The Project Gutenberg eBook of London and Its Environs Described, vol. 2 (of 6)

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Title: London and Its Environs Described, vol. 2 (of 6)

Author: Anonymous

Release date: July 5, 2019 [eBook #59856]

Language: English

Credits: Produced by The Online Distributed Proofreading Team at (This file was produced from images
generously made available by The Internet Archive)


The cover image was created by the transcriber and is placed in the public domain.





An Account of whatever is most remarkable for Grandeur, Elegance, Curiosity or Use,

In the City and in the Country
Twenty Miles round it.
Whatever is most material in the History and Antiquities
of this great Metropolis.

Decorated and illustrated with a great Number of Views in Perspective, engraved from original Drawings, taken on purpose for this Work.

Together with a Plan of LONDON,
A Map of the Environs, and several other
useful Cuts.
Printed for R. and J. Dodsley in Pall Mall.




BREAD street ward, so called from Bread street in Cheapside, which was formerly a bread market, is encompassed on the north and north west by Faringdon ward; on the west by Castle Baynard ward; on the south by Queenhithe ward; and on the east by Cordwainers ward.

The principal streets in this ward are, Watling street, Bread street, Friday street, Distaff lane, Basing lane, with the east side of the Old Change, from the corner of St. Austin’s church to Old Fish street, and the north side of Old Fish street, and Trinity lane, with that part of the south side of Cheapside, between Friday street and Bow church.

The most remarkable places are, the parish churches of Allhallows Bread street, and St. Mildred’s; with Cordwainers hall.

2This ward is governed by an Alderman, his Deputy, and twelve other Common Council men, thirteen wardmote inquest men, eight scavengers, sixteen constables, and a beadle. The jury returned by the inquest for the ward, are to serve in the several courts at Guildhall in the month of April.

Breakneck alley, in the Minories.║

Breakneck court, Blackhorse alley, Fleet street.║

Breeches yard, Townsend lane.

Breeze’s hill, Ratcliff highway.

Breme’s buildings, Chancery lane.†

Brentford, a town in Middlesex, situated ten miles from London, received its name from a brook called Brent, which runs through the west part of the town, called Old Brentford, into the Thames. As it is a great thoroughfare to the west, it has a considerable trade, particularly in corn, both by land and the Thames. The church and market-house stand in that part of the town called New Brentford. It has also two charity schools; tho’ the church is only a chapel to Great Eling.

That part of it called Old Brentford is situated upon a fine rising bank close to the Thames, and is naturally capable of being made as beautiful a spot as any 3thing of the kind. The opposite side of the river is Kew Green, which appears from hence to advantage.

Brentwood, or Burntwood, in Essex, is a pretty large town seventeen miles from London, and being a very great thoroughfare, is chiefly maintained by the multitude of carriers and passengers constantly passing through it to London, with provisions, manufactures, and droves of cattle; tho’ it is one of the four hamlets belonging to the parish of Southwold cum Brent.

Brewers, a company incorporated by letters patent granted by King Henry VI. in the year 1438, which were confirmed by Edward IV. in 1480, with the privilege of making by-laws. They are governed by a Master, three Wardens, and twenty-eight Assistants, with 108 Liverymen, who upon their admission pay each the sum of 6l. 13s. 4d.

Brewer’s alley, Shoe lane.

Brewer’s court, 1. Basinghall street. 2. Bedfordbury. 3. Oxford street. 4. St. Thomas’s street.

Brewers Hall, a handsome and commodious building, almost adjoining to Plaisterers Hall in Addle street. It has a genteel entrance into a large court, 4paved with free stone, and is supported by handsome pillars.

Brewer’s green, Tothill side.†

Brewer’s key, Thames street, the next key to Tower hill.†

Brewer’s lane, 1. Dowgate Hill. 2. Shadwell market. 3. Wapping.

Brewer’s rents, Whitechapel.

Brewer’s street, 1. Bow street, St. Giles’s. 2. Old Soho.

Brewer’s yard, 1. Barnaby street. 2. Cow Cross. 3. Giltspur street. 4. Holiwell lane. 5. By Hungerford market. 6. King street, Westminster. 7. Saffron hill. 8. Shoe lane. 9. Windmill court, Pye corner.

Brewhouse lane, 1. Salisbury court, Fleet street. 2. Wapping.

Brewhouse yard, 1. Battle bridge. 2. Fox lane. 3. At the Hermitage. 4. Leather lane. 5. Saffron hill. 6. St. Catharine’s. 7. Turnmill street. 8. Wapping. 9. Whitechapel. 10. White’s ground, Crucifix lane.

Briant court, Briant street.†

Briant street, Shoreditch.†

Briant’s alley, Shoreditch.†

Brickbuildings court, Snow hill.

Brick court, 1. Brick lane, Old street. 2. College street, Westminster. 3. Middle Temple. 4. Sheer lane.

5Brickhill lane, Thames street.

Brick lane, 1. Old street. 2. Spitalfields. 3. Whitechapel: this was formerly a deep dirty road, frequented chiefly by carts fetching bricks that way into Whitechapel, from brick kilns in Spitalfields.

Brick street, 1. Hyde Park road. 2. Tyburn lane.

Brick yard, Brick lane, Spitalfields.

Bricklayers yard, Millbank.

Bricklayers court, Coleman street, Lothbury.

Bride’s alley. Fleet street, so called from St. Bride’s, or St. Bridget’s church.

Bride court, by St. Bride’s church, Fleet street.

Bride lane, 1. By St. Bride’s church, Fleet street. 2. Little Peter street.

St. Bride’s, or rather St. Bridget’s church, is obscurely situated behind the houses on the south side of Fleet street. It has been always dedicated to St. Bridget, but the curious are unable to discover who this saint was. The old church was destroyed by the fire of London, and the present edifice was erected within fourteen years after. This church, which is superior to most of our parish churches in delicacy and true beauty, is 111 feet 6long, 87 broad, and the steeple is 234 feet high. It has a plain and regular body, the openings all answering one another; the roof is raised on pillars, and the altar piece, like the outside of the church, is very magnificent. The circular pediment over the lower part, is supported by six Corinthian columns. The steeple is a spire of extremely delicate workmanship, raised upon a solid yet light tower, and the several stages by which the spire gradually decreases, are well designed, and executed with all the advantage of the orders.

This church is a vicarage, the advowson of which is in the Dean and Chapter of Westminster. The living is worth about 240l. per annum.

Among the several monumental inscriptions in this church, and the church yard, is the following:

Whoe’er thou art that look’st upon
And read’st what lies beneath this stone,
What beauty, goodness, innocence,
In a sad hour was snatch’d from hence;
What reason canst thou have to prize
The dearest object of thine eyes?
Believe this marble, what thou valu’st most,
And sett’st thy heart upon, is soonest lost.

7Bridewell, so called from its being near a spring called St. Bridget’s, or St. Bride’s well, situated on the west side of Fleet Ditch, near the Thames, was anciently a royal palace, where several of our Kings resided. And here Henry VIII. built a magnificent house for the reception of the Emperor Charles V. who before lodged at Black Friars.

At length at the solicitation of Bishop Ridley, King Edward VI. gave the old palace of Bridewell to the city, for the lodging of poor wayfaring people, the correction of vagabonds, strumpets, and idle persons, and for finding them work; and as the city had appointed the Grey Friars, now called Christ’s Hospital, for the education of poor children; St. Bartholomew’s and also St. Thomas’s in Southwark for the maimed and diseased, his Majesty formed the Governors of these charitable foundations into a corporation; allowed them a proper authority for the exercise of their offices, and constituted himself the founder and patron. For this purpose he gave to the Lord Mayor, Commonalty and Citizens, and their successors for ever, several pieces of land to the yearly value of 450l. and at the same time suppressing the 8hospital of the Savoy, gave for the above charitable uses a great part of the revenue, together with the bedding and furniture.

In the following reigns granaries and storehouses for coals were erected at the expence of the city within this hospital, and the poor were employed in grinding corn with hand-mills; which were greatly improved in the reign of Queen Elizabeth, when a citizen invented a mill, by which two men might grind as much corn in a day as could be ground by ten men with the other mills, and being to be worked either by the hands or feet, if the poor were lame in the arms, they earned their living with their feet, and if they were lame in their legs, they earned their living with their arms.

In the year 1666, this edifice was entirely consumed by fire, and likewise all the dwelling houses in the precinct of Bridewell, from whence had arisen two thirds of its revenue; the hospital however was rebuilt in 1668, in the manner in which it at present appears.

It consists of two courts, in which the buildings are convenient, and not very irregular. The chapel has a square roof, and galleries on the north and west side, 9supported by columns of the Tuscan order, and the floor is paved with black and white marble. At the west end are places for the hospital boys, and others for the prisoners. The wainscoting and finishing are very neat. The altar piece is adorned with two pilasters, with their entablature and a circular pediment of the Corinthian order, between which the commandments are done in gold upon a black ground, and the Lord’s prayer and the creed wrote on a blue ground; these pieces are enriched with gilt cherubims, leaves and fruit, and placed in gilt frames. The court room is adorned with columns of the Composite order, a gallery, and the names of all the benefactors to the hospital wrote in gold. There is here a chair for the President, and convenient seats for the Governors.

In this hospital are generally about a hundred youths, that are apprentices to glovers, flaxdressers, weavers, &c. who reside there. These youths are under particular regulations, and distinguish themselves at all dangerous fires, by the dexterity with which they work an excellent fire engine belonging to the hospital, and the expedition and regularity with which they supply it with water. 10They are cloathed in blue doublets and white hats; and having faithfully served their apprenticeship, are not only free of the city, but have 10l. towards enabling them to carry on their respective trades.

This hospital is likewise used as a house of correction for all strumpets, nightwalkers, pickpockets, vagrants, and incorrigible and disobedient servants, who are committed by the Lord Mayor, and Aldermen; as are also apprentices by the Chamberlain of the city, who are obliged to beat hemp, and if the nature of their offence requires it, to undergo the correction of whipping.

All the affairs of this hospital are managed by the Governors, who are above three hundred, besides the Lord Mayor and court of Aldermen, all of whom are likewise Governors of Bethlem hospital; for these hospitals being one corporation, they have the same President, Governors, Clerk, Physician, Surgeon, and Apothecary. This hospital has however its own steward, a porter, a matron, and four beadles, the youngest of whom has the task of correcting the criminals.

11There are several other places also called by the name of Bridewell, as in Clerkenwell, St. Margaret’s hill, and Tothill fields; but as these are merely houses of correction, they do not deserve a particular description.

Bridewell alley, by the side of Bridewell on St. Margaret’s hill.

Bridewell precinct, Fleet ditch.

Bridewell rents, Vine street.

Bridewell walk, Clerkenwell.

Bridge. See Black Friars Bridge, London Bridge, and Westminster Bridge.

Bridge House, several large buildings, erected as storehouses for timber, stone, or whatever is proper for building or repairing London bridge. It seems to have had its foundation with the bridge itself, and is situated on a considerable spot of ground on the south bank of the Thames, near St. Olave’s church. It had formerly several granaries, for the service of the city in a time of scarcity; and also ten ovens for baking bread, for the relief of the poor citizens: but these granaries are now applied to the use of the cornfactors, who here lay in considerable quantities of corn. The Bridge house is under the management of the Bridge-master, whose office is to look 12after the reparation of the bridge, and is allowed a considerable salary.

Bridge street, Westminster, so called from its situation with respect to Westminster bridge.

Bridge Ward within, is thus named from London bridge, and is bounded on the south by Southwark, and the river Thames; on the east, by Billingsgate ward; on the north, by Langborne ward; and on the west, by Candlewick and Dowgate wards. It begins at the south end of London bridge, from which it extends northward up Gracechurch street, to the corner of Lombard street, including all the bridge, the greatest part of the alleys and courts on the east side, and on the west, all the alleys, courts and lanes in Thames street, on both sides to New key, part of Michael’s lane, and part of Crooked lane. The principal streets are New Fish street and Gracechurch street; and the principal buildings, London bridge, the parish churches of St. Magnus, and St. Bennet’s Gracechurch street; Fishmongers hall, and the Monument.

This ward is governed by an Alderman, and his Deputy, fourteen other Common Council men, sixteen wardmote 13inquest men, six scavengers, fifteen constables, and a beadle; and the jurymen returned by the wardmote inquest serve in the several courts of Guildhall in the month of July.

Bridge Ward without, contains the whole borough of Southwark, extending southward from the bridge to Newington; to the south west almost to Lambeth; and to the east to Rotherhith. The principal streets are, the Borough, Blackman street, Long lane, Kent street, Tooley street, St. Olave’s street, and Bermondsey street; and the most remarkable buildings are the parish churches of St. Olave, St. Mary Magdalen Bermondsey, St. Saviour, St. George, and St. Thomas; the prisons of the King’s bench, the Marshalsea, the New prison, and the Clink; St. Thomas’s hospital, Guy’s hospital and the Lock.

This ward is only nominally governed by an Alderman and three Deputies, but has no Common Council men; it has, however, twenty wardmote inquest men, sixteen constables and a bailiff. Stow’s Survey.

Bridge yard, Tooley street.

Bridge yard passage, Tooley street.

14Bridge’s rents, in Fair street, Horselydown.†

Bridge’s street, Russel street, Covent Garden.†

Bridgeman’s yard, Water lane, Black Friars.†

Bridgewater gardens, Bridgewater square, a street so called from its being built on the spot where was the Earl of Bridgewater’s gardens.

Bridgewater passage, Bridgewater square.

Bridgewater square, Barbican, a small neat square, surrounded with plain, but not unhandsome houses. In the area is a grass plat encompassed with iron rails, within which the trees are set thick in the manner of a grove. This square, and several of the adjoining streets, were built on the ground where the Earl of Bridgewater had a large house and garden fronting Barbican.

Bridgewater street, Bridgewater square.

Bridle lane, Brewer’s street.

Brigg’s alley, Thrall street, Spitalfields.†

Brigham’s yard, Chandois street.†

Brimstone court, Rosemary lane.

Brimstone yard, Rosemary lane.

Bristol street, Puddle dock.

Britain court, Water lane, Fleet street.

Brite’s alley, St. Swithin’s lane.†

15British court, Tottenham Court road.

British Museum. Sir Hans Sloane, Bart. (who died 11th Jan. 1753) may not improperly be accounted the founder of the British Museum: for its being established by Parliament was only in consequence of his leaving by will his noble collection of natural history, his large library, and his numerous curiosities, which cost him 50000l. to the use of the Public, on condition that the Parliament would pay 20000l. to his Executors. And indeed this disposition of Sir Hans was extremely well calculated to answer his generous design; for had he given the whole to the Public, without any payment at all, it could have been of little use, without the assistance of Parliament, to settle a fund for the support of officers, &c.

Sir Hans appointed a number of Trustees, on whose application to Parliament an act was passed for the raising 300000l. by way of lottery; 200000l. thereof to be divided amongst the adventurers, 20000l. to be paid to Sir Hans Sloane’s executors, 10000l. to purchase Lord Oxford’s manuscripts, 30000l. to be vested in the funds for supplying salaries for officers, and other necessary expences, 16and the residue for providing a general repository, &c. In this act it is also ordered, that Sir Hans Sloane’s collection, the Cottonian library, the Harleian manuscripts, and a collection of books given by the late Major Edwards, should be placed together in the general repository, which was to be called the British Museum: 7000l. left by the said Major Edwards, after the decease of Elizabeth Mills, are also given to the British Museum, for the purchasing of manuscripts, books, medals, and other curiosities.

Entrance of the British Museum, from Russel Street.

S. Wale delin. Garden Front. J. Green sc. Oxon.

It happened very fortunately soon after, whilst the Trustees were at a loss where to purchase or build a proper repository, an offer was made them of Montague House in Great Russel street, Bloomsbury, a large and magnificent building, finely ornamented with paintings, situated in the most convenient part of the whole town, and having an extensive garden of near eight acres. This they purchased for the sum of 10000l. Repairs, alterations, book-cases, cabinets, and all other conveniences for placing the whole collection properly, and the making apartments for the officers, have cost 15000l. more. And 17every part is now so excellently contrived for holding this noble collection, and the disposition of it in the several rooms is so orderly and well designed, that the British Museum may justly be esteemed an honour and ornament to this nation. His Majesty, in consideration of its great usefulness, has also been graciously pleased to add thereto the royal libraries of books and manuscripts collected by the several Kings of England.

The Sloanian collection consists of an amazing number of curiosities, among which are,

The library, including books of drawings, manuscripts and prints, amounting to about volumes 50000
Medals and coins ancient and modern 23000
Cameo’s and intaglio’s, about 700
Seals 268
Vessels, &c. of agate, jasper, &c. 542
Antiquities 1125
Precious stones, agates, jaspers, &c. 2256
Metals, minerals, ores, &c. 2725
Crystals, spars, &c. 1864
Fossils, flints, stones 1275
Earths, sands, salts 1035
Bitumens, sulphurs, ambers, &c. 399
Talcs, micæ, &c. 388
Corals, spunges, &c. 1421
18Testacea, or shells, &c. 5843
Echini, echinitæ, &c. 659
Asteriæ, trochi, entrochi, &c. 241
Crustaceæ, crabs, lobsters, &c. 363
Stellæ marinæ, star fishes, &c. 173
Fishes and their parts, &c. 1555
Birds and their parts, eggs and nests of different species 1172
Quadrupedes, &c. 1886
Vipers, serpents, &c. 521
Insects, &c. 5439
Vegetables 12506
Hortus siccus, or volumes of dried plants 334
Humana, as calculi, anatomical preparations, &c. 756
Miscellaneous things, natural 2098
Mathematical instruments 55

A catalogue of all the above is written in 38 volumes in folio and 8 in quarto.

As this noble collection of curiosities, and these excellent libraries are now chiefly designed for the use of learned and studious men, both natives and foreigners, in their researches into the several parts of knowledge, the Trustees have thought fit to ordain the following statutes, with respect to the use of the Museum.

I. That the Museum be kept open every day in the week except Saturday 19and Sunday in each week; and likewise except Christmas day and one week after; one week after Easter day and Whitsunday respectively, Good Friday, and all days which shall hereafter be appointed for Thanksgivings and Fasts by publick Authority.

II. That at all other times the Museum be set open in the manner following: that is, from nine o’clock in the morning till three in the afternoon, from Monday to Friday, between the months of September and April inclusive; and also at the same hours on Tuesday, Wednesday, and Thursday, in May, June, July, and August; but on Monday and Friday, only from four o’clock to eight in the afternoon, during those four months.

III. That such studious and curious persons, who are desirous to see the Museum, be admitted by printed tickets, to be delivered by the porter upon their application in writing; which writing shall contain their names, condition, and places of abode; as also the day and hour at which they desire to be admitted: and that the said names be inserted in the tickets, and, together with their respective additions, entered in a register 20to be kept by the porter. And the porter is to lay such register every night before the principal Librarian; or, in his absence, before the under Librarian, who shall officiate as Secretary for the time being; or, in his absence, before one of the under Librarians; to the end that the principal or under Librarian may be informed, whether the persons so applying be proper to be admitted according to the regulations made, or to be made, by the Trustees for that purpose. And if he shall judge them proper, he shall direct the porter to deliver tickets to them, according to their request, on their applying a second time for the said tickets.

IV. That no more than ten tickets be delivered out for each hour of admittance, which tickets, when brought by the respective persons therein named, are to be shewn to the porter; who is thereupon to direct them to a proper room appointed for their reception, till their hour of seeing the Museum be come, at which time they are to deliver their tickets to the proper officer of the first department: and that five of the persons producing such tickets be attended by the under Librarian, and the 21other five by the assistant in each department.

V. That the said number of tickets be delivered for the admission of company at the hours of nine, ten, eleven, and twelve respectively in the morning; and for the hours of four and five in the afternoon of those days in which the Museum is to be open at that time: and that if application be made for a greater number of tickets, the persons last applying be desired to name some other day and hour, which will be most convenient to them.

VI. That if the number of persons producing tickets for any particular hour does not exceed five, they be desired to join in one company; which may be attended either by the under Librarian, or assistant, as shall be agreed on between them.

VII. That if any persons having obtained tickets, be prevented from making use of them, they be desired to send them back to the porter in time; that other persons wanting to see the Museum may not be excluded.

VIII. That the spectators may view the whole Museum in a regular order, they are first to be conducted through 22apartment of manuscripts and medals; then the department of natural and artificial productions; and afterwards the department of printed books, by the particular officers assigned to each department.

IX. That one hour only be allowed to the several companies, for gratifying their curiosity in viewing each apartment, and that each company keep together in that room, in which the officer, who attends them, shall then be.

X. That in passing through the rooms, if any of the inspectors desire to see any book, or other part of the collection, not herein after excepted, it be handed to them by the officer, who is to restore it to its place, before they leave the room; that no more than one such book, or other part of the collection, be delivered at a time; and that the officer be ready to give the company any information they shall desire, relating to that part of the collection under his care.

XI. That upon the expiration of each hour, notice be given of it; at which time the several companies shall remove out of the apartment, in which they 23then are, to make room for fresh companies.

XII. That if any of the persons who have tickets, come after the hour marked in the said tickets, but before the three hours allotted them are expired; they be permitted to join the company appointed for the same hour, in order to see the remaining part of the collection, if they desire it.

XIII. That a catalogue of the respective printed books, manuscripts, and other parts of the collection, distinguished by numbers, be deposited in some one room of each department, to which the same shall respectively belong, as soon as the same can be prepared.

XIV. That written numbers, answering to those in the catalogues, be affixed both to the books, and other parts of the collection, as far as can conveniently be done.

XV. That the coins and medals, except such as the standing Committee shall order, from time to time, to be placed in glass cases, be not exposed to view, but by leave of the Trustees, in a general meeting; or the standing Committee; or of the principal Librarian: that they be shewn between the hours of one and three in the afternoon 24by one of the officers, who have the custody of them: that no more than two persons be admitted into the room to see them at the same time, unless by particular leave of the principal Librarian; who in such case is required to attend together with the said officer, the whole time: and that but one thing be taken or continue out of the cabinets and drawers at a time, which is to be done by the officer, who shall replace it, before any person present goes out of the room.

XVI. That the Museum be constantly shut up at all other times, but those above mentioned.

XVII. That if any persons are desirous of visiting the Museum more than once, they may apply for tickets in the manner above mentioned, at any other times, and as often as they please: provided that no one person has tickets at the same time for more days than one.

XVIII. That no children be admitted into the Museum.

XIX. That no officer or servant shall take any fee or reward of any person whatsoever, for his attendance in the discharge of his duty, except in the cases hereafter mentioned, under the penalty of immediate dismission.

25The manner of admitting persons who desire to make use of the Museum for study, or have occasion to consult it for information.

I. That no one be admitted to such use of the Museum for study, but by leave of the Trustees, in a general meeting, or the standing Committee; which leave is not to be granted for a longer term than half a year, without a fresh application.

II. That a book be kept in the reading room, under the custody of the officer of the said room; who is to enter therein the names of the several persons who have leave of admission, together with the respective dates of the orders of the Trustees for that purpose, and the duration of the same.

III. That a particular room be allotted for the persons so admitted, in which they may sit, and read or write, without interruption, during the time the Museum is kept open: that a proper officer do constantly attend in the said room, so long as any such person or persons shall be there: and for the greater ease and convenience of the said persons, as well as security of the collection, it is expected, that notice be given in writing the day before, by each person, to 26the said officer, what book or manuscript he will be desirous of perusing the following day; which book or manuscript on such request, will be lodged in some convenient place in the said room, and will from thence be delivered to him by the officer of the said room: excepting however some books or manuscripts of great value, or very liable to be damaged, and on that account judged by the Trustees not fit to be removed out of the library to which they belong; without particular leave obtained, of the Trustees, in a general meeting, or a standing Committee, for that purpose; a catalogue whereof will be kept by the officer of the reading room.

IV. That such persons be allowed to take one or more extracts from any printed book or manuscript; and that either of the officers of the department to which such printed book or manuscript belongs, be at liberty to do it for them, upon such terms, as shall be agreed on between them.

V. That the transcriber do not lay the paper, on which he writes, upon any part of the book, or manuscript, he is using.

VI. That no whole manuscript, nor 27the greater part of any, be transcribed, without leave from the Trustees, in a general meeting, or standing Committee.

VII. That every person so intrusted with the use of any book, or manuscript, return the same to the officer attending, before he leaves the room.

VIII. That if any person engaged in a work of learning, have occasion to make a drawing of any thing contained in the department of natural and artificial productions, or to examine it more carefully than can be done in the common way of viewing the Museum; he is to apply to the Trustees in a general meeting, or the standing Committee, for particular leave for that purpose: it not being thought proper, unless in particular cases, to have them removed from their places, and out of the sight of the officer who has the care of them.

IX. That whensoever, and as often as any person shall have occasion to consult or inspect any book, charter, deed, or other manuscript for evidence or information, other than for studying, which is herein before provided for; he is to apply for leave so to do, to the Trustees in a general meeting, or the standing Committee. But if the case should require 28such dispatch as that time cannot be allowed for making such application, the person is to apply for such leave to the principal Librarian; or, in case of his death or absence, such of the under Librarians as shall officiate as Secretary for the time being: which leave the principal Librarian, or the under Librarian officiating as Secretary for the time being, as aforesaid, is hereby impowered to grant. Provided always, that no such person shall be permitted to consult or inspect any such book, charter, deed, or other manuscript, except in the presence of the principal Librarian, or of one the principal officers of that department to which such book, deed, charter, or other manuscript shall belong.

X. That no part of the collection or collections belonging to this Museum, be at any time carried out of the general repository; except such books, charters, deeds, or other manuscripts as may be wanted to be made use of in evidence. And that when any such book, charter, deed, or other manuscript shall be wanted to be made use of in evidence, application shall be made in writing for that purpose, to the Trustees in a general meeting, or the standing 29Committee: and if the case should require such dispatch, as not to admit of an application to the Trustees in a general meeting, or the standing Committee, then to the principal Librarian; or in case of his death or absence, then to such of the under Librarians as shall officiate as Secretary for the time being: and thereupon by their or his direction, the same shall and may be carried out of the general repository, to be made use of as evidence as aforesaid, by the under Librarian or assistant of the department to which such book, charter, deed, or other manuscript shall belong. And in case the said under Librarian, or assistant of the said department be disabled, or cannot attend; then by such other of the under Librarians, or assistants, as shall be appointed by the Trustees, in a general meeting, or the standing Committee, or by the chief Librarian, or by such of the under Librarians as shall officiate as Secretary for the time being aforesaid. And the person who shall be appointed to carry out the same, shall attend the whole time, and bring it back with him again; for which extraordinary trouble and attendance it is expected that a proper satisfaction be made to him.

30Altho’ it may be presumed, that persons who shall be admitted to see the Museum, will in general conform themselves to the rules and orders above mentioned; yet as it may happen, that these rules may not always be duly observed: the Trustees think it necessary, for the safety and preservation of the Museum, and do hereby order, That in case any persons shall behave in any improper manner, and contrary to the said rules, and shall continue such misbehaviour after having been admonished by one of the officers; such persons shall be obliged forthwith to withdraw from the Museum; and their names shall be entered in a book to be kept by the porter: who is hereby ordered not to deliver tickets to them for their admission for the future; without a special direction from the Trustees in a general meeting.

We shall now give a plan of the whole Museum, with the contents of each room, and the order in which they are shewn, &c.

Having giving in at the porter’s lodge mark’d g in the plan No. 1. your name, addition, and place of abode, you have notice given what day and hour 31to attend, and a ticket given you. By shewing this you are admitted, and entering the hall (i) you ascend a magnificent stair-case, nobly painted by La Fosse. The subject of the ceiling, Phaeton requesting Apollo to permit him to drive his chariot for a day. On the inside walls a landskip, by Rousseau: this brings you into the vestibule(I No. 2) the ceiling represents the fall of Phaeton; in this is a mummy and some other antiquities. The saloon D is a most magnificent room, the ceiling and side walls painted by the abovementioned painter La Fosse, the landskips by Rousseau, and the flowers by the celebrated Baptist.

You are then admitted into the room E, which contains the Cottonian and royal manuscripts, in about 750 volumes. F and G contain the Harleian manuscripts, in about 7620 volumes; and M the Harleian charters in number about 16000. O is the room of medals, which are upwards of 22000 in number. L has Sir Hans Sloane’s manuscripts, and K contains the antiquities.

This brings you again into the vestibule, and passing thro’ the saloon, you enter the room C, which contains minerals and fossils, B shells, A vegetables 32and insects, H animals in spirits, and N artificial curiosities.

You now descend the small stair-case adjoining, and passing thro’ the room (n), in which is the magnetic apparatus given by Dr. Knight, you come to the rooms (h a) which contain the royal libraries, collected by the Kings and Queens of England from Henry VII. to Charles II. Then you enter the rooms b c d e f and g, which contain the library of Sir Hans Sloane, consisting of not less than 40000 volumes. From hence you enter into (m), which is a withdrawing room for the Trustees, then into (l), which contains Major Edwards’s library, consisting of about 3000 volumes, and lastly enter the room (k), that contains a part of the King’s library, which in the whole consists of about 12000 volumes.

The wings marked (o o) are the apartments of the officers, and (p p) is the colonade.

No. 1.
First State Story.

No. 2.
Second State Story.
R. Benning sculp.

Briton’s alley, Freeman’s lane.†

Britt’s court, Nightingale lane.†

Broad Arrow court, Grub street, Cripplegate.*

Broad Bridge, Shadwell.

Broad Bridge lane, Upper Shadwell.

33Broad court, 1 Drury lane. 2 Duke’s Place. 3 Shoemaker row, Aldgate. 4 Turnmill street.

Broad Place, 1 Flower and Dean street, Spitalfields. 2 King’s street. 3 Broad St. Giles’s.

Broad Sanctuary row, near the Abbey, Westminster: is thus called from its being formerly a sanctuary or place of refuge. It is now called by the vulgar the Century.

Broad Street, 1. extends from Pig street to London wall, and was thus named from there being few streets within the walls of such a breadth before the fire of London. 2. Near Old Gravel lane. 3. Poland street. 4. Ratcliff.

Broad Street buildings, a very handsome street regularly built, leading from Moorfields to Broad street.

Broad Street Ward, so called from Broad street lying in the center of it, is bounded on the north and east by Bishopsgate ward; on the west by Coleman street ward; and on the south by Cornhill ward. The principal streets in this ward are, Threadneedle street, Prince’s street almost as far as Catharine court, Lothbury from the church to Bartholomew lane, Throgmorton street, 34Broad street from St. Bennet Fink church to London wall, London wall street as far as a little to the eastward of Cross Keys court Augustine Friars, Winchester street, and Wormwood street as far as Helmet court. The most remarkable buildings are, the parish churches of St. Christopher’s, St. Bartholomew, St. Bennet’s Fink, St. Martin’s Outwich, St. Peter’s le Poor, and Allhallows in the Wall; Carpenters hall, Drapers hall, Merchant Taylors hall, and Pinners hall; the Bank of England, the South Sea House, and the Pay Office.

This ward is under the government of an Alderman, his Deputy, and nine other Common Council men; thirteen wardmote inquest men, eight scavengers, ten constables, and a beadle. The jurymen returned by the wardmote inquest serve in the several courts of Guildhall in the month of August.

Broad walk, 1. In the Tower. 2. Bargehouse, Southwark.

Broad wall, near the Upper Ground, Southwark.

Broad way, 1. Bishopsgate street. 2. Black Friars. 3. Privy Garden. 4. Tothill street.

Broad yard, 1. Coleman’s alley, Brown 35street. 2. Crow alley, Whitecross street, Cripplegate. 3. Dirty lane Blackman street. 4. Green Dragon alley, Wapping. 5. Holiwell court, Holiwell lane, 6. Islington. 7. Milk yard, Wapping. 8. St. John’s street. 9. Soper’s alley, Whitecross street. 10. Swan alley, Golden lane. 11. Upper Ground street.

Broderers, or Embroiderers, a company incorporated by Queen Elizabeth, in the year 1591, by the title of The Keepers or Wardens, and Company of the art and mystery of the Broderers of the city of London. They are governed by two Keepers, or Wardens, and forty Assistants. The Livery consists of 115 members, whose fine upon admission is 5l. They have a small convenient hall in Gutter lane.

Broken cross, Tothill street.

Broken wharf, Thames street.

Brockley’s rents, Artillery row.†

Bromley, a town in Kent, situated on the river Ravensbourn nine miles from London, in the road to Tunbridge. Here is a palace of the Bishop of Rochester, to whom King Edgar gave the manor in the year 700; and here also is an hospital erected by Dr. Warner Bishop of that see, in the reign of King 36Charles II. for twenty poor Clergymen’s widows, with an allowance of 20l. a year, and 50l. a year to the Chaplain.

Bromley, a pleasant village near Bow, in Middlesex, where was formerly a monastery. The great house here was built by Sir John Jacob, Bart, Commissioner of the customs at the restoration, and afterwards became the seat of Sir William Benson, Sheriff of London in the reign of Queen Anne, the father to William Benson, Esq; Auditor of the Imprest, who some years ago sold it, with the manor and rectory, to Mr. Lloyd, a gentleman of Wales.

Bromley street, Holborn.†

Brook alley, 1. Rotten row. 2. Noble street.

Brook’s court, 1. Holborn. 2. Heneage lane. 3. In the Minories. 4. Thames street.†

Brook’s market, by Brook street, Holborn: so denominated from the Lord Brook’s city mansion, at the north corner of the market.

Brook’s mews, Brook street, near Bond street.†

Brook’s rents, Fore street, Cripplegate.†

Brook’s street, 1. Holborn.† 2. New Bond street.† 3. Ratcliff.†

37Brook’s wharf, near Queenhithe.†

Brook’s Wharf lane, High Timber street, Broken wharf.†

Brook’s yard, 1. Old Fish street hill.† 2. Fore street, Lambeth.†

Broomstick alley, 1. Bunhill row. 2. Field lane. 3. Whitecross street, Cripplegate.

Broughton’s rents, Harrow alley.†

Brown Bear alley, East Smithfield.

Brownlow street, Drury lane.†

Brown’s alley, 1. Gravel street.† 2. King’s street.† 3. Norton Falgate.†

Brown’s buildings, St. Mary Ax.†

Brown’s court 1. Angel alley, Houndsditch.† 2. Billiter lane.† 3. Brick lane, Spitalfields.† 4. Brown street.† 5. St. Catharine’s lane.† 6. Crutched friars.† 7. Gracechurch street,† 8. Near Grosvenor square.† 9. Holiwell court, Shoreditch.† 10. Little Old Bailey.† 11. Long alley, Moorfields.† 12. Marlborough street.† 13. In the Minories.† 14. Rotherhith.† 15. Shoe lane.† 16. Shug lane, near Piccadilly.† 17. Thieving lane.†

Brown’s gardens, Hog lane, St. Giles’s.†

Brown’s lane, Red Lion street, Spitalfields.†

Brown’s passage, Green street.†

Brown’s rents, 1. Brick lane, Spitalfields.† 2. St. Catharine’s lane.†

38Brown street, 1. New Bond street.† 2. Bunhill fields.†

Brown’s wharf 1. St. Catharine’s.† 2. White Friar’s Dock.†

Brown’s yard, 1. in the Minories.† 2. Near Holiwell lane.† 3. Whitecross street.† 4. Woodroffe lane.

Brownson’s court, Ayliss street, Goodman’s fields.†

Broxbourn, a small but pleasant village near Hoddesdon, in Hertfordshire, situated on a rising ground, with pleasant meadows down to the river Lee.

Broxbournbury, the seat of the Lord Monson, situated by the above village of Broxbourn. The house is a large Gothic structure in the midst of the park, which has lately been planted and beautified, and at a small distance from the house are new offices, erected in a quadrangle, on the same plan with the royal Mews at Charing Cross. They are placed behind a large plantation of trees, so that they do not appear till you come near them, and yet are at a convenient distance from the principal edifice, which, it is said, his Lordship proposes to rebuild.

Brunswick court, 1. Artillery row. 2. Queen square, Ormond street. 3. Crucifix lane.

39Brush alley, 1. St. Catharine’s lane. 2. East Smithfield.

Brush court, East Smithfield.

Brush yard, Kent street.

Brutton mews, Brutton street.†

Brutton street, New Bond street.†

Buckeridge street, Dyot street.†

Buckingham court, Charing Cross.

Buckingham House, is finely situated at the west end of the Park. In the front, which is towards the Mall and the grand canal, it has a court inclosed with iron rails. At the entrance of the edifice, which is built with brick and stone, is a very broad flight of steps, upon which are four tall Corinthian pilasters, that are fluted and reach to the top of the second story, and at each corner is a plain pilaster of the same order. Within this compass are two series of very large and lofty windows, over which is the entablature, and in the middle this inscription in large gold characters:


Thus situated may the houshold Gods rejoice.

Over this is an Attic story with square windows and Tuscan pilasters, over which was an Acroteria of figures representing Mercury, Secrecy, Equity, Liberty &c. 40but these figures were taken away soon after the death of the late Duke of Buckingham. On each side of the building are bending colonades with columns of the Ionic order, crowned with a balustrade and vases. These colonades join the offices at the extremity of the wings to the main building, and each of these offices is crowned with a turret, supporting a dome, from which rises a weathercock.

Behind the house is a garden and terrace, from whence there is a fine prospect of the adjacent country, which gave occasion to the following inscription on that side of the house,


Intimating that it has the advantage of both city and country; above which were figures representing the four Seasons.

The hall is paved with marble and adorned with pilasters, and during the life of the late Duchess, with a great variety of good paintings, and on a pedestal at the foot of the grand stair-case there was a marble figure of Cain killing his brother Abel.

To this account of Buckingham House we shall add the following letter, 41written by the Duke of Buckingham himself to the D—— of Sh—— containing a farther description of it, &c.

“You accuse me of singularity in resigning the Privy Seal with a good pension added to it, and yet afterwards staying in town at a season when every body else leaves it, which you say is despising at once both Court and Country. You desire me therefore to defend myself, if I can, by describing very particularly in what manner I spend so many hours, that appear long to you who know nothing of the matter, and yet, methinks, are but too short for me.

“No part of this talk which you impose is uneasy; except the necessity of using the singular number so often. That one letter (I) is a most dangerous monosyllable, and gives an air of vanity to the modestest discourse whatsoever. But you will remember I write this only by way of apology; and that, under accusation, it is allowable to plead any thing for defence, though a little tending to our own commendation.

“To begin then without more preamble: I rise, now in summer, about 42seven a clock, from a very large bedchamber (entirely quiet, high, and free from the early sun) to walk in the garden; or, if rainy, in a saloon filled with pictures, some good, but none disagreeable: there also, in a row above them, I have so many portraits of famous persons in several kinds, as are enough to excite ambition in any man less lazy, or less at ease, than myself.

“Instead of a little closet (according to the unwholesome custom of most people) I chuse this spacious room for all my small affairs, reading books or writing letters; where I am never in the least tired, by the help of stretching my legs sometimes in so large a room, and of looking into the pleasantest park in the world just underneath it.

“Visits, after a certain hour, are not to be avoided; some of which I own to be a little fatiguing (tho’ thanks to the town’s laziness, they come pretty late) if the garden was not so near, as to give a seasonable refreshment between those ceremonious interruptions. And I am more sorry than my coachman himself, if I am forced 43to go abroad any part of the morning. For though my garden is such, as by not pretending to rarities or curiosities, has nothing in it to inveagle ones thoughts; yet by the advantage of situation and prospect, it is able to suggest the noblest that can be; in presenting at once to view a vast town, a palace, and a magnificent cathedral. I confess the last, with all its splendor, has less share in exciting my devotion, than the most common shrub in my garden; for though I am apt to be sincerely devout in any sort of religious assemblies, from the very best (that of our own church) even to those of Jews, Turks, and Indians: yet the works of nature appear to me the better sort of sermons; and every flower contains in it the most edifying rhetorick, to fill us with admiration of its omnipotent Creator. After I have dined (either agreeably with friends, or at worst with better company than your country neighbours) I drive away to a place of air and exercise; which some constitutions are in absolute need of: agitation of the body and diversion of the mind, being a composition of health above all the skill of Hippocrates.

44“The small distance of this place from London, is just enough for recovering my weariness, and recruiting my spirits so as to make me better than before I set out, for either business or pleasure. At the mentioning the last of these, methinks I see you smile; but I confess myself so changed (which you maliciously, I know, will call decayed) as to my former enchanting delights, that the company I commonly find at home is agreeable enough to make me conclude the evening on a delightful terrace, or in a place free from late visits except of familiar acquaintance.

“By this account you will see that most of my time is conjugally spent at home; and consequently you will blame my laziness more than ever, for not employing it in a way which your partiality is wont to think me capable of: therefore I am obliged to go on with this trifling description, as some excuse for my idleness. But how such a description itself is excusable, is what I should be very much in pain about, if I thought any body could see it besides yourself, who are too good a judge in all things to mistake a friend’s 45compliance in a private letter, for the least touch of vanity.

“The avenues to this house are along St. James’s Park, through rows of goodly elms on one hand, and gay flourishing limes on the other; that for coaches, this for walking; with the Mall lying betwixt them. This reaches to my iron pallisade that encompasses a square court, which has in the midst a great basin with statues and water-works; and from its entrance rises all the way imperceptibly, till we mount to a terrace in the front of a large hall, paved with square white stones mixed with a dark-colour’d marble; the walls of it covered with a set of pictures done in the school of Raphael. Out of this on the right hand we go into a parlour thirty-three feet by thirty-nine, with a niche fifteen feet broad for a beausette, paved with white marble, and placed within an arch with pilasters of divers colours, the upper part of which as high as the ceiling is painted by Ricci.

“From hence we pass through a suite of large rooms, into a bedchamber of thirty-four feet by twenty-seven; within it a large closet, that opens into 46a green-house. On the left hand of the hall are three stone arches supported by three Corinthian pillars, under one of which we go up eight and forty steps, ten feet broad, each step of one entire Portland stone. These stairs by the help of two resting places, are so very easy, there is no need of leaning on the iron baluster. The walls are painted with the story of Dido; whom though the poet was obliged to dispatch away mournfully in order to make room for Lavinia, the better natur’d painter has brought no farther than to that fatal cave, where the lovers appear just entering, and languishing with desire. The roof of this stair-case, which is fifty-five feet from the ground, is forty feet by thirty-six, filled with the figures of Gods and Goddesses. In the midst is Juno, condescending to bed assistance from Venus, to bring about a marriage which the Fates intended should be the ruin of her own darling queen and people. By which that sublime poet intimates, that we should never be over eager for any thing, either in our pursuits, or 47our prayers; lest what we endeavour or ask too violently for our interest, should be granted us by Providence only in order to our ruin.

“The bas reliefs and all the little squares above are all episodical paintings of the same story: and the largeness of the whole had admitted of a sure remedy against any decay of the colours from salt petre in the wall, by making another of oak laths four inches within it, and so primed over like a picture.

“From a wide landing place on the stairs head, a great double door opens into an apartment of the same dimensions with that below, only three feet higher; notwithstanding which it would appear too low, if the higher saloon had not been divided from it. The first room of this floor has within it a closet of original pictures, which yet are not so entertaining as the delightful prospect from the windows. Out of the second room a pair of great doors give entrance into the saloon, which is thirty-five feet high, thirty-six broad, and forty-five long. In the midst of its roof a round picture of Gentileschi, eighteen feet 48in diameter, represents the Muses playing in concert to Apollo lying along on a cloud to hear them. The rest of the room is adorned with paintings relating to arts and sciences; and underneath divers original pictures hang all in good lights, by the help of an upper row of windows which drown the glaring.

“Much of this seems appertaining to parade, and therefore I am glad to leave it to describe the rest, which is all for conveniency. As first, a covered passage from the kitchen without doors; and another down to the cellars and all the offices within. Near this, a large and lightsome back stairs leads up to such an entry above, as secures our private bedchambers both from noise and cold. Here we have necessary dressing rooms, servants rooms, and closets, from which are the pleasantest views of all the house, with a little door for communication betwixt this private apartment and the great one.

“These stairs, and those of the same kind at the other end of the house, carry us up to the highest story, fitted for the women and children, with 49the floors so contrived as to prevent all noise over my wife’s head, during the mysteries of Lucina.

“In mentioning the court at first, I forgot the two wings in it, built on stone arches which join the house by corridores supported by Ionic pillars. In one of these wings is a large kitchen thirty feet high, with an open cupulo on the top; near it a larder, brew-house, and laundry, with rooms over them for servants; the upper sort of servants are lodged in the other wing, which has also two wardrobes and a store-room for fruit. On the top of all a leaden cistern holding fifty tuns of water, driven up by an engine from the Thames, supplies all the water-works[1] in the courts and gardens, which lie quite round the house; through one of which a grass walk conducts to the stables, built round a court, with six coach houses and forty stalls. I will add but one thing before I carry you into the garden, and that is about walking too, but ’tis on the top of all the house; which being 50covered with smooth milled lead, and defended by a parapet of balusters from all apprehension as well as danger, entertains the eye with a far distant prospect of hills and dales, and a near one of parks and gardens. To these gardens we go down from the house by seven steps, into a gravel walk that reaches cross the garden, with a covered arbour at each end of it. Another of thirty feet broad leads from the front of the house, and lies between two groves of tall lime trees, planted in several equal ranks upon a carpet of grass: the outsides of these groves are bordered with tubs of bays and orange trees. At the end of this broad walk, you go up to a terrace four hundred paces long, with a large semicircle in the middle, from whence is beheld the Queen’s two parks, and a great part of Surry; then going down a few steps, you walk on the bank of a canal six hundred yards long, and seventeen broad, with two rows of limes on each side of it.

“On one side of this terrace, a wall covered with roses and jessamines is made low, to admit the view of a meadow full of cattle just under it, (no 51disagreeable object in the midst of a great city) and at each end a descent into parterres, with fountains and water-works. From the biggest of these parterres we pass into a little square garden, that has a fountain in the middle, and two green-houses on the sides, with a convenient bathing apartment in one of them; and near another part of it lies a flower garden. Below all this a kitchen garden, full of the best sorts of fruits, has several walks in it fit for the coldest weather.

“Thus I have done with a tedious description; only one thing I forgot, though of more satisfaction to me than all the rest, which I fancy you guess already; and ’tis a little closet of books at the end of that green-house which joins the best apartment, which besides their being so very near, are ranked in such a method, that by its mark a very Irish footman may fetch any book I want. Under the windows of this closet and green-house, is a little wilderness full of blackbirds and nightingales. The trees, tho’ planted by myself, require lopping already, to prevent their hindring the view of that fine canal in the Park.

52“After all this, to a friend I’ll expose my weakness, as an instance of the mind’s unquietness under the most pleasing enjoyments. I am oftener missing a pretty gallery in the old house I pulled down, than pleased with a saloon which I built in its stead, though a thousand times better after in all manner of respects.

“And now (pour fair bonne bouche, with a grave reflection) it were well for us, if this incapacity of being entirely contented was as sure a proof of our being reserved for happiness in another world, as it is of our frailty and imperfection in this. I confess the divines tell us so, but tho’ I believe a future state more firmly than a great many of them appear to do, by their inordinate desires of the good things in this; yet I own my faith is founded, not on those fallacious arguments of preachers, but on that adorable conjunction of unbounded power and goodness, which certainly must some way recompense hereafter so many thousand of innocent wretches created to be so miserable here.”

1.  Considerable alterations have been made in the house since this letter was written. The water-works in particular no longer exist.

Buckingham street, a handsome street, and well inhabited, extends from the 53Strand to the river Thames, where for the convenience of taking water are built those fine stairs called York stairs. The street is thus called from John Villars Duke of Buckingham. See York Buildings, and York Stairs.

Buckle street, Red Lion street, Whitechapel.

Bucklersbury, Cheapside. Mr. Maitland observes that it is more properly Bucklesbury, as it was originally so named, from a manor and tenements belonging to one Buckles, who dwelt and kept his courts there.

Buckler’s rents, Rotherhith wall.†

Buckridge alley, George street, Spitalfields.†

Buckridge court, Bembridge street.

Buck’s Head court, Great Distaff lane.*

Buck’s rents, Rosemary lane.†

Budge row, Watling street.

Bufford’s buildings, St. John street, Smithfield.†

Bull alley, 1. Back alley, in Three hammer alley, Tooley street.* 2. Brick lane, Old street.* 3. Broad street, London wall.* 4. Bull stairs, Upper Ground street, Southwark.* 5. Fore street, Lambeth.* 546. Kent street, Southwark.* 7. Nicholas lane, Lombard street.* 8. Turnmill street.* 9. Upper Ground, Southwark.* 10. Whitechapel.*

Bull bridge, 1. Horselydown. 2. Limehouse.

Bull court, 1. Bishopsgate street.* 2. Nightingale lane.* 3. Petticoat lane.* 4. Ragged row, Goswell street.*

Bull Head alley, Rag street, Hockley in the Hole.*

Bull Head court, 1. Broad street, London wall.* 2. Cow lane.* 3. Great Queen street, Drury lane.* 4. Jewin street, Aldersgate street.* 5. Laurence lane.* 6. Newgate street.* 7. Peter street, Cow Cross.* 8. Wood street, Cheapside.*

Bull Head passage, Gracechurch street.*

Bull Head yard, near Blackman street, Southwark.*

Bull Inn court, in the Strand.*

Bull lane, Stepney.*

Bull and Mouth street, St. Martin’s le Grand.*

Bull stairs, Bull alley, Upper Ground street, Southwark.*

Bull Stake alley, Whitechapel.*

Bull Wharf, near Brook’s wharf.*

55Bull Wharf lane, Thames street.*

Bull yard, 1. Dunning’s alley, Bishopsgate street without.* 2. Goswell street.* 3. St. John’s street, near Clerkenwell.* 4. Kingsland road, Shoreditch.* 5. Old Horselydown.*

Bullen’s rents, Shoe lane, Fleet street.†

Bulliford court, Fenchurch street.

Bullocks court, 1. Chequer alley, Old Bethlem. 2. Minories.

Bullock’s yard, 1. Shoreditch. 2. Nightingale lane.†

Bull’s rents, 1. Freeman’s lane.† 2. Lambeth marsh.†

Bulstrode, the seat of the Duke of Portland, near Beaconsfield in Buckinghamshire. It is a large handsome house finely situated in a pleasant park, and you have a good view of it from the road to Beaconsfield, which goes close to the park gate.

Bunch’s alley, Thrall street.

Bunhill court, Bunhill fields.

Bunhill Fields, formerly called Bonhill fields, was anciently a tract of ground of considerable extent, reaching from the north side of Chiswell street to Old street.

Bunhill Fields Burial ground, a large piece of ground near Upper Moorfields. 56Maitland says it was formerly called Bonhill, or Goodhill. It was set apart, consecrated and walled at the expence of the city, in 1665, the dreadful year of pestilence, as a common cemetery for the interment of such corps as could not have room in their parochial burial grounds: but it not being used on this occasion, Mr. Tindal took a lease of it, and converted into a burial ground for the use of the dissenters. There are a great number of raised monuments with vaults underneath belonging to particular families, and a multitude of gravestones with inscriptions. The price of opening the ground, or of interment, is 15s.

Bunhill Fields School, was erected by the company of Haberdashers, in the year 1673, pursuant to the gift of Mr. Throgmorton, who endowed it with 80l. per annum, for the education of thirty poor boys of the parish of St. Giles, Cripplegate.

Bunhill row, near Bunhill fields.

Burden’s street, David’s street.†

Burge’s court, Wood street, Cheapside.†

Burial yard, Mill yard, Rosemary lane.

Burleigh court, Burleigh street.

Burlington House.
S. Waledel. B. Green sculp.

57Burleigh street, in the Strand, near the house which formerly belonged to the great Lord Treasurer Burleigh.

Burlington gardens, a street by Bond street; took its name from its being built on the spot, which was formerly the Earl of Burlington’s garden.

Burlington House, in Piccadilly. The front of this house, which is of stone, is remarkable for the beauty of the design and workmanship. The print representing the body of the house and a part of the wings, was all that could be taken into the visual angle. The circular colonade of the Doric order which joins the wings, is very noble and striking. The house is hardly grand enough for the colonade, and seems to want something in the center to make the entrance more conspicuous. The house is of an older date than the front, which was built by the late Earl of Burlington. The rooms within are in a fine taste, and the stair-case is painted by Seb. Ricci, with great spirit and freedom.

Burlington mews, Great Swallow street.

Burlington street, Great Swallow street.

The Earl of Burlington’s seat at Chiswick. See the article Chiswick.

Burntwood. See Brentwood.

58Burr street, Lower East Smithfield.

Burton’s rents, Holiwell street.†

Bury court, St. Mary Ax.†

Bury street, 1. Duke’s place. 2. Piccadilly.

Bush alley, St. Catharine’s lane.

Bush lane, Canon street, Walbrook.

Bushe’s rents, St. John’s court, Cow lane.†

Bushell court, Lothbury.

Bushell’s rents, Wapping.†

Bushy, a small village near Watford in Hertfordshire, adjoining to which is a spacious common, called Bushy Heath, extending towards Stanmore, in the county of Middlesex. This heath rises to a considerable height, and from its top affords a most delightful prospect. On the one hand we have a view of St. Alban’s, and of all the space between, which appears like a garden: the inclosed corn fields seem like one grand parterre: the thick planted hedges resemble a wilderness or labyrinth: the villages interspersed thro’ the landscape, appear at a distance like a multitude of gentlemen’s seats. To the south east is seen Westminster Abbey, more to the south appears Hampton Court, and on the south west Windsor Castle, with the Thames winding between both, through the most beautiful parts of Middlesex 59and Surry, its banks adorned with towns, and a multitude of magnificent seats of the nobility.

Butcherhall lane, Newgate street. Formerly a market being kept in Newgate street, the slaughter houses of the butchers were in this lane, when from the nastiness of the place it was called stinking lane: but the market being removed after the fire, and this lane rebuilt, here the company of butchers had their hall, whence it took its name.

Butcher row, 1. East Smithfield. 2. Ratcliff cross. 3. Without Temple Bar.

Butchers, a fraternity that seems to have been very ancient, since they were fined by Henry II. in the year 1180, as an adulterine guild, for being set up without the King’s licence; though they were not incorporated till the year 1605. This company consists of a Master, five Wardens, twenty-one Assistants, and two hundred and fourteen Liverymen, who pay a fine of 2l. each upon their admission into the livery. They have a neat and convenient hall in Pudding lane, in which are three handsome rooms neatly wainscoted and adorned with fretwork.

Butcher’s alley, 1. Cable street. 2. St. 60John street, West Smithfield. 3. Windmill hill, Moorfields.

Butchers Arms yard, Goswell street.*

Butcher’s close, King street, Moorfields.

Butcher’s dock, Rotherhith wall†

Butcher’s yard, Brick lane.

Butler’s alley, 1. Grub street, Cripplegate.† 2. Windmill hill row.†

Butler’s Almshouse, in Little Chapel street, Westminster, was founded by Mr. Nicholas Butler, in the year 1675, who endowed it with 12l. per annum. It consists of only two large rooms, for two poor men and their wives.

Butler’s court, Houndsditch.†

Butler’s yard, Monkwell street.†

Butterfly court, Grub street, Cripplegate.*

Buttermilk alley, Phenix street, Spitalfields.

Butt’s street, Lambeth.†

Buttonmould row, Dean’s court, St. Martin’s le Grand.

Byas rents, Crucifix lane.

Byfield’s passage, Petticoat lane.†

Byfield’s rents, Petticoat lane.†

Byfleet, a village in Surry, situated on a branch of the river Mole, adorned with several gentlemen’s seats, and a fine park in its neighbourhood. At this place is 61a handsome house belonging to Lieut. Gen. Cornwall; and at a place at a small distance the Rev. Mr. Spence has made many neat and elegant improvements. The river Mole flows by the side of Byfleet park, and forming a great number of windings, renders its course near four miles within the compass of the inclosure.


Cabbage alley, 1. Barnaby street. 2. Long lane, Southwark.

Cabbage lane, near King’s Arms stairs.

Cabbage yard, Cork lane, Swan fields.

Cabinet court, Duke street, Spitalfields.

Cable court, Cable street.

Cable street, Rag fair.

Cadd’s row, Islington.†

Cæsar’s Head court, Crutched Friars.*

Cage alley, Cock hill, Ratcliff.

Cain and Abel’s alley, 1. Angel alley, Houndsditch.* 2. Bishopsgate street without.*

Calender’s court, 1. Drury lane. 2. Long alley, Moorfields.

62Camberwell, a pleasant village in Surry, two miles from Southwark, in the road to Croydon.

Camberwell road, Newington butts.

Cambray house. See Canonbury House.

Cambridge heath, in Middlesex near Hackney.

Cambridge street, Broad street, Poland street.

Camden court, Clerkenwell.

Camden house, in Middlesex, a little to the west of Kensington palace, was lately the seat and manor of the Earl of Warwick, but it now belongs to Henry Fox, Esq.

Camel row, Mile end.

Camomile court, Camomile street.

Camomile street, Bishopsgate street.

Campion lane, Allhallows, Thames street.†

Campion’s alley, Market street, Westminster.†

Camp’s Almshouse, in Wormwood street, was founded by Mr. Laurence Camp, for the relief of six poor people of the parish of Allhallows London Wall, who had an allowance of 1l. 14s. 8d. a year.

Canary court, Exeter court in the Strand.

Candlewick Ward, took its name from a street called Candlewick, or Candlewright street, remarkable for wax and 63tallow chandlers, who were anciently called candlewrights, and is bounded on the south by Bridge and Dowgate wards; on the west by Dowgate and Wallbrook wards; on the north by Langborne ward; and on the east by Bridge ward. The principal streets in this ward are, Eastcheap, and a part of Canon street, and St. Martin’s lane. The most remarkable buildings are the parish churches of St. Clement’s Eastcheap, St. Mary Abchurch, and St. Michael’s Crooked lane.

It is governed by an Alderman, his Deputy, and seven other Common Council men; twelve wardmote inquest men, six scavengers, eight constables, and a beadle. The jurymen returned by the wardmote inquest serve on juries in Guildhall in the month of December.

Cane’s wharf, Milford lane.†

Canon alley, St. Paul’s church yard.

Canon row, or Channel row, New Palace yard, Westminster; called Canon row from this row formerly consisting of the houses for the Canons of St. Stephen’s Westminster.

Canon street, 1. In the Mint. 2. Ratcliff Highway. 3. A considerable street extending from Budge row to Eastcheap.

64Canonbury, vulgarly called Cambray House, formerly belonged to the Prior and Canons of St. Bartholomew in Smithfield. It is pleasantly situated on a beautiful eminence on the east side of Islington, and commands three delightful prospects to the east, north, and south.

Canons of St. Paul’s. These Canons or Prebendaries, who are 30 in number, with the Bishop of London at their head, compose the Chapter, which has the management of the affairs of this cathedral; these canonries are in the collation of the Bishop, and are as follows. 1. Bromesbury, in the parish of Willesden, Middlesex. 2. Brownswood, in the same parish. 3. Cadington Major, in the manor of Astonbury, Bedfordshire. 4. Cadington Minor, in the parish of Cadington, Bedfordshire. 5. Chamberlain’s-Wood, in the parish of Willesden, Middlesex. 6. Chiswick, in the county of Middlesex. 7. Consumpt. per Mare, a prebend in the parish of Walton, or Waltome, on the coast of Essex, which being overflowed by the sea, before the conquest, the present name serves only to perpetuate the remembrance of that fatal catastrophe. 8. Eald Street, or Old 65Street, in Shoreditch parish. 9. Ealdland, in the parish of Tillingham, Essex. 10. Holiwell, alias Finsbury, in the parishes of St. Giles Cripplegate, and Shoreditch. 11. Harleston, in the parish of Willesdon, Middlesex. 12. Holborn, in the suburbs of London. 13. Hoxton, in the parish of Shoreditch. 14. Islington, in the county of Middlesex. 15. Kentish-town, in the parish of St. Pancras. 16. Mapelsbury, in the parish of Willesdon. 17. Mora, in the parish of St. Giles Cripplegate. 18. Neasdon, in the parish of Willesdon. 19. Oxgate, in the same parish. 20. St. Pancras, in Middlesex. 21. Portpool, in the parish of St. Andrew Holborn. 22. Reculvarland, in the parish of Tillingham, Essex. 23. Rougemere, in the parish of Pancras. 24. Sneating, in the parish of Kirkeby, Essex. 25. Stoke Newington, Middlesex. 26. Tottenhall or Tottenham Court, in the parish of St. Pancras. 27. Twyford, in the parish of Willesdon, Middlesex. 28. Wenlakesbarn, in the parish of St. Giles Cripplegate. 29. Wildland, in the parish of Tillingham, Essex. 30. Willesdon, in the county of Middlesex. Newc. Repert.

The petty Canons who are twelve in 66number, are chosen out of the ministers and officers belonging to the cathedral, and should be persons of unspotted characters, with harmonious voices, and skilled in vocal music. These were constituted a body politic and corporate by letters patent granted by King Richard II. in the year 1399, by the title of The College of the twelve petty Canons of St. Paul’s; and allowed a common seal, with one of their number for a Warden. Newc. Repert.

Canterbury court, 1. Black Friars, 2. Phenix street.

Car court, Rotten row, Old street.

Car yard, 1. Moor lane. 2. Redcross street. 3. White’s yard, Rosemary lane.

Card court, West Smithfield.

Cardinals of the choir, two officers chosen out of the petty Canons of St. Paul’s, by the Dean and Chapter. Their office is to superintend the behaviour and attendance of the several officers belonging to the choir; and to take minutes of the several crimes of which they are guilty when on duty, in order to their being corrected for them by the Dean and Chapter.

Cardinal’s Cap alley, Bank side.*

Cardmakers, were incorporated by letters patent of Charles I. in the year 671629. This company is governed by a Matter, two Wardens, and eighteen Assistants, but they have neither livery nor hall.

Cary lane, Foster lane, Cheapside.†

Cary street, Lincoln’s Inn fields.†

Carlisle street, Soho square.

Carman’s yard, Pepper alley.

Carmen, were constituted a fellowship of this city, by an act of Common Council in the reign of Henry VIII. and incorporated by letters patent granted by James I. in 1606, with the fraternity of Fuellers, under the denomination of Woodmongers, with whom they continued till 1668, when the Woodmongers were convicted by parliament of many enormous frauds in the sale of coals, and other fuel, and being apprehensive of suffering the punishment due to their crimes, threw up their charter in order to avoid it, upon which the Carmen were again appointed a fellowship by an act of Common Council, under the title of The free Carmen of the city of London. They are governed by a Master, two Wardens, and forty-one Assistants, under the direction of the court of the Lord Mayor and Aldermen, but have neither livery nor hall.

68Carnaby, or Marlborough Market, by Carnaby street, has Marlborough street on the north, and Broad street on the south west. This is lately become a very plentiful market for flesh and other provisions.

Carnaby street, 1. Silver street, Bloomsbury. 2. Silver street, Golden square.

Caroline court, Saffron hill.

Caron’s Almshouse, in Kingston road, Vauxhall, consists of seven rooms for as many poor women, and was founded by his excellency the Right Hon. Noel Baron of Caron, Ambassador from the States General in the year 1623. This almshouse he endowed with a handsome estate, out of which each of his almswomen receives 4l. a year.

Carpenters, a fraternity incorporated by Edward III. in the year 1344; with the power of making by-laws. This company is governed by a Master, three Wardens, and twenty Assistants, with a livery of 100 members, who pay a fine of 8l. upon their admission.

Their hall is situated on the south side of London Wall almost facing the east end of Bethlem hospital, in a court called Carpenters hall yard, to which there is an entrance through a large pair of gates. 69The building is composed of timber and plaister; and though very old, is not without its peculiar ornaments.

Carpenters alley, Wych street.

Carpenters buildings, London wall.

Carpenters court, 1. Aldermanbury. 2. Bett’s street, Ratcliff. 3. Charterhouse lane. 4. Long Acre.

Carpenters street, Mount row.†

Carpenters yard, 1. Beech lane. 2. Coleman street. 3. Near Blackman street. 4. Deadman’s place. 5. London wall. 6. Long lane, West Smithfield. 7. Peter street, Westminster. 8. Poor Jewry lane. 9. Skinner street. 10. Town Ditch, Little Britain. 11. Upper Ground street.

Carriers street, Buckeridge street.

Carshalton, a village in Surry, situated among innumerable springs, which all together form a river in the very street of the town, and joining other springs that flow from Croydon and Beddington, form one stream called the Wandell. Though this village is thus situated among springs, it is built upon firm chalk, and on one of the most beautiful spots on that side of London, on which account it has many fine houses belonging to the citizens of London, some of them built with such grandeur and expence, that 70they might be rather taken for the seats of the nobility, than the country houses of citizens and merchants. Mr. Scawen intended to build a magnificent house here in a fine park which is walled round, and vast quantities of stone and other materials were collected by him for this purpose; but the design was never carried into execution. Here also Dr. Ratcliff built a very fine house, which afterwards belonged to Sir John Fellows, who added gardens and curious water-works. It at length passed into the possession of the Lord Hardwick, who sold it to the late William Mitchell, Esq; and it is now in the possession of his family.

Carteret street, Broad way, Westminster.

Cart yard, 1. Rosemary lane. 2. Whitechapel.

Carter’s court, 1. Lukener’s lane.† 2. Cursitors alley, Bristol street.†

Carter’s rents. Brick lane, Spitalfields.†

Carter’s street, Houndsditch.†

Carthusian street, Pickax street, Aldersgate street.

Cartwright street, Broad way, Westminster.† 2. Rosemary lane.†


Cashiobury, in Hertfordshire, situated 71sixteen miles north of London, is said to have been the seat of the Kings of Mercia, during the Heptarchy, till Offa gave it to the monastery of St. Alban’s. Henry VIII. however bestowed it on Richard Morison, Esq; from whom it passed to Arthur Lord Capel, Baron of Hadham, and from him came by inheritance to be the manor of the Earls of Essex, who have here a noble seat erected in the form of an H, with a large park adorned with fine woods and walks: the gardens were planted and laid out by Le Notre in the reign of King Charles II. The front and one side are of brick and modern, the other side is very old. The print shews it better than description.

Moor Park.

Cash’s alley, near Shoreditch church.†

Castle alley, 1. Cornhill.* 2. Near Lambeth hill.* 3. Trig lane, Thames street.*

Castle Baynard Ward, was so called from an ancient castle near the Thames built by Baynard, a nobleman of great authority, who came from Normandy with William the Conqueror. It is bounded on the north and west by the ward of Faringdon within; on the east by Queenhithe and Bread street wards; and on the south by the river Thames.

72The principal streets in this ward are, the south end of Thames street, St. Peter’s hill, St. Bennet’s hill, Addle hill, Knight Rider street, Paul’s chain, Carter lane, and the east side of Creed lane, and Warwick lane. The remarkable buildings are, the churches of St. Bennet’s, Paul’s Wharf, St. Andrew Wardrobe, and St. Mary Magdalen, with the Heralds office.

It is governed by an Alderman and his Deputy, nine other Common Council men; fourteen wardmote inquest men, seven scavengers, ten constables, and a beadle. The jurymen returned by the inquest for this ward serve in the courts of Guildhall in the month of September.

Castle court, 1. Birchin lane.* 2. Budge row.* 3. Castle alley, Cornhill.* 4. Castle lane, in the Mint.* 5. Castle street, Long Acre.* 6. College hill.* 7. Cornhill.* 8. Houndsditch.* 9. Laurence lane.* 10. Lombard street. 11. St. Martin’s lane, Charing Cross. 12. In the Strand. 13. Whitecross street, Cripplegate.*

Castle Inn yard, Aldersgate street.*

Castle lane, 1. Castle street, Long Acre.* 2. Castle street, Southwark.* 3. Petty France, Westminster (called also Cabbage lane).* 4. Redcross street, Deadman’s 73place.* 5. St. James’s Westminster.* 6. Thames street.*

Castle street, 1. Air street, Piccadilly.* 2. Bloomsbury.* 3. Cavendish market.* 4. Near Long Acre.* 5. In the Park, Southwark.* 6. Near the Royal Mews. * 7. Saffron hill.* 8. Shoreditch field.* 9. Thames street.* 10. Near Wentworth street, Spitalfields.* 11. Bevis street.*

Castle Street Library, was founded in the year 1685, by Thomas Tennison, D.D. Vicar of St. Martin’s in the fields, and afterwards Archbishop of Canterbury, for the use of his school, under which it is placed in a spacious room, and consists of about 4000 volumes.

The librarian’s salary is 10l. per annum, and he has convenient lodgings contiguous to the library. Maitland.

Castle Street School, was founded by Dr. Tennison, at the same time with the library. In 1697, that gentleman gave 1000l. towards a fund for the maintenance of his foundation, and some time after, by the consent of Dr. Patrick, Bishop of Ely, another sum of 500l. which had been left them jointly in trust, to dispose of in charitable uses, as they thought proper: which two sums, together 74with two leasehold messuages for the term of forty years, he vested in trustees, for the support of his school and library; out of the profits of which the librarian has the allowance mentioned above; the schoolmaster, besides a commodious dwelling house, has a salary of 30l. per annum; and the usher the same salary without any apartment; for which they teach thirty boys, the sons of the inhabitants of St. Martin’s in the fields. Maitland.

Castle yard, 1. Castle alley, Cornhill.* 2. Chick lane.* 3. Dacre street.* 4. East street, Bloomsbury.* 5. Harrow corner, Deadman’s place.* 6. Hermitage bridge, Wapping.* 7. Holborn.* 8. Houndsditch.* 9. Kingsland road, Shoreditch.* 10. Near the Broad way.* 11. Pennyfield street.* 12. St. Martin’s lane, Charing Cross.* 13. Piccadilly. * 14. Saffron hill.*

Cat alley, Long lane, Smithfield.*

Cat’s Head court, Orchard street, Stable yard, Westminster.*

Cat’s hole, Tower ditch.

Cat’s hole yard, Tower ditch.

Cateaton street, King’s street, Cheapside.

Catharine alley, Bishopsgate street.

Catharine court, 1. Prince’s street, Threadneedle street. 2. Seething lane.

75St. Catharine Cree Church, at the corner of Creechurch lane in Leadenhall street. The addition of the word Cree, arose from the English spelling of the word Christ as pronounced by the French; for this church being placed on the ground of a dissolved priory, which with its church was called our Saviour Christ’s church, tho’ it was dedicated to the virgin martyr St. Catharine, the original name of that priory became added to its denomination. The present edifice was erected in the year 1630, and is a very singular structure, built with stone, and of a mixed Gothic style. It has rounded battlements on the top, and a square tower that has the same kind of battlements: this tower is crowned with a square turret, over which is a dome, and from its summit rises the weather cock.

This is a curacy, and the parishioners have the privilege of choosing their own minister, who must be licensed by the Bishop of London. The Curate receives 70l. a year, exclusive of other advantages. Maitland.

St. Catharine Coleman, on the south side of Fenchurch street, is thus denominated from its been dedicated to the same saint as the two former churches, and the epithet of Coleman is added from there 76being formerly near it a large haw, yard, or garden, called Coleman-haw.

The old church escaped the flames at the fire of London; but becoming very ruinous, was rebuilt by the parish in the year 1734. The body is lofty, and enlightened with two series of windows; and the steeple, a plain tower crowned with battlements.

This church is a rectory, in the gift of the Bishop of London. The living is worth about 100l. per annum.

St. Catharine’s Church, on the east side of St. Catharine’s court, near the Tower, originally belonged to an hospital founded by Matilda, consort to King Stephen, and was farther endowed by Queen Eleanor, the relict of Henry III. Queen Eleanor consort to Edward I. and King Henry VI. who not only confirmed all the former grants, and added several additional ones, but gave an ample charter to this hospital. It was exempt from the jurisdiction of the Bishop of London, till its suppression by Henry VIII. soon after which King Edward VI. annexed it to the diocese of London. The church, which is a very antique building, is at present collegiate, and has a master and three brethren, who have 40l. each; three sisters who have 20l. and ten beadswomen 77who have 8l. per annum each: but the other profits arising from their estates, being only known to the master and brethren, are divided amongst them. Stow, Maitland.

St. Catharine’s Courts. To this precinct belong two courts; in one of which actions of debt for any sum are tried weekly on Thursdays: and in the other, which depends upon the civil law, are decided ecclesiastical matters.

St. Catharine’s court, 1. St. Catharine’s.☐ 2. Threadneedle street.

St. Catharine’s lane, East Smithfield.☐

St. Catharine’s stairs, St. Catharine’s.☐

St. Catharine’s street, St. Catharine’s.☐

Catharine street, in the Strand.

Catharine Wheel alley, 1. Blackman street.* 2. Holiwell street.* 3. St. James’s street.* 4. Kent street.* 5. Petticoat lane.* 6. Snow hill.* 7. Whitechapel.*

Catharine Wheel court, 1. Bridgewater gardens.* 2. Snow hill.* 3. Whitechapel.*

Catharine Wheel yard, 1. Bishopsgate street.* 2. Blackman street.* 3. London wall.* 4. St. James’s street.* 5. West Smithfield.*

Catharine Wheel and George yard, Bishopsgate street.*

78Catharine Wheel Inn yard, St. Margaret’s hill.*

Catlin’s alley, Shoreditch.†

Catstick yard, Gray’s Inn lane.

Cavendish court, Houndsditch.†

Cavendish market, Cavendish street.

Cavendish square, near Oxford street, has a spacious area which contains between two and three acres, with a large grass plat in the middle, surrounded with wooden rails, erected upon a brick wall; but both the rails and wall being much decayed, now make but an indifferent appearance. The square is, however, encompassed by noble buildings: the Lord Harcourt has a fine house on the east side; on the west is a noble edifice belonging to Mr. Lane, formerly the Lord Bingley’s; and in the center of the north side is a space left for a house intended to be erected by the late Duke of Chandos, the wings only being built; however, there is a handsome wall and gates before this space, which serve to preserve the uniformity of the square. Adjoining to this square, Lord Foley has just built a very grand house, with offices, and a court before it.

Cavendish street, Oxford street.

Causabond’s grounds, Maiden lane.†

79Cecil court, St. Martin’s lane, Charing Cross.†

Cecil street, in the Strand, so named from Cecil house, belonging to the great Lord Burleigh.

Cecil’s dock, Rotherhith wall.†

Master of the Ceremonies. See the article Master of the Ceremonies.

Chain alley, near Crutched Friars.

Chain court, Ship yard, Temple Bar.

Chain gate, near St. Saviour’s church, Southwark.

Lord Chamberlain, a great officer of the King’s houshold, who has the oversight of all the officers above stairs, except the precinct of the King’s bedchamber, which is under the government of the Groom of the stole. He has the oversight of the King’s Chaplains, notwithstanding his being a layman; also of the officers of the wardrobe, beds, tents, revels, music, comedians, hunting, and of all the physicians, apothecaries, surgeons, barbers, messengers, trumpets, drummers, tradesmen and artisans retained in his Majesty’s service. His salary is 100l. a year, and 1100l. a year board wages. His office is in Cleveland row.

Chamberlain of London, an officer of great trust, annually chosen on Midsummer day, tho’ he enjoys his place for 80life, if he is not found guilty of some great crime. He receives and pays all the city cash, and with him are deposited all public securities, for which he annually accounts to the proper auditors. As he is therefore entrusted with very considerable sums, he is obliged to give security for his fidelity, at his entrance into his office.

Chamberlain’s Office, is kept in Guildhall, in a room on the right hand side of the passage leading into the court of King’s bench, where this officer attends every morning, to decide the differences that arise between masters and apprentices, to enrol and turn over the latter, and to admit all who are duly qualified, to the freedom of the city; of whom there are annually admitted about fifteen hundred.

Chamber’s street, 1. Goodman’s Fields.† 2. Upper Shadwell.†

Chamber’s wharf, near the Bridge yard.†

Campion lane, Thames street.†

Lord High Chancellor, the supreme and sole judge in the court of Chancery, where he is to judge according to equity and conscience, and to moderate the exact rigour and letter of the common law, to which all other judges are strictly tied; but his decrees may be reversed by the house of Lords. This great officer, who is assisted by the masters in Chancery, takes 81precedency after the Archbishop of Canterbury, and next to the King, and Princes of the blood, is the highest person in the kingdom in civil affairs. The Lord High Chancellor is generally Keeper of the great seal, and is thence stiled Lord Keeper. See the article Lord Keeper.

Chancellor of the Exchequer. See the article Exchequer.

Chancellor of St. Paul’s, an officer anciently called Magister Scholarum, from his having the literature of the city committed to his care, by which he was impowered to license all the schoolmasters in London, except those of St. Martin’s le Grand, and Mary le Bow; but at present he is only Secretary to the Chapter, and has the third stall on the north side of the choir.

Court of Chancery. In the opinion of several learned men this court took its name from the cross bars of iron or wood, called by the Romans cancelli, with which it was formerly inclosed, to prevent the officers being incommoded by the crowding of the people. The Chancery consists of two courts, in one of which the Lord Chancellor proceeds according to the laws and statutes of the kingdom, and in the second, according to 82equity, judging rather by the spirit than the letter of the laws. In case of absence, his place upon the bench is supplied by the Master of the rolls, who also determines causes in the same equitable manner. See the article Lord Chancellor.

It is the peculiar business of this court to rescue people out of the hands of their oppressors, and to afford relief in case of fraud, accidents, and breach of trust. Besides, out of this court are issued writs for parliaments, charters, patents for sheriffs, writs of certiorari to remove records and false judgments in inferior courts, writs of moderata misericordia, when a person has been amerced too high, and for a reasonable part of goods for widows and orphans. Here also are sealed and enrolled, treaties with foreign Princes, letters patent, commissions of appeal, oyer and terminer, &c.

The manner of proceeding here is much like that in the courts of the civil law; for the actions are by bill or plaint; the witnesses are privately examined; there is no jury, but all the sentences are given by the judge of the court. However as it proceeds not according to law, it is no court of record, 83and therefore binds only the person, his lands and goods.

To this court belong twelve masters in chancery; an accountant general; six head clerks; sixty-two sworn clerks, who purchase their places, and twelve waiting clerks, whose places are given by the six clerks; two chief examiners, with their respective clerks; a chief and four inferior registers; the clerk of the crown; a prothonotary; clerks of the petty bag, subpæna, patent, affidavit, cursitors, and alienation office.

Masters in Chancery, are the twelve assistants of the Chancellor or Lord Keeper, the first of whom is Master of the rolls, which is a place of great dignity, and is in the gift of the King. These gentlemen sit at Westminster hall, with the Lord Chancellor, three at a time while the term lasts, and two at a time when the Lord Chancellor sits to hear causes in his own house, and to them he often refers the farther hearing of causes; he also refers to them matters of account, and other things of small moment; but never the merits of the cause.

The salary of the Masters in chancery is 100l. to each of them paid quarterly out of the Exchequer, besides robe money.

84Chancery lane, Fleet street, so called from the court of Chancery there.

Chandler’s alley, Orchard street, Westminster.*

Chandler’s rents, Black Friars.†

Chandler’s street, Duke street.†

Chandos street, Bedford street, Covent Garden.†

Chanel row, New Palace yard. See Canon Row.

Change, behind Exeter Change in the Strand.

Change court, in the Strand.☐

Chanter of St. Paul’s. See the article Precentor.

Chapel Royal, a chapel in each of the King’s palaces, neatly ornamented on the inside. They are under the government of a Dean, who acknowledges no superior but his Majesty; for the Chapel Royal, or King’s Chapel, is not within the jurisdiction of any Bishop, but is a regal peculiar under the immediate government of the King. By the Dean are chosen the Sub-dean and all the other officers.

These are the King’s Clerk of the closet, a Divine whose office is to attend at his Majesty’s right hand during divine service, to wait on his Majesty in his 85private oratory; and to resolve all his doubts relating to religious subjects.

Forty-eight Chaplains in Ordinary, who are generally Doctors of Divinity distinguished for their learning and other accomplishments. Four of whom wait at court every month, to preach in the chapel on Sundays, and other Holidays before the King, and early in the morning on Sundays before the houshold; to read divine service to his Majesty every morning and evening during the rest of the week in his private oratory, and to say grace at the table in the absence of the Clerk of the closet.

The other officers are, a Confessor of the King’s houshold, whose office is to read prayers every morning to the family, to visit the sick, to examine and prepare communicants; and to inform such as desire advice in any case of conscience or point of religion. Ten Priests in Ordinary, sixteen gentlemen of the Chapel Royal, who with the Priests perform in the chapel the office of divine service, in praying, singing, &c. a master of the singing boys, of whom there are ten for the service of the chapel; a composer, two organists, a lutenist, a violist, and other officers.

86Chapels. Though there are 115 churches within this city, and the bills of mortality, and above 120 meeting houses of dissenters, yet the chapels of the established religion are very numerous, as will appear from the following list.

1. Archbishop of Canterbury’s chapel, at Lambeth. 2. Ask’s almshouse chapel, at Hoxton. 3. Audley street chapel. 4. Bancroft’s almshouse chapel. 5. Banqueting house chapel, Whitehall. 6. Berwick street chapel, Old Soho. 7. Bridewell hospital chapel. 8. Charter house chapel. 9. College almshouse chapel, Deadman’s place. 10. Conduit street chapel. 11. Coopers almshouse chapel, Ratcliff. 12. Curzon street chapel. 13. Dacre’s chapel, Westminster. 14. Draper’s almshouse chapel, Blackman street. 15. also at Newington Butts. 16. Duke’s street chapel, Westminster. 17. Ely house chapel, Holborn hill. 18. Fishmongers almshouse chapel, Newington Butts. 19. Fleet Prison chapel. 20. Foundling hospital chapel. 21. Gray’s Inn chapel, Gray’s Inn. 22. Great Queen street chapel, Lincoln’s Inn fields. 23. Gresham College chapel, Bishopsgate street. 24. Grosvenor square chapel, Audley’s street. 25. Guildhall chapel. 26. Guy’s hospital chapel, Southwark. 27. 87Hill’s chapel, Rochester row, Westminster. 28. Jeffries’s hospital chapel, Kingsland road. 29. Kensington palace chapel. 30. King’s bench prison chapel, Southwark. 31. Kingsland hospital chapel, Kingsland. 32. King’s street chapel, Oxford street. 33. Knight’s-bridge chapel, Knight’s-bridge. 34. Lamb’s chapel, Monkwell street. 35. Lincoln’s Inn chapel, Chancery lane. 36. Lock hospital chapel, Southwark. 37. Long Acre chapel, Long Acre. 38. London infirmary chapel, Whitechapel. 39. London workhouse chapel, Bishopsgate street. 40. Ludgate prison chapel. 41. Magdalen hospital chapel, Goodman’s fields. 42. May fair chapel, May fair. 43. Mercers chapel, Cheapside. 44. New Chapel, Westminster. 45. Newgate prison chapel. 46. New street chapel, St. Giles’s in the fields. 47. Owen’s almshouse chapel, Islington. 48. Oxendon chapel, near the Haymarket. 49. Oxford chapel, Marybon fields. 50. Palmer’s hospital chapel, Westminster. 51. Petticoat lane chapel, Whitechapel. 52. Poultry Compter chapel. 53. Queen square chapel, Westminster. 54. Queen street chapel, Bloomsbury. 55. Ram’s chapel, Homerton, Hackney. 56. Rolls chapel, Chancery 88lane. 57. Russel court chapel, Drury lane. 58. St. James’s palace chapel. 59. St. John’s chapel, Clerkenwell. 60. St. John’s chapel, near Red Lion street. 61. St. Margaret’s chapel. Chapel street. 62. St. Martin’s almshouse chapel, Hog lane. 63. St. Thomas’s hospital chapel, Southwark. 64. Serjeants inn chapel, Chancery lane. 65. Skinner’s almshouse chapel, Mile end. 66. Somerset house chapel. 67. Spring garden chapel, Charing Cross. 68. Staple’s inn chapel, Holborn. 69. Trinity almshouse chapel, Mile end. 70. Vintners almshouse chapel, Mile end. 71. Whitechapel prison chapel. 72. Whitington’s college chapel, College hill. 73. Wheeler’s chapel, Spitalfields. 74. Wood street Compter chapel, Wood-street.

French Chapels. 1. Black Eagle street chapel, Spitalfields. 2. Berwick street chapel, Old Soho. 3. Brown’s lane chapel, Spitalfields. 4. Castle street chapel Green street. 5. Crispin’s street chapel, Spitalfields. 6. Friery chapel, Pallmall. 7. Hog lane chapel, Soho. 8. Little Chapel street chapel, Old Soho. 9. Little Rider’s court chapel, Little Newport street. 10. Mary le Bon chapel, St. Mary le Bon. 11. Milk alley chapel, Wapping. 8912. Orange street chapel, Hedge lane. 13. Petticoat lane chapel. 14. St. John’s street chapel, Swanfields, Shoreditch. 15. St. Martin’s lane chapel, Canon street. E. 16. Savoy chapel, in the Savoy. E. 17. Slaughter’s street chapel, Swanfields, Shoreditch. 18. Spring garden chapel, Charing Cross. 19. Threadneedle street chapel. E. 20. Three crown court chapel, Spitalfields. 21. West street chapel, Soho.

German, Dutch and other Chapels. 1. Danish chapel, Well close square. 2. Dutch chapel, St. Augustine Friars. 3. and in the Savoy. 4. German chapel, in St. James’s Palace. E. 5. and in the Savoy. E. 6. German chapel, in Trinity lane. E. 7. Swedish chapel, Prince’s square, Ratcliff highway.

The chapels of the French, Dutch, and Germans, might perhaps with greater propriety be placed among the meeting houses of the Protestant dissenters, except those mark’d with an E, which properly belong to those of the established religion; the Common Prayer being read in French or German, and worship performed nearly in the same manner as in the national church.

90Popish Chapels of Foreign Ministers. 1. French Ambassador’s in Greek street. 2. Imperial Ambassador’s, Hanover square. 3. Portuguese Ambassador’s, in Golden square. 4. Sardinian Ambassador’s, Lincoln’s Inn fields. 5. Venetian Ambassador’s, Suffolk street.

Chapel alley, 1. near Oxford street.☐ 2. Long Acre.☐

Chapel court, 1. Audley street.☐ 2. Gilbert street, Bloomsbury.☐ 3. Henrietta street, Cavendish square.☐ 4. Lincoln’s Inn.☐

Chapel passage, Gray’s Inn.☐

Chapel street, 1. Audley street.☐ 2. Broad Way, Westminster.☐ 3. Long Acre.☐ 4. Red Lion street, Holborn.☐ 5. Wardour street.☐

Chapman’s court, George street, Tothill side.☐

Chapman’s rents, Barnaby street.☐

Chapman’s yard, Goodman’s fields.☐

Chapter House, on the north side of St. Paul’s church yard. This is a handsome building, belonging to St. Paul’s, in which the Convocation of the province of Canterbury sat to consult about ecclesiastical affairs, and to form canons for the government of the church: but tho’ the upper and lower house are called by 91the King’s writ at every session of parliament, they are now constantly prorogued, and dismissed by his Majesty’s authority.

Chapter House court, St. Paul’s church yard.☐

Charing Cross, opposite the west end of the Strand, is so denominated from a village called Charing, in which Edward I. caused a magnificent cross to be erected in commemoration of his beloved Queen Eleanor, part of which continued till the civil wars in the reign of Charles I. when it was entirely destroyed by the populace, as a monument of popish superstition. Stow. However, after the restoration an equestrian statue of King Charles I. was erected on the spot where this cross stood, which is still, tho’ very improperly, called Charing Cross. This statue has the advantage of being well placed; the pedestal is finely elevated, and the horse full of fire and spirit; but the man is not perhaps equally well executed: so that upon the whole it can neither be generally condemned, nor universally admired.[2] Its situation is 92shewn in the view of Northumberland House.

2.  It is said that Oliver Cromwell after King Charles I. was beheaded, ordered this statue to be taken down and sold to a founder to melt, but that a royalist contrived to get it, and kept it concealed till the restoration, when it was again set up.

Charing Cross court, Charing Cross.

Charing Cross yard, Forest street, Lambeth.

Charitable Corporation Office, Spring Garden, Charing Cross. This Society was incorporated by Queen Anne in the year 1708, for the relief of the industrious poor, by assisting them with small sums, lent upon pledges at legal interest. For this purpose the corporation were impowered to raise a fund not less than 20, nor more than 30,000l. but this sum being afterwards increased by additional grants to 600,000l. was, instead of being employed to the mutual advantage of the poor, and of the proprietors, villainously embezzled by the company’s cashier, warehouse keeper, and others, the two former of whom fled to France to shelter themselves from justice. Upon this the proprietors applied to parliament, and had a lottery granted for their relief; while those who had fled were invited to return and produce the books and effects 93of the corporation; and on their not complying were declared felons.

This corporation were by their charter enjoined not to interfere with the Bank of England by discounting of bills; nor to trade in any other business but that of lending money upon pledges, which they were to advance upon legal interest, and a reasonable allowance for charges. Their affairs were under the direction of a committee of seven of the proprietors, three or more of whom constituted a court, impowered to make by-laws for the better government of the company, and to appoint their cashier, warehouse keepers, accomptant, clerks, &c.

During the prosperity of this corporation they had two offices, one in Spring Garden, and the other on Laurence Poulteney’s hill; but their misfortunes occasioned that in the city to be laid aside.

Charity alley, near St. Thomas street Southwark.

Charity court, Aldersgate street.

Charles court, 1. Bartholomew close. 2. Near Hungerford market. 3. In the Strand.

Charles’s rents, St. George’s fields.

Charles’s square, a small neat square near Pitfield street, Hoxton: a grass plat in 94the area is surrounded with wooden rails, and a row of trees on each side, all cut in the manner of a cone, or sugar loaf. The houses, which take up only two sides and a part of a third, are handsome buildings; and the rest of the square is separated from the neighbouring gardens by rows of pales.

Charles street, 1. Black Friars. 2. Bridgewater gardens. 3. Covent garden. 4. St. James’s square. 5. Grosvenor square. 6. King’s street, Westminster. 7. Long Acre. 8. Old Gravel lane. 9. Oxford street. 10. Pitfield street, Hoxton. 11. Russel street, Covent garden. 12. Westminster.

Charlton, a pleasant well-built village in Kent, on the edge of Blackheath; famous for a very disorderly fair held in its neighbourhood, on St. Luke’s day, when the mob who wear horns on their heads, take all kinds of liberties, and the lewd and vulgar among the women give a loose to all manner of indecency. This is called Horn Fair, and there are sold at it, Rams horns, horn toys and wares of all sorts. Of this fair a vulgar tradition gives the following origin: King John having a palace at Eltham, in this neighbourhood, and being hunting near Charlton, then a mean hamlet, was separated 95from his attendants, when entering a cottage he admired the beauty of the mistress, whom he found alone, and debauched her; her husband, however, suddenly returning, caught them in the fact, and threatening to kill them both, the King was forced to discover himself, and to purchase his safety with gold, besides which he gave him all the land, from thence as far as the place now called Cuckold’s Point, and also bestowing on him the whole hamlet, established a fair, as a condition of his holding his new demesne, in which horns were both to be sold and worn. A sermon is preached on the fair day in the church, which is one of the handsomest in the county, and was repaired by Sir Edward Newton, Bart. to whom King James I. granted this manor. This gentleman built his house at the entrance of the village: it is a long Gothic structure, with four turrets on the top; it has a spacious court yard in the front, with two large Gothic piers to the gates, and on the outside of the wall is a long row of some of the oldest cypress trees in England. Behind the house are large gardens, and beyond these a small park which joins to Woolwich common. This 96house now belongs to the Earl of Egmont.

On the edge of the hill, and at a small distance from the church, are two fine houses, one of which was in the possession of the late Governor Hunter, and the other was erected by the late Lord Romney. The gardens being on the side of the hill, slope down towards the river, and render the prospect very delightful in summer, from the extensive view they afford of the country, and of the great number of ships that are generally sailing by every tide: but being fully exposed to the north wind, the fruit trees are generally blighted; and in winter time the air is said to be made unwholesome by the water which frequently overflows the neighbouring plains.

Charterhouse. This edifice was originally a religious foundation. In the year 1349 a terrible pestilence swept off more than half the inhabitants of London; and the church yards being unable to contain the dead, Sir Walter Manny, Bart. a foreign gentleman, who had been honoured with the order of the Garter by King Edward III. for his bravery in the field, purchased for a burial ground a spot of thirteen acres, where 97the Charterhouse now stands, and 50,000 persons are said to have been buried there in the space of that year.

The following year that public benefactor built a chapel upon the spot, according to the religion of those times, for prayers to be said for the souls of all who had been interred there, and afterwards founded a monastery of the Carthusians in the same place. This monastery, by the corruption of the word Cartreux, by which the French mean a Carthusian house, obtained the name of Charterhouse.

This monastery being dissolved at the reformation, at length fell to the Earl of Suffolk, who disposed of it to Thomas Sutton, Esq; a citizen of London, for 13,000l. The latter then applied to King James I. for a patent for his intended charitable foundation, which was readily granted in the year 1611, and confirmed by parliament in 1628. The expence of fitting up the house for the reception of his pensioners and scholars amounted to 7000l. which added to the purchase money, made 20,000l. But this was not all, he endowed his hospital and school with fifteen manors, and other lands, to the value of above 4490l. 98per annum. And the estate is at present improved to above 6000l. a year.

In this house are maintained eighty pensioners, who, according to the institution are gentlemen, merchants, or soldiers, who are fallen into misfortunes. These are provided with handsome apartments, and all the necessaries of life, except cloaths, instead of which each of them is allowed a gown, and 7l. per annum.

There are also forty-four boys supported in the house, where they have handsome lodgings, and are instructed in classical learning, &c. Besides these, there are twenty-nine students at the universities, who have each an allowance of 20l. per annum for the term of eight years. Others who are judged more fit for trades, are put out apprentices, and the sum of 40l. is given with each of them. As a farther encouragement to the scholars brought up on this foundation, there are nine ecclesiastical preferments in the patronage of the Governors, who, according to the constitution of the hospital, are to confer them upon those who were educated there.

The pensioners and youths are taken 99in at the recommendation of the Governors, who appoint in rotation. Maitland.

The buildings, which are extremely rude and irregular, have nothing but their convenience and situation to recommend them. The rooms are well disposed, and the square in the front is very neat, and kept in as good order as most in town. This square and the large gardens behind, give a free air, and at one and the same time contribute both to health and pleasure.

Charterhouse lane, Charterhouse square.☐

Charterhouse square, near West Smithfield.☐

Charterhouse street, Long lane, West Smithfield.☐

Cheapside, 1. From St. Paul’s church yard to the Poultry. It derives its name from there being a market there, or in the Saxon language a Cheap. In the year 1331, only the south side of this street Was built, and there being a great opening on the other side King Edward III. held jousts or tournaments there for three days together. Maitland. It is a spacious street, adorned with lofty buildings, inhabited by goldsmiths, linendrapers, haberdashers, &c. extending from Paternoster 100row to the Poultry. 2. There is another street called Cheapside in the Mint, Southwark.

Cheap Ward, is situated in the very center of the city; it being bounded on the north by Cripplegate ward, Bassishaw ward, and Coleman street ward; on the west by Queenhithe ward, and Cripplegate ward; on the south by Cordwainers ward; and on the east by Broad street ward, and Wallbrook ward: it takes its name from the Saxon word Chepe, a market, there being one kept in this division of the city. This market was from its situation known by the name of West Cheap, to distinguish it from the market, between Candlewick street, and Tower street, called East Cheap.

The principal streets in this ward are, Bucklersbury, the north side of Pancras lane, part of Queen street, the Poultry, the south end of the Old Jewry, Ironmonger lane, King street, Laurence lane, the east end of Cheapside, as far as to the midway between the paved passage into Honey lane market and Milk street, and part of Cateaton street.

The most remarkable buildings are, the parish churches of St. Mildred in the Poultry, and St. Mary’s Colechurch; 101Guildhall, Mercer’s hall, or Chapel, and Grocer’s hall, with the Poultry Compter.

This ward has an Alderman, and his Deputy, eleven other Common Council men, twelve wardmote inquest men, nine scavengers, eleven constables, and a beadle. The jurymen returned by the wardmote inquest, serve in the courts in Guildhall in the month of February.

Chelsea, a very large and populous village, two miles from London, pleasantly situated on the banks of the Thames almost opposite to Battersea. Here is the physic garden belonging to the company of Apothecaries of London, a particular account of which the reader may find in the article relating to that company. Sir Robert Walpole, the late Earl of Orford, had here for some time a house adorned with a noble collection of pictures, which was afterwards removed to Houghton-hall in Norfolk, and is now thought the finest collection in England[3]. There are several other private buildings worthy of the observation of the curious. I. At this place is the house and fine gardens that belonged to the late Earl of Ranelagh. See Ranelagh Gardens. 102Salter’s coffee house here is well known, being much frequented on account of the great number of natural curiosities to be seen there.

3.  See an account lately published, entitled Ædes Walpolianæ.

Chelsea Hospital, a noble edifice erected for the invalids in the land servive. The original building on this spot was a college founded by Dr. Sutkliff, Dean of Exeter, in the reign of King James I. for the study of Polemic divinity, and was endowed in order to support a Provost and Fellows, for the instruction of youth in that branch of learning. The King, who laid the first stone, gave many of the materials, and promoted the work by a large sum of money, and the clergy were very liberal upon the same occasion; but the sum settled upon the foundation by Dr. Sutkliff being far unequal to the end proposed, the rest was left to private contributions; and these coming in slowly, the work was stopped before it was finished, and therefore soon fell to ruin. At length the ground on which the old college was erected, becoming escheated to the crown, Charles II. began to erect the present hospital, which was carried on by James II. and completed by William and Mary.

The whole edifice, which was built 103by the great Sir Christopher Wren, consists of a vast range of buildings. The front toward the north opens into a piece of ground laid out in walks for the pensioners; and that facing the south, into a garden which extends to the Thames, and is kept in good order. This side affords not only a view of that fine river, but of the county of Surry beyond it. In the center of this edifice is a pediment supported by four columns, over which is a handsome turret, and through this part is an opening which leads through the building. On one side of this entrance is the chapel, the furniture and plate of which was given by K. James I. and on the other side is the hall, where all the pensioners dine in common, the officers by themselves. In this hall is the picture of King Charles II. on horseback, with several other pieces as big as the life, designed by Signior Vario, and finished by Mr. Cook. These were presented by the Earl of Ranelagh. The pavement of both the chapel and hall are black and white marble. The altar piece in the chapel is the resurrection, painted by Sebastian Ricci.

The wings, which extend east and west, join the chapel and hall to the 104north, and are open towards the Thames, on the south; these are near 360 feet in length, and about 80 in breadth, they are three stories high, and the rooms are so well disposed, and the air so happily thrown in by means of the open spaces, that nothing can be more pleasant. On the front of this square is a colonade extending along the side of the hall and chapel, over which upon the cornice is the following inscription in capitals.

In subsidium et levamen emeritorum senio, belloque fractorum, condidit Carolus II. Auxit Jacobus II. Perfecere Gulielmus et Maria, Rex et Regina, MDCXC.

And in the midst of the quadrangle is the statue of King Charles II. in the ancient Roman dress, somewhat bigger than the life, standing upon a marble pedestal. This was given by Mr. Tobias Rustat, and is said to have cost 500l.

North Front of Chelsea Hospital.

South Front of the Same.
S. Wale delin. J. Green sc. Oxon.

There are several other buildings adjoining, that form two other large squares, and consist of apartments for the officers and servants of the house; for old maimed officers of horse and foot, and the infirmary for the sick. None of these are shewn in the two views we 105have given, which only represent the two principal fronts of the hospital.

An air of neatness and elegance is observable in all these buildings. They are composed of brick and stone, and which way soever they are viewed, there appears such a disposition of the parts as is best suited to the purposes of the charity, the reception of a great number, and the providing them with every thing that can contribute to the convenience and pleasure of the pensioners.

Chelsea Hospital is more particularly remarkable for its great regularity and proper subordination of parts, which is very apparent in the north front. The middle is very principal, and the transition from thence to the extremities, is very easy and delightful.

The expence of erecting these buildings is computed to amount to 150,000l. and the extent of the ground is above forty acres.

In the wings are sixteen wards, in which are accommodations for above 400 men, and there are besides in the other buildings, a considerable number of apartments for officers and servants.

These pensioners consist of superannuated veterans, who have been at least 106twenty years in the army; or those soldiers who are disabled in the service of the crown. They wear red coats lined with blue, and are provided with all other cloaths, diet, washing, and lodging. The Governor has 500l. a year; the Lieutenant Governor 250l. and the Major 150l. Thirty-six officers are allowed 6d. a day; thirty-four light horsemen, and thirty serjeants, have 2s. a week each; forty-eight corporals and drums have 10d. per week; and three hundred and thirty-six private men, are each allowed 8d. a week. As the house is called a garrison, all the members are obliged to do duty in their respective turns; and they have prayers twice a day in the chapel, performed by two chaplains, who have each a salary of 100l. a year. The physician, secretary, comptroller, deputy treasurer, steward, and surgeon, have also each 100l. per annum, and many other officers have considerable salaries. As to the out-pensioners, who amount to between eight and nine thousand, they have each 7l. 12s. 6d. a year.

These great expences are supported by a poundage deduced out of the pay of the army, with one day’s pay once a year from each officer and common soldier; 107and when there is any deficiency, it is supplied by a sum raised by parliament. This hospital is governed by the following commissioners; the President of the council, the first Commissioner of the treasury, the Principal Secretary of state, the Pay master general of the forces, the Secretary at war, the Comptrollers of the army, and by the Governor and Lieutenant Governor of the hospital.

Chelsea Water-works, are under the management of a society incorporated by act of parliament in the year 1722, by the name of The Governor and Company of the Chelsea Water-works. They have a common seal, and power to purchase lands, &c. in mortmain to the value of 1000l. per annum, with a right to alienate and dispose of the same as they shall think proper. These works are divided into two thousand shares. The company’s affairs are managed by a Governor, Deputy Governor, and thirteen Directors.

Chelton court, Bedfordbury.

Cheney’s alley, Shoreditch.†

Cheney’s wharf, Lower Shadwell.†

Chequer alley, 1. In the Borough.* 2. Great Old Bailey.* 3. Old Bethlem. 4. Whitecross street, Cripplegate.*

108Chequer court, 1. Charing Cross.* 2. Catharine’s lane.* 3. Golden lane.*

Chequer yard, 1. St. Catharine’s lane.* 2. Dowgate hill.* 3. Golden lane. 4. St. Martin’s lane, Charing Cross.* 5. Old street.* 6. Whitechapel.*

Cherry Garden lane, Rotherhith.‡

Cherry Garden stairs, Rotherhith.‡

Cherry Garden street, Rotherhith Wall.‡

Cherry Tree alley, 1. Bunhill row.‡ 2. Golden lane.‡ 3. Ship street.‡ 4. Whitecross street.‡

Cherry Tree Alley School, was founded by Mr. William Worral in Cherry Tree alley, Golden lane, in the year 1689, and endowed by him with the annual revenue of 30l. for educating and cloathing forty boys, whose livery is an orange colour, in commemoration of the revolution by the Prince of Orange in 1688.

Cherry Tree corner, Horseferry.

Cherry Tree court, 1. Aldersgate street. 2. Gardiner’s lane. 3. Piccadilly. 4. Cherubin court, Angel alley. 5. White’s alley.

Chertsey, a town in Surry, nineteen miles from London, carries on a considerable trade in malt, which is sent in barges to 109London. Here was once an abbey, in which was deposited the corpse of Henry VI. who was stabbed in the Tower, but his body was afterwards removed by Henry VII. to Windsor. Out of the ruins of this abbey Sir Henry Carew, master of the buckhounds to King Charles II. built a very fine house. To this village Cowley, the Poet, retired after being weary of attending on the court, and there ended his days. Here is a bridge over the Thames to Shepperton, and a handsome free-school erected by Sir William Perkins, who had a seat here.

Chesham, a market town in Buckinghamshire, situated on the borders of Hertfordshire, twenty-nine miles from London. It had formerly a chantry, and has now a charity school.

Cheshire’s rents, 1. Fleet lane, by the Fleet market.† 2. Shipwright’s street, Rotherhith.†

Cheshunt, with its park and wash, are situated about fifteen miles from London near the river Lea in Hertfordshire. Here was formerly a convent of nuns; and King Edward III. gave Cheshunt the privilege of a market, which has been long discontinued.


Ld. Egremont’s

Chesterfield House.
S. Wale del. B. Green sculp.

Chesterfield House, in May fair, a very elegant structure, built by the Nobleman from whom it derives its name. The stone colonades leading from the house to the wings on each side are very beautiful. The print exhibits the body of the house with part of the colonade, but the wings are hid by the intervening houses. This view was taken from the end next Hyde Park, of the street which is opposite the great gate which leads to the house.

Chester’s key, Thames street.†

Cheswick. See Chiswick.

Chever’s court, Limehouse.†

Cheyney, near Flounden in Buckinghamshire, formerly belonged to the Cheyneys, but has been the manor and seat of the Russels, now Dukes of Bedford, for about 200 years.

Chichester rents, Chancery lane, from the Bishop of Chichester’s house near it. Maitland.

Chick lane, West Smithfield.

Chidley’s court, Pall mall.†pm od Chigwell, a village in Essex, situated between Waltham Abbey and Rumford. The rectory and parish church are united to the prebend of St. Pancras in St. Paul’s cathedral. Here is a charity 111school; and at a small distance are two hamlets named Chigwell-Dews and Chigwell-Row.

Chigwell hill, Ratcliff highway.

Chigwell street, Ratcliff highway.

Chile’s court, 1. Eagle court, Strand.† 2. In the Strand.†

Chimney alley, Coleman street.

Chimney-Sweepers alley, Barnaby street.

Chingford, a village in Essex, near Woodford, and not far from Epping Forest, so agreeably situated for privacy and retirement, that the remotest distance from the metropolis can hardly exceed it. The church, which was erected in the reign of King Richard II. is a neat little building dedicated to St. Peter and Paul.

Chipping Ongar, a town in Essex, twenty miles from London, was formerly the manor of Richard Lacy, who being Protector of England, while Henry II. was absent in Normandy, he built a church and a castle here with other fortifications, the remains of which are still to be seen.

Chislehurst, a town near Bromley, in Kent, where the family of the Walsinghams resided for several generations; and are interred in the church. Here 112Mr. Camden composed the principal part of his annals of Queen Elizabeth.

Chiswick, in Middlesex, situated on the Thames on the south-west side of Hammersmith. Here are two manors, one belonging to the Prebendary of Cheswick in St. Paul’s cathedral, and the other call’d the Dean’s manor, from its belonging to the Dean and Chapter of St. Paul’s. In this village there is a charity school, and it is adorned with several elegant seats, as the Earl of Shrewsbury’s, the Earl of Grantham’s now Col. Elliot’s, the late Lord Wilmington’s, &c. But the most remarkable of the kind is the late Earl of Burlington’s, which was a plain, commodious building, with good offices about it; but a part of the old edifice being some years ago destroyed by fire, his Lordship erected near it a beautiful villa, which, for elegance of taste, surpasses every thing of its kind in England. The court in the front, which is of a proportionable size with the building, is gravelled and constantly kept very neat. On each side are yew hedges in panels, with Termini placed at a proper distance; and in the front of these hedges, are two rows of Cedars of Libanus, which, at a small 113distance have a fine effect, the dark shade of these solemn ever-greens affording a pleasing contrast to the whiteness of the elegant building that appears between them, the view of which from the road surprizes you in a most agreeable manner.

The ascent to the house is by a noble flight of steps, on one side of which is the statue of Palladio, and on the other that of Inigo Jones. The portico is supported by six fine fluted columns of the Corinthian order, with a pediment very elegant, and the cornice, frize and architrave, as rich as possible. This magnificent front strikes all who behold it with an uncommon pleasure and surprize.

The octagonal saloon finishing at top in a dome, through which it is enlightened, is also very elegant. The other rooms are extremely beautiful, and are finely furnished with pictures of the great masters; an account of which is here annexed. It were to be wished this house had been built to a larger scale, that the grandeur might have equalled the elegance.

Though the other front towards the garden is plainer, yet it is in a very bold, noble and masterly stile, and has at the 114same time a pleasing simplicity, as hath also the side front towards the serpentine river, which is different from the two others. In making the drawing of this house, it was viewed by the angle, by which means the print here given of it, shews it more perfectly than if only the principal front had been given. The inside of this structure is finished with the utmost elegance; the ceilings are richly gilt and painted, and the rooms adorned with some of the best pictures in Europe. In the gardens, which are very beautiful, the vistos are terminated by a temple, obelisk, or some such ornament, which produce a most agreeable effect.

The gardens are laid out in the finest taste: on descending from the back part of the house you enter a verdant lawn planted with clumps of ever-greens, between which are two rows of large stone vases. At the ends next the house are two wolves in stone, done by the celebrated Scheemaker, the statuary; at the farther end are two large lions, and the view is terminated by three fine antique statues, dug up in Adrian’s garden at Rome, with stone seats between 115them, and behind a close plantation of ever-greens.

On turning to the house on the right hand, an open grove of forest trees affords a view of the orangery, which is seen as perfectly as if the trees were planted on the lawn; and when the orange trees are in flower, their fragrance is diffused over the whole lawn to the house. These are separated from the lawn by a fossee, to secure them from being injured by the persons admitted to walk in the garden.

On leaving the house to the left, an easy slope covered with short grass leads down to the serpentine river, on the side whereof are clumps of ever-greens, with agreeable breaks, between which the water is seen; and at the farther end is an opening into an inclosure, where are a Roman temple, and an obelisk, with grass slopes, and in the middle a circular piece of water.

From hence you are led to the wilderness, through which are three strait avenues terminated by three different edifices; and within the quarters are serpentine walks, through which you may ramble near a mile in the shade. On each side the serpentine river, are 116verdant walks, which accompany the river in all its turnings. On the right hand of this river is a building that is the exact model of the portico of the church of Covent garden, on the left is a wilderness laid out in regular walks, and in the middle is a Palladian wooden bridge over the river.

With the earth dug from the bed of this river, his Lordship has raised a terrace, that affords a prospect of the adjacent country; which, when the tide is up, is greatly enlivened by the view of the boats and barges passing along the river Thames.

Chiswick House.
S. Wale delin. B. Green sc. Oxon.

Pictures, &c. in the new house at Chiswick.

In the Portico.

Augustus, a busto.


Lord Burlington and three of his sisters, Elizabeth, Juliana, and Jane, by Sir Godfrey Kneller.

Rape of Proserpine, Sconians.

Anne of Austria, Frederick Elde.

Morocco Ambassador in the reign of Charles II. figure by Sir Godf. Kneller; the back ground and horse, by Wyke.

King Charles, his Queen, and two children, Vandyke.

Judgment of Paris, Cav. Daniele.

117Lewis XIII. Fred. Elde.

Apollo and Daphne, Cav. Daniele.


Antinous. Lucius Antinous.

A Bacchanalian.







Bust unknown.



Red Velvet Room.

Madonna della Rosa, by Domenichino.

Noah sacrificing, Carlo Maratti.

Painting and designing, Guido Rheni.

The holy family, Carlo Maratti.

King Charles I. Cornelius Johnson.

Pope Innocent IX. Diego Velasques.

St. Gregorio, Cavidoni.

Pope Clement IX. Carlo Maratti.

The holy family, Giacinto Brandi.

The holy family, Salviati.

Duchess of Somerset, Vandyke.

Bacchus and Ariadne, Sebastiano Ricci.

A woman, school of Rubens.

Three statues, chiaro oscuro, Nic. Poussin.

118A man, school of Rubens.

Venus and Cupid, Seb. Ricci.

St. John in the wilderness, Franc. Mola.

A portrait, Langians.

First Countess of Burlington, Vandyke.

Cardinal Baronius, Frederico Barocci.

A portrait, Rembrandt.

Mr. Killegrew, Vandyke.

First Earl of Burlington, Vandyke.

Salmasis and Hermaphroditus, Francisco Albano.

The holy family, Andrea del Sarto.

Mary Queen of Scotland, Fred. Zucchero.

The holy family, Pietro da Cortona.

The procession of the Dogesse, Paolo Veronese.


A young Hercules.

Three pictures of incense lamps, Benvenuto Celini.

Blue Velvet Room.

A chymist’s shop, by David Teniers.

A landscape and figures, Franc. Mola.

A landscape and figures, Gaspar Poussin.

A Magdalen’s head, Guido Rheni.

A landscape with figures hawking, Wouwerman.

A landscape and figures, Franc. Mola.

A landscape and figures, Gasp. Poussin.

A march, Bourgognone.

119The passage of the Red sea, ditto.

The Jesuits church at Antwerp, Geringh.

A landscape and figures, Bott.

A landscape, Gaspar Poussin.

A landscape, ditto.

A landscape with horsemen, Vander Meulen.

A landscape, Bott.

Lord Sandwich in a round, Sir Pet. Lely.

A woman frying fritters, Schalcken.

The holy family, Carlo Maratti.

A tent, Wouwerman.

A landscape with fishermen, Phill. Laura.

The flight into Egypt, Nicolo Poussin.

A ferry boat and cattle, Berchem.

A woman feeding children, Schalcken.

The holy family, Andrea Sacchi.

Ditto, Camillo Procacini.

Inigo Jones in a round, Dobson.

Red closet next the blue room.

Lot and his two daughters, Rottenhammer.

A landscape and ruins, Viviano, the figures by Mich. Angelo.

Jupiter and Io, Francesco Imperiali.

Spanish lady, D. Velasques.

Fishermen, Rubens.

The Presentation, Giuseppe Chiari.

A man hawking, Inigo Jones.

A sea-port, Marco Ricci.

A landscape, Velvet Brughel.

120A Flora, Francesco Albano.

Temptation of St. Antonio, Annibale Carracci.

A landscape, Patel.

Lady Dorothy Boyle, Lady Burlington.

A landscape, Velvet Brughel.

The holy family, Sebastian Bourdon.

The inside of a church, Perino del Vaga.

A sea piece, Vandervelde.

A landscape, Marco Ricci.

Christ in the garden.

The holy family, Schidoni.

A crucifixion of a saint, Seb. Bourdon.

A landscape, Rysdal.

The holy family, Denis Calvert.

The Samaritan woman, Paolo Veronese.

A boy’s head, Holbein.

Cleopatra, Leonardo da Vinci.

A landscape, Swanevelt.

The holy family, Passari.

Earl of Essex.

A portrait, Fran. Hals.

Inside of a church, Vandyke.

A landscape, Gaspar Poussin.

A man and vases, Benedetto Castiglione.

A landscape, Francisque Meli.

Green Velvet room.

Mars and Venus, Albano.

Acis and Galatea, Luca Giordano.

Constantine’s arch, Gio. Paolo Panini.

121Romulus and Remus, Pietro da Cortona.

A woman bathing, Rousseau.

Mr. Rogers, Vandyke.

Our Saviour in the garden, Guercino.

A man half length with a dog, Dobson.

Rembrant in his painting room, Gerrard Dow.

Ruins, Viviano.

A view of Florence, Gasparo degli Occhiale.

Diana and Endymion, Sebastiano Ricci.

Flowers by Baptiste the boy, Seb. Ricci.

Ponte Rotto, Gasparo degli Occhiale.

The holy family, Francesco Mola.

A landscape, Mons. Verton.

Buildings, Rousseau.

A Magdalen, Carlo Maratti from Guido.

A man half length, Rembrant.

A Madona and St. Catharine, Pietro da Cortona.

The Jews scourging our Saviour, Giacomo Bassano.

Piazza del Popolo, Gasparo degli Occhiale.

A landscape with fishermen, Salvator Rosa.

Belisarius, Vandyke.

Earl of Pembroke and his sister, Vandyke.

Bed chamber.

Earl of Cumberland in a round.

122Mr. Pope in a round, Kent.

Lady Burlington in a round, Aikman.


Susanna and P. Veronese.

* * * * Bassan.

* * * * Ditto.




Middle of the ceiling, Paolo Veronese.

Two statues, Guelphi.

Two ditto, Scheemaker.

Two little heads, Guelphi.

Two porphyry vases, from Rome.

Closet within the bed chamber.

Lord Clifford and his family, painted in 1444 by John Van Eyk, called John of Bruges.

A woman in a hat, Blomaert.

Lady Dorothy Boyle, in crayons, Lady Burlington.

Henry IV. of France, Mosaick.

A head, a sketch, Vandyke.

Ditto, ditto.

Flowers upon glass, Baptiste.

A woman selling fish and herbs.

Hagar and the angel.

A boy’s head.

A man’s head.

A woman combing her head.

123A satyr whipping a woman.

A head, Holbein.

A Venus sleeping.

Dutch figures.

A man reading.

The ascension, Albano.

The new dining room.

Twelfth night, Jordans.

The finding of Moses, Seb. Ricci.

Jephtha, Seb. Ricci.

Good Samaritan, Giacomo Bassan.

A flower piece, Baptiste.

Ditto, ditto.

Ditto, ditto.

A portrait, Rubens.

Ditto, unknown.

Buildings and cattle, Wenix.

First Lady Halifax, Sir Peter Lely.

The marriage of Cupid, &c. Andrea Schiavone.

A landscape, Gio. Franceso Bolognese.

Mars and Venus, Le Fevre.

A landscape, Gio. Franceso Bolognese.

A Madona, Parmegiano.

Woman taken in adultery, Allesandro Veronese.

Liberality and Modesty, Guido, after

Chiswell street, near the Artillery ground, Moorfields.†

124Chitterling alley, Beer lane, Tower street.

Chiver’s court, Nightingale lane, in Limehouse, Fore street.‡

Choirister’s rents, near the Almonry.

Cholmondeley’s Almshouse, in Church entry, Black Friars, was founded by the Lady Cholmondeley for three poor women, each of whom receives 2s. a week.

Christopher’s alley, 1. in the Borough. 2. Lombard street. 3. St. Martin’s le Grand. 4. Middle turning, Shadwell. 5. Upper Moorfields.

St. Christopher’s alley, St. Christopher’s court, Threadneedle street.☐

St. Christopher’s Church, by the Bank of England in Threadneedle street, is dedicated to a Jewish convert and martyr, named before his conversion Reprobus, but having, it is pretended, carried our Saviour over a river, was thence named Christopher. Mention is made of a church in this place so early as the year 1368. The present edifice suffered greatly by the fire of London; but not so much as to occasion its being rebuilt, and therefore being thoroughly repaired, it continues on the ancient foot. The body is well enlightened, and the tower 125is crowned with four handsome pinacles. It is a very plain edifice, and indeed had it been ever so well ornamented, it could not, in its present situation, have been seen to advantage.

This church is a rectory, the patronage of which has been for above three hundred years in the Bishop of London. The Rector, besides other considerable advantages, receives 120l. a year in lieu of tithes.

Christopher’s court, 1. Cartwright street. 2. Rosemary lane.

St. Christopher’s court, Threadneedle street.

Christopher’s Inn yard, 1. Barnaby street. 2. St. Margaret’s hill.*

Christ’s Church, Church street, Spitalfields. The district in which this edifice stands was till lately considered as a hamlet in the parish of Stepney: but the kind reception given to the persecuted French protestants, greatly increased the number of the inhabitants of this spot, and these refugees bringing the silk manufacture along with them, soon brought affluence to the place, and with it a multitude of new inhabitants. Hence this was constituted a distinct parish from Stepney in the year 1728, and one 126of the fifty new churches was ordered to be built here. The foundation was laid in 1723, and it was finished in four years.

The body of this church is solid and well proportioned; it is ornamented with a Doric portico, to which there is a handsome ascent by a flight of steps; and upon these the Doric order arises supported on pedestals. The tower over these rises with arched windows and niches, and on its diminishing for the steeple, is supported by the heads of the under corners, which form a kind of buttresses: from this part rises the base of the spire, with an arcade; its corners are in the same manner supported with a kind of pyramidal buttresses ending in a point, and the spire is terminated by a vase and fane. This is the character given of this edifice in the English Architect: who asserts that solidity without weight is its character, and that though this structure is not without faults, yet it is worthy of great praise; it being singular, and built for ages. It has however been severely censured by the author of The Critical Review of Buildings, who says that it is one of the most absurd piles in Europe.

127This church is made a rectory, but is not to be held in commendam. For the maintenance of the Rector and his successors the Parliament granted the sum of 3000l. to be laid out in the purchase of lands and tenements in fee simple: besides which provision the Churchwardens are by that act appointed to pay him annually the sum of 125l. to be raised by burial fees. Maitland.

Christ’s Church, in Bennet street, Southwark, is a regular and well-constructed building, erected with little expence, since the year 1737, when the foundation of the old church gave way. It consists of a plain body enlightened by two ranges of windows, and a square tower with a turret.

This church is a rectory, the patronage is in the heirs and assigns of John Marshal of the Borough of Southwark, Gent. who caused the old church to be built, by leaving, in the year 1627, the sum of 700l. for that purpose, with an estate of 60l. a year towards the maintenance of a Minister, and the inhabitants applying to parliament in 1670, it was made a distinct parish independent of that of St. Saviour’s.

Christ’s Church, behind the northern 128row of houses in Newgate street. This is a vicarage, or impropriation, and the right of advowson is in the Governors of St. Bartholomew’s hospital. The old spacious church being consumed by the fire of London, this edifice was erected in its room, and by an act of parliament constituted the place of public worship, both for this parish and that of St. Leonard’s Foster lane.

This church is a plain edifice, neatly ornamented on the inside; it has a square tower of a considerable height, crowned with a light and handsome turret, which is so concealed by the houses, that it can scarce any where be seen to advantage. The Incumbent receives 200l. per annum in lieu of tithes.

Christ’s Hospital, for the education and support of the fatherless children of freemen, is an establishment of considerable antiquity; for Henry VIII. in the last year of his reign gave the city both the priory of St. Bartholomew’s, and the convent of Gray Friars, which anciently belonged to that priory, for the relief of the poor. He also in the same year founded two churches out of these religious houses, the one to be called Christ Church, out of the Gray Friars, and the 129other Little St. Bartholomew’s, out of the hospital of that name. By the above grant the city was obliged to establish here a settled and regular provision for the poor, which was not done till some years after, when King Edward VI. being extremely moved at a sermon preached by Bishop Ridley, wherein that good Prelate expatiated on the obligations of the rich to assist the poor and miserable, his Majesty expressed his hearty desire to concur in promoting so laudable a work, and by the Bishop’s advice, immediately caused a letter to be wrote to the Lord Mayor, to obtain his assistance; and this letter his Majesty signed with his own hand, and sealed with his signet. The good Bishop, who, by the young King’s desire, stayed till the letter was finished, was the messenger dispatched on this important business. The chief Magistrate was pleased with the honour done the city, and after several consultations with the Aldermen and Common Council, several charitable plans were formed for the carrying on of this and other charities; and while the diseased were provided for at St. Thomas’s, and the idle at Bridewell, it was resolved that the young 130and helpless should be educated at Christ Church.

This being reported to the King, his Majesty voluntarily incorporated the Governors of these houses by the title of The Mayor, Commonalty and Citizens of the City of London, Governors of the possessions, revenues and goods of the hospitals of Edward VI., King of England, &c. as his Majesty desired to be esteemed their chief founder and patron. To promote and continue this work, he granted the city certain lands that had been given to the house of the Savoy, founded by King Henry VII. for the lodging of pilgrims and strangers, but which was now only used by vagabonds and strumpets. These lands amount to the yearly value of 600l. He also commanded, that after reserving a sufficient quantity of the linen, which had been used in the times of popish superstition, to each church within the city and suburbs of London, the remaining superfluous great quantities should be delivered to the Governors of this hospital, for the use of the poor children under their care. And one of the last actions of that good Prince’s life, was signing a licence for this corporation to purchase lands in mortmain.

131In 1552 the house of the Gray Friars was prepared for the poor fatherless children, and the same year 340 were admitted. Soon after, several considerable private benefactions were left to this hospital, and at length Charles II. by a well judged liberality, founded and endowed a mathematical school for the instruction of forty boys in that study, in order to fit them for the sea, and for this purpose he ordered 1000l. a year to be paid out of the Exchequer for seven years. This institution is executed in a manner suitable to the intention of the founder. Every year ten of these boys are put out apprentices to masters of ships, and ten more are received in their room. The master is not only expected to be a good mathematician, but to understand the learned languages. Afterwards the Governors appointed forty other boys to be taught mathematics in the same manner. The other schools are a grammar school, a writing school, and a school for the girls who learn reading and needle work, and there have been lately added a master to teach the boys drawing, an art of the greatest use in many mechanical arts.

This charity is so very extensive, that there are sometimes above a thousand 132children supported here at a time. The youngest, for whom there is not room in the house, and who are not of an age to understand the lessons taught there, are, at the expence of the charity, sent to Hertford and Ware, where there are schools erected and masters employed at handsome salaries for that purpose. As the eldest are put out apprentices, and these grow more fit for the place, they are brought in.

The boys are cloathed in blue coats, with petticoats of the same colour, yellow stockings, and bonnets instead of hats. And on their being put out apprentice, they have 10l. given with each.

The edifice is concealed by the contiguous houses, and cannot be seen entire. It is spacious, and though built in the old manner, is not ill contrived. The principal buildings form the four sides of a large area, which have porticoes continued round them. These have Gothic arches, and the walls are supported by abutments. The front of the building is, however, more modern than the rest, and has Doric pilasters supported on pedestals.

Among the ancient buildings that still remain, is an old cloister, which was a 133part of the priory. This was repaired by the direction of Sir Christopher Wren, and serves both for a thoroughfare, and place of recreation for the boys, especially in rainy weather.

The writing school is, however, a neat modern edifice, built with brick and stone in the year 1694, at the end of the great hall. It was founded by Sir John Moore, one of the Aldermen of the city, and President of the house, whom it is said to have cost 5000l. It contains long writing boards sufficient for 300 boys to sit and write upon, and at the upper end of the room is Sir John’s statue in white marble.

The inner distribution of the rooms and wards is very good. There is a spacious hall built at the expence of Sir John Fenwick after the fire of London, in which the boys dine and sup. At the upper end of this room is a large picture representing King James II. sitting with his Nobles, the Governors, &c. with the half figures of King Edward VI. and Charles II. hanging as pictures in the same piece. There is also a piece representing the mathematical school done by Vario, and reckoned worth 1000l. At the other end is a large piece representing King Edward VI. delivering the 134charter to the Lord Mayor, who kneels, with the Aldermen behind him; the young King is accompanied by Bishop Ridley and several others, who stand about him. Here also is a fine piece of the pool of Bethesda, which is very large, and painted in a masterly stile by Mr. Hogarth. In this hall there is likewise a good organ, which plays on Sundays, when the boys sing psalms and anthems.

A great room where the Governors meet, is also adorned with the pictures of the royal founder, and of all the chief benefactors.

Christ’s-Church Hospital.
S. Wale delin. J. Taylor sc.

There are eight wards for the children’s beds; that of the girls is separated from the rest; and there is also a ward for the sick. Each of the masters have 100l. a year, and the grammar master an additional salary of 20l. for catechising the boys, and his usher has 50l. a year; in short, 12 or 1300l. a year is expended in salaries to the officers, clerks, and servants; and the sum expended for the support of the hospital, amounts to between 11 and 12,000l. a year. To defray this expence, the hospital has a great annual revenue in houses and lands; the benefit of licensing 135and looking after the 420 carts allowed in the city, each of which pays a certain sum for sealing. The hospital has likewise a duty of about three farthings upon every piece of cloth brought to Blackwell hall, where clerks are kept to receive it. The Governors, amount to about three hundred, and these chuse their officers and servants, both men and women, and also the President and Treasurer.

The building of this hospital is partly Gothic and partly modern, being built at various times, and has very little regularity. That part represented in the print belongs to the mathematical school, and is in Gray Friars. The niche contains a statue of Charles II. in the royal robes, which, considering the difficulty the statuary had to encounter, is a very good one. At a distance is the steeple and part of the front of the church, which was rebuilt, after being burnt down by the fire of London, by Sir Christopher Wren.

Churches. These are very numerous; and the reader may see an account of each under the names of the patrons to whom they are dedicated, as St. Alban’s, Allhallows, St. Alphage, St. Andrew’s, &c.

136Church alley, 1. Basinghall street.☐ 2. Black Friars.☐ 3. Denmark street, St. Giles’s.☐ 4. Giltspur street.☐ 5. Harp alley, Shoe lane.☐ 6. St. Mary hill.☐ 7. New Rents, Compter street.☐ 8. Noble street, Foster lane.☐ 9. Old Jewry.☐ 10. Puddle dock hill.☐ 11. In the Strand.☐ 12. Thames street.☐ 13. Tooley street.☐ 14. Wapping.☐ 15. Watling street.☐ 16. Whitechapel.☐

Church court, 1. Church passage, Piccadilly.☐ 2. Clement’s lane, Canon street.☐ 3. Duke’s place.☐ 4. Little Chapel street.☐ 5. St. Margaret’s church yard.☐ 6. In the Strand.☐ 7. Church Entry, Austin Friars.☐ 8. Black Friars.☐

Church hill, Black Friars.☐

Church lane, 1. Dyot street.☐ 2. Elephant lane, Rotherhith.☐ 3. Houndsditch.☐ 4. Islington.☐ 5. Ropewalk, Limehouse.☐ 6. St. Mary Overies.☐ 7. Newington Butts.☐ 8. In the Strand.☐ 9. Near Three Cranes lane, Thames street.☐ 10. Whitechapel.☐ 11. White street, Southwark.☐ 12. Wood street, Cheapside.☐

Church passage, 1. Cloth Fair.☐ 2. Dorset street.☐ 3. Piccadilly.☐

Church row, near Aldgate.☐

Church stairs, Rotherhith.☐

Church street, 1. Bernbridge street.☐ 2. 137Coverlead fields.☐ 3. St. Giles’s street.☐ 4. Hackney.☐ 5. Hoxton.☐ 6. Lambeth.☐ 7. Long Acre.☐ 8. Millbank.☐ 9. Prescot street.☐ 10. Rotherhith.☐ 11. Sclater street.☐ 12. Shoreditch fields.☐ 13. Soho.☐ 14. Spitalfields.☐ 15. Stepney Causeway.☐ 16. Swan fields.☐

Church Yard alley, 1. Cartwright street.☐ 2. Chick lane.☐ 3. Fetter lane.☐ 4. Harp alley.☐ 5. Hole stairs.☐ 6. Rosemary lane.☐ 7. Rotherhith wall.☐ 8. Shoe lane.☐ 9. Thames street.☐ 10. St. Thomas’s street, Southwark.☐ 11. Tooley street.☐

Church Yard court, 1. Botolph lane.☐ 2. Inner Temple.☐

Church Yard lane, St. Thomas’s street, Southwark.☐

Chymisters alley, Bedfordbury.

Cinnamon alley, Turnmill street.

Cinnamon street, 1. Near Old Gravel lane. 2. Near Wapping dock.

Cise yard, Whitechapel.

Civet Cat alley, Bunhill row.*

Clandon. There are two towns of this name, in Surry, lying near each other, and distinguished by their situation with respect to each other. West Clandon is twenty-six miles from London, and is 138the manor of the Lord Onslow, whose title is Lord of Onslow and Clandon, and whose seat is near the church. It is a noble edifice, erected after an Italian model. The gardens are beautiful, and laid out in the modern taste. It has plenty of good water, and commands a delightful and extensive prospect as far as Windsor. The house is seen from the road up a grand avenue, and appears to be, what it really is, one of the finest seats in that part of the kingdom.

East Clandon lies about two miles to the east of the last mentioned village, and was anciently the estate of Gerard Lord Aungier, of the kingdom of Ireland, who had a house and park here. In the neighbourhood of East Clandon is the seat of Admiral Boscawen.

Clapham, a village three miles from London, in the road to Richmond.

Clapton, a village adjoining to Hackney.

Abbey of St. Clare. See Minories.

Clare court, Drury lane.†

Clare market, Lincoln’s Inn fields, has a considerable trade for flesh, greens, &c.

Clare street, Clare market.†

Clare’s yard, Barnaby street.†

S. Wale delin. B. Green sculp.

Claremont, is the seat of his Grace the Duke of Newcastle at Esher. The house 139was designed and built by the late Sir John Vanbrugh, in a whimsical style of architecture, which is better shewn in the print than described. It was afterwards purchased of Sir John by his Grace, who has been at great expence in improving the place. The structure, though singular, does not appear to be irregular. It is built of brick with a good deal of variety in it, and of considerable extent, but not much elevated. The Duke has since built a grand room for the reception of company when numerous, which makes the ends of the house not appear similar. The house has a lawn in the front shaded on each side with trees, and the ground behind it rising gradually shews the trees there also, so that the house appears to be embowered by them except just in the front; and the white summer house with four little pinacles, one at each corner, built on the mount which gives name to the place, when viewed from before the front of the house, rises up finely from behind the trees, and all together forms a very pleasing appearance. The park in which it is situated is distinguished by its noble woods, lawns, walks, mounts, prospects, &c. The summer house call’d the Belvedere, 140at about a mile distance from the house, on that side of the park next Esher, affords a very beautiful and extensive view of the country quite round; yet that from the summer house at Esher place, which is just by, is perhaps no way inferior to it.

Clarges street, Hyde Park road. Thus named from Sir Thomas Clarges.

Clarke’s alley, 1. Bishopsgate street.† 2. Vine street, Hatton wall.† 3. Whitechapel.†

Clarke’s orchard, Rotherhith wall.†

Clarke’s rents, 1. Grub street. 2. St. Catharine’s lane.†

Clarke’s yard, 1. Cock alley, London wall.† 2. Upper ground.†

Clayton’s rents, King street.†

Cleaveland court, Cleaveland row, St. James’s street; formerly a large house called Berkshire house; which being purchased by the Duchess of Cleaveland, took her name; on the same ground are now built several handsome houses.

Cleaveland row, St. James’s.

Cleaveland street, by St. James’s palace.

Cleaveland yard, near St. James’s square.

St. Clement’s Church in the Strand, also called St. Clement Danes, is supposed to be dedicated to Pope Clement I. 141who suffered martyrdom in the reign of Trajan, and obtained the name of Danes from its being dedicated to their use. A church has been situated in the same place at least ever since the year 700; but the present edifice began to be erected in 1680, and was compleated in two years, but the steeple was not added till several years after.

The body of the church, which is of stone, has two series of windows, the lower plain and the upper well ornamented, and the termination is by an attic, whose pilasters are crowned with vases. On the south side it is entered by a portico to which there is an ascent of a few steps, this portico is covered with a dome supported by Ionic columns. Opposite to this there is another, and on each side the base of the steeple in the west front is a small square tower with its dome. The steeple is carried to a great height in several stages: where it begins to diminish the Ionic order takes place, and upon its entablature supports vases. The next stage is Corinthian, and above that stands the Composite supporting a dome which is crowned with a smaller one, from whence rises the ball and its fane.

142The author of the New Critical Review of the publick Buildings justly censures the situation of this church in the midst of the street, and their having “in compliance with the superstitious custom of placing it in a due east and west situation, crowded the backside of the church into the face of the people, though they had room enough to build it otherwise, and prevent so capital a nuisance.” This church is a rectory, in the patronage of the Earl of Exeter.

St. Clement’s Eastcheap, on the east side of St. Clement’s lane, Lombard street. The old church was destroyed by the dreadful conflagration in 1666, and upon its ruin the present edifice arose. It is a very plain neat structure, with a tower crowned only by a battlement.

This church is a rectory, with the parish of St. Mary Ongars added to it; the advowson is in the Bishop of London. The Rector receives 140l. per annum in lieu of tithes. Newc. Repert. Eccles.

St. Clement’s Church yard, in the Strand.

Clement’s court, Milk street.

Clement’s, or St. Clement’s Inn, on the north side of Wych street, is thus called from its being near St. Clement’s 143church. It is one of the inns of chancery, and has three courts one within another, which consists of old buildings, except a row in the garden, which is well built.

Clement’s Inn court, Clement’s Inn.

Clement’s lane, 1. Clare market.☐ 2. Clement’s Inn.☐

St. Clement’s lane, Lombard street.

St. Clement’s Well, a celebrated fountain, which was many years ago one of the three principal springs at which the city youths, on festival days, used to entertain themselves with a variety of diversions. But it is now covered up, and a pump placed over it, at the east side of St. Clements Inn, and lower end of St. Clement’s lane. Maitland.

Clergymen’s Widows, and Children. See an account of the corporation formed for their relief under the article Corporation.

Clerk of the Essoins, Juries, King’s Silver, Supersedeas, &c. See an account of their several employments and offices, under the articles Essoins, Juries, King’s Silver, &c.

Clerks. The Parish Clerks were incorporated by Henry III. in the year 1233, by the name of The fraternity of St. Nicholas, by which they were known 144till they were incorporated by charter in 1611. By a decree of the court of Star chamber, they obtained the privilege of keeping a printing press in their hall, for printing the bill of mortality, they being strictly enjoined by their charter to make a report of all the christenings and burials in their respective parishes by six o’clock, on Thursday in the afternoon; but this is by a by-law changed to two o’clock on the same day, that the King and the Lord Mayor may have the account the day before its publication. This list is however extremely defective; for as there are above an hundred meeting houses in the bills of mortality, the members of which never have their children christened in the parish churches, though the far greater number of their dead are interred in the parochial burying grounds, the burials in these lists are made greatly to exceed the christenings; and hence very grave remarks have been made on the unhealthfulness of the city, and the vices of its inhabitants.

This company consists of a Master, two Wardens, seventeen Assistants, and the whole body of parish clerks within the bills of mortality; who have a commodious hall in Wood street.

145Clerks, or Clerken Well, a spring at the lower end of Clerkenwell green, in Rag street, opposite Mutton lane, was so called from the parish clerks of the city annually meeting there to exhibit dramatic representations of certain parts of scripture; for which they were so famous, that not only the Lord Mayor and citizens, but even the nobility were their spectators. From this well a neighbouring priory with the church and parish were denominated Clerkenwell. Maitland.

Clerkenwell Church. See St. James’s Clerkenwell.

Clerkenwell close, a street on the north side of Clerkenwell green.

Clerkenwell green, on the south side of St. James’s church, Clerkenwell.

Clerkenwell Priory of Nuns, was founded by Jordan Briset, a wealthy Baron, about the year 1100, in a field adjoining to Clerks, or Clerken Well, and dedicated to the honour of God, and the assumption of the blessed Virgin. This priory continued till it was suppressed by Henry VIII. in the year 1539, when its revenues were found to amount to 262l. 19s. per annum. On the north east side of St. James’s church, which 146anciently belonged to this priory, is still to be seen the ambulatory, or south side row of this priory, consisting of six arches; and tho’ the eastern part of the cloister be destroyed, yet the nuns hall, which was situated at the north end, is still remaining, tho’ at present it is converted into a work shop, and the garden on the east side was formerly the cemetery belonging to the nunnery. Maitland.

Clifford’s Inn, one of the Inns of Chancery, is situated behind St. Dunstan’s church in Fleet street, and is much improved by new buildings. It has three courts, and a garden adorned with rows of lime trees set round the grass plats, and with gravel walks, which are kept in good order. This Inn took its name from its being anciently the house of the Lord Clifford.

Clifford’s Inn lane, Fleet street.☐

Clifford’s street, New Bond street.†

Clincard’s alley, Westminster market.

Clink Liberty Court, a court of record kept on the Bank side in Southwark by the Bishop of Winchester’s steward, before whom are tried pleas of debt, damage and trespass, for any sum. Here also is a court leet in which things peculiar to that court are managed. Maitland.

147Clink prison, in Clink street, belongs to the liberty of the Bishop of Winchester, called the Clink liberty, but is little used. It is a very dismal hole, where debtors are sometimes confined.

Clink street, begins at Deadman’s place, and extends to St. Mary Overy’s dock.

Clink yard, Clink street.

Cloak lane, Dowgate hill.

Cloak and Wheatsheaf alley, Houndsditch.*

Cloak and Wheatsheaf court, Houndsditch.*

Clockmakers. Charles I. incorporated this company by letters patent in the year 1632. They have a Master, three Wardens, and twenty-eight Assistants; but neither livery nor hall.

Cloisters, 1. In the Middle Temple. 2. St. Bartholomew’s hospital.

Cloister court, 1. Inner Temple.☐ 2. Black Friars.☐

Cloisters court, Glasshouse yard, Water lane, near White Friars.☐

Cloth Fair, Smithfield. King Henry II. granting to the priory of St. Bartholomew, the privilege of a fair to be kept annually at Bartholomew tide, the clothiers of England and the London drapers repaired thither, and had their 148booths and stalls within the church yard of that priory; this place being built into a narrow street, still retains the name of Cloth Fair; and in conformity to its name several eminent woollen drapers still live there.

Cloth yard, Dunning’s alley.

Clothworkers, one of the twelve principal companies, was incorporated by letters patent granted by King Edward IV. in the year 1482, by the name of The fraternity of the Assumption of the blessed Virgin Mary, of the Sheermen of London: but being reincorporated by Queen Elizabeth, she changed their first appellation, to that of The Master, Wardens, and Commonalty of freemen of the art and mystery of Clothworkers of the city of London; which title was confirmed by Charles I.

This company is governed by a Master, four Wardens, and thirty-two Assistants, with a livery of 154 members, each of whom, upon his admission, pays a fine of 20l. They have a very large estate, out of which they annually pay to the poor about 1400l.

Clothworkers Hall is situated near the north east end of Mincing lane, and is a brick building with fluted 149columns of brick crowned with Corinthian capitals of stone. The hall is a lofty room wainscoted up to the ceiling, which is adorned with fretwork. The screen at the south end is of oak, and ornamented with four pilasters that have their entablature and compass pediment of the Corinthian order. At the west end are the figures of King James and King Charles I. in their robes, carved as big as the life, and on the windows are painted the King’s arms, those of the city, the clothworkers company, and several others, belonging to the masters of that fraternity.

Club row, Cock lane, Shoreditch.

Clun’s yard, Grub street.†

Coach and Horses yard, 1. Aldersgate street.* 2. Coleman street.* 3. Fann’s alley.* 4. Oxford street.* 5. St. John’s street.* 6. Wood street, Cheapside.*

Coachmakers. This company was incorporated by letters patent of Charles II. in the year 1677, by the title of The Master, Wardens, Assistants, and Commonalty of the company of Coach and Coach-harness-makers of London. It is governed by a Master, three Wardens, twenty-three Assistants, and one hundred and four Liverymen, each of whom upon 150their admission pay a fine of 10l. They have a spacious hall in Noble street.

Coaches. See Hackney Coaches.

Coal alley, Whitechapel.

Coal Exchange, Billingsgate.

Coal Harbour, Thames street. See the article Cold Harbour.

Coal stairs, Lower Shadwell.

Coal wharf, near the Strand.

Coal yard, 1. Goswell street. 2. High Holborn. 3. Willow street, Bank side.

Coalman’s alley, Puddle dock.†

Coalmeters, fifteen officers in the port of London, to whom belong the care and inspection of the just measure and weight of coals; each of whom is allowed four deputies or under-meters, who must be approved by the Lord Mayor and Aldermen, as upon them the care of weighing and measuring coals principally depends; their business being to attend each ship, in order to observe the due weight and admeasurement, to top the vats, and to return an account of the coals measured to the coal office, by which return or certificate of the under-meters, the duties on coals are collected. For this trouble they receive the fee of a penny per chaldron for all coals measured, and two pence per ton for all coals weighed: 151and both the principal and under-meters take an oath at their admission into their office, to give just measure to rich and poor without partiality or favour; to buy no coals except for their own use, nor ever to sell coals while in that office, or to take any more for their trouble than was anciently allowed.

Coalmeters Office, in Church alley, St. Dunstan’s hill. In this office, which belongs to the fifteen upper coalmeters, is entered all the ships that arrive in the port of London with coals, and the quantity measured or weighed; in order to ascertain the duties to be paid, as well as to prevent impositions and frauds with respect to the subject.

Mr. Maitland gives the following septenary account, from the Custom House entry book, of the coals imported into the port of London.

Years. 1726. 1727. 1728. 1729.  
Chald. 479,336 417,974 536,019 497,167  
Years. 1730. 1731. 1732. Total. Medium
Chald. 460,615 478,411 453,503 3,323,025 474,717

But as both London and Westminster have been prodigiously increased since the last of these years, by a vast number of entire streets being built, we may conclude that this account falls extremely 152short of the quantity now annually imported into the same port.

Coat’s farm, Coat’s lane.†

Coat’s lane, Bethnal green.†

Cobb’s court, Black Friars.†

Cobb’s yard, 1. Blackman’s street.† 2. Petticoat lane.†

Cobham, a town in Surry, situated on the river Mole, six miles from Epsom, in the road from London to Guilford.

Near Cobham are several fine seats, particularly one belonging to the Lord Ligonier, and another, the seat of Mr. Bridges, which is built in a very singular taste, tho’ very plain on the outside, somewhat after the manner of an Italian villa. The principal rooms are richly ornamented; the ceilings are gilt; and the offices below are not only convenient, but contrived with great judgment, so as to answer the purposes for which they were designed. As the house is situated on an eminence, it commands the prospect of the adjacent fields, which are kept in great order. The river Mole passes along by the side of the gardens, and being made here four or five times, broader than it was naturally, it has a happy effect, especially as the banks are disposed into a slope, with a broad grass 153walk, planted on each side with sweet shrubs. At one end of this walk is a very elegant room, which is a delightful retreat in hot weather, it being shaded with large elms on the south side, and having the water on the north and east sides, is extremely cool and pleasant. The house is situated about half a mile from the public road to Portsmouth, and is so much hid by the trees near it, as not to be seen till you rise on the heath beyond Cobham, where you have a fine view of it in several parts of the road between that town and Ripley.

Cock alley, 1. Deadman’s place.* 2. East Smithfield.* 3. Fleet lane.* 4. Green bank, Tooley street.* 5. Holiwell street, Shoreditch.* 6. Ludgate street.* 7. Montague close.* 8. Moorgate.* 9. Near Pepper alley, Southwark.* 10. Norton Falgate.* 11. Portpool lane.* 12. Shoreditch.* 13. Turnmill street.* 14. Wapping.* 15. Whitechapel.* 16. Whitecross street, Cripplegate.*

Cock Alley stairs, near Pepper alley stairs, Southwark.*

Cock court, 1. Angel alley, Houndsditch.* 2. Black Boy alley, Chick lane.* 3. Grub street, near Moorfields.* 4. Ludgate hill.* 5. St. Martin’s le Grand.* 1546. New street, Broad street.* 7. Philip lane, London Wall.* 8. Poor Jewry lane.* 9. Snow hill.*

Cock and Bottle court, near Nightingale lane.*

Cock and Hoop court, Addle hill.*

Cock and Magpye court, Hog lane, Norton Falgate.*

Cock and Wheatsheaf court, Houndsditch.*

Cock hill, 1. Anchor street. 2. Ratcliff.

Cock lane, 1. By Cock hill. 2. Near Falcon lane.* 3. Snow hill.* 4. Swan fields, Shoreditch.*

Cock yard, 1. Bennet street, Westminster.* 2. East Smithfield.* 3. Falconer’s alley, Cow Cross.* 4. In the Haymarket.* 5. Jacob’s street.* 6. Parish street.* 7. Thacket’s court, Bishopsgate street.* 8. Tothill street.*

Cock and Heart yard, in the Borough.*

Cock and Hoop yard, 1. In the Borough.* 2. Castle street, Long Acre.* 3. Houndsditch.*

Cocket alley, Fore street, Lambeth.

The Cockpit, opposite to the Privy Garden, is esteemed a part of the ancient palace of Whitehall, and retains its ancient name, though converted to very different uses from that of a Cockpit. This edifice, 155which is built with stone, is very old, and on the outside next the street has nothing to recommend it; but within it has several noble rooms and apartments, as the council chamber, &c.

Cockpit alley, 1. Drury lane. 2. Gravel lane.

Cockpit buildings, Upper Chelsea road.

Cockpit court, 1. Dean street, Soho. 2. Gravel lane. 3. Jewin street. 4. King’s Way, near Bedford row. 5. Poppin’s alley, Shoe lane.

Cockpit street, Whitehall.☐

Cockpit yard, James street.☐

Cock’s Head court, Golden lane.*

Cock’s rents, St Catharine’s.†

Cockspur street, Pall Mall.

Codlin yard, Virginia street.‡

Codpiece court, petty France, Westminster.║

Codpiece row, Cold Bath fields.║

Coffee House alley, Thames street.☐

Coffee House court, Moorfields.☐

Coffin alley, Cow Cross.*

Coffin court, St. Dunstan’s hill.*

Cogdell court, near Pultney street.†

Coggan’s rents, Bett’s street.†

Colchester street, 1. Red Lion street, Whitechapel. 2. Woodroffe lane.

Cold Bath fields, Hockley in the hole, 156took their name from the cold bath near them. See Cold Bath square.

Cold Bath row, Cold Bath street.☐

Cold Bath street, Cold Bath fields.☐

Cold Bath square, Cold Bath fields. On the north side of this small square, is pleasantly situated fronting the fields, the house in which is the cold bath. This is a handsome though old building, and is surrounded by a small, but neat garden, inclosed by a wall.

Cold Harbour, Thames street. It took its name from a magnificent building called Cold Herbergh, that is, Cold Inn, probably so denominated from its vicinity to the river. This building, which extended into the place now called Cold Harbour lane, was given by King Henry IV. to his son the Prince of Wales. Rymer’s Fœdera.

Cold Harbour lane, Thames street. This lane, and the stairs, are now generally called, and even spelt Coal Harbour.

Cold Harbour row, Hackney road.

Cold Harbour stairs, Thames street.

Colebrook, or Colnbrook, a town in Buckinghamshire, situated 18 miles from London, on four channels of the river Coln, over each of which it has a bridge. One part of the town is in Middlesex, and 157the other in Buckinghamshire. Here is a charity school, and an ancient chapel, said to have been founded by Edward III. The principal support of the place are the inns, on account of its being in the Bath road.

Coleman alley, 1. Brown street.† 2. Bunhill row.†

Coleman’s court, Castle lane.†

Coleman street, 1. Farthing fields.† 2. Lothbury.† 3. New Gravel lane.†

Coleman Street Ward, is bounded on the north by Cripplegate ward, upper Moorfields, and Bishopsgate ward; on the east by Bishopsgate ward, Broad street ward, and Cheap ward; on the south by Cheap ward; and on the west by Basinghall street ward. It extends from east to west, from the grate by Lothbury church, to the south side of Ironmonger lane; but no farther than the south-west corner of Basinghall street on the north side; and, in the other direction, it extends south from Moorgate to the garden belonging to Grocers hall in the Poultry.

The principal streets in this ward are, Coleman street, the north part of the Old Jewry; Lothbury, from Coleman street to St. Margaret’s church, on the north side, and on the south, to about 158twenty-seven feet beyond Prince’s street; the north side of Cateaton street, from Basinghall street to Coleman street, and the south side from Ironmonger lane. The most remarkable buildings are, the parish churches of St. Stephen Coleman street, St. Margaret’s Lothbury, and St. Olave’s Jewry; Founders hall, the Armourers and Brasiers hall, and the Excise office.

This ward is governed by an Alderman and his Deputy, six Common Council men, thirteen wardmote inquest men, four scavengers, four constables, and a beadle. The jurymen returned by the wardmote inquest serve in the several courts in Guildhall in the month of August.

Coleman’s yard, 1. Barnaby street.† 2. Whitecross street, Cripplegate.†

Cole’s alley, Whitechapel.†

Cole’s rents, Moorfields.†

Cole yard, between Holborn and Drury lane.

College court, 1. Cow Cross. 2. Dean’s yard, Westminster. 3. Nightingale lane. 4. Stable yard. 5. Warwick lane.☐

College hill, Thames street.

College of Heralds. See Heralds Office.

159College of Physicians. See Physicians.

College street, 1. Dirty lane, Westminster. 2. Narrow Wall, Lambeth.

College yard, 1. Compter lane. 2. Deadman’s place. 3. Near the Hermitage.

Collier’s court, Hart street, Cripplegate.†

Collier’s rents, White street.†

Collingburn’s rents, Dick’s shore, Limehouse.†

Collingwood street, Maze Pond, near Snow fields, Southwark.†

Collin’s court, 1. Bloomsbury market.† 2. Brick street.† 3. Farmer’s street.†

Collin’s rents, 1. High Holborn.† 2. Upper Shadwell.† 3. White street.†

Colnbrook. See Colebrook.

Colney, a village in Hertfordshire, three miles from St. Alban’s in the road to London, is called London Colney, to distinguish it from Colney street, which lies a little to the west, and Colney green. These villages receive their names from the river Coln, near which they are situated.

Colour yard, Worcester street.

Colson’s court, Drury lane.†

Comb Nevil, in Surry, is situated in the parish of Kingston upon Thames, and was formerly the seat of the Earl of Warwick, 160called the setter up and puller down of Kings; but was lately in the possession of William Harvey, Esq; It is situated in the midst of a park; and near the house are certain springs whose water is conveyed in leaden pipes for three miles, under the road and lands, and across the bottom of the Thames to Hampton Court.

Cumber’s court, Blackman street.†

Combmakers, a company incorporated by letters patent granted by Charles I. in the year 1636. They consist of a Master, two Wardens, and thirteen Assistants; but have neither hall nor livery.

Comes’s court, Noble street, Foster lane.†

Commistry’s alley, Cock hill, Ratcliff cross.

Common Council. These are the representatives of the commons, and compose one of the parts of the city legislature, which nearly resembles that of the kingdom; for as the latter consists of the King, Lords, and Commons, so this is composed of the Lord Mayor, the Aldermen and Common Council; the principal difference is, that the three estates of the kingdom enjoy separately the right of a negative, while in the city 161this right is confined to the Aldermen and Common Council.

Before the year 1347, there were only two Common Council men returned for each ward, which being thought inefficient to represent the numerous body of the commons, it was at that time agreed, that each of the city wards should chuse a number of Common Council men according to its dimensions; but none to exceed twelve, nor any to have less than six; which has been since increased to the present number.

The city is now divided into twenty-five wards, and they into 236 precincts, each of which lends a representative, who is elected in the same manner as an Alderman; with this only difference, that as the Lord Mayor presides in the wardmote, and is judge of the poll at the election of an Alderman, the case is the same with the respect to the Aldermen in their several wards, at the choice of Common Council men. Maitland.

The Court of Common Council, consists of the Lord Mayor, Aldermen, and representatives of the several wards, who assemble in Guildhall, as often as the Lord Mayor, by his summons, thinks 162proper to convene them, in order to make by-laws for the government of the city. They annually select six Aldermen and twelve Commoners for letting the city lands, and this committee generally meet at Guildhall on Wednesdays. They also appoint another committee of four Aldermen and eight Commoners for transacting the affairs belonging to Gresham College, who generally meet at Mercers hall, according to the appointment of the Lord Mayor, who is always one of the number. Besides the appointing of these, and several other committees, they by virtue of a royal grant, annually chuse a Governor, Deputy, and Assistants, for the management of the city lands in Ireland. They have likewise a right to dispose of the offices of town clerk, common serjeant, judges of the Sheriffs court, common crier, coroner, bailiff of the borough of Southwark, and city garbler. Maitland’s Survey.

Common Clerk. See Town Clerk.

Common Crier, an office of the city, who with the serjeant at arms, is to summon all executors and administrators of freemen to appear, and bring inventories of their personal estates, 163within two months after their decease. He is also obliged to attend the Lord Mayor on particular days, and to be present at the courts held weekly by his Lordship and the Aldermen. He is by his place an Esquire.

Common Hunt, the chief huntsman of the city, whose principal business is to take care of the city hounds, and to attend the Lord Mayor and citizens in hunting whenever desired. This officer has a house allowed him in Finsbury Fields, where the hounds are kept, and for their support he has a considerable annual allowance, besides his perquisites. He is also to attend the Lord Mayor on set days, and is by his place an Esquire.

Common lane, in Thames street.

Court of Common Pleas. This is one of the four great courts of the kingdom, and is so called because in that court are debated the usual or common pleas between subject and subject, and all civil causes whatsoever. It was anciently ambulatory, and followed the King wheresoever he went; but at the confirmation of Magna Charta, by King John, in 1215, it was fixed at Westminster, where it still continues.

164Soon after the fixing of this court at Westminster, such a multitude of causes were brought before it, that the King for the greater dispatch of business, found it necessary instead of three, to constitute six Judges, whom he appointed to sit in two places: but at present the number being only four, they sit together in Westminster hall to hear and decide causes; but no Counsellor can plead before them under the degree of a Serjeant.

The chief Judge in this court is the Lord Chief Justice of the Common Pleas, who has a salary of 2500l. per annum. with his robes and two tons of wine; the other, who are called the three puisne Judges of this court, and also four Serjeants, are each allowed fees, reward and robes, the puisne Judges having 2000l. per annum each.

The other officers of this court are, the Custos Brevium; three Prothonotaries and their Secondaries; several clerks, who have their several counties allotted them, and are to engross the fines levied on lands in their respective divisions; the Chirographer; the Register of the fines, and a Clerk of the proclamations. The Prothonotaries and Chirographer sit in the court covered with black round caps, 165which was the fashion before the invention of hats and wigs. These are all sworn and have their offices for life. See Custos Brevium, Prothonotary, &c.

Entrance to the House of Lord’s with the Office of Ordnance.

S. Wale del.

House of Commons.
C. Grignion sculp.

In this court there are three officers unsworn, viz. a clerk of the treasury, a clerk of the enrollments of fines and recoveries, and a clerk of the outlawries: there are besides a clerk of the King’s silver; a clerk of the warrants; a clerk of the juries; a clerk of the essoins; a clerk of the supersedeas; filazers for the several counties of England; an exigenter; four criers and a porter.

Common Serjeant, an officer of the city, who is obliged to attend the Lord Mayor and Court of Aldermen on court days, and to be in council with them on all occasions, both within and without the precincts or liberties of the city; and formerly he was to take care of the estates of the city orphans.

House of Commons, also called St. Stephen’s Chapel, joins to the south east angle of Westminster hall. The print represents a view as seen from the Cotton Garden. King Stephen first founded a chapel here, and dedicated it to St. Stephen the Protomartyr: but Edward III. rebuilding it in the year 1347, in a very magnificent 166manner, converted it into a collegiate church, the revenues of which at its suppression amounted to 1085l. 10s. and 5d. per annum: but being surrendered to Edward VI. it was appropriated for the reception of the representatives of the Commons of England, who have ever since continued to meet there every sessions of parliament, except when summoned by the King’s writs to Oxford, and it is now generally called the House of Commons.

It is at present a spacious room wainscotted up to the ceiling, accommodated with galleries, supported by slender iron pillars adorned with Corinthian capitals and sconces, from the middle of the ceiling hangs a handsome branch or lustre. At the upper end, the Speaker is placed upon a raised seat, ornamented behind with Corinthian columns, and the King’s arms carved and placed on a pediment; before him is a table, at which the Clerk and his Assistant sit near him on each hand, just below the chair; and on each side, as well below as in the galleries, the members are placed promiscuously. The Speaker and clerks always wear gowns in the house, as the professors of the law do in term 167time; but no other of the members wear robes, except the four representatives for the city of London, who, the first day of every new parliament, are dressed in scarlet gowns, and sit all together on the right hand of the chair, next to the Speaker.

The time of sitting is upon any day in the morning, except on Sundays, or some other high festivals or fast days, upon which it is not usual to assemble, unless upon the most urgent occasions: but tho’ the Speaker always adjourns the house to nine o’clock of the morning of the day when they agree to meet again, the house seldom meets till twelve.

This house has an equal share with the Lords in making laws, and none can be made without the consent of the Commons, who are the guardians of the liberties of the people; and as they are the grand inquest of the nation, they have a power to impeach the greatest Lords in the kingdom, both spiritual and temporal.

On the day prefixed by the King in the writ of summons, his Majesty goes in person to the house of Lords, where being seated with the crown on his head, and cloathed in his royal robes, he sends 168for the Commons by the Gentleman Usher of the black rod, who coming to the bar of the house, bows, and advancing a few steps, repeats this mark of respect a second and a third time, saying, “Gentlemen of the house of Commons, the King commands this honourable house to attend him immediately in the house of Peers;” and then retiring backwards, bowing, withdraws: the Commons then immediately attend his Majesty in the house of Lords, where the Lord Chancellor or Keeper commands them in the King’s name to chuse a Speaker, upon which they return to their own house. One of the members then standing up in his place, and making a short introductory speech, moves that such member as he then names, may take the chair, and his motion being seconded by some other member, if no contest happens, they lead the person mentioned from his seat to the bar of the house, from whence they conduct him bowing thrice, up the chair; where being placed, he stands up, and returns thanks to the house for the honour done him, and modestly acknowledging his inability to discharge so great a trust, desires they would make choice of a more 169*able person, which being disapproved, he submits to their pleasure; and after receiving the directions of the house, on the usual requests to be made on his appearing before his Majesty, adjourns to the day appointed for that purpose.

But before the Commons can enter upon any business, or even the choice of a Speaker, all the members enter the court of wards, where they take the oaths of allegiance and supremacy, with those appointed by the act of the 1st of William and Mary, in the presence of an officer appointed by his Majesty, who is usually the Lord Steward of the houshold; and after they have chosen the Speaker, they take the same oaths again in the house, at the table, and subscribe their opinions against the doctrines of transubstantiation, the invocation and adoration of Saints, and the sacrifice of the mass; and before they can give any vote in the house, except for the choice of a Speaker, they are obliged also to abjure the Pretender.

Upon the day appointed, the Usher of the black rod is again sent for the Commons, when he alters his stile, and addresses himself to the Speaker. The members, obeying this summons, return 170to the house of Lords, and present their Speaker to the King, who is again seated on the throne, and having obtained his approbation, the Speaker desires, that the Commons, during their sitting, “may have free access to his Majesty, freedom of speech in their own house, and freedom from arrests.” After which the King makes his speech to both houses, the whole house of Commons being supposed to be at the bar of the house of Lords.

After the Speaker and members have taken the oaths, the standing orders of the house are read, and grand committees appointed to sit on usual days: which being done, the house generally begins with reading some bill left unfinished the sessions before. Any member of parliament is at liberty to move for a bill to be brought in; which being agreed to by the house, the person who made the motion, with some of those who seconded it, are ordered to prepare, and bring it in. When the bill is ready, some of the members who were ordered to prepare it, read the order at the side bar of the house, desiring leave to bring the bill to the table; which upon the question being agreed to, it has a first reading 171by the clerk at the table; and then the Speaker taking the bill in his hand, reads the abbreviate or abstract of it: which one, after the debate upon the bill, if any happens, he puts the question, Whether it shall have a second reading; and sometimes upon a motion being made appoints a day for it.

When the bill has been read a second time, the question is put, Whether it shall be committed, which is either to a committee of the whole house, if the bill be of importance; or to a private committee, any member at pleasure naming the persons to be of that committee; and their names being read by the clerk at the table, they are ordered to meet in the Speaker’s chamber, and report their opinion to the house. Accordingly meeting there, they chuse their Chairman, and either adjourn to some other time, or proceed upon the bill, which in this last case, the Chairman orders a clerk who attends them to read, then taking the bill himself, and reading it paragraph by paragraph, he puts every clause to the question, fills up the blanks, and makes amendments according to the opinion of the majority of the committee, of whom there must be eight of 172the persons named, to proceed regularly, though five may adjourn.

When the committee have gone through the whole bill, the Chairman by their desire makes his report at the side bar of the house, reading all the alterations made by the committee, and how any of these amendments have altered the scope of the bill, the clerk having before written down in what page and line of the bill those amendments are to be found; and if the committee have thought fit to add any clauses, they are marked alphabetically, read by the Chairman, and delivered to the clerk, who reads all the amendments and clauses. The Speaker then puts the question, Whether they shall be read a second time, and if this be agreed to, he then reads them himself, and particularly as many of them as the house agrees to. After which the question is put, Whether the bill so amended shall be engrossed, that is, written fair on parchment; and read the third time some other day. It being at length read the third time, the Speaker holds the bill in his hand, and puts the question, Whether the bill shall pass, and if the major part be for it, the clerk writes 173on the bill Soit baillé aux Seigneurs, i. e. Be it delivered to the Lords.

When an engrossed bill is read, and any clauses referred to be added to it, they must be on parchment engrossed like the bill, which are then called riders; and if agreed to, they are added to the bill.

Petitions are offered like bills at the bar of the house, and brought up and delivered at the table, by the member who presents them.

When a member speaks to a bill, he stands up uncovered, and addresses himself only to the Speaker; but if he be answered by another, he is not allowed to reply the same day, unless personally reflected on: for nobody is to speak to a bill above once in a day, unless the whole house be turned into a committee, and then every number may reply as often as the Chairman thinks proper. But if a bill be rejected, it cannot be any more proposed, during the same sessions.

Messengers from the Lords, and all persons appearing at the bar of the house, are introduced by the serjeant attending the house, with the mace upon his shoulder.

174While the Speaker is in the chair, the mace lies upon the table, except when sent upon any extraordinary occasion into Westminster hall and the court of requests, to summon the members to attend. But when the members resolve themselves into a committee of the whole house, the mace is laid under the table, and the Chairman to that committee takes the chair where the clerk of the house usually sits.

Forty members are necessary to make a house, and eight a committee. But the Speaker is not allowed to vote, except the house be equally divided: nor is he to persuade or dissuade in passing a bill; but only to make a short and plain narrative.

The members of the house of Commons vote by yeas and noes; but if it appear doubtful which is the greater number, the house divides. If the question relates to any thing already in the house, the noes go out; but if it be to bring any thing in, as a bill, petition, &c. the ayes go out: where the house divides, the Speaker appoints four tellers, two of each opinion, who after they have told those within, place themselves in the passage between the bar and the door, 175and tell the others who went out; which done, the two tellers who have the majority take the right hand, and placing themselves within the bar, all four advance bowing three times; and being come up to the table deliver the number, saying, the ayes who went out, are so many; the noes who staid, so many; or the contrary: which is repeated by the Speaker, who declares the majority.

In a committee of the whole house, they divide by changing sides, the ayes taking the right hand of the chair, and the noes the left; and then there are only two tellers.

If when a bill is passed in one house, and sent to the other, they demur upon it; a conference is then demanded in the Painted Chamber, where certain members deputed from each house meet, and debate the affair, while the Lords sit covered at a table, and the Commons stand without their hats. If they disagree, the affair is dropped; but if they come to an agreement, it is at length brought, with all the other bills that have passed both houses, to receive the royal assent, in the house, where the King being seated in the chair of state, the Clerk of the crown reads the title 176of each bill; and as he reads, the Clerk of the Parliament, according to the instructions he hath received from his Majesty, pronounces the royal assent; if it be a public bill by saying, Le Roy le veut, i. e. The King will have it so; or if a private bill, Soit fait comme il est désiré; i. e. Be it done as is desired. But if his Majesty does not approve the bill, the answer is, Le Roy s’avisera: that is, The King will consider of it.

Money bills always begin in the house of Commons; because the greatest part of the supplies are raised by the people, and for this reason the Commons will not allow the Lords to alter them; and on the presenting these bills to his Majesty, the answer is, Le Roy remercie ses loyaux sujets, accepte leur benevolence, & aussi le veut: that is, The King thanks his loyal subjects, accepts of their benevolence, and therefore grants his consent.

A bill for a general pardon has but one reading in each house; because they must take it as the King will please to give it: and when this bill is passed, the answer is, Les Prélats, Seigneurs, & Communes, en ce parlement assemblez, au nom du tous vos autre sujets, remercient 177très humblement vôtre Majesté, & prient Dieu vous donner en santé, bonne vie & longue: that is, The Bishops, Lords, and Commons in this Parliament assembled, in the name of all your other subjects, most humbly thank your Majesty, and beseech God to grant you a long and healthful life.

The King, without his personal presence, may, by a commission granted to some of his Nobles, give his royal assent to any bill that requires haste.

When his Majesty prorogues or dissolves the Parliament, he generally comes in person, and being seated with the crown on his head, sends the Black Rod for all the house of Commons to come to the bar of the house of Lords; and then the speech being read by the Lord Chancellor, he, by the King’s special command, pronounces the Parliament prorogued or dissolved.

The Parliament was formerly dissolved at the death of the King; but to prevent tumults and confusion, it is now expressly provided by a solemn act, That a Parliament sitting, or in being at the King’s demise, shall continue; and if not sitting shall meet expressly, for keeping 178the peace of the realm, and preserving the succession. See House of Lords.

Compass alley, Spitalfields market.*

Compter alley, near Compter court.

Compter court, near Tooley street.

Compter lane, St. Margaret’s hill.

Compters, two prisons, for the confinement of all who are arrested within the city and liberties; one in the Poultry, belonging to one of the Sheriffs of London, and another in Wood street, Cheapside, which belongs to the other Sheriff. Both these prisons are of the same nature, and have the like officers, each being a place of security both for debtors and criminals.

Under the Sheriffs there are the following officers in each Compter, who give security to the Sheriff, for the faithful discharge of their respective trusts.

I. The principal officer, next to the Sheriff, is the Secondary, who returns writs, marks warrants, and impannels juries for the courts both above and below, and also for the sessions.

II. The Clerk of the Papers: whose office is to impannel juries, for the Sheriffs court; and who enters upon judgment, and makes out all processes for the Sheriffs court.

179III. Four Clerks Sitters, who enter actions, take bail, receive verdicts after trial, &c.

IV. Sixteen Serjeants at mace, each of whom has his yeoman, or follower. Their office is to arrest persons for debt, to execute all processes, to serve writs, executions upon actions, and summonses from above, as well as from the courts below. Each of these serjeants give 400l. security to the Sheriff, for the due execution of his office. Four of these serjeants, and as many yeomen out of each Compter, wait upon their respective Sheriffs daily; and during the time of sessions, double the number. At which time in the morning they bring the prisoners down from Newgate to the sessions house; put them in the dock; and after waiting all day, return the prisoners back to the jail at night: they also attend at the execution of prisoners. Upon their days of waiting, they always wear blue cloth gowns, which are given them annually by the Sheriffs.

To each Compter also belong a Master keeper, two turnkeys, and other servants.

The prisoners in the common side, 180in both Compters, receive daily relief from the Sheriffs table, of all the broken meat and bread; and there are also several benefactions made by charitable persons, settled upon the Compters for their relief. Maitland.

Compting House court, Christ’s hospital.

Compton street, 1. St. John’s street, near Clerkenwell.† 2. Soho.†

Conduit alley, Quakers street.

Conduit close, Phenix street.

Conduit court, Long Acre.

Conduit street, 1. New Bond street, runs from New Bond street eastward to Swallow street. 2. Red Lion street, Holborn.

Connoway’s court, Nightingale lane, in Limehouse.†

Court of Conscience, also called the Court of Requests, was first instituted in the reign of Henry VIII. by an act of Common Council, for the recovery of small debts, under the value of 40s. and has since been confirmed by several acts of parliament. It is of great use to such poor debtors as are not able to pay their debts immediately; and also of great benefit to such poor persons as have small debts owing to them, and are unable to enter into a more expensive suit. The 181Lord Mayor and court of Aldermen appoint monthly such Aldermen and Commoners to sit as Commissioners in this court as they think fit, and these, or any three of them, compose a court, kept in Guildhall every Wednesday and Saturday, from eleven till two o’clock, to hear and determine such causes as are brought before them. They have the power of administering an oath to the creditor, of examining witnesses, and of making such orders between the plaintiff and defendant, the creditor and debtor, as they think most agreeable to equity and conscience; and if the debtor be unable to pay the whole sum at once, they appoint it to be paid monthly in such proportions as they judge to be in his power; but if he neglects paying monthly into court the small sums appointed, he may be served with an execution, and carried to prison; or if the person cannot be found, his goods may be seized.

A cause may be brought and determined in this court for the value of 10d. viz. 6d. for the plaint and summons, and 4d. for the order; but if the defendant does not appear the second court day after the summons, an attachment may be awarded against him.

182If any citizen shall be arrested for a debt under 40s. this court will grant a summons for the plaintiff in the action; and if he does not appear on the first court day after the summons is left at his house, the court will grant an attachment against him, force him to take his debt, and pay the defendant his costs; and if any attorney in London shall presume to proceed in any such suit, after notice to the contrary, or shall refuse to obey the order of this court, upon complaint thereof to the court of Aldermen, they will suspend such person from his practice.

The fees taken by the clerks of the court of conscience at Guildhall are as follow: For every plaint 2d. For every appearance 2d. For every order 4d. For every remittance to the common law 4d. For every precept or warrant to commit to prison 6d. For every search 2d. For every satisfaction acknowledged on an order 6d. For warning any person within the liberties 6d. For serving any precept or warrant 6d.

Besides the court of conscience held at Guildhall for the city, there is one in Bedford court, near Covent garden; another in Fulwood’s rents, High Holborn; 183another in St. Margaret’s hill, Southwark; and another in Whitechapel.

Court of Conservacy; a court held eight times in the year before the Lord Mayor, at such places and times as his Lordship shall think proper to appoint, within the counties of Middlesex, Essex, Kent and Surry, in which several counties he has the power of summoning juries, who, for the better preservation of the fishery of the Thames, and the regulation of the fishermen, are upon oath to make inquisition of all offences committed in and upon that river from Staines bridge in the west, to Yenfleet in the east, and to present all who are found guilty of a breach of certain articles, relating to unlawful methods of fishing, and the destruction of the young fry. See Water Bailiff.

Constable’s alley, Hoxton.†

Coney court, Gray’s Inn.

Cooks, a company incorporated by Edward IV. in the year 1480, by which patent every member of the company is to be presented to the Lord Mayor, before he is admitted into the freedom. They have two Masters, two Wardens, twenty-five Assistants, and seventy-eight 184Liverymen, who upon their admission pay each a fine of 10l. They have an old convenient hall in Aldersgate street.

Cook’s alley, Bedfordbury.†

Cook’s court, 1. Camomile street.† 2. Searle’s street.†

Coopers, a company incorporated by letters patent granted by Henry VII. in the year 1501; and in the succeeding reign impowered to search and gauge all beer, ale, and soap vessels within the city of London, and two miles round its suburbs, for which they were allowed a farthing for each cask. They are governed by a Master, three Wardens, and twenty Assistants, and have a livery of 244 of their members, whose fine of admission is 15l. Their hall is in Basinghall street. Maitland.

Cooper’s alley, 1. Wapping dock.† 2. Whitechapel. 3. Whitecross street, Cripplegate.†

Cooper’s court, 1. East Smithfield.† 2. Portpool lane.†

Cooper’s rents, East Smithfield.†

Cooper’s square, Goodman’s fields.

Cooper’s yard, 1. Lower Shadwell.† 2. Green Bank.† 3. Wapping.† 4. Petticoat lane.†

English Copper Office, in Bush lane, 185Canon street, belongs to a company incorporated by letters patent of the third of William and Mary in 1691, by the name of The Governor and Company of Copper Miners in England; which was confirmed by Queen Anne in the year 1710; and by subsequent grants their power of working of mines was extended to all parts of Ireland and New England.

This corporation consists of a Governor, Deputy Governor, and eighteen Assistants. Maitland.

Coppice row, or Codpiece row, Petty France, Westminster.

Copt Hall, the seat of John Conyers, Esq; is situated in Essex, between Epping and the forest, and being built on an eminence above Waltham Abbey, is seen at a great distance.

Copthall court, a very handsome well-built court in Throgmorton street.

Coptick’s court, Poppin’s alley, Fleet street.†

Coral court, Near Southampton street, in the Strand.

Corbet’s court, 1. Brown’s lane, Spitalfields.† 2. Gracechurch street.†

Corbet’s yard, Back street, Lambeth.†

Cordwainers, or Shoemakers. This 186company was incorporated by letters patent granted by King Henry IV. in the year 1410, by the name of Cordwainers and Coblers, the latter of which names was then far from being a despicable term, as it signified not only a shoemaker, but a dealer in shoes; and it does not appear that the word shoemaker was then in use.

Mr. Stow observes, that King Richard II. marrying the daughter of Wenceslaus King of Bohemia, the English by her example wore long peaked shoes tied to their knees with silk laces, or silver chains gilt. This preposterous fashion occasioned the passing of an act of parliament, in the reign of Edward IV. in which it was enacted, that no cordwainer or cobler within the city of London, or three miles of it, should make any shoes, galoshes or huseans, that is, boots or buskins, with any pyke or poleyn, exceeding the length of two inches, to be adjudged by the Wardens or Governors of the same mystery in London: nor should they presume to sell, or put upon the legs or feet of any person, any shoes, boots or buskins on Sundays, or on the feasts of the nativity and ascension of our Lord, or on 187Corpus Christi day, on the penalty of paying twenty shillings for each offence.

By a late charter, this company is stiled, The Master, Wardens and Commonalty of the mystery of Cordwainers of the city of London. They are governed by a Master, four Wardens, and sixteen Assistants, and have 180 liverymen, whose fine on admission is 10l.

Cordwainers Hall, is situated on the north side of Great Distaff lane, and is a handsome brick building. The large hall is adorned with the pictures of King William, and Queen Mary his consort.

Cordwainers court, Great Distaff lane.☐

Cordwainers Street Ward, took its name from the employment of its principal inhabitants, who were cordwainers, or shoemakers, curriers, and other workers in leather. It is bounded on the north by Cheap ward; on the west by Bread street ward; on the south by Vintry ward, and on the east by Wallbrook ward.

The principal streets and lanes in this ward are, Bow lane, Queen street, Budge row, Little St. Thomas Apostle’s, Pancrass lane, with a small part of Watling street and Basing lane; and the most 188remarkable buildings are the parish churches of St. Antholin, St. Mary Aldermary, and St. Mary le Bow.

This ward has an Alderman, and nine Common Council men, fourteen wardmote inquest men, eight scavengers, eight constables, and a beadle. The jurymen returned by the wardmote inquest for this ward, serve in the courts in Guildhall in the month of December. Maitland.

Cork alley, Turnmill street.

Cork street, Burlington Gardens.

Corkcutters alley, Long ditch.

Corner court, Spitalfields market.

Corn Exchange, a very handsome building on the east side of Mark lane. Next the street is an ascent of three steps to a range of eight lofty Doric columns, those at the corners being coupled; between them are iron rails, and three iron gates. These columns, with two others on the inside, support a plain building two stories high, which contains two coffee houses, to which there are ascents by a flight of handsome stone steps on each hand underneath the edifice. On entering the iron gates you pass by these steps into a small square paved all over with broad stones; this is 189surrounded by a colonade, composed of six columns on each side, and four at the ends, reckoning the corners twice. Above the entablature is a handsome balustrade surrounding the whole square, with an elegant vase placed over each column. The space around within the colonade is very broad, with sash windows on the top, to give the greater light to the cornfactors who sit round the court below. Each has a kind of desk before him, on which are several handfuls of corn, and from these small samples, are every market day sold many thousand quarters.

Cornhill, extends from the end of Bishopsgate street to the Mansion house.

Cornhill Ward, is so called from the principal street in it, which was named Cornhill from the corn market anciently kept there. This ward is bounded on the north by Broad street ward; on the east by Bishopsgate ward; on the south by Langborne ward; and on the west by Cheap ward.

This ward contains only one principal street, which is Cornhill. Its most remarkable buildings are, the Royal Exchange, and the parish churches of St. Michael, and St. Peter.

190It is governed by an Alderman and six Common Council men, including the Deputy; to which are added, sixteen wardmote inquest men, four scavengers, four constables, and a beadle. The jury returned by the wardmote inquest serve in the several courts of Guildhall in the month of January. Maitland.

Coroner, an officer of great antiquity, who is to enquire into the causes of all sudden deaths, where there is the least suspicion of murder, and for that purpose he impannels a jury, to whom he gives a charge, and takes evidence upon oath. The Lord Mayor for the time being is coroner of the city; but he appoints a deputy for the discharge of that office. The coroner’s jury have a right to examine the body of the deceased, and to call in the assistance of physicians or surgeons. They are to try the supposed murderer; and if they acquit him of all guilt, and concern in the death of the deceased, he is set at liberty; but if they find him guilty, their sentence is not final; the supposed murderer being sent to prison to take his trial at the Old Bailey. The coroner is likewise to enquire into the escape of a 191murderer, and also concerning found treasure, deodands, and wrecks at sea.

There are several other coroners, who hold courts out of the liberties of the city, as for Westminster, the Tower Hamlets, &c.

Coroner’s court, Cross lane.

Corporation lane, Bridewell walk, Clerkenwell.

Corten’s yard, New North street.†

Cortes’s gardens, Shoreditch.†

Cote’s yard, Skinner street, Bishopsgate street without.†

Cotterell’s Almshouse, situated in Chapel yard, Hog lane, Soho, was endowed by Sir Charles Cotterell, with a perpetual annuity of 20l. a year, towards the support of eight poor women.

Cotton Library, consisting of a curious collection of valuable manuscripts, relating to the antiquities of Great Britain and Ireland, &c. was collected by that excellent antiquary Sir Robert Cotton, who left it to his son Sir Thomas, and after his decease to Sir John Cotton, his grandson, who giving it to the public, an act of parliament was passed in the year 1701, for securing it, for the benefit of the public. Pursuant to which the library, together with the coins, 192medals and other rarities, were, upon the death of Sir John Cotton, vested in trustees, who appointed a librarian, well read in antiquities; but on the 23d of October 1731, this valuable collection suffered greatly by fire; by which ninety nine volumes were destroyed, and an hundred and eleven much damaged.

Before this misfortune, the Cotton library consisted of 958 volumes of original charters, grants, instruments, registers of monasteries, remains of Saxon laws; the letters of Sovereign Princes, transactions between this and other kingdoms and states, the book of Genesis, said to have been written by Origen, in the second century, and to be the most ancient Greek copy extant; and the curious Alexandrean manuscript of the Old and New Testament, in Greek capitals, said to have been written in the third century.

For the care of this library, seven trustees were appointed, viz. the Lord Chancellor, or Keeper, the Speaker of the house of Commons, and the Lord Chief Justice of the court of King’s Bench, for the time being; with four others, nominated by the heir male of the Cotton family. The books were 193deposited in the Old Dormitory at Westminster, but agreeably to a late act of parliament they are now placed with Sir Hans Sloane’s Museum in Montague House, Bloomsbury. See the article British Museum.

Cotton’s Wharf, Bridge yard passage, Southwark.†

Covely’s alley, Grey Eagle street, Spitalfields.†

Covent Garden, received its name from its being formerly a garden belonging to the Abbot and Monks of the convent of Westminster, whence it was called Convent Garden, of which the present name is a corruption. At the dissolution of religious houses it fell to the Crown, and was given first to Edward Duke of Somerset; but soon after, upon his attainder, it reverted again to the Crown, and Edward VI. granted it in 1552 to John Earl of Bedford, together with a field, named the Seven Acres, which being now built into a street, is from its length called Long Acre.

Covent Garden would have been without dispute one of the finest squares in Europe, had it been finished on the plan designed for it, by that excellent architect Inigo Jones. The piazza 194is grand and noble; besides the convenience of walking dry under it in wet weather, the superstructure it supports is light and elegant. In the middle is a handsome column supporting four sun dials, and on the west side of the square, is the church, erected by Inigo Jones, and esteemed by the best judges one of the most simple, and at the same time most perfect pieces of architecture, that the art of man can produce. But the market before it diminishes the beauty of the square.

Covent Garden Church, was erected in the year 1640, as a chapel of ease to St. Martin’s in the Fields, at the expence of Francis Earl of Bedford, for the convenience of his tenants, who were then vastly increased.

This church is remarkable for its majestic simplicity, and the gates on each side are suitable to the structure and very elegant. This church never fails to attract the eye of the most incurious, and, as we observed before, if Inigo Jones’s original design had been compleated, it would have had a most noble effect.

Covent Garden.

In 1645, the precinct of Covent Garden was separated from St. Martin’s, and constituted an independent parish, 195which was confirmed after the restoration in 1660, by the appellation of St. Paul’s Covent Garden, when the patronage was vested in the Earl of Bedford: and as it escaped the fire in 1666, which did not reach so far, it remains as it came from the hands of the great architect.

In the front is a plain, but noble portico of the Tuscan order, executed in the most masterly manner; the columns are massy, and the intercolumniation large, which has an air of noble simplicity, that if compared with the most ornamented Gothic structures, shews the superiority of the Roman architecture in its plainest form, over the finest barbarism. The building, tho’ as plain as possible, is happily proportioned; the walls are of brick covered with plaister, and the corners of stone; the roof is flat, and though of great extent, is supported by the walls alone, without columns. The pavement is stone; the windows are of the Tuscan form like the portico, and the altar piece is adorned with eight fluted columns of the Corinthian order, painted in imitation of porphyry. But this by some is thought a defect, the lightness of the 196altar piece in their opinion giving the church an air of heaviness.

Covent Garden Market, Covent Garden.

Coventry court, Coventry street.

Coventry street, Hay Market.

Coverlead fields Spitalfields.

Coulsdon, a village in Surry, near Croydon, which anciently belonged to the abbey of Chertsey.

Council Office, in the Cock-pit. See the article Privy Council.

Counsellors alley, Great Pearl street.

Counter alley, 1. Grocer’s alley, in the Poultry.☐ 2. Southwark.

Counter lane, St. Margaret’s hill.

Countinghouse yard, Christ’s hospital.

Courts. See the several courts held in London under their respective names; those of the government, under the articles Admiralty, Arches, Chancery, Common Pleas, Delegates, Dutchy of Lancaster, King’s Bench, &c. and those of the corporation under the articles Chamberlain, Common Council, Conscience, Conservacy, Coroner, Escheator, Hustings, &c.

Court street, Whitechapel.

Couzen’s lane, Thames street.†

197Couzen’s rents, Rosemary lane.†

Couzen’s yard, Blue Anchor alley, Rosemary lane.†

Cow alley, Freeschool street.*

Cow court, 1. Jamaica street.* 2. Old street.* 3. Rotherhith wall.

Cow cross, near West Smithfield.*

Cow lane, 1. Cow yard, Artichoke lane.* 2. Liquorpond street, Leather lane.* 3. New Gravel lane.* 4. Snow hill.* 5. Trinity street, Rotherhith.*

Cowden’s rents, Little Trinity lane.†

Cowley street, by Wood street, Westminster.†

Cowley’s rents, Long alley, Moorfields.†

Cowling street, behind the Abbey, Westminster.†

Cowper’s bridge, Old Horselydown.†

Cowper’s court, 1. East Smithfield.† 2. Portpool lane.†

Cowper’s rents, East Smithfield.†

Cowper’s square, Goodman’s fields.†

Cox’s alley, Leather lane, Holborn.†

Cox hole, Spring street.†

Cox’s court. 1. Aldersgate street.† 2. Kent street.† 3. Shore ditch.†

Cox’s entry, Leather lane.†

Cox’s garden, Wapping Wall.†

Cox’s key, near Thames street.†

Cox’s key entry, Thames street.†

198Cox’s rents, 1. St. Catharine’s.† Crow alley, Whitecross street.†

Cox’s square, Spitalfields.†

Cox’s wharf, Tooley street.†

Cox’s yard, Pennington street.†

Coxan court, Dorset street, Shoreditch.†

Crab court, 1. New Gravel lane. 2. Ratcliff Highway. 3. Woolpack alley, Houndsditch.

Crabtree lane, Castle street. ‡

Crabtree orchard, Clare market.

Crackbrain court, Rosemary lane.║

Cradle alley, 1. Cow Cross.* 2. Cut-throat lane, Shadwell.* 3. Drury lane.* 4. Golden lane.* 5. Gray’s Inn lane.*

Cradle court, 1. Aldersgate street.* 2. Cow Cross.* 3. Fenchurch street.* 4. Fore street, Moorgate.* 5. Golden lane.* 6. St Mary Ax.* 7. Redcross street, Cripplegate.*

Craig’s court. Charing Cross.†

Cranburn Lodge, a fine house in Berkshire in the middle of Windsor Forest. It was built by the late Earl of Ranelagh; and is now in possession of his granddaughter the Countess of Coventry. As it is seated on a hill, it commands a most delightful prospect.

Crane alley, 1. Chancery lane.* 2. Old Change, Cheapside.*

199Cranebourn alley, Little Newport street, Leicester fields.†

Cranebourn passage, Cranebourn alley.†

Crane court, 1. Aldersgate street. 2. Fleet street. 3. Lambeth hill. 4. Old Change.

Cranford, a village on the north west side of Hounslow. It has a charity school, and a bridge over the river Crane; and here the Earl of Berkley has a seat.

Craven buildings, Drury lane, from the house of the noble family of Craven at the end of Drury lane.

Craven court, Craven street.†

Craven mews, Drury lane.† See Mews.

Craven street, in the Strand.†

Craven wood yard, May-pole alley, Wych street.

Craven yard, Drury lane.†

Crawford’s court, Rosemary lane.†

Cray. There are several villages of this name in Kent, situated on the small river Cray, from which they take their names. This stream rises a little to the south west of St. Mary Cray, runs by that town, and passing by Paul’s Cray, Foot’s Cray, and North Cray, runs into the Darent, near its conflux with the Thames at Dartford creek, opposite to Purfleet. The principal of these places is St. Mary Cray, about which are many woods 200of birch, from which the broom-makers in Kent street, Southwark, are supplied.

Crayford, a town near Dartford in Kent, is 14 miles from London, and obtained its name from its having anciently a ford over the river Cray, or Crouch, a little above its influx into the Thames. In the adjacent heath and fields are several caves, supposed to have been formed by the Saxons as places of security and shelter for their wives, children, and effects, during their wars with the Britons.

Creechurch court, Creechurch lane.☐ See St. Catharine Creechurch.

Creechurch lane, Leadenhall street.☐

Creed lane, Ludgate street. See Paternoster Row.

Cripplegate, so named from some cripples who anciently begged there, appears to have been one of the original gates of the city, and is situated 1032 feet to the west of Moorgate. It has been many times rebuilt, but the present structure, which was repaired in 1663, seems to have stood between two and three hundred years. It is a very plain solid edifice, void of all ornament. It has only one postern, and has more the appearance of a fortification than any of the others.

Cripplegate Ward, is very large, and 201consists of two parts, one lying within Cripplegate and London Wall, and the other reaching to the extent of the city liberties. The whole ward extends from Cheapside on the south, to beyond Bridgewater square in the north; and from Jewin street in the west, to Back street, Moorfields, in the east; it being bounded on the north by the parish of St. Luke, without the freedom; on the west by Aldersgate ward; on the south by Cheap ward; and on the east, by little Moorfields, part of Coleman street ward, Bassishaw ward, and Cheap ward.

The principal streets, &c. within the walls are, Milk street, Aldermanbury, Love lane, Wood street, Silver street, Addle street, and a very small part of Cheapside, containing 170 feet eastward from Wood street. The chief places without the walls are, Fore street, Moor lane, Whitecross street to beyond Beech lane, Redcross street, Beech lane, part of Barbican, and all Bridgewater square.

The principal buildings in this ward are the parish churches of St. Giles Cripplegate, St. Alphage, St. Alban’s Wood street, St. Michael’s Woodstreet, and St. Mary Aldermanbury; Lamb’s chapel, Sion college, Dr. Williams’s Library; 202and the halls of the Haberdashers, Waxchandlers, Plaisterers, Brewers, Curriers, Bowyers, and Loriners companies.

This ward is governed by an Alderman, and within the gate are eight Common Council men, fifteen wardmote inquest men, twelve scavengers, nine constables, and a beadle. Without the gate there are four Common Council, seventeen wardmote inquest men, four scavengers, two constables, and a beadle. The jurymen returned by the wardmote inquest serve in the several courts in Guildhall in the month of March.

Crispin’s alley, Holiwell street.*

Crispin street, Smock alley, Spitalfields.*

Croft’s yard, East Smithfield.†

Crooked Billet court, Long alley, Moorfields.*

Crooked Billet wharf, Millbank.*

Crooked lane, 1. Mint street. 2. New Fish street.

Cropp’s alley, Back street, Lambeth.†

Cropp’s yard, Back lane, Lambeth.†

Crosby’s court, Charterhouse street.†

Crosby’s square, Bishopsgate street. Here was anciently a very large house, built 203by Sir John Crosby, grocer and woolman, called Crosby Place.

Crosby Square passage, St. Mary Ax.☐ Crosby street, 1. Free School street. 2. St. Mary Ax.

Cross alley, 1. George alley, Shoe lane. 2. Marigold street. 3. One Gun alley, Wapping. 4. Upper Well alley, Wapping.§

Cross court, 1. Beaufort Buildings in the Strand, 2. Carnaby street. 3. London Wall. 4. Russel street.

Cross lane, 1. Bush lane. 2. Cartwright street. 3. St. Dunstan’s hill. 4. Hartshorn lane in the Strand, 5. Long Acre. 6. Love lane, Little Eastcheap, 7. Marigold street. 8. St. Mary hill. 9. Parker’s lane, Drury lane. 10. Shad Thames.

Cross row, Islington.

Cross street, 1. Carnaby street. 2. Essex street in the Strand. 3. Hatton Garden, 4. Islington. 5. King’s street, Oxford street. 6. Lukener’s lane. 7. Rotherhith.

Cross Daggers court, Grub street, near Moorfields.*

Crossed Guns court, Rosemary lane.*

Cross Harper’s court, Whitecross street.

Cross Keys alley, 1. Barnaby street.*. 2. Blackman street.* 3. Norton Falgate.* 2044. Without Temple Bar.* 5. Watling street.* 6. Whitechapel.* 7. Whitecross street, Cripplegate.*

Cross Keys court, 1. Chick lane.* 2. Grape street.* 3. Little Britain.* 4. London Wall.* 5. Queen street, Cheapside.* 6. Watling street.* 7. Whitechapel.* 8. Whitecross street, Cripplegate.*

Cross Keys yard, Whitecross street, Cripplegate.*

Cross Keys Inn yard, Whitecross street, Cripplegate.*

Cross Shovel alley, Blackman street.*

Crow alley, Whitecross street, Cripplegate.*

Crowd alley, Salisbury court, Fleet street.

Crowder’s rents, Narrow street, Ratcliff.†

Crowder’s Well, a spring of clear water admired for its medicinal virtues. It is on the back of the church yard of St. Giles’s Cripplegate.

Crowder’s Well alley, Jewin street.☐

Crowfoot’s court, Rosemary lane.

Crown alley, 1. Back side.* 2. Broad St. Giles’s.* 3. Dorset street, Fleet street.* 4. King Tudor street.* 5. In the Minories.* 6. Petticoat lane.* 7. Tooley street.* 8. Upper Moorfields.* 9. Whitecross street, Old street.* 10. 205White street, Horselydown.* 11. White’s yard.*

Crown court, 1. Aldersgate street.* 2. Angel hill.* 3. Bank side.* 4. Back lane.* 5. Broad street, Moorfields. 6. Butcherhall lane.* 7. Butcher row, Temple Bar.* 8. St. Catharine’s lane.* 9. Chancery lane.* 10. Cheapside.* 11. Chick lane.* 12. Church lane, Rag Fair.* 14. Cock lane, Shoreditch.* 15. Cow lane, West Smithfield.* 16. Crown alley. 17. Dancing Bridge lane.* 18. Dean’s street, Soho.* 19. Dorset Gardens.* 20. Duke street, Westminster.* 21. Dunning’s alley, Bishopsgate street.* 22. East Smithfield.* 23. Fleet street.* 24. French alley.* 25. Gerrard street.* 26. St. Giles’s Broadway.* 27. Golden lane.* 28. Gracechurch street.* 29. Grub street.* 30. Horselydown.* 31. King John’s court.* 32. King street, St. James’s.* 33. King’s street, Tooley street.* 34. Knaves Acre.* 35. Little Moorfields.* 36. Little Pearl street.* 37. Little Russel street, Drury lane.* 38. Long Acre.* 39. Long Walk, Christ’s Hospital.* 40. Narrow Wall, Deadman’s place. 41. Newgate street.* 42. New Gravel lane.* 43. Newington Butts.* 44. Old Change.* 45. Petticoat lane.* 206 46. Pickleherring street.* 47. Portpool lane.* 48. Princess street, Soho.* 49. Quaker street.* 50. Rosemary lane.* 51. Seething lane.* 52. Sherwood street.* 53. Ship street.* 54. Sun Tavern fields.* 55. Thieving lane. 56. Threadneedle street.* 57. Tower ditch.* 58. Trinity lane.* 59. Turnagain lane.* 60. Warwick lane, Newgate street.* 61. White’s alley.* 62. Whitecross street.* 63. White Friars, Fleet street.* 64. Worcester street.*

Crown and Cushion court, West Smithfield.*

Crown and Sceptre court, St. James’s street, Pall Mall.*

Crown and Sheers court, Rosemary lane.*

Crown Office, in Bell yard, Chancery lane. This is an office of great importance, under the Clerk of the crown, who is either by himself, or his deputy, continually to attend the Lord Chancellor, or Lord Keeper, for special matters of state; he has therefore a place appointed for him in the house of Lords. He makes all writs for the election of members of parliament, upon a warrant directed to him on the death or removal of any member; and also commissions of oyer 207and terminer, jail delivery, commissions of peace, and many other commissions for distributing justice to the King’s subjects. This office is sometimes executed by a deputy. Chamb. Pres. State.

Crown Office row, Inner Temple.

Crown street. 1. Hoxton.* 2. Wapping.*

Crown yard, 1. Bishopsgate street without.* 2. Nightingale lane.*

Croydon, a large and populous town in Surry, situated on the edge of Bansted Downs, ten miles and a half from London. ’Tis said there was once a royal palace in this place, which was given with the manor to the Archbishops of Canterbury, who converted it into a palace for themselves; but it is now much decayed. Archbishop Whitgift founded an hospital here, which he endowed with farms for the support of a warden, and twenty-eight men and women, decayed house-keepers of Croydon and Lambeth, with a school for ten boys, and as many girls, with 20l. a year and a house for the master, who must be a clergyman. The church, which is esteemed the finest and largest in the county, has several stately monuments, particularly one for Archbishop Grindall, another for Archbishop Sheldon, and 208another for Mr. Francis Tyrrel, a grocer in London, who generously gave 200l. to build the market house. Here is a great corn market on Saturdays, chiefly for oats and oatmeal for the service of London; and the adjacent hills being well covered with wood, great quantities of charcoal are made and sent to this city.

Crucifix lane, Barnaby street.

Crutched Friars. This street took its name from a monastery of the Holy Cross at the south east corner of Hart street, near Tower hill. This monastery was founded about the year 1298, and continued till the suppression of the other religious houses. In the reign of Henry VIII. a Prior of this house being found in bed with a whore in the day time, by the Visitors appointed by the Lord Cromwell, he distributed thirty pounds among them, and promised them as much more; an account of which being sent by the Visitors to Cromwell, these scandalous crimes hastened the dissolution of monasteries. The ruins of this religious house are not now to be seen, and nothing of it remains but the name, which is given to the street, that is more commonly called Crutched Friars, than Hart 209street. In the place where the monastery stood, is now erected the Navy office, and many other handsome buildings.

Cuckold’s court, Thames street.║

Cuckold’s point, Rotherhith Wall.║

Cuckold’s Point stairs, Rotherhith.║

Cucumber alley, 1. Queen street, Seven Dials. 2. Ship yard, Temple Bar.

Cullum street, Fenchurch street; it takes its name from Sir Thomas Cullum, Knt. who built it. Maitland.

Culver court, Fenchurch street.

Cumberland court, Bartholomew close.†

Cumber’s court, Blackman street.†

Cumber’s paved court, Blackman street.†

Cuper’s bridge, Narrow Wall, Lambeth.†

Cuper’s bridge stairs, Cuper’s bridge.†

Cuper’s Gardens, near the south bank of the Thames, opposite to Somerset house, and in the parish of Lambeth, was for several years a place of public entertainment: the gardens were illuminated, and the company entertained by a band of music, and fire works; but this, with other places of the same kind, has been lately discontinued by an act that has reduced the number of these seats of luxury and dissipation. Here are several statues, &c. the remains of 210Greek and Roman antiquities, that have been much disfigured by time and bad usage, supposed to be part of the famous collection of the Earl of Arundel, but being broken and defaced, were not thought good enough to be presented to the university of Oxford, and put among the Marmoria Arundeliana; they were therefore removed hither, when Arundel house on the other side of the Thames was turned into a street.

Cupid’s alley, Golden lane.

Cupid’s street, Coverley’s fields.

Cure’s Almshouse, in College yard, Deadman’s Place, Southwark, was founded by Thomas Cure, Esq; in the year 1584, for the reception of sixteen poor men and women, with an allowance of twenty pence a week each; and by the additional benefactions of his son and Mrs. Appleby, each of them receives an additional allowance of 16s. a year.

Curll’s court, In the Strand.†

Curriers, a company of considerable antiquity, since, according to Mr. Stow, they founded a religious fraternity in the convent of White Friars, Fleet street, so early as in the year 1367; they were however not incorporated by letters patent 211till the year 1605. This company consists of a Master, two Wardens, twelve Assistants, and 103 Liverymen, whose fine is 9l. 13s. 4d. They have a pretty handsome hall near Cripplegate.

Curriers alley, 1. Bristol street, 2. Shoe lane.

Curriers Arms Inn yard, Fann’s alley.*

Curriers court, London Wall.

Cursitors Office, in Chancery lane, where is made out original writs. The Clerks, who are twenty-four in number, were anciently called Clerici Brevium de Cursu, and each hath certain counties and cities allotted them, for which they make out such original writs as are required; they are a distinct corporation, and each of them executes his respective duty by himself or his deputy. This office was erected by Sir Nicholas Bacon, Lord Keeper, in the reign of Queen Elizabeth, and the father of the celebrated Sir Francis Bacon.

Cursitors alley, Chancery lane.☐

Cursitors street, Chancery lane.☐

Curtain row, Hog lane, Norton Falgate.

Curzon street, MayFair, a long street, with some grand houses on the south side, and on the north side is the house of the Lord Fane.

212Cushion court, 1. Little Broad street. 2. Pig street.

The Custom House, a commodious building, erected for the receipt of his Majesty’s customs on goods imported and exported. It is situated near the east end of Thames street, and its front opens to the wharfs and rivers. In ancient times the business of the Custom House was transacted in a more irregular manner at Billingsgate: but in the reign of Queen Elizabeth a building was erected here for this purpose; for in the year 1559, an act being passed that goods should be no where landed, but in such places as were appointed by the Commissioners of the revenue, this was the spot fixed upon for the entries in the port of London, and here a Custom House was ordered to be erected; it was however destroyed by fire with the rest of the city in 1666, and was rebuilt with additions two years after by King Charles II. in a much more magnificent and commodious manner, at the expence of 10,000l. but that being also destroyed in the same manner in 1718, the present structure was erected in its place.

Custom House.
S. Wale delin. B. Green sc. Oxon.

This edifice is built with brick and stone, and is calculated to stand for ages. 213It has underneath and on each side, large warehouses for the reception of goods on the public account, and that side of the Thames for a great extent is filled with wharfs, keys, and cranes for landing them. The Custom House is 189 feet in length: the center is twenty-seven feet deep, and the wings considerably more. The center stands back from the river; the wings approach much nearer to it, and the building is judiciously and handsomely decorated with the orders of architecture: under the wings is a colonade of the Tuscan order, and the upper story is ornamented with Ionic columns and pediments. It consists of two floors, in the uppermost of which is a magnificent room fifteen feet high, that runs almost the whole length of the building: this is called the Long Room, and here sit the Commissioners of the customs, with their officers and clerks. The inner part is well disposed, and sufficiently enlightened; and the entrances are so well contrived, as to answer all the purposes of convenience.

Though we cannot call this a very beautiful building, yet from its great utility, and the conspicuous place in which it stands, we thought a representation of it by a print could not be omitted.

214It is observable that in the year 1590, the customs and subsidies in the port of London inwards, were let to farm to Mr. Thomas Smith, for 20,000l. per annum, when it was discovered that they amounted annually to 30309l. so that Queen Elizabeth lost every year 10,309l. but by the vast increase of commerce since that time, they at present bring in above an hundred times as much, the customs now annually amounting to above two millions, and yet this immense business is transacted with as much order and regularity, as the common affairs of a merchant’s counting house.

The government of the Custom House is under the care of nine Commissioners, who are entrusted with the whole management of all his Majesty’s customs in all the ports of England, the petty farms excepted, and also the oversight of all the officers belonging to them. Each of these Commissioners has a salary of 1000l. a year, and both they, and several of the principal officers under them, hold their places by patent from the King. The other officers are appointed by warrant from the Lords of the Treasury.

Custom House court, Beer lane.☐

215Custom House key, Thames street.☐

Custom House stairs, Thames street.☐

Custos Brevium, the first clerk of the court of Common Pleas, whose office is to receive and keep all writs returnable in that court, and to receive of the Prothonotaries all records of nisi prius called posteas. He holds his place by patent from the King, and has the gift of the second Prothonotary’s place, and of the Clerk of the juries. This office is in Brick court, near the Middle Temple. See Common Pleas.

Cutlers, a company incorporated by letters patent granted by King Henry V. in the year 1417, and afterwards united to the haft and sheath makers. This fraternity is governed by a Master, two Wardens, and twenty-one Assistants, with a livery of 110 members, who upon their admission pay a fine of 10l. They have a neat and convenient hall in Cloak lane, Dowgate hill.

Cutlers street, Houndsditch.

Cutters rents, Gravel lane.

Cut-throat lane, 1. Cock hill, Ratcliff. 2. Upper Shadwell.

Cutting alley, New North street.



Dacre’s street, New Tothill street.

Dagenham, a village in Essex, nine miles from London. About forty years ago, the Thames near this place bursting its banks, laid near 5000 acres of land under water; but after this inundation had continued near ten years, it was stopped by Captain Perry, who had been employed several years by the Czar of Muscovy, in his works at Veronitza on the river Don.

Dagger alley, 1. St. Peter’s hill.* 2. Peter street, Cow Cross.* 3. Quaker street, Spitalfields.*

Dagger court, 1. Quaker street.* 2. Moorfields.*

Dancing bridge, 1. Pickleherring stairs.║ 2. Potters fields, Tooley street.║

Dancing Bridge stairs, Pickleherring street.║

Danvers yard, Seething lane.†

Darby court, 1. Canon row.† 2. Channel row, Westminster.† 3. Piccadilly.†

Dark entry, 1. Great St. Anne’s lane. 2. Shoemaker row, Aldgate.

Darkhouse lane, Thames street.

217Darking, a town in Surry, situated on a branch of the Mole, a little before it runs under ground. This town, which is very ancient, is 24 miles from London. It was destroyed by the Danes, but was rebuilt either by Canute or the Normans; and the great Roman causeway called Stony Street passes through the church yard. This place is famous for its meal trade, and its market for poultry, particularly for the largest geese and the fattest capons, which are brought hither from Horsham in Sussex; and the whole business of the people for many miles, consists in breeding and fattening them. Its market is on Thursdays, and its fair on Holy Thursday is the greatest in England for lambs. It is remarkable, that according to a custom of the manor, the youngest son or youngest brother of a customary tenant, is heir of the customary estate of the tenant dying intestate. Near the town is a heath, called the Cottman Dean, (i. e. the heath of poor cottages) on which stands their almshouse; and that heath, in the opinion of some learned physicians, has the best air in England.

Near this town stands Mr. Howard’s house and gardens called Deepden, 218situated in a small valley on every side surrounded with hills. The level ground about the house was laid out into pleasant walks and gardens, planted with a great variety of exotic trees and plants, and the hills planted with trees, except on the south aspect, which was covered with vines. But both the gardens and vineyard, though the latter has produced good wine, have been neglected, and many of the exotic trees have been destroyed. On the top of the hill, above the vineyard, is a summer house, from which, in a clear day, the sea may be discerned over the south downs.

Dartford, a town in Kent, sixteen miles from London, is more properly called Darentford, from its being situated on the river Darent, which runs through it, and at a small distance falls into the Thames. The town has a harbour for barges, and is finely watered by two or three good springs. King Edward III. had a general tournament performed here by his nobles, and also here founded a convent, whose abbess and nuns were, for the most part, of the noblest families in the kingdom; and this convent King Henry VIII. turned into a palace. Henry VI. founded an almshouse 219here in honour of the Trinity, to which the church is dedicated, for five poor decrepid men, to be governed by the Vicar and Wardens, who were constituted a body corporate, with a common seal, and a power to assign lands and rents to the hospital, to the value of 20l. per annum. On this river the first paper mill in England was erected by Sir John Spilman, who obtained a patent and 200l. a year from King Charles I. to enable him to carry on that manufacture: and on this river was also the first mill for slitting iron bars for making wire. The town is full of inns and other public houses, on account of its being a great thoroughfare to Canterbury and Dover. The market, which is on Saturdays, is chiefly for corn, and the town has the honour of giving the title of Viscount to the Earl of Jersey.

Dartmouth street, Tothill street.

Dart’s alley, Whitechapel.†

Dart’s rents, Long alley, Moorfields.†

Dashwood’s wharf, at the Old Swan, Thames street.†

Datchet, a pleasant village in Buckinghamshire, situated near Windsor, is noted for its horse races, and has a bridge over the Thames built in the reign of Queen 220Anne. At a small distance is Ditton Park.

David and Harp alley, Whitechapel.*

David and Harp court, Grub street.*

David street, Grosvenor square.

Davis yard, Coventry street.†

Davis’s rents, Kent street, Southwark.†

Dawson’s alley, St. Martin’s lane, Charing Cross.†

Dawson’s rents, Old Gravel lane.†

Day’s court, 1. Gutter lane.† 2. Old Change, Cheapside.†

Deacon’s court, Quakers street, Spitalfields.†

Deadman’s place, near Dirty lane, Southwark.

Deal street, Coverley’s fields.

Dean and Flown street, Fashion street.

Dean’s court, 1. Bedfordbury.† 2. Dean street, Fetter lane.† 3. Dean street, Red Lion square, Holborn.† 4. Dean street, Soho.† 5. Great Carter lane. 6. Little Old Bailey. 7. St. Martin’s le Grand.† 8. New Round court in the Strand.† 9. St. Paul’s Church yard, where the house belonging to the Dean of St. Paul’s stands.

Dean’s passage, Huggen lane, Thames street.

Dean street, 1. A very neat street in Fetter 221lane, Fleet street.† 2. High Holborn.† 3. Little Cock hill, Shadwell.† 4. Soho.† 5. Tyburn lane.† 6. Westminster.

Dean’s yard, 1. Shoreditch.† 2. Near Tothill street.†

Dearing’s rents, Liquorpond street.†

Defoe’s court, New Bond street.†

Deford’s court, Broad street, Marshall street.†

Delahay’s street, by Duke’s street, Westminster.†

Court of Delegates. This is the highest court for civil affairs belonging to the church, to which appeals are carried from the spiritual courts; for upon the abolishing of the papal power within this kingdom by Henry VIII. in the year 1534, it was enacted by parliament, that no appeals should from thenceforward be made to Rome; but in default of justice in any of the spiritual courts, the party aggrieved might appeal to the King in his court of Chancery; upon which a commission under the great seal should be directed to such persons as his Majesty should think fit to nominate. These Commissioners to whom the King thus delegates his power, generally consist of Noblemen, Bishops, and Judges, both of 222the common and civil law; and as this court is not fixed, but occasional, these Commissioners, or Delegates, are varied at the pleasure of the Lord Chancellor, who appoints them. No appeals lie from this court; but upon good reasons assigned, the Lord Chancellor may grant a commission of review.

Denham’s yard, Drury lane.†

Denman’s court, East Smithfield.†

Denmark court, in the Strand.

Denmark street, 1. Ratcliff Highway. 2. St. Giles’s.

Dennis passage, James’s street.†

Dentry’s yard, Wall street, Spitalfields.†

Dent’s alley, Red Cross alley, St. Margaret’s hill.†

Deptford, anciently called West Greenwich, is said to have received its present name from its having a deep ford over the little river Ravensbourn, near its influx into the Thames, where it has now a bridge. It is a large and populous town in Kent, four miles and a half from London, and is divided into Upper and Lower Deptford, which contain together two churches, several meeting houses, and about 1900 houses. It is most remarkable for its noble dock, where the royal navy was formerly built and repaired, 223till it was found more convenient to build the larger ships at Woolwich, and other places, where there is a greater depth of water: but notwithstanding this, the yard is enlarged to more than double its former dimensions, and a vast number of hands are constantly employed. It has a wet dock of two acres for ships, and another of an acre and a half, with vast quantities of timber and other stores, and extensive buildings, as storehouses, and offices, for the use of the place, besides dwelling houses for those officers who are obliged to live upon the spot, in order to superintend the works. Here the royal yachts are generally kept, and near the dock is the seat of Sir John Evelyn, called Say’s Court, where Peter the Great, Czar of Muscovy, resided for some time, and in this yard completed his knowledge and skill in the practical part of naval architecture.

In this town are two hospitals, one of which was incorporated by King Henry VIII. in the form of a college, for the use of the seamen, and is commonly called Trinity House of Deptford Strond; this contains twenty-one houses, and is situated near the church. The other called Trinity Hospital, has thirty-eight 224houses fronting the street. This is a very handsome edifice, and has large gardens well kept belonging to it. Though this last is the finest structure, yet the other has the preference, on account of its antiquity; and as the Brethren of the Trinity hold their corporation by that house, they are obliged at certain times to meet there for business. Both these houses are for decayed pilots or masters of ships, or their widows, the men being allowed 20s. and the women 16s. a month. For a particular account of the corporation called the Brothers of the Trinity, see the article Trinity House.

Deptford court, Rotherhith.

Deputy court, Aldersgate street.

Derby street, 1. Aldersgate street, 2. Rosemary lane.

Devereux court, 1. Basinghall street. 2. Without Temple Bar, near the place where the Lord Essex’s mansion house formerly stood.

Devil Tavern yard, Charing Cross.*

Devonshire court, Pickax street; or rather Long lane, West Smithfield.

Devonshire House.
S. Wale delin. B. Green sculp.

Devonshire House, in Piccadilly, is the residence of his Grace the Duke of Devonshire when in London. The house is built principally of brick, and 225though plain is very elegant and well proportioned, and the rooms of state are very rich and magnificent. The offices on each side are properly subordinate to the house, so as to make a consistent whole. The collection of pictures, with which this house is adorned, is surpassed by very few either at home or abroad; of which the following is an exact list.

In the great Withdrawing Room.

Moses and the burning bush, Jac. Bassan. Landscape, Claude Lorrain.

An historical subject, Paul Veronese.

Moses in the bullrushes, Van Dyck.

Wise men offering, P. Veronese.

Archbishop of Spoletto, Tintoret.

Cleopatra, Luca Giordano.

Family Piece, Dobson.

Arthur Goodwin, Van Dyck.

A Lady, its companion, ditto.

Diana and Acteon, figures C. Marat,

Landscape G. Poussin.

Joseph and his mistress, Carlo Cignani.

Solomon and the Q. of Sheba, Le Sueur.

Landscape, St. John in the wilderness, Titian.

Sine Baccho & Cerere friget Venus, Albano.

Two Portraits, Lord Falkland and Col. Cavendish, Van Dyck.

226A drunken conversation, M. Angelo Caravaggio.

Susannah and the Elders, Annib. Carrache.

Jacob’s ladder, Salvator Rosa.

A holy family, Titian.

In the second Drawing Room.

A holy family with boys, N. Poussin.

Christ and the woman of Samaria, F. Mola.

An old man in a Turkish dress, Rembrant.

A ruin, N. Poussin.

An emblematic picture, Andrea Sacchi.

Venus and Cupid, L. Giordano.

A portrait, Tintoret.

Portrait of an Abbess, over the door, Van Dyck.

Angel and Tobit, C. Marat.

Holy family, A. del Sarto.

Death of St. Peter, over the chimney, Donato Creti.

A piece of ruins, Viviano.

A portrait, Titian.

Two round landscapes, G. Poussin.

A woman and child, portraits, Van Dyck.

Head of a Saint, L. Giordano.

Adam and Eve, Domenichino.

A woman Saint taken up to heaven, Lanfranc.

Two circular landscapes, G. Poussin.

Andromeda, Guido.

227Head of a Saint, M. Angelo Caravaggio.

Et in Arcadio Ego, N. Poussin.

In the third Withdrawing Room.

A beggar boy with a bird’s nest, Amoroso.

Two portraits, one of Titian, the other Carlo Cignani by himself.

Sampson and Dalilah, Tintoret.

Two landscapes, F. Mola.

A holy family, C. Marat.

A landscape, G. Poussin.

A perspective view, Viviano.

A holy family, Guercino.

Whole length of Philip of Spain, Titian.

Whole length, Tintoret.

Holy family, over the chimney, Rubens.

Two battle pieces, Bourgognone.

Virgin and child, Cantarini.

Jacob wrestling with the Angel, S. Rosa.

David and Goliath, its companion, ditto.

Landscape, P. da Cortona.

Moses rescues the Priest of Midian’s daughters from the fury of the shepherds, Ciro Ferri.

An assumption, L. Giordano.

A girl feeding chickens, Amoroso.

St. Jerome, Domenichino.

A sleeping boy, C. Marat.

In the Library.

Several portraits, and two historical pictures,

228Mars and Venus, and Venus and Cupid, both by Vanloo.

In the Little Dressing Room.

The transfiguration, over the chimney, Camillo Procacini.

Landscape, Horizonti.

Holy family, Baroche.

History from a romance, Romanelli.

Jupiter and Juno, A. Carrache.

Temptation of St. Anthony, a landscape, Teniers.

Cincinnatus, P. da Cortona.

Landscape, Teniers.

St. Veronica, Romanelli.

Angel and Child, S. Rosa.

St. Jerome, Titian.

Crucifix, A. Carrache.

Landscape, Jean Francesco.

Holy family.

Lot entertaining the angels, Schiavone.

Charity, C. Cignani.

Christ bearing his cross, Domenichino.

Duke of Braganza, L. da Vinci.

Magdalen, Corregio.

Alexander and Campaspe, Solimini.

Apelles and the Grecian virgins, ditto.

Cupid and Psyche, Alessandro Veronese.

Cephalus and Procris, Poussin.

Peter denying Christ, Caravaggio.

229Women sewing, ditto.

Ditto making lace, ditto.

Landscape, Domenichino.

Adoration, Ditto.

Old woman’s head, Guido.

Woman of Samaria, M. Ang. Buonarotti.

Landscape, Paul Brill, figures Elsheimer.

Marriage of a virgin, Albert Durer.

Mars and Venus, Tintoret.

Two heads.

Isaac blessing Jacob.


St. Joseph.

Mignard, Carlo Marat.

Holy family, Nic. Berettoni.

Two landscapes, Bourgognone.

Two ditto, Brughel.


Flight into Egypt, Polenburgh.

Holy family, Albano.

Death of Dido, Paris Bourdon.


Pope and Cardinals, John Van Eyck.


Plague at Athens, Bourdon.

Holy family, Parmegiano.

Ruins, Both.

Portrait of a sculptor, Sir Peter Lely.

Madona, Titian.

230Portrait, A. Carrache.

Ditto, Fra. Hals.

Jupiter and Europa, Sir Peter Lely.

Saint and Angel, Ph. Laura.

Woman and Child, C. Cignani.

Holy family, C. Marat.

Soldier, woman and child, S. Rosa.

Murder of the innocents, Rottenhammer.

Two people counting money, Teniers.

Head, Raphael.

Ditto, Holbein.

Madona, Schidoni.

Holy family.

St. Jerome, Phil. Laura.

In the Great Dining Room.

The royal yacht, over the door, Vandevelde.

Sophonisba, L. Giordano.

Trophy with the head of Lewis XIV.

Fruit piece, M. Angelo.

Country wake, Bamboccio.

Piece of still life.

Fruit piece with a carpet, Maltese.

Duke of Albemarle, Sir Peter Lely.

Fruit piece, M. Angelo.

Ship piece, Bourgognone.

Landscape, ditto.

Battle of Lewis XIV., Vandermeulen.

A chapel.

Susanna and the elders, Guercino.

231Landscape, Tillemans.

A perspective view.

In the Hall several portraits of Vandyke, Sir Peter Lely, Sir Godfrey Kneller, &c.

In a Dressing Room.

Several portraits, among which are historical and other subjects, viz.

An historical subject, P. da Cortona.

Achilles and the Centaur, S. Rosa.

A battle piece, M. Angelo Battaglio.

Death of St. Peter, Guido.

In the Lower Room among many others are the following.

Consecration of Thomas a Becket, J. Van Eyck.[4]

Pope with his Cardinals in procession.

The presentation of Christ in the Temple, Hans Holbein.

232Two pictures, Watteau.

Roman amphitheatre.

A conversation, candlelight.

Shoeing a horse, Wouwerman.

Landscape, Rowland Savory.

The beasts going into the ark. Jacopo Bassano.

Chymist’s laboratory, Teniers.

View of Newmarket, Tillemans.

Boar hunting, M. de Vos.

Two small pictures, Teniers.

Landscape, Domenichino.

Apollo and Marsyas, Titian.

Apollo and Midas, ditto.

Landscape, Bergham.

A conversation, candlelight, Bamboccio.

4.  This picture is supposed to have formerly belonged to the Arundel collection, and from thence came to Henry Duke of Norfolk, from whose steward Mr. Fox, it was bought by Mr. Sykes, who afterwards sold it to the Duke of Devonshire, 1722.

The tradition concerning it was, that King Henry V. received it as a present, about a year before his death, from the famous John Duke of Bedford then Regent of England, and afterwards Regent of France in the reign of Henry VI. The Duke of Bedford bespoke it of John Van Eyck the painter, who invented the art of painting in oil. Thomas a Becket, whose consecration this painting is supposed to represent, was the favourite saint of King Henry V.

The length of this picture is forty-five inches, its breadth twenty-nine, and the height of the principal figure twenty-one and a half.

Devonshire square, Bishopsgate street. Here was formerly a very large and fine house, built by Jasper Fisher, one of the six clerks in Chancery, which on account of his being a man of no great birth or fortune, and much involved in debt, was called in derision, Fisher’s Folly; this house afterwards belonged to the Earl of Oxford, and lastly to the 233Earl of Devonshire, whose name is still preserved in the street and square built upon its ruins. Maitland.

This is a neat but small square, surrounded with good houses, with rows of trees before them; and adorned in the middle with the statue of Mercury gilt, placed on a pedestal, which is ornamented on each of the four sides with figures in bas relief. This square is inhabited by wealthy merchants.

Devonshire street, 1. Leading from Bishopsgate street to Devonshire square. 2. Queen square, Great Ormond street.

Diamond court, 1. Pearl street. Tite’s alley.

Dice Key lane, Billingsgate, Thames street.

Dice Key passage, Thames street.

Dick’s court, Crown alley, Upper Moorfields.

Dick’s Shore, Fore street, Limehouse.

Dick’s Shore alley, by Dick’s shore.

Dick’s Side alley, Hermitage.

Dickenson’s court, Quakers street, Spitalfields.†

Dickenson’s alley, Long lane.†

Digby’s rents, In the Minories.†

Digg’s rents, Blue Anchor alley.†

Dimmock’s yard, Stoney street.†

St. Dionis Backchurch, situated near the 234south west corner of Lime street, owes its name to St. Dionis, Dennis, or Dionysius, an Athenian Areopagite, or Judge, who being converted on St. Paul’s preaching at Athens, became the first Bishop of that city, and at length Patron of France. This is the celebrated Saint, who, according to the absurd and ridiculous fables of the Papists, carried his head two miles after it was cut off. The epithet of Backchurch, was given to this edifice from its situation behind a row of houses, to distinguish it from St. Gabriel’s church, which stood in the middle of Fenchurch street. The old church was destroyed by the great fire in 1666, and the present edifice, which is built with stone, was erected in its room.

This parish is a rectory, and one of the peculiars belonging to the Archbishop of Canterbury. The rector receives 120l. a year in lieu of tithes.

Dipping alley, Fair street, Horselydown.

Dirty alley, 1. Fashion street.║ 2. Ratcliff highway.║

Dirty hill, near Gray’s Inn lane.║

Dirty lane, 1. Blackman street.║ 2. Brewer’s street.║ 3. High Holborn.║ 4. Hoxton.║ 5. Long Acre.║ 6. In the Mint, Southwark.║ 7. Old Place yard.║ 2358. Shoreditch.║ 9. Stony lane.║ 10. In the Strand.║

Court of Dispensations. See Court of Faculties and Dispensations.

Distaff lane, Old Change.

Distillers, a company incorporated by letters patent granted by Charles I. in the year 1638. This corporation is governed by a Master, three Wardens, nineteen Assistants, and 122 Liverymen, each of whom pay on their admission a fine of 13l. 6s. 8d.

Distillers yard, 1. Great Tower hill. 2. Shoreditch.

Ditch alley, Green alley, Tooley street.☐

Ditch side, 1. Collingwood street.☐ 2. Cuckolds Point.☐

Ditch side row, Holiwell lane, Shoreditch.

Ditton Park, is in the parish of Datchet, in Berks. The house, which is an ancient and venerable mansion, was built by Sir Ralph Winwood, Secretary of State to King James I. and afterwards came into the noble family of Montague; but on the demise of the late Duke, the house and manor of Datchet came to the present Earl of Cardigan. The former is built in the manner of a castle, surrounded by a large 236moat, in the middle of a pleasant park well planted with timber. The apartments are large and beautifully painted, and in the picture gallery is a good collection of paintings, many of them by the greatest masters.

Dizzle’s court, Beech lane.†

Dobbin’s rents, Whitechapel.†

Dobbs’s court, Swithin’s alley, Cornhill.†

Dobey’s court, Monkwell street.†

Dock Head, St. Saviour’s Dock.

Dock Head row, St. Saviour’s Dock.

Dock Side, Hermitage Dock.

Doctor Frier’s alley, Little Britain.†

Doctors Commons, a college for the study and practice of the civil law, where courts are kept for the trial of civil and ecclesiastical causes under the Archbishop of Canterbury, and the Bishop of London; as in the court of Arches, and the Prerogative court. There are also offices in which wills are deposited and searched, and a court of faculties and dispensations. Causes are likewise tried here by the court of Admiralty, and by that of Delegates. The epithet of Commons is given to this place, from the Civilians commoning together as in other colleges.

This edifice is situated in Great 237Knight Rider street, near the College of Arms, on the south side of St. Paul’s Cathedral. The old building which stood in this place was purchased for the residence of the Civilians and Canonists, by Henry Harvey, Doctor of the civil and canon law, and Dean of the Arches; but this edifice being destroyed by the general devastation in 1666, they removed to Exeter House in the Strand, where the Civilians had their chambers and offices; and the courts were kept in the hall; but some years after the Commons being rebuilt in a far more convenient and sumptuous manner than before, the Civilians returned thither.

The causes of which the civil and ecclesiastical law do, or may take cognizance, are blasphemy, apostasy from Christianity, heresy, ordinations, institutions of clerks to benefices, celebration of divine service, matrimony, divorces, bastardy, tithes, oblations, obventions, mortuaries, dilapidations, reparation of churches, probate of wills, administrations, simony, incest, fornication, adultery, solicitation of chastity, pensions, procurations, commutation of penance, right of pews, and others of the like kind.

238The practisers in these courts, are of two sorts, Advocates and Proctors. The Advocates are such as have taken the degree of Doctor of the civil law, and are retained as counsellors or pleaders. These must first upon their petition to the Archbishop, obtain his fiat; and then they are admitted by the Judge to practise. The manner of their admission is solemn. Two senior Advocates in their scarlet robes, with the mace carried before them, conduct the Doctor up the court with three reverences, and present him with a short Latin speech, together with the Archbishop’s rescript; and then having taken the oaths, the Judge admits him, and assigns him a place or seat in the court, which he is always to keep when he pleads. Both the Judge and Advocates, if of Oxford, wear in court scarlet robes, and hoods lined with taffata; but if of Cambridge, white minever, and round black velvet caps.

The Proctors, or Procurators, exhibit their proxies for their clients; and make themselves parties for them, and draw and give pleas, or libels and allegations, in their behalf; produce witnesses, prepare causes for sentence, and attend the Advocates with the proceedings. These 239are also admitted by the Archbishop’s fiat, and introduced by two senior Proctors. They wear black robes and hoods lined with fur.

The terms for the pleading and ending of causes in the civil courts, are but little different from the term times of the common law. The order as to the time of the sitting of the several courts, is as follows. The court of Arches having the pre-eminence, sits first in the morning. The court of Admiralty sits in the afternoon on the same day; and the Prerogative court also sits in the afternoon. See Arches, Prerogative court, &c.

Doctors Commons Library. This is a spacious room, containing a great number of books of all sorts, more particularly on civil law and history. It was greatly increased by the addition of the whole library of Sir John Gibson, Judge of the Prerogative Office, given by James Gibson, Esq; one of his descendants; and it must be continually improving, as every Bishop, at his consecration, gives at least 20l. and some 50, towards purchasing books for it. Maitland.

Doddington street, Leather lane, Holborn.†

240Dodd’s alley, Nightingale lane, East Smithfield.†

Dodd’s yard, Nightingale lane, East Smithfield.†

Dodwell’s rents, Barnaby street, Southwark.†

Dog alley, 1. Bowling alley, Westminster.* 2. Fore street, Lambeth.*

Dog and Bear alley, 1. Fore street, Lambeth.* 2. Horselydown.* 3. Tooley street.*

Dog and Bear yard, 1. In the Borough.* 2. Crucifix lane.*

Dog and Duck alley, New Bond street.*

Dog and Duck stairs, near Deptford.*

Dog and Porridge yard, Old street.*

Doghouse bar, Windmill hill, Old street, so called from its being near the Doghouse, where the city hounds are kept.

Doghouse street, Old street.

Dog lane, Five Feet lane, Barnaby street.*

Dog row, Mile end.*

Dog Tavern yard, Thames street.

Dog yard, 1. College street, Westminster.* 2. Castle street, Long lane.* 3. Bear Inn yard, St. Margaret’s hill.*

Dog’s Head and Pottage Pot alley, Old street.*

Dog’s Head and Pottage Pot court, Whitecross street, Cripplegate.*

241Dogwell court, Lombard street; White Friars.†

Dolbin’s court, 1. Black Eagle street.† 2. Monkwell street.†

Dolby’s court, Peter’s lane.†

Doleman’s yard, Holiwell street.†

Dolittle’s alley, Little Carter lane.†

Dolittle’s rents, Fashion street, Spitalfields.†

Dollishire court, Cable street.†

Dolphin alley, 1. Blackman street.* 2. St. Catharine’s court, St. Catharine’s.* 3. Cock lane, Snow hill.* 4. Gun street, Spitalfields.* 5. Long alley, Moorfields.* 6. Wapping.*

Dolphin court, 1. Gun street, Spitalfields.* 2. St. Catharine’s lane.* 3. High Holborn.* 4. Little Distaff lane.* 5. Ludgate hill.* 6. Lombard street, Spitalfields.* 7. Noble street, Foster lane.* 8. Tower street, Tower hill.*

Dolphin yard, 1. Blackman street.* 2. Butcher row, Ratcliff Cross.* 3. Dean street.* 4. Wapping.* 5. West Smithfield.*

Dolphin and three Colts yard, Crutched Friars.*

Dolphin Inn yard, Bishopsgate street.*

Donne’s alley, Noble street, Foster lane.†

Donnet’s court, Maddox street.*

242Dorlston, a small but pleasant village near Hackney, to which parish it belongs.

Dormer’s hill, by Stratton’s Grounds.†

Dorrington street, Cold Bath fields.†

Dorset court, 1. Canon row. 2. Dorset Gardens. 3. Gunpowder alley.

Dorset gardens, Salisbury court, so called from this place being formerly the gardens belonging to the Earl of Dorset’s house.

Dorset stairs, Dorset street.☐

Dorset street, 1. Near Crispin street, Spitalfields. 2. Fleet street, from the Earl of Dorset’s house, which formerly stood in Salisbury court. See Salisbury court. 3. Red Lion street.

Double Hand court, by Campion lane, Thames street.*

Double Hood court, Campion lane.

Dove court, 1. Addle hill, Great Carter lane.* 2. Gutter lane, Cheapside.* 3. Labour in vain hill, Thames street.* 4. Leather lane.* 5. Old Fish street.* 6. Old Jewry. 7. St. Swithin’s lane.* 8. Turnmill street.* 9. White Friars.*

Dover court, Dover street.

Dover street, Piccadilly.

Dowgate, according to Stow, was originally called Downgate, and was only a principal key for ships and vessels, to load and land goods and provisions: while 243Mr. Maitland contends for its being originally the south gate of this city, where was anciently the trajectus, or ferry of Watling street, one of the four great Roman military ways, and that it was by the Britons, under the Roman government, called Dourgate, that is Watergate.

Dowgate hill, Thames street.

Dowgate stairs, Couzen’s lane, Thames street.

Dowgate Ward, is bounded on the north by Walbrook ward; on the west, by Vintry ward; on the south, by the Thames; and on the east, by Candlewick and Bridge wards: extending from St. Martin’s lane in the east, to Cloak lane in the west, and from thence both east and west to the Thames, in almost a strait line.

In this ward is the parish church of Allhallows the Great; and also Plumbers hall, Watermens hall, Joiners hall, Innholders hall, Skinners hall, and Tallow Chandlers hall; Merchant Taylor’s school, and the Steel Yard.

It has an Alderman, his Deputy, and seven other Common Council men, fourteen wardmote inquest men, five scavengers, eight constables and a beadle. 244The jurymen returned by the wardmote inquest serve in the several courts of Guildhall in the month of October. Maitland.

Dowgate wharf, Thames street.

Downing street, King’s street, Westminster.†

Down’s street, Hyde Park road.†

Dowse key, near Dice Key, Billingsgate.

Drake street, Red Lion square.†

Drapers, one of the twelve principal companies, was incorporated by letters patent granted by Henry VI. in the year 1439, by the title of The Master, Wardens, Brethren and Sisters of the guild or fraternity of the blessed Mary the Virgin, of the mystery of Drapers of the city of London.

This company is governed by a Master, four Wardens, and thirty Assistants, with a livery of 140 persons, who upon their admission pay a fine of 25l. They apply to charitable uses about 4000l. a year.

Draper’s alley, Woodroffe street, Tower hill.

Draper’s court, Prince’s street, Lothbury.†

Drapers Hall, situated on the south side of Throgmorton street, is built upon the ruins of a noble palace erected on that spot, in the reign of King 245Henry VIII. by Thomas Lord Cromwell, Earl of Essex, which upon his attainder and execution for high treason devolving to the Crown, was purchased by the Company of Drapers, for the use to which it is now applied: but was burnt in the fire of London in 1666, and has been since rebuilt in a very handsome manner.

This is a spacious and noble edifice, which composes the four sides of a quadrangle, each of which is elevated on columns and adorned with arches, forming a piazza round a square court, and between each arch is a shield, mantling, and other fretwork. The room called the hall is adorned with a stately screen, and fine wainscot; the pictures of King William III. King George I. King George II. at full length; and an ancient picture, a three quarter length of Henry Fitz-Alwine, a draper, and the first Lord Mayor of London.

There are also several other large rooms wainscoted with oak; as the court room, at the end of which hangs a valuable picture of Mary Queen of Scots at full length, with King James her infant son in her hand. This leads into a long gallery, at the south end of which 246is a door into the apartments for the clerk and offices: at the north end a folding sash door opens into a grand square room called the Ladies chamber, where the company have been used at certain seasons to entertain their wives and friends with a ball. In the center of this room hangs a large and beautiful cut chandelier, which was a present from the late Sir Joseph Eyles, when he served the office of Sheriff: and over the chimney piece is a fine picture of Sir Robert Clayton, Lord Mayor of London. Out of the west side of this room is a passage that leads to a place called the Record room; the door to which is of iron; it is strongly built over the passage that leads into the garden, and covered with a cistern that contains such a body of water as may at any time be sufficient to defend this apartment from fire that might spread from the adjacent buildings.

Drapers Gardens, are pleasant and commodious, though not very large. They are situated behind the hall, and being nearly square, have on each side rows of lime trees which form very agreeable walks. The middle part, which is enclosed by iron rails, has several grass 247plats bordered with beds of flowers, and in the center is a statue of Flora. In this part there are also several mulberry trees. These gardens are open every day in the week except Sundays, for all persons decently dressed.

Drayton, a village in Middlesex, situated on the river Coln, about eighteen miles west from London.

Drew’s alley, Cow Cross, West Smithfield.†

Drew’s court, Peter street, Westminster.†

Drew’s rents. Upper Ground.†

Driftway, Near Bethnal green.

Driver’s yard, Old street.

Drum alley, 1. Drury lane.* 2. High Holborn.*

Drum yard, Whitechapel.*

Drury lane, between the Strand and St. Giles’s Broad street. Drury, was the old word for modesty; but this lane received its name from the house of the noble family of Drewry being anciently situated at the lower end of Drury lane, and the upper end of Wych street. Vocab. to Chaucer, Maitland’s Survey.

Drury’s rents, Hermitage.†

Drying Grounds, New Bond street.

Dual’s alley, High Holborn.†

Duck lane, 1. Peter street, Westminster. 2. West Smithfield.

248Duck’s court, Cursitor street.†

Ducking Pond alley, Whitechapel common.

Ducking Pond lane, 1. Mile end, New town.

Ducking Pond row, Whitechapel common.

Dudley’s court, Hog lane, St. Giles’s.†

Duet’s wharf, Lemon street, Southwark.†

Duffer’s court, Little Broad street.†

Duffin’s alley, King’s street, Westminster.†

Duke’s alley, 1. Castle yard, Holborn. 2. Kingsland road.

Duke’s court, 1. Bow street, or Drury lane. 2. Crown alley, Upper Moorfields. 3. Kingsland road. 4. Little Almonry. 5. St. Martin’s lane, Charing Cross. 6. Narrow street, Limehouse.

Duke’s Place, near Aldgate, so called from the Duke of Norfolk having formerly a seat there. Maitland.

Duke’s Place court, Duke’s place.

Duke Shore, Limehouse.

Duke Shore alley, Duke shore.

Duke Shore stairs, Limehouse.

Duke street, 1. Brook’s street, New Bond street. 2. Gravel lane, Southwark. 3. Great Germain street. 4. Great Russel street, Bloomsbury. 5. Grosvenor square. 2496. Lincoln’s Inn fields. 7. Mint street. 8. Piccadilly. 9. Spitalfields. 10. Tyburn road. 11. By Charles street, near King’s street, Westminster. 12. York buildings. See York Buildings.

Duke of Norfolk’s yard, St. Alban’s street.

Dulwich, a very pleasant village in Surry, five miles from London, where there is a spring of the same medicinal waters as those of Sydenham wells, with which the master of the Green Man, a house of good entertainment, serves this city, and in particular St. Bartholomew’s Hospital. The fine walk opposite to this house, through the woods, affords from its top a very noble prospect; but this is much exceeded by that from a hill behind the house, where from under a tree distinguished by the name of The Oak of Honour, you have a view as in a fine piece of painting, of the houses as well as churches, and other public edifices, from Putney down to Chelsea, with all the adjacent villages, together with Westminster, London, Deptford, and Greenwich, and over the great metropolis, as far as Highgate, and Hamstead. But Dulwich is most famous for its college.

Dulwich College, was founded and endowed 250in 1619, by Mr. William Alleyn, who named it, The college of God’s gift. This gentleman being a comedian and principal actor in many of Shakespear’s plays; once personating the devil, was said to be so terrified at the opinion of his seeing a real devil upon the stage, that he from that moment quitted the theatre, devoted the remainder of his life to religious exercises, and founded this college for a Master and Warden, who were always to be of the name of Alleyn, or Allen; with four Fellows, three of whom were to be divines, and the fourth an organist; and for six poor men, as many poor women, and twelve poor boys, to be educated in the college by one of the fellows as schoolmaster, and by another as usher. In his original endowments, he excluded all future benefactions to it, and constituted for visitors, the churchwardens of St. Botolph’s Bishopsgate, St. Giles’s Cripplegate, and St. Saviour’s Southwark; who, upon occasion, were to appeal to the Archbishop of Canterbury, before whom all the members were to be sworn at their admission. To this college belongs a chapel, in which the founder himself, who was several years Master, lies buried. 251The Master of this college is Lord of the manor, for a considerable extent of ground, and enjoys all the luxurious affluence and ease of the Prior of a monastery. Both he and the Warden, must be unmarried, and are for ever debarred the privilege of entering that state, on pain of being excluded the college; but as the Warden always succeeds upon the death of the Master, great interest is constantly made, by the unmarried men of the name of Allen, to obtain the post of Warden.

The original edifice is in the old taste; but part of it has been lately pulled down and rebuilt with greater elegance, out of what has been saved from the produce of the estate. The Master’s rooms are richly adorned with very noble old furniture, which he is obliged to purchase on his entering into that station; and for his use there is a library, to which every Master generally adds a number of books. The college is also accommodated with a very pleasant garden, adorned with walks, and a great profusion of fruit trees and flowers.

Dumb alley, High Holborn.║

Dun Cow court, Little Cock lane.

252Dun Horse yard, 1. Coleman street.* 2. St. Margaret’s hill.*

Dung wharf, 1. Millbank. 2. Wapping Wall.

Dunghill lane, High Timber street.║

Dunghill mews, near Hedge lane.║

Dunkirk court, Cock lane, Shoreditch.

Dunning’s alley, Bishopsgate street without.†

Dun’s Almshouse, was erected by Cornelius Van Dun, a Fleming, in the reign of Queen Elizabeth, with twenty rooms for so many poor widows; but it not being endowed, is inhabited by the parish pensioners of St. Margaret’s Westminster.

St. Dunstan in the East.
S. Wale delin. J. Fougeron sculp.

St. Dunstan’s in the East, a church situated on the west side of St. Dunstan’s hill, Thames street, is dedicated to St. Dunstan Archbishop of Canterbury, an implacable enemy and cruel persecutor of the secular clergy, in favour of the regulars; and the additional epithet the East, is given it, to distinguish it from St. Dunstan’s in Fleet street. This church was repaired at a great expence in 1633, and in 1666 suffered greatly by the fire of London; but not being totally destroyed, the church was thoroughly 253repaired in eighteen months; but the steeple was delayed ten years longer. The style of the building is the modern Gothic. It is 87 feet in length, 63 in breadth, and the roof is 33 feet high; it is well enlightened, and agreeably disposed within. The steeple is 125 feet high, and is well constructed in the Gothic manner: the tower is light, supported by outworks at the angles; it is divided into three stages, and terminated at the corners by four handsome pinacles, in the midst of which rises the spire, not from a solid base, but on the narrow crowns of four Gothic arches, a base so seemingly insecure, that it fills the mind with apprehensions of its falling with the first tempest, and yet is perhaps able to stand for ages. This tower, which is extremely light and elegant, was built by Sir Christopher Wren. The placing the spire on the top of four arches, as the print shews, is esteemed a bold attempt in architecture, and is one proof, among many, of the great geometrical skill of the architect.

This church is a rectory, and one of the thirteen peculiars in this city belonging 254to the archiepiscopal see of Canterbury. The Rector receives 200l. a year in lieu of tithes.

St. Dunstan’s in the West, on the north side of the west end of Fleet street, is dedicated to the same Saint as the former, from which it is distinguished by the epithet the West. It appears to have been built four or five hundred years, since there are accounts of funerals and donations to it from the year 1421, with earlier anecdotes of little consequence; and it is easy to see that it has been repaired and altered at different periods, till the original style, whatever it was, is lost. It narrowly escaped the fire in 1666, the flames stopping within three houses of it. This edifice, in a very disagreeable manner, stands out into the street, and as it has been observed, is but an incumbrance to the way, and without having any thing but deformity itself, spoils the beauty of the whole street, and hides the prospect of Temple Bar, which would terminate the view very advantageously, and be seen almost as far again as it is at present. The church consists of a large body, and a small tower, every way unproportioned. The 255shops, which are in a kind of sheds below it, make, as it were, a part of the building. The clock projects to the south near the west end, and for the amusement of the gaping vulgar, two human figures are placed in a kind of Ionic loggia, and by means of clock work, strike two bells hung over them, and declare the hour and quarters. English Architecture.

This church was originally a rectory in the patronage of the convent of Westminster; though it afterwards became a vicarage, and being granted by King Edward VI. to the Lord Dudley, has ever since continued in lay hands. The Vicar receives 240l. a year in lieu of tithes. Maitland.

St. Dunstan’s Stepney. See Stepney.

Dunstan’s court, 1. Fleet street.☐ 2. Little Old Bailey.

Dustan’s square, Whitechapel.

Dunster’s court, Mincing lane.†

Durham court, Trinity lane.

Durham yard, 1. Chick lane. 2. In the Strand; from Durham House, built by Dr. Beck Bishop of Durham. Camden’s Britannia.

Durhams, in Middlesex, two miles north of Barnet, a seat which the Earl of Albemarle 256bought of Sir John Austin, and has since greatly beautified, by laying most of the neighbouring fields belonging to it into a park, and by turning and repairing the roads. The house is situated on an eminence that rises in a small valley, surrounded with pretty high hills at a little distance, so that in the summer months it affords an agreeable retreat; but the soil around it being a stiff clay, the rain which falls in winter is detained on its surface, and renders the situation very moist and cold.

Dutch Almshouse, in White’s alley, Moorfields, was erected by Samuel Shepherd, Esq; an eminent Dutch merchant, for twenty-eight poor ancient women of his nation, each of whom has an allowance of 3s. a week, and 12s. to buy a gown every other year. Maitland.

Dutch Almshouse, in Moorfields. About the year 1704, the Dutch congregation in Austin Friars purchased a piece of ground in Middle Moorfields, and erected upon it a handsome almshouse, containing twenty-six rooms for maintaining their poor, whether men or women, besides a room where the Elders and Deacons meet weekly to pay the pensions of those in the house, and to transact other 257business relating to the poor. The pensions are either more or less, according as their necessities may require; and the rooms are not so appropriated to the Dutch nation, but that any English woman, the widow of a Dutchman who had been a member of that church, is capable of being admitted; and it often happens, that there are more English than Dutch supported here.

Dutch Furlong row, Clerkenwell.

Dutchy lane, in the Strand.

Dutchy of Lancaster court. See Lancaster.

Duxford lane, Thames street.

Dyers, anciently one of the twelve principal companies, was incorporated by letters patent granted by Edward IV. in the year 1742, when this society among other privileges, obtained that of keeping swans upon the river Thames.

This corporation consists of two Wardens, thirty Assistants, and 147 Liverymen, who upon their admission, pay a fine of 15l.

Their hall, which was formerly situated near Old Swan lane, Thames street, being destroyed by the dreadful conflagration in 1666, and a number of warehouses erected in its place, the company 258have converted one of their houses in Little Elbow lane, Dowgate hill, into a hall to transact their affairs in. Maitland.

Dyers alley, Brick lane, Spitalfields.

Dyers Almshouse, in Dyer’s buildings, Holborn, was erected by the Dyers company, and contains eight rooms for so many poor women, who are only allowed two pence per week, an evident proof of the antiquity of the foundation.

The Dyers have another almshouse in St. John’s street, near Spitalfields, erected by the master Dyers for the benefit of six poor widows, each of whom is allowed 1l. 10s. a year.

Dyer’s buildings, Holborn.

Dyer’s court, 1. Aldermanbury. 2. Holborn hill. 3. Noble street, Foster lane.

Dyer’s Court rents, Dowgate hill.

Dyer’s yard, 1. Church lane, Whitechapel. 2. Old Bethlem. 3. Whitechapel.

Dyot street, St. Giles’s Broad street.


Eagle and Child alley, Shoe lane.*

Eagle and Child yard, Broad street, St. Giles’s.*

259Eagle court, 1. In the Strand.* 2. St. John’s street, West Smithfield.*

Eagle street, 1. Piccadilly.* 2. Plumtree street.* 3. Red Lion street, Holborn.

Earl’s court, 1. Drury lane. 2. Great Earl’s street. 3. Little Newport street.

Earl’s passage, Earl street.

Earl street, Seven Dials.

East court, Spitalfields market.§

East Harding street, New street, Shoe lane.§

East India Company, was first incorporated by a charter granted by Queen Elizabeth in 1601, when the first subscription for carrying on this trade amounted to 739,782l. 10s. and a year or two after by an additional subscription of 834,826l. the stock was raised to 1,574,608l. 10s. and with this capital they established a commerce by the Red sea to Arabia, and to Persia, India, China, and several of the East India islands. But about the beginning of the protectorate of Oliver Cromwell, it being imagined that the laying open the trade to the East Indies would be of advantage to the whole nation, that commerce was made general, and thus continued till the year 1657, when it being found that the 260separate trade was of disadvantage to the undertakers, they were for the good of the whole united to the company by the legislature. Stow’s Survey, last edit.

However in the year 1698, a new East India company was established, by virtue of which the old company was to be dissolved after the expiration of a certain term allowed them for the disposing of their effects. This new company immediately advanced two millions sterling to the government, at eight per cent. However, by the kind offices of friends, the two companies were united in the year 1702, when a new charter was granted them under the title of The united Company of Merchants trading to the East Indies, and the old company had their share of the two millions. In the 6th of Queen Anne, the united company lent the government 1,200,000l. which made their whole loan to amount to 3,200,000l. the interest of part of which was a few years ago reduced to 3l. 10s. per cent. and part to 3l. per cent. the first of these is now called the 3 1-half per cent. annuities, and the last the 3 per cent. annuities.

As to India stock, it is the trading stock of the company, and the proprietors, 261instead of receiving regular annuities for money at interest, have dividends of the profits arising from the company’s trade, which being more valuable, these shares generally sell much above the original value. Pocket Library.

The transfer days of India stock, are now Tuesday, Thursday, and Saturday; and of India annuities on Monday, Wednesday, and Friday, except on Holidays, which are the same as at the Bank. See Bank of England.

The hour of payment of dividends is from nine o’clock to eleven, and from twelve o’clock to three; and the hour of transfer from twelve to one.

As to the management of this company, 500l. in the company’s stock gives the owner a vote in the general courts, and 2000l. qualifies a person to be chosen a Director. The Directors are twenty-four in number, including the Chairman and Deputy Chairman, who may be reelected four years successively. The Chairman has a salary of 200l. a year, and each of the Directors 150l. A court of the Directors is held at least once a week, at the East India House; but they are commonly held oftener, they being summoned as occasions require.

262Out of the body of Directors are chosen several committees, who have the peculiar inspection of separate branches of the company’s business; as the committee of buying, committee of correspondence, committee of accounts, committee of the treasury, a house committee, a warehouse committee, a committee of shipping, a committee to prevent the growth of private trade, and a committee of law suits.

The East India company export bullion to a very great value, with woollen cloth, lead, and some other English commodities; and import China ware, tea, cabinets, raw and wrought silks, calicoes, chints, pepper, &c. but all the wrought silks, and calicoes, are to be exported again.

All the goods imported by the company are to be sold openly by inch of candle, on pain of forfeiting one half to the King, and the other to the prosecutor.

East India stock is esteemed in law, personal estate, and the shares exempt from taxes.

East India House.
S. Wale delin. B. Green sculp.

East India House, on the south side of Leadenhall street, and a little to the west of Lime street. This edifice was built 263on the place where anciently stood the city house of the Lord Craven, and his ancestors. The present structure was erected by the company in the year 1726. It is a plain Doric on a rustic basement, and has not much to be found fault with or commended. It might have been justly considered as a very fine edifice, had it been the house of a single Director; but it is not at all equal to the grandeur of this company, and the great figure they make in the trading world; nor bears any proportion to the idea we conceive of this body, when we consider, that the Directors who meet here, appoint or remove Governors who are their servants, and yet have all the dignity and state of Kings, some of whom seldom stir abroad without their guards and a numerous retinue, or eat, but upon gilt plate, or the finest China.

The house, however, though too small in front, extends far backwards, and is very spacious, having large rooms for the use of the Directors, and offices for the clerks. It has a spacious hall and court yard for the reception of those who have business, and who attend on the company on court days, which are every Wednesday. There also belongs 264to it a garden, with warehouses in the back part toward Lime street, to which there is a back gate for the entrance of carts to bring in goods. These warehouses were rebuilt in a very handsome manner in the year 1725, and are now greatly enlarged. The company have likewise warehouses in Seething lane, the Steel yard, and at the Royal Exchange, particularly under the last they have spacious cellars entirely for pepper. Stow, Maitland, &c.

Eastland Company. These merchants were first incorporated by a charter granted them by Queen Elizabeth in the year 1579, and their factory being first settled at Elbing in Prussia, they obtained the name of the merchants of Elbing. By their charter they were impowered to trade to Norway, Sweden, Denmark, Poland, Prussia, and all the other parts of the Baltic, exclusive of the city of Narva, which had been previously granted to the Russia company; but the smallness of the river Elbing rendering it very incommodious for navigation, the factory removed, and settled at Dantzick, Koningsberg, Riga, and other cities of the Baltic.

This company was confirmed by a 265charter granted by King Charles II. but by a late act of parliament any persons are allowed to trade to Norway and Sweden, though not of this company: and the Eastland commerce in general is in a manner laid open.

Our commodities exported to these countries, are woollen cloths, serges, kersies, Norwich stuffs, perpetuanoes, cottons, stockings, hats, tin, pewter, lead, &c. and in return they import to England timber, deals, masts, oars, clap boards, balks, bomspars, cantspars, pipe-staves, flax, pitch, tar, tallow, pot-ashes, wheat, rye, rich furrs, bees wax, and several other commodities. This trade is however generally allowed to be of great disadvantage to England, as the balance against us annually amounts to several hundred thousand pounds: which is the more extraordinary, as all these articles might be had from our own American plantations.

For the management of the affairs of this company, they have a Governor, Deputy Governor, and court of Assistants, consisting of twenty-four of the members, annually chosen on the first Wednesday after Michaelmas day, and 266they have their meetings monthly; or as occasion requires, at Founders Hall in Lothbury. Stow’s Survey.

East lane, Rotherhith Wall.§

East lane stairs, Rotherhith.§

East rents, Barnaby street, Southwark.§

East Shene, a village about a mile and a half in the coach road from Richmond, where the Lord Viscount Palmerston, a descendant of Sir William Temple, has a fine seat and gardens. These gardens were laid out and finished by the great genius of Sir William, and were his principal delight at the close of his life.

East Smithfield, a small square near Little Tower Hill, surrounded with but indifferent buildings.

East Smithfield Courts. In this liberty two courts are held, viz. a court leet and court baron; in the first officers are chosen, and nuisances presented; and in the second pleas are held to the amount of forty shillings.

East Smithfield double passage, Tower hill.

East Smithfield School, was founded in the year 1673, by Sir Samuel Sterling, Knight and Alderman of this city, who endowed it with certain lands and tenements 267in East Smithfield, of the yearly value of 20l. for educating sixteen poor boys of the parish of St. Botolph Aldgate, viz. eight in the city liberty, and eight in that of East Smithfield.

East street, 1. Red Lion street, Holborn. 2. Spitalfields market.

Ebbgate lane, Thames street.†

Eccle’s yard, In the Minories.†

Eden court, New street, Shoe lane.

Edgeware, a town twelve miles from London, in the road to St. Alban’s, Watford, and Harrow on the Hill, is situated on the very edge of the county of Middlesex. The old Roman way called Watling Street passes by here from London.

The late Duke of Chandos built near this town one of the most noble seats in England, which he adorned and furnished at such vast expence, that it had scarce its equal in the kingdom. The great saloon or hall was painted by Paolucci, and the plaistering and gilding of the house was done by the famous Italian Pergotti. The columns supporting the building were all of marble: the grand stair-case was extremely fine; the steps were marble, and every step was one whole piece twenty-two feet in length.

268The avenue was spacious and majestic, and as it afforded the view of two fronts, joined as it were in one, the distance not permitting you to see the angle that was in the center, so you were agreeably deceived into the opinion, that the front of the house was twice as large as it really was. And yet on approaching nearer, you were again surprized, by perceiving a winding passage opening, as it were, a new front to the eye of near an hundred and twenty feet wide, which you imagined not to have seen before.

The gardens were well designed, and the canals large and noble. The chapel was a singularity both in its building and the beauty of the workmanship, and the late Duke maintained there at one time a full choir, and had divine worship performed with the best music, after the manner of the chapel royal. But all this grandeur was soon at an end. The furniture and curiosities were brought to public auction; and this superb edifice quite demolished. Tour through Great Britain.

The land whereon this structure was erected was lately purchased by Mr. Hallet, an eminent cabinet-maker, who acquired a large fortune in that business, 269and he has built an elegant small house upon the ruins of the Duke of Chandos’s large and magnificent seat.

Edlin’s gate, Tooley’s street.

Edmonton, a village in Middlesex, in the road to Ware, seven miles and a half from London.

Edmund’s court, Prince’s street, Soho.

St. Edmund the King, a church situated on the north side of Lombard street, in Langborne ward, and thus denominated from its dedication to St. Edmund King of the East Angles, who was barbarously murdered by the Pagan Danes in the year 870, for his steadfast adherence to the Christian religion. The name Grasschurch was once added to this; but it is now disused: this last name took its rise from an herb market near the church.

The first sacred edifice in this place, and of this name, was built under the Saxon heptarchy: but the last old church was destroyed in the fire of 1666, and the present structure was finished in 1690. The length of this structure from north to south is 69 feet, and the breadth from east to west 39. The altar is placed at the north end. It has a square tower, upon which a short spire rises, with its base fixed on a broad lanthorn.

270This church is a rectory in the patronage of the Archbishop of Canterbury; but in ecclesiastical affairs it is subject to the Archdeacon of London; and the parish of St. Nicholas Acons being united to it, the profits of the Rector are almost doubled; he receives in lieu of tithes 180l. a year.

Edwards’s Almshouse, in the parish of Christ Church, Surry, was built and endowed by the trustees of Mr. Edward Edwards, a citizen and mason of London, for such poor persons of that parish as receive no alms from that or any other parish. Each person has one room, an allowance of 40s. a year; and once in two years a purple gown of twenty shillings value.

Edward’s court, 1. Oxendon street.† 2. Panton street.†

Edward’s rents, Islington.†

Edward’s street, 1. Berwick street.† 2. Hare street, Spitalfields.†

Edward’s wharf, Durham yard in the Strand.†

Eel’s yard, in the Minories.†

Egglin’s gateway, Tooley street.†

Egham, a town in Surry, situated on the bank of the Thames almost opposite to Stanes, and three miles on this side of 271Windsor. It has several good inns, a noble charity school, and an almshouse built and endowed by Baron Denham, Surveyor of the works to King Charles II. for five poor old women, each of whom have an orchard. The parsonage house was formerly the seat of Sir John Denham, who rebuilt it. This Sir John was the father of the poet of that name, who took great delight in this place.

Elbow lane, 1. Dowgate hill; this lane running west, and suddenly turning short into Thames street, was from this bending called Elbow lane. 2. New Gravel lane. For Great and Little Elbow lane, see Great and Little.

Elder lane, Upper Millbank.‡

Elder street, White Lion street, Norton Falgate.‡

Elephant court, Whitechapel.*

Elephant lane, Rotherhith wall.*

Elephant stairs, Rotherhith.*

Eling, Great and Little, are situated in Middlesex, between Brentford and the Oxford road. Great Eling lies to the east of the other, and has a work house and a charity school, with a pretty church that has eight musical bells, and is the mother church of that of Old Brentford.

272Elizabeth court, Whitecross street.

Elliot’s court, Little Old Bailey.†

Elliot’s rents, Stepney Causeway.†

Ellman street, Long Acre.†

Elm court, 1. Elm street.‡ 2. Middle Temple.‡

Elm row, Sun Tavern fields.‡

Elm street, Gray’s Inn lane.‡

Elstree, a village in Hertfordshire, situated on an eminence, within a mile of Stanmore, and in the road from Watford to High Barnet. It is also called Eaglestree, Illstree, and Idlestree.

Eltham, a town in Kent, seven miles from London in the road to Maidstone. Here a palace was built by Anthony Beck, Bishop of Durham, who bestowed it upon Queen Eleanor, the wife of Edward I. King Edward II. constantly resided in this place, and his son being born here, was on that account called John of Eltham. The palace here was afterwards much enlarged by the succeeding Kings, who when the court was kept at Greenwich often retired hither; and here were made the statutes of Eltham by which the King’s house is still governed. There are however no traces of the palace left. The town has the honour of giving the title of Earl to the 273Prince of Wales; and there are here the houses of several rich citizens, and two charity schools.

Ely court, Holborn; so called from the Bishop of Ely’s house, which is not far from it.

Ely House, the city mansion of the Bishop of Ely, was formerly called Ely’s Inn. It is situated in Holborn, and stands on a large piece of ground. Before it is a spacious court, and behind it a garden of considerable extent; but it is so ill kept that it scarcely deserves the name. The buildings are very old; and consist of a large hall, several spacious rooms, and a good chapel.

Emanuel Hospital, at Tothill side in Westminster, was founded by the Lady Dacres, in the year 1601, for twenty old bachelors and maids, sixteen of whom to be of St. Margaret’s parish Westminster, two of Hayes, and two of Chelsea parishes; each of whom have an allowance of 10l. per annum, with the liberty of bringing up a poor child. According to certain constitutions formed by the foundress’s executors, no person of ill fame, or that cannot say the creed and ten commandments in English; or are under fifty years of age; or have not 274lived three years in the said parishes, are to be admitted upon this foundation.

The city of London is intrusted with the management of this charity, and is to receive annually 200l. for its support, out of an estate in Yorkshire, till the expiration of a lease of 199 years, when the produce of the whole manor, which is said to amount to above 600l. per annum, is to be appropriated to the augmentation of this foundation.

Some time ago the Court of Lord Mayor and Aldermen caused to be erected at the upper end of this hospital, a handsome school house and dormitory, for the reception of twenty poor boys and girls, who were first admitted in the year 1735. They are supplied with the necessaries of life; the boys are taught reading, writing, and accounts; and the girls reading, writing, and plain work.

Embroiderers, incorporated by the name of Broderers. See an account of this company under the article Broderers.

Emm’s yard, Broad street, Ratcliff.†

Emperor’s Head lane, Thames street.*

Enfield, a town in Middlesex near eleven miles from London. Almost in the center of Enfield Chace, are the ruins of an old house, said to have belonged to 275the Earls of Essex. Here is a fine lodge for the ranger, and the skirts of the chace abound with handsome country houses belonging to the citizens of London. When King James I. resided at Theobalds, this chace was well stocked with deer, and all sorts of game; but in the civil wars it was stripped both of the game and timber, and even let out in farms: however, after the restoration it was again laid open, woods were planted, and the whole chace afresh stocked with deer.

Engine street, Hyde Park road.

Englefield Green, a village in Berkshire, in the parish of Egham, where are several pleasant seats.

Epping, a town in Essex, seventeen miles from London. The markets, which are on Thursday for cattle, and on Friday for provisions, are kept in Epping street, a hamlet about a mile and a half from the church. There are several fine seats in Epping Forest, which is a royal chace, and extends from the town almost to London.

Epsom, a well-built and handsome town in Surry, sixteen miles from London, abounds with very genteel houses, which are principally the retreats of the merchants 276and citizens of London, and is a delightful place open to Bansted Downs. Its mineral waters, which issue from a rising ground nearer Ashted than Epsom, were discovered in 1618, and soon became extremely famous; but though they are not impaired in virtue, they are far from being in the same repute as formerly; however, the salt made of them is valued all over Europe. The hall, galleries, and other public apartments, are now run to decay, and there remains only one house on the spot, which is inhabited by a countryman and his wife, who carry the waters in bottles to the adjacent places. Horse races are annually held on the neighbouring downs. The town extends about a mile and a half in a semicircle from the church to Lord Guilford’s fine seat at Durdans; and, as Mr. Whatley observes, there are here so many fields, meadows, orchards and gardens, that a stranger would be at a loss to know whether this was a town in a wood, or a wood in a town. There are many fine seats in this neighbourhood, besides Durdans, already mentioned, as Lord Baltimore’s, the Lady Fielding’s, Earl of Berkshire’s, &c.

Erith, a village in Kent, situated on the 277banks of the Thames below Woolwich, and about fourteen miles from London. For Mr. Gideon’s house here, see Belvedere.

Esher Place.
S. Wale delin. B. Green sc. Oxon.

Esher, a village in Surry, situated near Walton upon Thames and Hampton Court, of which last it affords a fine prospect, as well as of the other parts of Middlesex.

Esher Place, was the seat of the late Henry Pelham, Esq; The house is a Gothic structure built of a brownish red brick, with stone facings to the doors, windows, &c. It stands upon almost the lowest ground belonging to it, and has the river Mole gliding close by it and through the grounds. This house was originally one of those built by Cardinal Wolsey; but the late Mr. Pelham rebuilt the whole, except the two towers in the body of the house, which are the same that belonged to the old building, and the whole is rebuilt in the same style of architecture it was before, which uniformity is certainly better than an unnatural mixture of Gothic and modern too often practised. There is a fine summer house built upon a hill on the left hand as you enter, which commands the view of the house, park, and country 278round on both sides the Thames for many miles. The park or ground in which the house is situated appears quite plain and unadorned; yet perhaps not a little art has been used to give it this natural and simple appearance, which is certainly very pleasing. But in one part of it there is a pretty wilderness laid out in walks, and planted with a variety of ever-green trees and plants, with a grotto in it, and seats in different places. The wood in the park is well disposed, and consists of fine oak, elm, and other trees, and the whole country round appears finely shaded with wood.

The grand floor of the house is elegantly finished, and consists of six rooms. The great parlour is carved and gilt in a taste suitable to the style of the house, with curious marble chimney pieces and slab. In this room are the portraits of Mr. Pelham, Sir Robert Walpole, afterwards Earl of Orford, Lord Townshend, Duke of Rutland, the late Duke of Devonshire, and the late Duke of Grafton; a picture of Lady Catharine Pelham and her son is over the chimney. In the drawing room over the chimney there is a picture of King Charles II. when only eleven years old, by Vandyke. The 279library is curiously finished, and there is a good collection of books in it. Some say it was at this house Cardinal Wolsey was first seized by order of Henry VIII. on his refusing to annul his marriage with Queen Catharine, that he might marry Ann Boleyn, and which refusal brought on his fall.

Essex court, 1. Middle Temple. 2. Whitechapel. 3. White Friars.

Essex stairs, Essex street, in the Strand.☐

Essex street, 1. In Ratcliff Highway. 2. In the Strand; so called from the Lord Essex’s house formerly there. 3. White Friars.

Clerk of the Essoins, or excuses for lawful cause of absence; an officer belonging to the court of Common Pleas, whose office is in Searle street, Lincoln’s Inn.

St. Ethelburga’s Church, on the east side of Bishopsgate street, is so denominated from the first Christian Princess in Britain, the daughter of Ethelbert King of Kent. It escaped the fire in 1666. The body is irregular and in the Gothic style, with very large windows; and the steeple is a tall spire supported on a square tower.

This church is a rectory, the advowson 280of which was in the Prioress and Nuns of St. Helen’s in Bishopsgate street, till the suppression of their convent in 1536, when falling to the Crown, it was afterwards granted to the Bishop of London, who has ever since collated and inducted to it. The Rector receives about 60l. a year in lieu of tithes.

Eton College.
S. Wale delin. J. Green sc. Oxon.

Eton College, justly celebrated for the many learned men it has produced, is situated in Buckinghamshire on the banks of the Thames opposite to Windsor, and was founded by Henry VI. for the support of a Provost and seven Fellows, one of whom is Vice-Provost, and for the education of seventy King’s scholars, as those are called, who are on the foundation. These when properly qualified, are elected, on the first Tuesday in August, to King’s College, Cambridge, but they are not removed, till there are vacancies in the college, and then they are called according to seniority; and after they have been three years at Cambridge, they claim a fellowship. Besides those on the foundation, there are seldom less than three hundred scholars, at this time there are many more, who board at the masters houses, or within the bounds of the 281college. The school is divided into upper and lower, and each of these into three classes. To each school there is a master and four assistants or ushers. The revenue of the college is about 5000l. a year. Here is a noble library enriched by a fine collection of books left by Dr. Waddington, Bishop of Chester, valued at 2000l. and Lord Chief Justice Reeves presented to this library the collection left him by Richard Topham, Esq; keeper of the records in the Tower. In the great court is a fine statue of the founder, erected at the expence of the late Provost Dr. Godolphin, Dean of St. Paul’s. The chapel is in a good style of Gothic architecture. The schools and other parts, which are in the other style of building, are equally well, and seem like the design of Inigo Jones.

Evangelists court, Stonecutters alley, Black Friars.

Evan’s court, Basinghall street.†

Evan’s rents, Grub street.†

Evan’s row, Old Bond street.†

Evans yard, Church street, Rotherhith.†

Eveny Farm, in Middlesex, is situated between the streams of the Coln, on 282the north side of Stanes, and belongs to the Dean and Chapter of Westminster.

Eunuch court, Near Goodman’s yard.‡

Ewel, a town near Epsom in Surry, fourteen miles from London. Here a plentiful spring breaks out in several different spots, and becomes the head of a fine stream as clear as crystal, that runs over Epsom meadows, and falls into the Thames at Kingston.

St. Ewen, or Owen, a parish church which anciently stood near the north east corner of Warwick lane in Newgate street, the remains of which are still to be seen in the cellars of Mr. Hinton, a bookseller, and the next house to the west. This was one of the churches given by Henry VIII. towards the erecting of Christ Church.

Ewer’s street, Gravel lane.†

Exchange. See Royal Exchange, Old Change, and Exeter Exchange.

Exchange, or Change alley, 1. Cornhill; so called from its being situated opposite to the Royal Exchange. 2. In the Mint.

Exchange court, 1. In the Strand.☐ 2. By Exeter Exchange.☐

Exchequer, one of the four great courts 283of the kingdom, is held in a room contiguous to the north west corner of Westminster hall, and is so named from a chequered cloth, which anciently covered the table where the Judges, or chief officers sat. This court was first erected by William the Conqueror, for the trial of all causes relating to the revenues of the crown; and in the same court there are now also tried matters of equity between subject and subject.

The Judges of this court are, the Lord Chief Baron of the Exchequer, and three other Judges called Barons of the Exchequer; who are all created by letters patent to hold their offices quamdiu se bene gesserint. There is also the Cursitor Baron of the Exchequer, who administers the oath to the Sheriffs, Under-Sheriffs, bailiffs, searchers, surveyors, &c. of the Custom house; but is no Judge. When at any time the Barons are of different opinions concerning the decision of any cause, they call to their assistance the Chancellor of the Exchequer, who decides in favour of one of the parties by his casting vote. Dugdale’s Orig. Jurid.

Long after the conquest there sat in 284the Exchequer both spiritual and temporal Barons, whence in later times those who sat there, tho’ they were not Peers, were stiled Barons.

Exchequer, or the Office of the receipt of his Majesty’s Exchequer, a plain old building formed of wood and plaister, at the south end of New Palace yard, where the King’s revenue is received and disbursed. This important office is under the direction of the Chancellor of the Exchequer, who has the custody of the Exchequer seal; he has also the comptrollment of the rolls of the Lords of the Treasury, and sits in the court above the Barons of the Exchequer. He has the gift of the office of Comptroller of the Pipe, and of that of Clerk of the Nihils.

The Auditor of the receipts of the Exchequer, is another great officer. He files the bills of the Tellers, and draws all orders to be signed by the Lords Commissioners of the Treasury, for issuing forth all money, in virtue of privy seals, which are recorded by the Clerk of the Pells, and entered and lodged in the Auditor’s office. He also, by warrant from the Lords of the Treasury, makes debentures to the several persons 285who have fees, annuities or pensions, by letters patent from the King, out of the Exchequer, and directs them for payment to the Tellers. He daily receives the state of each Teller’s account, and weekly certifies the whole to the Lords Commissioners, who immediately present the estimate, or balance to the King. He makes half yearly, at Michaelmas and Lady-day, a book called A Declaration, containing a methodical abstract of all the accounts and payments made the preceding half year, and delivers one of them to the Lords of the Treasury, and another to the Chancellor of the Exchequer; and by him are kept the registers appointed for paying all persons in course, upon several branches of the King’s revenue. For the discharge of these offices, he has a chief clerk, a clerk of the debentures, a clerk of the registers and issues, a clerk of the cash book, and a clerk for making out Exchequer bills; and in the offices for annuities under the Auditor are two chief clerks, and nine clerks under them.

The other great officers are the four Tellers of the Exchequer, each of whom has his deputy, his first clerk, and four 286other clerks. Their office is to receive all moneys due to the King, and thereupon to throw down a bill through a pipe into the tally court, where it is received by the Auditor’s clerk, who there attends to write the words of the bill upon a tally, and then delivers the same to be entered by the Clerk of the Pells, or his under clerk, who attends to enter it in his book; then the tally is cloven by the two Deputy Chamberlains, and while the senior deputy reads one part, the junior examines the other part with the two clerks.

Another great officer is the Clerk of the Pells, who enters the Tellers bills on a parchment skin, in latin Pellis, and likewise all receipts and payment for the King; this officer is in the nature of a comptroller; he has a deputy, a clerk for the introitus, and another for the exitus. There are also a clerk of the declarations, and a clerk of the patents. In this office there are likewise three vouchers of the Tellers.

Tally Court in the Exchequer. In order to give a more perfect idea of this office, it will be proper to say something of the nature of tallies. The word tally is derived from the French word tailler, 287to cut, a tally being a piece of wood wrote upon on both sides, containing an acquittance for money received, which being cloven asunder by the Deputy Chamberlains, one part, called the stock, is delivered to the person who pays or lends any money to the government; and the other part, called the counter-stock or counter-foil, remains in the office, to be kept till called for, and joined with the stock. This method of striking tallies is very ancient, and has been found by long experience to be the best way of preventing frauds that ever was invented; for it is morrally impossible so to counterfeit a tally, but upon rejoining it with the counter-foil, the intended fraud will be obvious to every eye, either in the notches or the cleaving, in the length or in the breadth, in the natural growth, or in the shape of the counter-foil.

To the tally court belong the two Chamberlains of the Exchequer, in whose custody are many ancient records, leagues, and treaties with foreign princes, the standards of money, weights, and measures, those ancient books called the Black Book of the Exchequer, and Doomsday Book, which last contains 288an account of all the cities, towns, villages and families in the reign of William the Conqueror. This book is kept under three locks and keys, and cannot be examined for less than 6s. 8d. and for every line transcribed is paid 4d.

Under these officers are four Deputy Chamberlains, in whose office are preserved all the counter-foils of the above tallies, so exactly ranked by months or years, that they may be easily found out, in order to be joined with their respective tallies, which being done and proved true, they deliver it attested for a lawful tally to the Clerk of the Pipe, to be allowed in the great roll.

The other officers of this court, are the Usher of the Exchequer, his deputy and clerk; three Paymasters of Exchequer bills, their deputy, and a Comptroller of Exchequer bills; a tally writer for the Auditor, who has two assistant clerks, and a tally cutter. Chamberlain’s Present State.

There are several other offices belonging to the Exchequer, as the pipe office in Gray’s Inn; Foreign Apposer’s office, and King’s Remembrancer’s office, in the Temple; Clerk of the pleas office, in Lincoln’s Inn, &c. See the articles Pipe 289Office, Foreign Apposer’s Office, &c. See also the article Treasurer.

Execution dock, Wapping; thus named from its being the place where pirates and others who have committed capital crimes at sea, are executed on a gallows which leans over the water.

Excise Office, in the Old Jewry, is a large brick building near the paved court on the south side of the church, formerly the dwelling house of Sir John Frederick. This office was, till lately, managed by seven Commissioners; but the many new excisable commodities brought under their care, have occasioned their number to be increased to nine. These receive the produce of the excise of beer, ale, and other liquors, of coffee, tea, and chocolate, of malt, hops, soap, starch, candles, paper, calicoes, gold and silver wire, vellum, parchment, hides and skins, collected all over England, and pay it into the Exchequer. They have each a salary of 1000l. a year, and are obliged by oath to take no fee or reward, but from the King only.

Before the Commissioners of Excise are tried all frauds committed in the several branches of the revenue under their direction; 290and if any person thinks himself injured by their sentence, he may appeal to the Commissioners of Appeal for a rehearing.

At the desire of the Commissioners of this office, a very laudable practice is lately set on foot, for the support of the valetudenary and aged clerks and officers belonging to the same; for which purpose the several clerks and officers contribute 3d. per pound out of their respective salaries, which is said to amount to about 3000l. per annum. Chamberlain’s Present State. Maitland’s Survey.

Exeter ’Change, an edifice in the Strand, erected for the sake of trade, consisting of a long room with a row of shops on each side, and a large room above, now used for auctions. This edifice received its name from the mansion of the Earls of Exeter, which stood near it. Maitland.

Exeter ’Change court, Exeter street.

Exeter street, Catharine street, so called from its being situated near Exeter ’Change.



Court of Faculties and Dispensations, in Doctors Commons, under the Archbishop of Canterbury. When the papal power was abolished in England by King Henry VIII. this court was established by act of parliament, that the Archbishop in the Pope’s stead, might grant dispensations and indulgences for eating flesh upon prohibited days; for marrying without banns or on holydays; for a son to succeed his father in his benefice; for a plurality of livings, non-residence, and other cases of the like nature. To this court belongs an officer called Magister ad Facultates, and a register.

Fager’s alley, Turnmill street†

Fair street, Horselydown.

St. Faith’s, a parish church once under the east end or choir of St. Paul’s cathedral. It owes its name to its being dedicated to St. Faith, or Sancta Fides, a French virgin of the city of Agen, in the province of Aquitain, who is said to have suffered martyrdom in the reign of the Emperor Dioclesian, for refusing to sacrifice to idols. No records however remain of the antiquity of this church, 292in which several persons of note were formerly interred, nor is it known at what time divine service was performed in it, other than by chauntry priests for the souls of their departed benefactors. This church however having suffered with St. Paul’s cathedral, it was thought proper entirely to demolish it, and to unite the parish to that of St. Austin’s.

Falcon alley, 1. Barnaby street.* 2. King street, Westminster.* 3. Redcross street.*

Falcon court, 1. In the Borough.* 2. Fleet street.* 3. Lothbury.* 4. Near Rag street, Clerkenwell.* 5. Shoe lane.* 6. Shoemaker row, Aldgate.*

Falcon Inn yard, St. Margaret’s hill.*

Falcon lane, 1. Falcon stairs.* 2. Maiden lane, Southwark.*

Falcon row, 1. Codpiece row.* 2. Fleet street.* 3. Long lane, Southwark.* 4. Lothbury.* 5. St. Margaret’s hill.* 6. Shoe lane.* 7. White street.*

Falcon stairs, Gravel lane.*

Falcon yard, 1. Kent street.* 2. Shoemaker row, Aldgate.* 3. Tooley street.*

Falconbridge court, Hog lane, St. Giles’s.†

Falconer’s alley, 1. Cow Cross, West Smithfield.† 2. Cross street, by Lukener’s lane.† 3. Turnmill street.†

293Fan court, St. Michael’s lane.

Fanmakers, a company incorporated by letters patent granted by Queen Anne, in the year 1709. This fraternity is governed by a Master, two Wardens, and twenty Assistants; but they have neither hall nor livery. Maitland.

Fann’s alley, 1. Goswell street.† 2. Webb’s square.†

Faringdon Ward Within, received its name from William Farendon and Nicolas his son, who had the government of all this ward for the space of eighty-two years; and it received the addition of within, on account of this part of Faringdon ward lying within the walls. It is bounded on the north by Aldersgate ward, Cripplegate ward, and the liberty of St. Martin’s le Grand; on the west by Faringdon without, on the south by Castle Baynard ward, and the river Thames; and on the east by Castle Baynard ward, and Cheap ward.

The principal streets and lanes in this ward are, Newgate street, the west side of Warwick lane, Ave Mary lane, Paternoster row, Ivy lane, St. Paul’s church yard, Ludgate street, and Black Friars.

The most remarkable buildings are, St. Paul’s cathedral, St. Vedast in Foster 294lane, Christ Church in Newgate street, St. Martin’s Ludgate, and St. Matthew’s Friday street; the college of Physicians, Stationers hall, Apothecaries hall, Sadlers hall, Embroiderers hall, and Scots hall; St. Paul’s school, Christ Church hospital, and Ludgate.

This ward is governed by an Alderman, his Deputy, twelve Common Council men, eighteen wardmote inquest men, eighteen scavengers, seventeen constables and a beadle; and the jury returned by the inquest for this ward serve in the courts of Guildhall in the month of September.

Faringdon Ward Without, is the farthest ward to the west of the city, and is bounded on the north by the Charterhouse, the parish of St. James Clerkenwell, and part of St. Andrew’s parish without the freedom; on the west, by High Holborn and St. Clement’s parish in the Strand; on the south, by the Thames; and on the east, by the ward of Faringdon within, the precinct of St. Bartholomew near Smithfield, and the ward of Aldersgate.

The principal places in this ward are, Smithfield, Cloth Fair, Bartholomew Close, Snow hill, and all Holborn up 295to the Bars, Hatton Garden, Leather lane, and Brook street; the Old Bailey, Ludgate hill, Fleet ditch and market, Shoe lane, Fetter lane, Fleet street, White Friars, and Salisbury court.

The most remarkable buildings are, the Temple, Serjeants Inn, Clifford’s, Barnard’s and Thavie’s Inns, Temple Bar, Bridewell hospital, St. Bartholomew’s hospital, Fleet prison, Surgeon’s hall; and the parish churches of St. Bartholomew the Great, St. Bartholomew the Less, St. Sepulchre’s, St. Andrew’s Holborn, St. Dunstan’s in the west, and St. Bride’s.

This ward being so very extensive is parted into three divisions, and is governed by an Alderman, and three Deputies, sixteen Common Council men, forty-four inquest men, fifteen scavengers, and fifteen constables. The jury returned by the inquest in this ward serve in the several courts of Guildhall in the month of June.

Farmer’s alley, 1. Gardiner’s lane.† 2. Hog lane, St. Giles’s.†

Farmer’s court, Ivy street.†

Farmer’s street, Shadwell.†

Farr’s alley, St. Giles’s.†

Farr’s rents, Rotherhith wall.†

296Farr’s yard, Whitecross street.†

Farrant’s yard, Rotherhith wall.†

Farriers, a company incorporated by letters patent granted by King Charles II. in the year 1673, and governed by a Master, three Wardens, twenty-four Assistants, and seventy-six Liverymen, each of whom, upon their admission, pay a fine of 5l. but they have no hall. Maitland.

Farrier’s yard, 1. In the Minories. 2. Stoney lane.

Farthing alley, 1. East Smithfield. 2. Jacob street, Rotherhith. 3. In the Maze.

Farthing fields, 1. New Gravel lane.║ 2. Old Gravel lane.║

Farthing street, Phenix street, Spitalfields.║

Fashion street, Artillery lane, Spitalfields.

Faustin’s court, Bowl alley, St. Giles’s.† 2. Vinegar lane, Drury lane.†

Feathers alley, 1. Bedfordbury.* 2. Holborn.* 3. Long Acre.* 4. St. Martin’s lane, Charing Cross.* 5. In the Strand.*

Feathers court, 1. Bury court, Piccadilly.* 2. Drury lane.* 3. Fox court, Gray’s Inn lane.* 4. High Holborn.* 5. Milk street, Cheapside.*

297Featherstone’s buildings, High Holborn.†

Featherstone’s court, Featherstone street.†

Featherstone street, Bunhill row.†

Fell court, Fell street.†

Fell street, Little Wood street.†

Fell’s Almshouse, at Blackwall, was erected by Capt. Fell for the accommodation of four poor families, but without any allowance for their support.

Fellowship Porters. See Porters.

Feltmakers. The Felt hat-makers being anciently a branch of the company of Haberdashers of hats, they applied in the year 1576 for an exclusive charter; but being opposed by the Haberdashers, their endeavours proved abortive; but at last all disputes being adjusted, they were separately incorporated by letters patent granted by King James I. in the year 1604. They are governed by a Master, four Wardens, and twenty-five Assistants, with a livery of sixty members, who at their admission pay a fine of 5l. each, but they have no hall. Maitland.

Fen court, 1. Fenchurch street. 2. St Michael’s lane.†

Fenchurch buildings, Fenchurch street.

298Fenchurch street, Gracechurch street. It took its name from the Lang-bourn, a rivulet or bourn, that arose near the place which is now Magpye alley, and spreading near the spring head, rendered the contiguous street so moorish or fenny, especially about the church, which stood in the broad way between Mincing lane and Rood lane, that it from thence obtained the name of Fenchurch street. Maitland.

Fenwick’s court, High Holborn.

Fetcham, a village near Leatherhead, where is the seat of Thomas Revel, Esq; on which no cost has been spared to render a most beautiful situation by nature, more delightful by art.

Fetter lane, Fleet street, in old writings called Feuter lane; it was then what Drury lane is now.

Fetter Lane court, Bernard’s Inn.

Field court, Gray’s Inn.

Field lane, Holborn hill.

Figtree court, 1. Barbican.‡ 2. Inner Temple.‡

Figtree yard, Maudlin’s rents.‡

Finch lane, Cornhill.†

Finchley, a village in Middlesex between Hendon and Coneyhatch, is seven miles north of London.

299Finsbury, Moorfields, formerly called Fensbury, from a neighbouring fen or moor. Maitland.

Finsbury Courts, in this place the steward of the manor holds a court leet and court baron, in which are transacted the business peculiar to each court.

Finsbury yard, Chiswell street.

Fire Office. See the particular names by which they are distinguished, as Hand in Hand, Sun Fire Office, Union, &c.

Fireball alley, Houndsditch.

Fireball court, 1. Houndsditch. 2. First Postern, London Wall.

First Fruits Office, in the Middle Temple, is under the Remembrancer of the first fruits, under whom is a Deputy and senior clerk, a Receiver, and a Deputy Receiver of the first fruits; a Receiver of the tenths, and his clerk, and a Comptroller of the first fruits and tenths.

Fish Market court, Bloomsbury.

Fish Street hill, Gracechurch street.

Fish yard, 1. St. Margaret’s lane. 2. Pudding lane.

Fishermen, a company incorporated by letters patent granted by King James II. in the year 1687, by the name of The 300free Fishermen of London; but it does not appear that they have either livery or arms: They have however a hall in Thames street.

Fisher’s alley, 1. Hide street, Bloomsbury.† 2. Rosemary lane.† 3. Water lane, Fleet street.†

Fisher’s Almshouse, in the Dog row, near Mile end, was erected by Capt. Fisher, in the year 1711, for the widows of six masters of ships, for whose support he settled upon it an estate of 40l. a year; and committed the trust of it to the fraternity of the Trinity House.

To this edifice are since added two additional rooms, the ground for which was purchased by Sir Charles Wager, and these rooms built by Sir William Ogborne in the year 1728. The two widows who live in these, have each an allowance of 16s. a month, and 20s. per annum for coals.

Fisher’s court, Eagle street, Holborn.†

Fisher’s rents, Broad street, Old Gravel lane.†

Fisher’s street, Red Lion square.†

Fishmongers. These as well as the other persons concerned in furnishing the city with provisions, were anciently under the immediate direction of the court of Lord 301Mayor and Aldermen, and these magistrates had this power confirmed by an act of parliament in the seventh of Richard II. in the year 1384. At that time the dealers in fish consisted of two communities, viz. the salt-fish, and stock-fishmongers, though they were not incorporated till afterwards, the former in 1433, and the latter in 1509. But this division proving prejudicial to the profession in general, they united, and were incorporated by letters patent, granted by Henry VIII. in the year 1536.

This is one of the twelve principal companies, and is governed by a Prime and five other Wardens, twenty-eight Assistants, and 140 Liverymen, who upon their admission pay a fine of 13l. 6s. 8d. This corporation pays to charitable uses about 800l. per annum.

Fishmongers Hall, situated in Thames street, a little above the Bridge, and has a view of the river. The entrance from Thames street is by a handsome passage which leads into a large square court, paved with flat stones, and encompassed by the great hall, the court room for the Assistants, and other grand apartments, with galleries; these are of an handsome construction, and are supported 302by Ionic columns, with an arcade. The front next the Thames has been lately repaired and ornamented at a very great expence. The ascent to the first apartments is by a double flight of steps from the wharf; the door is adorned with Ionic columns, and these support an open pediment, in which is a shield with the arms of the company; the windows are ornamented with stone cases, and the quoins of the building are wrought with a handsome rustic, and in the whole of this front there is a great deal of solid beauty.

Fishmongers alley, 1. St. Margaret’s hill. 2. Fenchurch street.

Fishmongers Almshouses, handsome buildings at Newington Butts, founded and erected at different times. The most ancient is St. Peter’s hospital, a Gothic structure, built with brick and stone, with a brick wall before it, within which are two rows of tall trees, and behind the buildings a garden.

The entrance is by a pair of iron gates opening to the center of the building, which is lofty but very irregular. On the inside are two courts behind each other, in which is a hall with painted windows and a chapel. 303Inscriptions on the sides of these courts shew that they were built at different times.

To the south of this hospital is another founded by Mr. James Hulbert, a liveryman of the Fishmonger’s company, in the year 1719, whose statue is erected upon a pedestal; and in the wall which extends before both, are iron rails, to afford a view of this statue, the more modern hospital, erected by that gentleman, and the pleasant walks before it.

The Fishmongers company erected St. Peter’s hospital by virtue of letters patent granted by King James I. in the year 1618, for the reception of several of their poor members who had pensions bequeathed them by the wills of several members of the company: thirteen of whom were beadsmen and women of the company’s great benefactor Sir Thomas Knesworth, who in 1513 left them 8d. per week each. Sir Thomas Hunt also in 1615 left 20l. 10s. per annum towards the support of six ancient poor men and women. Richard Edmunds in 1620 bequeathed an annual sum of 6l. towards the maintenance of two poor persons; 304which number of twenty-one pensioners, with one added by the company, were put into this hospital; and soon after Sir John Leman, Sir John Gayer, Mr. Harper, Arthur Mouse and Mrs. Anne Bromsgrove, by their respective wills demised several sums to the amount of 28l. per annum.

Each of the twenty-two almspeople have two rooms, and an allowance of 3s. per week, 15s. at Christmas, a chaldron of coals and a gown yearly. And one of the pensioners, who reads prayers twice a day in the chapel has an additional allowance of 2l. per annum.

The more modern structure was, as we have already said, founded by Mr. James Hulbert, citizen and fishmonger, for the accommodation of twenty poor men and women; who besides two neat rooms to live in, have each an allowance of 3s. a week, one chaldron of coals, a gown every year, and 10s. at Christmas.

Fitche’s court, Noble street, Foster lane.†

Fitzer’s wharf, Shadwell.†

Five Bell alley, Little Moorfields.*

Five Bell court, Leadenhall street.*

Five Feet lane, 1. Barnaby street. 2. Broad street. 3. Thames street; so called 305because the west end was but five feet broad. Stow.

Five Fields, Chelsea.

Five Fields row, Chelsea.

Five Foot alley, 1. Old Gravel lane. 2. Petty France, Westminster.

Five Foot court, Old Fish street hill.

Five Inkhorn alley, Whitechapel.*

Five Inkhorn court, 1. Petticoat lane.* 2. Whitechapel.*

Five Pipe alley, Pickleherring street.*

Flampton court, Fore street.†

Fleece court, Rose and Crown court, Moorfields.*

Fleece yard, 1. Cornhill.* 2. Tothill street.*

Fleet Bridge, at the end of Fleet Ditch next the market. Since the filling up of Fleet Ditch, this can scarcely be termed a bridge; but as one of the walls of the bridge is still left, for the security of passengers, by preventing their falling into the ditch on that side, it still retains its ancient name.

Fleet Ditch, a part of the town ditch by which Turnmill brook, and the little river Fleet, fell into the Thames. In this ditch flood gates were erected in the year 1606; and after the fire of London, it was by order of the Mayor and court of Aldermen, cleansed, enlarged, and 306made navigable, for barges to come up by the benefit of the tides, as far as Holborn Bridge, where Turnmill brook fell into this channel. The sides were built of stone and brick, with warehouses on each side, which ran under the street, and were designed to be used for laying in of coals, and other commodities. It had five feet water at the lowest tide at Holborn Bridge: the wharfs on each side of the channel were thirty-five feet broad; and were rendered secure from danger in the night by rails of oak being placed along the sides of the ditch. Over this canal were four bridges of Portland stone, viz. at Bridewell, Fleet street, Fleet lane, and Holborn. The whole expence of sinking, clearing, wharfing, planking and piling, with that of paving, posting and railing, amounted in the whole to 27,777l. besides what was paid to the several proprietors, whose grounds were taken for the enlargement of the wharfs and keys, on either side of the channel. Camden. Stow.

In digging this canal between Fleet prison and Holborn Bridge, several Roman utensils were discovered at the depth of fifteen feet; and, a little deeper, a great quantity of Roman coins in silver, 307copper, brass, and all other metals except gold. Those of silver were ring-money of several sizes, the largest about the bigness of a crown, but gradually decreasing; the smallest were about the size of a silver two-pence, each having a snip in the edge: and at Holborn Bridge were dug up two brazen Lares, or Houshold gods, about four inches in length, which were almost incrusted with a petrific matter: one of these was Bacchus, and the other Ceres: but the coins lying at the bottom of the current, their lustre was in a great measure preserved by the water incessantly washing off the corroding salt.

Probably the great quantity of coin found in this ditch, was thrown in by the Roman inhabitants of this city, for its preservation, at the approach of Boadicea, at the head of her army; but all the Roman citizens, without distinction of age or sex, being barbarously massacred by the justly enraged Britons, it was not discovered till this time. Besides the above mentioned antiquities, several things of a more modern date were discovered, as arrow heads, scales, seals, with the proprietors names upon them in Saxon characters; spur-rowels of 308an hand’s breadth, keys and daggers coated over with a livid petrific rust; together with a considerable number of medals, with crosses, crucifixes, and Ave Maries engraven thereupon. Conyer’s MSS. in Sir Hans Sloane’s library in the Museum.

Fleet Ditch now extends no higher than Fleet Bridge, all above being arched, covered over, and converted into a market; and the building the fine bridge at Black Friars, will soon occasion all that is left of this ditch to be filled up.

Fleet lane, Old Bailey, extends to Fleet market.

Fleet Market, situated upon the canal called Fleet Ditch, was opened on the 30th of September 1737. Instead of stalls there are two rows of shops of a great length from north to south, with a handsome walk between, into which light is thrown by windows placed along the top; and in the center is a neat lanthorn with a clock; the whole of this part is paved with rag stones. On the south end, the fruiterers stands are made in the form of piazzas erected on each side, and these have proper conveniences to deposit their remaining stock.

Fleet Prison, is situated on the east side of Fleet market, and a little to the south 309of Fleet lane, and was originally so called from the river Fleet running by it. It is very large, and reckoned the best prison in the city for good rooms, and other conveniences. It has the benefit of an open yard, which is enclosed with a very high wall.

The keeper is called the Warden of the Fleet; and besides his fees from the prisoners for turning the key, for chamber rent, &c. which amount to a considerable sum, he has the rents of the shops in Westminster Hall.

This prison belongs to the court of Common Pleas, and hither persons are committed for contempt of orders, &c. in the high court of Chancery; or upon debt, when by a writ of Habeas Corpus they remove themselves thither from any other prison.

The rules or liberties of the Fleet, are all the north side of Ludgate hill, and the Old Bailey up to Fleet lane; down that lane into the market, and then turning the corner on the left, all the east side along by the Fleet prison to the bottom of Ludgate hill.

Fleet street, 1. From Fleet ditch to Temple Bar.☐ 2. Little George street, Spitalfields.

310Fleet Street court, 1. Fleet street.☐ 2. Little George street, Spitalfields.

Flemish court yard, Tower ditch.

Flemish grounds, Tooley street.

Flemish hop gardens, Bedfordbury.

Fletchers, or Arrowmakers, from the French word flèche, an arrow; though arrows have been near three centuries out of use in England, and though this is a company only by prescription and not by charter, they have nevertheless obtained a coat of arms and a livery; are become the thirty-ninth company in the city, and seem in all respects as firmly established, as those incorporated by letters patent.

This fraternity, which entirely consists of people of other trades, consists of two Wardens, ten Assistants, and twenty-five Liverymen, who, upon their admission, pay a fine of 10l. each. They have a small but convenient hall in St. Mary Ax.

Fletcher’s court, Bembridge street.†

Flower and Dean street, Spitalfields.††

Flower de Luce alley, 1. Black Friars.* 2. Wheeler street.*

Flower de Luce court, 1. Black Friars.* 2. Cow Cross.* 3. Fleet street.* 4. Gray’s Inn lane.* 5. Grub street.* 6. Houndsditch.* 311 7. Ludgate hill.* 8. St. Michael’s lane.* 9. Parish Garden lane.* 10. Tooley street.* 11. Turnmill street.*

Flower de Luce street, 1. Elder street.* 2. Wheeler street.*

Flower de Luce yard, 1. Gray’s Inn lane.* 2. Parish Garden lane.* 3. Tooley street.* 4. Turnmill street.*

Flying Horse court, 1. Fleet street.* 2. Grub street.* 3. Long alley.* 4. Maiden lane, Wood street.*

Flying Horse yard, 1. Bartholomew Close.* 2. Bishopsgate street. 3. Blackman street.* 4. Broad street.* 5. Dolphin alley.* 6. Fleet street.* 7. Half-moon alley, Moorfields.* 8. Houndsditch.* 9. Mare street, Hackney.

Fogwell court, Charterhouse lane.†

Fole alley, Swan alley, East Smithfield.*

Folly, near St. Saviour’s Dock.║

Folly lane, Neckinger lane, Rotherhith.║

Foot alley, King street, Spitalfields.║

Foots Cray Place.
S. Wale delin. B. Green sc. Oxon.

Foots Cray Place, in Kent, about twelve miles from London, is the seat of Bouchier Cleeve, Esq; and was built by himself, after a design of Palladio, of the Ionic order, and is very elegant. The original design had four porticoes, three of which are filled up to get more room. The hall is octagonal, and 312has a gallery round which conveys you to the bed chambers. It is enlightened from the top, and is very beautiful. The edifice is built of stone, but the offices, which are on each side at some distance, are brick. The house stands on a rising ground, with a gradual descent from it till you come to the water, which from the house appears to be a small river gliding along through the whole length of the ground: and in that part of the water which is opposite to the house, there is a fine cascade constantly flowing out of it. But this water which appears to be such a pretty natural stream, is in reality artificial, and is brought from the river Cray which runs just by. When the canal or cut which is made through the ground to receive the water from the river is full, it forms the cascade before the house, by flowing over in that place, and the surplus water being instantly buried in the ground, is again conveyed away under this cut or canal to the main stream. The chief beauty of the ground about the house consists in its simplicity, it being entirely without ornament, and the whole of it a kind of lawn, having little besides the plain turf. The situation is pleasant, and the prospect from the house very good. 313The disposition of the rooms within the house appear to be very convenient, and the several apartments are elegantly finished and suitably furnished. The Chinese bed and other furniture of this kind in the principal bed chamber, is perfectly beautiful. The gallery, which extends the whole length of the north front of the house, is a very grand room, and is filled with pictures by the most eminent masters; and there are several other good pieces of this kind in the dining room and parlour, of all which the following is an exact list.

Pictures at Foots Cray Place.
Common Parlour.

Seven sea pieces, Vandeveldt.

A small Dutch kitchen, Calf.

Landscape, Wynantz.

Mocking Christ, Bassano.

View of the Rialto, Marieschi.

View of St. Mark’s place and Bull feast at Venice, Canaletti and Chimeroli.

Moon light, Vandeneer.

Emblematical picture, Gulio Carpioni.

Landscape under it, by Glauber; figures by Laress.

Doge’s palace, Carlovarin.

A sea port and market in Holland, Wenix.

314Landscape by Glauber; figures by Laress. A smith’s shop, Old Wyke.

Oval landscape, Lambert.

Gallery West End.

Landscape morning, Claude Lorrain.

Ditto evening, ditto.

Venus and Cupid, Vandyke.

Landscape, Both.

North Front.

Adoration of the shepherds, Old Coloni.

Temple of the Muses, Romanelli.

Susanna and the Elders, Guercino.

Wolf and dogs, by Snyders; the landscape by Rubens.

Flower piece, Van Hysum.

Landscape, Wynantz.

Ditto, Swanevelt.

Flower piece, Van Hysum.

Abraham and Hagar, Rembrant.

Landscape, Paul Potter.

Jacob with his flocks, Rosa Tivoli.

Landscape, Gaspar Pousin.

Fruit piece, De Heem.

French King on horseback, by Vandermeulen.

Three horses mounted, Van Dyke.

East End.

Judgment of Paris, Giuseppe Chiari.

Landscape, Hobima.

Paradise, Tempesta.

315Landscape, by Paul Brill; figures Annibale Carracci.

South Side.

Lapithæ and Centaurs, L. Giordano.

Landscape, Wouwerman.

Country wake, Teniers.

Landscape, Wouwerman.

View of Venice, Canaletti.

Holy family, Rubens.

Madona, Carlo Dolci.

Christ blessing St. Francis, Annibale Carracci.

Dead Christ, ditto.

Smith’s forge, Brouwer.

Cat and boys, Old Meris.

Dead game and figures, Snyders and Rubens.

Heraclitus and Democritus, Rembrant.

Sea piece, Vandeveldt.

Boy and goat, Vanderborch.

A view of the Rhone, Teniers.

Cattle, Adrian Vandeveldt.

Circumcision, Paul Veronese.

View in Venice, Canaletti.

Venus and Adonis, Rubens.

A Dutch lover, Jan Stein.

A view near Harlem, Ruysdale.

Presentation of Christ, Rembrant.

Miraculous draught of fishes, Teniers.

John Steen playing on a violin, himself.

316Head, Hans Holbein.

Toilette, Metzu.

Drawing Room.

Temple of Delphos, Pietro de Cortona.

A retreat, Bourgognone.

Woman taken in adultery, Pordenoni.

Dead game, Fyt.

Field of battle, Bourgognone.

Diogenes, Salvator Rosa.

Landscape, Gaspar Pousin.

Dutchmen, Le Duck.

Boors drinking, Ostade.

Landscape, Gaspar Pousin.

Boys at cards, Morellio.

Faith, Hope, and Charity, by Lorhetto di Verona.

Inside of a church at Antwerp, by Denies; figures Old Franks.

Portrait, Rembrant.

Magdalen, Francisco Mola.

Democritus in the posture Hipocritus found him in near Abdera, by Salvator Rosa.

Admittance to see the house is by tickets from Mr. Cleeve, and the days are every Thursday during the summer season.

Fore Cloyster yard, Westminster Abbey.

Fore court, 1. Bridewell, Fleet ditch.§ 3172. Clement’s Inn.§ 3. Doctors Commons.§

Fore street, 1. Lambeth. 2. Limehouse. 3. Moorgate.

Foreign Apposer’s Office, in the Inner Temple, an office belonging to the Exchequer, where the Foreign Apposer apposes all Sheriffs, upon the schedules of the green wax. Chamberlain’s Present State.

Forister’s buildings, Golden lane.†

Forman’s alley, Old street.†

Forsan’s rents, 1. Marigold lane.† 2. Vinegar yard, Drury lane.†

Fort street, by Gun street, Spitalfields.

Fortune court, Duke’s place.

Foster’s lane, Cheapside; so called from St. Vedast’s or St. Foster’s church there. Maitland.

Foster’s buildings, 1. Whitechapel.† 2. Whitecross street, Cripplegate.†

Foster’s rents, 1. King John’s court.† 2. Liquorpond street.†

Foubert’s passage, Great Swallow street.†

Foul lane, in the Borough.║

Founders, a company incorporated by letters patent of King James I. in the year 1614. They consist of a Master, two Wardens, 24 Assistants, and 132 Liverymen, who upon their admission 318pay a fine of 8l. 7s. 6d. They have a convenient hall at the upper end of Founders court in Lothbury.

’Tis worthy of notice, that all makers of brass weights, within the city of London, and three miles round, are obliged to have their several weights sized by the company’s standard, and marked with their common mark; such of these as are Avoirdupois weights, are to be sealed at Guildhall, and those of Troy at Goldsmiths hall. The Founders company are also impowered by their charter to search for, and view all brass weights within the above district.

Founders court, 1. Fore street. 2. Lothbury; so called from having Founders hall in it.

Foundling Hospital, or more properly The Hospital for exposed and deserted Children, in Lamb’s Conduit fields. This is one of the most useful among the numerous charities that are an honour to this age and nation. In the reign of her late majesty Queen Anne, several eminent merchants, filled with compassion for the many innocent children who were daily exposed to misery and destruction, proposed to erect an hospital for the reception of such infants, as either 319the misfortunes or inhumanity of their parents should leave destitute of other support; and to employ them in such a manner as to render them fit for the most laborious offices, and the lowest stations. With these laudable views they proposed a subscription, and sollicited a charter; but they sollicited in vain, from the ill-grounded prejudices of weak people, who conceived the opinion that such an undertaking would encourage persons in vice, by making too easy a provision for their illegitimate children.

However, though this suspended, it did not totally defeat this laudable design; some of these worthy persons left large benefactions for the use of such an hospital as soon as it should be erected; which coming to the ears of the humane and generous Mr. Thomas Coram, a commander of a ship in the merchants service, he left the sea to sollicit a charter for the establishment of this charity, and with unwearied assiduity spent all the remainder of his life in promoting this great design; from no other motive than his zeal for the public, and his compassion for the helpless innocents who were frequently dropped 320in the streets, or murdered to conceal the shame of their parents.

Before he presented any petition to his Majesty, he was advised to procure a recommendation of his design from some persons of quality and distinction. This he sollicited with unwearied diligence, by which means he procured the following memorial to be signed by the Ladies whose names are under-written.

“Whereas among the many excellent designs and institutions of charity which this nation, and especially the city of London, has hitherto encouraged and established, no expedient has yet been found out for preventing the frequent murders of poor miserable infants at their birth; or for suppressing the inhuman custom of exposing new-born infants to perish in the streets; or the putting out such unhappy foundlings to wicked and barbarous nurses, who, undertaking to bring them up for a small and trifling sum of money, do often suffer them to starve for want of due sustenance or care; or, if permitted to live, either turn them into the streets to beg or steal, or hire them out to loose persons 321by whom they are trained up in that infamous way of living, and sometimes are blinded, or maimed and distorted in their limbs, in order to move pity and compassion, and thereby become fitter instruments of gain to those vile merciless wretches.

“For a beginning to redress so deplorable a grievance, and to prevent as well the effusion of so much innocent blood, as the fatal consequences of that idleness, beggary, or stealing, in which such poor foundlings are generally bred up; and to enable them, by an early and effectual care of their education, to become useful members of the commonwealth: We, whose names are underwritten, being deeply touched with compassion for the sufferings and lamentable condition of such poor abandoned helpless infants, as well as the enormous abuses and mischiefs to which they are exposed; and in order to supply the government plentifully with useful hands on many occasions; and for the better producing good and faithful servants from amongst the poor and miserable cast-off children, or foundlings, now a pest to the public, and a 322chargeable nuisance within the bills of mortality; and for settling a yearly income for their maintenance and proper education, till they come to a fit age for service; are desirous to encourage, and willing to contribute towards erecting an hospital for infants whom their parents are not able to maintain, and have no right to any parish; which we conceive will not only prevent many horrid murders, cruelties, and other mischiefs, and be greatly beneficial to the public; but will also be acceptable to God Almighty, as being the only remedy of such great evils, which have been so long neglected, though always complained of; provided due and proper care be taken for setting on foot so necessary an establishment, and a royal charter be granted by the King to such persons as his Majesty shall approve of, who shall be willing to become benefactors for the erecting and endowing such an hospital; and for the receiving the voluntary contributions of charitable and well-disposed persons; and for directing and managing the affairs thereof gratis, to the best advantage, under such regulations 323as his Majesty, in his great wisdom, shall judge most proper for attaining the desired effect of our good intentions.”

Charlotte Somerset.
S. Richmond.
H. Bolton.
Anne Bolton.
I. Leeds.
A. Bedford.
M. Cavendish Portland.
J. Manchester.
F. Hartford.
M. Harold.
S. Huntington.
F. Wa. & Nottingham.
E. Cardigan.
Dorothy Burlington.
F. Litchfield.
A. Albemarle.
F. Biron.
A. Trevor.
A. Torrington.
E. Onslow.
A. King.

Mr. Coram having, to the everlasting honour of the above Ladies, obtained so many names to this recommendation, procured another to the same purpose, signed by a great number of noblemen and gentlemen, and annexed both these to his petition to the King. Upon this his Majesty was graciously pleased to grant his royal charter for establishing this hospital, which was dated the 17th of October, 1739.

In pursuance of this patent, the Duke of Bedford, who was appointed the first President, summoned the several members 324of the society to meet him at Somerset House on the 20th of Nov. when most of the noblemen and gentlemen mentioned in the charter being assembled, Thomas Coram, Esq; thanked his Grace, and the rest of the noblemen and gentlemen, for their protection and assistance in promoting the patent. A committee of fifteen noblemen and gentlemen were chosen to manage the estate and effects of the hospital; and it was ordered, that accounts of several hospitals of this nature in other countries should be obtained as soon as possible; for which purpose application was made to his Majesty’s Ambassadors and Ministers abroad, and the Governors soon after received authentic accounts of the institutions and regulations of the hospitals of Amsterdam, Paris, and Lisbon, for the reception of infants; and have since also been favoured with that of Venice; and, tho’ these institutions were all accommodated to the laws and governments of their respective countries, and were therefore unfit or impracticable to be wholly executed in this kingdom, yet they afforded useful instructions towards forming a plan for the government of this hospital. Books were now opened, and the Governors 325obtained large subscriptions; the work went on with great spirit; an act of parliament was obtained to confirm and enlarge the powers granted by his Majesty to the Governors and Guardians of the hospital. A piece of ground was purchased in Lamb’s Conduit fields, of the Earl of Salisbury, which his Lordship not only sold at a very reasonable price, but promoted the charity by a noble benefaction.

As the building an hospital would necessarily take up much time, and the Governors were extremely desirous of beginning to take in children, they hired a large house in Hatton Garden, nurses were provided, and it was resolved that sixty children should be admitted. As the funds increased, more and more were received; and it was soon thought impracticable to provide a sufficient number of healthy wet nurses, therefore the children were intrusted to the care of dry nurses: but the ill consequences of this regulation soon appeared; much fewer dying in proportion to their number, among those that sucked, than among those that were weaned; and it was also found by experience, that of the young children sent into the country, 326fewer dyed in proportion to their numbers, than those who remained in the hospital. These observations determined the committee to come to a resolution to send all the children that should be taken in, as soon as possible into the country, and to allow them to remain there till three years old; and that all such as would suck, should have wet nurses only. Some time after the children were ordered to be inoculated, which was attended with great success.

In 1745, one wing of the hospital being finished, the committee ordered the children to be removed thither, and quitted the house in Hatton Garden. A chapel being now much wanted, and several Ladies of quality being desirous of contributing to it, a subscription was opened for that purpose, the first stone was laid on the first of May 1747, and a neat and elegant edifice was soon erected.

South East View of the Foundling Hospital.

Front of the Same.
S. Wale delin. J. Green sc. Oxon.

On the 29th of March 1749, the Governors at a general court being informed of the increase of benefactions to this charity, of the number of the children, and the expediency of keeping the boys separate from the girls, gave directions for building the other wing of the hospital, and the whole design has been since compleated. These wings 327are directly opposite to each other, and are built in a plain but regular, substantial, and convenient manner, of brick, with handsome piazzas. It is well suited to the purpose, and as fine as hospitals should be. On the farthest end is placed the chapel, which is joined to the wings by an arch on each side, and is very elegant within. Before the hospital is a large piece of ground, on each side whereof is a colonade of great length, which also extends towards the gates, that are double, with a massy pier between, so that coaches may pass and repass at the same time; and on each side is a door to admit those on foot. The large area between this outer gate and the hospital is adorned with grass plats, gravel walks, and lamps erected upon handsome posts: besides which there are two handsome gardens. The print shews the hospital in two different views.

In erecting these buildings particular care was taken to render them neat and substantial, without any costly decorations; but the first wing of the hospital was scarcely inhabited, when several eminent masters in painting, carving, and other of the polite arts, were pleased to contribute many elegant ornaments, 328which are placed in the hospital as monuments of the charity and abilities of these great masters.

In the court room are placed four capital pictures, taken from sacred history, the subjects of which are suitable to the place for which they were designed.

The first, which is painted by Mr. Hayman, is taken from Exodus ii. 8, 9. “The maid went and called the child’s mother, and Pharaoh’s daughter said unto her, Take this child away and nurse it for me, and I will give you wages.”

The following verse is the subject of the next picture, done by Mr. Hogarth, viz. “And the child grew up, and she brought him to Pharaoh’s daughter, and he became her son, and she called his name Moses.”

The third picture is the history of Ishmael, painted by Mr. Highmore, the subject of which is taken from Gen. xxi. 17. “And the angel of the Lord called to Hagar out of heaven, and said to her, What aileth thee, Hagar? Fear not, for God hath heard the voice of the lad where he is.”

The fourth picture is painted by Mr. Wills, and is taken from Luke xviii. 16. 329“Jesus said, Suffer little children to come unto me, and forbid them not, for of such is the kingdom of heaven.”

On each side of these pictures are placed small drawings in circular frames of the most considerable hospitals in and about London, done by Mr. Haytley, Mr. Wilson, Mr. Whale, and Mr. Gainsborough.

Over the chimney is placed a very curious bas relief, done by Mr. Rysbrack, and presented by him, representing children employed in husbandry and navigation; to which employments those in the hospital are destined.

The other ornaments of the room were given by several ingenious workmen, who had been employed in building the hospital, and were willing to contribute to adorn it. The stucco work was given by Mr. William Wilton; the marble chimney piece, by Mr. Deval; the table with its frame curiously carved, by Mr. John Saunderson; and the glass by Mr. Hallet.

In the other rooms of the hospital are the pictures of several of the governors and benefactors, viz. Mr. Thomas Coram, by Mr. Hogarth; Mr. 330Milner and Mr. Jacobson, by Mr. Hudson; Dr. Mead, by Mr. Ramsey; and Mr. Emerson, by Mr. Highmore. In the dining room is a large and beautiful sea piece of the English fleet in the Downs by Mr. Monamy; and over the chimney in another room is Mr. Hogarth’s original painting of the march to Finchley.

In the chapel the altar piece is finely painted by a fine Italian painter, representing the wisemen making their offerings to the infant Jesus, who is held in his mother’s arms. And here we ought not to forget the fine organ presented by Mr. Handel, who has even made this of great benefit to the hospital, and from the most benevolent views, has enriched the foundation by a new revenue raised from the powers of harmony, and has had a sacred oratorio performed several times in the year, to crowded audiences, in which he himself played upon the organ gratis.

Several very handsome shields done in lead, were given by Mr. Ives, and placed over the charity boxes, with proper inscriptions; and other artists have contributed their labours to the ornamenting of the hospital and chapel; for which they received the thanks of 331the corporation: and an inscription is put up, to inform the public, that these ornaments were the benefactions of the several artists whose names are wrote thereon; it being a fixed resolution of the Governors, that no part of the money given to this hospital be expended in any thing that is not proper to answer the good intentions of the benefactors.

After mentioning the above benefactions, it ought not to be omitted, that the Earl Marshal of England has been pleased to honour the corporation with the grant of a coat of arms; the kings at arms, and officers of the Heralds office, being so charitable as to remit all the fees due to them on that occasion: and that Dr. Cadogan, a Physician of Bristol, has been at the pains of writing an excellent pamphlet for the use of the hospital, containing instructions for the nursing and management of children from their birth to three years of age, which is published for the benefit of the hospital.

In the infancy of this hospital, those children not exceeding two months old, who were brought first were received, till the number the Governors had agreed 332to admit was completed; but this only continued for a short time, the number that came for admittance occasioned great disturbance among the persons who brought them, every one striving to deliver her child first, for fear of being excluded by delivering it too late. This necessarily occasioned a new regulation.

The persons who brought children, were conduced into a large room; and those who brought boys were seated on benches at one end, and those who brought girls, at the other. When the hour of admittance was expired, a bell was rung and the doors shut. Two of the Governors then counted how many had boys, and how many girls; after which they put into one bag as many white balls as there were boys, and into another bag as many white balls as there were girls to be admitted; and to every twenty white balls they added four red ones, and so in proportion for any greater or lesser number; after which they added so many black balls, as together with the white and red ones made the number of the balls in each bag equal to the number of persons who brought boys or girls.

333The balls being mixed together, one of the Governors held the bag, and calling the persons one by one from their seats, each held up her hand open in view of the Governors, and then putting it into the bag drew out a ball; and if it was a black one, she was immediately led with her child out of the hospital; while the persons who drew white and red balls, were ordered into separate rooms to prevent their changing them.

When all the balls were drawn, and the persons who had drawn black balls were discharged, those who had drawn white ones were brought in again, and seated as before. Then one who had a white ball was taken into a room, and left alone, while her child was undressed and examined in the presence of the matron, and if the Physician, Surgeon, or Apothecary attending, had any reason to believe that it had any infectious disease, or if it appeared to be above the age of two months, it was dressed again in its own cloaths, returned to the person who brought it, and taken immediately out of the hospital; but if there were no such objections, it was received, and the person who brought it dismissed.

334Every child thus received, had a different letter of the alphabet tied to its wrist; and both the clerk and steward marked a billet with the letter fixed to the wrist of the child, and in this paper wrote its sex and supposed age; the day and year when inspected; the marks, if any, on its body; the particulars of its dress; and if any writing or remarkable thing was brought with it, it was mentioned in the billet, and then sealed up, marked with the letter of the child on the outside. A female servant then took the child, with the cloathing of the hospital, into the ward appointed for the taking in of children, and there delivered it to the country nurse, who had the same letter of the alphabet with that of the child.

In this manner they proceeded with respect to all who had drawn white balls, and then if any had been rejected, they took as many white balls as there were children so dismissed, put them into a bag, and added as many black balls to them, as together with the white, made up the number of persons who had drawn red balls. These were drawn in the same manner as the first; but the persons who now drew the black, might, if 335they desired it, stay in the house till they saw whether all the children of those who in the second drawing had got white balls, were received or rejected, till the whole number of the children appointed to be taken in were received.

This method of drawing balls, was doubtless as unexceptionable as any other that could possibly have been invented, since it left not the least room for partiality in the choice: yet all who wished well to this excellent charity, could not avoid being concerned for those who were disappointed in the hopes of gaining admission for a child, whom they had perhaps brought many miles out of the country for that purpose, and at an expence, which they were perhaps but little able to support. This is, however, now remedied, and the parliament has granted very considerable sums, on condition of all the children being taken in that are brought of the proper age, and free from infectious diseases.

The children who are sent into the country, are under the inspection of some person of character in the neighbourhood, and are cloathed and fed according to the directions given in Dr. Cadogan’s 336Essay upon nursing, during the three years they remain there.

Such children as have not had the small pox, are inoculated at three years of age, in a proper place out of the hospital.

From three years old to six, they are taught to read, and to learn the catechism; and at proper intervals employed in such a manner as may contribute to their health, and induce a habit of activity, hardiness and labour; and from that time, their work is to be such bodily labour as is most suitable to their age and strength, and is most likely to fit them for agriculture, or the sea service; such as digging, hoeing, ploughing, hedging, cleaving wood, and carrying burdens; many of them are employed in the gardens belonging to the hospital, where by their labour they supply the house with vegetables, and being instructed in gardening, are kept in readiness for such persons as may be inclined to take them into their service.

From six years of age, the girls are employed in common needle-work, knitting and spinning, and in the kitchen, laundry, and household work, in order to make them useful servants for such 337proper persons as may apply for them, except so many as may be necessary to be employed in the hospital; it being intended to have no other female servants in the house, but persons brought up in it when they are of proper age.

The diet of the children is plain and good of the sort; their ordinary drink is water; tea, coffee, tobacco, butter, and strong drink, are never permitted to be used by any children in the hospital. Their diversions are ordered to be such as are innocent, and require activity; and all games of chance, swearing, indecent language or behaviour, are strictly prohibited. They are constantly to attend divine service in the chapel on Sundays; and the officers of the hospital are often to remind them of the lowness of their condition, that they may early imbibe the principles of humility and gratitude to their benefactors; and learn contentedly to undergo the most servile and laborious offices; for it is considered, that notwithstanding the innocence of the children, yet, as they are exposed and abandoned by their parents, they ought to submit to the lowest stations, and should not be educated in such a manner, as to put them upon a level with the 338children of parents who have the humanity and virtue to preserve, and the industry to support them.

When any person shall claim a child, they are to leave a petition with the Secretary, directed to the Governors: this, the Secretary is to deliver to the general committee, who are to transmit it to the house committee, and to give orders, that the person petitioning attend them at a day appointed; when the house committee shall enquire, what right they have to the child; what are their circumstances; whether they are able and willing to provide for the child; what security they can give for that purpose, and what satisfaction they can make to the hospital for the expence to which it has been put, by the maintenance of the child; which committee shall report the same to the next general committee, with their opinion thereupon. If the proposal made by the parent, and the report, is satisfactory to the general committee, they are then, and not before, to order the billets to be opened, and the register searched; and if they find the child is living, may make an order to deliver such child to its parent or relation, which order is not to be delivered 339till they have complied with the terms required by the committee. Every person to whom a child is so delivered, is to provide cloathing for that child, in which it is to be dressed, and the cloathing of the hospital to be left with the steward.

When any are discharged on having attained the age appointed for that purpose, by act of parliament, that is, twenty-four for the males, or twenty-one for the females; or when any of the girls shall be married, with the consent of the committee; the general committee may, at their discretion, give them cloaths, money, or necessaries, not exceeding the value of 10l. but as it is hoped, that the males and females will be able at those years to get an honest livelihood by their industry, this charity is to be cautiously and seldom practised, except on the marriage of the girls.

Fountain alley, 1. Maiden lane, Southwark.* 2. Silver street, Bloomsbury market.*

Fountain court, 1. Aldermanbury.* 2. Bread street, Cheapside.* 3. Chandos street.* 4. Cheapside. 5. Lothbury.* 6. St. Martin’s lane, Charing Cross.* 7. 340Middle Temple.* 8. In the Minories.* 9. Shoe lane.* 10. In the Strand.*

Fountain stairs, Rotherhith.*

Four Crown court, Rosemary lane.*

Four Dove court, 1. St. Martin’s le Grand.* 2. Noble street, Foster lane.*

Four Swan yard, Mile end green.*

Fox court, 1. Fox lane, Wapping.* 2. Gray’s Inn lane.* 3. St. James’s street.* 4. Newgate street.* 5. Queen square.* 6. Snow hill.*

Fox and Crown court, Barbican.*

Fox and Goose alley, Peter’s lane.*

Fox and Goose yard, London wall.*

Fox and Hounds yard, Bishopsgate street.*

Fox and Knot court, Cow lane, West Smithfield.*

Fox lane, Upper Shadwell.*

Fox Ordinary court, a handsome well-built court in St. Nicholas lane, Lombard street; so called from a public eating house formerly there. Stow.

Fox yard, Duke street, Great Russel street.*

Fogwell court, Charterhouse lane.†

Framework-knitters, or Stocking-weavers, are a society incorporated by letters patent granted by Charles II. in the year 1663, by the extraordinary title 341of The Master, Wardens, Assistants and Society of the art and mystery of Framework-knitters in the cities of London and Westminster, the kingdom of England and dominion of Wales.

This company consists of a Master, two Wardens, eighteen Assistants, and fifty-eight Liverymen, whose fine for the livery is 10l. They have a small hall in Redcross street.

Francis’s court, Bartlet’s street.†

Francis street, Golden square.†

Francis yard, Brook street.†

Franklin’s row, Chelsea.†

Franshaw’s court, Leadenhall street.†

Freedom of the city of London, a space of ground without the gates, and within the liberty of the city, bounded by an irregular line, which separates the freedom from the county of Middlesex. This line begins at Temple Bar, which is the only gate fixed at the extremity of the city liberties, and extending by many turnings and windings, through part of Shear lane, Bell yard, Chancery lane, by the Rolls liberty, &c. extends into Holborn, almost opposite to Gray’s Inn, where there are bars to shew its utmost limits on that side.

From Holborn Bars it passes with 342many turnings, by Brook street, Furnival’s Inn, Leather lane, Hatton Garden, Ely House, Field lane and Chick lane, to the common sewer, where it returns westward to Cow Cross, and so to Smithfield Bars.

From Smithfield Bars it runs with several windings between Long lane and Charter house lane to Goswell street, and up that street northward to the bars.

From Goswell street Bars, where the manor of Finsbury begins, it winds across Golden lane at the posts and chain set up there, to the posts and chain in Whitecross street, and from thence to the posts and chain in Grub street; and then thro’ Ropemakers alley to the posts and chain in the highway from Moorgate; and from thence by the north side of the four quarters of Moorfields, all abutting upon Finsbury manor, where it returns northward up to the bars in Bishopsgate street; and from thence eastward into Spitalfields, abutting upon Norton Falgate.

From Norton Falgate it returns southward by Spitalfields, and then southeast by Wentworth street to Whitechapel Bars.

From Whitechapel Bars it winds more 343southerly, leaving out the Little Minories and Goodman’s fields, from which it returns westward to the posts and chain in the Minories, and thence more westerly till it comes to London Wall, where it abuts upon the Tower liberty, and there ends.

Though this line in its several turnings is of great length, yet the ground between it and the wall is but narrow, so that the extent in acres is not answerable to its circumambulation. It is in length 21,370 feet, which is about four miles, and yet the ground comprehended between the line of the city wall, and this line of separation, is but 300 acres. Stow.

Freeman’s court, Cornhill.†

Freeman’s lane, Horselydown.†

Freeman’s yard, Cornhill.†

Free School-house street, Horselydown.☐

Freestone alley, Eagle court, St. John’s lane.

Freestone court, Artillery lane.

French alley, 1. Goswell street. 2. Quaker street, Spitalfields.

French Almshouse, in Black Eagle street, Spitalfields, contains convenient apartments for forty-five poor men and women, who are every week allowed 3442s. 3d. a bushel of coals each, and apparel every other year.

This house belongs to the French church in Threadneedle street, near the Royal Exchange, and to that in Black Eagle street. The society by which it is supported, Mr. Maitland observes, appears to be the most charitable and generous, from an inscription round a large pewter dish in the possession of Mr. Henry Guinand, an eminent French merchant in Little St. Helen’s, (when deacon of the church) who collected the under-mentioned sum in gold, bank notes, &c. The inscription is as follows: La collecte qui s’est faite a l’eglise Françoise de Londres, & à celle de l’hopital dans Black Eagle street, pour les pouvre de la dite eglise, le 10 Mars, 1727–28. a produit £1248 7 6. That is: The collection made in the French church of London, and that of the hospital in Black Eagle street, for the poor of the said churches, amounted to 1248l. 7s. 6d.

French Hospital, contiguous to the Pesthouse on the south side of St. Luke’s parish, was erected in the year 1717, and the Governors by letters patent of the 4th of King George I. in 1718, were constituted a body politic and corporate, 345by the name of The Governor and Directors of the hospital for the poor French Protestants, and their defendants, residing in Great Britain.

This hospital at present contains 220 poor helpless men and women, 146 of whom are upon the foundation, and are plentifully supplied with all the necessaries of life, at the expence of the hospital; but the other seventy-four are paid for by their friends, at the rate of 9l. a year each. This charity also extends to lunatics, for whose accommodation a large infirmary is provided.

To this foundation belong a Chaplain, Physician, Surgeon, and other proper officers, who carefully attend the pensioners, and administer to their several necessities. Stow, last edit.

French House of Charity, in Spitalfields, commonly called the Soup, was erected about sixty years ago, for the relief of necessitous families, whose number in the year 1733 amounted to two hundred and ninety-six. This house, which is supported by the charitable benefactions and contributions of well-disposed persons, is under the direction of a certain number of Governors and Governesses, who at first supplied the poor 346under their care with money; but many of them, without the least regard to their distressed families, wickedly disposing of the money in spirituous liquors, tobacco, &c. the managers agreed for the future to allow these poor families provisions instead of money, according to their several necessities; some therefore are allowed two portions a week, others three or four, and the most necessitous, six: each portion consisting of a pan of good soup, mixed with six ounces of bread, half a pound of meat, and the same weight of dry bread. The expence of this charity amounts to 500l. per annum. Maitland.

French Episcopal Church, in Threadneedle street, near the Royal Exchange. In this place was formerly a synagogue built by the Jews about the year 1231, but in the reign of King Henry III. the Christians obtained it of that Prince, who granted it to the brotherhood of St. Anthony of Vienna, and it was dedicated to the Blessed Virgin. Afterwards an hospital was added, called St. Anthony’s of London, with a large free-school; and this hospital which was allowed by Edward IV. to have priests, clerks, scholars, poor men and brethren, with 347choristers, proctors, messengers, servitors, &c. like the convent of St. Anthony of Vienna, was about the year 1485, appropriated to the collegiate church of St. George at Windsor. This school in the reign of Henry VI. was one of the most celebrated in England, and the scholars used at a certain time in the year to go in procession; particularly on the 15th of September 1562, there set out from Mile end two hundred children of St. Anthony’s school, who marched through Aldgate down Cornhill, to the Augustine Friars, with flags and streamers flying, and drums beating. But at length Johnson, one of the schoolmasters, becoming a Prebendary of Windsor, ruined the hospital; spoilt the choir of the church; conveyed away the plate and ornaments; then the bells; and lastly turned the almsmen out of their houses, allowing only 12d. a week to each. These houses were afterwards let out for the sake of the rent, and the church at length became a place of worship for the use of the French, who hold it of the church of Windsor.

This church being destroyed by the fire of London, was rebuilt, and is still 348possessed by the French and Walloons, who here perform divine service, after the manner of the church of England, in the French tongue; but though it is a pretty large and commodious edifice, it is not sufficient to accommodate all the communicants; they therefore make an exchange with the Dutch church in Austin Friars every first Sunday in the month, where the Lord’s supper is constantly administered in French, the Dutch preaching on that day in the French church in Threadneedle street.

French Episcopal Church, on the east side of St. Martin’s lane. Here originally stood the parish church of St. Martin’s Ongar; that edifice was almost destroyed by the fire of London, but part of the steeple of the old church remains; this has a dial which hangs over into the street, and the parish is united to St. Clement’s East Cheap. However, as part of the tower and nave remained, and was found capable of repairs, after the above dreadful conflagration, a body of the French protestants of the church of England, obtained a lease of them of the Minister and Churchwardens, which was confirmed by an act of parliament; 349and a church was erected for their use, in which divine service is still performed after the manner of the church of England. Maitland.

French court, 1. Artillery lane, Spitalfields. 2. Cock lane. 3. Harrow alley. 4. Little Broad street. 5. Pig street. 6. Wentworth street.

French Ordinary court, Crutched Friars.

French yard, 1. Artichoke lane. 2. Spital square.

French wharf, Millbank.†

Fresh wharf, Thames street.

Friday street, Cheapside.

Frier’s alley, Wood street, Cheapside.†

Frier’s court, 1. Old street.† 2. Red Mead lane, near the Hermitage.†

Frier’s lane, Thames street.†

Frier’s rents, 1. Blackman’s street.† 2. Fishmongers alley.†

Frier’s street, Black Friars.†

Friery, in Pall Mall.

Frith street, by Soho.

Frogget’s court, Thieving lane.†

Frog island, Nightingale lane, Limehouse.

Frog lane, Islington.*

Frogmore, near Windsor, the seat of the late Duchess Dowager of Northumberland, 350lately purchased by the Hon. Edward Walpole, Esq.

Fruiterers, a company incorporated by letters patent granted by King James I. in the year 1605. They are governed by a Master, two Wardens, and thirty Assistants, and have a livery of sixty-three members, whose fine on their admission is 5l. They have no hall, and therefore usually meet in that of the parish clerks.

Frying Pan alley, 1. Berwick street.* 2. In the Borough.* 3. Brown’s gardens.* 4. Deadman’s Place.* 5, Fore street, Lambeth.* 6. Golden lane.* 7. Great Swan alley.* 8. St. John street, West Smithfield.* 9. Kent street, Southwark. 10. Maze, Southwark.* 11. Oxford street.* 12. Petticoat lane.* 13. Redcross street, Cripplegate.* 14. Tothill street.* 15. Turnmill street.* 16. Wheeler street.* 17. Wood street, Cheapside.*

Frying Pan stairs, Wapping Dock.*

Frying Pan yard, Back street, Lambeth.*

Fry’s alley, Spring street.†

Fry’s court, Tower hill.†

Fulham, a village four miles from London, on the side of the Thames, over 351which it has a wooden bridge to Putney; for the passing of it not only horses, coaches, and all other carriages, but also foot passengers pay toll.

Fuller’s Almshouse, at Mile end, was founded in the year 1592, pursuant to the will of Judge Fuller, for twelve ancient poor men of Stepney parish, for whose relief he endowed it with lands in Lincolnshire to the value of 50l. per annum.

In the same year was also founded, in conformity to the will of the same judge, an almshouse in Old street, Hoxton, for twelve poor women, each of whom has an allowance of 4l. a year, and three bushels of coals. Maitland.

Fuller’s court, East Smithfield.†

Fuller’s rents, near Golden lane, High Holborn.†

Fuller’s street, Hare street, Shoreditch.

Fuller’s school. See Ironmonger Row School.

Fumbler’s yard, Priests alley, Tower street.║

Fulwood’s rents, High Holborn.

Furnival’s Inn, on the north side of Holborn, almost opposite Staples Inn, is one the Inns of Chancery. It took 352its name, according to Mr. Stow, from its formerly belonging to Sir William Furnival, Knt. It is a handsome old building of great extent. The entrance is in the middle by a large gate, which leads into a spacious court, behind which is a pleasant garden.

Furnival’s Inn court, Holborn.☐

Furriers alley, Shoe lane.

End of the Second Volume.