrival of a fire-escape or ladder. Some people always keep a stout knotted rope in their room, and have an iron hook fixed inside the window, to which it may be attached. Merryweather and Sons, 63 Long Acre, London, make domestic fire-escapes which admit of even women and children lowering themselves from windows. As to means of escape available from the outside for high houses, there are many obvious[110] plans which might be adopted, but among these there are two which appear to be specially easy of attainment, and within the reach of all concerned, at a moderate cost. The first is to fix on buildings external ladders of wrought iron or some other material able to resist the effects of fire at its commencement, and extending from the roof to within 40 ft. of the ground; the other, to provide on every story continuous balconies of wrought iron or any other material proof against immediate destruction by heat; and if the balconies on the several stories were made to communicate with each other by means of external stairs, great additional safety would be attained.

The Royal Society for the Protection of Life from Fire has published the following directions for saving life at fires. See also p. 1002.

For Bystanders.—1. Immediately on the fire being discovered give an alarm to the nearest fire-escape station, not delaying an instant; do not wait to see if it is wanted. Life is more precious than property, and events have too often proved how fatal even a moment’s hesitation is in sending for the fire-escape. It is the fire-escape man’s duty to proceed to the place of alarm immediately.

2. In the absence of a fire-escape, or pending its arrival, ladders and ropes should be sought for. Two constables or other qualified persons should ascend to the roof through the adjoining houses. The most efficient assistance can sometimes be rendered by an entrance to the upper part of the house on fire, either by the attic windows, the loft-door, or by removing the tiles; or sometimes the aid of one end of a rope (knotted) might be afforded from the adjoining window, which, being passed by the person in danger round some article in the room, he could lower himself or others into the street, and the other end of the rope being controlled of course by those rendering the aid from the adjoining house. A short ladder can often be made available at the second or perhaps the third, floor of houses built with a balcony or portico, by the constable or other person first ascending to the balcony, and then placing the ladder thereon, reach the rooms above.

3. In a narrow street or court assistance may be given from the windows of the opposite house, particularly by a ladder placed across the street from window to window.

4. When no other means present themselves the bystanders had better collect bedding at hand, in case the inmates throw themselves from the windows. A blanket or carpet held stretched out by several persons will serve the purpose. The Metropolitan Fire Escape Brigade carry jumping-sheets with them for use upon emergency.

5. Do not give vent to the fire by breaking into the house unnecessarily from without, or, if an inmate, by opening doors or windows. Make a point of shutting every door after you as you go through the house.

For Inmates.—1. Every householder should make each person in his house acquainted with the best means of escape, whether the fire breaks out at the top or the bottom. Provide fire-guards for use in every room where there is a fire, and let it be a rule of the household not to rake out a fire before retiring for the night, but to leave the guard on. In securing the street-door and lower windows for the night, avoid complicated fastenings or impediments to immediate outlets in case of fire. Descriptions and drawings of fire-escapes for keeping in dwelling-houses may be seen upon application at the offices of the Royal Society for the Protection of Life from Fire.

2. Inmates at the first alarm should endeavour calmly to reflect what means of escape there are in the house. If in bed at the time, wrap themselves in a blanket or bed-side carpet; open neither windows nor doors more than necessary; shut every door after them (this is most important to observe).

3. In the midst of smoke it is comparatively clear towards the ground; consequently progress through smoke can be made on the hands and knees. A silk handkerchief, worsted stockings, or other flannel substance, wetted and drawn over the face, permits free breathing, and excludes to a great extent the smoke from the lungs. A wet sponge is alike efficacious.

4. In the event of being unable to escape either by the street-door or roof, the persons[111] in danger should immediately make their way to a front-room window, taking care to close the door after them; and those who have the charge of the household should ascertain that every individual is there assembled.

5. Persons thus circumstanced are entreated not to precipitate themselves from the window while there remains the least probability of assistance; and even in the last extremity a plain rope is invaluable, or recourse may be had to joining sheets or blankets together, fastening one end round a bedpost or other furniture. This will enable one person to lower all the others separately, and the last may let himself down with comparatively little risk. Select a window over the doorway rather than over the area.

6. Do not give vent to the fire by breaking into the house unnecessarily from without, or, if an inmate, by opening doors or windows. Make a point of shutting every door after you as you go through the house. For this purpose, doors enclosing the staircase are very useful.

Accidents to Persons.—1. Upon discovering yourself on fire reflect that your greatest danger arises from draught to the flames, and from their rising upwards. Throw yourself on the ground, and roll over on the flame, if possible, on the rug or loose drugget, which drag under you; the table-cover, a man’s coat, anything of the kind at hand, will serve your purpose. Scream for assistance, ring the bell, but do not run out of the room or remain in an upright position.

2. Persons especially exposed to a risk of their dresses taking fire should adopt the precaution of having all linen and cotton fabrics washed in a weak solution of chloride of zinc, alum, or tungstate of soda.

3. As a means for the prevention of accidents, especially where there are women and children, the provision of a fire-guard is urgently recommended. These are now made at such a reasonable price that it is incumbent upon even the poorest to obtain them.

It may be added that Merryweather’s system of periodical visitation by a staff of fire inspectors is now extensively adopted by the nobility and gentry.

For the various methods of rendering wood, clothes, &c., fire-proof, the reader is referred to ‘Workshop Receipts,’ Second Series, pp. 289-300.

Supplementary Literature.

Ernest Turner: ‘Hints to Househunters and Householders.’ London, 1884. 2s. 6d.

Eardley F. Bailey Denton: ‘Handbook of House Sanitation, for the use of all persons seeking a healthy home.’ London, 1882. 8s. 6d.

H. Percy Boulnois: ‘Practical Hints on taking a House.’ London, 1885. 1s. 6d.

C. J. Richardson: ‘The Englishman’s House; a practical guide for selecting or building a house, with full estimates of cost, quantities, &c.’ London, 1882. 7s. 6d.

Ernest Spon: ‘The Modern Practice of Sinking and Boring Wells, with geological considerations and examples.’ London, 1885. 10s. 6d.

Charles Hood; ‘A Practical Treatise on Warming Buildings by Hot Water, Steam, and Hot Air; &c.’ London, 1885. 12s. 6d.

William Richards: ‘The Gas Consumer’s Handy Book.’ London, 1877. 6d.

E. Hospitalier: ‘Domestic Electricity for Amateurs.’ London, 1885. 9s.

Clarence Cook: ‘The House Beautiful; Essays on Beds and Tables, Stools and Candlesticks.’ New York, 1881. 1l.

Lewis Foreman Day: ‘Everyday Art; Short Essays on the Arts not Fine.’ London, 1882. 7s. 6d.

M. E. James: ‘How to Decorate our Ceilings, Walls, and Floors.’ London, 1883. 4s.

Rhoda and Agnes Garrett: ‘Suggestions for House Decoration in Painting, Woodwork, and Furniture.’ London, 1876. 2s. 6d.


[112]

THE LARDER

Much attention has been given in recent years to the art of conserving foods. The subject really divides itself into 3 distinct branches, viz.: (a) Keeping foods fresh for a limited time, (b) storing them without changing their character, and (c) submitting them to a curing process which will preserve them for an unlimited time.

(a) Keeping foods fresh for a limited time.

Some very useful remarks on this point were published by Miss Ascham in the Exchange and Mart a short time since, and will bear repetition.

A housewife’s duty is to prevent waste. She must therefore know what is likely to go to waste and why, or perhaps she will do just what is wanted to spoil things which would have kept a little longer if they had been left alone. Most things in the larder are perishable, but not all alike.

Meat will keep three weeks in dry, frosty weather, and more than a week in cold dry weather, but not one week in damp, and hardly a day in very hot weather. If it has been frozen, it must lie in a rather warm place 3-4 hours before it is cooked. Meat should be taken down from the hooks every day, well looked over and wiped dry, and the hooks scalded and dried before the meat is put up again. Do not flour it. In very hot weather it is sometimes necessary to rub salt over the outside of a joint which is not to be cooked that day; but putting into a pan of treacle is much better, only it requires care, so as not to leave bits of fat, &c., in the pan when you take out the meat, and plenty of cold water to wash off what sticks to the joint when it comes out. It must, however, be carefully looked over when it comes from the butcher, and any doubtful bits pared off and burnt. If meat shows signs of “turning,” it must at once be put into a very hot oven for ½ hour, so as to be partly cooked. If it has really spoilt, nothing will save it, because the inside of the joint is then bad; but if it is browned, not just scorched, in time, the inside will be found perfectly nice. Of course, in a doubtful case, it may all be sliced up and fried; but then, as a joint, it is spoilt.

The dripping from a half-spoilt joint is useless for food, and the bone will certainly spoil soup. Some cooks will plunge the meat into boiling water to save it, but this additional wetting is much more likely to hasten the catastrophe. In hot weather every bone must be baked, whether it is to make stock that day or not. Soup is just as good from baked bones as from raw ones. Every bone that has been boiled must be placed in a sharp heat and quite dried, and “scraps” which would help to make stock must be burnt if the cook has no time or room to make it. For one little bone is enough to spoil all the milk and cream, and will cause all perishable things in the larder to be just ready to decay.

The microscope helps us to understand the amazing rapidity with which germs multiply and diffuse themselves, but no one is yet able to say where their venom stops; probably they do harm to the entire house at the least. If bones are thoroughly dried, they will do no harm. All fat and suet should be cooked as soon as possible after it comes into the house; it should be wiped, sliced thin, and boiled for 2-3 hours, then strained, and the skin, which seems like leather, burnt in the middle of a hot fire. As soon as the fat is hard, it should be removed from the gravy, soup, or stock, wiped dry, and folded in thin paper. In very hot weather, sometimes it will not cake. Then[113] a plate must be spared for it. The superfluous fat from a joint reduced to mince should be treated in the same way.

Fish must be cooked as soon as possible after it is caught. If, however, there is more than can be eaten in one day, the superfluous part should be boiled for 5 minutes, even if it is to be fried afterwards—it can be dried: but nearly all fish is very nice stewed like eels, with the same sauce; parboiled fish is as good this way as if it were quite fresh.

It is said that Condy’s fluid will perfectly cleanse meat or fish just beginning to taint on the outside; but prevention is much better than cure. Never allow any meat or fish to lie if you can hang it up.

Game and poultry should be drawn, but not plucked or skinned, dried inside, and hung head upward.

Milk is the most troublesome article in the larder, and really wants a little safe to itself. It “takes up” the slightest suspicion of taint, and becomes most objectionable without turning sour. City people, at any rate, should boil the milk as soon as it comes in, from April to December. Then it should be strained into a clean flat pan, which must be scalded and rinsed with, first, a little soda, and then clean water, every time it is used. It is a help to mistress and maid to have two pans—one brown, one white—to use on alternate days, so as to ensure time for purification. Country milk a little sour may be used for a pudding, or to make scones (½ pint to 1 lb. of oatmeal or brown meal, into which you have mixed ¼ oz. soda carbonate); but the milk which has been rattled about from 2 A.M. to 8 or 9 generally seems good for nothing when stale. In case of serious illness in hot weather, or when a young child’s nourishment is in question, ice is necessary. In default of “professional” apparatus, tie up as much ice as half a yard of flannel will hold, pass a stout lath through the string, and lay it across a metal tub; oval is more convenient than round. The ice will hang down and drip in the middle of the tub, and jugs of milk, bottles of soda water, or anything else will stand at the ends. Cover the tub, stick and all, with a thick board, and that with a damp, almost wet cloth. The milk may be boiled first, but must, of course, be cold before it is put with the ice. A damp cloth, without ice, keeps things much cooler than they are when uncovered.

Cheese, uncut, only needs to be kept dry. After it is cut, it should be wrapped in a buttered paper scraped almost dry. Butter may be rendered less troublesome in summer by being covered with a huge flower-pot large enough to enclose the plate and rest in a tray in which there is some cold water. Leaving butter in water spoils it. Bread should be covered closely from the air. The pans want wiping once or twice a week, and then heating very hot; the bread must not be put in again until the pan is cold, nor warm bread ever covered up. Baker’s bread often acquires a most disagreeable smell and taste if these precautions are neglected.

All vegetables, when cut, may be kept fresh by putting the stalks into water. Servants generally insist on immersing them, which favours decomposition. Parsley in particular can seldom be guarded from a watery grave. Carrots, turnips, and the like, if placed in layers in a box of sand, will keep for many weeks, if not months. Clean new-laid eggs will keep quite fresh for months if buried in dried salt well closed. Boiled potatoes ought to be laid out on a plate, and are then as good for frying or mashing as if they were freshly cooked. Servants have an unaccountable fancy for throwing them away, or, if desired to fry them, chopping and mashing them first, which entirely spoils them. If left heaped up, they will often spoil in one night, and must be burnt. No vegetables should be put into soup until the day that it is to be used. If any soup, complete, is left, it must be sharply boiled the next morning, and put into a fresh, clean pan. The grey earthenware jars made for salt are most valuable for such purposes and for keeping viands hot or stewing things. Chopped spinach can be warmed in one of them, and, as it takes time to prepare, may be boiled, &c., the[114] day before, and thus served in perfection at the early dinner or luncheon. Cabbage, French beans, and vegetable marrows are better dressed as salad if they have cooled, and in hot weather are almost as treacherous for keeping as shell-fish.

Fruit, like vegetables, will keep very fresh if you can manage to put the stalk into water, only it must not be in a close or dark place. When apples, oranges, pears, lemons, &c., are to be stored, they must not touch each other, and must be protected from heat, cold, and damp as much as possible; sunshine is not desirable. It would be easy, if an amateur carpenter was at hand, to make a frame of laths, like a Venetian blind, which would contain a very large quantity of such fruit, and take up hardly any room. Flour and meal, sago, macaroni, semolina, and all like substances, are sometimes attacked by mites. They are so small as to be invisible singly, but a peculiar fine powder is to be seen at the top of the farina, and is not motionless. There is also a smell something like honey or fermentation. They never appear in a dry storeroom, though they are sometimes brought from the grocer’s. The only thing to be done is to burn the infected store, and heat the jar almost red hot before using it again. (Exchange and Mart.)

Every one is familiar with the beneficial influence of ice in preserving foods in hot weather. It is the active medium in the various kinds of refrigerating safes now in use. But the first matter is to secure a supply of ice for summer use, unless it is to be bought of the ice merchant at enhanced prices. Various contrivances may be adopted with success, as enumerated below:—

(1) Build round a brick well, with a small grating for drain at bottom for the escape of water from melted ice. Cover the bottom with a thick layer of good wheat straw. Pack the ice in layers of ice and straw. Fix a wooden cover to the well.

(2) Fire-brick, from its feeble conducting power, is the best material to line an ice-house with. The house is generally made circular, and larger at the top than at the bottom, where a drain should be provided to run off any water that may accumulate. As small a surface of ice as possible should be exposed to the atmosphere, therefore each piece of ice should be dipped in water before stowing away, which, by the subsequent freezing of the pieces into one mass, will remain unmelted for a long time.

(3) Make a frame-house the requisite size, with its floor at least the thickness of the bottom scantling from the ground, thus leaving space for drainage and a roof to shed off the water. The boards of the wall should be closely joined to exclude air. Then build up the blocks of ice, cut in the coldest weather, as solid as possible, leaving 6 in. all round between them and the board walls; fill up all interstices between the blocks with broken ice, and in a very cold day or night pour water over the whole, so that it may freeze into a solid block; shut it up till wanted, only leaving a few small holes for ventilation under the roof, which should be 6 in. above the top of the ice. It is not dry heat or sunshine that is the worst enemy of ice, but water and damp air. If all the drainage is carried promptly off below, and the damp vapour generated by the ice is allowed to escape above, the column of cold air between the sides of the close ice-house and the cube of ice will protect it much better than it is protected in underground ice-houses, which can neither be drained nor ventilated; sawdust also will get damp, in which case it is much worse than nothing.

65. Ice-house.

(4) An improved sort of ice-house, recommended by Bailey, gardener at Nuneham Park, Oxford, is shown in plan and section in Fig. 65, where the dotted line indicates the ground level. The well or receptacle for the ice a is 10 ft. 6 in. wide at the base, and 3 ft. wider near the top; the walls are hollow, the outer portion being built of dry rough stone, and the inner wall and dome f of brick. The outer wall e might be replaced by a puddling of clay, carried up as the work proceeds. Over the top is a mound of clay and soil g, planted with shrubs to keep the surface cool in summer. The drain i carries off the water formed by the melted ice, and is provided with a trap h to prevent[115] the ingress of air through the drain. There is a porch or lobby b provided with outer and inner doors c; and apertures at d, to get rid of the condensed moisture, which, if not removed, would waste the ice. These ventilating doors should be opened every night, and closed again early in the morning. The most important conditions to be secured are dryness of the soil and enclosed atmosphere, compactness in the body of ice, which should be broken fine and closely rammed, and exclusion as far as possible of air. (Gard. Mag. Bot.)

(5) A very cheap way of storing ice has been described by Pearson of Kinlet. The ice-stack is made on sloping ground close to the pond whence the ice is derived. The ice is beaten small, well rammed, and gradually worked up into a cone or mound 15 ft. high, with a base of 27 ft., and protected by a compact covering of fern 3 ft. thick. A dry situation and sloping surface are essential with this plan, and a small ditch should surround the heap, to carry rapidly away any water that may come from melted ice or other sources. (Gard. Jl.)

(6) The following is an economical method of making small ice-houses indoors:—Dig a hole in a cool cellar, and make it of a size corresponding to the quantity of ice to be kept. At the bottom of this hole dig another of smaller diameter, the edge of which goes down with a gentle slope. This kind of small pit, the depth of which should be greater in proportion as the soil is less absorbent, must be filled with pebbles and sand. The whole circumference of the large hole is to be fitted up with planks, kept up along the sides with hoops, to prevent the earth from falling in. Then the bottom and all the circumference of this sort of reservoir must be lined with rye straw, placed upright with the ear downwards, and kept up along the planks by a sufficient number of wooden hoops. The ice is to be heaped up in this ice-house, which must be covered over with a great quantity of hay and packing cloth, on which should be placed a wooden cover and some light straw. (Les Mondes.)

(b) Storing Foods without change.—This embraces the keeping of fruits, roots, eggs, &c.

To have a fruit room in a garden does not always argue that the fruit stored in it will be well preserved. Such a store-house is of the first importance; but, unless care is observed, and some special attention given to the different kinds of fruit it may contain, much loss is likely to be the consequence. As to the structure itself, it is sufficient to say here that it should be perfectly dry, and so constructed as to maintain an equable temperature at all times. An ice house, if dry, makes a good fruit room—without the ice, of course—for a fruit room, once the fruit is placed in it, does not require much ventilation, unless it can be given without altering the temperature. Heats and cools, alternately producing condensation and evaporation, soon produce decay and rottenness, and should be guarded against as much as possible; the fruit should always feel dry to the touch. Possibly, the very best position that an apple or pear, for example, could be placed in, to preserve it, would be to suspend it by the footstalk in the air, and free from contact with any other object. Onions done up in strings in the old-fashioned way invariably keep much better than those laid on shelves or on a floor, and it is the same with fruit. Fruit rooms which are above ground should be double-walled, and ceiled; but when sunk or partially sunk in the ground this is not so important, if damp is[116] otherwise excluded. Hardy fruits and grapes are often kept long and well in a fruit room that is more like a cellar (only dry) than anything else.

The shelves and tables for holding the fruit should be sparred, and before the fruit is stored they should be covered with a layer of clean wheat straw, but so thinly that one can see through between the spars of the shelves, which will allow a free circulation of air amongst the fruit. When the room is empty during the summer-time, it should be thoroughly ventilated, washed and dried, and made sweet and clean, and, when the fruit is stored, shut up and kept in darkness.

A writer in the Field expresses himself thus:—The easiest and best method of keeping fruit, and one practised for years, is simply to take ordinary wine cases, halves and quarters, as different sizes are handy, line the bottoms well with short sweet hay, and take them on a hand-barrow to the orchard. There the fruit should be laid carefully in them, taken at once to the fruit room, and placed on close-bottomed shelves. Under such circumstances it will keep until April, and even until June in sand. The greatest care is used in the picking and handling of the fruit. It may be thought that, when in single layers, fruit is more easily examined, and decaying fruit cleared away; but from many years’ experience in storing fruit in barrels and boxes, only a small quantity is lost by decay or wilting. Nor is such vigilance required in the way of periodical gleanings as some would believe. The very act of searching for such is inimical to the good keeping of the rest, as we cannot see the side farthest from us; consequently the fruits have to be handled, and the oftener this is done the sooner will the bloom—the best safeguard to keeping—get rubbed off. In boxes this is avoided. Simply commence using from the top, and go on until the bottom is reached; and not only does the fruit come out clear and clean-skinned, but as sound and firm as when put away. (J. K.)

Apples and Pears.—(a) When the fruit room cannot hold all the crop, it should only be used for the best sample, which should be gathered without bruising, and spread out on the shelves in a single layer, and barely touching each other. In plentiful seasons the different varieties are often piled up in hillocks, on the shelves and floors, to the destruction of large quantities of the fruit; for it is not possible to keep fruit long in that condition, and it soon becomes rotten and useless. In most establishments the wants of the kitchen and dessert can be judged very nearly; and such being the case, it is far better to dispose of the fruit which cannot be used at home, and keep and care for a supply of the better dessert and kitchen fruit only. In many establishments it is the custom, in plentiful seasons, to store all the crop in a house that was never intended to accommodate it, and throughout the autumn and winter preservation consists principally in picking out the rotten fruit periodically, and wheeling it to the pigsty or the rubbish heap. It would be better to have given it away for nothing at the beginning. Such waste is simply disgraceful; but it is what happens in many large private gardens. Apples and pears soon decay and rot if they are carelessly stored, but it is surprising how long even the so-called worst-keeping varieties can be preserved with a little care. Apples of the Codling and Lord Suffield class, and pears like the Jargonelle and Hessel, or “hogel,” as it is called in the north, are not supposed to keep many days; but they will keep nevertheless for a considerable time if they are not piled up in heaps like potatoes. Codling apples, indeed, will keep till they become insipid and flavourless without showing signs of decay. In some cases it is necessary to keep the fruit in store till it can be disposed of advantageously; and when that is so, and it cannot be accommodated in the fruit room proper, it should be stored in a dry loft or shed, and covered over with dry straw to protect from the vicissitudes of the weather. Common fruit laid up in heaps in this way soon ripens and turns yellow, but does not keep.

(b) Where there is no room for storing apples in the usual way, they may be treated as follows: All the later keeping sorts, after being picked and laid out thinly in a room,[117] may be stored in a pit, the same as potatoes. Mark out the pit 3 ft. wide and 9 in. in depth; put a layer of clean straw in the bottom. Commence at one end with the latest keeping sorts, and make them into a ridge about 2 ft. high in the centre; put a layer of straw between the sorts to keep them from getting mixed; then take the next sort, and so continue with the latest until the whole is finished. A covering of dry turves or straw must then be put over the whole, and this must be covered with soil, the same as is generally done with potato pits. Blenheims keep in this way in very fine condition till the middle of January, and later keeping sorts according to their times of ripening. When pitting the fruit, great care must be taken to pick out all that are bruised or damaged. Faults of this kind will be readily seen after 9-12 days from the time when the fruits are gathered. Bruised apples soon rot, and cause others to do the same; but, if carefully stored, scarcely one will be found decayed when taken from the pits, if taken out about the time they are generally ripe. (W. C.)

Artichokes.—Boil as many artichokes as you intend to keep, only just enough to be able to pull off all the leaves and choke: lay the bottoms on a tin plate, and put them in the oven. When thoroughly dry, and quite hard, put them in a paper bag, and hang them in a dry place. Before using they must be soaked in warm water for 3-4 hours, changing the water very often. Let the last water be boiling hot, the bottoms will then be very tender, and eat as well as fresh ones.

Asparagus.—Boil fresh-gathered, well-scraped asparagus for 5 minutes in salted water. Strain off the water, dip them in cold water and drain on a cloth; put them in tins with the points all one way. Have an ironmonger ready to solder on the lids immediately; when the solder is cold put the tins in a cauldron of water and boil for 1½ hour. Keep them with the points of the asparagus upwards. It is better to mark the top of the tin to prevent their being reversed.

Cherries.—These can only be successfully preserved on the tree, and then only when the trees are grown against walls or as espaliers. On standards it is almost impossible to keep them from the birds, except by much trouble and expense. Early cherries can be preserved a month or more after they are ripe by covering the trees with mats, and keeping them quite dark. The trees do not suffer so much by this practice as one would imagine, although the leaves fall off prematurely, owing no doubt to the wood being pretty well matured before the fruit is ripe; but it is not advisable to cover the same trees every year in succession. Morello cherries of course keep best when grown on a north wall, and it is hardly necessary to mat them; but they must be netted to keep off vermin.

Currants.—Take when ripe, separate from the stem, put in glass jars, set them in a kettle of cold water, then put them over the fire, and boil 15-20 minutes; cork tight, and set away where the frost will not get to them.

Eggs.—(a) Most of the recipes given for preserving eggs direct that the egg should be coated with something to stop up the pores. Many seem equally efficacious if the covering is complete, with one exception—fat, which becomes rancid, and imparts its own flavour through the pores of the shell. Gum, the white of an egg, collodion, or gelatine have all been used with success, but paraffin wax has often failed. Anything that the eggs are packed in gives its own flavour to their contents; therefore bran, chaff, and straw are to be avoided as being likely to become musty. It is far better to set the eggs on end, the larger ends upwards, in a wire or wooden rack, and to allow free passage of air between. The eggs need not then be turned, for the yolks are tethered to each end by a membranous cord, and if they settle, it is always to one side, which would here be impossible, nor to either extremity. One writer has used and approved the following method: To 1 teaspoonful salicylic acid add about 1 pint boiling water. Let it cool, dip the eggs in one by one, dry them, and store them on racks in an airy cupboard. Again some people dip each egg into boiling water, and so make an impervious lining of its own white; but this requires more care to prevent cracking, and does[118] not preserve the eggs for so long a time as the recipes given above. Eggs are also packed in boxes in lime, and turned frequently. The advantage of this plan is the small space that a number of eggs occupy; its great disadvantage is that the lime acts upon the shell and thins it down to exceeding brittleness. Much better is it to make a tub of lime water, by pouring cold water over ordinary unslaked lime, and when it has settled and is clear, pour off the water into a deep vessel. Put the eggs in this and cover it over. The air is here effectually kept away from the eggs, and the difficulty of wire racks is avoided. For cooking purposes lime packing is all that can be desired, though for the breakfast table some much prefer the salicylic acid. Whatever plan is chosen the eggs should be put by at once, not after they are a week or two old.

(b) When you collect your eggs in a morning, sort them into sizes, and put 10-12 into a net; have ready a large saucepan of water at the full boil. Take the net with the eggs and hold it in exactly 2 seconds; this kills the germ of the egg and closes the pores of the shell. It is necessary, as the eggs always differ much in size, to take one of each size, immerse them separately, and time them exactly, as the white must on no account be in the least degree set. When they are finished, pack all away in tin boxes until required for use.

(c) Get a brick of salt, pound it fine and dry it, then place the eggs freshly gathered, and not cracked, with the pointed ends downwards in the salt, and pack them firmly in a box or jar; then keep them in a dry place. Most of them will be quite fit for the table when kept not more than 3 months; after that they still poach well, and are good for culinary purposes. The same salt used for several years is better than new. One great convenience of this plan is that on opening a box, or 4 lb. biscuit tin containing about 60, you are not compelled to use them all quickly, for each egg is isolated in salt and remains fresh till wanted. The weight of testimony on all sides is much in favour of salt over all other plans.

(d) To 1 gal. water put 1 lb. quicklime; pour the water, when boiling, on the lime, and let it stand till the next day. Procure a large brown earthenware pan, well glazed inside, and large enough to hold about 100 eggs; put them in carefully, that they do not get in the least cracked, pour in the lime water, cover over the vessel with a slate, and put it in the cellar, but do not let it touch the floor. A little salt in the lime keeps the water from freezing. Eggs thus treated will keep good for many months.

Figs.—These should not be gathered from the tree until they are ripe and tender in the skin, after which they will keep in the fruit room for a few days without growing mouldy, but no longer; on ice, however, they will keep for 2-3 weeks.

Filberts.—Get some stone jars, such as are used for pickles, about 2 ft. in height and 1 ft. in diameter; fill them with filberts, and then cork them down very tightly with a bung. Bury them about 1 ft. in the earth, or place them in a damp wine-cellar.

French Beans.—(a) Cut the beans up as usual, boil for 10 minutes in water without salt, put into a colander. Fill tins with them almost to the top, leaving only a little room for enough boiling water to cover them; then solder the tins down, after which boil them for an hour; take the tins out, and keep them in a dry place.

(b) Gather the beans when young, and in dry weather. Have ready a brown earthenware pan or crock holding about ½ basket, and when the beans have been gathered string and cut them as if for immediate use; cover the bottom of the crock well with salt—the coarse kind used for pickling pork—add a layer of French beans, well cover them with salt, then add layers of beans and of salt alternately until the crock is full; tie it down with thick brown paper, keep it in a cool cellar where it is not too dry, and by Christmas the beans will be ready for use. It is not necessary to have sufficient beans at one time to fill the crock, provided care is taken to cover the last layer with plenty of salt. To prepare them for use during the winter, take out of the crock as many as are wanted for immediate use, put them in a pan, and pour enough hot (but not boiling) water over them to cover them (the salt will then fall to the bottom), lift[119] out the beans, and put them into fresh hot water 3 or 4 times, allowing them to remain in each water ¾-1 hour, then boil them in the ordinary way. A pinch of soda carbonate in the water they are boiled in gives them the bright green colour they have when fresh gathered. Towards the end of the winter they require ¼-½ hour’s extra boiling, as the salt is apt to make them hard. Keep the crock tied down between the times of using the beans. By attention to these rules they will remain good till the following May or June.

Gooseberries and Currants.—Bushes of both these in the open quarter may be matted up when the fruit is ripe, and it will keep, under ordinarily favourable conditions, till November; but by far the best plan is to grow the trees against a north wall, where they may be kept till late in the season with little trouble.

Grapes.—(a) Many people are deterred from adopting the very useful plan of keeping late grapes in bottles of water, from the idea that some elaborately fitted up or air-tight compartment is necessary; but this is by no means the case, as, with a little contrivance, a good grape room may be extemporised in any compartment enclosed with 4 brick walls. The principal point is to get a steady temperature, that would not be liable to sudden fluctuations: and for this reason a room with a northern aspect is desirable, or, what is better still, an apartment that does not communicate directly with the outside air. The advantage of having the grapes thus securely bottled, when severe frosts and sunshine render it impossible to maintain the houses in which they were grown at anything like an equable temperature after the beginning of the year, can only be fully realised by those who have had to keep them on the vines until late in spring, besides the benefit which the vines derive by being released of their crop and pruned, cleaned, &c., at the most favourable period.

(b) Cut them with about 6 in. of wood below the bunch, and 2 in. or 3 in. of wood above. Place the bunches in bottles filled with water and a bit of charcoal in each. The grapes must hang quite free, without touching the bottles. A slip of wood placed between the stalk and the bottle ensures this. Grapes keep in this way for many months. They must be stored in a dry place.

Green Peas.—(a) The Russian method is to shell the peas, put them into a saucepan of boiling water, let them remain but a short time, and put them to drain in a colander; when thoroughly drained, spread them out on a cloth on the kitchen table to dry; next put them in the oven (which must be cool) in flat tin dishes just for a few minutes to harden; keep them in paper bags hung up in the kitchen or other warm, dry place. When wanted for use, soak in soft water 1 hour, then place them in a saucepan of cold water with a small piece of butter, and boil them until they are fit to serve.

(b) The peas must be quite fully grown, but not old. They must be gathered on a fine day and be perfectly dry. After shelling, put them into wide-mouthed bottles. These, too, must be quite dry; any dampness would cause the peas to turn mouldy. When in the bottles, shake them a little to make them lie as close as possible, cork the bottles, and tie moistened bladder tightly over them to exclude the air. Set the bottles side by side in a large fish-kettle, with hay at the bottom and round the sides, as well as around each bottle. Pour in cold water up to the necks of the bottles, put the pan on the fire, and after the water boils let it continue boiling for 2 hours; then take the pan off, and leave the bottles standing in it until the water is perfectly cold. When cold, take them out, wipe them dry, apply melted rosin over the tops, and put them away to keep in a cool, dry place.

Honey.—Honey, if required to be kept in the comb, should be left undisturbed in the supers, and cut out as required; that which is sealed over will keep a long time without alteration. One very good way of preserving honey, when it is white comb and perfectly free from bee-bread, as that of all good bee-keepers should be, is to melt the whole by placing it in an earthen vessel, and standing it in a saucepan of boiling water. When the wax has melted and risen to the top, tie the jar down tightly with bladders,[120] and the whole will keep, if undisturbed, for many months without alteration or loss of flavour.

Lemons.—(a) Wrap each in common tissue paper, and lay them out on a shelf so that they do not touch each other. The shelf should be in a dry, dark cupboard, free from draughts. (b) Lemons will keep good for months by simply putting them in a jug of butter-milk, changing the butter-milk about every 3 weeks. When the lemons are required for use, they should be well dried with a cloth. (c) They will keep some time in a jar with fresh dry earth mould covering each separately. (d) Put them in a basin of water, which latter should be changed twice or thrice weekly, taking care not to bruise the lemons.

Lemon Juice.—To preserve this, squeeze a number of fine lemons, taking care that they are all quite fresh. Strain the juice through muslin, and pour it into bottles with just enough of the best olive oil to cover the surface. Cork well, and keep in a dry place. Or it may be done with sugar, allowing ½ lb. powdered sugar to ½ pint lemon juice. They must be stirred together with a silver spoon until the sugar is quite dissolved. Pour it into small bottles, corking them well, and tying bladder tightly over the corks.

Melons.—Some varieties of the melon keep much better than others, and are all the more valuable on that account. It is a pity that raisers of new varieties do not give a little more attention to this point. By selecting from those kinds which are coconut-shaped and firm of rind, particularly at the end, we should no doubt have melons of excellent keeping qualities, as well as of good flavour. As it is, at present none of the recent new sorts is superior to, if as good, as those which were cultivated 20-30 years ago. All the varieties should be cut when just ripe, and kept in a cool, dry room.

(b) Eingemacht melonen, the German way of preparing which is the following: Remove the outer part and the seeds of the melon; cut it into convenient pieces, and lay it for 24 hours in some good white wine vinegar, with a few pieces of cinnamon and of ginger, and the thin rind of 1 or 2 lemons. Then make a sweet syrup with lump sugar and some of the vinegar; boil and skim it, and when cold lay the pieces of melon in it; after 2 days take them out, boil up the syrup, and replace them in it when it is cold. Repeat this operation once more, taking care to boil down the liquor to a very thick syrup; then put by the preserve in jars in the usual way. (The G. C.)

(c) Put them in a strong brine of salt and water in a wide-mouthed jar; cover them with cabbage leaves, cap the jar with paper, and set it in the chimney corner till the leaves become yellowish, when the melons must be put in fresh salt and water with fresh cabbage leaves, covered close, and put on a very slow fire to warm gently but not to boil; then take them out, clean the pan, and put them in fresh cold water to stand 2 days, changing the water thrice daily (to take the saltness off); prick them with a fork, and cut all the large ones into convenient pieces, removing all the seeds; lay them in more cold water, while you make a syrup thus: boil 1 lb. loaf sugar in 1 full gill water, taking off the scum, and add afterwards 1 oz. bruised brown ginger to each lb., and the very thin rind of a lemon. When the syrup is thick, set it by till cold; then put in the pieces of fruit. Take the fruit out again, and boil up the syrup 3 times a week for 3 weeks, and never put the fruit in again till cold. At the end of 3 weeks tie papers over the jars, and put them by. (C. E.)

Mushrooms.—(a) Pick and cut off the stalks, wipe them clean, from the large ones remove the brown part, peel off the skin, and lay them on paper in a cool oven. When dry put them into paper bags, and keep them in a dry place. When required for use, simmer them in gravy, and they will swell to their original size.

(b) Allow to each qt. of mushrooms 3 oz. butter, pepper and salt to taste, and the juice of 1 lemon. Peel the mushrooms, and put them into cold water, with a little lemon juice; take them out and dry them very carefully in a cloth. Put the butter into a stewpan capable of holding the mushrooms. When melted, add the mushrooms, lemon juice, pepper, and salt. Let them remain over a slow fire until their liquor is boiled[121] away, and they have become quite dry. Be careful not to allow them to stick to the bottom of the pan. When done, put them into pots, and pour over the top clarified butter. If required for immediate use, they will keep good a few days without being covered over. To re-warm them, put the mushrooms into a stewpan, strain the butter from them, and they will be ready for use.

Peaches and Nectarines.—These, like the plums, vary in their keeping qualities; and certainly to be a good keeper is not the least merit a peach or nectarine can possess, for, owing to the crop frequently coming in suddenly during a spell of warm weather, the gardener is forced to gather large quantities of fruit, and keep it the best way he can. Every one does not possess an ice-house, otherwise most varieties keep on for ice 4-6 weeks; but they must be used as soon as taken out, and almost before they have cooled. In the fruit room, placed on a cool airy shelf, the Royal George peach, Belle-garde, Grosse Mignonne, Borrington, and Late Admiral will keep a fortnight or longer, according to the weather; and the Malta is said to keep even longer. But much depends, of course, how the fruit is gathered. Nectarines are better keepers than peaches, and the Victoria is one of the best. Most of the kinds will keep a fortnight at least without deteriorating in flavour if they are pulled at the right time, which is just before they are quite ripe to the base.

Pineapples.—By far the best keepers of these are the smooth Cayenne, Charlotte Rothschild, and Queen. The first two will keep 6 weeks after they are ripe if the plants are moved into a cool structure and kept dry at the root, but if they are cut off the plant they do not keep so long. Queens keep 4-5 weeks on the plants under the same conditions. Some recommend the fruit, whether cut or on the plants, to be removed before it gets quite ripe; but when good flavour is an object this practice is not advisable, as the fruit will keep nearly as well if it is allowed to get quite ripe before taking it out of the pinery.

Plums and Apricots.—Both plums and apricots are difficult to keep long, though some varieties keep much better than others, particularly of plums. Apricots perish on the tree if they are not gathered in time, generally rotting on the ripe side, particularly if the weather be wet, or if the fruit has been injured by wasps or other vermin. The only plan is to gather the fruit before it is quite ripe on the shady side, and lay it on a sieve in the fruit room, or in a cool cellar. In this way it will keep for a week perfectly perhaps, but scarcely longer.

Plums keep tolerably well, and some sorts, like that excellent variety, Coe’s Golden Drop, keep an astonishingly long period under certain favourable conditions. The best-preserved samples we ever saw of this variety were suspended to footstalks on lines stretched across a dry room; and if we remember rightly, they have been kept in that condition for 2 months. Some wrap the fruit in dry paper, and, if we are not mistaken, Reeves has somewhere stated that he has eaten them in good condition 12 months after they were gathered when preserved in that way. Considering what an excellent dessert variety Coe’s Golden Drop is, it is a wonder it has not long ago became the subject of special culture, under glass if necessary, just like the peach and nectarine—it is well worth a house to itself. Another excellent keeping plum of the same breed as Coe’s Golden Drop is the Ickworth Impératrice, which hangs on the tree till it shrivels, and keeps for a long while in the fruit room. Knight, who raised it, states in the Transactions of the Horticultural Society that he has kept fruit of it, wrapped in blotting-paper and kept in a dry room, till the end of March. Blue Impératrice is also said to be a good keeper; and the old damson, so useful for tarts and preserving, is not one of the worst, as it will keep for several weeks if the fruit is spread out thinly on the shelves as soon as gathered. None of the plums keep well after they have been basketed and stored, even for a short time. They get bruised, and, no matter how carefully they are kept afterwards, they soon rot. Everything depends on gathering them before they get dead ripe, and storing properly at once.

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Roots.—The action of frost is not thoroughly understood by farmers generally. This is shown by the way clamps are covered with manure on the top and half-way down the sides. The singular fact, however, is, that the top of a clamp is never injured—that is, unless the frost is so severe and prolonged that the whole mass is frozen—if the clamp be fairly covered with straw and earth at starting. The severity of an attack of frost begins and continues from the outer soil at the base of a clamp or brick store, as a barn or other building. Whether this is because a gentle fermentation of the roots or potatoes goes on, the warmth thus caused rising to the top, or whether it is because the lowest temperature is nearest the immediate surface of the earth, has not been decided; but the result invariably is that, if a body of roots or potatoes be partly injured, the rotten ones will be found at the bottom. If the clamp be broadside to the north or east wind, the rotten ones will be found in the form of a triangle on the side where the wind has blown, the base of the triangle being at the bottom; if, however, the clamp had been situated with the end to the wind, the rotten roots will be found at that end in the form of an inverted M, that is, there will be a decayed triangle on each side. The length and depth to which this decay would extend along the clamp would of course depend on the severity and length of the frost.

The required precaution is therefore shown. In the case of clamps after several days of severe frost, with a prospect of its continuing, long manure, straw, hedge-trimming, or whatever may be at hand, should be packed 1 ft. or more thick, and 1 yd. or so wide on the surface soil at the base of the clamp, at the side on which the blast is impinging. It is the same with a brick building. If a bed or heap of potatoes or mangold be stored in a barn, either all over a bay or in one or more corners, and the same be well covered with straw, there will be no fear of the top or outer side of the heap being frozen. But the part of the heaps which are near to the wall will be found to have been frozen in the form of a triangle, as mentioned. The fact is the frost rises, so to express it, from the foundation of the brickwork being communicated with from the surface soil outside. This shows the importance of packing a body of long manure or a quantity of straw on the surface soil outside the brickwork.

Rowan Berries.—(a) Fill a large earthenware jar with strong salt and water. Put in the berries; tie it down. They will keep in this way till Christmas, (b) Gum them well all over so as to make them adhere to their stalks, and sealing-wax the ends where cut from the tree, and keep them in a tin box till required for use.

Tomatoes.—(a) Cut up a number of tomatoes, and let them simmer gently in a stewpan over a slow fire until reduced to a pulp. From this squeeze all the juice by pressing it through a fine hair sieve; boil it until it thickens, and then pour it into small bottles. Stand these in a large fish-kettle or boiler, filling it with cold water, and putting some hay between the bottles and against the sides of the boiler, to prevent them from touching it or each other. Set the boiler on the fire, and let all boil for ¼ hour after the water comes to the boil. Let the bottles get cold in the water after taking the boiler off the fire. Then cork and seal them, and keep them in a dry place. Take care that none of the water gets into the bottles while boiling.

(b) If these are not to be packed for travelling, stone jars are better for their preservation than tins. Gather the tomatoes when perfectly ripe, and discard all that have blemishes. Pack them lightly till the jar is full, then entirely cover with strong vinegar and water in equal parts; add a few whole cloves and a sprinkling of sugar. Cover with a piece of flannel, letting it sink into the vinegar, then tie over with thick paper or bladder.

Truffles.—To keep truffles till required for use choose the blackest, let them be fresh gathered; when thoroughly washed and brushed, peel them carefully with a sharp knife, and reject all that are not perfectly sound; put them into bottles as close as they will lie, cork them tightly, and boil them for an hour in the bain-marie.

Vegetable Marrows.—(a) To preserve these for winter use, choose such as are fully[123] ripe—turned yellow. When cut, arrange them in a dry place, resting on the flower end, with the stalk end upwards. They will then keep good the whole winter. (b) Cut them when fully grown, lay them on the pantry floor, and turn them twice a week, or put 2 pieces of tape or listing round them, and suspend them from a ceiling. The marrow improves in flavour, becoming quite nutty; they will keep in this way far into spring.

Walnuts.—(a) Walnuts intended for keeping should be suffered to fall of themselves from the trees, and be afterwards laid in a dry, open, and airy place, till they become thoroughly dried. Then pack them in jars, boxes, or casks, in alternate layers with fine clear sand, which has previously been well dried in the sun, in an oven, or before the fire; set them in a dry place, but not where it is too hot, and they will keep good till the latter end of April. Before they are sent to table wipe the sand off, and if they have become shrivelled steep them in milk and water for 6-8 hours; this will make them plump and fine, as well as cause them to peel easily. (b) Place them, fresh gathered and unwashed, in earthen jars, tied down with stiff glazed brown paper, and keep them on the floor of the wine-cellar. They are perfectly good until the new ones come in again, (c) Put the new walnuts in earthen jars with salt; cover them close, and leave them in a damp cellar. When you want to use them, wash them in cold water. At Christmas they will peel and eat like fresh fruit.

(c) Curing foods for lengthened preservation.

This branch of the subject may be conveniently divided into several sections, according to the means employed for rendering the foods less susceptible to change under the influence of the air. The most important agents are smoke and salt in the case of flesh, sugar for fruits, and vinegar for vegetables.

66. Smoking Apparatus.

Smoking.—Professor W. R. Brooks, in Rural New Yorker, gives the following simple but very effective smoking arrangement for all kinds of meats, especially hams, shoulders, and bacon. The smoking is effected in a very thorough manner and in a short time, about six hours sufficing for breakfast ham. The arrangement can be made by any one without the least trouble, and it is sure to “work” every time. The sketch almost explains itself. The device consists of the barrel a (Fig. 66) of any suitable size. An ordinary flour or apple barrel will smoke four or five moderate sized hams or shoulders. Both heads are removed and a movable cover is provided for the top. This may be of boards, or an old oil-cloth or tight blanket will answer. A short trench is dug, in which is laid a length of old stove pipe b. A larger excavation c is then made, in which a pan of burning corn cobs or chips can be placed. This is covered by a tightly fitting plank d. One end of the stove pipe communicates with this excavation; over the other end the barrel is placed, the earth banked up around the bottom of the barrel and over the stove pipe, to keep all tight, as plainly shown in Fig. 66. The meat may be suspended from a stick laid across the top of the barrel, and then all covered tight with an oil-cloth or blanket. On placing a pan of smoking cobs or chips in the place provided, the smoke passes through the stove pipe into the barrel, filling it with a dense, cool smoke. Should the support of the hams, &c., break, the latter cannot be hurt by coming in contact with the fire or ashes, as sometimes happens in the regular smoke-house.

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The ordinary smoking-chimney is described by Robinson as follows:—“It should be placed in some outhouse or shed, or even in a yard, so that no annoyance may be caused to the inmates of the dwelling, by even the smallest escape of smoke. It should be built of brick, and carried up to the height of 8 ft. at least from a brick or stone floor, 1 yd. wide and 2 ft. deep inside measure, and at the height of 3 ft. from the floor there should be a door frame reaching to the top of the chimney, or nearly so, on which a door, well jointed and fitted, must be hung. A small door of 1½ ft. square, of sheet iron, must also be made on the floor, through which the embers from the fire may be raked, and fuel or sawdust added from time to time, as the process of smoking goes on. A false floor, of sheet iron, perforated all over with holes, ¾ in. in diameter and 4 in. apart, must be placed (not fixed) inside the brickwork, on a level with the bottom of the wooden door-frame, viz. 3 ft. from the floor; this will serve to scatter the smoke equally in its ascent—be a preventive to danger from flame, if any should arise—and receive any small fish that may fall off the frames on which they are suspended. Four strong iron rods, with movable hooks on them, must be inserted in the brickwork near the top of the chimney, from which may be suspended sides of bacon, hams, heavy salmon, &c. &c. An outlet for the smoke must be made at or near the top, and a wooden pipe, 4 in. square, with a slide or valve in it (to confine or dismiss the smoke at pleasure), will completely rid the premises of any unpleasant odour. On each side of the chimney inside, and above the false floor, a framework of inch-square scantling must be fixed, with bars of wood of the same size nailed across to rest the rods and frames on; the bars must be fixed 11 in. above each other, and be continued until they come to the iron rods.

“The wooden rods or spits on which herrings are to be hung should be perfectly round, 3 ft. in length, ½-¾ in. in diameter, and pointed a little at one end that they may more easily be run through the gills of the fish. They may be of deal or any other tough wood, and 16 herrings will smoke conveniently on each rod.

“Frames for sprats and other small fish must be made thus:—The rims or outsides may be of deal, ¾ in. thick, and 2 in. wide: the whole frame must be 3 ft. high, and 2 ft. 9 in. wide, that it may fit into the chimney without trouble; and on each end of the top bar must be screwed a small plate of thin iron, projecting beyond the side of the frame 1 in., which will serve to hang the frames upon with the bars that are fixed up the sides of the chimney. Then take small deal rods ½ in. square, and with a bradawl or sprig-bit insert 32 sprigs, at equal distances from each other, in each rod, which, of course, will be 2 ft. 9 in. long; and if the sprigs be driven through on each side, it will be seen that each rod will carry at this rate 64 fish. These must be nailed on to the outside frame at the distance of 4½ in. from each other, and consequently each frame, when completed, will have 8 bars holding 64 fish each, or 512 on each frame. Wrought-iron sprigs may be used, which (being more than an inch long, and driven up to the head) will project ½ in. on the other side, and thus serve to hang small fish on; but this is left to the choice of the party making the frames; and if they are driven in with the points directed upwards, it will be easy to loosen the fish, when smoked, from the nails by turning the frames upside down, and shaking them over a sheet laid on the floor.

“A horse or frame of wood of 2 in. square scantling, with ribs 1 in. square nailed across the sides, and 11 in. apart, will be requisite to hang the herring rods on, along with the frames, when they are drawn from the chimney; and for the purpose of cooling the fish, it should be placed in a draught of air. Mackerel, or any other fish that will not suit the frames so well, may easily be suspended from the herring rods by small wire hooks made to run on them.

“The draught of smoke in the chimney may be increased or diminished at any time by opening more widely the iron door at the bottom; and if you want to inspect the articles while they are smoking, you may smother the smoke entirely for a few minutes by scattering sufficient sawdust over the embers: only take care that the sawdust is perfectly dry before attempting to use it.

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“In putting the rods and frames into the chimney, be careful that the fish do not touch each other, but rather place them so that a free current of smoke may ascend between them; for instance, 3 in. apart. As to fuel, the fire may be lighted with shavings and chips of deal; but oak sawdust should be used generally, mixed sometimes with beech, birch, and other woods. I decidedly prefer the small branches of the oak, such as charcoal is made from, after it has been peeled for the tanners’ bark: for these emit a much milder smoke than the sawdust of adult wood. They should be procured in the proper season, and stored in a dry room or shed. Never use old oak or other slabs (which are often little more than sap), nor old barrels, not knowing what their contents have been. As a general rule I would direct that, when delicate articles are to be smoked, you should make use of the milder woods, and dust mixed with oak; but for hams, bloaters, &c., the stronger flavour is the best. The embers must never be disturbed while any goods are smoking, as dust would ascend and spoil their appearance.” (‘Art of Curing.’)

Salting. Bacon.—(1) Lay a middle of pork (a side with the hand and ham removed), with the ribs in, in a trough with salt for 12-14 hours; wipe dry, wash out the trough, and replace the side; boil for 10 minutes 1 gal. soft water, 2 lb. each common and bay salt, 2 oz. saltpetre, 2 lb. sugar, and a handful of chopped bay leaves; skim, pour on cold, rub in twice daily, and turn often for a fortnight; wipe dry, hang in the air for 24 hours, and smoke at least 3 weeks.

(2) Spiced. Remove all bones from a middle or side and soak for 12 hours in renewed pans of water to extract all blood; pickle for 16 days in 1 gal. water, 1 lb. each salt and sugar, and ¼ lb. sal prunelle; wipe dry, and strew one side with powdered sage, bay leaves and white pepper; roll tightly and tie at every 3 inches; smoke for 14 days.

Bath Chaps.—Select cheeks from pigs not exceeding 8 score; split, and remove all offal; for each stone of meat mix 1 lb. each of coarse sugar and bay or rock salt and 1 oz. each of pepper and saltpetre; rub well daily for a week; turn in the pickle for another fortnight; wipe dry, coat with warmed coarse oatmeal, and hang dry for a week; smoke for a month, preferably with oak and turf.

Beef, Collared.—Take 14-16 lb. of the flank of a well-fed beast; cut square or oblong and take off the inner skin; make a brine of bay salt and water to float an egg, and let the meat lie covered in it for one week; take out, dry well, and rub all over with finely powdered saltpetre; let remain for a week longer in the former pickle, then wipe it completely dry, and beat 1 oz. powdered white pepper, 1½ oz. grated nutmeg, 1 oz. mace, 1 oz. cloves, and four shallots, shredded fine, into a paste (in a mortar); spread evenly and completely over the inner side of the meat; roll up the beef as closely as possible, tie tightly round with tape, and hang up to smoke for a fortnight.

Beef, Corned.—The following is a very old and excellent recipe for corning beef, called “Pocock pickle”; 4 gal. fresh water, 1½ lb. coarse brown sugar, 2 oz. saltpetre, 7 lb. common salt; put all into a boiler, take off the scum as it rises, and when well boiled let it remain to get cold. Have sufficient to cover the meat, lay a cloth over it, and keep the meat pressed down by means of bricks or any weight. The same pickle may be used again by re-boiling and adding a small quantity of each ingredient fresh.

Beef Hams.—Take the leg of a prime young heifer, rub well with common salt, and let lie a day and night to extract the blood; wipe dry, and put under a press to flatten; cut in the shape of a common ham. For every 12 lb. of beef, allow 1 lb. each coarse sugar, common salt, and bay salt, and 1 oz. saltpetre; rub this mixture in well, in all parts, for a month, turning the meat every day, at least; take out of pickle, rub dry, and give a good coat of coarse oatmeal and bran mixed, which will adhere by friction with the hand; smoke as hams, not less than a month.

Beef, Potted.—2 lb. lean beef, 6 oz. butter, 1 teaspoonful each pepper, salt, and mace.[126] Free the beef from all skin and gristle, and put it into an earthenware jar with 1 gill water; cover, and place it in a deep stewpan full of boiling water, and simmer slowly for 5 hours. Take out the beef, mince it very finely, and pound it in a mortar with the above-named seasoning; when smooth, add the butter. Press the mixture into small pots, pour clarified butter over the top when cool, tie down, and keep in a cool place.

Beef, Spiced.-½ lb. common salt, 1 oz. saltpetre, 2 oz. bay salt, 3 oz. moist sugar, ¼ oz. whole pepper, ¼ oz. long pepper, 2 blades mace, ¼ oz. whole allspice, 2 bay leaves, 5 or 6 sprigs of thyme, ditto marjoram, 2 stalks basil, 4 or 5 of white savoury. The whole to be boiled in 3 pints water for ½ hour, the saltpetre and bay salt to be pounded. The beef to be rubbed all over with a little salt previous to its being put in the pickle, when that is cold; 14-15 days to remain in pickle, turned often. This quantity of pickle is for a piece or hand of beef of 8 lb.

Bloaters, Potted.—Put 8 or 10 large bloaters (soft-roed ones are best) into a dish or tin, and cook them in an oven about 15-20 minutes; then, if thoroughly cooked, remove all the bones and skin, and put the fish into a mortar with a piece of butter (about 2 oz.), some cayenne pepper, a very little mixed spice, and salt if necessary. Pound all together till the paste may be spread, then put into pots and cover the top of each pot of the paste with mutton suet melted or good salt butter.

Boar’s Head.—Take head of large bacon pig; open, and remove gullet, tongue, eyes, small bones, brain, &c., and cleanse out thoroughly with salt and water; wipe dry, rub with salt, and drain for 24 hours; boil together for ¼ hour 1 gal. water, 2 lb. each treacle and bay salt, 3 oz. sal prunelle, 2 oz. each juniper berries and pepper, 1 oz. shallots, and ½ oz. chopped garlic; skim, and pour cold over the head and tongue lying in deep stoneware vessel; turn on alternate days for a month; at end of first 2 weeks remove the tongue, boil up the pickle with 1 lb. more salt, and pour on again cold; on removing from pickle, wipe dry, and score lines 2 in. apart in the skin running from nose to base of head; cut off any superfluous fat, and rub all over with dried oatmeal, skin the tongue and place it in the mouth, holding it with a skewer; close the sides with twine and smoke for 3 weeks in brown paper, using 3 parts birch and beech chips, 2 parts oak sawdust, and 1 part grass or fern; store in malt coomb and bake for table.

Brawn.—The head, feet, tongue, and ears of a pig, having been salted, are boiled with the outside skin of a loin, also salted for a few days. Boil very gently for a long time, till the bones will easily slip out. Take great care that every one is carefully picked out. Keep the skin of the loin whole, but cut the rest into pieces about 2 in. square. Line the brawn mould with the skin, then roll each piece lightly in mixed spice and powdered herbs, flavoured to taste. Pack them tightly in the brawn tin, put on the top, and press it with a heavy weight 24 hours. It is then ready for turning out. Keep it in the following pickle: Take a sufficient quantity of water (more than will be enough to cover your brawn); add to every gallon of water 2 handfuls whole malt, and salt enough to give it a strong relish. Let the mixture boil for 1 hour; then strain it into a clean vessel. When quite cold, pour it off into another vessel, keeping back the white sediment; then put in your brawn. A little vinegar maybe added, if liked. Fresh pickle should be made about once in 8 days, if the brawn is to be kept long. A common brawn tin is a cylinder of tin without top or bottom, but with 2 round pieces of tin which fit loosely inside it. The tin is about 5 in. diameter and 1 ft. in height. A heavy weight must fit inside it. Slack’s fruit or meat press answers admirably.

Char, Potted.—The following is an old family recipe: When in high season choose a dozen fine fish; clean and scale them; wash them twice, drying with a fresh cloth each time. Rub into them 1 oz. Jamaica pepper, 1 oz. saltpetre, 1 oz. common salt, all in the finest powder; lay the fish on a board, raised at one side, and let them drain for 12 hours. Then carefully wipe off the spice and salt, and season again with 48 cloves,[127] 14 blades mace, 2 large nutmegs, ¼ oz. pepper, and 1 oz. common salt, all finely powdered. As each fish is seasoned, lay it carefully into the pan, which should be just large enough to hold the 12 fish; lay butter over them, cover with one white and several brown papers, tie down close, and bake 4-5 hours in a moderately quick oven. When a little cooled, drain the liquor from the fish, and lay them round a potting or char pan, backs upwards, as close as they will lie without breaking, and finish packing them in the centre. Smooth the surface with the bowl of a large spoon, that there be no cavities to absorb the butter, which must not be put on till the next day; then let it be ½ in. thick. The gravy, in small proportions, is an excellent addition to soups or made dishes.

Hamburgh Beef.—Take a piece of meat from the bed, or other fleshy part; scatter common salt under and over it, and let lie 24 hours to void the blood; then put into a pickle made with 1 gal. water that has been boiled, 1 lb. common salt, 1½ lb. coarse sugar, 2 oz. saltpetre, ½ pint vinegar; simmer until all are melted, and pour the liquor over the meat placed in a deep narrow pan, so that it may be covered completely; it will be ready for smoking in 3 weeks; well dry with a cloth, and rub pea meal all over it until you have got a coat on it; if well smoked, it will come out bright yellow, and will keep any length of time. (Robinson.)

Hams.—(1) Four days after being killed, rub them all over with common rough salt, particularly about the hip-bone and knuckle joints. Having brushed off the salt (which should remain on for a day and night), and dried the hams with a coarse cloth, rub thoroughly and equally into each, 1 oz. finely powdered saltpetre, and let it lie for 24 hours, then take 1 oz. saltpetre, ½ lb. common salt, ¼ lb. bay salt, 1 lb. coarse sugar. Make them hot in a pan—but be careful not to melt them—and rub them well in, while hot, all over the fleshy and rind sides, and finish with ½ lb. more of common salt. Let them lie thus until a brine appears, and then with plenty of bay leaves, strewed both under and over, turn them every day, and rub and baste them well with the brine for the space of 3 weeks; then take them out of pickle and immerse them in cold spring water for 24 hours; let them drip; wipe them well with a cloth; rub hog’s blood, that has coagulated, all over them, and put them to smoke for a week, well smothered. (Robinson.)

(2) Three days after killing rub well with 1 oz. saltpetre, ½ lb. bay salt, 1 lb. treacle, and a handful each of bay leaves, marjoram, and thyme, chopped fine; keep on rubbing and basting for a week, turning over each day; next strew salt on an inch thick, and let remain till the salt and brine are well mixed; boil the pickle, and pour it hot (not scalding) over the meat; let lie for 14 days; smoke, without wiping, for a week in gentle heat for the first 6 hours and afterwards cool.

(3) Take a leg of pork about 20 lb. and rub all over with 3 oz. saltpetre; let lie 14 hours; then boil 2 qt. stale beer or porter, 2 lb. salt, 2 lb. coarse sugar, 1 lb. pounded bay salt, skim well, and pour hot over the meat; let lie a month, rubbing and turning every alternate day; take out, rub dry, and roll for ½ hour in malt-dust or oatmeal; when well covered, smoke for 3 weeks; and immediately wash over with a hot paste of quicklime and water; leave for a week, and hang in cool dry place.

(4) Take a leg of pork 16-18 lb.; rub in 1 oz. sal prunelle and leave for 24 hours; boil 12 oz. bay salt, 10 oz. common salt, 1½ oz. saltpetre, 2 lb. treacle, 2 qt. vinegar, 3 heads garlic, and a handful of chopped sage; skim, pour hot over the meat, and well rub in daily for 10 days; let lie 10 days with frequent turning; dry, and smoke for 3 weeks.

Herrings.—The fish are spread on a floor, and sprinkled with salt; when sufficiently salted, they are thrown into large vats, and washed. Each fish is then threaded through the gills, on long thin spits holding 25 each. These are hung upon trestles in the smoking-room, where fires of oak-boughs are kept smouldering. For “bloaters,” to be consumed in England, the smoking lasts about 24 hours; “red-herrings” for export[128] are salted more, and are smoked for 3 or 4 to 40 days, usually about 14 days. “Kippers” are taken while fresh, and split up. They are then washed, and thrown into vats with plenty of salt for a few minutes; finally they are spread out on tenter-hooks, on racks, and hung up for 8 hours’ smoking.

Herring Paste.—1 doz. herrings put in a pan, cover with hot water; when pretty soft, pull them to pieces, take out all the bones (use only white part of fish and soft roes), pound in a mortar, with ½ lb. butter, cayenne to taste, ¼ pint anchovy sauce; when well pounded, put into small pots with lard over. Will keep good for months, and will be found delicious.

Hungarian Beef.—Take about 10 lb. of fine fat short rib or sirloin of beef that has been killed 4 or 5 days; rub thoroughly with ½ lb. coarse sugar or treacle until none can be seen; after lying 2 days take 2 oz. juniper berries, ½ lb. bay salt, 2 oz. saltpetre, 1 oz. sal prunelle, 1 lb. common salt, all finely beaten to powder, and some bay leaves and thyme chopped small; rub in for an hour, and let lie for 3 weeks in an earthen pan, rubbing well every day with the brine; take out, wipe well, and plunge into cold water for 12 hours; rub perfectly dry, and colour with bullocks’ blood; hang up in gentle smoke for 3 days, after which smoke until nearly black.

Mackerel.—Take the mackerel as soon as caught (for they quickly become dark and lose flavour), and with a light knife split open the back from head to tail; take out the guts, roes, livers, and gills, and be particular you do not burst the gall; wipe each fish well inside and out, and put into the following pickle:—1 gal. cold pure water, 1 oz. saltpetre, 2 lb. common salt, 1 lb. coarse sugar; if the fish be large and thick, let them lie in this state 6 hours; then take out and put two stretch laths across the back of each, extending them as much as possible; wash through the pickle once, and hang to dry for 2 hours; after which place in a hot smoke for 1 hour, and afterwards in a cool one for 20 hours, or until they become of a dark chestnut colour. When cold, pack them one on the other in bundles of 6, and keep them rather in a dry than in a damp room.

Mutton Hams.—Select a short, thick, round leg of wether mutton about 14 lb. weight; rub thoroughly for 20-30 minutes with coarse sugar, and let lie 12 hours, turning 3 times; plunge into the following pickle, with what sugar you have on the dish;-½ lb. bay salt, 1 lb. common salt, 1 oz. saltpetre, 2 oz. juniper berries, 1 handful each of thyme and bay leaves, 2 qt. soft water; simmer together one hour, and use lukewarm; let remain in this pickle 3 weeks; take out, but do not wipe; then smoke, but insist on its being turned frequently, sometimes shank upwards, and vice versâ, for a fortnight, in a strong regular fume; when cold, put into a calico bag, and hang up in the kitchen until you want to dress it; then bury it in the bag in a dry garden soil for 20 hours or so; and take care, when it is boiled, to put plenty of bay leaves, thyme, and marjoram into the pot along with it. (Robinson.)

Norfolk Chine.—Select the chine of a 10-score pig; remove rind and superfluous fat, and rub and turn daily for a week in 1 lb. each salt and treacle, and 1 oz. each bay and laurel leaves; then boil 3 qt. water with 1 lb. salt, 1 oz. each crushed juniper berries and shredded bay and laurel leaves, and a handful each of thyme and marjoram; skim, and pour cold over the meat so that it mingles with the first pickle; turn for 3 weeks, wipe dry, and coat with bran and then pea flour; smoke for 14 days with equal proportions dried fern, oak lops, and birch or beech chips; bake and eat cold.

Oysters.—A method of preserving oysters is adopted by the Chinese. The fish are taken from the shells, plunged into boiling water for an instant, and then exposed to the sun till all the moisture is removed. They remain fresh for a long time, and retain their full flavour. Only the fattest can be so treated. Oysters are also largely “canned,” much in the same way as salmon.

Pickled Pork.—Cut into convenient sized pieces and remove principal bones; rub well with saltpetre and then with a mixture of 2 parts bay salt and 1 part common salt; pack in a clean vessel with plenty of salt around the sides and covering the top.

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Porker’s Head.—Choose a dairy-fed porker of 7 score; open the head, and remove gullet, tongue, eyes, &c.; wash 5 minutes in salt and water; rub well all over with coarse sugar and sliced onions; let remain in a deep dish 48 hours; boil ½ oz. powdered bay leaves, ¾ oz. saltpetre, 1 lb. bay salt or rock salt, 2 oz. ground allspice, 1 qt. water; skim well, and when cold, pour it over the head in a deep straight-sided earthen vessel; let lie 3 weeks, turning and basting with the pickle every other day; wipe dry, place the tongue in (having meantime cured it as neats’ tongue) and stuff all cavities with onions fried in olive oil or sweet lard, and powdered dried sage; bind the cheeks close together with tape, and smoke 3 weeks with 2 parts beech chips, 2 parts fern, 1 part peat, 1 part oak sawdust; keep in same packing as hams, tongues, &c., for 2 months; bake and eat cold.

Salmon.—The fish are beheaded and cleaned, and cut by a series of knives into the right lengths to fill 1 lb. cans. When these have been filled to within ¼ in. of the top, the covers are put on and soldered. In an air-tight condition, the full cans are passed to the boilers, vats measuring 5 ft. × 4 ft. × 4 ft., where they are steamed for 1 hour. They are then taken out and cooled. A small hole in the centre of each lid, hitherto remaining soldered up, is opened by applying a hot iron, and the air and cooking-gases are allowed to escape. The cans are then instantaneously made air-tight again, and are boiled for two hours in a bath of salted water, the salt being added to raise the boiling-point. They are then left to stand till quite cool.

Salmon, Kippered.—Lay the fish on a board with the tail towards you, and the back to the right hand; insert the knife at the point of the nose, and split down the backbone, or as near to it as possible. Take out the inside and the roe, and scale and wipe the fish perfectly clean; remove the backbone and every particle of blood. When clean, rub in a mixture of equal parts salt, brown sugar, and ground black pepper, about 4 large spoonfuls of each ingredient to a 10 lb. fish. Let the fish remain in the pickle 2-3 days, according to size, turning it every day. Afterwards press it between 2 flat stones in a cool place for 2-3 days more, then sprinkle it with ground pepper, and hang it out in the sun against a wall until dry, with wooden skewers to keep it flat, or it may be hung above the fireplace in the kitchen when it is warm, but not hot. After that it may be smoked for 2 days and nights in the smoke of dried seaweed and oak sawdust, or painted over with pyroligneous acid, or with Smith’s Cambrian essence.

Salmon, Pickled.—Take a good salmon; cut it across in 2 or 3 pieces without splitting it; wash carefully and boil in pickle made with coarse salt and spring water strong enough to float an egg. The fish must be put down in cold pickle, and allowed very slowly to boil till it begins to separate from the bone, keeping it well skimmed all the while. Put the fish on a table to drain, and when cold pack it in a crock or keg as closely as possible without breaking the pieces, sprinkling a small quantity of powdered saltpetre, a little salt, and some bay leaves on each layer. Then cover with a pickle made thus: 1 qt. vinegar, 3 pints spring water, ¼ lb. lump sugar, 16 drops oil of cloves. This pickle will preserve any kind of fish fit for pickling, and is particularly good for oysters. These should be boiled slowly before put in it.

Sardines.—The beheaded and cleaned fish are spread upon sieves, and plunged for 1 or 2 minutes beneath the surface of boiling oil in coppers. After draining a little, the fish are packed closely in tin boxes, which are filled up with pure cold oil, and soldered. The quality deteriorates with every immersion, owing to the matters disengaged by the boiling oil, and the coppers need frequent replenishing with oil.

Sausages.—(a) Take a quantity of pig’s meat, remove all nerves and skin with great care; then chop it as finely as possible. Put it in an earthenware pan, add to it garlic, parsley, mint, thyme, marjoram, and burnet finely minced; pepper and cloves powdered; and salt, all in such proportions as taste may suggest. Work the whole with a wooden spoon for some time, so as to get all the ingredients well mixed; then add a tumblerful of white wine for every 2 lb. meat, and work it for some time longer.[130] Have some skins perfectly cleaned, rub them well all over with lemon juice, and put them in water with plenty of lemon juice squeezed into it. Take them out one at a time, dry them, fill them with the meat, and tie them in lengths of about 3 in. The sausages should then be hung up to dry in a strong current of air for some days. These sausages are best eaten boiled with cabbages or greens. (The G. C.)

(b) Beef sausages are prepared in exactly the same manner as pork. The best part to use is beef steak. To 1 lb. of this use ¼ lb. beef suet or other good fat, ¼ pint stock, or water, 1½ oz. sifted breadcrumbs, 1 large teaspoonful salt, ½ teaspoonful dried and sifted parsley mixed with a similar quantity of thyme, and 1 small teaspoonful salt. If these sausages are properly made and cooked, they will, when cut, give plenty of gravy; they are considered somewhat less rich than those made of pork.

(c) 1½ lb. pigmeat cut from the griskin, without any skin, 1½ lb. veal, 1½ lb. beef suet, the yolks and whites of 5 eggs, 1 dessertspoonful sifted sage (after being well dried), pepper and salt to taste. Chop the meat into small pieces, pound it together in a marble mortar till it is soft and tender, chop the suet very fine, and when the eggs are well beaten together (after the specks are taken out) pour the liquid over the pounded meat and chopped suet, kneading it well together with a clean hand, throwing in the sifted sage and pepper and salt from a coarse pepper-box during the operation, so as to let them impregnate the whole mass without being predominant in any part of it. Press the whole, when well mixed together, into a wide-mouthed jar, and keep it from the air in a cold place; roll the sausages on a floured board, and use very little grease in frying them, as they will be almost fat enough to fry themselves, with the aid of a frying-pan. They should be made into small flat cakes, about the size of a five-shilling piece. Lovelock’s sausage-making machine is very useful.

(d) To each lb. veal put ½ lb. ham, in equal quantities of fat and lean. Season with ½ teaspoonful salt, a whole one of pepper, a pinch of nutmeg and sweet herbs; mix with 1 oz. sifted breadcrumbs, and moisten with 4 tablespoonfuls stock made from trimmings of the veal and ham. Proceed as for pork sausages.

Shrimps.—To preserve shrimps in a dried state, they are boiled for ½ hour with frequent sprinkling of salt; then spread out on hard dry ground, with frequent turning, to dry and bleach for 3 or 4 days. They are then trampled to remove the shells, and are winnowed and bagged.

Shrimps, Potted.—Take some freshly boiled shrimps and half their weight of butter, pick out the meat from the tails, and chop it up fine; take the rest of the shrimps and pound them up with a little of the butter until reduced to a smooth paste, then add the meat from the tails and pound all together, seasoning well with pounded mace, grated nutmeg, and cayenne pepper; put it into pots, and cover with clarified butter.

Smoked Geese.—When geese are cheap, take as many as you please, only seeing that they are fresh, and not in the least damp or muggy; then cleanly draw, pick from pen-feathers, and wipe well out with a cloth dipped in strong salt and water; after which immerse in the following (quantities for 6 geese):—2 lb. coarse sugar, 1 lb. bay salt, 3 oz. saltpetre, 1 handful finely beaten sage, 3 shallots, 2 handfuls crushed bay leaves; boil together 10 minutes, and afterwards simmer ½ hour; when cold, pour over the geese, which must be turned often, and, if possible, kept covered with the pickle; let remain 48 hours; take out and let them drip (do not wipe), and rub cayenne pepper plentifully inside each until it adheres; smoke 3 days and nights in a cool smoke, and hang each up in a calico bag in the kitchen; when wanted for table, dissect them, and broil over a clear fire.

Smoked Neats’ Tongues.—Take 6 tongues and rub well with sugar for 2 days; then rub well with common salt and saltpetre for 2 days more, apart from the sugar; then take 1 qt. each of water and porter, ¼ lb. saltpetre, 2 lb. bay salt, 2 lb. common salt, and with the sugar first used make a hot pickle, which skim well, and pour over the tongues laid in a deep narrow tin pan completely covered; let lie for 8 days more, and[131] they will be fit for use in any way; if to be smoked, wipe them well, and turn in the chimney 4 or 5 times for 5 days.

Sprats.—Pick out the largest, and then the second size, rejecting the remainder, or refuse, which, however, may be useful to pot. Put into baskets, and well wash in salt and water; then set to drain an hour, and afterwards plunge into a pickle that will float an egg: the smaller ones may be taken out of pickle in 4 hours, and the large ones in 6 hours, and be set to drain; which done, proceed to stick them on frames, the eye being pierced by each nail, and then, with a steady hand, put into the chimney. Set on a gentle heat for ½ hour, and let it be succeeded by a strong smoke for 12 hours longer; when cold, they will be fit for immediate consumption; but if you want them to keep a month or so, you must continue the smoke on them for 30 hours, or until they become a dark brown colour; and if for packing, they should be placed as bloaters, keeping the same-sized ones together in a dry room, and after a few hours they will have sweated in the packages, and will be very mellow and fine flavoured.

Sprats, Pickled.—For this purpose the sprats must be quite fresh and unsalted. Clean, take off the heads, and thoroughly wash them. Drain, and put in layers and rows, heads and tails, into china-lined earthen pie-dishes, wide, well glazed, or stoneware crocks, with whole pepper, allspice, chili-pods, and bay leaves; of the latter sparingly. Dissolve 1 spoonful salt in hot water, pour it over the fish, and add vinegar to cover them completely. Cover and bake slowly for 1-2 hours, according to quantity, till all the fish are well cooked through. Take off the cover and let them cool before putting away for use. Add a little more vinegar if too dry. A few shallots or slices of silverskin onions can be added if approved of. Sprats pickled thus should come to the table in the vessel they are cooked in, and removed in layers. In cold weather, if kept for a week or two, the bones will be found to be quite dissolved by the action of the vinegar. Fresh herrings, trout, salmon peal, eels, and a variety of fresh-water fish can be thus prepared.

Sprats, Potted.—Pour some boiling (slightly salted) water on the sprats, cleaned as above-mentioned, in a deep pan. After a few minutes the meat can easily be removed from the bones. When this is done, mash it up finely and carefully with a silver fork. Add red and white pepper and a little more salt to taste. Grease 1 lb. jam-pots with clarified butter. Pack the fish closely into these, and bake for ½-1 hour in slow heat. When cold, pour some of the clarified butter or some American tinned marrow fat to the depth of 1 in. on the top of each pot, and allow to harden before tying down for use. These will keep well 1-3 weeks.

Tongues.—(a) Sprinkle the tongue well all over with common salt, and let it stand 2 days. If it appear slimy, remove the salt with the slime, then mix 1 lb. saltpetre and 1 tablespoonful coarse brown sugar together, with which rub the tongue well, and let it be in pickle 3-7 weeks, taking care to turn and baste it well every day during that time. If it be allowed to remain in pickle as long as 7 weeks, it should be taken out, rubbed dry, and hung up to keep for five days before using it. It is better, however, not to keep them in so long, as tongues are always best used straight out of the pickle. Like all other boiled meats, tongues require great care in cooking. The fact is they never should boil; they should be soaked for 2 hours or more after they are taken out of the pickle, according to the number of weeks they have been in it, and should then be put into a large saucepan or stewpan in cold water. As soon as this shows symptoms of boiling, and before it begins regularly to boil, the pan should be drawn sufficiently to the side of the fire to keep up a constant simmering, to be kept up until it is done. In this way the tongue will be as tender as possible, and, cured with saltpetre as described, it should have a nice red colour.

(b) ½ oz. saltpetre, ½ oz. salprunella, 1 lb. salt, ½ lb. very coarse sugar, 4 bay leaves, 10 juniper berries, 1 tablespoonful vinegar, and 3 pints water. Let all boil for ½ hour, skim off the scum, and pour the liquid into a pickling dish, when it is quite cold put the tongue[132] in, and turn it every day for 3 weeks, if you wish to cook it green, but if you intend to hang it, let it stop for a month in pickle. This pickle will keep good for months if reboiled and skimmed. Every tongue put in should be well rubbed with salt, left to drain for 3 days, and wiped dry before being put in.

Trout, Potted.—(a) Pour boiling water on the fish, and let them steep ½ hour; bone and skin them, and pound them in a mortar with ½ lb. butter to double the quantity of fish; add by degrees, salt, cayenne, and spices to taste; when reduced to a smooth paste, put it into pots and cover with clarified fat or butter.

(b) Mix together the following quantity of spices, all finely pounded. 1 oz. cloves, ½ oz. Jamaica pepper, ¼ oz. black pepper, ¼ oz. cayenne, 2 nutmegs, a little mace, and 2 teaspoonfuls ginger; add the weight of the spices and half as much again of salt, and mix all thoroughly. Clean the fish, and cut off the heads, fins, and tails; put 1 teaspoonful of the mixed spices into each fish, and lay them in a deep earthen jar with the backs downwards; cover them with clarified butter, tie a paper over the mouth of the jar, and bake them slowly for 8 hours. When the backbone is tender the fish are done enough. Take them out of the jar and put them in a pan with the backs upwards; cover them with a board, and place a heavy weight upon it. When perfectly cold remove the fish into fresh jars, smooth them with a knife, and cover them with clarified butter.

Pickling.—The chief agent in pickling is hot vinegar, and the best way to prepare it is as follows:—Bruise ¼ lb. each of black pepper, ginger, cloves, pimento, and mace, with some garlic, horse-radish, capsicums, and shallots, in 1 qt. of the strongest and best vinegar in a stoneware jar; cork tightly, cover with a bladder soaked in the pickle, and place on a trivet near the fire for 3 days, shaking it up 3 or 4 times a day. Gherkins and similar articles should be pricked before immersion, to admit the pickle better. The addition of a little alkali (such as soda bicarbonate) heightens the green colour of the pickles. Glazed or block-tin vessels should alone be used for making pickles in. Glass or earthenware jars are best for strong pickles; they must be tightly corked and tied down with bladder soaked in the pickling liquor. A damp store cupboard is fatal to them.

Cabbage.—Choose a fine closely-grown red cabbage, strip the outside leaves off, cut it across in rather thin slices, and lay on a dish, scattering salt over; cover with a cloth, and let lie 20 hours; drain the cabbage on a sieve, and put it in a clean jar with allspice, whole pepper, and a little ginger sliced; pour cold white wine vinegar over it to cover it well, and tie closely from the air.

Chutney.—(a) Cayenne pepper, ¼ oz.; mustard seed, 2 oz.; brown sugar, ½ lb.; ground ginger, 1 oz.; vinegar, 1½ pint; stoned raisins, ¼ lb.; garlic, 2 oz.; onions, ¼ lb.; salt, 2 oz.; apples, 1½ lb. Boil until soft enough to mash through a colander. (C. G. J.)

(b) Peel 4 lb. green mangoes, take out the stones, and cut them into quarters lengthwise; boil them slightly in 1 bottle vinegar, and put it aside in a jar till cold. Take another bottle of vinegar, to which add 2 lb. sugar, and boil it till it becomes a thin syrup; put aside till cold. Take 1 oz. salt, 2 lb. picked and dried raisins, 1 oz. yellow mustard seed, 1 oz. garlic, 2 oz. dried chillies, 1 lb. green ginger sliced. Pound the garlic, chillies, and ginger finely in a mortar; mix all the ingredients together, bottle and expose to the sun for 3-4 days, or place it in a cool oven. Apples can be used instead of mangoes; they should be finely cut up.

(c) Apple.—6 large sharp apples, 3 large onions, 6 oz. sultana raisins, 1 teaspoonful ground ginger, 1 saltspoonful red pepper, 1 dessertspoonful salt, 2 tablespoonfuls tomato sauce or the pulp of 2 or 3 tomatoes, 1 dessertspoonful anchovy essence, 1 dessertspoonful Indian soy, 1 tablespoonful salad oil, ½ vinegar. Chop very finely the apples and onions, and chop the raisins roughly. Now put all the ingredients, with the exception of the vinegar, into a mortar, and pound together, and by degrees add the vinegar. When all the ingredients are well blended together, put into wide-mouthed bottles, and cork tightly.

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(d) Elder.—The berries that remain from elder ketchup, an onion finely minced, ¼ oz. ginger, and a blade of mace and 6 cloves; pound the spice together, and put all the ingredients into an enamelled stewpan, with 3 oz. sultana raisins, 2 oz. Demerara sugar, ½ pint vinegar, 1 saltspoonful cayenne pepper, and 1 teaspoonful salt, and, if convenient, a few mulberries; boil all together 5 minutes, take from the fire, and, when cold, put into wide-mouthed bottles, and cork tightly. This makes a very good chutney for cold meat; it can be made hotter if liked.

(e) Green Gooseberry.—4 pints green gooseberries boiled in 1½ pint brown vinegar, 2 lb. brown sugar made into a syrup, 1½ pint vinegar; 1½ lb. raisins, stoned and chopped; 6 oz. garlic, pounded and dried; 6 oz. mustard seed, gently dried and bruised; 2 oz. dried chillies, pounded. Mix all together, put in a cool oven for some hours on several different occasions; and after, if too dry, add a little vinegar, as may be required, at the end of a month or two.

(f) Tomato.—Take 4-5 lb. ripe tomatoes, pick out the stalks, wipe the fruit with a dry piece of flannel, place them in a jar with a lid, add a breakfastcupful of salt, the same of vinegar, close the jar by placing a stiff paste of flour and water round the edge of the lid so as to make it air-tight, place the jar in a large pan of boiling water, let the fruit simmer slowly for 6 hours, then pulp through a colander to get quit of the skins and cores. Shred 2 oz. red chillies, the same of garlic, make a syrup of 2 pints vinegar and 2 lb. loaf sugar, cut small 2 oz. ginger, mix all with the tomatoes, place on a slow fire, simmer gently; when it comes to the boil take off the chutney, bottle when cold, cork tight, keep in a warm, dry place.

Cucumbers.—Cut them small and unripe; make an incision at the side, and, taking out a piece of the fruit, save it entire, and extract the seeds thoroughly; put the cucumbers, with the pieces which have been cut from them, into a strong pickle of salt and water, and leave in it for 10 days, or until they become yellow; place in a pan, with thick layers of fresh vine leaves between them; dissolve a little powdered alum in the brine from which they have been taken, pour it on, and set the pan over a moderate fire; keep the cucumbers at a scalding heat for 4 hours at least, without on any account allowing them to boil; by that time they will be of a fine green colour; drain on a sieve, and when cold put a stick of horse-radish, some mustard seed, 4 cloves of garlic, and ¼ oz. of peppercorns into each cucumber; fit in the piece that was taken out, and stitch with a needle and green silk; boil 2 oz. each of black peppercorns, long pepper, and sliced ginger, 4 oz. mustard seed, 1 oz. each of garlic, mace, and cloves, and 1 gal. best white wine vinegar, together for 8 minutes; lay the cucumbers in a deep jar, and when the pickle is cold pour it on; tie first bladder, and then leather, closely over.

Gherkins.—Soak 250 gherkins in a pickle of 2½ lb. common salt to 1 gal. water; let lie 3 hours; drain on a sieve, wipe separately, and place in a jar; boil 1 gal. best white wine vinegar, 6 oz. common salt, 1 oz. each of allspice and mustard seed, ½ oz. each of cloves and mace, 1 sliced nutmeg, and 1 stick of horse-radish, sliced, for 12 minutes; skim well, and pour when cold over the gherkins; let stand 20 hours covered up close; put altogether into a pan over the fire, and let simmer only until they attain a nice green colour; place in jars, pour the liquor and spices over them, and tie closely with bladder and leather.

Grapes.—The grapes must be carefully cut from the stalk before they are ripe, and care must be taken not to bruise the skin, or they will become soft instead of crisp. Boil 4 pints vinegar, 2 oz. whole ginger, 1 oz. peppercorns, 2 doz. cloves, and a very small piece of mace. When cold pour it over the grapes, and let them be well covered, and remain 3 days; then boil the vinegar again, and pour it cold on the grapes. Bottle and cork securely.

Grape Leaves.—A writer in the Country Gentleman recommends the use of fresh green grape-leaves to place on top of pickles in jars in place of flannel or other cloth usually employed. He claims the leaves will preserve the vinegar sharp and clear and[134] impart a nice flavour. The leaves should be rinsed in pure water and left to drain before use, and occasionally changed. They exclude the air, and besides imparting a delightful flavour to the pickle cause less trouble to the housewife.

Ketchup.—(a) Elder.—Put into a jar 3 pints elderberries, picked from the stalks, 2 large blades of mace, 2 oz. ginger, 6 oz. anchovies, ½ oz. whole pepper, 1½ pint vinegar; set it in a rather cool oven, and let it remain there all night. Next morning strain the liquor from the berries, and put into an enamelled stewpan, with the ginger, mace, anchovies, pepper and salt; let it boil till the anchovies are dissolved. Strain off, and, when cold, put into small bottles, cork and seal. This is a nice ketchup for broiled fish. The berries will make a chutney.

(b) Mushroom.—The mushrooms should be gathered in the morning before the sun is on them. Break them in small bits, put them in a large dish, and sprinkle a good deal of salt upon them; let them lie for 4 days, turning them daily, and adding a little salt. Lay the pieces upon a sieve, or put them in a thin bag. Let them run all night until the juice is all run from them; put the juice in a stewpan, beat up the whites of 2 eggs, add them to the ketchup, with plenty of mixed spices. Let it boil for one minute, run it through a piece of muslin into a basin, and when cold bottle it up, cork, and seal it; keep it in a dry place.

(c) Ditto.—Break up the mushrooms, and add ¼ lb. salt to every 3½ lb. mushrooms; let them stand for 2 days, and drain all the juice you can procure from them by pressure; then boil it slowly for an hour, with 2 oz. of salt, a few cloves, and ¼ oz. peppercorns and whole ginger, to each qt.; then strain, and when cold bottle, using new corks, and sealing them down.

(d) Ditto.—Take for this full-grown flap mushrooms, crush them with the hands, and put a handful of salt to every peck; let them stand all night, then put into broad-mouthed jars, and set them for 12 hours in a quick oven, then strain through a hair sieve. To every qt. of liquor put ¼ oz. cloves, black pepper, and ginger; boil till half is wasted; when cold bottle for use.

(e) Walnut.—Take 6 half-sieves of green walnut shells, put them into a tub, mix up well with 2-3 lb. common salt; let them stand for 6 days, frequently beating and mashing them, till the shells become soft and pulpy, then, by banking it up on one side the tub, at the same time raising the tub on that side, the liquor will drain clear off to the other; then take that liquor out. The mashing may be repeated as often as liquor is found. The quantity will be about 6 qt. When done, let it be simmered in an iron boiler as long as any scum rises; then bruise ¼ lb. ginger, ¼ lb. allspice, 2 oz. long pepper, 2 oz. cloves; let it slowly boil ½ hour. When bottled, let an equal quantity of spice go into each bottle, cork them tight, seal them over, and put them into a cool, dry place for one year before they are used. (C. G. J.)

Lemon.—Grate the rind from 1½ doz. lemons, taking care only to remove the extreme outer coating, leaving the white well covered with a tinge of yellow. Cut them in quarters, but do not let the knife go quite through them, leaving just enough at the bottom to hold the quarters together; rub ¾ lb. bay salt equally over them, and spread them out on a dish. Place this in a cool oven, and let them remain there until the juice has dried into the peels. This, if preferred, may be done in front of the fire, but it must be done very gradually. When the juice is so absorbed, put the lemons in a large jar, with somewhat less than 1 oz. mace, the same of grated nutmeg, half the quantity of pounded cloves, 3 oz. peeled garlic, and ¾ breakfastcupful mustard seed bruised a little and tied in a muslin bag. Over all this pour 3 pints boiling vinegar, close the jar well, and stand it near the fire for 4-5 days, shaking it up every day. Then tie it up and let it remain for 3 months to take off the bitter taste of the peels. At the end of this time turn the whole out on to a hair sieve, moving it about to get out the liquor; let it stand a day, and then pour off the fine part and bottle it. The other part must stand for 3 days more, and it will refine itself. Pour it off and bottle it, let it stand[135] again and bottle it, till the whole is refined. It may be put in any sauce, and will not spoil the colour. If for white sauce, 1 teaspoonful is enough, or 2 for brown sauce. Should cream be used in the sauce, the pickle must be put in before the cream or other thickening is added, or it will probably cause it to curdle.

Mixed Pickles.—1 gal. vinegar, sixpennyworth turmeric, 2 oz. black pepper ground, 2 oz. long ditto pounded, 1 oz. cloves pounded, 4 oz. flour of mustard, 3 oz. mustard seed, whole cayenne to your taste, 2 oz. ginger pounded fine, white cabbage cut in slices, quantities of horseradish scraped, ½ pint garlic, 1 pint shallots, 2 doz. large onions cut in quarters, a cucumber, a cauliflower, a few French beans, and a few radish pods, plenty of capsicums. Lay them in a red pan. You cannot put too much salt about them. Let the vegetables remain 3 days in salt, then strain them out and shake them. Lay them on a linen cloth in the sun to dry, then put them into your jar near the fire. Then boil all your spice with the vinegar, and pour it on boiling off the fire. They will be fit to use in 2 months. For an ordinary family ¼ of the above, with half the vegetables, will be found sufficient to make at a time.

Mushrooms.—Take the smallest and roundest button mushrooms, throw into cold water, and rub each separately with a piece of flannel dipped in salt to clean them thoroughly; put them again, as you proceed, into fresh cold water, and finally into a pan with a handful of table salt scattered over them on a moderate fire, covering them close that the steam may not escape, for 10 minutes, or until they are thoroughly hot and the water is drawn well out of them; pour them on a sieve, and quickly dry them well between the cloths; let remain covered up from the air till they are cold; place in clean dry glass bottles with a little mace, and fill up with distilled or white wine vinegar, adding to each bottle a teaspoonful of salad oil; cork and seal them up so as to exclude air.

Nasturtiums.—Gather within a week after the blossoms have fallen off; take a gallon of them, and throw into a pail of salt and water, cold, in which to keep them, changing the water 3 times at least, 3 days and nights; lay in a sieve to drain, and rub perfectly dry between cloths; boil for ten minutes 1 gal. white wine vinegar, 1 oz. each of mace and nutmeg, 2 oz. white peppercorns, 4 sliced shallots, and 4 oz. common salt; skim well, and when nearly cold, pour the whole over the fruit placed in jars, and tie close.

Onions.—Take the smallest clear silver onions; after peeling, immerse in cold salt and water, and let lie for 10 days, changing the pickle daily; drain on a sieve, put into a jar, pour newly-made brine of salt and water boiling hot over them, and let stand closely covered, until cold; repeat the scalding with new pickle, and, when cold and well drained, put in bottles or jars, with a slice or two of the best ginger, a blade of mace, and a bay leaf; fill up with distilled vinegar, and be sure to add salad oil to float on the top; tie close, and seal down.

Piccalilli.—Slice up a closely-grown, sound-hearted white cabbage and a sound white beetroot, with a cauliflower divided into several small branches, a few clear gherkins, some radish-pods, and kidney beans; lay in a sieve with two or three handfuls of common salt scattered over, and expose to the sun or fire for 4 days; when you think all the water is extracted from them, put them into a large stoneware pan, mixing well, and scattering plenty of good sound mustard seed amongst them as you go on; to each gallon of best vinegar, add 3 oz. peeled and sliced garlic, and 1½ oz. turmeric; boil, skim well, and pour the liquor while hot over the vegetables; let them lie 10 days, at least, with strong paper tied over, near a fire, until they have become a fine yellow colour, and have imbibed a fair quantity of the vinegar; then boil 3 qt. best white wine vinegar, 1½ oz. each of white pepper and mace, and ½ oz. each of long pepper, nutmegs, and cloves, for 10 minutes; skim well, and pour all over the pickles; tie the jar with bladder and leather.

Samphire.—By persons living near the sea it is usually preserved, when freshly[136] gathered, in equal parts vinegar and sea water, or even sometimes in the water only; but when brought inland it should be steeped 2 days in brine, then drained, and put into a stone jar, covered with vinegar, and having a lid, over which put a thick paste of flour and water, and set it in a very cool oven all night, or in a warmer oven till it nearly but not quite boils. Then let it stand on a warm hob for ½ hour, and allow it to become quite cold before the paste is removed; then add cold vinegar if any more is required, and secure as other pickles.

Tomato.—(a) Gather 4 doz. tomatoes when turned, but not too ripe. Lay them in salt and water for 2 days, changing them twice; drain them, and dry them in a coarse cloth; put them in a pickling jar. To 1 gal. vinegar add 1 oz. ginger, shred, 1 oz. whole pepper, ½ oz. cloves, 1 pint mustard seeds, and 2 tablespoonfuls mustard flour, curry powder, turmeric, 2 oz. garlic, 2 oz. shallots, shred, 1 oz. bay salt, and a little common salt. Half of the spice to be strewed in the jar, and the other half to be boiled in the vinegar, and to be poured hot over the tomatoes; then let them be covered close with a flannel, and a weight at the top to keep in the steam, and let them stand in the chimney corner for 2 days, but not too near the fire. The vinegar must be boiled up twice more, and poured over the tomatoes as before. When quite cold fill up with more vinegar previously boiled, so that the tomatoes are covered and tied up with bladder.

(b) Cut some green tomatoes in slices, sprinkle them with salt, and let them stand 12-15 hours, drain, and put them in a saucepan over the fire with fresh water, changing it until all the salt is washed out. When thoroughly scalded and partially cooked, drain them again and put them into a boiling hot syrup, made with 1 pint vinegar, 3 lb. sugar, ½ oz. cinnamon, ¼ oz. cloves, simmer them in this until tender, then carefully lift them out and put them into jars, reduce the syrup and pour it over them. After a day or two boil up the syrup again, pour it afresh over the tomatoes, and when cold tie them down carefully.

Vinegar.—(a) To every gal. water put 2 lb. coarsest West India sugar; boil and skim this. Pour the mixture into a common clean washing mug, and, when sufficiently cool, take 4 pints from it into a basin, and stir well into it ½d. worth good fresh yeast if 3 gal. vinegar are to be made, or in that proportion, and set the basin, near a fire, covered with a cloth, to get it to work. When this end is obtained, put it back to the larger quantity from which it came, and which ought to be still lukewarm; stir well round with a wooden preserving spoon, and cover the mug with a cloth, and in a few hours, or by next morning (if made in an evening) the mixture will be found in full work. Let it stand one week from the day it was made, then carefully skim the barm off it, and put it into a barrel or mug in a warm place in winter, or in the sun in summer. It will be fit for use in 4-6 months, and then bottle off for use. As soon as you have bottled off a making of vinegar, immediately begin again, as the jelly-like “mother,” called the vinegar plant, formed on the surface by the time it is ready for bottling, helps the making of the next vinegar. Add it on pouring the mixture into the barrel or closed mug.

(b) Make vinegar from a vinegar plant by mixing ½ lb. coarse brown sugar and ½ lb. treacle with 5 pints water, stirring it until all the sugar is dissolved; then laying the fungus on the top, and covering it with thick brown paper tied down. In 6 weeks (or a little longer in cold weather), the liquid is turned to vinegar, and must then be strained off and bottled, and a fresh mixture made for the plant. It must be put in a white ware vessel—a washstand basin is very suitable, as the vinegar corrodes the yellow glazed ware, and is injurious. The plant does not get useless if kept “going,” but improves by growing thicker.

(c) Best of all, buy Beaufoy’s vinegar, and run no risk of subsequent fermentations.

Vinegar, Primrose.—To 18 qt. water add 6 lb. moist sugar; boil and stir it very well.[137] Let it stand until it is just warm, then add 1 peck primroses with their stalks, and a little yeast. Let it stand all night, then put it into a cask, bung it up, and allow it to remain for 2 months. Then give it a little air, and let it stand 2-3 months longer. Then taste, and, if not sour, let it stand till it is. It must be placed in a warm situation: a great deal depends on where it is kept.

Vinegar, Raspberry.—Put 1 lb. very fine raspberries in a bowl, bruise them well, and pour upon them 1 qt. best cider vinegar; next day strain the liquor on 1 lb. fresh ripe raspberries, bruise them also, and on the following day do the same, but do not squeeze the fruit, or it will make it ferment, only drain the liquor as dry as you can from the fruit. The last time pass it through a canvas bag, previously wetted with vinegar to prevent waste. Put the juice into a stone jar with 1 lb. sugar to every pint of juice; the sugar must be broken into lumps, stir it, and when melted, put the jars into a saucepan of water, let it simmer a little, skim and remove from the fire. When cool, bottle off.

Vinegar, Tarragon.—Gather full-grown shoots of tarragon the day before they are wanted. Fill a ½ gal. jar with as many as it will hold without pressing them down; add 3 cloves and the thin rind of 1 lemon, and fill up the jar with white wine vinegar; leave it, tightly corked, exposed to the sun for 2-3 weeks, then strain off the vinegar, wringing the tarragon in a cloth, filter it through paper, and bottle it.

Walnuts.—Take 50 large walnuts gathered before the shell is hard; folding them separately in vine leaves, place them in a jar amidst plenty more leaves, so that they do not touch each other; fill up so as to cover them with best pale vinegar, and tie down closely that the air may be excluded; let stand 20 days; then pour off the vinegar and wrap the fruit again in fresh leaves, and fill up the jar again with fresh pale vinegar, standing 14 days longer; take off the leaves, put them in a jar, and make a pickle of white wine vinegar and salt that will float an egg, in which simmer for ¼ hour ¼ oz. mace, ½ oz. each of cloves and nutmeg, and 2 heads of garlic, peeled and sliced; pour hot over the walnuts; tie close with bladder and leather.

Preserving with Sugar.—This embraces the whole range of jams and jellies, which closely resemble each other. In all cases the fruit must be fully ripe, gathered quite dry, and freed of stems, &c., but stone fruits should not be stoned. The chief differences consist in the proportion of sugar required and the duration of the boiling, which latter should always be done in a copper pan. The scum must be removed as it rises in boiling. For the most popular jams the quantities and times are as follow:—

Black currant1of fruit to1of sugar;10minutes
Raspberry11½hour
Strawberry1120minutes
Gooseberry642hours
Red currant1110minutes
Blackberry1½1hour
Cherry (stoned)21till stiff

Keeping Jams.—A not unfrequent cause for their becoming mouldy is that the jars in which jams are kept are sometimes not perfectly dry when the jam is put into them. The jam-pots put away from last year will necessarily be dusty, and require washing; and with thoughtless servants it but too often happens that they will wash the jars the same day the jam is made. They may imagine they have dried them with a cloth, but probably a slight dampness still remains which would be quite sufficient to cause the best-boiled preserve to turn mouldy, even if afterwards kept in a dry place. Have jars washed the day before they are used, have them washed in very hot water, and, after drying with a cloth, have them put down in trayfuls before the kitchen fire, to do away with the possibility of damp. The jars should then be set aside in the kitchen until the next day, covering them with cloths to keep out the dust. For making common[138] jams, such as red and black currants, raspberries, gooseberries (and strawberries when not to be preserved whole), allow ¾ lb. loaf preserving-sugar to every lb. of fruit after it has been picked from the stalk. The fruit must be picked on a dry day, and should be ripe, but not bruised or injured. Set the fruit on the hot plate or fire in a large copper preserving pan, which must, of course, be as bright and clean as possible; let it cook gently, until it is hot through and the juice begins to run out, then add the sugar gradually (this must have been previously crushed, but need not be pounded); keep stirring with a long-handled wooden spoon, when it comes to the boil let it remain boiling for ¾ hour, then try if it will set by putting a few drops on a cold plate, and when this condition is arrived at, pour it off into jars prepared as described. Some jams do not take so long to boil as others, so it is as well to begin to try whether they will set after they have been boiling ½ hour. Many people carefully take off all the scum as it rises, but it is quite unnecessary; if properly boiled, and constantly stirred, it will all disappear before the jam is ready to be poured off, preventing the great waste caused when it is skimmed. Care must be taken to stir constantly during the whole process. After filling the jars, let them stand till next day, when they must be tied down and set in a dry, cool place to keep.

Bottling Fruit.—Have ready some wide-necked glass bottles, with good-fitting corks and some wax to cover the corks with, in order to prevent any air from entering. The wax is prepared thus: 1 lb. common rosin, ¼ lb. beeswax, ¼ lb. tallow; pound the rosin fine, and cut the beeswax into shreds; put the rosin, wax, and tallow into an old tin, and melt the mixture gradually over the fire; boil it gently for 5 minutes, stirring it well with a smooth, flat stick. It must be kept hot enough to run easily while being put on the corks. Fill the bottles with fruit, and set them in a boiler of warm water (not hot) up to their necks, without letting any water enter the bottles; have some warm syrup ready, made in the proportion of ¼ lb. loaf sugar to 1 pint water, boiled 10 minutes, and then allowed to cool until lukewarm; fill the bottles with this syrup, and let it cover the fruit, just leaving enough space for the cork to fit in. The bottles must not be corked. Set the boiler on the fire; a little straw should be placed on the bottom of the boiler to prevent the bottles from cracking. When the water has boiled for 10 minutes, take one bottle out at a time, cork it at once, and run the wax all over the cork, spreading it evenly with the flat stick, being careful to cover every part, lest the air should enter, and so peril the safe keeping. Gooseberries will require 10 minutes’ boiling; and raspberries, strawberries, and currants about 5 minutes. Plums must have ¼ hour if large. Whatever fruit is done in this way must be thoroughly heated through, and then rendered air-tight. Should there be a flaw in the glass bottle, it will probably crack while in the boiling water; but these unpleasant accidents have to be put up with. This mode of bottling fruit is very good when the fruit is required to be kept as whole as possible. Another method is to allow ¼ lb. sugar to each lb. of fruit. Put the sugar in a preserving pan, with sufficient hot water to moisten the bottom well and help the sugar to melt. When all the sugar is melted, put in the fruit, and let it boil rapidly for 10 minutes; if raspberries or small fruit, 5 minutes is enough. It does not need skimming. Have some hot jars or bottles ready, and pour the boiling fruit into the hot bottles; cork directly each one is filled, and wax it over, or paste 3 layers good paper over each bottle. When dry, these 3 layers of paper will be equal to parchment, and are sure to exclude the air. The reason why the fruit must be put into the bottles boiling hot is because the heat expels the air contained in the bottles, which must be secured immediately they are filled, else the air will rush in directly they begin to cool. Having the bottles in a bath of hot water before filling them with the hot fruit prevents the glass cracking. The bottles need not be dried, but a good shake must be given to free them as much as possible from the water. For green gooseberries or rhubarb, it is better to use ½ lb. sugar to 1 lb. fruit.

Apple Ginger.—2 lb. Ribstone or other hard apples, pare, core, and cut them into[139] 8 pieces, put them into cold water whilst doing this to preserve their colour; make the syrup of 3 lb. white sugar, a little water, and 4 oz. tincture of ginger (not Oxley’s). Put in the apples and simmer very slowly until transparent. The pieces of apple should be kept whole. It will keep for a year.

Apple Jam.—Select good baking apples, which cut in round slices into a brown milk-pan, taking out the cores; to every 1 lb. apples add 1 lb. brown sugar; to the panful add the juice and peel of 4 lemons, ½ lb. whole young ginger, and 1 oz. cloves. Let all stand till next day, when boil. The slices become of an amber colour, and perfectly clear when sufficiently boiled.

Apple Jelly.—Choose apples with red skins, wipe, and cut into quarters, do not peel them. To each lb. fruit put 3 pints cold water, bring to a boil, then boil rapidly for 30 minutes. Strain, and to every pint juice allow 1 lb. loaf sugar, return to the pan, and again boil rapidly for 30 minutes.

Apple Marmalade.—(a) Peel, core, and thinly slice, good cooking apples (apples that cook to a smooth pulp easily); allow ¾ lb. loaf sugar to 1 lb. apples; put the sugar in a preserving pan (a tin or iron saucepan will turn them black), with ½ teacupful water to 6 lb. sugar; let it gradually melt, and boil it for 10 minutes. Then put in the sliced apple, and a few cloves, cinnamon, or lemon peel, to flavour if liked. Boil rapidly for an hour, skim well, and put in jam-pots. It should be quite a smooth pulp, clear, and a bright amber colour. Will keep good for 12 months. (b) Another way, to look like orange marmalade: Choose hard apples that do not cook to a soft pulp, such as russets; core, but do not peel them; make a syrup of 3 lb. loaf sugar to 1 pint water, and boil it rapidly for 20 minutes to make it syrup. Put in the apple thinly sliced, and boil quickly for an hour; flavour as preferred. This marmalade bears a great resemblance to orange marmalade in appearance, if the right kind of apples are chosen. Sufficient syrup should be made to ¾ cover the apples. Stir frequently.

Barberries, Preserved.—(a) Put them into a jar in layers, a good sprinkling of salt between each layer. (b) Take some bunches of barberries and tie several together; make a syrup with ¾ pint water to every lb. sugar, clarify it with white of egg. When quite clear throw in the bunches of fruit, and boil quickly until the fruit looks quite clear. Put them into jars, pour the syrup over them, and when cold tie them down.

Beetroot, Preserved.—Peel, trim, and slice in rather thick slices, some beetroots, fill some wide-mouthed jars about ¾ full with them, then add ½ oz. pounded sugar, 3 or 4 cloves, and either ¼ oz. coriander seeds or ½ oz. carraway seeds to every 1 lb. beetroot; fill up the jars with boiled vinegar, fasten them down with bladder.

Blackberry Jam.—For this it is necessary that the fruit should be quite ripe and perfectly dry when gathered. After picking from the stalks, weigh it, and allow ¾ lb. crushed white preserving sugar to every lb. of fruit. Set them together over a slow fire, stirring with a wooden or silver spoon to prevent burning at first, before the juice begins to run from the berries. The stirring must be almost constant during the whole process, as for any other sort of jam. After coming to the boil, it will be about ½ hour before it jellies, which must be ascertained by putting a very little from time to time on a cool plate. Some people very carefully take off the scum as it rises, but it is not really necessary; if constantly stirred, it will all disappear in the process of boiling, avoiding the waste caused by skimming, while the jam itself keeps equally well. When done, pour it off into jars, taking care that they are quite dry; let them stand till next day, cover the jars with paper, and put them by to keep in a cool, dry place. Another way is to mix ¼ lb. any good cooking apples, weighed after paring and cutting up, to every lb. blackberries; the sharper the kind of apple the better, but they must be ripe. More sugar is required when done in this way, 1¾ lb. sugar to every 2 lb. fruit. The grated rind and strained juice of lemons are also used with blackberries instead of apples, the larger proportion of sugar being allowed, and one lemon (small) to every 2 lb. berries. Some people object very much to the small seeds in this jam. These may[140] be avoided by rubbing the fruit through a sieve as soon as it is sufficiently cooked to admit of it; it must then be put back into the preserving pan to boil till it sets. In this way, supposing the jam to be made of blackberries alone, half its own weight of sugar will be enough when weighing the uncooked fruit, as so much is afterwards lost by removing the seeds.

Blackberry Jelly.—(a) Put the fruit in the oven, and press it through canvas when tender. Allow rather more than ¾ lb. lump sugar to 1 lb. fruit syrup, and boil ¾ hour. This jelly is much improved by using equal quantities of bullaces and blackberries. The acid flavour of the bullace takes away the flatness of the blackberry. Put the jelly into moulds and cover with papers in the usual way. It is more likely to turn out well after being kept a month or two than at first.

(b) Boil together a quantity of apples cut small and blackberries that are thoroughly ripe, in the proportion of 1 lb. blackberries to ½ lb. apples. When boiled quite soft and pulpy, strain through a hair sieve and reboil, with ½ lb. loaf sugar to each pint juice, about ½ hour. ¼ pint water to every 4 lb. fruit may be boiled with it to advantage.

Black Currants, Bottled.—Fill some bottles as full as you can with the currants, add as much cold water as they will hold; then put them in a boiler filled with cold water, and let them boil until the fruit sinks in the bottles. Then take them up, cork them while hot, and paste thick brown paper over them.

Black Currant Jelly.—To 1 lb. picked and washed black currants add 1 gill water. Set this in a preserving pan, which should be of copper. Bruise the fruit well with a wooden spoon; afterwards take off the preserve and strain through a hair sieve. To each 1 lb. fruit allow 1 lb. white sugar. Boil 10 minutes.

Carrot Jam.—Well wash and scrape all black bits off some carrots; cut only the red part outside into pieces; put in a pan, with water to cover, and boil till it will rub through a hair sieve. To 4 lb. pulp allow 4 lb. loaf sugar, ¼ lb. bitter almonds blanched and chopped fine, the rind grated and the juice strained of 4 lemons, and 6 tablespoonfuls brandy to make the jam keep. Let the sugar and pulp boil up thoroughly, and then simmer for 15 minutes; skim and stir all the time. When cold, add the other ingredients, and stir all well together 2 or 3 times; then pot and cover with gummed paper.

Cherries, Bottled.—Gather the cherries on a dry day; be careful that they are not over-ripe or cracked at all. Fill the bottles or jars quite full with the cherries, and put them to stand in a boiler or large saucepan of cold water, and keep the jars covered closely; boil slowly until the fruit has sunk in the jars and the skins begin to crack; then lift one by one off the fire, and immediately fill quite full each jar with boiling water. Tie down twice with bladders, and put them in a dry place until required. Put them where they will not be disturbed, as if moved they ferment. If glass bottles are used care must be taken when filling with boiling water that they do not crack. Be particular to have all you need before taking the jars out of the water, and the kettle of water boiling fast, as the great secret in bottling fruit is in filling up the bottles and tying them down as quickly as possible.

Cherries, Dried.—Stone large sweet cherries with a small pointed skewer no larger than a quill toothpick, breaking them as little as possible; throw them into a boiling hot syrup, made with 1 small teacupful water to 1 lb sugar. Scald them in this syrup for 10 minutes, but do not allow them to boil, or they will break; remove them from the fire, pour them into a pan, and cover them till next day. Then draw off the syrup, boil it up, skim it, and pour it back upon the cherries. Do this for 3 days successively. On the fourth day drain the cherries on a cane sieve till entirely free from excess of moisture; then lay them on wire sieves, and dry them by slow heat for several hours until, when touched, they do not stick to the fingers. When cold, sprinkle sugar over them, and pack in layers between white paper. If too much heat is used in drying them, they will be dark and unsightly.

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Cherries, Preserved.—Take equal quantities sugar and cherries, cut off the stalks from the cherries, wipe them clean with a soft cloth, and strew over them a little finely-powdered sugar; boil the sugar with 1 pint water to every 3 lb. sugar, clarify it with whites of egg, strain it, and then boil it to candy height. The next day boil up the cherries with the syrup for 5 minutes, and let them remain in the syrup for 24 hours; strain off the syrup, boil it again to the second degree, and pour this over the cherries. The next day boil up the sugar to the third degree, dip each cherry separately in the syrup, and put them on a sieve in a warm place to dry.

Cherry Jam.—For this use ripe fruit, but carefully reject any which is bruised or over-ripe. The Kentish is the best for this purpose, having a pleasant acid taste; other kinds are too sweet for the quantity of sugar necessary in preserving fruit. To every lb. stoned fruit add ¾ lb. loaf sugar well broken; it will require stirring occasionally from the first, and continuously after it once comes to the boil, after which it must continue boiling for ¾ hour; then try a little on a cold plate to see if it sets or jellies; if it does, pour it off into jars, and set in a cool dry place till the following day, when it should be covered down for keeping, if not, continue boiling until it will so set. It will not require skimming during the process of boiling, the scum will all boil away. The easiest way of stoning cherries is to tie a little loop of iron wire about the shape of a hairpin, on to a stick the length of a pencil; bind the two ends firmly to the stick, leaving the loop standing up about 1 in. long, and slightly bent forward. With this the stones are easily extracted.

Citrons, Preserved.—Put them in strong salt and water in a jar, with a cabbage leaf to keep them down; tie a paper over them, set them in a warm place till they are yellow, take them out, and set them over the fire in fresh water, with a little salt and a fresh cabbage leaf; take care they do not boil; if they are not a good green change the water (and even fresh leaves will help to green them), and make hot and cover them as before; when they are a good green take them off the fire, let them stand till they are cold, then cut them in two or make a hole at the end, to take out the seeds and soft part, and put them in cold water. Let them stand 2 days, but change the water twice each day to take out the salt, then make a syrup, and put it cold to them; boil it once in 2 days for 3 weeks. For the syrup: 1 lb. loaf sugar, ½ pint water; set over the fire; when well boiled and looking clear, take it up; when cold, throw it over the citron.

Crab-Apple Jam.—To every lb. of fruit put the same quantity of preserving sugar. Having melted it with a little light wine, put it on the fire and let it boil well; when it has been skimmed clear and is boiling, put in the fruit with a few cloves; let all simmer together till the fruit begins to break, when it is done. The fruit should be rubbed dry and the stalks removed before it is put into the sugar.

Crab-Apple Jelly.—Remove the stalks from the apples and cut them in half, put them into a preserving pan, and boil till the fruit is perfectly soft; do not stir it. When soft, pour off the water, and to every pint allow 1 lb. sugar. Put it into another pan, and let it boil slowly for ½ hour, taking off all the scum that rises. It should by this time be clear. Fill your glasses or jars with it. Now take the fruit and mash it; rub it through a coarse tammy; to every lb. allow 1 lb. sugar and ½ pint water. Let it boil slowly till it thickens, then put it into bowls. When used cut it in slices.

Crab-Apples, Preserved.—Gather them just before they are fully ripe. Put a quantity of them into a pan of boiling water, and barely scald them. As soon as one of the skins begins to crack remove them from the fire, and strain them through an earthenware colander; they may then be very easily peeled. In the meantime make a thin syrup, and, having peeled the apples, place them in jars, and pour the syrup over them quite hot. As they rise to the surface they must be pushed back, so as to keep them all under the syrup. Let them remain uncovered till the following day, when they must again all be poured out into the colander, placing the syrup in the stewpan with more sugar, to ensure its being thick. Boil and skim it well, return the fruit to the jars,[142] and again pour the hot syrup over it. Let them still remain open; and the next day, if the fruit seems soft enough, and the syrup sufficiently thick and clear, they may be considered finished, and they may be tied down with bladder; if not, repeat the process a third time, and keep for another day. About a week after they have been tied down it is well to examine them, and, should they show any signs of fermentation or mould, the syrup must again be boiled down as before. The core is never removed from Siberian crabs; it has in itself a most delicate flavour, which improves the whole preserve.

Cranberries, Preserved.—Gather the fruit in clusters, before it is quite ripe. Pick away any dead leaves and injured berries, and keep the clusters in strong salt and water, in jars well covered. Look to them occasionally, and when the pickle begins to ferment change it. Cranberries thus preserved will retain their flavour and quality for many months.

Cucumbers, Preserved with Ginger.—Take small cucumbers, and large ones that will cut into quarters, the greenest and most free from seeds; put them in a jar with strong salt and water, covered with cabbage leaves; tie a paper over them, and keep the jar in a warm place till they yellow; wash them out, and put them over the fire in fresh water, a little salt in it, and a fresh cabbage leaf over them; cover the pan very close, and take care they do not boil. If they are not a fine green change the water and make them hot again. When a good green, take them off the fire, let them stand till cold, then cut them in halves or quarters; take out the seeds and soft parts; put them in water, and let them stand 2 days; change the water twice a day to take out the salt. Take 1 lb. white sugar, ½ pint water, set it on the fire, skim it clear, then put in the rind of a lemon, and 1 oz. ginger with the outside scraped off. When the syrup is pretty thick, take it off, and, when cold, wipe the cucumbers dry and put them in; boil the syrup once in 2-3 days for 3 weeks, and strengthen if required, for there is more fear of them spoiling at first. The syrup must be quite cold when put to the cucumbers.

Damsons, Bottled.—Fill the bottles with damsons, and add to each bottle ½ lb. castor sugar. Put the bottles in cold water in a large pan on the fire, where they must remain for ½ hour after they have begun to boil. When boiled, let them cool, cork down tight, and tie bladder over the corks, and keep in a very dry place. Care should be taken that no bruised fruits are put in. Whilst the bottles are on the fire, hay should be put between them to keep them from breaking.

Figs.—Weigh the fruit, and have an equal quantity of sugar, the peel of 1 large lemon, and a little ginger. Lay the figs in cold water for 24 hours, then simmer them till tender; put them again into cold water, and let them remain for 2 days, changing the water every day. If not quite soft simmer again, and replace in cold water until next day. Take their weight in loaf sugar, and with ⅔ of it make a syrup, in which simmer the figs for 10 minutes. In 2 days take the third of the sugar, pounded fine, and pour the syrup from the figs on it. Make a rich syrup with the peel of the lemon and a little raw ginger, and boil the figs in it, then mix all together and put into large jam pots. The figs may be cut in half, if preferred, after they have simmered until soft.

Ginger, Preserved.—Put the ginger for 2 weeks every night and morning into boiling water. Take off the outside skin with a sharp knife. Boil the ginger in water till quite tender; slice it. Prepare a syrup of 1 lb. sugar to ½ pint water. Clarify it, and put the ginger in it. Boil it till clear. Leave it to cool before putting it into jars.

Gooseberries, Bottled.—Pick off the soft brown outside part at the top of each gooseberry, but be most particular to leave the hair-like fibre which it surrounds; cut the stem close, and if any one gooseberry breaks open reject it, as a single broken one might spoil a whole bottleful. Put them into wide-mouthed bottles (pickle bottles suit very well), fill them up with cold water, and place them standing in a fish-kettle or any large, flat-bottomed pot; also filled with water as high as the necks of the bottles,[143] over a very slow fire, where they are to remain until they come to a gentle boil and begin to change colour; then take them out of the pot, and let them stand until they become cold, when the bottles are to be filled up with olive oil, and they need not be corked. Look at them from time to time, and fill up with fresh oil, as some may evaporate. Keep the bottles on a shelf in a dry place, for damp spoils them, and when wanted for use, have them washed in water and soda by putting them into a colander, and then a shower of fresh water at the end, just to take off any soda which might remain.

Gooseberry Jam.—(a) Allow ¾ lb. lump or white crystallised sugar to each lb. gooseberries; a few spoonfuls of water must be put at the bottom of the preserving pan and care taken that the fruit does not burn. Pot ½ hour after the jam boils; keep it well stirred.

(b) For every lb. picked gooseberries, put ¾ lb. sugar and 1 pint water in a bowl or pan; when dissolved, place it on the fire. Beat the white of an egg well up, and stir into it when boiling: when on the point of boiling over check it by pouring in a little cold water. On its rising up the second time, take it off, and place it on one side to allow the black scum to rise, which must be taken off carefully with a skimmer. Pour the liquor away quickly, leaving the sediment at the bottom; add your fruit in the syrup, simmer gently until the fruit looks clear, break it with a wooden spoon, put the jam into pots, and cover up.

Gooseberry Jelly.—Take 1-2 gal. fruit when green, and a little more than 1 qt. water to each gal. gooseberries. Boil till quite a pulp, strain through a jelly bag of coarse flannel; when strained add to every pint of juice 1 lb. loaf sugar. Boil till set.

Grape Jam.—(a) The grapes must be ripe. Wash them well, then stew them until they become a soft pulp, and pass them through a sieve. Weigh, and to every lb. add an equal quantity of sugar. Boil for 20 minutes, stirring well.

(b) A delicious preserve from unripe grapes can be made in the following way: They should be carefully picked, and all that are at all injured should be rejected. To 1 lb. grapes add ½ lb. sugar; no water but what hangs about them after they have been washed. Put the grapes into a preserving pan, then a layer of sugar, then a layer of grapes. Boil on a moderate fire, stirring it all the time to prevent its burning, and as the grape stones rise take them out with a spoon, so that by the time the fruit is sufficiently boiled the stones will have all boiled up and been taken out.

Grape Jelly.—Take some bunches of common outdoor white grapes, unripe will answer the purpose; rinse them in a plentiful supply of water, strip them from their stalks, and put them in a preserving pan; set them over a moderate fire for about 2 hours, or till they burst freely. Strain them through a colander or sieve, and to every lb. of pulp and juice, add 1 lb. sugar; boil them about ½ hour. Each shape will require ½ oz. gelatine; wet the moulds, and set them in a cool place. It makes a pretty dessert dish, being a light green, and tastes like greengage if managed well. Care must be taken to use either a silver or wooden spoon, and an enamelled or a copper preserving pan is important to preserve the colour.

Guava Jelly, Imitation.—This is made from medlars. It takes a great number of medlars to make a small quantity of jelly, as they contain so little juice. Put the medlars, which must be ripe, into a preserving pan with just enough cold water to cover them. Let them cook gently until they are quite soft, then put them into a jelly bag, and let the juice drain off gradually; this will be a long process, as they must not be squeezed, or the jelly would not have the clear brightness of guava jelly. It is a good plan to leave them to drain all night. To every pint of juice allow 1 lb. best white sugar, pounded. Boil them together in a preserving pan, stirring constantly with a silver or wooden spoon to prevent burning, and carefully removing the scum as it rises. It will probably take about ½ hour to boil, but it must be tested by dropping a little from time[144] to time on a cold plate; when it jellies it is done, and must then be poured off into small jars or moulds, care being taken that they are not only clean, but perfectly dry. The next day tie them down in the usual way, and keep in a dry cool place. When this is properly made it resembles guava jelly very closely, both in colour, flavour, and consistency.

Hip Jam.—Collect the hips from the rose bushes when ripe, boil them in water until they become soft enough to be easily crushed, and press them through a very fine sieve. Take an equal weight of sugar to that of the fruit, boil the hips, when pulped through the sieve, thoroughly with sugar, and put the jam into a large stone jar. It is liable to ferment a good deal, and therefore requires space. When taking any out for use, mix and stir it up well with a little white wine, and add sugar to taste if required. This jam is excellent, either for eating alone as a sweatmeat, or for making sauce.

Hip Marmalade.—Gather hips, when perfectly ripe, wash them, and boil them in water, in the proportion of ½ pint water to 1 lb. fruit. When quite tender, pass them, water and all, through a sieve fine enough to keep back all the seeds. To each lb. pulp put 1 lb. refined sugar, and boil until your marmalade will jelly well. When a little cooled, pour it into jelly glasses or small jars, with a few small pieces of preserved ginger in each glass. Cover while hot.

Hips in Sugar.—For this, gather hips as soon as they have become red. Boil them gently until tender (but they must not be allowed to break) in sufficient water to cover them. Cut the stalks even, and a small piece from the blossom end of each berry, and with a pointed penknife or quill carefully remove all the seeds. Allow 1 lb. sugar and a little cinnamon to each lb. prepared hips. Put the sugar in a preserving pan, with just sufficient water to dissolve it—as little as possible, as the syrup should be very thick and clear. When the sugar is melted, put in the fruit, and boil gently until it is done and the syrup becomes thick; let it cool a little, and then put it carefully in glasses. It is important that the shape of the fruit should be preserved, and the largest berries obtainable should be used. A little lemon juice may be added to the above syrup if liked.

Hips in Vinegar.—Gather from the dog rose some of the largest berries you can obtain, as soon as they are quite red, but not over-ripe; cut the stalks even, leaving a short piece on each berry, wash and put them in a stewpan with as much boiling water as will cover them well. Boil gently until they are quite tender, but not at all broken. Drain the water from them, but do not throw it away. As soon as the hips are cold, cut a small piece from each at the blossom end, and with a pointed penknife or quill remove all the seeds, taking care not to break the fruit. For a syrup for 2 lb. berries allow 1 pint good vinegar, ½ pint of the liquid in which the fruit was boiled (which should be strained in muslin), 2 lb. loaf sugar, ¼ oz. cinnamon, and ¼ oz. cloves. Put all these in a preserving-pan, stir with a wooden spoon until the sugar is dissolved, let the syrup boil for 15 minutes, then put the hips in, and boil for 20 minutes, or until the syrup is rich and thick. Store, spice and all, in small jars or glasses, and cover like any other preserve. This will keep good for 2 years and more. It is a delicious substitute for red currant jelly with game or roast mutton, and is also good for colds in the throat or chest.

Lemon Marmalade.—Take any number of lemons; 6 make a nice quantity. Slice them very thin, only putting out the seeds. To each lb. sliced fruit add 3 pints cold water; let this stand 24 hours. Then boil it until the chips are tender, pour into an earthen bowl, and allow it to remain until the next day. Then weigh it, and to every lb. boiled fruit add 1½ lb. of lump sugar, boil the whole together until the syrup jellies and the chips are rather transparent; in taking out the pips be careful to leave all the white pith in, as that goes towards making syrup.

Lemon Peel, Candied.—Cut the lemons into quarters lengthwise, remove the juicy part, and throw the peels into strong salt and water, to soak in it for about 6 days. The[145] brine should be strong enough to float an egg. At the end of the time take them from the salt and water, and throw them into cold water, where they should remain for 1 hour; remove them from this, and place them in a copper preserving-pan with as much fresh cold water as will cover them, and let them boil until quite soft. Try if they are done with a silver fork; if it will go in easily they have boiled long enough. Place them on a large hair sieve to drain the water from them, and during the time make a syrup in the proportion of 1 lb. loaf sugar to 1 qt. water; let them boil together until forming a thin syrup, in which boil the peels for about ½ hour, or until they look clear. Some more sugar must now be boiled with only just as much water as it will absorb; there must be enough of this made to just cover the peels when they are put into it. Again boil them, and continue boiling until the sugar begins to candy; they must then be taken out and again drained; before they are quite dry place them in large dishes, when a little very finely powdered sugar must be shaken over them. Set the dishes in a warm place for the peels to dry. They may then be stored away for use. While the boiling is going on the syrup will require constant stirring with a new wooden spoon to prevent burning.

Limes, Preserved.—(a) Take double the weight of crushed loaf sugar to the weight of limes. Boil the limes in water gently until the rinds are sufficiently tender to be easily penetrated with a silver fork; the water should be changed 2 or 3 times. When soft enough, drain the water from them, and cut them with a sharp knife into very thin slices, remove the pips, and put the slices of limes into a deep jar. Make a syrup, allowing 1 qt. water to every 5 lb. sugar, and let it boil gently until you can see the bottom of the preserving-pan, by which time it will be clear; stir frequently, using a silver spoon for the purpose. When ready, pour this syrup boiling hot over the limes, and let it remain for 2 days. On the third turn it all out into a preserving-pan, and let it boil for about ½ hour, or until it jellies. Then pour off into jars, and the following day, when quite cold, tie them down as you would any other preserve. Tangerine oranges would be done in the same way; but ¾ lb. sugar would be enough to 1 lb. fruit.

(b) Another way of preserving limes is to make them into pickle. For this make some incisions in the rinds of 12 limes, into which rub ¼ lb. common salt, lay them out in a deep dish and let them remain in the meat screen near the kitchen fire for 4-5 days or until soft. Boil enough vinegar to cover them, with ½ oz. whole pepper, 2 oz. bruised ginger, and the same of mustard-seed. Put the limes into jars when soft enough, also the salt, and pour the boiling vinegar over them; the limes should be quite covered with it. The next day cork the jars, and either brush melted rosin over the corks, or tie a piece of moistened bladder tightly over each.

Medlar Jelly.—Fill a large jar with ripe medlars, and place it in a saucepan of boiling water; it must be large enough to allow of the water coming up to the neck of the jar, but care must be taken not to let any of the water go into it. The jar must be uncovered. Put the lid on the saucepan, and keep the water boiling until the medlars are thoroughly cooked and quite soft. Then put them into a linen jelly-bag, and let them drip into a basin; the bag must not be squeezed or the jelly would not be clear. Medlars being a very dry fruit, a great many will be required to make even a small quantity of jelly; the juice comes from them but very slowly, so that this first process should be gone through the day before the jelly is to be made, and the straining should be allowed to go on during the night. Measure the juice, and allow 1 lb. loaf sugar to every pint. The sugar must be pounded and passed through a hair sieve to have it very fine; put it in a dish before the fire, or in the oven, until it is so hot that it would not remain any longer without melting. Boil the juice in a copper preserving-pan, stirring it with a silver spoon; when boiling add the sugar by little and little, a teaspoonful at a time; this should be shaken gently over the surface, the stirring continuing all the while. When the sugar is all in, take the preserving-pan off the fire, as[146] no further boiling will be necessary. This jelly should be beautifully clear, and of about the same consistence as guava jelly, which it also somewhat resembles in flavour.

Melons, Preserved.—Medium-sized melons are better than very large ones for preserving, and they should not be over-ripe. Peel them, and press the juice from the pulp and seeds, which should be taken from the melons with a silver spoon: Wash the melons after this, and add the water in which they have been washed to the juice obtained from the pulp and seeds. The melons should be cut lengthwise into eight pieces, if possible using a silver knife; allow them to soak a day and night in cold water with a little salt and vinegar, in the proportion of 1 teaspoonful salt and 2 of white vinegar to ½ gal. water, throwing a clean cloth over during the time to keep out the dust. In the meanwhile prepare a syrup with the juice from the pulp and seeds, boiling 1 lb. good loaf sugar for 15 minutes to every ½ pint of the juice, and then letting it stand to become cold. After the pieces of melons have soaked for 24 hours—care being taken that they have been quite under the water all the time—place them in a preserving-pan and add the cold syrup as prepared; set it on the fire, and, after it comes to the boil, let it simmer for about ¼ hour, skimming it during the time; then remove the slices of melon into a bowl, taking care not to break them and pour the syrup over them. For 3 successive days pour off the syrup, give it a boil up and pour it over again; on the third day place the slices of melon in wide-mouthed bottles adding some bruised ginger to each; fill the bottles with the hot syrup, let them remain until cold, and then tie tightly down with bladder.

Mulberry Jam.—Take ripe mulberries and allow 1 lb. sugar and 1 pint mulberry juice to every lb. picked fruit; boil and skim the sugar with the juice for 5 minutes after the sugar is thoroughly dissolved; then add the fruit, and boil quickly for ½ hour, stirring well; take off the fire, and, if quite stiff when cold, it is done sufficiently, if not, boil for another ¼ hour.

Mulberry Jelly.—It should be made like red currant jelly: the fruit first stewed, by putting it in jars and setting the jars in a saucepan of water and letting it simmer till the juice is well drawn; then strain it off, and to every pint of juice put 1 lb. lump sugar; boil gently for ¾ hour. Two or three kernels of peaches or almonds are a great improvement.

Orange Chips.—Cut your oranges longways, take out all the pulp, and put the rind into rather strong salt and water for 6 days, then boil them in a large quantity of spring water until they are tender; take them out and lay them on a hair sieve to drain, then make a thin syrup of fine loaf sugar (1 lb. to 1 qt. water), put in your peels, and boil them over a slow fire till you see the syrup candy about the pan and peels, then take them out and grate fine sugar over them. Lay them on a hair sieve to drain, and set them in a stove or before the fire to dry. Lemon chips or candied peel may be made in the same way.

Orange Jelly.—Peel 6 oranges very thin, and 1 lemon. Put a little hot water on the peel, and let it soak. Scoop out all the inside of oranges and lemon into a basin. Then pour 1 oz. melted gelatine over it, boil it a little while over the fire, and add white lump sugar, sweetening to taste. Then pour it hot over the peel which has been soaking in a little warm water, strain it all through some muslin, and then put it into a shape till cold.

Orange Marmalade.—(a) Put 6 lb. oranges (bitter) and 6 lemons into a brass pan, cover them completely with water, and boil until soft (about 3 hours). Lay a plate on the top of the oranges, to keep them below the water during the boiling. When soft take them out, cut in halves, scoop out the pulp, and throw away the stones. Scrape the skins free from the white fibre inside, then cut into very thin stripes with a silver knife. Strain the water in which oranges were boiled—probably now reduced to less than 1 qt.—put it into the pan with 12 lb. loaf sugar, another qt. of water and the pulp; boil 15 minutes, add the cut skins, boil 10 minutes, and pot.

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(b) Cut up, say, 12 Seville oranges very thin and small, pick out the seeds, and to each lb. sliced fruit add 3 pints cold spring water; let them stand 24 hours, then boil till tender. The seeds should be put in a muslin bag, and boiled with the oranges. Let all stand till next day, then to each lb. boiled fruit add 1½ lb. loaf sugar; boil, stirring constantly, till the syrup jellies and the chips are quite clear. The grated rind and juice of 2 China oranges will improve the flavour at the last boiling, or the juice and grated rind of 2 lemons. This quantity will require a large preserving pan, and, when finished, ought to be quite clear and jellied. Excellent marmalade can also be made from oranges cut up in large pieces and put twice through the mincing machine, instead of being sliced in the ordinary way.

(c) An equal weight of Seville oranges and loaf sugar must be allowed. Wash and dry the oranges, and grate the peel of about ¼ them, setting aside the grating for after use. Pare off the peel from the other ¾ of the oranges, and cut it into very fine chips; tie these chips in a thin cloth, and let them boil slowly for 2-3 hours. Cut the oranges into pieces, and scrape out the pulp, separating from it the pips and white parts or refuse; put this refuse into a basin with about 1 pint cold water, and when all the oranges are scraped, strain this refuse through a cloth, and throw the liquid from it and the pulp over the sugar in the boiling pan, and place it on the fire or hot hearth, allowing the sugar to melt slowly. After it comes to the boil, put in the chips, first straining the water from them, and let the whole boil slowly for at least ½ hour. The grating to be put in 10 minutes before the marmalade is taken from the fire. The juice of 2 lemons added is an improvement.

Oranges Preserved Whole.—Take, say, ½ doz. nice looking oranges, cut a small hole near the stalk at one end, and carefully scoop out the pips, and press out the juice without damaging the fruit, and allow the pulp to remain. Put them in a basin with 2-3 qt. fresh, spring water, and leave them 3 days, changing the water each day. In the meantime strain the juice as soon as squeezed out, and place the jar into which it is strained in a pan of boiling water for about ¼ hour, after which boil it with 1 lb. loaf sugar. Put this syrup, just as it comes off the fire, into a jar, tie it over with a bladder, and set it by. On the third day lift the fruit into a lined preserving pan, strain the water on to them, and let them boil very gently for about 2 hours. Leave them in the pan as they are till the next day, when boil again until quite tender. Then add another lb. sugar, bring it to the boil and leave it to cool. Next day boil up the syrup and pour it over the fruit in the pan, adding another lb. sugar and hot water to supply any deficiency caused by boiling. Lift out the fruit, and repeat the boiling of the syrup every day for a fortnight, pouring it daily boiling hot on the fruit, then do it only every 2-3 days, adding more and more sugar up to 3 lb. When the fruit looks clear and bright boil up the syrup again, adding the juice that was set by at the commencement, boil them up together and skim. Put the fruit into wide-necked jars, pour the syrup on, and tie up quickly with bladders.

Peaches, Brandied.—(a) Drop the fruit into a weak boiling lye until the skin can be wiped off. Make a thin syrup to cover them, boil until they are soft to the fingernail; make a rich syrup, and add, after they come from the fire and while hot, the same quantity of brandy as syrup. The fruit must be covered. (b) The peaches must be ripe, but firm. Prick them to the stone several times all over with a pin; clarify some sugar, allowing ¾ lb. to each lb. fruit. Break the sugar in large lumps; dip each lump into cold water quickly, and put it into the preserving pan. The quantity of water absorbed by the lumps in dipping will be right for boiling. Watch carefully that it does not boil over. When it has come to a boil, let it simmer slowly, and be ready with a cold spoon to check it whenever it begins to rise. When it forms little beads it is boiled enough. Now lay in the peaches, and let it simmer slowly till it is a little softened but still firm; then set it all by to get cold. Next day take out the fruit and drain it on a sieve or dish. Boil down the syrup to thicken, and when it is cold mix it[148] with an equal quantity of pale brandy. Arrange the fruit in glasses, and pour the brandy syrup over. ½ lb. sugar to the lb. of fruit is often considered sufficient.

Peach Jam.—Cut the peaches in quarters, and take off the skins and stones, put them in a pan with equal weight of white powdered sugar, let them stand all night in the sugar, and next day boil them slowly until they become quite soft and the juice jellies well. Fruit that is not quite ripe is far preferable, because, when ripe, peaches have so much juice that it is impossible to reduce it sufficiently to keep well. Cover the pots with paper dipped in brandy, like all other preserves, but not till a few days after it is made.

Pear Jelly.—The pears must be a juicy sort. Cut them into quarters without paring or coring. Put 8 lb. in a pot with 1 qt. water, and boil on a slow fire to a pulp, then throw them into a jelly bag, made of coarse glass cloth, and let them remain all night to drain. Next morning squeeze any remaining juice out of the bag, and to each 1 lb. juice add ½ lb. lump sugar, and a very little lemon juice to flavour. Boil it on a quick fire till it comes to a jelly. Great care must be taken not to let this burn. It takes about 2 hours to boil to a jelly, but is more easily done in small quantities. Coarse, juicy pears are the best.

Pears, Preserved.—Take some small pears as soon as the pips are black; set them over the fire in a preserving pan with water to cover them; let them simmer until they will yield to the pressure of the finger; then with a skimmer take them out, and put them into cold water; pare them carefully, leaving on a little of the stem and the blossom end; pierce them at the blossom end to the core; then make a syrup of 1 lb. sugar to 1 pint water for each lb. of fruit. When it is boiling hot pour it over the pears, and let it stand until the next day; then drain it off; make it boiling hot again, and pour it over the fruit. After a day or two put the pears in the syrup over the fire, and boil it gently until it is clear; then take out the fruit, boil the syrup till thick, and put it and the fruit in jars. The jargonelle pear is considered the best for preserving, or any small firm pear.

Pineapple Jam.—Choose ripe fruit, but it must not be over ripe; if at all bruised be careful to cut all the bruised parts out. Peel, and remove all the eyes; cut into slices about ½ in. thick, and again into pieces about 1 in. square. Weigh the fruit after preparing it, and to every lb. allow 1 lb. powdered white sugar. Put the fruit only in a bright copper preserving-pan on the fire until it is quite hot and the juice flowing, stirring it from the moment of putting on the fire with a wooden spoon. Then add the sugar gradually, continuing to stir all the while, and let it boil for ½-¾ hour, or until it will set. This jam requires especial care to prevent burning. If it burn in the very least, the flavour is spoilt and the colour too. After filling the jars, let them remain until the next day before tying them down to keep.

Pineapple Jelly.—Take a tin of preserved pineapple, pound the contents in a mortar, add 6 oz. sugar and ½ pint water; boil the whole for ¼ hour, then strain through a napkin, add the juice of a lemon and 1 pint clarified calves’-foot jelly. Pour into a mould, and when set turn it out by dipping the mould in warm water. Pieces of pineapple may be put in the jelly.

Pineapple Preserve.—To every lb. of fruit, weighed after being pared, allow 1 lb. loaf sugar and ¼ pint water. The pines should be perfectly sound, but ripe. Cut them into rather thick slices, as the fruit shrinks very much in boiling; pare off the rind carefully, that none of the pine be wasted, and in doing so notch it in and out, as the edge cannot be smoothly cut without great waste. Dissolve a portion of the sugar in a preserving-pan with ¼ pint water; when this is melted, gradually add the remainder of the sugar, and boil until it forms a clear syrup, skimming well. As soon as this is done, put in the pieces of pine, and boil well for at least ½ hour, or until it looks nearly transparent. Put it into pots, cover down when cold, and store away in a dry place.

Plums, Bottled.—Take care to gather them on a dry day. They should be quite[149] ripe, but not over ripe, and any which are bruised must be rejected. The following manner of preserving applies also to damsons and bullaces. Fill wide-necked bottles with the fruit, pack it closely, leaving only room enough in each bottle to put over the fruit ¼ lb. castor sugar. Tie a piece of moistened bladder tightly over each bottle, and place them standing upright in a fish-kettle: put a little hay between each and all round them, so as to keep them from touching each other and the sides of the kettle. Folded cloths should be placed beneath the bottles. Fill the kettle with cold water just high enough to cover the shoulders of the bottles; let them boil at the side of the fire, which must not be a very fierce one, until the fruit has sunk considerably, and appears done enough. Then take the kettle from the fire, but let the bottles remain in it until the water becomes perfectly cold. They must then be taken out, wiped dry with a cloth, and set in a cool, dry place to keep. The bladders must be constantly moistened while on the fire, or they will burst. Should any of them burst, the first piece of bladder must instantly be replaced by a fresh piece, duly moistened. When required for use the whole bottle must be taken, for, after once being exposed to the air the fruit will not keep. One bottle will make a moderately-sized tart. Bottling without sugar is not recommended.

Plum Jam.—Take equal quantities fruit and sugar, pound the sugar, pare and cut up with a silver knife some ripe plums, remove the stones, lay the fruit in a dish, strew over them half the sugar, and leave them till the following day; then boil and skim the remainder of the sugar, add the fruit, boil it up quickly, well skimming and stirring for 20 minutes; add the blanched kernels halved, boil for 10 minutes more, and the jam will be ready to pot.

Plums Preserved in Brandy.—Choose fine plums, not over ripe, prick them slightly, put them into cold water, and let them simmer gently until the water is nearly boiling. Take them out, and throw them immediately into cold water. Have ready some clarified syrup, put the plums into it, and boil gently for 20 minutes; take them off the fire, and let them remain in the syrup until the following day; then take out the plums, and put them into a wide-mouthed bottle, boil up the syrup with an equal quantity of brandy, pour this over the plums, and when cold cork them up tightly.

Plums in Syrup.—Gather the fruit when full grown, and just as it begins to turn. Pick all the largest out, and save about ⅔ of the fruit; to the other third put as much water as you think will cover the whole. Let this boil, and skim well; when the fruit is boiled very soft, strain it through a coarse hair sieve, and to every qt. of liquor put 1½ lb. sugar. Boil it and skim it very well; then throw in the rest of the fruit, just give them a scald; take them off the fire, and when cold put them into bottles with wide mouths, pour the syrup over them, lay a piece of white paper over them, and cover them with oil. Be sure to take the oil well off when you use them, and do not put them in larger bottles than you think you will use at a time, because all these bottled fruits should be used when the bottles are once opened.

Plums in Vinegar.—Gather the plums with the stalks, prick them with a needle, and put them, with layers of cloves and cinnamon, into glass jars. For every 4 lb. plums boil up 2 lb. sugar and 1 qt. best vinegar, and pour it warm over the plums. Next day pour off the vinegar, boil it up again, and pour over the fruit. This must be repeated a third time. Tie up with bladder. This preserve improves much by keeping.

Prune Jelly.—Put ½ lb. prunes into a saucepan, with 2 oz. white sugar, a piece of lemon, a little cinnamon, and sufficient water to cover them, stew until tender; take out the stones, pass the prunes through a sieve, crack the stones, and put back the kernels into the prune pulp. Steep ½ oz. gelatine in a little cold water, add this to the prunes with a glass of red wine; boil all together. Ornament a plain line mould with almonds blanched and split, pour the jelly into the outer part, and leave it to get cold; when quite set remove the lining, turn out the jelly, and fill up the centre with ½ pint of cream whipped to a stiff froth.

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Prune Preserve.—Take some prunes, wash them well, then cover them with water and stew gently, with the grated rind of a lemon, until quite tender, and pass the prunes through a sieve; weigh the pulp, to every lb. of pulp allow ½-¾ lb. sugar. Boil the sugar with a little water until melted, then add it to the pulp, boil both together for ¼ hour, skim well, and stir, and the preserve will be ready to pot.

Pumpkin Jam.—Weigh the pumpkin, have ready the same weight of sugar; take off the skin and take out the inside and seeds, cover the latter with water, and boil; cut the rest into thin slices, strain the seed water over it, with sufficient to cover the whole, and boil with 1 oz. whole ginger to 2 lb. pumpkin, until the latter is nearly done enough, take it out and boil the sugar in the same water until clear, then add the fruit and boil slowly for 1½ hour, take out the ginger, and tie up in pots.

Quinces, Brandied.—Peel some small ripe quinces, and allow ½ lb. loaf sugar to 1 lb. fruit; boil the quinces ½ hour in barely sufficient water to cover them; drain them, and put aside to get cool; empty the water out of the preserving-pan and put in the sugar, moistening it with a little of the water in which the quinces were boiled, and let the sugar boil for 10 minutes; put in the quinces and let them boil rapidly for ½ hour. Place them in wide-mouthed jars, as free from syrup as possible, boil down the syrup until it jellies when dropped on a plate, set it aside in a large jug or bowl, and when quite cold mix an equal quantity of good brandy with the syrup, and pour over the quinces in the jars. Cover closely with paper dipped in white of egg.

Quince Jam.—Peel and quarter your quinces, leaving the seeds in, as they readily impart their mucilage to water, and thus thicken the syrup. Allow ¾ lb. loaf sugar to 1 lb. fruit; put the fruit and sugar into a preserving-pan, and ½ teacupful water to moisten the bottom of the pan; stir the fruit and sugar frequently, and when it boils keep it boiling rapidly until the fruit is soft, and a clear red colour. It will take about an hour, reckoning from the first boiling up. Put into jam pots, and cover when cold.

Quince Jelly.—For preserving, it is essential that the quinces should be quite ripe and perfectly sound. Pare and slice them, and put them into a copper preserving pan with just enough water to float them. Let them boil till tender, and the fruit reduced to a pulp; strain off the juice, letting it filter through the jelly-bag more than once, if necessary, to be quite clear; to every pint of juice allow 1 lb. powdered loaf sugar. Boil both together for about ¾ hour, removing the scum as it rises; when it sets, by pouring a little on a cold plate, it is done. Some people do not peel the quinces, thinking it makes the jelly a better colour to boil them down after slicing with the peel on. In this case they would have to be carefully washed before cutting up.

Quince Marmalade.—Peel the quinces, quarter them, and remove the cores and pips. The quarters should be thrown into a pan of cold spring water as they are cut, to preserve the colour. The quinces should then be put into a covered jar with 1 qt. water to 4 lb. fruit, and stewed in a slow oven for several hours, till they are quite tender, and of a bright red colour. When they are thus prepared for marmalade weigh them, and to every lb. of fruit allow ¾ lb. crushed lump sugar. Put the fruit into a preserving pan, and bring it gently to a boil, stirring frequently all the time. Continue boiling till the whole is quite soft, and a smooth pulp; then add the sugar, and again bring the fruit to a boil. Continue boiling gently for 20-25 minutes. Take the pan from the fire, and paste down the marmalade in jars while hot with double papers, care being taken to have the paste quite boiling, and to strain the papers tightly over the jars.

Quinces Preserved Whole.—Pare some ripe quinces, and put them in a preserving-pan, ¾ covered with cold water (if they should float while the water is being poured on them, press them down with a plate until you have gauged the exact height of the water); take the quinces out, measure the water, and to every pint allow 3 lb. broken loaf sugar; let this boil rapidly in the preserving-pan for five minutes, and then put in the quinces. The syrup should not cover them at first, but when they are half-cooked it will then amply cover the fruit. Boil the quinces rapidly, until soft enough for a[151] knitting-needle to pierce them easily, which should be in 1½ hour, reckoning from the first boiling up. Take the quinces out carefully so as not to break them, and lay them on dishes to cool. Run the syrup through a jelly bag, or a piece of new flannel put in a gravy strainer; this frees it of all odd little bits that may boil from the outside of the quinces and makes it clearer. Put the syrup back in the preserving-pan, and boil it rapidly until it will jelly when dropped on a plate; put the quinces into the boiling syrup, and let them simmer gently for 10 minutes. Place each quince carefully in wide-necked jars, pour the hot syrup over them, and when cold cover in the usual way.

Raspberry Jelly.—Put the raspberries in an enamelled preserving-pan over the fire, or in a stone jar in the oven, having first carefully picked out any that are mouldy; squeeze through a piece of cheese cloth, doubled. To each qt. raspberry juice add ½ pint red currant juice extracted in the same manner; to each pint allow ¾ lb. lump sugar; boil ½ hour moderately; skim, and stir frequently. Use a wooden spoon for mashing the fruit, and a silver one for skimming; iron spoils the colour.

Red Currant Jelly.—(a) To 3 lb. red currants, which should be fresh and not over ripe, mix 1 lb. white. Place these into a preserving-pan, and gently stir over a clear fire until the juice flows freely; then turn them into a fine hair sieve, and drain; pass the juice through a jelly bag, weigh it, and boil it fast for 15 minutes, adding to each lb. 8 oz. coarsely powdered sugar. Set this aside on the hob, stirring well till all the sugar be dissolved. Then thoroughly boil the jelly for 15 minutes, and pour it into a pot. An excellent jelly may be made with equal parts of the juice of the red and white currants and raspberries. Be sure that whenever scum rises, before or after the sugar be put in, to remove it, or the preserve will be cloudy.

(b) Take fresh red currants and put them in the oven to draw the juice; then let them drain gradually. Take equal weights juice and lump sugar. Pound the sugar fine in a mortar, pass it through a fine sieve, then place it on a dish before the fire to get well heated. When the juice is cold put it in the preserving pan, and place it on the fire; put the sugar in slowly by handfuls, stirring all the time. By the time the sugar is all in, the juice is ready to set. The colour should be of a beautiful red.

Rhubarb, Bottled.—Bottling rhubarb is a little more troublesome than other fruits as you must be so particular in peeling it. To obviate this, use the early foreign rhubarb, which, though a little more expensive, makes much the prettiest preserve from its bright red colour, and does not require peeling. Cut the rhubarb into lengths of 1 in.; have ready wide-mouthed bottles (also the corks in boiling water to soften them) with about ½ teacupful cold water in each, fill them with fruit to the end of the neck of the bottle; place them in a pot of cold water, without corking them; place a little hay or anything soft between the bottles to prevent their knocking together, which they will do when the water boils; let them boil for about 15 minutes, and cork at once. When the water has cooled, remove the bottles, and leave them till next day. Cut the corks level, and cover them with bottlewax. Bottled fruits retain their colour by being kept in the dark, buried in the earth if possible.

Rhubarb Jam.—Wipe the rhubarb dry, and cut it into pieces a little more than 1 in. long; unless it is old, there is no need to peel it. To every lb. of rhubarb add 1 lb. white sugar, and put a few bits of whole ginger in the preserving-pan with the rhubarb and sugar; let it reach boiling point slowly; when once it boils decidedly, keep it on the fire 20 minutes if the rhubarb is young, ½-¾ hour if it is old. Just before you take it off the fire stir in a spoonful of essence of lemon. Take out the bits of ginger as you put the jam in pots. The quantity of lemon and ginger is quite a matter of taste.

Rhubarb Jelly.—To be made in September. Cut nice stalks of red rhubarb and put them into a large jar. To 6 lb. rhubarb add the peel of three lemons, and let it get soft in a moderate oven. When cooked, pour off the juice into an enamelled sauce-pan, and add the juice of the 3 lemons. Let it simmer gently for ½ hour, and strain[152] through a jelly-bag. Then add 1½ lb. lump sugar to every pint juice; when it is dissolved boil it in a preserving-pan for 40 minutes, keeping it well stirred and skimmed. Pour into pots, and when cold tie down with brandy paper. To use up the pulp, well boil it in the preserving-pan, adding ¾ lb. lump sugar to every 1 lb. pulp and either halved or pounded bitter almonds or candied peel.

Rhubarb and Orange Marmalade.—To every pint cut-up rhubarb allow 3 oranges and 12 oz. crushed loaf sugar. Peel the oranges, take out some of the white pith, and cut the rinds into thin strips as for orange marmalade. Cut up the insides of the oranges into slices, removing the pips. Put rhubarb, oranges, and sugar into a preserving-pan, and let them boil gently over a moderate fire until sufficiently done, which may be ascertained as above. As the scum rises it should be removed. When the jam sets pour it off into jars, to be covered down next day when cold.

Rowan Jelly.—(a) The rowans should be quite ripe. Pick them off the stalks and put them into the pan, and cover with water. Take them off before they come to the boil, break them well down with a wooden spoon, and strain through a jelly-bag; then add 1 lb. sugar to every pint of juice, and boil till it jellies.

(b) Apples and rowans equal weight. Slice the apples without paring or coring, put them in the pan with the rowans, water just sufficient to cover the fruit. Warm slowly until they boil; then bruise with a wooden spoon, and pass through a sieve. Strain through muslin, and boil 1 lb. sugar to every lb. fruit juice. Boil to the thickness desired. It keeps better when thick.

Strawberry Jam.—Gather the strawberries on a fine dry day, pick off the stalks carefully, and reject all that are the least unsound. Weigh the fruit, and take an equal quantity of pounded sugar; put the fruit into a preserving-pan on the fire and when the juice runs out add the sugar; let it simmer, stirring gently, and skimming well. When it boils keep it boiling, not too fast, for 20 minutes, stirring most carefully, so as not to break the fruit, all the time with a wooden spoon.

Strawberry Jelly.—Take 3 lb. strawberries, and 2 lb. pink rhubarb or red currants. If rhubarb, cut it in small lengths. Put these into a very wide-mouthed jar, and set it on a hot stove, with a ring under it lest it should catch. Cover the fruit with a plate or saucer small enough to go inside the jar, so that as the fruit sinks down you may be able to press it gently from time to time, and drain off the juice into a basin. When 1½ pint is extracted, pass it through a hair sieve into a stewpan, and put to it 2 oz. gelatine, which has been soaked for ½ hour, in ½ pint of cold water, 6 oz. loaf sugar, and the beaten whites and crushed shells of 3 fresh eggs. Stir until the gelatine is dissolved, and the jelly boils. Put the lid on the stewpan, and let it boil gently, without stirring or skimming for ½ hour. Let it stand away from the fire for a few minutes, and then strain as you would calf’s foot jelly. Oil the mould you intend using well with a little good salad oil. Arrange prettily in the bottom of it, according to its pattern, a few nice strawberries and blanched almonds. Pour in sufficient of the lukewarm jelly to set the fruit, and put in a cool place until set. Keep the remainder of the jelly in a liquid state until you are ready to fill up the mould, then set the whole if possible, on ice to get firm. Turn it out just before serving in a glass dish, with or without a custard, round, but not over it. The fruit pulp left from this may be made into a tolerable preserve for nursery use, if boiled with ¾ lb. sugar to a pint of pulp.

Strawberries Preserved Whole.—Take equal weights largest strawberries procurable and fine loaf sugar, lay the fruit in deep dishes, and sprinkle half the sugar over them in fine powder; give the dish a gentle shake that the sugar may touch the under part of the fruit. The next day make a syrup with the remainder of the sugar and the juice drawn from the strawberries, and boil it until it jellies; then carefully put in the strawberries, and let them simmer nearly an hour; then put them with care into jars or bottles, and fill up with the syrup, of which there will be more than required; but[153] the next day the jars will hold nearly or quite the whole. Cover the jars or bottles with brandy papers. (E. A. G.)

Tomato Preserve.—(a) Take those tomatoes not entirely ripe (the very green ones late in the autumn are nice) and remove the stems; allow ½ lb. white sugar to 1 lb. fruit; put into the preserving kettle, and add water enough to make sufficient syrup. Do not put too much water in at first, as you can add to it if there is not enough. Lemons should be sliced and put into it in the proportion of 1 lemon to every 2 lb. fruit. Cook until done through and the syrup looks thick. They make an excellent preserve and taste almost like figs.

(b) Take the sound fruit as soon as ripe, scald, and peel them. To 7 lb. tomatoes add 7 lb. white sugar, and let them stand overnight. Take the tomatoes out of the sugar and boil the syrup, removing the scum; put in the tomatoes and boil gently 15-20 minutes. Remove the fruit again and boil until the syrup thickens; on cooling put the fruit into jars, and pour the syrup over it; add a few slices of lemon to each jar.

Vegetable Marrow Preserve.—Take a ripe marrow about 9 lb. weight, with the same amount of sugar, pare the marrow and remove the seeds and any soft parts; cut in pieces 1 in. thick and 2 in. length; put them in a basin with layers of sugar all night, with 1 tablespoonful capsicums tied up in muslin, and double the quantity of rough ginger well bruised and tied in muslin. In the morning pour the liquid over the remainder of the sugar, which boil and skim; then add the fruit, also the juice and rind of a lemon to each lb. of fruit, and 1 teaspoonful cochineal for colouring; boil till the fluid is clear; before taking off 2 glasses of brandy may be added.

Walnuts, Preserved.—Gather the walnuts when they are full grown, but not hard. They should be in that state that a pin will penetrate them. Prick each walnut over with a large pin, put them in cold water, and leave them for 2 hours; then pour that water away, and fill the pan with fresh. Let the walnuts remain thus for 4 days, changing the water every 24 hours, to take out all the bitterness. At the end of the time change the water, and set them on the fire. As soon as they are soft take them out carefully with a skimmer, put them again into cold water, and leave them 4-5 days, changing the water as before every 24 hours. Then place the walnuts in a large glazed pan; then take common brown sugar, boil this with some water, and run the syrup through a jelly bag. Boil it again until it becomes thick, let it stand, and when about half cold pour it over the walnuts, and leave them. Next day drain off the syrup, boil it again, and when half cold pour it on the fruit. Repeat this every 24 hours, increasing the thickness of the syrup each time of boiling. A small quantity of coarse sugar should be added at every boiling, as the fruit ought to be covered with the syrup. On the ninth day put a few cloves and some cinnamon in a glass of water for 24 hours, then cut each clove into 4 pieces lengthwise; cut the cinnamon also into bits about the same size. Take the walnuts out of the syrup, and stick 4 pieces of clove and as many of cinnamon into each walnut. In the meanwhile boil the syrup up again, and when half cold pour it over the fruit and leave it. In 24 hours drain off the syrup, and set it on the fire for the last time. As soon as it begins to boil put in the fruit; let them boil up together about 12 times, and then take them from the fire. Make the bottles quite hot, put in the walnuts one by one with a skimmer, pour the syrup on (they should be well covered with it), and, when cold, cork them tight and tie a parchment over every one. You must not try to hurry the preserving, or you will get a bitter jam. These walnuts may be eaten immediately, or they will keep for 10 years; but, as in course of time the fruit sucks up the syrup, they should be filled up with fresh. You might use loaf sugar in preference to brown.


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THE DAIRY.

The dairy should either be an isolated building or attached to the farm-house. It must be built with a view to keeping it dry, airy, light, cool, and above everything clean. Nothing absorbs the taint of bad odours more quickly than milk. The best aspect for a dairy is the north, and while the windows admit plenty of light (which develops colour in the cream) they should be shaded with evergreens to exclude sunshine and heat. The temperature should range between 60° and 65° F., never exceeding 65° nor descending below 55°. In a temperature of 40° F., milk keeps fresh for a very long time, but the cream becomes bitter before it can be skimmed. In a temperature of 70° to 72° F., the milk sours readily and yields less cream, which latter will make a soft butter very prone to rancidity.

Where the dairy is isolated, provision must be made in the building for washing the utensils. This will need much care to avoid conflicting with the conditions just mentioned. The dairy site must be well drained. The walls may be of brick, built double with an air space between, on concrete footings 12 in. thick, with a damp-course as described on p. 5. The best material for flooring is well-laid Portland cement concrete; the floor should incline gently to one corner, where an outlet can be fitted so that the floor can be thoroughly flushed at intervals. All sharp corners, and edges, and mouldings must be avoided, as they form nests for the collection of dirt. The walls may be plastered throughout with material that will make a smooth surface capable of being washed, or they may be covered with glazed tiles. Shelves for holding the milk dishes should be about 5 ft. from the floor and preferably of enamelled iron or thin slate or stone slabs. Perforated shelves afford better circulation of air. The shelves should in any case be quite independent of the walls of the room.

A typical dairy in Chester county, United States, is thus described by Hazard. The main building, which is built on a hillside, is 50 ft. long by 13 ft. wide. The room for the milk is 6 ft. below the surface and 12 ft. from floor to ceiling. This allows ample room for ventilation and light by side-windows. The troughs for holding the water in which the milk is set are formed of brick and cement, with their bottoms 1 ft. above the level of the floor of the building. They are 28 in. wide, so as to take in two rows of ordinary milk-pans. Across one end is a trough formed similar to the others, except that it is so arranged as to receive and hold the water to a greater depth than the side-troughs, so as to contain the cream-cans. In all there is an ingenious arrangement for increasing or decreasing the depth of the water so as to suit the temperature outside. The water is drawn from a well by a “telegraph” pump, and the surplus is passed off by a drain, secured against the upward passage of odours by a “bell-trap.” During the winter no water is used, and a fire is lighted to keep the temperature to the proper point. The utmost care is taken in ventilation, even to a small ventilator under which to set the lamp used when too dark for skimming without artificial light. At the front and in each side of the main building is a wing 13 ft. square; one of these contains the power-machine, the other the needful arrangement for heating the water and washing pans. For working the butter a large inclined table and lever are used, and the printing is done by an ingenious machine for stamping and marking in squares. This milk-house is made for a dairy of 50 cows; and it would seem, therefore, the proper proportions are 13 ft. wide by 1 ft. in length for each cow.

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A supply of ice is a valuable provision in hot weather, and in some climates an ice-house may be considered as an essential adjunct to the dairy.

Ventilation demands extreme care. “The position of the milk-room with relation to the other rooms of the dairy, as the churning and the cheese-room, and the scalding or washing-room, should be such that air can be admitted on three sides of the room, so as to ensure an equable supply of air all over the interior of the milk-room. The means adopted for ensuring a supply of fresh air by the windows are of very simple character, namely, making each window in halves, the lower and upper halves being hinged to a bar stretching horizontally across the centre of the window frame; the lower half being hinged so that it opens inwards and upwards, the upper half inwards and downwards. By adjusting the opening of the two halves, the fresh air may be admitted in any required volume, and in any direction—upwards towards the ceiling, and downwards towards the floor. For removing the used air, there are many plans. One good suggestion is that the ceiling be made up of narrow fillets so placed that spaces are left throughout the whole surface of ceiling; through these spaces the air passes, into the space between the inner ceiling and the outer roof, in which are placed ventilators with valves, which may be opened and closed as desired. If a ceiling be dispensed with and an open roof adopted, the roof will require to be double, that is, a hollow space between the inner and outer boarding; this will tend to keep the temperature of the dairy more equable, than if the boarding and slates are the only covering. The double roof is simply made by lining the inner side of rafters with inch boarding tongued and grooved. The inner surface of boarding will be all the better if papered with a glazed white paper. The door of the milk-room should be double.” (Darton.)

While efforts are required to keep the milk-room cool in summer, there may be need of warming in winter. The best means of warming is by hot-water pipes. In some dairies the milk pans stand in a series of troughs on an inclined plane, and all inter-communicating; in this way a current of warm water may be made to surround the pans in winter, and of cold water in summer. Gauze coverings should envelop the pans to exclude insects. Milk pans may be made of glass, glazed earthenware, or tinned iron, 15 to 18 in. across, and less than 6 in. deep.

Devonshire Cream.—The milk should be left in the pan till the cream has sufficiently risen—about 12 hours in summer, and 24 hours in winter. The whole pan must then be placed over a close range or on a stove, and left there till the milk becomes quite hot, when the surface will look thick, and bubbles will appear. Then take the pan back to the dairy, and skim the cream off on the following day. The milk must not be allowed to boil, and it should be heated slowly. The time that it takes to scald the cream will depend upon the heat of the fire, the temperature of the milk, and other circumstances; and it is only by practice that you will learn to know when it is sufficiently done. In Devonshire, celebrated for its clotted cream, the pans are of tin and shallow. They contain 10-12 qt. milk. These, after standing 10-12 hours, are placed on an iron hot-plate, or over a stove, until the cream has formed, which is indicated by the air bubbles rising through the milk, and producing blisters on the surface of the cream; it is then near boiling point, and the pan must be removed at once to a cool place. After some hours the cream is skimmed off with a slice. Milk which is carried from a distance, or much agitated before being put into pans to settle for cream, never throws up so much, nor such rich cream, as if used directly after being milked. The last drawn milk of each milking is at all times richer than the first, and for that reason should be set apart for cream.

Devonshire Junket.—(a) If you cannot get milk from the cow warm, take fresh milk, and put it in the oven, or on a hot stove, until it becomes the same warmth as from the cow. Put a glass of brandy and powdered sugar into it sufficient to sweeten it; add a piece of rennet to the milk, or if you cannot get this use the essence of rennet, which you can buy at the chemist’s. If you have used the former, remove it in a few minutes, and[156] leave the milk to set in solid curd, which it will soon do; then lay over the top of it either very good cream, quite smoothly, or Devonshire cream, or you may whip the cream. The real Devonshire way is to remove cream from the top of a dairy pan in one sheet, and lay it over. Ornament the top with nutmeg.

(b) Rub 2 large lumps of sugar on a lemon, put them with 1 pint milk and ½ pint cream in a saucepan, and make warm, but be careful not to let it be hotter than you can hold your finger in. Have ready in a china bowl a small teacupful of brandy, pour the milk and cream into it; suspend a piece of rennet (which you must well wash from all the salt) by a string, and place it in a cool place to set. When turned enough, take it out, pour ½ pint cream on the top, add some powdered cinnamon, and serve.

Swiss Cream.—This may be made in a mould in the following way, and will be found extremely good. Soak 1 oz. gelatine in cold milk for ½ hour. Steep the rind of 2 lemons in 1½ pint milk with sugar to taste; put it over the fire, but do not let it boil. Bake up the yolks of 5 fresh eggs, and pour the flavoured milk (strained) upon them. Mix well, and then stir over the fire until the custard thickens; add the gelatine, and stir again over the fire without letting it boil until the gelatine is dissolved, then pour it into a basin. Dip a mould in water, ornament it with preserved cherries, when cool pour some of the above cream into it, put a layer of macaroons, previously soaked in a little white wine, another layer of custard, and so on until the mould is quite full. Set it on ice, or in a cool place to set, and when wanted turn it out carefully.

Butter.—The room where the cream is churned, and the butter made, should be fitted with a table of marble or slate, and shelves for holding the butter.

The yields of cream from milk, and butter from cream, are subject to much variation. The richness of milk differs too at morning and evening. But the average figures are approximately these:—12 qt. of milk should give 1 qt. of cream, and 1 qt. of cream should afford 14 oz. of butter. Morning milk is richer than evening milk, and the last portion drawn from the cow at each milking, is richer than the first. Autumn milk is best for butter, summer milk for cheese.

Milk to be sold fresh as such should be cooled immediately it is drawn from the cow, because while warm and exposed to the air, the sugar present undergoes oxidation with consequent liberation of lactic acid, which is indicated by the milk turning sour. When promptly cooled, milk can be kept sweet and transported without risk, besides which it gives up its cream more readily. The Americans have introduced various coolers, all of which are more or less effective.

As fast as brought in, the milk should be run through a hair sieve. This, and also the vessels with which the milk comes in contact, must be kept scrupulously clean by the aid of constant scalding, to be followed by rinsing with cold water, and drying in the air. The milk is exposed in the pans for varying periods in order that the globules of fat may have an opportunity of separating from the milk and floating on the surface. This process is now very commonly replaced by the use of a hydro-extractor, in which centrifugal action breaks up the milk into cream and “skim milk” without any need for waiting. According to the older practice the milk is left to stand for a considerable time, but no advantage is gained by exceeding 24 hours; in fact the best authorities say that it should be skimmed before the surface begins to look wrinkled, as this appearance is a symptom of incipient putrefaction. Large shallow perforated tin ladles are used for removing the cream, which should be carefully deposited, without splash, in white stoneware jars holding 2 to 12 gal., according to the size of the dairy. Common glazed earthenware is to be avoided on account of injurious chemical action. Skimming should be done twice daily, and each time an addition of cream is made to the jar the whole contents should be well but gently stirred with a stoneware spoon. The jars should be covered with gauze to exclude insects. In some dairies skimming is avoided by the simple plan of having a hole in the bottom of the milk dish by which the milk is drawn off, leaving the cream undisturbed.

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Butter consists of the fatty portion of the milk, which is separated by the process known as “churning,” the object of which is to rupture the envelopes which hold the fatty matter. The bulk of this fatty matter resides in the cream. Butter may be “made” by churning either the milk or only the cream; and these may be either in a sweet or sour (“lappered”) state. The most general practice is to churn the cream alone in a lappered condition. For this reason the cream is set to ripen in stoneware jars for several days, averaging about 3 days in summer, and 5 or 6 in winter, preferably with occasional stirring. It is the general opinion that to get the best butter, the operation of churning should be comparatively slow, from ¾ hour to 2 hours—an hour being a fair average, varying, however, according to the season; the operation being much more tedious in winter than in summer. After the butter is separated from the cream, the buttermilk remains, containing the casein, salt, and sugar present in the original cream, though a portion of these is taken up with the butter. The greater the proportion of casein left in the butter, the poorer is the latter in quality, and the more readily will it become rancid.

Commenting on Jenkins’ pamphlet, ‘Hints on Butter-making,’ the Field recently published the following remarks:—

“Cheese-making, owing to American importations, has recently been so unprofitable that there is the more necessity for attention to butter-making. Why should the dairies of France, Holland, Denmark, and Sweden be able to supply an article in our markets which is superior to the bulk of our own make? And why, above all, in the matter of fresh butter, should Normandy be preferred by our large purveyors to the home dairies, were it not that by superior cleanliness and systematic management the quality is more dependable? For instance, we have been told that the manager of the Midland Hotel at Derby obtains all his butter from Normandy, because he finds it more reliable and of better and more uniform quality than English produce, notwithstanding that he lives in the centre of a great dairy district, and that the foreign produce is liable to deterioration by the journey. Here, then, the English farmer has an opportunity which he is very wrong to neglect. Cheese does not pay—at least, such varieties as are usually made; the demand for milk is limited; but good sweet butter will always command a fair and often a very high price. The reasons given by Jenkins for the inferior butter are these: That the milk is not skimmed early enough—often not before a certain amount of sourness has been developed in the milk, and an appreciable amount of curd has therefore become mixed with the cream. It is true that this curd increases the quantity, but it affects the quality; the butter becomes rank, and fetches a low price. Careless skimming, by taking off some of the milk with the cream, causes the same results. Carelessness in churning or in the manipulation of the butter, by which buttermilk and water are left in the butter. It may be that this is sometimes intentional, as more weight is obtained; but the quality is greatly injured. Much handling of the butter in making up is also a source of injury. Dirt in any form, bad smells, unskilful milking, bad food and water given to the cows; bad water, soap, or other noxious substances used in washing the dairy and vessels, are all causes of bad butter which must be guarded against. Temperature being allowed to vary, bad packing, &c., are all elements that require more care than is usually bestowed. As regards the food, Jenkins points out that in a wet season, grass alone cannot be depended on to give a good result—it is too succulent in its nature, and should be modified by the use of 4 lb. of bean meal given to each cow daily; whilst under ordinary circumstances the ration may consist of 2 lb. to 3 lb. of decorticated cotton cake, or 2½ lb. of bran and 2½ lb. of oatmeal, or 3 lb. of oatmeal and 2 lb. of bean meal. And he states, what all who have had experience will confirm, that by the use of such food more cows can be profitably kept, and that a farmer should look upon grass and hay as the most expensive articles of food. Then Jenkins proceeds to describe the process of butter-making adopted in the best districts of Normandy.[158] We shall make no apology for publishing these directions verbatim, as we shall thereby assist the society in the dissemination of useful knowledge.

“1. Clean all dairy utensils by rinsing them with clean cold water, and afterwards scrubbing them with boiling water; after which repeat the cold rinsing.

“2. Cool the milk directly it is brought into the dairy by placing the cans in a running stream, or by any other available method. This, we may be permitted to observe, whilst most desirable, is often not easily attainable. The Americans, in selecting the site for the dairy, always prefer the base of a hill, so as to secure two very important factors—shelter from the sun and a cold spring of water. If running water cannot be obtained, that from a deep well may be used.

“3. Set the milk at a temperature of not exceeding 55°F. in glazed earthenware or tin pans. The question of whether these shall be shallow or deep will depend upon our facilities for reducing the temperature. If we have running water or ice, there is no doubt that the deep cans thus surrounded offer a greater surface of milk to the cooling influence, and this rapid and regular cooling causes the cream to rise freely and quickly; but if we have not these facilities, then shallow pans are preferable.

“4. Skim after 12 hours with a perforated tin saucer, and take care that nothing but cream is removed; 12 hours after, skim a second time; but this should not be mixed with the first skimmed cream at all, if our object is to make the finest class of butter; but otherwise it must be mixed with the first cream just before churning. Of course by following this plan we do not obtain the maximum produce, but we have the best quality. If the cream is too thick, a little pure water may be added, but the addition of milk should be avoided.

“5. Keep the cream, until the time for changing, in the coldest place available, in covered earthenware or tin vessels.

“6. Churn the cream at a temperature of 57° to 60° F., and obtain this by gradually raising or lowering the temperature by placing the vessel in a bath of warm or cold water. Use an ordinary revolving barrel, or a midfeather churn, fitted with a spigot. The more simple the churn, and the less mechanism, the more easily is it churned. Thomas and Taylor’s Self-acting Eccentric Churn (Stockport, Cheshire), which gained the first prize at Bristol, is recommended, to be turned at from 50 to 60 revolutions per minute. Stop the churning at once when the butter comes, however small the globules may be. Remove the buttermilk by allowing it to run through a hair sieve, and return any butter globules to the churn.

“7. Work the butter slowly with cold water by half filling the churn, giving it 3 or 4 turns, and then withdrawing the water. Repeat the working until the water comes out clear; this is of great importance. Remove the butter by a pair of wooden patters, and press out the water by passing it under a kneading board, or on a larger scale, by using a revolving butter worker. The board and roller can be obtained for 13s. 6d., of How, 13, Bishopsgate-street, E.C.; or of T. Bradford and Co., 140, High Holborn. Avoid using the hand.

“8. Make up the butter as is most saleable, and pack it in small packages, lined first with white paper, and then with new and clean muslin previously well rinsed in boiling water and again cooled, &c.”

We often consider the French our inferiors in agricultural matters, but they have built up a position upon butter and cheese which has made two or three departments absolutely wealthy, and they still pursue the system in a most business-like and thrifty manner. We wish we could point to a single English county in which one-half is done with butter that is done in Calvados; but while we are content to grow corn at a loss, and buy our dairy produce at considerably more than we can get it for at home, we shall continue to contribute to the wealth of Normandy and the difficulties which beset the land question at home. Our producers must first break the back of the middleman, and then there will be no such facts existing as the best fresh[159] butter a drug at 11d. a lb. in some of our country districts, while it is 1s. 10d. in London.

Butter, Potting.—The best month of the year in which to pot butter is May, or, at any rate, the business should be completed before the hot weather comes on. If the butter is to be kept for several months, it will be necessary to put a good deal of salt with it; 1 oz. salt to 1 lb. butter will not be found too much. To ensure the proper incorporation of the salt, it is best to add it by small quantities at a time, kneading and re-kneading the butter till the whole is thoroughly mixed. It must then be pressed firmly into wooden tubs, or “kits,” as they are technically called; or stone jars may be used if preferred. It is hardly necessary to add that great care must be taken to have every vessel employed in the preparation as clean and sweet as possible. Another very simple way to preserve butter is to have a good-sized earthenware jar or pan filled with some strong brine, and place it at hand in the dairy. Into the brine put from time to time, as it can be spared, ½ lb. of fresh butter, each piece being folded up separately in thin muslin. The only care required is to be certain that the butter is always thoroughly covered with brine: it will sometimes be necessary to put a weight on the butter, as it has a tendency to rise to the surface when the brine is strong. The butter will keep in this manner for weeks, or even months, and, besides the advantage gained by this plan of being able to take out just as much as is required for use at a time; there is the additional benefit of having preserved fresh butter, as it does not absorb the salt.

Butter, Rancid.—(a) Rancid butter may be recovered and sweetened by washing and kneading it well, first in new milk, and afterwards in cold spring water, butyric acid, on which the rancidity depends, being freely soluble in new milk.

(b) Let the butter be melted and skimmed as for clarifying; then put into it a piece of bread, well toasted all over. In a minute or two the butter will lose its offensive smell and taste.

(c) Beat the butter in a sufficient quantity of water, in which you put 25-30 drops lime chloride to 2 lb. butter. After having mixed it till all its parts are in contact with the water, it may be left in for 1-2 hours, afterwards withdrawn, and washed anew repeatedly in fresh water.

Cheese.—When milk is curdled, it separates into two portions, curd and whey. The former consists of the butter and casein, and produces cheese; the latter is mainly water, with the sugar and mineral constituents of the milk in solution. Milk for cheese-making, which is more or less rich in cream, according to the kind of cheese, is placed in vats at a temperature varying from about 70° to 85° F., with the due amounts of rennet and colouring matter, for 1-1½ hour under cover. The rennet must be prepared from perfectly fresh (untainted) calves’ veils soaked in soft water—the halves of 1½ veils steeped in ½ gal. water will suffice for 250 lb. of cheese. The best colour is liquid arnatto, ½ fl. oz. to 25 lb. cheese.

As soon as the curd has set, say 1-1½ hour, the curd is “cut” by a special implement and broken up by the hand, a process demanding much skill and care. This completed, the curd is subjected to pressure, with the object of expressing the whey, which latter is drained off. The pressure is increased and judiciously regulated as the curd hardens, so as to remove all the whey without losing any butter. Various appliances are in use for this purpose. When the curd has been thoroughly freed from whey, it is broken up, salted in due proportion, and again submitted to repeated and increasing pressings. Finally it goes into the curing room to ripen.

Rennet.—Rennet is easily made at home, and costs less than half what the same quantity is charged when bought ready-made. Home-made rennet is also much stronger than the bought preparation and is useful in making summer delicacies. Get a calf’s maw from a butcher. They always keep them on hand, and charge about 1s. each. Tie the skin tightly at one end, with a double loop of twine, and leave it in a dairy or cool larder. When you want rennet, cut a piece about 1 in. square, and soak it in a teacupful[160] warm water all night. Next day, take out the bit of maw, and to 1 pint cream or milk, use 1 large tablespoonful of the liquid. As a rule, the Gloucestershire cheese-makers do not manufacture their own rennet but buy it ready prepared. The kind generally employed is Hansen’s Patent Rennet Extract, which is used in the proportion of 1 teaspoonful extract to 6 gal. milk.

Cream Cheese.—Take ½ pint very richest cream and a cheese cloth. Pour the cream into the cloth, and lay it upon one of your dairy pans for an hour. Then take a perfectly clean knife and scrape off any cream that may have stuck to the cloth, and lay it on the top and sides of the cheese. Tie it up somewhat loosely, and hang it up to drip; open it from time to time, and remove any cream that has stuck to the cloth, and place it as before. When it stops dripping the cheese is ready, and will turn out easily. The cheese should always be used the same day it is made. In summer a few hours will suffice. If you tell your dairywoman the day before, she will have thicker cream for the cheese by keeping some of the milk that is set for cream 12 hours or more beyond the usual time for ordinary purposes before skimming it. The quantity of cream depends of course on the number of your party; ½ pint is enough for 6-8 people. If the cream be rich and the cheese well made, it will be soft, but without losing its round shape in the least. Though tied up loosely at first, it should be gradually tightened, after being opened from time to time as directed above.

New-milk Cheese.—Mix 4 gal. new milk with a breakfastcupful of salt, and a small teacupful of prepared essence of rennet. The milk should be used warm as it comes from the cow, or, if it has cooled, all or a part of it should be heated again, so that the whole marks about 95°F. The cheese is better if a pint or more of cream is added to the milk, but it is not necessary. The curd and the cheese will be hard if the milk is too hot. After about 2 hours the curd will have set. It should then be slashed across in all directions, and some of the whey ladled out with a cup. Next the curd should be drained in a cloth laid over a colander, and then put into a wooden or tin cheese mould in layers, with salt between. This should not be done until the curd is fairly dry. The mould should be covered and turned every day. Only a very light weight (if any) should be laid over. At the end of 2 weeks the cheese should be put in a muslin bag, and hung up in an airy, dry place, where the sun cannot reach it. Late in the year try half or a third this quantity, as, though there is more waste in a small cheese, it ripens quicker. May and June are the best cheesemaking months. Cheese moulds are generally round or cylinder shaped; but any strong box of wood, with gimlet holes at top, bottom, and sides, and a lid that fits inside and not over (so that as the cheese shrinks it still presses on it), will do for a makeshift.

Rush Cream Cheese.—To 1 pint thick, fresh cream, add ½ pint new milk, warm from the cow, 1 teaspoonful pounded loaf sugar, and 1 tablespoonful rennet. Let it remain near the fire till it turns to curd. Take the curd up with an egg slice, and fill the rush shape, made as directed, and covered with a piece of straining cloth inside. Lay a ¼ lb. weight on a saucer over the curd the first day; afterwards a ½ lb. weight. Change the cloth every day until the cheese is firm and begins to look mellow. Then dispense with the cloths, and return the cheese to the rush shape and leave it to ripen there. It may be ripened more quickly by keeping it from first to last in a tolerably warm room. Although cream cheeses are generally considered to be only in season during the summer, there is no reason why they cannot be as readily made at any time of the year, and of late they have come to be considered an almost indispensable delicacy at a fashionable dinner-table. A little extra trouble is all that is needed to ensure success. The cream and milk must be made rather more than new milk warmth, and if rennet is used, the cream must be covered and put in a warm place until the curd is come. During the whole process the temperature should never be lower than 65°F.

Sage Cheese.—This is made by colouring the milk with juice pressed from young red sage leaves and spinach. It should be added with the rennet to the milk.

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Much obscurity has hitherto hung around the natural processes concerned in the development of flavour in cheese. Cheeses of different districts and of different countries possess (apart from mere richness due to the quantity of cream fat contained) each a piquancy characteristic of itself, which the differences in the mode of manufacture appear frequently much too slight to adequately account for. In the cheese-making districts of the Continent, however, this matter has been made the subject of scientific investigations; and already results are forthcoming which throw much light upon the subject. Among these, the researches of Duclaux, at the dairy station at Fau, Cantal, France, deserve particular attention, from the suggestiveness of the conclusions adduced. This savant has succeeded in isolating and in studying the life history of certain microscopic organisms (microbia), in which he recognises the primary agent that is engaged in modifying the constituents of cheese. These organisms are nourished by the casein or curd of the cheese, which they break up into a number of substances of simpler constitution, some of which, like the fatty acids, are characterised by highly piquant qualities. There are several ferments which produce these odorous principles in different proportions, and thus give rise to the differently flavoured cheeses; and the skill of the dairyman largely consists (though he does not know it) in always employing the same ferments or ripening agents, and in preventing other and less desirable organisms from gaining a foothold. Fortunately, in course of time, the useful ferments establish themselves in large quantities in the dairy; they impregnate the air of the factory, and cling to the vessels and the clothing of the operatives. From the moment the milk is drawn, it becomes exposed to the influence of these germs, which, developing rapidly in the warm milk, and becoming entangled in the curd when the rennet is added, accompany it through the operations that follow. On the Continent it appears common to curdle the milk at a much higher temperature than we do. Duclaux speaks of the rennet being frequently added just as the milk comes from the cow; and if it has been allowed to cool, it is warmed up to the natural temperature, 95°-98° F.

In making fine cheeses but little rennet is used, and the coagulation takes a long time. The curd is soft and full of whey, which is drained off slowly and as completely as possible, in order to get rid of the milk sugar. That which is left is chiefly converted into lactic acid, which renders the new cheese slightly acid. Soon, however, the casein ferments begin to develop over the surface of the cheese, giving rise to carbonate of ammonia, which neutralises the acid, and leaves the cheese in the end slightly alkaline. From the living cells of the ferment are at the same time secreted a diastase similar to the active principle which in malt, and in all germinating seeds, converts the starch into sugar. This penetrates the curd little by little, and renders it soluble, and thus a yellow translucent layer creeps gradually inward to the centre, and replaces the white and opaque casein. When isolated, this diastase attacked curd so strongly as to reduce it in 3 or 4 days to the consistency and appearance of Camembert cheese; but, as the flavouring organisms were absent, the resulting product was insipid and tasteless. This action resembles strongly the digestion to which the cheese is afterwards more completely subjected in the body. Indeed, the similarity in properties between this peculiar principle and the ferment of the pancreas is very marked. Simultaneously with the digestive diastase there is also secreted a diastase capable of coagulating the casein; but the cheese maker does not wait for this to be developed, but adds to the milk some rennet, which is a solution containing this diastase in considerable quantity. Such, in short, is the rationale of cheese curing—first, an organised ferment decomposes the curd, and produces in small quantities highly flavoured compounds, which, like a condiment, give relish to the whole mass; and secondly, a diastase, or unorganised ferment secreted by the organism, mellows the curd and renders it more easily soluble.

The conditions most favourable for the exclusive development of these organisms[162] have been learnt by long practice; but should these conditions at any time fail to be observed, some other ferment, incapable of producing the particular kind of ripening wished for, may intrude itself. The chamber is then said to be “sick,” and has sometimes to be temporarily abandoned.

Special members of the yeast and mould families are also largely concerned in the ripening of certain cheeses, and their action is very similar to that mentioned above. Roquefort and Pontgibaud cheeses, for example, are ripened by Penicillium glaucum, or, in other words, bread mould. These cheeses are kept as near as possible to 32° F., not because so low a temperature is most favourable to the development of the mould, but because other ferments, and especially such as give rise to putrefaction (vibrios), are thereby checked. From the low temperature and unsuitable soil the ripening is apt to proceed so slowly that it is customary to expedite the fermentation by a liberal inoculation of mouldy bread, and by piercing holes to enable the plant to penetrate inwards.

In Gruyère cheese are found long cells constricted in the middle like an elongated figure of 8. These cells multiply by splitting in two at the constricted part, forming two individuals. A gelatinous layer surrounds each cell when young, and also divides and envelopes the new individuals. This, however, disappears with age, leaving the cell naked. The action of this organism is to resolve any milk sugar that may be present into alcohol, acetic acid, and carbonic acid, and as this latter is a gas, it forms a number of small bubbles in the cheese. Gruyère is a cooked cheese; for in order to hasten the elimination of the whey, and enable the curd to be pressed in the mould as quickly as possible, the curd is heated slowly, and with constant stirring, to about 120° F. This requires considerable care, for if the heating be too rapid, the grains formed are large, and in the press flatten out and adhere to one another, and so clothe the cheese with an impenetrable layer, through which the whey is unable to escape. On the other hand, an undercooked curd is liable to retain an excess of whey; and the evil of this is that too much gas is given off by the fermentation of the sugar, and consequently, instead of bubbles, long channels appear in the cheese, which depreciate the value of the product. Again, as the ferment is killed at a temperature very near 120° F. (varying a little with the acidity or alkalinity of the curd), it is very possible to destroy it by overheating, and then the cheese becomes dry, is difficult to mature, and is said to be “dead.” Under any circumstances the ripening of Gruyère cheese is a very slow process.

In Duclaux’s own district of Cantal, a soft, quickly maturing, uncooked cheese is made, which has the disadvantage of slowly depreciating after ripening, owing to the large quantity of moisture it contains. The practice is to curdle the milk rapidly, and then, while the curd still retains a considerable amount of whey, to allow it to ferment till all the milk sugar has disappeared. On pressing the mass, there is squeezed out a certain amount of liquid and much ferment; but the remainder, equivalent to half the weight of the cheese, is retained, owing to a curious change in the properties of the curd. So obstinately is this held, that, with additional pressure, fat is forced out in preference to water. Duclaux finds, however, that with cheese containing less fat—say, half skimmed and half raw milk—more liquid can be extracted, and thus a better-keeping cheese obtained. As the flavour and odour are derived almost entirely from the alteration products of the casein, the main characteristics of the Cantal cheese are not altered by this modification, and he consequently recommends its adoption.

The most praiseworthy part of Duclaux’s investigations—that on the life history of these organisms, and the isolation and investigation of the diastases secreted by them—is of too scientific a nature to be reproduced here. We may mention, however, that Manelli and Mussi, in their researches on the maturing of Parmesan cheese, have independently come to much the same conclusion as those given above; so there is every reason to consider that we possess now a correct explanation of the phenomena of cheese ripening.

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Apart from the interest attached to the explanation of an every-day process, researches such as these are sure in the end to lead to results of direct practical utility. Little by little we are getting to understand that no process of fermentation or putrefaction can be truly called “spontaneous.” They are as much the result of sowing as a thistle that turns up in a field where it was not purposely planted; and just as we can keep our agricultural crops in order by due attention, so crops of ferments can be controlled, the valuable ones being cultivated, and the pernicious weeds sterilised. Methods are known to the vinegar maker by which he can rear, when he needs it, unmixed crops of Mycoderma aceti to ferment his liquors; and the high-class brewer already uses the microscope to ascertain the healthiness of his yeast plant and its freedom from bacteria. May not even cheesemaking, then, be raised from an empirical art into a science, and each cheese factory of the future devote itself knowingly to the cultivation of its own appropriate fungus, learning its likes and its dislikes, and the enemies that have to be contended with? Even the mould sowing of the Roquefort peasants might be improved upon, and pure crops of ferment be raised to inoculate our cheeses. Granted that even then our finest cheeses would not be made better, yet the possibility of raising all cheese to the highest standard of quality of which it is capable is surely sufficient to claim for the scientific experimenter respect and encouragement.

In France there are a variety of cheeses which vary in consistence, constitution, flavour, and ability to keep, and these differences are rather owing to the process of manufacture than to the nature of the soil or the peculiarity of climate. The various denominations applied to them, too, indicate differences in manipulation rather than any change in their matter. Nevertheless, we are far from partaking of the opinion of those who deny that both sun and soil have any influence; for as with wine and cider, so with butter and cheese, the pasture has a marked action upon aroma and quality. If we consider the general manner or process of manufacture, we find that it comprehends five distinct operations, which in France are called: 1st, coagulation du lait, or the formation of the curd; 2nd, rompage, or breaking up of the curd; 3rd, égouttage, or drainage, which is accompanied in some cases by pressage or pressing; 4th, salaison, or salting; and 5th, fermentation, or maturing of the cheese. It is in the various methods, many of which differ very little from each other, and in all of which these operations are in force, but carried out under different conditions, that it is found possible to make 40 or more varieties of cheese, which are divided into 4 categories; 1st, fresh soft cheese; 2nd, salt ditto ditto; 3rd, firm or medium-pressed ditto; 4th, cured cheese, more or less hard and pressed.

In the first category we have the Neufchâtel, the manufacture of which is extensive and profitable in the district of Bray; the Brie, the Pont l’Evêque, and the Camembert may be mentioned as examples of the second; Roquefort and Dutch of the third; and Gruyère and Parmesan of the fourth.

There are defects to which even the best cheeses are commonly subject—defects, of the causes of which the professed cheese-makers themselves do not always give consistent accounts. Every good cheese should be of uniformly smooth surface, and perfectly firm; of colour unvarying throughout the whole surface, save only where the marks of age, necessary to certain kinds, appear. Softness and soapiness of texture; cracks, attributed by some to the action of lime on pasture, by others to the employment of too strong a draught in the process of drying; and holes, caused by “heaving” or “sweating,” are patent signs of imperfection which should warn the most careless purchaser against the cheese in which any of them are found. “Marbling,” the worst of all faults, is a mottled appearance of the surface, somewhat resembling the veining of marble. It is due to one or more of the following causes: not properly scalding the cheese; adding the colouring (which should be put in before the rennet) after the cheese has come; not properly squeezing out the whey. Wherever this occurs, it imparts to[164] the cheese an exceeding ill flavour—in fact, makes it unfit to be eaten. It is especially dangerous in cheeses of the North Wilts kind, where the surface is invisible to the purchaser. Rankness of flavour, which can of course be guarded against by those who buy their own cheese, is also to be met with in the best kinds. This has been imputed to impurity of rennet; but, as it is frequently found in the cheeses of Scotland, where it is pretended that the greatest care is taken of the rennet, it may possibly also result from bad quality of pasture. In the Scotch dairy farms it is said to be obviated by pouring a very small quantity of saltpetre into the pail before milking the cows.

Following are some remarks on the chief British cheeses, culled from the Field.

Cheddar.—The manufacture of this, the king of cheeses, occupies a large tract of country, its head-quarters being at and about Pennard, a few miles from the cliffs of Cheddar in the Mendips. For richness combined with delicacy of flavour, and, indeed, for every good quality that may become a cheese, it is without a rival. None can serve better its purpose at dinner. This cheese is made of circular shape, of large surface, and considerable depth; its price about 13d. per lb. at a good cheesemonger’s. It is mostly white, but is occasionally coloured red, for which purpose Nicholl’s “colouring” is used. It is said to make no perceptible difference in the flavour. Cheddar, to be in perfection, must be kept for at least 2 years before being eaten, when it will not show any outward signs of decay. It is said, that the facility of exportation given by railways at present has caused much of this cheese to be moved before it is properly ripe, thereby producing a considerable general deterioration of its quality in the markets. Yet by taking a little pains, and by selection of right places of purchase, the best of it may still be obtained.

Cheshire.—This justly celebrated cheese, though for delicacy of flavour inferior to Cheddar, was, and is still by many good judges, held to be the best of English cheeses. In taste it is a good deal stronger, not to say coarser, than Cheddar, but it is equally rich in substance. Perhaps, owing to its strength, it may be considered as better adapted for dinner than luncheon. It is of large size, and circular in shape. Like Cheddar, it must be kept at least 2 years before eating, and no cheese is more improved by age. It is for the most part made in the county the name of which it bears, though, of course, the general area of its distribution exceeds the limits of that county, and very good specimens of it may be had at some distance beyond the borders. Much of its excellence is, however, said to be imparted by the peculiarity of the soil of Cheshire itself, and by the salt springs with which that soil abounds. At least, wherever such salt springs are most found, the cheese there produced has always been deemed of superior quality. The price of the best quality in London shops is mostly the same as that of Cheddar.

Cottenham.—Some say that it is a much superior cheese to Stilton. In external appearance it closely resembles Stilton, and might easily be mistaken for it. The interior, however, which is of a far richer and creamier texture, is very different. The flavour is fuller, though equally delicate; and although Cottenham, to be really good, requires, like Stilton, to be kept until decay shows itself, yet it is in itself not so insipid but that it may be eaten before that decay is very fully developed. The veins with which it will then be marked are of a brownish hue. It is about the same size as Stilton, or perhaps a little larger, and its price ought to be about the same as the price of that cheese.

Daventry.—A rare cheese of remarkably pleasant flavour, very delicate of taste, and possibly rich of substance. It is of medium size, flat and circular of shape, of whitish colour, and should be marked when fit for eating with veins, somewhat after the manner of Stilton, but of deeper green than is usual with that cheese.

Dorset (Double), or Blue Vinney.—This cheese is generally known throughout a large tract of country, but is in fact a poor enough cheese, and only adapted to make a tolerable luncheon off. It is circular and flat, of white colour, mottled with a network of[165] blue veins; whence its name, though the etymology of the name has disappeared in the popular spelling of it.

Dunlop.—This, the most famous—indeed, the only famous—Scotch cheese, is made in the counties of Ayr, Renfrew, Lanark, and Galloway, in various sizes from ¼ to ½ cwt. In texture and taste it somewhat resembles double Gloucester, and, like it, is well adapted for toasting.

Gloucester, Double and Single.—Double Gloucester is also a very rich cheese, but with a certain poverty of flavour, by reason of which it can hardly be recommended for use at dinner, although at luncheon it may not be unacceptable. Its taste is peculiarly mild, and this, combined with its waxy texture, which allows it to be cut into thin slices without crumbling, admirably adapts it for toasting, for which purpose it is, with hardly an exception, the best cheese we possess. It is of circular shape, and generally weighs about 22 lb. The single Gloucester is currently reported to be of the same substance and richness as the double; but in fact, as a rule, is made of far poorer materials, being composed of milk skimmed overnight, or partially thereof; it is also of only about half the weight and thickness. It is fit for nothing but toasting.

Leicester—commonly called in London shops Derbyshire—is chiefly made in the county from which it takes it name; it is in shape flat and circular, and very shallow, of moderate size, and coloured a deepish red. It is a good second-rate cheese, and if any one shall desire a serviceable article, whether for luncheon or dinner, very equal in quality and agreeable of taste, let him try Leicester. The price should be 9-10d. per lb.

North Wilts.—This, which derives its name from the county of its birth, is a rich and nice little cheese, of a very delicate and agreeable flavour. From the extreme mildness of its taste, it is far fitter for the luncheon than for the dining-table. In shape it is cylindrical, with a smooth hard rind, and weighs about 10-12 lb. It is coloured red with arnatto. The price in London is 10-11d. per lb.

Stilton.—At Stilton, in Huntingdonshire, where the coaches of the great north road were wont to stop for luncheon, this cheese was first introduced to the public. Its sole connection with Stilton is its name, the cheese itself having been made in the neighbourhood of Melton Mowbray. Since then it has extended itself over most of the rich lowlands of Leicestershire and a portion of Nottinghamshire. In shape it is cylindrical, the outside covered with a whitish rind, very thick and rough. The flavour of a good Stilton is exquisite, though, perhaps rather cloying as compared with the finer sorts of “plain” cheese. It is unfit to be eaten—indeed, is of a nauseous insipidity—until pretty well covered with blue veins. This will occur in about 2 years, and should be allowed to come on gradually and naturally, by merely keeping the cheese moist enough not to check the decay. Many artifices, however, are resorted to in order to hasten its maturity, as by placing it in a damp but warm cellar; sinking it, wrapped in brown paper, in a hotbed, &c. The practice of pouring port wine into Stilton is condemned by some as at once wasting good wine and spoiling good cheese. Stilton will be found most acceptable both at luncheon and dinner. In size it averages 12 lb., and its price is from 1s. 6d. per lb. There is, however, no cheese so unequal in quality, whether from accidents to which it is liable during manufacture, or from whatever other cause, and the utmost care must be taken in its purchase.

Subjoined is an account of the best known foreign cheeses, from the same source.

Camembert.—This cheese, which is made in Brittany, is a kind of cross between the “real” and “cream” cheese. It reminds one much of the best privately made cream cheese of our own country, with a rich and peculiar flavour superadded. It is of a soft and creamy texture, of a yellowish white, flat and very shallow, with a dark brown rind, very thick and soft. It may be confidently recommended as a real delicacy, rather for the dinner than the luncheon-table. The price of Camembert cheeses, which are o£ small size, is about 9-10d. each.

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Cream Cheeses.—In this production the palm must be yielded by the English to the foreign market. Our own cheeses of the kind, including the best of private manufacture, are made to be eaten at once, and will not bear keeping, by which process the Continental cheese, more skilfully put together, is much improved.

The principal foreign cream cheeses are Stracchino (Milan), which is a long way the best; Brie (Meaux), Marolles, and Pont l’Evêque, all very good of their kind, and Neufchatel, which last is, of all, the most commonly met with on this side of the Channel. Neufchatel, frequently called “Bondon,” from being made of the shape and size of the bondon (Ang. “bung”) of a cask, is made at Neufchatel, in Normandy. It is simply a white cream cheese, and when fresh, extremely insipid—in fact, hardly equal to our own Yorkshire and Bath cheeses. By keeping, however, until it becomes “ripe,” it acquires a flavour by no means to be despised, though hardly on a level with some of the cream cheeses already mentioned.

Crême de Brie has been alluded to as once the crême de la crême of cheeses, and even now “running a good second” to Roquefort. La Brie is situated near to Paris, in the Department of Seine et Marne, with proximity, together with the difficulty of distant transport and the fondness of the Parisians for the thing itself, causes the most dainty to be almost entirely eaten in Paris. Imitations of it are many, and, as a rule, as worthless as is the genuine article valuable, for of all the French cheeses it is the most expensive by reason of its not keeping sound beyond a few days, and the large quantities in which it is partaken of at a meal. Brie is a soft, creamy cheese, made in rounds of large size but of little thickness.

Dutch (Holland and Belgium).—This cheese is perhaps better known in kitchens than in the upper regions. It has, however, many good points, and is of by no means disagreeable flavour, though, owing to the process of making, a little too salt for delicate taste. It is also in general very safe, and very equal in quality. Being extremely mild, it is hardly suited to the dinner table, but affords an excellent luncheon. For domestic use it is eminently serviceable, and will be found (which is a great merit) generally acceptable in the kitchen. It is of a spherical oval shape, softish in texture, and coloured red. Its cheapness is also a recommendation, as it costs but 8d. or 9d. a lb. An imitation of this cheese is made in the district of Calvados, Normandy.

Gorgonzola (North of Italy).—This is an excellent cheese, and one that bears a close resemblance to Stilton. It has, however, so strongly marked and distinct a character of its own, that it would be injurious to institute a comparison between it and any other cheese. In texture and marking it is not altogether unlike Stilton, but is of deeper yellow, and the veins of a greener hue. It is equally good for luncheon and dinner, having great delicacy combined with fulness of flavour. Price about 1s. 5d. a lb.

Gruyère.—Gruyère is made in the Canton of Fribourg, and in the Vosges, the Jura, and Ain. The best cheeses of this kind are selected for exportation. Gruyère is a flat cheese of some 3 in. in depth, of a pale yellow colour, and plain surface, marked sparsely with large holes, which contain moisture. The rule laid down on the “plain” cheeses of England as to uniformity of colour in the surface of cheese holds good abroad as well as at home, but uniformity of surface in foreign plain cheeses need not be so closely looked for. In fact, the holes that abound in some of these cheeses constitute neither blemish nor unsoundness. The odour of Gruyère is strongish, but the taste mild and delicate. If anything, it is a little cloying. It is a fair cheese, but cannot be called more than fair, for dinner; but will serve very well for luncheon, though perhaps likely to pall on the taste if eaten constantly at this meal. The wholesale price is 11d. a lb.

Parmesan (from the district in the North of Italy between Lodi and Cremona) is a finer cheese than Gruyère. The cows from whose milk it is made are kept in the house nearly all the year round, and fed in summer on cut grass, in winter on hay. The process of making both Gruyère and Parmesan is the same, but the quality of the milk considerably differs. Parmesan is of great size, sometimes reaching 180 lb. and is[167] perhaps, of all cheese imported from abroad, the most useful “all round.” It is the only cheese that can be used grated for soup or macaroni. It is the custom of a good many people to supply grated Parmesan as a dinner cheese, but grated cheese, as compared with whole, suffers a certain deterioration of flavour. However this may be, avoid, if the cheese is served whole, the cutting of either this or Gruyère into thin slices, as the manner of some is. Let the cheese have fair play, and its full flavour, which it will not, unless it be cut, like any other cheese, of a reasonable thickness. Parmesan is of a yellowish-green hue, of firm and hard surface, marked by small holes. The time for ripening it properly is about 3 years. When not wanted for use, it should be kept covered with a cloth slightly steeped in sweet oil. The wholesale price is 1s. 5d. a lb.

Port du Salut.—This cheese is hardly as well-known in England as are the Roquefort and other French cheeses. It is, when fresh, a soft, pasty, mild, most palatable cheese, generally made in round cakes of 5-8 lb. in weight, and stamped with a cross and words showing its place of manufacture.

Roquefort, made in the department of Aveyron, in the south of France, is not only the most highly priced and most highly prized of the cheeses of that country, but a most formidable rival to any of the best cheeses made on the continent, and even to our own more celebrated “fancy” cheeses. It has been likened by some to Stilton; but, beyond a certain similarity of surface texture, the two have not much in common. They are, moreover, made of very different matter, Roquefort being composed of sheep and goats’ milk intermixed. Its peculiar excellence is said to be due to the natural qualities of the cellars wherein it is placed for ripening, and partly also from the manner of milking the sheep in making it. It should be kept until considerable progress of decay has been made. It is of very delicate though rather pungent flavour, and, if it lacks something of the softness and mellowness of the Stilton, will be found equally agreeable with it, at least at the dinner table. For luncheon Stilton has the preference. Its wholesale price per lb. is 1s. 5d.

Schabzieger.—This cheese is of spherical shape, of size somewhat larger than a cricket ball, with a dark thick rind. Its colour is yellow, with green veins. It is of a strong odour, and, unlike Gruyère, of an equally strong and rank taste. There is no doubt of its power to fulfil one purpose of cheese, the annihilation of the taste of anything you may have previously eaten, and for this it will be found to do good and useful service. It is a deservedly popular delicacy. The price of each cheese is about 8d. See also p. 1002.

Supplementary Literature.

John Darton: ‘The Dairyman: a Practical Guide to Cow-keeping, and the Making of Butter and Cheese.’ London. 1872. 1s.

Willis P. Hazard: ‘Butter and Butter-making, with the Best Methods for Producing and Marketing it.’ Philadelphia. 1877.

H. M. Jenkins: ‘Hints on Butter-making.’ London. 1886. 6d.

J. P. Sheldon: ‘Dairy Farming.’ London. 1l. 11s. 6d.

Canon Bagot: ‘Easy Lessons in Dairying.’ London, 1883. 6d.

The Field. London. Weekly. 6d.


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THE CELLAR.

A great mistake is sometimes made in ventilating cellars. The object of ventilation is to keep the cellar cool and dry; but this object often fails of being accomplished by a common mistake, and instead the cellar is made both warm and damp. A cool place should never be ventilated, unless the air admitted is cooler than the air within, or is at least as cool as that, or a very little warmer. The warmer the air, the more moisture it holds in suspension. Necessarily, the cooler the air, the more this moisture is condensed and precipitated. When a cool cellar is aired on a warm day, the entering air being in motion appears cool, but as it fills the cellar the cooler air with which it becomes mixed chills it, the moisture is condensed, and dew is deposited on the cold walls, and may often be seen running down them in streams. Then the cellar is damp, and soon becomes mouldy. To avoid this, the windows should only be opened at night, and late—the last thing before retiring. There is no need to fear that the night air is unhealthful—it is as pure as the air of midday, and is really drier. The cool air enters the apartment during the night, and circulates through it. The windows should be closed before sunrise in the morning, and kept closed and shaded through the day. If the air of the cellar is damp, it may be thoroughly dried by placing in it a peck of fresh lime in an open box. A peck of lime will absorb about 7 lb. or more than 3 qt. of water, and in this way a cellar may soon be dried, even in the hottest weather.

67. Barrel Stand.

Barrel Stand.—A simple and effective barrel stand may be made in the manner described below. It consists of a stout frame on 4 legs 9-12 in. high, made of quartering which may vary from 2 in. sq. for small casks to 3 in. sq. for larger ones. The proportions given in the annexed illustration (Fig. 67) are suited to a 9 gal. cask. This should be 22 in. long, 15 in. wide, 9 in. high, and made of 2½ in. stuff, of which it will consume about 9½ ft. run. It will be seen that the sides a, b are joined to the legs c, d, e, f by mortice and tenon joints, while the ends g, h are dovetailed into the sides a, b. The joints are secured by pins of oak or red deal driven into holes bored by a gimlet. The stand thus made is only adapted to carry casks stood on end. For holding[169] them steadily on their side, and at the same time giving them a tilt forward to allow all the clear contents lying above the sediment to be drawn out without disturbing the barrel, use is made of 2 pieces of board hollowed out to receive the barrel. For the sized cask mentioned (9 gal.), 15 in. will suffice in length and 1 in. in thickness for each piece. Both are prepared for letting down into the frame by cutting out a piece 2½ in. sq. from each of the 2 bottom corners as at a, and can then be screwed to the cross piece b of the frame. Previously the cradle is formed by describing on the piece of wood an arc of a circle corresponding to the size of the cask at the point where it is to be supported. Supposing the diameter of the cask to be 15½ in., the radius of the circle to be described will be 7¾ in., as shown. This gives the correct arc, but as the cask will lie sloping and not flat, the foremost edge of the arc must be shaved away till the cask will rest on the entire breadth of the edges of the cradle c. For the front cradle the board may be 6½ in. wide, and for the back 8½ in.

Cleaning Casks.—(1) The acid smell very often found in casks may be attributed to absorption in the pores of the wood of acetic and lactic acids—a very small quantity of either of them having power to communicate their principle to any fermenting liquid with which they may be brought in contact, and increasing very fast at the expense of the alcohol in the liquid, while at the same time causing unsoundness to a greater or less extent, according as the temperature of the atmosphere may be high or low. Bearing this in mind, it is of the utmost importance that all free acid which the cask may contain should be carefully neutralised before filling with a liquid so liable to change as fermenting wort. Casks before filling, after being well washed with boiling water, should be allowed to cool, and then examined by some responsible person as to their cleanliness, acidity, and probable mustiness; the cask is well smelt, and usually a light is passed through the tap-hole, so that the examiner may view the interior. Any cask that may smell sour (especially in summer weather, or when required for stock or pale ales) should be rejected, and be well treated with lime. This should be put into the casks dry, small lumps of the lime being broken, so that they can be easily inserted in the bung-holes, and when sufficient has been put in (say, about 4 lb. to a barrel), then about 4 gal. of boiling water must be added, the casks bunged up, and kept so for a few hours, occasionally rolling about. The lime should then be well washed out, and the casks steamed, and allowed to cool, when they will be in a fit condition for containing the most delicate liquid without any injury. The hard brown substance, which on being scraped with a nail leaves a white mark, so often found in casks, is a deposit that forms from the constituents of the liquid contained in them, and is often carbonate of lime, or yeast dried, or both. When this is formed, the only effectual method of cleansing is to take out the head, and put it into the cooper’s hands to be well scraped, until every particle of the fur is removed. Cask-washing machines never remove fur or thick dry deposit properly; they are very convenient in a general way for the usual run of casks, but any exceptionally bad must be unheaded, and cleaned by hand. For stock ales it is a good plan to rinse with solution of bisulphite of lime just before filling trade casks. (2) With regard to the coating spoken of in (1), it not only preserves the wood but keeps it clean and sweet, and does no harm at all to the beer. It takes some considerable time before the wood is coated with such a protecting enamel. It occurs alike in rounds, puncheons, and stone squares. Formerly it was customary to have all vessels that were furred over thoroughly dressed by the cooper, but now intelligent coopers advise brewers to keep it on. (3) Blow sulphur fumes into foul casks by fumigating bellows, such as gardeners use when fumigating conservatories. The sulphurous acid formed by burning brimstone is a powerful purifier, and will not leave an unpleasant taste, being easily washed away. (4) Cider casks.—Half fill each cask with boiling water, and add ¼ lb. of pearlash, then bung it up, and turn over occasionally for 2 days, then empty, and wash with boiling water. (5) Scald out with boiling water; if the heads are out, put them over a straw fire for a few minutes, so as to slightly char the inside. If you have a[170] steam boiler, partially fill with water, and admit steam through the bung-hole by a pipe down into the water, and so boil. (6) Vinegar casks.—Old vinegar barrels become impregnated to such an extent with acetous substances that it is next to impossible to render them fit for the storage of any other liquid. Fill the barrels with milk of lime, and let this remain in them for several months, then rinse out well with plenty of warm water, and steam them inside for ½ hour.

Cleaning Bottles.—(1) The commonest plan is by means of water and small shot. But lead shot, where so used, often leaves lead carbonate on the internal surface, and this is apt to be dissolved in the wine and other liquids afterwards introduced, with poisonous results; and particles of the shot are sometimes inadvertently left in the bottle. Fordos states that clippings of iron wire are a better means of rinsing. They are easily had, and the cleaning is rapid and complete. The iron is attacked by the oxygen of the air, but the ferruginous compound does not attach to the side of the bottle, and is easily removed in washing. Besides, a little oxidised iron is not injurious to health. Fordos found that the small traces of iron left had no apparent effect on the colour of red wines; it had on white wines, but very little; but he thinks it might be better to use clippings of tin for the latter. (2) Take a handful of common quicklime, such as bricklayers use, and a handful of common washing soda; boil them in a large kitchen iron saucepan (which will only be cleaned, not damaged, by the process). When cold, the fluid will be lye; put this into the vessel you want to clean with some small pebbles; make it warm if you can, and shake up or let it soak according to the nature of the vessel. (3) Gypsum, free from silicate, marble, or bruised bones, is preferable to shot or sand. Sulphuric acid and bichromate mixed, are best to free porcelain and glass from organic matter.

Drying Bottles.—After washing, bottles and decanters should be thoroughly dried inside. Let them first drain completely, then warm them slightly and blow in fresh air by means of a pair of bellows; this will absorb the moisture and leave the interior quite dry.

Corks and Corking.—Cheap bad corks are always dear; the best corks are soft, velvety, and free from large pores; if squeezed, they become more elastic and fit more closely. If good corks are used, of sufficiently large size to be extracted without the corkscrew, they may be employed many times in succession, especially if they are soaked in boiling water after, which restores them to their original shape, and renews their elasticity.

68. Corking Bottles.

The most common mode of fastening down corks, is with the ginger-beer knot, which is thus made:—First the loop is formed as at a Fig. 68, then that part of the string which passes across the loop is placed on the top of the cork, and the loop itself is passed down around the neck of the bottle, and by pulling the ends of the cord it is made tight beneath the rim; the ends of the string are finally brought up, and tied either in a double knot, or in a bow on the top of the cork.

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For effervescing drinks, such as champagne, which require to be kept a longer time and are more valuable, a securer knot is desirable, which may be made thus:—A loop as at b is first formed, and the lower end is then turned upwards and carried behind the loop, as shown at c; it is then pulled through the loop as at d, and in this state is put over the neck of the bottle; the part a being on one side, and the two parts of the loop on the other; on pulling the two ends, the whole becomes tight round the neck, and the ends, which should be quite opposite, are to be brought up over the cork, twice twisted, as at e, and then tied in a single knot.

Insects are often troublesome in devouring corks. This evil may be prevented by the following remedies. (1) Smear petroleum over the corks and bottle-necks, (2) Dip the cork and neck into a paste of quicklime which has just been slaked, and let it concrete on the bottle.

Aerated Drinks.—These may be divided into two classes, alkaline and saccharine. The alkaline, usually called mineral waters, are such as soda, seltzer, potass, &c.; while the saccharine are those which contain a portion of sugar, such as ginger beer, lemonade, and the various drinks made from the syrups. The alkaline mixtures after settling in the tanks, are usually passed through a lawn sieve, and then pumped through the machine, which impregnates them with carbonic acid gas. Saccharine drinks do not undergo this process, but a given quantity is put into each bottle or siphon, and the aerated water is forced into the bottle on it.

Either hard or soft water may be used for aerated drinks, so long as it is pure; when any doubt exists, it is always best to have it filtered. When a choice of water can be had, use hard or spring water for saccharine drinks.

The following recipes may be varied considerably. Some of the best beverages have been produced by mixing several of the essences together, and altering the colour. In all these drinks it is the essence that is used, as the fresh fruit will not do for bottle goods; while for the fountain drinks, the fresh fruit, being consumed as soon as mixed, forms a creamy beverage much in demand.

In all cases, in warm weather, it is advisable to have the factory as cool as possible, and more particularly the water. It is a good system and is employed in many factories, to have the pump of the machine surrounded with ice, the refrigerator being external; any kind of ice may be used.

In regard to the machinery, fountains, &c., used in the manufacture and dispensing of aerated beverages the reader is referred to the catalogues of the various manufacturers of the same.

Saccharine drinks are never pumped through a machine, but a given quantity of the syrup is put into each bottle by means of a syrup measure-tap, or better still, a syrup pump attached to the filling machine, and the aerated water is bottled on it.

Following are the principal saccharine aerated beverages:—

Champagne Cider.—This is lemonade syrup flavoured with pear essence, and coloured with the sugar colouring.

Gingerade.—(1) Mix 5 oz. essence of cayenne, 5 oz. essence of ginger, and 5 oz. water; (2) dissolve 3 lb. citric acid in ½ gal. hot water; (3) dissolve 4 oz. magnesia and 20 lb. fine loaf sugar in 3¼ gal. pure water. Filter the first compound and add 7 oz., also 14 oz. of the second, to the third; there will be no cloudiness; bottle at a pressure of 70 to 80 lb., using 1 oz. syrup to a bottle.

Ginger Ale.—This is ginger-beer syrup coloured slightly with sugar or saffron colouring. An addition of pineapple will also greatly improve the flavour. Bottle as for lemonade. Add albumen compound, q.s.

Ginger Beer.—This is lemonade syrup flavoured with essence of ginger and capsicine. The soluble essence of ginger is added to the syrup by dropping the quantity required on to pieces of sugar, when the syrup is lukewarm; the palate will be the best guide for quantity, as the essences vary much in strength. The albumen compound[172] is to be added at the same time as the essence; bottle as for lemonade, using ¾ oz. to a bottle.

(a) A strong ginger beer is made by boiling with every gallon of water, 2 lb. loaf sugar, and 1 oz. bruised ginger, 1 oz. cream of tartar, and one small lemon, sliced. To the cooled mixture some yeast is added, and the whole is set aside for fermentation. When the tumultuous fermentation is over, the liquid is bottled. Ginger beer thus made is, when properly fermented, of considerable alcoholic strength, equal at least to the strongest Scotch ale.

(b) Keeps for many months. Take white sugar, 20 lb.; lime juice, 18 (fluid) oz.; honey, 1 lb.; bruised ginger, 22 oz.; water, 18 gal. Of course the quantities can be modified. Boil the ginger in 3 gal. water for ½ hour, the sugar, the lime juice, and the honey with the remainder of the water, and strain through a cloth. When cold, add the white of one egg and ½ oz. (fluid) essence of lemon. After standing four days, bottle.

(c) Boil a sliced lemon with 1 oz. ground ginger in ½ pint water for ½ hour; stand to settle, and pour off clear part into a vessel containing 5 qt. cold water; add 1 lb. lump sugar and 1 oz. cream of tartar; ferment with 2 oz. German or other yeast spread on toast or plain bread; stand to ferment in warm place; cover from dust; bottle soon as fermented; drink in three days.

(d) White sugar, 1 lb.; cream of tartar and ginger, each 1 oz.; honey, 2 oz.; lemons, 2; water, 2 gal.; tartaric acid, 40 gr.; white of an egg. Bruise the ginger, and let the water boil for 10 minutes; pour it on the cream of tartar, sugar, and lemons. Let it stand till cold, then add white of an egg and a tablespoonful of yeast; let it work 6 hours, then add tartaric acid and bottle directly.

(e) Put into a 30 gallon brew 2 lb. of good fresh brewer’s yeast, and stir it up well. Now allow it to ferment, taking care that there shall be a gradual rise in temperature during fermentation. Skim the yeast off carefully until the beer is ready for bottling (which will not be under 24 hours), then add your eggs, and bottle quickly. After bottling lay the bottles down, as they will mature better than if standing up. The eggs have no effect on the strength of the beer. The barm should not be skimmed off too often; it is necessary to allow a good head to form before skimming. About three times should be sufficient. 70° F. is too high a temperature to commence a fermentation; better commence at 63° or 64° F. Beat up the eggs with a birch rod, mixing well with 2 or 3 pints of beer; add it to the beer after the fermentation is finished, then well mix the whole together and bottle. If the fermentation has been conducted properly, it will not be necessary to rack into a clean cask before fining and bottling. Use sufficient yeast (2 lb.), avoid skimming too often, and do not have the liquor too hot.

Ginger Champagne.—This refreshing and agreeable beverage is, according to a French recipe, made as follows:—Take 60 gal. water; add 40 lb. ginger cut in small pieces, and gently boil for ½ hour, carefully removing any froth that may arise. Cool the liquor as quickly as possible, and when at a blood-heat (100° F.) add 9 lb. raisins chopped fine, and the juice of 6 doz. oranges and 6 doz. lemons. Allow the liquid to ferment, and after standing a month it may be bottled in the usual manner. If desired, the ginger may be omitted, and the number of oranges increased to 18 doz.

Lemonade.—(a) A difference of opinion exists as to whether this syrup is best by simmering over a slow fire, or by merely pouring boiling water on the ingredients; but this is greatly influenced by the quality of the water used. The quantity of sugar and citric acid used to a gallon of syrup is also subject to variation, as some like it more acidulated than others. The usual proportions are 27 lb. loaf sugar and 12 oz. citric acid, previously dissolved, to 3 gal. water. Simmer over a slow fire for 5 minutes; carefully skim it and strain through a felt bag while hot; when cooled down to the warmth of new milk, add about ½ oz. oil of lemon. A slight head is considered an improvement, to produce which add about ½ oz. of the French gum extract to 1 gal.[173] syrup; 1 oz. of syrup is to be put into the bottle, and the aerated water bottled on it at a pressure of 90 to 100 lb.

(b) Rinse out with boiling water an earthen glazed vessel, to warm it; put into it about 27 lb. loaf sugar and 12 oz. citric acid, previously dissolved in a small quantity of boiling water; stir occasionally, and when properly dissolved, strain it through a felt bag. Drop oil of lemon on some large lumps of sugar till they have taken up ½ oz.; when the mixture has cooled down to the warmth of new milk, drop in the lumps of sugar, and see that they are dissolved before proceeding to use it. Tartaric acid may be used in place of citric acid, but it is not so good. Use 1 oz. to each bottle, and bottle as for (a).

As lemonade syrup forms the basis for so many of the saccharine drinks, it may be as well to state that some makers prefer to use less water, as well as to vary the proportions of citric acid and sugar; it is also considered an improvement to add a drop or two of otto of roses to each gallon of syrup; this, without adding at all to the quality of the drink, throws off a pleasant aroma on the opening of a bottle. Caramel is used for a strong colour.

Nectar.—This is lemonade syrup, flavoured with the essence of pineapple.

Orange Champagne.—Take 7 gal. water, 20 oz. citric acid, 54 lb. sugar. When cold add to each gallon 3½ oz. orange tincture; colour to fancy (sugar colouring), add ¼ oz. albumen compound at the rate of 1½ oz. to a ½ pint bottle. This is a very delicious drink, and should be put up in champagne bottles; a special corking machine is required, and also a better cork than the one used for lemonade.

Pepper Punch.—Take 1¼ oz. concentrated punch to 1 gal. plain syrup; mix well; add a few drops essence of capsicine. About 1½ oz. of the syrup for each bottle, filling up with aerated water.

Tonic Lemonade.—Lemonade syrup flavoured with quinine, using the same quantity as for tonic water; or to suit the palate.

The chief ingredient in all saccharine aerated drinks is the syrup. This is formed by making concentrated solutions of sugar in pure water, or in water containing the principles of various flavouring substances; the former are called simple, and the latter compound syrups.

There are many precautions to be taken in order to ensure the production of good syrups, the most important being, perhaps, the selection of the sugar. Cane-sugar only should be used, and that should be perfectly refined. The least shade of colour in the sugar is due to the presence of impurities, and syrup prepared from such sugar not only has an unpleasant flavour, but is also very difficult to keep. The use of common or brown sugar may be regarded, in many cases, as an adulteration.

Syrups are very easily prepared. A hemispherical copper basin, not tinned, but well polished, and kept scrupulously clean, is the apparatus employed. This basin stands on three legs, and is furnished with a false bottom, which is also hemispherical. The two hemispheres are surrounded by a copper cylinder, fitted with a lid; the three parts of the apparatus are fixed together by means of two circular iron rings, which are fitted to the circumference of the hemispheres and to the bottom of the cylinder, the whole being well pinned or bolted together. A stop-cock in the outer hemisphere communicates by means of a short pipe with the inner one, and serves to withdraw the contents. Another cock, placed almost at the top, serves for the admission of steam between the two bottoms; and the condensed water is drawn off by means of a third cock communicating only with the outer bottom, and placed at a short distance from the first. The whole apparatus may be of any convenient size. Its chief advantage is that the syrup can be heated to the required degree with the utmost nicety; the steam is admitted until this degree is reached, and the supply may then be stopped in a moment, thus ensuring perfect regularity of working.

There are many circumstances which tend to produce changes in syrups when made, and to cause them to degenerate and become worthless; these must be carefully guarded[174] against. The most common is fermentation; this may be either the result of too short or too long-continued boiling; or of the presence of an excess of mucilaginous substances; or an imperfect clarification of the syrup will also produce it in the course of time. But the most frequent cause of fermentation is found in leaving the syrup in a warm place, or in vessels which are not completely filled, and especially if they happen to have been wet when the syrup was introduced. In order to guard against under or over-boiling of simple syrups, it should be laid down as a rule that they stand at 32° B. when boiling, and when cold at 34° B. in winter, and 35° B. in summer. They should then be bottled, and stored in a cool cellar.

In the preparation of syrups, which are solutions of sugar, more or less strong according to the object for which they are used, care should be taken to employ only the best refined sugar, and either distilled or filtered rain-water, as they will be rendered much less liable to spontaneous decomposition, and become perfectly transparent without the trouble of clarifying. When, however, impure sugar is employed, clarification is always necessary. This is best done by dissolving the sugar in the water or fruit juices cold, and then beating up a little of the cold syrup with some white of egg and 1 or 2 oz. cold water, until the mixture froths well; this must be added to the syrup in the boiler, and when the whole is frisked up to a good froth, heat should be applied, and the scum which forms removed from time to time with a clean skimmer. As soon as the syrup begins to simmer it must be removed from the fire and allowed to stand until it has cooled a little, when it should again be skimmed, if necessary, and then passed through a clean flannel. By using refined sugar, however, all this trouble of clarification can be avoided.

When vegetable infusions or solutions enter into the compositions of syrups, they should be rendered perfectly transparent by filtration or clarification, before being added to the sugar.

The proper quantity of sugar for syrups will, in general, be found to be 2 lb. to every pint of water or thin aqueous fluid. These proportions allow for the water that is lost by evaporation during the process, and are those best calculated to produce syrup of proper consistence and possessing good keeping qualities. They closely correspond to those recommended by Guibourt for the production of a perfect syrup, which, he says, consists of 30 parts of sugar to 16 parts of water.

In the preparation of syrup it is of great importance to employ as little heat as possible, as a solution of sugar, even when kept at a temperature of boiling water, undergoes slow decomposition. The best plan is to pour the water (cold) over the sugar, and to allow the two to lie together for a few hours in a covered vessel, occasionally stirring, and to apply a gentle heat, preferably that of steam or of a water-bath, to finish the solution. Syrups are sufficiently boiled when some taken up in a spoon pours out like oil, or a drop cooled on the thumb nail gives a proper thread when touched. When a thin skin appears on blowing the syrup, it is judged to be completely saturated. These rude tests, however, often lead to errors, which might be easily prevented by employing the proper proportions, or determining the specific gravity by immersing in the syrup one of Baumé’s saccharometers or syrup gauges, as indicated in the following table:—

Sugar in 100 parts.Sp. Gr.Deg. Baumé.
01·0000
51·0203
101·0406
151·0628
201·08111
251·10413·5
301·12816·3
[175] 351·15219
401·17721·6
451·20424·5
501·23027
551·25729·5
601·28432
671·32135

A fluid ounce of saturated syrup weighs 577½ gr.; a gallon weighs 13½ lb.; its specific gravity is 1·319 to 1·321 or 35° Baumé; its boiling point is 221° F., and its density at the temperature of 212° is 1·260 to 1·261, or 30° Baumé. The syrups prepared with the juices of fruits mark about 2° or 3° more on Baumé’s scale than the other syrups. According to Ure, the decimal part of the number denoting the specific gravity of a syrup multiplied by 26 gives very nearly the number of pounds of sugar it contains per gallon.

The preservation of syrups, as well as of all saccharine solutions, is best promoted by keeping them in a moderately cool, but not a very cold place. Let syrups be kept in vessels well closed, and in a situation where the temperature never rises above 55° F. They are kept better in small than in large vessels, as the longer the bottle lasts the more frequently will it be opened, and the syrup consequently exposed to the air. By bottling syrups while boiling hot, and immediately corking down and tying the bottles over with a bladder, perfectly air-tight, they may be preserved even at a summer heat for years, without fermenting or losing their transparency.

The candying of syrups may be prevented (unless the syrup be over-saturated with sugar) by the addition of acetic or citric acid, 2 or 3 dr. per gallon. Confectioners add a little cream of tartar to prevent granulation. Syrups may be effectually prevented from fermenting by the addition of a little sulphite of potash or lime; also by the use of salicylic acid in small quantities. Fermenting syrups may be immediately restored by exposing the vessel containing them to the temperature of boiling water. The addition of a little spirit is also good, say about 10 per cent.

A solution of sugar prepared by dissolving 2 parts of double refined sugar in one of water, and boiling this a little, affords a syrup which neither ferments nor crystallises.

The basis of most mineral water syrups is simple syrup, which is prepared by adding 16 lb. of finest white sugar and the whites of 4 eggs to 1 gal. water; stir until all the sugar is dissolved; simmer over a gentle heat for 2 or 3 minutes; skim well and strain through a fine flannel bag.

The best way to keep fruit syrups from fermenting is by bottling while hot, into suitable bottles or larger vessels, and to prevent access of air. This is the principle, and it may be carried out in various ways. For instance, fill the syrup while hot in quart bottles, previously warmed, and fill them almost full. Cover or cork the bottles temporarily until the syrup cools a little and contracts in volume; then, having heated a small quantity of the syrup, refill the bottles, cork them securely and wax them.

A great variety of syrups are made by the addition of proper flavouring ingredients to simple syrup; but in other cases, especially when the juices of fruits are employed, the syrup is not first prepared and then flavoured, but the processes go hand-in-hand. In such instances specific instructions will be given. It is always advisable, when fresh fruit can be obtained, to use it in preference to the essence. One general recipe, which answers for nearly all fresh fruit, is as follows: Use nothing but the very best fresh fruit, which must be freed from stocks, &c., and crushed with a wooden instrument (not metal); when well mashed, let it stand in a room of even temperature (about 68° F.) for 4 days, which will give sufficient time for fermentation to take place; press out the juice from the fruit and let it settle in a cool cellar for 2 days, after which 5 lb. of the[176] clear juice is to be simmered with 9 lb. loaf sugar; while warm, strain through flannel. The colour may be improved by a solution of some colouring agent.

It is advisable to add to the fresh fruit before setting it for fermentation, about 2 lb. powdered loaf sugar for every 100 lb. fruit. When cold, it is ready for bottling. Cleanliness should be strictly observed in all the utensils used. When bottling for storing, skim the top off any floating matter from the syrups in the large pan, and see that no residue at the bottom goes into the bottles. Most of the syrups not made of fruit, may have a little mucilage of gum arabic added, in order to produce a rich froth. The following recipes comprise syrups made from the fruit, and also from essences. These may be varied to suit taste and requirements. A variety of syrups have been brought into use by adding the various wines, such as claret, hock, sherry, &c., to simple syrup; others, by the addition of spirits, as milk punch, by adding to vanilla cream Jamaica rum and nutmeg. Almost any syrup may be made by the addition of a sufficient quantity of flavouring essence to simple syrup; but these artificially prepared syrups are inferior to those made from fresh fruits.

Red Colouring for Soda-Water Syrups.—The most convenient is probably tincture of cudbear, as it affords a good, substantial, and natural-looking colour miscible with syrups without cloudiness. It may be made as follows:—2 to 4 oz. powdered cudbear, 1 pint diluted alcohol. Exhaust by maceration or displacement. Used alone, the tincture gives a shade of red closely imitating the colour of raspberries or currants. For deeper red, like blackberries, the addition of some caramel is all that is necessary. The strawberry colour is best imitated with tincture of cochineal. Aniline red, owing to its cheapness, is often used for colouring syrups, but it produces a glaring, artificial-looking bluish-red, and is liable to the objection that it sometimes contains arsenic.

Ambrosia Syrup.—A mixture of equal parts of vanilla and strawberry syrups.

Apple Syrup.—As for pineapple syrups.

Banana Syrup.—As for pineapple syrups.

Blackberry Syrup.—Prepared from ripe fruit the same as raspberry syrups. Improved by adding 1 oz. best French brandy to each quart.

Capillaire Syrup.—9 lb. loaf sugar, 5 lb. orange-flower water. Boil till the sugar is dissolved and the syrup is clear; while hot, strain through flannel; add to the cool syrup 2 dr. tartaric acid, previously dissolved in 8 oz. strongest orange-flower water; lastly add 4 oz. best Rhine wine.

Cream Syrup.—(a) 1 pint condensed milk, 1 pint water, 1¼ lb. sugar. Heat to boiling and strain. This will keep for over a week in a cool place.

(b) Imitation.—Make an emulsion with 3 oz. fresh oil of sweet almonds, 2 oz. powdered gum arabic, and 2 oz. water; then dissolve 1 lb. white sugar by gentle heat, strain, and when cool, add the whites of two eggs. It should be put up in small bottles, well corked, in a cool place. This is not only an excellent imitation and substitute for cream syrup, but will keep for a considerable time.

Currant Syrup.—(a) 6 pints simple syrup, 2 pints water, 2 oz. tartaric acid, 3 dr. fruit essence. Mix; colour with liquid carmine for red currants, and with burnt sugar, for black.

(b) 1 pint red currant juice, 1 gal. simple syrup.

Ginger Syrup.—(a) 6 pints simple syrup, 2 pints water, 1 oz. tartaric acid, 2 oz. ginger. Burnt sugar to colour.

(b) 4 oz. extract Jamaica ginger, 1 gal. syrup. Shake well. A few drops of tincture curcuma to colour.

(c) 9 lb. loaf sugar, 5 lb. water, 12 oz. essence of ginger, 4 oz. Rhine wine. Boil sugar and water until dissolved and clear; when cool, add ginger and wine. Mix well and let settle.

Grape Syrup.-½ pint brandy, 1 oz. tincture of lemon, 1 gal. simple syrup, 1 qt. tincture red saunders.

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Imperial Syrup.—Equal parts of raspberry and orange syrups.

Lemon Syrup.—(a) Grate off the yellow rinds of lemons, and beat it up with a sufficient quantity of granulated sugar; express the lemon juice; add to each pint of juice 1 pint of water, 3½ lb. granulated sugar, including that rubbed up with the rind; warm until the sugar is dissolved and strain. Under no circumstances must the syrup be allowed to boil, and the less heat that can be used to effect the complete solution of the sugar the better will be the syrup.

(b) Add to 1 gal. simple syrup when cold, 20 drops fresh oil lemon and ½ oz. citric acid, previously dissolved in 3 oz. water; mix by shaking well in a bottle; add 4 oz. gum solution, made by dissolving 2 oz. fine white gum arabic in 2 oz. warm water.

(c) 6 pints simple syrup, 2 pints distilled water, 2 oz. essence of lemon, 2 oz. citric acid, dissolved in boiling water. Mix, and, if required, colour with saffron.

Maple Syrup.—3½ lb. maple sugar, 1 qt. water. Dissolve, and, if desired, add a small proportion of gum solution to produce a rich froth.

Milk-Punch Syrup.—To 1 pint heavy syrup add ½ pint each brandy and Jamaica rum; flavour with 2 teaspoonfuls of an extract prepared by macerating 2 oz. ground nutmegs in 8 oz. alcohol. The syrup is first to be poured into the glass in the proper quantity, and ordinary cream syrup added before drawing the soda water.

Mulberry Syrup.—Made from the fruit, the same as strawberry, and acidulated slightly with a solution of citric acid. It may also be made from the fruit essence in the same manner as for strawberry, using about half the quantity of tartaric acid.

Nectar Syrup.—(a) 1 oz. extract of vanilla, 1 oz. extract of rose, 1 oz. extract of lemon, 1 oz. extract of bitter almonds. Mix and add 1 gal. of simple syrup; colour pink with cochineal.

(b) Mix 3 parts vanilla syrup with 1 each of pineapple and lemon syrups.

Orange Syrups.—These may be made from the fresh fruit or from the essence in a similar manner as for lemon syrups. Orange syrups may be coloured slightly with tincture of saffron or of turmeric.

Orgeat Syrup.—(a) ½ pint cream syrup, ½ pint simple syrup, 1 pint vanilla syrup, 5 drops oil bitter almonds.

(b) Beat to an emulsion in a mortar 8 oz. blanched sweet almonds and 4 oz. bitter ones, adding a little water; when smooth, add 3 pints water; mix and strain; dissolve in this without heat 6 lb. sifted white sugar, and 4 oz. fresh orange-flower water.

(c) An excellent imitation of orgeat syrup is made by flavouring cream syrup, made with eggs and milk, with a few drops of oil of bitter almonds.

Pear Syrup.—As for pineapple syrups.

Pineapple Syrup.—(a) Take a convenient number of the fruit; pare and mash them in a marble or porcelain mortar, with a small quantity of sugar; express the juice; for each quart of juice take 1½ pint water, and 6 lb. sugar; boil the sugar and water, and add the juice; remove from the fire; skim and strain.

(b) 6 pints simple syrup, 2 pints distilled water, 1 oz. tartaric acid, 1 dr. essence of pineapple. Saffron to colour.

(c) Proceed as for raspberry (d); but the hard nature of this fruit requires pounding with a heavy chump of wood (not metal) in a tub with a strong bottom; when well mashed, it will require great pressure to extract all the juice from this fruit; a cider press will answer the purpose; add 14 lb. sugar to 1 gal. juice and a little pure acetic acid; put it on a slow fire, and stir until the sugar dissolves; when cold, bottle and tie down.

Raspberry Syrup.—(a) Take fresh berries and enclose them in a coarse bag; press out the juice, and to each quart add 6 lb. white sugar and 1 pint water; dissolve, raising it to the boiling point; strain; bottle and cork hot, and keep in a cool place. Raspberry syrup is improved by adding 1 part of currants to 4 parts of raspberries.

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(b) 5 qt. raspberries, 12 lb. white sugar, 1 pint water. Sprinkle some of the sugar over the fruit in layers, allowing the whole to stand for several hours; express the juice and strain, washing out the pulp with the water, add the remainder of the sugar and water; bring the fluid to the boiling point, and then strain. This will keep for a long time.

(c) 6 pints simple syrup, 2 pints water, 2 oz. tartaric acid, 2 oz. essence of raspberry. Colouring sufficient. Colouring for raspberry, blackberry, &c., syrups may be made by boiling 1 oz. cochineal with half a teaspoonful cream of tartar; filter.

(d) Take any quantity of fully ripe fruit; free them from stalks; place them in a tub and crush them with a wooden spatula; after they have been mashed, let them remain for 3 or 4 hours, and strain the crushed berries through a strong flannel bag or strainer into a suitable vessel. Dissolve ½ oz. citric acid in 3 oz. water, and add this quantity to each gallon of juice; mix 14 lb. broken sugar to every gallon of juice; put on a slow fire and stir until all the sugar is dissolved (not boil); take off the fire, and when cold, bottle and cork for future use. If too thick when cold, it may be brought to a proper consistency by the addition of water.

(e) Imitation.—3 oz. bruised orris root, 2 oz. acetic acid, 1 oz. acetic ether, 1 pint alcohol. Cochineal to colour. Mix and allow to stand a few days; filter, and use to flavour simple syrup.

Rose Syrup.—1 gal. simple syrup, 1 oz. essence of rose. Colour pink with prepared cochineal, and acidulate lightly with a solution of citric acid.

Rowan Syrup.—Dry the berries till they are quite shrivelled. Then place them in brandy, and leave them in it for 7-10 days. Strain it off the berries at the end of that time, and mix with an equal quantity of thick very clear syrup made with loaf sugar in a brass boiler. A handful of picked berries is sufficient for 1 pint brandy. This is a very palatable liqueur.

Sarsaparilla Syrup.—(a) 1 gal. simple syrup, 2 oz. essence of sarsaparilla. Colour with caramel.

(b) 1 gal. simple syrup, essence of sarsaparilla, q.s., 1 oz. powdered extract licorice, 15 drops oil of sassafras, 15 drops oil of wintergreen, 10 drops oil of aniseed. Stir the oils with the powdered licorice; add a portion of the syrup; stir smoothly, and mix the whole together by agitation.

Sherbet Syrup.—Mix equal parts of orange, pineapple, and vanilla syrups.

Sherry Cobbler Syrup.—To 1 pint good sherry add an equal measure of heavy simple syrup, and one lemon cut in very thin slices. Allow the syrup to stand a few hours; strain through a sieve, and bottle for use.

Strawberry Syrup.—Proceed as for raspberry syrup (d); but the fruits being more stubborn will require a good beating with the spatula to mash them; when they have stood 3 or 4 hours, strain and press the juice out by squeezing the strainer between the hands; add to the juice the same quantity of citric acid; dissolve in each gallon 14 lb. loaf sugar; simply warm the juice sufficiently to dissolve the sugar; take from the fire, and when cold bottle and cork till required.

Vanilla Syrup.—(a) 1 gal. simple syrup, 1 oz. extract vanilla, ½ oz. citric acid. Stir the acid with a portion of the syrup; add the extract of vanilla; mix.

(b) 4 pints simple syrup, 2 oz. extract of vanilla.

The essences used by aerated water makers are usually purchased ready made, though in many cases it is found desirable to prepare them at the factory. Below are given a few recipes for those most commonly used:—

For essence of lemons, remove the outer rinds of 40 lemons, without a particle of pulp, and macerate them with 6 qt. perfectly pure alcohol at 85°. After two or three days, distil to dryness in a water-bath; add 2 qt. water and rectify to obtain 5 qt. of the essence. The essences of oranges and cedrats are made in precisely the same way.

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For essence of strawberries and raspberries, take 56 lb. of the fresh fruit, free from stalks and leaves, and place them in 45 qt. pure alcohol at 80°. Macerate for 24 hours in a vessel closed in a water-bath; add 20 qt. water, and distil to obtain 44 qt., each containing 17½ oz. of essence.

Beer.—Owing in a great measure to Excise restrictions, very little home-brewed beer is made now in England; but a few notes may be useful.

Half-hogshead of Ale.—Take 5 bush. pale malt, 4 lb. best Worcester hops; put into mash tub 30 gal. hot water (202° F.), 13 gal. cold water (49° F.), mean heat 166° F.; shake the malt in and stir it well about, and let it stand 1½ hour; draw off the wort and mix it with the hops; pour over the grains sufficient hot water at 200° F. to fill your barrel, allowing some for waste in boiling and working. Boil the wort and hops for one hour. Put 1 pint yeast to 3 gal. wort, at 72° F., to begin to work, and add the remainder at 68° F.

Summer Beer.—Over 1 bush. (40 qt.) malt pour enough boiling water to enable you to draw off 100 qt. of wort. Put into the wort ½ lb. hops, and boil it an hour. Having washed your mashing tub well from the grains, pour the wort into it, and, when cooled to the temperature of new milk, add in summer ½ pint of yeast, in winter a little more. Cover the tub with a cloth, and let it work till next day; pour it into your barrel before it begins to sink, and rack it before the barrel is stopped up. It will be fit to drink in a fortnight or three weeks.

Champagne Beer.—According to Teltscher, of Breslau, this beer is prepared in the following manner:—A light, strongly hopped, bottom-fermentation beer is left in cask until fit for consumption, and is then mixed with 2 per cent. of “Krausen-beer” (that is to say, beer in the first stage of active fermentation), and bottled. The bottles are filled up, carefully corked, and racked with the necks downwards, in which position they are left for a fortnight. The mixture develops an amount of carbonic acid not obtainable in other light bottom-fermentation beers strongly hopped. The reversed position of the bottles causes the floating particles of yeast to settle inside the necks, and by drawing the bottles lengthwise through the hands daily, these particles are detached and settle down finally on the cork. When the beer has generated enough carbonic acid gas, as indicated by its paleness, which sometimes occurs as early as the eighth day, the bottles are taken one by one in the left hand, with the neck inclining outwards and downwards, and the cork being removed with the right, the internal pressure is allowed to blow away the sediment from the neck. The bottles are then carefully re-corked. In this way a light bottom-fermentation beer, strong of the hop, and perfectly free from yeast, is obtained, which, owing to the large proportion of carbonic acid it holds, retains its refreshing properties at temperatures as high as 18° C. (64° F.), whereas beers of a like character with little or no carbonic acid become flat at 8° C. (46° F.). That the beer can be drunk without artificial cooling is put forward as another recommendation.

Bottling Beer.—(a) The bottles should be clean, sweet, and dry, the corks sound and good, and the beer “fine.” When the bottles are filled, if for home consumption, they should not be corked till the day following, and if for exportation to a hot climate, they must stand 3 days or more (if the liquor is new); it should be well corked and wired, but for family use they may do without wiring, only they should be well packed in sawdust, and stand upright. But if some are wanted ripe, keep a few packed on their sides, so that the liquor may touch the corks, and this will soon ripen, and make it fit for drinking.

(b) Choose clear weather, and leave the bung out of the cask all night. Fill the bottles, throw sheets of paper over them to keep out the dust, let them stand 24 hours, then cork, wire, and pack away in a cool place. If for immediate use, ripen by adding a piece of sugar to each bottle before corking.

Brightening Cloudy Beer.—Add calcined oyster shells, but after the application of oyster shells the ale requires to be rapidly drunk, as it will not keep good for any length[180] of time. At the time of being brewed, if it is rapidly cooled, it never will become cloudy. All depends upon the time it takes to cool.

Restoring Sour Beer.—When beer has once been sour, i.e. has once been through acetous fermentation, it never again will have its former brilliancy, liveliness, or full flavour; it will always remain acid. Procure a 4½ gal. cask (commonly called a pin), rack the ale into it, and get about 3 oz. of new hops, which put in the pin, bung it down tight, put it in a cellar, where let it remain six months at least; it may then be better.

If beer is sour in bottles, put ¼ teaspoonful of soda carbonate and a large teaspoonful of brown sugar into each bottle; then cork well, and tie it down the same as ginger beer, and place the bottles cork downwards for about 3 weeks, where it is not too cold.

Finings.—(a) Take 1½ pints water and 2 oz. unslaked lime, mixed well together; let them stand 4 hours, and when the sediment is settled pour it off clear and mix 2 oz. isinglass, cut small, in ½ pint water. When dissolved put it into a barrel of beer.

(b) Eggs, any quantity; beat them to a froth and expose them to a gentle heat or in the sun to dry; then powder. In some cases a little fine wheat flour is added, the paste made into balls, and dried in the sun or a warm room, and then powdered.

(c) Isinglass, 1 lb.; water, 8 gal.; vinegar, 4 gal. Mix the vinegar and isinglass, and macerate for 4 days, then add the water.

(d) Isinglass, 1 lb.; sour beer or cider, 5 gal.; water, 6 gal. Digest the first two until the isinglass is dissolved, then add the water, and strain.

Weevil in Malt.—This can be killed by heat or checked by cold. If the temperature is raised to 167°-190° F., the insects die; if cold air is introduced, they cease to breed. Frequent turning of the malt, careful whitewashing of the walls, and the introduction of cold air (leaving all the windows open for two or three frosty nights) are the best preventives.

Bitters.—The following are the chief kinds in vogue.

Amazon.—90 gal. plain proof spirit; 3¼ lb. red Peruvian bark; 3¼ lb. calisaya bark; 1⅛ lb. calamus root; 4¾ lb. orange peel; 3½ oz. cinnamon; 3½ oz. cloves; 3½ oz. nutmeg; 2 oz. cassia buds; 6½ lb. red sanders wood. First mash all the ingredients, put them in the spirit, and let them infuse 14 days, stirring the mixture well twice every day. Rack off and colour with 11 pints brandy colouring, to get a dark red tint. Stir ¼ hour. Dissolve 30 lb. white sugar in 30 gal. water; add, and again stir ½ hour. Let the mixture rest 4 or 5 days, and when bright, bottle. If the sanders wood is not used, the colour will be a bright amber. Compounded according to the above directions, will yield 120 gal. 25° below proof.

Angostura.—4 oz. gentian root; 10 oz. each calisaya bark, Canada snake-root, Virginia snake-root, liquorice root, yellow bark, allspice, dandelion root, and Angostura bark; 6 oz. cardamom seeds; 4 oz. each balsam of tolu, orangetis, Turkey rhubarb, and galanga; 1 lb. orange peel; 1 lb. alkanet root; 1½ oz. caraway seed; 1½ oz. cinnamon; ½ oz. cloves; 2 oz. each nutmegs, coriander seed, catechu, and wormwood; 1 oz. mace; 1¼ lb. red sanders wood, and 8 oz. turmeric. Pound these ingredients and steep them for 15 days in 50 gal. proof spirit; before filtering, add 30 lb. honey.

Aromatic.—Macerate 2¾ lb. ground dried small orange apples, ¼ lb. ground dried orange peel, 2 oz. ground dried calamus root, 2 oz. ground dried pimpinella root, 1 oz. ground dried cut hops, for 14 days, with 10 gal. of spirit at 45 per cent.; press, and add 2½ pints brown-sugar syrup. Filter. Colour dark brown.

Boker’s.—1½ oz. quassia; 1½ oz. calamus; 1½ oz. catechu (powdered); 1 oz. cardamom; 2 oz. dried orange peel. Macerate for 10 days in ½ gal. strong whisky, and then filter and add 2 gal. water. Colour with mallow or malva flowers.

Brandy.—Grind to coarse powder 3 lb. gentian root, 2 lb. dry orange peel, 1 lb. cardamom seeds, 2 oz. cinnamon, 2 oz. cochineal. Infuse 10 days in 1 gal. brandy, 8 gal. water, and filter.

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Essence.—40 gal. proof spirit, 1 drm. oil of anise, 1 drm. oil of caraway, ½ drm. oil of cloves, 1 drm. oil of lemon, 1 drm. oil of oranges, 1 drm. oil of cinnamon, ½ drm. oil of bitter almonds, 1 gal. sugar syrup. Cut the oils in 95 per cent. alcohol, and mix. Colour with brandy colouring.

French Cognac.—1½ lb. each red Peruvian bark, calisaya bark, bitter orange peel, and sweet orange peel; 2 oz. calamus root; 4 oz. cardamom seeds; 1½ oz. each cinnamon, cloves, and nutmegs; 4 oz. caraway seed; and 3 lb. wild cherry bark. Pound all these ingredients to a coarse powder and steep for 15 days in 45 gal. proof spirit (or 60 gal. spirit 25° below proof), stirring occasionally. Then rack it off, and mix sufficient caramel to make it a dark red; add 15 lb. white sugar dissolved in 15 gal. water; let the whole settle, then filter. If the bitters are required to be of an amber colour, omit the wild cherry bark and the caramel colouring.

Hamburg.—Grind to a coarse powder 2 oz. agaric, 5 oz. cinnamon, 4 oz. cassia buds, ½ oz. grains of Paradise, 3 oz. quassia wood, ¾ oz. cardamom seeds, 3 oz. gentian root, 3 oz. orange apples dried, 1½ oz. orange peel; macerate with 4¼ gal. 95 per cent. alcohol, mixed with 5¾ gal. water; add 2¾ oz. acetic ether. Colour brown.

Nonpareil.—Grind to coarse powder 2 oz. Peruvian bark, ½ oz. sweet orange peel, ½ oz. bitter orange peel, 25 gr. cinnamon, 25 gr. cloves, 25 gr. nutmeg, 15 cayenne seeds. Infuse 10 days in 2 gal. 65 per cent. alcohol, then filter.

Orange.—(1) Macerate 6 lb. orange peel for 24 hours with 1 gal. water, cut the yellow part of the peel from off the white, and chop it fine; macerate with 4¾ gal. 95 per cent. alcohol for 2 weeks, or displace; then add a syrup made of 4¼ gal. water and 16 lb. sugar. Filter through Canton flannel. (2) ½ oz. Seville orange peel, ¼ oz. lemon peel, ¼ oz. gentian root, ¼ oz. ginger, all bruised and put into a jug; pour a pint of boiling water on it, and cover up with a cloth.

Peruvian.—8 oz. red Peruvian bark; 8 oz. orange peel; 1½ drm. each cinnamon, cloves, and nutmeg; and 75 cayenne pepper seeds. Infuse them, well bruised, in 8 gal. proof spirit, for 15 to 20 days, stirring every day. Draw off and filter.

Spanish.—Grind to coarse powder 5 oz. polypody, 6 oz. calamus root, 8 oz. orris root, 2½ oz. coriander seed, 1 oz. centaurium, 3 oz. orange peel, 2 oz. German camomile flowers; then macerate with 4¾ gal. 95 per cent. alcohol, and add 5¼ gal. water and 1½ oz. of sugar. Filter, and colour brown.

Stomach.—Grind to a coarse powder ½ lb. cardamom seeds, ⅛ lb. nutmegs, ¼ lb. grains of Paradise, ½ lb. cinnamon, ¼ lb. cloves, ¼ lb. ginger, ¼ lb. galanga, ¼ lb. orange peel, ⅛ lb. lemon peel; then macerate with 4¾ gal. 95 per cent. alcohol, and add a syrup made of 4½ gal. water and 12 lb. sugar; filter.

Stoughton.—(1) To 12 lb. dry orange peel, 3 lb. Virginia snake-root, 1 lb. American saffron, 16 lb. gentian root, add 1 lb. red sanders wood. Grind all the ingredients to a coarse powder, and macerate for 10 days in 20 gal. 65 per cent. alcohol, then filter.

(2) 2 lb. ginseng; 2 lb. gentian root; 1½ lb. dry orange peel; ½ lb. Virginia snake-root; 1 oz. quassia; ¼ lb. cloves; 3 oz. red sanders wood; 3 gal. alcohol 95 per cent.; 3 gal. soft water. Grind all the ingredients to coarse powder, infuse 10 days, and filter.

Wild Cherry.—Wild cherry bark, 4 lb.; squaw vine (Partridge berry), 1 lb.; Juniper berries, 8 oz. Pour boiling water over, and let stand for 24 hours; strain, and pour again boiling water on the ingredients; let macerate for 12 hours, then express and filter through paper, so that the whole will make 5 gal., to which add 3½ lb. of sugar; 1½ gal. molasses; 6 oz. tincture of peach kernels; 3 oz. tincture of prickly ash berries; 2 qt. alcohol.

Cordials and Liqueurs.—These consist mainly of best spirit flavoured with essences and sweetened with white-sugar syrup.

Absinthe.—This liqueur is prepared in various ways. (a) The genuine Swiss absinthe[182] is prepared in the following manner: by macerating 4 oz. wormwood herb, 2 oz. star anise-seed, 2 oz. green cherry leaves, 2 oz. sage herb, in 5 gal. proof spirit; and after one week’s maceration add ¼ oz. oil of anise, ½ oz. oil of bergamot, ¼ oz. oil of fennel.

(b) Another recipe for making the absinthe is, to dissolve the best oil of wormwood, say 2 oz., in 5 gal. pure spirit, and add ½ oz. oil of anise, ¼ oz. oil of calamus, ¼ oz. oil of orange, 1 gal. white syrup, and prepare the colour from neutral extract of indigo, made green with tincture of turmeric.

(c) 4 lb. tops of Absinthum majus, 2 lb. tops of A. minus, 15 gr. angelica root, 15 gr. Chinese aniseed, 15 gr. calamus aromaticus, 15 gr. dittany of Crete, 4 gal. brandy 12 u.p.; macerate for 10 days; add 1 gal. water; distil 4 gal. by gentle heat, and dissolve 2 lb. crushed white sugar in the distilled spirit.

Alkermes.—(a) 1 lb. bay leaves, 1 lb. mace, 2 oz. nutmegs, 2 oz. cinnamon, 1 oz. cloves, all bruised; 3½ gal. cognac; macerate for 3 weeks, frequently shaking; distil 3 gal., and add 18 lb. clarified spirit of kermes, 1 pint orange-flower water; mix well, bottle.

(b) 4 gal. British brandy; spice as (a), 1 gal. water; macerate as (a); distil 4 gal. and add 2 gal. capillaire and ¼ pint sweet spirit of nitre. Cassia often replaces the cinnamon.

Angelica Cordial.—To 1 oz. oil of angelica add ¼ oz. calamus, dissolve them in 1 gal. pure spirit, and add 1 gal. white-sugar syrup.

Angelica Ratafia.—1 dr. angelica seeds, 4 oz. angelica stalks, 1 oz. bruised, blanched bitter almonds, 6 qt. proof spirit or brandy; digest for 10 days, filter, add 1 qt. water, 3½ lb. white sugar; mix well, and in a fortnight decant clear portion through flannel.

Anise Liqueur.—1 lb. essence of anise, ¼ lb. tincture of orris, 20 drops oil of coriander, 2 bar. pure spirits.

Anise-seed Cordial.—Dissolve 3 dr. oil of anise-seed in 2¾ gal. 95 per cent. alcohol; then add 2½ gal. fine white syrup, mixed with 4¾ gal. water. Stir and filter.

Anisette.—(a) Dissolve 2 oz. oil of anise and ½ oz. oil of star anise in 10 gal. pure spirit, and add 2 gal. white-sugar syrup to it.

(b) 2 oz. aniseed (or 1½ dr. essential oil) and 3 lb. sugar per gal. If weaker than 45 u.p. it cannot be made full flavoured without liability to milkiness.

(c) 4 oz. aniseed, 1 oz. bruised coriander seeds, 1 oz. bruised sweet fennel seeds, ½ gal. rectified spirit, 3 qt. water; macerate for 5 or 6 days; distil 7 pints, and add 2½ lb. lump sugar.

(d) 15 drops oil of aniseed, 6 drops cassia oil, 6 drops caraway oil; rub with a little sugar, and dissolve in 3 qt. spirit 45 u.p. by well shaking together; filter if necessary, and dissolve 1½ lb. sugar in the clear liquid.

(e) 1 gal. brandy or proof spirit, ¾ lb. sugar, dissolved in 1 pint aniseed water.

(f) Put in a barrel 13 gal. 95 per cent. alcohol. Dissolve 3½ oz. essence of green anise-seed in 1 gal. 95 per cent. alcohol, and add ½ gal. orange-flower water, 8 or 10 drops infusion of mace, and 5 drops essence of cinnamon. Then put in the barrel 26 gal. sugar syrup 25° Baumé. Stir and filter.

Apple or Cider Brandy.—1 lb. oil of apple, ½ lb. oil of pear, 1 gal. syrup of gum arabic, 5 bar. good rectified spirit.

Aromatic Wine-bitters.—Macerate 1 lb. orange peel, 2 lb. orange buds, ½ lb. agaric, ½ lb. Peruvian bark, 1 lb. gentian root, 5 gal. Teneriffe wine, 20 gal. spirits of wine.

Blackberry Brandy.—(a) 1 lb. essence of blackberry, 1 gal. blackberry juice, 1 gal. syrup of gum arabic, 4 bar. pure spirit.

(b) To 10 gal. blackberry juice and 25 gal. spirit 40 above proof, add 1 dr. each of oil of cloves and oil of cinnamon dissolved in 95 per cent. alcohol, and 12 lb. white sugar dissolved in 6 gal. water. Dissolve the oils separately in ½ pint 95 per cent. alcohol; mix both together, and use half the quantity; if the cordial is not sufficiently flavoured, use the balance.

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(c) ¼ oz. each of cinnamon, cloves, and mace, 1 dr. cardamom. Grind to a coarse powder; add to 16 lb. blackberries, mashed, and 5 gal. 95 per cent. alcohol. Macerate for two weeks; press; then add 10 lb. sugar, dissolved in 3⅜ gal. water. Filter.

Blackberry Cordial.—(a) Crushed blackberries, 1 gal.; sugar, 2 lb.; brandy, 1 gal. Macerate the berries in the brandy for 5 or 6 days; express the liquor; add the sugar and after 2 weeks decant and filter.

(b)Dried blackberries16oz.
Or fresh blackberries4pints.
Powdered blackberry root12oz.
Powdered maceoz.
Powdered cassia9dr.
Powdered allspice and cloves, of each  5dr.
Sugar60oz.
Brandy2pints.
Port winepints.
Alcohol1pint.
Water  q.s.

Soak the berries, if dry, in q.s. of water, and express, and repeat until 6½ pints of juice are obtained. If the berries are fresh, express the juice, and mix water with residue, to wash out all juice; then add water to make it measure 6½ pints. Mix the spirit with the 6½ pints of juice; moisten the powders with this mixture, and pack in a percolator. Allow it to drain, and pour on water until percolate measures 10 pints; then add the sugar, dissolve and, if necessary, filter.

Brandy Shrub.—1 gal. brandy, 1 pint orange juice, 1 pint lemon juice, peel of 2 oranges and 1 lemon; digest for 24 hours, strain, add 4 lb. white sugar dissolved in 5 pints water; in a fortnight decant the clear liquid.

Cacao.—Infuse 1 lb. Caraccas cacao nuts, cut small, add ½ oz. vanilla in 1 gal. brandy for 8 days; strain, and add 3 qt. thick syrup.

Caraway.—From the essential oil or the seed (1 fl. dr. of the oil = ¼ lb. seed), using 2½ lb. sugar per gal., and adding a little cassia oil and essence of lemon or orange.

Cedrat.—(a) 1 pint spirit of citron, 1 qt. spirit of cedrat, 3 qt. proof spirit, 16 lb. white sugar dissolved in 2 gal. pure soft water.

(b) ¼ oz. cedrat essence, 1 gal. pure proof spirit; dissolve; add 3 pints water; agitate well; distil 3 qt., and add equal measure of clarified syrup.

Celery Cordial.—To 1 lb. essence of celery, add 1 gal. pure spirit and 1 gal. syrup of white sugar.

Chartreuse.—Macerate 64 parts by weight, each, of the fresh herb of sweet balm and hyssop, 32 parts of fresh root of angelica, 16 of cannella, and 4 each of Spanish saffron and mace, in 1000 parts of alcohol, for 8 days. Then distil it on to a certain quantity (which varies according to the colour desired) of fresh balm and hyssop; after a time these are expressed, the liquor sweetened with 125 parts of sugar, and filtered.

Cherry-bounce.—(a) This is a very wholesome cordial, and may, with great benefit, be taken by persons affected with cough of long standing, or those suffering with lung complaint. Take 5 gal. cherry juice, 2 gal. syrup of white sugar. And dissolve in 1 gal. pure spirit, ½ oz. oil of bitter almonds, ¼ oz. oil of cloves, ¼ oz. oil of cinnamon. Mix all together.

(b) To 15 gal. cherry juice, add 15 gal. 80 per cent. spirit; 30 gal. Catalonia or Marseilles wine; 1½ oz. essence of noyeau; 3 oz. mace infused in 1 qt. 95 per cent. alcohol; ½ lb. cinnamon infused in ½ gal. water; ¼ lb. cloves ground and infused in 1 qt. water. Put all the above ingredients in a clean barrel and add 60 gal. sugar syrup 25° B. Stir up the ingredients well, and filter after 4 or 5 days. If the colour is not deep enough, add a little sugar colouring. The above recipe is to make 120 gal., but a[184] much smaller quantity may be made by reducing the quantity of each ingredient and observing the same proportion in all.

(c) To 12 gal. cherry juice, add 30 gal. 80 per cent. spirit; 30 gal. Catalonia or Marseilles wine; 3 oz. essence of noyeau; ½ lb. cinnamon ground and infused in ½ gal. water; ½ lb. cloves ground and infused in ½ gal. water; 1½ oz. mace infused in 1 pint 95 per cent. alcohol. Mix all the above ingredients in a clean barrel, and add 60 gal. sugar syrup 13° B. Stir up all the ingredients well together, and filter after 4 or 5 days. Make the colour a little darker with sugar colouring, and to give a good shade add a little orchil.

Cherry Brandy.—(a) 1 lb. essence of cherry, ¼ lb. essence of pineapple, ¼ oz. oil of cinnamon, ¼ oz. oil of cloves, 4 bar. pure rectified spirits, 2 gal. cherry juice.

(b) Mash 16 lb. of black cherries with their stones; 5 gal. 95 per cent. alcohol. Macerate for 2 weeks; press; then add 10 lb. sugar, dissolved in 3⅜ gal. water. Filter.

Cherry Cordial.—Good French brandy, 1 qt.; juice of cherries, 1 qt.; best white sugar, finely powdered, 2 lb. Add the sugar to the juice and stir until it is thoroughly dissolved; add the brandy, and filter through blotting-paper.

Cherry Ratafia.—8 lb. Morella cherries with kernels bruised, 1 gal. brandy or proof spirit, 2 lb. sugar; as currant.

Cinnamon.—Usually made from cassia bark or oil (1 oz. oil = 8 lb. bark or buds), with 2 lb. sugar per gal., adding 5 or 6 drops each of essence of lemon and orange peel, with a spoonful of essence of cardamoms per gal. About 1 fl. dr. of the cassia oil suffices for 2½ gal. Colour with burnt sugar.

Cinnamon Brandy.—1 lb. essence of cinnamon, ½ lb. essence of cherry, 1 gal. syrup of gum arabic, 4 bar. pure spirits.

Citron.—From the oil or peel, with 3 lb. sugar per gal.

Citronelle.—(a) 2 oz. fresh orange peel, 4 oz. fresh lemon peel, ½ dr. cloves, 1 dr. coriander seed, 1 dr. cinnamon, 4 pints proof spirit; digest for 10 days, add 1 qt. water, and distil to ½ gal.; add 2 lb. white sugar dissolved in 1 qt. water.

(b) 1 dr. essence of lemon, ½ dr. essence of orange, 10 drops clove oil, 10 drops cassia oil, 20 drops coriander oil, 5 pints spirit 58 o.p.; agitate till dissolved; add 3 pints distilled or soft water; well mix, filter through paper, if necessary; finally add q.s. dissolved sugar.

Clairet.—1 oz. aniseed, 1 oz. fennel seed, 1 oz. coriander seed, 1 oz. caraway seed, 1 oz. dill seed, 1 oz. candy-carrot seed, ½ gal. proof spirit; digest for a week, strain, and add 1 lb. loaf sugar dissolved in water.

Clove.—1 oz. bruised cloves (or 1 fl. dr. essential oil), 3 gal. proof spirit: when distilling, add some salt, and use a quick fire; sweeten with fully 3 lb. sugar per gal.; and colour with poppy flowers or burnt sugar; add 1 dr. bruised pimento or 5 drops of the oil per oz. of cloves.

Clove Brandy.—1 lb. essence of cloves, ½ lb. essence of cherry, ¼ lb. essence of ginger, 1 gal. syrup of gum arabic, 4 bar. pure spirit.

Clove-pink Ratafia.—4 lb. clove pinks without the white buds, 15 gr. cinnamon, 15 gr. cloves, 1 gal. proof spirit; macerate 10 days, express tincture, filter, and add 2½ lb. white sugar.

Cocoa Ratafia.—1 lb. Caraccas cacao, ½ lb. W. Indian, both bruised and roasted; 1 gal. proof spirit; digest 14 days, filter, and add 2½ lb. white sugar, ½ dr. tincture of vanilla; decant in a month, and bottle.

Coffee Ratafia.—1 lb. roasted and ground coffee, 1 gal. brandy or proof spirit, 2 lb. sugar dissolved in 1 qt. water.

Coriander.—As cloves, adding a few sliced oranges.

Cream Ratafia.-¼ pint noyeau cream, ¼ pint sherry, ½ pint capillaire, 1 pint fresh cream; beaten together.

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Crême de Macarons.—(a) 1 dr. cloves, 1 dr. cinnamon, 1 dr. mace, all bruised, 7 oz. bitter almonds, blanched and beaten to a pulp, 1 gal. spirit 17 u.p.; digest for a week, filter, and add 6 lb. white sugar dissolved in 2 qt. pure water.

(b) 2 gal. clean spirit 24 u.p., ¾ lb. bitter almonds, 1½ dr. cloves, 1½ dr. cinnamon, 1½ dr. mace, in coarse powders; infuse 10 days, filter, and add 8 lb. white sugar dissolved in 1 gal. pure water; tint with infusion or tincture of litmus and cochineal. The almonds may be reduced to half.

Crême de Naphe.—7 qt. spirit 60 u.p. containing 3½ lb. sugar per gal., 1 qt. orange-flower water.

Crême des Barbades.—As citronelle, adding orange juice and 1 lb. more sugar per gal.

Crême d’Orange.—3 doz. sliced oranges, 2 gal. rectified spirit; digest 14 days; add 28 lb. loaf sugar, previously dissolved in 4½ gal. water; 1½ fl. oz. tincture of saffron, 2 qt. orange-flower water.

Curaçao.—(a) This liqueur derives its name from the Curaçao peel, as it is nothing else but a tincture of the Curaçao orange peel, sweetened and flavoured with more essential oils. Macerate 5 lb. green Curaçao orange peel in 6 gal. pure spirits, adding about ¼ lb. red sanders wood for obtaining at the same time the reddish brown colour; after a week’s digestion, strain off, and dissolve ¼ oz. oil of bitter almonds, ¼ oz. oil of cinnamon in the above tincture, and then add 1 gal. white-sugar syrup; when all ingredients are mixed, filter and fill in bottles, and after standing a few weeks it will produce a delightful cordial.

(b) Spirit 56 u.p., containing 3½ lb. sugar per gal., flavoured with a tincture made by digesting the “oleo-saccharum,” prepared from 9 Seville oranges, 1 dr. cinnamon and ¾ dr. mace in 1 pint rectified spirit; colour by digesting 1 oz. powdered Brazil wood for 10 days, and mellow with burnt sugar.

(c) 2 lb. Curaçao orange peel, ½ lb. Ceylon cinnamon. Let them soak in water; boil them for 5 minutes with the juice of 32 oranges and 14 gal. white plain syrup; then add 6 gal. 95 per cent. alcohol; strain, filter; colour dark yellow with sugar colouring.

(d) 2 oz. each essence of bitter oranges and neroli; ¼ oz. essence of cinnamon; 3 dr. mace infused in alcohol. Dissolve the above essences in 1 gal. 95 per cent. alcohol, then put in a clean barrel 13 gal. 85 per cent. alcohol, 26 gal. sugar syrup 30° B., and add 1 gal. perfumed spirit. Colour with saffron or turmeric.

Curaçao Cordial.—Oil of orange, very fresh, 1 dr.; oil of cinnamon, 1 drop; oil of juniper berries, 2 drops; oil of coriander seed, 2 drops; deodorised alcohol, 3 pints; simple syrup, 2 pints; water, sufficient to complete 1 gal. Mix the alcohol with an equal volume of water, and add the mixture slowly to the essential oils previously rubbed in a mortar with carbonate of magnesia or phosphate of lime. Transfer the whole to a bottle, and set it aside with occasional agitation, for 2 or 3 days. Then add the simple syrup, the remainder of the water, and filter through paper. This gives the white cordial; for the red, infuse in the alcoholic menstruum about 2 dr. of cudbear.

Currant Ratafia.—1 qt. black currant juice, 1 dr. cinnamon, ½ dr. cloves, ½ dr. peach kernels, 1 gal. brandy, 3 lb. white sugar; digest for fortnight, and strain through flannel.

Dorée.-½ oz. cinnamon, ½ oz. bitter orange peel; ½ oz. Peruvian bark, ¼ oz. hay saffron, 3 qt. brandy, 3 qt. Malaga wine; digest for a week, strain, and add 2 lb. lump sugar.

Dry Ratafia.—5 pints gooseberry juice, 1 pint cherry juice, 1 pint strawberry juice, 1 pint raspberry juice, 6 qt. proof spirit, 7 lb. sugar; macerate.

Elixir Vitæ.—Macerate for 10 days, in 5 gal. pure spirits, 1 oz. zedoary root, 1 oz. ginger root, ½ oz. gentian root, ½ oz. agaric, ¼ oz. rhubarb root. Strain off the clear tincture, and add 2½ gal. water and ½ gal. syrup.

Extract Bishop or Glow-wine.—1 lb. tincture of Curaçao peel, ¼ lb. tincture of orange[186] buds. Dissolve in the same 5 drops of the oil of nutmegs, 10 drops of the oil of cloves, 20 drops of the oil of cinnamon. Mix them together, and add about ½ gal. sugar syrup.

Extract Punch.-½ oz. essence of Jamaica rum, 1 oz. tartaric acid, 1 gal. sugar syrup, 2 gal. pure spirits, 10 drops oil of lemon. Dissolve the oil of lemon and essence of rum in the spirits, and the tartaric acid in a little water, before adding all together.

Four-fruit Ratafia.—30 lb. cherries, 15 lb. gooseberries, 8 lb. raspberries, 7 lb. black currants; express the juice, and add 6 oz. sugar to each pint, with 6 gr. cinnamon, 3 gr. mace, and 3 gr. cloves.

Ginger Brandy.—1 lb. essence of ginger, 20 drops oil of bergamot, ¼ lb. tartaric acid, 1 gal. elderberry juice, 1 gal. syrup of gum arabic, 4 bar. pure spirits.

Ginger Cordial.—To 1 qt. essence of ginger add 1 gal. pure spirit and 1 gal. white-sugar syrup.

Gold Cordial.—1 lb. sliced angelica root, ½ lb. raisins, 2 oz. coriander seeds, 1½ oz. caraway seeds, 1½ oz. cassia, ½ oz. cloves, 4 oz. figs, 4 oz. sliced licorice-root, 3 gal. proof spirit, 1 gal. water; digest 2 days, and distil 3 gal. by gentle heat; add 9 lb. sugar dissolved in 1 qt. rose water and 1 qt. clean soft water; colour by steeping 1¼ oz. hay saffron.

Grenoble Ratafia.—(a) 2 lb. small wild black cherries, with kernels bruised, 1 gal. proof spirit, 3 lb. white sugar, a few gr. citron peel; as Juniper.

(b) 1 qt. cherries with bruised stones, 2 qt. rectified spirit; mix; digest for 48 hours, express the liquor, heat to boiling in a close vessel; when cold add enough sugar or capillaire, with a little noyeau, syrup of bay laurel and galangal, to flavour; decant in 3 months, and bottle.

Hop Cordial.—The following is recommended as a palatable preparation, not inferior to many of the so-called “Hop Bitters.”

Hops  2 oz.Stillingia2 oz.
Dandelion2 oz.Orange peel2 oz.
Gentian2 oz.Alcohol, water, of each77 fl. oz.
Camomile2 oz.Syrup, simple12 fl. oz.

Exhaust the solids, with the alcohol and water, and add the syrup.

Huile de Venus.—2½ oz. wild carrot flowers, 3 lb. sugar per gal. spirit; coloured by cochineal powder.

Juniper Ratafia.-¼ lb. juniper berries, each pricked with a fork, 40 gr. caraway seed, 40 gr. coriander seed, 1 gal. finest malt spirit 22 u.p., 2 lb. white sugar; digest a week, strain with expression.

Kirschwasser.—Dissolve 1 oz. oil of bitter almonds in 3 gal. pure spirits, and add 1 gal. white-sugar syrup.

Kümmel.—1 lb. essence of caraway, ¼ oz. oil of anise, ¼ oz. oil of fennel, 20 drops oil of neroli, 1 gal. syrup of gum arabic, 2 bar. pure spirits.

Lemon Cordial.—2 oz. fresh lemon peel, 2 oz. dried lemon peel, 1 oz. fresh orange peel, digested in 1 gal. proof spirit for a week; strain with expression, add enough soft water to reduce to desired strength.

Lime-juice Cordial.—4 oz. glucose, 1 pint syrup, 1 pint lime juice, 36 oz. water; tincture of lemon peel and triple orange-flower water, each sufficient to flavour.

Liquodilla.—3 sliced oranges and 3 sliced lemons, with 2½ lb. sugar per gal.

Lovage.—1 oz. fresh lovage roots per gal., ¼ oz. each fresh roots of celery and fennel; also sometimes a little fresh valerian root and oil of savin before distillation.

Malliorca d’Espagne.—40 gal. 55 per cent. alcohol, 5 oz. essence green anise-seed and 5 oz. essence of star anise dissolved in 95 per cent. alcohol, ½ dr. ether (to give the cordial age). Stir and filter.

Mandarin Delight.—1 gal. spirit 22 u.p., ½ gal. pure soft water, 4½ lb. white sugar,[187] crushed small, ½ oz. Chinese aniseed, ½ oz. ambrette, ¼ oz. safflower; digested together in a stone jar of double the capacity and agitated every day for a fortnight.

Maraschino.—(a) This is an Italian cordial, while the curaçao is a favourite in Holland. Maraschino derives its aroma from the oil of bitter almonds, blended with the oils of cinnamon and rosewater, &c. 10 gal. pure spirits, 1 oz. oil of bitter almonds, ½ oz. oil of cinnamon, ¼ oz. oil of cloves, ¼ oz. oil of vanilla, 5 drops oil of rose, 5 drops oil of neroli, 5 drops oil of bergamot. To this solution add 2 gal. white-sugar syrup, ¼ gal. rosewater, and ¼ gal. orange-flower water; mix together, filter, and fill in bottles.

(b) Dissolve in 1½ gal. 95 per cent. alcohol, 1½ oz. essence of maraschino, 1½ dr. essence of rose, ½ dr. essence of noyeau, 5 drops essence of cloves, and 8 drops essence of cinnamon; add ½ gal. orris root flavouring. Mix the above with 12 gal. 95 per cent. alcohol and 26 gal. syrup of 30° B. Stir thoroughly and filter.

(c) 4 oz. essence of noyeau; 1 oz. essence of rose; ½ oz. essence of neroli (genuine); 4 dr. of mace, infused in 95 per cent. alcohol; ¼ lb. cinnamon, infused in 1 qt. water; 2 oz. cloves, infused in 1 pint water; 2 lb. orris root (powdered), infused in 2 gal. 95 per cent. alcohol for 15 days. Dissolve the essences in 2 gal. 95 per cent. alcohol. Mix, put into a barrel 41 gal. 85 per cent. alcohol; add the aromas, in 4 gal. 95 per cent. alcohol, sugar syrup, 90 gal. at 32° B. Stir all the ingredients well together for at least ½ hour and let the mixture stand 2 weeks; then filter and put in the filter 2 or 3 sheets of filtering paper.

(d) 1¼ oz. essence of maraschino, 1½ dr. essence of rose, ½ dr. essence of noyeau, 8 drops essence of cinnamon, 5 drops essence of cloves, ½ lb. orris root (powdered), infused in ½ gal. 95 per cent. alcohol for 15 days. Dissolve the essences in 1 gal. 95 per cent. alcohol. Mix, put in a barrel 12 gal. 80 per cent. alcohol and add 2 gal. 95 per cent. perfumed alcohol (as described above); sugar syrup, 26 gal. at 25° B. Mix and filter.

(e) 3½ oz. essence of noyeau, 6 dr. essence of rose. Dissolve in ½ gal. 95 per cent. alcohol, and add 4 spoonfuls of magnesia, 1 gal. orange-flower water, ½ lb. cinnamon (bruised) infused in ½ gal. water, ¼ lb. cloves (bruised), infused in ¼ gal. water, 4 dr. mace infused in alcohol, 2 lb. orris root (powdered) infused in 2 gal. 95 per cent. alcohol for 15 days. Mix 41 gal. 80 per cent. alcohol, 90 gal. syrup at 25° B., and add 4 gal. perfumed spirits, as described above. Stir and filter as already directed.

Molucca Balm.-½ oz. cloves, 1 dr. mace, 1 gal. clean spirit 22 u.p.; infuse for a week in a well-closed jar, frequently shaking; colour with burnt sugar; to clear the liquor, add 4½ lb. loaf sugar dissolved in ½ gal. pure water.

Nectar Cordial.—1 oz. oil of bitter almonds, ½ oz. oil of orange, ½ oz. oil of cloves. Dissolve them in 1 gal. pure spirits, and add 1 gal. white-sugar syrup and 2 gal. of Teneriffe wine.

Noyeau.—This cordial is generally drunk by ladies, and requires to be very sweet. Take 1 oz. oil of bitter almonds, ½ oz. oil of orange, ¼ oz. oil of cinnamon. Dissolve in 2 gal. pure spirits, and add 1 gal. syrup of white sugar.

Noyeau Ratafia.—120 peach or apricot kernels, bruised, 2 qt. proof spirit or brandy, 1 lb. white sugar; digest for a week, press, filter.

Orange.—As lemon, using ½ lb. fresh orange peel per gal.

Orange Brandy.—2 oz. oil of orange, 10 drops oil of neroli, 1 lb. essence of orange, 1 gal. syrup of gum arabic, 4 bar. pure spirits.

Orange Elixir.—(a) To 5 gal. pure spirits add ½ lb. orange peel, ¼ lb. calamus root, ¼ lb. hops. After macerating for one week, strain, and add 1 gal. sugar syrup, and colour with sugar colouring.

(b) Dissolve in 3 gal. pure spirits, 1 oz. oil of orange, ¼ oz. oil of calamus, add 1 gal. white-sugar syrup, and colour the whole with sugar colouring.

Orange-flower Ratafia.—2 lb. fresh orange petals, 1 gal. proof spirit, 2½ lb. white sugar; as clove pink; 1 dr. neroli may replace the orange-flower.

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Orange Gin.—The rinds of 8 Seville oranges and 8 large lemons, cut very thin, put into 1 gal. gin for 4 days. Then strain off the spirit from the rinds. Have ready 4 lb. loaf sugar boiled in 1 pint water, which must be thrown into the spirit boiling hot and well stirred, to cause it to mix well together. When cool, bottle.

Orgeat.—To milk of blanched sweet almonds, 2 lb., add 2 dr. oil of bitter almonds, 1 dr. oil of orange, 1 gal. white-sugar syrup, ½ gal. spirit.

Parfait Amour.—(a) Macerate in 10 gal. pure spirit, 2 oz. orris root, 4 oz. raisins, 2 oz. figs, for one week. Then dissolve ¼ oz. oil of lemon, 1 dr. oil of cinnamon, 1 dr. oil of juniper, 1 dr. oil of calamus, 1 dr. oil of cloves, 1 oz. oil of vanilla. Colour by sugar colouring, and add 4 gal. white-sugar syrup: it is then filtered through a woollen filtering-bag, and filled in bottles.

(b) 3 lb. sugar per gal., flavoured with yellow rind of 4 lemons, and a teaspoonful of essence of vanilla; coloured with cochineal.

Peach Brandy.—(a) 1 lb. essence of peach, 1 gal. syrup of gum arabic, 1 oz. acetic ether, 1 oz. pineapple ether, 4 bar. pure spirits.

(b) Mash 18 lb. of peaches, with their stones; macerate them for 24 hours with 4¾ gal. of 95 per cent. alcohol and 4 gal. water. Strain, press, and filter; add 5 pints white plain syrup. Colour dark yellow with burnt sugar colouring.

(c) Take 4½ oz. powdered bitter almonds, 3¼ gal. 95 per cent. alcohol, 5¼ gal. water. Mix together, and macerate for 24 hours; then add a strained syrup, made of 3¾ lb. sugar, 1 pint peach jelly, 2¼ oz. preserved ginger, 1 lemon cut in slices, 1 dr. grated nutmegs, 1 dr. allspice in powder, and 5 pints of water boiled for 2 minutes. Mix the whole, and filter.

Peppermint.—5 oz. peppermint oil, 3 pints rectified spirits of wine, well agitated for some time in a corked bottle holding 4 pints; empty into a 100 gal. cask, pour in 36 gal. white and flavourless proof spirit, and agitate 10 minutes; add solution of 2¾ cwt. best double-refined lump sugar in 35 gal. pure filtered rain-water, and “rummage up” for 15 minutes; add sufficient clear rain-water to make up to 100 gal., containing 5 oz. alum in solution, and again shake for ¼ hour; then bung down and let repose a fortnight before broaching. If at all thick, add 2 oz. salt of tartar dissolved in 1 qt. hot water, and let stand a few days.

Peppermint Brandy.—To 40 gal. proof spirit add 4 oz. essence of peppermint, dissolved in 95 per cent. alcohol. Colour with ½ lb. powder of turmeric infused in 1 gal. spirit 95 per cent. Use this infusion in such quantity as to get the proper shade.

Peppermint Cordial.—To 1 oz. oil of peppermint dissolved in 1 gal. pure spirit, add 1 gal. syrup of white sugar.

Peppermint Liqueur.—1 lb. essence of peppermint, ¼ lb. sulphuric ether, 1 gal. syrup of gum arabic, 2 bar. pure spirit.

Plum or Zwetschen Brandy.—(a) This favourite German liquor, also called Sligowitz, is prepared from 1 lb. plum essence, ½ lb. acetic ether, ½ lb. banana, 1 gal. syrup of gum arabic, 4 gal. pure spirits.

(b) Another mode of preparing the sligowitz or plum brandy is from prunes, which are mashed together with the kernels, and exposed to fermentation, when it is again distilled, and produces a fine spirit.

Provençal Ratafia.—1 lb. striped pinks, 1 qt. brandy or proof spirit, ¾ lb. white sugar, ¾ pint strawberry juice, 20 gr. saffron; as Clove-pink.

Quince Ratafia.—3 qt. quince juice, 3 dr. bitter almonds, 2 dr. cinnamon, 2 dr. coriander seeds, ½ dr. mace, 15 gr. cloves, all bruised; ½ gal. flavourless rectified spirit; digest for a week, filter, add 3½ lb. white sugar.

Railroad Liqueur.—To 5 gal. pure spirits add ¼ oz. oil of peppermint, ¼ oz. oil of absinthe, 10 drops oil of roses. Add to the solution 1 gal. white syrup, and colour the liqueur with blue orchil.

Raspberry Brandy.—1 lb. essence of raspberry, 1 lb. acetic acid, 1 gal. syrup of gum arabic, 1 gal. raspberry juice, 4 bar. pure spirits.

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Raspberry Cordial.—Take 5 gal. raspberry juice, 2 gal. white-sugar syrup, and 1 gal. pure spirits.

Quince, gooseberry, strawberry, black and red currant, peach, nut, and apple cordials, are all prepared in the same manner from their respective juices.

Red Ratafia.—3 qt. black cherry juice, 1 qt. strawberry juice, 1 qt. raspberry juice, 1 dr. cinnamon, 15 gr. mace, 15 gr. cloves, 2 gal. proof spirit or brandy, 7 lb. white sugar, macerate.

Roman Punch.—This very refreshing beverage is prepared from 1 oz. lemon juice or citric acid, ½ oz. essence of rum, dissolved in 1 gal. pure spirit, adding ½ gal. syrup of sugar. Mix all together, and filter.

Rose Cordial.—To ½ oz. otto of rose add ¼ oz. oil of bitter almonds. Dissolve in 1 gal. highest-proof alcohol, add 1 gal. syrup of white sugar, and colour by cochineal rose colour.

Rum Shrub.—34 gal. proof rum, 2 oz. orange oil, 2 oz. lemon oil, dissolved in 1 qt. rectified spirit, 300 lb. good lump sugar dissolved in 20 gal. water; mix well by “rummaging”; gradually and cautiously add enough Seville orange juice or solution of tartaric acid in water to produce pleasantly perceptible acidity; rummage for 15 minutes; add sufficient water to make up 100 gal.; again rummage for ½ hour; bung loosely, and let remain for about a fortnight, when it should be sufficiently “brilliant” for racking. It is much improved by adding 1 oz. each of bruised bitter almonds, cloves, and cassia, the peel of about 2 doz. oranges, and a “thread” of the essences of ambergris and vanilla.

Sarsaparilla Mead.—(a) Sarsaparilla root, contused, 1 lb.; sassafras, 8 oz.; aniseed, 2 oz.; ginger, 2 oz.; cloves, 1 oz. Boil for 15-20 minutes in 8 gal. water; strain and set the liquor aside for several hours to become clear. Then decant, and transfer to a 10 gal. soda-water fountain, adding to it molasses, 3 qt.; honey, 3 pints. Complete with water the 10 gal., and charge with carbonic acid gas. (b) Another way is to add to the completed mixture 1 qt. brewer’s yeast, and when the fermentation is about half completed, to bottle the mead in ordinary soda-water bottles.

Shrub.—1 pint Seville orange juice, 3 pints rum or brandy, 2 lb. white sugar. When the sugar is dissolved, strain the mixture through a jelly-bag and bottle it.

Sighs of Love.—(a) Proof spirit, flavoured with equal parts otto of roses and capillaire.

(b) 6 lb. sugar, enough pure water to make 4 gal. syrup; add 1 pint eau-de-rose, 7 pints proof spirit; colour pale pink by powdered cochineal; 1 drop essence of ambergris or vanilla improves it.

Sloe Gin.—(a) To 1 gal. gin in a 2 gallon jar put 3 qt. sloes, ½ oz. bitter almonds, 2½ lb. loaf sugar, or the same quantity of sugar candy, if preferred. Let it be well shaken twice a week for 3 months. Then strain and bottle it, and well seal the corks. It will keep for years, and improve whilst in bottle. (b) Pick the sloes free of stalks, and let them be quite dry. Fill wine or other bottles, that are wide enough at the mouth to admit the fruit, with them. Next put in as much white pounded sugar as you can, then fill up with gin and cork. Shake well every few days for 14 days. Leave for 6 months, then strain off through a piece of muslin into clean bottles.

Strawberry Cordial.—Take any quantity of thoroughly ripe strawberries, pour over as much proof spirit as will cover them; allow to stand for 24 hours; drain off and replace with the same quantity of fresh proof spirit; allow to stand another 24 hours; now drain off and replace with water; add fine sugar or syrup in the proportion of 3 lb. to every gallon of the mixed liqueur; also, a gill of orange-flower water. Filter and bottle.

Tears of the Widow of Malabar.—As molucca balm, using ½ oz. mixed cloves, 1 dr. shredded mace, and 1 teaspoonful essence of vanilla for flavouring; also ¼ pint orange-flower water. Slightly colour with burnt sugar.

Tent.—1 qt. port wine, 1 qt. plain spirit 22 u.p., 1 pint sherry, 1 pint soft water, ¼ pint orange-flower water, ¼ pint lemon juice, 2 drops essence of ambergris, 2 lb. sugar.

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Tolu Ratafia.—1 oz. tolu balsam, 1 qt. rectified spirit, dissolve; add 3 pints water; filter, and further add 1½ lb. white sugar.

Vermouth.—Take of Peruvian bark ½ oz.; lemon peel, angelica root, balm leaves, lesser centaury, of each 3 dr.; juniper berries, coriander seeds, cinnamon, mace, of each 1½ dr.; wormwood, 1 dr.; syrup of bitter orange peel, 4 oz.; spirits of wine, 3 oz.; dry white wine, 3 gal.; macerate for some days and filter.

Violet Ratafia.—3 oz. orris powder, 4 oz. litmus, 2 gal. rectified spirit; digest 10 days, strain, add 12 lb. white sugar dissolved in 1 gal. soft water.

Walnut Ratafia.—60 young walnuts with soft shells, pricked; 2 qt. brandy, 15 gr. mace, 15 gr. cinnamon, 15 gr. cloves; digest for 8 weeks; press, filter, add 1 lb. white sugar; keep for some months.

Wormwood Liqueur.—1 lb. essence of wormwood, 1 oz. oil of tansy, 1 oz. oil of calamus, 2 oz. oil of orris, 1 gal. syrup of gum arabic, 3 bar. pure spirits.

Wine, and Miscellaneous Drinks.—Fruits intended for making wine must be perfectly ripe and sound, and gathered in dry weather. The most convenient sized cask is 10 gal. All utensils must always be scoured and scalded, and set out of doors to sweeten the day before being used. The tub in which the liquor is put to settle should have a tap within 3 in. of the bottom, so that the wine may be drawn, instead of poured off, without disturbing the lees or sediment; which must not on any account be put into the cask until it has been filtered well. The sieves and flannel strainers should be kept perfectly sweet, and exposed to the fresh air, and nothing of brass or copper used.

Never add the yeast for fermentation until the liquor is cool enough to receive it: 85° F. is about the proper temperature. Stir the liquor well occasionally, and cover the vessel close in cold weather. When liquor is working in a cask, it must be kept quite full to allow it to work out, or the wine will not be clear; keep a tile over the bung-hole that the froth may escape, or put the bung on lightly. Fermentation will be accelerated by mixing the yeast with 2 qt. of the liquor in a jar for 10 minutes, and then adding it to the whole quantity.

Wines made from raspberries, mulberries, elderberries, blackberries, and all such fruits as produce much sediment, should always be filtered through flannel bags into the cask, as this saves much trouble in fining and racking. Wines never “feed” on the lees, but, on the contrary, fret; and if not made strong, frequently go sour.

When the liquor is ready for putting into the cask, draw it off as long only as it runs clear; then filter the lees more than once, if necessary, and fill completely. Put any overplus into bottles, with a small quantity of brandy, as a reserve for filling up in future. When brandy is to be added, take out 3 qt. of the wine, pour in the spirit, and then fill up. Never add water to wines when casked; should there by accident be a deficiency of the liquor, add foreign wine mixed with brandy.

Racking off is best performed by drawing the wine off into a clean vessel as long as it runs perfectly clear, then put in a cork, and turn the lees out in a separate tub, and filter it well. Next return all that is bright into the same cask; add what is recommended, and stop it up again securely. This should be done in cool weather, or early in the morning.

When bottling take care that your bottles are clean and not specked, or they will leak; fill them so that the wine will just come in contact with the cork when driven home. Use the best corks, and dip each in some of the wine, or in brandy, which is better. Seal the corks of such white wines as require caution when ripe, with green wax to distinguish them, and fasten them with wire. All newly-made wines should be kept in cool, dry, dark cellars. When casks are emptied, stop all the holes to prevent their becoming musty or foul.

Bins are formed of brickwork, board, or iron. Place some fine dry sand over the bottom of each bin, and make it quite level. On this lay down 2 or 3 laths, so that the necks[191] of the first layer of bottles may rest on them, and at the same time be quite level. They are usually placed in rows two deep, and in laying them down, be careful the shoulders of one row do not touch those of the opposite one, or they will break from the pressure. Be sure that the bottom rows are perfectly secure, as upon these depends the safety of the whole pile. Upon the first layers of bottles place a lath, to support the necks of those in the second row, the bottoms of which should rest on the laths placed over the necks of the first in the intervals between each bottle neck. Continue in this way until the piles are 3 or 4 ft. high.

All the bins that contain wine should be labelled, to specify the kind of wine and the date of their being bottled.

To cool wine, swathe the bottle or decanter in a wet bandage, and stand it in the full heat of the sun; when the bandage is nearly dry the wine will be found as cool as if iced.

Apple Wine.—Cut up 1 lb. of apples into quarters, add ½ lb. sugar, and then pour over them ½ gal. boiling water. Let it get cold, and then pulp the apples. Pour the fluid over the pulp, let it stand an hour, and then strain. This forms an agreeable drink, the acid of the apple blending with the sweet of the sugar pleasantly, so as to be grateful to a parched palate.

Apricot Wine.—Boil 10 gal. river water ½ hour, and set it to cool in a clean vessel. Cut 45 lb. ripe apricots into thick slices, and put them, with their juice, into the water, adding 25 lb. best loaf sugar, and stir them well; then cover the vessel closely, and let them steep until the day following. Boil the liquor and fruit together, stir in the whites of 8 eggs well beaten, and take off the scum as it rises. When the liquor is clear, and the fruit is reduced to a pulp, press, and strain it through a fine sieve, into a cooler, add the stones broken, and stir well. Spread good yeast on both sides of a toast, and when the liquor is at its proper warmth, work it well 2 days, and strain it through a jelly-bag into the cask, put on the bung lightly, and let it work over, keeping the cask full, and when it has done fermenting, add to it 2 qt. French brandy, and 2 oz. white sugar-candy. Then put in the bung, and secure it well, keep it 12 months, and then bottle it. It must remain in bottle a year or more, for it is a very rich wine, and will improve greatly by age.

Badminton.—(a) 1 bot. vin ordinaire, 2 bot. soda water, 1 small glass pale brandy; add lemon peel, sugar, and ice.

(b) 1 bot. light claret, 1 or 1½ glass sherry, 1 bot. soda water, crushed sugar to taste.

(c) Put the parings of half a cucumber in a cup with white sugar; pour on 1 bot. claret, and let stand ½ hour in ice; add 1 bot. soda water.

Balm Wine.—Into 8 gal. water put 20 lb. moist sugar; boil for 2 hours, skimming thoroughly; then pour into a tub to cool; place 2½ lb. balm tops, bruised, into a barrel with a little new yeast; when the liquor is cold, pour it on the balm; stir it well together, and let it stand 24 hours, stirring it frequently; then close it up tightly at first, and more securely after fermentation has quite ceased; when it has stood 2 months, bottle off, putting a lump of sugar into each bottle; cork down well, and keep in bottle at least a year.

Barley Water.—Wash the barley well, add a few strips of lemon-peel, very thin, and pour on the water boiling. The juice of the lemon should be squeezed in fresh just before it is served. Robinson’s patent barley is best (see p. 775).

Beetroot Beer.—Having well cleansed and scraped the roots, removing the discoloured portion near the set of the leaves, cut them into pieces of an inch or so in thickness, fill the copper with them, and then put in as much water as will just cover them. Boil for about 5 hours, place them lightly in a wicker basket or sieve to drain, but do not put any pressure upon them. Then put the liquor back into the boiler, and to every 7 pails liquor put 3 lb. hops; boil together for 2 hours, and then strain through the sieve. When cool work it with yeast, the same as other beer. The scum which[192] rises should be removed before casking. Beetroot may be substituted for malt if deprived of the greater part of its juice by pressure, then dried and treated in the same manner as the grain intended for brewing. The beer made from beetroot has been found perfectly wholesome and palatable, and little inferior to that prepared from malt.

Bilberry Wine.—The fruit should be picked on a very dry day, when it is quite ripe. The leaves and stalks must be carefully removed from the berries and the fruit, then weighed. To 4 gal. fruit allow either 6 gal. cold water or 3 gal. water and 3 of cider, and 10 lb. good moist sugar; let all these ingredients ferment in an open tub until working is over; then add ½ gal. brandy, a handful of lavender and rosemary leaves mixed, 2 oz. powdered ginger, and 2 oz. powdered tartar; let the liquor rest after this addition for 48 hours, then strain very carefully through a hair sieve into a perfectly clean cask, laying the bung lightly on the bung-hole until the working is quite over, and no hissing sound is heard; then close down quite tightly, and bottle off at the end of 3 months; keep 6-8 months in bottle before use.

Birch Wine.—(a) Take 11 gal. of the sap of a healthy birch tree, fresh as you can get it, boil it gently as long as any scum rises, which must be carefully taken off to avoid wasting it. Add to the clear liquor 25 lb. best loaf sugar, boil it again 20 minutes with the whites of 10 eggs beaten to a froth, and skim frequently until it is beautifully bright. Set it in a clean vessel to cool, and when at 96° F. put into it a toast well spread on both sides with thick fresh ale yeast, and keep it closely covered up, 6 or 7 days, stirring daily. Rinse a sweet 10 gal. cask with a pint of old raisin wine, filter the liquor into it, add the thin yellow rinds of 2 lemons and 3 Seville oranges, and 3 qt. French brandy, put in the bung, and secure it with paper and sand. Set it in a cool cellar, and bottle it in 2 years; fasten the corks down with wire, and seal with wax. A year later it will be in perfection.

(b) Boil 9 gal. healthy birch sap with 2 lb. clarified honey ½ hour, skimming it well. Beat 9 whites of eggs up with ½ oz. isinglass, dissolved in a cupful of cold water, and put in 20 lb. loaf sugar broken small. Mix this well with the liquor when cool, and boil it ½ hour longer, skimming and stirring until it is quite clear. Put it into a tub, and when milk warm stir well into it ¼ pint of strong yeast; let it work 3 days in the tub, then put it into your cask, add the rinds of 6 lemons and 2 lb. best raisins, and keep the bung out until the fermentation has ceased. Put to the wine a bottle of old Madeira and 1 qt. the best brandy; stop the cask up safely, and let it stand 6 months. Draw off the wine into a clean vessel as long as it runs clear, then filter the dregs through 3 folds of flannel, and put all back again into the same cask; fasten the bung in well, and put clay over it. In 6 months you may bottle it; seal and wire the corks to prevent accidents, for it is a lively wine, and should be kept in a cool cellar. When it has been bottled 6 months it will be fit for use.

Bishop.—Make several incisions in the rind of a lemon; stick cloves in the holes and roast the lemon at a slow fire. Put small but equal quantities of cinnamon, cloves, mace, and allspice into a saucepan, with ½ pint of water; let it boil until it is reduced one-half. Boil a bottle of port wine; burn a portion of the spirit out of it by applying a lighted paper to the saucepan. Put the roasted lemon and spice into the wine; stir it up well, and let it stand near the fire 10 minutes. Rub a few knobs of sugar to taste on the rind of a lemon, put the sugar into a bowl or jug, with the juice of half a lemon (not roasted), pour the wine into it, grate some nutmeg into it, sweeten it to your taste, and serve it up with the lemon and spice floating in it. Oranges are sometimes introduced instead of lemons.

Blackberry Wine.—Mix 45 qt. ripe blackberries, well picked and pressed, with 10 lb. good honey, and 26 lb. strong, bright, moist sugar; boil it with 12 gal. soft water and the whites of 12 eggs, well beaten, until it is reduced to 10 gal., skimming it until perfectly clear. Strain it into a tub, and let it stand until the next day, then pour it clear[193] off the lees, and boil it again ¾ hour, adding the lees filtered twice, and 2 oz. isinglass dissolved in 1 qt. water. Skim well, and put in 2 oz. Jamaica pepper, cloves, and best ginger, all bruised, and tied loosely in a piece of muslin. Put into your cooler the thin rinds of 6 Seville oranges and 1 pint lemon juice; strain the liquor upon them, stir well, and when cool enough, work it with 1 pint fresh yeast stirred well into 1 gal. of the liquor. Cover it up close, and let it work 5 or 6 days, taking off the top scum and stirring twice daily; then strain, and filter it into the cask, put on the bung lightly, keep the cask well filled up, and when it has ceased fermenting, let a day elapse, and add 2 qt. French brandy, and 1½ oz. isinglass, dissolved in a little water, and mix with 1 gal. of the wine 10 minutes, 1 oz. bitter almonds blanched and slit, and 6 oz. sugar candy broken small. Stop up the bung, paste strong white paper over it, or coarse linen, and place plenty of sand over all, wetted a little. Keep it 2 years in a cool cellar, then bottle it; seal the corks, and keep in bottle 2 years; then use it. If allowed greater age, it will still improve.

Bucellas.—Press the pulp and juice out of 30 lb. Lisbon grapes, add 6 gal. cold soft water that has been well boiled; stir well, and covering the vessel close, let it stand 24 hours; add 30 lb. bright, strong, moist sugar, stir well until it is dissolved, and in 3 days more strain the liquor into your cask upon the thin rinds of 8 lemons and 1 oz. bitter almonds, blanched, and beaten with a spoonful of water in a stone mortar. When you have filled the cask, cover the bung-hole with a tile, and let the liquor work over; when it has ceased fermenting, pour in 3 pints French brandy and 4 oz. sugar candy, and stop it up for a year; then bottle it, seal the corks, and keep it 12 months.

Burgundy Cup.—(a) 1 bot. ordinary Burgundy, ½ gill ordinary brandy; 4 fresh black currant leaves or buds, steeped in the brandy 2 hours; sweeten with 1 oz. powdered sugar candy; when all well blended, strain the leaves; add bottle of aerated lemonade, and, just before serving, 1 lb. ice, in small lumps.

(b) Peel and juice of 2 lemons; 1 qt. seltzer water; 2 bot. Burgundy; sugar to taste; when well iced, draw out the peel and serve.

Buttered Jack.—Take a brass pan, put in ½ lb. lump sugar, 1 glass sherry, and 1 lb. fresh butter to melt; beat up 6 fresh eggs well with a little sherry, and having moderately cooled the pan with 2 bot. light dinner sherry, add the eggs while gently stirring, and place on the hob till quite hot, taking care not to let it boil; sweeten to taste. The pan must not be too hot when pouring in the eggs, or they will curdle.

Cardinal.—The same as Bishop. Substitute claret for port wine.

Chablis Cup.—(a) Dissolve 5 lumps sugar in 1 pint boiling water; add a little thin lemon peel; when cool, add wineglass of dry sherry, 1 bot. Chablis, and 1 lb. ice.

(b) Put 1 bot. Chablis and a liqueur glass of chartreuse, maraschino, or noyeau, into a jug embedded in ice; add a lump of ice; immediately before serving add a bottle of seltzer water.

Champagne Cup.—(a) 1 qt. bot. champagne, 2 bot. soda water, 1 liqueur glass of brandy or curaçao, 2 tablespoonfuls powdered sugar, 1 lb. pounded ice, and a sprig of green borage.

(b) 1 bot. champagne (iced); 1 gill Amontillado; liqueur glass of citronelle or maraschino; juice and paring of a Seville orange or lemon, rubbed on sugar; verbena and cucumber; sugar to taste; 1 bot. seltzer water.

(c) 1 bot. sparkling champagne (iced), 1 bot. soda water (iced), 2 oz. powdered loaf sugar, sprig of borage and balm, juice and thin peel of one lemon; pour the champagne on the lemon, sugar, and herbs; cover the vessel, which is in ice, till the sugar is dissolved; add the soda water.

Cherry Brandy.—(a) Take ripe black geans (Scotch wild cherries); pick off the stalks, and pick over the fruit as for a tart, but do not wash them. Half fill large wide-mouthed bottles with layers of fruit and pounded white sugar, weight for weight; fill[194] up with good French brandy; cork well, and the longer it stands the finer it is. Bruise a few of the fruit, so as to crack the stones. It is useless to attempt to make good liqueurs with anything but French brandy, and that of the best. If you cannot procure black geans, use fine Morella cherries, each of which must be wiped and pricked with a bone stiletto or knitting needle. In this case the cherries are a good dessert dish.

(b) Get the largest Morella cherries, cut off half the stalk, pricking each cherry with a needle, and putting them into a wide-mouthed bottle. Add ¾ of the weight of the cherries in white candy sugar bruised, between the layers of the cherries, until full; add a gill of noyeau, and then fill up with French brandy; cork tight, and tie a bladder over the bottle.

(c) Having cut off half the stalks of some Morella cherries, put them very gently in and ¾ fill a wide-mouthed glass bottle that contains 1 qt. Add 4 oz. white sugar candy finely powdered, fill close up with the best brandy, adding one clove, 2 dr. dried Seville orange peel, and 1 dr. cinnamon. The three last ingredients to be taken out in 14 days; then fill up the vacant space with brandy, and cork carefully.

Cider.—Bottling.—Cider or perry, when bottled in hot weather, should be left a day or two uncorked, that it may get flat; but if too flat in the cask, and soon wanted for use, put into each bottle a small lump or two of sugar candy, or four or five raisins. Cider should be well corked and waxed, and the bottles put upright in a cool place.

Restoring Flavour.—(a) Cider, 1 hhd.; rum, weak flavoured, 2 gal.; alum, dissolved, 1 lb.; honey, or coarse sugar, 15 lb.; bitter almonds, ½ lb.; cloves, ½ lb. Mix, and after a few days fine it down with isinglass.

(b) To fine and improve the flavour of 1 hhd., take ½ oz. cochineal, 1 lb. alum, and 3 lb. sugar candy; bruise them all well in a mortar, and infuse them in 1 gal. good French brandy for a day or two; then mix the whole with the cider and stop it close for 5 or 6 months. After which, if fine, bottle it off.

Cider Cup.—(a) 1 bot. cider, 1 bot. soda water, 2 glasses sherry, powdered sugar, sprig of borage.

(b) 2 bot. sparkling cider, ½ gill curaçao, ½ gill brown brandy, ¼ lb. sugar; the juice, strained, and the peel of one lemon, rubbed on sugar; slice of cucumber; pour ½ pint boiling water on the sugar; when dissolved and cool, add the brandy, cucumber, liqueur, and juice; in a few minutes add the cider and 1 qt. shaven ice; use immediately.

(c) Grate into a cup some nutmeg and a little ginger; add a well-browned toast, a glass or two of sherry, sugar to taste; add a bottle of cider, poured on slowly. It may be drunk at once.

Claret Cup.—(a) 1 bot. claret, 1 bot. soda water, ½ lb. pounded ice, 4 tablespoonfuls powdered sugar, ¼ teaspoonful grated nutmeg, 1 liqueur glass maraschino, and a sprig of green borage.

(b) To 1 bot. ordinary claret add 1 bot. soda water, a glass of sherry or curaçao, the peel of a lemon cut very thin, powdered sugar according to taste. Let the whole remain an hour or two before serving, and then add some lumps of clear ice.

(c) To (b) add a few slices of cucumber, or some sprigs of borage instead of the cucumber.

(d) As (b), except the lemon peel, for which substitute, when in season, a pint of ripe raspberries or 4 or 5 peaches or nectarines, cut in slices.

(e) 2 bot. claret, 1 of sparkling champagne, wine glass of maraschino or citronelle; borage, balm, and sugar to the flavour required; ice well, and before serving add 2 bot. seltzer water.

(f) 2 bot. claret, 1 pint dry sherry, ½ gill brandy, 1 bot. champagne (iced); ½ gill[195] noyeau; infuse some borage and balm leaves in the sherry; when sufficiently herbed, strain; add this to the claret, sweeten to taste, add the noyeau and spirit, ice up; just before serving, add 2 bot. iced potash water, 1 pint shaven ice, and the champagne; serve immediately.

(g) Peel one lemon fine, cover with pounded sugar, pour over a glass of sherry; add 1 bot. claret, sprig of verbena, and bottle of iced soda water.

Clary Wine.—Mix 9 gal. cold soft water with 6 lb. honey, 30 lb. best loaf sugar, and the whites of 12 eggs beaten to a froth; boil 1½ hour, skimming and stirring nearly the whole time. Put the liquor into a cooler, and add 14 qt. clary tops in flower; work it at the proper temperature with good fresh ale yeast, keeping it closely covered, and stirred well. Pick, stone, and cut in pieces, 14 lb. good Malaga raisins, pour on them 3 gal. lukewarm water, that has been well boiled; stir well, and let steep 5 days; then press the fruit in a hair bag, strain the liquor, and put it into a sweet 10 gal. cask; strain the liquor from the flowers, add to it the rinds of 10 lemons pared thin, and their juice strained, and put this into the cask, filling up, and keep it open 3 or 4 days, until the fermentation has entirely ceased. Then add 2 qt. French brandy, and stop it up for 3 months, after which rack it off into a clean vessel, filter the lees, and fill the same cask again, adding 6 oz. sugar candy bruised, and 1 oz. isinglass dissolved in 2 qt. of the wine. Stop it up securely, and keep it 18 months in a cool dry cellar; then bottle it, seal the corks, and in a year more it will be fit for use.

Coltsfoot Wine.—Boil 1 gal. water with 2½ lb. moist sugar and the beaten white of an egg, for ¾ hour; pour the boiling liquor on ¼ peck of fresh-gathered coltsfoot flowers and 1 lb. raisins stoned and cut small. Cover the vessel close, and let the ingredients infuse for 3 days, stirring thrice daily; then add a tablespoonful of yeast, keep it well mixed and covered close until it has worked freely; then strain into a cask upon ½ oz. best bruised ginger and the rind of half a Seville orange; let it remain open, covering the bung-hole with a tile until it has ceased fermenting; add a gill of French brandy, stop it up securely, and keep it for 12 months, then bottle it and use it 6 months later.

Corn Beer.—5 gal. water, 2 qt. molasses, 1 qt. sound corn. Put all into a keg and shake well; in a few days fermentation will have been brought on as nicely as with yeast. Keep it bunged tight. It may be flavoured with oil of lemon, &c. The corn will last five or six makings. If it gets too sour, add more molasses and water in the above proportions. This drink is cheap, healthy, and there is no better with yeast.

Cottage Beer.-½ pint good wheat bran, 3 handfuls hops, 2 tablespoons yeast, 10 gal. water, 2 qt. molasses. Boil bran and hops in the water until both sink to the bottom; strain through a hair sieve; when lukewarm put in the molasses and stir till it is melted. Put in a cask; bung up, and it will be ready for use in a few days.

Cowslip Syrup.—Take of fresh cowslip flowers, 12 oz.; boiling water, 1 pint: infuse for 24 hours, strain, and then add ½ lb. white sugar; boil it gently until it attains the consistence of a syrup. The cowslip was at one time very highly celebrated for its narcotic virtues; and cowslip water and infusion of cowslip have been much recommended. The infusion is made in the following manner: ½ oz. dried cowslip flowers, or 1 oz. fresh, must be put to stand in a close vessel with 1½ pints boiling water for ½ hour, when it may be drunk in the same manner as tea.

Cowslip Wine.—(a) To 2 gal. water add 2½ lb. powdered sugar; boil them ½ hour, and take off the scum as it rises; then pour it into a tub to cool with the rinds of 2 lemons; when cold add 4 qt. cowslip flowers to the liquor with the juice of 2 lemons. Let it stand in the tub 2 days, stirring it every 2 or 3 hours, and then put it in the barrel. Let it stand a month; bottle it, and put a lump of sugar into each bottle. It makes the best wine to have only the tops of the peeps.

(b) To 6 gal. water add 21 lb. lump sugar and the whites of 2 eggs; boil it (taking[196] off the scum as it rises) till it clears itself, which will be in about ½ hour; when nearly cold add 24 qt. cowslips, the rinds of 2 lemons, and a spoonful of brewers’ yeast spread upon toast. Let it ferment for 3 days, stirring it twice or thrice a day, and then put it into a barrel, adding 1 pint of brandy, and cork it tight. When it has done fermenting, which will be in about 3 weeks, put into the cask a syrup made of 6 lemons and 1½ lb. sugar, which has stood till cold. Let it stand 4 months, when you may bottle it for use. Take out the rinds of the lemons before you put it into the cask.

Cream Mead.—A very agreeable drink may be prepared for convalescents as follows:—Dissolve 3 lb. white sugar in ½ gal. boiling water, and while cold add 3 oz. tartaric acid previously dissolved in 1 pint cold water. Now add the whites of 3 eggs well beaten; flavour to taste, and bottle. When it is to be used, stir in a few grains of soda bicarbonate, and a delicious effervescing drink is the result.

Currant Wine.—Gather the currants on a fine day, and, when they are fully ripe, pick them from the stalks, and squeeze out all the juice through a clean muslin bag. To 1 gal. juice put 2 of cold water, and 2 tablespoonfuls yeast. Let it work 2 days, then strain through a hair sieve, and, to 1 gal. liquor, add 3 lb. powdered sugar; stir all well together, put it into a clean cask, and to every gallon add 1 wineglassful brandy. Close the cask, and let it stand 3 months, then bottle.

Damson Wine.—Boil 10½ gal. pure river water with 32 lb. strong moist sugar, and the whites of 10 eggs well beaten, for ½ hour, skimming well; then add 32 qt. ripe prune damsons well picked from the stalks, and stoned, and boil them ½ hour longer, skimming and stirring, until the liquor is beautifully bright. Strain it off the fruit in a fine hair-sieve into your cooler, and when at the proper temperature, work it with fresh yeast, spread on a toast, 3 or 4 days. Then draw it off the sediment, put it into the cask, filter the lees, and fill up, letting it work out at the bung. When it has ceased hissing, put to it 1 qt. French brandy, and stop it up safely, pasting paper over the bung. Let it stand 6 months, then rack it off, filter the lees through flannel twice folded, and filling the cask again, add 1 oz. isinglass, dissolved in 2 qt. of the wine. Secure the bung well, and let it remain 2 years; then draw it off and bottle, sealing the corks. This being a rich wine should not be drunk until it has been bottled 2 years or more.

Dandelion Tea.—Pull up 6 or 8 dandelion roots, according to size, and cut off the leaves; well wash the roots and scrape off a little of the skin. Cut them up into small pieces and pour on 1 pint boiling water. Let them stand all night, then strain through muslin, and the tea is ready for use. It should be quite clear, and the colour of brown sherry. 1 wineglassful should be taken at a time. The decoction will not last good for more than 2-3 days, and therefore it must only be made in small quantities.

Egg Flip.—(a) Boil 3 qt. ale with a little nutmeg; beat 6 eggs and mix them with a little cold ale; then pour in some of the hot ale, and return it several times to prevent it curdling; stir it well, and add a piece of butter and a glass of brandy, with sugar, nutmeg, and ginger to taste. A few cloves are an improvement.

(b) Break 2 fresh eggs into a jug, to which add 4 teaspoonfuls sugar, a little grated nutmeg and ginger. Some put a little allspice. Beat the eggs, sugar, and spices well up with a fork. Place 1 qt. ale on the fire in a pan, and when warm pour a little of the ale into the jug, and again well beat the eggs, &c. Then pour all the ale out of the pan into the jug, and from the jug into the pan, backwards and forwards several times, until the whole is well mixed. Heat the ale again if not hot enough, and sweeten to taste. It is best drunk warm. A little rum may be added for those who like it, and more than 2 eggs put in a quart of ale if desirable—say 3 or 4. Care must be taken not to let the ale boil, or it will be spoiled.

(c) Beat 2 eggs with a little water and 1½-2 oz. sugar; add a little grated nutmeg or allspice or cloves. Boil 1 pint sound ale, and when boiling pour it on the eggs,[197] stirring the mixture the while; pour it backwards and forwards, and if it does not become thick, put it on the fire, carefully stirring until it does so.

(d) The yolks of 8 eggs well beaten up, powdered sugar, and a grated nutmeg; extract the juice from the rind of a lemon by rubbing loaf sugar upon it; put the sugar, a piece of cinnamon, and 1 qt. strong beer into a saucepan, take it off the fire when boiling, pour into it 1 glass cold beer, or a glass of gin if agreeable; put it into a jug, and pour it gradually among the yolks of the eggs, &c., stirring all the time; add sugar if required. Pour the mixture as swiftly as possible from one vessel to the other till a white froth is obtained.

Elderberry Wine.—(a) Gather your elderberries when quite ripe, bake them in an oven prepared for bread, then strain the juice; for every quart of juice take 1 gal. water, and boil in it ½ lb. moist sugar for 1 hour, skimming it carefully, and adding more water to make up for the evaporation, so as to leave at the end 1 gal. syrup. When cool, add the juice, spread a toast thickly with yeast, put it in, and let it ferment for a week in an open vessel; then pour it into a cask, with 1 lb. raisins, and 1 oz. each sugar and allspice. Let it stand 3 months, strain and bottle, adding ½ pint brandy at the last moment.

(b) To 3 qt. of berries put 1 gal. water; boil the berries for 15 minutes, then strain; boil not quite 3 lb. of sugar to the gallon for 45 minutes; and then add some ginger and cloves according to taste.

Elder-flower Wine.—To 1 gal. water put 4 lb. white sugar, ½ pint elder flowers loosely packed, and one tablespoonful of yeast. Mix and put all in a barrel, stirring the whole every morning for a week; then stop it up close, and it will be ready to bottle in 6 weeks.

Ginger Beer.—(a) 1¼ lb. lump sugar, ¾ oz. ginger well pounded, the peel of 1 lemon cut very thin; put them into a pitcher, then add 11 pints boiling water; stir the whole, then cover it up. When cooled till only milk warm, put 2 spoonfuls of yeast on a piece of toast, hot from the fire; add the juice of the lemon. Let work 12 hours; strain through muslin and bottle. Will be fit to drink in 4 days.

(b) 2 lb. loaf sugar, 2 oz. bruised ginger, 1 lemon; put all together and pour 2 gal. boiling water on it; let stand one day, then strain, and put 2 spoonfuls of yeast to it; bottle.

(c) To 10 gal. water put 12 lb. sugar, 6 oz. bruised ginger (unbleached is the best). Boil 1 hour, put into a barrel with 1 oz. hops and 3 or 4 spoonfuls of yeast. Let stand 3 days; then close the barrel, putting in 1 oz. isinglass. In a week it is fit for use. Draw out in a jug and use as beer.

(d) The rinds of 3 lemons pared very thin, 1½ oz. cream of tartar, ¼ lb. ginger (bruised), 3½ lb. loaf sugar, 2½ gal. boiling water. Let all stand till milk warm; then add a dessertspoonful of yeast. Let remain all night, then strain off, and add ½ pint brandy. Bottle in very clean half-pint glass bottles, and tie down the corks. It will be ready for drinking in a week’s time. Lemon juice may be added, if desired.

(e) 18 gal. water, 24 lb. sugar, 24 lemons, whites of 18 eggs, 2 lb. ginger, 1 oz. isinglass, 3 tablespoonfuls yeast. Boil the water and sugar, add the whites of eggs; when coming to the boil, add the ginger; boil for ½ hour, then add the lemon peel and juice; boil for 10 minutes, strain into a tub, add the isinglass; when nearly cold, add the yeast; when done fermenting, close up. Let stand for a fortnight, then bottle.

(f) Put 4 lb. loaf sugar in a crock, also 6 lemons (sliced), 5 oz. cream of tartar, 4 oz. ground ginger, 24 cloves in a small bag; pour on the above 4 gal. boiling water; cover up close. When nearly cold, whisk in the whites of 3 eggs, then add 3 tablespoonful a good yeast on a slice of toast; ferment 24 hours, then strain and skim and bottle off. Lay the bottles on their sides for 24 hours.

(g) White sugar, 5 lb.; the juice and peel of 3 or 4 lemons; ginger (bruised), 5 oz.; Water, 4½ gal. Boil the ginger in 1 gal. of the water for ½ hour, with the peels of the[198] lemon, then add the sugar, and lemon juice, with the remainder of the water at a boiling heat, and strain through a cloth; when cold, add the quarter of the white of an egg, beaten up with a small quantity of the liquid. Let the whole stand 4 days, and bottle. Will keep good many months.

(h) Crush 12 oz. best ginger, and put it in a large tub; boil 8 gal. water and pour thereon; add 5 lb. best white sugar, 1 oz. cream of tartar, and 1 oz. tartaric acid; stir the whole up with a stick till the sugar is dissolved; allow it to stand till milk warm, then add 1 gill brewers’ yeast; stir this in, let it stand for 12 hours, or until a scum forms on the top, then drain it off; clear by means of a tap about an inch from the bottom of the tub; whisk the white of an egg to a froth, and mix it with a teaspoonful of the essence of lemon; strain through a flannel cloth; bottle and tie down.

(i) 5 gal. water, ½ oz. tartaric acid, 4 lemons, sliced thin, 12 oz. ginger, ¾ oz. cream tartar, whites of 2 eggs, ½ oz. compressed yeast, 5 lb. sugar. Proceed as (h).

(j) 8 gal. boiling water, 5 lb. best white sugar, ½ oz. cream tartar, white of egg beaten to a froth, ½ lb. best ginger, 2 oz. tartaric acid, 1 teaspoonful essence lemon, 1 gill brewers’ yeast. Leave to work 24 hours before bottling.

Ginger Brandy.—1 lb. raisins, the rind of one lemon, and ¾ oz. bruised ginger. Steep them in 1 qt. best French brandy, strain, and add 1 lb. powdered loaf sugar.

Ginger Wine.—(a) Boil together 3 gal. water and 10 lb. loaf sugar; then turn it out to cool, except 1 qt., in which boil for ½ hour the thin rind of 3 large lemons and 1 Seville orange, with 4 oz. pounded ginger, and 4 oz. raisins; when nearly cold, mix all together, adding the juice of the orange and lemons, 1 oz. isinglass, and 2 tablespoonfuls yeast; put into a cask, and stir daily for 2 days, or till the fermentation ceases; then close, and leave for 6 weeks; rack carefully into a clean cask, and leave for another month; then bottle. If required to be strong, you must add (after the fermentation ceases) 1 bot. brandy.

(b) 4 gal. water, 7 lb. sugar, boil ½ hour, skimming frequently; when the liquor is cold, squeeze in the juice of 2 lemons; then boil the peels with 2 oz. white ginger in 3 pints water, 1 hour; when cold put all into the cask, with 1 gill finings and 3 lb. Malaga raisins; bung; let it stand 2 months, then bottle. March is considered the proper time to make it, and it would be better if you were to add a little brandy to each bottle.

(c) To 7 gal. water put 19 lb. sugar, and boil it for ½ hour, removing the scum as it rises; then take a small quantity of the liquor, and add to it 9 oz. best ginger bruised. Put it all together, and when nearly cold, chop 9 lb. raisins very small, and put them into a 9 gal. cask; slice 4 lemons into the cask, after taking out the seeds, and pour the liquor over them, with ½ pint fresh yeast. Leave it unstopped for 3 weeks, keeping it filled up, and in about 6 or 9 weeks it will be fit for bottling.

(d) To 37 qt. water add 1¼ lb. best white ginger, well bruised, 27 lb. sugar, loaf or moist, and the rinds of 12 lemons thinly pared; boil together 1 hour, taking off the scum as it rises in the copper. Strain off when cool, ferment it with 2 tablespoonfuls of yeast and let remain until next morning, then put it into the cask with the rinds and the juice of the lemons (observe to strain the juice first), the ginger, and 3 lb. good raisins broken open. Stir once a day for 10 days, then add 1 oz. isinglass. Care must be taken not to bung the cask quite close until the fermentation has ceased; bottle in 6 or 8 weeks, and use. The rinds of the lemons are to be boiled, but not the juice: that is to be put into the cask without having been boiled.

Gin Sling.—Take a large tumbler or silver tankard, put into it a liqueur glass of maraschino of noyeau or of plain syrup (made by dissolving in spring water as much pounded loaf sugar as it will possibly take up). Half fill the tankard with little blocks of ice, and put in a thin paring of the outer yellow skin of a lemon. Then add a sufficient quantity of unsweetened gin to suit the taste. Now empty into the tumbler the contents of a bottle of soda water, and stir well up with a tablespoon to amalgamate the whole. A sprig of borage with one blue flower may be added.

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Gooseberry Wine.—(a) To 1 lb. gooseberries, when picked and bruised, put 1 qt. fresh cold spring water; let stand 3 days, stirring two or three times a day. To 1 gal. juice put 3 lb. loaf sugar in a barrel, and when it has done working, to every 20 qt. of liquor put 1 qt. brandy and a little isinglass. The gooseberries should be picked when they are just changing colour, and may be of any sort or kind. It should stand in the barrel 6 months. Taste frequently, and bottle when the sweetness is sufficiently gone off.

(b) To 10 gal. cold water take 10 gal. unripe large gooseberries, cut them in halves, and throw them into the water; let them lie 4 or 5 days, frequently stirring; strain off the liquor, and add 30 lb. white sugar; dissolve the sugar, strain the whole into a cask. It will probably remain in a state of fermentation for 2 months; when that has subsided, bottle.

Greengage Wine.—Take 40 qt. ripe greengage plums, stone them, and press the fruit in a tub; pour 10 gal. boiling water on, and let them lie till the following day. Boil them with the liquor and 25 lb. of good loaf sugar, ½ hour, skimming well, then add the whites of 8 eggs well beaten, and boil 20 minutes longer, skimming until the liquor is quite clear. Break the stones, put the shells and kernels into the cooler, strain the liquor through a sieve upon them hot, cover close, and when properly cooled, add a toast well covered with thick fresh yeast, and let it ferment 4 or 5 days, stirring it twice each day. Let it settle, take off the scum, and put the clear liquor into the cask, upon 6 oz. of white sugar candy, the thin rinds of 4 Seville oranges and 4 lemons, and 6 lb. of Smyrna raisins stoned and cut in pieces. Filter the lees and add them to the rest, filling the cask; put paper and a tile over the bung-hole, and let it work out. When fermentation has ceased, add 3 pints of French brandy, and stop it up securely for 12 months; then rack it off, filter the lees, and fill the cask again, adding 1 oz. of best isinglass dissolved, and 4 or 5 oz. of white sugar candy bruised. Secure the bung well.

Hop Beer.—4 lb. sugar, water q.s., 6 oz. hops, 4 oz. ginger, bruised. Boil the hops for 3 hours with 5 qt. water, then strain; add 5 more qt. water and the ginger; boil a little longer, again strain, add the sugar, and when lukewarm add 1 pint yeast. After 24 hours it will be ready for bottling.

Horehound Beer.—To make 6 gal., make an infusion of 1½ oz. quassia with a dozen sprigs of horehound; boil with part of this liquid 24 cayenne pods for 20 minutes, then add 6 fl. oz. lime juice and 1½ oz. licorice (dissolved in cold water); strain the mixture and put with it 6 gal. cold water, with 2 lb. brown sugar, colouring with burnt sugar; allow the whole to work 4 days. Now take 2 qt. of it, warm it rather warmer than new milk, mix with this 8 tablespoonfuls good brewers’ yeast, and stand in a warm place till in a brisk state of fermentation; mix it with the rest of the liquor, and in a few hours it will be all in full work. Give it a stir twice a day for the first two days to promote fermentation; keep it from contact with cold air for the following two days, and skim the top off as it gets yeasty. The beer must be now drawn off as clear as possible into a clean vessel by passing it through a filtering bag. Clean the tub well, and return the liquid to it, and add ½ dr. pure dissolved isinglass; stir the whole well together, and put a cloth over the tub, and also a lid on it, to exclude the air as much as possible; in 30 hours the beer may be bottled off. In summer this will be ripe and fit to drink in 8 days. A superior quality may be made by putting a small piece of sugar into each bottle just before corking.

Imperial Pop.—(a) 1 oz. cream of tartar, ¼ lb. lump sugar, the juice and peel of 1 lemon or less, according to taste. Pour over this 4 qt. of boiling water, and drink when cold.

(b) 1½ gal. boiling water, 1½ lb. best white sugar, 1 oz. best ginger, 1 oz. lemon juice. When cool, strain and ferment with 1 oz. yeast, and bottle.

Lawn Sleeve.—The same as Bishop. Substitute Madeira or sherry for port, with 3 glasses hot calves’-foot jelly.

Lemonade.—(a) Can be used in powders, and carried when out shooting, fishing, &c.:[200] soda bicarbonate, 20 gr.; citric or tartaric acid, 15 gr.; sugar to taste—the sugar and soda in one glass, and the acid in another; mix.

(b) Take lemon juice, sugar, and water only. About 1 lemon to 1 pint water, adding the peel cut very thin, and sugar to the palate.

Lemon Beer.—1 lb. sugar, 1 lemon sliced, 1 teacupful yeast, 1 gal. boiling water, 1 oz. ginger, bruised. Let it stand 12 to 20 hours, after which it may be bottled.

Lemon Shrub.—The juice of 12 lemons, the thin rind of 2, 1 lb. sugar, the whites of 2 eggs well whisked, 1 pint water, ½ pint rum, and ½ pint brandy. Mix and strain.

Lemon Whey.—1 pint boiling milk, ½ pint lemon juice, sugar to taste. Mix and strain.

Linseed Tea.—Take 3 tablespoonfuls linseed, about 1 pint water, and boil for 10 minutes. Strain off the water, put in a jug with 2 lemons, cut in thin slices; put also some brown sugar. A wineglassful of wine is an improvement. This has been found most nourishing for invalids.

Loving Cup.—(a) ½ oz. cloves, allspice (whole), and cinnamon; mix them together with 1 pint water; boil till reduced to one-third, then strain it off. Add 2 bot. sherry, 2 Madeira, 1 port, 1 claret, the juice of 6 lemons, 1½ lb. loaf sugar, 2 nutmegs grated finely, 1 qt. water. Flavour with the spices according to taste. This is sufficient for 150 guests. Send round cold.

(b) Extract the juice from the peel of the lemon by rubbing sugar on it, cut 2 lemons into thin slices; add the rind of 1 lemon cut thin, ¼ lb. loaf sugar, and ½ pint brandy; put the whole into a large jug, mix it well together, and pour 1 qt. cold spring water upon it; grate a nutmeg into it, and add 1 pint Madeira, and 1 bot. cider; sweeten it to taste with capillaire or lump sugar; put (in summer) a handful of balm, and the same quantity of borage, in flower, into it, stalks downward; then put the jug containing the liquor into a tub of ice, and when it has remained there 1 hour it is fit for use. The balm and borage should be fresh gathered. In winter use ale instead of cider, omit ice, and drink warm.

Mangold-wurzel Beer.—Wash the roots, scrape and pare them, cut them up as for sheep, fill the boiler with them and then pour as much water to them as it will hold. Let them boil about 6 hours, and then strain them through a basket, but do not press them. Measure the liquor back again into the boiler and to every 7 pails put 3 lb. hops, 6 lb. coarse brown sugar, and ½ lb. mustard-seed. Boil together for 2 hours, then strain through the brewing-sieve; when cool, work it with yeast the same as other beer. Before putting into the barrel the next day, skim off the dark-looking froth.

Marigold Wine.—Boil 25 lb. good loaf sugar and 4 lb. honey with 10 gal. soft water, and the whites of 8 eggs well beaten, 1 hour, skimming until quite clear; pour hot upon 3 pecks marigold flowers and 4 lb. good raisins, stoned and shredded, covering the vessel close. Next day stir the liquor continually 20 minutes, and let remain covered until the following morning. Then strain, and put into cask upon the rinds of 6 Seville oranges pared very thin, and 8 oz. sugar candy broken small, reserving 2 gal., which must be made nearly boiling hot, and stirred amongst the rest. Then work with 7 or 8 tablespoonfuls good fresh yeast, cover the bung-hole with a tile, and let it work over, filling it up every day as the liquor decreases. When it has ceased fermenting, put in 3 pints French brandy, and 1 oz. dissolved isinglass, and stop it up securely. It will be fine in 9 months, and fit to bottle, but will improve if kept longer. Let it remain in bottles well corked and sealed 12 months.

May Drink.—Put into a large glass mug or china bowl about 2 doz. black-currant leaves, a small handful of woodruff, and a quantity, according to taste, of pounded lump sugar and lemon juice; pour in 2 bot. hock or Moselle, never mind how common. Stir the whole occasionally for ½ hour, and serve.

Mead.—(a) Dissolve 1 oz. cream of tartar in 5 gal. boiling water; pour the solution off clear upon 20 lb. fine honey, boil them together and remove the scum as it rises.[201] Towards the end of the boiling add 1 oz. fine hops; about 10 minutes afterwards put the liquor into a tub to cool; when reduced to the temperature of 70° or 80° F. (rather less than the warmth of new milk), according to the season, add a slice of bread toasted and smeared over with a little yeast. The liquor should now stand in a warm room, and be stirred occasionally. As soon as it begins to carry a head, it should be tunned, and the cask filled up, from time to time, from the reserve, till the fermentation has nearly subsided. It should now be bunged down, leaving a small peg-hole; in a few days this also may be closed, and in about 12 months the wine will be fit to bottle.

(b) 10 gal. water, 2 lemons, cut in slices, 2 gal. honey, a handful dried ginger root. Mix all together, and boil ½ hour, carefully skimming all the time. While boiling add 2 oz. hops. Remove from the fire, and while the liquid is lukewarm add a strong yeast, and put into a cask to work about 3 weeks, when it is fit for use.

(c) 1 gal. water, 3 lb. strained honey. Boil about ½ hour, adding to it ½ oz. hops; skim carefully, and drain the skimmings through a hair sieve, returning what runs through. Remove from the fire, and when the liquid is lukewarm stir into it ½ pint yeast, which is sufficient for 9 gal. mead. Put into a cask and let it work over, filling it up until fermentation subsides. Put a strong paper over the bung-hole. This mead may be flavoured with spices while boiling, and make a delicious summer drink.

Milk Lemonade.—Loaf sugar 1½ lb., dissolved in 1 qt. boiling water, with ½ pint lemon juice, and 1½ pint milk; this makes a capital summer beverage; ½ pint sherry added is a great improvement.

Milk Punch.—(a) Pare the rind off 12 lemons and 2 Seville oranges thinly; put them to steep in 6 pints rum, brandy, or whisky for 24 hours; then add 2 lb. refined sugar, 3 pints water, 2 nutmegs grated, and 1 pint lemon juice; stir it till the sugar is dissolved; then take 3 pints new milk, boiling hot, and pour on the ingredients; let stand 12 hours, closely covered; strain through a jelly-bag till quite clear; bottle.

(b) Pare 18 lemons very thin, infuse the peel in 1 qt. rum, and keep closely covered. The next day squeeze the juice of the 18 lemons over 4 lb. white sugar, and keep this also closely covered. The third day mix the above ingredients together, and add 3 qt. more rum (or 1 qt. rum and 2 qt. best cognac, which is preferred by some), and 5 qt. water that has been boiled, but is cold when added, also 2 qt. boiling milk; stir the whole mixture for about 10 minutes, cover close, and let it stand for about 3 hours, until quite cold; strain through a flannel bag 2 or 3 times, till quite clear. In bottling, care should be taken that the corks fit tight, and it will keep 3 or 4 years.

(c) The following is a celebrated Cambridge recipe for milk punch:—Beat up 4 new-laid eggs in the bowl in which you intend sending the punch to table; then add the following ingredients (recollecting always to put in the noyeau first), ½ pint noyeau, of rum, and of brandy, and then ½ pint noyeau, rum, and brandy mixed in equal proportions. Have 2 qt. milk boiling, to which add ½ teacup sugar, and then pour it on to the spirit, putting a little nutmeg grated on the top.

Molasses Beer.—1 lb. brown sugar, 1 oz. bruised ginger, 1 lb. molasses, ½ oz. hops. Boil for a few minutes with 3 qt. water; strain and add 5 qt. water and a spoonful of yeast; let this work all night, and bottle in the morning.

Moselle Cup.—(a) To 1 bot. still or sparkling Moselle add 1 bot. soda-water, 1 glass sherry or brandy, 4 or 5 thin slices of pineapple, the peel of half a lemon cut very thin, and powdered sugar according to taste; let the whole stand about 1 hour, and before serving add some lumps of clear ice.

(b) As (a), except the pineapple, for which substitute 1 pint fresh strawberries, or 3 or 4 peaches or nectarines.

(c) As (a), but add, instead of fruit, some sprigs of woodruff. Woodruff is a herb much used on the Rhine for making May drink, its peculiar flavour being most powerful in May; it is to be found in forests in many parts of England also.

(d) When neither fruit nor woodruff can be obtained, add, instead of sherry or[202] brandy, a glass or two of milk punch or essence of punch, and a little more of the lemon peel.

Mulled Ale.—To 1 qt. strong ale add 1 large wineglass gin or whisky. Pour it into a clean saucepan, and put it on a brisk fire until it creams, adding at the same time brown sugar, grated ginger, and nutmeg to taste; add cold ale until the whole is lukewarm. Serve in a brown earthenware two-handled cup, adding a thick piece of toasted bread. The toasted bread is covered with brown sugar, and eaten with toasted cheese.

Nectar.—Citric acid, 1 dr.; potash bicarbonate, 1 scr.; White sugar, 1 oz. Fill a soda-water bottle nearly full of water; drop in the potash and sugar, and finally the crystals of citric acid. Quickly cork the bottle and shake. The crystals being dissolved, the nectar is fit for use.

Nettle Beer.—1 peck green nettles, 1 handful dandelion, 1 oz. ginger, 1 oz. yeast, 1 handful coltsfoot, 2 lb. brown sugar, 1 oz. cream tartar, 3 gal. boiling water. Infuse the herbs in the boiling water, and when cold strain the liquor. In it dissolve the cream of tartar and the sugar, adding the yeast and bruised ginger. Let the whole work about 12 hours, skim the liquor carefully, and put into champagne bottles. Close tightly with good corks softened in boiling water, and tie the corks down. After a few days the beer is ready for use.

Nettle Wine.—Boil 25 lb. best loaf sugar with 10 gal. river or rain water, and the whites of 8 eggs well beaten, 1 hour, skimming well; pour the hot liquor upon 5 pecks young tops of nettles previously bruised a little, and cover the vessel close with cloths. When at a proper temperature work it with 8 tablespoonfuls of good yeast, stirring well 3 days; then strain the liquor into the cask upon 8 oz. cream of tartar, 4 lb. Malaga raisins stoned, the rinds of 8 lemons pared very thin, and 6 oz. white sugar candy broken; leave out the bung, keeping the cask quite full until fermentation has ceased. Add 3 pints white French brandy, stop up the cask securely, and keep it in a cool cellar 10 months; bottle it, wire and seal the corks, and in 6 months it will be excellent.

Oatmeal Drink.—Mix ½ lb. oatmeal with 5 gal. cold water, boil it for ½ hour, and strain it through a rather coarse gravy strainer; add brown sugar to taste while hot. It is very much improved by the addition of ½ oz. citric acid or 1 oz. tartaric acid. The thinly-cut rind of 2 or 3 lemons or oranges may be boiled in it; or a still cheaper flavouring is to add, before boiling, a bit of cinnamon stick or a few cloves. To be served cold.

Orange Wine.—The oranges must be perfectly ripe. Peel them and cut them in halves, crossways of the cells; squeeze into a tub. The press used must be so close that the seeds cannot pass into the must. Add 2 lb. white sugar to each gallon of sour orange juice, or 1 lb. each gallon of sweet orange juice, and 1 qt. water to each gallon of the mixed sugar and juice. Close fermentation is necessary. The resultant wine is amber-coloured, and tastes like dry hock, with the orange aroma. Vinegar can be made from the refuse, and extract from the peels.

Oxford Grace Cup.—Extract juice from peeling of a lemon, and cut the remainder into thin slices; put it into a jug or bowl, and pour on it 1½ pints strong beer, and a bottle of sherry; grate a nutmeg into it; sweeten it to taste; stir till the sugar is dissolved, and then add 3 or 4 slices bread toasted brown. Let stand 2 hours and strain off.

Oxford Mull.—Boil a small quantity of cinnamon, cloves, and mace in ½ pint water; pour into it a bottle of port wine, and when it is nearly boiling add 2 lemons thinly sliced; sweeten it to taste.

Oxford Punch.—Extract the juice from the rind of 3 lemons by rubbing loaf sugar on them; the peeling of 2 Seville oranges and 2 lemons cut very thin, the juice of 4 Seville oranges and 10 lemons, 6 glasses of calves’-foot jelly in a liquid state: put into a jug and stir well together. Pour 2 qt. boiling water on the mixture, cover the jug closely, and place it near the fire for ¼ hour, then strain the liquid through a sieve into a punch-bowl or jug, sweeten it with a bottle of capillaire, and add ½ pint white wine,[203] 1 pint French brandy, 1 pint Jamaica rum, and 1 bot. orange shrub. The mixture to be stirred as the spirits are poured in. If not sufficiently sweet, add loaf sugar, gradually, in small quantities, or a spoonful of capillaire. To be served hot or cold.

Parsnip Wine.—May be made by infusing 5 or 6 lb. of the chopped stem in 1 gal. hot water till cold; strain, and add to each gallon of the infusion 3 or 4 lb. white sugar, 1 oz. cream of tartar, and about 2 to 5 per cent. brandy. When well made and strong, this wine is of rich and excellent quality, especially after fermentation.

Parting Cup.—Put 2 or 3 slices of very brown toast in a bowl; grate over the same a little nutmeg; then pour in 1 qt. ale (mild preferable), and ⅔ bot. sherry; sweeten with syrup, and (immediately before drinking) add 1 bot. soda water; a little clove or cinnamon may be added, if approved of.

Primrose Wine.—Pick the flowers of fresh-gathered primroses from the stalks, and put 3 pecks of them and 1 peck cowslip pips into a clean vessel; boil 30 lb. good loaf sugar with 2 oz. best ginger bruised, and 10 gal. of river or rain water, ¾ hour, skimming it well; then add the whites of 10 eggs well beaten, boiling and skimming until it is perfectly clear; pour this boiling hot upon the flowers, stir well 10 minutes, and cover the vessel up closely for 3 days, adding 6 lb. Smyrna raisins cut small, and stoned, the juice of 10 lemons, and their rinds pared off very thin; let them infuse, stirring well twice daily, and on the fourth day warm the liquor, and work it at the proper temperature with ½ pint good yeast; when it has fermented 3 days, strain well, and filter into the cask; cover the bung-hole with a tile, keep the cask full, and let it work out; when it has ceased fermenting, pour in 3 pints white French brandy and 1 oz. best isinglass dissolved in 1 qt. of the wine; stop up the cask, put sand on the bung, and keep it in a cool cellar 12 months; bottle it, and in 6 months more it will be ready.

Punch.—(a) Take the juice and thin rind of 1 lemon, juice of 2 sweet oranges, taking out the pips; pour on these 3 pints boiling water; add ½ lb. loaf sugar, and when the sugar is dissolved, add ½ pint old Jamaica rum, and ½ pint cognac. Let stand for 6 hours, and bottle.

(b) Rub ¼ lb. white lump sugar over 1 large lemon until it has absorbed all the yellow part of the skin; then put the sugar into your bowl, add the juice of the same lemon, and mix well together. Pour over them 1 pint boiling water, stirring well together; then add ½ pint rum, ½ pint brandy, and ½ teaspoonful nutmeg; again mix well together, and it is ready to serve. Great care should be taken that the ingredients are thoroughly incorporated.

(c) ½ pint rum, ½ pint brandy, ½ pint stout (made hot), 1 quartern of cloves, 1 quartern of shrub, 1 lemon sliced, and the juice of one, ¼ lb. loaf sugar, 1 qt. boiling water.

(d) 1 bot. rum, 1 of sherry, 1 pint brandy, the juice of 3 lemons and 3 Seville oranges, 1½ lb. lump sugar; rub the rinds of the lemon and oranges with some of the sugar; add 1 qt. new milk to these ingredients, not quite boiling. Let stand 24 hours covered close, strain through a jelly bag, and bottle close. It will keep many years.

Raisin Wine.—Pick the raisins from their stalks, and put them into a tub with 1 gal. spring water (which has been boiled and allowed to cool) to every 8 lb. fruit; stir it thoroughly every day, then strain it into a cask, and leave it until the fermentation has ceased; add a bottle of brandy, bung up the barrel tight, and leave it for 12 months. Then strain it again into a clean cask. It may be bottled after standing 2 years.

Rhenish Cup.—(a) Take with 1 bot. light hock about 1 doz. sprigs of woodruff, ¼ orange cut in small slices, and about 2 oz. powdered sugar. The herbs are to be removed after having been in the wine ½ hour or longer, according to taste. A bottle of sparkling wine, added to 4 or 5 bot. still hock, is a great improvement. A little ice is recommended.

(b) Instead of woodruff and orange, take to each bottle of hock about ½ pint highly flavoured strawberries. Sugar as above. The fruit to be taken with the wine after having been in it about 1 hour.

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(c) Take some thin slices of pineapple instead of the strawberries.

(d) Take to each bottle of hock 2 highly flavoured peaches, peeled and cut in slices. Sugar as above.

Rhubarb Wine.—(a) The rhubarb must be quite ripe; to 1 gal. rain-water, boiling, cut 8 lb. rhubarb into thin slices, put into pan or tub, cover close with a thick cloth or blanket, and stir 3 times a day for a week; then strain through a cloth, and add 4 lb. loaf sugar, the juice of 2 lemons and the rind of 1. To fine it, take 1 oz. isinglass and 1 pint of the liquor, and melt it over the fire; be sure you do not add it to the rest of the liquor till quite cold; then cask it. When the fermentation is over, bung it down. Bottle in March, and the following June it will be fit for use.

(b) To every 5 lb. rhubarb stalks, when sliced and bruised, put 1 gal. cold spring water; let stand 3 days, stir 2 or 3 times every day, then press and strain through a sieve, and to 1 gal. liquor put 30½ lb. loaf sugar, stir it well, and when melted barrel it; when it has done working, bung it up close, first suspending a muslin bag with isinglass from the bung into the barrel (say 2 oz. for 15 gal). In 6 months bottle it and wire the bottles; let them stand up for the first month, then lay 4 or 5 down lengthwise for a week, and if none burst all may be laid down. Should a large quantity be made it must remain longer in cask.

(c) Take 18 lb. rhubarb, cut it into small pieces, put them with 20 gal. soft water in a copper, and boil till soft; then strain through a sieve, add 5 or 6 handfuls balm, fresh or dried. To 1 gal. liquor put 3 lb. lump sugar and ½ lb. Malaga raisins, chopped; when lukewarm, put it into the barrel, and in 3 weeks stop it down. In 6 months, bottle. It will be fit to use in 3 months, or it will keep 20 years. You may make it pink colour by adding 1 pint damson juice.

(d) In the absence of a press to extract the juice, the stalks are boiled in a common stove boiler, using 2 qt. water to a boilerful of stalks. The stalks are very juicy, and after boiling require no pressing; they are merely left to drain; to 1 gal. juice add 2 lb. sugar, and place in a barrel to ferment; after fermenting, it should be corked tight.

(e) Cut up fruit into pieces, 2 in. long; to 1 gal. such add 1 gal. water and 3½ lb. loaf sugar. Fermentation will soon commence; stir up twice daily; when the pulp ceases to rise, wring out 1 qt. at a time in a piece of thin canvas; cork down in stone bottle or cask. Ease the cork for a minute twice daily the first week, as an after fret (fermentation) may occur. Good to drink in about 6 months. To please fancy you may add a little cut up dandelion root (fresh) or a handful of the leaves per gallon: but it must be all put together at commencement. Nearly all other fruits may be treated in the same way.

Sarsaparilla Beer.—Take of compound syrup of sarsaparilla 1 pint; good pale ale 7 pints; use no yeast.

Sham Champagne.—1 oz. tartaric acid, 1 oz. ginger root, 2½ gal. water, 1 good-sized lemon, 1½ lb. white sugar, 1 gill yeast. Slice lemon, bruise ginger, and mix all, except the yeast; boil the water and pour on, letting stand till cooled to blood heat. Add the yeast and stand in the sun one day. Bottle at night, tying the corks. In 2 days it may be used.

Sherry Cobbler.—Procure some clean ice, slice it on an ice plane, or pound it with a hammer, putting the ice into a linen or paper bag; then half fill a tumbler with it, and add 1 or 2 glasses sherry, ½ tablespoonful lemon juice, and 1 spoonful powdered white sugar, more or less according to palate. Imbibe through a straw.

Smoker’s Drink.—(a) In a large tumbler put a coffee-cup of hot (very strong) Mocha coffee, pure, a piece of sugar, according to taste (it ought not to be too sweet), a handsome dash of pure cognac; then fill up with pure cold water, and drink after stirring well up.

(b) Lemon and water, with or without sugar.

Spruce Beer.—(a) Take 10 gal. boiling water, 10 lb. sugar, 4 oz. essence of spruce,[205] mix, and when nearly cold add ½ pint yeast. Next day bottle, and tie down as ginger beer.

(b) 2 oz. hops, 10 gal. water, 2 oz. chip sassafras. Boil ½ hour, strain and add 7 lb. brown sugar. 1 oz. essence of ginger, 1 oz. essence of spruce, ½ oz. ground pimento. Put into a cask, and cool; add 1½ pints of yeast; let stand 24 hours, and bottle.

Still Lemonade.—The juice of 3 lemons, the peel of 1, ¼ lb. lump sugar, and 1 qt. cold water. Mix, digest for 5 hours, and strain.

Sulphuric Orangeade.—3 oz. dilute sulphuric acid, 3 oz. concentrated compound infusion of orange peel, 12 oz. simple syrup, and 4 gal. boiled filtered water. A wineglassful of this mixture is taken as a draught in as much boiled and filtered water as may be agreeable.

Summer Drinks.—(a) Cold tea flavoured with sliced lemon and dashed with cognac. The tea should be properly made—not allowed to stand until it becomes rank, but boiling water should be poured on the leaves, allowed to stand 5 minutes, then poured into a jug with slices of lemon at the bottom. A wineglass of good brandy added when cool.

(b) Mix together 2 qt. best bottled cider—old, if possible—sweeten to taste, taking care that the sugar is perfectly melted. Add ½ nutmeg grated, a little powdered ginger, a glass of brandy, a glass of noyeau; cut a lemon into it in moderately thin slices, and let them remain there. Make it 2 hours before wanted, and stand in some ice.

(c) Sherry, 6 tablespoonfuls; brandy, 2 tablespoonfuls; sugar, 1½ oz.; 2 or 3 shreds of fresh lemon peel, cut very thin. This is the stock. It will be found convenient, when a quantity is required, to make a syrup of the sugar (1 oz. water to 2 oz. sugar), and to prepare the stock beforehand. The above quantity of stock should be added to 1 bot. claret and 1 bot. soda water. These should be kept in a cool place—a refrigerator, for instance—and only opened just before drinking. A lump of ice and a little borage are improvements; 2 bot. soda water instead of one can be used in summer.

(d) To 1½ pint good ale allow 1 bot. ginger beer. For this beverage the ginger beer must be in an effervescing state, and the beer not in the least turned or sour. Mix them together, and drink immediately.

(e) Get 3 pints water, 3 oz. tartaric acid, 3½ lb. lump sugar; mix and put to the fire to warm, not quite boil. While the above is getting hot, get the whites of 3 eggs and 4 teaspoonfuls wheaten flour, which well beat together, then mix by well stirring it with the water, acid, and sugar, then boil the whole 3 minutes. When cold, flavour with essence of lemon; bottle off. For use put a medium-sized spoonful of the liquor into a tumbler, fill up with water, and add a little soda carbonate; stir up and drink. A small quantity of brandy or sherry with the soda is a great improvement.

(f) Milk and whisky; quantity according to taste; the less spirit the better.

(g) Melt or dissolve by a gentle heat 1 oz. black currant jelly in ½ pint syrup; when cold add the same quantity of rum. In summer the above is best; for the winter months, do as follows: Pick fine dry black currants, put them into a stone jar, and then the jar into a saucepan of boiling water till the juice is extracted; strain, and to every pint add ½ lb. loaf sugar; give one boil and skim well; when cold add the same quantity of rum (or gin, if you prefer it), shake well, and bottle.

(h) 8 or 10 drops sulphuric acid added to a glass of water make a very wholesome subacid refreshing drink, having tonic properties, and well adapted to check the tendency to diarrhœa that exists during sultry weather.

(i) Mix 1 oz. essence of ginger and 1 oz. essence of cloves; put 20-30 drops into a tumbler of water. This renders even tepid water good.

Syllabubs.—(a) Put 1 pint beer and 1 pint cider into a punchbowl, grate in a small nutmeg, and sweeten it to your taste. Put the bowl under a cow and milk in about 3 pints milk; wash and pick some currants, make them plump before the fire, and strew them over the syllabub. (b) Take 1 qt. cream, 3 gills white wine, the juice of 1 lemon and of 2 Seville oranges, add sugar to taste, beat it well, and fill up your glasses as the[206] froth, rises. (c) Take ¼ lb. loaf sugar in one piece, and rub on it 2 lemons till you have got all the essence out of the rinds, then pour over the sugar 1 gill white wine, and when it is dissolved add the juice of the lemons and 1 pint cream, whip it well, or mill it with a chocolate mill. (d) Take ½ pint cream, ½ pint white wine, and the juice of a lemon, sweeten it to your taste with white sugar, put in a piece of the paring of the lemon and some powdered cinnamon, beat it well, and as it rises take up the froth with a spoon and lay it on a sieve to drain; fill your glasses half full with wine, sweeten it, and fill up with the whisked cream. (e) Put into a china bowl 1 pint port wine and 1 pint sherry, sugar to taste, milk the bowl nearly full, cover it with clotted cream, grate nutmeg over it.

Toast and Water.—(a) Hold a small piece of bread before the fire until it is the colour of mahogany, but do not let it burn. Put it in a jug and pour boiling water upon it, cover it down close until cold. (b) The bread should be very slowly and thoroughly toasted, great care being taken to prevent its burning in the slightest degree; cold water should then be poured over it. It must stand some time before being used.

Wassail Bowl.—Put into a bowl ½ lb. Lisbon sugar; pour on it 1 pint warm beer; grate a nutmeg and some ginger into it; add 4 glasses sherry and 5 additional pints beer; stir well; sweeten to taste; let stand covered up 2 or 3 hours; then put 3 or 4 slices bread (cut thin and toasted brown) into it. Sometimes a couple or three slices of lemon, and a few lumps of loaf sugar rubbed in the peeling of a lemon, are introduced.

White Wine Negus.—Extract the juice from the peel of a lemon by rubbing loaf sugar on it, or cut the peel of a lemon very thin, and pound it in a mortar; cut 2 lemons into thin slices, add 4 glasses calves’-foot jelly in a liquid state, small quantities of cinnamon, mace, cloves, and allspice. Put the whole into a jug, pour 1 qt. boiling water upon it, cover the jug close, let stand ¼ hour, and then add 1 bot. boiling white wine; grate half a nutmeg into it, stir well together, sweeten to taste. In making port wine negus, omit the jelly. Negus is not confined to any particular sort of wine; if the jelly is omitted, it can be made with any or several sorts mixed together.

Wines, British.—There are many persons who would rather buy their drinks than have the trouble and expense of making them. Such will be glad to know that Beaufoy’s British wines and non-alcoholic drinks are to be recommended before all others.


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THE PANTRY.

Bread.—Household bread may be made with brewers’ yeast (barm) or with German yeast.

(a) With Brewers’ Yeast.—Take a small quantity—say 2 lb. flour. This should be perfectly dry, or the dough will not rise well. Put it into a bowl—a brown earthenware one glazed on the inside is best—which should also be perfectly dry, and in the winter slightly warmed. Stir in 1 teaspoonful salt, then make a hole about 1½ in. in depth in the centre of the flour. Have ready 1½ tablespoonful fresh brewers’ yeast, mixed in 1 teaspoonful warm—not hot—water; pour this into the hole, and stir a handful of flour lightly into it with a wooden spoon. Then cover with flour again, lightly. Lay a thick cloth over the pan, taking care that it does not press on the flour, and stand it in a warm corner. When the flour at the top of the yeast begins to crack, and the “sponge”—i.e., fermented dough—runs through, which, if the yeast be perfectly fresh and good, it will do in about ½ hour; it is then fit to knead. Now the potatoes may be added, but they must first be finely mashed. A jug of warm water must be ready, and a small quantity at a time poured into a pan; this should be thoroughly mixed with the other ingredients—not with a spoon this time, but the hand. Continue pouring in water and mixing till the mass is perfectly free from lumps, and about the consistency of pastry for pies or puddings. Then turn it out of the pan on to a well-floured pastry board, and roll to and fro for about 3 minutes. Put it back into the pan, again covered with a thick cloth, and leave to rise. Another ½ hour or so will find it fit for the oven. This can easily be ascertained by pulling the dough slightly apart; if it be close and heavy, it must remain a while longer; but if it looks spongy and rises again quickly after the pressure is removed, it is ready for the baking. If tins are to be used, they should be warmed, and a very little butter or dripping should be rubbed over the bottom and sides, to prevent the dough sticking. Many people prefer “cottage” or “batch” loaves as they are called in some countries, made something in the shape of a brioche cake; but a tyro in the art will find it safest to trust to the tins till she has by practice become light-fingered enough to manipulate the dough easily and quickly; for it must be borne in mind that dough, like pastry, becomes heavy by rough or too frequent handling. (Bessie Tremaine.)

Ovens and Baking.—With regard to the baking. The loaves must not be put into too hot an oven at first, or they will not rise; neither must the oven be too cool, or the bread will be underdone, and taste heavy and sodden. A good test is to sprinkle a little flour on the bottom of the oven, and shut the door; if in 5 minutes the flour is found to be coloured a golden brown, the bread may with safety be put in; if, on the contrary, the flour is a deep brown and smells burnt, the oven is too hot, and the fire should be slightly checked, also the oven door left open for a few minutes. The best way of regulating the temperature of the oven is to use a Bailey’s pyrometer (W. H. Bailey and Co., Albion Works, Salford, near Manchester), by which it is easy to see whether the fire should be urged or checked, ensuring the proper degree of heat without wasting fuel.

Bread is generally supposed to have a more pleasant flavour when baked in a brick oven. One reason why this is so is because the brick oven (when there is one attached to a house) is generally so large and cumbrous, besides being troublesome to heat, that[208] it is only used on baking days for bread or cake; so that there is no stale flavour of meat, game, or poultry hanging about it. This should be borne in mind when the baking is to be done in a kitchener, which should be thoroughly ventilated and washed out before the bread is put in. If this is attended to, the difference in the taste will be scarcely perceptible. (Bessie Tremaine.)

Mention may here be made of Perkins’ Patent Steam Oven (Seaford Street, Gray’s Inn Road), in which the baking is remarkably even and regular; and of the portable gas oven (J. Baker and Sons, 58 City Road). See also p. 1003.

Yeast.—(a) First get 6 good-sized potatoes, wash and pare them and boil them in 2 qt. water with a handful of hops (the latter in a small bag kept for the purpose). When quite soft take them out, mash fine, and pour upon them the water in which they were boiled, adding a little water for what may have boiled away, and also ½ cup salt and same of white sugar. When cooled down to a lukewarm temperature add 1 cup yeast to ferment it with. It does not rise, it works like beer, and having been covered closely and kept in a warm place, in the course of 5-6 hours the entire surface will be covered with fine bubbles, which indicate that it is ready for use. It should now be bottled and put in the cellar, where it will keep a long time. The bottles must not be corked tight at first, or they will be liable to burst. If the theory be true that some of the same kind must be used to start with, some difficulty may be encountered in introducing it where it is not used.

(b) Boil and mash 1 lb. potatoes, mix with them ¼ lb. coarse raw sugar and 1 teaspoonful salt, add 1 qt. tepid water, and let the mixture stand in a warm place for 24 hours; then boil a small handful of hops for 10 minutes in ½ pint water, strain, and add the liquor to the yeast. Again let it stand for 24 hours; if it does not then ferment, get a little brewers’ yeast, and let it work for 24 hours; then strain it, and it is fit for use. When cold, put away the yeast in stone bottles, the cork tied down firmly. Keep in a cool dry place until wanted. About ½ pint yeast will be required to ferment 7 lb. flour.

(c) With German Yeast.—The one great point is to knead well. Not only should the dough be well kneaded, but the sponge, where it is placed to rise, should be well and rapidly beaten with a wooden spoon. The effect will be speedily seen, for the grain of the sponge becomes closer and finer, and, when put in a suitable place, will at once begin to rise in very fine bubbles. Potatoes much improve bread, and, in order to use them with a good effect, they must be steamed and beaten to a pulp, or, rather, to a cream; for a little water must be added to the pulp as soon as all the lumps have been beaten away, and this water should be in quantity just sufficient to give the potatoes the consistency of thick cream. This potato cream is to be put in the sponge before the beating commences—in fact, it is part of the sponge. It is advisable to put German yeast in water over night, and in the morning, when you are ready to lay your sponge, you must add to the yeast and water 2 lumps sugar. As the sugar assists the yeast to ferment, it must not be carelessly put in and left. As soon as it is dissolved the sponge should be mixed. Bread mixed with milk is much better than that made with water. Therefore, if you can procure it, place some milk on the fire to boil, and when it has partly cooled it is ready for use. An easy mode of cooling milk that has boiled is to place the can containing it in a pail of cold water.

Never make bread with raw milk, for the chances are that the dough will become sour, and, although a little soda carbonate will counteract the acidity when in the sponge, it is impossible to remedy any such accident in the dough. It is a very difficult thing to tell anyone how much liquid to use to any given quantity of flour. American flour, which makes the finest bread, requires more liquid than English flour. The reason is obvious—the better the flour the drier, and American flour is very dry. Although commanding a higher price than English, it is in reality much more economical, as a stone of American flour will produce a much larger batch of bread than a stone of English flour will.

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¼ lb. yeast will be found sufficient for an ordinary baking. It is a general rule to lay the sponge in the centre of the flour that you intend shall form the dough. This is a mistaken idea, and the better plan is to have a bowl about the size of a toilette basin. Warm it; do not quite half fill with flour. Have your yeast and sugar ready dissolved and smoothly mixed with cold water; have also in a jug at your left hand some milk that has been boiled and lost its scalding heat. Your bread will be improved if you provide yourself too with some warm creamed potatoes (you may with advantage have as much potato as flour in your sponge). It is quite out of the question to say when it will have risen—the weather affects it, and it will vary each time. The better way is to keep a watchful eye on it. It is fit to be taken when it has risen to a fine spongy mass, presenting the appearance of froth.

Have a large bowl ready warmed, place in this as much flour as you judge will make the quantity of bread you desire; but do not more than half fill your bowl, or there will be no room for rising. Make a hole in the centre of the flour, and pour in the sponge, add a small quantity of salt, and proceed to knead it up, moistening from time to time with milk, or water, as the case may be. Do not have the dough too stiff. It is as well to use the right hand first, and keep the left free to add the liquid from the jug. The right hand has most power, and vigour is required in kneading bread. We have proof of this in the Italians, who knead their dough with such force as to produce corns on the knuckles of the hand. When you find you have sufficient liquid, let the left hand take its share in pounding and working the dough.

Draw the dough from the sides of the pan to the middle in kneading, and continue to do this until it ceases to stick either to the hands or bowl. Having arrived at this point, place the bread-bowl in a warm position, and cover with a cloth. When the dough is ready to be made into loaves it will be risen and cracked all over. The bread-tins must be rubbed inside with lard before using. Remember, when you cut your dough into loaves, that it is necessary to knead it up again before placing in the tins. It is a good plan to nearly ¾ fill the tins, prick through with a fork, and put to rise again. Stand your tins together, if possible, and place a clean light cloth over them, to keep any dust off, and also to prevent the surface of the dough from drying. The loaves must rise until they nearly reach the tops of the tins. Now place in an oven that has a moderately good heat, and do not open the door during the first 15 minutes. The middle shelf of an oven is the proper place for bread, and the tins should stand on rings; there is then no chance of burning the bottoms of the loaves. After the loaves have been in the oven ½ hour, change their positions. An hour should bake an ordinary loaf. During the last ½ hour the heat of the oven may be allowed to decrease.

As soon as your bread is baked, take the loaves out of the tins and wrap them in a clean old blanket kept especially for the purpose. The object is to prevent hard crust, and the blanket will absorb any moisture caused by the steam. When quite cold the bread may be placed in the bread-pan, which should be kept in a cold damp place. No bread will keep in a good state which is in a dry, warm situation. It is certain to dry, crack, and mould. It will be found a good plan to bake once a week during the winter, and twice during the summer months. Should any difficulty be experienced during very sultry weather, make the dough in the evening with quite cold water or milk, there will be no sponge to lay in this case; all must be kneaded up at once, and in the morning it will be ready for use. Bread made up in this way is excellent if well kneaded, but never has such delicate grain as that made by the above directions.

The only real enemy to success in bread-making is warm sultry weather. When the air is charged with electricity, the housewife may think of danger. Want of attention is, in the majority of cases, the real cause of mishaps. (Harriett Estill.)

The flour called “seconds” makes a more economical loaf for family use than the first quality; when, however, a very white light kind of bread is preferred, “best whites” must be used. German yeast should be perfectly fresh and sweet, in which[210] state it is nearly white and quite dry. Dissolve 1½ oz. in a few spoonfuls of cool water, and then stir into it 3½ pints tepid water; pour it rapidly over 5 lb. flour, in which 1 tablespoonful salt has been mixed; beat it up with the hand or a wooden spoon until well mixed, then gradually work in 2 lb. more of flour, kneading it well. When finished, the dough will be perfectly smooth, and not a particle will adhere to the hands or pan. Set the dough in a warm place to rise for an hour, then work it up with a handful of flour until it is stiff; divide it into 2 or 3 loaves, working them up into a compact shape. Put them on a floured baking sheet, and bake them in an oven as hot as it can be without burning the bread, as it will then keep its shape. In about 10 minutes the heat may be moderated and kept equal until the bread is finished. A 5 lb. loaf will take 1¼ hour to bake. A skewer may be thrust into the loaf, and if it comes out clean the bread is done enough, but generally the appearance of the loaf should indicate this to anyone having the least experience. (Mary Hooper.)

Biscuits, Cakes, and Fancy Breads.—Of these there is an endless variety, the majority being well adapted for making at home.

Abernethy Biscuits.—(a) Dissolve ¼ lb. butter in ½ pint warm milk, and with 4 lb. fine flour, a few caraways, and ½ lb. sugar, make a stiff but smooth paste; to render the biscuits short and light, add ½ dr. ammonia carbonate in powder. Roll out very thin; stamp the biscuits, pricking them with a fork, and bake in tins in a quick oven.

(b) Into 7 lb. flour rub 1 lb. butter; add 1 lb. moist sugar, powdered, and 2 oz. caraway seeds; make into smooth dough with 2½ pints water containing 4 oz. sal volatile; roll into thin sheets; cut into biscuits, place on buttered tins, wash tops with white of egg, bake in quick oven.

Almond Bread.—8 oz. sweet almonds, 1 oz. bitter almonds blanched and dried; pound fine with 18 oz. loaf sugar in a mortar; pass through sieve; mix into soft batter with yolk of egg; grate off the peel of 1 lemon, and add it with 2 oz. flour; mix lightly as for sponge cake; pour the batter into square, flat, tin dishes, turned up about 2 in., and buttered inside; bake in cool oven.

Almond Cakes.—Cover 1 lb. sweet almonds with boiling water in a saucepan; when just boiling, strain off, and rub skins off; slice up 2 oz. of them; put remainder into a mortar with 2¼ lb. loaf sugar, 1 tablespoonful orange-flower water and white of 6 eggs, pound fine; spread wafer-paper on a tin, and drop on pieces of the paste as large as walnuts; sprinkle each with the shredded almonds; bake in slow oven.

Almond Savoy Cake.—Take 1 lb. blanched sweet almonds (4 oz. of them may be bitter), 2 lb. sugar, 1 pint yolk of egg, ½ pint whole eggs, 1 lb. flour, and the whites of 12 eggs beaten to a firm froth. Pound the almonds with the sugar in a mortar, and sift through a wire sieve, or grind in a mill, and mix with the sugar in the mortar. First mix the whole eggs well with the almonds and sugar, then add the yolks by degrees, stirring until quite light; then mix in the whites, and afterwards the flour lightly; prepare some moulds as for Savoy cakes, or only butter them. Fill the moulds ¾ full, and bake in a moderate oven.

American Biscuits.—Rub ½ lb. butter with 4 lb. flour; add 1 pint milk or water; mix well; break up the dough; bake in hot oven.

Apple Bread.—After having boiled 1 lb. peeled apples, bruise them while quite warm into 2 lb. flour, including the proper quantity of leaven, and knead the whole without water, the juice of the fruit being quite sufficient. When this mixture has acquired the consistency of paste, put it into a vessel, in which allow it to rise for about 12 hours. By this process you obtain a very sweet bread, extremely light.

Banbury Cake.—(a) 1½ lb. flour, 1 lb. butter; roll the butter in sheets in part of the flour; wet up the rest of the flour in nearly ½ pint water and a little German or brewers’ yeast; make into a smooth paste, roll in a large sheet, and lay on the butter; double up, and roll out again; do this 5 times; cut into square pieces, about 1½ oz. each. Mix together currants, candied peel chopped fine, moist sugar, and a little brandy; put 2 teaspoonfuls[211] of this mixture on each piece of paste; bring the two corners together in the middle, and close them up of an oval shape; turn the closing downwards; sift finely powdered loaf sugar over the tops; put on a cold tin; let stand awhile in the cold to prove; bake in rather a cool oven.

(b) 2 lb. currants, ½ oz. each ground allspice and powdered cinnamon; 4 oz. each candied orange and lemon peel; 8 oz. butter, 1 lb. moist sugar, 12 oz. flour; mix the whole well together; roll out a piece of puff paste; cut into oval shape; put a small quantity of composition into each, and double up in the shape of a puff; put on a board, flatten down with rolling-pin, and sift powdered sugar over; do not put too close together; bake on iron plates in a hot oven.

Bath Buns.—1 lb. flour, peel of 2 lemons grated fine, ½ lb. butter melted in teacup of cream, 1 teaspoonful yeast, 3 eggs; mix; add ½ lb. powdered loaf sugar; mix well; let stand to rise; quantities will make about 3 dozen buns.

Bath Cake.—Roll 1¾ lb. moist sugar till fine; add ¾ pint water; let stand all night; into 4½ lb. flour rub 3 oz. butter; make a hole in it, and pour in the sugar and water with ½ pint honey water; roll thin; cut out, place on buttered tin, wash over with water, bake in quick oven.

Biscuit Powder.—Dry the biscuits in a slow oven; grind with a rolling-pin on a clean board till the powder is fine; sift through a fine hair-sieve, and it is fit for use.

Bordeaux Cake.—Make a mixture as for pound-cakes, leaving out the fruit, peel, and spices; bake in a round or oval hoop. When baked and cold, cut into slices ½ in. thick; spread each slice with jam or marmalade. The outside of the cake may be cut round, or fluted to form a star; and the centre of the cake is occasionally cut out to about 1½ in. from the edge, leaving the bottom slice whole: this may be filled with preserved wet or dry fruits, creams, or a trifle. The top is ornamented with piping, wet or dry fruits, and peels, or piped with jam and icing.

Brandy Snaps.—(a) Rub ¼ lb. butter into ½ lb. flour, add ½ lb. moist sugar, ½ oz. ground ginger, and the grated rind and juice of a lemon. Mix with a little treacle to a paste thin enough to spread on tins. Bake in a moderate oven, and when done enough cut it into strips whilst still on the tins, and then roll it round the fingers. When cold put in a tin at once, or they will lose their crispness. (b) Take 1 lb. flour, ½ lb. coarse brown sugar, ¼ lb. butter, 1 dessertspoonful allspice, 2 of ground ginger, the grated peel of half, and the juice of a whole lemon; mix altogether, adding ½ lb. treacle; beat it well; butter some sheet tins, and spread the paste thinly over them, bake in rather a slow oven. When done cut it into squares, and roll each square round the finger as it is raised from the tin. (c) ½ lb. salt butter, ½ lb. moist sugar, ½ lb. treacle and flour (more treacle than flour), 1½ oz. finely-powdered ginger. The butter, treacle, and part of the sugar to be made boiling hot, and poured on the remainder of the ingredients well mixed. Spread it very thinly with a knife on a sheet tin which has been buttered, and bake. When done, to be taken off with a knife.

Breakfast Cake.—Mix ½ oz. German yeast with ½ pint warm milk in a pan; weigh 2 lb. flour and take sufficient of it to make the milk the consistence of batter. When this sponge has risen, take a little milk—melt in it 3 oz. butter; add a teaspoonful of salt, and the yolks of 8 eggs; mix well with the sponge, and make into a dough with the remaining portion of flour. Do not use more milk with the eggs than will make ½ pint, or the dough will be too soft. When the dough is proved, make it into cakes about 2 in. thick; put them into buttered hoops; lay the hoops on iron plates, and when they are lightly risen, bake them in a warm oven; cut into slices ½ in. thick and butter each.

Bride Cake.—Cleanse and dry 2½ lb. currants; stone ½ lb. muscatel raisins; pound ¼ oz. mace, ⅛ oz. cinnamon; scald ¼ lb. sweet almonds, remove skins, and shred; slice up 2 oz. each candied citron, lemon, and orange peel; break 8 new eggs into a basin; sift 1 lb. powdered loaf sugar into 1¼ lb. flour; in a warmed pan beat 1 lb. butter by hand[212] till it melts, then add the sugar and beat again; add ⅕ of the flour, stir, and add nearly half the eggs; beat up, add more flour and remainder of eggs; beat again and stir in rest of flour and currants; next add the raisins, almonds, candied peel, spices, and ½ gill brandy; thoroughly mix; double paper the tin, and bake in a very slow oven.

Brighton Biscuits.—Take 1¼ lb. good moist sugar; roll fine; mix with 2½ lb. flour, and sift through a flour sieve; rub in 2 oz. butter; make a hole in the middle, and strew in a few caraway seeds; pour in ½ pint each honey-water and milk; mix into dough, but do not work too much; roll out in thin sheets; cut into biscuits and put 2 in. apart on buttered tin; wash with milk; bake steadily.

Buttered Biscuits.—Rub 1 lb. butter into 7 lb. flour; wet up with 1 qt. warm water, and ½ pint good yeast; break smooth; prove; cut into biscuits; bake in strong heat.

Captain’s Biscuits.—Rub 6 oz. butter into 7 lb. flour; wet up with 1 qt. water; break smooth; bake in good strong heat.

Chelsea Buns.—Take ½ or 1 quartern light bread dough; dust the dresser or table with flour, and roll out with a rolling-pin into a sheet about ¼ in. thick; over the surface put 4-6 oz. butter, in little bits, work up and roll out 2 or 3 times, the same as for making puff paste. The last time it is rolled out, spread thinly and evenly over the surface, either moist or powdered loaf sugar; moisten by sprinkling with water; cut into strips, ½-¾ in. wide; roll up so as to form a coil or roll of dough about 2 in. in diameter. Lay these pieces (when rolled up) on a clean baking-tin, with some butter rubbed over the surface, to prevent the buns adhering when baked. Place rather more than ¼ in. asunder, with one of the cut edges downward. Put in a warm place, covered with a cloth, to prove, or rise; bake in a moderately warm oven. May be made richer by using more butter and sugar, and seeds or spice may be added at pleasure. When baked, some sugar may be sifted over the surface.

Cheese Cake.—Beat 4 oz. butter with the hand in a warm pan, till it comes to a fine cream; add 4 oz. powdered sugar; beat well; add yolks of 2 eggs; beat again; add a little milk; beat all well together, and mix in 4 oz. clean currants; lay puff paste in the patty-pans; fill half full; shake a little sugar over, and bake in a good heat.

Cinnamon Buns.—Same as saffron, omitting the caraway seeds and saffron, and substituting ground cinnamon.

Cinnamon, Currant, and Caraway Cake.—Rub 1 lb. butter into 3½ lb. flour; in a hole put 1 lb. powdered loaf sugar; then wet up with ½ pint each honey-water and milk. Divide the dough into 3 parts; add to one part a little powdered cinnamon; to another a few currants; to another a few caraway seeds. Roll in sheets to the thickness of the currants; cut to about the size of a penny; wash with a little milk, and bake in a steady heat.

Colchester Bread.—(a) Prepare dough as for Bath cakes; cut with a Colchester cutter to about the thickness of a penny; wash with milk; bake quick; wash with egg and milk while hot; when cold cut apart.

(b) Put ¾ lb. loaf sugar into a saucepan, with ¼ pint water over steady fire; stir till dissolved; beat 6 eggs with a whisk in a pan; when the sugar boils pour it gently on the eggs, beating till cold; stir in ¾ lb. fine sifted flour; paper frames; fill ¾ full with the batter; sift sugar over; bake in steady oven.

Cracknel Biscuits.—Rub 6 oz. butter into 3½ lb. flour; in a hole put 6 oz. powdered loaf sugar; wet up with 8 eggs and ¼ pint water; break dough smooth; make and dock like captain’s biscuits; form on the reel; drop into a stew-pan of water boiling over the fire; when they swim, take out with a skimmer, and put into a pailful of cold water; let remain 2 hours before baking; drain in a cloth or sieve; bake on clean tins in a brisk oven.

Crumpets.—These are made of batter composed of flour, water (or milk), and a small quantity of yeast. To 1 lb. best wheaten flour add 3 tablespoonfuls yeast. A portion of the liquid paste, not too thin (after being suffered to rise), is poured on a heated iron plate, and baked, like pancakes in a pan.

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Curd Cheese Cake.—Warm 1 pint new milk; stir in a little rennet; keep warm till a nice curd appears; break and strain the whey through a hair-sieve; put mixture prepared as for cheese-cakes, but without any currants, into sieve with curd; rub all through together; mix in currants; fill out, and bake in a good heat.

Derby Cake.—Rub 1 lb. butter in 2½ lb. flour; in a hole put 1 lb. powdered loaf sugar; beat 2 eggs with 3 tablespoonfuls honey-water, and milk to make up ½ pint; add ½ lb. currants; mix; bake in a steady oven.

Diet Bread.—Whisk the yolks of 12 and the whites of 6 eggs, together, so as just to break them; put ¼ pint water into a saucepan or small stew-pan, add 1 lb. loaf sugar, and put on the fire; take it off just before it boils; put in the eggs, and whisk well till cold; stir in lightly 1 lb. flour; put mixture into papered square tins; sift sugar over tops; bake in cool oven till dry and firm on top.

Drop Biscuits.—Warm the pan; put in 1 lb. powdered loaf sugar and 8 eggs; beat with a whisk till milk warm; then beat till cold; stir in lightly 1 lb. sugar, 2 oz. fine sifted flour, ½ oz. caraway seeds; put batter into a bladder, drop through the pipe, in quantities about the size of a nutmeg, on wafer-paper; sift sugar over the top; bake in quick oven.

Drops.—Whisk ½ teacup water, 6 eggs, and 1 lb. sifted loaf sugar together till thick; add a few caraway seeds, and 18 oz. flour; mix lightly together; drop on wafer-paper, about the size of a small walnut; sift sugar over, and bake in a hot oven.

Filbert Biscuits.—Rub 1 lb. butter into 3½ lb. flour; make a hole, and put in 10 oz. powdered loaf sugar; wet up with 4 tablespoonfuls honey-water, 1 of orange-flower water, and ¾ pint milk; break dough smooth; mould as large as a nutmeg, and round; cut twice across the top each way, about half through, with a sharp knife; place on tin; bake in steady heat.

French Rolls.—Set a sponge with 1 qt. warm water, and ½ pint good small-beer yeast; let sponge rise and drop; melt 1 oz. butter in 1 pint warm milk, and 1 oz. salt; wet up about 7 lb. flour; let lie ½ hour; put on warm tins; prove well; bake in quick oven.

Ginger Cake.—Prepare dough as for Bath cakes; add as much ground ginger as will give a pleasant taste; cut as thick as a shilling and as large as a penny; wash with water; bake quick.

Hot Cross Buns.—Take 1 qt. milk, 12 oz. butter, 12 oz. sugar, ½ oz. mixed spice, 2 eggs, 2 oz. German yeast, or ½ teacupful of good thick small-beer yeast, and 4 lb. flour. If to be made with currants, add 1 or 1½ lb. currants, clean washed, picked, and dried. Make the milk blood-warm; if the weather is cold, rather warmer; put it into a gallon pan, with half the sugar, 6 oz. of flour, the yeast and eggs; mix together, cover the pan, and put in a warm place. When this has risen with a high, frothy head, and again fallen and become nearly flat, it is ready for the remaining portion of the ingredients to be mixed with it; but while rising, the butter should be rubbed in with the flour between the hands, until reduced to small crumbles. Mix the whole together into a nice mellow dough. If the flour is not very good and strong, about 4-6 oz. more may be required to make the dough of the required consistence. Cover the pan; let remain in a warm place for about ½ hour, or until the dough has risen 4 in. Make into buns by moulding the dough up into small balls lightly under the hands, and place on warm tins, slightly rubbed over with butter, about 3-4 in. asunder. Half-prove, and cross; brush the tops over with milk, and finish proving; bake in a hot oven; when done, brush the tops over again with milk. The best method for proving is to put the tins on shelves in a warm cupboard near the fire. Place a pan with hot water at the bottom, but put no tin on the pan. Put a piece of heated iron or brick into the water in the pan occasionally, to cause a steam to ascend, which will keep the surface of the buns moist, when they will expand or prove to their full size, otherwise the surface will be hardened, and prevent expansion. Keep the cupboard door close shut until ready to bake.

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Italian Bread.—Take 1 lb. butter, 1 lb. powdered loaf sugar, 18 oz. flour, 12 eggs, ½ lb. citron and lemon peel. Mix as for pound-cake. If the mixture begins to curdle, which is most likely from the quantity of eggs, add a little of the flour. When the eggs are all used, and it is light, stir in the remainder of the flour lightly. Bake in long, narrow tins, either papered or buttered; first put in a layer of the mixture, and cover with the peel cut in large thin slices; proceed in this way until ¾ full, and bake in a moderate oven.

Lemon Biscuits.—Prepare dough as for filbert biscuits, but leave out orange-flower water and use 6 drops essence of lemon; cut out, dock with lemon docker; bake in good steady heat.

Lemon Cheese Cake.—Prepare as for common cheese-cakes; grate rind of fresh lemon; squeeze the juice, and mix.

Lord Mayor’s Cake.—Whisk 1 lb. sifted loaf sugar and 8 eggs in a warm earthen pan for 15 minutes, or until quite thick; add a few caraway seeds and 1 lb. flour; mix lightly with a spoon, and drop on paper, about the size of a small teacup; place on iron plates; sift sugar or caraway seeds on top; bake in hot oven; when done, take off the papers, and stick two together.

Lunch or School Cake.—Mix ½ lb. moist sugar with 2 lb. flour; in a hole in the middle put 1 tablespoonful good thick yeast (not bitter); warm ½ pint milk rather more than blood warm, but not hot enough to scald the yeast; mix ⅓ with the yeast and a little of the flour; when it has risen (say ¾ hour if the yeast is good) melt ½ lb. butter in a little more milk; add 1½ lb. currants, a little candied peel, and grated rind of lemon, and 1 teaspoonful powdered allspice; mix; butter hoop or tin, put in, and set in warm place to rise; bake in warm oven. This cake should be mixed up rather softer than bread dough.

Macaroons.—Pound 1 lb. blanched and dried sweet almonds fine in a mortar; pass through wire sieve; make into softish batter, with whites of 5 or 6 eggs, and a spoonful or two of orange-flower water; beat well; lay on oval wafer-paper; dredge tops with powdered loaf sugar; bake in rather cool oven.

Madeira Cake.—Whisk 4 eggs very light, and, still whisking, throw in by slow degrees the following ingredients in the order named—6 oz. each sifted sugar and flour, 4 oz. butter, slightly dissolved but not heated, the rind of a fresh lemon, and ⅓ teaspoonful soda carbonate; beat well just before moulding; bake for 1 hour in moderate oven. Each portion of butter must be beaten into the mixture until no appearance of it remains, before the next is added.

Muffins.—These should be baked on a hot iron plate. To 1 peck flour add ¾ pint good small-beer yeast, 4 oz. of salt, and water (or milk) slightly warmed, sufficient to form a dough of rather soft consistency; when light, small portions of the dough are put into holes, made in a layer of flour about 2 in. thick, placed on a board; cover up with a blanket, and stand near a fire, to cause the dough to rise to a semi-globular shape; place on heated iron plate, and bake; when bottoms begin to acquire brownish colour, turn, and bake opposite side.

Naples Biscuits.—Take 6 oz. each moist and loaf sugar, ¼ pint water; proceed as for diet cake, with 6 eggs and ¾ lb. flour; have tins papered: fill nearly full of the batter; sugar the tops; bake in rather slow oven. These biscuits are diet-bread batter, fancifully dropped into tins, papered with white paper, and baked in a warm oven, with a little sugar sifted over the top.

Oatmeal Cakes.—These are composed of oatmeal and water; and the difficulties lie, first, in wetting, with sufficient quickness, the whole of the meal, without drenching any portion of it; secondly, in properly kneading and rolling out the cakes with dexterity and despatch; and, finally, in turning them while baking, or “firing.” They are sometimes baked on a “girdle” or “griddle”—a flat piece of cast iron, placed over a bright fire; sometimes on a “toaster,” which is similar to a hanger, with a sliding back, which supports the cake in front of the fire; and sometimes in an American oven.

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The process of making is as follows:—Put 2 or 3 handfuls of meal into a 3 pint basin; stir while pouring in boiling water; when all is moistened, having scattered a handful of dry meal over the paste-board, turn out the “leaven” with a spoon or your hand, dusted with meal; take a piece, according to the size of cake required, and knead out, using the rolling-pin if wanted thin; shape with a knife or tin cutter 4-5 in. in diameter. As oatmeal swells and dries very rapidly, to have cakes that will stick together, and, at the same time, eat short or “free,” this process cannot be done too expeditiously. Each of the three modes of baking gives a different flavour. For toasting let the cakes be 10 or 12 in. in diameter, nip up the edge all round, and cut them across twice, which makes a square edge for them to stand on. In this form they are called “farls.” For turning, use a broad, supple knife, or a piece of tin plate. A little butter melted in the water is an improvement.

Parkin.—(a) 4 lb. oatmeal, 4 lb. treacle, 1 lb. sugar, 1 lb. butter, 2 oz. powdered ginger. Set a pan before the fire with the treacle and butter in it. When dissolved, add the other ingredients, and stir it as stiff as you can with a knife, but do not knead it. Add 1 teacupful brandy (if liked), and bake it in a cool oven in dripping pans or flat dishes about 2 in. thick. Do not turn it out till quite cold, or it will break, but cut it across with a knife where you would like it divided. It must be baked in a cool oven. Some people make it in round cakes. (b) 1 lb. Yorkshire oatmeal, 1 lb. thick treacle (not golden syrup), ¼ lb. butter, ¼ lb. moist sugar, mixed spice and ginger to taste. Rub the butter into the meal with the sugar and spice, then add the treacle (melted, if too thick), mix all well together, and bake in flat tins, such as are used for Yorkshire puddings, in a slow oven, for 2 hours or more. Parkin is not fit for eating for 2-3 days, till it has become perfectly soft. (c) 7 lb. oatmeal, 1 lb. butter, 2 lb. treacle, 3 tablespoonfuls soda carbonate; to be baked in hoops the same as teacakes. The butter to be melted and mixed with the treacle warm. (d) 4 lb. oatmeal, ¾ lb. butter, ¾ lb. lard; currants, raisins (candied lemon peel if approved), ginger, and cayenne pepper to taste. Add sufficient treacle to make the whole into a soft paste. Bake in a slow oven. The treacle, butter, and lard should be warmed a little together. Butter and lard keep the cake moist longer than if only butter were used.

Plum Cake.—(a) Set a sponge with 1 lb. flour, ½ pint warm milk, and 3 tablespoonfuls good yeast; beat up 4 oz. butter, 4 oz. powdered sugar, 2 eggs, and 4 oz. flour as for pound cake; put in sponge, and beat all well together; add 1 lb. currants; bake without proving in a slow oven.

(b) Beat 1 lb. butter with your hand in a warm pan till it comes to a fine cream, add 1 lb. powdered loaf sugar; beat together to a nice cream; have 1¼ lb. flour sifted, put in a little, and stir; add 4 eggs; beat well; add a little more flour and 4 more eggs; beat it well again; stir in remainder of flour; for small cakes, butter the tins; for large ones, paper; sugar over the top, and bake in moderate heat.

(c) Sift 1 lb. loaf sugar; add 1 lb. fresh butter, melted a little, and worked by hand to consistency of cream; beat together; while doing so, add 10 eggs; beat till well incorporated; mix 4 oz. candied orange or lemon peel, shred or cut small, a few currants and 1 lb. flour well together; put in a hoop; sift sugar on top; bake in warm oven.

Porridge.—Put on the fire a pan, of the size that will hold the quantity required, about ⅔ full of water; when the water is quick boiling take a handful of meal, and holding the hand over the pan—of course high enough to avoid being burned by the steam—let the meal slide slowly through the fingers into the water, the other hand stirring all the time with a wooden spoon, or what Scotch cooks call the “spurtle.” Continue this till enough of meal is put into the water, then add salt to taste, and, allow the porridge to boil for 20-30 minutes, stirring occasionally lest it stick to the pan and scorch. Porridge is not good if boiled less than 20 minutes; but for children, or delicate stomachs it should be boiled the full ½ hour, by which time the meal is so well swelled and softened that it becomes a digestible and most nutritious article of[216] food. Letting the meal slide slowly into the water is an important element in making good porridge. If it is thrown in too quickly, or the water allowed to cease boiling, it forms into lumps, and is not so good. It is not easy to give any rule as to the proportion of meal to water, as the thickness of porridge is quite a matter of taste. Of course it must be still thin when one stops putting in the meal, as it swells to more than half as much again with the boiling.

Pound Cake.—The following table gives the ingredients necessary for rich pound-, Twelfth-, or bride-cakes of different prices:—

Ingredients.10s.6d.12s.15s.18s.1l.1s.1l.11s.2l.2s.
lb. oz.lb. oz.lb. oz.lb. oz.lb. oz.lb. oz.lb. oz.
Butter0 110 131   11   41   62   12 12
Sugar0   70   80 100 121   01   61 12
Currants1   41   61 102   02   83 125   0
Orange, lemon, and
citron (mixed)
0   60   70   80 100 121   21   8
Almonds0  1½0   20   20   30   30   40   6
Mixed spice*0  0½0  0¾0   10  1½0   2
Flour0 110 131   11   41   62   12 12
Eggs (number)67910121824
Brandy, or brandy
and wine
Wineglassfull¼ pt.½ pt.

* Nutmegs, mace, and cinnamon, of equal parts, in powder.

These proportions allow for the cake being iced. If more sugar is preferred, it may be the same as the butter; less is used that the cake may be light, and to allow for the sweet fruit. Double the quantity of almonds may be used. To make: warm a smooth pan, large enough for the mixture; put in the butter, and reduce it to a fine cream, by working it about the pan with your hand. In summer the pan need not be warmed; but in winter keep the mixture as warm as possible, without oiling the butter. Add the sugar and mix it well with the butter, until it becomes white and feels light in the hand. Break in 2 or 3 eggs at a time, and work the mixture well before more is added. Continue doing this until all are used and it becomes light; then add the spirit, currants, peel, spice, and almonds, most of the almonds being previously cut in thin slices, and the peel into small thin strips and bits. When these are incorporated, mix in the flour lightly; put it in a hoop with paper over the bottom and round the sides, and place on a baking-plate. Large cakes require 3 or 4 pieces of stiff paper round the sides; and if the cake is very large, a pipe or funnel, made either of stiff paper or tin, and well buttered, should be put in the centre, and the mixture placed round it; this is to allow the middle of the cake to be well baked, otherwise the edge would be burnt 2 or 3 in. deep before it could be properly done. Place the tin plates containing the cake on another, the surface of which is covered 1 or 2 in. thick with sawdust or fine ashes to protect the bottom. Bake it in an oven at a moderate heat. The time required to bake it will depend on the state of the oven and the size of the cake. A guinea cake in an oven of a proper heat will take 4 to 5 hours. When the cake is cold proceed to ice it. Wedding-cakes have generally, first, a coating on the top of almond icing; when this is dry, the sides and top are covered with royal or white icing. Fix on gum paste or other ornaments while it is wet; and when dry, ornament with piping, orange-blossoms, ribbon, &c.; the surface and sides are often covered with small knobs of white sugar candy whilst the icing is wet. Twelfth-cakes are iced with white or coloured icing, and decorated with gum paste, plaster ornaments, piping-paste, rings, knots, and fancy papers, &c., and piped.

Prussian Cake.—Rub 4 oz. butter into 7 lb. flour; wet up with 1 qt. warm milk,[217] 1 pint warm water, 4 yolks of eggs, and ½ pint good thick yeast; if obliged to take more yeast, leave out some of the water; let dough lie 10-20 minutes; mould up round, ½-¾ lb. each; place on tins, about 2 in. from each other; put in warm place, and prove well; bake in steady heat; melt a little butter and wash over when done.

Queen’s Biscuits.—Rub 1 lb. butter into 2 lb. flour; add 1 lb. powdered sugar; make a hole and pour in ¼ pint milk, to mix it up with; add a few caraways, if you choose; roll the paste in sheets of the thickness of a halfpenny, cut into biscuits with a small round or oval cutter: place on clean tins, see that they do not quite touch; prick with a fork, and bake in a quick oven till they begin to change colour; when cold, they will be crisp.

Queen’s Cake.—Warm 1 lb. butter a little in an earthen pan, and work it by hand to a smooth cream; add 1 lb. finely-powdered and sifted loaf sugar; stir well with the butter for 5 minutes; add 8 eggs and 2 spoonfuls water gradually, continuing the beating until the whole is well mixed: stir in lightly 20 oz. flour, and a handful of currants; fill some small round buttered tins; dust tops with powdered loaf sugar; bake in warm oven.

Queen’s Drops.—Prepare as for pound cakes; add 2 oz. more flour, 1½ lb. currants; drop on whited brown paper, about the size of large nutmegs, about 2 inches from each other; put sheets on tins; bake in steady oven.

Queen’s Gingerbread.—Take 2 lb. honey, 1¾ lb. moist sugar, 3 lb. flour, ½ lb. sweet almonds blanched, ½ lb. preserved orange peel cut in thin fillets, the yellow rinds of 2 lemons grated off, 1 oz. cinnamon, ½ oz. each cloves, mace, and cardamoms, mixed and powdered; put the honey into a pan over the fire, with a wineglassful of water, and make quite hot; mix other ingredients together; make a bay, pour in the honey, and mix; let stand till next day; make into cakes, and bake; rub a little clarified sugar until it will blow into bubbles through a skimmer, and with a paste-brush rub over gingerbread when baked.

Rice Pound-cake.—Take 1 lb. butter, 1 lb. powdered loaf sugar, 12 oz. flour, ½ lb. ground rice, and 12 eggs. Mix as Italian bread, and bake in a papered hoop. If required with fruit, put 2 lb. currants, ¾ lb. peel, 1 grated nutmeg, and a little pounded mace.

Rout Biscuits.—Put 1 lb. powdered loaf sugar into a basin, with 3 gills milk, and let stand 2 hours, stirring occasionally; rub ½ lb. butter into 2 lb. flour; make a hole in it, add a little sal volatile pounded fine, and an egg, with the dissolved sugar; stir together, and mix into smooth dough; let lie 10 minutes; cut out; place on buttered tins; wash with milk; bake quickly.

Rout Cake.—Pound 1 lb. sweet almonds, blanched and dried, and 1 lb. loaf sugar in a mortar; sieve; put what will not pass into a mortar again, with 4 yolks of eggs, and the rind of a lemon; pound very fine, put in what has passed through sieve, and mix all together; make any shape; sprinkle lightly with a little water; sift sugar over, and put on tins that have been rubbed with a bit of butter, so as not to touch each other; bake in rather brisk oven till lightly coloured over; if coloured too deep at bottom, put cold tins under to finish baking.

(c) Take shape, butter it, sift sugar into it, and turn out all the sugar that does not stick to the butter; mix ½ lb. sifted sugar, and 6 oz. sifted flour; warm pan, put in sugar, break in 4 whole eggs and 1 yolk; whisk till warm and then cold; stir in flour, turn batter into the shape, and bake in slow oven about 1 hour; when done, turn out bottom uppermost.

Rusks.—Put 1 qt. warm milk into a pan, with 1 oz. German yeast, 4 oz. moist sugar, and about 6 oz. flour; mix, and put aside in warm place to rise. Rub 6 oz. butter into 3½ lb. flour, and make into a dough with the ferment as soon as ready; prove a little, and divide in pieces of about 1½ lb. each; roll in long rolls about size of rolling-pin; place on buttered tins, 3-4 in. apart; flat down a little with the hand; prove well; bake[218] in moderately heated oven; when cold, cut across in slices; place on tins, and brown off on both sides in brisk oven.

Saffron Buns.—Made with the same mixture as hot cross buns, but with the addition of 1 oz. caraway seeds, and colouring with saffron.

Sally Lunns.—Take flour, a little salt and butter, 2 or 3 eggs, a small quantity of yeast, and milk and water; make light dough; set to rise after kneading; make dough into cakes, large enough to slice into rounds for toasting; bake slightly and quickly in hot oven.

Savoy Biscuits.—Powder and sift 1 lb. loaf sugar; sift 1 lb. flour; warm a pan, and put in the sugar; break 1 lb. eggs upon it; beat both together with a whisk till warm; beat till cold; stir in your flour; have a bladder and pipe ready; put batter into the bladder, and force through on sheets of paper; sift sugar over, and bake in quick oven; when cold, turn up, and wet bottom of paper; turn back again, and in 5 minutes they will come off easily.

Savoy Cake.—(a) Hot Mixture.—Take 1 lb. powdered loaf sugar, 1 pint good eggs, and 14 oz. flour. Warm a pan, free from grease, with the sugar in it, in the oven until you can scarcely bear your hand against it; then take out and pour in the eggs; whisk with a birch or wire whisk until quite light and cold, when it will be white and thick. If it should not whisk up well, warm again and beat as before; or it may be beat over the stove fire until it is of the warmth of new milk. When finished, sift the flour and stir it in lightly with a spoon, adding a few drops of essence of lemon to flavour it. Butter some tin or copper moulds regularly, with rather less on the top than the sides. Dust with loaf sugar sifted through a lawn sieve. Knock out all that does not adhere, and again dust with fine flour; turn out, and knock the mould on the board. Tie or pin a piece of buttered paper round the mould, so as to come 2 or 3 in. above the bottom. Fix the mould in a stand and nearly fill it. Bake in a moderate oven. When done, the top should be firm and dry. Try it by pushing in a small piece of stick or whisk, and if it comes out dry, it is done. The surface of the cake should be quite smooth. There is as much art in buttering the mould properly as in preparing the mixture.

(b) Cold Mixtures.—Separate the yolks from the whites when you break the eggs. Put the yolks into a clean pan with the sugar, and the whites in another by themselves. Let the pans be quite free from grease. If they are rubbed round with a little flour, it will take off any which may be left. Wipe out with a clean cloth. Beat up the yolks and sugar by themselves, with a wooden spoon, and afterwards whip up the whites to a very strong froth. If they should happen to be rather weak, a bit of powdered alum may be added. When the whites are whisked up firm, stir in the yolks and sugar. Sift the flour and mix it lightly with the spatula, adding a little essence of lemon to flavour. Fill the moulds and bake as before. When cakes are made in this way, the eggs should be quite fresh and good, otherwise the whites cannot be whipped up. When weak, pickled eggs are used. A good method is to beat the eggs first by themselves, over a fire, until they are warm; then add the sugar, and whip it over the fire until again warm, or make as for hot mixtures, and heat twice.

Scones.—Warm fresh milk almost to boiling; stir in as much flour as will make a mass that will turn clean out of the bowl without leaving anything adhering to the sides, roll out thin; cut into rounds; bake lightly and quickly.

Seed Cake.—As for pound cakes, but instead of currants and candied lemon peel, substitute a few caraway seeds; omit sugar on top.

Short-Bread.—Rub 1 lb. butter into 3 lb. flour; add 1½ lb. powdered loaf sugar; wet up with ¼ pint each honey-water and milk, and 2 eggs; break in pieces about 1½ oz. each; roll oval or round to size of tea-saucer; pinch round edge; place 1 in. from each other on clean tins, not buttered; cut ½ lb. candied orange or lemon peel into pieces, and lay on top; bake in steady oven.

Shrewsbury Cake.—Mix ¾ lb. powdered loaf sugar with 1¼ lb. flour; rub ¾ lb. butter[219] in with the flour and sugar; add 1 white and 3 yolks of eggs; mix together to a smooth paste; roll into thin sheets; cut out cakes about size of half-a-crown; place on clean tins; bake in slow oven till they begin to change colour.

Simnel Cake.—In some counties these are called “Mothering” cakes, it being the custom to have them on mid-Lent or Mothering Sunday. A simnel cake is really neither more nor less than any other very rich plum cake, the only difference being that it is first boiled and then baked (very slowly) in a crust of flour and water, with which has been mixed some saffron to make it look yellow. To make the cake, beat up 1½ lb. butter with the hand till it becomes a cream, and whip the whites of 8 fresh eggs to a froth; mix these with the creamed butter, and afterwards add the 8 yolks well beaten; add 1 lb. castor sugar, 2 teaspoonfuls salt, 2 lb. well cleaned and dried currants, 1½ lb. flour, ½ lb. candied lemon peel, and the same of citron, cut very thin, ½ oz. pounded nutmeg, cinnamon and allspice, ½ lb. blanched almonds pounded, 6 large lumps of sugar rubbed on the rinds of 4 oranges and then pounded, beating each of the above ingredients into the flour before adding the next; also stir in 1 wineglassful brandy, continuing to beat the cake for more than ½ hour. Roll out the paste, made as directed, somewhat less than ½ in. thick; put a cloth wrung out of boiling water and floured into a large basin, over this put the rolled-out paste, and into the paste put the cake mixture when sufficiently beaten. Close the paste by folding it over, and then tie it up in the cloth. Remove it from the basin, which was merely to support the cake while tying it up, and put it on to boil for 3 hours. Remove the cloth, and place the cake on a baking tin the smooth side upwards. When nearly cold, brush it well over with egg, and put it to bake in a very slow oven until the crust is as hard as wood. The crust should be a light colour.

Soda Scones.—To 2 lb. flour add 1 oz. butter, ½ oz. soda bicarbonate, ¼ oz. tartaric acid, and 1 qt. milk or butter-milk; mix and bake as scones.

Spice Gingerbread.—Take 3 lb. flour, 1 lb. butter, 1 lb. moist sugar, 4 oz. candied lemon or orange peel cut small, 1 oz. powdered ginger, 2 oz. powdered allspice, ½ oz. powdered cinnamon, 1 oz. caraway seeds, and 3 lb. treacle; rub the butter with your hand into the flour; add the other ingredients, and mix it in the dough with the treacle; make into nuts or cakes; bake in cool oven.

Spice Nuts.—Take 7 lb. treacle; rub 1 lb. butter into 9 lb. flour; mix 4 oz. each ground allspice and ground ginger, 2 oz. each caraway and coriander seeds powdered, with butter, flour, and treacle; roll 1 lb. moist sugar, and strew over top; roll out in long rolls about size of finger; cut in pieces size of nutmeg; place on buttered tins; wash with water or small-beer; bake in steady oven.

Sponge Cake.—Into ¾ lb. powdered sugar, break ¾ lb. eggs in a warm pan; whisk till cold; stir in ½ lb. flour; have tins ready buttered and sugared; put about ¾ tablespoonful into each; sift sugar over; bake in moderately brisk oven.

Sweetmeat Nuts.—Take 7 lb. treacle; mix 4 oz. ground ginger, 6 oz. ground allspice, 8 oz. candied lemon and orange, cut small, with 9 lb. flour; wet up with treacle; beat in dough 4 lb. butter and 5 lb. moist sugar; lay off on buttered tins, about the size of walnuts, flat down, wash with water, and bake in slow oven.

Sweet Rusks.—Cut a diet-bread cake into thin long slices; lay on iron plates, and brown quickly in very hot oven; turn when of a light-brown colour; when of same colour on other side, they are done.

Tea Cake.—Break 8 eggs into a warm pan on 1 lb. pounded and sifted loaf sugar; beat together till thick and whitish; stir in lightly 1 lb. sifted flour; with a bag and pipe, as for Savoy biscuits, form mixture into drops about size of half-a-crown, 1 in. apart, on sheets of whited brown paper; dust lightly with powdered loaf sugar; place on tins; bake in good heat till nicely coloured; remove from paper as Savoy biscuits.

Thick Gingerbread.—Take 7 lb. treacle; rub ¾ lb. butter into 12 lb. flour; mix 3 oz. caraway, 2 oz. ground coriander seeds, and 2 oz. ground allspice, with flour and treacle;[220] mould; in a week make into cakes, on a mould or print; butter the sides, and place close together on buttered tins; put up-sets round, wash with milk, and bake in steady heat; when done, wash with egg and milk.

Tops and Bottoms.—Prepare as for rusks; make into small balls about the size of a large walnut; place on tins in straight rows just to touch; prove well; bake in a moderate heat; when cold, draw a sharp knife between rows; to cut balls out square turn on side, and cut through middle, one at a time: place close on tin, with cut part upwards; put in warm oven; done when nicely browned over.

Twelfth Cake.—Prepare as for plum or bride cake; or, if as for plain pound cake, take 3 lb. currants, 4 oz. candied orange and lemon peel, to every pound of sugar; make any size; when done, ice over, and lay on ornaments while ice is wet.

Venice Cake.—Cut a Savoy cake in slices ½ to ¾ in. thick, in a parallel direction from the bottom to the top; spread each slice with raspberry or apricot jam, or some of each alternately, or any other sort of preserve. Replace each piece in its original form: when completed, make an icing as directed for cakes, with 4 whites of eggs to 1 lb. sugar, which will make it rather thin. It may be coloured with cochineal, &c.; spread it over the cake, which, being thin, will run into the flutes and mouldings of the cake, when it will appear of the same form as before. Let dry in the mouth of the oven, but be careful it does not get discoloured. When dry, ornament with piping. Savoy cakes are often done in the same manner, without being cut in slices, to ornament them; or they may be done without icing, and either piped, or ornamented with gum-paste borders, &c., which are fixed on with dissolved gum arabic. Volutes or high and projecting figures are supported with pieces of small wire.

Vienna Bread.—Add to 1 pint new milk, 2 oz. fresh German yeast, 6 oz. each best loaf sugar and good butter, and sufficient best Vienna flour to form a tight or stiff dough; shape into rolls, pointed at each end; bake rich brown colour in quick oven.

Wine Biscuits.—2 lb. flour, 1 lb. butter, 4 oz. sifted loaf sugar; rub the sugar and butter into the flour, and make into a stiff paste with milk; pound in a mortar; roll out thin, and cut into sizes or shapes to fancy; lay on buttered paper or iron plates: brush tops with milk; bake in warm oven; glaze by brushing over with a brush dipped in egg; caraway seeds may be added.

York Biscuits.—Prepare as for filbert biscuits; dock; bake in hot oven, and do not wash over.

Yorkshire Cake.—Rub 4 oz. butter into 7 lb. flour; wet up with 1 qt. warm milk, 1 pint warm water, and ½-¾ pint good yeast; prove about 20 minutes; make into cakes, and put on warm tins; when well proved, make a hole in the middle, size of finger; bake in hot oven; when done, wash with a little melted butter.

Yule Cakes.—Put 1 lb. sifted flour into a large basin, to which add 1 saltspoonful salt; dissolve ¼ oz. German yeast in ½ pint tepid water, and stir into the flour with a wooden spoon; cover it with a thick cloth, and let it stand in a warm place for an hour to rise, add ½ lb. butter beaten to a cream, ½ lb. moist sugar, ⅙ nutmeg (grated), ¾ lb. currants, 4 oz. candied peel (chopped), and 2 beaten eggs; mix well, and only half fill the tin into which you put it; bake in a moderate oven for 1¾-2 hours; turn it out of the tin to get cold.


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THE KITCHEN.

This chapter may be divided into 3 sections, dealing respectively with (1) the Fittings, embracing the cooking range, pots, pans, &c.; (2) the Processes of Cookery; and (3) Recipes for the preparation of a great variety of dishes and their adjuncts, such as sauces, &c.

THE FITTINGS.

Ranges.—There is no subject more interesting to the housekeeper, or of more importance in the household, than the proper preparation of our food by cooking, and good results can only be obtained by two means, a fair knowledge of cookery, and (absolutely necessary under any circumstances) an efficient cooking apparatus. There are stringent laws governing our sanitary arrangements, and it is to be regretted that equally stringent laws do not exist to govern the efficiency of the apparatus under discussion, for it must be acknowledged that if the latter is not fairly perfect, it interferes with the health and comfort of a household. A vast number of badly fixed and badly constructed ranges are in use at the present moment. The speculative builder, not being governed by any rules or laws, is apt to purchase and use a cheap range, provided its general appearance is pleasing, “brick-flue” ranges being invariably adopted. It is in the construction of these brick flues where the trouble generally arises, as the flues in question have to be made by the builders’ man or fixer, who is more or less experienced in range work (commonly less), and, as everyone knows, the flues are the most important part of the range. Their importance is so great that one small error or want of judgment will ruin the most costly brick-flue range made. Brick-flue ranges, wherever possible, should be fixed by the makers, and the same remark may be applied to “iron-flue” ranges. The difference between a brick-flue and an iron-flue range is, that in the former all the flues are built in brickwork by the person fixing the stove, and in the latter all the flues are made of iron by the range manufacturer. It is acknowledged that the latter are superior, but they are not generally adopted on account of increase in cost (not great). The superiority consists in the greater durability, never requiring re-setting, greater efficiency, and, most important, it being almost impossible for even an ignorant man to set them wrongly. Iron flues also are slower in becoming fouled and more easily cleaned. But these flues should be of cast iron, and not less than ¼ in. substance. Brick flues have several failings as is known to almost everyone, for it is a very common saying that the range does not work because it is not set well, or wants re-setting. In the first place, a bricklayer, however skilled, cannot know the correct size of flues for certain ranges so well as the manufacturers, and secondly, on the first occasion that such a range is used, expansion takes place and, in cooling, the metal and the brickwork part company, causing leakage of draught, and so tending to spoil efficiency; and in time the unequal expansion and contraction make re-setting necessary, which should never arise with an iron-flue range. It may be here mentioned that immediately air or draught leaks into the flues from any cause whatever, the good results will be diminished, or, in other words, it will take a greater quantity of fuel to do a certain amount of work, apart from the inconvenience, worry, increased labour, &c. It will be noticed that the above remarks only apply to the comparatively modern close-fire ranges or kitcheners.

[222]

Open-fire Ranges.—The now old fashioned open range, although very often met with, is rapidly dying out, as its disadvantages are very great, and it is ill adapted for modern cookery (which may be correctly defined as hot-plate cookery). Its disadvantages may be summed up as follows:—dirtiness, as all the cooking vessels have to be put in contact with the fire; aptness for smoking, as under almost the best of circumstances, a “blower” is necessary; extravagance; intense heat radiated into the kitchen, and so necessitating the use of a screen (or what might be more properly termed a cook protector); and irregularity in action, as unless the cook is careful or really skilful in attention, it cannot be relied upon one day to give the results it gave the previous day, and the chimney requires very frequent sweeping. It is a capital range for roasting in front, an advantage highly appreciated by many (but in England only).

Hot Plates.—A hot-plate consists very generally of a mass of brickwork surmounted by a strong cast-iron plate with several apertures in it, these apertures being provided with covers; a furnace or fire-place is situated at one end of the structure and at the opposite end is the chimney; between the furnace and the chimney a flue or passage for the flame and heat is provided, and this flue is situated immediately under the iron plate, so that when the fire is alight the plate quickly reaches a very high temperature, hence the term “hot-plate.”

A hot-plate, as will be understood, is adapted for boiling, stewing, &c. only, and it cannot be recommended as economical.

Baking Ovens.—These are made exactly like the ovens used by bakers but upon a smaller scale, suited for domestic requirements. They consist of an oven having a flue passing up each side of it, the fire or furnace being situated at the base. The results are very good, as the oven thus has an excess heat at bottom, which is so necessary for the baking of bread and pastry.

Close-fire Ranges or “Kitcheners.”—This is the form of cooking-ranges now in general favour, and under ordinary circumstances very satisfactory results are obtained both in efficiency and economy.

Close-fire ranges are made in various forms, the smaller and medium sizes generally having an oven on one side and a boiler on the other, the fire being situated between. The larger sizes are also made like this if desired, but more generally they have one or more ovens On each side of the fire, the boiler (either high or low pressure, or steam) being placed at the back of the fire. This is the most economical arrangement, as the boiler then utilises the only space that cannot be used for anything else. The ovens of these ranges are invariably heated by means of flues; a flue is a passage by which the flame-heat and products of combustion pass from the fire to the chimney, and a flue is so constructed that the heat in passing is caused to impinge upon the under surface of the hot plate, upon the oven, and upon any part or surface where heat is needed. Fig. 69 (in section) will acquaint the reader with the general arrangement of a close-fire range, such as is at present in use. The oven, it will be noticed, is heated by means of a flue passing over down the outer side and under the oven, and an oven of this description is known as a “Leamington” oven, as it is the arrangement that was first introduced in what is known as the “Leamington range.”

The Leamington range was first made (in Leamington) some 30 years ago, and with at the time such a vast improvement upon the cooking apparatus then in use that it has remained in favour up till the present day, and it will be noticed in the ranges that are described farther on that very little improvement has been made upon it, except in one or two instances. From the illustration it will be seen that the oven must necessarily have an excess heat at top and the least heat at bottom. This is the best arrangement for meat roasting, as the heat is not required under the roasting-pan; but for pastry, this arrangement is ruinous, as the oven is thus heated in precisely an opposite manner to a baker’s oven, and this is its only objection. Every housekeeper knows that pastry requires a bottom heat to make it rise and be light. As the heat passes over[223] the oven, it also heats the hot plate which forms the upper surface of the flue. It must now be explained why the flame, &c., passes around the oven when its natural tendency is of course to go upwards. The up-current of air or draught that exists in a chimney is treated and explained under Heating (see p. 79); this draught or up-current, as it rises, naturally causes fresh air to rush into the chimney to take the place of that which has risen. When a range is properly set the only opening through which this fresh supply of air can pass is through the fire, and thence by way of the flues into the chimney, this current is very rapid, and so carries all products from the fire with it, thus effectually distributing the heat as desired. When these products reach the bottom of the oven, they pass into a flue at the back, which is carried up and terminated in the chimney as shown.

69. Section of Close Range.

It will also be noticed from the illustration (and it is known to all who have used close ranges) that for the fire to be effectual it must be kept up, or in other words the flue-box must be kept full of fuel as all the work is done from the top of the fire. It cannot be comprehended why range-makers still insist upon making such deep fires; they average about 10-12 in. in depth (or height), whereas 5-6 in. will give as good results with decidedly less fuel, as can be proved by anyone by using a high false bottom (this cannot be done if a high-pressure boiler is at back of fire, as it will prevent the heat passing under the flue). The reason is that, as before stated, all the work is done from the top of the fire, the hot plate and the entrance to the flues being both situated there; and it will be found that the fire-box, however deep, will not heat the oven or hot plate if it is only three-fourths full of fuel, as there will naturally be a space above the fuel where the air can pass through into the flues without being first heated, and will so tend to cool the ovens and hot plate most effectually. The only part of a range that still answers fairly when the fire-box is not full is the boiler at the back, as the flue of this is always at the bottom of the fire. It is imperative with these ranges that all the air that passes into the chimney should first pass through the fire.

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The dampers are metal plates which slide through suitable slots into the flues that are carried up the back of the range, they have knobs or handles in front by which they are pushed in or drawn out as desired. When drawn fully out, they leave the flue clear and do not obstruct the draught; when pushed quite in, they close the flue and stop the draught. They can be put in any intermediate position; their object is to regulate the draught to the requirements; by regulating the draught the heat and the consumption of fuel are regulated also, and by means of the dampers the heat can be closed off or put on to the oven, or boiler, &c., as desired. It is to the mismanagement of these dampers that the extravagance in many instances is due; if the draught is good, they should never be pulled out fully, as this will cause the fire to “roar;” they should be pushed in (both for ovens and boilers) until a murmuring sound is heard; this is the correct speed for all purposes in general. It cannot be too strongly impressed upon housewives that a “roaring” fire gives really less result than a steadily burning one as described. Too fierce a fire has other serious results, viz., undue wear and tear to the range, overheating the kitchen, increased labour in attention and stoking, and the probability of the ovens, &c., becoming too hot; in fact general inconvenience is experienced by this, irrespective of the great waste of fuel.

A good feature in a close-fire range is a means of making an open fire when no cooking or work is required to be done between meals, and in the evening.

An open fire is very slow burning as it is not affected by the draught; it will burn 2 hours without attention, and is thus very economical, saves labour, and if desired the cook can leave the kitchen for a considerable time without anxiety as to whether the fire wants replenishing. The closed fire is decidedly the best form for cooking purposes, but when no cooking is required it must be attended to frequently or be permitted to go out. An open fire is also a ventilator, is cheerful for those in the kitchen, and if a good fire is left open at night, the boiler will be found to contain fairly warm, if not hot water in the morning.

Ovens should always be provided with 2 ventilators, viz., an inlet and an outlet; there are very many ovens with even modern ranges that are only fitted with one ventilator, but a moment’s consideration will show that one ventilator is useless, as you cannot get air to pass out of an oven unless there is a means for a corresponding volume of air to pass in to replace it, and vice versâ, and means should be provided to warm the air as it passes in, for reasons that are obvious. The use of the ventilators is to take off the excess heat, the steam, smells of cooking, &c., from the oven (the outlet ventilator opening into the flue), and by use of the ventilators meat can be either roasted or baked in an oven, the distinction between roasting and baking being that to roast meat the air must have free access to the joint by opening the vents, whereas in baking meat the vents are closed and the meat is cooked in its own vapour, &c.

The former method has the greatest number of advocates, as the results are the same as if it was roasted in front of the fire, provided it has the same attention in basting, &c. It may be here mentioned that in oven-roasting, a water-pan should be used, as it prevents the oven becoming foul by the burning and splashing of fat, and has other advantages; this pan really consists of 2 pans, one fitting within the other, a space of about ½ in. existing between, and a properly constructed meat-stand fitting into the upper one. The joint is put in position on the stand, and the whole is placed in the oven, after which the space between the two is filled with water through an aperture provided for the purpose. These pans are very satisfactory in use, and are now in general favour.

The cleaning of flues should be done once weekly, if the chimney has a good draught, or with hard fuel this time may be exceeded; but it is desirable to say once weekly, as it is then done at regular periods on a certain day; with a very sluggish draught it is sometimes found necessary to clean them a little oftener, as the soot is then nearly all deposited in the flues, and as the fire is longer in becoming bright,[225] more soot is naturally formed (with a bright fire scarcely a particle of soot is formed, the combustion being nearly perfect). The correct method to clean the flues of a kitchen (close fire) range is as follows:—First remove all small flue-doors, loose covers, &c., then draw out the dampers to their full extent, take the flue-brush and pass it first up and then down the flues that are carried up the back of the range, inserting the brush through the openings that are provided just below the dampers; then brush the soot from the tops of the ovens down the flues at the sides; brush down these side flues; and lastly carefully scrape and brush out all the soot that has now accumulated in the flues under the ovens. But it must not be forgotten that the bottom of the oven requires well brushing; this is often omitted, yet it is most important, as in many instances, as before explained, the utmost heat is needed at the bottom, and if it is coated with soot very little heat will pass through, as soot is a fairly good non-conductor of heat. After cleaning the flues, carefully replace all doors, covers, &c.; it cannot too strongly be impressed upon housewives that no opening must be left for the air to pass in, except first passing through the fire. Soot in flues produces two different ill effects, viz., reducing the draught by choking the flues, and preventing the heat coming in proper contact with the oven, as it is a very bad conductor.

The flue-brush for the average of flues should be about 4 in. in diameter at the hair, with a 3 ft. 6 in. or 4 ft. wire handle. Chimneys do not require sweeping nearly so often with close ranges as with open. With an entirely closed range it will with proper care go about 10 to 12 months; with a close range that can be opened (when not cooking) about 7-9 months, varying with different coals, &c. The management of a close-fire range has now been nearly all explained; it may be summed up as follows. At first lighting (after clearing the fire-box of ash, &c., in the usual way), draw out all dampness until the fire is established, after which push in dampers to a more or less extent according to draught. Never permit the fire to make a roaring noise, whether for oven or boiler. If the range has a high-pressure boiler, direct the heat to this until the water is hot, or until the range is required in preparing breakfast. After this meal, the dampers must be pushed in as far as possible to slacken the fire down until it is required for the midday meal (unless the range is required for any other purpose between these times), and the same follows after this meal. There are, however, very many residences where cooking, to a more or less extent is going on all day, in which case the regulation of the dampers must be left to the discretion of the cook. Thoroughly clean the flues at regular periods; if a high-pressure boiler exists, clear the flue under it of cinders, &c., every morning. Thoroughly clean inside the ovens and the oven shelves of any grease, &c., as this is the very general cause of unpleasant smells that pervade the house. When cooking, keep the fire-box well filled with fuel, by feeding it moderately often but in small quantities, as the fire must not be permitted to get low. Do not permit the hot plate to become red-hot; should it do so, push in dampers to decrease the draught, as the fire is burning too fiercely.

Want of draught, which sometimes occurs, and causes an utter failure of the range is due to several causes, the chief of which are:—(a) Other flues running into the kitchen chimney, generally a copper flue, not provided with a damper to close it when not in use. (b) Leakage of air into the flues through some aperture, commonly around the range, caused by imperfect or hurried setting. This can be discovered by holding the flame of a candle near any likely spot, when the flame will be drawn through if any leakage exists. (c) Insufficient height of chimney; about 20 ft. is sufficient for say a 4 ft. range, but the chimney top must be as high as any adjacent building, or impeded or down draught will occur. Suburban villas, &c., are frequently designed with the kitchen situated at the back, in an addition to the main building, this addition generally being lower, in which case, if the chimney is not carried up to the necessary height great inconvenience and annoyance will ensue. Impeded or down draught is sometimes caused by high trees being situated near the chimney. (d) Sooty flues, through[226] want of regular cleaning, or failing to put one of the flue doors in position after cleaning.

The use of the door in the top covering-in plate of the range is, by partially opening it, to take off the objectionable smell when frying, &c.; to reduce the draught to the whole of the range; and for the sweep to operate through when sweeping the chimney.

When a range is newly fixed, it will not give its best results until it has had good use for 6-8 days, as everything around it, the brickwork, &c., is damp and cold. They will sometimes smoke at first lighting, and as ranges differ considerably, a new range requires a certain amount of getting used to. When a range is newly set, the workmen should, before leaving, clear the flues, but this is sometimes neglected, and careless workmen have been known to leave even their tools in the flues.

In instances where a strong draught exists, and the servants cannot be depended upon to regulate the dampers or open the door at top to decrease it, an excellent method is to cut a hole into the flue through the chimney breast above the mantelpiece and there insert a ventilator, but it must be a self-acting one. Arnott’s patent is the best suited for this purpose, as it can be set to a nicety, so that, when the draught is excessive, the valve opens and the chimney gets part of its air, without affecting the fire; this reduces the draught, and then the valve partially or wholly closes, and so it continues. The results are similar to those ensured by the governor on a steam engine, viz., giving uniform regularity to the work.

Fuels.—The ordinary coals of commerce, such as Wallsend, Silkstone, Derby Main, &c., &c., although in general use, are not best adapted for close-fire ranges, which are really furnaces on a small scale, and should be treated as such. Coals such as the above are too highly charged with bitumen (tar), the major portion of which distils off as smoke, fouling the flue, and, as every particle of smoke is unconsumed fuel, there is considerable waste. These coals have also too great a proportion of hydrogen (producing flame) for furnace purposes, as combustion is so rapid; it will be noticed that when burning these soft bituminous coals, upon feeding the fire, volumes of smoke are first given off, after which the fuel fuses into a soft and sometimes sticky mass: this then flames violently for a short period, after which it is time to replenish the fire again. It must not, however, be concluded that fuels entirely free from hydrogen, such as anthracite, coke, charcoal, &c., are well suited for this work, as a fuel free of hydrogen gas burns without flame, and it is found desirable to have some flame, for the heat has to travel some 6 ft. (3 sides of the oven) before its work is performed. It is found that coke and anthracite give an intense local heat (i.e. immediately in or near the fire); but this has an ill effect with the Leamington oven, as making the top of the oven of so much higher a temperature than the bottom, which is fatal to pastry. Where, however, other fuels are not conveniently attainable, coke and anthracite can be used; but the results are not so satisfactory. Coke is almost always used on yachts, so that the sails, decks, &c., may be spotless; but a yacht range is of special make.

Coke, broken to the size of a large walnut, and ordinary coal, mixed in about equal proportions, is found very satisfactory; but the best fuel for close-fire (or the convertible close or open fire) ranges is what is commonly known as hard steam coal; this is not the technical appellation for it, but it is generally recognised by this name, and any good firm of coal merchants stock it, as it is much used for small furnace work. This coal has several advantages, viz., low price (about 16s. to 19s. per ton), much less smoke and soot, more intense heat evolved, and greater length of time in consumption. This is a coal bordering upon anthracite in its nature and composition, but has a moderate percentage of hydrogen; care must be exercised to see that the correct coal is obtained, as should a coal merchant not keep it, he might consider that the low price was the chief consideration and would send a cheap soft coal, which is very unsuitable. This[227] coal has one disadvantage, which is that it cannot be burned in the ordinary open grates unless the grate is provided with a blower, or some means of causing a draught to pass through the fire at first lighting or when heavily fed; it is therefore necessary to have convenience for keeping two sorts of coal.

The best size of coal for these ranges is “nuts,” this is a size that will pass through a 2 in. hole (in a coal sieve) and not through a 1 in. hole. “Cobbles,” which is a 4 in. coal, is too large for this work. It is commonly understood that “nuts” and “cobbles” indicate certain qualities of coal, but it is not so, they denote size only.

The kitchen range should be made to burn all the rubbish of the kitchen, provided it is combustible at all; but this should be done when the cooking of the day is finished.

The following are some ranges of modern and reliable make which have withstood the criticism of the public and the trade, and are all having a fair share of favour.

The “National” Patent Open and Close Fire Kitchener (George Wright & Sons, 113 Queen Victoria Street, E.C.). This method of converting from a close to an open fire, or vice versâ, is a great improvement on the ordinary arrangements for this purpose owing to its extreme simplicity, one movement only being required to effect the change, as will be seen by reference to the sectional diagrams, Figs. 70, 71. The well-known “Eagle” Patent Adjustable Bottom Grate, for regulating the fire, made under licence from the original patentees, being adapted to this range in combination with the above patent, establishes it as one of the most efficient and at the same time most economical ranges in the market, the slight extra initial cost of the range over that of an ordinary range being very soon covered by the great saving in fuel. Our illustration shows a high class range, but the same principles can be adapted to ranges of the cheaper class, though we do not advocate cheap ranges. Of all the fittings in a house, the kitchen range should be the first consideration, as so much of the comfort of a tenant depends upon its quality and efficiency. We cannot too highly recommend this range to the notice of our readers. See advertisement in front of title page.

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Fig. 70.   Fig. 71.

Fig. 70 is a sectional elevation through centre of fire from front to back when range is used as an open fire; the bottom grate being shown in a level position or half way up.

Fig. 71 is a sectional elevation on the same line as above, showing the position when in use as a close fire, and also shows the bottom grate in its lowest position.

To convert a close fire into an open fire, all that is necessary is to draw forward the top of the plate B, which then assumes a horizontal position, the same single movement opening the back, and forming a complete open hood or bonnet to convey the smoke from the fire into the chimney. The fire-cap C then slides back, the fall-bar turns down, and a complete open fire is formed. There are no wheels or cranks to get out of order, and there are no projections at back to interfere with back boiler or flues.

The “Eagle” Bottom Grate is so well known that it scarcely needs description, and when intelligently used is most economical. For heating the ovens or the hot plates a shallow fire only is necessary, and the consumption of fuel is thereby greatly reduced, and the deeper fire is only required for roasting or toasting, and even then the amount of fuel need not be greatly increased, as the bottom grate being worked on a pivot at back, when it is lowered to full extent in front, throws all the fuel to front of fire and the bars being vertical and slightly curved outwards, a large radiating surface is afforded, making a most perfect fire for roasting in front. This arrangement does away entirely with the objectionable “false bottom” of the ordinary kitchener, which is always burning out and very frequently checks the proper action of the boiler. See advertisement in front of title page.

72. Underfed Smoke-consuming Kitchener.

Brown and Green’s “Underfed Smoke-consuming Kitchener” (Brown & Green, 69 Finsbury Pavement, London), Fig. 72, is made in all sizes, from 8 ft. to 7 ft., with 1 to 4 ovens. The fire of this range is underfed, i.e. the fire is replenished at the bottom instead of at the top as usual, thus all gas, smoke, &c., are perfectly consumed, and the[229] range is practically smokeless. This is an advantage of importance from an hygienic point of view, and greatly decreases the flue-cleaning, chimney-sweeping, &c. The ovens of this range are of the Leamington type, and the flues have to be constructed in brickwork.

This firm also make the “Gem” cooking range, which is used as an auxiliary range, being quite portable, with iron flues, and requiring no brickwork whatever. It is made from 1 ft. 6 in. to 3 ft. wide.

73. Wilson Grate.

The “Wilson” range (Wilson Engineering Co., 227 High Holborn), Fig. 73, is a portable range requiring no brickwork, and made in all sizes from 2 ft. to 10 ft. The range is fitted with a means of consuming the major portion of the smoke. The fire-door and sides of fire-box are chambered in such a manner as to cause a swift current of superheated air to mingle with the smoke as it leaves the fire-box, and this causes combustion to take place, producing flame and very materially lessening the quantity of soot.

The ovens are upon the Leamington principle, but with a series of gills or heat collectors fitted at the bottom (in the flue), which equalises the heat at top and bottom (so necessary for pastry baking, &c.).

74. Treasure Range.

The “Treasure” range (T. J. Constantine, 61 Fleet Street, London), Fig. 74, is a portable range made in all sizes from 2 ft. upwards, and is similar in nearly every respect to the “Wilson” range last mentioned, excepting that the “Treasure” is now being made with an open-fronted fire for roasting, and with a movable bottom grating by[230] which the size of fire can be increased or decreased at will. This range requires no brick-setting.

This firm make a tray to slide (upon rollers), and closely fit under the range, which is of great convenience for heating plates, dishes, &c.

The “Sine qua Non” range (Albion Iron Co., 175 Upper Thames Street, London) is made in all sizes, and has the following advantages. Closed or open fire (one movement only); the heat can be directed to the top or to the bottom of ovens at will, and an improved ventilating arrangement at the back of range lessens draught and takes off excess heat and objectionable smells, &c., created at the hot plate. This is a brick-flue range. Cooking operations can be carried on with this range when the fire is open.

75. Dow’s Patent Range.

“Dow’s” patent range (J. B. Colbran & Co., 247 High Holborn, London), Fig. 75, is made in all sizes. It is a closed or open fire (one movement only), and the heat can[231] be directed to the top or bottom of the oven at will. It is a brick-flue range, and cooking operations can be carried on when the fire is open.

The “Mistress” range (Smith and Welstood, Ludgate Circus, London), Fig. 76, is a portable range, made in various sizes, with one or two ovens and boiler. This is what is commonly known as an “American” range. This term originated with ranges made for the use of American settlers, being quite portable, very compact, and provided with a complete set of utensils. They were then made light for convenience of transit, and being provided with rather high legs they could be stood down anywhere, and worked safely at a moment’s notice after attaching a few feet of flue-pipe.

76. Mistress Range.

The “Mistress” is made with a convertible open and closed fire, and can be had with doors, forming a hot closet for plates, &c., underneath (between the legs). The fire of this range is suited for roasting in front, and every range is fitted with a set of cooking utensils. The ovens are upon the Leamington principle. This firm also make many other patterns of this type of range suited for various requirements.

The “Yorkshire” range (so named as it is the pattern in general use in that county) is made to suit many purposes. It is a range especially adapted for bread, cake, and pastry baking, the ovens invariably having an excess heat at bottom; the flues are ascending, and the range therefore works with less draught. The range consists of a fire-box situated in the usual position, and the flues are carried from the top of the fire to the right or left, as in the Leamington range, but the bottom of the oven or ovens forms the upper surface of this first flue instead of the hot plate, i.e. the bottom of the oven is on a level with the top of the fire-box; the flue passes from the fire under the bottom of the ovens, then up the further side, and lastly across the top into the chimney, the results being like those obtained with the “Thorncliffe” range, but the only available hot-plate is that immediately over the fire and on top of the ovens. The space under the ovens (where the ovens of a Leamington pattern range would exist)[232] is sometimes entirely closed, but more usually occupied by hot closets, which are heated by the fire that passes across the top of them, similar to the “Thorncliffe” before mentioned. This description of range is not commonly met with in the south of England, but any range maker is prepared to supply it.

There is a combination of the Yorkshire and Leamington ranges made with an ordinary Leamington oven on one side with hot plate above it, and a Yorkshire oven on the other side with hot closet below it. This is a good and useful combination, but the hot plate is necessarily contracted. This and the Yorkshire range require brick flues.

It must be understood that the ranges mentioned are but a few well-known patterns that possess certain improvements upon the Leamington range. There are numberless other makes equally good, but it would occupy the major portion of this work to treat them all; and although those mentioned possess improvements upon the Leamington pattern, we must leave it to the intending purchaser to say whether the improvements are to his advantage. It must be said in favour of the Leamington range, that for general good results and simplicity in working and cleaning, it has always met with general approval, and probably no other make of range will remain in favour without interruption for upwards of 30 years as this has done.

Although certain makes of ranges have been specified, as having brick flues, yet the majority, if not all of them, can be had with iron flues at a proportionate extra expense, if so ordered, and this extra expense is a good investment if permanency is desired.

A most useful arrangement is to have a small portable range fixed in the scullery, or any other convenient position, to act as an auxiliary to the large range. The convenience of this arrangement is especially felt when the large range, during some repair, or the periodical boiler cleaning, cannot be used; or when company increase the requirements, or in summer, when only a small amount of cooking is needed, the small range will do the necessary work, and this also applies when only servants are remaining in the house.

This auxiliary range can be connected into a copper flue, or into the large range flue, but it must be seen that the damper of this small range is tightly closed when it is not in use, otherwise it will seriously interfere with the efficiency of whatever else is being worked by the flue.

With the old-fashioned open ranges there is a common complaint of the chimney smoking. This will be found in probably every instance to be effectually cured by the adoption of a close-fire range or “kitchener.”

Fire-bricks.—This is a subject upon which much misunderstanding has often arisen between manufacturers and users of kitchen ranges, as it is unfortunately no rare occurrence for the fire-bricks of quite a new range to be found cracked, after, say 2-3 months’ wear, whereas another set of bricks of exactly the same make and the same clay, in the same range, will last 2-3 years, or even longer. This may be sometimes caused by negligence. For instance, if fire-bricks are fitted tightly, they will, when heated, crack, as no room is left for expansion; but, what is more commonly the cause of failure, is firstly, the influence of the poker, and secondly the practice of putting out the fire (at night) with water. This rapid cooling and contraction causes a fracture, the same as putting cold water into a hot empty boiler.

Most makers are now making iron cheeks of suitable construction to take the place of fire-bricks, and the results are said to be satisfactory, though quite contrary to the principles already laid down as to a minimum use of iron in grates.

There is a rather general idea that fire-bricks assist in heating the ovens. This, however, is incorrect; the object of fire-bricks is to protect the oven sides from the direct action of the fire, as this would in a short time injure them.

There are now to be obtained several makes of fire-resisting cement. This material is gaining favour, and will no doubt come into general use for the purposes for which it is intended. It is a clay-like material, and is used for repairing cracked fire-bricks or[233] the interior lining of any description of furnace or fire-box; for rendering the joints of stoves and ranges air-tight; and it is also successful in temporarily repairing cracked boilers as it adheres to an iron surface as well as to any other material.

After cementing up the crack or damaged part, a fire is immediately made, and in 10 minutes the cement will be found to have set as hard as the iron itself, and it has a valuable property in not shrinking as it dries. This material is also used for lining the fire-boxes of kitchen ranges in place of fire-bricks, as it is much more lasting; its applications are very numerous, it being suitable for any and every purpose where heat is to be resisted. There are a few directions that must be followed to make the application successful, but these are provided by the manufacturers. Two of the best makes that have had considerable trial and are now in favour are the “Etna” cement (Verity Bros., 98 High Holborn), and the “Purimacos.”

77. Eagle Grill Stove.

Grills.—Grilling stoves, for coke or charcoal fuel, invariably take the form of an open-topped shallow furnace, above which is suspended the gridiron; Fig. 77 shows the general details. The furnace is sometimes supported on legs, but more generally the space underneath is utilised as a hot closet for plates, &c., and in some instances a hot closet is fitted above (as illustrated). The gridiron, which is made with fluted or grooved bars, is suspended at such an angle as to cause the gravy to run down freely into the pan in front provided to receive it. The method of suspending the grid permits of its being raised or lowered as the heat dictates. All grills are constructed to work with a down draught, i.e. the air that passes into the chimney has to first pass downwards through the fire and then up the flue provided behind. By this means, all products of combustion are carried away, and the fire may be said to be burning upside down.

Grills are also made to work with a series of Bunsen (atmospheric) burners in place of fuel beneath the gridiron.

Grills are made in various sizes for domestic or business requirements. The one illustrated in Fig. 77 is made by the Eagle Range & Foundry Co., 76 Regent Street, London, but they can be obtained of all range merchants and manufacturers.

Steam.—It has been long anticipated by many competent authorities that steam[234] cooking would come into general favour, to the prejudice of cooking ranges, and although this has not come to pass, any description of food cooked by steam (in a proper manner) is by many considered superior to that cooked by any other method. But it may be here mentioned that to gain good results the steam must be dry, i.e. there must be a moderate pressure developed in the boiler and the steam should not be permitted to condense too quickly; if the steam pipe is of any length it should be felted, or covered with some non-conducting material. Steam at no pressure (atmospheric pressure only), although a gas, may be said to be saturated with moisture, whereas if a little pressure is developed it becomes dry, and may be compared to hot air. Steam without pressure has the further disadvantage of condensing very rapidly, and the moisture is objectionable for several reasons.

One advantage possessed by steam cooking is that the kitchen does not become over heated, as the boiler, if desired, can be placed in a basement or elsewhere, provided it is convenient for stoking; and there is, of course, economy of space.

Steam can be economically used for every description of cooking purpose, and for heating water, by placing a coil of steam pipe in the water that is to be heated.

78. Steam Boiler.

Fig. 78 represents a steam boiler which requires to be fixed in brickwork. They are also made cylindrical (vertical) in shape with the furnace within them, and so require no setting, except connection with the chimney. A description of a steam boiler will be found under “motors,” the boiler and fittings in each case being nearly identical, except that a pressure-gauge is not always used with a boiler for cooking purposes, and a different means is provided for water supply generally, as illustrated. The reference letters indicate:—a, inlet valve, regulated by stone float c and balance-weight h; b, cold supply-pipe from main; d, safety-valve; e, water gauge; f, steam delivery pipe; g, manlids.

In many instances, especially when the boiler is in a kitchen range, a steam chest is used. This is a square wrought-iron box, of nearly the same capacity as the boiler, and situated somewhere near but in a more conveniently accessible position.

All the fittings are attached to this chest, which is connected to the boiler by 2 pipes one above and one below water level (2 pipes being necessary to equalise the pressure). The chest is of service when the boiler is not easily accessible, as the fittings should always be situated where they can have regular attention, cleaning, &c., and it is very necessary to see that the water inlet valve and safety valve are in proper working order.

Sometimes in small steam boilers in kitchen ranges the inlet valve is dispensed with, and an ordinary cast-iron supply cistern is used, with a ball valve in the usual way; but the cistern must have a lid that can be secured, and the pipe between the cistern and boiler must have a deep syphon to prevent the water being blown back by the steam. This system, however, cannot be recommended, as it is not reliable. When this system is adopted it is generally where the boiler is also used for hot-water[235] supply, and only when comparatively no pressure of steam is required for 1-3 small kettles. See also p. 1004.

Gas.—Gas cooking stoves are now growing in favour, as being very convenient and cleanly, instantaneously lighted and extinguished, and producing no smoke, soot, or ashes. They are portable, and the cost of fixing is generally small; but, as with all gas contrivances, they can only be adopted where gas is to be obtained. The makers claim economy over coal-burning ranges, greater simplicity in working and cleaning, less attention, unvarying heat, &c. There are, however, drawbacks in not having means of working a high-pressure boiler for bath supply, &c. (this, however, is now being overcome), and there are sometimes complaints of waste of gas, as servants cannot always be relied upon to turn off or lower the gas at intervals when it is not required.

Gas ranges have now attained a high degree of perfection, and the results are very satisfactory. There is no obnoxious taste commonly associated with meat cooked by this means, and it has been proved that no difference can be discerned even by the most fastidious between joints cooked in gas and coal-burning ranges. Gas ranges are made in numberless sizes and shapes to meet every requirement, from the small “Workman’s Friend,” which is large enough to cook a steak and boil a quart of water, to those that are used in large institutions, hospitals, &c., to cook for hundreds daily.

79. Eureka Gas Cooker.

Ordinary gas is sometimes used, but more generally it is “atmospheric gas,” which is a mixture of gas and air burnt by a “Bunsen” burner, giving a blue flame. In lighting an atmospheric burner, it should be turned on full for a ¼ minute before the match is applied, otherwise it will light back in the air chamber of the burner, which will also happen if the burner is not turned on full when lighting. If necessary, the gas can be turned down immediately after it is lighted. When one of these burners lights back, it will be found to be burning the ordinary gas as it issues from the nozzle in the air chamber. This of course gives no heat where it is required, and if allowed to burn for a short time it will choke the burner with soot. There is a little objection experienced at first in lighting an atmospheric burner, as it lights violently with a slight explosion, but one quickly gets used to this.

Fig. 79 is the “Eureka” gas cooker (John Wright & Co., 155A Upper Thames Street, London). This range is double cased and jacketed on the sides, back, and door with a non-conducting material to prevent loss of heat. The top of the oven is formed of fire-brick, over which the waste heat passes, heating it to a high temperature, and adding to the efficiency. The oven interior can be had either galvanised or enamelled by a new process which the makers highly recommend, and the oven fittings are so made that they can be removed wholly for cleaning purposes and leave no ledges inside where grease could accumulate. The hot plate is formed of loose wrought-iron[236] bars, which can be removed for cleaning purposes. This range is made in all sizes, with from 1-4 ovens, and boilers are fitted when desired. Hoods can be fitted to these (and to any other make) to carry away any objectionable smell and vapour from the hot plate, the hood being connected with a flue. A hood is of course not necessary when the range stands in an opening under a chimney.

80. Fletcher’s Cellular Cast-iron Cooker.   81. Leoni’s Nonpareil Gas Kitchener.

Fig. 80 is a Fletcher’s cellular cast-iron cooker (Thos. Fletcher & Co., 83 Upper Thames Street, London). This cooker is jacketed with slagwool, to prevent loss of heat; the whole is constructed of cast iron, the interior being in panels to prevent cracking. This range is also made in all sizes, with every convenience, and is of very strong construction. It will be noticed with gas ranges that they are especially well adapted for pastry and bread baking, as the ovens have a perfect bottom heat.

Fig. 81 is Leoni’s “Nonpareil” gas kitchener (General Gas Apparatus Company, 74 Strand, London). These cookers are greatly patronized for large works, institutions, &c. They are fitted at W. Whiteley’s where they cook for 3000 persons daily. They are also made in small and medium sizes for domestic requirements. This and other makes of gas ranges are provided with means of grilling by deflected heat, which is very successful.

82. Metropolitan Gas Kitchener.

Fig. 82 is the “Metropolitan gas kitchener” (H. and C. Davis & Co., 198 and 200, Camberwell Road, London). This is constructed of wrought iron, the whole of the top, sides, door, and back being jacketed with a non-conductor. The outer casing is of galvanized iron, the inner casing is not galvanized, but is treated with a preparation to prevent rust. These are made in all sizes.

The ovens of gas ranges are ventilated upon the same principle as the ovens of other ranges, but as there are no flues to discharge the steam and smell into, a hood, as just spoken of, must be provided, otherwise the smell may pervade the house.

[237]

These are but a few of the many makes of gas stoves.

In addition to ranges many other forms of gas apparatus adapted for cooking are made, such as hot-closets, hot-plates, salamanders, grills, coffee roasters, &c., &c. Gas ranges can now be obtained upon hire from nearly all gas companies at very low charges, in fact, the charges can but barely cover first cost, but the reason for this low charge is obvious. See also p. 1004.

Oil.—Oil cooking stoves are to be recommended for their convenience where gas and the more bulky fuel, coal, are not attainable. They are especially well adapted for camping out, picnics, &c., and in many instances they can be recommended for domestic use. With ordinary care, they may be said to be odourless and smokeless, very cleanly, and the makers assert that they are very economical. They are so constructed that neither the oil nor products of combustion in any way come in contact with whatever is being cooked, and consequently there is no faint or objectionable flavour. They can be stood upon a table or in almost any position with perfect safety, and as will be seen from the illustration (Fig. 83), every part is easily accessible.

83. Rippingille’s A B C Oil Kitchener.

Fig. 83 is Rippingille’s “A B C Oil Kitchener” (Holborn Lamp and Stove Company, 118 Holborn, London), with oven, boiler, and hot-plate, price 3l. 18s. 6d. These stoves are made in sizes from the breakfast-cooker (15s.) to those with 2 ovens, and suitable for a family, costing about 5l. They are also made for boiling only, in different sizes, and even fitted with a small hot-water circulating apparatus for heating.

Pots and Pans.—Iron is cheap, and lasts. It is all very well so long as it is kept clean; but that seldom happens. Buy a saucepan brush and silver sand, and see that it is used. See that your iron saucepans are lined with tin, and not with brown rust and dirt, and know once for all that an iron saucepan 6 months old should be as bright[238] inside as it was on the day when it was bought. Understand yourself, and then try to explain to others, that a saucepan, whether of tin, iron, or anything else, must be scrubbed both outside and in. How common it is to see a saucepan crusted outside with soot, which no one has ever attempted to remove. It gets red hot, and burns the saucepan as well as its contents, and the bill of the ironmonger grows apace, and the soup is burnt and spoilt, and every one blames the cook, while no one thinks of the scrubber. There are not a few cooks, old enough to know better, who direct that the scrubbing of saucepans should be done by the hand. Why the hand is to be hardened and the nails to be ground down to the quick, in order to do slowly what a 6d. saucepan-brush would do quickly, is hard to say. Another excellent saucepan scrubber, though not so common or so cheap as the brush, is a small square piece of steel chainwork—a piece of chain armour, in fact. A bunch of twigs or a wisp of straw, though better than nothing generally, leaves something to be desired in the way of brightness. When the soot disappears from the outside, and the dirt from inside, half the faults of iron saucepans disappear also. For beef tea, however, some recommend glass or earthenware—a soda-water bottle or a jampot, if there is nothing better—to be set inside the saucepan of boiling water, however bright it may be; for invalids are fastidious, and beef tea always tastes of the saucepan if possible. Tin saucepans, especially the low-priced ones, are by no means cheap. They are often met with in the homes of the poor, and in poor localities in towns ironmongers underbid each other until the cost of a saucepan only reaches a few pence. How dear these saucepans are in the long run, no one knows who has not used them on the open fireplace, upon which in these poor homes they are generally placed. It is impossible to fry in them without risk of losing the bottom; it is difficult to stew, because the heat passes through very rapidly. Tin is little trouble to clean, so there is no excuse for dirt or dulness, outside or in. The fault often lies in leaving the lid on after cleaning is done, and the result is damp and rust. All saucepans should be kept in a dry place, bottom upwards, and without their lids; if they are dried before the fire so much the better. A clean tin saucepan may be used for many purposes where iron is inadmissible; but “clean” is not to be interpreted as meaning a saucepan carelessly wiped out with a greasy cloth, and left to dry or to rust as chance may befall. Rust and dirt are not flavourless articles of cookery. Suppose clear soup or jelly is to be made. In an iron pan it will be not clear, but thick; in a clean tin pan or even a fish-kettle it will be not the fault of the pan, but of the cook, if the jelly be not as clear as glass. The least speck of rust, the smallest remainder of yesterday’s cooking will spoil either jelly or soup. Why, indeed, should not tin serve all purposes, since it is with tin that all copper pans are (or should be) lined? And copper pans are the ne plus ultra of culinary furniture. The grand difference lies in the fact that tin pans are thin, the heat penetrates them quickly, and therefore they are apt to burn, while copper is thick and a slow conductor of heat. Perhaps something may also be said on the score of shape. There is an ugly seam round the bottom of tin pans, where rust is likely to collect; and the best block-tin saucepans are generally made with sides sloping in towards the top, as if for the express purpose of producing lumps in all gravies and rust in all weathers. Why this form ever was or continues to be fashionable, it is not easy to say. There is, however, another argument in favour of copper stewpans, namely this—that cooks will take the trouble to clean them, while they think half the time and labour wasted on tin, which can be replaced at small cost. Let us grant, as readily as you please, that copper is the best material; still it is certain that its cost will always place it out of reach of modest housewives; therefore the first substitute is plenty of soap, sand, and labour expended on iron or tin. The next substitute and a more common one, is enamel-lined iron. The difficulties here are two. First, the enamel is apt to chip, when all the defects of the native iron appear; secondly, the heat quickly penetrates, and is not quickly evaporated. An enamelled pan keeps its contents at boiling heat for some time after it is removed from the fire. It very often[239] boils over, and it needs careful watching to prevent burning. An enamelled pan is not one to be selected for slow stewing. The substitute in many ways best of all is but little used in England. Earthenware pots have the many advantages of being cheap to buy, easy to clean, slow to burn, giving no unpleasant flavour to anything cooked. Perhaps the reason of their unpopularity is to be sought in the prevalence of open fires, and the fact that not all earthenware will stand any closer proximity to the fire than the top of an iron stove. Those delicate brown porcelain cooking utensils lined with white are excellent for delicate cookery on a close stove, but they are not suited to the rough wear and tear of an every-day kitchen, and considering their fragility, one cannot call them cheap. What we want is good strong brown earthenware, glazed inside, hardy enough to be set on an open fire, strong enough to withstand a few taps, and withal cheap enough to be readily replaced. That such a thing may be had, every one knows who has travelled out of England and kept their eyes open. They are common enough in Switzerland, in many parts of Germany, and our grandmothers would have said they were common in this country, as indeed they were 50 years ago. Though not common now, they are still to be bought, in price ranging from a few pence to 2s. One purpose for which they are particularly suited is the making of broth or stock out of odds and ends. Earthenware may be kept on the fire day after day, and finally lifted off the fire to grow cold with its contents; no draining or trouble is necessary, and no sour or metallic flavour will remain to shock the most fastidious palate. You may make by turns jelly and oatmeal porridge, and the same pot serves equally well for both—good for slow stewing on the hob, but perfectly serviceable on an open fire. There is perhaps no cooking material for common use to equal earthenware.

Copper must be lined with tin, for unlined copper, whether clean-scoured or not, is extremely unwholesome. Upon this point much indecision prevails in the public mind, and it is well to speak positively, as many cases of poisoning from copper saucepans are on record. Turning to frying-pans, there is for the impecunious householder no refuge from iron and tin. A copper frying or sauté pan is not found in many houses. Nevertheless, there is no occasion to burn the outside of cutlets; and if the inside is raw, the cook is to blame, not the metal. “Once burnt will burn again.” A new pan does not burn; therefore, why should an old one? No frying-pan should be washed or scoured; it should be wiped while hot with a cloth. But this rule presupposes no scraps left on the edges, no burning on the bottom; it assumes, in fact, that the frying be well done. If the pan be burnt, you must scrub and scour it until it is bright, for nothing so effectually spoils both the flavour and the appearance of cooking as the black bits that detach themselves from the sides of dirty pans. For omelets, copper, enamel, tin, are all used effectually by a careful cook; while no one of the three will serve the purpose with unskilful fingers. But every housewife who wishes first-class omelets served on her table will do well to invest in a copper pan, since there are few dishes to which the utensils at command of the cook make so great a difference. Then, again, porcelain and earthenware might be used with great advantage. The great art in making omelets is that they shall not be cooked so slowly as to be tough, nor yet so quickly as to be over-coloured; and the happy medium is difficult to attain when cooking with metal that, like iron, is a very rapid conductor of heat. English middle-class kitchens are often furnished with a strange mixture of niggardliness and extravagance. Any one accustomed to foreign customs will have been struck with the modest but well-chosen batterie de cuisine commonly seen abroad in houses of the lower middle classes. There the mistress selects her own stock by the light of her own experience; here an order is given to some ironmonger, who furnishes the kitchen according to precedent, and in sublime indifference as to the first principles of cookery. The general absence of so trifling a luxury as wooden spoons may account for the quality of the unpleasant mixture commonly known as melted butter. And the extreme reluctance of mistresses to invest in such an article as a frying-basket, while they waste double its cost every[240] week by bad frying without it, may be cited as another example of ignorant saving (E. A. B. in the Queen.)

An extensive catalogue might here be given of the various appliances used in the kitchen, such as mincing, cutting, slicing, whisking, mixing, knife-cleaning, bread-making, and other domestic machines, but it could serve no useful purpose. All ordinary requisites can be purchased at any ironmonger’s, in all degrees of size and quality. Sundry new and ingenious implements are introduced to public notice every year, and a great many may be found in the price lists of the large firms, such as Mappin and Webb, 18 to 22 Poultry; Farrow and Jackson, 8 Haymarket; Spong, 226 High Holborn; Kent, 199 High Holborn; J. Baker and Sons, 58 City Road; Wilson and Son, King William Street, Strand; and several others. In the Ironmonger for May and June, 1885, appeared an account of an ingenious machine for washing crockery, adapted to the needs of large establishments. See also p. 1006.

THE PROCESSES OF COOKERY.

Much useful information is to be derived from Prof. Mattieu Williams’s Cantor Lectures on the Scientific Basis of Cookery, from which some of the following paragraphs are borrowed.

Roasting.—Williams shows that “in roasting a joint before the fire without any screen, the radiant heat from the coal is only used; the meat is heated only on one side, that next to the fire, and, as it turns round, is radiating its heat away from the other side to the wall, &c., of the kitchen. If a meat screen of polished metal is placed behind the meat, the rays of heat not intercepted by the meat itself are received upon the screen, and reflected back towards the meat, and thus both sides are heated.”

There is an old rule well known all over the world of cookery, and that is, “white meats well done, black meats underdone;” this applies to all meats of the four as well as of the two-legged sort, but then it means properly well done, and properly underdone. To attain this end the first thing which demands attention is the making up of the fire. It should be regulated according to the size and the nature of the article which is to be roasted, and should be so managed as to last all-aglow the whole length of time which the roasting will take. In the case of joints of meat the following are the main points to be attended to. The joint should be trimmed neatly; cut off the end or flaps of a sirloin of beef (this makes a very good stew for the kitchen dinner, or maybe used to make stock with greater advantage than roasting it with the joint in the point of view both of economy and of taste), a piece of buttered paper should be tied on with string over the fat, and not removed until just before the joint is done. If it can possibly be avoided do not use skewers to fix up the joints, but use string instead; and when practicable perpendicular roasting is preferable to horizontal, as not requiring the use of the spit. Place the meat at first 18 in. from the fire, or even farther off if it be a large joint and the fire greater in proportion. When the meat is well warmed, gradually bring it nearer, and from that time never cease basting the joint at regular intervals, but this you must not overdo. The time that meat takes to roast is usually set down at 15-20 minutes for every lb. the joint weighs, but this is a very broad rule, so many circumstances tending to modify it. The quality of the meat, the age of it, whether it be fresh killed or not, the season of the year, the nature of the fire, and the position of it as regards currents of air in the kitchen, must all be taken into consideration. One thing only is certain, and that is, that when the joint begins to smoke it is nearly if not quite done, and at this stage 2-3 minutes more or less at the fire will make or mar the success of the joint as a piece of artistic roasting. (The G. C.)

In Ovens.—“The oven is an apparatus for cooking by radiation. In this case the meat or other object of cookery receives radiant heat from the heated walls of the oven. If[241] this chamber, with radiant walls, be so arranged that the heat shall be radiated equally on all sides, and is capable of regulation, it becomes a roaster, which theoretically does its work more perfectly than an open fire, even when aided by a screen.” (Williams.)

Williams has “not the slightest hesitation in affirming that moderate-sized joints properly roasted in a closed chamber, are far better than similar joints cooked with the utmost skill in front of a fire. The smaller the joint, the greater the advantage of the closed chamber.”

Roasting-ovens are now attached to all the best forms of kitcheners.

On one point in the philosophy of roasting, Williams differs from Rumford. He thinks “it desirable—and has tested this theory experimentally—to begin at a temperature above that which is to be maintained throughout the roasting. The object of this is to produce a crust on the surface of the meat that shall partially seal it, and keep in the juices as much as possible. Then the temperature may fall to the average, which should be well kept up, and rather raised towards the last. This comes about automatically in the ordinary course of cooking with a roasting-oven.”

He adds that “sealing is more demanded by a joint of beef than by one of mutton of given size, because in the beef there is more of cut surface, exposing the ends of the fibres of the meat. In a leg of mutton, for example, this exposure is only at one end, the rest is partially protected by the skin of the leg.”

Basting.—“The rationale of basting appears to be that it assists in the sealing, and diminishes the evaporation of the juices of the meat, the chief difference between well-roasted and ill-roasted meat depending upon this.” In roasting, “the meat is stewed in its own juices. The flavour depends on this: no water being used, these juices are not diluted—they are, on the contrary, more or less concentrated by evaporation; but if this evaporation be carried too far, a drying-up occurs, and this desiccation is accompanied with toughness and indigestibility, as well as sacrifice of flavour. The smaller the joint, the greater the risk of such desiccation.”

Grilling.—“This principle brings us at once to grilling, which is another kind of roasting, i.e. of cooking by radiation. A beef steak or mutton chop is not roasted by turning it round and round in front of the fire, because so large a surface is exposed in proportion to the mass, and such treatment would evaporate from that large surface too much of the juices. Rapidity is the primary condition of success in grilling. When a large and specially-constructed grill, placed over a large coke or charcoal fire, is available, the heat radiated on the exposed surface of the meat rapidly browns or carbonises the exposed surface, and partially seals its pores.”

Boiling.—“When water is heated in a glass vessel over a flame where the action may be watched, bubbles are first seen growing on the sides of the glass, gradually detaching themselves, and rising to the surface. These are merely bubbles of air that was dissolved in the water. After this, other and larger bubbles form on the bottom just above the flame. At first they are flat, and continually collapsing. Presently they become hemispherical, but still they collapse; then they become more and more nearly spherical, and afterwards quite spherical; afterwards they detach themselves, and start upwards, but perish in the attempt, by collapsing somewhere on the way. At last they reach the surface, and break there, ejecting themselves as steam into the air. Now the water boils, and a thermometer dipped into it registers 212° F. After this, it matters not whether the boiling is very violent or only the gentlest simmering, no further rise of the thermometer is perceptible, showing that the simmering temperature and the ‘galloping’ temperature are the same.”

“The actual cooking temperature for animal food is considerably below the boiling point of water, and is regulated by the coagulation of albumen, which commences at rather below 160° F., i.e. more than 50° below the boiling point of water.”

To “apply this practically to the boiling of an egg for breakfast. By the ordinary method of the 3 minutes’ immersion in continually boiling water, the white becomes hard[242] and indigestible before the yolk is fairly warmed, and ½ minute too much, or ½ minute too little, will nearly ruin the operation.”

“The proper mode is to place the egg in boiling water, and then remove the saucepan from the fire altogether, and leave the egg in the water from 10 minutes to ¼ hour. About ½ pint for 1 egg, ¾ pint for 2 eggs, or 1 pint for 4 eggs, is the quantity demanded if the saucepan is well covered.”

Stewing.—“The prevailing idea in England is that stewed meat only differs from boiled meat by being kept in the water for a longer time—that stewing is simply protracted boiling. I venture, nevertheless, to declare the total fallacy of this, and to assert that, so far as flesh food is concerned, boiling and stewing are diametrically opposite, as regards the special objects to be attained. In boiling a joint—say, a leg of mutton—the best efforts of the cook should be directed to retaining the juices within the meat, and allowing the smallest possible quantity to come out into the water. In stewing, the business is to get as much as possible out of the meat, to separate the juices from the meat and convey them to the water. This is the case, whether the French practice of serving the liquid potage or bouillon as a separate dish, and the stewed meat or bouilli as another, or the English and Irish fashion of serving the stewed meat in its own juices or gravy, as in the case of stewed steak, Irish stew, &c.

“The poor French peasant does more with 1 lb. of meat, in the way of stewing, than the English cook with three or four. The little bit of meat, and the large supply of vegetables are placed in a pot, and this in another vessel containing water—the bain-marie or water bath. This stands on the embers of a poor little wood fire, and is left there till dinner-time, under conditions that render boiling impossible, and demand little or no further attention from the cook; consequently, the meat, when removed, has parted with its juices to the potage, but is not curled up by the contraction of the hardened albumen, nor reduced to stringy fibres. It is tender, eatable, and enjoyable, that is, when the proper supply of saline juices of the meat plus the saline juices of the vegetables, have been taken into the system.

“Whether the potage and the meat should thus be separated, or whether they should be stewed together, as in an Irish stew, &c., is merely a matter of taste and custom; but that a stew should never be boiled, nor placed in a position on the fire where boiling or ‘simmering’ is possible, should be regarded as a primary axiom in cooking where stewing is concerned.”

Braising.—This takes its name from the French word braise, the red embers of a wood fire being so called. There are proper pans sold for this kind of cooking, called braising-pans; they are rather shallower than ordinary stewpans, and they have the edges of the lid turned up to hold live coals, it being necessary to have heat from above as well as below in braising. It is also necessary as much as possible to exclude the air. Should there be no braising-pan in the house it is possible to do it, but less well, in an ordinary stewpan, which will have to be put into the oven.

Frying.—“Frying ranks with boiling and stewing, rather than with grilling. When properly conducted, it is one of the processes in which the heat is communicated by convection, the medium being hot fat instead of the hot water used in the so-called, and mis-called ‘boiling’ of meat. I say ‘when properly conducted,’ because it is too often very improperly conducted in domestic kitchens. This is the case whenever fish, cutlets, &c., are fried on a merely greased plate of metal, such as a common frying-pan. Pancakes or omelettes may be thus fried, but no kind of fish or meat. These should be immersed in a bath of fat sufficiently deep to cover them completely. To those who have not reasoned out the subject, such complete immersion in so large a quantity of fat may appear likely to produce a very greasy result. The contrary is the case.

“Let us take, as an example, the frying of a sole. On immersing this in a bath of fat raised to a temperature above that of boiling water, a violent hissing and crackling noise (‘frizzling’) is heard. This is caused by a series of small explosions due to the[243] sudden conversion of water into steam. The water was originally on the surface and between and within the fibres of the flesh of the sole. The continual expansion of this water into vapour, and its outbursting, prevent the fat from penetrating the fish, so long as the temperature is maintained above 212° F., and thus the substance of the sole is cooked by the steam of its own juices, and its outside is browned by the superheated fat.

“Now, let us suppose that a merely greased plate, like the bottom of a frying-pan, is used. Only one side of the sole is cooked at first—the side in contact with the pan—therefore it must be turned to cook the other side. When thus turned, the side first cooked with its adhering fat is cooling; its steam is condensing between its fibres, and the fat is gradually entering to supply the place of steam, while the other side is cooking. Thus it is more greasy than if rapidly withdrawn from the bath of hot fat, and then allowed to drain before the steam commences to condense. A stew-pan, or any other suitable kind of kettle, may be used, if provided with a wire basket for lifting; or a frying-pan of the ordinary kind, if deep enough.”

To fry rissoles, or anything which requires to be fried all over at one time, a wire basket must be used, a stewpan large enough round to receive the basket, and deep enough to hold a sufficient quantity of melted fat to completely cover whatever is to be fried. Place the rissoles in the basket, set the stewpan containing the fat on the fire, and when the fat is boiling, at once plunge the basket into it and hold it there until they are sufficiently cooked, which will be when they have attained a delicate golden colour. The greatest care will be necessary in watching for the moment of boiling, this will be when the fat ceases to bubble and splutter; it will then become perfectly silent, and almost immediately a light blue steam will rise from it, which is the sign of boiling, the frying must then instantly commence, for it will soon after begin to smoke, and if put into the fat while in this condition the rissoles would be quite spoilt, both in colour and flavour. For cutlets, soles, or anything flat, you may use a cutlet-pan or frying-pan and fry one side at a time. Lard, butter, and sweet oil are all used, and for very delicate frying they are necessary. Whitebait must be done in oil, omelettes in butter, as also cutlets if you wish them to be particularly nice; but for most things and for all ordinary occasions there is nothing better than good well-clarified dripping.

Kitchen odours.—All “greens,” to use a familiar expression, especially cabbage, as we know, have a horrible tendency to create noxious vapours; whilst onions, it need not be said, permeate the remotest recesses of a building, not only while they are cooking, but while they are being prepared for the saucepan or the frying-pan. To thoroughly deodorise the boiling cabbage or the frying onion is next door to impossible, but the effluvium may be mitigated. A large piece of bread is sometimes put upon the knife’s point whilst onions are being peeled, in order to prevent the tearful effect which the pungent esculent produces on the eyes; and we have lately been told in a popular cookery book that the offensive results of cabbage boiling may be well nigh got rid of, by wrapping up in a piece of clean white linen rag a large lump of bread, and putting it in the saucepanful of water in which the cabbage is being cooked. The same plan, no doubt, would be equally effective in the case of broccoli, which, if possible, is a greater offender than cabbage in emitting offensive fumes. The obnoxious reek is mitigated, we are told, by some cooks, by boiling broccoli in two waters—parboiling them to begin with; then taking them out of the saucepan, straining them, allowing cold water to run over them for a few minutes, and placing them in a fresh pot of boiling water. What applies here may be extended, no doubt, with beneficial results to most greenery, not forgetting the cauliflower—another marked offender in the way of creating bad odour. It is, however, very frequently the careless manner in which the water used in the boiling of vegetables is thrown away, which produces the worst stench of which the kitchen is guilty. Nothing is so detestable as this smell of “green water,” and the cook who allows it to get the upper hand of her is either very careless or very incompetent.[244] If the water be thrown recklessly down the sink, and no means are adopted to deodorise it, hours will elapse ere the fumes can be dissipated, during which they will have found their way all over the house. Where the drainage and such like appliances are in perfect order (or, indeed, where they are not more particularly), it should be held as an essential part of the scullery-maid’s duty to pour gallons of fresh water, both boiling and cold, down the sink immediately after the cabbage water. If this be done freely, and a liberal sprinkling of Sanitas Powder or other inoffensive deodoriser be then distributed about the sink or drain trap, we need not be troubled, as we constantly are, by bad smells when dinner is over.

RECIPES FOR DISHES.

In the presence of such a number of cookery books as already exist, it is obviously impossible to offer a selection of original recipes. Every known dish has been subjected to variations till the list is practically endless. The idea which has guided the writer of this section is general utility. Many of the recipes are gleaned from the replies of experienced housewives in the correspondence columns of recent numbers of the ‘Queen’ newspaper; than this, no more valuable and inexhaustible source of current information exists, and the reader in quest of additional recipes or instructions cannot do better than consult the weekly pages of that pre-eminent “ladies’” newspaper.

Soups.—The foundation of all soups is or should be found in the stockpot, an institution that is too often neglected, especially in small households where economy is most necessary. As the nutritive elements of all foods, both animal and vegetable, are readily extracted by the prolonged application of hot water, it follows that much feeding material which is of too coarse or rough a character to be brought to table can be made useful by simmering till all its virtue is exhausted. Hence the value of the stockpot. If the odds and ends accumulated in the kitchen do not suffice to make the quantity of stock required, they must be supplemented by stock prepared specially. The following recipes for making stock are sufficient for all ordinary needs.

Common Stock.—(a) 6 lb. shin of beef, 6 qt. water. Cut all the meat off the bones, and cut the meat across and across, and sprinkle a teaspoonful of salt over it and put it at once into the 6 qt. water in an earthen vessel, while you do as follows: wash and cut up 2 carrots and 2 turnips and leave them in clear water; then put at the bottom of your soup pot (the digesters are the best) 2 slices of bacon, a piece of butter as large as 2 walnuts, a Spanish onion stuck all over with cloves, another cut up in rings, 2 large lumps of white sugar, a few peppercorns, a small bunch of marjoram and thyme tied up in muslin, as much grated lemon peel as would cover sixpence, and then put in the carrots and turnips. Let these all be browned at the bottom of the stockpot, stirring all the time, until the bacon looks well enough done to be eaten, then put in the meat and the water it has stood in, and the bones broken; leave the lid off at first, so that you may watch for the rising of the scum, which must be instantly removed, or the colour of your soup will be spoiled; when you have carefully skimmed it, and no more rises, put the lid tightly on the digester, and leave your soup to simmer gently and evenly for 5 hours. Do not throw away the scum; it is not dirty, provided you have wiped the shin of beef clean before you cut it up; and this scum, although it would spoil the clearness of your soup, is really beef-tea, and worth using in the stockpot. When the 5 hours are nearly elapsed, have ready a large kettle of quite boiling water, then strain the soup through a close sieve into a perfectly clean earthen jar, and immediately put back into the digester all the contents of the sieve, and pour the kettle of boiling water upon them, and let this stew all night. The next morning strain it into another earthen jar, and leave it to set. The first stock is now ready to scrape every atom of fat from the top of it, then wipe the top with a clean soft cloth, and all the[245] edges of the jar, then turn it upside down on a large dish, and scrape the fat and sediment from the other side. Wash the earthen jar, and dry well before the fire, and then put your stock back, and you will have a perfectly clean soup with a delicious flavour, and without requiring any clearing with whites of eggs, which always impoverishes the soup. To colour it, take pieces of bread, toasted very brown, and put into the stock when you warm it: and before sending to table put a teaspoonful of sherry at the bottom of the tureen, and pour the almost boiling soup upon it. Of course, it must be strained, to prevent the pieces of toast going in; and you can either use it plain, or with cut vegetables in it. Those sold in tins are best; but they require washing in water, and then warming in some inferior stock, and must be well strained, and then put with the wine at the bottom of the tureen, before you pour your soup into it. The next day scrape and wipe your second stock, and do just the same with it, and it comes in for gravies, for entrées, or for thick soups, and sometimes is as clear as the first stock.

(b) Slack’s patent digester is the most useful and economical of stockpots. Its management is quite simple, but care must be taken when filling it to leave sufficient room for the steam to pass away through the hole in the cover. A sheep’s milt is a good foundation for stock.

(c) Procure from a heel shop a cowheel that has been boiled, crack it up and simmer for several hours in salt and water; when done, strain, and there will be about a gallon of good jelly. If the heel is uncooked, boil till half done, then throw the first water away, or the jelly will be too rancid for soup.

(d) Take about 3 lb. shin of beef, seeing that the butcher does not send it all bone; put this into the stockpot with 2 large onions well fried, 2 raw onions, 2 large carrots cut down the centre, a head of celery, and a few sprigs of sweet herbs; add to this 3-4 qt. cold water, and set it on the fire to boil; let it remain boiling for 3-4 hours, draw it to the side, and let it simmer for the rest of the day; in the evening strain the liquor through a sieve into a large basin, put the rest on a dish, set both in the larder, and have the stockpot well washed out before putting away for the night. The next morning take the meat from the bones to use for potted meat, put the bones and vegetables into the stockpot, together with any bones, whether large or small, left from the previous day, trimmings of meat, cooked or uncooked, gristle, skin, &c.: bones from poultry and game of any kind should be used with the rest, and a ham or bacon bone, or trimmings from a tongue, all help to improve the flavour of the stock. Carefully skim the fat from the stock made yesterday, measure off as much as may be required for soup, gravies, &c., during the day, and pour the remainder into the stockpot, filling it up with cold water (one which holds about 4 qt. is a useful size for a moderate-sized family); freshly fried onion, well browned, must be added every day, and every second or third day the vegetables must be changed for fresh ones. Every morning the bones, &c., must be looked over, taking away those in which no goodness remains as others are added; and every now and then, when there happens to be a good supply of fresh bones, such as perhaps a ham bone and those from a sirloin of beef (which will be none the worse for having been previously broiled for breakfast), it will be as well to get rid of all which have been already used, and start afresh as before. The water in which rice has been boiled, or in which bread has been soaked for puddings, should all go into the stockpot, and of course that which has been used in boiling fresh meat or poultry. Rabbit bones do not improve stock, and those from a hare should be used by themselves.

Clear Stock (Consommé).—Put 2 lb. lean beef cut in small pieces, and a fowl half roasted, and also cut in pieces, bones