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Title: Ferns of Hawaii National Park

Author: Douglass H. Hubbard

Release date: July 13, 2019 [eBook #59913]

Language: English

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Ferns of Hawaii National Park

Amaumau ferns in the Kilauea Section, Hawaii National Park


To Mr. Eugene Horner, Member of the Board of Directors of the Hawaii Natural History Association, whose interest in Hawaiian ferns has extended over more than a half a century, and whose enthusiasm and willing assistance in collecting and identifying ferns has been of invaluable help, this booklet is dedicated.




VOL. V JUNE 1952 NO. 1

Ferns of Hawaii National Park

Park Naturalist[1]



[1]Mr. Hubbard is now Associate Park Naturalist at Yosemite National Park

G. O. Fagerlund
Stately tree ferns border a road in Hawaii National Park



Ferns are among the most interesting plants in the plant world. Varieties in Hawaii range from dainty filmy ferns less than one inch in length to stately tree ferns over 40 feet high, and inhabit areas varying from dry, barren lava flows to impenetrable rain jungles.

More primitive than flowering plants, ferns reproduce by means of small, dust-like bodies called spores. These spores are often carried in the air, and are so lightweight that they can be blown for thousands of miles by winds. The ferns of Hawaii, or their ancestors, apparently reached these islands with the help of winds, except for those introduced recently by man.


Hawaii National Park belongs to the American people. When it was set aside by Congress in 1916 the three volcanoes, Haleakala, Mauna Loa, and Kilauea were of principal interest. It has become increasingly apparent that the beautiful forests of native trees, the birds which depend upon Hawaiian plants for survival, and the magnificent fern jungles are of equal importance and more in need of protection. Outside of the park, trees such as the koa (Hawaiian mahogany) and the ohia are being cut for lumber, and tree ferns, upon whose trunks orchids are grown, are rapidly being taken for this expanding industry. The National Park Service has been given the responsibility of keeping its areas in as nearly an original condition as possible—a little bit of America, unspoiled. Hawaii National Park—your park—is among the most outstanding of these. Please help us keep it this way.


This booklet is not intended to be a comprehensive treatment of all the ferns—some 70 species—which have been found to date in Hawaii National Park. Rather it is an illustrated guide to the more abundant species which may be seen by the visitor without wandering far from the beaten path. Abundance has been used as the basis for arrangement, instead of scientific classification, and illustrations take the place of technical descriptions. The more serious observers are referred to the selected bibliography near the end of this publication.

Some disagreement exists today among botanists as to the proper scientific names for certain Hawaiian plant species, and many ferns have been undergoing reclassification. For this reason all of the scientific names that could be found for the various ferns in this booklet have been listed on pages 37, 38 and 39.

A brief code has been included to indicate the type of habitat in which the ferns normally may be found: D=dry, M=moist, D&M=dry and moist. Numbers in bold-face type are used for that particular fern throughout the publication. The page numbers refer to the location of the text and the scientific name for that species.

One inch squares are used for background scale in many of the illustrations.

All photographs are by the author unless otherwise credited.



The five species of Hawaiian tree ferns recognized by botanists will appear quite similar to most visitors. The illustrations below show several of the differences. Most common of the tree ferns are the two species called HAPUU (10, 11) which do not have the coarse bristles of the HAPU III (9) which sometimes grow to a height of 35 feet, including the fronds. The fourth species, the MEU (12), is not common, and is found only on the island of Hawaii. A fifth species is frequent in the highlands of Kauai.

The reproductive bodies of the tree ferns are borne in small, bead-like capsules on the margins of the leaf segments (see illustration below). These capsules, which open by means of small lids, may be responsible for the generic name of the ferns, Cibotium, from a Greek word meaning a small vessel.

The buds of these ferns are covered with the silky PULU, discussed below. According to Hillebrand (5, p. 546) ferns of the genus Cibotium range over Mexico and Central America, the Philippine Islands, Sumatra, South China and India. It is an interesting speculation as to which of these places provided the spores which gave the Hawaiian tree ferns their beginning.

Much of what appears to be the trunk on these and many other ferns is in reality a useful mass of aerial roots which absorb moisture and protect the tree trunk from damage. These roots also offer a fertile place for seeds of many other plants to take root and grow. So common is it to find ohia trees growing on tree fern trunks that the ferns are often called mother of ohia. Unappreciative of the support given them in their early growth the trees often send roots to earth which become so large that the fern finally is killed. Much starch is present in the trunks of tree ferns. This was resorted to by the Hawaiians for food in time of famine. Young fronds of the tree ferns are used in preparing several exotic dishes today, and many Park ferns have suffered severely by having the new growth removed for this purpose.

Multi-branched fronds characterize tree-ferns


Frond segments, segment closeups, and frond stalk sections of MEU (12) (left), HAPU III (9) (center), and HAPUU (11) tree ferns.



The young fronds of certain ferns, especially tree ferns, are covered with a bronze-colored silky floss called “pulu.” Used by the ancient Hawaiians as an absorbent, for surgical dressings, and even in embalming their dead, pulu became an item of export importance to the mainland from the 1860’s to 1884. During this period some 4,271,119 pounds were shipped, according to Degener (2). It was used primarily for stuffing mattresses, pillows, and upholstery. Carl P. Russell in his One-Hundred Years in Yosemite (1947, p. 102) quotes Caroline M. Churchill, a visitor to Leidig’s, a Yosemite hostelry established in 1869: “At this place the beds are cleanly and wholesome, although consisting of pulu mattresses placed upon slat bedsteads.”

The remains of the old pulu factory may be seen today in Kilauea section about 1.8 miles below Makaopuhi Crater on the trail to Napau Crater. Here the pulu was dried and baled before being taken seaward over the pali to Keauhou Landing for loading onto mainland-bound vessels.

Although a high percentage of pulu was gathered from Kilauea ferns, the industry fortunately terminated about 1885, and no more ferns were cut for the small amount of pulu obtained from each. The hike to the pulu factory is not strenuous, and is one of the most interesting in Hawaii National Park.




The most abundant ferns growing beneath the larger tree ferns are AMAUMAU (40) and the AMAU (41). Found frequently in both the Kilauea and Haleakala sections of the Park, the amaumau is usually larger than the less common amau and the fronds are not as hairy. The easiest method of identification, however, is by comparing the undersides of the frond segments (see illustration). The amaumau is smooth while the amau is prominently veined. Usually smaller than the true tree ferns, and known only from the Hawaiian Islands, ferns of this genus may reach heights as great as 12 feet. A comparison of the photographs of these ferns with the tree ferns will show that the entire frond of the AMAU or AMAUMAU resembles a single segment of the many-branched frond of the tree fern.

The AMAUMAU fern has a high resistance to heat and drought, and may often be seen growing on the Kau Desert near Kilauea crater. It is one of the first plants to take root on new lava flows, in company with the ohia tree. The illustration below shows a specimen growing on the 1877 lava which forms the floor of Keanakokoi crater.

Fowler (4, p. 16) states that the Hawaiians prepared a red dye used on KAPA cloth from the outer part of the trunk of the amaumau. Leaves of the amau provided a lining and thatching for houses, and the young leaves and pith of the stems were occasionally cooked for food.

{Amaumau growing on lava.}

{Underside of frond segments of AMAUMAU and AMAU.}


In the rain forest near the old Pulu Factory. At least six different kind of ferns may be seen in this photograph.

Wawaeiole or Clubmoss. D&M, (58-61) (pages 36 and 39)


Uluhe or False Staghorn. D&M, (4) (pages 32 and 37)

Palaa. D, (14) (pages 32 and 37)


Pamoho. M, (48) (pages 35 and 38)

Pamoho at the mouth of the Thurston Lava Tube


Palapalai o kaumaapua. M, (34) (pages 34 and 38)

Loulu. M, (19) (pages 33 and 37)


Laukahi or Cliffbrake. D, (20) (pages 33 and 37)

Lance fern or DORYOPTERIS. D, (21) (pages 33 and 37)


Owalii or Maidenhair Spleenwort. D, (47) (pages 35 and 38)

Kilau or Bracken. D, (15) (pages 33 and 37)


Pipi. D, (63) (pages 36 and 39)

Moa. M, (62) (pages 36 and 39)


Werner Stoy
Dry-land ferns and grasses form the ground cover at this overlook above the Koolau Gap, with Hanakauhi, “Maker of the Mist”, in the distance. Haleakala Section, Hawaii National Park.


Nianiau or Sword Ferns. From the left, Narrow Swordfern (25), Scaly Swordfern (26), and Common Swordfern (24).


Adder’s Tongue. (Pages 32 and 37)
Ophioglossum pendulum (3)

Ophioglossum petiolatum (1) left
Ophioglossum nudicaule (2)


Common epiphytes, or air plants

1. Kihi. M, (54) (pages 36 and 38)
2. Pai. M, (55) (pages 36 and 38)
3. Ekaha akolea. M, (51) (pages 36 and 38)
4. Grammitis hookeri. M, (52) (pages 36 and 38)
5. Amphoradenium sarmentosum. M, (56) (pages 36 and 38)
6. Wahini noho mauna. M, (57) (pages 36 and 38)
7. Palailaulii. M, (5) (pages 32 and 37)
8. Palaihinahina. M, (6) (pages 32 and 37)
9. Ohiaku. M, (7) (pages 32 and 37)
10. Kilau. M, (8) (pages 32 and 37)
{Epiphytes, #7-9}
{Epiphyte, #10}

Amaumau ferns form beautiful patterns as they send out new fronds. Kilauea Section, Hawaii National Park.


Ekaha or Birdnest Fern. M, (42) (pages 35 and 38). The dark areas on undersurfaces are spores.

Cyclosorus sandwicensis. M, (36) (pages 35 and 38)


The Elephant-Tongue ferns: From the left, Elaphoglossum reticulatum, small form (31), E. aemulum (28), E. gorgoneum (29), E. reticulatum, large form (28), and E. hirtum (30) (pages 34 and 38). All are called “EKAHA.” The dark surfaces are spores.

Palapalai. D&M, (13) (pages 32 and 37)


Iwaiwa. D, (49) (pages 35 and 38)

Asplenium contiguum. M, (43) (pages 35 and 38)


Asplenium Macraei. M, (46) (pages 35 and 38). Iwaiwa o kane. D, (44) (pages 35 and 38)

Piipiilau manamana. M, (45) (pages 35 and 38)


Owalii or Cretan Brake. D&M, (16) (pages 33 and 37)

Waimakanui. D, (17) (pages 33 and 37)


Kaapeape. D, (27) (pages 34 and 37)

Laukahi. D, (32) (pages 34 and 38)


Above and below: Ae or pellucid polypody. D&M, (50) (pages 36 and 38)


Kolokolo. M, (53) (pages 36 and 38)


Iwaiwa or Maidenhair. M, (23) (pages 34 and 37)

Akolea. M, (38) (pages 35 and 38)


Hoio. M, (39) (pages 35 and 38)

Kikaweo. M, (35) (page 38)


Cyclosorus dentatus. M, (37) (pages 35 and 38)

Silver Fern. D, (22) (pages 33 and 37)



Sharp-eyed observers may find in cracks near Halemaumau and along the Chain of Craters Road the adder’s tongue, a small, delicate plant with a “head” which resembles a pointed tongue. Fowler (4) found the LAUKAHI growing on trees near Keanakakoi and Makaopuhi craters. Hawaiians are said to have prepared a cough remedy from the LAUKAHI. Near the 6,000 foot level on the slopes of Haleakala may be found a species of Ophioglossum according to Hillebrand (5).


An attractive native fern which often becomes a pest by choking out other plants is the ULUHE, common in openings throughout the eastern half of the park. This fern often forms thickets so dense as to be virtually impenetrable. Seeds of native plants which germinate beneath these thickets may not be able to penetrate to sunlight. A fire hazard is also presented by the dried fronds. An infusion was prepared from the ULUHE, which the Hawaiians drank as an emetic, according to Fowler (4, p. 10). Hillebrand (5, p. 545) states that this fern is “common on all islands from 600 feet above the sea (Hilo district) to 3,000 feet.... The species occurs in most tropical countries of both hemispheres and in many islands of the Pacific.”


Sharp eyes will be needed to detect the filmy ferns, since they normally are found on tree trunks and rocks in the jungles, and may easily be confused with the mosses with which they commonly grow. Compare the size of the dainty PALAILAULII, which is about one inch long, with the tree ferns, which often reach a height of 40 feet.


An attractive fern with lace-like fronds, the PALAPALAI prefers the outskirts of woods and open places. It is abundant in Kipuka Puaulu in the Kilauea Section. The PALAPALAI is common in moderately wet areas and, according to Hillebrand (5, p. 625) is found on all inhabited Hawaiian Islands, as well as in India, Ceylon, Malaysia, Japan and Formosa.

(14) PALAA

The PALAA was called the most common of all Hawaiian ferns by Hillebrand (5, p. 627). In addition to Hawaii, he states that it is spread over all tropical Polynesia and Asia, extending as far east as Madagascar and north to Japan. Thriving in dry areas as well as moist, the PALAA is common near Hilina Pali and in the vicinity of steam cracks around Kilauea. It is one of the most abundant ferns along the Steaming Bluffs. A red dye was extracted from the leaves by the old Hawaiians.



One of the most common ferns in dry areas in the Park is the KILAU, or bracken fern. It often may be seen growing among tall grass, and is abundant in the vicinity of Kipuka Puaulu and Kipuka Nene. It extends to about the 9,000-foot level on the slopes of Mauna Loa.


Fairly common in the Kilauea Section, this fern may be found in Kipuka Puaulu, along the Sandalwood Trail, and in the vicinity of the Thurston Lava Tube. Note the dark rows of spores along the outer edges of the leaves.


Although not listed as a common fern, the WAIMAKANUI may be seen in open areas in Kipuka Puaulu, as may the other ferns on the same page. It is the same genus as the OWALII, described above.

(19) LOULU

This attractive fern is common near the entrance to the Thurston Lava Tube. Found in moist localities at 3,000 to 5,000 feet elevation in the Kilauea section, it normally grows as a short-stemmed plant, but may reach heights of more than three feet. Hillebrand (5, p. 550) states that it occurs also on Maui and Kauai at these elevations.


Found in both sections of Hawaii National Park, the laukahi is found most frequently in dry areas. In the Kilauea section it has been found at elevations ranging up to 9,500 feet. The segments of the fronds, known technically as PINNAE, are blue-gray in color and are often shaped like a clover leaf, particularly when the fern is growing in shade. The PINNAE are usually rolled up lengthwise, hiding the reproductive structures. Hillebrand (5, p. 633) lists this species as occurring on Maui, Hawaii and Kauai, and over the High Andes from Chile to Mexico.


Native only to the Hawaiian Islands but having no Hawaiian name, the lance fern is common from Hilina Pali to the seacoast and throughout the Kau Desert. The plants are small, tufted, and from six to fifteen inches high. They often are abundant around the bases of lava outcroppings.


A non-native plant which escaped from garden cultivation, the silverfern often grows in large clumps in dry washes in the Hilina Pali area, and extends out onto the Kau Desert. Also called “goldfern” these plants derive their name from a waxy gold or silver-colored powder on the underside of the fronds.



Maidenhair fern, often used in floral decoration, is a plant familiar to many. Preferring shady, moist places it is common in the vicinity of Hilina Pali. The black glossy stalks provided ornamentation for Hawaiian baskets and hats. The native species apparently is being replaced by a non-native which was introduced about 50 years ago.


The sword fern is a familiar plant in tropical and sub-tropical areas. A common house fern, its scientific name, Nephrolepis, means “kidney-scale” in Greek. The fern was so named because the spore dots on the underside of the leaflets are protected by a kidney-shaped tissue called an indusium. In the Haleakala section, Puu Nianiau, the hill below the lodge, received its name from these ferns, which are also called “OKUPUKUPU.” They are common in humid regions of the park, particularly in the vicinity of steam cracks near Kilauea. The three species illustrated have been found in the Park. Several large stands may be seen in Kipuka Puaulu (Bird Park).


The KAAPEAPE may be recognized by the three pointed terminal leaflet and remaining leaflets which are shaped like spear points. A species found in India and China as well as the Hawaiian Islands, the kaapeape is fairly common in Kipuka Puaulu. Note the irregular spore dots, often abundant on the undersides of the leaves.


Common throughout forested areas in the park are the plants known scientifically as Elaphoglossum, (Greek for “elephant-tongue”). They are usually found growing as epiphytes or air plants on the trunks of trees. The resemblance to a paddle was recognized by the Hawaiians as the name HOEA MAUI or “Maui’s paddle” indicates. In contrast to this smooth, shiny species is the fuzzy EKAHA. According to Hillebrand, (5, p. 549) these plants are found on all the inhabited Hawaiian Islands and in tropical America, Tahiti, India, tropical Africa, Madeira and the Azores. Six species of Elaphoglossum have been found in the Kilauea section.


The LAUKAHI is a fairly common, low fern in the vicinity of Kipuka Puaulu, but is considered rare in other portions of the Park. Fagerlund (3, p. 19) lists it as having been collected in a lava tube at 8,800 feet on Mauna Loa.


One of the most interesting things about this fern is the fact that the frond tapers in both directions—toward the tip and toward the base. This may be seen in the illustration. This species is fairly abundant in the crater near the Thurston Lava Tube.



Although this fern is a native Hawaiian species, no Hawaiian name for it could be found. It prefers shade and moist areas and is fairly common in the Thurston Lava Tube and Kilauea Iki trails.


The fern known technically as Cyclosorus dentatus is not native to Hawaii, but apparently was considered common on Oahu after 1900, according to Wagner (6, p. 110). It may be found in moist areas in and near the Park.


One of the most dainty of ferns, the AKOLEA is found in wet areas in the vicinity of the Thurston Lava Tube. It is a common fern on the Kulani Trail, just outside of the Park.

(39) HOIO

Common in moist areas in the Kilauea section, the HOIO prefers shade. The fronds are large, often 3 to 4 feet long. Below the branches the midribs are dark brown and smooth, but clothed with dark scales at their bases. Spore dots are abundant.


Of all Hawaiian fern species, few are more beautiful than the birdnest fern, whose fronds often reach a length of six feet. Although it has not been described from the Park, it has been included because it is abundant in the Puna District, and probably will be found in the Kalapana Extension of the Park. It normally grows in trees, but it may also attach itself to rocks. When this happens the young birdnest ferns are often called “rock ferns.” The dark areas on the underside of the leaves in the illustration are spores.

(43-46, 49) ASPLENIUM

Among the most attractive, the Asplenium ferns are also among the most diversified Hawaiian plants as far as appearance is concerned. Showing wide variety in choice of habitat they range from moist jungles to arid lava flows. A number of the species may be recognized by the similarity in shape of the leaf segments, and the long, parallel rows of spores, but all do not show these characteristics. Nine species have been found in the Kilauea Section of the Park.


The maidenhair spleenwort has adapted itself to a dry existence. It is abundant on barren lava flows where few other plants grow, and ranges up to an elevation of about 10,000 feet.


A fern which lives in moist shady craters and lava tubes, the PAMOHO may be seen growing on the cliff at the mouth of the Thurston Lava Tube.



A common plant throughout the open forests of the Kilauea Section, this fern may be seen growing in abundance at the bases of ohia trees. Superficially resembling a sword fern, the sharp twists to the leaf segments differentiate it from them. An interesting thing about this species is that it has also adapted itself to a life as an epiphyte, or air plant, in the rain forests, at which time it develops a heavy root-stock and has a much different appearance, as may be seen in the illustrations.


The six ferns illustrated were formerly grouped under the genus Polypodium, but several have recently been reclassified and placed in new genera. The plants illustrated normally grow as epiphytes, or air plants on tree trunks and rocks in the rain forests of the Kilauea Section. That the Hawaiians recognized them as distinct plants is indicated in the fact that they were given different Hawaiian names.


Clubmosses are sometimes called “living fossils.” Many deposits of the continental United States are formed from giant relatives of these plants. The name “clubmoss” is derived from the spore-bearing bodies, which are club-shaped. Most abundant is the nodding clubmoss but at least three other species may be found in the Kilauea and Haleakala sections.

Degener (2) reports that the Hawaiians used the wawaeiole (“rat’s foot”) as a relief for rheumatism, the sufferer bathing in water in which the plants had been boiled for about three hours.

(62-63) MOA OR PIPI

The Psilotum is a primitive plant, of which two species are found in the Hawaiian Islands. One is the MOA, which usually grows on the ground and has stems which fork many times near the ends. The second, the PIPI, often grows upon the trunks of trees and ferns. This species normally grows perpendicular to the trunk, then curves abruptly earthward like the tail of a horse. Degener (2, p. 18) states that the MOA was used by the Hawaiians in making a medicine for treatment of a fungus disease, as an emetic, and that the spores were used as a powder to relieve chafing from the malo, or loincloth.



(Numbers follow common names in the captions. Because of numerous recent studies of ferns, various name changes have been necessary, and on some names there is still disagreement. The following list adopts mainly the nomenclature of the GENERA FILICUM by Prof. Edwin B. Copeland, 1947. The indented names are ones which have been used for the same plants in the past.)


(1) Ophioglossum petiolatum Hooker

(2) Ophioglossum nudicaule Linnaeus fils

(3) Ophioglossum pendulum esp. falcatum (Presl) Clausen (LAUKAHI)

O. falcatum (Presl) Fowler

O. pendulum L.

Ophioderma falcatum Degener


(4) Dicranopteris emarginata (Brackenridge) Robinson (ULUHE)

D. sandwicensis Degener

Gleichenia emarginata (Brackenridge) Robinson


(5) Hymenophyllum obtusum Hooker and Arnott (PALAILAULII)

Sphaerocionium obtusum (H.&A.) Copeland

(6) Hymenophyllum lanceolatum Hooker and Arnott (PALAIHINAHINA)

Sphaerocionium lanceolatum (H.&A.) Copeland

(7) Hymenophyllum recurvum Gaudichaud (OHIAKU)

Mecodium recurvum (Gaud.) Copeland

(8) Trichomanes davallioides Gaudichaud (KILAU)

Vandenboschia davallioides (Gaud.) Copeland


(9) Cibotium Chamissoi Kaulfuss (HAPU III)

C. Menziesii Hooker

(10) Cibotium splendens (Gaudichaud) Krajina (HAPUU)

C. Chamissoi Kaulfuss

(11) Cibotium glaucum (Smith) Hooker and Arnott (HAPUU)

(12) Cibotium hawaiiense Nakai and Ogura (MEU)

Cibotium St. Johnii Krajina

(13) Microlepia setosa (Smith) Alston (PALAPALAI)

M. strigosa (Thunberg) Presl

(14) Sphenomeris chusana (Linnaeus) Copeland (PALAA)

Stenoloma chinensis (L.) Beddome

Odontosoria chinensis (L.) J. Smith

Microlepia tenuifolia Mettenius

(15) Pteridium aquilinum (L.) Kuhn (KILAU, BRACKEN)

Pteris aquilina L.

(16) Pteris cretica Linnaeus (OWALII)

(17) Pteris excelsa Gaudichaud (WAIMAKANUI)

(18) Pteris vittata Linnaeus (KILAUOPUEO)

Pteris longifolia L.

(19) Coniogramme pilosa (Brackenridge) Hieronymus (LOULU)

Gymnogramme javanica Hillebrand

(20) Pellaea ternifolia (Cavanilles) Link (LAUKAHI)

(21) Doryopteris decora Brackenridge (LANCE FERN)

(22) Pityrogramma calomelanos (Linnaeus) Link (SILVER FERN)

Ceropteris ochracea (Presl) Robinson

(23) Adiantum cuneatum Langsdorff and Fischer (IWAIWA, MAIDENHAIR)


(24) Nephrolepis exaltata (Linnaeus) Schott (NIANIAU, COMMON SWORDFERN)

(25) Nephrolepis cordifolia (Linnaeus) Presl (NARROW SWORDFERN)

(26) Nephrolepis hirsutula (Forster) Presl (SCALY SWORDFERN)


(27) Cyrtomium caryotideum (Wallich) Presl (KAAPEAPE)

Aspidium caryotideum Wallich

Phanerophlebia caryotidea (Wall.) Copeland


(28) Elaphoglossum aemulum (Kaulfuss) Brackenridge (EKAHA)

E. conforme (Swartz) Schott

Acrostichum conforme Swartz

(29) Elaphoglossum gorgoneum (Kaulfuss) Brackenridge (EKAHA)

(30) Elaphoglossum hirtum (Swartz) C. Christensen (EKAHA)

Acrostichum squamosum Hillebrand

(31) Elaphoglossum reticulatum (Kaulfuss) Gaudichaud (EKAHA)

(32) Dryopteris paleacea (Swartz) C. Christensen (LAUKAHI)

Aspidium filix-mas var. parallelogrammum Kuntze

(33) Dryopteris glabra (Brackenridge) O. Kuntze (KILAU)

Aspidium glabrum (Brack.) Mettenius

(34) Lastrea globulifera Brackenridge (PALAPALAI O KAUMAAPUA)

Aspidium globuliferum (Brack.) Mann

(35) Cyclosorus cyatheoides (Kaulfuss) Farwell (KIKAWEO)

Dryopteris cyatheoides (Kaulf.) O. Kuntze

Aspidium cyatheoides Kaulf.

(36) Cyclosorus sandwicensis (Brackenridge) Copeland

Dryopteris stegnogrammoides (Baker) C. Christensen

Phegopteris polycarpa (Hooker & Arnott) C. Chr.

(37) Cyclosorus dentatus (Forskal) Ching

Dryopteris dentata (Forsk.) O. Kuntze

(38) Athyrium microphyllum (Smith) Alston (AKOLEA)

A. Poiretianum (Gaudichaud) Presl

Asplenium aspidioides Hillebrand

A. multisectum Brackenridge

(39) Athyrium sandwichianum Presl (HOIO)

Diplazium sandwichianum (Presl) Diels

Asplenium sandwichianum (Presl) Hooker


(40) Sadleria cyatheoides Kaulfuss (AMAUMAU)

(41) Sadleria pallida Hooker & Arnott (AMAU)

S. Hillebrandii Robinson


(42) Asplenium nidus Linnaeus (EKAHA, BIRDNEST FERN)

Neottopteris nidus (L.) J. Smith

Thamnopteris nidus Presl

(43) Asplenium contiguum Kaulfuss

(44) Asplenium rhipidoneuron Robinson (IWAIWA O KANE)

A. furcatum Hillebrand

(45) Asplenium lobulatum Mettenius (PIIPIILAU MANAMANA)

A. pseudofalcatum Hillebrand

(46) Asplenium Macraei Hooker and Greville

A. erectum Hillebrand

(47) Asplenium trichomanes Linnaeus (OWALII)

A. densum Brackenridge

(48) Asplenium unilaterale Lamarck (PAMOHO)

A. resectum Smith

(49) Asplenium adiantum-nigrum Linnaeus (IWAIWA)


(50) Polypodium pellucidum Kaulfuss (AE)

(The variety of exposed places is var. vulcanicum Skotts.)

(51) Pleopeltis Thunbergiana Kaulfuss (EKAHA AKOLEA)

Polypodium lineare Thunberg


(52) Grammitis Hookeri (Brackenridge) Copeland

Polypodium Hookeri Brackenridge

(53) Grammitis tenella Kaulfuss (KOLOKOLO)

Polypodium pseudogrammitis Gaudichaud

(54) Xiphopteris Saffordii (Maxon) Copeland (KIHI)

Polypodium Saffordii Maxon

P. serrulatum Hillebrand

(55) Amphoradenium hymenophylloides (Kaulfuss) Copeland (PAI)

Polypodium hymenophylloides Kaulfuss

(56) Amphoradenium sarmentosum (Brackenridge) Copeland

Polypodium sarmentosum Brackenridge

(57) Amphoradenium tamariscinum (Kaulfuss) Copeland (WAHINI NOHO MAUNA)

Polypodium tamariscinum Kaulfuss



(58) Lycopodium cernuum Linnaeus (WAWAEIOLE)

(59) Lycopodium phyllanthum Hooker & Arnott (WAWAEIOLE)

Lycopodium pachystachyon Spring

(60) Lycopodium polytrichoides Kaulfuss (WAWAEIOLE)

(61) Lycopodium venustulum Gaudichaud (WAWAEIOLE)


(62) Psilotum complanatum Swartz (MOA)

(63) Psilotum nudum (Linnaeus) Beauvois (PIPI)

Psilotum triquetrum Swartz


(1) Copeland, Edwin B. Genera Filicum. Waltham, Mass., 1947.

(2) Degener, Otto. Plants of Hawaii National Park. Honolulu, 1930.

(3) Fagerlund, Gunnar, and Arthur L. Mitchell. A Checklist of the Plants Hawaii National Park, Kilauea-Mauna Loa Section. Hawaii National Park, 1944.

(4) Fowler, Robert. “Annotated List of Ferns of the Kilauea-Mauna Loa Section of Hawaii National Park.” American Fern Journal, Vol. 30, No. 1, 1940.

(5) Hillebrand, W. F. Flora of the Hawaiian Islands. New York, 1888.

(6) Wagner, W. H., Jr. “Ferns Naturalized in Hawaii.” Occasional Papers of Bernice P. Bishop Museum, Vol. XX, No. 8. Honolulu, 1950.




Adder’s tongue 17, 32, 37
Adiantum 29, 34, 37
Ae 28, 36, 38
Akolea 29, 35, 38
Amau 7
Amaumau 7, 20-21
Amphoradenium 18, 36, 38
Asplenium 10, 13, 24, 35, 38
Athyrium 29, 35, 38
Bird nest fern 22, 35, 38
Bracken 13, 33, 37
Ceropteris 31, 33, 37
Cibotium 4, 5, 37
Cliffbrake 12, 33, 38
Clubmoss 8, 36, 39
Coniogramme 11, 33, 37
Cretan brake 26, 33, 37
Cyclosorus 22, 31, 35, 38
Cyrtomium 27, 34, 37
Dicranopteris 9, 32, 37
Diplazium 30, 35, 38
Doryopteris 12, 33, 37
Dryopteris 27, 34, 38
Ekaha 22, 23, 34, 38
Ekaha akolea 18, 36, 38
Elaphoglossum 23, 34, 38
Epiphytes 18
False staghorn 9, 32, 37
Gleichenia 9, 32, 37
Gold fern 31, 33, 37
Grammitis 18, 36, 38
Hapu iii 4, 5, 37
Hapuu 4, 5, 37
Haleakala 3, 15
Hawaii National Park 3
Hoi 30, 35, 38
Hymenophyllum 18, 32, 37
Indusium 34
Iwaiwa 24, 35, 38
Iwaiwa O Kane 25, 35, 38
Kaapeape 27, 34, 37
Kapa cloth 7
Keanakakoi Crater 7
Kihi 18, 36, 38
Kikaweo 30, 38
Kilau 13, 18, 32, 33, 37
Kilauea 3
Kipuka Puaulu 33, 34
Koa 3
Kolokolo 28, 36, 38
Lance fern 12, 33, 37
Laukahi 12, 27, 33, 34, 37, 38
Loulu 11, 33, 38
Lycopodium 8, 36, 39
Maidenhair 29, 34, 37
Maidenhair spleenwort 13, 35, 38
Makaopuhi Crater 6, 32
Maui’s paddle 23, 34, 38
Mauna Loa 3
Meu 4, 5, 37
Microlepia 23, 32, 37
Moa 14, 36, 39
Mother of ohia 4
Napau Crate 6
National Park Service 3
Neottopteris 22, 35, 38
Nephrolepis 16, 34, 37
Nianiau 16, 34, 37
Odontosoria 14, 32, 37
Ohiaku 18, 32, 37
Ophioderma 17, 32, 37
Ophioglossum 17, 32, 37
Owalii 13, 26, 33, 35, 37, 38
Pai 18, 36, 38
Palaa 9, 14, 32, 37
Palaihinahina 18, 32, 37
Palailaulii 18, 32, 37
Palapalai 11, 23, 32, 34, 37, 38
Pamoho 10, 35, 38
Pellaea 12, 33, 38
Pellucid polpody 28, 36, 38
Piipiilau manamana 25, 35, 38
Pinnae 33
Pipi 14, 36, 39
Pityrogramma 31, 33, 37
Polypodium 18, 28, 36, 38
Psilotum 14, 36, 39
Pteridium 13, 33, 37
Pteris 26, 33, 37
Pulu 4, 6
Pulu Factory 6, 8
Sadleria 7, 20-21
Silverfern 31, 33, 37
Spenomeris 14, 32, 37
Spores 3
Staghorn, false 9, 32, 37
Stenoloma 14, 32, 37
Sword fern 16, 34, 37
Thurston Lava Tube 10, 33, 34
Tree fern 2, 4, 5, 37
Trichomanes 18, 32, 37
Uluhe 9, 32, 37
Wahini noho mauna 18, 36, 38
Waimakanui 26, 33, 37
Wawaeiole 8, 36, 39
Xiphopteris 18, 36, 38

Hawaii National Park, Hawaii

Formed for the purpose of cooperating with the National Park Service by assisting the Naturalist Department of Hawaii National Park in the development of a better public understanding of the volcanology, geology, plant life, history, and related interests in Hawaii National Park and surrounding areas, the Association aids in the development of the Hawaii National Park Museum and library, offers publications, motion and still colored pictures of volcanoes and natural history of this area for sale to park visitors, and cooperates in the publication of Hawaii Nature Notes.

Revenue derived from the activities of the Hawaii Natural History Association is devoted entirely to the purposes outlined above. Any person interested in furthering these purposes may become a member upon payment of one dollar. Gifts and donations are accepted for museum or library development, or general use.

Transcriber’s Notes