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Title: The Discoverie of Witchcraft

Author: Reginald Scot

Editor: Brinsley Nicholson

Release date: November 22, 2019 [eBook #60766]

Language: English

Credits: Produced by David Starner, Robert Tonsing, and the Online
Distributed Proofreading Team at http://www.pgdp.net (This
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*** START OF THE PROJECT GUTENBERG EBOOK THE DISCOVERIE OF WITCHCRAFT ***



THE DISCOVERIE
OF
WITCHCRAFT

BY
REGINALD SCOT, Esquire
BEING A REPRINT OF THE FIRST EDITION
PUBLISHED IN 1584

Edited
WITH EXPLANATORY NOTES, GLOSSARY, AND INTRODUCTION
BY
BRINSLEY NICHOLSON, M.D.
DEPUTY INSPECTOR GENERAL

LONDON
ELLIOT STOCK, 62 PATERNOSTER ROW, E.C.

1886

This edition of Scot’s Discoverie consists
of 250 copies only.—E. S.

DR. NICHOLSON’S SUBSCRIBERS.


DEDICATION.

To the Memory
OF
H.R.H. PRINCE LEOPOLD, DUKE OF ALBANY,
UNTIMELY TAKEN FROM US,
THIS WORK OF AN ELIZABETHAN ENGLISHMAN,
AND OF A KINDRED SPIRIT,
WHOSE HONESTY, INTELLIGENCE, AND COMPASSION
FOUGHT AGAINST THE CRUEL SUPERSTITION
AND IGNORANCE OF HIS AGE,
IS,
BY ROYAL PERMISSION AND WITH REGRETFUL ESTEEM,
DEDICATED BY
THE EDITOR.

PREFACE


THIS reprint is not a facsimile of the edition of 1584, for that was in black letter, and its page smaller and of quarto size. Being also for modern readers, and for use, the i of the original has become, where necessary, the j of the second edition; the u and v have been altered according to modern usage, that is, generally interchanged; while the short s replaces the ſ. Such modernisations render it more readable by the historical and philosophical student, by the man of science, and by the psychological physician, willing to learn all that may instruct himself and benefit others. Neither would this reprint have been undertaken, unless the work itself had appeared to my friend and fellow-student, W. T. Gairdner, M.D., LL.D., Professor of Medicine in the University of Glasgow,—and led by him—to myself and others, worthy on the above-mentioned grounds, of being reproduced, and as being both in matter and style a valuable English classic.

While, however, it is not a facsimile, yet, excepting such variations as are above noticed, and allowing for the few and trifling errors from which no copy can expect to be free, not even a photographic one, as experts in these matters well know, this will, I believe, be found a correct reprint. Every proof has been thrice, and sometimes oftener, read over with the original by myself, and these efforts have been well supplemented by the intelligence and care of its printers. Even the word-errors of the original, where not in its list of errata, have been retained, though the true or conjectural readings have been given in the margin, or in two or three instances in the Notings at the end. Except also in two instances, where for necessity’s sake alterations have been introduced within []s, and the original given in the margin, the old punctuation has been retained, it being, as a rule, very good, while any slight slips areviii readily observed, and do not affect the sense. For such other differences as are due to the black letter, and for others like these, I would refer the print-studying reader to the Introduction.

In the biographical portion of this Introduction, besides a supposition or two of my own, which from his writings seem to me highly probable, there have been given notices of his pedigree, age, and marriages, matters hitherto unknown or misstated, and for which I would at once record my indebtedness to Edmund Ward Oliver, Esq. This gentleman having taken an interest in investigating these questions, and being a perfect stranger to me, wrote and offered the results of his inquiries so soon as he had learnt that I was engaged with this reprint, and has since most obligingly answered the various questions that I have had occasion to put to him. A copy of Scot’s Will has been also for the first time published, and some Notes and a Glossary added. Were I to have imitated the learned editors of former days, I should have added, not some, but exhaustive notes on every point, gathered from every known and unknown source; but I have confined myself to explanation, or to making a few remarks on the text, giving also the author’s agreement with, or obligations to Wier, so far as I knew them, and Shakespeare’s and Middleton’s obligations to himself; my reason for not entering into greater details being that I am no student of the pseudo-science of witchcraft, but a student only of what is useful, and true, and good.

It would be unseemly, especially after mentioning Mr. Oliver’s name, were I to close this without acknowledging the kind assistance of my well-known friend, James Gairdner, Esq., of the Public Record Office; of my Shakespearian friends, W. Aldis Wright, LL.D., and P. A. Daniel, Esq.; of that given me by the Very Reverend Father W. H. Eyre, lately Superior of Stonyhurst; by Mrs. Amelia Green; as also by Prof. W. W. Skeat, and Dr. J. A. H. Murray, in my Glossary; though all were, and personally are, strangers; as are Miss Kath. P. Woolrych, Oare Vicarage, Kent, and Miss Ayscough, of Brabourne Vicarage; and especially that given me by my other Shakespearian friends, the Rev. W. H. Harrison, of St. Anne’s, South Lambeth, and W. G. Stone, Esq. My best thanks are also due to Mr. J. J. Jervis for the use, for the printer, of a partially incomplete copy of the first ix edition; to the University of Glasgow for the loan, for my own use, for the greater part of a year, of another copy of this first edition; and for the use for the same period of a copy of the third edition to my Alma Mater of Edinburgh, endeared to me by the teachings, remembrances, and kindnesses of Sir William Hamilton, Allan Thomson, Christison, Traill, Jamieson, that most sagacious of surgeons and teachers, Syme, and the ever-to-be-revered physician and man, W. Pulteney Alison.

Br. Nicholson.

ERRATA.

x

INTRODUCTION.


EXCEPT that they add the names of some who have opposed his views, or some such trifling matters, all the writers of biographical notices of Scot have drawn their information from the account given of him in Wood’s Athenæ Oxon. Nor, indeed, until lately, unless original search had been made, were other sources available. Hence I, in the first place, give his words verbatim from the edition of 1691.

Reynolde Scot, a younger Son of Sir John Scot of Scots-hall, near to Smeeth in Kent, by his Wife, Daughter of Reynolde Pimp of Pimps-court Knight, was born in that County, and at about 17 years of age was sent to Oxon, particularly, as it seems, to Hart hall, where several of his Country-men and name studied in the latter end of K. Hen. 8. and in the Reign of Ed. 6. &c. Afterwards he retired to his native Country without the honour of a degree, and settled at Smeeth, where he found great incouragement in his studies from his kinsman Sir Thos. Scot. About which time taking to him a Wife, he gave himself up solely to solid reading, to the perusing of obscure authors that had by the generality of Scholars been neglected, and at times of leisure to husbandry and gardening, as it may partly appear from these books following.

“A perfect platform of a Hop-garden, and necessary instructions for the making and maintenance thereof, with notes and rules for reformation of all abuses, &c. Lond. 1576. qu. the 2. edit. as it seems.

“The discovery of Witchcraft; wherein the leud dealing of Witches, and Witchmongers is notably detected, the knavery of Conjurers, the impiety of Inchantors, the folly of Southsayers, &c. With many other things are opened, which have long been hidden, howbeit very necessary to be known. Lond. 1584. qu. in 16 books.

“Discourse upon Devils and Spirits.—In this, and the former, both printed together, it plainly appears that the author was very well versed in many choice books, and that his search into them was so profound, that nothing slip’d his Pen that might make for his purpose. Further also in the said Discovery and Discourse, though he holds that Witches are not such that were in his time and before, commonly executed for Witches; or that Witches were, or are not; yet they, which were written for the instruction of all Judges and Justices of that age, (being the first of that nature that were published in the Mother tongue,) did for a time make great impressions in the Magistracy xi and Clergy, tho afterwards condemned by James King of Scots (the same who succeeded Qu. Elizabeth in the Monarchy of England) in his Preface to Dæmonology, printed under his Name at Edinburgh in 1597. qu. and by several others since, among whom was Rich. Bernard of Batcomb, in his Epist. Ded. before his Guide to Grand Jury-men, &c. Lond. 1627. in oct. What else our author Scot hath written, I cannot yet tell, nor anything else of him, only but that he dyed in Sept. or Oct. in fifteen hundred ninety and nine, and was buried among his Ancestors in the Church at Smeeth before-mentioned.

“In the time of the said Reynold Scot and before, have been conversant among the Muses in Hart hall, the Sackviles of Sussex, the Colepepers of Kent and Sussex, the Sedlies of Kent, and the Scots before mentioned, with others of inferiour note of the said Counties.”

Notes added in Bliss’s Reprint.

“7. The learned author in his Discovery is as vehement against Popery as against witchcraft, and quite indecent in his abuse of the saints of the Romish church.”—Cole. [His indecency being for the most part a narrative of, and obvious reflections on, their indecency. And this I say understanding the sense in which he uses the word.]

“8. See a full account of this curious book, as Mr. Oldys calls it, in his British Librarian, p. 213. All the copies of the first edit. 1584, that could be found were burnt by order of K. James I. an author on the other side of the question.”—Vid. Hist. Dictionary, sub voce “Scot”.

[“Reginaldus Scotus, Anglus, tractatum de Incantamentis scripsit, in quo plerasque traditiones de Magia Melancholiæ, & morbis variis, aut artibus histrionicis adscribit.”] “Hunc in Anglia publica auctoritate combustum, sibi autem nunquam fuisse visum refert Thomasius de crimine magiæ § 3.”—Vide [J. V.] Vogt., Cat. Libr. rar., p. 617 [1713].

“Liber in folio scriptus Anglica lingua a Reginaldo Scoto in quo plurima occurrunt contra magiæ existentiam argumenta. Est ille etiam in Belgicam linguam conversus: sed plenior editio est ultima Anglica.”—Morhof., ii, 459.

[Then a short note on the three editions.]

In 1874 there were privately printed, Memorials of the Scot Family, by Jas. Renat Scott, Esq., and from them I extract the following tables:

But as the first part of the ancestry given in this book is not supported by anything beyond possibility and legend, so this latter portion is incorrect in various particulars. Instead, however, of taking each inaccuracy item by item, it will be simpler to give a consecutive account of such facts as to his ancestry, and as to Reginald Scott himself, as can be proved by documentary evidence or rendered probable by deductions therefrom.

John Philipot, Rouge Dragon and Somerset Herald, who died in 1645, set forth the pleasant and picturesque, but slightly supported origin of the family. I say pleasant, because the Scotts in the times of Elizabeth, James, and Charles, were a family of large possessions, wealth, and influence, influence so great that it is said that Elizabeth refused the request made by Lord Buckhurst, or the Earl of Leicester, that Sir Thomas Scott should be ennobled, saying that he had already more influence in Kent than she had. She seems also to have had from this, or from some other reason, a personal dislike to them, for in her Progress in 1573, she having passed three days at his father-in-law’s, Sir John Baker, of Sissinghurst Castle, declined to visit Scotts-hall, saying she wished to proceed to her own house, though on her way thither she had to pass Sir Thomas’s gates. In his Villare Cantianum, p. 313, Philipot has these words: “Scotts-hall, which is now and hath been for divers Descents the Inheritance of eminent Gentlemen of that Sirname, whom I dare aver upon probable Grounds were originally called Balioll. William Balioll, second brother to Alexander de Balioll, frequently writ his Name William de Balioll le Scot, and it is probable, that upon the Tragedy of John, Earl of Atholl, who was made prisoner by Edward the first, and barbarously executed, in the year 1307. (whilst he endeavoured more nobly than successfully to defend the gasping Liberty of Scotland against the Eruption of that Prince;) this Family to decline the Fury of that Monarch, who was a man of violent passions, altered the name ofxiii Balioll to that of their Extraction and Country, and assumed for the future the Name of Scot. That the Sirname of this Family was originally Balioll, I farther upon these Reasons assert. First, the ancient Arms of Balioll Colledge in Oxford, which was founded by John Balioll, and dedicated to St. Katharine was a Katherin-Wheele, being still part of the paternal Coat of this Family. Secondly, David de Strabogie, who was Son and Heir to the unfortunate Earl above-said, astonished with an Example of so much Terror, altered his name from Balioll to Strabogie, which was a Signory which accrued to him the Right of his Wife, who was Daughter and Heir to John Comin, Earl of Badzenoth and Strabogie, and by this Name King Edward the second, omitting that of Balioll restored Chilham-castle to him for Life, in the fifteenth year of his reign. Thirdly, the Earls of Buccleugh, and the Barons of Burley in Scotland, who derive themselves originally from Balioll, are known at this instant by no other Sirname, but Scot, and bear with some inconsiderable Difference, those very Arms which are at present the paternal Coat of the Family of Scots-hall.”

This tradition excluded, we find that Sir William Scot of Braberne, now Brabourne, in Kent, is the first of whom we have historical mention. He was knighted in 1336, when the Black Prince was created Duke of Cornwall, and died in 1350: a brass to his memory, being in Weever’s time (1631), the first of the memorials of the Scot family in Brabourne church. According to Philipot, this Sir William was the same with Sir William Scot, then Chief Justice of England; but if Mr. Foss be right in stating that this latter died in 1346, the year of the Black Death, this view cannot be upheld.

Another Sir William, apparently a grandson of the above, acquired through his mother the manor of Combe in Brabourne, and through his first wife and her relations—modes of increase in which the family seem to have been fortunate—that of Orlestone, as well as other places; and in 1420 he built Scotshall, in the manor of Hall in Smeeth, and was in 1428 sheriff of the county, and in 1430 knight of the shire in parliament. He died 1433. Scotshall, from time to time enlarged or rebuilt, and especially so by Sir Edward Scot, in the reign of Charles I, became the family seat for twelve generations. Evelyn, under date August 2, 1663, records his visit to it (soon after the young knight’s marriage), and calls it “a right noble seate, xiv uniformely built, with a handsome gallery. It stands in a park well stor’d, the land fat and good. We were exceedingly feasted by the young knight, and in his pretty chapell heard an excellent sermon by his chaplaine.” It was sold, with the remaining possessions of the family, at the close of the last century, and destroyed in 1808. Some undulations in a field on the north side of the road from Ashford to Hythe, about half a mile to the east of Smeeth church, alone mark its site.

The son of this second Sir William, named Sir John, being connected with the Woodvilles, and therefore with the wife of Edward IV, and being a staunch Yorkist, and apparently a man of intelligence, was employed in special embassies to Charles, Duke of Burgundy, especially in 1467, when he went to treat of the marriage of the king’s sister with the duke. He had also various other and more substantial favours conferred upon him from time to time, from 1461 onwards, including that of Chilham Castle for life, as somewhat oddly, and I think wrongly, noted in the extract from Philipot. He died in 1485, and probably intestate, as no will is recorded.

To him succeeded his son, the third Sir William in this account, and he dying in 1524, was succeeded by his son, a second Sir John. This last, by his marriage with Anne, daughter of Reginald Pympe, had three sons, and died on the 7th October 1533. The eldest, William, followed his father on the 5th June 1536, and leaving no offspring, his next brother, Sir Reginald, took his place. Of the third brother, Richard, the father of our Reginald, I shall speak presently. Meanwhile, returning to the main line, I would say that Sir Reginald, dying on the 16th October 1554, was succeeded by his son, Sir Thomas, the “cousin” to whom Reginald was much indebted, and one of the four to whom he dedicated his Witchcraft. He was, in his day, a man of note, intelligence, and action. Finding his estate in debt, he yet kept one hundred at his table, was most hospitable, and died owing nothing, though, of course, to provide for the younger of his very numerous progeny, various portions of his estate were by his will sold after his death. He was deputy-lieutenant of his county, sheriff of Kent in 1576, knight of the shire for the Parliaments of 13 and 28 Elizabeth, chief of the Kentish forces at Northbourne Downs, where they were assembled to repel any landingxv from the Armada; and it may be added, as showing his promptness, readiness, and decision, that 4,000 of these were there, equipped for the field, the day after he received his orders from the Privy Council. He was one of the Commissioners to report on the advisability of improving the breed of horses in this country, and either before or after this, is said to have published a book on the subject. He was a Commissioner for draining and improving Romney Marsh, and afterwards Superintendent of the improvements of Dover harbour. Various letters to and from him in reference to Dover harbour, as well as to the Kentish forces, are to be found in the State Calendars. Having been the parent of seventeen children by his first wife, Emmeline Kempe, a relative by maternal descent, he died on the 30th December 1594, and Ashford parish offered to pay the expenses of his funeral if only they were allowed to bury him in their church. Most of these facts are noted in the following verses, which I give, chiefly because there are some probabilities that they were by Reginald. A copy of them seems to have been found among the family papers, in his handwriting. That he made some of the verse translations given in his Witchcraft is extremely probable, from the want in these cases of marginal references to the translator’s name; hence a second probability. The verses themselves render it likely that they were one of those memorial elegies then affixed επι ταϕον by affectionate friends and relatives, and not what we now call an epitaph; and the third verse clearly shows that they were written at least some little time after Sir Thomas’s decease, and therefore were not improbably written to be affixed to the handsome tomb erected over his remains. Hence a third probability; but beyond the accumulated force of these we cannot go.

Epitaph on Sir Thomas Scott, as given in the “Memorials of the Scott Family”, and also in Pick’s “Collection of Curious Pieces in the World”, vol. 3.

Here lyes Sir Thomas Scott by name;
Oh happie Kempe that bore him!
Sir Raynold, with four knights of fame,
Lyv’d lyneally before him.
His wieves were Baker, Heyman, Beere;
His love to them unfayned.
He lyved nyne and fiftie yeare,
And seventeen soules he gayned.
xvi
His first wief bore them every one;
The world might not have myst her!*
She was a very paragon
The Lady Buckherst’s syster.
His widow lyves in sober sort,
No matron more discreeter;
She still reteiynes a good report,
And is a great housekeeper.
He (being called to special place)
Did what might best behove him.
The Queen of England gave him grace,
The King of Heav’n did love him.
His men and tenants wail’d the daye,
His Kinne and countrie cryed;
Both young and old in Kent may saye,
Woe worth the day he dyed.
He made his porter shut his gate
To sycophants and briebors,
And ope it wide to great estates,
And also to his neighbours.
His House was rightly termed Hall
Whose bred and beefe was redie;
It was a very hospitall
And refuge for the needie.
From whence he never stept aside,
In winter nor in summer;
In Christmas time he did provide
Good cheer for every comer.
When any service shold be doun,
He lyked not to lyngar;
The rich would ride, the poor wold runn,
If he held up his fingar.
He kept tall men, he rydd great hors,
He did write most finely;
He used fewe words, but cold discours
Both wysely and dyvinely.
His lyving meane, his charges greate,
His daughters well bestowed;
Although that he were left in debt,
In fine he nothing owed.
xvii
But dyed in rich and happie state,
Beloved of man and woman
And (what is yeate much more than that)
He was envied§ of no man.
In justice he did much excell,
In law he never wrangled:
He loved rellygion wondrous well,
But he was not new-fangled.
Let Romney Marsh and Dover saye;
Ask Norborne camp at leyseur;
If he were woont to make delaye
To doe his countrie pleasure.
But Ashford’s proffer passeth all—
It was both rare and gentle;
They would have pay’d his funerall
T’ have toomb’d him in their temple.

* Though a paragon, she lived, he would say, a quiet, retired life, obedient and loving to her husband.
“Countrie”, seems not unlikely to be used here, as in the Discoverie not unfrequently, and twice in Wood’s notice just given, and, as then, for county.
“Meane”, that is, moderate, midway between the very rich and the poor.
§ “Envied”, most probably in its then frequent sense of hated.

Before returning to Richard and Reginald, we may conclude this short notice of their ancestors by mentioning the very probable circumstance that the former were, by the female line, descendants of John Gower, the poet, as explained in the following table:

The Pashells, or Pashleys, were descended from Sir Edmund de Passelege, a Baron of the Exchequer, who purchased a manor in Smeeth in 1319; he died 1327. The family resided at Iden, Sussex; and the house there, and the manor in Smeeth, devolved on the Scots, Anne Pympe being her father’s only child. It is true that John Gower, the poet, does not mention any children in his extant will, but he was probably seventy-eight when he died; and, what is more to the purpose, his published will was probably only his testament, the will or declaration of uses of the land being commonly at xviiithat time a separate instrument. Th. Gower, of Clapham, given above as the father of Lowys, was probably the son or grandson of John Gower (see Sir Harris Nicolas in The Retrosp. Rev., 2 Ser., ii, 103-17). Also Gower the poet is known to have had property in Southwark; and Th. Gower, of Clapham, refers in his will (1458) to his tenement called The Falcon, in Southwark, near the hospital; and in Manning and Bray’s Surrey, iii, 623, there is noticed a deed of conveyance dated 22nd November 1506, of part of the site of St. Thomas’s Hospital, in Southwark, made by John Scot, of Iden, and Anne his wife, daughter and heir of John Pashley, who was cousin and heir of John Gower. It may be added as curious that Sir Robert Gower, who is believed to have been uncle to the poet, was buried in Brabourne church in 1349; his monument, now destroyed, being noticed in Weever.

On p. 500, Scot speaks of “his kinseman M. Deering”, Edw. Dering the divine, a writer on theological subjects and chaplain to her Majesty; but in what way they were kin I have been unable to discover.*


* My mother being a Dering, a daughter of the Thomas that was drowned in the West Indies, when trying to reach his vessel H.M.S. Circe, induces me to add, through the courtesy of Sir Edw. C. Dering, that a portrait of this worthy is still to be seen at Surrenden Dering, and that a family tradition has it, that preaching before her Majesty, he had the boldness to tell her, “that she had no more controul over her passions than an untamed heifer.” He was speedily unfrocked, and is said to have emigrated to America, where an Edw. Dering is at this moment the head of that branch, and a large landowner in Maine.

Returning now to Reginald’s father, Richard, the youngest of the three sons of that Sir John who died in 1533, we find that he married Mary, daughter of Geo. Whetenall, whose father was sheriff of Kent in 1527, and whose family had lived for three centuries at Hextall’s Place, near Maidstone. She survived her husband; and being remarried to Fulke Onslow, Clerk of the Parliaments, died before him, 8th October 1582, and was buried, as he afterwards was, in Hatfield church, Herts, where a brass to their memory is fixed in the north wall of the chancel. Of Richard himself nothing more is known. He probably died young, and certainly before December 1554, his death being mentioned in the will of his brother Sir Reginald, who died on the 16th of that month. In this will, failing his own issue—a lapse which did not occur—he left his real estate “unto Rainolde Scotte, xix son and heire of my brother Richard Scotte, decd”, and Rainolde’s issue failing, it was devised to a more distant branch. Hence, contrary to the table given on page xi, from “The Memorials”, “Rainolde” was either the only son of Richard, or the only son then living. The same conclusion follows from the Inquis. post mortem of Lady Wynifred Rainsfoord, taken the 20th March 1575/6, where Sir Thomas Scot and his brothers are said to be co-heirs with Reynold of the lands held by her in gavelkind, the sons having one moiety, and Reynold the other.

This Inquisition also gives Reynold’s then age as thirty-eight or more, the words “et amplius” being, as was, usually at least, done in these documents, attached to all the other ages mentioned. Hence he was born in or before 1538 (not in 1541), and as, according to Wood, he entered Hart Hall, Oxford, when about seventeen, he entered it circa 1555; the intention that he should do so having been probably entertained by Sir Reginald, his uncle, who died 16th December 1554, and his expenses borne by his cousin, Sir Thomas. I say probably, because we have seen that, failing his own issue, he was named by Sir Reginald as the next heir to the estate, and also because we know nothing of the circumstances in which his widowed mother was left, nor as yet of the date at which she was re-married to Onslow.

On the 11th of October he married Jane—not, as stated in “The Memorials”, Alice—Cobbe, the daughter of an old yeoman family long resident at Cobbe’s Place, in the adjoining parish of Aldington. The entry in the Registers of Brabourne is—

“M* Reignold Scott and Jane Cobbe were
maryed the xith of October 1658.”

The only issue of this marriage, the only issue (that at least survived) of both his marriages—for the Maria in the table of “The Memorials” was the daughter of his second wife by her first husband—was Elizabeth, afterwards married to Sackville Turnor; and the only issue of that marriage, prior at least to Reynold’s death in 1599, was Cicely. Elizabeth’s birth must have been in or before 1574, for in the Inquis. xxpost mortem of Reg. Scot generosus in 1602, she is said to be “28 et amplius”. The Holy Maid of Kent (mentioned by Scot, p. 26) was servant to one of her maternal progenitors, probably to her grandfather.


* To this upper portion of the “M” is added a character which may make it “Mr.” or “Married”; but I have not myself yet seen the entry.

In this year, 1574, was also published the first issue of his brain, his tractate on The Hoppe-Garden, the first work, I believe, in which not only was the culture of the hop in England advocated, both as having been successfully tried by him, and as against its importation from Poppering, in Flanders, where its mode of culture, etc., was endeavoured to be kept secret; but the whole subject of its growth, culture, drying, and preservation was gone into in a practical manner, and further explained by woodcuts. And here it may be worth noting that in this year Reynold was necessarily absent so far from London that the publisher inserted this apologetic note: “Forasmuch as M. Scot could not be present at the printing of this his Booke, whereby I might have used his advise in the correction of the same, and especiallie of the Figures and Portratures conteyned therein, whereof he delivered unto me such notes as I being unskilfull in the matter, could not so thoroughly conceyve, nor so perfectly expresse as ... the Author, or you ... the Reader might in all poyntes be satisfied [etc., etc.].” In the second edition, however, in 1576, it was: “Now newly corrected and augmented,” the augmentations increasing the book from fifty-three pages, exclusive of the epilogue, to sixty, and the corrections including one added and one emended engraving. As a matter of curiosity, and as showing that neither the publisher nor the author expected a second edition, it may be added that though only two years had elapsed, some at least of the wood engravings required to be re-cut in almost exact facsimile. A third edition was issued in 1578, and from these we can date the commencement of the hop harvests in Kent.

In 1575 he succeeded to one moiety of such part of Lady Winifred Rainsford’s estate as was held in gavelkind. Possibly, indeed, we may place his enjoyment of it earlier, for Lady Rainsford was declared insane; and to this, by the way, I am not disinclined to attribute Reynold’s prolonged absence from London in 1572, the attendance of some one of the family being required, and he, being older than the sons of Sir Thomas, and of a junior branch, and a man of business, xxihaving been chosen or requested to go. And I think we may place his loss of that estate between this date and that of 1584, the date of the publication of the Witchcraft. At least, in this Discoverie occur two passages which, taken together, seem to point to this. In his dedication to Sir Th. Scot he says: A vi, “My foot being [not, having been] under your table, my hand in your dish, or rather in your pursse”—and, A viii: “If they will allow men knowledge and give them no leave to use it, men were much better be without it than have it; ... it is, as ... to put a candle under a bushell: or as to have a ship, and to let hir lie alwaies in the docke: which thing how profitable it is, I can saie somewhat by experience.” Though it may be said that Reynold was a man of business, and, as appears from his writings, a man of decision and of unusual intelligence, still circumstances may combine to bring disaster as a shipowner on such a one, and more especially if he be new to the business. That he did in some way lose his “moiety” is shown by the words of his will, for, speaking of his second wife, he says, “whome yf I had not matched wth all I had not dyed worth one groate.” Not, improbably, I think, it was to the time of his first marriage, or to his widowership, or to both, that Wood more especially refers when he speaks of his giving himself up to solid reading, etc.

When his first wife died and when he re-married is as yet unknown to us. But this latter could hardly have taken place until the latter end, at earliest, of 1584, since in that year he, as already quoted, describes himself as, “having his foot under your [Sir Th. Scot’s] table”, etc., or in other words, as being a dependant not worth one groat. Nor do we know more of this second wife beyond these slight particulars that we gather from Reynold’s will: that her Christian name was Alice—given in “The Memorials” instead of Jane, to Cobbe, the first wife—that she was a widow with a daughter by her former husband; and that she had some land, either in her own right or derived from her former husband. That she was a widow at the time of her remarriage is shown by Reynold’s bequest of “six poundes thirteene shillings foure pence to my daughter in Lawe Marie Collyar for apparell [? mourning] desiring that her mother’s hand be not anie thinge the shorter towards her in that respect.” Whether Collyar were this daughter’s maiden name, and therefore the name of her mother’s first xxii husband, or whether it were the name of her own husband, is doubtful, though from the words just quoted I rather incline to this second supposition, and that the husband was not a man of much means. With regard to what I have said as to the mother’s possession of property, it has been suggested to me by one of good judgment, and a solicitor, that Reynold’s expression as to not dying worth a groat was merely an excuse for leaving the bulk of his property to his wife; as also that these concluding words of the will, and the resistance of probate to it made by Elizabeth, his daughter by his first wife, indicate the existence of family differences, probably attributable to this second marriage having been entered into with one of a social rank inferior to his own. I cannot, however, deduce this latter supposition from anything we know, neither can I thus interpret the last words of his will, nor believe him guilty of such a perversion of the truth. Reading his will attentively, I think we find that Scot, with his usual fine sense of justice, gives all the lands in “Aldington, Ruckinge, and Sellinge”, which had become his by his marriage with Alice, “to her and to her [not to his] heires”, while he only gives his lands in Romney Marsh and his lease of Brabourne Rectory to her for her life, and then the lease at least, which had come to him “from his Cozen Charles”, to his daughter Elizabeth. Reading the last words of his will verbatim, I think it consistent with justice to hold, that though he may have obtained these lands in Romney Marsh through the use of what had been his wife’s former property, but was during his marriage his own, he was entitled to leave them to his wife only for her life, they then proceeding not, as did the others, to her heirs, but to his. I strongly suspect, also, that his casual omission of any directions as to whom these Romney Marsh lands were to go after her death was the real cause of the probate of the will being resisted by his daughter Elizabeth, so as to definitely raise this point.

Reserving all notice of his Witchcraft till I speak of it under its bibliography, I would say that we know little more of his life. The Rev. Jos. Hunter, in his Chorus Vatum, states that he was “a Collector of subsidies to Q. Elizabeth in 15..., for the county of Kent.” Urged to inquiry by this, my friend, Jas. Gairdner, Esq., kindly examined for me the Exchequer documents in the Public Record Offices, and it appears from them that he was collector of subsidies for the lathe ofxxiii Shepway in the years 28 and 29 of Elizabeth (1586–87). It may be added that, as appears from a previous document, 125/299, in the same class of papers, that Sir Reynold Scot and other Commissioners for the collection in the lathe of Shepway, of the first payment of the subsidy granted by the Parliament, 37 Henry VIII, had appointed a high Collector. Thus we learn the mode of his appointment; and on looking through the lists we find that many such were “generosi”, though the payment was but small. For Scot, forty shillings was deducted from the incomings; and this not as a percentage, but as salary.

From the same documents we find that he is twice designated “armiger”, a word agreeing with his 1584 title-page, “by Reginald Scot, Esquire”, though in the editions of his Hoppe Garden his name alone is given. This was for myself an important find; but it will suffice here to say that it confirms Hunter’s supposition that this esquireship was due to his having been made a justice of the peace, though as to the date it can only as yet be said that this dignity was probably granted between 1578 and 1584.

In an Accompt of Sir Th. Heanage, knight, Treasurer at Warr, in the Public Record Offices, and printed by J. Renat Scott in the Arch. Canti., vol. xi, p. 388, we find the following entries:

“Sr Thomas Scott knighte Collonel generall of the footemen in Kent for his Entertainment at xiijs iiijd pr diem for xxij dayes begonne the xxixth of Julye and endinge the xix of Auguste the summe of xiiijli xiijs iiijd.”

•           •           •            •           •            •           •

“Reinalde Scotte Trench mayster for his Enterteinment at iiijs pr diem, and due to him for the same tyme iiijli viijs.”

•           •           •            •           •            •           •

“Sr Thomas Scott knighte for Thenterteynemt of lxiij Wachemen & Garders appointed to watche & warde at Dongenesse for xxij dayes begonne [etc., as above] at viij the pece pr diem xlviliiiijs.”

From the Muster-roll taken on the 25th Jan. 1587–8, and now in the possession of Mr. Oliver, it appears that the county had then furnished 8,201 footmen and 711 horsemen, and that Sir Thomas was captain of the 309 trained foot raised in the lathe of Shepway, with four hundreds of the lathe of Scraye and Romney Marsh. Hence his office as Colonel-General was not given him—indeed, this is shown by the Accompt—until the men had been assembled in camp on the 29th July. In likexxiv manner the Muster-roll gives Sir Jas. Hales as Captain of the Lances; but in the pay list Th. Scott (a son of Sir Thomas) is Captain both of the Light Horse and Lances. With regard to “Reinalde”, who, under the name of Reginald, appears in the Muster-roll as one of the thirteen captains over 1,499 untrained foot, Mr. J. Renat Scott, in a note, states that he was a son of Sir Thomas Scott; but though sons of Sir Thomas were also captains, this assertion is a guess, unsupported by any known evidence.

He made his will on the 15th September 1599, and died twenty-four days thereafter, on the 9th October. Some say that he was either taken ill at Smeeth or died there, probably misinterpreting the words of his will; some also say that he was buried there; while some think that he was buried by the side of and close to Sir Thomas Scott’s tomb in Brabourne church; but all these, like the supposition of Philipot in his Kent Notes, Harl. MS. 3917, fol. 78a, that he erected that tomb, are mere guessings, and as such we leave them.

To the few particulars thus gathered together we are obliged, with the exception of two small points, one probable, and the other, I think, certain, to confine ourselves. The first or probable point is, that as his name appears five times as a witness to family business documents between 1566 and 1594, his signature appearing in this last year in Sir Thomas’s will, he must have kept up familiar intercourse with the latter, and was not improbably, in some measure at least, his man of business, and possibly his steward. The second point, which also goes to confirm this first one, as also to confirm the belief that he was made a justice of the peace, as being a person whose attainments, if not his position, would render him useful in such a post, is one to which I was independently led by his writings, and which is, I find, borne out by almost contemporary testimony.

He who in his Hoppe Garden showed such practical thought and foresight, and in his Witchcraft such independence of thought, was not a man, especially when married and a father, to live in dependence on a cousin. The wording, as well as the tone of his writings, agree with this. We find in them traces of legal study, a habit of putting things, as it were, in a forensic form, and noteworthy and not unfrequent references to legal axioms or dicta, quoted generally in their original Latin. The Dedication before his Hoppe Garden, and the first beforexxv his Witchcraft, are to men of high legal rank, judges, in fact, to whom he acknowledges his obligations. Referring the reader to these, and to the ambiguous sentence in the latter commencing “Finally” (sig. A ii), I would also give the words in the latter, where he says, A. v: “But I protest the contrarie, and by these presents I renounce all protection”; and in the former the legal phraseology is carried on throughout in—“and be it also knowne to all men by these presentes that your acceptance hereof shall not be any wyse prejudiciall unto you, for I delyver it as an Obligation, wherein I acknowledge my selfe to stande further bounde unto you, without that, that I meane to receyve your courtesie herein, as a release of my further duties which I owe,” A. iii. v. And in B. v.: “neither reproove me because by these presents I give notice thereof.” So also he would seem to have been an attendant at the assizes; and if we look to the story, told at page 5, of Marg. Simons, we find that he was not only present at the trial, but busied himself actively in the matter, talking to the vicar, the accuser, about it, advertising the poor woman as to a certain accusation, he “being desirous to heare what she could saie for hir selfe”, and inquiring into the truth of her explanation by the relation of divers honest men of that parish. In like manner, his Will is written “wth myne owne hande” twenty-five days before his death; and, on inquiring from a lawyer, I find that it is drawn up in due legal form, and by one who had had a legal training. Lastly, Thomas Ady, M.A., in A Candle in the Dark, 1656, alias, A Perfect Discovery of Witches, 1661, a book, like Scot’s, against the reality of witchcraft, distinctly tells us, p. 87, that Scot “was a student in the laws and learned in the Roman Laws”, the latter being exactly what such a man would be if he had turned towards the law as a profession. These considerations appear to me conclusive, even though it be added as an argument per contra that his name has not been found among the rolls of the Temple, Inner or Middle, or in those of Lincoln’s or Gray’s Inn.

And in taking leave of this portion of my subject, I cannot but reiterate the obligations both the reader and the literary world generally are under to Mr. Edmund Ward Oliver. The suppositions as to the cause of Scot’s loss of his moiety of the estates of Lady Winnifred Rainsford—not, it is believed, a large sum—and as to his law-studentship, based as they are on facts stated by Scot or derived fromxxvi his writings, and those of Th. Ady, are my own; while in one or two instances I have put forth opinions not quite in accord with that gentleman’s. But nearly all the biographical facts regarding Scot himself and his marriages, in contradistinction to the supposed facts hitherto set forth, are due to the intelligent research of Mr. Oliver, and are not unfrequently stated in his own words.

The following table will bring into one view the pedigree of Reginald Scot given in the previous pages:


* It is noteworthy that, notwithstanding the memorial inscription to the first Sir William, Reginald, or whoever was the author of the verses to Sir Thomas, only traces the pedigree to this fourth knight after Sir Reginald. Either then the first Sir William was then accounted somewhat mythical, or not being a knight of fame, he was not recognised as the same with Sir William Scott, the Chief Justice of England.

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WILL OF RAYNOLD SCOT.

Extracted from the copy, not the original, in the Principal Registry of the Probate, Divorce, and Admiralty Division of the High Court of Justice.

S     In the Prerogative Court of Canterbury.

In the Name of God Amen. I Raynolde Scott in the Countie of Kent gent beinge of the Parish of Smeth Doe make and ordaine and wth myne owne hande doe write this my Last will and Testament on Saturdaye the fyfteenth of September Anno Dñi a thousand fyve hundred nyntie nyne and in the fortie one yeare of the raigne of or soveraigne Ladie Queene Elizabeth Fyrst I bequeath my Sowle to Almightie god and my body to be buryed as yt shall seeme good to Alice my wiefe whome I make and ordaine to be myne onely Executrix Item I bequeath to my sayde wief All my goods and chattells plate housholde stuffe Juelles and Chaynes with all my leases and goods moveable and vnmoveable savinge such as I shall by this my Will other Wise dispose of Item I (for the trust I repose in Mr. Edwarde Hall of Ashforde and of my neighbour Raynolde Keale of Smeeth in countie aforesaide doe make them two the overseers to this my Last will and gyve to eyther of them for theire paines and trouble wch they ar like to sustaine herebye fyve poundes Item I bequeath to Sr John Scott my lease of the banke or pond at Aldinge Item I bequeath to my graund childe Cisley Turnor tenne poundes to buy her a little Chaine Item I gyve to my daughter in Lawe Marie Collyar six poundes thirteene shillings foure pence to be paide unto her within one quarter after my decease, to be bestowed in apparell upon her selfe as she shall seeme good nether would I have her mothers hand anie thinge the shorter towardes her in that respect Item I give to my daughter Turnor the Covenant that I have of my Cozen Charles Scott touchinge the renuinge of my lease when his grace doth renne [read renue] his lease of Braborne Rectorie provided that my meaninge is, that my said wief shall enioye the full tearme that I nowe possesse and howsoever yt shalbe renued my daughter shall have the only renuinge which shalbe in effecte after the whole tearme wch I holde now be expired so as by any meane [intervening] renuinge my saide wief be not defeated of my true meaninge towardes her Item I do bequeath to my saied wief and to her heires for ever All my Landes Lyinge in Aldington and now in thoccupacion of John Pollard and all my Landes in Ruckinge in thoccupacion of —— Diggons and all my Landes in Sellenge in the occupacion of —— Coakar All which Landes lye in the sayde sayde* Countie of Kent Item I gyve and bequeath to my said wief all my other Landes in Rumney Marshe or els where in the said countye duringe her naturall lief Item I doe gyve to my Servante Moyll Smyth the some of twentie shillinges yearelie duringe his naturall Life to be paide out of all my Landes halfe yearelie and that for defaulte of payment yt shalbe Lawfull for him to distraine And so I ende desyreinge the worlde to iudge the best hereof and of the consyderacions for greate is the trouble my poore wief hath had with me, and small is the comforte she hath receyved at my handes whome yf I had not matched wth all I had not dyed worth one groate.—

Ray: Scott.


* Sic, first at end of line.
Sic, to be paide is interlined above this.

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By a short notice following the copy of the will, it was proved on the 22nd November 1599. There is also a document setting forth that Alicia Scott, relicta, and Elizabetha Turnor, als Scott, filia naturalis et legitima, had disputed, before certain functionaries named regarding the will, and that probate was granted as aforesaid on the 22nd November 1599. But as the cause or subject of the dispute is not mentioned, this, like the short notice, is not given.


ABSTRACT OF INQUIS. POST MORTEM, 18 ELIZ. p. 1, No. 84.

Inquisition taken at Maidstone on the death of Lady Wynifred Rainsfoord, 30 March, 18 Eliz. [1575–6].

She was seised of the Manors of Nettlested and Hiltes with appurtenances in E. and W. Peckham, Brenchley, W. Barmling, Merewood, Marden; also of the Manor of Pympe with appurtenances in Yaulding, Marden, and Brenchley. Also various other lands, some of which, called Stockenbury, Motelands, and Souchefields, are in Brenchley.

She died 17 Oct. last, at Chelmsford in Essex.

Th. Scott, kt., is her next heir, viz., son and heir of Reginalde Scotte, kt., sonne and heir of Anne Scotte, wife of John Scotte, kt., daughter and heir of Reginald Pympe, brother of John Pympe, father of said Lady Winifred.

Thomas Scotte, kt., Charles Scott, Henry Scotte, George Scotte, and William Scotte [brothers of the first-named Thomas Scotte, kt.], and Reginald Scotte, are coheirs of the lands held in gavelkind. One moiety thereof descends to Thomas, Charles, etc. [as named above], sons and coheirs of Reginalde Scotte, kt., son and heir of Anne Scotte; and the other moiety to Reginald, son and heir of Richard Scotte, junior, son of the said Anne.

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Thomas miles is 39 et amplius, Charles 34 [etc.], Henry 32 [etc.], George 30 [etc.], William 22 [etc.], and Reginald 38 years of age et amplius.

The exact words regarding the co-heirs are: “descendebant et de jure descendere debent præfato Thomæ Scotte militi, Carolo Scott, Henrico Scotte, Georgio Scotte et Will’o Scotte, fratribus dicti Thomæ Scotte militis et Reginaldo Scotte, consanguineo prædicti Thomæ Scotte militis, ut consanguineis et coheredibus prædictæ dominæ Winifridæ eo quod prædictæ terræ ... ultimo recitata sunt de natura de gavelkind.” This disproves the assertion of Mr. J. Renat Scott in Arch. Cant., xi, 388, and repeated in his genealogy of the Scott family, that the Reginald Scott mentioned in the former as receiving pay among those appointed in 1587-8 was “a son of Sir Thomas”.


ABSTRACT OF INQUIS. P.M., 45 ELIZ., pars. 1, No. 71.

Inquisition taken at Maidstone, 2 Dec. [1602], after the death of Reginald Scot, generosus.

He was seised of a tenement and 20 acres of land called Graynecourtte, held of Th. Scott, Esq., as of his manor of Brabourne, a tenement called Essex, and 20 acres of land in two parcels in Allington [Aldington], held of Edw. Hall, as of his manor of Pawlson. One parcel of land called Haythorne field, containing 20 acres in Bonington, held of the Queen in capite, and a tenement and one parcel of land lying in Barefield, containing two acres in Brabourne, tenure unknown, and one acre in Brabourne and 5 acres in Brabourne, and two parcels in Smeeth, and 30 acres of marsh called Gatesleaf, in Newchurch, held of Martin Barneham, Esq., as of his manor of Bylsyngton.

He died 9 Oct., 41 Eliz. [1599], at Smeeth.

Elizabeth, wife of Sackville Turner, gent., is his daughter and next heir, and was 28 years of age and more at his death.

Alice, his widow, has received the rents since his death.

[Elizabeth was the next heir to his own property, but that which was his own through his wife Alice, he specially devised “to her and to her heirs”.]


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The Cause and History of the Work.—That is, what induced Scot to write it, and why did he set it forth as he did? inquiries which involve, among other matters, a short notice of the position then and previously held by witchcraft in England. His Hoppe-garden shows him to us as a man of intelligence, foresighted and reflective of thought, and desirous of improving the state of his country and countrymen. It shows him also as one who could not only seize a thought and commend it to others, but as one who had perseveringly put his idea into practice, found it feasible, and then so learnt the processes necessary for growing the plant, and preparing its catkins and storing them for use, that a priori one would suppose that he had done what he did not, namely, visited Holland and learnt the processes on the spot. The same qualities are seen in his Witchcraft, as is also his independence of thought. No sooner had his suspicions been aroused than he proceeded, as shown by the work and its references, to investigate the matter thoroughly and perseveringly. To this also he was encouraged, or rather led, by yet other two qualities, his straightforwardness or honesty of purpose, and his compassion, for these taught him that he was engaged in a righteous work, that of rescuing feeble and ignorant, though it may be too pretentious and shrewish, old women from false charges and a violent death, and in a noble work in endeavouring to stem the torrent of superstition and cruelty which was then beginning to overflow the land.

Nor was this the result in any way of a mind sceptically inclined. His book shows that he accepted the opinions of his day, unless he had been led to inquire into them, and either re-receive them as facts or discard them. Led doubtless by his academic training, it is abundantly clear that he had inquired into the grounds of his belief in the Established Church, and into the additions that had been made to its faith in the course of illiterate ages by the Popish Church. He had read Plotina, who taught him that the so-called vicars of Christ and his vice-gerents on earth were often devils incarnate and standard-bearers of vice, and that the system which did now and again produce a St. Francis d’Assis—all reverence to his name—produced also the congeners of Loyola, and Loyola himself, whose followers, while assuming to themselves the holy name of Socii Jesu, made that name famous and infamous, and their tenets execrated throughout the xxxi civilised world. But he accepted with some doubting, having, as he thought, great authority for it and no means of investigation, the story of the Remora; and accepted without doubting the beliefs that the bone of a carp’s head, and none other, staunched blood, the value of the unicorn’s horn, and the like, and—notwithstanding his disbelief in astrology—that seed-time and springing were governed by the waxing and waning of the moon. He also believed that precious stones owed their origin to the influences of the heavenly bodies; and besides his credulous beliefs as to certain waters, narrated at the commencement, he in the next chapter gives the absurdly wonderful virtues of these stones, some, as he says, believed in by him, “though many things most false are added”.

How then came he to inquire into and write so strongly against witchcraft? Before the time of the eighth Henry, sorcerers were dealt with by the ecclesiastical law, which punished them as heretics. Moreover, their supposed offences against the person seem, chiefly at least, to have been taken notice of when they were supposed to interfere with high or state matters or persons, as in the cases of Joan of Arc or Dame Eleanor Cobham. But in Henry’s time, probably through the extension of continental ideas, aided, it may be, by a desire to restrain the ecclesiastical power, c. 8 of the thirty-third year of his reign was passed. By this it was enacted, that witches, etc., who destroyed their neighbours, and made pictures [images] of them for magical purposes, or for the same purposes made crowns, swords, and the like, or pulled down crosses, or declared where things lost or stolen were become, should suffer death and loss of lands and goods, as felons, and lose the privileges of clergy and sanctuary. Afterwards, by 1 Edw. I, c. 12, this and other offences first made felonies in Henry’s time were no longer to be accounted such. Thirdly, in the fifth year of Elizabeth, Parliament, by its twelfth chapter, enacted, that whereas many have practised sorceries to the destruction of people and their goods, those that cause death shall suffer as was declared by 33 Henry VIII, c. 8, except that their wives and heirs shall not have their rights affected by such attainder. But that when a person was only injured, or their goods or cattle destroyed, the offenders should for the first offence suffer a year’s imprisonment, and once a quarter be exposed in the pillory in a market town for six xxxii hours, and there confess their offences; and for the second offence suffer death as felons, with the exceptions before rehearsed. While any who seek treasure, or would bring about unlawful love, or hurt anyone in his body or goods, should for a first offence be imprisoned and suffer as before, and for a second be imprisoned for life and forfeit his goods and cattle. This, so far as humanity is concerned, is a distinct advance on Henry’s enactment, though an apparent going back from that of Edward. Perhaps, as before, it arose from a desire to remove the offences from the jurisdiction of the ecclesiastical law, which would have burnt them, nor, as evidenced by its little results, does it seem to have been made through any mania or scare in the matter. This came on later, when, as we are told by Brian Darcie in 1582, at what time, under pie-crust promises of favour, he was endeavouring to get women to confess, and then be hanged,—“there is a man of great learning and knowledge come over lately into our Queenes Majestie, which hath advertised her what a companie and numbers of Witches be within Englande: whereupon I and other of her Justices have received Commission for the apprehending of as many as are within these limites.” Alas, this man of great learning and knowledge seems to have been none other than that otherwise light of the English Church, the great, good, and pious Bishop Jewel, who, having returned from a forced residence abroad, was speedily promoted by her Majesty, and in a sermon preached before her, in 1572, brought in the subject as follows:—

“Heere perhaps some man will replie, that witches, and conjurers often times chase away one Divell by the meane of another. Possible it is so; but that is wrought, not by power, but by Collusion of the Divels. For one Divell, the better to attaine his purpose, will give place, and make as though he stood in awe of another Divell. And by the way to touch but a word or two of this matter for that the horrible using of your poore subjects inforceth thereunto. It may please your Grace to understand, that this kind of people, I meenes witches and sorcerers, within these few last yeeres, are marvellously increased within this your Grace’s realme. These eies have seene most evident and manifest marks of their wickednesse. Your Grace’s subjects pine away even unto the death, their collour fadeth, their flesh rotteth, their speech is benummed, their senses are bereft.”

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“Wherefore, your poore subjects most humble petition unto your Highnesse, is, that the lawes touching such malefactours, may be put in due execution. For the shole of them is great, their doings horrible, their malice intollerable, the examples most miserable. And I pray God, they never practise further, then upon the subject. But this only by the way, these be the scholers of Beelzebub the chief captaine of the Divels.”

The plantings of the Queen in the commissions of her Justices thus instigated and encouraged, produced an abundant crop. According to the Dedications of Scot, Sir Roger Manwood, Lord Chief Baron of the Exchequer, had had “in these causes such experience”, A ii. v., while Sir Thomas Scot, as Justice of the Peace, had also had “manie poore old women convented before him for ... witchcraft”, A. vi. Various booklets also, presently to be spoken of more at large, excited still more the imaginations of a credulous people, and it had been supposed, before Scot wrote, as will be seen on p. 473, and in my note on that page, that the Queen’s person had been aimed at in that way.

It thus appears that though Scot may have been brought up in a traditional but little-regarded belief in witchcraft, he, when he was at least thirty-four, was not only unprepared, but startled, to witness and take part in this new departure from justice and mercy. Witchcraft, chiefly looked on as useful in discovering things lost, or in bringing a wished-for sweetheart to return the love of the seeker, or in curing ailments simple or grievous, became feared, reviled, and sought out: sought out by Commission of the Queen, sought out by the people as a great and fearful evil rapidly overspreading the land, and able and willing, like the Plague and Black Death, to count its victims by thousands, and from the cottage to the throne itself. He, a man both intelligent and compassionate, sees poor, old, decrepit creatures eking out a miserable livelihood by begging an occasional dole from their better off neighbours; ill-tempered by age and condition, and therefore abusive when refused such dole, or on slighter causes, sometimes perhaps through old knowledge or superstition, but probably more often for the sake of gain, pretending to be wise above what is known; he sees these accused of selling their souls for the sake of such a position in the world, he hears them accused sometimes of foul, more frequently of unlikely, crimes and acts, nay, such as an unprejudiced xxxiv common sense must laugh at, while the evidence is nearly always so faulty that, were the accusation a different one, it would be at once turned inside out and thrown aside. Unfortunately, too, some of these old women being more or less mad, and others driven through fear on the one hand, or through promised favour on the other, confess themselves capable of doing these things, though any man of sense and observation could detect their state or motives. Luckily, too, he had had close to him, and in his wife’s family, the known and talked-of imposture of the Holy Maid of Kent; and in his own time and close to his own door, the case of the Pythonist of Westwell, at first carried out triumphantly, and then, on her own confession and her re-acted acts, branded as an impostor, like the Holy Maid. The Dutchman, too, at Maidstone, after being set forth as a worker of miracles and an exorcist, was found to be a rogue; and “manie other such miracles had beene latelie printed, whereof diverse had beene bewraied.” He had taken part also—apparently as one engaged for the defence—in that piece of folly called the trial of Margaret Simons, and knew the history of Ade Davie, and of her restoration to sanity without exorcism, hanging, or burning.

Is it not natural that his suspicions, and more than suspicions, should have been aroused, and that he should have been thus led to take up the whole subject seriously? One who had given himself up, as Wood says, to reading and thought as well as to healthy and useful exercise, must have sought for and obtained books on either side of the subject, and in especial the known book of Wier; and thoughtful reading of these, and meditation must have led him to extend his views, and gather them into a harmonious and consistent whole. Meanwhile, however, the bloodthirsty superstition daily increased, and there were published first, the mad book or books of Richard Gallis—spoken of in pp. 132–3—of the witches at Windsor, now, I believe, unfortunately lost, where, among other things, he narrates how, at a Sabbath meeting, he had a hand-to-hand encounter with the devil, and wounded him so sore that he stank of brimstone; and in 1582, there took place the wholesale condemnation of the poor old women of St. Osees, thirteen I believe of whom were hanged. There had been no such condemnation before in England. It is not unlikely that he himself witnessed their condemnation—see pp. xxv–vi. xxxv So unusual was it, that—as I cannot but believe on other evidence, as stated in my noting on Macbeth—a ballad was written on it, which became very commonly known, and was remembered as late as 1606. This same unusual breadth of punishment also created so much attention that Justice Brian Darcie thought it worth while to set forth in print, not the trial, but the depositions taken before him, and thus inform a too ignorant public that he and he alone was the primary cause of such a purification.

These facts, and especially this last, aroused, I believe, Scot’s compassion and indignation, and made both find vent in printed words. And besides these likelihoods, including that of date, there are two at first sight seemingly contradictory facts, which made themselves manifest to me when I first carefully read the book, and before I had formed any opinion on their causes, and which are on this view reconciled. These facts are, that while the plan which he has adopted, and his facts and conclusions, seem to have been deliberately sought out, thought over, and canvassed, there are evidences throughout of a feverous haste of composition, such feverous haste as the above spoken of emotions would excite in a man like Scot, who had witnessed so horrible and so bloody a perversion of justice. The proof of the first fact I leave to be observed by the intelligent reader; but while the second must also be observed by him, it is needful, to the full exposition of my argument, that I should collect in one view most at least of the details. This haste is evidenced in some of his corrected errata, but more in those that he did not correct. Thus we have, on p. 174, a curious slip, by which Pharaoh becomes a Persian, and Nebuchadnezzar takes Pharaoh’s place as an Egyptian king, for other parts of the book prove conclusively that this was an unintentional lapsus, and one a second time overlooked when the book was re-read before the title-page and the preliminary leaves were set up. Similar are his errors as to Haias and Sedaias, for at one time he speaks of Rabbi Sedaias Haias, repeating it also at the last when he gives his “forren authors” consulted, and between these speaks of them as two persons, as they were. More especially would I call attention to his blunders as to Argerius Ferrerius. He quotes him—yet he is always Ferrarius—five times in his text, twice in his table of contents, and once in his “authors used”. So in his translation from him, the “s” of xxxvi “verbis” being indistinct in some copies, he read the word as “verbi”, and thereby translated the sentence into such unmistakable nonsense that this alone should have shown him his error. So, also, we have the senseless, because careless, rendering of the sword in hand passage, p. 257; and with these may be classed his adoption of T. R.’s curious mistranslations from Wier’s Pseudomonarchia, or from another copy of the Empto. Salomonis, for a moment’s consideration would have shown him their absurdity, and led him to turn to Wier. In p. 19 also, we find “infants” where, as stated in my note, all the editions of the Mal. Malef. in the British Museum have “infames”; and this, though a slip of memory, betokens, when taken with the rest, overhaste. These slips, in an ordinary writer, would lead to another conclusion, but not in this case, where we have evidence of both ordinary and recondite knowledge, of conclusions tried by actual experiment, of a quick and intelligent perception, and of what may be called, in a good sense, a ready and acute subtlety in refuting or retorting allegations or objections.

Our author’s indebtedness to Cornelius Agrippa and to Wier has, in a great measure, been anticipated in what has been said; but a few words may here be added. Casually coming across their books when he became a reader of out-of-the-way works, he did not become a follower of theirs, and then write a book, as the disciples of Pythagoras wrote books to expound and hand down the doctrines of their master. Wier had written a book against witchcraft, and a clear and comprehensive book. But while Scot certainly followed Wier in point of time, and as certainly was much indebted to him for the perfecting of his book, yet, as I have said, Scot seems to have taken up his belief against the reality of witchcraft from what he in his own experience had witnessed; and my view, that he was then led to read Wier and Cornelius Agrippa, and the writers on the other side, seems to me confirmed by what we find as to his indebtedness to Wier. The “Notings on Wier” show that, while he copied him in some other instances, he borrowed from him mainly a long list of illustrations, some of which even he may have drawn independently from the same sources as did Wier.

Bibliography.—We do not find an entry of Scot’s Hoppe-garden in the Stationers’ Registers, because the entries about 1574 are wanting. xxxviiBut why do we not find so large and important a book as the Witchcraft of 1584 so entered, the writer being of a family of no mean repute, and the head of his house, Sir Th. Scot, being in those days a man of some mark? The answer, after what has been said, is simple. He upheld and defended a heresy, the existence and diabolical powers and practices of witches being believed in and guarded against, by the Queen, the bishops, and the people. Hence the reply of the Stationers’ Company would most certainly have been—the same as in more trifling cases—“provided he shall get the bishop of London his alowance to yt”, words which, under the circumstances, would have been a refusal, and a refusal which, had any steps been taken against him after its publication, would have told against him. Hence he resolved to print it, taking all the blame and responsibility on his own shoulders, no stationer’s name being connected with it, and the name of the printer appearing only at the end of the book, without date or place of address—“Imprinted at London by | William Brome.” And here, by the way, it may be mentioned that though called in catalogues a quarto, its signatures are in eights. As before stated, both Thomas Ady and Anthony à Wood tell us that it “did for a time make great impressions on the Magistracy and Clergy”, and that it did so generally is shown by the appearance of Webster’s, Ady’s, and other books on the same side, and those of Gifford, Perkins, and others, on the other, including King James, who, in 1597, issued his Dæmonologie specially against it. Whether Elizabeth or the authorities under her took any notice of it is doubtful, for, as I have said, he was still an Esquire in 1587; and the last words of his will, “for greate is the trouble my poor wief hath had with me, and small is the comforte she hath receyved at my hands”, and his designation of himself as “gent.”, point rather to a voluntary surrender of his office, through weakness and ill-health, than to a dismissal.

But zeal for the truth, as he believed it, combined with his fears for himself, for he believed that he had been the object of witchcraft and of the machinations of the evil powers more than once, though luckily in vain, led the royal author on the other side to cause Scot’s book to be burned by the common hangman; and, as is also said by Cole, not one copy alone, as significant of its character, and of its xxxviii being a liber prohibitus in the eyes of this Protestant Pope, but as many as could be laid hands upon. While, too, I have as yet found no direct proof of this latter statement, it is perhaps in some degree confirmatory of it, that no copies of the book exist in the library of St. Paul’s Cathedral, nor in that of Lambeth Palace, nor in that of Sion College. To the same cause is most likely due the exceedingly neat copy of various chapters, and parts of chapters, contained in the Sloane MS., ff. 2189, in the British Museum, its date according to the experts there being circa 1620. At one time I had suspected that these extracts had been made with the intent of writing a book either for or against the truth of witchcraft; but the methodical neatness of all but the first two or three pages, the manner in which the typographical form of the book is followed, the consecutive, though broken manner, in which the extracts follow one another, the absence of any word or any sign of remark or comment throughout, now cause me to hold that it was a copy made by or for one who took such portions as he wished from a book otherwise inaccessible.

Turning back to this burning, I would say also that I have not come across any English contemporary, or even early statement as to it, much less as to its date. Perhaps, however, without much fear of error, we may suppose it to have been done immediately after the Act against witches, passed in the first year of James’s reign. By it the Act 5 Eliz. was repealed, and any conjuration, etc., of an evil spirit was made a crime punishable by death as a felon, the culprit losing all benefit of clergy and sanctuary. The finding of treasure by magical means, provoking to unlawful love, or destroying of cattle, was for the first offence to bring with it imprisonment for one year, standing in the pillory once a quarter for six hours, and confessing his crime, as in the Act repealed; and for the second offence death as a felon, though the dowry and the heirship were not attainted. This Act itself shows how strong were James’s convictions in the matter, as does the publication in London of his Dæmonologie in the same year, it being entered on the Stationers’ Registers on the 3rd April 1603. Scot’s book was therefore against James’s belief, and the esteem in which it was held against his own powers as a reasoner and author. While, however, so far as I can find, we owe the knowledge of this burning to a German source, its extreme likelihood is corroborated by xxxix what I have said, that James’s belief in witchcraft was with him an undoubted Article of Faith, and by the fact that various books, known and unknown, were at different times publicly burnt during his reign, though no official records of these burnings have been preserved.

Cole, as quoted in Bliss’s edition of the Athen. Oxon., gives the account as made by Thomasius de crimine magiæ, a book which I believe does not exist. There is a Thesis inaugaralis de crimine magiæ submitted in 1701 by Johan Reiche to the Regia Academia Fredericiana ... præside D. Christiano Thomasio. But Reiche refers to an earlier writer—“Gisberti Voetii | Theologiæ in Acad. Ultrajectina Professoris | Selectarum | Disputationum | Theologicarum, | Pars Tertia. | .... | Ultrajecti, | Ex Officina Johannis à Waesberge, | Anno CIↃ IↃ C LIX, |” which says, p. 564:

“... Reginaldus Scot nobilis Anglus magiæ crimen aperte negavit, & ex professo oppugnavit, omnes ejus mirabiles effectus aut ad melancoliam, aliosve naturales morbos, aut ad artem, industriam, & agilitatem hominum figmentis & præstigiis suis illudentium, aut ad stolidas imaginationes, dictorum magorum, aut ad vanas nugas & fictiones eorundem magorum referens. Ejus liber tit. Discoverie of Withcraft [sic] in Anglia combustus est; quem nominatim etiam perstringit Sereniss. Magnæ Briantniæ [sic] Rex Jacobus in Dæmonologia, eumque tangit diffusissimæ eruditionis Theologus Johannes Raynoldus, in cens. lib. Apocryph. tom. 2 prælect. 169. In eundem, sed innominatum calamum strinxit eximius & subacti judicii Theologus, Guilelm. Perkinsus in tractatu de Bascanologia. Pars libri istius Reginaldi Scot elenctica (nam reliqua in editione Anglicana conjurationes continebat,) in Belgicum idioma translata est, ante annos aliquot Lugd. Batav. per Thomam Basson: ex illius libri lectione, seu fonte perenni, non pauci ab illo tempore docti & indocti in Belgio fluctuare, & de Magia σκεωτικιζειν ac λιβερτινιζειν (ut Libertinis & Semilibertinis infesta est patria nostra) quin eo ignorantiæ sæpe prolabi, ut non iniquè illis applicari potuerit, quod Sereniss. Rex Jacobus in Dæmonologiâ subdito suo Reginaldo Scot: esse quasi novos Sadduccæos: cum omnes diabolorum operationes & apparitiones suaviter exibilant: tanquam anicularum, aut superstitionis meticulosæ phantasmata ac sabellas. Sunt & alii, sed pessimi magiæ patroni, qui ad Deum & divina charismata xlseu gratias gratis datas, aut ad angelos bonos, operationes magicas referunt.”

Dr. W. N. du Rieu, Librarian of the University of Leyden, kindly informs me, that a translation into Dutch, “omitting some formulæ of malediction and other matters which would more interest English readers,” was made and edited by Th. Basson, an English stationer living at Leyden in 12mo in 1609. It was undertaken at the instigation of the professors of law and history, and its dedication, dated 10th January 1609, was to the Curators of the University, and to the burgomasters of Leyden. A second and corrected edition, published by his son, G. Basson, was also printed at Leyden in 1637, though the dedication is dated 8th May 1637, Amsterdam.

Though in various of the notes the passages have been spoken of, yet to call attention to the matter, and in the hope that others may be more successful, I would add that I have not discovered the principle on which he went, nor his authorities, for his Scripture readings. In his Latin quotations he generally quotes the Vulgate, twice or thrice Beza, or Beza varied, while at other times he goes by some other translation, or possibly makes it himself. So his long English quotation, p. 284, is not taken from Wycliffe’s, Tyndale’s, Cranmer’s, Coverdale’s, Matthews’, or from the Genevan, Bishops’, or Rheims versions, though more like the Genevan, while, curiously enough, it precedes the one of 1611 by one or two verbal coincidences. Hence, I believe that he varied the Genevan version according to his own views and taste, and am the more inclined to this in that the passage is not in Italics, the then type and mark of quotations, but in Romans.

Notwithstanding, however, the decree that had gone forth, and, notwithstanding the strange Sadducean assertion, not argument, set forth by James, and followed by John Rainolds, D.D., in his work on the Apocrypha (tom. ii, 1032), and by Gisbert Voet, the book’s inherent excellency, as reported by Ady, and as evidenced by the notices of it in the various books on either side that afterwards came forth, and in part, perhaps, through that decree itself, called for its reproduction; and in 1651 it was issued with a new title-page, though naturally it was again not entered on the Stationers’ Registers. This time it was really—as evidenced by the signatures—a quarto. The text was one and the same with that printed off by Richard Cotes; but there werexli three issues, and three slightly different title-pages. The first bears—LONDON | Printed by Richard Cotes. 1651. The second has—Printed by R. C. and are to be sold by Giles Calvert, dwelling at the | Black Spread-Eagle at the West-end of Pauls. 1651. And except for these final words, separated on both title-pages by a line from the rest, both are word for word, and even to the misprint “superstions” identical. The explanation, in all probability, if not certainty, being that my “first” one was the first issue, when the publisher thought it more prudent to withhold his name; the other, a second issue of copies still called for, when, finding no ill results, he had become bolder. The third has below the line spoken of: London | Printed by E. [not R.] Cotes and are to be sold by Thomas Williams at the | Bible in Little Britain 1654. In this “Scots” is printed without the apostrophe, “men”, “women”, and “children”, as also “treatise”, have capital initials; on both occasions it has “Devils”, not “Divels”; and the last line but one above the dividing line ends “De-” not “Divels”, and “superstions” is rightly printed “superstitions”. These variations in the title-page, and the exact conformity of the text as to the various peculiarities of the letters, words, and sizes of the punctuation, show that Williams had come into possession of Calvert’s remainder, or of his set-up type, and had issued these sheets, prefixing a new title-page of his own, printed by E. Cotes.

There is not the slightest evidence of a copy of the 1584 edition having been prepared for the press, beyond the new title-page, and on two occasions the translation of Latin, that Scot had not—as he had done in similar instances—translated. The Latin-named ingredients on p. 184 are Englished, and I have thus been enabled to give them in my notings with the more probability that they are correct. The second instance is, as stated in my margin, on p. 416. Two or three press errors are corrected, one of them not a certain emendation, and all within the competency of an ordinary compositor or reader; but no others, not even that of “increase” for “incense”, p. 446, while fresh errors, indicative of a careless “reader”, are made.

What has been thus said as to the character of this second reprint, goes to prove that it was a publisher’s venture based upon the demand for the book, and, therefore, for gain, and one which he carried out spitexlii of its having been burnt, and placed among the “prohibited books”. In like manner, and for the like purpose, and as before, without entry in the Stationers’ Registers, there was brought out the third, and so-called folio edition of 1665, though the sheets are in sixes. All but the title-page, which, curiously enough, was again re-written, though still bearing, like the second, the words, “By Reginald Scot Esquire”; it is a careless reprint of that second, with all its errors, and new ones superadded. But as a novelty and inducement to buy, nine chapters, commencing the fifteenth book, and a second book of the “Discourse on Devils and Spirits”, were added by an anonymous author. Who this anonymity was, I have uselessly spent some little time in inquiring, time that might have been better employed, even had I found him. But it goes to prove that these additions were merely made for novelty’s sake, and its glamour and gain, in that the writer was a believer in, and not improbably, from his minute directions, as well as from his reticence, a practiser of witchcraft, or of what he thought to be witchcraft. He also, and I give this as one possible clue, was a strong believer in the perishable Astral spirit of a man, as well as of Astral spirits in general, and much of his “Discourse” is taken up with remarks on these.

I may here add, as showing the carelessness with which these second and third editions were edited, a note of the errata marked in the first and not corrected in them.

75, 21. “We,” so the second; in the third the (,) is rightly placed after “years”. A correction that could have been made by the least intelligent of “readers”.

168, 31. “Earth read firmament.” Not corrected.

247, 29. “Write add it.” Not corrected.

269, 16. “If there be masses delete If.” Retained, but the second attempts to correct by inserting “no” before “masses”, and the third follows suit, though it is as nonsensical as before.

463, 16. “Their business read that business.” Not corrected.

Beyond these, the limited edition now printed is the only other known to me. As stated in the preface, it is a reprint of the first edition, with some slight alterations in the lettering, but not in the spelling. Besides the few errata that have been found and recorded, the small heading on its left hand pages up to p. 24 is “Chap. —”, xliii like that on the right hand, instead of being “1 or 2 Booke”. So also in the earlier pages, the marginal references, though correct, are not printed line for line with the original. The pictorial initial letters of the first chapter of each book occupy in the original almost a third of the page. The first word of a chapter has only its first two letters—including its pictorial letter—in capitals, but the remainder, as well as the rest of the first line, is in larger type than the rest. The original being also in black letter was enabled to use both Romans and Italics as variants, whereas the reprint could only use Italics. The rule of the original is, however, in general very simple. “The — Chapter”, the contents of the chapter and proper names are in Romans; “The — Booke” and quotations in Italics; the translations of quotations in Romans. Wherever there can be any doubt the type of the original is marked in the margin, as are occasional uses by the author of [] to distinguish them from the editor’s use of the same. It may be added that “The — Chapter”, and the contents of the chapter, have been transposed. The V like arrangement of the lines at the end of a chapter have not been followed, but been imitated according to the spirit in which they were employed; for, after an investigation made for the purpose, it was found that they do not indicate a division of the text or matter, but were simply compositors’ devices to fill up a page when that page either ended a book, or when its blank space did not allow of the commencement of a new chapter. Similarly, on one page, a (∵) was added to complete the page. And, in like manner, if there was still space at the end of a book, an engraving was inserted. I would add that all the page references that I make are to the pages of the 1584 edition.

I had collected for an appendix various grammatical peculiarities of the age; but they increased the number of pages, and therefore the price of the book, without, as seemed to me, sufficient cause, more especially as the reader can readily consult Dr. Abbot’s Shakesperian Grammar, as well as notices in other books. One point, however, ought to be attended to. Though an educated and University man, accustomed to Latin and Greek, he, like all of his time, followed the then frequent habit of using singular verbs after plural nominatives not immediately preceding them. A close examination of these, both in Scot and Greene, another literate and Utriusque Academiæ in xliv Artibus Magister; and one notable one in Ben Jonson, who elsewhere, so far as I know, avoids this error; as well as those in Shakespeare and others, have shown me that they cannot be explained as is sought in Dr. Abbot’s Shakesperian Grammar, § 333, where the form of the verb is held to be a remnant of the northern early English third person plural in “s”. The instances alone of the auxiliary verbs so used set this theory aside, and show that the custom was due to carelessness, habit, the remoteness or after position of the true nominatives, and to the nearness of another word, sometimes even to a transposed objective; or of a “that” or “which” that had the look of a singular, or in the case of a double nominative, to both words being considered as implying one thought, as indeed they often did, being merely synonyms. Our Elizabethan ancestors would have said: “Pity and compassion moves me,” because they held pity and compassion were one and the same; and the habit of using Saxon and Latin, or other synonyms, led them to use the same construction when the meanings were but allied. This seems to me the more likely explanation: but the reader may prefer this—that our ancestors took the phrase to be elliptical, and that the verb really employed after both substantives was to be understood after the first and before the “and”.

Contemporary Notices of Scot.—Of strictly contemporary notices, I know of but two. In Nash’s Four Letters Confuted, 1593, he asks, ed. Grosart, ii, 252: “How is the Supplication a diabolicall Discourse, otherwise than as it intreats of the diverse natures and properties of Divels and spirits? in that far fetcht sense may the famous defensative against supposed Prophecies, and the Discoverie of Witchcraft be called notorious Diabolicall discourses, as well as the Supplication, for they also intreate of the illusions and sundrie operations of spirits.” The second is in Gabriel Harvey’s Pierce’s Supererogation, 1593, ed. Grosart, ii, 291: “Scottes discoovery of Witchcraft, dismasketh sundry egregious impostures, and in certaine principall Chapters, & speciall passages, hitteth the nayle on the head with a witnesse: howsoever I could have wished, [G. H. is nothing if he be not quasi-critical and emending] he had either dealt somewhat more curteously with Monsieur Bodine, or cōfuted him somewhat more effectually.”

Of course, various of the after-writers on witchcraft, whichever side they took, either spoke of him explicitly, or alluded to him; xlv Webster, Wagstaffe, Ady, and others, on the same side as Scot, and Meric Casaubon, Cotta, etc., ending with Glanvil on the other. But these, the really curious in such matters may be left to search out for themselves. Only I would like to mention John Deacon’s and John Walker’s Dialogicall Discourses of ... Devils [etc.], 1601, both because they, being clergymen, had the boldness—besides adding new arguments of their own, and though their wording is somewhat less decided than their own evident belief—out of three explanations of the case of the Witch of Endor which they set before the reader, to plainly prefer Scot’s view of her ventriloquism, both naming him in the text, and giving the reference to his page in their margin; and secondly, because so far as a hasty look enables one to give an opinion, they spoke more rationally on magical and other points than one would at that date expect. They also quote the opinion of Hippocrates on magical cures, as given by Scot, p. 450, and show that they take it, though not literally, from him, and not from Hippocrates directly, by giving a reference to Scot in the margin. Afterwards they published in 1603, a second large work, A summarie[?] answer to John Darrell, the first work having been also suggested by the same impostor, and his setting forth of himself as a caster out of devils.

I have said on p. xxii that the discovery of Scot’s name in the Subsidy Rolls for 1586 and 1587 with the affix of “Armiger” was for me an important find. And now I would explain that it was so, inasmuch as it set my mind at rest as to the oneness of the Raynold of the Hoppe-garden with the Reginald Scot Esquire, of the Witchcraft. Aware that Reynold and Reginald were variants of one name, used of and by the same person, the following facts hindered me for a long time from accepting the common belief that the Raynold and Reginald of these two works were one and the same. First, the author of the Hoppe-garden in each of his signatures to the editions of 1574–6–8, three in each, appears as Raynold. In the marriage entry, in the pay-account of the Kent forces, in the Muster-roll, and in the Will, it is also Raynold. But in 1584, throughout the Witchcraft, that is, four times in all, the name appears as Reginald. Secondly, in the Will of 1599, in accordance with the want of any title on the title-page of the Hoppe-garden, he describes himself as “gent”, and in the Inquisitio p. m., though he is called Reginald, the document being in Latin, hexlvi is, as in his Will, “generosus”. But in the title-page of the Witchcraft, he is Reginald Scot Esquire. The finding no evidence of the separate existence of a Raynold and a Reginald, the frequent references to the Scriptures in the Witchcraft, and the very frequent references to the Proverbs and Ecclesiastes, in the “Address to the Reader” of the Hoppe-garden, the use in both works, as already quoted, of certain legal phrases, and the occurrence in the prefatory part of the Hoppe-garden of “with the licour (or rather the lucre)”, and “condemne the man, or rather the mynde”, a trick of language not unfrequently repeated in the Discoverie, a trick resulting from his love of irony, shook my doubts. But there were still, the want of any title after the name in the Hoppe-garden, the “gent” of the Will, and the “generosus” of the Inquisitio, as against the “Esquire” of the Discoverie. First, however, Hunter’s suggestion, that his esquireship was due to his having been appointed a Justice of the Peace, and then the discovery of armiger after his name, have removed all reasonable doubts; and to turn our belief to a positive certainty, it only remains to discover that he was a Justice of the Peace.

Possibly the reader may now expect some pages on Scot’s style as a writer, and on his claim—his claim, yet not one made by himself—to be considered an English classic. But, besides that, I am not “greatly æsthetic”, and besides having expressed my opinions in more than one place in this Introduction, I think that any reader, with any appreciation of style, and of the manner in which an argument ought to be carried out, can come to but one conclusion. Such belief, I may add, is strengthened by this, that most writers whom I have consulted are of this opinion: and I would conclude with three quotations, chiefly regarding the way in which he carried out his argument. The Rev. Jos. Hunter, in his MS. Chorus Vatum, ch. v, says: “In fact, I had no notion of the admirable character of this book till I read it this September 1839. It is one of the few instances in which a bold spirit opposes himself to the popular belief, and seeks to throw protection over a class of the defenceless. In my opinion, he ought to stand very prominent in any catalogue of Persons who have been public benefactors.”

“To answer his argument was wholly impossible, and though the publication of his book did not put an end to the notion which continued xlvii very prevalent for a century afterwards [though we know from Ady that it greatly checked the belief for a time], yet it had, I have no doubt, much to do with the silent and gradual extinction of it.”

So D’Israeli, in his Amenities of Literature, has these words: “A single volume sent forth from the privacy of a retired student, by its silent influence may mark an epoch in the history of the human mind.”

“Such a volume was The Discoverie of Witchcraft, by Reginald Scot, a singular work, which may justly claim the honour in this country of opening that glorious career which is dear to humanity and fatal to imposture.”

Thirdly, Professor W. T. Gairdner, M.D. and LL.D., thus speaks, in his address on “Insanity: Modern Views as to its Nature and Treatment”, read before the Glasgow Medico-Chirurgical Society: “But I cannot leave it [witchcraft] ... without expressing, more strongly than even Mr. Lecky does, the unqualified admiration and surprise which arise in the mind on finding that in 1584 ... there was at least one man in England ... who could scan the whole field of demonology, and all its terrible results in history, with an eye as clear from superstition, and a judgment as sound and unwavering in its opposition to abuses, as that of Mr. Lecky himself. There is only one book, so far as I know, in any language, written in the sixteenth or even the seventeenth century, that merits this praise: and it is a book which, notwithstanding its wide human interest, its great and solid learning, and a charming English style that makes it most readable, even at the present day, has never been reprinted for two hundred years, and is therefore extremely inaccessible to most readers. Reginald Scot’s Discoverie of Witchcraft ... stands brightly out amid the darkness of its own and the succeeding age, as a perfectly unique example of sagacity amounting to genius.” He adds: “Nothing, however, is more evident than that Scot, however indebted to Wier (and both of them, probably, to Cornelius Agrippa ...), was far in advance of either in the clearness of his views and the unwavering steadiness of his leanings to the side of humanity and justice.”


Note.The italic numerals in the side margins
denote the pages of the first, the ordinary numbers
those of the second edition.


The diſcouerie
of witchcraft,
Wherein the lewde dealing of witches
and witchmongers is notablie detected, the
knauerie of coniurors, the impietie of inchan-
tors, the follie of ſoothſaiers, the impudent falſ-
hood of couſenors, the infidelitie of atheiſts,
the peſtilent practiſes of Pythoniſts, the
curioſitie of figurecaſters, the va-
nitie of dreamers, the beggerlie
art of Alcu-
myſtrie,
The abhomination of idolatrie, the hor-
rible art of poiſoning, the vertue and power of
naturall magike, and all the conueiances
of Legierdemaine and iuggling are deciphered:
and many other things opened, which
haue long lien hidden, howbeit
verie neceſſarie to
be knowne.
Heerevnto is added a treatiſe vpon the
nature and ſubſtance of ſpirits and diuels,
&c: all latelie written
by Reginald Scot
Eſquire.
1. Iohn. 4, 1.
Beleeue not euerie ſpirit, but trie the ſpirits, whether they are
of God; for manie falſe prophets are gone
out into the world, &c.

1584

SCOT’S
Diſcovery of VVitchcraft:
PROVING
The common opinions of Witches con-
tracting with Divels, Spirits, or Familiars; and
their power to kill, torment, and conſume the bodies of
men women, and children, or other creatures by diſeaſes
or otherwiſe; their flying in the Air, &c. To be but imaginary
Erronious conceptions and novelties;
WHEREIN ALSO,
The lewde unchriſtian practiſes of Witchmongers, upon aged,
melancholy, ignorant, and ſuperſtious people in extorting confeſſions,
by inhumane terrors and tortures is notably detected.
ALSO
{
The knavery and confederacy of Conjurors.
The impious blaſphemy of Inchanters.
The impoſture of Soothſayers, and Infidelity of Atheiſts.
The deluſion of Pythoniſts, Figure-caſters, Aſtrologers, and va-
nity of Dreamers.
The fruitleſſe beggerly art of Alchimiſtry.
The horrible art of Poiſoning and all the tricks and convey-
ances of juggling and Liegerdemain are fully deciphered.
With many other things opened that have long lain hidden: though
very neceſſary to be known for the undeceiving of Judges, Juſtices,
and Juries, and for the preſervation of poor, aged, deformed, ignorant
people; frequently taken, arraigned, condemned and executed for
Witches, when according to a right underſtanding, and a good
conſcience, Phyſick, Food, and neceſſaries should be
adminiſtred to them.
Whereunto is added, a treatiſe upon the nature, and ſubſtance of Spirits and Divels,
&c. all written and publiſhed in Anno 1584. by Reginald Scot, Eſquire.

LONDON,
Printed by Richard Cotes. 1651.

Size, Fol., 10¼ in. × 6⅛.
THE
Diſcovery of Witchcraft:
PROVING,
That the Compacts and Contracts of Witches
with Devils and all Infernal Spirits or Familiars, are but
Erroneous Novelties and Imaginary Conceptions.
Alſo diſcovering, How far their power extendeth, in Killing, Tormenting,
Conſuming, or Curing the bodies of Men, Women, Children, or Animals,
by Charms, Philtres, Periapts, Pentacles, Curſes, and Conjurations.
WHEREIN LIKEWISE
The Unchriſtian Practices and Inhumane Dealings of
Searchers and Witch-tryers upon Aged, Melancholly and Superſtitious
people, in extorting Confeſſions by Terrors and Tortures,
and in deviſing falſe Marks and Symptoms, are notably Detected.
And the Knavery of Juglers, Conjurers, Charmers, Soothſayers, Figure⸗Caſters,
Dreamers, Alchymiſts and Philterers; with many other things
that have long lain hidden, fully Opened and Deciphered.
ALL WHICH
Are very neceſſary to be known for the undeceiving of Judges, Juſtices,
and Jurors, before they paſs Sentence upon Poor, Miſerable and Ignorant People;
who are frequenly Arraigned, Condemned, and Executed for Witches and Wizzards.
IN SIXTEEN BOOKS.

By Reginald Scot Eſquire.

Whereunto is added
An excellent Diſcourse of the Nature and Subſtance
of
DEVILS and SPIRITS,
IN TWO BOOKS:
The Firſt by the aforeſaid Author: The Second now
added in this Third Edition, as Succedaneous to the former,
and conducing to the compleating of the Whole Work:
With Nine Chapters at the beginning of the Fifteenth.* Book
of the DISCOVERY.

LONDON:
Printed for A. Clark, and are to be ſold by Dixy Page at the Turks-Head
in Cornhill near the Royall Exchange, 1665.
* [Sic.]

The Epistle


To the Honorable, mine especiall good A. ii. A.
Lord, Sir Roger Manwood Knight, Lord
cheefe Baron of hir Majesties Court
of the Eschequer.

i NSOMUCH as I know that your Lordship is by nature whollie inclined, and in purpose earnestly bent to releeve the poore, and that not onlie with hospitalitie and almes, but by diverse other devises and waies tending to their comfort, having (as it were) framed and set your selfe to the helpe and maintenance of their estate; as appeareth by your charge and travell in that behalfe. Whereas also you have a speciall care for the supporting of their right, and redressing of their wrongs, as neither despising their calamitie, nor yet forgetting their complaint, seeking all meanes for their amendement, and for the reformation of their disorders, even as a verie father to the poore. Finallie, for that I am a poore member of that commonwelth, where your Lordship is a principall person; I thought this my travell, in the behalfe of the poore, the aged, and the simple, might be/ A. ii. v. verie fitlie commended unto you: for a weake house requireth a strong staie. In which respect I give God thanks, that hath raised up unto me so mightie a freend for/A. v. them as your Lordship is, who in our lawes have such knowledge, in government such discretion, in these causes such experience, and in the commonwealth such authoritie; and neverthelesse vouchsafe to descend to the consideration of these base and inferior matters, which minister more care and trouble, than worldlie estimation.

And in somuch as your Lordship knoweth, or rather exerciseth the office of a judge, whose part it is to heare with courtesie, and to determine with equitie; it cannot but be apparent unto you, that when punishment exceedeth the fault, it is rather to be thought vengeance than correction. In which respect I knowe you spend more time and travell in the conversion and reformation, than in the subversion & confusion of offenders, as being well pleased to augment your owne private paines, to the end you may diminish their publike smart. For in truth, that commonwealth remaineth in wofull state, where fetters and halters beare more swaie than mercie and due compassion.

Howbeit, it is naturall to unnaturall people, and peculiar unto witchmongers, to pursue the poore, to accuse the simple, and to kill the innocent; supplieng in rigor and malice towards others, that viii which they themselves want in proofe and discretion, or the other in offense or occasion. But as a cruell hart and an honest mind doo seldome meete and feed togither in a dish; so a discreet and mercifull magistrate, and a happie commonwealth cannot be separated asunder. How much then are we bound to God, who hath given us a Queene, that of justice is not only the very perfect image & paterne; but also of mercie & clemencie (under God) the meere fountaine &/ A. 2. bodie it selfe? In somuch as they which hunt most after bloud in/A. iii. these daies, have least authoritie to shed it. Moreover, sith I see that in cases where lenitie might be noisome, & punishment wholesome to the commonwealth; there no respect of person can move you, no authoritie can abash you, no feare, no threts can daunt you in performing the dutie of justice.

In that respect againe I find your Lordship a fit person, to judge and looke upon this present treatise. Wherein I will bring before you, as it were to the barre, two sorts of most arrogant and wicked people, the first challenging to themselves, the second attributing unto others, that power which onelie apperteineth to God,a a Apoc. 4, 11. who onelie is the Creator of all things,b b Rom. 8.
Acts. 5.
Apoc. 2.
who onelie searcheth the heart and reines, who oneliec c Luke. 16. knoweth our imaginations and thoughts, who onelied d Dan. 2. & 28, & 47. openeth all secrets, whoe e Psalm. 72. & 136.
Jer. 5.
onelie worketh great wonders, who onelie hath powerf f Job, 5. & 36.
Sam. 12.
1. Reg. 8.
2. Reg. 3.
Isaie. 5.
Zach. 10. & 14.
Amos. 4. 7.
to raise up & cast downe; who onelie maketh thunder, lightning, raine, tempests, and restraineth them at his pleasure; who onelieg g Job. 1. sendeth life and death, sicknesse & health, wealth and wo; who neither giveth nor lendeth hish h Isaie. 42, 8. glorie to anie creature.

And therefore, that which greeveth me to the bottome of my hart, is, that these witchmongers cannot be content, to wrest out of Gods hand his almightie power, and keepe it themselves, or leave it with a witch: but that, when by drift of argument they are made to laie downe the bucklers, they yeeld them up to the divell, or at the least praie aid of him, as though the raines of all mens lives and actions were committed into his hand; and that he sat at the sterne, to guide and direct the course of the whole world, imputing unto him power and abilitie inough to doo as great things, and as strange miracles as ever Christ did.

But the doctors of this supernaturall doctrine saie/ A. 2. v.somtimes, that the witch doth all these things by vertue of hir/ A. iii. v. charmes; sometimes that a spirituall, sometimes that a corporall divell doth accomplish it; sometimes they saie that the divell doth but make the witch beleeve she doth that which he himselfe hath wrought; sometimes that the divell seemeth to doo that by compulsion, which he doth most willinglie. Finallie, the writers hereupon are so eloquent, and full of varietie; that sometimes they write that the divell dooth all this by ix Gods permission onelie; sometimes by his licence, somtimes by his appointment: so as (in effect and truth) not the divell, but the high and mightie king of kings, and Lord of hosts, even God himselfe, should this waie be made obedient and servile to obeie and performe the will & commandement of a malicious old witch, and miraculouslie to answere hir appetite, as well in everie trifling vanitie, as in most horrible executions; as the revenger of a doting old womans imagined wrongs, to the destruction of manie innocent children, and as a supporter of hir passions, to the undoing of manie a poore soule. And I see not, but a witch may as well inchant, when she will; as a lier may lie when he list: and so should we possesse nothing, but by a witches licence and permission.

And now forsooth it is brought to this point, that all divels, which were woont to be spirituall, may at their pleasure become corporall, and so shew themselves familiarlie to witches and conjurors, and to none other, and by them onlie may be made tame, and kept in a box, &c. So as a malicious old woman may command hir divell to plague hir neighbor: and he is afflicted in manner and forme as she desireth. But then commeth another witch, and she biddeth hir divell helpe, and he healeth the same partie. So as they/A 3 make it a kingdome divided in it selfe, and therefore I trust it will not long endure, but will shortlie be overthrowne, according to the words of our Savior, Omne regnum in se divisum desolabitur, Everie king/domeA. iiii. divided in it selfe shalbe desolate.

And although some saie that the divell is the witches instrument, to bring hir purposes and practises to passe: yet others saie that she is his instrument, to execute his pleasure in anie thing, and therefore to be executed. But then (me thinks) she should be injuriouslie dealt withall, and put to death for anothers offense: for actions are not judged by instrumentall causes; neither dooth the end and purpose of that which is done, depend upon the meane instrument. Finallie, if the witch doo it not, why should the witch die for it? But they saie that witches are persuaded, and thinke, that they doo indeed those mischeefs; and have a will to performe that which the divell committeth: and that therefore they are worthie to die. By which reason everie one should be executed, that wisheth evill to his neighbor, &c. But if the will should be punished by man, according to the offense against God, we should be driven by thousands at once to the slaughterhouse or butcherie.Proverb. 5. For whosoever loatheth correction shall die. And who should escape execution, if this lothsomnesse (I saie) should extend to death by the civill lawes. Also the reward of sinne is death. Howbeit, everie one that sinneth, is not to be put to death by the magistrate. But (my Lord) it shalbe proved in my x booke, and your Lordship shall trie it to be true, as well here at home in your native countrie, as also abrode in your severall circuits, that (besides them that be Venificæ, which are plaine poisoners) there will be found among our witches onelie two sorts; the one sort being such by imputation, as/A 3 v so thought of by others (and these are abused, and not abusors) the other by acceptation, as being willing so to be accompted (and these be meere cousenors.)

CalvineInstit. lib. 5. ca. 8. sect. 6.
Item upon Deut. cap. 18.
Lib. de lamiis, pag. 5.
treating of these magicians, calleth them cousenors, saieng that they use their juggling knacks onelie to amase or abuse the people; or else for fame: but he/A. iiij. v. might rather have said for gaine. Erastus himselfe, being a principall writer in the behalfe of witches omnipotencie, is forced to confesse, that these Greeke words, μαγία, μαγγαγία, φαρμακία, are most commonlie put for illusion, false packing, cousenage, fraud, knaverie and deceipt: and is further driven to saie, that in ancient time, the learned were not so blockish, as not to see that the promises of magicians and inchanters were false, and nothing else but knaverie, cousenage, and old wives fables; and yet defendeth he their flieng in the aire, their transferring of corne or grasse from one feeld to another, &c.

But as Erastus disagreeth herein with himselfe and his freends: so is there no agreement among anie of those writers, but onlie in cruelties, absurdities, and impossibilities. And these (my Lord) that fall into so manifest contradictions, and into such absurd asseverations, are not of the inferior sort of writers; neither are they all papists, but men of such accompt, as whose names give more credit to their cause, than their writings. In whose behalfe I am sorie, and partlie for reverence suppresse their fondest errors and fowlest absurdities; dealing speciallie with them that most contend in crueltie,aa Isaie. 59, 7.
Rom. 3, 15.
whose feete are swift to shed bloud, striving (as bb Eccl. 27, 5.Jesus the sonne of Sirach saith) and hasting (as cc Prov. 1, 16.Salomon the sonne of David saith) to powre out the bloud of the innocent; whose heat against these poore wretches cannot be allaied with anie other liquor than bloud. And therfore I feare that dd Jer. 2, 34.under their wings will be found the bloud of the soules of the poore, at that daie, when the Lord shall saie;/A 4 ee Ps. 139, 15.
Esai. 33, 15.
Depart from me ye bloudthirstie men.

And bicause I know your Lordship will take no counsell against innocent bloud, but rather suppresse them that seeke to embrue their hands therein; I have made choise to open their case unto you, and to laie their miserable calamitie before your feete: following herein the/[A. v.] advise of that learned man Brentius, who saith; In epistola ad Jo. Wier.Si quis admonuerit magistratum, ne in miseras illas mulierculas sæviat, eum ego arbitror divinitùs excitatum; that is, If anie admonish the magistrate not to deale too hardlie with these miserable wretches, that are called xi witches, I thinke him a good instrument raised up for this purpose by God himselfe.

But it will perchance be said by witchmongers; to wit, by such as attribute to witches the power which apperteineth to God onelie, that I have made choise of your Lordship to be a patrone to this my booke; bicause I think you favour mine opinions, and by that meanes may the more freelie publish anie error or conceipt of mine owne, which should rather be warranted by your Lordships authoritie, than by the word of God, or by sufficient argument. But I protest the contrarie, and by these presents I renounce all protection, and despise all freendship that might serve to helpe towards the suppressing or supplanting of truth: knowing also that your Lordship is farre from allowing anie injurie done unto man; much more an enimie to them that go about to dishonor God, or to embezill the title of his immortall glorie. But bicause I know you to be perspicuous, and able to see downe into the depth and bottome of causes, and are not to be carried awaie with the vaine persuasion or superstition either of man, custome, time, or multitude, but mooved with the authoritie of truth onlie: I crave your countenance herein, even so farre foorth, and no further, than the lawe of God, the lawe of nature, the lawe of this land, and the/A 4 v rule of reason shall require. Neither doo I treat for these poore people anie otherwise, but so, as with one hand you may sustaine the good, and with the other suppresse the evill: wherein you shalbe thought a father to orphans, an advocate to widowes, a guide to the blind, a staie to the lame, a comfort & countenance to the honest, a scourge/ and terror to the wicked.[A. v. v.]

Thus farre I have beene bold to use your Lordships patience, being offended with my selfe, that I could not in brevitie utter such matter as I have delivered amplie: whereby (I confesse) occasion of tediousnes might be ministred, were it not that your great gravitie joined with your singular constancie in reading and judging be means of the contrarie. And I wish even with all my hart, that I could make people conceive the substance of my writing, and not to misconstrue anie part of my meaning. Then doubtles would I persuade my selfe, that the companie of witchmongers, &c: being once decreased, the number also of witches, &c: would soone be diminished. But true be the words of the Poet,*[* Homer.]

Haudquaquam poteris sortirier omnia solus,
Námque aliis divi bello pollere dederunt,
Huic saltandi artem, voce huic cytharáque canendi:
Rursum alii inseruit sagax in pectore magnus
Jupiter ingenium, &c.

xii

And therefore as doubtfull to prevaile by persuading, though I have reason and common sense on my side; I rest upon earnest wishing; namelie, to all people an absolute trust in God the creator, and not in creatures, which is to make flesh our arme: that God may have his due honor, which by the undutifulnes of manie is turned into dishonor, and lesse cause of offense and errour given by common received evill example. And to your Lordship I wish, as increase of honour, so continuance of good health, and happie daies.

Your Lordships to be commanded
Reginald Scot.


xiii

To the right worshipfull Sir[A. vi.] A. a
Thomas Scot Knight, &c.

[Rom. and Ital. of this reversed from original.]

S Ir, I see among other malefactors manie poore old women convented before you for working of miracles, other wise called witchcraft, and therefore I thought you also a meet person to whom I might cōmend my booke. And here I have occasion to speake of your sincere administration of justice, and of your dexteritie, discretion, charge, and travell emploied in that behalfe, wherof I am oculatus testis. Howbeit I had rather refer the reader to common fame, and their owne eies and eares to be satisfied; than to send them to a Stationers shop, where manie times lies are vendible, and truth contemptible. For I being of your house, of your name, & of your bloud; my foot being under your table, my hand in your dish, or rather in your pursse, might bee thought to flatter you in that, wherein (I knowe) I should rather offend you than please you. And what need I currie favour with my most assured friend? And if I should onelie publish those vertues (though they be manie) which give me speciall occasion to exhibit this my travell unto you, I should doo as a painter, that describeth the foot of a notable personage, and leaveth all the best features in his bodie untouched.

I therefore (at this time) doo onelie desire you to consider of my report, concerning the evidence that is commonlie brought before you against them. See first whether the evidence be not frivolous, & whether the proofs brought against them be not incredible, consisting of ghesses, presumptions, & impossibilities contrarie to reason, scrip/ture,A a 2 and nature. See also what persons complaine upon them, whether they be not of the basest, the unwisest, & most faithles kind of people. Also/[A. vi. v.] may it please you to waie what accusations and crimes they laie to their charge, namelie: She was at my house of late, she would have had a pot of milke, she departed in a chafe bicause she had it not, she railed, she curssed, she mumbled and whispered, and finallie she said she would be even with me: and soone after my child, my cow, my sow, or my pullet died, or was strangelie taken. Naie (if it please your Worship) I have further proofe: I was with a wise woman, and she told me I had an ill neighbour, & that she would come to my house yer it were long, and so did she; and that she had a marke above hir waste, & so had she: and God forgive me, my stomach hath gone against hir a great while. Hir mother before hir was counted a witch, she hath beene beatenxiv and scratched by the face till bloud was drawne upon hir, bicause she hath beene suspected, & afterwards some of those persons were said to amend. These are the certeinties that I heare in their evidences.

Note also how easilie they may be brought to confesse that which they never did, nor lieth in the power of man to doo: and then see whether I have cause to write as I doo. Further, if you shall see that infidelitie, poperie, and manie other manifest heresies be backed and shouldered, and their professors animated and hartened, by yeelding to creatures such infinit power as is wrested out of Gods hand, and attributed to witches: finallie, if you shall perceive that I have faithfullie and trulie delivered and set downe the condition and state of the witch, and also of the witchmonger, and have confuted by reason and lawe, and by the word of God it selfe, all mine adversaries objections and arguments: then let me have your countenance against them that maliciouslie oppose themselves against me./

My greatest adversaries are yoong ignorance and old custome.A a 2 For what follie soever tract of time hath fostered, it is/[A. vii.] so superstitiouslie pursued of some, as though no error could be acquainted with custome. But if the lawe of nations would joine with such custome, to the maintenance of ignorance, and to the suppressing of knowledge; the civilest countrie in the world would soone become barbarous, &c. For as knowledge and time discovereth errors, so dooth superstition and ignorance in time breed them. And concerning the opinions of such, as wish that ignorance should rather be mainteined, than knowledge busilie searched for, bicause thereby offense may grow: I answer,John. 5. that we are commanded by Christ himselfe to search for knowledge: Prov. 15, 1.for it is the kings honour (as Salomon saith) to search out a thing.

Aristotle said to Alexander, that a mind well furnished was more beautifull than a bodie richlie araied. What can be more odious to man, or offensive to God, than ignorance: for through ignorance the Jewes did put Christ to death.Acts. 3.
Proverbs. 9.
Which ignorance whosoever forsaketh, is promised life everlasting: and therfore among Christians it should be abhorred above all other things. For even as when we wrestle in the darke, we tumble in the mire, &c: so when we see not the truth, we wallow in errors. A blind man may seeke long in the rishes yer he find a needle; and as soone is a doubt discussed by ignorance. Finallie, truth is no sooner found out in ignorance, than a sweet savor in a dunghill. And if they will allow men knowledge, and give them no leave to use it, men were much better be without it than have it. Matth. 25.
Matth. 5.
Luke. 8.
For it is, as to have a tallent, and to hide it under the earth; or to put a candle under a bushell: or as to have a ship, & to let hir lie xv alwaies in the docke: which thing how profitable it is, I can saie somewhat by experience./

But hereof I need saie no more, for everie man seeth thatA a 2 v none can be happie who knoweth not what felicitie meaneth. For what availeth it to have riches, and not to have the use/ thereof? [A. vii. v.]Trulie the heathen herein deserved more commendation than manie christians, for they spared no paine, no cost, nor travell to atteine to knowledge. Pythagoras travelled from Thamus to Aegypt, and afterwards into Crete and Lacedæmonia: and Plato out of Athens into Italie and Aegypt, and all to find out hidden secrets and knowledge: which when a man hath, he seemeth to be separated from mortalitie. For pretious stones, and all other creatures of what value soever, are but counterfeits to this jewell: they are mortall, corruptible, and inconstant; this is immortall, pure and certeine. Wherfore if I have searched and found out any good thing, that ignorance and time hath smothered, the same I commend unto you: to whom though I owe all that I have, yet am I bold to make other partakers with you in this poore gift.

Your loving cousen,
Reg. Scot.


xvi

To the right worshipfull his loving friends,[A. viii].
A a 3

Maister Doctor Coldwell Deane of Ro-
chester, and Maister Doctor Read-
man Archdeacon of Can-
turburie, &c.

[Rom. and Ital. reversed; the italics of original smaller than in that to Sir Th. Scot.

H Aving found out two such civill Magistrates, as for direction of judgement, and for ordering matters concerning justice in this common wealth (in my poore opinion) are verie singular persons, who (I hope) will accept of my good will, and examine my booke by their experience, as unto whom the matter therin conteined dooth greatlie apperteine: I have now againe considered of two other points: namelie, divinitie and philosophie, whereupon the groundworke of my booke is laid. Wherein although I know them to be verie sufficientlie informed, yet dooth not the judgement and censure of those causes so properlie apperteine to them as unto you, whose fame therein hath gotten preeminence above all others that I know of your callings: and in that respect I am bold to joine you with them, being all good neighbours togither in this commonwelth, and loving friends unto me. I doo not present this unto you, bicause it is meet for you; but for that you are meet for it (I meane) to judge upon it, to defend it, and if need be to correct it; knowing that you have learned of that grave counseller Cato, not to shame or discountenance any bodie. For if I thought you as readie, as able, to disgrace me for mine insufficiencie; I should not have beene hastie (knowing your learning) to have written unto you: but if I should be abashed to write to you, I should shew my selfe ignorant of your courtesie.

I knowe mine owne weakenesse, which if it have beene able to mainteine this argument, the cause is the stronger. Eloquent words may please the eares, but sufficient matter persuadeth the hart. So as, if I exhibit wholsome drinke (thought it be small) in a treene*[* = wooden] dish with a faithfull hand, I hope it will bee as well accepted, as strong wine offered in a silver bowle with a flattering heart. And surelie it is a point of as great liberalitie to receive a small thing thankeful/lie,A a 3 v. as to give and distribute great and costlie gifts bountifullie: for there is more supplied with courteous answers than with rich rewards. The ty/rant[A. viii. v.] Dionysius was not so hated for his tyrannie, as for his churlish and strange behaviour. Among the poore Israelites sacrifices, God was satisfied with the tenth part of xviian Ephah of flower, so as it were fine and good. Christ liked well of the poore widowes mite, Lewis of France accepted a rape root of clownish Conan, Cyrus vouchsafed to drinke a cup of cold water out of the hand of poore Sinætes: and so it may please you to accept this simple booke at my hands, which I faithfullie exhibit unto you, not knowing your opinions to meet with mine, but knowing your learning and judgement to be able as well to correct me where I speake herein unskilfullie, as others when they speake hereof maliciouslie.

Some be such dogs as they will barke at my writings, whether I mainteine or refute this argument: as Diogenes snarled both at the Rhodians and at the Lacedæmonians: at the one, bicause they were brave; at the other, bicause they were not brave. Homer himselfe could not avoid reprochfull speaches. I am sure that they which never studied to learne anie good thing, will studie to find faults hereat. I for my part feare not these wars, nor all the adversaries I have; were it not for certeine cowards, who (I knowe) will come behind my backe and bite me.

But now to the matter. My question is not (as manie fondlie suppose) whether there be witches or naie: but whether they can doo such miraculous works as are imputed unto them. Good Maister Deane, is it possible for a man to breake his fast with you at Rochester, and to dine that day at Durham with Maister Doctor Matthew; or can your enimie maime you, when the Ocean sea is betwixt you? What reall communitie is betwixt a spirit and a bodie? May a spirituall bodie become temporall at his pleasure? Or may a carnall bodie become invisible? Is it likelie that the lives of all Princes, magistrates, & subjects, should depend upon the will, or rather upon the wish of a poore malicious doting old foole; and that power exempted from the wise, the rich, the learned, the godlie, &c? Finallie, is it possible for man or woman to do anie of those miracles expressed in my booke, & so constantlie reported by great clarks? If you saie, no; then am I satisfied. If you saie that God, absolutelie, or by meanes can accomplish all those, and manie more, I go with you. But witches may well saie they can doo these things, howbeit they cannot shew how they doo them. If I for my part should saie I could doo/A a 4. those things, my verie adversaries would saie that I lied.

O Maister Archdeacon, is it not pitie, that that which is said to be doone with the almightie power of the most high God, and by our saviour his onelie sonne Jesus Christ our Lord, shouldbe referred to a baggage old womans nod/B. i. or wish, &c? Good Sir, is it not one manifest kind of Idolatrie, for them that labor and are laden, to come xviii unto witches to be refreshed? If witches could helpe whom they are said to have made sicke, I see no reason, but remedie might as well be required at their hands, as a pursse demanded of him that hath stolne it. But trulie it is manifold idolatrie, to aske that of a creature, which none can give but the Creator. The papist hath some colour of scripture to mainteine his idoll of bread, but no Jesuiticall distinction can cover the witchmongers idolatrie in this behalfe. Alas, I am sorie and ashamed to see how manie die, that being said to be bewitched, onelie seeke for magicall cures, whom wholsome diet and good medicines would have recovered. I dare assure you both, that there would be none of these cousening kind of witches, did not witchmongers mainteine them, followe them, and beleeve in them and their oracles: whereby indeed all good learning and honest arts are overthrowne. For these that most advance their power, and mainteine the skill of these witches, understand no part thereof: and yet being manie times wise in other matters, are made fooles by the most fooles in the world.

Me thinks these magicall physicians deale in the commonwelth, much like as a certeine kind of Cynicall people doo in the church, whose severe saiengs are accompted among some such oracles, as may not be doubted of; who in stead of learning and authoritie (which they make contemptible) doo feed the people with their owne devises and imaginations, which they prefer before all other divinitie: and labouring to erect a church according to their owne fansies, wherein all order is condemned, and onelie their magicall words and curious directions advanced, they would utterlie overthrowe the true Church. And even as these inchanting Paracelsians abuse the people, leading them from the true order of physicke to their charmes: so doo these other (I saie) dissuade from hearkening to learning and obedience, and whisper in mens eares to teach them their frierlike traditions. And of this sect the cheefe author at this time is/A a 4 v one Browne, a fugitive, a meet cover for such a cup: as heretofore the Anabaptists, the Arrians,*[* Arians] and the Franciscane friers.

Trulie not onlie nature, being the foundation of all perfection; but also scripture, being the mistresse and director thereof, and of all christianitie, is beautified with knowledge and learning. For as nature without discipline dooth naturallie incline unto vanities, and as it were sucke up errors:Rom. 2, 27.
2. Cor. 3, 6.
so doth the word, or rather the letter of the scripture, without understanding, not onlie make us devoure errors, but yeeldeth us up to death & destruction: & therefore Paule saith he was not a minister of the letter, but of the spirit.

Thus have I beene bold to deliver unto the world, and to you, those simple/B. i. v. notes, reasons, and arguments, which I have devised or collectedxix out of other authors: which I hope shall be hurtfull to none, but to my selfe great comfort, if it may passe with good liking and acceptation. If it fall out otherwise, I should thinke my paines ill imploied. For trulie, in mine opinion, whosoever shall performe any thing, or atteine to anie knowledge; or whosoever should travell throughout all the nations of the world, or (if it were possible) should peepe into the heavens, the consolation or admiration thereof were nothing pleasant unto him, unles he had libertie to impart his knowledge to his friends. Wherein bicause I have made speciall choise of you, I hope you will read it, or at the least laie it up studie with your other bookes, among which therein your is none dedicated to any with more good will. And so long as you have it, it shall be untoyou (upon adventure of my life) a certeine amulet, periapt, circle, charme, &c: to defend you from all inchantments.

Your loving friend
Reg. Scot.


xx

To the Readers.B. ii. B

T O you that are wise & discreete few words may suffice: for such a one judgeth not at the first sight, nor reprooveth by heresaie;Isai. 11.
Prover. 1.
but patientlie heareth, and thereby increaseth in understanding: which patience bringeth foorth experience, whereby true judgement is directed. I shall not need therefore to make anie further sute to you, but that it would please you to read my booke, without the prejudice of time, or former conceipt: and having obteined this at your hands, I submit my selfe unto your censure. But to make a solemne sute to you that are parciall readers, desiring you to set aside parcialitie, to take in good part my writing, and with indifferent eies to looke upon my booke, were labour lost, and time ill imploied. For I should no more prevaile herein, than if a hundred yeares since I should have intreated your predecessors to beleeve, that Robin goodfellowe, that great and ancient bulbegger, had beene but a cousening merchant, and no divell indeed.

If I should go to a papist, and saie; I praie you beleeve my writings, wherein I will proove all popish charmes, conjurations, exorcismes, benedictions and cursses, not onelie to be ridiculous, and of none effect, but also to be impious and contrarie to Gods word: I should as hardlie therein win favour at their hands, as herein obteine credit at yours. Neverthelesse, I doubt not, but to/B. ii v. use the matter so, that as well the massemoonger for his part, as the witchmoonger for his, shall both be ashamed of their professions.

But Robin goodfellowe ceaseth now to be much feared, and poperie is sufficientlie discovered. Nevertheles, witches charms, and conjurors cousenages are yet thought effectuall. Yea the Gentiles have espied the fraud of their cousening oracles, and our cold prophets and inchanters make us fooles still, to the shame of us all, but speciallie of papists, who conjure everie thing, and thereby bring to passe nothing. They saie to their candles; I conjure you to endure for ever: and yet they last not a pater noster while the longer. They conjure water to be wholesome both for bodie and soule: but the bodie (we see) is never the better for it, nor the soule anie whit xxi reformed by it. And therefore I mervell, that when they see their owne conjurations confuted and brought to naught, or at the least void of effect, that they (of all other) will yet give such credit, countenance, and authoritie to the vaine cousenages of witches and conjurors; as though their charmes and conjurations could produce more/ apparent, certeine, and better effects than their owne.B v

But my request unto all you that read my booke shall be no more, but that it would please you to conferre my words with your owne sense and experience, and also with the word of God. If you find your selves resolved and satisfied, or rather reformed and qualified in anie one point or opinion, that heretofore you held contrarie to truth, in a matter hitherto undecided, and never yet looked into; I praie you take that for advantage: and suspending your judgement, staie the sentence of condemnation against me, and consider of the rest, at your further leasure. If this may not suffice to persuade you, it cannot prevaile to annoy you: and then, that which is written without offense, may be overpassed without anie greefe.

And although mine assertion, be somewhat differing from the old inveterat opinion, which I confesse hath manie graie heares, whereby mine adversaries have gained more authoritie than reason, towards the maintenance of their presumptions and old wives fables: yet shall it fullie agree with Gods glorie, and with his holie word. And albeit there be hold taken by mine adver/sariesB. iii. of certeine few words or sentences in the scripture that maketh a shew for them: yet when the whole course thereof maketh against them, and impugneth the same, yea and also their owne places rightlie understood doo nothing at all releeve them: I trust their glorious title and argument of antiquitie will appeare as stale and corrupt as the apothecaries drugs, or grocers spice, which the longer they be preserved, the woorsse they are. And till you have perused my booke, ponder this in your mind, to wit, that Sagæ, Thessalæ, Striges, Lamiæ (which words and none other being in use do properlie signifie our witches) are not once found written in the old or new testament; and that Christ himselfe in his gospell never mentioned the name of a witch. And that neither he, nor Moses ever spake anie one word of the witches bargaine with the divell, their hagging, their riding in the aire, their transferring of corne or grasse from one feeld to another, their hurting of children or cattell with words or charmes, their bewitching of butter, cheese, ale, &c: nor yet their transubstantiation;Mal. malef. par. 2. quæ. 2. insomuch as the writers hereupon are not ashamed to say, that it is not absurd to affirme that there were no witches in Jobs time. The reason is, that if there had beene such witches then in beeing, Job would have said he had beene bewitched. But indeed men tooke no heed in those daies to this xxii doctrine of divels;1. Pet. 4. 1. to wit, to these fables of witchcraft, which Peter saith shall be much regarded and hearkened unto in the latter daies.

Howbeit, how ancient so ever this barbarous conceipt of witches omnipotencie is, truth must not be measured by time: for everie old opinion is not sound. Veritie is not impaired, how long so ever it be suppressed; but is to be searched out, in how darke a corner so ever it lie hidden: for it is not like a cup of ale, that may be broched too rathe. Finallie, time bewraieth old errors, & discovereth new matters of truth. Danæus in suo prologo.Danæus himselfe saith, that this question hitherto hath never beene handled; nor the scriptures concerning this matter have never beene expounded. To prove the antiquitie of the cause, to confirme the opini/onB 2 of the ignorant, to inforce mine adversaries arguments, to aggravate the punishments, & to accomplish the confusiō of these old women, is added the vanitie and wickednes of them, which are called witches, the arrogancie of those which take upon them to/B. iii. v. worke wonders, the desire that people have to hearken to such miraculous matters, unto whome most commonlie an impossibilitie is more credible than a veritie; the ignorance of naturall causes, the ancient and universall hate conceived against the name of a witch; their ilfavoured faces, their spitefull words, their cursses and imprecations, their charmes made in ryme, and their beggerie; the feare of manie foolish folke, the opinion of some that are wise, the want of Robin goodfellowe and the fairies, which were woont to mainteine chat, and the common peoples talke in this behalfe; the authoritie of the inquisitors, the learning, cunning, consent, and estimation of writers herein, the false translations and fond interpretations used, speciallie by papists; and manie other like causes. All which toies take such hold upon mens fansies, as whereby they are lead and entised awaie from the consideration of true respects, to the condemnation of that which they know not.

Howbeit, I will (by Gods grace) in this my booke, so apparentlie decipher and confute these cavils, and all other their objections; as everie witchmoonger shall be abashed, and all good men thereby satisfied. In the meane time, I would wish them to know that if neither the estimation of Gods omnipotencie, nor the tenor of his word, nor the doubtfulnes or rather the impossibilitie of the case, nor the small proofes brought against them, nor the rigor executed upon them, nor the pitie that should be in a christian heart, nor yet their simplicitie, impotencie, or age may suffice to suppresse the rage or rigor wherewith they are oppressed; yet the consideration of their sex or kind ought to moove some mitigatiō of their punishment. For if nature (as Plinie reporteth) have taught a lion not to deale so roughlie with a woman as with a man, bicause she is in bodie the xxiii weaker vessell, and in hart more inclined to pitie (which JeremieLam. Jer. 3. & 4. cap. verse. 10
1. Cor 11. 9.
Ibid. vers. 7.
Ge. 2. 22. 18.
Arist. lib. problem. 2. 9.
in his lamentations seemeth to confirme) what should a man doo in this case, for whome a woman was created as an helpe and comfort unto him? In so much as, even in the lawe of nature, it is a greater offense to slea a woman than a man: not bicause a man is not the more excellent creature, but bicause a woman is the weaker vessell. And therefore among all modest and honest persons it is thought a shame to offer violence or injurie to a woman:Vir. Georg. in which respect Virgil/[B. iv.] saith, Nullum memorabile nomen fæminea in pæna est.

God that knoweth my heart is witnes, and you that read my booke shall see, that my drift and purpose in this enterprise tendeth onelie to these respects. First, that the glorie and power of God be not so abridged and abased, as to be thrust into the hand or lip of a lewd old woman: whereby the worke of the Creator should be attributed to the power of a creature. Secondlie, that the religion of the gospell may be seene to stand without such peevish trumperie. Thirdlie, that lawfull favour and christian compassion be rather used towards these poore soules, than rigor and extremitie. Bicause they, which are commonlie accused of witchcraft,/B 2 v are the least sufficient of all other persons to speake for themselves; as having the most base and simple education of all others; the extremitie of their age giving them leave to dote, their povertie to beg, their wrongs to chide and threaten (as being void of anie other waie of revenge) their humor melancholicall to be full of imaginations, from whence cheefelie proceedeth the vanitie of their confessions; as that they can transforme themselves and others into apes, owles, asses, dogs, cats, &c: that they can flie in the aire, kill children with charmes, hinder the comming of butter, &c.

And for so much as the mightie helpe themselves together, and the poore widowes crie,Eccl[us.] 35, 15. though it reach to heaven, is scarse heard here upon earth: I thought good (according to my poore abilitie) to make intercession, that some part of common rigor, and some points of hastie judgement may be advised upon. For the world is now at that stay (as Brentius in a most godlie sermon in these words affirmeth) that even as when the heathen persecuted the christians, if anie were accused to beleeve in Christ, the common people cried Ad leonem: so now, if anie woman, be she never so honest, be accused of witchcraft, they crie Ad ignem. What difference is betweene the rash dealing of unskilfull people, and the grave counsell of more discreet and learned persons, may appeare by a tale of Danæus his owne telling; wherein he opposeth the rashnes of a few townesmen, to the counsell of a whole senate, preferring the follie of the one, before the wisdome of the other.

xxiv

At Orleance on Loyre (saith he) there was a manwitch, not only/[B. iv. v.] taken and accused, but also convicted and condemned for witchcraft, who appealed from thence to the high court of Paris. Which accusation the senate sawe insufficient, and would not allow, but laughed thereat, lightlie regarding it; and in the end sent him home (saith he) as accused of a frivolous matter. And yet for all that, the magistrats of Orleance were so bold with him, as to hang him up within short time after, for the same or the verie like offense. In which example is to be seene the nature, and as it were the disease of this cause: wherein (I saie) the simpler and undiscreeter sort are alwaies more hastie & furious in judgements, than men of better reputation and knowledge. Nevertheles, Eunichius saith, that these three things; to wit, what is to be thought of witches, what their incantations can doo, and whether their punishment should extend to death, are to be well considered. And I would (saith he) they were as well knowne, as they are rashlie beleeved, both of the learned, and unlearned. And further he saith, that almost all divines, physicians and lawyers, who should best know these matters, satisfieng themselves with old custome, have given too much credit to these fables, and too rash and unjust sentence of death upon witches. But when a man pondereth (saith he) that in times past, all that swarved from the church of Rome were judged heretikes; it is the lesse marvell, though in this matter they be blind and ignorant.

And surelie, if the scripture had beene longer suppressed, more absurd fables would have sproong up, and beene beleeved. Which credulitie though it is to be derided with laughter; yet this their crueltie is to be/B 3 lamented with teares. For (God knoweth) manie of these poore wretches had more need to be releeved than chastised; and more meete were a preacher to admonish them, than a gailor to keepe them; and a physician more necessarie to helpe them, than an executioner or tormentor to hang or burne them. For proofe and due triall hereof, I will requite Danæus his tale of a manwitch (as he termeth him) with another witch of the same sex or gender.

CardanusLib. 15. cap. 18. de varietatib. rerum. from the mouth of his owne father reporteth, that one Barnard, a poore servant, being in wit verie simple and rude, but in his service verie necessarie and diligent (and in that respect deerelie beloved of his maister) professing the art of witchcraft,/[B. v.] could in no wise be dissuaded from that profession, persuading himselfe that he knew all things, and could bring anie matter to passe; bicause certeine countrie people resorted to him for helpe and counsell, as supposing by his owne talke, that he could doo somewhat. At length he was condemned to be burned: which torment he seemed more willing to suffer, than to loose his estimation in that behalfe. But hisxxv maister having compassion upon him, and being himselfe in his princes favor, perceiving his conceipt to proceed of melancholie, obteined respit of execution for twentie daies. In which time (saith he) his maister bountifullie fed him with good fat meat, and with foure egs at a meale, as also with sweet wine: which diet was best for so grosse and weake a bodie. And being recovered so in strength, that the humor was suppressed, he was easilie woone from his absurd and dangerous opinions, and from all his fond imaginations: and confessing his error and follie, from the which before no man could remoove him by anie persuasions, having his pardon, he lived long a good member of the church, whome otherwise the crueltie of judgement should have cast awaie and destroied.

This historie is more credible than Sprengers fables, or Bodins bables, which reach not so far to the extolling of witches omnipotencie, as to the derogating of Gods glorie. For if it be true, which they affirme, that our life and death lieth in the hand of a witch; then is it false, that God maketh us live or die, or that by him we have our being, our terme of life appointed, and our daies numbred. But surelie their charmes can no more reach to the hurting or killing of men or women, than their imaginations can extend to the stealing and carrieng awaie of horsses & mares. Neither hath God given remedies to sicknes or greefes, by words or charmes, but by hearbs and medicines;Amos. 3. 6.
La. Jer. 3. 38.
Isai. 45. 9.
Rom. 9. 20.
which he himselfe hath created upon earth, and given men knowledge of the same; that he might be glorified, for that therewith he dooth vouchsafe that the maladies of men and cattell should be cured, &c. And if there be no affliction nor calamitie, but is brought to passe by him, then let us defie the divell, renounce all his works, and not so much as once thinke or dreame upon this supernaturall power of witches; neither let us prosecute them with such despight, whome our fansie condemneth, and our reason acquiteth: our/[B v. v.] evidence against them consisting in impossibilities, our proofes in unwritten verities, and our whole proceedings in doubts and difficulties./

B 3. v.Now bicause I mislike the extreame crueltie used against some of these sillie soules (whome a simple advocate having audience and justice might deliver out of the hands of the inquisitors themselves) it will be said, that I denie anie punishment at all to be due to anie witch whatsoever. Naie, bicause I bewraie the follie and impietie of them, which attribute unto witches the power of God: these witchmoongers will report, that I denie there are anie witches at all: and yet behold (saie they) how often is this word [Witch]** [] in text. mentioned in the scriptures? Even as if an idolater should saie in the behalfe of images and idols, to them which denie their power and godhead, and xxvi inveigh against the reverence doone unto them; How dare you denie the power of images, seeing their names are so often repeated in the scriptures? But truelie I denie not that there are witches or images: but I detest the idolatrous opinions conceived of them; referring that to Gods worke and ordinance, which they impute to the power and malice of witches; and attributing that honour to God, which they ascribe to idols. But as for those that in verie deed are either witches or conjurors, let them hardlie suffer such punishment as to their fault is agreeable, and as by the grave judgement of lawe is provided.

Places amended by the author, and to be read as followeth. The first number standeth for the page, the second for the line.
[Corrected in this 4th edition. The numbers of the 3rd line in original, i.e., from 438, are smaller.]

xxvii The forren authors used in this Booke.[B. vi.] [B 4]


xxix

[These Contents in original end the book as do our Indices.]

The summe of everie chapter con-
teined in the sixteene bookes of this disco-
verie, with the discourse of divels and
spirits annexed thereunto.

The first Booke.

A N impeachment of witches power in meteors and elementarie bodies, tending to the rebuke of such as attribute too much unto them. Pag. 1.

The inconvenience growing by mens credulitie herein, with a reproofe of some churchmen, which are inclined to the common conceived opinion of witches omnipotencie, and a familiar example thereof. pag. 4.

Who they be that are called witches, with a manifest declaration of the cause that mooveth men so commonlie to thinke, & witches themselves to beleeve that they can hurt children, cattell, &c. with words and imaginations: and of coosening witches. pag. 7.

What miraculous actions are imputed to witches by witchmongers, papists, and poets. pag. 9.

A confutation of the common conceived opinion of witches and witchcraft, and how detestable a sinne it is to repaire to them for counsell or helpe in time of affliction. pag. 11.

A further confutation of witches miraculous and omnipotent power, by invincible reasons and authorities, with dissuasions from such fond credulitie. pag. 12.

By what meanes the name of witches becommeth so famous, & how diverslie people be opinioned concerning them and their actions. pa. 14.

Causes that moove as well witches themselves as others to thinke that they can worke impossibilities, with answers to certeine objections: where also their punishment by law is touched. pag. 16.

A conclusion of the first booke, wherein is foreshewed the tyrannicall crueltie of witchmongers and inquisitors, with a request to the reader to peruse the same. pag. 17.

The second Booke.

WHat testimonies and witnesses are allowed to give evidence against reputed witches, by the report and allowance of the inquisitors themselves, & such as are speciall writers herein. Pag. 19.

The order of examination of witches by the inquisitors. pag. 20.

Matters of evidence against witches. pag. 22.

Confessions of witches, whereby they are condemned. pag. 24.

Presumptions, whereby witches are condemned. pag. 25.

Particular interogatories used by the inquisitors against witches. pa. 27.

The inquisitors triall of weeping by conjuration. pag. 29.

Certeine cautions against witches, and of their tortures to procure confession. pag. 29.

The 15. crimes laid to the charge of witches, by witchmongers; speciallie by Bodin, in Demonomania. 32.

A refutation of the former surmised crimes patched togither by Bodin, and the onelie waie to escape the inquisitors hands. pag. 34.

The opinion of Cornelius Agrippa concerning witches, of his pleading/S s. i. v for a poore woman accused of witchcraft, and how he convinced the inquisitors. pag. 35.

What the feare of death and feeling of torments may force one to doo, and that it is no marvell though witches condemne themselves by their owne confessions so tyrannicallie extorted. pag. 37.

The third Booke.

THe witches bargaine with the divell, according to M. Mal. Bodin, Nider, Daneus, Psellus, Erastus, Hemingius, Cumanus, Aquinas, Bartholomeus Spineus, &c. Pag. 40.

The order of the witches homage done (as it is written by lewd inquisitors and peevish witchmoongers) to the divell in person; of their songs and danses, and namelie of La volta, and of other ceremonies, also of their excourses. pag. 41.

How witches are summoned to appeere before the divell, of their riding in the aire, of their accompts, of their conference with the divell, of his supplies, and their conference, of their farewell and sacrifices: according to Daneus, Psellus, &c. p. 43.

That there can no real league be made with the divell the first author of the league, and the weake proofes of the adversaries for the same. pag. 44.

Of the private league, a notable tale of Bodins concerning a French ladie, with a confutation. pag. 46.

xxx

A disproofe of their assemblies, and of their bargaine pag. 47.

A confutation of the objection concerning witches confessions. pag. 49.

What follie it were for witches to enter into such desperate perill, and to endure such intolerable tortures for no gaine or commoditie, and how it comes to passe that witches are overthrowne by their confessions. 51.

How melancholie abuseth old women, and of the effects thereof by sundrie examples. pag. 52.

That voluntarie confessions may be untrulie made, to the undooing of the confessors, and of the strange operation of melancholie, prooved by a familiar and late example. pag. 55.

The strange and divers effects of melancholie, and how the same humor abounding in witches, or rather old women, filleth them full of mervellous imaginations, & that their confessions are not to be credited. p. 57.

A confutation of witches confessions, especiallie concerning their league. pag. 59.

A confutation of witches confessions, concerning making of tempests and raine: of the naturall cause of raine, and that witches or divels have no power to doo such things. pag. 60.

What would ensue, if witches confessions or witchmōgers opinions were true, concerning the effects of witchcraft, inchantments, &c. pag. 63.

Examples of forren nations, who in their warres used the assistance of witches; of eybiting witches in Ireland, of two archers that shot with familiars. pag. 64.

Authorities condemning the fantasticall confessions of witches, and how a popish doctor taketh upon him to disproove the same. pag. 65.

Witchmongers reasons, to proove that witches can worke wonders, Bodins tale of a Friseland preest transported, that imaginations proceeding of melancholie doo cause illusions. pag. 67.

That the confession of witches is insufficient in civill and common law to take awaie life. What the sounder divines, and decrees of councels determine in this case. pag. 68.

Of foure capitall crimes objected against witches, all fullie answered & confuted as frivolous. pag. 70./

S s. ii.A request to such readers as loath to heare or read filthie & bawdie matters (which of necessitie are here to be inserted) to passe over eight chapters. pag. 72.

The fourth Booke.

OF witchmoongers opinions concerning evill spirits, how they frame themselves in more excellent sort than God made us. Pag. 73.

Of bawdie Incubus and Succubus, and whether the action of venerie may be performed betweene witches and divels and when witches first yeelded to Incubus. pag. 74.

Of the divels visible and invisible dealing with witches in the waie of lecherie. pag. 76.

That the power of generation is both outwardlie and inwardlie impeached by witches, and of divers that had their genitals taken from them by witches, and by the same means againe restored. pag. 77.

Of bishop Sylvanus his leacherie opened & covered againe, how maids having yellow haire are most combred with Incubus, how maried men are bewitched to use other mens wives, and to refuse their owne. pag. 79.

How to procure the dissolving of bewitched love, also to enforce a man (how proper so ever he be) to love an old hag: and of a bawdie tricke of a priest in Gelderland. pag. 80.

Of divers saincts and holie persons, which were exceeding bawdie and lecherous, and by certeine miraculous meanes became chast. pag. 81.

Certeine popish and magicall cures, for them that are bewitched in their privities. p. 82.

A strange cure doone to one that was molested with Incubus. pag. 83.

A confutation of all the former follies touching Incubus, which by examples and proofes of like stuffe is shewed to be flat knaverie, wherein the carnall copulation with spirits is overthrowne. pag. 85.

That Incubus is a naturall disease, with remedies for the same, besides magicall cures herewithall expressed. pag. 86.

The censure of G. Chaucer, upon the knaverie of Incubus. pag. 88.

The fift Booke.

OF transformations, ridiculous examples brought by the adversaries for the confirmation of their foolish doctrine. Pag. 89.

Absurd reasons brought by Bodin, & such others, for confirmation of transformations. pag. 93.

Of a man turned into an asse, and returned againe into a man by one of Bodins witches: S. Augustines opinion thereof. cap. 94.

A summarie of the former fable, with a refutation thereof, after due examination of the same. pag. 97.

That the bodie of a man cannot be turned into the bodie of a beast by a witch, is prooved by strong reasons, scriptures, and authorities. pag. 99.

The witchmongers objections concerning Nabuchadnez-zar answered, & their errour concerning Lycanthropia confuted. pag. 101.

A speciall objection answered concerning transportations, with the consent of diverse writers thereupon. pag. 103.

The witchmongers objection concerning the historie of Job answered. pag. 105.

What severall sortes of witches are mentioned in the scriptures, & how the word witch is there applied. pag. 109.

xxxi

The sixt Booke.

THe exposition of this Hebrue word Chasaph, wherin is answe/redS s. ii. v. the objection conteined in Exodus 22. to wit: Thou shalt not suffer a witch to live, and of Simon Magus. Acts 8. pag. 111.

The place of Deuteronomie expounded, wherein are recited all kind of witches; also their opinions confuted, which hold that they can worke worke*[* sic] such miracles as are imputed unto them. pag. 113.

That women have used poisoning in all ages more than men, & of the inconvenience of poisoning pag. 116.

Of divers poisoning practises, otherwise called veneficia, committed in Italie, Genua, Millen, Wittenberge, also how they were discovered and executed. pag. 119.

A great objection answered concerning this kind of witchcraft called Veneficium. pag. 120.

In what kind of confections that witchcraft, which is called Veneficium, consisteth: of love cups, and the same confuted by poets. pag. 121.

It is prooved by more credible writers, that love cups rather ingender death through venome, than love by art: and with what toies they destroie cattell, and procure love. p. 123.

John Bodin triumphing against J. Wier is overtaken with false greeke & false interpretation thereof. p. 125.

The seventh Booke.

OF the Hebrue woord Ob, what it signifieth where it is found, of Pythonisses called Ventriloque, who they be, & what their practises are, experience and examples thereof shewed. Pag. 126.

How the lewd practise of the Pythonist of Westwell came to light, and by whome she was examined; and that all hir diabolicall speach was but ventriloquie and plaine cousenage, which is prooved by hir owne confession. pag. 130.

Bodins stuffe concerning the Pythonist of Endor, with a true storie of a counterfeit Dutchman. pag. 132.

Of the great oracle of Apollo the Pythonist, and how men of all sorts have beene deceived, and that even the apostles have mistaken the nature of spirits, with an unanswerable argument, that spirits can take no shapes. pag. 133.

Why Apollo was called Pytho wherof those witches were called Pythonists: Gregorie his letter to the divell. pag. 136.

Apollo, who was called Pytho, compared to the Rood of grace: Gregories letter to the divell cōfuted. p. 137.

How diverse great clarkes and good authors have beene abused in this matter of spirits through false reports, and by means of their credulitie have published lies, which are confuted by Aristotle and the scriptures. pag. 138.

Of the witch of Endor, and whether she accomplished the raising of Samuel trulie, or by deceipt: the opinion of some divines hereupon. p. 139.

That Samuel was not raised indeed, and how Bodin and all papists dote herin, and that soules cannot be raised by witchcraft. pag. 140.

That neither the divell nor Samuel was raised, but that it was a meere cousenage, according to the guise of our Pythonists. pag. 142.

The objection of the witchmongers concerning this place fullie answered, and what circumstances are to be considered for the understanding of this storie, which is plainelie opened from the beginning of the 28. chapt. of the 1. Samuel, to the 12. verse. pag. 143.

The 12. 13. & 14. verses of 1. Sam. 28. expounded: wherein is shewed that Saule was cousened and abused by the witch, & that Samuel was not raised, is prooved by the witches/S s. iii. owne talke. pag. 146.

The residue of 1. Sam. 28. expounded: wherein is declared how cunninglie this witch brought Saule resolutelie to beleeve that she raised Samuel, what words are used to colour the cousenage, & how all might also be wrought by ventriloquie. p. 148.

Opinions of some learned men, that Samuel was indeed raised, not by the witches art or power, but by the speciall miracle of God, that there are no such visions in these our daies, and that our witches cannot doo the like. pag. 151.

Of vaine apparitions, how people have beene brought to feare bugs, which is partlie reformed by preaching of the gospel, the true effect of Christes miracles. pag. 152.

Witches miracles cōpared to Christs, that God is the creator of al things, of Apollo, and of his names and portraiture. pag. 154.

The eight Booke.

THat miracles are ceased. 156.

That the gift of prophesie is ceased. Pag. 158.

That Oracles are ceased. pag. 160.

A tale written by manie grave authors, and beleeved by manie wise men of the divels death. An other storie written by papists, and beleeved of all catholikes, approoving the divels honestie, conscience, and courtesie. pag. 162.

The judgments of the ancient fathers touching oracles, and their abolishment, and that they be now transferred from Delphos to Rome. p. 164.

Where and wherein couseners, witches, and preests were woont to give oracles, and to worke their feats. pag. 165.

The ninth Booke.

THe Hebrue word Kasam expounded, and how farre a Christian may conjecture of things to come. Pag. 167.

xxxii

Proofes by the old and new testament, that certaine observations of the weather are lawfull. pag. 168.

That certeine observations are indifferent, certeine ridiculous, and certeine impious, whence that cunning is derived of Apollo, and of Aruspices. pag. 169.

The predictions of soothsaiers & lewd preests, the prognostications of astronomers and physicians allowable, divine prophesies holie and good. pag. 171.

The diversitie of true prophets, of Urim, and of the propheticall use of the twelve pretious stones conteined therein, of the divine voice called Eccho. pag. 172.

Of prophesies conditionall: whereof the prophesies in the old testament dee*[* doe] intreat, and by whom they were published; witchmongers answers to the objections against witches supernaturall actions. pag. 173.

What were the miracles expressed in the old testament, and what are they in the new testament: and that we are not now to looke for anie more miracles. pag. 175.

The tenth Booke.

THe interpretation of the Hebrue word Onen, of the vanitie of dreames, and divinations thereupon. Pag. 177.

Of divine, naturall, & casuall dreames, with the differing causes and effects. pag. 178.

The opinion of divers old writers touching dreames, and how they varie in noting the causes therof. p. 179.

Against interpretors of dreames, of the ordinarie cause of dreames, Hemingius his opinion of diabolicall dreames, the interpretation of dreames ceased. pag. 180./

S s. iii. v.That neither witches, nor anie other, can either by words or herbs, thrust into the mind of a sleeping man, what cogitations or dreames they list; and whence magicall dreames come. pag. 181.

How men have beene bewitched, cousened or abused by dreames to dig and search for monie. pag. 182.

The art & order to be used in digging for monie, revealed by dreames, how to procure pleasant dreames, of morning and midnight dreames. p. 183.

Sundrie receipts & ointments, made and used for the transportation of witches, and other miraculous effects: an instance thereof reported and credited by some that are learned. pag. 184.

A confutation of the former follies, as well cōcerning ointments, dreams, &c. as also of the assemblie of witches, and of their consultations and bankets at sundrie places, and all in dreames. pag. 185.

That most part of prophesies in the old testament were revealed in dreams, that we are not now to looke for such revelations, of some who have drempt of that which hath come to passe, that dreames proove contrarie, Nebuchadnez zars*[* sic] rule to know a true expositor of dreames. pag. 187.

The eleventh Booke.

THe Hebrue word Nahas expounded, of the art of augurie, who invented it, how slovenlie a science it is: the multitude of sacrifices and sacrificers of the heathen, and the causes thereof. Pag. 189.

Of the Jewes sacrifice to Moloch, a discourse thereupon, and of Purgatorie. pag. 190.

The Cambals*[* sic] crueltie, of popish sacrifices exceeding in tyrannie the Jewes or Gentiles. pag. 191.

The superstition of the heathen about the element of fier, and how it grew in such reverence among them, of their corruptions, and that they had some inkling of the godlie fathers dooings in that behalfe. pag. 191.

Of the Romane sacrifices, of the estimation they had of augurie, of the lawe of the twelve tables. pag. 192.

Colleges of augurors, their office, their number, the signification of augurie, that the practisers of that art were couseners, their profession, their places of exercise, their apparell, their superstition. pag. 193.

The times and seasons to exercise augurie, the maner and order thereof, of the ceremonies thereunto belonging. pag. 195.

Upon what signes and tokens augurors did prognosticate, observations touching the inward and outward parts of beasts, with notes of beasts behaviour in the slaughterhouse. pag. 196.

A confutation of augurie, Plato his reverend opinion thereof, of contrarie events, & false predictions. p. 196.

The cousening art of sortilege or lotarie, practiced especiallie by Aegyptian vagabonds, of allowed lots, of Pythagoras his lot, &c. pag. 197.

Of the Cabalisticall art, consisting of traditions and unwritten verities learned without booke, and of the division thereof. cap. 198.

When, how, and in what sort sacrifices were first ordained, and how they were prophaned, and how the pope corrupteth the sacraments of Christ. pag. 200.

Of the objects whereupon the augurors used to prognosticate, with certeine cautions and notes. pag. 201.

The division of augurie, persons admittable into the colleges of augurie, of their superstition. pag. 202./

S s iiii.Of the common peoples fond and superstitious collections and observations. pag. 203.

How old writers varie about the matter, the maner, and the meanes, whereby things augurificall are mooved. pag. 205.

How ridiculous an art augurie is, how Cato mocked it, Aristotles reason against it, fond collections of augurors, who allowed, and who disallowed it. pag. 206.

Fond distinctions of the heathen writers, concerning augurie. pag. 208.

Of naturall and casuall augurie, the one allowed,and the other disallowed. pag. 208.

A confutation of casual augurie which is meere witchcraft, and upon what uncerteintie those divinations are grounded. pag. 209.

xxxiii

That figure-casters are witches, the uncerteintie of their art, and of their contradictions, Cornelius Agrippas sentence against judiciall astrologie. pag. 210.

The subtiltie of astrologers to mainteine the credit of their art, why they remaine in credit, certeine impieties conteined in astrologers assertions. pag. 212.

Who have power to drive awaie divels with their onelie presence, who shall receive of God whatsoever they aske in praier, who shall obteine everlasting life by meanes of constellations, as nativitie-casters affirme. pag. 214.

The twelfe Booke.

THe Hebrue word Habar expounded, where also the supposed secret force of charmes and inchantments is shewed, and the efficacie of words is diverse waies declared. Pag. 216.

What is forbidden in scriptures concerning witchcraft, of the operation of words, the superstition of the Cabalists and papists, who createth substances, to imitate God in some cases is presumption, words of sanctification. pag. 217.

What effect & offense witches charmes bring, how unapt witches are, and how unlikelie to worke those things which they are thought to doo, what would follow if those things were true which are laid to their charge. pag. 218.

Why God forbad the practise of witchcraft, the absurditie of the law of the twelve tables, whereupon their estimation in miraculous actions is grounded, of their woonderous works. pag. 220.

An instance of one arreigned upon the law of the twelve tables, whereby the said law is prooved ridiculous, of two witches that could doo woonders. pag. 221.

Lawes provided for the punishment of such witches as worke miracles, whereof some are mentioned, and of certeine popish lawes published against them. pag. 222.

Poetical authorities commonlie alledged by witchmongers, for the proofe of witches miraculous actions, and for confirmation of their supernaturall power. pag. 223.

Poetrie and poperie compared in inchantments, popish witchmongers have more advantage herein than protestants. pag. 229.

Popish periapts, amulets & charmes, agnus Dei, a wastcote of proofe, a charme for the falling evill, a writing brought to S. Leo from heaven by an angell, the vertues of S. Saviors epistle, a charme against theeves, a writing found in Christs wounds, of the crosse, &c. pag. 230.

¶ A charme against shot, or a wastcote of proofe. Against the falling evill, p. 231. A popish periapt or charme, which must never be said, but carried about one, against theeves. Another amulet, pag. 233. A papisticall charme. A charme found in the ca/nonS s. iiii. v. of the masse. Other papisticall charmes. pag. 234. A charme of the holie crosse. pag. 235. A charme taken out of the Primer. pag. 236.

How to make holie water, and the vertues thereof, S. Rufins charme, of the wearing & bearing of the name of Jesus, that the sacrament of confession & the eucharist is of as much efficacie as other charmes, and magnified by L. Vairus. pag. 237.

Of the noble balme used by Moses, apishlie counterfeited in the church of Rome. pag. 238.

The opinion of Ferrarius touching charmes, periapts, appensions, amulets, &c. Of Homericall medicines, of constant opinion, and the effects thereof. pag. 239.

Of the effects of amulets, the drift of Argerius Ferrarius in the commendation of charmes, &c: foure sorts of Homericall medicines, and the choice thereof; of imagination. pag. 241.

Choice of charmes against the falling evill, the biting of a mad dog, the stinging of a scorpion, the toothach, for a woman in travell, for the kings evill, to get a thorne out of any member, or a bone out of ones throte, charmes to be said fasting, or at the gathering of hearbs, for sore eies, to open locks, against spirits, for the bots in a horsse, and speciallie for the Duke of Albas horsse, for sowre wines, &c. pag. 242.

¶ For the falling evill. pa. 242. Against the biting of a mad dog. pag. 243. Against the biting of a scorpion. Against the toothach. A charme to release a woman in travell. To heale the Kings or Queenes evill, or anie other sorenesse in the throte. A charme read in the Romish church, upon saint Blazes daie, that will fetch a thorne out of anie place of ones bodie, a bone out of the throte, &c: Lect. 3. pag. 244. A charme for the headach. A charme to be said ech morning by a witch fasting, or at least before she go abroad. Another charme that witches use at the gathering of their medicinable hearbs. An old womans charme, wherwith she did much good in the countrie, and grew famous thereby. pag. 245. Another like charme. A charme to open locks. A charme to drive awaie spirits that haunt anie house. pag. 246. A prettie charme or conclusion for one possessed. Another for the same purpose. Another to the same effect. Another charme or witchcraft for the same. pag. 247. A charme for the bots in a horsse. pag. 248. A charme against vineger. pa. 249.

The inchanting of serpents & snakes, objections answered concerning the same; fond reasons whie charmes take effect therein, Mahomets pigeon, miracles wrought by an Asse at Memphis in Aegypt, popish charmes against serpents, of miracle-workers, the taming of snakes, Bodins lie of snakes. pag. 249.

xxxiv

Charmes to carrie water in a sive, to know what is spoken of us behind our backs, for bleare eies, to make seeds to growe well, of images made of wax, to be rid of a witch, to hang hir up, notable authorities against waxen images, a storie bewraieng the knaverie of waxen images. pag. 256.

¶ A charme teaching how to hurt whom you list with images of wax, &c. pag. 257.

Sundrie sorts of charmes tending to diverse purposes, and first, certeine charmes to make taciturnitie in tortures. pag. 259.

¶ Counter charmes against these and all other witchcrafts, in the saieng also whereof witches are vexed, &c. A charme for the choine cough. For corporall or spirituall rest. Charmes to find out a theefe. pag. 260. Another/[S s. v.] waie to find out a theefe that hath stolne any thing from you. pag. 261. To put out the theeves eie. Another waie to find out a theefe. pag. 262. A charme to find out or spoile a theefe. S. Adelberts cursse or charme against theeves. pag. 263. Another inchantment. pag. 266.

A charme or experiment to find out a witch. pag. 266.

¶ To spoile a theefe, a witch, or any other enimie, and to be delivered from the evill. pag. 269. A notable charme or medicine to pull out an arrowhead, or any such thing that sticketh in the flesh or bones, and cannot otherwise be had out. Charmes against a quotidian ague. For all maner of agues intermittant. Periapts, characters, &c: for agues, and to cure all diseases, and to deliver from all evill. p. 270. More charmes for agues. pag. 271. For a bloudie fluxe, or rather an issue of bloud. Cures commensed and finished by witchcraft, pa. 273. Another witchcraft or knaverie, practised by the same surgion. pag. 275. Another experiment for one bewitched. Otherwise. A knacke to know whether you be bewitched, or no, &c. pag. 276.

That one witchcraft may lawfullie meete with another. pag. 277.

Who are privileged from witches, what bodies are aptest to be bewitched, or to be witches, why women are rather witches than men, and what they are. pag. 277.

What miracles witchmongers report to have been done by witches words &c: contradictions of witchmongers among themselves, how beasts are cured hereby, of bewitched butter, a charme against witches, & a counter charme, the effect of charmes and words prooved by L. Vairus to be woonderfull. pag. 279.

¶ A charme to find hir that bewitched your kine. Another, for all that have bewitched any kind of cattell. p. 281. A speciall charme to preserve all cattell from witchcraft. pag. 282.

Lawfull charmes, rather medicinable cures for diseased cattell. The charme of charmes, and the power thereof. pag. 283.

¶ The charme of charmes. Otherwise. pag. 284.

A confutation of the force and vertue falselie ascribed to charmes and amulets, by the authorities of ancient writers, both divines and physicians. pag. 285.

The xiii. Booke.

THe signification of the Hebrue word Hartumim, where it is found written in the scriptures, and how it is diverslie translated: whereby the objection of Pharaos magicians is afterward answered in this booke; also of naturall magicke not evill in it selfe. Pag. 287.

How the philosophers in times past travelled for the knowledge of naturall magicke, of Salomons knowledge therein, who is to be called a naturall magician, a distinctiō therof, and why it is condemned for witchcraft. pag. 288.

What secrets doo lie hidden, and what is taught in naturall magicke, how Gods glorie is magnified therein, and that it is nothing but the worke of nature. pag. 290.

What strange things are brought to passe by naturall magicke. pag. 291.

The incredible operation of waters, both standing and running; of wels, lakes, rivers, and of their woonderfull effects. pag. 292.

The vertues and qualities of sundrie pretious stones, of cousening Lapidaries, &c. pag. 293.

Whence the pretious stones receive their operations, how curious Magicians use them, and of their/[S s. v. v.] seales. pag. 297.

The sympathie and antipathie of naturall and elementarie bodies declared by diverse examples of beasts, birds, plants, &c. pag. 301.

The former matter prooved by manie examples of the living and the dead. pag. 303.

The bewitching venome conteined in the bodie of an harlot, how hir eie, hir toong, hir beautie and behavior bewitcheth some men: of bones and hornes yeelding great vertue. pag. 304.

Two notorious woonders and yet not marvelled at. pag. 305.

Of illusions, confederacies, and legierdemaine, and how they may be well or ill used. pag. 307.

Of private confederacie, and of Brandons pigeon. pag. 308.

Of publike confederacie, and whereof it consisteth. pag. 309.

How men have beene abused with words of equivocation, with sundrie examples thereof. pag. 309.

How some are abused with naturall magike, and sundrie examples therof when illusion is added thereunto, of Jacobs pied sheepe, and of a blacke Moore. pag. 311.

The opinion of witchmongers, that divels can create bodies, & of Pharaos magicians. pag. 312.

How to produce or make monsters by art magike, and why Pharaos magicians could not make lice. pa. 313.

That great matters may be wrought by this art, when princes esteeme and mainteine it: of divers woonderfull experiments, and of strange conclusions in glasses, of the art perspective, &c. pag. 315.

A comparison betwixt Pharaos magicians and our witches, and how their cunning consisted in juggling knacks. pag. 317.

That the serpents and frogs were trulie presented, and the water poisoned indeed by Jannes and Jambres, of false prophets, and of their miracles, of Balams asse. pag. 318.

xxxv

The art of juggling discovered, and in what points it dooth principallie consist. pag. 321.

Of the ball, and the manner of legierdemaine therwith, also notable feats with one or diverse balles. pag. 322.

¶ To make a little ball swell in your hand till it be verie great. p. 323. To consume (or rather to conveie) one or manie balles into nothing. pag. 324. How to rap a wag upon the knuckles. pag. 324.

Of conveiance of monie. pag. 324.

¶ To conveie monie out of one of your hands into the other by legierdemaine. pag. 325. To convert or transubstantiate monie into counters, or counters into monie. pag. 325. To put one testor into one hand, and an other into the other hand, and with words to bring them togither. pag. 325. To put one testor into a strangers hand, and another into your owne, and to conveie both into the strangers hand with words. pag. 326. How to doo the same or the like feat otherwise. pa. 326. To throwe a peece of monie awaie, and to find it againe where you list. pag. 326. With words to make a groat or a testor to leape out of a pot, or to run alongst upon a table. pag. 327. To make a groat or a testor to sinke through a table, and to vanish out of a handkercher verie strangelie. pag. 327.

A notable tricke to transforme a counter to a groat. pag. 328.

An excellent feat, to make a two penie peece lie plaine in the palme of your hand, and to be passed from thence when you list. pag. 329.

¶ To conveie a testor out of ones hand that holdeth it fast. pag. 329. To throwe a peece of monie into a deepe pond, and to fetch it againe from whence you list. pag. 330./[S s. vi.]

To conveie one shilling being in one hand into an other, holding your armes abroad like a rood. pag. 330. How to rap a wag on the knuckles. pag. 330.

To transforme anie one small thing into anie other forme by folding of paper. pag. 331.

Of cards, with good cautions how to avoid cousenage therein: speciall rules to conveie and handle the cards, and the maner and order how to accomplish all difficult and strange things wrought by cards. pag. 331.

¶ How to deliver out foure aces, and to convert them into foure knaves. pag. 333. How to tell one what card he seeth in the bottome, when the same card is shuffled into the stocke. pag. 334. An other waie to doo the same, having your selfe indeed never seene the card. pag. 334. To tell one without confederacie what card he thinketh. pag. 334.

How to tell what card anie man thinketh, how to conveie the same into a kernell of a nut or cheristone, &c: and the same againe into ones pocket: how to make one drawe the same or anie card you list, and all under one devise. pag. 335.

Of fast or loose, how to knit a hard knot upon a handkercher, and to undoo the same with words. p. 336.

¶ A notable feat of fast or loose, namelie, to pull three beadstones from off a cord, while you hold fast the ends thereof, without remooving of your hand. pag. 337.

Juggling knacks by confederacie, and how to know whether one cast crosse or pile by the ringing. pag. 338.

¶ To make a shoale of goslings drawe a timber log. pag. 338. To make a pot or anie such thing standing fast on the cupboord, to fall downe thense by vertue of words. pag. 338. To*[* make] one danse naked. pag. 339. To transforme or alter the colour of ones cap or hat. pag. 339. How to tell where a stollen horsse is become. pag. 339.

Boxes to alter one graine into another, or to consume the graine or come to nothing. pag. 340.

¶ How to conveie (with words or charmes) the corne conteined in one boxe into an other. pag. 340. Of an other boxe to convert wheat into flower with words, &c. pag. 341. Of diverse petie juggling knacks. pag. 341.

To burne a thred, and to make it whole againe with the ashes thereof. pag. 341.

¶ To cut a lace asunder in the middest, and to make it whole againe. pag. 342. How to pull laces innumerable out of your mouth, of what colour or length you list, and never anie thing seene to be therein. pag. 343.

How to make a booke, wherein you shall shew everie leafe therein to be white, blacke, blew, red, yellow, greene, &c. pag. 343.

Desperate or dangerous juggling knacks, wherin the simple are made to thinke, that a seelie juggler with words can hurt and helpe, kill and revive anie creature at his pleasure: and first to kill anie kind of pullen, and to give it life againe. pag. 346.

¶ To eate a knife, and to fetch it out of anie other place. pag. 346. To thrust a bodkin into your head without hurt. pag. 347. To thrust a bodkin through your toong, and a knife through your arme: a pittiful sight, without hurt or danger. pag. 347. To thrust a peece of lead into one eie, and to drive it about (with a sticke) betweene the skin and flesh of the forehead, untill it be brought to the other eie, and there thrust out. pag. 348. To cut halfe your nose asunder, and to heale it againe presentlie without anie salve. pag. 348./

[S s vi. v.]To put a ring through your cheeke. pag. 348. To cut off ones head, and to laie it in a platter, &c: which the juglers call the decollation of John Baptist. pag. 349. To thrust a dagger or bodkin in your guts verie strangelie, and to recover immediatlie. pag. 350. To draw a cord through your nose, mouth or hand, so sensiblie as it is wonderfull to see. pag. 351.

The conclusion wherein the reader is referred to certeine patterns of instruments wherewith diverse feats here specified are to be executed. pag. 351.

xxxvi

The xiiii. Booke.

OF the art of Alcumysterie, of their woords of art and devises to bleare mens eies, and to procure credit to their profession. Pag. 353.

The Alcumysters drift, the Chanons yeomans tale, of alcumystical stones and waters. pag. 355.

Of a yeoman of the countrie cousened by an Alcumyst. pag. 357.

A certeine king abused by an Alcumyst, and of the kings foole a pretie jest. pag. 360.

A notable storie written by Erasmus of two Alcumysts, also of longation and curtation. pag. 361.

The opinion of diverse learned men touching the follie of Alcumystrie. pag. 368.

That vaine and deceitfull hope is a great cause why men are seduced by this alluring art, and that there labours therein are bootelesse, &c. pag. 371.

A continuation of the former matter, with a conclusion of the same. p. 372.

The xv. Booke.

THe exposition of Iidoni, and where it is found, whereby the whole art of conjuration is deciphered. Pag. 376.

An inventarie of the names, shapes, powers, governement, and effects of divels and spirits, of their severall segniorities and degrees: a strange discourse woorth the reading. p. 377.

The houres wherein principall divels may be bound; to wit, raised and restrained from dooing of hurt. p. 393.

The forme of adjuring or citing of the spirits aforesaid to arise & appeare. page. 393.

A confutation of the manifold vanities conteined in the precedent chapters, speciallie of commanding of divels. pag. 396.

The names of the planets, their characters, togither with the twelve signes of the zodiake, their dispositions, aspects, and government, with other observations. pag. 397.

¶ The twelve signes of the zodiake, their characters and denominations, &c. pag. 397. Their dispositions or inclinations. 397. The disposition of the planets. pag. 398. The aspects of the planets. 398. How the daie is divided or distinguished. 398. The division of the daie, and the planetarie regiment. pag. 399. The division of the night, and the planetarie regiment. pag. 399.

The characters of the angels of the seven daies, with their names: of figures, seales and periapts. pag. 400.

An experiment of the dead. pag. 401.

A licence for Sibylia to go and come by at all times. pag. 407.

To know of treasure hidden in the earth. pag. 408.

¶ This is the waie to go invisible by these three sisters of fairies. 408.

An experiment of Citrael, &c: angeli diei dominici. pag. 410.

¶ The seven angels of the seven daies, with the praier called Regina linguæ. pag. 410.

How to inclose a spirit in a christall stone. pag. 411./

[S s. iii.]A figure or type proportionall, shewing what forme must be observed and kept, in making the figure whereby the former secret of inclosing a spirit in christall is to be accomplished, &c. pag. 414.

An experiment of Bealphares. pag. 415.

¶ The twoo and twentieth Psalme. pag. 416.

This psalme also following, being the fiftie one psalme, must be said three times over, &c. pag. 416.

To bind the spirit Bealphares, and to lose him againe. pag. 418.

¶ A licence for the spirit to depart. pag. 419. A type or figure of the circle for the maister and his fellowes to sit in, shewing how & after what fashion it should be made. pag. 420.

The making of the holie water. pag. 421.

¶ To the water saie also as followeth. pag. 421. Then take the salt in thy hand, and saie putting it into the water, making in the maner of a crosse. pag. 421. Then sprinkle upon anie thing, and saie as followeth. pag. 422.

To make a spirit to appeare in a christall. pag. 422.

An experiment of the dead. pag. 423.

¶ Now the Pater noster, Ave, and Credo must be said, and then the praier immediatlie following. p. 425.

A bond to bind him to thee, and to thy N. as followeth. pag. 425.

¶ This bōd as followeth, is to call him into your christall stone, or glasse, &c. pag. 428. Then being appeared, saie these words following. pag. 429. A licence to depart. pag. 429.

When to talke with spirits, and to have true answers to find out a theefe. pag. 430.

¶ To speake with spirits. pag. 430.

A confutation of conjuration, especiallie of the raising, binding and dismissing of the divell, of going invisible and other lewd practises. pag. 430.

A comparison betweene popish exorcists and other conjurors, a popish conjuration published by a great doctor of the Romish church, his rules and cautions. pag. 433.

A late experiment, or cousening conjuration practised at Orleance by the Franciscane Friers, how it was detected, and the judgement against the authors of that comedie. pag. 435.

Who may be conjurors in the Romish church besides priests, a ridiculous definition of superstition, what words are to be used and not used in exorcismes, rebaptisme allowed, it is lawfull to conjure any thing, differences betweene holie water and conjuration. pag. 438.

The seven reasons why some are not rid of the divell with all their popish conjurations, why there were no cōjurors in the primitive church, and why the divell is xxxvii not so soone cast out of the bewitched as of the possessed. pag. 441.

Other grosse absurdities of witchmongers in this matter of conjurations. pag. 443.

Certaine conjurations taken out of the pontificall and out of the missall. pag. 444.

¶ A conjuration written in the masse booke. Fol. 1. pag. 445. Oremus. pag. 445.

That popish priests leave nothing unconjured, a forme of exorcisme for incense. pag. 446.

The rules and lawes of popish Exorcists and other conjurors all one, with a confutation of their whole power, how S. Martine conjured the divell. pag. 447.

That it is a shame for papists to beleeve other conjurors dooings, their owne being of so litle force, Hippocrates his opinion herein. pag. 450./

[S s vii. v.]How conjurors have beguiled witches, what bookes they carie about to procure credit to their art, wicked assertions against Moses and Joseph. pag. 451.

All magicall arts confuted by an argument concerning Nero, what Cornelius Agrippa and Carolus Gallus have left written therof, and prooved by experience. pag. 452.

Of Salomons conjurations, and of the opinion conceived of his cunning and practise therein. pag. 454.

Lessons read in all churches, where the pope hath authoritie, on Saint Margarets daie, translated into English word for word. pag. 455.

A delicate storie of a Lombard, who by saint Margarets example would needs fight with a reall divell. pag. 457.

The storie of S. Margaret prooved to be both ridiculous and impious in everie point. pag. 459.

A pleasant miracle wrought by a popish preest. pag. 460.

The former miracle confuted, with a strange storie of S. Lucie. pag 461.

Of visions, noises, apparitions, and imagined sounds, and of other illusions, of wandering soules: with a confutation thereof. pag. 461.

Cardanus opinion of strange noises, how counterfet visions grow to be credited, of popish appeerances, of pope Boniface. pag. 464.

Of the noise or sound of eccho, of one that narrowlie escaped drowning thereby &c. pag. 465.

Of Theurgie, with a confutation therof, a letter sent to me concerning these matters. pag. 466.

¶ The copie of a letter sent unto me R. S. by T. E. Maister of art, and practiser both of physicke, and also in times past, of certeine vaine sciences; now condemned to die for the same: wherein he openeth the truth touching these deceits. pag. 467.

The xvi. Booke.

A Conclusion, in maner of an epilog, repeating manie of the former absurdities of witchmongers conceipts, confutations thereof, and of the authoritie of James Sprenger and Henry Institor inquisitors and compilers of M. Mal. Pa. 470.

By what meanes the common people have beene made beleeve in the miraculous works of witches, a definition of witchcraft, and a description thereof. pag. 471.

Reasons to proove that words and characters are but bables, and that witches cannot doo such things as the multitude supposeth they can, their greatest woonders prooved trifles, of a yoong gentleman cousened. pag. 473.

Of one that was so bewitched that he could read no scriptures but canonicall, of a divell that could speake no Latine, a proofe that witchcraft is flat cousenage. pag. 476.

Of the divination by the sive & sheeres, and by the booke and key, Hemingius his opinion thereof confuted, a bable to know what is a clocke, of certeine jugling knacks, manifold reasons for the overthrowe of witches and conjurors, and their cousenages, of the divels transformations, of Ferrum candens, &c. pag. 477.

How the divell preached good doctrine in the shape of a preest, how he was discovered, and that it is a shame (after confutation of the greater witchcrafts) for anie man to give credit to the lesser points thereof. pag. 481.

A conclusion against witchcraft, in maner and forme of an Induction. pag. 483.

Of naturall witchcraft or fascination. pag. 484.

Of inchanting or bewitching eies. pag. 485./

Of naturall witchcraft for love, &c. pag. 487.[S s. viii.]


A Discourse upon divels and spirits, and first of philosophers opinions, also the maner of their reasoning hereupon, and the same confuted. Pag. 489.

Mine owne opinion concerning this argument, to the disproofe of some writers hereupon. pag. 491.

The opinion of Psellus touching spirits, of their severall orders, and a confutation of his errors therein. pag. 492.

More absurd assertions of Psellus and such others, concerning the actions and passions of spirits, his definition of them, and of his experience therein. pag. 495.

The opinion of Fascius Cardanus touching spirits, and of his familiar divell. pag. 497.

The opinion of Plato concerning spirits, divels and angels, what sacrifices they like best, what they feare, and of Socrates his familiar divell. pag. 498.

Platos nine orders of spirits and angels, Dionysius his division thereof not much differing from the same, all disprooved by learned divines. pag. 500.

The commensement of divels fondlie gathered out of the 14. of Isaie, of Lucifer and of his fall, the Cabalists the Thalmudists and Schoolemens opinions of the creation of angels. pag. 501.

Of the cōtention betweene the Greeke and xxxviiiLatine church touching the fall of angels, the variance among papists themselves herein, a conflict betweene Michael and Lucifer. pag. 503.

Where the battell betweene Michael and Lucifer was fought, how long it continued, and of their power, how fondlie papists and infidels write of them, and how reverentlie Christians ought to thinke of them. p. 504.

Whether they became divels which being angels kept not their vocation, in Jude and Peter; of the fond opinions of the Rabbins touching spirits and bugs, with a confutation thereof. pag. 506.

That the divels assaults are spirituall and not temporall, and how grosselie some understand those parts of the scripture. pag. 508.

The equivocation of this word spirit, how diverslie it is taken in the scriptures, where (by the waie) is taught that the scripture is not alwaies literallie to be interpreted, nor yet allegoricallie to be understood. pa. 509.

That it pleased God to manifest the power of his sonne and not of witches by miracles. pag. 512.

Of the possessed with devils. pag. 513.

That we being not throughlie informed of the nature of divels and spirits, must satisfie our selves with that which is dilivered us in the scriptures touching the same, how this word divell is to be understood both in the singular & plurall number, of the spirit of God and the spirit of the divell, of tame spirits, of Ahab. pag. 514.

Whether spirits and soules can assume bodies, and of their creation and substance, wherein writers doo extreamelie contend and varie. pag. 516.

Certeine popish reasons concerning spirits made of aier, of daie divels and night divels, and why the divell loveth no salt in his meate. pag. 517.

That such divels as are mentioned in the scriptures, have in their names their nature and qualities expressed, with instances thereof. pag. 518.

Diverse names of the divell, whereby his nature and disposition is manifested. pag. 520.

That the idols or gods of the Gentiles are divels, their diverse names, and/[S s viii. v.] in what affaires their labours and authorities are emploied, wherein also the blind superstition of the heathen people is discovered. pag. 521.

Of the Romans cheefe gods called Dii selecti, and of other heathen gods, their names and offices. pag. 523.

Of diverse gods in diverse countries. pag. 525.

Of popish provinciall gods, a comparison betweene them and heathen gods, of physicall gods, and of what occupation everie popish god is. pag. 526.

A comparison betweene the heathen and papists, touching their excuses for idolatrie. pag. 529.

The conceipt of the heathen and the papists all one in idolatrie, of the councell of Trent, a notable storie of a hangman arraigned after he was dead and buried, &c. pag. 530.

A confutation of the fable of the hangman, of manie other feined and ridiculous tales and apparitions, with a reproofe thereof. pag. 532.

A confutation of Johannes Laurentius, and of manie others, mainteining these fained and ridiculous tales and apparitions, & what driveth them awaie; of Moses and Helias appearance in Mount Thabor. pag. 534.

A confutation of assuming of bodies, and of the serpent that seduced Eve. pag. 536.

The objection concerning the divels assuming of the serpents bodie answered. pag. 537.

Of the cursse rehearsed Genes. 3. and that place rightlie expounded, John Calvines opinion of the divell. pag. 539.

Mine owne opinion and resolution of the nature of spirits, and of the divell, with his properties. pag. 540.

Against fond witchmongers, and their opinions concerning corporall divels. pag. 542.

A conclusion wherin the Spirit of spirits is described, by the illumination of which spirit all spirits are to be tried: with a confutation of the Pneutomachi*[* Pneuma-] flatlie denieng the divinitie of this Spirit. pag. 543.

FINIS.
¶ Imprinted at London by
William Brome.
[These Contents in original end the book as do our Indices.]

Appendix I.

[Ch. 1 to 9 affixed to the 15th Book in Ed. 1665.]

Chap. Page.

I. OF Magical Circles, and the reason of their Institution. 215

II. How to raise up the Ghost of one that hath hanged himself. 217

III. How to raise up the three Spirits, Paymon, Bathin, and Barma; and what wonderful things may be effected through their Assistance. 218

IV. How to consecrate all manner of Circles, Fumigations, Fires, Magical Garments, and Utensils. 220

V. Treating more practically of the Consecration of Circles, Fires, Garments and Fumigations. 221

VI. How to raise and exorcise all sorts of Spirits belonging to the Airy Region. 222

VII. How to obtain the familiarity of the Genius, or Good Angel, and cause him to appear. 223

VIII. A form of Conjuring Luridan the Familiar, otherwise called Belelah. 224

IX. How to conjure the Spirit Balkin the Master of Luridan. 226

Appendix II.

[Second Book of A Discourse on Devils and Spirits.]

Book II.

Chap. Page.

I. OF Spirits in general, what they are, and how to be considered, also how far the power of Magitians and Witches, is able to operate in Diabolical Magick. 39

II. Of the good and evil Dæmons or Genii; whether they are, what they are, and how they are manifested; also of their names, powers, faculties, offices, how they are to be considered. 42

III. Of the Astral Spirits of Men departed; what they are, and why they appear again, and what witchcraft may be wrought by them. 45.

IV. Of astral spirits, or separate dæmons in all their distinctions, names, & natures, and places of habitations, & what may be wrought by their assistance. 49

V. Of the Infernal Spirits, or Devils, & damned souls, treating what their natures, names, & powers are. 56.

VI. Of the nature, force, & forms of charms, periapts, amulets, pentacles, conjurations, ceremonies, &c. 66

VII. Being the conclusion of the whole, wherein divers ancient spells, charms, incantations, and exorcisms, are briefly spoken of. 68

THE END.


1
The discoverie of Witchcraft.

The first Booke.

The first Chapter.

An impeachment of Witches power in meteors and elementarie bodies tending to the rebuke of such as attribute too much unto them.

T HE fables of Witchcraft have taken so fast hold and deepe root in the heart of man, that fewe or none can (nowadaies) with patience indure the hand and correction of God. For if any adversitie, greefe, sicknesse, losse of children, corne, cattell, or libertie happen vnto them; by & by they exclaime uppon witches. Job. 5.As though there were no God in Israel that ordereth all things according to his will; punishing both just and unjust with greefs, plagues, and afflictions in maner and forme as he thinketh good: but that certeine old women heere on earth, called witches, must needs be the contrivers of all mens calamities, and as though they themselves were innocents, and had deserved no such punishments. Insomuch as they sticke not to ride and go to such, as either are injuriouslie tearmed witches, or else are willing so to be accounted, seeking at their hands comfort and remedie in time of their tribulation, Matth. 11.contrarie to Gods will and commandement in that behalfe, who bids us resort to him in all/2. our necessities.

Such faithlesse people (I saie) are also persuaded, that neither haile nor snowe, thunder nor lightening, raine nor tempestuous winds come from the heavens at the commandement of God: but are raised by the cunning and power of witches and conjurers; insomuch as a clap of thunder, or a gale of wind is no sooner heard, but either they run to ring bels, or crie out to burne witches; or else burne consecrated things, hoping by the smoke thereof, to drive the divell out of the aire, as though spirits could be fraied awaie with such externall toies: howbeit, these are right inchantments, as Brentius affirmeth. In concione.

But certeinlie, it is neither a witch, nor divell, but a gloriousaa Psal. 25. God that maketh the thunder. I have read in the scriptures, that Godbb Psal. 83. maketh the blustering tempests and whirlewinds: and I find that it iscc Eccles. 43. the Lord that altogither dealeth with them, and that theydd Luke. 8.
Matth. 8.
blowe according to his will. But let me see anie of them allee Mark. 4. 41.
Luke. 8. 14.
rebuke and still the sea in time of tempest, as Christ did; or raise the stormie wind, as fGodf Psal. 170. did with his word; and I will beleeve in them. Hath 2 anie witch or conjurer, or anie creature entred into the gtreasures g Job. 38, 22. of the snowe; or seene/2. the secret places of the haile, which GOD hath prepared against the daie of trouble, battell, and warre? I for my part also thinke with Jesus Sirach,Eccles. 43. that at Gods onelie commandement the snowe falleth; and that the wind bloweth according to his will, who onelie maketh all stormes to cease; andhh Leviti. 26. verse. 3, 4. who (if we keepe his ordinances) will send us raine in due season, and make the land to bring forth hir increase, and the trees of the field to give their fruit.

But little thinke our witchmongers, that the iLordi Psal. 78, 23. commandeth the clouds above, or openeth the doores of heaven, as David affirmeth; or that the Lord goeth forth in the tempests and stormes, as the Prophet kNahumk Nahum. 1. reporteth: but rather that witches and conjurers are then about their businesse.

The Martionists acknowledged one God the authour of good things, and another the ordeiner of evill: but these make the divell a whole god, to create things of nothing, to knowe mens cogitations, and to doo that which God never did; as, to transubstantiate men into beasts, &c. Which thing if divels could doo,/3. yet followeth it not, that witches have such power. But if all the divels in hell were dead, and all the witches in England burnt or hanged; I warrant you we should not faile to have raine, haile and tempests, as now we have: according to the appointment and will of God, and according to the constitution of the elements, and the course of the planets, wherein God hath set a perfect and perpetuall order.

I am also well assured, that if all the old women in the world were witches; and all the priests, conjurers: we should not have a drop of raine, nor a blast of wind the more or the lesse for them. For lthe l Job. 26, 8.
Job. 37.
Psalme. 135.
Jer. 10 & 15.
Lord hath bound the waters in the clouds, and hath set bounds about the waters, untill the daie and night come to an end: yea it is God that raiseth the winds and stilleth them: and he saith to the raine and snowe; Be upon the earth, and it falleth. The mwindm Ose. 13. of the Lord, and not the wind of witches, shall destroie the treasures of their plesant vessels, and drie up the fountaines; saith Oseas. Let us also learne and confesse with the Prophet David, that wenn Psa. 39, &c. our selves are the causes of our afflictions; and not exclaime upon witches, when we should call upon God for mercie.

The Imperiall lawe (saith Brentius)In epist. ad Jo. Wierum. condemneth them to death that trouble and infect the aire: but I affirme (saith he) that it is neither in the power of witch not divell so to doo, but in God onelie. Though (besides Bodin, and all the popish writers in generall) it please Danæus, Hyperius, Hemingius, Erastus, &c. to conclude otherwise. The cloudsoo Exod. 13.
Isai. 66.
Ps. 18, 11. 19.
are called the pillers of Gods tents, Gods chariots, and his pavillions. And if it be so, what witch or divell can 3 make maisteries therof? S. Augustine saith, August. 3. de sancta Trinit.Non est putandum istis transgressoribus angelis servire hanc rerum visibilium materiem, sed soli Deo: We must not thinke that these visible things are at the commandement of the angels that fell, but are obedient to the onelie God.

Finallie, if witches could accomplish these things; what needed it seeme so strange to the people, when Christ by miracle pcommandedp Mar. 4, 41. both seas and winds, &c. For it is written; Who is this? for both wind and sea obeie him./

4. 3.

The second Chapter.

The inconvenience growing by mens credulitie herein, with a reproofe of some churchmen, which are inclined to the common conceived opinion of witches omnipotencie, and a familiar example thereof.

B UT the world is now so bewitched and over-run with this fond error, that even where a man shuld seeke comfort and counsell, there shall hee be sent (in case of necessitie) from God to the divell; and from the Physician, to the coosening witch, who will not sticke to take upon hir, by wordes to heale the lame (which was proper onelie to Christ; and to them whom he assisted with his divine power) yea, with hir familiar & charmes she will take upon hir to cure the blind: though in the atentha Joh. 10, 21. of S. Johns Gospell it be written, that the divell cannot open the eies of the blind. And they attaine such credit as I have heard (to my greefe) some of the ministerie affirme, that they have had in their parish at one instant, xvii. or xviii. witches: meaning such as could worke miracles supernaturallie. Whereby they manifested as well their infidelitie and ignorance, in conceiving Gods word; as their negligence and error in instructing their flocks. For they themselves might understand, and also teach their parishoners, that bGodb Psal. 72, & 136.
Jeremie, 5.
onelie worketh great woonders; and that it is he which sendeth such punishments to the wicked, and such trials to the elect: according to the saieng of the Prophet Haggai,cc Hag. 2, 28. I smote you with blasting and mildeaw, and with haile, in all the labours of your hands; and yet you turned not unto me, saith the Lord. And therefore saith the same Prophet in another place;dd Idem. cap. 1, 6. You have sowen much, and bring in little. And both in eJoele Joel. 1. and fLeviticus,f Leviti. 26. the like phrases and proofes are used and made. But more shalbe said of this hereafter.

S. Paule fore-sawe the blindnesse and obstinacie, both of these blind shepheards, and also of their scabbed sheepe, when he said;/5. gTheyg 2 Tim. 4, 34. will not suffer wholsome doctrine, but having their eares itching, shall get them a heape of teachers after their own lusts; and shall 4turne their eares from the truth, and shall be given to fables. And hinh 1 Tim. 4. 1. the latter time some shall depart from the faith, and shall give heed to spirits of errors, and doctrines of divels, which speake lies (as witches and conjurers doo) but cast thou awaie such prophane and old wives fables. In which sense Basil saith; Who so giveth heed to inchanters, hearkeneth to a fabulous and frivolous thing. But I will rehearse an example whereof I my selfe am not onelie Oculatus testis, but have examined the cause, and am to justifie the truth of my report: not bicause I would disgrace the ministers that are godlie, but to confirme my former assertion, that this absurd error is growne into the place, which should be able to expell all such ridiculous follie and impietie.

A storie of Margaret Simons, a supposed witch. At the assises holden at Rochester, Anno 1581, one Margaret Simons,/ the wife of John Simons, of Brenchlie in Kent, was araigned for witchcraft, at the instigation and complaint of divers fond and malicious persons; and speciallie by the meanes of one John Ferrall vicar of that parish: with whom I talked about that matter, and found him both fondlie assotted in the cause, and enviouslie bent towards hir: and (which is worse) as unable to make a good account of his faith, as shee whom he accused. That which he, for his part, laid to the poore womans charge, was this.

His sonne (being an ungratious boie, and prentise to one Robert Scotchford clothier, dwelling in that parish of Brenchlie) passed on a daie by hir house; at whome by chance hir little dog barked. Which thing the boie taking in evill part, drewe his knife, & pursued him therewith even to hir doore: whom she rebuked with some such words as the boie disdained, & yet neverthelesse would not be persuaded to depart in a long time. At the last he returned to his maisters house, and within five or sixe daies fell sicke. Then was called to mind the fraie betwixt the dog and the boie: insomuch as the vicar (who thought himselfe so privileged, as he little mistrusted that God would visit his children with sicknes) did so calculate; as he found, partlie through his owne judgement, and partlie (as he himselfe told/6. me) by the relation of other witches, that his said sonne was by hir bewitched. Yea, he also told me, that this his sonne (being as it were past all cure) received perfect health at the hands of another witch.

He proceeded yet further against hir, affirming, that alwaies in his parish church, when he desired to read most plainelie, his voice so failed him, as he could scant be heard at all. Which hee could impute, he said, to nothing else, but to hir inchantment. When I advertised the poore woman hereof, as being desirous to heare what she could saie for hir selfe; she told me, that in verie deed his voice did much faile 5 him, speciallie when he strained himselfe to speake lowdest. How beit, she said that at all times his voice was hoarse and lowe: which thing I perceived to be true. But sir, said she, you shall understand, that this our vicar is diseased with such a kind of hoarsenesse, as divers of our neighbors in this parish, not long since, doubted that he had the French pox; & in that respect utterly refused to communicate with him: untill such time as (being therunto injoined by M. D. Lewen the Ordinarie) he had brought frō London a certificat, under the hands of two physicians, that his hoarsenes proceeded from a disease in the lungs. Which certificat he published in the church, in the presence of the whole congregation: and by this meanes hee was cured, or rather excused of the shame of his disease. And this I knowe to be true by the relation of divers honest men of that parish. And truelie, if one of the Jurie had not beene wiser than the other, she had beene condemned thereupon, and upon other as ridiculous matters as this. For the name of a witch is so odious, and hir power so feared among the common people, that if the honestest bodie living chance to be arraigned therupon, she shall hardlie escape condemnation./

The third Chapter.7. 5.

Who they be that are called witches, with a manifest declaration of the cause that mooveth men so commonlie to thinke, and witches themselves to beleeve that they can hurt children, cattell, &c. with words and imaginations: and of coosening witches.

O NE sort of such as are said to bee witches, are women which be commonly old, lame, bleare-eied, pale, fowle, and full of wrinkles; poore, sullen, superstitious, and papists; or such as knowe no religion: in whose drousie minds the divell hath goten a fine seat; so as, what mischeefe, mischance, calamitie, or slaughter is brought to passe, they are easilie persuaded the same is doone by themselves; inprinting in their mindsCardan. de var. rerum. an earnest and constant imagination hereof. They are leane and deformed, shewing melancholie in their faces, to the horror of all that see them. They are doting, scolds, mad, divelish; and not much differing from them that are thought to be possessed with spirits; so firme and stedfast in their opinions, as whosoever shall onelie have respect to the constancie of their words uttered, would easilie beleeve they were true indeed.

These miserable wretches are so odious unto all their neighbors, and so feared, as few dare offend them, or denie them anie thing they aske: whereby they take upon them; yea, and sometimes thinke, that they can doo such things as are beyond the abilitie of humane 6 nature. These go from house to house, and from doore to doore for a pot full of milke, yest, drinke, pottage, or some such releefe; without the which they could hardlie live: neither obtaining for their service and paines, nor by their art, nor yet at the divels hands (with whome they are said to make a perfect and visible bargaine) either beautie, monie, promotion, welth, worship, pleasure, honor, knowledge, learning, or anie other benefit whatsoever./8.

It falleth out many times, that neither their necessities, nor their expectation is answered or served, in those places where they beg or borrowe; but rather their lewdnesse is by their neighbors reprooved. And further, in tract of time the witch waxeth odious and tedious to hir neighbors; and they againe are despised and despited of hir: so as sometimes she cursseth one, and sometimes another; and that from the maister of the house, his wife, children, cattell, &c. to the little pig that lieth in the stie. Thus in processe of time they have all displeased hir, and she hath wished evill lucke unto them all; perhaps with cursses and imprecations made in forme. Doubtlesse (at length) some of hir neighbors die, or fall sicke; or some of their children are visited with diseases that vex them strangelie: as apoplexies, epilepsies, convulsions, hot fevers, wormes, &c. Which by ignorant parents are supposed to be the vengeance of witches. Yea and their opinions and conceits are/ confirmed and maintained by unskilfull physicians: according to the common saieng; Inscitiæ pallium maleficium & incantatio, Witchcraft and inchantment is the cloke of ignorance: whereas indeed evill humors, & not strange words, witches, or spirits are the causes of such diseases. Also some of their cattell perish, either by disease or mischance. Then they, upon whom such adversities fall, weighing the fame that goeth upon this woman (hir words, displeasure, and cursses meeting so justlie with their misfortune) doo not onelie conceive, but also are resolved, that all their mishaps are brought to passe by hir onelie meanes.

The witch on the other side exspecting hir neighbours mischances, and seeing things sometimes come to passe according to hir wishes, cursses, and incantations (for BodinBodin. li. 2. de dæmono: cap. 8. himselfe confesseth, that not above two in a hundred of their witchings or wishings take effect) being called before a Justice, by due examination of the circumstances is driven to see hir imprecations and desires, and hir neighbors harmes and losses to concurre, and as it were to take effect: and so confesseth that she (as a goddes) hath brought such things to passe. Wherein, not onelie she, but the accuser, and also the Justice are fowlie deceived and abused; as being thorough hir confession and other circumstances persuaded (to the injurie of Gods glorie) that she hath doone, or can doo that which/9. is proper onelie to God himselfe.

7

Another sort of witches there are, which be absolutelie cooseners. These take upon them, either for glorie, fame, or gaine, to doo anie thing, which God or the divell can doo: either for foretelling of things to come, bewraieng of secrets, curing of maladies, or working of miracles. But of these I will talke more at large heereafter.

The fourth Chapter.

What miraculous actions are imputed to witches by witchmongers, papists, and poets.

A LTHOUGH it be quite against the haire, and contrarie to the divels will, contrarie to the witches oth, promise, and homage, and contrarie to all reason, that witches should helpe anie thing that is bewitched; but rather set forward their maisters businesse: yet we read In malleo maleficarum,Mal. Malef. par. 2. quæst. 1. cap, 2. of three sorts of witches; and the same is affirmed by all the writers heereupon, new and old. One sort (they say) can hurt and not helpe, the second can helpe and not hurt, the third can both helpe and hurt. And among the hurtfull witches he saith there is one sort more beastlie than any kind of beasts, saving woolves: for these usuallie devoure and eate yong children and infants of their owne kind. These be they (saith he) that raise haile, tempests, and hurtfull weather; as lightening, thunder, &c. These be they that procure barrennesse in man, woman, and beast. These can throwe children into waters, as they walke with their mothers, and/7. not be seene. These can make horsses kicke, till they cast the riders. These can passe from place to place in the aire invisible. These can so alter the mind of judges, that they can have no power to hurt them. These can procure to themselves and to others, taciturnitie and insensibilitie in their torments. These can bring trembling to the hands, and strike terror into the minds of them that apprehend them. These can manifest unto others, things hidden and lost, and foreshew/10. things to come; and see them as though they were present. These can alter mens minds to inordinate love or hate. These can kill whom they list with lightening and thunder. These can take awaie mans courage, and the power of generation. These can make a woman miscarrie in childbirth, and destroie the child in the mothers wombe, without any sensible meanes either inwardlie or outwardlie applied. These can with their looks kill either man or beast.

All these things are avowed by James Sprenger and Henrie Institor In malleo maleficarum, to be true, & confirmed by Nider, and the inquisitor Cumanus; and also by Danæus, Hyperius, Hemingius, and multiplied by Bodinus, and frier Bartholomæus Spineus. But bicause I will in no wise abridge the authoritie of their power, you shall have8 also the testimonies of manie other grave authors in this behalfe; as followeth.

*And*Ovid. lib. metamorphoseôn 7.
Danæus in dialog.
Psellus in operatione dæm.
Virg. in Damo
Hora. epod. 5.
Tibul. de fascinat. lib. 1. eleg. 2.
Ovid epist 4.
Lex. 12.
Tabularum.
Mal. Malef.
Lucā. de bello civili. lib. 6.
Virg. eclog. 8.
Ovid. de remedio amoris. lib. 1.
Hyperius.
Erastus.
Rich. Gal. in his horrible treatise.
Hemingius.
Bar. Spineus.
Bryan Darcy Confessio Windesor.
Virgil. Aeneid. 4.
C. Manlius astrol. lib. 1.
first Ovid affirmeth, that they can raise and suppresse lightening and thunder, raine and haile, clouds and winds, tempests and earthquakes. Others doo write, that they can pull downe the moone and the starres. Some write that with wishing they can send needles into the livers of their enimies. Some that they can transferre corne in the blade from one place to another. Some, that they can cure diseases supernaturallie, flie in the aire, and danse with divels. Some write, that they can plaie the part of Succubus, and contract themselves to Incubus; and so yoong prophets are upon them begotten, &c. Som saie they can transubstantiate themselves and others, and take the forms and shapes of asses, woolves, ferrets, cowes, apes, horsses, dogs, &c. Some say they can keepe divels and spirits in the likenesse of todes and cats.

They can raise spirits (as others affirme) drie up springs, turne the course of running waters, inhibit the sunne, and staie both day and night, changing the one into the other. They can go in and out at awger holes, & saile in an egge shell, a cockle or muscle shell, through and under the tempestuous seas. They can go invisible, and deprive men of their privities, and otherwise of the act and use of venerie. They can bring soules out of the graves. They can teare snakes in peeces with words, and with looks kill lambes. But in this case a man may saie, that Miranda canunt/11. sed non credenda Poetæ. They can also bring to passe, that chearne as long as you list, your butter will not come; especiallie, if either the maids have eaten up the creame; or the goodwife have sold the butter before in the market. Whereof I have had some triall, although there may be true and naturall causes to hinder the common course thereof: as for example. Put a little sope or sugar into your chearne of creame, and there will never come anie butter, chearne as long as you list. But M. Mal.Mal. Malef. part. 2. quæst 1. cap. 14.
1. Cor 9, 9.
saith, that there is not so little a village, where manie women are not that/8. bewitch, infect, and kill kine, and drie up the milke: alledging for the strengthening of that assertion, the saie- ing of the Apostle, Nunquid Deo cura est de bobus? Dooth God take anie care of oxen?

9

The fift Chapter.

A confutation of the common conceived opinion of witches and witchcraft, and how detestable a sinne it is to repaire to them for counsell or helpe in time of affliction.

B UT whatsoever is reported or conceived of such maner of witchcrafts, I dare avow to be false and fabulous (coosinage, dotage, and poisoning excepted:) neither is there any mention made of these kind of witches in the Bible. If Christ had knowne them, he would not have pretermitted to invaie against their presumption, in taking upon them his office: as, to heale and cure diseases; and to worke such miraculous and supernaturall things, as whereby he himselfe was speciallie knowne, beleeved, and published to be God; his actions and cures consisting (in order and effect) according to the power by our witchmoongers imputed to witches. Howbeit, if there be any in these daies afflicted in such strange sort, as Christs cures and patients are described in the new testament to have beene: we flie from trusting in God to trusting in witches, who doo not onelie in their coosening art take on them the office of Christ in this behalfe; but use his verie phrase of speech to such idolaters, as com to seeke divine/12. assistance at their hands, saieng; Go thy waies, thy sonne or thy daughter, &c. shall doo well, and be whole.John. 5: 6.
Mark. 5. 34.

It will not suffice to dissuade a witchmonger from his credulitie, that he seeth the sequele and event to fall out manie times contrarie to their assertion; but in such case (to his greater condemnation) he seeketh further to witches of greater fame. If all faile, he will rather thinke he came an houre too late; than that he went a mile too far. Trulie I for my part cannot perceive what is to go a whoring To go to witches, &c. is idolatrie.after strange gods, if this be not. He that looketh upon his neighbors wife, and lusteth after hir, hath committed adulterie. And truelie, he that in hart and by argument mainteineth the sacrifice of the masse to be propitiatorie for the quicke and the dead, is an idolater; as also he that alloweth and commendeth creeping to the crosse, and such like idolatrous actions, although he bend not his corporall knees.

In like manner I say, he that attributeth to a witch, such divine power, as dulie and onelie apperteineth unto GOD (which all witchmongers doo) is in hart a blasphemer, an idolater, and full of grosse impietie, although he neither go nor send to hir for assistance./

10

The sixt Chapter.

A further confutation of witches miraculous and omnipotent power, by invincible reasons and authorities, with dissuasions from such fond credulitie.

IF witches could doo anie such miraculous things, as these and other which are imputed to them, they might doo them againe and againe, at anie time or place, or at anie mans desire: for the divell is as strong at one time as at another, as busie by daie as by night, and readie enough to doo all mischeefe, and careth not whom he abuseth. And in so much as it is confessed, by the most part of witchmoongers themselves, that he knoweth not the cogitation of mans heart, he should (me thinks) sometimes appeere/13. unto honest and credible persons, in such grosse and corporall forme, as it is said he dooth unto witches: which you shall never heare to be justified by one sufficient witnesse. For the divell indeed entreth into the mind, and that waie seeketh mans confusion.

The art alwaies presupposeth the power; so as, if they saie they can doo this or that, they must shew how and by what meanes they doo it; as neither the witches, nor the witchmoongers are able to doo. For to everie action is required the facultie and abilitie of the agent or dooer; the aptnes of the patient or subject; and a convenient and possible application. Now the witches are mortall, and their power dependeth upon the analogie and consonancie of their minds and bodies; but with their minds they can but will and understand; and with their bodies they can doo no more, but as the bounds and ends of terrene sense will suffer: and therefore their power extendeth not to doo such miracles, as surmounteth their owne sense, and the understanding of others which are wiser than they; so as here wanteth the vertue and power of the efficient. And in reason, there can be no more vertue in the thing caused, than in the cause, or that which proceedeth of or from the benefit of the cause. And we see, that ignorant and impotent women, or witches, are the causes of incantations and charmes; wherein we shall perceive there is none effect, if we will credit our owne experience and sense unabused, the rules of philosophie, or the word of God.Aristot. de anima. lib. 2.
Acts. 8.
For alas! What an unapt instrument is a toothles, old, impotent, and unweldie woman to flie in the aier? Truelie, the divell little needs such instruments to bring his purposes to passe.

It is strange, Why shuld not the divell be as readie to helpe a theefe reallie as a witch? that we should suppose, that such persons can worke such feates: and it is more strange, that we will imagine that to be11 possible to be doone by a witch, which to nature and sense is impossible; speciallie when our neighbours life dependeth upon our credulitie therein; and when we may see the defect of abilitie, which alwaies is an impediment both to the act, and also to the presumption thereof. And bicause there is nothing possible in lawe,L. multum. l. si quis alteri, vel sibi. that in nature is impossible; therefore the judge dooth not attend or regard what the accused man saith; or yet would/10. doo: but what is prooved to have beene committed, and na/turallie14. falleth in mans power and will to doo. For the lawe saith, that To will a thing unpossible, is a signe of a mad man, or of a foole, upon whom no sentence or judgement taketh hold. Furthermore, what Jurie will condemne, or what Judge will give sentence or judgement against one for killing a man at Berwicke; when they themselves, and manie other sawe that man at London, that verie daie, wherein the murther was committed; yea though the partie confesse himself guiltie therein, and twentie witnesses depose the same? But in this case also I saie the judge is not to weigh their testimonie, which is weakened by lawe; and the judges authoritie is to supplie the imperfection of the case, and to mainteine the right and equitie of the same.

Seeing therefore that some other things might naturallie be the occasion and cause of such calamities as witches are supposed to bring; let not us that professe the Gospell and knowledge of Christ, be bewitched to beleeve that they doo such things, as are in nature impossible, and in sense and reason incredible.An objection answered. If they saie it is doone through the divels helpe, who can work miracles; whie doo not theeves bring their busines to passe miraculouslie, with whom the divell is as conversant as with the other? Such mischeefes as are imputed to witches, happen where no witches are; yea and continue when witches are hanged and burnt: whie then should we attribute such effect to that cause, which being taken awaie, happeneth neverthelesse?

The seventh Chapter.

By what meanes the name of witches becommeth so famous, and how diverslie people be opinioned concerning them and their actions.

SURELIE the naturall power of man or woman cannot be so inlarged, as to doo anie thing beyond the power and vertue given and ingraffed by God. But it is the will and mind of man, which is vitiated and depraved by the divell: neither dooth God permit anie more,Miracles are ceased. than that which the naturall order appointed by/15. him dooth require. Which naturall order is nothing else, but the ordinarie power of God, powred into everie creature, according to his state12 and condition. But hereof more shall be said in the title of witches confessions. Howbeit you shall understand, that few or none are throughlie persuaded, resolved, or satisfied, that witches can indeed accomplish all these impossibilities: but some one is bewitched in one point, and some is coosened in another, untill in fine, all these impossibilities, and manie mo, are by severall persons affirmed to be true.

And this I have also noted,The opinions of people concerning witchcraft are diverse and inconstant. that when anie one is coosened with a coosening toie of witchcraft, and maketh report thereof accordinglie verifieng a matter most impossible and false as it were upon his owne knowledge, as being overtaken with some kind of illusion or other (which illusions are right inchantments) even the selfe-same man will deride the/snp like lie proceeding out of another mans mouth, as a fabulous matter unworthie of credit. It is also to be woondered, how men (that have seene some part of witches coosenages detected, and see also therein the impossibilitie of their owne presumptions, & the follie and falsehood of the witches confessions) will not suspect, but remaine unsatisfied, or rather obstinatelie defend the residue of witches supernaturall actions: like as when a juggler hath discovered the slight and illusion of his principall feats, one would fondlie continue to thinke, that his other petie juggling knacks of legierdemaine are done by the helpe of a familiar: and according to the follie of some papists, who seeing and confessing the popes absurd religion, in the erection and maintenance of idolatrie and superstition, speciallie in images, pardons, and relikes of saints, will yet persevere to thinke, that the rest of his doctrine and trumperie is holie and good.

Finallie, manie mainteine and crie out for the execution of witches, that particularlie beleeve never a whit of that which is imputed unto them; if they be therein privatelie dealt withall, and substantiallie opposed and tried in argument./16.

The eight Chapter.

Causes that moove as well witches themselves as others to thinke that they can worke impossibilities, with answers to certeine objections: where also their punishment by lawe is touched.

CARDANUS writeth,Card. de var. rerum. lib. 15. cap. 80. that the cause of such credulitie consisteth in three points; to wit, in the imagination of the melancholike, in the constancie of them that are corrupt therewith, and in the deceipt of the Judges; who being inquisitors themselves against heretikes and witches, did both accuse and condemne them, having for their labour the spoile of their goods. So as these inquisitors added 13 manie fables hereunto, least they should seeme to have doone injurie to the poore wretches, in condemning and executing them for none offense. But sithens (saith he) the springing up of Luthers sect, these priests have tended more diligentlie upon the execution of them; bicause more wealth is to be caught from them: insomuch as now they deale so looselie with witches (through distrust of gaines) that all is seene to be malice, follie, or avarice that hath beene practised against them. And whosoever shall search into this cause, or read the cheefe writers hereupon, shall find his words true.

It will be objected,An objection answered. that we here in England are not now directed by the popes lawes; and so by consequence our witches not troubled or convented by the inquisitors Hæreticæ pravitatis. I answer, that in times past here in England, as in other nations, this order of discipline hath beene in force and use; although now some part of old rigor be qualified by two severall statutes made in the fift of Elizabeth, and xxxiii of Henrie the eight. Nevertheles the estimation of the omnipotencie of their words and charmes seemeth in those statutes to be somewhat mainteined, as a matter hitherto generallie received; and not yet so looked into, as/12. that it is refuted and decided. But how wiselie so ever the Parle/ment17. house hath dealt therin, or how mercifullie soever the prince beholdeth the cause: if a poore old woman, supposed to be a witch, be by the civill or canon lawe convented; I doubt, some canon will be found in force, not onelie to give scope to the tormentor, but also to the hangman, to exercise their offices upon hir. And most certaine it is, that in what point soever anie of these extremities, which I shall rehearse unto you, be mitigated, it is thorough the goodnesse of the Queenes Majestie, and hir excellent magistrates placed among us. For as touching the opinion of our writers therein in our age; yea in our owne countrie, you shall see it doth not onlie agree with forren crueltie, but surmounteth it farre. If you read a foolish pamphlet dedicated to the lord Darcy by W. WW. W. his booke, printed in Anno Dom. 1582. 1582, you shall see that he affirmeth, that all those tortures are farre too light, and their rigor too mild; and that in that respect he impudentlie exclameth against our magistrates, who suffer them to be but hanged, when murtherers, & such malefactors be so used, which deserve not the hundreth part of their punishments. But if you will see more follie and lewdnes comprised in one lewd booke, I commend you to Ri. Ga. a Windsor man; who being a mad man hath written according to his frantike humor: the reading wherof may satisfie a wise man, how mad all these witchmoongers dealings be in this behalfe.

14

The ninth Chapter.

A conclusion of the first booke, wherein is fore-shewed the tyrannicall crueltie of witchmongers and inquisitors, with a request to the reader to peruse the same.

AND bicause it may appeare unto the world what trecherous and faithlesse dealing, what extreame and intolerable tyrannie, what grosse and fond absurdities, what unnaturall & uncivil discourtisie, what cancred and spitefull malice, what outragious and barbarous crueltie, what lewd and false packing, what cunning and craftie intercepting, what bald and peevish inter/pretations,18. what abhominable and divelish inventions, and what flat and plaine knaverie is practised against these old women; I will set downe the whole order of the inquisition, to the everlasting, inexcusable, and apparent shame of all witchmoongers. Neither will I insert anie private or doubtfull dealings of theirs; or such as they can either denie to be usuall, or justlie cavill at; but such as are published and renewed in all ages, since the commensement of poperie, established by lawes, practised by inquisitors, privileged by princes, commended by doctors, confirmed by popes, councels, decrees, and canons; and finallie *be[* ? beleeved.] left of all witchmoongers; to wit, by such as attribute to old women, and such like creatures, the power of the Creator. I praie you therefore, though it be tedious & intolerable (as you would be heard in your miserable calamities) so heare with compassion, their accusations, examinations, matters given in evidence, confessions, presumptions, interrogatories, conjurations, cautions, crimes, tortures and condemnations, devised and practised usuallie against them./


15

The second Booke.19. 13.

The first Chapter.

What testimonies and witnesses are allowed to give evidence against reputed witches, by the report & allowance of the inquisitors themselves, and such as are speciall writers heerein.

EXCOMMUNICAT Mal. Malef. quest. 5. pa. 3. I. Bod. lib. 4. cap. 2, de dæmon. persons, partakers of the falt, infants, wicked servants, and runnawaies are to be admitted to beare witnesse against their dames in this mater of witchcraft: bicause (saith Bodin the champion of witchmoongers) none that be honest are able to detect them. Heretikes also and witches shall be received to accuse,Arch. in C. alle. accusatus. in §. lz. super. verba.
I. Bod. lib. 4. cap. 1. de dæmon.
Mal. malef quest. 56. pa. 3, & quæ. 5, part. 3.
but not to excuse a witch. And finallie, the testimonie of all infamous persons in this case is good and allowed. Yea, one lewd person (saith Bodin) may be received to accuse and condemne a thousand suspected witches. And although by lawe, a capitall enimie may be challenged; yet James Sprenger, and Henrie Institor, (from whom Bodin, and all the writers that ever I have read, doo receive their light, authorities and arguments) saie (upon this point of lawe) that The poore frendlesse old woman must proove, that hir capitall enimie would have killed hir, and that hee hath both assalted & wounded hir; otherwise she pleadeth all in vaine. If the judge aske hir,Ibidem. whether she have anie capitall enimies; and she rehearse other, and forget hir accuser; or else answer that he was hir capitall enimie, but now she hopeth he is not so: such a one is nevertheles admitted for a witnes.Que. 7. act 2. And though by lawe, single witnesses are not admittable; yet if one depose she/20. hath bewitched hir cow; another, hir sow; and the third, hir butter: these saith (saith M. Mal. and Bodin)[Redupl.] are no single witnesses; bicause they agree that she is a witch.

The second Chapter.

The order of examination of witches by the inquistors.

WOMEN suspected to be witches, after their apprehension may not be suffered to go home, or to other places, to seek suerties: for then (saith Bodin) the people would be woorse willing to accuse them; for feare least at their returne home, they worke revenge upon them. In which respect Bodin commendeth much the Scottish custome The Scottish custōe of accusing a witch. and order in this behalfe: where (he saith) a hollowe peece of wood 16 or a chest is placed in the church, into the which any bodie may freelie cast a little scroll of paper, wherein may be conteined the name of the witch, the time, place, and fact, &c. And the same chest being locked with / three severall locks, is opened everie fifteenth daie by three inquisitors or officers appointed for that purpose; which keepe three severall kaies. And thus the accuser need not be knowne, nor shamed with the reproch of slander or malice to his poore neighbour.

Item, there must be great persuasions used to all men, women, and children, to accuse old women of witchcraft.

Item, there may alwaies be promised impunitie and favour to witches, that confesse and detect others; and for the contrarie, there may be threatnings and violence practised and used.

Item, the little children of witches, which will not confesse, must be attached; who (if they be craftilie handled saith Bodin) will confesse against their owne mothers.

Item, witches must be examined as suddenlie, and as unawares as is possible: the which will so amaze them, that they will confesse any thing, supposing the divell hath forsaken them; wheras if they should first be cōmitted to prison, the divell would tem/per21. with them, and informe them what to doo.

Item, the inquisitor, judge, or examiner, must begin with small matters first.

Item, they must be examined, whether their parents were witches or no: for witches (as these Doctors suppose) come by propagation. And Bodin setteth downe this principle in witchcraft, to wit, I. Bod. lib. de dæmon. 4. cap. 4.
L. parentes de testibus.
Si saga sit mater, sic etiam est filia: howbeit the lawe forbiddeth it, Ob sanguinis reverentiam.

Item, the examiner must looke stedfastlie upon their eies: for they cannot looke directlie upon a mans face (as Bodin affirmeth in one place, although in another he saith, that they kill and destroie both men and beasts with their lookes.)

Item, she must be examined of all accusations, presumptions, and faults, at one instant; least sathan should afterwards dissuade hir from confession.

Item, a witch may not be put in prison alone, least the divell dissuade hir from confession, through promises of her indemnitie. For (saith Bodin) some that have beene in the gaole have prooved to flie awaie, as they were woont to doo when they met with Diana and Minerva, &c.: and so brake their owne necks against the stone walles.

Item, if anie denie hir owne confession made without torture, she 17 is neverthelesse by that confession to be condemned, as in anie other crime.

Item, the judges must seeme to put on a pittifull countenance and to mone them; saieng, that It was not they, but the divell that committed the murther, and that he compelled them to doo it; and must make them beleeve that they thinke them to be innocents.

Item, if they will confesse nothing but upon the racke or torture; their apparell must be changed, and everie haire in their bodie must be shaven off with a sharpe razor.

Item, if they have charmes for taciturnitie, so as they feele not the common tortures, and therefore confesse nothing: then some sharpe instrument must be thrust betwixt everie naile of their fingers and toes: which (as/15. Bodin saith) was king Childeberts devise,K. Childeberts cruell devise. and is to this daie of all others the most effectuall. For by meanes of that extreme paine, they will (saith he) confesse anie/22. thing.

Item, Paulus Grillandus,P. Grillandus. being an old dooer in these matters, wisheth that when witches sleepe, and feele no paine upon the torture, Domine labia mea aperies should be said, and so (saith he) both the torments will be felt, and the truth will be uttered: Et sic ars deluditur arte.

Item,A subtill and divelish devise. Bodin saith, that at the time of examination, there should be a semblance of great a doo, to the terrifieing of the witch: and that a number of instruments, gieves, manacles, ropes, halters, fetters, &c. be prepared, brought foorth, and laid before the examinate: and also that some be procured to make a most horrible and lamentable crie, in the place of torture, as though he or she were upon the racke, or in the tormentors hands: so as the examinate may heare it whiles she is examined, before she hir selfe be brought into the prison; and perhaps (saith he) she will by this meanes confesse the matter.

Item, there must be subborned some craftie spie, that may seeme to be a prisoner with hir in the like case; who perhaps may in conference undermine hir, and so bewraie and discover hir.

Item, if she will not yet confesse, she must be told that she is detected, and accused by other of hir companions; although in truth there be no such matter: and so perhaps she will confesse, the rather to be revenged upon hir adversaries and accusers.

The third Chapter.

Matters of evidence against witches.

IF an old woman threaten or touch one being in health, who dieth shortlie after; or else is infected with the leprosie, apoplexie, or anie other strange disease: it is (saith Bodin) a permanent fact, and such an evidence, 18 as condemnation or death must insue, without further proofe; if anie bodie have mistrusted hir, or said before that she was a witch./23.

Item, if anie come in, or depart out of the chamber or house, the doores being shut; it is an apparent and sufficient evidence to a witches condemnation, without further triall: which thing Bodin never sawe. If he can shew me that feat, I will subscribe to his follie. For Christ after his resurrection used the same: not as a ridiculous toie, that everie witch might accomplish; but as a speciall miracle, to strengthen the faith of the elect.

Item, if a woman bewitch anie bodies eies, she is to be executed without further proofe.

Item, if anie inchant or bewitch mens beasts, or corne, or flie in the aire, or make a dog speake, or cut off anie mans members, and unite them againe to men or childrens bodies; it is sufficient proofe to condemnation.

Item, presumptions and conjectures are sufficient proofes against witches./16.

Item,Bar. Spineus, &, I. Bod. de dæmon. lib. 2. cap. 2. if three witnesses doo but saie, Such a woman is a witch; then is it a cleere case that she is to be executed with death. Which matter Bodin saith is not onelie certeine by the canon and civill lawes, but by the opinion of pope Innocent, the wisest pope (as he saith) that ever was.

Item,Alexander. L. ubi numerus de testibus.
I. Bod. de dæmon. lib. 2. cap. 2.
the complaint of anie one man of credit is sufficient to bring a poore woman to the racke or pullie.

Item, a condemned or infamous persons testimonie is good and allowable in matters of witchcraft.

Item, a witch is not to be delivered, though she endure all the tortures, and confesse nothing; as all other are in anie criminall cases.

Item, though in other cases the depositions of manie women at one instant are disabled, as insufficient in lawe; bicause of the imbecillitie and frailtie of their nature or sex: yet in this matter, one woman, though she be a partie, either accuser or accused, and be also infamous and impudent (for such are Bodins words) yea and alreadie condemned; she may neverthelesse serve to accuse and condemne a witch.

Item, a witnesse uncited, and offering himselfe in this case is to be heard, and in none other.

Item, a capitall enimie (if the enimitie be pretended to growe by meanes of witchcraft) may object against a witch; and none/24. exception is to be had or made against him.

Item,Par. in L. post. legatum. 9. his, de iis quibus ut indig.
Alex. cap. 72. L. 2. &c.
although the proofe of perjurie may put backe a witnesse in 19 all other causes; yet in this, a perjured person is a good and lawfull witnesse.

Item, the proctors and advocats in this case are compelled to be witnesses against their clients, as in none other case they are to be constrained there unto.

Item, none can give evidence against witches, touching their assemblies, but witches onelie: bicause (as BodinIn his foolish pamphlet of the execution of Windsor witches. saith) none other can doo it. Howbeit, Ri. Ga. writeth, that he came to the God speed, and with his sword and buckler killed the divell; or at the least he wounded him so sore, that he made him stinke of brimstone.

Item, Bodin saith, that bicause this is an extraordinarie matter; there must heerein be extraordinarie dealing: and all maner of waies are to be used, direct and indirect.

The fourth Chapter.

Confessions of witches, whereby they are condemned.

SOME witches confesse (saith Bodin)I. Bod. lib. 4. cap. 3. that are desirous to die; not for glorie, but for despaire: bicause they are tormented in their life time.Is there anie probabilitie that such would continue witches?
Idem Ibid.
But these may not be spared (saith he) although the lawe dooth excuse them.

The best and surest confession is at shrift, to hir ghostlie father.

Item,Joan. An. ad speculat. tit. de litis contest. part. 2. if she confesse manie things that are false, and one thing that may be true; she is to be taken and executed upon that confession./17.

Item, she is not so guiltie that confesseth a falshood or lie, and denieth a truth; as she that answereth by circumstance.

Item,L. non alienum eodem. an equivocall or doubtfull answer is taken for a confession against a witch./25.

Item, Bodin L. de ætat. 5. nihil eodem. &c.
I. Bod. de dæmono. lib. 4. cap. 3.
reporteth, that one confessed that he went out, or rather up into the aire, and was transported manie miles to the fairies danse, onelie bicause he would spie unto what place his wife went to hagging, and how she behaved hir selfe. Whereupon was much a doo among the inquisitors and lawyers, to discusse whether he should be executed with his wife or no. But it was concluded that he must die, bicause he bewraied not his wife: the which he forbare to doo, Propter reverentiam honoris & familiæ.

Item, if a woman confesse freelie herein, before question be made; and yet afterward denie it: she is neverthelesse to be burned.

Item, they affirme that this extremitie is herein used, bicause not one among a thousand witches is detected. And yet it is affirmed by Sprenger, in M. Mal. that there is not so little a parish, but there are manie witches knowne to be therein.

20

The fift Chapter.

Presumptions, whereby witches are condemned.

IF anie womans child chance to die at hir hand,I. Bod. de dæmono. lib. 4 cap. 4. so as no bodie knoweth how; it may not be thought or presumed that the mother killed it, except she be supposed a witch: and in that case it is otherwise, for she must upon that presumption be executed; except she can proove the negative or contrarie.

Item, if the child of a woman that is suspected to be a witch, be lacking or gone from hir; it is to be presumed, that she hath sacrificed it to the divell: except she can proove the negative or contrarie.

Item, though in other persons, certeine points of their confessions may be thought erronious, and imputed to error: yet (in witches causes) all oversights, imperfections, and escapes must/26. be adjudged impious and malicious, and tend to hir confusion and condemnation.

Item, though a theefe be not said in lawe to be infamous in any other matter than in theft; yet a witch defamed of witchcraft is said to be defiled with all maner of faults and infamies universallie, though she were not condemned; but (as I said) defamed with the name of a witch. For rumors and reports are sufficient (saith Bodin) to condemne a witch.

Item,I. Bod. de dæmono. lib. 4. cap. 4. if any man, woman, or child doo saie, that such a one is a witch; it is a most vehement suspicion (saith Bodin) and sufficient to bring hir to the racke: though in all other cases it be directlie against lawe.

Item,L. decurionè de pœnis.
Panorm. & Felin. in C. veniens. 1. de testib. parsi causa. 15 4.
Lib. 4. numero. 12. usq; a 18.
in presumptions and suspicions against a witch, the common brute or voice of the people cannot erre.

Item, if a woman, when she is apprehended, crie out, or saie; I am undoone; Save my life; I will tell you how the matter standeth, &c: she is thereupon most vehementlie to be suspected and condemned to die./18.

Item, though a conjurer be not to be condemned for curing the diseased by vertue of his art: yet must a witch die for the like case.

Item, the behaviour, looks, becks, and countenance of a woman, are sufficient signes, whereby to presume she is a witch: for alwais they looke downe to the ground, and dare not looke a man full in the face.

Item, if their parents were thought to be witches, then is it certeinlie to be presumed that they are so: but it is not so to be thought of whoores.

Item, it is a vehement presumption if she cannot weepe, at the 21 time of hir examination: and yet Bodin saith, that a witch may shed three drops out of hir right eie.

Item, it is not onelie a vehement suspicion, and presumption, but an evident proofe of a witch, if any man or beast die suddenlie where she hath beene seene latelie; although hir witching stuffe be not found or espied.

Item, if any bodie use familiaritie or companie with a witch convicted; it is a sufficient presumption against that person to be adjudged a witch./27.

Item,L. 5. de adult. §. gl. & Bart. c. venerabilis de electio. &c.
I. Bod. de dæmono. lib. 4. cap. 4.
that evidence that may serve to bring in any other person to examination, may serve to bring a witch to her condemnation.

Item, herein judgment must be pronounced & executed (as Bodin saith) without order, and not like to the orderlie proceeding and forme of judgement in other crimes.

Item, a witch may not be brought to the torture suddenlie, or before long examination, least she go awaie scotfree: for they feele no torments, and therefore care not for the same (as Bodin affirmeth.)

Item,Idem Ibid. little children may be had to the torture at the first dash; but so may it not be doone with old women: as is aforesaid.

Item, if she have anie privie marke under hir arme pokes, under hir haire, under hir lip, or in hir buttocke, or in hir privities: it is a presumption sufficient for the judge to proceed and give sentence of death upon hir.

The onlie pitie they shew to a poore woman in this case, is; that though she be accused to have slaine anie bodie with her inchantments; yet if she can bring foorth the partie alive, she shall not be put to death. Whereat I marvell, in as much as they can bring the divell in any bodies likenesse and representation.

Item,Cap. præterea cum glos. extra de test.
Panormit. in C. vener. col. 2. eodem, &c.
their lawe saith, that an uncerteine presumption is sufficient, when a certeine presumption faileth.

The sixt Chapter.

Particular Interogatories used by the inquisitors against witches.

I  NEEDE not staie to confute such parciall and horrible dealings, being so apparentlie impious, and full of tyrannie which except I should have so manifestlie detected, even with their owne writings and assertions, few or none would have beleeved. But for brevities sake I will passe over the same; supposing that the ci/ting28. of such absurdities may stand for a suffici/ent19. confutation thereof. Now therefore I will proceed to a more particular order and maner of examinations, &c: used by the inquisitors, and allowed for the most part throughout all nations.

22

First the witch must be demanded,Mal. malef. super, interrog. why she touched such a child, or such a cow, &c: and afterward the same child or cow fell sicke or lame, &c.

Item, why hir two kine give more milke than hir neighbors. And the note before mentioned is heere againe set downe, to be speciallie observed of all men: to wit; that Though a witch cannot weepe, yet she may speake with a crieng voice. Which assertiSeneca in tragœd.
Mal. malef. part. 3. quæst 15. act. 10.
on of weeping is false, and contrarie to the saieng of Seneca, Cato, and manie others; which affirme, that A woman weepeth when she meaneth most deceipt: and therefore saith M. Mal. she must be well looked unto, otherwise she will put spettle privilie upon hir cheeks, and seeme to weepe: which rule also Bodin saith is infallible. But alas that teares should be thought sufficient to excuse or condemne in so great a cause, and so weightie a triall! I am sure that the woorst sort of the children of Israel wept bitterlie: yea, if there were any witches at all in Israel, they wept. For it is written,Num. 11, 4.
1. Sam. 11, 4.
2. Sa. 15, 23.
Mat. 8. & 13. & 22. & 24. & 25.
Luke 3. &c.
that all the children of Israel wept. Finallie, if there be any witches in hell, I am sure they weepe: for there is weeping, wailing, and gnashing of teeth.

But God knoweth, many an honest matrone cannot sometimes in the heavines of her heart shed teares; the which oftentimes are more readie and common with craftie queanes and strumpets, than with sober women. For we read of two kinds of teares in a womans eie, the one of true greefe, the other of deceipt. And it is written, that Dediscere flere fæminam est mendacium:Seneca in tragœd. which argueth, that they lie which say, that wicked women cannot weepe. But let these tormentors take heed, that the teares in this case which runne downe the widowes cheeks, with their crie spoken ofEccl. 35, 15. by Jesus Sirach, be not heard above. But lo what learned, godlie, and lawfull meanes these popish inquisitors have invented for the triall of true or false teares./

The seventh Chapter.29.

The inquisitors triall of weeping by conjuration.

I  CONJURE thee by the amorous teares,Triall of teares. which Jesus Christ our Saviour shed upon the crosse for the salvation of the world; and by the most earnest and burning teares of his mother the most glorious virgine Marie, sprinkled upon his wounds late in the evening; and by all the teares, which everie saint and elect vessell of God hath powred out heere in the world, and from whose eies he hath wiped awaie all teares; that if thou be without fault, thou maist powre downe teares aboundantlie; and if thou be guiltie,Mal. Malef. quæ. 15. pa. 3. that thou weepe in no wise: In the name of the father, of the sonne, and of the holie ghost; Amen. And note (saith he) that the more you conjure, the lesse she weepeth./20.

23

The eight Chapter.

Certaine cautions against witches, and of their tortures to procure confession.

BUT to manifest their further follies, I will recite some of their cautions, which are published by the ancient inquisitors, for perpetuall lessons to their successors: as followeth.

The first caution is that, which was last rehearsed concerning weeping; the which (say they) is an infallible note.

Secondlie, the judge must beware she touch no part of him, speciallie of his bare; and that he alwaies weare about his necke conjured salt, palme, herbes, and waxe halowed: which (say they)Ja. Sprenger.
H. Institor.
are not onelie approoved to be good by the witches confessions; but/30. also by the use of the Romish church, which halloweth them onelie for that purpose.

Item,Mal. malef. pa. 3, quæ. 15. she must come to hir arreignement backward, to wit, with hir taile to the judges face, who must make manie crosses, at the time of hir approching to the barre. And least we should condemne that for superstition, they prevent us with a figure,Prolepsis or Præoccupation. and tell us, that the same superstition may not seeme superstitious unto us. But this resembleth the persuasion of a theefe, that dissuadeth his sonne from stealing; and neverthelesse telleth him that he may picke or cut a pursse, and rob by the high waie.

One other caution is, that she must be shaven, so as there remaine not one haire about hir: for sometimes they keepe secrets for taciturnitie, and for other purposes also in their haire, in their privities, and betweene their skinne and their flesh. For which cause I marvell they flea them not: for one of their witches would not burne, being in the middest of the flame, as M. Mal.Mal. malef. reporteth; untill a charme written in a little scroll was espied to be hidden betweene hir skin and flesh, and taken awaie. And this is so gravelie and faithfullie set downe by the inquisitors themselves, that one may beleeve it if he list, though indeed it be a verie lie. The like lie citeth Bodin,John. Bod. of a witch that could not be strangled by the executioner, doo what he could. But it is most true, that the inquisitor CumanusAnno. 1485 a knave inquisitor. in one yeare did shave one and fourtie poore women, and burnt them all when he had done.

Another cautionQ. 16. de tempore & modo interrog. is, that at the time and place of torture, the hallowed things aforesaid, with the seaven words spoken on the crosse, be hanged about the witches necke; and the length of Christ in waxe be knit about hir bare naked bodie, with relikes of saints, &c. All which stuffe (saie they) will so worke within and upon them, as when they 24 are racked and tortured, they can hardlie staie or hold themselves from confession. In which case I doubt not but that pope,Blasphemous pope Julie, of that name the third. which blasphemed Christ, and curssed his mother for a pecocke, and curssed God with great despights for a peece of porke, with lesse compulsion would have renounced the trinitie, and have worshipped the divell upon his knees./1.

Another caution is, that after she hath beene racked, and hath passed over all tortures devised for that purpose; and after that she hath beene compelled to drinke holie water, she be conveied/31. againe to the place of torture: and that in the middest of hir torments, hir accusations be read unto hir; and that the witnesses (if they will) be brought face to face unto hir: and finallie, that she be asked, whether for triall of hir innocencie she will have judgement, Candentis ferri,Mal. malef. par. 3. quæ. 16. which is; To carrie a certeine weight of burning iron in hir bare hand. But that may not (saie they) in anie wise be granted. For both M. Mal. and Bodin also affirme, that manie things may be promised, but nothing need be performed: for whie, they have authoritie to promise, but no commission to performe the same.

Another caution is, that the judge take heed, that when she once beginneth to confesse, he cut not off hir examination, but continue it night and daie. For many-times, whiles they go to dinner, she returneth to hir vomit.

Another caution is, that after the witch hath confessed the annoieing of men and beasts, she be asked how long she hath had Incubus, when she renounced the faith, and made the reall league, and what that league is, &c. And this is indeede the cheefe cause of all their incredible and impossible confessions: for upon the racke, when they have once begunne to lie, they will saie what the tormentor list.

The last caution is, that if she will not confesse, she be had to some strong castle or gaole. And after certeine daies, the gaolor must make hir beleeve he goeth foorth into some farre countrie: and then some of hir freends must come in to hir, and promise hir, that if she will confesse to them, they will suffer hir to escape out of prison: which they may well doo, the keeper being from home. And this waie (saith M. Mal.)Mal. malef. par. 3. quæ. 16. act. 11. hath served, when all other meanes have failed.

And in this place it may not be omitted, that above all other times, they confesse upon fridaies. Now saith James Sprenger, and Henrie Institor, we must saie all, to wit: If she confesse nothing, she should be dismissed by lawe; and yet by order she may in no wise be bailed, but must be put into close prison, and there be talked withall by some craftie person (those are the words) and in the meane while there must be some eves-dropers with pen and inke behind the wall, to hearken and note what she confesseth: or else some of hir old 25 companions and acquain/tance32. may come in and talke with hir of old matters, and so by eves-droppers be also bewraied; so as there shall be no end of torture before she have confessed what they will./2.

The Ninth Chapter.

The fifteene crimes laid to the charge of witches, by witchmongers; speciallie by Bodin, in Dæmonomania.

THEY 1 denie God, and all religion.

Answere.*[* Rom.] Then let them die therefore, or at the least be used like infidels, or apostataes.

2They cursse, blaspheme, and provoke God with all despite.

Answere.[A] Then let them have the law expressed in Levit. 24. and Deut. 13. & 17.

3They give their faith to the divell, and they worship and offer sacrifice unto him.

Ans. Let such also be judged by the same lawe.

4They doo solemnelie vow and promise all their progenie unto the divell.

Ans. This promise proceedeth from an unsound mind, and is not to be regarded; bicause they cannot performe it, neither will it be prooved true. Howbeit, if it be done by anie that is sound of mind, let the cursse of Jeremie. 32. 36. light upon them, to wit, the sword, famine and pestilence.

5They sacrifice their owne children to the divell before baptisme, holding them up in the aire unto him, and then thrust a needle into their braines.

Ans. If this be true, I maintaine them not herein: but there is a lawe to judge them by. Howbeit, it is so contrarie to sense and nature, that it were follie to beleeve it; either upon Bodins bare word, or else upon his presumptions; speciallie when so small commoditie and so great danger and inconvenience insueth to the witches thereby.

6They burne their children when they have sacrificed them.

Ans. Then let them have such punishment, as they that offered their children unto Moloch: Levit. 20. But these be meere/33. devises of witchmoongers and inquisitors, that with extreame tortures have wroong such confessions from them; or else with false reports have beelied them; or by flatterie & faire words and promises have woon it at their hands, at the length.

7They sweare to the divell to bring as manie into that societie as they can.

Ans. This is false, and so prooved elsewhere.

26

8They sweare by the name of the divell.

Ans. I never heard anie such oth, neither have we warrant to kill them that so doo sweare; though indeed it be verie lewd and impious.

9They use incestuous adulterie with spirits.

Ans. This is a stale ridiculous lie, as is prooved apparentlie hereafter.

10They boile infants (after they have murthered them unbaptised) untill their flesh be made potable.

Ans. This is untrue, incredible, and impossible./23.

11They eate the flesh and drinke the bloud of men and children openlie.

Ans. Then are they kin to the Anthropophagi and Canibals. But I beleeve never an honest man in England nor in France, will affirme that he hath seene any of these persons, that are said to be witches, do so; if they shuld, I beleeve it would poison them.

12They kill men with poison.

Ans. Let them be hanged for their labour.

13They kill mens cattell.

Ans. Then let an action of trespasse be brought against them for so dooing.

14They bewitch mens corne, and bring hunger and barrennes into the countrie; they ride and flie in the aire, bring stormes, make tempests, &c.

Ans. Then will I worship them as gods; for those be not the works of man, nor yet of witch: as I have elsewhere prooved at large.

15They use venerie with a divell called Incubus, even when they lie in bed with their husbands, and have children by them, which become the best witches.

Ans. This is the last lie, verie ridiculous, and confuted by me elsewhere./34.

The tenth Chapter.

A refutation of the former surmised crimes patched togither by Bodin, and the onelie waie to escape the inquisitors hands.

IF more ridiculous or abhominable crimes could have beene invented, these poore women (whose cheefe fault is that they are scolds) should have beene charged with them.

In this libell you dooe see is conteined all that witches are charged with; and all that also, which anie witchmoonger surmiseth, or in malice imputeth unto witches power and practise.

27

Some of these crimes may not onelie be in the power and will of a witch, but may be accomplished by naturall meanes: and therefore by them the matter in question is not decided, to wit; WhetherThe question or matter in controversie: that is to say, the proposition or theme. a witch can worke woonders supernaturallie? For manie a knave and whore dooth more commonlie put in execution those lewd actions, than such as are called witches, and are hanged for their labour.

Some of these crimes also laid unto witches charge, are by me denied, and by them cannot be prooved to be true, or committed by any one witch. Othersome of these crimes likewise are so absurd, supernaturall, and impossible, that they are derided almost of all men, and as false, fond, and fabulous reports condemned: insomuch as the very witchmoongers themselves are ashamed to heare of them.

If part be untrue, why may not the residue be thought false? For all these things are laid to their charge at one instant, even by the greatest doctors and patrones of the sect of witchmongers, producing as manie proofs for witches supernaturall and impossible actions, as for the other. So as, if one part of their accusation be false, the other part deserveth no credit. If all be true that is alledged of their dooings, why should we beleeve in Christ, bicause of his miracles, when a witch dooth as great/24. 35. wonders as/ ever he did?

But it will be said by some; As for those absurd and popish writers, they are not in all their allegations, touching these matters, to be credited.A generall error. But I assure you, that even all sorts of writers heerein (for the most part) the very doctors of the church to the schoolemen, protestants and papists, learned and unlearned, poets and historiographers, Jewes, Christians, or Gentiles agree in these impossible and ridiculous matters. Yea and these writers, out of whome I gather most absurdities, are of the best credit and authoritie of all writers in this matter. The reason is, bicause it was never throughlie looked into; but everie fable credited; and the word (Witch) named so often in scripture.

They that have seene furtherThe onelie way for witches to avoid the inquisitors hands. of the inquisitors orders and customes, saie also; that There is no waie in the world for these poore women to escape the inquisitors hands, and so consequentlie burning: but to gild their hands with monie, wherby oftentimes they take pitie upon them, and deliver them, as sufficientlie purged. For they have authoritie to exchange the punishment of the bodie with the punish- ment of the pursse, applieng the same to the office of their inquisi- tion: whereby they reape such profit, as a number of these seelie women paie them yeerelie pen- sions, to the end they may not be punished againe.

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The eleventh Chapter.

The opinion of Cornelius Agrippa concerning witches, of his pleading for a poore woman accused of witchcraft, and how he convinced the inquisitors.

CORNELIUS AGRIPPA saith, that while he was in Italie, manie inquisitors in the dutchie of Millen troubled divers most honest & noble matrones, privilie wringing much monie from them, untill their knaverie was detected. Further he saith, that being an advocate or councellor in the Commonwelth of Maestright in Brabant, he had sore contention with an inquisitor, who through un/just36. accusations drew a poore woman of the countrie into his butcherie, and to an unfit place; not so much to examine hir, as to torment hir. Whom when C. Agrippa had undertaken to defend, declaring that in the things doone, there was no proofe, no signe or token that could cause hir to be tormented; the inquisitor stoutlie denieng it, said; One thing there is, which is proofe and matter sufficient: for hir mother was in times past burned for a witch. Now when Agrippa replied, affirming that this article was impertinent, and ought to be refused by the judge, as being the deed of another; alledging to the inquisitor, reasons and lawe for the same: he replied againe that this was true, bicause they used to sacrifice their children to the divell, as soone as they were borne; and also bicause they usuallie conceived by spirits transformed into mans shape, and that thereby witchcraft was naturallie ingraffed into this child, as a disease that commeth by inheritance./33.

C. Agrippa repliengA bitter invective against a cruell inquisitor. against the inquisitors follie & superstitious blindnesse, said; O thou wicked preest! Is this thy divinitie? Doost thou use to drawe poore guiltlesse women to the racke by these forged devises? Doost thou with such sentences judge others to be heretikes, thou being a more heretike than either Faustus or Donatus? Be it as thou saiest, dooest thou not frustrate the grace of Gods ordinance; namelie baptisme? Are the words in baptisme spoken in vaine? Or shall the divell remaine in the child, or it in the power of the divell, being there and then consecrated to Christ Jesus, in the name of the father, the sonne, and the holie ghost? And if thou defend their false opinions, which affirm, that spirits accompanieng with women, can ingender; yet dotest thou more than anie of them, which never beleeved that anie of those divels, togither with their stolne seed, doo put part of that their seed or nature into the creature. But though indeed we be borne the children of the divell and damnation, yet in baptisme, through grace in Christ, sathan is cast out, and we are 29 made new creatures in the Lord, from whome none can be separated by another mans deed. The inquisitor being hereat offended, threatened the advocate to proceed against him, as a supporter of heretikes or witches; yet neverthelesse he ceased not to defend the seelie woman, and through the power of the lawe he delivered hir/37. from the clawes of the bloodie moonke, who with hir accusers, were condemned in a great summe of monie to the charter of the church of Mentz, and remained infamous after that time almost to all men.

But by the waie you must understand, that this was but a petie inquisitor, and had not so large a commission as Cumanus, Sprenger, and such other had; nor yet as the Spanish inquisitors at this daie have. For these will admit no advocats now unto the poore soules, except the tormentor or hangman may be called an advocate. You may read the summe of this inquisition in few words set out by M. John Fox John Fox in the acts and monuments. in the Acts and monuments. For witches and heretikes are among the inquisitors of like reputation; saving that the extremitie is greater against witches, bicause through their simplicitie, they may the more boldlie tyrannize upon them, and triumph over them.

The twelfe Chapter.

What the feare of death and feeling of torments may force one to doo, and that it is no marvell though witches condemne themselves by their owne confessions so tyrannicallie extorted.

H E that readeth the ecclesiasticall histories, or remembreth the persecutions in Queene Maries time, shall find, that manie good men have fallen for feare of persecution, and returned unto the Lord againe. What marvell then, though a poore woman, such a one as is described else-where, & tormented as is declared in these latter leaves, be made to confesse such absurd and false impossibilities; when flesh and bloud is unable to endure such triall? Or how can she in the middest of such horrible tortures/34. and torments, promise unto hir selfe constancie; or forbeare to confesse anie thing? Or what availeth it hir, to persevere in the deniall of such matters, as are laid to her charge unjustlie; when on the one side there is never anie end of hir torments; on the other side,/38. if she continue in hir assertion, they saie she hath charmes for taciturnitie or silence?

PeterPeters apostacie & renouncing of Christ the apostle renounced, curssed, and forsware his maister and our Saviour Jesus Christ, for feare of a wenches manaces; or rather at a question demanded by hir, wherein he was not so circumvented, as these poore witches are, which be not examined by girles, but by 30 cunning inquisitors, who having the spoile of their goods, and bringing with them into the place of judgement minds to maintaine their bloudie purpose, spare no maner of allurements, thretenings, nor torments, untill they have wroong out of them all that, which either maketh to their owne desire, or serveth to the others destruction.

Peter (I saie) in the presence of his Lord and maister Christ, who had instructed him in true knowledge manie yeares, being forewarned, not passing foure or five houres before, and having made a reall league and a faithfull promise to the contrarie, without anie other compulsion than (as hath beene said) by a question proposed by a girle, against his conscience, forsooke, thrise denied, and abandoned his said maister: and yet he was a man illuminated, and placed in dignitie aloft, and neerer to Christ by manie degrees, than the witch, whose fall could not be so great as Peters; bicause she never ascended halfe so manie steps. A pastors declination is much more abhominable that the going astraie of anie of his sheepe: as an ambassadors conspiracie is more odious than the falshood of a common person: or as a capteins treason is more mischeevous than a private soldiers mutinie. If you saie, Peter repented; I answer that the witch dooth so likewise sometimes, and I see not in that case, but mercie may be emploied upon hir. It were a mightie temptation to a seelie old woman, that a visible divell (being in shape so ugglie, as DanæusDanæus in dialog. and others saie he is) should assalt hir in maner and forme as is supposed, or rather avowed; speciallie when there is promise made that none shall be tempted above their strength.1 Cor. 10. The poore old witch is commonlie unlearned, unwarned, and unprovided of counsell and freendship, void of judgement and discretion to moderate hir life and communication, hir kind and gender more weake and fraile than the masculine, and much more subject to melancholie; hir bringing up and companie is so base, that nothing is to be/39. looked for in hir speciallie of these extraordinarie qualities; hir age also is commonlie such, as maketh her decrepite, which is a disease that mooveth them to these follies.

Finallie, Christ did cleerelie remit Peter, though his offense were committed both against his divine and humane person: yea afterwards he did put him in trust to feed his sheepe, and shewed great countenance, freendship and love unto him. And there- fore I see not, but we may shew compassion upon these poore soules; if they shew themselves sorrowfull for their misconceipts and wicked imagina- tions./


31

The third Booke. 40. 35.

The first Chapter.

The witches bargaine with the divell, according to M. Mal. Bodin, Nider, Danæus, Psellus, Erastus, Hemingius, Cumanus, Aquinas, Bartholomæus Spineus, &c.

THAT which in this matter of witchcraft hath abused so manie, and seemeth both so horrible and intollerable, is a plaine bargaine, that (they saie) is made betwixt the divell and the witch. And manie of great learning conceive it to be a matter of truth, and in their writings publish it accordinglie: the which (by Gods grace) shall be prooved as vaine and false as the rest.

The order of their bargaineThe double bargane of witches with the divell. or profession is double; the one solemne and publike; the other secret and private. That which is called solemne or publike, is where witches come togither at certeine assemblies, at the times prefixed, and doo not onelie see the divell in visible forme; but confer and talke familiarlie with him. In which conference the divell exhorteth them to observe their fidelitie unto him, promising them long life and prosperitie. Then the witches assembled, commend a new disciple (whom they call a novice) unto him: and if the divell find that yoong witch apt and forward in renunciation of christian faith, in despising anie of the seven sacraments, in treading upon crosses, in spetting at the time of the elevation, in breaking their fast on fasting daies, and fasting on sundaies; then the divell giveth foorth/41. his hand, and the novice joining hand in hand with him, promiseth to observe and keepe all the divels commandements.

This done, the divell beginneth to be more bold with hir, telling hir plainlie, that all this will not serve his turne; and therefore requireth homage at hir hands:Mal. malef. de modo professionis. yea he also telleth hir, that she must grant him both hir bodie and soule to be tormented in everlasting fire: which she yeeldeth unto. Then he chargeth hir, to procure as manie men, women, and children also, as she can, to enter into this societie. Then he teacheth them to make ointments of the bowels and members of children, whereby they ride in the aire, and accomplish all their desires. So as, if there be anie children unbaptised, or not garded with the signe of the crosse, or orizons; then the witches may and doo catch them from their mothers sides in the night, or out of their cradles, or otherwise kill them with their 32 ceremonies; and after buriall steale them out of their graves, and seeth them in a caldron, untill their flesh be made potable. Of the thickest whereof they make ointments, whereby they ride in the aire; but the thinner potion they put into flaggons, whereof whosoever drinketh, observing certeine ceremonies, immediatlie becommeth a maister or rather a mistresse in that practise and facultie./36.

The second Chapter.

The order of the witches homage done (as it is written by lewd inquisitors and peevish witchmoongers) to the divell in person; of their songs and danses, and namelie of La volta, and of other ceremonies, also of their excourses.

SOMETIMES their homageHomage of witches to the divell. with their oth and bargaine is received for a certeine terme of yeares; sometimes for ever. Sometimes it consisteth in the deniall of the whole faith, sometimes in part. The first is, when the soule is absolutelie yeelded to the divell and hell fier: the other is, when they have but bargained [not] to/42. observe certeine ceremonies and statutes of the church; as to conceale faults at shrift, to fast on sundaies, &c. And this is doone either by oth, protestation of words, or by obligation in writing, sometimes sealed with wax, sometimes signed with bloud, sometimes by kissing the divels bare buttocks; as did a Doctor called Edlin, who as (Bodin saith) was burned for witchcraft.

Bar. Spineus, cap. 1. in novo Mal. malef. You must also understand, that after they have delicatlie banketted with the divell and the ladie of the fairies; and have eaten up a fat oxe, and emptied a butt of malmesie, and a binne of bread at some noble mans house, in the dead of the night, nothing is missed of all this in the morning. For the ladie Sibylla, Minerva, or Diana with a golden rod striketh the vessell & the binne, and they are fullie replenished againe. Yea, she causeth the bullocks bones to be brought and laid togither upon the hide, and lappeth the foure ends thereof togither, laieng her golden rod thereon; and then riseth up the bullocke againe in his former estate and condition: and yet at their returne home they are like to starve for hunger; as SpineusIdem Ibid. saith. And this must be an infallible rule, that everie fortnight, or at the least everie moneth, each witch must kill one child at the least for hir part.

And here some of Monsieur BodinsI. Bod. de dæmon. lib. 2, cap. 4. lies may be inserted, who saith that at these magicall assemblies, the witches never faile to danse; and in their danse they sing these words; Har har, divell divell, danse here, danse here, plaie here, plaie here, Sabbath, sabbath. And whiles they sing and danse, everie one hath a broome in hir hand, 33 and holdeth it up aloft. Item he saith, that these night-walking or rather night-dansing witches, brought out of Italie into France, that danse, which is called La volta.

A part of their league is, to scrape off the oile,Mal. malef. which is received in extreame follie (unction I should have said). But if that be so dangerous, they which socke the corps had neede to take great care, that they rub not off the oile, which divers other waies may also be thrust out of the forehead; and then I perceive all the vertue thereof is gone, and farewell it. But I marvell how they take on to preserve the water powred on them in baptisme, which I take to be largelie of as great force as the other; and yet I thinke is commonlie wiped and washed off, within foure and twentie houres/37. 43. after baptisme: but this agreeth with the residue/ of their follie.

And this is to be noted, that the inquisitors affirme, that during the whole time of the witches excourse, the divell occupieth the roome and place of the witch, in so perfect a similitude, as hir husband in his bed, neither by feeling, speech, nor countenance can discerne hir from his wife. Yea the wife departeth out of her husbands armes insensiblie, and leaveth the divell in hir roome visiblie. Wherein their incredulitie is incredible, who will have a verie bodie in the feined plaie, and a phantasticall bodie in the true bed: and yet (forsooth) at the name of Jesus, or at the signe of the crosse,Grillandus. de sort. 10. vol. tract. all these bodilie witches (they saie) vanish awaie.

The third Chapter.

How witches are summoned to appeere before the divell, of their riding in the aire, of their accompts, of their conference with the divell, of his supplies, and their conference, of their farewell and sacrifices: according to Danæus, Psellus, &c.

HITHERTO, for the most part, are the verie words conteined in M. Mal. or Bodin, or rather in both; or else in the new M. Mal. or at the least-wise of some writer or other, that mainteineth the almightie power of witches. But DanæusDanæus in dialog. cap. 4. saith, the divell oftentimes in the likenes of a sumner, meeteth them at markets and faires, and warneth them to appeere in their assemblies, at a certeine houre in the night, that he may understand whom they have slaine, and how they have profited. If they be lame, he saith the divell delivereth them a staffe, to conveie them thither invisiblie through the aire; and that then they fall a dansing and singing of bawdie songs, wherein he leadeth the danse himselfe. Which danse, and other conferencies being ended, he supplieth their wants of powders and 34 roots to intoxicate withall; and giveth to everie novice a marke, either with his teeth or with his clawes, and so they kisse the divels bare buttocks, and depart:/44. not forgetting every daie afterwards to offer to him, dogs, cats, hens, or bloud of their owne.Ide. Ibidem. And all this dooth Danæus report as a troth, and as it were upon his owne knowledge. And yet else-where Idem. in dialog. cap. 3. he saieth; In these matters they doo but dreame, and doo not those things indeed, which they confesse through their distemperature, growing of their melancholike humor: and therefore (saith he) these things, which they report of themselves, are but meere illusions.

Psellus addeth hereunto, that certeine magicall heretikes, to wit; the Eutychians, assemblie themselves everie good fridaie at night; and putting out the candles, doo commit incestuous adulterie, the father with the daughter, the sister with the brother, and the sonne with the mother; and the ninth moneth they returne and are delivered; and cutting their children in peeces, fill their pots with their bloud; then burne they the carcases,Card. lib. de var. rerum. 15. cap. 80. and mingle the ashes therewith, and so preserve the same for magicall purposes. Cardanus writeth (though in mine opinion not verie/38. probablie) that these excourses, dansings, &c: had their beginning from certeine heretikes called Dulcini, who devised those feasts of Bacchus which are named Orgia, whereunto these kind of people openlie assembled; and beginning with riot, ended with this follie. Which feasts being prohibited, they nevertheles hanted them secretlie; and when they could not doo so, then did they it in cogitation onelie, and even to this daie (saith he) there remaineth a certeine image or resemblance thereof among our melancholike women.

The fourth Chapter.

That there can no reall league be made with the divell the first author of the league, and the weake proofes of the adversaries for the same.

IF the league be untrue, as are the residue of their confessions, the witchmongers arguments fall to the ground: for all the writers herein hold this bargaine for certeine, good, and granted, and as their onelie maxime. But surelie the/45. indentures, conteining those covenants, are sealed with butter; and the labels are but bables. What firme bargaine can be made betwixt a carnall bodie and a spirituall? Let any wise or honest man tell me, that either hath beene a partie, or a witnesse; and I will beleeve him. But by what authoritie, proofe, or testimonie; and upon what ground all this geere standeth, if you read M. Mal. Mal. Malef. par. 2. quæ. 7. cap. 2. you shall find, to the shame of the reporters (who doo so 35 varie in their tales, and are at such contrarietie:) and to the reproch of the beleevers of such absurd lies.

For the beginning of the credit hereof,Upon what ground this real league began to growe in credit. resteth upon the confession of a baggage yoong fellow condemned to be burnt for witchcraft; who said to the inquisitors, of likelihood to prolong his life, (if at leastwise the storie be true, which is taken out of Nider;) If I wist (quoth he) that I might obteine pardon, I would discover all that I knowe of witchcraft. The which condition being accepted, and pardon promised (partlie in hope thereof, and partlie to be rid of his wife) he said as followeth.

The novice or yoong disciple goeth to some church, togither with the mistresse of that profession, upon a sundaie morning, before the conjuration of holie water, & there the said novice renounceth the faith, promiseth obedience in observing, or rather omitting of ceremonies in meetings, and such other follies; and finallie, that they doo homage to their yoong maister the divell, as they covenanted.

But this is notable in that storie, that this yoong witch, doubting that his wives examination would bewraie his knaverie, told the inquisitor; that in truth his wife was guiltie as well as he, but she will never, I am sure (quoth he) though she should be burned a thousand times, confesse any of these circumstances.

And this is in no wise to be forgotten, that notwithstanding his contrition, his confession, and his accusation of his owne wife (contrarie to the inquisitors/39. promise and oth) he and his wife were both burned at a stake, being the first discoverers of this notable league, whereupon the fable of witchcraft is mainteined; and whereby such other confessions have beene from the like persons, since that time, extorted and augmented. /

The fift Chapter.46.

Of the private league, a notable tale of Bodins concerning a French ladie, with a confutation.

THE maner of their private leagueThe maner of witches private league with the divell. is said to be, when the divell invisible, and sometimes visible, in the middest of the people talketh with them privatelie; promising, that if they will followe his counsell, he will supplie all their necessities, and make all their endevors prosperous: and so beginneth with small matters: whereunto they consent privilie, and come not into the fairies assemblie.

And in this case (mee thinks) the divell sometimes, in such externall or corporall shape, should meete with some that would not consent to his motions (except you will saie he knoweth their cogitations) and so36 should be bewraied. They also (except they were idiots) would spie him, and forsake him for breach of covenants. But these bargaines, and these assemblies doo all the writers hereupon mainteine: and Bodin confirmeth them with a hundred and odd lies; among the number whereof I will (for diverse causes) recite one.

There was (saith he)J. Bod. lib. 2. de dæmonomania. cap. 4. a noble Gentlewoman at Lions, that being in bed with a lover of hirs, suddenlie in the night arose up, and lighted a candle: which when she had done, she tooke a box of ointment, wherewith she annointed her bodie; and after a few words spoken, she was carried awaie. Hir bedfellow seeing the order hereof, lept out of his bed, tooke the candle in his hand, and sought for the ladie round about the chamber, and in everie corner thereof. But though he could not find hir, yet did he find hir box of ointment: and being desirous to know the vertue thereof, besmeered himselfe therewith, even as he perceived hir to have done before.This agreeth not with their interpretation, that saie, this is onlie done by vertue of the legue; nor yet to them that referre it unto words: quoth nota. And although he were not so superstitious, as to use anie words to helpe him forward in his busines, yet by the vertue of that ointment (saith Bodin) he was immediatlie conveied/47. to Lorreine, into the assemblie of witches. Which when he sawe, he was abashed, and said; In the name of God, what make I heere? And upon those words the whole assemblie vanished awaie, and left him there alone starke naked; and so was he faine to returne to Lions. But he had so good a conscience (for you may perceive by the first part of the historie, he was a verie honest man) that he accused his true lover for a witch, and caused hir to be burned. But as for his adulterie, neither M. Mal. nor Bodin doo once so much as speake in the dispraise thereof.

It appeareth throughout all Bodins booke, that he is sore offended with Cornelius Agrippa, and the rather (as I suppose) bicause the said C. Agrippa recanted that which Bodin mainteineth, who thinketh he could worke wonders by magicke, and speciallie by his blacke dog. It should seeme he/40. had prettie skill in the art of divination. For though he wrote before Bodin manie a yeare, yet uttereth he these words in his booke De vanitate scientiarum: A certeine French protonotarie (saith he)C. Agrippa. cap. 51. a lewd fellow and a coosener, hath written a certeine fable or miracle done at Lions, &c. What Bodin is, I knowe not, otherwise than by report; but I am certeine this his tale is a fond fable: and Bodin saith it was performed at Lions; and this man (as I under- stand) by profession is a civill lawier.

37

The sixt Chapter.

A disproofe of their assemblies, and of their bargaine.

THAT the joining of hands with the divell, the kissing of his bare buttocks, and his scratching and biting of them, are absurd lies; everie one having the gift of reason may plainlie perceive: in so much as it is manifest unto us by the word of God, that a spirit hath no flesh, bones, nor sinewes, whereof hands, buttocks, claws, teeth, and lips doo consist. For admit that the constitution of a divels bodie (as TatianTatianus contra Græcos. and other affirme) consisteth in spirituall/48. congelations, as of fier and aire; yet it cannot be perceived of mortall creatures. What credible witnesse is there brought at anie time, of this their corporall, visible, and incredible bargaine; saving the confession of some person diseased both in bodie and mind, wilfullie made, or injuriouslie constrained? It is mervell that no penitent witch that forsaketh hir trade, confesseth not these things without compulsion. Mee thinketh their covenant made at baptisme with God, before good witnesses, sanctified with the word, confirmed with his promises, and established with his sacraments, should be of more force than that which they make with the divell, which no bodie seeth or knoweth. For God deceiveth none, with whom he bargaineth; neither dooth he mocke or disappoint them, although he danse not among them.

Their oth, to procure into their league and fellowship as manie as they can (whereby everie one witch, as Bodin affirmeth, augmenteth the number of fiftie) bewraieth greatlie their indirect dealing. Hereof I have made triall,The author speaketh upon due proofe and triall. as also of the residue of their coosening devices; and have beene with the best, or rather the woorst of them, to see what might be gathered out of their counsels; and have cunninglie treated with them thereabouts: and further, have sent certeine old persons to indent with them, to be admitted into their societie. But as well by their excuses and delaies, as by other circumstances, I have tried and found all their trade to be meere coosening.

I praie you what bargaine have they made with the divell, that with their angrie lookes beewitch lambs, children, &c? Is it not confessed, that it is naturall, though it be a lie? What bargaine maketh the soothsaier, which hath his severall kinds of witchcraft and divination expressed in the scripture? Or is it not granted that they make none? How chanceth it that we heare not of this bargaine in the scriptures?/

38

The seventh Chapter.49. 41.

A confutation of the objection concerning witches confessions.

IT is confessed (saie some by the waie of objection) even of these women themselves, that they doo these and such other horrible things, as deserveth death, with all extremitie, &c. Whereunto I answer, that whosoever consideratelie beholdeth their confessions, shall perceive all to be vaine, idle, false, inconstant, and of no weight; except their contempt and ignorance in religion: which is rather the fault of the negligent pastor, than of the simple woman.

First, if their confessionConfession compulsorie; as by Hispanicall inquisition: Looke Mal. malef. & Jo. Bodin.
Confession persuasorie; as by flatterie: Looke Bry.
Darcie
against Ursu. Kempe.
be made by compulsion, of force or authoritie, or by persuasion, and under colour of freendship, it is not to be regarded; bicause the extremitie of threts and tortures provokes it; or the qualitie of faire words and allurements constraines it. If it be voluntarie, manie circumstances must be considered, to wit; whether she appeach not hir selfe to overthrow hir neighbour, which manie times happeneth through their cankered and malicious melancholike humor: then; whether in that same melancholike mood and frentike humor, she desire not the abridgment of hir owne daies. Which thing Aristotle saith dooth oftentimes happen unto persons subject to melancholike passions: and (as BodinJohn. Bod.
Mal. Malef.
and Sprenger saie) to these old women called witches, which manie times (as they affirme) refuse to live; thretning the judges, that if they may not be burned, they will laie hands upon themselves, and so make them guiltie of their damnation.

I my selfe have knowne, that where such a one could not prevaile, to be accepted as a sufficient witnesse against himselfe, he presentlie went and threw himselfe into a pond of water, where he was drowned. But the lawe saith; L. absent. de poenis. Volenti mori non est habenda fides, that is; His word is not to be credited that is desirous to/50. die. Also sometimes (as L. 2. cum glos. de iis, qui ante sentent. mortui sunt, sibi necem consciscentes.else-where I have prooved) they confesse that whereof they were never guiltie; supposing that they did that which they did not, by meanes of certeine circumstances. And as they sometimes confesse impossibilities, as that they flie in the aire, transubstantiate themselves, raise tempests, transfer or remoove corne, &c: so doo they also (I saie) confesse voluntarilie, that which no man could proove, and that which no man would ghesse, nor yet beleeve, except he were as mad as they; so as they bring death wilfullie upon themselves: which argueth an unsound mind.

If they confesse that, which hath beene indeed committed by them,39 as poisoning, or anie other kind of murther, which falleth into the power of such persons to accomplish; I stand not to defend their cause. Howbeit, I would wish that even in that case there be not too rash credit given, nor too hastie proceedings used against them: but that the causes, properties, and circumstances of everie thing be dulie considered, and diligentlie examined.Absurdities in witches confessions. For you shall understand, that as sometimes they confesse they have murthered their neighbours with a wish, sometimes with a word, sometimes with a looke, &c: so they confesse, that with/42. the delivering of an apple, or some such thing, to a woman with child, they have killed the child in the mothers wombe, when nothing was added thereunto, which naturallie could be noisome or hurtfull.

In like maner they confesse, that with a touch of their bare hand, they sometimes kill a man being in perfect health and strength of bodie; when all his garments are betwixt their hand and his flesh.

But if this their confession be examined by divinitie, philosophie, physicke, lawe or conscience, it will be found false and insufficient. First, for that the working of miracles is ceased. Secondlie, no reason can be yeelded for a thing so farre beyond all reason. Thirdlie, no receipt can be of such efficacie, as when the same is touched with a bare hand, from whence the veines have passage through the bodie unto the hart, it should not annoie the poisoner; and yet reteine vertue and force enough, to pearse through so manie garments and the verie flesh incurablie, to the place of death in another person. Cui argumento (saith Bodin) nescio quid / responderi possit.J. Bod. de dæmon. lib. 2. cap. 8.51. Fourthlie, no lawe will admit such a confession, as yeeldeth unto impossibilities, against the which there is never any lawe provided; otherwise it would not serve a mans turne, to plead and proove that he was at Berwicke that daie, that he is accused to have doone a murther in Canturburie; for it might be said he was conveied to Berwicke, and backe againe by inchantment. Fiftlie, he is not by con- science to be executed,In a little pamphlet of the acts and hanging of foure witches, in anno. 1579. which hath no sound mind nor perfect judgement. And yet forsooth we read, that one mother Stile did kill one Saddocke with a touch on the shoulder, for not keeping promise with hir for an old cloake, to make hir a safegard; and that she was hanged for hir labour.

40

The eight Chapter.

What follie it were for witches to enter into such desperate perill, and to endure such intollerable tortures for no gaine or commoditie, and how it comes to passe that witches are overthrowne by their confessions.

ALAS! 43.If they were so subtill, as witchmongers make them to be, they would espie that it were meere follie for them, not onelie to make a bargaine with the divell to throw their soules into hell fire, but their bodies to the tortures of temporall fire and death, for the accomplishment of nothing that might benefit themselves at all: but they would at the leastwise indent with the divell, both to inrich them, and also to enoble them; and finallie to endue them with all worldlie felicitie and pleasure: which is furthest from them of all other. Yea, if they were sensible, they would saie to the divell; Whie should I hearken to you, when you will deceive me? Did you not promise my neighbour mother Dutton to save and rescue hir; and yet lo she is hanged? Surelie this would appose the divell verie sore. And it is a woonder, that none, from the beginning of the world, till this daie, hath made this and such like objections, whereto the divell John Bod.could never/52. make answer. But were it not more madnes for them to serve the divell, under these conditions; and yet to endure/ whippings with iron rods at the divels hands; which (as the witchmongers write) are so set on, that the print of the lashes remaine upon the witches bodie ever after, even so long as she hath a daie to live?

But these old women being daunted with authoritie, circumvented with guile, constrained by force, compelled by feare, induced by error, and deceived by ignorance, doo fall into such rash credulitie, and so are brought unto these absurd confessions. Whose error of mind and blindnes of will dependeth upon the disease and infirmitie of nature: and therefore their actions in that case are the more to be borne withall; bicause they, being destitute of reason, can have no consent. For, L. si per errorem jurisd. omni cum inde. Delictum sine consensu non potest committi, neque injuria sine animo injuriandi; that is, There can be no sinne without consent, nor injurie committed without a mind to doo wrong. Yet the lawe saith further, that A purpose reteined in mind, dooth nothing C. sed hoc d. de publ. &c.to the privat or publike hurt of anie man; and much more that an impossible purpose is unpunishable. Bal. in leg. &c.Sanæ mentis voluntas, voluntas rei possibilis est; A sound mind willeth nothing but that which is possible.

41

The ninth Chapter.

How melancholie abuseth old women, and of the effects thereof by sundrie examples.

IF anie man advisedlie marke their words, actions, cogitations, and gestures, he shall perceive that melancholie abounding in their head, and occupieng their braine, hath deprived or rather depraved their judgements, and all their senses: I meane not of coosening witches, but of poore melancholike women, which are themselves deceived. For you shall understand, that the force which melancholie hath, and the effects that it worketh in the bodie of a man, or rather of a woman, are almost incredible. For as some of these melancholike persons imagine, they are witches/53. and by witchcraft can worke woonders, and doo what they list: so doo other, troubled with this disease, imagine manie strange, incredible, and impossible things. Some, that they are monarchs and princes, and that all other men are their subjects: some, that they are brute beasts: some, that they be urinals or earthen pots, greatlie fearing to be broken: some, that everie one that meeteth them, will conveie them to the gallowes; and yet in the end hang themselves. One thought, that Atlas, whome the poets feigne to hold up heaven with his shoulders, would be wearie, and let the skie fall upon him: another would spend a whole daie upon a stage, imagining that he both heard and saw interludes, and therewith made himselfe great sport. One Theophilus a physician, otherwise sound inough of mind (as it is said) imagined that he heard and sawe musicians continuallie plaieng on instruments, in a certeine place of his house. One Bessus, that had killed his father, was notablie detected; by imagining that a swallowe upraided him therewith: so as he himselfe thereby revealed the murther.

But the notablest example heereof is, of one that was in great perplexi/tie,44.Of one that through melancholie was induced to thinke that he had a nose as big as a house, &c. imagining that his nose was as big as a house; insomuch as no freend nor physician could deliver him from this conceipt, nor yet either ease his greefe, or satisfie his fansie in that behalfe: till at the last, a physician more expert in this humor than the rest, used this devise following. First, when he was to come in at the chamber doore being wide open, he suddenlie staied and withdrew himselfe; so as he would not in any wise approch neerer than the doore. The melancholike person musing heereat, asked him the cause why he so demeaned himselfe? Who answered him in this maner: Sir, your nose is so great, that I can hardlie enter into your chamber but I shall touch it, and consequentlie hurt it. Lo (quoth he) this is the man that must doo me good; the residue of my freends flatter me, 42 and would hide mine infirmitie from me. Well (said the physician) I will cure you, but you must be content to indure a little paine in the dressing: which he promised patientlie to susteine, and conceived certeine hope of his recoverie. Then entred the physician into the chamber, creeping close by the walles, seeming to feare the touching and hurting of his nose. Then did he blindfold him, which/54. being doone, he caught him by the nose with a paire of pinsors, and threw downe into a tub, which he had placed before his patient, a great quantitie of bloud, with manie peeces of bullocks livers, which he had conveied into the chamber, whilest the others eies were bound up, and then gave him libertie to see and behold the same. He having doone thus againe twoo or three times, the melancholike humor was so qualified, that the mans mind being satisfied, his greefe was eased, and his disease cured.

Thrasibulus, otherwise called Thrasillus, being sore oppressed with this melancholike humor, imagined, that all the ships, which arrived at port Pyræus, were his: insomuch as he would number them, and command the mariners to lanch, &c: triumphing at their safe returnes, and moorning for their misfortunes. The Italian, whom we called here in England, the Monarch, was possessed with the like spirit or conceipt. DanæusDanæus in dialog. cap. 3. himselfe reporteth, that he sawe one, that affirmed constantlie that he was a cocke; and saith that through melancholie, such were alienated from themselves.

Now, if the fansie of a melancholike person may be occupied in causes which are both false and impossible;J. Baptist. P. N. cap. 2.
Card. de var. rerum.
J. Wier. de prestigiis dæmonum, &c.
Aristotle.
why should an old witch be thought free from such fantasies, who (as the learned philosophers and physicians saie) upon the stopping of their monethlie melancholike flux or issue of bloud, in their age must needs increase therein, as (through their weaknesse both of bodie and braine) the aptest persons to meete with such melancholike imaginations: with whome their imaginations remaine, even when their senses are gone. Which Bodin John. Bod. laboureth to disproove, therein shewing himselfe as good a physician, as else-where a divine.

But if they may imagine, that they can transforme their owne bodies, which neverthelesse remaineth in the former shape: how much more credible is it, that they may falselie suppose they can hurt and infeeble other mens bodies; or which is lesse, hinder the comming of butter? &c. But what is it that they will not imagine, and consequentlie confesse that they can doo; speciallie being so earnestlie persuaded thereunto, so sorelie tor/mented,45. so craftilie examined, with such promises of favour, as wherby they imagine, that they shall ever after live in great credit & welth? &c.

If you read the executions doone upon witches, either in times/55. past43 in other countries, or latelie in this land; you shall see such impossibilities confessed, as none, having his right wits, will beleeve. Among other like false confessions,Ant. Houin. we read that there was a witch confessed at the time of hir death or execution, that she had raised all the tempests, and procured all the frosts and hard weather that happened in the winter 1565: and that manie grave and wise men beleeved hir.

The tenth Chapter.

That voluntarie confessions may be untrulie made, to the undooing of the confessors, and of the strange operation of melancholie, prooved by a familiar and late example.

BUT that it may appeere, that even voluntarie confession (in this case) may be untrulie made, though it tend to the destruction of the confessor; and that melancholie may moove imaginations to that effect: I will cite a notable instance concerning this matter, the parties themselves being yet alive, and dwelling in the parish of Sellenge in Kent, and the matter not long sithence in this sort performed.

OneA Kentish storie of a late accident. Ade Davie, the wife of Simon Davie, husbandman, being reputed a right honest bodie, and being of good parentage, grew suddenlie (as hir husband informed mee, and as it is well knowne in these parts) to be somewhat pensive and more sad than in times past. Which thing though it greeved him, yet he was loth to make it so appeere, as either his wife might be troubled or discontented therewith, or his neighbours informed thereof; least ill husbandrie should be laid to his charge (which in these quarters is much abhorred.) But when she grew from pensivenes, to some perturbation of mind; so as hir accustomed rest began in the night season to be withdrawne from hir, through sighing and secret lamentation; and that, not without teares, hee could not but demand the cause of hir conceipt and extraordina/rie56. moorning. But although at that time she covered the same, acknowledging nothing to be amisse with hir: soone after notwithstanding she fell downe before him on hir knees, desiring him to forgive hir, for she had greevouslie offended (as she said) both God & him. Hir poore husband being abashed at this hir behaviour, comforted hir, as he could; asking hir the cause of hir trouble & greefe: who told him, that she had, (contrarie to Gods lawe) & to the offense of all good christians, to the injurie of him, & speciallie to the losse of hir owne soule, bargained and given hir soule to the divell, to be delivered unto him within short space. Note the christian comfort of the husbād to his wife. Whereunto hir husband answered, saieng; Wife, be of good cheere, this thy bargaine is void and of none effect: for thou hast sold that which is none of44 thine to sell; sith it belongeth to Christ, who hath bought it, and deerelie paid for it, even with his bloud, which he shed upon the crosse; so as the divell hath no interest in thee./46. After this, with like submission, teares, and penitence, she said unto him; Oh husband, I have yet committed another fault, and doone you more injurie: for I have bewitched you and your children. Be content (quoth he) by the grace of God, Jesus Christ shall unwitch us: for none evill can happen to them that feare God.

And (as trulie as the Lord liveth) this was the tenor of his words unto me, which I knowe is true, as proceeding from unfeigned lips, and from one that feareth God. Now when the time approched that the divell should come, and take possession of the woman, according to his bargaine, he watched and praied earnestlie, and caused his wife to read psalmes and praiers for mercie at Gods hands: and suddenlie about midnight, there was a great rumbling beelowe under his chamber windowe, which amazed them exceedinglie. For they conceived, that the divell was beelowe, though he had no power to come up, bicause of their fervent praiers.

Confutation.He that noteth this womans first and second confession, freelie and voluntarilie made, how everie thing concurred that might serve to adde credit thereunto, and yeeld matter for hir condemnation, would not thinke, but that if Bodin were foreman of hir inquest, he would crie; Guiltie: & would hasten execution upon hir; who would have said as much before any judge in/57. the world, if she had beene examined; and have confessed no lesse, if she had beene arraigned therupon. But God knoweth, she was innocent of anie these crimes: howbeit she was brought lowe and pressed downe with the weight of this humor, so as both hir rest and sleepe were taken awaie from hir; & hir fansies troubled and disquieted with despaire, and such other cogitations as grew by occasion thereof. And yet I beleeve, if any mishap had insued to hir husband, or his children; few witchmongers would have judged otherwise, but that she had bewitched them. And she (for hir part) so constantlie persuaded hir selfe to be a witch, that she judged hir selfe worthie of death; insomuch as being reteined in hir chamber, she sawe not anie one carrieng a faggot to the fier, but she would saie it was to make a fier to burne hir for witcherie. But God knoweth she had bewitched none, neither insued there anie hurt unto anie, by hir imagination, but unto hir selfe.

A comicall catastrophe.And as for the rumbling, it was by occasion of a sheepe, which was flawed, and hoong by the wals, so as a dog came and devoured it; whereby grew the noise which I before mentioned: and she being now recovered, remaineth a right honest woman, far from such impietie, and ashamed of hir imaginations, which she perceiveth to have growne through melancholie.

45

The eleventh Chapter.

The strange and divers effects of melancholie, and how the same humor abounding in witches, or rather old women, filleth them full of mervellous imaginations, and that their confessions are not to be credited.

BUT in truth,H. Card. de var. rerum. cap. 8.
Jo. Wierus de præst. lib. 6. cap. 8.
this melancholike humor (as the best physicians affirme) is the cause of all their strange, impossible, and incredible confessions:/47. which are so fond, that I woonder how anie man can be abused thereby. Howbeit, these affections, though they appeare in the mind of man, yet are they bred in the bodie, and proceed from this humor, which is the verie dregs of bloud, nourishing and feeding those places, from whence proceed feares, co/gitations,58. superstitions, fastings, labours, and such like.

This maketh sufferance of torments, and (as some saie)Aristotle de somnio. foresight of things to come, and preserveth health, as being cold and drie: it maketh men subject to leanenesse, and to the quartane ague. TH. Card. lib. 8 de var. rer.hey that are vexed therewith, are destroiers of themselves, stout to suffer injuries, fearefull to offer violence; except the humor be hot. They learne strange toongs with small industrie (as Aristotle and others affirme.)

If our witches phantasies were not corrupted, nor their wils confounded with this humor, they would not so voluntarilie and readilie confesse that which calleth their life in question; whereof they could never otherwise be convicted. J. BodinJo. Bod. contra Jo. Wierum. with his lawyers physicke reasoneth contrarilie; as though melancholie were furthest of all from those old women, whom we call witches: deriding the most famous and noble physician John Wier for his opinion in that behalfe. But bicause I am no physician, I will set a physician to him; namelie Erastus, who hath these words, to wit, that These witches, through their corrupt phantasie abounding with melancholike humors, by reason of their old age, doo dreame and imagine they hurt those things which they neither could nor doo hurt; and so thinke they knowe an art, which they neither have learned nor yet understand.

But whie should there be more credit given to witches, when they saie they have made a reall bargaine with the divell, killed a cow, bewitched butter, infeebled a child, forespoken hir neighbour, &c: than when she confesseth that she transubstantiateth hir selfe, maketh it raine or haile, flieth in the aire, goeth invisible, transferreth corne in the grasse from one field to another? &c. If you thinke that in the one their confessions be sound, whie should you saie that they are corrupt in the other; the confession of all these things being made at 46 one instant, and affirmed with like constancie, or rather audacitie? But you see the one to be impossible, and therefore you thinke thereby, that their confessions are vaine and false. The other you thinke may be doone, and see them confesse it, and therefore you conclude, A posse ad esse; as being persuaded it is so, bicause you thinke it may be so. But I saie, both with the divines,August. lib. de Trinit. 3.
Idem. de civit. Dei.
Clemens. recogn. 3
Iamblichus.
Jo. Wierus.
Cardanus.
Pampia &c.
and philosophers, that that which is imagined of witchcraft, hath no truth of action; or being besides their ima/gination,59. the which (for the most part) is occupied in false causes. For whosoever desireth to bring to passe an impossible thing, hath a vaine, an idle, and a childish persuasion, bred by an unsound mind: for Sanæ mentis voluntas, voluntas rei possibilis est; The will of a sound mind, is the desire of a possible thing./48.

The twelfe Chapter.

A confutation of witches confessions, especiallie concerning their league.

BUT it is objected,An objection. that witches confesse they renounce the faith, The resolution. and as their confession must be true (or else they would not make it:) so must their fault be worthie of death, or else they should not be executed. Whereunto I answer as before; that their confessions are extorted, or else proceed from an unsound mind. Yea I saie further, that we our selves, which are sound of mind, and yet seeke anie other waie of salvation than Christ Jesus, or breake his commandements, or walke not in his steps with a livelie faith, &c: doo not onlie renounce the faith, but God himselfe: and therefore they (in confessing that they forsake God, and imbrace sathan) doo that which we all should doo. As touching that horrible part of their confession, in the league which tendeth to the killing of their owne and others children, the seething of them, and the making of their potion or pottage, and the effects thereof; their good fridaies meeting, being the daie of their deliverance, their incests, with their returne at the end of nine moneths, when commonlie women be neither able to go that journie, nor to returne, &c; it is so horrible, unnaturall, unlikelie, and unpossible; that if I should behold such things with mine eies, I should rather thinke my selfe dreaming, dronken, or some waie deprived of my senses; than give credit to so horrible and filthie matters.

How hath the oile or pottage of a sodden child such vertue, A forged miracle. as that a staffe annointed therewith, can carrie folke in the aire? Their potable liquor, which (they saie) maketh maisters of that fa/cultie,60. is it not ridiculous? And is it not, by the opinion of all philosophers, 47 physicians, and divines, void of such vertue, as is imputed thereunto?

Their not fasting on fridaies, and their fasting on sundaies, their spetting at the time of elevation, their refusall of holie water, their despising of superstitious crosses, &c: which are all good steps to true christianitie, helpe me to confute the residue of their confessions.

The xiii. Chapter.

A confutation of witches confessions, concerning making of tempests and raine: of the naturall cause of raine, and that witches or divels have no power to doo such things.

AND to speake more generallie of all the impossible actions referred unto them, as also of their false confessions; I saie, that there is none which acknowledgeth God to be onlie omnipotent, and the onlie worker of all miracles, nor anie other indued with meane sense, but will denie that the elements are obedient to witches, and at their commandement; or that they may at their pleasure send raine, haile, tempests, thunder, lightening;The waies that witches use to make raine, &c. when she being but an old doting woman, casteth a flint stone o/ver49. hir left shoulder, towards the west, or hurleth a little sea sand up into the element, or wetteth a broome sprig in water, and sprinkleth the same in the aire; or diggeth a pit in the earth, and putting water therein, stirreth it about with hir finger;Nider. Mal.
Malef. J. Bod.
Frier Barth.
Heming.
Danæus, &c.
or boileth hogs bristles, or laieth sticks acrosse upon a banke, where never a drop of water is; or burieth sage till it be rotten: all which things are confessed by witches, and affirmed by writers to be the meanes that witches use to moove extraordinarie tempests and raine, &c.

We read in M. Maleficarum,Mal. Malef. par. 2. quæ. 1. cap. 12. that a little girle walking abroad with hir father in his land, heard him complaine of drought, wishing for raine, &c. Whie father (quoth the child) I can make it raine/61. or haile, when and where I list? He asked where she learned it. She said, of hir mother, who forbad hir to tell anie bodie thereof. He asked hir how hir mother taught hir? She answered, that hir mother committed hir to a maister, who would at anie time doo anie thing for hir. Whie then (said he) make it raine but onlie in my field. And so she went to the streame, and threw up water in hir maisters name, and made it raine presentlie. And proceeding further with hir father, she made it haile in another field, at hir fathers request. Hereupon he accused his wife, and caused hir to be burned; and then he new christened his child againe: which circumstance is common among papists and witchmongers. And howsoever the first part hereof was 48 prooved, there is no doubt but the latter part was throughlie executed. He that can lie, can steale; as he that can worke can plaie. If they could indeed bring these things to passe at their pleasure, then might they also be impediments unto the course of all other naturall things, and ordinances appointed by God: as, to cause it to hold up, when it should raine; and to make midnight, of high noone: and by those meanes (I saie) the divine power should beecome servile to the will of a witch, so as we could neither eat nor drinke but by their permission.

Me thinks Seneca might satisfie these credulous or rather idolatrous people, that runne a whorehunting, either in bodie or phansie, after these witches, beleeving all that is attributed unto them, to the derogation of Gods glorie. He saith, that the rude people, and our ignorant predecessors did beleeve, that raine and showers might be procured and staied by witches charmes and inchantments: of which kind of things that there can nothing be wrought, it is so manifest, that we need not go to anie philosophers schoole, to learne the confutation thereof.

But JeremieJere. 16, 22., by the word of God, dooth utterlie confound all that which may be devised for the maintenance of that foolish opinion, saieng; Are there any among the godsDii gentium dæmonia,
The gods of the gentiles are divels.
of the gentiles, that sendeth raine, or giveth showers from heaven? Art not thou the selfe same our Lord God? We will trust in thee, for thou dooest and makest all these things. I may therefore with Brentius boldlie saie, that It is neither in the power of witches nor divels, to accomplish that matter; but in God onelie. For when exhalations are drawne and lifted up from out of the earth, by the power/62. of the sunne, into the middle region of the aire,The naturall generation of haile and raine. the coldnes thereof constreineth and thickeneth those vapours; which being beecome clouds, are dissolved againe by the heate of the sunne, wherby raine or haile is ingendred; raine, if by the waie the drops be not frosen and made haile. These/50. circumstances being considered with the course of the whole scripture, it can neither be in the power of witch or divell to procure raine, or faire weather.

And whereas the storie of Job in this case is alledged against me (wherein a witch is not once named) I have particularlie answered it else-where. And therefore thus much onelie I say heere; that Even there, where it pleased God (as Calvine saith) to set downe circumstances for the instruction of our grosse capacities, which are not able to conceive of spirituall communication, or heavenlie affaires; the divell desireth God to stretch out his hand, and touch all that JobJob 1, 11. hath. And though he seemeth to grant sathans desire, yet God himselfe sent fire from heaven, &c. Where, it is to be gathered, that although God said, He is in thine hand: it was the Lords hand that punished Job,Ib. verse 16. and not the hand of the divell, who said not, Give me leave to plague him; but, Laie thine hand upon him. And when Job49 continued faithfull notwithstanding all his afflictions, in his children, bodie and goods; the divell is said to come againe to God, and to saie as before, to wit: Job 2, 5.Now stretch out thine hand, and touch his bones and his flesh. Which argueth as well that he could not doo it, as that he himselfe did it not before. And be it here remembred, that M. Mal.Mal. Malef. pa. 1, quæ. 2. and the residue of the witchmongers denie, that there were any witches in Jobs time. But see more hereof elsewhere.

The xiiii. Chapter.

What would ensue, if witches confessions or wi[t]chmongers opinions were true, concerning the effects of witchcraft, inchantments, &c.

IF it were trueBut these suppositiōs are false, Ergo the consequencies are not true. that witches confesse, or that all writers write, or that witchmongers report, or that fooles beleeve, we should never have butter in the chearne, nor cow in the close, nor corne in the field, nor faire weather abroad, nor health within doores. Or if that which is conteined in M. Mal. Bodin, &c: or in the pamphlets late set foorth in English, of witches executions, shuld be true in those things that witches are said to confesse, what creature could live in securitie? Or what needed such preparation of warres, or such trouble, or charge in that behalfe? No prince should be able to reigne or live in the land. For (as Danæus saith) that one Martine a witch killed the emperour of Germanie with witchcraft: so would our witches (if they could) destroie all our magistrates. One old witch might overthrowe an armie roiall: and then what needed we any guns, or wild fire, or any other instruments of warre? A witch might supplie all wants, and accomplish a princes will in this behalfe, even without charge or bloudshed of his people.

If it be objected, that witches worke by the divell, and christian princes are not to deale that way; I answer, that few princes disposed to battell would make conscience therin, speciallie such as take unjust wars in hand, using other helpes, devises, & engines as unlawfull and divelish as that; in whose campe there is neither the rule of religion or christian order observed: insomuch as ravishments, murthers, blasphemies and/51. thefts are there most commonlie and freelie committed. So that the divell is more feared,Mal. Malef.
J. Bodin.
Bar. Spineus.
and better served in their camps, than God almightie.

But admit that souldiers would be scrupulous herein, the pope hath authoritie to dispense therewith; as in like case he hath/64. doone, by the testimonie of his owne authors and friends. Admit also, that throughout all christendome, warres were justly mainteined, and 50 religion dulie observed in their camps; yet would the Turke and other infidels cut our throtes, or at least one anothers throte, with the helpe of their witches; for they would make no conscience thereof.

The xv. Chapter.

Examples of forren nations, who in their warres used the assistance of witches; of eybiting witches in Ireland, of two archers that shot with familiars.

IN the warresWitches in warres. between the kings of Denmarke and Sueveland, 1563. the Danes doo write, that the king of Sueveland caried about with him in his campe, foure old witches, who with their charms so qualified the Danes, as they were thereby disabled to annoie their enimies: insomuch as, if they had taken in hand anie enterprise, they were so infeebled by those witches, as they could performe nothing. And although this could have no credit at the first, yet in the end, one of these witches was taken prisoner, and confessed the whole matter; so as (saith he) the threds, the line, and the characters were found in the high waie and water plashes.

The Irishmen addict themselves wonderfullie to the credit and practise hereof; insomuch as they affirme, that not onelie their children, but their cattell, are (as they call it) eybitten,Eybiting witches. when they fall suddenlie sicke, and terme one sort of their witches eybiters; onelie in that respect: yea and they will not sticke to affirme, that they can rime either man or beast to death. Also the West Indians and Muscovits doo the like: and the Hunnes (as Gregorie Turonensis writeth) used the helpe of witches in time of war.

I find another storie written in M. Mal. repeated by Bodin; that one souldier called Pumher,Pumher an archer. dailie through witchcraft killed with his bowe and arrowes three of the enimies, as they stood peeping over the walles of a castell besieged: so as in the end he killed them all quite, saving one. The triall of the archers sinister/65. dealing, and a proofe thereof expressed, is; for that he never lightly failed when he shot, and for that he killed them by three a daie; and had shot three arrowes into a rood. This was he that shot at a pennie on his sonnes head, and made readie another arrow, to have slaine the duke Remgrave that commanded it. And doubtlesse, bicause of his singular dexteritie in shooting, he was reputed a witch, as dooing that which others could not doo, nor thinke to be in the power of man to doo: though indeed no miracle, no witchcraft, no impossibilitie nor difficultie consisted therein./52.

51

But this latter storie I can requite with a familiar example. A skilfull archer punished by an unskilfull Justice. For at Towne Malling in kent, one of Q. Maries justices, upon the complaint of many wise men, and a few foolish boies, laid an archer by the heeles; bicause he shot so neere the white at buts. For he was informed and persuaded, that the poore man plaied with a flie, otherwise called a divell or familiar. And bicause he was certified that the archer aforesaid shot better than the common shooting, which he before had heard of or seene, he conceived it could not be in Gods name, but by inchantment: whereby this archer (as he supposed by abusing the Queenes liege people) gained some one daie two or three shillings, to the detriment of the commonwealth, and to his owne inriching. And therefore the archer was severelie punished, to the great encouragement of archers, and to the wise example of justice; but speciallie to the overthrowe of witchcraft. And now againe to our matter.

The xvi. Chapter.

Authorities condemning the fantasticall confessions of witches, and how a popish doctor taketh upon him to disproove the same.

CERTEINE generall councels, by their decrees, have condemned the confessions and erronious credulitie of witches, to be vaine, fantasticall and fabulous. And even those, which are parcell of their league, wherupon our witchmongers doo so build, to wit; their night walkings and meetings with Herodias, and/66. the Pagan gods: at which time they should passe so farre in so little a space on cockhorsse; their transubstantiation, their eating of children, and their pulling of them from their mothers sides, their entring into mens houses, through chinks and little holes, where a flie can scarselie wring out, and the disquieting of the inhabitants, &c: all which are not onelie said by a generall councell to be meere fantasticall, and imaginations in dreames; but so affirmed by the ancient writers. The words of the councell are these;Concil. Acquirens in decret. 26. quæ. 5. can. episcopi.
August. de spiritu & anima cap. 8.
Franc. Ponzivib. tract de lam. numero 49.
Grillandus de sort. numero. 6.
It may not be omitted, that certeine wicked women following sathans provocations, being seduced by the illusion of divels, beleeve and professe, that in the night times ride abroad with Diana, the goddesse of the Pagans, or else with Herodias, with an innumerable multitude, upon certeine beasts, and passe over manie countries and nations, in the silence of the night, and doo whatsoever those fairies or ladies command, &c. And it followeth even there; Let all ministers therefore in their severall cures, preach to Gods people, so as they may knowe all these things to be false, &c. It followeth in the same councell; Therefore, whosoever beleeveth that any creature may be either created by them, or else 52 changed into better or worsse, or be any way transformed into any other kind or likenes of any, but of the creator himselfe, is assuredlie an infidell, and woorsse than a Pagan.

And if this be credible, then all these their bargaines and assemblies, &c: are incredible, which are onelie ratified by certeine foolish and extorted confessions; and by a fable of S. Germane, In histor. vel vita sancti Germani. who watched the fairies or witches, being at a reere banket, and through his holinesse/ 53.staied them, till he sent to the houses of those neighbours, which seemed to be there, and found them all in bed; and so tried, that these were divels in the likenesse of those women. Which if it were as true, as it is false, it might serve well to confute this their meeting and night-walking. For if the divels be onlie present in the likenesse of witches, then is that false, which is attributed to witches in this behalfe.

But bicause the old hammar of Sprenger and Institor, Novus Mal. Mal in quæ. de strigib. cap. 21. 22. 23, &c. in their old Malleo Maleficarum, was insufficient to knocke downe this councell; a yoong beetle-head called Frier Bartholomæus Spineus hath made a new leaden beetle, to beate downe the councell, and to kill these old women. Wherein he counterfeiting/67. Aesops asse, claweth the pope with his heeles: affirming upon his credit, that the councell is false and erronious; bicause the doctrine swarveth from the popish church, and is not authenticall but apocryphall; saieng (though untrulie) that that councell was not called by the commandement and pleasure of the pope, nor ratified by his authoritie, which (saith he) is sufficient to disanull all councels. For surelie (saith this frier, which at this instant is a cheefe inquisitor) if the words of this councell were to be admitted, both I, and all my predecessors had published notorious lies, and committed manie injurious executions; whereby the popes themselves also might justlie be detected of error, contrarie to the catholike beleefe in that behalfe.Bar. Spineus.
Mal. Malef. cap. 23. in quæ. de strigib.
Marrie he saith, that although the words and direct sense of this councell be quite contrarie to truth and his opinion; yet he will make an exposition thereof, that shall somewhat mitigate the lewdnes of the same; and this he saith is not onlie allowable to doo, but also meritorious. Marke the mans words, and judge his meaning.

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The xvii. Chapter.

Witchmongers reasons, to proove that witches can worke wonders, Bodins tale of a Friseland preest transported, that imaginations, proceeding of melancholie doo cause illusions.

OLD M. MaleficarumMal. Malef. pa. 1, cap. 3.
Guli. Parisi.
also saith, that the councels and doctors were all deceived heerein, and alledging authoritie therfore, confuteth that opinion by a notable reason, called Petitio principii, or rather, Ignotum per ignotius, in this maner: They can put changlings in the place of other children; Ergo they can transferre and transforme themselves and others, &c: according to their confession in that behalfe. Item he saith, and Bodin justifieth it, that a preest in Friseland was corporallie transferred into a farre countrie, as witnessed another preest of Oberdorf his companion, who saw him aloft in the aire: Ergo saith M. Mal. they have all beene decei/ved68. hitherto, to the great impunitie of horrible witches. Wherein he opposeth his follie against God and his church, against the truth, and against all possibilitie. But surelie it is almost incredible, how imagination shall abuse such as are subject unto melancholie; so as they shall beleeve they see, heare, and doo that, which never was nor shall be; as is partlie declared, if you read Galen De locis affectis, and may more/54. plainelie appeere also if you read Aristotle De somnio.

And thereof S. AugustineAugust. de spiritu & anima. saith well, that he is too much a foole and a blockhead, that supposeth those things to be doone indeed, and corporallie, which are by such persons phantasticallie imagined: which phantasticall illusions do as well agree and accord (as Algerus Lib. 1. cap. 7. de eucharist. saith) with magicall deceipts, as the veritie accompanieth divine holinesse.

The xviii. Chapter.

That the confession of witches is insufficient in civill and common lawe to take awaie life. What the sounder divines, and decrees of councels determine in this case.

ALAS! what creature being soundIt is not likelie they would so doo: Ergo a lie. in state of mind, would (without compulsion) make such maner of confessions as they do; or would, for a trifle, or nothing, make a perfect bargaine with the divell for hir soule, to be yeelded up unto his tortures and everlasting flames, and that within a verie short time; speciallie being through age most 54 commonlie unlike to live one whole yeare? The terror of hell fire must needs be to them diverslie manifested, and much more terrible; bicause of their weaknesse, nature, and kind, than to any other: as it would appeere, if a witch were but asked, Whether she would be contented to be hanged one yeare hence, upon condition hir displesure might be wreked upon hir enimie presentlie. As for theeves, & such other, they thinke not to go to hell fire; but are either persuaded there is no hell, or that their crime deserveth it not, or else that they have time e/nough69. to repent: so as, no doubt, if they were perfectlie resolved heereof, they would never make such adventures. Neither doo I thinke, that for any summe of monie, they would make so direct a bargaine to go to hell fire. Now then I conclude, that confession in this behalf is insufficient to take awaie the life of any body; or to atteine such credit, as to be beleeved without further proofe. For as Augustine August. de civit.
Dei. Isidor. lib. (8. cap. 9.)
Etymol. 26. quæ. 5. ca. nec mirum.
Ponzivibius de lamiis, volum. 10.
L. error, & L. cum post. c. de juris & facti ignor. ac in L. de ætat. §. item de interrog. actiō.
Per glos. Bal. & alios in L. 1. c. de confes. glos. nec. si de confes. in 6. § ad leg. Aquil L. Neracius. §. fin. Ut per Bald. & August. in L. I. c. de confess, &c. Extra. de presump. literas. Per Bald. in d. leg. &c.
Extra. de test cum literis.
Mal. Malef. pa. 3 quæst. 5. cap. 11.
and Isidore, with the rest of the sounder divines saie, that these prestigious things, which are wrought by witches are fantasticall: so doo the sounder decrees of councels and canons agree, that in that case, there is no place for criminall action. And the lawe saith, that The confession of such persons as are illuded, must needs be erronious, and therefore is not to be admitted: for, Confessio debet tenere verum & possibile. But these things are opposite both to lawe and nature, and therfore it followeth not; Bicause these witches confesse so, Ergo it is so. For the confession differeth from the act, or from the possibilitie of the act. And whatsoever is contrarie to nature faileth in his principles, and therefore is naturallie impossible.

The lawe also saith, In criminalibus regulariter non statur soli confessioni rei, In criminall cases or touching life, we must not absolutelie stand to the confession of the accused partie: but in these matters proofes must be brought more cleare than the light it selfe. And in this crime no bodie must be condemned upon presumptions. And where it is objected and urged, that Since God onelie knoweth the thoughts, therefore there is none other waie of proofe/55. but by confession: It is answered thus in the lawe, to wit: Their confession in this case conteineth an outward act, and the same impossible both in lawe and nature, and also unlikelie to be true; and therefore Quod verisimile non est, attendi non debet. So as, though their confessions may be worthie of punishment, as whereby they shew a will to commit such mischeefe, yet not worthie of credit, as that they have such power. For, Si factum absit, soláque opinione laborent, é stultorum genere sunt; If they confesse a fact performed but in opinion, they are to be reputed55 among the number of fooles. Neither may any man be by lawe condemned for criminall causes, upon presumptions, nor yet by single witnesses: neither at the accusation of a capitall enimie, who indeed is not to be admitted to give evidence in this case; though it please/70. M. Mal. and Bodin to affirme the contrarie. But beyond all equitie, these inquisitors have shifts and devises enow, to plague and kill these poore soules: for (they say)Mal. malef. quæst. 14. pa. 1. their fault is greatest of all others; bicause of their carnall copulation with the divell, and therefore they are to be punished as heretikes, foure maner of waies: to wit; with excommunication, deprivation, losse of goods, and also with death.

C. de malef. L. nullus. L nemo. & L. culpa. and affirmed by Mal. malef.And indeede they find lawe, and provide meanes thereby to mainteine this their bloudie humor. For it is written in their popish canons, that As for these kind of heretikes, how much soever they repent and returne to the faith, they may not be reteined alive, or kept in perpetuall prison; but be put to extreame death. Yea, M. Mal.Mal. malef. quæst. 17. writeth, that A witches sinne is the sinne against the Holie-ghost; to wit, irremissible: yea further, that it is greater than the sinne of the angels that fell. In which respect I wonder, that Moses delivered not three tables to the children of Israell; or at the leastwise, that he exhibited not commandements for it. It is not credible that the greatest should be included in the lesse, &c.

But when these witchmongers are convinced in the objection concerning their confessions; so as thereby their tyrannicall arguments cannot prevaile, to imbrue the magistrates hands in so much bloud as their appetite requireth: they fall to accusing them of other crimes, that the world might thinke they had some colour to mainteine their malicious furie against them.

The xix. Chapter.

Of foure capitall crimes objected against witches, all fullie answered and confuted as frivolous.

FIRST 1. Idolatrie, confuted. therefore they laie to their charge idolatrie. But alas without all reason: for such are properlie knowne to us to be idolaters, as doo externall worship to idols or strange gods. The furthest point that idolatrie can be stretched unto, is, that they, which are culpable therein, are such as hope for and seeke salvation at/71. the hands of idols, or of anie other than God; or fix their whole mind and love upon anie creature, so as the power of God be neglected and contemned thereby. But witches nei/ther56. seeke nor beleeve to have salvation at the hands of divels, but by them they are onlie deceived; the instruments of their phantasie being corrupted, and 56 so infatuated, that they suppose, confesse, and saie they can doo that, which is as farre beyond their power and nature to doo, as to kill a man at Yorke before noone, when they have beene seene at London in that morning, &c. But if these latter idolaters, whose idolatrie is spirituall, and committed onelie in mind, should be punished by death; then should everie covetous man, or other, that setteth his affection anie waie too much upon an earthlie creature, be executed, and yet perchance the witch might escape scotfree.

Secondlie,2. Apostasie, confuted. apostasie is laid to their charge, whereby it is inferred, that they are worthie to die. But apostasie is, where anie of sound judgement forsake the gospell, learned and well knowne unto them; and doo not onelie imbrace impietie and infidelitie; but oppugne and resist the truth erstwhile by them professed. But alas these poore women go not about to defend anie impietie, but after good admonition repent.

Thirdlie,3. Seducing of the people, confuted. they would have them executed for seducing the people. But God knoweth they have small store of Rhetorike or art to seduce; except to tell a tale of Robin good-fellow be to deceive and seduce. Neither may their age or sex admit that opinion or accusation to be just: for they themselves are poore seduced soules. I for my part (as else-where I have said) have prooved this point to be false in most apparent sort.

Fourthlie,4. Carnall copulation with Incubus, confuted. as touching the accusation, which all the writers use herein against them for their carnall copulation with Incubus: the follie of mens credulitie is as much to be woondered at and derided, as the others vaine and impossible confessions. For the divell is a spirit, and hath neither flesh nor bones, which were to be used in the performance of this action. And since he also lacketh all instruments, substance, and seed ingendred of bloud; it were follie to staie overlong in the confutation of that, which is not in the nature of things. And yet must I saie somewhat heerein, bicause the opinion hereof is so stronglie and universallie received,/72. and the fables hereupon so innumerable; wherby M. Mal. Bodin, Hemingius, Hyperius, Danæus, Erastus, and others that take upon them to write heerein, are so abused, or rather seeke to abuse others; as I woonder at their fond credulitie in this behalfe. For they affirme undoubtedlie, that the divell plaieth SuccubusHow the divell plaieth Succubus and Incubus. to the man, and carrieth from him the seed of generation, which he delivereth as Incubus to the woman, who manie times that waie is gotten with child; which will verie naturallie (they saie) become a witch, and such a one they affirme Merline was.

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The xx. Chapter.

A request to such readers as loath to heare or read filthie and bawdie matters (which of necessitie are heere to be inserted) to passe over eight chapters.

BUT in so much as I am drivenA peroration to the readers. (for the more manifest bewraieng and displaieng of this most filthie and horrible error) to staine my paper with/57. writing thereon certeine of their beastlie and bawdie assertions and examples, whereby they confirme this their doctrine (being my selfe both ashamed, and loth once to thinke upon such filthinesse, although it be to the condemnation thereof) I must intreat you that are the readers hereof, whose chaste eares cannot well endure to heare of such abhominable lecheries, as are gathered out of the bookes of those witchmongers (although doctors of divinitie, and otherwise of great authoritie and estimation) to turne over a few leaves, wherein (I saie) I have like a groome thrust their bawdie stuffe (even that which I my selfe loath) as into a stinking corner: howbeit, none otherwise, I hope, but that the other parts of my writing shall remaine sweet, and this also covered as close as may be./


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The fourth Booke. 73. 85.

The first Chapter.

Of witchmongers opinions concerning evill spirits, how they frame themselves in more excellent sort than God made us.

JAMES SPRENGER and Henrie Institor, in M. Mal. Mal. malef. par. 2. cap. 4 quæst. 1.agreing with Bodin, Barth. Spineus, Danæus, Erastus, Hemingius, and the rest, doo make a bawdie discourse; labouring to proove by a foolish kind of philosophie, that evill spirits cannot onlie take earthlie forms and shapes of men; but also counterfeit hearing, seeing, &c: and likewise, that they can eate and devoure meats, and also reteine, digest, and avoid the same: and finallie, use diverse kinds of activities, but speciallie excell in the use and art of venerie. For M. Mal. saith, that The eies and earesIf his bodilie eies were out, he would see but ilfavoredlie. of the mind are farre more subtill than bodilie eies or carnall eares. Yea it is there affirmed, that as they take bodies, and the likenesse of members; so they take minds and similitudes of their operations. But by the way, I would have them answer this question. Our minds and soules are spirituall things. If our corporall eares be stopped, what can they heare or conceive of anie externall wisedome? And truelie, a man of such a constitution of bodie, as they imagine of these spirits, which make themselves, &c: were of farre more excellent substance, &c: than the bodies of them that God made in paradise; and so the divels workmanship should excexed the handie worke of God the father and creator of all things./

The second Chapter.74.

Of bawdie Incubus and Succubus, and whether the action of venerie may be performed betweene witches and divels, and when witches first yeelded to Incubus.

HERETOFORE (they saie) IncubusNider in fornicario.
T. Brabant in lib. de apib.
was faine to ravish women against their will, untill Anno. 1400: but now since that time witches consent willinglie to their desires: in so much as some one witch exerciseth that trade of lecherie with Incubus twentie or thirtie yeares togither; as was confessed by fourtie and eight witches burned at Ravenspurge.59 But what goodlie fellowes Incubus begetteth upon these witches, is prooved by Thomas of Aquine,In. sen. dist. 4. art. 4. Bodin, M. Mal. Hyperius, &c.

ThisGen. 6, 4. is prooved first by the divels cunning, in discerning the difference of the seed which falleth from men. Secondlie, by his understanding of the aptnes of the women for the receipt of such seed. Thirdlie by his knowledge of the constellations, which are freendlie to such corporall effects. And lastlie, by the excellent complexion of such as the divell maketh choice of, to beget such notable personages upon, as are the/59. causes of the greatnesse and excellencie of the child thus begotten.

And to proove that such bawdie dooingsMal. malef. par. 2. quæ. 1
August. de doctrina Christ.
betwixt the divell and witches is not fained, S. Augustine is alledged, who saith, that All superstitious arts had their beginning of the pestiferous societie betwixt the divell and man. Wherein he saith truelie; for that in paradise, betwixt the divell and man, all wickednes was so contrived, that man ever since hath studied wicked arts: yea and the divell will be sure to be at the middle and at both ends of everie mischeefe. But that the divell ingendreth with a woman, in maner and forme as is supposed, and naturallie begetteth the wicked, neither is it true, nor Augustines meaning in this place.

Howbeit M. Mal. proceedeth, affirming that All witches take/75. their beginning from such filthie actions, wherein the divell, in likenes of a prettie wench, lieth prostitute as Succubus to the man, and reteining his nature and seede, conveieth it unto the witch, to whome he delivereth it as Incubus. Wherein also is refuted the opinion of them that hold a spirit to be unpalpable. M. Mal.Mal. malef. quæ. 1. par. 1. saith, There can be rendred no infallible rule, though a probable distinction may be set downe, whether Incubus in the act of venerie doo alwaies powre seed out of his assumed bodie. And this is the distinction; Either she is old and barren, or yoong and pregnant. If she be barren, then dooth Incubus use hir without decision of seed; bicause such seed should serve for no purpose. And the divell avoideth superfluitie as much as he may; and yet for hir pleasure and condemnation togither, he goeth to worke with hir. But by the waie, if the divell were so compendious, what should he need to use such circumstances, even in these verie actions, as to make these assemblies, conventicles, ceremonies, &c: when he hath alreadie bought their bodies, and bargained for their soules? Or what reason had he, to make them kill so manie infants, by whom he rather loseth than gaineth any thing; bicause they are, so farre as either he or we knowe, in better case than we of riper yeares by reason of their innocencie? Well, if she be not past children, then stealeth he seed awaie (as hath beene said) from 60 some wicked man being about that lecherous busines, and therewith getteth yoong witches upon the old.

And note, that they affirme that this businesse is better accomplished with seed thus gathered, than that which is shed in dremes, through superfluitie of humors: bicause that is gathered from the vertue of the seed generative. And if it be said that the seed will wax cold by the waie, and so lose his naturall heate, and consequentlie the vertue: M. Mal. Danæus,Mal. malef. par. 1. quæ. 1.
Danæus in dialog. de sortiariis.
and the rest doo answere, that the divell can so carrie it, as no heate shall go from it, &c.

Furthermore, old witches are sworne to procure as manie yoong virgins for IncubusJa. Sprenger in Mal. male. as they can, whereby in time they growe to be excellent bawds: but in this case the preest plaieth Incubus. For you shall find, that confession to a preest, and namelie this word Benedicite, driveth Incubus awaie, when Ave Maries, crosses, and all other charmes faile./

The third Chapter.60. 76.

Of the divels visible & invisible dealing with witches in the waie of lecherie.

BUT as touching the divels visible or invisible execution of lecherie, it is written, that to such witches, as before have made a visible legue with the preest, (the divell I should saie) there is no necessitie that Incubus should appeere invisible: marrie to the standers by hee is for the most part invisible.This was doone at Ravenspurge. For proofe hereof James Sprenger and Institor affirme, that Manie times witches are seene in the fields, and woods, prostituting themselves uncovered and naked up to the navill, wagging and mooving their members in everie part, according to the disposition of one being about that act of concupiscence, and yet nothing seene of the beholders upon hir; saving that after such a convenient time as is required about such a peece of worke, a blacke vapor of the length and bignesse of a man, hath beene seene as it were to depart from hir, and to ascend from that place. Neverthelesse, manie times the husband seeth Incubus making him cuckhold, in the likenesse of a man, and sometimes striketh off his head with his sword: but bicause the bodie is nothing but aire, it closeth togither againe: so as, although the goodwife be some times hurt thereby; yet she maketh him beleeve he is mad or possessed, & that he dooth he knoweth not what. For she hath more pleasure and delight (they say) with IncubusMal. Malef. that waie, than with anie mortall man: whereby you may perceive that spirits are palpable./

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The fourth Chapter.77.

That the power of generation is both outwardlie and inwardlie impeached by witches, and of divers that had their genitals taken from them by witches, and by the same meanes againe restored.

THEY also affirme, that the vertue of generation is impeached by witches, both inwardlie, and outwardlie: for intrinsecallie they represse the courage, and they stop the passage of the mans seed, so as it may not descend to the vessels of generation: also they hurt extrinsecallie, with images, hearbs, &c. And to proove this true, you shall heare certeine stories out of M. Mal. worthie to be noted.

A yoong priest at MespurgeMal. Malef. cap. 6. quæ. 1 pa. 2. in the diocesse of Constance was bewitched, so as he had no power to occupie any other or mo women than one; and to be delivered out of that thraldom, sought to flie into another countrie, where he might use that preestlie occupation more freelie. But all in vaine; for evermore he was brought as far backward by night, as he went forward in the daie before; sometimes by land, sometimes in the aire, as though he flew. And if this be not true, I am sure that James Sprenger dooth lie.

For the further confirmation of our beleefe in Incubus, M. Mal. citeth a storie of a notable matter executed at Ravenspurge, as true and as cleanlie/61. as the rest. A yoong man lieng with a wench in that towne (saith he) was faine to leave his instruments of venerie behind him, by meanes of that prestigious art of witchcraft: so as in that place nothing could be seene or felt but his plaine bodie. This yoong man was willed by another witch, to go to hir whom he suspected, and by faire or fowle meanes to require hir helpe: who soone after meeting with hir, intreated hir faire, but that was in vaine; and therefore he caught hir by the throte, and with a towell strangled hir, saieng: Restore me my/78. toole, or thou shalt die for it: so as she being swolne and blacke in the face, and through his boisterous handling readie to die, said; Let me go, and I will helpe thee. And whilest he was loosing the towell, she put hir hand into his codpeece, and touched the place; saieng; Now hast thou thy desire: and even at that instant he felt himselfe restored.

Item,Ja. Sprenger. in Mal. malef. par. 2. quæ. 1. a reverend father, for his life, holinesse, and knowledge notorious, being a frier of the order and companie of Spire, reported, that a yoong man at shrift made lamentable moane unto him for the like losse: but his gravitie suffered him not to beleeve lightlie any such reports, and therefore made the yoong man untrusse his codpeece point, and sawe the complaint to be true and just. Whereupon 62 he advised or rather injoined the youth to go to the witch whome he suspected, and with flattering words to intreat hir, to be so good unto him, as to restore him his instrument: which by that meanes he obteined, and soone after returned to shew himselfe thankfull; and told the holie father of his good successe in that behalfe: but he so beleeved him, as he would needs be Oculatus testis, and made him pull downe his breeches, and so was satisfied of the troth and certeintie thereof.

Another yoong man being in that verie taking,Mal. malef. cap. 7. par. 2. quæst. 1. went to a witch for the restitution thereof, who brought him to a tree, where she shewed him a nest, and bad him clime up and take it. And being in the top of the tree, he tooke out a mightie great one, and shewed the same to hir, asking hir if he might not have the same. Naie (quoth she) that is our parish preests toole, but take anie other which thou wilt. And it is there affirmed, that some have found 20. and some 30. of them in one nest, being there preserved with provender, as it were at the racke and manger, with this note, wherein there is no contradiction (for all must be true that is written against witches) that Note.If a witch deprive one of his privities, it is done onlie by prestigious meanes, so as the senses are but illuded. Marie by the divell it is reallie taken awaie, and in like sort restored. These are no jestes, for they be written by them that were and are judges upon the lives and deaths of those persons./

The fift Chapter.62. 79.

Of bishop Sylvanus his leacherie opened and covered againe, how maides having yellow haire are most combred with Incubus, how maried men are bewitched to use other mens wives, and to refuse their own.

YOU shall read in the legend,In vita Hieronym. how in the night time Incubus came to a ladies bed side, and made hot loove unto hir: whereat she being offended, cried out so lowd, that companie came and found him under hir bed in the likenesse of the holie bishop Sylvanus,Saincts as holie and chaste as horsses & mares. which holie man was much defamed therebie, untill at the length this infamie was purged by the confession of a divell made at S. Jeroms toombe. Oh excellent peece of witchcraft or cousening wrought by Sylvanus! Item, S. Christine would needes take unto hir another maides Incubus, and lie in hir roome: and the storie saith, that she was shrewdlie accloied. But she was a shrew indeed, that would needes change beds with hir fellow, that was troubled everie night with Incubus, and deale with him hir selfe. But here the inquisitors note maie not be 63 forgotten, to wit: that Maides having yellow haireMaides having yellow haire. are most molested with this spirit. Also it is written in the Legend, of S. Barnard, that a pretie wench that had had the use of Incubus his bodie by the space of six or seven yeares in Aquitania (being beelike wearie of him for that he waxed old) would needes go to S. Barnard another while. But Incubus told hir, that if she would so forsake him, being so long hir true loover, he would be revenged upon hir, &c. But befall what would, she went to S. Barnard, who tooke hir his staffe, and bad her laie it in the bed besides hir. And indeed the divell fearing the bedstaffe, or that S. Barnard laie there himselfe, durst not approch into hir chamber that night: what he did afterwards, I am uncerteine. Marrie you may find other circumstances hereof, and manie other like bawdie lies in the golden Legend. But here againe we maie not forget the in/quisitors80. note,Mal. Malef. par. 2. quæ. 2. cap. 2. to wit; that manie are so bewitched that they cannot use their owne wives: but anie other bodies they maie well enough away withall. Which witchcraft is practised among manie bad husbands, for whom it were a good excuse to saie they were bewitched.

The sixt Chapter.

How to procure the dissolving of bewitched love, also to enforce a man (how proper so ever he be) to love an old hag: and of a bawdie tricke of a priest in Gelderland.

THE priests saie, that the best cure for a woman thus molested, next to confession, is excommunication. But to procure the dissolving of bewitched and constrained love, the partie bewitched must make a jakes of the lovers shooe. And to enforce a man, how proper so ever he be, to love an old hag, she giveth unto him to eate (among other meates) hir owne doong: and this waie one old witch made three abbats of one house succes/sivelie63. to die for hir love as she hir selfe confessed, by the report of M. Mal. In GelderlandOf a bawdie priest in Gelderland. a priest persuaded a sicke woman that she was bewitched; and except he might sing a masse upon hir bellie, she could not be holpen. Whereunto she consented, and laie naked on the altar whilest he sang masse, to the satis- fieng of his lust; but not to the *release[* ? releafe.] of hir greefe. Other cures I will speake of in other places more civill. Howbeit, certeine miraculous cures, both full of bawderie and lies, must either have place here, or none at all./

64

The seventh Chapter.81.

Of divers saincts and holie persons, which were exceeding bawdie and lecherous, and by certeine miraculous meanes became chaste.

CASSIANUS In coll. patrum. writeth, that S. Syren being of bodie verie lecherous, and of mind woonderfull religious, fasted and praied; to the end his bodie might be reduced miraculouslie to chastitie. At length came an angell unto him by night, and cut out of his flesh certeine kernels, which were the sparkes of concupiscence; so as afterwards he never had anie more motions of the flesh. It is also reported, that the abbat EquiciusGregor. lib. 1. dial. 2. being naturallie as unchast as the other, fell to his beads so devoutlie for recoverie of honestie, that there came an angell unto him in an apparition, that seemed to geld him; and after that (forsooth) he was as chaste as though he had had never a stone in his breech; and before that time being a ruler over monkes, he became afterwards a governour over nunnes. Even as it is said HeliasIn vitis patrum. Heraclides in paradiso. the holie monke gathered thirtie virgins into a monasterie, over whom he ruled and reigned by the space of two yeares, and grew so proud and hot in the codpeece, that he was faine to forsake his holie house, and flie to a desert, where he fasted and praied two daies, saieng; Lord quench my hot lecherous humors, or kill me. Whereupon in the night following, there came unto him three angels, and demanded of him why he forsooke his charge: but the holie man was ashamed to tell them. Howbeit they asked him further, saieng; Wilt thou returne to these damsels, if we free thee from all concupiscence? Yea (quoth he) with all my heart. And when they had sworne him solemnelie so to doo, they tooke him up, & gelded him; and one of them holding his hands, and another his feete, the third cut out his stones. But the storie saith it was not so ended, but in a vision. Which I beleeve, because within five daies he returned to his minions, who pitiouslie moorned for him all 82.this/ while, and joyfullie embraced his sweete companie at his returne. The like storie dooth Nider write of Thomas, whome two angels cured of that lecherous diseNider in fornicario.ase; by putting about him a girdle, which they brought downe with them from heaven.

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The eight Chapter.

Certeine popish and magicall cures, for them that are bewitched in their privities.

FOR direct cure to such as are bewitched in the privie members, the first and speciall is confession: then follow in a row, holie water, and/64. those ceremoniall trumperies, Ave Maries, and all maner of crossings; which are all said to be wholesome, except the witchcraft be perpetuall, and in that case the wife maie have a divorse of course.

Item,Aliter. the eating of a haggister or pie helpeth one bewitched in that member.

Item,Aliter. the smoke of the tooth of a dead man.

Item,Aliter. to annoint a mans bodie over with the gall of a crow.

Item, to fill a quill with quicke silver, and laie the same under the cushine, where such a one sitteth, or else to put it under the threshold of the doore of the house or chamber where he dwelleth.

Item,Aliter. to spet into your owne bosome, if you be so bewitched, is verie good.

Aliter.Item, to pisse through a wedding ring. If you would know who is hurt in his privities by witchcraft; and who otherwise is therein diseased, Hostiensis answereth: but so, as I am ashamed to english it: and therefore have here set downe his experiment in Latine; Quando virga nullatenùs movetur, & nunquam potuit cognoscere; hoc est signum frigiditatis: sed quando movetur & erigitur, perficere autem non potest, est signum maleficii.

But Sir Th. MooreS. Thomas Moores, medicinable receipt, &c. hath such a cure in this matter, as I am ashamed to write, either in Latine or English: for in filthie bawderie it passeth all the tales that ever I heard. But that is/83. rather a medicine to procure generation, than the cure of witchcraft, though it serve both turnes.

Item,Aliter. when ones instrument of venerie is bewitched, certeine characters must be written in virgine parchment, celebrated and holied by a popish priest; and thereon also must the 141. Psalme be written, and bound Ad viri fascinati coxam.

Item,Aliter. one Katharine Loe (having a husband not so readilie disposed that waie as she wished him to be) made a waxen image to the likenes of hir husbands bewitched member, and offered it up at S. Anthonies altar; so as, through the holinesse of the masse it might be sanctified, to be more couragious, and of better disposition and abilitie, &c.

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The ninth Chapter.

A strange cure doone to one that was molested with Incubus.

NOW being wearied with the rehearsall of so manie lecheries most horrible, and very filthie and fabulous actions and passions of witches, together with the spirit Incubus, I will end with a true storie taken out of Jason Pratensis,Jaso. Pratensis de cerebri morbo, ca. 16. which though it be rude, yet is it not altogither so uncleane as the rest.

There came (saith he) of late a masse priest unto me, making pitious moane, and saieng, that if I holpt him not, he should be undoone, and utterlie overthrowne; so great was his infirmitie: for (saith he) I was woont to be faire and fat, and of an excellent complexion; and lo how I looke, being now a verie ghost consisting of skinne and bone, &c. What is the matter (quoth Jason?) I will shew you sir, said the priest. There commeth unto mee, almost everie night, a certeine woman, unknowne unto me, and/65. lieth so heavie upon my brest, that I cannot fetch my breath, neither have anie power to crie, neither doo my hands serve me to shoove hir awaie, nor my feete to go from hir. I smiled (quoth Jason) and told him that he was vexed with a disease called In/cubus,84. or the mare; and the residue was phantasie and vaine imagination. Naie (said the priest)The priest is opinionative in the error of his phantasie. it cannot be so: for by our blessed ladie, I tell you nothing but that with waking I saw with mine eies, and felt with mine hands. I see hir when she commeth upon me, and strive to repell hir; but I am so infeebled that I cannot: and for remedie I have runne about from place to place, but no helpe that I could get. At length I went to an old frier that was counted an od fellow; and thought to have had help at his hands, but the divell a whit had I of him; saving that for remedie he willed me to praie to God; whome I am sure I wearied with my tedious praiers long before. Then went I unto an old woman (quoth the priest) who was said to be a cunning witch: and she willed me, that the next morning, about the dawning of the daie, I should pisse, and immediatlie should cover the pispot, or stop it with my right netherstocke, and before night the witch should come to visit me. And although (quoth he) the respect of mine orders somewhat terrified me from the execution of hir advise; yet my necessities diverse waies, and speciallie my paines moved me to make triall of hir words. And by the masse (quoth the priest) hir prophesie fell out as sure as a club. For a witch came to my house, and complained of a greefe in hir bladder, and that she could not pisse. But I could neither by faire nor fowle meanes obteine at 67 hir hands, that she would leave molesting me by night; but she keepeth hir old custome, determining by these filthie meanes to dispatch me.The priest recovered. I could hardlie (saith Jason) reclaime him from this mad humor; but by that time he had beene with me three or foure times, he began to comfort himselfe, and at last perceiving it, he acknowledged his disease, and recovered the same./

The tenth Chapter.85.

A confutation of all the former follies touching Incubus, which by examples and proofes of like stuffe is shewed to be flat knaverie, wherein the carnall copulation with spirits is overthrowne.

THUS are lecheries covered with the cloke of Incubus and witchcraft, contrarie to nature and veritie: and with these fables is mainteined an opinion, that men have beene begotten without carnall copulation (as Hyperius and others write that MerlinMerlin begotten of Incubus. was, An. 440.) speciallie to excuse and mainteine the knaveries and lecheries of idle priests and bawdie monkes; and to cover the shame of their lovers and concubines.

And alas, when great learned men have beene so abused, with the imagination of Incubus his carnall societie with women, misconstruing the scriptures, to wit, the place in Genesis 6. to the seducing of manie others; it is the lesse woonder, that this error hath passed so generallie among the common people./66.

But to use few words herein, I hope you understand that they affirme and saie, that Incubus is a spirit; and I trust you know that a spirit hath no flesh nor bones, &c: and that he neither dooth eate nor drinke. In deede your grandams maides were woont to set a boll of milke before him and his cousine Robin good-fellow, for grinding of malt or mustard, and sweeping the house at midnight: and you have also heard that he would chafe exceedingly, if the maid or good-wife of the house, having compassion of his nakednes, laid anie clothes for him, beesides his messe of white bread and milke, which was his standing fee. For in that case he saith; What have we here? Hemton hamten, here will I never more tread nor stampen.

But to proceed in this confutation.Quia humor spermaticus ex succo alimentari provenit. Where there is no meate eaten, there can be no seed which thereof is ingendred: although it be granted, that Robin could both eate and drinke, as being a/86. cousening idle frier, or some such roge, that wanted nothing either belonging to lecherie or knaverie, &c. Item, where the genitall members want, there can be no lust of the flesh: neither dooth nature give anie desire of generation, where there is no propagation or succession required.

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And as spirits cannot be greeved with hunger, so can they not be inflamed with lustes. And if men should live ever, what needed succession or heires? For that is but an ordinance of God, to supplie the place, the number, the world, the time, and speciallie to accomplish his will.Ad facultatem generandi tam interna quàm externa organa requiruntur. But the power of generation consisteth not onlie in members, but chieflie of vitall spirits, and of the hart: which spirits are never in such a bodie as Incubus hath, being but a bodie assumed, as they themselves saie. And yet the most part of writers herein affirme, that it is a palpable and visible bodie; though all be phansies and fables that are written hereupon.

The eleventh Chapter.

That Incubus is a naturall disease, with remedies for the same, besides magicall cures herewithall expressed.

BUT in truth, this IncubusWhat Incubus is, & who be most troubled therwith. is a bodilie disease (as hath beene said) although it extend unto the trouble of the mind: which of some is called The mare, oppressing manie in their sleepe so sore, as they are not able to call for helpe, or stir themselves under the burthen of that heavie humor, which is ingendred of a thicke vapor proceeding from the cruditie and rawnesse in the stomach: which ascending up into the head oppresseth the braine, in so much as manie are much infeebled therebie, as being nightlie haunted therewith. They are most troubled with this disease, that being subject thereunto, lie right upward: so as, to turne and lie on the one side, is present remedie. Likewise, if anie heare the groning of the partie, speake unto him, so as he wake him, he is presentlie releeved. Howbeit, there are magicall cures for it, as for example./87.

S. George, S. George, our ladies knight,
He walkt by daie, so did he by night:/67.
Untill such time as he hir found,
He hir beat and he hir bound,
Untill hir troth she to him plight,
She would not come to hir*[* ? him. MS.] that night.

Whereas S. George our ladies knight, was named three times S. George.

Item, hang a stone over the afflicted persons bed, which stone hath naturallie such a hole in it, as wherein a string may be put through it, and so be hanged over the diseased or bewitched partie; be it man, woman, or horsse.

Item, you shall read in M. Malefic.M. malefic. par. 2. quæ. 2. cap. 1. col, 2. that excommunication is verie 69notable, and better than any charme for this purpose. There are also other verses and charmes for this disease devised, which is the common cloke for the ignorance of bad physicians. But Leonard Fuchsius Leon. Fuchsius de curandi ratione. in his first booke, and 31. chapter, dooth not onelie describe this disease, and the causes of it; but also setteth downe verie learnedlie the cure thereof, to the utter confusion of the witchmongers follie in this behalfe. Hyperius being much bewitched and blinded in this matter of witchcraft, hoovering about the interpretation of Genesis 6. from whence the opinion of Incubus and Succubus is extorted, Viderunt filii Dei filias hominum, quòd elegantes essent, acceperunt sibi in uxores ex omnibus, quas elegerant, &c: seemeth to mainteine upon heare-saie, that absurd opinion; and yet in the end is driven to conclude thus, to wit: Of the evill spirits Incubus and Succubus there can be no firme reason or proofe brought out of scriptures, using these verie words; Hæc ut probabilia dicta sunto, quandoquidem scripturarum præsidio hac in causa destituimur. As if he should saie, Take this as spoken probablie; to wit, by humane reason, bicause we are destitute of scriptures to mainteine the goodnesse of the cause.

Tertullian and Sulpicius SeverusTertull. in libro de habitu muliebri.
Sulp. Sever. in epitome hist. sacr.
doo interpret Filios Dei in that place to be angels, or evill spirits, and to have beene enamored with the beautie of those wenches; and finallie, begat giants by/88. them. Which is throughlie confuted by Chrysostome, Hom. 22. in Gen: but speciallie by the circumstance of the text.

The twelfe Chapter.

The censure of G. Chaucer, upon the knaverie of Incubus.

NOW will I (after all this long discourse of abhominable cloked knaveries) here conclude with certeine of G. Chaucers verses, who as he smelt out the absurdities of poperie, so found he the priests knaverie in this matter of Incubus, and (as the time would suffer him) he derided their follie and falshood in this wise:

*For Geffr. Chau. in the beginning of the wife of Baths tale. [* Ital.] now the great charitie and praiers
Of limitors and other holie friers,
That searchen everie land and everie streame
As thicke as motes in the sunne beame,/68.
Blissing halles, kitchens, chambers & bowers,
Cities, borroghes, castels and hie towers,
Thropes, barnes, shepens, and dairies,
This maketh that there beene now no fairies;
70For there as woont to walken was an elfe,
There walketh now the limitor himselfe,
In undermeales, and in mornings,
And saith his mattens and his holie things
As he goeth in his limitatiowne,
Women may go safelie up and downe,
In everie bush, and under everie tree,
There nis none otherIncubus[† Text J.] but hee, &c.//

71

The fift Booke. 89. 69.

The first Chapter.

Of transformations, ridiculous examples brought by the adversaries for the confirmation of their foolish doctrine.

NOW that I may with the verie absurdities, conteined in their owne authors, and even in their principall doctors and last writers, confound them that mainteine the transubstantiations of witches; I will shew you certeine proper stuffe, which BodinJ. Bod. lib. 2. de dæmon. cap, 6. (their cheefe champion of this age) hath gathered out of M. Mal. and others, whereby he laboureth to establish this impossible, incredible, and supernaturall, or rather unnaturall doctrine of transubstantiation.

First, as touching the divell (Bodin saith)J. Bodin abuseth scripture to proove a lie. that he dooth most properlie and commonlie transforme himselfe into a gote, confirming that opinion by the 33. and 34. of Esaie: where there is no one title*[* = tittle.] sounding to anie such purpose. Howbeit, he sometimes alloweth the divell the shape of a blacke Moore, and as he saith he used to appeare to Mawd Cruse, Kate Darey, and Jone Harviller. But I mervell, whether the divell createth himselfe, when he appeareth in the likenesse of a man; or whether God createth him, when the divell wisheth it. As for witches, he saith they speciallie transubstantiate themselves into wolves, and them whom they bewitch into asses: though else-where he differ somewhat herein/90. from himselfe. But though he affirme,Pudendis tunc primùm erumpentibus. that it may be naturallie brought to passe, that a girle shall become a boie; and that anie female maybe turned into the male: yet he saith the same hath no affinitie with Lycanthropia; wherein he saith also, that men are wholie transformed, and citeth infinite examples hereof.

First, that one Garner in the shape of a woolfe killed a girle of the age of twelve yeares, and did eat up hir armes and legges, and carried the rest home to his wife. Item, that Peter Burget, and Michael Werdon, having turned themselves with an ointment into woolves, killed, and finallie did eate up an infinite number of people. Which lie WierusJo. Wier. lib. 6. de mag ca. 12. dooth sufficientlie confute. But untill you see and read that, consider whether Peter could eate rawe flesh without surfetting, speciallie flesh of his owne kind. Item, that there was an arrowe shot into a woolves thigh, who afterwards being turned into his 72former shape of a man, was found in his bed, with the arrowe in his thigh, which the archer that shot it knew verie well. Item, that another being Lycanthropus in the forme of a woolfe, had his woolves feet cut off, and in a moment he became a man without hands or feete.

He accusethJ. Bodinus mendaciorum *heluo.[* Text helüo.] also one of the mightiest princes in christendome, even of late daies, to be one of those kind of witches (so as he could, when he list, turne himselfe to a woolfe) affirming that he was espied and oftentimes seene to performe that villanie; bicause he would be counted the king of all witches. He saith that this transubstantiation is most common in Greece,/70. and through out all Asia, as merchant strangers have reported to him. For Anno Domini. 1542, when Sultan Solimon reigned, there was such force and multitude of these kind of woolves in Constantinople, that the emperour drave togither in one flocke 150. of them, which departed out of the citie in the presence of all the people.

To persuade usA warme season to swim in. the more throughlie heerein, he saith, that in Livonia, yearelie (about the end of December) a certeine knave or divell warneth all the witches in the countrie to come to a certeine place: if they faile, the divellI mervell that they forsake not the divell, who punisheth them so sore: ywis they get not so much at his hands. commeth and whippeth them with an iron rod; so as the print of his lashes remaine upon their bodies for ever. The capteine witch leadeth the waie through a/91. great poole of water: manie millians of witches swim after. They are no sooner passed through that water, but they are all transformed into woolves, and flie upon and devoure both men, women, cattell, &c. After twelve daies they returne through the same water, and so receive humane shape againe.

Item, that there was one Bajanus a Jew, being the sonne of Simeon, which could, when he list, turne himselfe into a woolfe; and by that meanes could escape the force and danger of a whole armie of men. Which thing (saith Bodin) is woonderfull: but yet (saith he) it is much more marvelous, that men will not beleeve it. For manie poets affirme it; yea, and if you looke well into the matter (saith he) you shall find it easie to doo. Item, he saith, that as naturall woolves persecute beasts; so doo these magicall woolves devoure men, women, and children.Leviti. 16. [26, 22] And yet God saith to the people (I trowe) and not to the cattell of Israell;Deut. 32. [v. 24] If you observe not my commandements, I will send among you the beasts of the feeld, which shall devoure both you and your cattell. Item, I will send the teeth of beasts upon you. Where is Bodins distinction now become? He never saith, I will send witches in the likenes of wolves, &c: to devoure you or your cattell. Nevertheles, Bodin saith it is a cleare case: for the matter was disputed upon before pope Leo the seventh, and by him all these matters 73were judged possible: and at that time (saith he) were the transformations of Lucian and Apuleius made canonicall.

Furthermore he saith,Stasus a witch could not be apprehended, and why? that through this art they are so cunning that no man can apprehend them, but when they are a sleepe. Item, he nameth another witch, that (as M. Mal. saith) could not be caught, bicause he would transforme himselfe into a mouse, and runne into everie little hole, till at length he was killed comming out of the hole of a jamme J. Bodin. Mal. malef. in a windowe: which indeed is as possible, as a camell to go through a needels eie. Item, he saith, that diverse witches at Vernon turned themselves into cats, and both committed and received much hurt. But at ArgentineJohn. Bodin. Mal. malef. Barth. Spin. &c. there was a wonderfull matter done, by three witches of great wealth, who transforming themselves into three cats, assalted a faggot-maker: who having hurt them all with a faggot sticke, was like to have beene put to death.Mal. malef. part. 3. But he was miraculouslie delivered, and they worthilie punished; as the storie saith, from whence/92. Bodin had it.

AfterAn error about Lycanthropia. a great manie other such beastlie fables, he inveieth against such physicians, as saie that Lycanthropia is a disease, and not a transformation. Item, he mainteineth, as sacred and true, all Homers fables of Circes and/71. Ulyffes his companions: inveieng against Chrysostome, who rightlie interpreteth *Homers[* Sic.] meaning to be, that Ulyffes his people were by the harlot Circes made in their brutish maners to resemble swine.

But least some poets fables might be thought lies (whereby the witchmongers arguments should quaile) he mainteineth for true the most part of Ovids Metamorphôsis, and the greatest absurdities and impossibilities in all that booke: marie he thinketh some one tale therein may be fained. Finallie, he confirmeth all these toies by the storie of Nabuchadnez-zar. And bicause (saith he) Nabuchadnez-zar continued seven yeres in the shape of a beast, therefore may witches remaine so long in the forme of a beast; having in all the meane time, the shape, haire, voice, strength, agilitie, swiftnes, food and excrements of beasts, and yet reserve the minds and soules of women or men. Howbeit, S. AugustineAugust. lib. 8 de civit. Dei. cap. 18.
Idem. lib. de spiritu & anima, cap. 26.
(whether to confute or confirme that opinion judge you) saith; Non est credendum, humanum corpus dæmonum arte vel potestate in bestialia lineamenta converti posse: We may not beleeve that a mans bodie may be altered into the lineaments of a beast by the divels art or power. Item, Bodin saith, that the reason whie witches are most commonlie turned into woolves, is; bicause they usuallie eate children, as woolves eate cattell. Item, that the cause whie other are truelie turned into asses, is; for that such have beene desirous to understand the secrets of witches. Whie witches are turned into cats, he 74alledgeth no reason, and therefore (to helpe him foorth with that paraphrase)Ironia. I saie, that witches are curst queanes, and manie times scratch one another, or their neighbours by the faces; and therefore perchance are turned into cats. But I have put twentie of these witchmongers to silence with this one question; to wit, Whether a witch that can turne a woman into a cat, &c: can also turne a cat into a woman?/

The second Chapter.93.

Absurd reasons brought by Bodin, and such others, for confirmation of transformations.

THESE examples and reasons might put us in doubt, that everie asse, woolfe, or cat that we see, were a man, a woman, or a child. I marvell that no man useth this distinction in the definition of a man. But to what end should one dispute against these creations, and recreations; when Bodin washeth away all our arguments with one word, confessing that none can create any thing but God; acknowledging also the force of the canons, and imbracing the opinions of such divines, as write against him in this behalfe? Yea he dooth now (contrarie to himselfe elsewhere) affirme, that the divell cannot alter his forme. And lo, this is his distinction,J. Bod. lib. 2. de mag. dæmon. cap. 6. Non essentialis forma (id est ratio) sed figura solùm permutatur: The essentiall forme (to wit, reason) is not changed, but the shape or figure. And thereby he prooveth it easie enough to create men or beasts with life, so as they remaine without reason. Howbeit, I thinke it is an easier matter, to turne Bodins reason into the reason of an asse, than his bodie into the shape of a sheepe: which he saith is an easie matter;Gen. 19, 24. & 26. & 27. bicause Lots/72. wife was turned into a stone by the divell. Whereby he sheweth his grosse ignorance. As though God that commanded Lot upon paine of death not to looke backe, who also destroied the citie of Sodome at that instant, had not also turned hir into a salt stone. And as though all this while God had beene the divels drudge, to go about this businesse all the night before, and when a miracle should be wrought, the divell must be faine to doo it himselfe.

Item,J. Bod. lib. de dæmon. 2. cap. 20.
M. Mal. pa. 1. quæ. 9.
he affirmeth, that these kind of transfigurations are more common with them in the west parts of the world, than with us here in the east. Howbeit, this note is given withall; that that is ment of the second persons, and not of the first: to wit, of the bewitched, and not of the witches. For they can trans/forme94. themselves in everie part of the world, whether it be east, west, north, or south.John. Bodin. lib. de dæmon. 2. cap. 1. Marrie he saith, that spirits and divels vex men most in the north countries, as75 Norway, Finland, &c: and in the westerne ilands, as in the west India: but among the heathen speciallie, and wheresoever Christ is not preached. And that is true, though not in so foolish, grosse, and corporall a sense as Bodin taketh it. One notable instance of a witches cunning in this behalfe touched by Bodin in the chapter aforesaid, I thought good in this place to repeat: he taketh it out of M. Mal.Mal. malefic. par. 2. quæ. 2. cap. 4. which tale was delivered to Sprenger by a knight of the Rhods, being of the order of S. Jones at Jerusalem; and it followeth thus.

The third Chapter.

Of a man turned into an asse, and returned againe into a man by one of Bodins witches: S. Augustines opinion thereof.

IT happened in the city of Salamin, in the kingdome of Cyprus (wherein is a good haven) that a ship loaden with merchandize staied there for a short space. In the meane time many of the souldiers and mariners went to shoare, to provide fresh victuals.What the divel shuld the witch meane to make chois of the English man? Among which number, a certaine English man, being a sturdie yoong fellowe, went to a womans house, a little waie out of the citie, and not farre from the sea side, to see whether she had anie egs to sell. Who perceiving him to be a lustie yoong fellowe, a stranger, and farre from his countrie (so as upon the losse of him there would be the lesse misse or inquirie) she considered with hir selfe how to destroie him; and willed him to staie there awhile, whilest she went to fetch a few egs for him. But she tarried long, so as the yoong man called unto hir, desiring hir to make hast: for he told hir that the tide would be spent, and by that meanes his ship would be gone, and leave him behind. Howbeit, after some detracting of time, she brought him a few egs, willing him to returne to hir, if his ship were gone when he came. The young fel/lowe95. returned towards his ship: but before he went aboord, hee would needs eate an eg or twaine to satisfie his hunger, andA strange metamorphôsis, of bodie, but not of mind. within short space he became dumb and out of his wits (as he afterwards said.) When he would have entred into the ship, the mariners beat him backe with a cudgell, saieng; What a murren lacks the asse? Whi/ther73. the divell will this asse? The asse or yoong man (I cannot tell by which name I should terme him) being many times repelled, and understanding their words that called him asse, considering that he could speake never a word, and yet could understand everie bodie; he thought that he was bewitched by the woman, at whose house he was. And therefore, when by no meanes he could get into the boate, but was driven to tarrie and see hir departure; being also beaten from place76 to place, as an asse: he remembred the witches words, and the words of his owne fellowes that called him asse, and returned to the witches house, in whose service hee remained by the space of three yeares, dooing nothing with his hands all that while, but carried such burthens as she laied on his backe; having onelie this comfort, that although he were reputed an asse among strangers and beasts, yet that both this witch, and all other witches knew him to be a man.

After three yeares were passed over, in a morning betimes he went to towne before his dame; who upon some occasion (of like to make water) staied a little behind. In the meane time being neere to a church, he heard aNote the devotion of the asse. little saccaring bell ring to the elevation of a morrowe masse, and not daring to go into the church, least he should have beene beaten and driven out with cudgels, in great devotion he fell downe in the churchyard, upon the knees of his hinder legs, and did lift his forefeet over his head, as the preest doth hold the sacrament at the elevation. Which prodigious sight when certeine merchants of Genua espied, and with woonder beheld; anon commeth the witch with a cudgell in hir hand, beating foorth the asse. And bicause (as it hath beene said) such kinds of witchcrafts are verie usuall in those parts; the merchants aforesaid made such meanes, as both the asse and the witch were attached by the judge. And she being examined and set upon the racke, confessed the whole matter, and promised, that if she might have libertie to go home, she would restore him to his old/96. shape: and being dismissed, she did accordinglie. So as notwithstanding they apprehended hir againe, and burned hir: and the yoong man returned into his countrie with a joifull and merrie hart.

Upon the advantage of this storieAugust lib. 18. de civi. Dei. cap. 17 & 18. M. Mal. Bodin, and the residue of the witchmongers triumph; and speciallie bicause S. Augustine subscribeth thereunto; or at the least to the verie like. Which I must confesse I find too common in his books, insomuch as I judge them rather to be foisted in by some fond papist or witchmonger, than so learned a mans dooings. The best is, that he himselfe is no eiewitnesse to any of those his tales; but speaketh onelie by report; wherein he uttereth these words: to wit, that It were a point of great incivilitie, &c: to discredit so manie and so certeine reports. And in that respect he justifieth the corporall transfigurations of Ulysses his mates, throgh the witchcraft of Circes: and that foolish fable of Præstantius his father, who (he saith) did eate provender and haie At the alps in Arcadia.among other horsses, being himselfe turned into an horsse. Yea he verifieth the starkest lie that ever was invented, of the two alewives that used to transforme all their ghests into horsses, and to sell them awaie at markets and faires. And therefore I saie with Cardanus,77 that how much Augustin saith he hath seen with his eies, so much I am/74. content to beleeve. Howbeit S. AugustinCard. de Var. rerum. lib. 15 cap. 80.
August. Lib. 18. de civit. Dei.
concludeth against Bodin. For he affirmeth these transubstantiations to be but fantasticall, and that they are not according to the veritie, but according to the appearance. And yet I cannot allow of such appearances made by witches, or yet by divels: for I find no such power given by God to any creature. And I would wit of S. Augustine, where they became, whom Bodins transformed woolves devoured. But

—————————————ô quàm
Credula mens hominis, & erectæ fabulis aures!
*Good[* Rom.] Lord! how light of credit is Englished by Abraham Fleming.
the waveriug mind of man!
How unto tales and lies his eares
attentive all they can?/

Generall97. councels, and the popes canons, which Bodin so regardeth, doo condemne and pronounce his opinions in this behalfe to be absurd; and the residue of the witchmongers, with himselfe in the number, to be woorsse than infidels. And these are the verie words of the canons, Canon. 26. quæ. 5. episcopi ex con. acquir. &c. which else-where I have more largelie repeated; Whosoever beleeveth, that anie creature can be made or changed into better or woorsse, or transformed into anie other shape, or into anie other similitude, by anie other than by God himselfe the creator of all things, without all doubt is an infidell, and woorsse than a pagan. And therewithall this reason is rendered, to wit: bicause they attribute that to a creature, which onelie belongeth to God the creator of all things.

The fourth Chapter.

A summarie of the former fable, with a refutation thereof, after due examination of the same.

CONCERNING the veritie or probabilitie of this enterlude, betwixt Bodin, M. Mal. the witch, the asse, the masse, the merchants, the inquisitors, the tormentors, &c: First I woonder at the miracle of transubstantiation: Secondlie at the impudencie of Bodin and James Sprenger, for affirming so grosse a lie, devised beelike by the knight of the Rhodes, to make a foole of Sprenger, and an asse of Bodin: Thirdlie, that the asse had no more wit than to kneele downe and hold up his forefeete to a peece of starch or flowre, which neither would, nor could, nor did helpe him: Fourthlie, that the masse could not reforme that which the witch transformed: Fiftlie, that the merchants, the inquisitors, and the tormentors, could not either severallie or jointlie doo it, but referre the matter to the witches courtesie and good pleasure.

78

But where was the yoong mans owne shapeHis shape was in the woods: where else should it be? all these three yeares, wherein he was made an asse? It is a certeine and a generall rule, that two substantiall formes cannot be in one subject Simul & semel, both at once: which is confessed by themselves. The/98. forme of the beast occupied some/75. place in the aire, and so I thinke should the forme of a man doo also.Mal. malef. par. 1. quæ. 2. For to bring the bodie of a man, without feeling, into such a thin airie nature, as that it can neither be seene nor felt, it may well be unlikelie, but it is verie impossible: for the aire is inconstant, and continueth not in one place. So as this airie creature would soone be carried into another region: as else-where I have largelie prooved.In my discourse of spirits and divels, being the 17 booke of this volume. But indeed our bodies are visible, sensitive, and passive, and are indued with manie other excellent properties, which all the divels in hell are not able to alter: neither can one haire of our head perish, or fall awaie, or be transformed, without the speciall providence of God almightie.

But to proceed unto the probabilitie of this storie. What lucke was it, that this yoong fellow of England, landing so latelie in those parts, and that old woman of Cyprus, being both of so base a condition, should both understand one anothers communication; England and Cyprus being so manie hundred miles distant, and their languages so farre differing? I am sure in these daies, wherein trafficke is more used, and learning in more price; few yong or old mariners in this realme can either speake or understand the language spoken at Salamin in Cyprus, which is a kind of Greeke; and as few old women there can speake our language. But Bodin will saie; You heare, that at the inquisitors commandement, and through the tormentors correction, she promised to restore him to his owne shape: and so she did, as being thereunto compelled. I answer, that as the whole storie is an impious fable; so this assertion is false, and disagreeable to their owne doctrine, which mainteineth, that the witch dooth nothing but by the permission and leave of God. For if she could doo or undoo such a thing at hir owne pleasure, or at the commandement of the inquisitors, or for feare of the tormentors, or for love of the partie, or for remorse of conscience: then is it not either by the extraordinarie leave, nor yet by the like direction of God; except you will make him a confederate with old witches. I for my part woonder most, how they can turne and tosse a mans bodie so, and make it smaller and greater, to wit, like a mowse, or like an asse, &c: and the man all this while to feele no paine. And I am not alone in this maze: for Dan. in dialog. cap. 3.Danæus a special mainteiner of their fol/lies99. saith, that although Augustine and ApuleiusAugust. lib. de civit. Dei. cap. 17. 18. doo write verie crediblie of these matters; yet will he never beleeve, that witches can change men into other formes; as asses, apes, woolves, beares, mice, &c.

79

The fift Chapter.

That the bodie of a man cannot be turned into the bodie of a beast by a witch, is prooved by strong reasons, scriptures, and authorities.

BUT was this man an asse all this while? Or was this asse a man? Bodin saith (his reason onelie reserved) he was trulie transubstantiated into an asse; so as there must be no part of a man, but reason remaining in this asse. And yet Hermes Trismegistus Hermes Trismeg in suo Periandro. thinketh he hath good authoritie and reason to saie; Aliud corpus quàm humanum non capere animam humanam; nec/ fas76. esse in corpus animæ ratione carentis animam rationalem corruere; that is; An humane soule cannot receive anie other than an humane bodie, nor yet canne light into a bodie that wanteth reason of mind. But S. JamesJam. 2, 26. saith; the bodie without the spirit is dead. And surelie, when the soule is departed from the bodie, the life of man is dissolved: and therefore PaulePhili. 1, 23. wished to be dissolved, when he would have beene with Christ. The bodie of man is subject to divers kinds of agues, sicknesses, and infirmities, whereunto an asses bodie is not inclined: and mans bodie must be fed with bread, &c: and not with hay. Bodins asseheaded man must either eate haie, or nothing: as appeareth in the storie. Mans bodie also is subject unto death, and hath his daies numbred. If this fellowe had died in the meane time, as his houre might have beene come, for anie thing the divels, the witch, or Bodin knew; I mervell then what would have become of this asse, or how the witch could have restored him to shape, or whether he should have risen at the daie of judgement in an asses bodie and shape. For Paule1. Cor. 15. 44. saith, that that verie bodie which is sowne and buried a naturall bodie, is raised/100. a spirituall bodie. The life of Jesus is made manifest in our mortall flesh, and not in the flesh of an asse.

God hath endued everie man and everie thing with his proper nature, substance, forme, qualities, and gifts, and directeth their waies. As for the waies of an asse, he taketh no such care: howbeit, they have also their properties and substance severall to themselves. For there is one flesh (saith Paule)1. Cor. 15, 39. of men, another flesh of beasts, another of fishes, another of birds. And therefore it is absolutelie against the ordinance of God (who hath made me a man) that I should flie like a bird, or swim like a fish, or creepe like a worme, or become an asse in shape: insomuch as if God would give me leave, I cannot doo it; for it were contrarie to his owne order and decree, and to the constitution of anie bodie which he hath made.Psal. 119. Yea the spirits themselves 80have their lawes and limits prescribed, beyond the which they cannot passe one haires breadth; otherwise God should be contrarie to himselfe: which is farre from him. Neither is Gods omnipotencie hereby qualified, but the divels impotencie manifested, who hath none other power, but that which God from the beginning hath appointed unto him, consonant to his nature and substance. He may well be restreined from his power and will, but beyond the same he cannot passe, as being Gods minister, no further but in that which he hath from the beginning enabled him to doo: which is, that he being a spirit, may with Gods leave and ordinance viciat and corrupt the spirit and will of man: wherein he is verie diligent.

What a beastlie assertion is it, that a man, whom GOD hath made according to his owne similitude and likenes, should be by a witch turned into a beast? What an impietie is it to affirme, that an asses bodie is the temple of the Holy-ghost? Or an asse to be the child of God, and God to be his father; as it is said of man? Which Paule to the Corinthians1. Cor. 6, 19 verse. 15, &c. verse. 2. verse. 13. so divinelie confuteth, who saith, that Our bodies are the members of Christ. In the which we are to glorifie God: for the bodie is for the Lord, and the Lord is for the bodie. Surelie he meaneth not for an asses bodie, as by this time I hope appeareth: in such wise as Bodin may go hide him for/77. shame; especiallie when he shall understand, that even into these our bodies, which God hath framed after his owne like/nesse,101. he hath also brethed that spirit, which Bodin saith is now remaining within an asses bodie, which God hath so subjected in such servilitie under the foote of man;Psalm. 8. verses 5, 6, 7, 8. Of whom God is so mindfull, that he hath made him little lower than angels, yea than himselfe, and crowned him with glorie and worship, and made him to have dominion over the workes of his hands, as having put all things under his feete, all sheepe and oxen, yea woolves, asses, and all other beasts of the field, the foules of the aire, the fishes of the sea, &c. Bodins poet, Ovid, whose Metamorphôsis make so much for him, saith to the overthrow of this phantasticall imagination:

Os homini sublime dedit, cœlúmque videre
Jussit, & erectos ad sydera tollere vultus.
The effect of which verses is this;
*The[* Rom.] Lord did set mans face so hie,
That he the heavens might behold,
And looke up to the starrie skie,
To see his woonders manifold.

Now, if a witch or a divell can so alter the shape of a man, as contrarilie to make him looke downe to hell, like a beast; Gods works should not onelie be defaced and disgraced, but his ordinance should be woonderfullie altered, and thereby confounded.

81

The sixt Chapter.

The witchmongers objections, concerning Nabuchadnez-zar answered, and their errour concerning Lycanthropia confuted.

MALLEUS MALEFICARUM, Bodin, and manie otherTheir groundworke is as sure as to hold a quick eele by the taile. of them that mainteine witchcraft, triumph upon the storie of Nabuchadnez-zar; as though Circes had transformed him with hir sorceries into an oxe, as she did others into swine, &c. I answer, that he was neither in bodie nor shape transformed at all, accor/ding102. to their grosse imagination; as appeareth both by the plaine words of the text,Dan. 4. and also by the opinions of the best interpretors thereof: but that he was, for his beastlie government and conditions, throwne out of his kingdome and banished for a time, and driven to hide himselfe in the wildernesse, there in exile to lead his life in beastlie sort, among beasts of the field, and fowles of the aire (for by the waie I tell you it appeareth by the text, that he was rather turned into the shape of a fowle than of a beast) untill he rejecting his beastlie conditions, was upon his repentance and amendment called home, and restored unto his kingdome. Howbeit, this (by their confession) was neither divels nor witches dooing; but a miracle wrought by God, whom alone I acknowledge to be able to bring to passe such workes at his pleasure. Wherein I would know what our witchmongers have gained./78.

I am not ignorant that some write, that after the death of Cor. Agrip. de vanit. scient. cap. 44. Nabuchadnez-zar, his sonne *Eilumorodath[* tr. of Euil] gave his bodie to the ravens to be devoured, least afterwards his father should arise from death, who of a beast became a man againe. But this tale is meeter to have place in the Cabalisticall art, to wit: among unwritten verities than here. To conclude, I saie that the transformations, which these witchmongers doo so rave and rage upon, is (as all the learned sort of physicians affirme) a disease proceeding partlie from melancholie, wherebie manie suppose themselves to be woolves, or such ravening beasts. For LycanthropiaPaul. Aeginet. li. 3. c. 16.
Aetius. lib. 6. cap. 11.
J. Wier. de præst. dæm. lib. 4. cap. 23.
is of the ancient physicians called Lupina melancholia, or Lupina insania. J. Wierus declareth verie learnedlie, the cause, the circumstance, and the cure of this disease. I have written the more herein; bicause hereby great princes and potentates, as well as poore women and innocents, have beene defamed and accounted among the number of witches./

82

The seventh Chapter.103.

A speciall objection answered concerning transportations, with the consent of diverse writers thereupon.

FOR the maintenance of witches transportations, they object the words of the Gospell,Matth. 4, 8.
Luk. 3, 9.
where the divell is said to take up Christ, and to set him on a pinnacle of the temple, and on a mountaine, &c. Which if he had doone in maner and forme as they suppose, it followeth not therefore that witches could doo the like; nor yet that the divell would doo it for them at their pleasure; for they know not their thoughts, neither can otherwise communicate with them. But I answer, Answer to the former objection. that if it were so grosselie to be understood, as they imagine it, yet should it make nothing to their purpose. For I hope they will not saie, that Christ had made anie ointments, or entred into anie league with the divell, and by vertue thereof was transported from out of the wildernes, unto the top of the temple of Jerusalem; or that the divell could have maisteries over his bodie, whose soule he could never laie hold upon; especiallie when he might (with a becke of his finger) have called unto him, and have had the assistance of manie legions of angels.Matt. 26, 53. Neither (as I thinke) will they presume to make Christ partaker of the divels purpose and sinne in that behalfe. If they saie; This was an action wrought by the speciall providence of God, and by his appointment, that the scripture might be fulfilled: then what gaine our witchmongers by this place? First, for that they maie not produce a particular example to prove so generall an argument. And againe, if it were by Gods speciall providence and appointment; then why should it not be doone by the hand of God, as it was in the storie of Job? Or if it were Gods speciall purpose and pleasure,Job. 1, 11.
Job. 2, 5.
that there should be so extraordinarie a matter brought to passe by the hand of the divell; could not God have given to the wicked angell extraordinarie power, and cloathed him with extraordinarie shape; where/by104. he might be made an instrument able to accomplish that matter, as he did to his angell that carried Abacuck to Daniell, and to them that he sent to destroie Sodome? But you shall understand, that/79. this was doone in a vision, and not in veritie of action. So as they have a verie cold pull of this place, which is the speciall peece of scripture alledged of them for their transportations.

Heare therefore what CalvineJ. Calvine in harmon. Evang. in Matth. 4. & Luk. 4. saith in his commentarie upon that place, in these words; The question is, whether Christ were carried aloft indeed, or whether it were but in a vision? Manie affirme verie 83 obstinatlie, that his bodie was trulie and reallie as they saie taken up: bicause they thinke it too great an indignitie for Christ to be made subject to sathans illusions. But this objection is easilie washed awaie. For it is no absurditie to grant all this to be wrought through Gods permission, or Christes voluntarie subjection: so long as we yeeld not to thinke that he suffered these temptations inwardlie, that is to saie, in mind or soule. And that which is afterwards set downe by the Evangelist, where the divell shewed him all the kingdoms of the world, and the glorie of the same, and that to be doone (as it is said in Luke) in the twinkling of an eie, dooth more agree with a vision than with a reall action. So farre are the verie words of Calvine. Which differ not one syllable nor five words from that which I had written herein, before I looked for his opinion in the matter. And this I hope will be sufficient to overthrow the assertions of them that laie the ground of their transportations and flieng in the aire hereupon.

He that will saie, that these words; to wit, that Christ was taken up, &c: can hardlie be applied to a vision, let him turne to the prophesie of Ezechiell,Ezec. 3, 12. and 14. and see the selfe-same words used in a vision: saving that where Christ is said to be taken up by the divell, Ezechiell is taken up, and lifted up, and carried by the spirit of God, and yet in a vision. But they have lesse reason that build upon this sandie rocke, the supernaturall frame of transubstantiation; as almost all our witching writers doo. For Sprenger & InstitorMal. malef. saie, that the divell in the likenesse of a falcon caught him up. Danæus saith, it was in the similitude of a man; others saie, of an angell painted with wings; others, invisiblie: Ergo the di/vell105. can take (saie they) what shape he list. But though some may cavill upon the divels transforming of himselfe; yet, that either divell or witch can transforme or transubstantiat others, there is no tittle nor colour in the scriptures to helpe them. If there were authoritie for it, and that it were past all peradventure, lo, what an easie matter it is to resubstantiate an asse into a man. For Bodin saith upon the word of Apuleius, J. Bod. lib. de dæm. 3. cap. 5. that if the asse eate new roses, anise, or baie leaves out of spring water, it will presentlie returne him into a man. Which thing SprengerIn Mal. mal. saith maie be doone, by washing the asse in faire water: yea he sheweth an instance, where, by drinking of water an asse was turned into a man.

84

The eight Chapter.

The witchmongers objection concerning the historie of Job answered.

THESE witchmongers, for lacke of better arguments, doo manie times object Job against me; although there be never a word in that storie, which either maketh for them, or against me: in so much as there is not/80. the name of a witch mentioned in the whole booke. But (I praie you) what witchmonger now seeing one so afflicted as Job, would not saie he were bewitched, as Job never saith? aFora Job. 1, 14. first there came a messenger unto him, and said; Thy oxen were plowing, and thy asses were feeding in their places, bandb verse, 15. the Sabeans came violentlie and tooke them; yea they have slaine thy servants with the edge of the sword; but I onelie am escaped to tell thee. cAndc verse, 16. whilest he was yet speaking, another came, and said; The fier of God is fallen from the heaven, & hath burnt up thy sheepe and thy servants, and devoured them; but I onlie am escaped to tell thee. dAndd verse, 17. while he was yet speaking, another came, and said; The Chaldæans106. set out their bands, and fell upon thy camels, and have taken them, and have slaine thy servants with the edge of the sword; but I onelie am/ escaped alone to tell thee. eAnde verse, 18. whilest he was yet speaking, came another, and said; Thy sonnes and thy daughters were eating and drinking wine in their elder brothers house, fandf verse, 19. behold there came a great wind from beyond the wildernesse, and smote the foure corners of the house, which fell upon thy children, and they are dead; and I onlie am escaped alone to tell thee. gBesidesg Ibid. ca. 2. vers. 7. all this, he was smitten with biles, from the sole of his foote to the crowne of his head. If anie man in these daies called Job should be by the appointment or hand of God thus handled, as this Job was; I warrant you that all the old women in the countrie would be called Coram nobis: warrants would be sent out on everie side, publike and private inquirie made what old women latelie resorted to Jobs house, or to anie of those places, where these misfortunes fell. If anie poore old woman had chanced within two or three moneths to have borrowed a curtsie of *seasing,[* ? searsing] or to have fetcht from thence a pot of milke, or had she required some almes, and not obteined it at Jobs hand; there had beene argument enough to have brought hir to confusion: and to be more certeine to have the right witch apprehended, figures must have beene cast, the sive and sheares must have beene set on worke; yea rather than the witch should escape, a conjuror must have earned a little monie, a circle must have beene made, and a divell raised to 85 tell the truth: mother Bungie must have been gon unto, and after she had learned hir name, whom Job most suspected, she would have confirmed the suspicion with artificiall accusations: in the end, some woman or other must have beene hanged for it. But as Job said; Dominus dedit: so said he not; Diabolus vel Lamia sed Dominus abstulit. Which agreeth with the tenor of the text, where it is written, that the divell at everie of Jobs afflictions desired God to laie his hand upon him. Insomuch as JobJ. Calvin. in Job. cap. 1. 21. imputed no part of his calamitie unto divels, witches, nor yet unto conjurors, or their inchantments; as we have learned now to doo. Neither sinned he, or did God any wrong, when he laid it to his charge: but we dishonour God greatlie, when we attribute either the power or proprietie of God the creator unto a creature.

*CalvineJ. Calvin. in
Job, cap. 2.
Sermon. 8.
Muscul. in loc. comm.
Idem, ibidem.
saith; We derogate much from Gods glorie and omnipotencie, when we saie he dooth but give sathan leave to doo it: which is (saith he) to mocke Gods justice; and so fond an asser/tion,107. that if asses could speake, they would speake more wiselie than so. For a temporall judge saith not to/81. the hangman; I give thee leave to hang this offender, but commandeth him to doo it. But the mainteiners of witches omnipotencie, saie; Doo you not see how reallie and palpablie the divell tempted and plagued Job? I answer first, that there is no corporall or visible divell named nor seene in any part of that circumstance; secondlie, that it was the hand of God that did it; thirdlie, that as there is no communitie betweene the person of a witch, and the person of a divell, so was there not any conference or practise betwixt them in this case.

And as touching the communication betwixt God and the divell,J. Calvine in his sermon upon Job. behold what Calvine saith, writing or rather preaching of purpose upon that place, wherupon they thinke they have so great advantage; When sathan is said to appeere before God, it is not doone in some place certeine, but the scripture speaketh so to applie it selfe to our rudenes. Certeinlie the divell in this and such like cases is an instrument to worke Gods will, and not his owne: and therefore it is an ignorant and an ungodlie saieng (as Calvine judgeth it) to affirme, that God dooth but permit and suffer the divell. For if sathan were so at his owne libertie (saith he) we should be overwhelmed at a sudden. And doubtlesse, if he had power to hurt the bodie, there were no waie to resist: for he would come invisiblie upon us, and knocke us on the heads; yea hee would watch the best and dispatch them, whilest they were about some wicked act. If they saie; God commandeth him, no bodie impugneth them: but that God should give him leave, I saie with Calvine, that the divell is not in such favour with God, as to obteine any such request at his hands.

86

And wheras by our witchmongers opinions and arguments, the witch procureth the divell, and the divell asketh leave of God to plague whom the witch is disposed: there is not (as I have said) any such corporall communication betweene the divell and a witch, as witchmongers imagine. J. Calvine in Job. cap. 1. sermon. 5. Neither is God mooved at all at sathans sute, who hath no such favour or grace with him, as to obteine any thing at his hands.

But M. Mal.Mal. malef. pa. 1. quæst. 1.
Idem part. 1. quæst. 4.
and his friends denie, that there were any witches in Jobs time: yea the witchmongers are content to saie, that/108. there were none found to exercise this art in Christs time, from his birth to his death, even by the space of thirtie three yeares. If there had beene anie (saie they)Note what is said touching the booke of Job. they should have beene there spoken of. As touching the authoritie of the booke of Job, there is no question but that it is verie canonicall and authentike. Howbeit, manie writers, both of the Jewes and others, are of opinion, that Moses was the author of this booke; and that he did set it as a looking glasse before the people: to the intent the children of Abraham (of whose race he himselfe came) might knowe, that God shewed favour to others that were not of the same line, and be ashamed of their wickednesse: seeing an uncircumcised Painime had so well demeaned himselfe. Upon which argument Calvine (though he had written upon the same) saith, that Forsomuch as it is uncerteine, whether it were Res gesta or Exempli gratia, we must leave it in suspense. Nevertheles (saith he) let us take that which is out of all doubt; namelie, that the Holy-ghost hath indited the booke, to the end that the Jewes should knowe that God hath had a people alwaies to serve him throughout the world, even of such as were no/82. Jewes, nor segregated from other nations.

Howbeit, I for my part denie not the veritie of the storie; though indeed I must confesse, that I thinke there was no such corporall enterlude betweene God, the divell, and Job, as they imagine: neither anie such reall presence and communication as the witchmongers conceive and mainteine; who are so grosse herein, that they doo not onlie beleeve, but publish so palpable absurdities concerning such reall actions betwixt the divell and man, as a wise man would be ashamed to read, but much more to credit: as that S. DunstanIn legenda aurea. lead the divell about the house by the nose with a paire of pinsors or tongs, and made him rore so lowd, as the place roong thereof, &c: with a thousand the like fables, without which neither the art of poperie nor of witchcraft could stand. But you may see more of this matter else-where, where in few words (which I thought good here to omit, least I should seeme to use too manie repetitions) I answer effectuallie to their cavils about this place./

87

The ninth Chapter.109.

What severall sorts of witches are mentioned in the scriptures, and how the word witch is there applied.

BUT what sorts of witches so ever M. Mal. or Bodin saie there are; Moses spake onlie of foure kinds of impious couseners or witches (whereof our witchmongers old women which danse with the fairies, &c; are none.) The first were Præstigiatores Pharaonis,1. Præstigiatores Pharaonis. which (as all divines, both Hebrues and others conclude) were but couseners and jugglers, deceiving the kings eies with illusions and sleights; and making false things to appeare as true: which nevertheles our witches cannot doo. The second is Mecasapha,2. Mecasapha. which is she that destroieth with poison. The third are such as use sundrie kinds of divinations, and hereunto perteine these words, Kasam, Onen, Ob, Idoni.3. Kasam. Onen. Ob. Idoni. The fourth is Habar,4. Habar. to wit: when magicians, or rather such, as would be reputed cunning therein, mumble certeine secret words, wherin is thought to be great efficacie.

These are all couseners and abusers of the people in their severall kinds. But bicause they are all termed of our translators by the name of witches in the Bible: therefore the lies of M. Mal. and Bodin, and all our old wives tales are applied unto these names, and easilie beleeved of the common people, who have never hitherto beene instructed in the understanding of these words. In which respect, I will (by Gods grace) shew you (concerning the signification of them) the opinion of the most learned in our age; speciallie of Johannes Wierus; who though hee himselfe were singularlie learned in the toongs, yet for his satisfaction and full resolution in the same, he sent for the judgement of Andræas Massius,[or Masius] the most famous Hebrician in the world, and had it in such sense and order, as I meane to set downe unto you. And yet I give you this noteNote. by the waie, that witchcraft or inchantment is diverslie taken in the scriptures; somtimes nothing tending to such end as it is commonlie thought to doo. For in 1 Sa/muell,110. 1. Sa. 15, 23. 15, 23. it is all one with rebellion. Jesabell for hir idolatrous life/83. is called a witch. Also in the new testament, even S. Paule saith the Galathians2. Re. 9, 22.
Gal. 3, 1.
are bewitched, bicause they were seduced and lead from the true understanding of the scriptures.

ItemMatth. 2, 1. sometimes it is taken in good part; as the magicians that came to worship and offer to Christ: and also where DaniellDaniel. 4. is said to be an inchanter, yea a principall inchanter: which title being given him in divers places of that storie, he never seemeth to refuse or dislike;88 but rather intreateth for the pardon and qualification of the rigor towards other inchanters, which were meere couseners indeed: as appeareth in the second chapter of Daniell,Dan. 2, 8. where you may see that the king espied their fetches.

Sometimes such are called conjurors,Actes. 19. as being but roges, and lewd people, would use the name of Jesus to worke miracles, whereby, though they being faithlesse could worke nothing; yet is their practise condemned by the name of conjuration.Gen. 4, 18.
Exod. 7, 13, &c.
Acts 13.
Exod. 22, &c.
Acts. 13.
Acts. 19.
Canticles of Salomon. cap. 4. verse. 9.
Sometimes jugglers are called witches. Sometimes also they are called sorcerers, that impugne the gospell of Christ, and seduce others with violent persuasions. Sometimes a murtherer with poison is called a witch. Sometimes they are so termed by the verie signification of their names; as Elimas, which signifieth a sorcerer. Sometimes bicause they studie curious and vaine arts. Sometimes it is taken for woonding or greeving of the hart. Yea the verie word Magus, which is Latine for a magician, is translated a witch; and yet it was hertofore alwaies taken in the good part. And at this daie it is indifferent to saie in the English toong; She is a witch; or, She is a wise woman.

Sometimes observers of dreames, sometimes soothsaiers, sometimes the observers of the flieng of foules,Deut. 18, 2.
Jerem. 27.
Acts. 8.
of the meeting of todes, the falling of salt, &c: are called witches. Sometimes he or she is called a witch, that take upon them either for gaine or glorie, to doo miracles; and yet can doo nothing. Sometimes they are called witches in common speech, that are old, lame, curst, or melancholike, as a nickname. But as for our old women, that are said to hurt children with their eies, or lambs with their lookes, or that pull downe the moone out of heaven, or make so foolish a bargaine, or doo such homage to the divell; you shall not read in the bible of any such witches, or of any such actions imputed to them.//


89

The sixt Booke. 111. 84.

The first Chapter.

The exposition of this Hebrue word Chasaph, wherein is answered the objection conteined in Exodus 22. to wit: Thou shalt not suffer a witch to live, and of Simon Magus. Acts. 8.

CHASAPH, being an Hebrue word, is Latined Veneficium, and is in English, poisoning, or witchcraft; if you will so have it. The Hebrue sentence written in Exodus, 22. is by the 70. interpretors translated thus into Greeke, Φαρμακοῦς οὐκ ἐπιζεώσετε, which in Latine is, Veneficos (sive) veneficas non retinebitis in vita, in English, You shall not suffer anie poisoners, or (as it is translated) witches to live. The which sentence JosephusJoseph. in Judæorum antiquitat. an Hebrue borne, and a man of great estimation, learning and fame, interpreteth in this wise; Let none of the children of Israel have any poison that is deadlie, or prepared to anie hurtfull use. If anie be apprehended with such stuffe, let him be put to death, and suffer that which he ment to doo to them, for whom he prepared it. The Rabbins exposition agree heerewithall. Lex Cornelia differeth not from this sense, to wit, that he must suffer death, which either maketh, selleth, or hath anie poison, to the intent to kill anie man. This word is found in these places following: Exodus. 22, 18. Deut. 18, 10. 2. Sam. 9, 22. Dan. 2, 2. 2. Chr. 33, 6. Esay. 47, 9, 12. Malach, 3, 5. Jerem. 27, 9. Mich. 5, 2. Nah. 3, 4. bis. Howbeit, in all our English/112. translations, Chasaph is translated, witchcraft.

And bicause I will avoid prolixitie and contention both at once, I will admit that Veneficæ were such witches, as with their poisons did much hurt among the children of Israell; and I will not denie that there remaine such untill this daie, bewitching men, and making them beleeve, that by vertue of words, and certeine ceremonies, they bring to passe such mischeefes, and intoxications, as they indeed accomplish by poisons. And this abuse in cousenage of people, together with the taking of Gods name in vaine, in manie places of the scripture is reprooved, especiallie by the name of witchcraft, even where no poisons are. According to the sense which S. Paule useth to the GalathiansGal. 3, 1. in these words, where he sheweth plainelie, that the true signification of witchcraft is cousenage; O ye foolish Galathians 90 (saith he) who hath bewitched you? to wit, cousened or abused you, making you beleeve a thing which is neither so nor so. Whereby he meaneth not to aske of them, who have with charmes, &c: or with poisons deprived them of their health, life, cattell, or children, &c: but who hath abused or cousened them, to make them beleeve lies. This phrase is also used by Job.Job. 15, 12. 15. But that we may be throughlie resolved of the true meaning of this phrase used by Paule, Gal. 3. let us examine the description of a notable witch called Simon Magus, made by S. Luke;Acts. 8, 9. There was (saith he) in the citie of Samaria, a certeine man called Simon,/85. which used witchcraft, and bewitched the people of Samaria, saieng that he himself was some great man. I demand, in what other thing here do we see anie witchcraft, than that he abused the people, making them beleeve he could worke miracles, whereas in truth he could doo no such thing; as manifestlie may appeare in the 13. and 19. verses of the same chapter: where he wondered at the miracles wrought by the apostles, and would have purchased with monie the power of the Holy-ghost to worke wonders.

It will be said,Acts. 8, 11. the people had reason to beleeve him, bicause it is written, that he of long time had bewitched them with sorceries. But let the bewitched Galathians be a warning both to the bewitched Samaritans, and to all other that are cousened or bewitched through false doctrine, or legierdemaine; least while they attend to such fables and lies, they be brought into ignorance,/113. and so in time be led with them awaie from God. And finallie, let us all abandon such witches and couseners, as with Simon Magus set themselves in the place of God, boasting that they can doo miracles, expound dreames, foretell things to come, raise the dead, &c: which are the workes of the Holy-ghost,1. Reg. 8, 39.
Matth. 9. 4. 12. 25. 22.
Acts. 1, 24. & 15, 8.
Rom. 8, 27.
Mark. 2.
Luk. 6, 17. & 11. & 9.
Joh. 1 & 2. & 6. & 13.
Apoc. 2. & 3.
Luk. 11, 29.
who onlie searcheth the heart and reines, and onelie worketh great wonders, which are now staied and accomplished in Christ, in whome who so stedfastlie beleeveth shall not need to be by such meanes resolved or confirmed in his doctrine and gospell. And as for the unfaithfull, they shall have none other miracle shewed unto them, but the signe of Jonas the prophet.

And therefore I saie, whatsoever they be that with Simon Magus take upon them to worke such wonders, by soothsaieng, sorcerie, or witchcraft, are but liers,Eccl. 34, 5. deceivers, and couseners, according to Syrachs saieng; Sorcerie, witchcraft, soothsaieng, and dreames, are but vanitie,Eccl. 34, 8. and the lawe shalbe fulfilled without such lies. God commanded the people, that they should not regard them that wrought with spirits,Levi. 19, 31. nor soothsaiers: for the estimation that was attributed unto them, offended God.

91

The second Chapter.

The place of Deuteronomie expounded, wherin are recited all kind of witches; also their opinions confuted, which hold that they can worke such miracles as are imputed unto them.

THE greatest and most common objection is, that if there were not some, which could worke such miraculous or supernaturall feats,Deut. 18. 10. 11. by themselves, or by their divels, it should not have beene said; Let none be found among you, that maketh his sonne or his daughter to go through the fier, or that useth witchcraft, or is a regarder of times, or a marker of the flieng of fowles, or a sorcerer, or a charmer, or that counselleth with spirits, or a soothsaier, or that asketh counsell of the dead, or (as some translate it)/114. that raiseth the dead. But as there is no one place in the scripture that saith they can worke miracles, so it shalbe easie to proove, that these were all couseners, everie one abusing the people in his/ severall86. kind; and are accurssed of God. Not that they can doo all such things indeed, as there is expressed; but for that they take upon them to be the mightie power of God, and to doo that which is the onelie worke of him, seducing the people, and blaspheming the name of God,Esay. 42, 8.
Ps. 24. 8. 10.
who will not give his glorie to anie creature, being himselfe the king of glorie and omnipotencie.

First I aske, what miracle was wrought by their passing through the fier? Trulie it cannot be prooved that anie effect followed; but that the people were bewitched, to suppose their sinnes to be purged thereby; as the Spaniards thinke of scourging and whipping themselves. So as Gods power was imputed to that action, and so forbidden as an idolatrous sorcerie. What woonders worketh the regarder of times? What other divell dealeth he withall, than with the spirit of superstition? Doth he not deceive himselfe and others, and therefore is worthilie condemned for a witch? What spirit useth he, which marketh the flieng of fowles? Nevertheles, he is here condemned as a practiser of witchcraft; bicause he couseneth the people, and taketh upon him to be a prophet; impiouslie referring Gods certeine ordinances to the flittering fethers and uncerteine waies of a bird. The like effects produceth sorcerie, charming, consultation with spirits, soothsaieng, and consulting with the dead: in everie of the which Gods power is obscured, his glorie defaced, and his commandement infringed.

And to proove that these soothsaiers and witches are but lieng mates and couseners; note these words pronounced by God himselfe, 92 even in the selfe same place to the children of Israell:Deut. 18, 14 Although the Gentiles suffered themselves to be abused, so as they gave eare to these sorcerers, &c: he would not suffer them so, but would raise them a prophet, who should speake the truth. As if he should saie; The other are but lieng and cousening mates, deceitfull and undermining merchants, whose abuses I will make knowne to my people. And that everie one maie be resolved herein, let the last sentence of this precept be well weighed; to wit, Let none be found among you, that asketh counsell of (or rai/seth115. the dead.)

First you know the soulesSap. 3, 1.
Luk. 16, 23.
of the righteous are in the hands of God, and resting with Lazarus in Abrahams bosome, doo sleepe in Jesus Christ. And from that sleepe, man shall not be raised, till the heavens be no more: according to this of David:Job. 14, 12.
Psal 88, 10.
Deut. 18, 11.
Luk. 16. 29. 31.
Wilt thou shew woonders among the dead? Nay, the Lord saith, The living shall not be taught by the dead, but by the living. As for the unrighteous, they are in hell, where is no redemption; neither is there anie passage from heaven to earth, but by God and his angels.Luk. 16, 22. As touching the resurrection and restauration of the bodie, read John. 5.Joh. 5, 21. and you shall manifestlie see, that it is the onelie worke of the father, who hath given the power therof to the sonne, and to none other, &c. Dominus percutit, & ipse medetur: Ego occidam, & ego vivefaciam.Ose. 6.
Acts. 17. 25. 28.
Tim. 6, 13.
And in manie other places it is written, that God giveth life and beeing to all. Although Plato, with his maister Socrates, the cheefe pillers of these vanities, say, that one Pamphilus was called up out of hel, who when he cam among the people, told manie incredible tales concerning infernall actions. But herein I take up the proverbe;/87. Amicus Plato, amicus Socrates, sed major amica veritas.

So as this last precept, or last part thereof, extending to that which neither can be done by witch nor divell, maie well expound the other parts and points therof. For it is not ment hereby, that they can doo such things indeed; but that they make men beleeve they doo them, and thereby cousen the people, and take upon them the office of God, and therewithall also blaspheme his holie name, and take it in vaine; as by the words of charmes and conjurations doo appeare, which you shall see, if you looke into these words, Habar and Idoni.

In like manner I saie you may see, that by the prohibition of divinations by augurie, and of soothsaiengs, &c., who are witches, and can indeed doo nothing but lie and cousen the people, the lawe of God condemneth them not, for that they can worke miracles, but bicause they saie they can doo that which perteineth to God,26. quæ. 7. non. obser. fact. 1398. act. 17.
August. de spirit. & anima. cap. 28.
and for cousenage, &c. Concerning other points of witchcraft conteined therein, and bicause some cannot otherwise be satisfied, I will alledge under one sentence, the decretals, the mind of S. Augustine, the councell 93 Aurelian, and the determination of/116. Paris, to wit: Who so observeth, or giveth heed unto soothsaiengs, divinations, witchcraft, &c., or doth give credit to anie such, he renounceth christianitie, and shalbe counted a pagane, & an enemie to God; yea and he erreth both in faith and philosophie. And the reason is therewithall expressed in the canon, to wit; Bicause hereby is attributed to a creature, that which perteineth to God onelie and alone. So as, under this one sentence (Thou shalt not suffer a poisoner or a witch to live) is forbidden both murther and witchcraft; the murther consisting in poison; the witchcraft in cousenage or blasphemie.

The third Chapter.

That women have used poisoning in all ages more than men, and of the inconvenience of poisoning.

AS women in all ages have beene counted most apt to conceive witchcraft, and the divels speciall instruments therin, and the onelie or cheefe practisers therof: so also it appeareth, that they have been the first inventers, and the greatest practisers of poisoning, and more naturallie addicted and given thereunto than men: according to the saieng of Quintilian; Latrocinium faciliùs in viro, veneficium in fœmina credam. From whom PliniePlin. lib. 25. cap. 2. differeth nothing in opinion, when he saith, Scientiam fœminarum in veneficiis prævalere. To be short, Augustine, Livie, Valerius, Diodorus, and manie other agree, that women were the first inventers and practisers of the art of poisoning. As for the rest of their cunning, in what estimation it was had, may appeare by these verses of Horace, wherein he doth not onelie declare the vanitie of witchcraft, but also expoundeth the other words, wherewithall we are now in hand.

Somnia, terrores magicos, miracula, sagas,
Nocturnos lemures, portentáq; Thessala rides://
These dreames and terrors magicall,117. 88.
these miracles and witches,
Night-walking sprites, or Thessal bugs,
esteeme them not twoo rushes.

Here Horace (you see) contemneth as ridiculous, all our witches cunning: marrie herein he comprehendeth not their poisoning art, which hereby he onelie seemed to thinke hurtfull. Pythagoras and Democritus give us the names of a great manie magicall hearbs and stones, whereof now, both the vertue, and the things themselves also are unknowne: as Marmaritin, whereby spirits might be raised: 94 Archimedon, which would make one bewraie in his sleepe, all the secrets in his heart: Adincantida, Calicia, Mevais, Chirocineta, &c: which had all their severall vertues, or rather poisons. But all these now are worne out of knowledge: marrie in their steed we have hogs turd and chervill, as the onelie thing whereby our witches worke miracles.

Trulie this poisoning art called Veneficium, of all others is most abhominable; as whereby murthers maie be committed, where no suspicion maie be gathered, nor anie resistance can be made; the strong cannot avoid the weake, the wise cannot prevent the foolish, the godlie cannot be preserved from the hands of the wicked; children maie hereby kill their parents, the servant the maister, the wife hir husband, so privilie, so inevitablie, and so incurablie, that of all other it hath beene thought the most odious kind of murther; according to the saieng of Ovid:

——————————non hospes ab hospite tutus,Ovid. metamorph. lib. 1.
Non socer à genero, fratrum quóq; gratia rara est:
Imminet exitio vir conjugis, illa mariti,
Lurida terribiles miscent aconita novercæ,
Filius ante diem patrios inquirit in annos./
Englished by Abraham Fleming.
118.
}
———The travelling ghest opprest
Dooth stand in danger of his host,
the host eke of his ghest:
The father of his sonne in lawe,
yea rare is seene to rest
Twixt brethren love and amitie,
and kindnesse void of strife;
The husband seekes the goodwifes death,
and his againe the wife.
Ungentle stepdames grizlie poi-
son temper and doo give:
The sonne too soone dooth aske how long
his father is to live.

The monke that poisoned king John, was a right Veneficus; to wit, both a witch and a murtherer: for he killed the king with poison, and/[Misp. 86] 89. persuaded the people with lies, that he had doone a good and a meritorious act: and doubtlesse, manie were so bewitched, as they thought he did verie well therein. Aeneid. 4. lib 4.Antonius Sabellicus writeth of a horrible poisoning murther, committed by women at Rome, where were executed (after due conviction) 170. women at one time; besides 20. women of that consort, who were poisoned with that poison which they had prepared for others./

95

The fourth Chapter.119.

Of divers poisoning practises, otherwise called veneficia, committed in Italie, Genua, Millen, Wittenberge, also how they were discovered and executed.

ANOTHER practise,Veneficæ in Italie. not unlike to that mentioned in the former chapter, was doone in Cassalis at Salassia in Italie, Anno 1536. where 40. Veneficæ or witches being of one confederacie, renewed a plague which was then almost ceased, besmeering with an ointment and a pouder, the posts and doores of mens houses; so as thereby whole families were poisoned: and of that stuffe they had prepared above 40. crocks for that purpose. Herewithall they conveied inheritances as it pleased them, till at length they killed the brother and onelie sonne of one Necus (as lightlie none died in the house but the maisters and their children) which was much noted; and therewithall that one Androgina haunted the houses, speciallie of them that died: and she being suspected, apprehended, and examined, confessed the fact, conspiracie, and circumstance, as hath beene shewed. The like villanie was afterwards practised at Genua, and execution was doone upon the offenders. At MillenVeneficæ in Genua & Millen. there was another like attempt that tooke none effect. This art consisteth as well in poisoning of cattell as of men: and that which is doone by poisons unto cattell, towards their destruction, is as commonlie attributed to witches charms as the other. And I doubt not, but some that would be thought cunning in incantations, and to doo miracles, have experience in this behalf. For it is written by divers authors, that if wolves doong be hidden in the mangers, racks, or else in the hedges about the pastures, where cattell go (through the antipathie of the nature of the woolfe and other cattell) all the beasts that savour the same doo not onlie forbeare to eate, but run about as though they were mad, or (as they say) bewitched.

But Wierus telleth a notable storie of a Veneficus, or destroier/ 120. of cattell, which I thought meete heere to repeat.Of a butcher a right veneficall which [? witch.] There was (saith he) in the dukedome of Wittingberge, not farre from Tubing, a butcher, anno 1564. that bargained with the towne for all their hides which were of sterven cattell, called in these parts Morts. He with poison privilie killed in great numbers, their bullocks, sheepe, swine, &c: and by his bargaine of the hides and tallowe he grew infinitlie rich. And at last being suspected, was examined, confessed the matter and maner thereof, and was put to death with hot tongs, wherewith his flesh was pulled from his bones. We for/90. our parts would have killed five poore women, before we would suspect one rich butcher.

96

The fift Chapter.

A great objection answered concerning this kind of witchcraft called Veneficium.

IT is objected, that if Veneficium were comprehended under the title of manslaughter, it had beene a vaine repetition, and a disordered course undertaken by Moses, to set foorth a lawe against Veneficas severallie. But it might suffice to answer any reasonable christian, that such was the pleasure of the Holie-ghost, to institute a particular article herof, as of a thing more odious, wicked and dangerous, than any other kind of murther. But he that shall read the lawe of Moses, or the testament of Christ himselfe, shall find this kind of repetition and reiteration of the law most common. For as it is written Exod. 22, 21. Thou shalt not greeve nor afflict a stranger, for thou wast a stranger in the land of Aegypt:Levit. 19, 33. so are the same words found repeated in Levit. 19, 33. Polling and shaving of heads and beards is forbidden in Deut. 27. which was before prohibited in 22. It is written in Exodus the 20. Thou shalt not steale: and it is repeated in Leviticus 19. and in Deut. 5. Murther is generallie forbidden in Exod. 20. and likewise in 22. and repeated in Num. 35. But the aptest example is, that magicke is forbidden in three severall places, to wit, once/121. in Levit. 19. and twise in Levit. 20. For the which a man might as well cavill with the Holie-ghost as for the other.

The sixt Chapter.

In what kind of confections that witchcraft, which is called Venificium, consisteth: of love cups, and the same confuted by poets.

AS touching this kind of witchcraft, the principall part thereof consisteth in certeine confections prepared by lewd people to procure love; which indeed are meere poisons, bereaving some of the benefit of the braine, and so of the sense and understanding of the mind. And from some it taketh awaie life, & that is more common than the other. These be called Philtra, or Pocula amatoria, or Venenosa pocula, or Hippomanes; which bad and blind physicians rather practise, than witches or conjurers, &c. But of what value these bables are, towards the end why they are provided, may appeere by the opinions of poets themselves, from whence was derived the estimation of that stuffe. 97 And first you shall heare what Ovid saith, who wrote of the verie art of love, and that so cunninglie and feelinglie, that he is reputed the speciall doctor in that science:

Fallitur Æmonias si quis decurrit ad artes,Ovid. lib. 2. de arte amandi.
Dátq; quod à teneri fronte revellit equi.
Non facient ut vivat amor Medeides herbæ,/
Mistáq; cum magicis mersa venena sonis.91.
Phasias Æsonidem, Circe tenuisset Ulyssem,
Si modò servari carmine posset amor:
Nec data profuerint pallentia philtra puellis,
Philtra nocent animis, vímq; furoris habent./
Who so dooth run to Hæmon arts,122. Englished by Abraham Fleming.
I dub him for a dolt,
And giveth that which he dooth plucke
from forhead of a colt:
Medeas herbs will not procure
that love shall lasting live,
Nor steeped poison mixed with ma-
gicke charms the same can give.
The witch Medea had full fast
}
held Jason for hir owne,
So had the grand witch Circe too
Ulysses, if alone
With charms mainteind & kept might be
the love of twaine in one.
No slibbersawces given to maids,Philtra, slibbersawces to procure love.
}
to make them pale and wan,
Will helpe: such slibbersawces marre
the minds of maid and man,
And have in them a furious force
of phrensie now and than.
Viderit Aemoniæ si quis mala pabula terræ,Ovid. lib. de remedio amoris, 1.
Et magicas artes posse juvare putat.
If any thinke that evill herbsAb. Fleming.
in Hæmon land which be,
Or witchcraft able is to helpe,
let him make proofe and see.

These verses precedent doo shew, that Ovid knew that those/123 beggerlie sorceries might rather kill one, or make him starke mad, than doo him good towards the atteinement of his pleasure or love;98 and therefore he giveth this counsell to them that are amorous in such hot maner, that either they must enjoy their love, or else needs die; saieng:

Sit procul omne nefas, ut ameris amabilis esto:
Englished by Abraham Fleming.Farre off be all unlawfull meanes
thou amiable bee,
Loving I meane, that she with love
may quite the love of thee./

The seventh Chapter.92.

It is proved by more credible writers, that love cups rather ingender death through venome, than love by art: and with what toies they destroie cattell, and procure love.

BUT bicause there is no hold nor trust to these poets, who saie and unsaie, dallieng with these causes; so as indeed the wise may perceive they have them in derision: let us see what other graver authors speake hereof. Eusebius CæsariensisHieronym. in Ruff.
Plin. lib. 25. cap. 3.
Joseph lib. 11. de Judæorum antiquit.
Aristot. lib. 8. de natura animal. cap. 24.
Jo. Wier. de venef. cap. 40.
writeth, that the poet Lucretius was killed with one of those lovers poisoned cups. Hierome reporteth that one Livia herewith killed hir husband, whome she too much hated; and Lucilla killed hirs, whome she too much loved. Calisthenes killed Lucius Lucullus the emperor with a love pot, as Plutarch and Cornelius Nepos saie. Plinie & Josephus report, that Cæsonia killed hir husband Caligula Amatorio poculo with a lovers cup, which was indeed starke poison. Aristotle saith, that all which is beleeved touching the efficacie of these matters, is lies and old wives tales. He that will read more arguments and histories concerning these poisons, let him looke in J. Wier De Veneficiis./

124.The toies,Toies to mocke apes. which are said to procure love, and are exhibited in their poison looving cups, are these: the haire growing in the nethermost part of a woolves taile, a woolves yard, a little fish called Remora, the braine of a cat, of a newt, or of a lizzard: the bone of a greene frog, the flesh thereof being consumed with pismers or ants; the left bone whereof ingendereth (as they saie) love; the bone on the right side, hate. Also it is said, that a frogs bones, the flesh being eaten off round about with ants, whereof some will swim, and some will sinke: those that sinke, being hanged up in a white linnen cloth, ingender love, but if a man be touched therewith, hate is bred thereby. Another experiment is thereof, with yoong swalowes, whereof one brood or nest being taken and buried in a crocke under the ground, 99 till they be starved up; they that be found open mouthed, serve to engender love; they whose mouthes are shut, serve to procure hate. Besides these, manie other follies there be to this purpose proposed to the simple; as namelie, the garments of the dead, candels that burne before a dead corps, and needels wherwith dead bodies are sowne or sockt into their sheetes: and diverse other things, which for the reverence of the reader, and in respect of the uncleane speach to be used in the description thereof, I omit; which (if you read Dioscorides, Dioscorid. de materia medicin. or diverse other learned physicians) you maie see at large. In the meane while, he that desireth to see more experiments concerning this matter, let him read Leonardus Vairus de fascino,L. Vairus de fascin. lib. 2. cap. 11. prope finem. now this present yeare 1583. newlie published; wherein (with an incestuous mouth) he affirmeth directlie, that Christ and his apostles were Venefici; verie fondlie prosecuting that argument, and with as much popish follie as may be; labouring to proove it lawfull to charme and inchant vermine, &c.//

The eight Chapter.125. 93.

John Bodin triumphing against John Wier is overtaken with false Greeke & false interpretation thereof.

MONSIEUR BODINJ. Bodin. triumpheth over doctor Wier herein, pronouncing a heavie sentence upon him; bicause he referreth this word to poison. But he reigneth or rather rideth over him, much more for speaking false Greeke; affirming that he calleth Veneficos Φαρμακεύσυς, which is as true as the rest of his reports and fables of witches miracles conteined in his bookes of divelish devises. For in truth he hath no such word, but saith they are called Φαρμακεύεις, whereas he should have said Φαρμακεῖς, the true accent being omitted, and εὔ being interposed, which should have beene left out. Which is nothing to the substance of the matter, but must needs be the Printers fault.

But Bodin reasoneth in this wise, Φαρμακεῖς is sometimes put for Magos or Præstigiatores: Ergo in the translation of the Septuaginta, it is so to be taken. Wherein he manifesteth his bad Logicke, more than the others ill Greeke. For it is well knowne to the learned in this toong, that the usuall and proper signification of this word, with all his derivations and compounds doo signifie Veneficos, Poisoners by medicine. Which when it is most usuall and proper, why should the translators take it in a signification lesse usuall, and nothing proper. Thus therefore he reasoneth and concludeth with his new found Logicke, and old fond Greeke; Sometimes 100it signifieth so, though unproperlie, or rather metaphoricallie; Ergo in that place it is so to be taken, when another fitter word might have beene used. Which argument being vaine, agreeth well with his other vaine actions. The Septuaginta had beene verie destitute of words, if no proper word could have beene found for this purpose. But where they have occasion to speake of witchcraft in their translations, they use Magian, Maggagian, &c: and therfore belike they see some difference betwixt them and the other, and knew some cause that mooved them to use the word Φαρμακεία, Veneficium.//


101

The seventh Booke. 126. 94.

The first Chapter.

Of the Hebrue word Ob, what it signifieth where it is found, of Pythonisses called Ventriloquæ, who they be, and what their practises are, experience and examples thereof shewed.

T HIS word Ob, is translated Pytho, or Pythonicus spiritus: Deutre. 18. Isaie. 19. 1. Sam. 28. 2. Reg. 23. &c: somtime, though unproperlie, Magus as 2. Sam. 33. But Ob signifieth most properlie a bottle, and is used in this place, bicause the Pythonists spake hollowe; as in the bottome of their bellies, whereby they are aptlie in Latine called Ventriloqui: of which sort was Elizabeth Barton, the holie maid of Kent,The holie maid of Kent a ventriloqua. &c. These are such as take upon them to give oracles, to tell where things lost are become, and finallie to appeach others of mischeefs, which they themselves most commonlie have brought to passe: whereby many times they overthrowe the good fame of honest women, and of such others of their neighbors, with whome they are displeased. For triall hereof, letting passe a hundred cousenages that I could recite at this time, I will begin with a true storie of a wench, practising hir diabolicall witchcraft, and ventriloquie An. 1574. at Westwell in Kent, within six miles where I dwell, taken and noted by twoo ministers and preachers of Gods word, foure substantiall yeomen, and three women of good fame & reputation, whose names are after written./

127.Mildred,An. Domi. 1574. Octob. 13. the base daughter of Alice Norrington, and now servant to William Sponer of Westwell in the countie of Kent, being of the age of seventeene yeares, was possessed with sathan in the night and daie aforesaid. Confer this storie with the woman of Endor, 1. Sam. 28. and see whether the same might not be accomplished by this devise.About two of the clocke in the afternoone of the same day, there came to the same Sponers house Roger Newman minister of Westwell, John Brainford minister of Kenington, with others, whose names are underwritten, who made their praiers unto God, to assist them in that needfull case; and then commanded sathan in the name of the eternall God, and of his sonne Jesus Christ, to speake with such a voice as they might understand, and to declare from whence he came. But he would not speake, but rored and cried mightilie. And though we did command him manie times, in the name of God, and of his sonne Jesus Christ, and in his102 mightie power to speake; yet he would not: untill he had gon through all his delaies, as roring, crieng, striving, and gnashing of teeth; and otherwhile with mowing, and other terrible countenances, and was so strong in the maid, that foure men could scarse hold hir downe. And this continued by the space almost of two houres. So sometimes we charged him earnestlie to speake; and againe praieng unto GOD that he would assist us, at the last he spake, but verie strangelie; and that was thus; He comes, he comes: and that oftentimes he repeated; and He goes, he goes. And then we/95. charged him to tell us who sent him. And he said; I laie in her waie like a log, and I made hir runne like fier, but I could not hurt hir. And whie so, said we? Bicause God kept hir, said he. When camest thou to her, said we? To night in her bed, said he. Then we charged him as before, to tell what he was, and who sent him, and what his name was. At the first he said, The divell, the divell. Then we charged him as before. Then he rored and cried as before, and spake terrible words; I will kill hir, I will kill hir; I will teare hir in peeces, I will teare hir in peeces. We said, Thou shalt not hurt hir. He said, I will kill you all. We said, Thou shalt hurt none of us all. Then we charged him as before. Then he said, You will give me no rest. Wee said, Thou shalt have none here, for thou must have no rest within the servants of God: but tell us in the name of God what thou art, and who sent thee. Then he said he would teare hir in peeces. We said, Thou shalt not hurt hir. Then/128. he said againe he would kill us all. We said againe, Thou shalt hurt none of us all, for we are the servants of God. And we charged him as before. And he said againe, Will you give me no rest? We said, Thou shalt have none here, neither shalt thou rest in hir, for thou hast no right in hir, sith Jesus Christ hath redeemed hir with his bloud, and she belongeth to him; and therefore tell us thy name, and who sent thee? He said his name was sathan. We said, Who sent thee? He said, Old Alice, old Alice. Which old Alice, said we? Old Alice, said he. Where dwelleth she, said we? In Westwell streete, said he. We said, How long hast thou beene with hir? These twentie yeares, said he. We asked him where she did keepe him? In two bottels, said he. Where be they, said we? In the backside of hir house, said he. In what place, said we? Under the wall, said he. Where is the other? In Kenington. In what place, said we? In the ground, said he. Then we asked him, what she did give him. He said, hir will, hir will. What did shee bid thee doo, said we? He said, Kill hir maid. Wherefore did she bid thee kill hir, said we? Bicause she did not love hir, said he. We said; How long is it ago, since she sent thee to hir? More than a yeare, said he.103 Where was that, said we? At hir masters, said he. Which masters, said we? At hir master Brainfords at Kenington, said he. How oft wert thou there, said we? Manie times, said he. Where first, said we? In the garden, said he: Where the second time? In the hall: Where the third time? In hir bed: Where the fourth time? In the field: Where the fift time? In the court: Where the sixt time? In the water, where I cast hir into the mote: Where the seventh time. In hir bed. We asked him againe, where else? He said, in Westwell. Where there, said we? In the vicarige, said he. Where there? In the loft. How camest thou to hir, said we? In the likenesse of two birds, said he. Who sent thee to that place, said we? Old Alice, said he. What other spirits were with thee there, said we? My servant, said he. What is his name, said we? He said, little divell. What is thy name, said we? Sathan, said he. What dooth old Alice call thee, said we? Partener, said he. What dooth she give thee, said we? Hir will, said he. How manie hast thou killed for hir, said we? Three, said he. Who are they, said we? A man and his child, said/96.[Mispr. 99] he. What were their names, said we? The childs name was/129. Edward, said he: what more than Edward, said we? Edward Ager, said he. What was the mans name, said we? Richard, said he. What more, said we? Richard Ager, said he. Where dwelt the man and the child, said we? At Dig at Dig, said he. This Richard Ager of Dig, was a Gentleman of xl. pounds land by the yeare, a verie honest man, but would often saie he was bewitched, and languished long before he died. Whom else hast thou killed for hir, said we? Woltons wife said he. Where did she dwell? In Westwell said he. What else hast thou doone for hir said we? What she would have me, said he. What is that said we? To fetch hir meat, drinke, and corne, said he. Where hadst thou it, said we? In everie house, said he. Name the houses, said we? At Petmans, at Farmes, at Millens, at Fullers, and in everie house. After this we commanded sathan in the name of Jesus Christ to depart from hir, and never to trouble hir anie more, nor anie man else. Then he said he would go, he would go: but he went not. Then we commanded him as before with some more words. Then he said, I go, I go; and so he departed. Then said the maid, He is gone, Lord have mercie upon me, for he would have killed me. And then we kneeled downe and gave God thanks with the maiden; praieng that God would keepe hir from sathans power, and assist hir with his grace. And noting this in a peece of paper, we departed. Sathans voice did differ much from the maids voice, and all that he spake, was in his owne name. Subscribed thus:

104

Witnesses to this, that heard and*[* Rom.]
sawe this whole matter, as followeth:

{
Roger Newman, vicar of Westwell.
John Brainford, vicar of Kennington.
Thomas Tailor.
Henrie Tailors wife.
}
{
John Tailor.
Thomas Frenchborns wife.
William Spooner.
John Frenchborne, and his wife./
}

The second Chapter.130.

How the lewd practise of the Pythonist of Westwell came to light, and by whome she was examined; and that all hir diabolicall speach was but ventriloquie and plaine cousenage, which is prooved by hir owne confession.

IT is written, that in the latter daies there shalbe shewed strange illusions, &c:Matt. 24, 44. 2.
Thes. 2, 9.
in so much as (if it were possible) the verie elect shal/be97. deceived: howbeit, S. Paule saith, they shalbe lieng and false woonders. Neverthelesse, this sentence, and such like, have beene often laid in my dish, and are urged by diverse writers, to approve the miraculous working of witches, whereof I will treat more largelie in another place. Howbeit, by the waie I must confesse, that I take that sentence to be spoken of Antichrist, to wit: the pope, who miraculouslie, contrarie to nature, philosophie, and all divinitie, being of birth and calling base, in learning grosse; in valure, beautie, or activitie most commonlie a verie lubber, hath placed himselfe in the most loftie and delicate seate, putting almost all christian princes heads, not onelie under his girdle, but under his foote, &c.

Surelie, the tragedie of this Pythonist is not inferior to a thousand stories, which will hardlie be blotted out of the memorie and credit either of the common people, or else of the learned. How hardlie will this storie suffer discredit, having testimonie of such authoritie? How could mother Alice escape condemnation and hanging, being arreigned upon this evidence; when a poore woman hath beene cast away, upon a cousening oracle, or rather a false lie, devised by Feats the juggler, through the malicious instigation of some of hir adversaries?

But how cunninglieThe ventriloqua of Westwell discovered. soever this last cited certificat be penned, or what shew soever it carrieth of truth and plaine dealing, there may be found conteined therein matter enough to detect the cousening knaverie therof. And yet diverse have been deepelie deceived there 105with, and can hardlie be removed from the cre/dit131. thereof, and without great disdaine cannot endure to heare the reproofe thereof. And know you this by the waie, that heretofore Robin goodfellow, and Hob gobblin were as terrible, and also as credible to the people, as hags and witches be now: and in time to come, a witch will be as much derided and contemned, and as plainlie perceived, as the illusion and knaverie of Robin goodfellow. And in truth, they that mainteine walking spirits, with their transformation, &c: have no reason to denie Robin goodfellow, upon whom there hath gone as manie and as credible tales, as upon witches; saving that it hath not pleased the translators of the Bible, to call spirits by the name of Robin goodfellow, as they have termed divinors, soothsaiers, poisoners, and couseners by the name of witches.

But to make short worke with the confutation of this bastardlie queanes enterprise, & cousenage; you shall understand, that upon the brute of hir divinitie and miraculous transes, she was convented before M. Thomas Wotton of Bocton Malherbe, a man of great worship and wisedome, and for deciding and ordering of matters in this commonwealth, of rare and singular dexteritie; through whose discreet handling of the matter, with the assistance & aid of M. George DarrellThe Pythonist of west-well convicted by hir owne confession. esquire, being also a right good and discreet Justice of the same limit, the fraud was found, the coosenage confessed, and she received condigne punishment. Neither was hir confession woone, according to the forme of the Spanish inquisition; to wit, through extremitie of tortures, nor yet by guile or flatterie, nor by presumptions; but through wise and perfect triall of everie circumstance the illusion was manifestlie disclosed: not so (I say) as/98. witches are commonlie convinced and condemned; to wit, through malicious accusations, by ghesses, presumptions, and extorted confessions, contrarie to sense and possibilitie, and for such actions as they can shew no triall nor example before the wise, either by direct or indirect meanes; but after due triall she shewed hir feats, illusions, and transes, with the residue of all hir miraculous works, in the presence of divers gentlemen and gentlewomen of great worship and credit, at Bocton Malherbe, in the house of the aforesaid M. Wotton. Now compare this wench with the witch of Endor, & you shall see that both the cousenages may be doone by one art./

106

The third Chapter.132.

Bodins stuffe concerning the Pythonist of Endor, with a true storie of a counterfeit Dutchman.

UPON the like tales dooth BodinJ. Bodin. lib. de dæmon. 3. cap. 2. build his doctrine, calling them Atheists that will not beleeve him, adding to this kind of witchcraft, the miraculous works of diverse maidens, that would spue pins, clowts, &c: as one Agnes Brigs, and Rachell Pinder of London did, till the miracles were detected, and they set to open penance. Others he citeth of that sort, the which were bound by divels with garters, or some such like stuffe to posts, &c: with knots that could not be undone, which is an Aegyptians juggling or cousening feat. And of such foolish lies joined with bawdie tales, his whole booke consisteth: wherein I warrant you there are no fewer than twoo hundreth fables, and as manie impossibilities. And as these two wenches, with the maiden of Westwell, were detected of cousenage; so likewise a Dutchman at Maidstone long after he had accomplished such knaveries, to the astonishment of a great number of good men, was revealed to be a cousening knave; although his miracles were imprinted and published at London: anno 1572. with this title before the booke, as followeth.

¶   A   verie   wonderfull   and   strange   mi-
racle of God, shewed upon a Dutchman of the age of
23. yeares, which was possessed of ten di-
vels, and was by Gods mightie providence dis-
possessed of them againe, the 27.
of Januarie last past, 1572.

UNTO this the Maior of Maidstone, with diverse of his brethren subscribed, chieflie by the persuasion/133. of Nicasius Vander Schuere, the mi/nister99. of the Dutch church there, John Stikelbow, whome (as it is there said) God made the instrument to cast out the divels, and foure other credible persons of the Dutch church. The historie is so strange, & so cunninglie performed, that had not his knaverie afterwards brought him into suspicion, he should have gone awaie unsuspected of this fraud. A great manie other such miracles have beene latelie printed, whereof diverse have beene bewraied: all the residue doubtles, if triall had beene made, would have beene found like unto these. But some are more finelie handled than othersome. Some 107 have more advantage by the simplicitie of the audience, some by the majestie and countenance of the confederates; as namelie, that cousening of the holie maid of Kent. Some escape utterlie unsuspected, some are prevented by death; so as that waie their examination is untaken. Some are weakelie examined: but the most part are so reverenced, as they which suspect them, are rather called to their answers, than the others.

The fourth Chapter.

Of the great oracle of Apollo the Pythonist, and how men of all sorts have been deceived, and that even the apostles have mistaken the nature of spirits, with an unanswerable argument, that spirits can take no shapes.

WITH this kind of witchcraft, ApolloThe amphibologies of oracles. and his oracles abused and cousened the whole world: which idoll was so famous, that I need not stand long in the description thereof. The princes and monarchs of the earth reposed no small confidence therein: the preests, which lived thereupon, were so cunning, as they also overtooke almost all the godlie and learned men of that age, partlie with their doubtfull answers; as that which was made unto Pyrrhus, in these words, Aio te Aeacida Romanos vincere posse, and to Crœsus his ambassadours in these words, Si Crœsus arma Persis inferat, magnum imperium evertat; and otherwise thus, Crœsus Halin/ penetrans, magnam subvertet opum vim:134. or thus, Crœsus perdet Halin, trangressus plurima regna, &c: partlie through confederacie, whereby they knew mens errands yer they came, and partlie by cunning, as promising victorie upon the sacrificing of some person of such account, as victorie should rather be neglected, than the murther accomplished. And if it were,The subtiltie of oracles. yet should there be such conditions annexed thereunto, as alwaies remained unto them a starting hole, and matter enough to cavill upon; as that the partie sacrificed must be a virgin, no bastard, &c. Furthermore, of two things onelie proposed, and where yea or naie onelie dooth answer the question, it is an even laie, that an idiot shall conjecture right. So as, if things fell out contrarie, the fault was alwaies in the interpretor, and not in the oracle or the prophet. But what mervell, (I saie) though the multitude and common people have beene abused herein; since lawiers, philosophers, physicians, astronomers, divines, generall councels, and princes have with great negligence and ignorance been deceived and seduced hereby, as swallowing up and de/vouring100. an inveterate opinion, received of their elders, without due examination of the circumstance?

108

Howbeit, the godlie and learned fathers (as it appeereth) have alwaies had a speciall care and respect, that they attributed not unto God such divelish devises; but referred them to him, who indeed is the inventer and author thereof, though not the personall executioner, in maner and forme as they supposed: so as the matter of faith was not thereby by them impeached. But who can assure himselfe not to be deceived in matters concerning spirits, John. 20, 9.when the apostles themselves were so far from knowing them, as even after the resurrection of Christ, having heard him preach and expound the scriptures, all his life time, they shewed themselves not onelie ignorant therein, but also to have misconceived thereof? Did not the apostle Thomas thinke that Christ himselfe had beene a spirit; until Christ told him plainelie, that a spirit was no such creature, as had flesh and bones, the which (he said) Thomas might see to be in him? And for the further certifieng and satisfieng of his mind, he commended unto him his hands to be seene, and his sides to be felt. Thomas, if the answer be true that some make hereunto, to wit: that spirits take formes and/135. shapes of bodies at their pleasure, might have answered Christ, and remaining unsatisfied might have said; Oh sir, what do you tell me that spirits have no flesh and bones? Why they can take shapes and formes, and so perchance have you doone. Which argument all the witchmongers in the world shall never be able to answere.

Some of them that mainteine the creation, the transformation, the transportation, and transubstantiation of witches, object that spirits are not palpable, though visible, and answer the place by me before cited: so as the feeling and not the seeing should satisfie Thomas. But he that shall well weigh the text and the circumstances thereof, shall perceive, that the fault of Thomas his incredulitie was secondlie bewraied, and condemned, in that he would not trust his owne eies, nor the view taken by his fellow apostles, who might have beene thought too credulous in this case, if spirits could take shapes at their pleasure. Jesus saith to him;John. 20, 29. Bicause thou hast seene (and not, bicause thou hast felt) thou beleevest. Item he saith; Blessed are they that beleeve and see not (and not, they that beleeve and feele not.) Whereby he noteth that our corporall eies may discerne betwixt a spirit and a naturall bodie; reprooving him, bicause he so much relied upon his externall senses, in cases where faith should have prevailed; & here, in a matter of faith revealed in the word, would not credit the miracle which was exhibited unto him in most naturall and sensible sort.

Howbeit, ErastusErast. fol. 62. saith, and so dooth Hyperius, Hemingius, Danæus, M. Mal. Bodin, &c. that evill spirits eate, drinke, and keepe 109 companie with men, and that they can take palpable formes of bodies, producing examples thereof, to wit: Spectrum Germanicum seu Augustanum, and the angell whose feet Lot washed; as though bicause God can indue his messengers with bodies at his pleasure, therefore the divell and everie spirit can doo the like. How the eleven apostles were in this case deceived, appeareth in Luke. 24.Luk. 24, 37
Mark. 16, 14.
Mat. 14, 16.
and in Mark. 16. as also in Matth. 14. where the apostles and/101. disciples were all deceived, taking Christ to be a spirit, when he walked on the sea. And why might they not be deceived herein, as well as in that they thought Christ had spoken of a temporall kingdome, when he preachedMatth. 20. of the kingdome of hea/ven?136. Which thing they also much misconceived; as likewise when he did bid themMatt. 16, 11. beware of the leven of the Pharisies, they understood that he spake of materiall bread.

The fift Chapter.

Why Apollo was called Pytho whereof those witches were called Pythonists: Gregorie his letter to the divell.

BUT to returne to our oracle of Apollo at Delphos, who was called Pytho, for that Apollo slue a serpent so called, whereof the Pythonists take their name: I praie you consider well of this tale, which I will trulie rehearse out of the ecclesiasticall historie, written by Eusebius,Euseb. lib. 7. cap. 25. wherein you shall see the absurditie of the opinion, the cousenage of these oraclers, and the deceived mind or vaine opinion of so great a doctor bewraied and deciphered altogither as followeth.

Gregorie Neocæsariensis in his jornie and waie to passe over the Alpes, came to the temple of Apollo: where Apollos priest living richlie upon the revenues and benefit proceeding from that idoll, did give great intertainement unto Gregorie, and made him good cheare. But after Gregorie was gone, Apollo waxed dumbe, so as the priests gaines decaied: for the idoll growing into contempt, the pilgrimage ceased. The spirit taking compassion upon the priests case, and upon his greefe of mind in this behalfe, appeared unto him, and told him flatlie, that his late ghest Gregorie was the cause of all his miserie. For (saith the divell) he hath banished me, so that I cannot returne without a speciall licence or pasport from him. It was no need to bid the priest make hast, for immediatlie he tooke post horsses, and galloped after Gregorie, till at length he overtooke him, and then expostulated with him for this discourtesie profered in recompense of his good cheare; and said, that if he would not be so good unto him, as to write his letter to the divell in his behalfe, he should be utterlie/137.110 undone. To be short, his importunitie was such, that he obtained Gregorie his letter to the divell, who wrote unto him in maner and forme following, word for word: Permitto tibi redire in locum tuum, & agere quæ consuevisti; which is in English; I am content thou returne into thy place, and doo as thou wast woont. Immediatlie upon the receipt of this letter, the idoll spake as before. And here is to be noted, that as well in this, as in theNote the cousenage of oracles. execution of all their other oracles and cousenages, the answers were never given Ex tempore, or in that daie wherein the question was demanded, because forsooth they expected a vision (as they said) to be given the night following, whereby the cousenage might the more easilie be wrought./

The sixt Chapter.102.

Apollo, who was called Pytho, compared to the Rood of grace: Gregories letter to the divell confuted.

WHAT need manie words to confute this fable? For if Gregorie had beene an honest man, he would never have willinglie permitted, that the people should have beene further cousened with such a lieng spirit: or if he had beene halfe so holie as Eusebius maketh him, he would not have consented or yeelded to so lewd a request of the priest, nor have written such an impious letter, no not though good might have come thereof. And therefore as well by the impossibilitie and follie conteined therein, as of the impietie (whereof I dare excuse Gregorie) you maie perceive it to be a lie. Me thinks they which still mainteine that the divell made answer in the idoll of Apollo, &c: maie have sufficient persuasion to revoke their erronious opinions: in that it appeareth in record, that such men as were skilfull in augurie, did take upon them to give oracles at Delphos, in the place of Apollo: of which number Tisanius the sonne of AntiochusZach. 10. was one. But vaine is the answer of idols. Our Rood of grace, with the helpe of little S. Rumball, was not inferior to the idoll of Apollo:138. for these could / not onlie worke externall miracles, but manifest the internall thoughts of the hart, I beleeve with more livelie shew, both of humanitie and also of divinitie, than the other. As if you read M. LambertsW. Lambert in titulo Boxley. booke of the perambulation of Kent, it shall partlie appeare. But if you talke with them that have beene beholders thereof, you will be satisfied herein. And yet in the blind time of poperie, no man might (under paine of damnation) nor without danger of death, suspect the fraud. Naie, what papists will yet confesse they were idols, though the wiers that made their eies gogle, the pins that fastened them to the postes to 111 make them seeme heavie, were seene and burnt together with the images themselves, the knaverie of the priests bewraied, and everie circumstance thereof detected and manifested?

The seventh Chapter.

How diverse great clarkes and good authors have beene abused in this matter of spirits through false reports, and by meanes of their credulitie have published lies, which are confuted by Aristotle and the scriptures.

PLUTARCH, Livie, and Valerius Maximus, with manie other grave authors, being abused with false reports, write that in times past beasts spake, and that images could have spoken and wept, and did let fall drops of blood, yea and could walk from place to place: which they/103. saie was doone by procuration of spirits. But I rather thinke with Aristotle, that it was brought to passe Hominum & sacerdotum deceptionibus, to wit: by the cousening art of craftie knaves and priests. And therefore let us follow EsaiesEsai. 8, 19. advise, who saith; When they shall saie unto you, Enquire of them that have a spirit of divination, and at the soothsaiers, which whisper and mumble in your eares to deceive you, &c: enquire at your owne God, &c. And so let us doo. And here you see they are such as runne into corners, and cousen the people with lies, &c. For if they could doo as they saie, they could not aptlie be called liers,/139 neither need they go into corners to whisper, &c.

The eight Chapter.

Of the witch of Endor, and whether she accomplished the raising of Samuel truelie, or by deceipt: the opinion of some divines hereupon.

THE woman of Endor is comprised under this word Ob: for she is called Pythonissa. It is written in 2. Sam. cap. 28.2. Sam. 28. that she raised up Samuel from death, and the other words of the text are stronglie placed, to inforce his verie resurrection. The mind and opinion of Jesus Syrach evidentlie appeareth to be, that Samuel in person was raised out from his grave, as if you read Eccl. 46. 19, 20. you shall plainlie perceive. Howbeit he disputeth not there, whether the storie be true or false, but onlie citeth certaine verses of the 1. booke of Samuel cap. 18. simplie, according to the letter, persuading maners and the imitation112 of our vertuous predecessors, and repeating the examples of diverse excellent men; namelie of Samuel: even as the text it selfe urgeth the matter, according to the deceived mind and imagination of Saule, and his servants. And therefore in truth, Sirach spake there according to the opinion of Saule, which so supposed, otherwise it is neither heresie nor treason to saie he was deceived.

He that weigheth well that place, and looketh into it advisedlie, shall see that Samuel was not raised from the dead; but that it was an illusion or cousenage practised by the witch.Sap 3.
Ps. 92. & 97.
Chrysost. homilia. 21. in Matth.
For the soules of the righteous are in the hands of God: according to that which Chrysostome saith; Soules are in a certeine place expecting judgement, and cannot remove from thence. Neither is it Gods will, that the living should be taught by the dead. Which things are confirmed and approved by the example of LazarusLuke. 16. and Dives: where it appeareth according to Deut. 18. that he will not have the living taught by the dead, but will have us sticke to his word, wherein his will and testament is declared. In deed/140. Lyra and Dionysius incline greatlie to the letter. And Lyra saith, that as when Balaam would have raised a divell, God interposed himselfe: so did he in this case bring up Samuell, when the witch would have raised hir divell. Which is a probable interpretation. But yet they dare not stand to that opinion, least they should impeachAugust. lib. quæ. vet. et novi testam. quæst. 27.
Item, part. 2. cap. 26.
Item, quæ. 5. nec mirum ad Simplician. lib. 2. 93 ad Dulcitium. quæ. 6.
Item. lib. 2. de doct. chri.
S. Augustines credit, who (they confesse) remained in judgement and opinion (without contradiction of the church)/104. that Samuell was not raised. For he saith directlie, that Samuell himselfe was not called up. And indeed, if he were raised, it was either willinglie, or perforce: if it were willinglie, his sinne had beene equall with the witches.

And Peter Martyr (me thinks) saith more to the purpose, in these words, to wit: This must have beene doone by Gods good will, or perforce of art magicke: it could not be doone by his good will, bicause he forbad it; nor by art, bicause witches have no power over the godlie. Where it is answered by some, that the commandement was onlie to prohibit theDeut. 18,
Exodus. 20.
Jewes to aske counsell of the dead, and so no fault in Samuell to give counsell. We may as well excuse our neighbours wife, for consenting to our filthie desires, bicause it is onlie written in the decalog; Thou shalt not desire thy neighbours wife. But indeed Samuell was directlie forbidden to answer Saule before he died: and therefore it was not likelie that God would appoint him, when he was dead, to doo it.

113

The ninth Chapter.

That Samuel was not raised indeed, and how Bodin and all papists dote herein, and that soules cannot be raised by witchcraft.

FURTHERMORE, it is not likelie that God would answer Saule by dead Samuell, when he would not answer him by living Samuell: and most unlikelie of all, that God would answer him by a divell, that denied to doo it by a prophet. That he was not brought up perforce, the whole course of the scripture witnesseth, and/141. prooveth; as also our owne reason may give us to understand. For what quiet rest could the soules of the elect enjoy or possesse in Abrahams bosome, if they were to be plucked from thence at a witches call and commandement? But so should the divell have power in heaven, where he is unworthie to have anie place himselfe, and therefore unmeete to command others.

Manie other of the fathers are flatlie against the raising up of Samuell: namelie, Tertullian in his booke De anima, Justine Martyr In explicatione, quæ. 25. Rabanus In epistolis ad Bonas. Abat, Origen In historia de Bileamo, &c. Some other dote exceedinglie herein, as namelie Bodin, and all the papists in generall: also Rabbi Sedias Haias, & also all the Hebrues, saving R. David Kimhi, which is the best writer of all the Rabbins: though never a good of them all. But Bodin,J. Bod. lib. de dæm. 2. cap. 3. in maintenance therof, falleth into manie absurdities, prooving by the small faults that Saule had committed, that he was an elect: for the greatest matter (saith he) laid unto his charge, is the reserving of the Amalekits1. Samu. 28. cattell, &c. He was an elect, &c: confirming his opinion with manie ridiculous fables, & with this argument, to wit: His fault was too little to deserve damnation; for Paule1. Cor. 5. would not have the incestuous man punished too sore, that his soule might be saved. Justine MartyrJ. Martyr in colloquio cum Triphone Judæo. in another place was not onlie deceived in the actuall raising up of Samuels soule, but affirmed that all the soules of the prophets and just men are subject to the power of witches./105. And yet were the Heathen much more fond herein, who (as LactantiusLact. lib. 7. cap. 13. affirmeth) boasted that they could call up the soules of the dead, and yet did thinke that their soules died with their bodies. Whereby is to be seene, how alwaies the world hath beene abused in the matters of witchcraft & conjuration. The Necromancers affirme, that the spirit of anie man may be called up, or recalled (as they terme it) before one yeare be past after their departure from the bodie. Which C. Agrippa in his booke De occulta philosophia saith, may be doone114 by certeine naturall forces and bonds. And therefore corpses in times past were accompanied and watched with lights, sprinkled with holie water, perfumed with incense, and purged with praier all the while they were above ground: otherwise the serpent (as the Maisters of the Hebrues saie) would devoure them, as the food appointed to him by God: Gen. 3. alled/ging142. also this place; We shall not all sleepe, but we shall be changed, bicause manie shall remaine for perpetuall meate to the serpent: whereupon riseth the contention betweene him and Michaell,Jud. vers. 9. concerning the bodie of Moses; wherein scripture is alledged. I confesse that Augustine, and the residue of the doctors, that denie the raising of Samuell, conclude, that the divell was fetcht up in his likenesse: from whose opinions (with reverence) I hope I may dissent.

The tenth Chapter.

That neither the divell nor Samuell was raised, but that it was a meere cousenage, according to the guise of our Pythonists.

AGAINE, if the divell appeared, and not Samuell: whie is it said in Eccle. that he slept? for the divell neither sleepeth nor dieth. But in truth we may gather, that it was neither the divell in person, nor Samuell: but a circumstance is here described, according to the deceived opinion and imagination of Saule. Howbeit Augustine saith, that both these sides may easilie be defended. But we shall not need to fetch an exposition so farre off: for indeed (me thinkes) it is Longè petita; nor to descend so lowe as hell, to fetch up a divell to expound this place. For it is ridiculous (as PompanaciusPompanacius lib. de incant. cap. 2. saith) to leave manifest things, and such as by naturall reason may be prooved, to seeke unknowne things, which by no likeliehood can be conceived, nor tried by anie rule of reason. But in so much as we have libertie by S. Augustines rule, in such places of scripture as seeme to conteine either contrarietie or absurditie, to varie from the letter, and to make a godlie construction agreeable to the word; let us confesse that Samuell was not raised (for that were repugnant to the word) and see whether this illusion may not be contrived by the art and cunning of the woman, without anie of these supernaturall devices: for I could cite a hundred papisticall and cousening practises, as/143. difficult as this, and as cleanlie handled. And it is to be surelie thought, if it had beene a divell, the text would have noted it in some place of the storie: as it dooth not. But Bodin helpeth me exceedinglie in this point, wherein he for/saketh106. (he saith) Augustine, Tertullian, and D. Kimhi115 himselfe, who saie it was the divell that was raised up: which (saith Bodin)J. Bod. lib. de dæm. 2. cap. 3. could not be; for that in the same communication betweene Saule and Samuell, the name of Jehovah is five times repeated, of which name the divell cannot abide the hearing.

The eleventh Chapter.

The objection of the witchmongers concerning this place fullie answered, and what circumstances are to be considered for the understanding of this storie, which is plainelie opened from the beginning of the 28. chap. of the 1. Samuel, to the 12. verse.

WHERE such a supernaturall miracle is wrought, no doubt it is a testimonie of truth; as Peter MartyrP. Martyr in comment. in Sam. 28. verse. 9. affirmeth. And in this case it should have beene a witnesse of lies: for (saith he) a matter of such weight cannot be attributed unto the divell, but it is the mightie power of God that dooth accomplish it. And if it laie in a witches power to call up a divell, yet it lieth not in a witches power to worke such miracles:Isai. 42.
1. Sam. 28.
for God will not give his power and glorie to anie creature. To understand this place, we must diligentlie examine the circumstance thereof. It was well knowne that Saule, before he resorted to the witch, was in despaire of the mercies and goodnes of God; partlie for that Samuell told him long before, that he should be overthrowne, and David should have his place; and partlie bicause God before had refused to answer him, either by Samuell when he lived, or by anie other prophet, or by Urim or Thumim, &c. And if you desire to see this matter discussed, turne to the first of Samuell, the 28. chapter, and conferre my words therewith./

144.Saule seeing the host of the Philistines come upon him (which thing could not be unknown to all the people) fainted, bicause he sawe their strength, and his owne weaknesse, and speciallie that he was forsaken: so as being now straught of mind, desperate, and a verie foole, he goeth1. Sam. 28, 7. to certeine of his servants, that sawe in what taking he was, and asked them for a woman that had a familiar spirit, and they told him by and by that there dwelt one at Endor. By the waie you shall understand, that both Saule and his servants ment such a one as could by hir spirit raise up Samuell, or any other that was dead and buried. Wherein you see they were deceived, though it were true, that she tooke upon hir so to doo. To what use then served hir familiar spirit, which you conceive she had, bicause Saules servants said so? Surelie, as they were deceived and abused in part, so doubtlesse were they in the rest. For to what purposeS. Cicilies familiar. (I saie) should hir familiar serve,116 if not for such intents as they reported, and she undertooke? I thinke you will grant that Saules men never sawe hir familiar: for I never heard any yet of credit saie, that he was so much in the witches favour, as to see hir divell; although indeed we read among the popish trumperie, that S. Cicilie had an angell to hir familiar, and that she could shew him to whom she would, and that she might aske and have what she or hir/107. friend list: as appeareth in the lesson read in the popish church on saint Cicilies daie. Well, I perceive the woman of Endors spirit was a counterfeit, and kept belike in hir closet at Endor, or in the bottle, with mother Alices divell at Westwell, and are now bewraied and fled togither to Limbo patrum, &c. And though Saule were bewitched and blinded in the matter; yet doubtlesse a wise man wold have perchance espied her knaverie. Me thinks Saule was brought to this witch, much after the maner that doctor Burcot was brought to Feats,D. Burcot. Feats. who sold maister Doctor a familiar, wherby he thought to have wrought miracles, or rather to have gained good store of monie. This fellowe by the name of Feats was a jugler, by the name of Hilles a witch or conjurer, everie waie a cousener: his qualities and feats were to me and manie other well knowne and detected. And yet the opinion conceived of him was most strange and woonderfull; even with such and in such cases, as it greeveth me to thinke of; speciallie bicause his knaverie and cou/senage145. reached to the shedding of innocent bloud. But now forsooth Saule1. Sam. 28, 8 covereth himselfe with a net; and bicause he would not be knowne, he put on other garments. But to bring that matter to passe, he must have beene cut shorter1. Sa 10, 23. by the head and shoulders, for by so much he was higher than any of the people. And therfore whatsoever face the craftie quene did set upon it, she knew him well enough. And for further proofe thereof, you may understand, that the princes of the Jewes were much conversant with the people. And it appeereth manifestlie, that SauleIbidem. dwelt verie neere to Endor, so as she should the rather knowe him; for in the evening he went from his lodging unto hir house: neither should it seeme that she was gone to bed when he came. But bicause that may be uncerteine, you may see in the processe of the text, that in a peece of the night he went from his house to hirs, and with much adoo intreated her to consent to his request. She finished hir conjuration, so as both Saules part, the witches part, and also Samuels part was plaied: and after the solemnization therof, a calfe was killed, a batch of bread baked, and a supper made readie and eaten up; and after all this, he went home the same night: and had need so to doo, for he had some businesse the next daie. By these and manie other circumstances it may bee gathered, that she dissembled, in saieng she knew him not, 117 and consequentlie counterfaited, and made a foole of him in all the rest.

It appeereth there, that he,Ibidem. with a couple of his men, went to hir by night, and said; Conjecture unto me by thy familiar spirit, and bring me up whom I shall name unto thee. The godlie learned knowe that this was not in the power of the witch of Endor, but in the God of heaven onelie to accomplish. Howbeit, Saule was bewitched so to suppose: and yet is he more simple that will be overtaken with the devises of our old witches, which are produced to resemble hir. And why should we thinke, that GOD would rather permit the witch to raise Samuel, than that Dives could obteine Lazarus to come out of Abrahams bosome, upon more likelie and more reasonable conditions? Well now dooth this strumpet (according to the guise of our cousening witches and conjurers) make the matter strange unto Saule,1 Sam. 28, 9. saieng that he came to take hir in a snare, &c./108. But witches seldome make/146. this objection, saving when they mistrust that he which commeth to them will espie their jugling: for otherwise, where the witchmonger is simple and easie to be abused, the witch will be as easie to be intreated, and nothing dangerous of hir cunning; as you see this witch was soone persuaded (notwithstanding that objection) bicause she perceived and sawe that Saule was affraid and out of his wits. And therfore she said unto him;1. Sa. 28. 12. Whom shall I raise up? As though she could have brought unto him Abraham, Isaac, or Jacob; who cannot heare us, therefore cannot rise at our call. For it is written;Isa. 63, 15. 16 Looke thou downe from heaven and behold us, &c: as for Abraham he is ignorant of us, and Israel knoweth us not.

The twelfe Chapter.

The 12. 13. & 14. verses of 1. Samuel 28. expounded: wherin is shewed that Saule was cousened and abused by the witch, and that Samuel was not raised, is prooved by the witches owne talke.

THE manner and circumstance of their communication, or of hir conjuration, is not verbatim set downe and expressed in the text; but the effect thereof breeflie touched: yet will I shew you the common order of their conjuration, and speciallie of hirs at this time used. When SauleThe maner of the witch of Endors cousening of Saule. had told hir, that he would have Samuel brought up to him, she departed from his presence into hir closet, where doubtles she had hir familiar; to wit, some lewd craftie preest, and made Saule stand at the doore like a foole (as it were with his finger in a hole) to heare the cousening answers, but not to see the cousening handling thereof,118 and the couterfetting of the matter. And so goeth she to worke, using ordinarie words of conjuration, of which there are sundrie varieties and formes (whereof I shall have occasion to repeat some in another place) as you see the juglers (which be inferior conjurors) speake certeine strange words of course to lead awaie the eie from espi/eng147. the maner of their conveiance, whilest they may induce the mind to conceive and suppose that he dealeth with spirits; saieng, Hay, fortune furie, nunq; credo, passe, passe, when come you sirra. So belike after many such words spoken, she saith to hir selfe; Lo now the matter is brought to passe, for I see woonderfull things. So as Saule1. Sa. 28, 13. hearing these words, longed to knowe all, and asked hir what she sawe. Whereby you may know that Saule sawe nothing, but stood without like a mome, whilest she plaied hir part in hir closet: as may most evidentlie appeere by the 21. verse1. Sa. 28, 21. of this chapter where it is said; Then the woman came out unto Saule. Howbeit, a little before she cunninglie counterfaited that she sawe Samuel, and thereby knewe it was Saule that was come unto hir. Whereby all the world may perceive the cousening, and hir dissimulation. For by that which hath beene before said, it must needs be that she knew him. And (I praie you) why should she not have suspected aswell him to be Saule before, when in expresse words he required hir to bring unto him Samuel, as now, when Samuel appeered unto hir?/

109.Well, to the question before proposed by Saule, 1. Sa. 28, 4. she answereth and lieth, that she saw angels or gods ascending up out of the earth. Then proceedeth she with her inchanting phrases and words of course: so as thereby Saule gathereth and supposeth that she hath raised a man. For otherwise his question dependeth not upon any thing before spoken. For when she hath said; I sawe angels ascending, &c: the next word he saith is; What fashion is he of? Which (I saie) hangeth not upon hir last expressed words. And to this she answered not directlie, that it was Samuel; but that it was an old man lapped in a mantell: as though she knew not him that was the most notorious man in Israell, that had beene her neighbour by the space of manie yeeres, and upon whom (while he lived) everie eie was fixed, and whom also she knew within lesse than a quarter of an houre before, as by whose meanes also she came acquainted with Saule.1. Sa. 28, 12. Read the text and see.

But she describeth his personage, and the apparell which he did usuallie weare when he lived: which if they were both buried togither, were consumed and rotten, or devoured with wormes before that time. Belike he had a new mantell made him in hea/ven:148. and yet they saie Tailors are skantie there, for that their consciences are so large here. In this countrie, men give awaie their garments when 119 they die: if Samuel had so doone, hee could not have borrowed it againe; for of likliehood it would have beene worne out in that space, except the donee had beene a better husband than I: for the testator was dead (as it is supposed) two yeares before.

The xiii. Chapter.

The residue of 1. Sam. 28. expounded: wherin is declared how cunninglie this witch brought Saule resolutelie to beleeve that she raised Samuel, what words are used to colour the cousenage, and how all might also be wrought by ventriloquie.

NOW commeth in Samuel to plaie his part: but I am persuaded it was performed in the person of the witch hir selfe, or of hir confederate. He saith to Saule;1. Sa. 28, 15. Why has thou disquieted me, to bring me up? As though without guile or packing it had beene Samuel himselfe. SauleIbidem. answered that he was in great distresse: for the Philistines made warre upon him. Whereby the witch, or hir confederate priest might easilie conjecture that his heart failed, and direct the oracle or prophesie accordinglie: especiallie understanding by his present talke, and also by former prophesies and dooings that were past, that God had forsaken him, and that his people were declining from him. For when Jonathan1. Sam 13, 5. (a little before) overthrew the Philistines, being thirtie thousand chariots and six thousand horssemen; Saule could not assemble above six hundred souldiers.1. Sa. 13, 15.

Then said Samuel (which some suppose was sathan, and as I thinke was the witch, with a confederate; for what need so farre fetches, as to fetch a divell supernaturallie out of hell, when the illusion may be here by natu/rall110. meanes deciphered? And if you note the words well, you shall perceive the phrase not to come out/149. of a spirituall mouth of a divell, but from a lieng corporall toong of a cousener, that careth neither for God nor the divell, frō whence issueth such advise and communication, as greatlie disagreeth from sathans nature and purpose. For thus (I saie) the said Samuel speaketh: Wherefore dooest thou aske me,1. Sam. 28. 16. 17. seeing the Lord is gone from thee, and is thine enemie? Even the Lord hath doon unto him as he spake by mine hand:1. Sa. 15, 28. for the Lord will rent thy kingdome out of thine hand, and give it to thy neighbour David, bicause thou obeiedst not the voice of the Lord, &c. This (I say) is no phrase of a divell, but of a cousener, which knew before what Samuel had prophesied concerning Saules destruction. For it is the divels condition, to allure the people unto wickednes, and not in this sort to120 admonish, warne, and rebuke them for evill. And the popish writers confes, that the divell would have beene gone at the first naming of God. If it bee said, that it was at Gods speciall commandement and will, that Samuel or the divell should be raised, to propound this admonition, to the profit of all posteritie: I answer, that then he would rather have doone it by some of his living prophets, and that sathan had not beene so fit an instrument for that purpose. After this falleth the witch (I would saie Samuel) into the veine of prophesieng, and speaketh to Saule1. Sa 28, 17.
18.
on this wise; The Lord will rent thy kingdome out of thine hand, and give it to thy neighbor David, bicause thou obeiedst not the voice of the Lord, nor executedst his fierse wrath upon the Amalekites: therefore hath the Lord doone this unto thee this daie.19. Moreover, the Lord will deliver thee into the hands of the Philistines, and to morrowe shalt thou and thy sonnes be with me, and the Lord shall give the host of Israel into the hands of the Philistines. What could Samuel have said more?

Me thinks the divell would have used another order, encouraging Saule rather than rebuking him for his evill. The divell is craftier than to leave such an admonition to all posterities, as should be prejudiciall unto his kingdome, and also be void of all impietie. But so divine a sentence maketh much for the maintenance of the witches credit, and to the advancement of hir gaines. Howbeit, concerning the veritie of this prophesie, there be many disputable questions: first, whether the battell were fought the next daie; secondlie, whether all his sonnes were kil/led150. with him; item, whether they went to heaven or hell togither, as being with Samuel, they must be in heaven, and being with sathan, they must be in hell. But although everie part of this prophesie were false, as that all his sonnes were not slaine (Ishbosheth living and reigning in Israel two yeares after Saules death) and that the battell was not on the morrow, and that wicked Saule, after that he had killed himselfe, was not with good Samuel;2. Reg. 4. yet this witch did give a shrewd gesse to the sequele. Which whether it were true or false, perteins not to my purpose; and therfore I will omit it. But as touching the opinion of them that saie it was the divell, bicause that such things came to passe; I would faine knowe of them where they learne that divels foreknow things to come. If they saie he gesseth onelie upon probabilities, the witch may also doo the like. But here I may not forget the decrees,Canon. 26. quæst. cap. 5. nec mirum. which conclude, that Samuel appeered not unto Saule; but that the historiographer set foorth/111. Saules mind and Samuels estate, and certeine things which were said & seene, omitting whether they were true or false: and further, that it were a great offense for a man to beleeve the bare words of the storie. And if this exposition like you not, I can easilie frame my121 selfe to the opinion of some of great learning, expounding this place, and that with great probabilitie, in this sort; to wit, that this Pythonist being Ventriloqua; that is, Speaking as it were from the bottome of hir bellie, did cast hir selfe into a transe, and so abused Saule, answering to Saule in Samuels name, in hir counterfeit hollow voice: as the wench of Westwell spake, whose historie I have rehearsed before at large, in pag. 127 and this is right Ventriloquie./Right Ventriloquie.

The xiiii. Chapter.151.

Opinions of some learned men, that Samuel was indeed raised, not by the witches art or power, but by the speciall miracle of God, that there are no such visions in these our daies, & that our witches cannot doo the like.

AIAS and Sadaias write, that when the woman sawe the miracle indeed, and more than she looked for, or was woont to doo; she began to crie out, that this was a vision indeed, and a true one, not doone by hir art, but by the power of God. Which exposition is far more probable than our late writers judgements hereupon, and agreeth with the exposition of diverse good divines. Gelasius saith, it was the verie spirit of Samuel: and where he suffered himself to be worshipped, it was but in civill salutation and courtesie; and that God did interpose Samuel,J. Bodin & L. vairus differ herein. as he did Elias to the messenger of Ochosias, when he sent to Belzebub the god of Acharon. And here is to be noted, that the witchmongers are set up in this point: for the papists saie, that it cannot be a divell, bicause Jehovah is thrise or five times named in the storie. Upon this peece of scripture arguments are daielie devised, to proove and mainteine the miraculous actions of witchcraft, and the raising of the dead by conjurations. And yet if it were true, that Samuel himselfe were raised, or the divell in his likenesse; and that the witch of Endor by hir art and cunning did it, &c: it maketh rather to the disproofe than to the proofe of our witches, which can neither do that kind of miracle, or any other, in any such place or companie, where their jugling and cousenage may be seen and laid open. And I challengeA bold, discreet, and faithfull challenge them all (even upon the adventure of my life) to shew one peece of a miracle, such as Christ did trulie, or such as they suppose this witch did diabolicallie, be it not with art nor confederacie, whereby some colour thereof may be made; neither are there any such visions in these daies shewed.

Heretofore God did send his visible angels to men: but now/152 we heare not of such apparitions, neither are they necessarie. Indeed it 122 pleased God heretofore, by the hand of Moses and his prophets, and speciallie by his sonne Christ and his apostles, to worke great miracles, for the establish/ing112. of the faith: but now whatsoever is necessarie for our salvation, is conteined in the word of God: our faith is alredie confirmed, and our church established by miracles; so as now to seeke for them, is a point of infidelitie. Which the papists (if you note it) are greatlie touched withall, as in their lieng legends appeareth. But in truth, our miracles are knaveries most commonlie, and speciallie of priests, whereof I could cite a thousand. If you read the storie of Bell and the dragon, you shall find a cousening miracle of some antiquitie. If you will see newer devises, read Wierus, Cardanus, Baleus, and speciallie Lavaterns,* [* ns read us.] &c. There have beene some †walking† At Canturburie by Rich. Lee esquire, & others, anno. 1573. At Rie by maister Gaymor & others, anno. 1577. spirits in these parts so conjured not long since, as afterwards they little delighted to make anie more apparitions.

The xv. Chapter.

Of vaine apparitions, how people have beene brought to feare bugges, which is partlie reformed by preaching of the gospell, the true effect of Christes miracles.

BUT certeinlie, some one knave in a white sheete hath cousened and abused manie thousands that waie; speciallie when Robin good-fellow kept such a coile in the countrie. But you shall understand, that these bugs speciallie are spied and feared of sicke folke, children, women, and cowards, which through weaknesse of mind and bodie, are shaken with vaine dreames and continuall feare. The Scythians,J. Wier. lib. 3 cap. 8.
Theodor. Bizantius.
Lavat. de spect. & lemurib.
being a stout and a warlike nation (as divers writers report) never see anie vaine sights or spirits. It is a common saieng; A lion feareth no bugs. But in our childhood our mothers maids have so terrified us with an ouglie divell having hornes on his head, fier in his mouth, and a Cardan. de var. rerum Peucer. &c.taile in/153. his breech, eies like a bason, fanges like a dog, clawes like a beare, a skin like a Niger, and a voice roring like a lion, whereby we start and are afraid when we heare one crie Bough: and they have so fraied us with bull beggers, spirits, witches, urchens, elves, hags, fairies, satyrs, pans, faunes, sylens, kit with the cansticke, tritons, centaurs, dwarfes, giants, imps, calcars, conjurors, nymphes, changlings, Incubus, Robin good-fellowe, the spoorne, the mare, the man in the oke, the hell waine, the fierdrake, the puckle, Tom thombe, hob gobblin, Tom tumbler, boneles, and such other bugs, that we are afraid of our owne shadowes: in so much as some never feare the divell, but in a darke night; and then a polled sheepe is a perillous beast, and 123 manie times is taken for our fathers soule, speciallie in a churchyard, where a right hardie man heretofore scant durst passe by night, but his haire would stand upright.Lavat. de spect. For right grave writers report, that spirits most often and speciallie take the shape of women appearing to monks, &c: and of beasts, dogs, swine, horsses, gotes, cats, haires; of fowles, as crowes, night owles, and shreeke owles; but they delight most in the likenes of snakes and dragons. Well, thanks be to God, this wretched and cowardlie infidelitie, since the preaching of the gospell, is in part forgotten: and doubtles, the rest of those illusions will in short time/113. (by Gods grace) be detected and vanish awaie.

Divers writers report, that in Germanie,Car. de var. rerum.
J. Wier. de præst. dæmon. &c.
since Luthers time, spirits and divels have not personallie appeared, as in times past they were woont to doo. This argument is taken in hand of the ancient fathers, to proove the determination and ceasing of oracles. For in times past (saith Athanasius)Athanas. de humanitate verbi. divels in vaine shapes did intricate men with their illusions, hiding themselves in waters, stones, woods, &c. But now that the word of GOD hath appeared, those sights, spirits, and mockeries of images are ceased. Truelie, if all such oracles, as that of Apollo, &c. (before the comming of Christ) had beene true, and doone according to the report, which hath beene brought through divers ages, and from farre countries unto us, without preestlie fraud or guile, so as the spirits of prophesie, and working of miracles, had beene inserted into an idoll, as hath beene supposed: yet we christians may conceive, that Christs cōming was not so fruteles and pre/judiciall154. in this point unto us, as to take awaie his spirit of prophesie and divination from out of the mouth of his elect people, and good prophets, giving no answers of anie thing to come by them, nor by Urim nor Thumim, as he was woont, &c. And yet to leave the divell in the mouth of a witch, or an idoll to prophesie or worke miracles, &c: to the hinderance of his glorious gospell,The true end of miracles. to the discountenance of his church, and to the furtherance of infidelitie and false religion, whereas the working of miracles was the onelie, or at least the most speciall meanes that mooved men to beleeve in Christ: as appeareth in sundrie places of the gospell, and speciallie in John,John 2. where it is written, that a great multitude followed him, bicause they sawe his miracles which he did, &c.Act. 2. 2
John. 5.
Naie, is it not written, that Jesus was approoved by God among the Jewes, with miracles, wonders and signes, &c? And yet, if we conferre the miracles wrought by Christ, and those that are imputed to witches; witches miracles shall appeare more common, and nothing inferior unto his.

124

The xvi. Chapter.

Witches miracles compared to Christs, that God is the creator of all things, of Apollo, and of his names and portraiture.

IF this witch of Endor had performed that, which manie conceive of the matter, it might have beene compared with the raising up of Lazarus.An ironicall collation. I praie you, is not the converting of water into milke, as hard a matter as the turning of water into wine? And yet, as you may read in the gospell, that Christ did the one, as his first miracle; so may you read in M. Mal.Mal. malef. par. 2. quæ. 1. cap. 14. and in Bodin, that witches can easilie doo the other: yea, and that which is a great deale more, of water they can make butter. But to avoid all cavils, and least there should appeare more matter in Christs miracle, than the others, you shall find in M. Mal. that they can change water into wine: and what is it to attribute to/155. a creature, the power and worke of the creator, if this be not? Christ saith, Opera quæ ego facio nemo potest facere.Acts. 17.
Tim. 6, 13.
Col. 1, 16.
Athanas. symbol.
Creation of substance was never granted to man nor angell; Ergo neither to/114. witch nor divell: for God is the onlie giver of life and being, and by him all things are made, visible and invisible.

Finallie, this woman of Endor is in the scripture called Pythonissa: whereby it may appeare that she was but a verie cousener. For Pytho himselfe, whereof Pythonissa is derived, was a counterfet. And the originall storie of Apollo,Apollo Pytho uncased. who was called Pytho, bicause he killed a serpent of that name, is but a poeticall fable. For the poets saie he was the god of musicke, physicke, poetrie, and shooting. In heaven he is called Sol, in earth Liber pater, in hell Apollo. He florisheth alwaies with perpetuall youth, and therefore he is painted without a beard: his picture was kept as an oracle-giver: and the preests that attended thereon at Delphos were couseners, and called Pythonists of Pytho, as papists of Papa; and afterwards all women that used that trade, were named Pythonissæ, as was this woman of Endor. But bicause it concerneth this matter, I will breefelie note the opinions of divers learned men, and cer- teine other proofes, which I find in the scripture touching the ceasing of miracles, prophesies and oracles.//


125

The eight Booke. 156. 115.

The first Chapter.

That miracles are ceased.

ALTHOUGH in times past, it pleased God,Psal. 136. 4.
Psal. 72. 18.
Psal. 88. 10.
extraordinarilie to shew miracles amongest his people, for the strengthening of their faith in the Messias; and againe at his comming to confirme their faith by his wonderfull dooings, and his speciall graces and gifts bestowed by him upon the apostles, &c: yet we ordinarilie read in the scriptures, that it is the Lord that worketh great wonders. Yea David saith, that among the dead (as in this case of Samuel)Isai. 42.
John 3, 2.
Ibid. 7, 16.
In annotat. in Johan. 3.
God himselfe sheweth no wonders. I find also that God will not give his glorie and power to a creature. Nichodemus being a Pharisie could saie, that no man could do such miracles as Christ did, except God were with him, according to the saieng of the prophet to those gods and idols, which tooke on them the power of God;Isai. 45. Doo either good or ill if you can, &c. So as the prophet knew and taught thereby, that none but God could worke miracles. Infinite places for this purpose might be brought out of the scripture, which for brevitie I omit and overslip.

S. Augustine,August. de verbis Dom. secundum Matth. sermone. 18. among other reasons, whereby he prooveth the ceasing of miracles, saith; Now blind flesh dooth not open the eies of the blind by the miracle of God, but the eies of our hart are opened by the word of God. Now is not our dead carcase raised any more up by miracle, but our dead bodies be still in the grave,/157. and our soules are raised to life by Christ. Now the eares of the deafe are not opened by miracle, but they which had their eares shut before, have them now opened to their salvation. The miraculous healing of the sicke, by annointing, spoken of by S. James,James. 5, 14. is objected by manie, speciallie by the papists, for the maintenance of their sacrament of extreame unction: which is apishlie and vainelie used in the Romish church, as though that miraculous gift had continuance till this daie: wherein you shall see what CalvineJ. Calvin. Institut. lib. 4. cap. 19. sect. 18. speaketh in his institutions. The grace of healing (saith he) spoken of by S. James, is vanished awaie, as also the other miracles, which the Lord would have shewed onelie for a time, that he might make the new preaching of the gospell mervellous for ever.Idem. ibid. sect. 19.
Isai. 9. 7.
Why (saith he) doo not these (meaning miraclemongers) appoint some Siloah to swim in, whereinto at certeine ordinarie recourses of times sicke folke maie126 plunge themselves? Why doo they not lie a long upon the dead, bicause PauleActs. 20, 10.
Idem. ibid. nempe J. Calvine.
raised up a dead child by that meanes? Verelie (saith he) James in the miracle to annoint, spake for that time, whiles the church still enjoied such blessings of God. Item, he saith, that the Lord is present with his in all ages; and so often as need is, he helpeth their sicknesses, no lesse than in old time. But he dooth not so utter his manifest powers, nor distributeth miracles, as by the hands of the apostles, bicause the gift was but for a time. Calvine even there concludeth thus; They saie such vertues or miracles remaine, but experience saith naie. And see how they agree among themselves. Danæus saith, that neither witch nor divell can worke miracles. Giles Alley saith directlie,/116. that witches worke miracles. Calvine saith they are all ceased. All witchmongers saie they continue. But some affirme, that popish miracles are vanished and gone awaie: howbeit witches miracles remaine in full force. So as S. Loy is out of credit for a horsseleach, Maister T. and mother Bungie remaine in estimation for prophets: naie Hobgoblin and Robin goodfellow are contemned among yoong children, and mother Alice and mother Bungie are feared among old fooles. The estimation of these continue, bicause the matter hath not beene called in question: the credit of the other decaieth, bicause the matter hath beene looked into. Whereof I saie no more, but that S. Anthonies blisse will helpe/158. your pig, whensoever mother Bungie dooth hurt it with hir cursse. And therefore we are warned by the word of God,Prov. 51. in anie wise not to feare their cursses. But let all the witchmongers, and speciallie the miraclemongers in the world answer me to this supposition; Put case that a woman of credit, or else a woman-witch should saie unto them, that she is a true prophet of the Lord, and that he revealeth those secret mysteries unto hir, whereby she detecteth the lewd acts and imaginations of the wicked, and that by him she worketh miracles, and prophesieth, &c: I thinke they must either yeeld, or confesse that miracles are ceased. But such things (saith Cardane)H. Card. de miracul. as seeme miraculous, are cheeflie doone by deceipt, legier- demaine, or confederacie; or else they maie be doone, and yet seeme unpossible, or else things are said to be done, and never were nor can be doone.

127

The second Chapter.

That the gift of prophesie is ceased.

THAT witches, nor the woman of Endor, nor yet hir familiar or divell can tell what is to come, may plainelie appeare by the words of the prophet,Isai. 41. who saith; Shew what things are to come, and we will saie you are gods indeed. According to that which Salomon saith; Who can tell a man what shall happen him under the sunne?1 Sam. 28.
Rom. 12.
1. Cor. 12.
1. Pet. 1.
Marrie that can I (saith the witch of Endor to Saule.) But I will rather beleeve Paule and Peter, which saie, that prophesie is the gift of God, and no worldlie thing. Then a cousening queane,[del. the full stop] that taketh upon hir to doo all things, and can doo nothing but beguile men: up steppeth also mother Bungie, and she can tell you where your horsse or your asse is bestowed, or anie thing that you have lost is become, as Samuell could; and what you have doone in all your age past, as Christ did to the woman of Sichar at JacobsJohn. 4. well; yea and what your errand is, before you speake, as Elizæus did.

Peter Martyr saith, that onelie God and man knoweth the/159. heart of man, and therefore, that the divell must be secluded,P. Martyr. loc. com. 9. sect. 17. alledging these places; Solus Deus est scrutator cordium, Onelie God is the searcher of hearts. And, Nemo scit quæ sunt hominis, nisi spiritus hominis qui est in eo, None knoweth the things of man, but the spirit of man which is within him. And Salomon saith, Tu solus nosti cogitationes hominum, Thou onelie knowest the thoughts of men. And Jeremie saith in the person of God, Ego Deus scrutans corda & renes, I am God searching hearts and reines. Also Matthew saith of Christ, Jesus autem videns cogitationes eorum, And Jesus seeing their thoughts, who in scripture is called the searcher and knower/117. of the thoughts in the heart: as appeareth in Acts, 1. & 15. Rom. 8. Matth. 9. 12. & 22. Marke. 2. Luke. 6, & 7. & 11. John. 1. 2. 6. & 13. Apoc. 2. & 3. and in other places infinite.

The same Peter MartyrP. Martyr. in loc. comm. also saith, that the divell maie suspect, but not know our thoughts: for if he should know our thoughts, he should understand our faith; which if he did, he would never assalt us with one temptation. Indeed we read that Samuel could tell where things lost were straied, &c: but we see that gift also ceased by the comming of Christ, according to the saieng of Paule; Hebr. 1, 8. & 2. At sundrie times, and in diverse maners God spake in the old times by our fathers the prophets, in these last daies he hath spoken unto us by his sonne, &c. And therefore I saie that gift of prophesie,128 where- with God in times past endued his people, is also ceased, and counterfeits and couseners are come in their places, according to this saieng of Peter:2. Pet. 2. 1. There were false prophets among the people, even as there shalbe false teachers among you, &c. And thinke not that so notable a gift should be taken from the beloved and elect people of God, and committed to mother Bungie, and such like of hir profession.

The words of the prophet Zacharie are plaine, touching the ceasing both of the good and bad prophet,Zach. 13. to wit: I will cause the prophets and uncleane spirits to depart out of the land, and when anie shall yet prophesie, his parents shall saie to him; Thou shalt not live, for thou speakest lies in the name of the Lord: and his parents shall thrust him through when he prophesieth, &c.J. Chrysost. in evang. Johan. hom. 18.
Pet. Blest. epist. 49.
No, no: the foretelling of things to come, is the onelie worke of God, who disposeth all things sweetlie, of whose counsell there hath never yet beene anie man. And to know our labours, the times/160. and moments God hath placed in his owne power. Also Phavorinus saith, that if these cold prophets or oraclers tell thee prosperitie, and deceive thee, thou art made a miser through vaine expectation: if they tell thee of adversitie, &c: and lie, thou art made a miser through vaine feare. And therefore I saie, we maie as well looke to heare prophesies at the tabernacle, in the bush, of the cherubin, among the clouds, from the angels, within the arke, or out of the flame, &c: as to expect an oracle of a prophet in these daies.

But put the case, that one in our common wealth should step up and saie he were a prophet (as manie frentike persons doo) who would beleeve him, or not thinke rather that he were a lewd person? See the statutes Elizab. 5.Canon. de. malef. & mathemat. whether there be not lawes made against them, condemning their arrogancie and cousenage: see also the canon lawes to the same effect.

The third Chapter.

That Oracles are ceased.

TOUCHING oracles, which for the most part were idols of silver, gold, wood, stones, &c:Thucidid. lib. 2.
Cicer. de. divin. lib. 2.
within whose bodies some saie uncleane spirites hid themselves, and gave answers: as some others saie, that exhalations rising out of the ground, inspire their minds, whereby their priests gave out oracles; so as spirits and winds rose up out of that soile, and indued those men/118. with the gift of prophesie of things to come, though in truth they were all devises to cousen the people, and for the profit of preests, who received the idols answers over night, and delivered them backe to the idolaters the next morning: you shall understand, that although129 it had beene so as it is supposed; yet by the reasons and proofes before rehearsed, they should now cease: and whatsoever hath affinitie with such miraculous actions, as witchcraft, conjuration, &c: is knocked on the head, and nailed on the crosse with Christ, who hath broken the power of divels, and satisfied Gods justice,/161. who also hath troden them under his feete, & subdued them, &c. At whose comming the prophet ZacharieZach. 13, 2. saith, that the Lord will cut the names of idols out of the land, and they shall be no more remembered; and he will then cause the prophets and uncleane spirits to depart out of the land. It is also written;Mich. 5, 12. I will cut off thine inchanters out of thine hand, and thou shalt have no more soothsaiers. And indeed the gospell of Christ hath so laid open their knaverie, &c: that since the preaching thereof, their combes are cut, and few that are wise regard them. And if ever these prophesies came to take effect, it must be upon the cōming of Christ, whereat you see the divels were troubled and fainted, when they met him, saieng, or rather exclaming upon him on this wise; Fili Dei cur venisti nos cruciare ante tempus? O thou sonne of God, whie commest thou to molest us (or confound us) before our time appointed? Which he indeed prevented, and now remaineth he our defender and keeper from his clawes. So as now you see here is no roome left for such ghests.

Howbeit, you shall heare the opinion of others, that have beene as much deceived as your selves in this matter: and yet are driven to confesse, that GOD hath constituted his sonne to beat downe the power of divels, and to satisfie Gods justice, and to heale our wound received by the fall of Adam, according to Gods promise in Genesis. 3.Gen. 3. The seed of the woman shall tread downe the serpent, or the divell. EusebiusEuseb. lib. 5, cap. 1. (in his fift booke De prædicatione Evangelii, the title whereof is this, that the power of divels is taken awaie by the comming of Christ) saith; All answers made by divels, all soothsaiengs and divinations of men are gon and vanished awaie. Item he citeth PorphyrieIdem. Ibid. in his booke against christian religion, wherein these words are rehearsed;Porphyr. in lib. contra christ. relig. It is no mervell, though the plague be so hot in this citie: for ever since Jesus hath beene worshipped, we can obteine nothing that good is at the hands of our gods. And of this defection and ceasing of oracles writeth CiceroCic. de divin. lib. 2.
J. Chrysost. de laud.
Paul. hom 4.
long before, and that to have happened also before his time. Howbeit, Chrysostome living long since Cicero, saith, that Apollo was forced to grant, that so long as anie relike of a martyr was held to his nose, he could not make anie answer or oracle. So as one may perceive, that the heathen were wiser in this behalfe than manie christians, who in/162. times past were called Oppugnatores incantamentorum, as the English130 princes are called Defensores fidei. Plutarch calleth Bœotia (as we call bablers) by the name of manie words, bicause of the multitude of oracles there, which now (saith he) are like to a spring or fountaine which is dried up. If anie one remained, I would ride five hundred miles to see it: but in the whole world/119. there is not one to be seene at this houre; popish cousenages excepted.

But PlutarchPorphyr. writeth verses in Apollos name, of the death of Apollo: cited by J. Bod. fol. 6. saith, that the cause of this defection of oracles, was the divels death, whose life he held to be determinable and mortall, saieng they died for verie age; and that the divining preests were blowne up with a whirlewind, and soonke with an earthquake. Others imputed it to the site or the place of the planets, which when they passed over them, carried awaie that art with them, and by revolution may returne, &c. Eusebius also citeth out of him the storie of Pan, which bicause it is to this purpose, I will insert the same; and since it mentioneth the divels death, you may beleeve it if you list: for I will not, as being assured that he is reserved alive to punish the wicked, and such as impute unto those idols the power of almightie God.

The fourth Chapter.

A tale written by manie grave authors, and beleeved by manie wise men of the divels death. An other storie written by papists, and beleeved of all catholikes, approoving the divels honestie, conscience, and courtesie.

PLUTARCH saith, that his countriman *Epotherses[* read Epi] told him, that as he passed by sea into Italie, manie passengers being in his bote, in an evening, when they were about the ilands Echinadæ, the wind quite ceased: and the ship driving with the tide, was brought at last to Paxe. And whilest some slept, and others quaft, and othersome were awake (perhaps in as ill case as the rest) after supper suddenlie a voice was heard calling, Thamus; in such sort as everie man marvelled. This ThamusThamus having little to doo, thought to plaie with his companie, whom he might easilie overtake with such a jest. was a pilot,/163. borne in Aegypt, unknowne to manie that were in the ship. Wherefore being twise called, he answered nothing; but the third time he answered: and the other with a lowder voice commanded him, that when he came to Palodes, he should tell them that the great God Pan was departed. Whereat everie one was astonied (as Epitherses affirmed.) And being in consultation what were best to doo, Thamus concluded, that if the wind were hie, they must passe by with silence; but if the weather were calme, he must utter that 131 which he had heard. But when they came to Palodes, and the wether calme, Thamus looking out toward the land, cried alowd, that the great god Pan was deceased: and immediatlie there followed a lamentable noise of a multitude of people, as it were with great woonder and admiration. And bicause there were manie in the ship, they said the fame thereof was speedilie brought to Rome, and Thamus sent for by Tiberius the Emperour, who gave such credit thereto, that he diligentlie inquired and asked, who that Pan was. The learned men about him supposed, that Pan was he who was the sonne of Mercurie and Penelope, &c. Eusebius saith, that this chanced in the time of Tiberius the Emperor, when Christ expelled all divels, &c.

Paulus Marsus, in his notes upon Ovids Fasti, saith, that this voice was/120. heard out of Paxe, that verie night that Christ suffered, in the yeare of Tiberius the nineteenth. Surelie, this was a merrie jest devised by Thamus,A detection of Thamus his knaverie. who with some confederate thought to make sport with the passengers, who were some asleepe, and some droonke, and some other at plaie, &c: whiles the first voice was used. And at the second voice, to wit, when he should deliver his message, he being an old pilot, knew where some noise was usuall, by meanes of some eccho in the sea, and thought he would (to the astonishment of them) accomplish his devise, if the wether prooved calme. Whereby may appeare, that he would in other cases of tempests, &c: rather attend to more serious busines, than to that ridiculous matter. For whie else should he not doo his errand in rough wether, as well as in calme? Or what need he tell the divell thereof, when the divell told it him before, and with much more expedition could have done the errand himselfe?

*But* Legend. aur. in vita sancti Andreæ. fol. 39. you shall read in the Legend a fable, an oracle I would/164. saie, more authentike. For many will say that this was a prophane storie, and not so canonicall as those which are verefied by the popes authoritie: and thus it is written. A woman in hir travell sent hir sister to Diana, which was the divell in an idoll (as all those oracles are said to be) and willed hir to make hir praiers, or rather a request, to knowe of hir safe deliverie: which thing she did. But the divell answered; Why praiest thou to me? I cannot helpe thee, but go praie to Andrew the apostle, and he may helA gentle and a godlie divell.pe thy sister, &c. Lo, this was not onelie a gentle, but a godlie divell, pittieng the womans case, who revealing his owne disabilitie, enabled S. Andrew more. I knowe some protestants will saie, that the divell, to mainteine idolatrie, &c: referred the maid to S. Andrew. But what answer will the papists make, who thinke it great pietie to praie unto saints, and so by consequence honest courtesie in the divell, to send hir to S. Andrew, who wold not faile to serve hir turne, &c.

132

The fift Chapter.

The judgments of the ancient fathers touching oracles, and their abolishment, and that they be now transferred from Delphos to Rome.

THE opinions of the fathers, that oracles are ceased by the cōming of Christ, you shall find in these places following, to wit:Athanas. de human. verbi. fol. 55 & 64 Justinus In dialogis adversus Judæos, Athanasius De humanitate verbi, Augustine De civitate Dei, Eusebius Lib. 7. cap. 6, Item lib. 5. cap. 1. 8. Rupertus In Joan. lib. 10. 12. Plutarch De abolitione oraculorum, Plinie lib. 30. natural. historiæ. Finallie, Athanasius concludes, that in times past there were oracles in Delphos, Bœotia, Lycia, and other places: but now since Christ is preached to all men, this madnesse is ceased. So as you see, that whatsoever estimation in times past, the ancient fathers conceived (by heeresaie) of those miraculous matters of idols and oracles, &c: they themselves refuse now, not onelie to beare witnesse of; but also affirme, that ever/ since Christs comming their mouthes have beene stopped./165.

121.For the ceasing of the knaveries and cousening devises of preests, I see no authoritie of scripture or ancient father, but rather the contrarie; to wit, that there shall be strange illusions shewed by them, even till the end. And truelie, whosoever knoweth and noteth the order and devises of and in popish pilgrimages, shall see both the oracles & their conclusions remaining, and as it were transferred from Delphos to Rome, where that adulterous generation continuallie seeketh a signe, though they have Moses & the prophets, yea even Christ & his apostles also, &c.

The sixt Chapter.

Where and wherein couseners, witches, and preests were woont to give oracles, and to worke their feats.

THESE cousening oracles, or rather oraclers used (I saie) to exercise their feats and to doo their miracles most commonly in maids, in beasts, in images, in dens, in cloisters, in darke holes, in trees, in churches or churchyards, &c: where preests, moonks, and friers had laid their plots, and made their confederacies aforehand, to beguile the world, to gaine monie, and to adde credit to their profession. This practise began133 in the okes of Dodona,Strabo Geog. lib 16.
J. Wier. li. 1. de præs. dæm. cap. 12.
in the which was a wood, the trees thereof (they saie) could speake. And this was doone by a knave in a hollowe tree, that seemed sound unto the simple people. This wood was in Molossus a part of Greece, called Epyrus, and it was named Dodonas oracles. There were manie oracles in Aegypt; namelie, of Hercules, of Apollo, of Minerva, of Diana, of Mars, of Jupiter, and of the oxe Apys, who was the sonne of Jupiter, but his image was worshipped in the likenesse of an oxe. Latona, who was the mother of Apollo, was an oracle in the citie of Bute. The preests of Apollo, who alwaies counterfaited furie and madnesse, gave oracles in the temple called Clarius, within the citie of Colophon in Greece. At Thebes in Bœotia and also in Læbadia, Trophonius was the cheefe oracle. At Memphis a cow, at Corinth an oxe called Mineus, in Arsinoe a crocodile, in Athens a prophet called Amphiaraus, who/166. indeed died at Thebes, where they saie the earth opened, & swallowed him up quicke. At Delphos was the great temple of Apollo, where divels gave oracles by maides (as some saie) though indeed it was doone by preests. It was built upon Parnassus hill in Greece. And the defenders of oracles saie, that even as rivers oftentimes are diverted to another course; so likewise the spirit, which inspired the cheefe prophets, may for a time be silent, and revive againe by revolution.

Demetrius saith, that the spirits, which attended on oracles, waxed wearie of the peoples curiositie and importunitie, and for shame forsooke the temple. But as *one* H. Haw. in his defensative against prophesies. that of late hath written against prophesies saith; It is no marvell, that when the familiars that speake in trunks were repelled from their harbour for feare of discoverie, the blocks almightie lost their senses. For these are all gone now, and their knaverie is espied; so as they can no longer abuse the world with such bables. But whereas/122. these great doctors suppose, that the cause of their dispatch was the comming of Christ; if they meane that the divell died, so soone as he was borne, or that then he gave over his occupation: they are deceived. For the popish church hath made a continuall practise hereof, partlie for their owne private profit, lucre, and gaine; and partly to be had in estimation of the world, and in admiration among the simple. But indeed, men that have learned Christ, and beene conversant in his word, have discovered and shaken off the vanitie and abhomination heereof. But if those doctors had lived till this daie, they would have said and written, that oracles had ceased, or rather beene driven out of EnglandIn whose daies oracles ceased in England in the time of K. Henrie the eight, and of Queene Elizabeth his daughter; who have doone so much in that behalfe, as at this houre they are not onlie all gone, but forgotten here in this 134 English nation, where they swarmed as thicke as they did in Bœotia, or in any other place in the world. But the credit they had, depended not upon their desart, but upon the credulitie of others. Now there- fore I will conclude and make an end of this matter, with the opinion and saieng of the prophet;Zach. 10.
Isai. 44.
Vaine is the answer of idols. For they have eies and see not, eares and heare not, mouthes and speake not, &c: and let them shew what is to come, and I will saie they are gods indeed.//


135

The ninth Booke. 167. 123.

The first Chapter.

The Hebrue word Kasam expounded, and how farre a Christian may conjecture of things to come.

KASAM (as John Wierus upon his owne knowledge affirmeth, and upon the word of Andræas MasiusJ. Wier. lib. de præst. dæmon. reporteth) differeth little in signification from the former word Ob: betokening Vaticinari, which is, To prophesie, and is most commonlie taken in evill part; as in Deut. 18. Jerem. 27. &c: howbeit, sometime in good part, as in Esaie 3. verse. 2. To foretell things to come upon probable conjectures,All divinations are not condemnable. so as therein we reach no further than becommeth humane capacitie, is not (in mine opinion) unlawfull, but rather a commendable manifestation of wisedome and judgment, the good gifts and notable blessings of GOD, for the which we ought to be thankfull; as also to yeeld due honour and praise unto him, for the noble order which he hath appointed in nature: praieng him to lighten our hearts with the beames of his wisedome, that we may more and more profit in the true knowledge of the workemanship of his hands. But some are so nise, that they condemne generallie all sorts of divinations, denieng those things that in nature have manifest causes, and are so framed, as they forshew things to come, and in that shew admonish us of things after to insue, exhibiting signes of unknowne and future matters to be judged upon, by the order, lawe, and course of nature/168. proposed unto us by God.

And some on the other side are so bewitched with follie, as they attribute to creatures that estimation, which rightlie and truelie apperteineth to God the creator of all things; affirming that the publike and private destinies of all humane matters, and whatsoever a man would knowe of things come or gone, is manifested to us in the heavens: so as by the starres and planets all things might be knowne. These would also, that nothing should be taken in hand or gone about, without the favourable aspect of the planets. By which, and other the like devises they deprave and prophane the ancient and commendable observations of our forfathers: as did Colebrasus,Colebrasus erronious & impious opinion. who taught, that all mans life was governed by the seven planets; and yet a christian, and condemned for heresie. But let us so farre foorth imbrace and allow this philosophie and prophesieng, as the word of God giveth us leave, and commendeth the same unto us./

136

The second Chapter.124.

Proofes by the old and new testament, that certaine observations of the weather are lawfull.

WHEN God by his word and wisedome had made the heavens, and placed the starres in the firmament, he said; Let them be for signes,Psalm. 13.
Jerem. 54.
Gen. 1.
Ezech. 1.
Gen. 9.
and for seasons, and for daies, and yeares. When he created the rainebowe in the clouds, he said it should be for a signe and token unto us. Which we find true, not onelie of the floud past, but also of shewers to come. And therefore according to Jesus Sirachs advise, let us behold it, and praise him that made it. The prophet DavidEcclus. 43.
Ps. 19. & 50.
saith;Ecclus. 43.
Baruch. 3.
The heavens declare the glorie of God, and the firmament sheweth his handie worke: daie unto daie uttereth the same, and night unto night teacheth knowledge. It is also written that by the commandement of the holie one the starres are placed, and continue in their order, & faile not in their watch. It should appeare, that Christ himselfe did not altogither neglect the course & order of the heavens, in that he said; When you see a/169. cloud rise out of the west, streight waie you saie a shewer commeth:Luk. 12, 24. and so it is. And when you see the southwind blowe; you saie it will be hot, and so it commeth to passe. Againe, when it is evening, you saie faire*[* Mispr. saire.] weather, for the skie is red: and in the morning you saie,Matt. 16. 2, 3. to daie shalbe a tempest, for the skie is red and lowring. Wherein as he noteth that these things doo trulie come to passe, according to ancient observation, and to the rule astronomicall: so doth he also by other words following admonish us, that in attending too much to those obsevations, we neglect not speciallie to follow our christian vocation.

The physician is commended unto us, and allowed in the scriptures: but so to put trust in him, as to neglect & distrust God, is severelie forbidden and reproved. Surelie it is most necessarie for us to know and observe diverse rules astrologicall; otherwise we could not with oportunitie dispatch our ordinarie affaires. And yet Lactantius Lactant. contra astrologos. condemneth and recounteth it among the number of witchcrafts: from whose censure Calvine doth not much varie. The poore husbandman perceivethPeucer. de astrol. pag. 383. that the increase of the moone maketh plants and living creatures frutefull: so as in the full moone they are in best strength, decaieng in the wane, and in the conjunction doo utterlie wither and vade. Which when by observation, use and practise they have once learned, they distribute their businesse accordinglie; as their times and seasons to sowe, to plant, to proine, to let their cattell bloud, to cut, &c./

137

The third Chapter.125.

That certeine observations are indifferent, certeine ridiculous, and certeine impious, whence that cunning is derived of Apollo, and of Aruspices.

I  KNOW not whetherThe ridiculous art of nativitie-casting. to disallow or discommend the curious observation used by our elders, who conjectured upon nativities: so as, if Saturne and Mercurie were opposite in anie brute signe, a man then borne should be dumbe or stammer much; whereas it is dailie seene, that children naturallie imitate their parents/170. conditions in that behalfe. Also they have noted, that one borne in the spring of the moone, shalbe healthie; in that time of the wane, when the moone is utterlie decaied, the child then borne cannot live; and in the conjunction, it cannot long continue.

But I am sure the opinion of Julius MaternusJulius Maternus his most impious opinion. is most impious, who writeth, that he which is borne when Saturne is in Leone, shall live long, and after his death shall go to heaven presentlie. And so is this of Albumazar, who saith, that whosoever praieth to God, when the moone is in Capite draconis, shalbe heard, and obteine his praier. Furthermore, to plaie the cold prophet, as to recount it good or bad lucke, when salt or wine falleth on the table, or is shed, &c: or to prognosticate that ghests approch to your house, upon the chattering of pies or haggisters, wherof there can be yeelded no probable reason, is altogither vanitie and superstition: as hereafter shalbe more largelie shewed. But to make simple people beleeve, that a man or woman can foretell good or evill fortune, is meere witchcraft or cousenage. For God is the onlie searcher of the heart, and delivereth not his counsell to so lewd reprobates. I know diverse writers affirme,Bodinus.
Danæus.
Erastus.
Hemingius.
Mal. malef.
Thom. Aquinas, &c.
that witches foretell things, as prompted by a reall divell; and that he againe learneth it out of the prophesies written in the scriptures, and by other nimble sleights, wherein he passeth anie other creature earthlie; and that the same divell, or some of his fellowes runnes or flies as farre as Rochester, to mother Bungie; or to Canturburie to M. T; or to Delphos, to Apollo; or to Aesculapius, in Pargamo; or to some other idoll or witch, and there by waie of oracle answers all questions, through his understanding of the prophesies conteined in the old testament, especiallie in Daniel and Esaie: whereby the divell knew of the translation of the monarchie from Babylon to Græcia, &c. But either they have learned this of some oracle or witch; or else I know not where the divell they find it. 138 Marrie certeine it is, that herein they shew themselves to be witches and fond divinors: for they find no such thing written in Gods word.

Of the idoll called Apollo, I have somewhat alreadie spoken in the former title of Ob or Pytho; and some occasion I shall have to speake thereof hereafter: and therfore at this time it shall suffice to tell you, that the credit gained thereunto, was by the craft/171. and cunning of the priests, which tended thereupon; who with their counterfeit miracles so/126. bewitched the people, as they thought such vertue to have beene conteined in the bodies of those idols, as God hath not promised to anie of his angels, or elect people. For it is said, that if ApolloApollos passions. were in a chafe, he would sweat: if he had remorse to the afflicted, and could not help them, he would shed teares, which I beleeve might have beene wiped awaie with that handkerchiefe, that wiped and dried the Rood of graces face, being in like perplexities. Even as another sort of witching priests called Aruspices, prophesied victorie to Alexander, bicause an eagle lighted on his head: which eagle might (I beleeve) be cooped or caged with Mahomets dove, that picked peason out of his eare.

The fourth Chapter.

The predictions of soothsaiers and lewd priests, the prognostications of astronomers and physicians allowable, divine prophesies holie and good.

THE cousening tricks of oracling priests and monkes, are and have beene speciallie most abhominable. The superstitious observations of sensles augurors and soothsaiers (contrarie to philosophie, and without authoritie of scripture)What prophesies allowable. are verie ungodlie and ridiculous. Howbeit, I reject not the prognostications of astronomers, nor the conjectures or forewarnings of physicians, nor yet the interpretations of philosophers; although in respect of the divine prophesies conteined in holie scriptures, they are not to be weighed or regarded. For the end of these and the other is not onlie farre differing; but whereas these conteine onlie the word and will of God, with the other are mingled most horrible lies and cousenages. For though there may be many of them learned and godlie, yet lurke there in corners of the same profession, a great number of counterfets and couseners. J. BodinJ. Bod. lib. de dæm. lib. 1. cap. 4. putteth this difference betweene divine prophets and inchantors;/172. to wit, the one saith alwaies true, the others words (proceeding from the divell) are alwaies false; or for one truth they tell a hundred lies. And then 139 why maie not everie witch be thought as cunning as Apollo? And why not everie counterfet cousener as good a witch as mother Bungie? For it is ods, but they will hit the truth once in a hundred divinations as well as the best.

The fift Chapter.

The diversitie of true prophets, of Urim, and of the propheticall use of the twelve precious stones conteined therein, of the divine voice called Eccho.

IT should appeare, that even of holie prophets there were diverse sorts. For David and Salomon, although in their psalmes and parables are conteined most excellent mysteries,Diverse degrees of prophesie. and notable allegories: yet they were not indued with that degree of prophesie, that Elie and Elisha were, &c./127. For as often as it is said, that God spake to David or Salomon, it is meant to be done by the prophets. For Nathan or Gad were the messengers and prophets to reveale Gods will to David.2. Reg. 2. And Ahiam the Silonite was sent from God to Salomon. Item, the spirit of prophesie, which Elias had, was doubled upon Elisha. Also some prophets prophesied all their lives, some had but one vision, and some had more, according to Gods pleasure; yea some prophesied unto the people of such things as came not to passe, and that was where Gods wrath was pacified by repentance. But these prophets were alwaies reputed among the people to be wise and godlie; whereas the heathen prophets were evermore knowne and said to be mad and foolish: as it is written both of the prophets of Sibylla, and also of Apollo; and at this daie also in the Indies, &c.

But that anie of these extraordinarie gifts remaine at this daie, Bodin,J. Bodin. nor anie witchmonger in the world shall never be able to proove: though he in his booke of divelish madnesse would make men beleeve it. For these were miraculouslie mainteined/173. by God among the Jewes, who were instructed by them of all such things as should come to passe; or else informed by Urim: so as the preests by the brightnes of the twelve pretious stones conteined therein, could prognosticate or expound anie thing. Which brightnes and vertue ceased (as JosephusJoseph. de antiquit. reporteth) two hundred yeares before he was borne. So as since that time, no answers were yelded thereby of Gods will and pleasure. Nevertheles, the Hebrues write,Josue filius
Levi. lib.
Pirkeaboth.
that there hath beene ever since that time, a divine voice heard among them, which in Latine is called Filia vocis, in Greeke ἡχὼ, in English The daughter of speech.

140

The sixt Chapter.

Of prophesies conditionall: whereof the prophesies in the old testament doo intreate, and by whom they were published; witchmongers aunswers to the objections against witches supernaturall actions.

CHRIST and his apostles prophesied of the calamities and afflictions, which shall greeve and disturbe the church of God in this life: also of the last daie, and of the signes and tokens that shall be shewed before that daie: and finallie of all things, which are requisite for us to foreknowe. Howbeit, such is the mercie of God, that all prophesies,Prophesies conditionall. threatnings, plagues, and punishments are annexed to conditions of repentance: as on the other side, corporall blessings are tied under the condition of the crosse and castigation. So as by them the mysteries of our salvation being discovered unto us, we are not to seeke new signes and miracles; but to attend to the doctrine of the apostles, who preached Christ exhibited and crucified for our sinnes, his resurrection, ascension, and thereby the redemption of as manie as beleeve, &c.

The prophesies in the old testament treat of the continuance, the governement, and the difference of estates: of the distinction of the foure monarchies, of their order, decaie, and instauration;/174. of the changes and/128. ruines of the kingdomes of The subject of the prophesies of the old testament. Juda, Israel, Aegypt, Persia, Græcia, &c: and speciallie of the comming of our Saviour Jesus Christ; and how he should be borne of a virgine, and where, of his tribe, passion, resurrection, &c. These prophesies were published by Gods speciall and peculiar prophets, endued with his particular and excellent gifts, according to his promise; I will raise them up a prophet out of the midst of their brethren, I will put my words in his mouth, &c. Which though it were speciallie spoken of Christ, yet was it also spoken of those particular prophets, which were placed among them by God to declare his will; which were also figures of Christ the prophet himselfe. Now, if prophesie be an extraordinarie gift of God, and a thing peculiar to himselfe, as without whose speciall assistance no creature can be a prophet, or shew what is to come; whie should we beleeve, that those lewd persons can performe by divinations and miracles that which is not in humane but in divine power to accomplish?

Howbeit, when I denie that witches can ride in the aire, and the miraculous circumstance thereof: by and by it is objected unto me, that2. Reg. 2. 13. Enoch and Elie were rapt into heaven bodilie; and that Abacuke 141 was carried in the aire, to feed Daniel: and so falselie oppose a divels or a witches power against the vertue of the Holy-ghost. If I deride the poets opinions, saieng, that witches cannot Cœlo deducere lunam, fetch the moone from heaven, &c: they tell me that at Joshuas battell the sunne staied, and at the passion of Christ there was palpable darknes. If I denie their cunning in the exposition of dreames, advising them to remember Jeremies counsell, not to followe or credit the expositors of dreames; they hit me in the teeth with Daniel and Joseph: for that the one of them expounded Pharao the Persian kings, the other Nabuchadnez-zar the Aegyptian kings dreame. If I saie with Salomon,Eccles. 9, 5. that the dead knowe nothing, and that the dead knowe us not, neither are remooveable out of Abrahams bosome, &c: they produce the storie of Samuel:1. Sam. 28. wherein, I saie, they set the power of a creature as high as the creator. If I saie, that these witches cannot transubstantiate themselves, nor others into beasts, &c. they cite the storie of Nabuchadnez-zar; as though indeed he were made a materiall beast, and that also by witch/craft;175. and strengthen that their assertion with the fables of Circe and Ulysses his companions, &c.

The seventh Chapter.

What were the miracles expressed in the old testament, and what are they in the new testament: and that we are not now to looke for anie more miracles.

THE miracles expressed in the old testament were manie, but the end of them all was one, though they were divers and differing in shew: as where the sacrifices of Moses, Elias, and Salomon, being abundantlie wet were burnt with fier from heaven, &c. The varietie of toongs at the building of Gen. 11, 6.
Gen. 21.
Dan. 11.
Babylon, Isaachs birth of Sarah being by nature past children,/129. the passage through the red sea, Daniels foretelling of the foure monarchies, in the fourth whereof he apparantlie foresheweth the comming of the Lord. All these, and manie other, which are expressed in the old testament, were mercifull instructions and notable miracles to strengthen the faith of Gods people in their Messias. If you had gone to Delphos, Apollo would have made you beleeve with his amphibologicall answers, that he could have foretold you all these things.

The miracles wrought by ChristA summe of Christs miracles. were the raising up of the dead (which manie would impute to the woman of Endor, and also to our witches and conjurors) the restoring of the lame to lims, the blind to 142 sight, the dumbe to speach, and finallie the healing of all diseases; which manie beleeve our witches can doo; yea, and as they themselves will take it upon them. As for casting out of divels (which was another kind of miracles usuall with Christ) witches and conjurors are said to be as good thereat as ever he was: and yet, if you will beleeve Christs words, it cannot be so. For he saith; Everie kingdome divided against it selfe,Matt. 12. 25. shall be brought to naught, &c. If sathan cast out sathan, he is divided, &c: and his kingdome shall not endure, &c./

176.Peters chaines fell off in prison, so did Richard Gallisies fetters at Windsor: marrie the prison doores opened not to Richard, as they did to Peter. Helias by speciall grace obtained raine, our witches can make it raine, when they list, &c. But sithens Christ did these miracles, and manie more, and all to confirme his truth, and strengthen our faith, and finallie for the conversion of the people (as appeareth in John. 6. 7, and 12: in so much as he vehementlie reprooved such, as upon the sight of themLuk. 10, 13. would not beleeve, saieng; Wo be to thee Chorazin, we be to thee Bethsaida. If the miracles had beene doone in Tyre and Sidon, which have beene doone in you, they had a great while ago repented, &c. Let us settle and acquiet our faith in Christ, and beleeving all his wonderous works, let us reject these old wives fables, as lieng vanities: whereof you may find in the golden legend, M. Mal. and speciallie in Bodin miraculous stuffe, enough to checke all the miracles expressed in the old and new testament; which are of more credit with manie bewitched people, than the true miracles of Christ himselfe. Insomuch as they stand in more awe of the manacies of a witch, than of all the threatnings and cursses pronounced by God, and expressed in his word. And thus much touching the word Kasam.//


143

The tenth Booke. 177. 130.

The first Chapter.

The interpretation of this Hebrue word Onen, of the vanitie of dreames, and divinations thereupon.

ONEN differeth not much from Kasam, but that it is extended to the interpretation of dreames. And as for dreames, whatsoever credit is attributed unto them,Ecclus. 24. proceedeth of follie: and they are fooles that trust in them, for whie they have deceived many. In which respect the ProphetJerem. 27.
Eccle. 5.
giveth us good warning, not to followe nor hearken to the expositors of dreames, for they come through the multitude of busines. And therefore those witches, that make men beleeve they can prophesie upon dreames, as knowing the interpretation of them, and either for monie or glorie abuse men & women therby, are meere couseners, and worthie of great punishment: as are such witchmongers, as beleeving them, attribute unto them such divine powerJerem. 23. 25. 26. 27.
Read the words.
as onelie belongeth to God: as appeereth in Jeremie the Prophet./

The second Chapter.178.

Of divine, naturall, and casuall dreames, with their differing causes and effects.

MACROBIUS recounteth five differences of images, or rather imaginations exhibited unto them that sleepe, which for the most part doo signifie somewhat in admonition. There be also many subdivisions made hereof, which I thinke needlesse to reherse. In Jasper PeucerPeucer in divinat. ex somniis. they are to be seene, with the causes and occasions of dreames. There were woont to be delivered from God himselfe or his angels, certeine dreames and visions unto the prophets and holie fathers: according to the saieng of Joel;Joel. 2. I will powre my spirit upon all flesh, your yoong men shall dreame dreames, and your old men shall see visions. These kind of dreames (I say)Matth. 1. 20. were the admonishments and forewarnings of God to his people: as that of Joseph, to abide with Marie his wife, after she was conceived by the Holie-ghost,Matth. 2, 13. as also to conveie our Saviour Christ into Aegypt, &c: the interpretation whereof are the peculiar gifts of God, which Joseph the patriarch,Gen. 39. & 40. & 41.
Dani. 2.
and Daniel the prophet had most speciallie.

As for physicall conjectures upon dreames, the scriptures *improove[* ? reproove] 144them not: for by them the physicians manie times doo understand the state of their patients bodies. For some of them come by meanes of choler, flegme, melancholie, or bloud; and some by love, surfet, hunger, thirst, &c. Gallen and Boetius were said to deale with divels, bicause they/131. told so justlie their patients dreames, or rather by their dreames their speciall diseases. Howbeit, physicall dreames are naturall, and the cause of them dwelleth in the nature of man. For they are the inward actions of the mind in the spirits of the braine, whilest the bodie is occupied with sleepe: for as touching the mind it selfe, it never sleepeth. These dreames varie, according to the difference of humors and vapors. There are also casuall dreames, which (as SalomonEccles. 5. saith)/179. come through the multitude of businesse. For as a looking glasse sheweth the image or figure thereunto opposite: so in dreames, the phantasie & imagination informes the understanding of such things as haunt the outward sense. Whereupon the poet saith:

Somnia ne cures, nam mens humana quod optat,
Dum vigilat sperans, per somnum cernit id ipsum:
Englished by Abraham Fleming.Regard no dreames, for why the mind
Of that in sleepe a view dooth take,
Which it dooth wish and hope to find,
At such time as it is awake.

The third Chapter.

The opinion of divers old writers touching dreames, and how they varie in noting the causes thereof.

SYNESIUS, Themistius, Democritus, and others grounding themselves A dissonancie in opinions about dreames. upon examples that chance hath sometimes verified, persuade men, that nothing is dreamed in vaine: affirming that the hevenlie influencies doo bring foorth divers formes in corporall matters; and of the same influencies, visions and dreames are printed in the fantasticall power, which is instrumentall, with a celestiall disposition meete to bring foorth some effect, especiallie in sleepe, when the mind (being free from bodilie cares) may more liberallie receive the heavenlie influencies, wherby many things are knowne to them sleeping in dreames, which they that wake cannot see. Plato attributeth them to the formes and ingendred knowledges of the soule; Avicen to the last intelligence that moveth the moone, through the light that lighteneth the fantasie in sleepe; Aristotle to the phantasticall sense; Averroës to the imaginative; Albert to the influence of superior bodies.//

145

The fourth Chapter.180. 132.

Against interpreters of dreames, of the ordinarie cause of dreames, Hemingius his opinion of diabolicall dreames, the interpretation of dreames ceased.

THERE are bookes carried about concerning this matter, under the name of Abraham, who (as Philo In lib. gigantum saith) was the first inventor of the exposition of dreames: and so likewise of Salomon and Daniel. But Cicero In lib. de diviniatione confuteth the vanitie and follie of them that give credit to dreames. And as for the interpretors of dreames, as they knowe not before the dreame, nor yet after, any certeintie; yet when any thing afterwards happeneth, then they applie the dreame to that which hath chanced.

Certeinlie men never lightlie faile to dreame by night, of that which they meditate by daie: and by daie they see divers and sundrie things, and conceive them severallie in their minds. Then those mixed conceits being laid up in the closset of the memorie, strive togither; which, bicause the phantasie cannot discerne nor discusse, some certeine thing gathered of manie conceits is bred and contrived in one togither. And therefore in mine opinion, it is time vainelie emploied, to studie about the interpretation of dreames.The pleasant art of the interpretation of dreames. He that list to see the follie and vanitie thereof, maie read a vaine treatise, set out by Thomas Hill Londoner, 1568.

Lastlie, there are diabolicall dreames, which Nicolaus Hemingius N. Hemin. in admonitionib. de superstitionib. magicis vitādis. divideth into three sortes. The first is, when the divell immediatlie of himselfe (he meaneth corporallie) offereth anie matter of dreame. Secondlie, when the divell sheweth revelations to them that have made request unto him therefore. Thirdlie, when magicians by art bring to passe, that other men dreame what they will. Assuredlie these, and so all the rest (as they maie be used) are verie magicall and divelish dreames. For although we maie receive comfort of mind by those, which are called divine/181. dreames, and health of bodie through physicall dreames: yet if we take upon us to use the office of God in the revelationThe end & use of prophesie, interpretatiō of dreames, operation of miracles, &c. or rather the interpretation of them; or if we attribute unto them miraculous effects (now when we see the gifts of prophesie, and of interpretation of dreames, and also the operation of miracles are ceased, which were speciall and peculiar gifts of God, to confirme the truth of the word, and to establish his people in the faith of the Messias, who is now exhibited unto us both in the testament, and also in the bloud of our Saviour Jesus Christ) we are bewitched, 146 and both abuse and offend the majestie of God, and also seduce, delude and cousen all such as by our persuasion, and their owne light beleefe, give us credit.

The fift Chapter.133.

That neither witches, nor anie other, can either by words or hearbs, thrust into the mind of a sleeping man, what cogitations or dreames they list; and whence magicall dreames come.

I  GRANT there maie be hearbs and stones foundSeeke for such stuffe in my booke of Hartumim. and knowne to the physicians, which maie procure dreames; and other hearbs and stones, &c: to make one bewraie all the secrets of his mind, when his bodie sleepeth, or at least wise to procure speech in sleepe. But that witches or magicians have power by words, herbs, or imprecations to thrust into the mind or conscience of man, what it shall please them, by vertue of their charmes, hearbs, stones, or familiars, &c: according to the opinion of Hemingius, I denie: though therewithall I confesse, that the divell both by daie and also by night, travelleth to seduce man, and to lead him from God; yea and that no waie more than this, where he placeth himselfe as God in the minds of them that are so credulous, to attribute unto him, or unto witches, that which is onlie in the office, nature, and power of God to accomplish.

Doth not DanielDan. 2. the prophet saie, even in this case; It is the/182. Lord onelie that knoweth such secrets, as in the exposition of dreames is required? And doth not JosephGen. 11, 8.
Gen. 37, & 11.
Isai. 11.
Dan. 2.
repeat those verie words to Pharaos officers, who consulted with him therein? Examples of divine dreames you maie find a great number in the scripture, such (I meane) as it pleased God to reveale his pleasure by. Of physicall dreames we maie both read in authors, and see in our owne experience dailie, or rather nightly. Such dreams also as are casuall, they are likewise usuall, and come (as hath beene said) through the multitude of affaires and businesse. Those which in these daies are called magicall or diabolicall dreames, maie rather be called melancholicall. For out of that blacke vapor in sleepe, through dreames, appeareth (as Aristotle Aristot. de somnio. saith) some horrible thing; and as it were the image of an ouglie divell: sometimes also other terrible visions, imaginations, counsels, and practises. As where we read of a certeine man, that dreamed there appeared one unto him that required him to throwe himselfe into a deepe pit, and that he should reape great benefit thereby at Gods hands. So as the miserable wretch giving credit thereunto, performed the matter, and killed himselfe.147 Now I confesse, that the interpretation or execution of that dreame was indeed diabolicall: but the dreame was casuall, derived from the heavie and blacke humor of melancholie./

The sixt Chapter.134.

How men have beene bewitched, cousened or abused by dreames to dig and search for monie.

HOW manie have beene bewitchedSuch would be imbarked in the ship of fooles. with dreames, and thereby made to consume themselves with digging and searching for monie, &c: whereof they, or some other have drempt? I my selfe could manifest, as having knowne how wise men have beene that waie abused by verie simple persons, even where no dreame hath beene met withall, but waking dreames. And this hath beene used heretofore, as one of the finest cousening feates: in so much/183. as there is a verie formall art thereof devised, with manie excellent superstitions and ceremonies thereunto belonging, which I will set downe as breeflie as maie be. Albeit that here in England,An english proverbe. this proverbe hath beene current; to wit, Dreames proove contrarie: according to the answer of the priests boy to his master, who told his said boy that he drempt he kissed his taile: Yea maister (saith he) but dreames proove contrarie, you must kisse mine.

The seventh Chapter.

The art and order to be used in digging for monie, revealed by dreames, how to procure pleasant dreames, of morning and midnight dreames.

T HERE must be madeNote this superstitious dotage. upon a hazell wand three crosses, and certeine words both blasphemous and impious must be said over it, and hereunto must be added certeine characters, & barbarous names. And whilest the treasure is a digging, there must be read the psalmes, De profundis, Missa, Misereatur nostri, Requiem, Pater noster, Ave Maria, Et ne nos inducas in tentationem, sed libera nos à malo, Amen. A porta inferi credo videre bona, &c. Expectate Dominum, Requiem æternam. And then a certeine praier. And if the time of digging be neglected, the divell will carie all the treasure awaie. See other more absolute conjurations for this purpose, in the word Iidoni following.

You shall find in J. Bap. Neap. in natural. mag. lib. 2 cap. 26. fol. 83. & 84.Johannes Baptista Neapolitanus, diverse receipts by hearbes and potions, to procure pleasant or fearefull dreames; and perfumes also to that effect: who affirmeth, that dreames in the dead of148 the night are commonlie preposterous and monstrous; and in the morning when the grosse humors be spent, there happen more pleasant and certeine dreames, the bloud being more pure than at other times: the reason whereof is there expressed.//

The eight Chapter.184. 135.

Sundrie receipts and ointments, made and used for the transportation of witches, and other miraculous effects: an instance therof reported and credited by some that are learned.

IT shall not be amisse here in this place to repeate an ointment greatlie to this purpose, rehearsed by the foresaid John Bapt. Neap. wherein although he maie be overtaken and cousened by an old witch, and made not onelie to beleeve, but also to report a false tale; yet bicause it greatlie overthroweth the opinion of M. Mal. Bodin, and such other, as write so absolutelie in maintenance of witches transportations, I will set downe his words in this behalfe. The receipt is as followeth.

R.  Confections or receipts for the miraculous transportation of witches. The fat of yoong children, and seeth it with water in a brasen vessell, reserving the thickest of that which remaineth boiled in the bottome, which they laie up and keepe, untill occasion serveth to use it. They put hereunto Eleoselinum, Aconitum, Frondes populeas, and Soote.

Another receipt to the same purpose.

R.  Sium, acarum vulgare, pentaphyllon, the bloud of a flitter-mouse, solanum somniferum, & oleum. They stampe all these togither, and then they rubbe all parts of their bodies exceedinglie, till they looke red, and be verie hot, so as the pores may be opened, and their flesh soluble and loose. They joine herewithall either fat, or oile in steed thereof, that the force of the ointment maie the rather pearse inwardly, and so be more effectuall. By this means (saith he) in a moone light night they seeme to be carried in the aire, to feasting, singing, dansing, kissing, culling, and other acts of venerie, with such youthes as they love and desire most: for the force (saith he) of their imagination is so vehement, that almost all that part of the braine, wherein the memorie consisteth, is full of such conceipts. And whereas they are naturallie prone/185. to beleeve anie thing; so doo they receive such impressions and stedfast imaginations into their minds, as even their spirits are altered thereby; not thinking upon anie thing else, either by daie or by night. And this helpeth them forward in their imaginations, that their usuall food is none other commonlie but beets, rootes, nuts, beanes, peaze, &c.

149

NowVetule, quas à strigis similitudine, striges vocant, quæq; noctu puerulorum sanguinem in cunis cubantium exsorbent. (saith he) when I considered throughlie hereof, remaining doubtfull of the matter, there fell into my hands a witch, who of hir owne accord did promise me to fetch me an errand out of hand from farre countries, and willed all them, whome I had brought to witnesse the matter, to depart out of the chamber. And when she had undressed hir selfe, and froted hir bodie with certeine ointments (which action we beheld through a chinke or little hole of the doore) she fell downe thorough the force of those soporiferous or sleepie ointments into a most sound and heavie sleepe: so as we did breake open the doore, and did beate hir exceedinglie; but/136. the force of hir sleepe was such, as it tooke awaie from hir the sense of feeling: and we departed for a time. Now when hir strength and powers were wearie and decaied, shee awooke of hir owne accord, and began to speake manie vaine and doting words, affirming that she had passed over both seas and mountaines; delivering to us manie untrue and false reports: we earnestlie denied them, she impudentlie affirmed them. This (saith he) will not so come to passe with everie one, but onlie with old women that are melancholike, whose nature is extreame cold, and their evaporation small; and they both perceive and remember what they see in that case and taking of theirs.

The ninth Chapter.

A confutation of the former follies, as well concerning ointments, dreames, &c. as also of the assemblie of witches, and of their consultations and bankets at sundrie places, and all in dreames.

BUT if it be true that S. Augustine saith, and manie other writers, that witches nightwalkings are but phantasies and dreames: then all the reportes of their bargaine, transporting, and mee/tings with 186.Diana, Minerva, &c: are but fables; and then do they lie that mainteine those actions to be doone in deed and veritie, which in truth are doone no waie. It were marvell on the one side (if those things happened in dreames, which neverthelesse the witches affirme to be otherwise) that when those witches awake, they neither consider nor remember that they were in a dreame. Barthol. Spinæus, q. de strigib. c. 31.It were marvell that their ointments, by the opinions having no force at all to that effect, as they confesse which are inquisitors, should have such operation. It were marvell that their ointments cannot be found anie where, saving onelie in the inquisitors bookes. It were marvell, that when a stranger is annointed therewith, they have sometimes, and yet not alwaies, the like operation as with witches; which all the inquisitors confesse.

150

But to this last, frier Bar. Spin. qu. de strigib. c. 30.Bartholomæus saith, that the witches themselves, before they annoint themselves, do heare in the night time a great noise of minstrels, which flie over them, with the ladie of the fairies, and then they addresse themselves to their journie. But then I marvell againe, that no bodie else heareth nor seeth this troope of minstrels, especiallie riding in a moone light night. It is marvell that they that thinke this to be but in a dreame, can be persuaded that all the rest is anie other than dreames.New matter & worthie to be marvelled at. It is marvell that in dreames, witches of old acquaintance meet so just togither, and conclude upon murthers, and receive ointments, roots, powders, &c: (as witchmongers report they doo, and as they make the witches confesse) and yet lie at home fast asleepe. It is marvell that such preparation is made for them (as Sprenger, Bartholomew, and Bodin report) as well in noble mens houses, as in alehouses; and that they come in dreames, and eate up their meate: and the alewife speciallie is not wearied with them for non paiment of their score,/137. or false paiment; to wit, with imaginarie monie, which they saie is not substantiall, and that they talke not afterwards about the reckoning, and so discover the matter. And it is most marvell of all, that the hostesse, &c: dooth not sit among them, and take part of their good cheere. For so it is, that if any part of these their meetings and league be true, it is as true and as certeinlie prooved and confessed, that at some alehouse, or sometime at some Gen/tlemans187. house, there is continuall preparation made monethlie for thisLegend. aur. in vita S. Germani. assemblie: as appeereth in S. Germans storie.

The tenth Chapter.

That most part of prophesies in the old testament were revealed in dreames, that we are not now to looke for such revelations, of some who have drempt of that which hath come to passe, that dreames proove contrarie, Nabuchadnez-zars rule to knowe a true expositor of dreames.

IT is held and mainteined by divers, and gathered out of the 12. of Numbers, that all which was written or spoken by the prophets, among the children of Israel (Moses excepted) was propounded to them by dreames. And indeed it is manifest, that manie things, which are thought by the unlearned to have beene reallie finished, have beene onlie performed by dreams and visions. As where Salomon1. Re. 3, 5. 15. required of God the gift of wisdome: that was (I say) in a dreame; and also where he received promise1. Reg. 9. of the continuance of the kingdome of Israel in his line. So151 was EsaisIsai. 6.
Ezech. 12.
Jerem. 13.
vision in the 6. of his prophesie: as also that of Ezechiel the 12. Finallie, where Jeremie was commanded to hide his girdle in the clift of a rocke at the river Euphrates in Babylon; and that after certeine daies, it did there putrifie, it must needs be in a dreame; for Jeremie was never (or at leastwise not then) at Babylon. We that are christians must not now slumber and dreame, but watch and praie, and meditate upon our salvation in Christ both daie and night. And if we expect revelations in our dreames, now, when Christ is come, we shall deceive our selves: for in him are fulfilled all dreames and prophesies. Howbeit, BodinJ. Bodin. lib. de dæmon. 1. cap. 5. holdeth that dreames and visions continue till this daie, in as miraculous maner as ever they did.

If you read Artemidorus, you shall read manie stories of such as drempt of things that afterwards cam to passe. But he might have cited a thousand for one that fell out contrarie: for as for/188. such dreamers among the Jews themselves, as had not extraordinarie visions miraculouslie exhibited unto them by God, they were counted couseners, as may appeere by these words of the prophet Zacharie;Zach. 10, 2. Surelie the idols have spoken vanitie, and the soothsaiers have seene a lie, and the dreamers have told a vaine thing. According to SalomonsEccles. 5, 6.
Jerem. 23.
saieng; In the multitude of dreames and vanities are manie words. It appeereth in Jeremie 23. that the false prophets, whilest they illuded the people with lies, counterfetting the true prophets, used to crie out; Dreames, dreames; We have dreamed a dreame, &c. Finallie, Nabuchadnez-zar teacheth all men to knowe a true expositor of dreames; to wit, such a one as hath his revelation from GOD. For he can (as DanielDaniel. 2. did) repeate your dreame before you discover it: which thing if anie expounder of dreames can doo at this daie, I will beleeve him.//


152

The eleventh Booke. 189. 138.

The first Chapter.

The Hebrue word Nahas expounded, of the art of augurie, who invented it, how slovenlie a science it is: the multitude of sacrifices and sacrificers of the heathen, and the causes therof.

NAHAS, is To observe the flieng of birds, & comprehendeth all such other observations, where men do ghesse upon uncerteine toies. It is found in Deut. 18. and in 2. Chron. 33. and else-where. Of this art of augurie Tyresias the king of the Thebans is said to be the first inventor: but Tages first published the discipline thereof, being but a little boie; as Cicero reporteth out of the bookes of the HetruscansThe slovenlie art of augurie. themselves. Some points of this art are more high and profound than some others, and yet are they more homelie and slovenlie than the rest; as namelie, the divination upon the entrailes of beasts, which the Gentiles in their sacrifices speciallie observed. Insomuch as Marcus Varro, seeing the absurditie thereof, said that these gods were not onlie idle, but verie slovens, that used so to hide their secrets and counsels in the guts and bowels of beasts.

How vainlie, absurdlie, and superstitiouslie the heathen used this kind of divination in their sacrifices, is manifested by their actions & ceremonies in that behalfe practised, as well in times past, as at this houre. The Aegyptians had 666. severall sorts and kinds of sacrifices; the Romans had almost as manie; the Græ/cians190. had not so few as they; the Persians and the Medes were not behind them; the Indies and other nations have at this instant their sacrifices full of varietie, and more full of barbarous impietie. For in sundrie places, these offer sacrifices to the divell, hoping thereby to moove him to lenitie: yea, these commonlie sacrifice such of their enimies, as they have taken in warre: as we read that the Gentiles in ancient time did offer sacrifice, to appease the wrath and indignation of their feigned gods.

153

The second Chapter.

Of the Jewes sacrifice to Moloch, a discourse thereupon, and of Purgatorie.

THE Jewes2. Re. 23, 10
2. Chr. 33.
Jerem. 7.
used one kind of diabolical sacrifice, never taught them by Moses,Deut. 18, 10
Levi. 18, 21.
Id. cap. 20. 2.
namelie, to offer their children to Moloch, making their sonnes and their daughters to runne through the fire; supposing such grace and efficacie to have beene in that action, as other witches affirme to be in charmes and words. And therfore among other points of witchcraft, this is speciallie and namelie forbidden by Moses. We read of no more miracles wrought hereby, than by any other kind of witchcraft in the old or new testament expressed. It was no ceremonie appointed by God,/139. no figure of Christ: An invincible argument against purgatorie. perhaps it might be a sacrament or rather a figure of purgatorie, the which place was not remembred by Moses. Neither was there anie sacrifice appointed by the lawe for the releefe of the Israelites soules that there should be tormented. Which without all doubt should not have beene omitted, if any such place of purgatorie had beene then, as the Pope hath latelie devised for his private and speciall lucre. This sacrificing to Moloch (as some affirme) was usuall among the Gentiles, from whence the Jewes brought it into Israel: and there (of likeliehood) the Eutichists learned the abhomination in that behalfe./

The third Chapter.191.

The Canibals crueltie, of popish sacrifices exceeding in tyrannie the Jewes or Gentiles.

THE incivilitieAgainst the papists abhominable and blasphemous sacrifice of the masse. and cruell sacrifices of popish preests do yet exceed both the Jew and the Gentile: for these take upon them to sacrifice Christ himselfe. And to make their tyrannie the more apparent, they are not contented to have killed him once, but dailie and hourelie torment him with new deaths; yea they are not ashamed to sweare, that with their carnall hands they teare his humane substance, breaking it into small gobbets; and with their externall teeth chew his flesh and bones, contrarie to divine or humane nature; and contrarie to the prophesie, which saith; There shall not a bone of him be broken.Psal. 34, 20. Finallie, in the end of their sacrifice (as they say) they eate him up rawe, and swallow downe into their guts everie member and parcell of him: 154 and last of all, that they conveie him into the place where they bestowe the residue of all that which they have devoured that daie. And this same barbarous impietie exceedeth the crueltie of all others: for all the Gentiles consumed their sacrifices with fier, which they thought to be holie.

The fourth Chapter.

The superstition of the heathen about the element of fier, and how it grew in such reverence among them, of their corruptions, and that they had some inkling of the godlie fathers dooings in that behalfe.

AS touching the element of fier, & the superstition therof about those businesses, you shall understand, that manie superstitious people and nations have received, reverenced, & reserved fier, as the most holy thing among their sacrifices: insomuch (I saie) as they have worshipped it a/mong192. their gods, calling it Orimasda (to wit) holie fier, and divine light. The Greekes called it ἑσίαν, the Romans Vesta, which is, The fier of the Lord. Surelie they had heard of the fier that came downe from heaven, and consumed the oblations of the fathers; and they understood it to be God himselfe. For there came to the heathen, the bare names of things, from the doctrine of the godlie fathers and patriarchs, and those so ob/scured140. with fables, and corrupted with lies, so overwhelmed with superstitions, and disguised with ceremonies, that it is hard to judge from whence they came. Some cause thereof (I suppose) was partlie the translations of governements, whereby one nation learned follie of another; and partlie blind devotion, without knowledge of Gods word: but speciallie the want of grace, which they sought not for, according to Gods commandement and will. And that the Gentiles had some inkling of the godlie fathers dooings, may diverslie appeare. Doo not the Muscovits and *Indian* The Gymnosophists of India their apish imitation of Esaie. prophets at this daie, like apes, imitate Esaie? Bicause he went naked certeine yeares, they forsooth counterfet madnes, and drinke potions for that purpose; thinking that what- soever they saie in their madnes, will cer- teinelie come to passe. But hereof is more largelie discoursed before in the word Kasam.

155

The fift Chapter.

Of the Romane sacrifices: of the estimation they had of augurie, of the lawe of the twelve tables.

THE Romans, even after they were growne to great civilitie, and enjoied a most flourishing state and commonwealth, would sometimes sacrifice themselves, sometimes their children, sometimes their friends, &c: consuming the same with fier, which they thought holie. Such estimation (I saie) was attributed to this art of divination upon the entrails of beasts, &c: at Rome, as the cheefe princes themselves exercised the same; namelie,/193. Romulus, Fabius Maximus, &c: in so much as there was a decree made there, by the whole senate, that six of the cheefe magistrats sonnes should from time to time be put foorth, to learne the mysterie of these arts of augurie and divination, at Hetruria, where the cunning and knowledge thereof most abounded. When they came home well informed and instructed in this art, their estimation and dignitie was such, as they were accounted, reputed, and taken to be the interpreters of the gods, or rather betweene the gods and them. No high preest, nor anie other great officer was elected, but these did either absolutelie nominate them, or else did exhibit the names of two, whereof the senate must choose the one.

In their ancient lawes were written these words:The lawe of the twelve tables. Prodigia & portenta ad Hetruscos aruspices (si senatus jusserit) deferunto, Hetruriæq; principes disciplinam discunto. Quibus divis decreverunt, procuranto, iisdem fulgura & ostenta pianto, auspicia servanto, auguri parento: the effect of which words is this; Let all prodigious and portentous matters be carried to the soothsaiers of Hetruria, at the will and commandement of the senat; and let the yoong princes be sent to Hetruria, there to learne that discipline, or to be instructed in that art and knowledge. Let there be alwaies some solicitor, to learne with what gods they have decreed or determined their matters, and let sacrifices be made unto them in times of lightening, or at anie strange or supernaturall shew. Let all such conjecturing tokens be observed; whatsoever the sooth- saier commandeth, let it be religiouslie obeied./

156

The sixt Chapter.141.

Colleges of augurors, their office, their number, the signification of augurie, that the practisers of that art were couseners, their profession, their places of exercise, their apparrell, their superstition.

ROMULUS erected three colleges or centuries of those kinds of soothsaiers, which onelie (and none other) should have authoritie to expound the minds and admonishments of the gods. Afterwards that/194. number was augmented to five, and after that to nine: for they must needs be od. Magna charta. Hen. 3. 36. 7 Ed. 1. 15. Ri. 2. 5.In the end, they increased so fast, that they were feine to make a decree for staie from the further proceeding in those erections: like to our statute of Mortmaine. Howbeit, Silla (contrarie to all orders and constitutions before made) increased that number to foure and twentie.

And though Augurium be most properlie that divination, which is gathered by birds; yet bicause this word Nahas comprehendeth all other kinds of divination, as Extispicium, aruspicium, &c: which is as well the ghessing upon the entrailes of beasts, as divers other waies: omitting physiognomie and palmestrie, and such like, for the tediousnes and follie thereof; I will speake a little of such arts, as were above measure regarded of our elders: neither mind I to discover the whole circumstance, but to refute the vanitie thereof, and speciallie of the professors of them, which are and alwaies have beene cousening arts, and in them conteined both speciall and severall kinds of witchcrafts. For the maisters of these faculties have ever taken upon them to occupie the place and name of God; blasphemouslie ascribing unto themselves his omnipotent power, to foretell, &c: whereas, in truth, they could or can doo nothing, but make a shew of that which is not.

One matter,A manifest discoverie of augurors cousenage. to bewraie their cousening, is; that they could never worke nor foreshew anie thing to the poore or inferior sort of people: for portentous shewes (saie they) alwaies concerned great estates. Such matters as touched the baser sort, were inferior causes; which the superstition of the people themselves would not neglect to learne. Howbeit, the professors of this art descended not so lowe, as to communicate with them: for they were preests (which in all ages and nations have beene jollie fellowes) whose office was, to tell what should come to passe, either touching good lucke, or bad fortune; to expound the minds, admonitions, warnings and 157 threatnings of the gods, to foreshew calamities, &c: which might be (by their sacrifices and common contrition) remooved and qualified. And before their entrance into that action, they had manie observations, which they executed verie superstitiouslie; pretending that everie bird and beast, &c., should be sent from the gods as foreshewes of somewhat. And/195. therefore first they used to choose a cleare daie, and faire wether to doo their busines in: for the which their place was certeinelie assigned, as well in Rome as in Hetruria, wherein they observed everie quarter of the element, which waie to looke, and which way to stand, &c./142. Their apparell was verie preestlike, of fashion altered from all others, speciallie at the time of their praiers, wherein they might not omit a word nor a syllable: in respect whereof one read the service, and all the residue repeated it after him, in the maner of a procession.

The seventh Chapter.

The times and seasons to exercise augurie, the maner and order thereof, of the ceremonies thereunto belonging.

NO lesse regard was there had of the times of theirNote the superstitious ceremonies of augurors. practise in that ministerie: for they must beginne at midnight, and end at noone, not travelling therein in the decaie of the day, but in the increase of the same; neither in the sixt or seventh houre of the daie, nor yet after the moneth of August; bicause then yoong birds flie about, and are diseased, and unperfect, mounting their fethers, and flieng out of the countrie: so as no certeine ghesse is to be made of the gods purposes by them at those seasons. But in their due times they standing with a bowed wand in their hand, their face toward the east, &c: in the top of an high tower, the weather being cleare, watch for birds, noting from whence they came, and whether they flie, and in what sort they wag their wings, &c./

The eight Chapter.196.

Upon what signes and tokens augurors did prognosticate, observations touching the inward and outward parts of beasts, with notes of beasts behaviour in the slaughterhouse.

THESE kind of witches, whom we have now in hand, did also prognosticate good or bad lucke, according to the soundnes or imperfection of the entrailes of beasts; or according to the superfluities or infirmities of nature; or according to the abundance of humors unnecessarie, appearing in the inward parts and bowels of the beasts sacrificed. For as158 touching the outward parts, it was alwaies provided and foreseene, that they should be without blemish.Observations in the art augurificall. And yet there were manie tokens and notes to be taken of the externall actions of those beasts, at the time of sacrifice: as if they would not quietlie be brought to the place of execution, but must be forceablie hailed; or if they brake loose; or if by hap, cunning, or strength they withstood the first blowe; or if after the butchers blowe, they leaped up, rored, stood fast; or being fallen, kicked, or would not quietlie die, or bled not well; or if anie ill newes had beene heard, or anie ill sight seene at the time of slaughter or sacrifice: which were all significations of ill lucke and unhappie successe. On the other side, if the slaughterman performed his office well, so as the beast had beene well chosen, not infected, but whole and sound, and in the end faire killed; all had beene safe: for then the gods smiled./

The ninth Chapter.143.

A confutation of augurie, Plato his reverend opinion thereof, of contrarie events, and false predictions.

BUT what credit is to be attributed to such toies and chances, which grow not of nature, but are gathered by the superstition of the interpretors? As for birds, who is so ignorant that conceiveth not, that/197. one flieth one waie, another another waie, about their privat necessities? And yet are the other divinations more vaine and foolish. Howbeit, PlatoPlato in Phædro, in Timeo, in lib. de Republ. thinketh a commonwealth cannot stand without this art, and numbereth it among the liberall sciences. These fellowes promised Pompeie, Cassius, and Cæsar, that none of them should die before they were old, and that in their owne houses, and in great honor;Wherein the papists are more blame worthie than the heathen. and yet they all died cleane contrarilie. Howbeit doubtles, the heathen in this point were not so much to be blamed, as the sacrificing papists: for they were directed hereunto without the knowledge of Gods promises; neither knew they the end why such ceremonies and sacrifices were instituted; but onelie understood by an uncerteine and slender report, that God was woont to send good or ill successe to the children of Israell, and to the old patriarchs and fathers, upon his acceptance or disallowance of their sacrifices and oblations. But men in all ages have beene so desirous to know the effect of their purposes, the sequele of things to come, and to see the end of their feare and hope; that a seelie witch, which had learned anie thing in the art of cousenage, may make a great manie jollie fooles.

159

The tenth Chapter.

The cousening art of sortilege or lotarie, practised especiallie by Aegyptian vagabonds, of allowed lots, of Pythagoras his lot, &c.

THE counterfeit Aegyptians, which were indeedSortilege or lotshare. cousening vagabonds, practising the art called Sortilegium, had no small credit among the multitude: howbeit, their divinations were as was their fast and loose, and as the witches cures and hurtes, & as the soothsaiers answers, and as the conjurors raisings up of spirits, and as Apollos or the Rood of graces oracles, and as the jugglers knacks of legierdemaine, and as the papists exorcismes, and as the witches charmes, and as the counterfeit visions, and as the couseners knaveries. Hereupon it was said; Non inve/niatur inter vos menahas,198. that is Sortilegus, which were like to these Aegyptian couseners. As for other lots, they were used, and that lawfullie; as appeareth by Jonas and others that were holie men, and as may be seene among all commonwelths, for the deciding of diverse controversies, &c: wherein thy neighbour is not misused, nor God anie waie offended. But in truth I thinke, bicause of the cousenage that so easilie may be used herein,/144. God forbad it in the commonwealth of the Jewes, though in the good use thereof it was allowed in matters of great weight;Levit. 16.
Num. 33. & 36.
Josu. 14.
1. Chron. 24 & 26.
Prover. 18.
Jonas. 1.
Acts. 1.
as appeareth both in the old and new testament; and that as well in doubtfull cases and distributions, as in elections and inheritances, and pacification of variances. I omit to speake anie thing of the lots comprised in verses, concerning the lucke ensuing, either of Virgil, Homer, or anie other, wherein fortune is gathered by the sudden turning unto them: bicause it is a childish and ridiculous toie, and like unto childrens plaie at Primus secundus, or the game called The philosophers table: but herein I will referre you to the bable it selfe, or else to Bodin, or to some such sober writer thereupon; of whome there is no want.

There is a lot also called PythagorasOf Pythagoras lot. lot, which (some saie) Aristotle beleeved: and that is, where the characters of letters have certeine proper numbers; whereby they divine (through the proper names of men) so as the numbers of each letters being gathered in a summe, and put togither, give victorie to them whose summe is the greater; whether the question be of warre, life, matri- monie, victorie, &c: even as the unequall number of vowels in proper names portendeth lacke of sight, halting, &c: which the godfathers and god- mothers might easilie prevent, if the case stood so.

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The eleventh Chapter.

Of the Cabalisticall art, consisting of traditions and unwritten verities learned without booke, and of the division thereof.

HERE is place also for the Cabalisticall art, consisting of unwritten verities, which the Jewes doo beleeve and brag that God himselfe gave to Moses in the mount Sinai; and afterwards was taught/199. onelie with livelie voice, by degrees of succession, without writing, untill the time of Esdras: even as the scholers of Archippus did use wit and memorie in steed of bookes. The art Cabalisticall divided.They divide this in twaine; the one expoundeth with philosophicall reason the secrets of the lawe and the bible, wherein (they saie) that Salomon was verie cunning; bicause it is written in the Hebrew stories, that he disputed from the Cedar of Libanus, even to the Hisop, and also of birds, beasts, &c. The other is as it were a symbolicall divinitie of the highest contemplation, of the divine and angelike vertues, of holie names and signes; wherein the letters, numbers, figures, things and armes, the prickes over the letters, the lines, the points, and the accents doo all signifie verie profound things and great secrets. By these arts the Atheists suppose Moses wrote all his miracles, and that hereby they have power over angels and divels, as also to doo miracles: yea and that hereby all the miracles that either anie of the prophets, or Christ himselfe wrought, were accomplished.

But C. AgrippaC. Agrippa lib. de vanit. scient. having searched to the bottome of this art, saith it is nothing but superstition and follie. Otherwise you maie be sure Christ would not have hidden it from his church. For this cause the Jewes/145. were so skilfull in the names of God. But there is none other name in heaven or earth, in which we might be saved, but Jesus: neither is that meant by his bare name, but by his vertue and goodnes towards us.The blasphemie of the Cabalists. These Cabalists doo further brag, that they are able hereby, not onelie to find out and know the unspeakeable mysteries of God; but also the secrets which are above scripture; whereby also they take upon them to prophesie, and to worke miracles: yea hereby they can make what they list to be scripture; as Valeria Proba did picke certeine verses out of Virgil alluding them to Christ. And therefore these their revolutions are nothing but allegoricall games, which idle men busied in letters, points, and numbers (which the Hebrew toong easilie suffereth) devise, to delude and cousen the simple and ignorant. And this they call Alphabetarie or Arythmanticall divinitie, which Christ shewed to his apostles onelie, and which 161 Paule saith he speaketh but among perfect men; and being high mysteries are not to be committed unto writing, and so made popular. There is no man that readeth anie thing of/200. this Cabalisticall art, but must needs think upon the popes cunning practises in this behalfe, who hath In scrinio pectoris,In concil. Trident. not onelie the exposition of all lawes, both divine and humane, but also authoritie to adde thereunto, or to drawe backe therefrom at his pleasure: and this may he lawfullie doo even with the scriptures, either by addition or substraction, after his owne pontificall liking. As for example: he hath added the Apocrypha (whereunto he might as well have joined S. Augustines[C. of Trent 1550] works, or the course of the civill lawe, &c:) Againe, he hath diminished from the decalog or ten commandements, not one or two words, but a whole precept, namelie the second, which it hath pleased him to dash out with his pen: and trulie he might as well by the same authoritie have rased out of the testament S. Markes gospell.

The twelfe Chapter.

When, how, and in what sort sacrifices were first ordained, and how they were prophaned, and how the pope corrupteth the sacraments of Christ.

AT the first God manifested to our father Adam,Gen. 2. 17. by the prohibition of the apple, that he would have man live under a lawe, in obedience and submission; and not to wander like a beast without order or discipline. And after man had transgressed,Gen. 3. 6. and deserved thereby Gods heavie displeasure; yet his mercieGen. 3. 15. prevailed; and taking compassion upon man, he promised the Messias, who should be borne of a woman, and breake the serpents head: declaring by evident testimonies, that his pleasure was that man should be restored to favour and grace, through Christ: and binding the minds of men to this promise, and to be fixed upon their Messias, established figures and ceremonies wherewith to nourish their faith, and confirmed the same with miracles, prohibiting and excluding all mans devises in that behalfe. And upon his promise renewed,Levit. 12. 3. &c. he injoined (I say) and erected a new forme of worship, whereby/146. he would have his promises constantlie beheld, faithfullie beleeved, and reverentlie regarded. He or/deined201. six sorts of divine sacrifices; three propitiatorie, not as meriting remission of sinnes, but as figures of Christs propitiation: the other three were of thanksgiving. These sacrifices were full of ceremonies, they were powdered with consecrated salt, and kindled162 with fier, which was preserved in the tabernacle of the Lord: which fier (some thinke) was sent downe from heaven. GOD himselfe commanded these rites and ceremonies to our forefathers, Noah, Abraham, Isaac, Jacob, &c: promising therein both the amplification of their families, and also their Messias. But in tract of time (I saie) wantonnesse, negligence, and contempt, through the instigation of the divell, abolished this institution of GOD: so as in the end, God himselfe was forgotten among them, and they became pagans & heathens, devising their owne waies, untill everie countrie had devised and erected both new sacrifices, and also new gods particular unto themselves. Whose example the pope followeth, in prophaning of Christs sacraments,A gird at the pope for his sawcinesse in Gods matters. disguising them with his devises and superstitious ceremonies; contriving and comprehending therein the follie of all nations: the which bicause little children doo now perceive and scorne, I will passe over; and returne to the Gentiles, whome I cannot excuse of cousenage, superstition, nor yet of vanitie in this behalfe. For if God suffered false prophets among the children of Israell, being Gods peculiar people, and hypocrits in the church of Christ; no marvell if there were such people amongst the heathen, which neither professed nor knew him.

The xiii. Chapter.

Of the objects whereupon the augurors used to prognosticate, with certeine cautions and notes.

THE Gentiles, which treat of this matter, repeat an innumerable multitude of objects, whereupon they prognosticate good or bad lucke. And a great matter is made of neezing, wherein the number of neezings & the time therof is greatlie noted; the tingling in the finger, the elbowe, the toe, the knee, &c: are sin/gular202. notes also to be observed in this art; though speciallie heerin are marked the flieng of fowles, and meeting of beasts; with this generall caution, that the object or matter whereon men divine, must be sudden and unlooked for: which regard, children and some old fooles have to the gathering primrose, true loves, and foure leaved grasse; Item the person unto whome such an object offereth it selfe unawares; Item the intention of the divinor, whereby the object which is met, is referred to augurie; Item the houre in which the object is without foreknowledge upon the sudden met withall; and so foorth.

PliniePlin. lib. natural. hist. 10. cap. 6. reporteth that griphes flie alwaies to the place of slaughter,163 two or three daies before the battell is fought; which was seene and tried at the battell of Troie: and in respect thereof, the griph was allowed to/147. be the cheefe bird of augurie. But among the innumerableArist. in auguriis. number of the portentous beasts, fowles, serpents, and other creatures, the tode is the most excellent object, whose ouglie deformitie signifieth sweete and amiable fortune: in respect whereof some superstitious witches preserve todes for their familiars. And some one of good credit (whome I could name) having convented the witches themselves, hath starved diverse of their divels, which they kept in boxes in the likenesse of todes.

Plutarch ChironæusPlutarch doteth by his leave, for all his learning. saith, that the place and site of the signes that we receive by augurie, are speciallie to be noted: for if we receive them on the left side, good lucke; if on the right side, ill lucke insueth: bicause terrene and mortall things are opposite & contrarie to divine and heavenlie things; for that which the gods deliver with the right hand, falleth to our left side; and so contrariwise.

The xiiii. Chapter.

The division of augurie, persons admittable into the colleges of augurie, of their superstition.

THE latter divinors in these mysteries, have divided their soothsaiengs into twelve superstitions: as Augustinus NiphusAug. Niphus de auguriis, lib. 1. termeth them. The first is prosperitie; the second, ill lucke, as when one goeth/203. out of his house, and seeth an unluckie beast lieng on the right side of his waie; the third is destinie; the fourth is fortune; the fift is ill hap, as when an infortunate beast feedeth on the right side of your waie; the sixt is utilitie; the seventh is hurt; the eight is called a cautell, as when a beast followeth one, and staieth at any side, not passing beyond him, which is a signe of good lucke; the ninth is infelicitie, and that is contrarie to the eight, as when the beast passeth before one; the tenth is perfection; the eleventh is imperfection; the twelfe is conclusiin.*[* read,—sion] Thus farre he.

Among the RomansWho were not admittable into the college of augurors among the Romans. none could be received into the college of augurors that had a bile, or had beene bitten with a dog, &c: and at the times of their exercise, even at noone daies, they lighted candels. From whence the papists conveie unto their church, those points of infidelitie. Finallie, their observations were so infinite and ridiculous, that there flew not a sparkle out of the fier, but it betokened somewhat.

164

The xv. Chapter.

Of the common peoples fond and superstitious collections and observations.

AMONGST us there be manie women, and effeminat menO vaine follie and foolish vanitie! (marie papists alwaies, as by their superstition may appeere) that make great divinations upon the shedding of salt, wine, &c: and for the observation of daies, and houres use as great *withcraft[* read, witch—] as in anie thing. For if one/148. chance to take a fall from a horsse, either in a slipperie or stumbling waie, he will note the daie and houre, and count that time unluckch†[† read,—kie] for a journie. Otherwise, he that receiveth a mischance, wil consider whether he met not a cat, or a hare, when he went first out of hfr‡[‡ read, his] doores in the morning; or stumbled not at the threshhold at his going out; or put not on his shirt the wrong side outwards; or his left shoo on his right foote, which Augustus Cæsar reputed for the woorst lucke that might befall. But above all other nations (as Martinus de ArlesMartin. de Arles in tract. de superst. contra maleficta.*
Appian. de bello civili.
[* read,—ficia.] wit/nesseth)204. the Spaniards are most superstitious herein; & of Spaine, the people of the province of Lusitania is the most fond. For one will saie; I had a dreame to night, or a crowe croked upon my house, or an owle flew by me and screeched (which augurie Lucius Silla tooke of his death) or a cocke crew contrarie to his houre. Another saith; The moone is at the prime; another, that the sun rose in a cloud and looked pale, or a starre shot and shined in the aire, or a strange cat came into the house, or a hen fell from the top of the house.

Many will go to bed againe,Augurificall toies. if they neeze before their shooes be on their feet; some will hold fast their left thombe in their right hand when they hickot; or else will hold their chinne with their right hand whiles a gospell is soong. It is thought verie ill lucke of some, that a child, or anie other living creature, should passe betweene two friends as they walke togither; for they say it portendeth a division of freendship. Among the papists themselves, if any hunters, as they were a hunting, chanced to meet a frier or a preest; they thought it so ill lucke, as they would couple up their hounds, and go home, being in despaire of any further sport that daie. Marrie if they had used venerie with a begger, they should win all the monie they plaied for that daie at dice. The like follie is to be imputed unto them, that observe (as true or probable) old verses, wherein can be no reasonable cause of such effects; which are brought to passe onlie by Gods power, and at his pleasure. Of this sort be these that follow:

165

Vincenti festo si sol radiet memor esto,
Remember on S. Vincents daie,Englished by Abraham Fleming.
If that the sunne his beames displaie.
Clara dies Pauli bona tempora denotat anni,
If Paule th’apostles daie be cleare,By Ab. Fleming.
It dooth foreshew a luckie yeare.
Si sol splendescat Maria purificante,
Major erit glacies post festum quàm fuit ante,//205. 149.
If Maries purifieng daie,By Ab. Fleming.
Be cleare and bright with sunnie raie,
Then frost and cold shalbe much more,
After the feast than was before.
Serò rubens cœlum cras indicat esse serenum,
Si manè rubescit, ventus vel pluvia crescit.
The skie being red at evening,By Ab. Fleming.
Foreshewes a faire and cleare morning;
But if the morning riseth red,
Of wind or raine we shalbe sped.

Some sticke a needle or a buckle into a certeine tree, neere to the cathedrall church of S. Christopher, or of some other saint; hoping thereby to be delivered that yeare from the headach. Item maids forsooth hang some of their haire before the image of S. Urbane, bicause they would have the rest of their haire grow long and be yellow. Item, women with child runne to church, and tie their girdles or shoo latchets about a bell, and strike upon the same thrise, thinking that the sound thereof hasteth their good deliverie. But sithence these things beginne to touch the vanitiesSeeke more hereof in the word Habar. and superstitions of incantations, I will referre you thither, where you shall see of that stuffe abundance; beginning at the word Habar.

The xvi. Chapter.

How old writers varie about the matter, the maner and the meanes, whereby things augurificall are mooved.

THEOPHRASTUS and Themistius affirme, that whatsoever happeneth unto man suddenlie and by chance, commeth from the providence of God. So as Themistius gathereth, that men in that respect/206. prophesie, when they speake what commeth in their braine, upon the sudden; though not knowing or understanding what they saie. And that seeing God hath 166 a care for us, Averroes. 12. metaphysic. it agreeth with reason (as Theophrastus saith) that he shew us by some meane whatsoever shall happen. For with Pythagoras he concludeth, that all foreshewes and auguries are the voices and words of God, by the which he foretelleth man the good or evill that shall beetide.

Trismegistus affirmeth, that all augurificall things are mooved by divels; Porphyrie saith by gods, or rather good angels: according to the opinion of Plotinus and Iamblichus. Some other affirme they are mooved by the moone wandering through the twelve signes of the Zodiake: bicause the moone hath dominion in all sudden matters. The Aegyptian astronomers hold, that the moone ordereth not those portentous matters, but Stella errans, a wandering starre, &c./

The xvii. Chapter.150.

How ridiculous an art augurie is, how Cato mocked it, Aristotles reason against it, fond collections of augurors, who allowed, and who disallowed it.

V ERELIE all these observations being neither grounded on Gods word,The fond art of augurie convinced. nor physicall or philosophicall reason, are vanities, superstitions, lies, and meere witchcraft; as whereby the world hath long time beene, and is still abused and cousened. It is written; Acts. 1, 7.Non est vestrum scire tempora & momenta, &c: It is not for you to knowe the times and seasons, which the father hath put in his owne power. The most godlie men and the wisest philosophers have given no credit hereunto. S. Augustine saith; Qui his divinationibus credit, sciat se fidem christianam & baptismum prævaricasse, & paganum Deiq; inimicum esse. One told Cato, that a rat had carried awaie and eaten his hose, which the partie said was a woonderfull signe. Naie (said Cato) I thinke not so; but if the hose had eaten the rat, that had beene a wonderfull token indeed. When/207. Nonius told Cicero that they should have good successe in battell, bicause seven eagles were taken in Pompeies campe, he answered thus; No doubt it will be even so, if that we chance to fight with pies. In the like case also he answered Labienus, who prophesied like successe by such divinations, saieng, that through the hope of such toies, Pompeie lost all his pavillions not long before.

What wiseman would thinke, that God would commit his counsell to a dawe, an owle, a swine, or a tode; or that he would hide his secret purposes in the doong and bowels of beasts? AristotleArist. de somno. thus reasoneth; Augurie or divinations are neither the causes nor effects 167 of things to come; Ergo, they doo not thereby foretell things trulie, but by chance. As if I dreame that my freend will come to my house, and he commeth indeed: yet neither dreame nor imagination is more the cause of my freends comming, than the chattering of a pie.

When Hanibal overthrew Marcus Marcellus, the beast sacrificed wanted a peece of his hart; therefore forsooth Marius, when he sacrificed at Utica, and the beast lacked his liver, he must needs have the like successe. These are their collections, and as vaine, as if they said that the building of Tenderden steeple was the cause of Goodwine sands, or the decaie of Sandwich haven. S. Augustine August. lib. de doct. chri. 2. cap. 2.
Psal. 4, 2.
saith, that these observations are most superstitious. But we read in the fourth psalme, a sentence which might dissuade anie christian from this follie and impietie; O ye sonnes of men, how long will you turne my glorie into shame, loving vanitie, and seeking lies? The like is read in manie other places of scripture.

Of such as allow this follie, I can commend PliniePlin. lib. natural. hist. 28. cap. 2.
Tho Aquin. lib. de sortib.
best, who saith, that the operation of these auguries is as we take them. For if we take them in good part, they are signes of good lucke; if we take them in ill part, ill lucke/151. followeth; if we neglect them, and wey them not, they doo neither good nor harme. Thomas of Aquine reasoneth in this wise; The starres, whose course is certeine, have greater affinitie and communitie with mans actions, than auguries; and yet our dooings are neither directed nor proceed from the starres. Which thing also Ptolome witnesseth, saieng; Sapiens dominabitur astris, A wiseman overruleth the starres./

The 18. Chapter.208

Fond distinctions of the heathen writers, concerning augurie.

THE heathen made a distinction betweene divine, naturall, and casuall auguries. Divine auguries were such, as men were made beleeve were done miraculouslie, as when dogs spake; as at the expulsion of TarquiniusC. Epidius.
Homer. Iliad. 19.
out of his kingdome; or when trees spake, as before the death of Cæsar; or when horsses spake, as did a horsse, whose name was Zanthus. Manie learned christians confesse, that such things as may indeed have divine cause, may be called divine auguries; or rather forewarnings of God, and tokens either of his blessings or discontentation: as the starre was a token of a safe passage to the magicians that sought Christ; so was the cockcrowing an augurie to Peter for his conversion. And manie such other divinations or auguries (if it be lawfull so to terme them) are in the scriptures to be found.

168

The 19. Chapter.

Of naturall and casuall augurie, the one allowed, and the other disallowed.

NATURALL augurie is a physicall or philosophicall observation; bicause humane and naturall reason may be yeelded for such events: as if one heare the cocke crow manie times together, a man may ghesse that raine will followe shortlie; as by the crieng of rooks, and by their extraordinarie using of their wings in their flight, bicause through a naturall instinct, provoked by the impression of the heavenlie bodies, they are mooved to know the/209. times, according to the disposition of the weather, as it is necessarie for their natures. And therefore Jeremie saith; Milvus in cœlo cognovit tempus suum. The physician may argue a strength towards in his patient, when he heareth him neeze twise, which is a naturall cause to judge by, and conjecture upon. But sure it is meere casuall, and also verie foolish and incredible, that by two neezings, a man should be sure of good lucke or successe in his businesse; or by meeting of a tode, a man should escape a danger, or atchieve an enterprise, &c./

The xx. Chapter.152.

A confutation of casuall augurie which is meere witchcraft, and upon what uncertaintie those divinations are grounded.

WHAT imagination worketh in man or woman, many leaves would not comprehend; for as the qualities thereof are strange, and almost incredible, so would the discourse thereof be long and tedious, wherof I had occasion to speake elsewhere. But the power of our imagination extendeth not to beasts, nor reacheth to birds, and therefore perteineth not hereunto. Neither can the chance for the right or left side be good or bad lucke in it selfe. Why should any occurrent or augurie be good? Bicause it commeth out of that part of the heavens, where the good or beneficiall stars are placed? By that reason, all things should be good and happie that live on that side; but we see the contrarie experience, and as commonlie as that.

The like absurditieThe vanitie of casuall augurie. and error is in them that credit those divinations; bicause the starres, over the ninth house have dominion at the time of augurie. If it should betoken good lucke, joy or gladnesse, to heare a noise in the house, when the moone is in Aries: and 169contrariwise, if it be a signe of ill lucke, sorrowe, or greefe for a beast to come into the house, the moone being in the same signe: here might be found a fowle error and contrarietie./210. And forsomuch as both may happen at once, the rule must needs be false and ridiculous. And if there were any certeine rules or notes to be gathered in these divinations; the abuse therein is such, as the word of God must needs be verefied therein; to wit, I will destroie the tokens of soothsaiers,Isai. 44, 25. and make them that conjecture, fooles.

The xxi. Chapter.

That figure-casters are witches, the uncerteintie of their art, and of their contradictions, Cornelius Agrippas sentence against judiciall astrologie.

THESE casters of figures may bee numbred among the cousening witches, whose practise is above their reach, their purpose to gaine, their knowledge stolne from poets, their art uncerteine & full of vanitie, more plainly derided in the scriptures, than any other follie. And thereupon many other trifling vanities are rooted and grounded; as physiognomie, palmestrie, interpreting of dreames, monsters, auguries, &c: the professors whereof confesse this to be the necessarie key to open the knowledge of all their secrets. For these fellowesThe vaine and trifling trickes of figure-casters. erect a figure of the heavens, by the exposition whereof (togither with the conjectures of similitudes and signes) they seeke to find out the meaning of the significators, attributing to them the ends of all things, contrarie to truth, reason, and divinitie: their rules being so inconstant, that few writers agree in/153. the verie principles therof. For the Rabbins, the old and new writers, and the verie best philosophers dissent in the cheefe grounds thereof, differing in the proprietie of the houses, whereout they wring the foretelling of things to come, contending even about the number of spheres, being not yet resolved how to erect the beginnings and endes of the houses: for Ptolomie maketh them after one sort, Campanus after another, &c.

And as Alpetragus thinketh, that there be in the heavens/211. diverse movings as yet to men unknowne, so doo others affirme (not without probabilitie) that there maie be starres and bodies, to whome these movings maie accord, which cannot be seene, either through their exceeding highnes, or that hitherto are not tried with anie observation of the art. The true motion of MarsJohan. Montiregius in epistola ad Blanchimē: & Gulielmus de sancto Clodoald.
Rabbi Levi.
C. Agrip. in lib. de vanit. scient.
Archelaus.
Cassander.
Eudoxus, &c.
is not yet perceived, neither is it possible to find out the true entring of the sunne into the equinoctiall points. It is not denied, that the astronomers 170 themselves have received their light, and their verie art from poets, without whose fables the twelve signes and the northerlie and southerlie figures had never ascended into heaven. And yet (as C. Agrippa saith) astrologers doo live, cousen men, and game by these fables; whiles the poets, which are the inventors of them, doo live in beggerie.

The verie skilfullest mathematicians confesse, that it is unpossible to find out anie certeine thing concerning the knowledge of judgements, as well for the innumerable causes which worke togither with the heavens, being all togither, and one with the other to be considered: as also bicause influencies doo not constraine but incline. For manie ordinarie and extraordinarie occasions doo interrupt them; as education, custome, place, honestie, birth, bloud, sicknesse, health, strength, weakenes, meate, drinke, libertie of mind, learning, &c. And they that have written the rules of judgement, and agree neerest therein, being of equall authoritie and learning, publish so contrarie opinions upon one thing, that it is unpossible for an astrologian to pronounce a certeintie upon so variable opinions; & otherwise, upon so uncerteine reports no man is able to judge herein. So as (according to Ptolomie) the foreknowledge of things to come by the starres, dependeth as well upon the affections of the mind, as upon the observation of the planets, proceeding rather from chance than art, as whereby they deceive others, and are deceived themselves also./

The xxii Chapter.212.

The subtiltie of astrologers to mainteine the credit of their art, why they remaine in credit, certeine impieties conteined in astrologers assertions.

IF you marke the cunning ones, you shall see them speake darkelie of things to come,Astrologers prognostications are like the answers of oracles. devising by artificiall subtiltie, doubtfull prognostications, easilie to be applied to everie thing, time, prince, and nation: and if anie thing come to passe according to their divinations, they fortifie their old prognostications with new reasons. Nevertheles, in the multitude/154. and varietie of starres, yea even in the verie middest of them, they find out some places in a good aspect, and some in an ill; and take occasion hereupon to saie what they list, promising unto some men honor, long life, wealth, victorie, children, marriage, freends, offices; & finallie everlasting felicitie. But if with anie they be discontent, they saie the starres be not favourable to them, and threaten them with hanging, drowning, beggerie, sickenes, misfortune, &c. And if one of these 171 prognostications fall out right, then they triumph above measure. If the prognosticators be found to forge and lie alwaies (without such fortune as the blind man had in killing the crow) they will excuse the matter, saieng, that Sapiens dominatur astris, wheras (according to Agrippas words) neither the wiseman ruleth the starres, nor the starres the wiseman, but God ruleth them both. Corn. Tacitus saith, that they are a people disloiall to princes, deceiving them that beleeve them. And Varro saith, that the vanitie of all superstitions floweth out of the bosome of astrologie. And if our life & fortune depend not on the starres, then it is to be granted, that the astrologers seeke where nothing is to be found. But we are so fond, mistrustfull & credulous, that we feare more the fables of Robin good fellow; astrologers, & witches, & beleeve more the things that are not, than the things that are. And the more unpossible a thing is, the more we stand in feare thereof; and the lesse likelie to be true, the more/213. we beleeve it. And if we were not such, I thinke with Cornelius Agrippa, that these divinors, astrologers, conjurors, and cousenors would die for hunger.

And our foolish light beleefe, forgetting things past, neglecting things present, and verie hastie to know things to come, doth so comfort and mainteine these cousenors; that whereas in other men, for making one lie, the faith of him that speaketh is so much mistrusted, that all the residue being true is not regarded. Contrariwise, in these cousenages among our divinors, one truth spoken by hap giveth such credit to all their lies, that ever after we beleeve whatsoever they saie; how incredible, impossible or false soever it be. Sir Thomas MooreS. Thomas Moores frumpe at judiciall astrologers. saith, they know not who are in their owne chambers, neither who maketh themselves cuckoldes that take upon them all this cunning, knowledge, and great foresight. But to enlarge their credit, or rather to manifest their impudencie, they saie the gift of prophesie, the force of religion, the secrets of conscience, the power of divels, the vertue of miracles, the efficacie of praiers, the state of the life to come, &c: doth onlie depend upon the starres, and is given and knowne by them alone. For they saie, that when the signe of Gemini is ascended, and Saturne and Mercurie be joined in Aquarie, Astrologicall blasphemies. in the ninth house of the heavens, there is a prophet borne: and therefore that Christ had so manie vertues, bicause he had in that place Saturne and Gemini. Yea these Astrologers doo not sticke to saie, that the starres distribute all sortes of religions: wherein Jupiter is the especiall patrone, who being joined with Saturne, maketh the religion of the Jewes; with Mercurie, of the Christians; with the Moone, of Anti-christianitie. Yea they affirme that the faith of everie man maie be knowne to them as well as to God. And that Christ himselfe did use the election of houres in his miracles; so as the Jewes could not hurt172 him whilest he went to Jerusalem, and therefore that *the[* read, he.] said to his disciples that forbad him to go;Joh. 11. 8. & 9. Are there not twelve houres in the daie?//

The xxiii. Chapter.214. 155.

Who have power to drive awaie divels with their onelie presence, who shall receive of God whatsoever they aske in praier, who shall obteine everlasting life by meanes of constellations, as nativitie-casters affirme.

THEY saie also, that he which hath Mars happilie placed in the ninth house of the heavens, shall have power to drive awaie divels with his onelie presence from them that be possessed. And he that shall praie to God, when he findeth the Moone and Jupiter joined with the dragons head in the middest of the heavens, shall obteine whatsoever he asketh: and that JupiterThe follie of our genethliaks, or nativiti-casters. and Saturne doo give blessednes of the life to come. But if anie in his nativitie shall have Saturne happilie placed in Leone, his soule shall have everlasting life. And hereunto subscribe Peter de Appona, Roger Bacon, Guido Bonatus, Arnold de villa nova, and the Cardinall of Alia. Furthermore, the providence of God is denied, and the miracles of Christ are diminished, when these powers of the heavens and their influencies are in such sort advanced. Moses, Esaie, Job and Jeremie, seeme to dislike and reject it: and at Rome in times past it was banished, and by Justinian condemmed under paine of death. Finallie, SenecaSenec. lib. de quæst. natural. 4. derideth these soothsaieng witches in this sort; Amongst the Cleones (saith he) there was a custome, that the γαλακτοφύλακες (which were gazers in the aier, watching when a storme of haile should fall) when they sawe by anie cloud that the shower was imminent and at hand; the use was (I saie) bicause of the hurt which it might doo to their vines, &c: diligentlie to warne the people thereof; who used not to provide clokes or anie such defense against it, but provided sacrifices; the rich, cockes and white lambes; the poore would spoile themselves by cutting their thombes; as though (saith he) that little bloud could ascend up to the cloudes, and doo anie good there for their releefe in this/215. matter.

And here by the waie, I will impart unto you a VenetianHilarius Pirkmair in arte apodemica. superstition, of great antiquitie, and at this daie (for ought I can read to the contrarie) in use. It is written, that everie yeere ordinarilie upon ascension daie, the Duke of Venice, accompanied with the States, goeth with great solemnitie unto the sea, and after certeine ceremonies ended, casteth thereinto a gold ring of great value and estimation for 173 a pacificatorie oblation: wherewithall their predecessors supposed that the wrath of the sea was asswaged. By this action, as a late writer saith, they doo Desponsare sibi mare,Joannes Garropius in Venet. & Hyperb.
Zach. 10. 1. verse 2.
that is, espouse the sea unto themselves, &c.

Let us therefore, according to the prophets advise, aske raine of the Lord in the houres of the latter time, and he shall send white cloudes, and give us raine &c: for surelie, the idols (as the same prophet saith) have spoken vanitie, the soothsaiers have seene a lie, and the dreamers have told a vaine thing. They comfort in vaine, and therefore they went awaie like sheepe, &c. If anie sheepebiter or witch- monger will follow them, they shall go alone for me.//


174

The twelfe Booke. 216. 156.

The first Chapter.

The Hebrue word Habar expounded, where also the supposed secret force of charmes and inchantments is shewed, and the efficacie of words is diverse waies declared.

THIS Hebrue word Habar, being in Greeke Epathin, and in Latine Incantare, is in English, To inchant, or (if you had rather have it so) to bewitch. In these inchantments, certeine wordes, verses, or charmes, &c: are secretlie uttered, wherein there is thought to be miraculous efficacie. There is great varietie hereof: but whether it be by charmes, voices, images, characters, stones, plants, metals, herbes, &c: there must herewithall a speciall forme of words be alwaies used, either divine, diabolicall, insensible, or papisticall, whereupon all the vertue of the worke is supposed to depend.Psal. 58. This word is speciallie used in the 58. psalme, which place though it be taken up for mine adversaries strongest argument against me; yet me thinkes it maketh so with me, as they can never be able to answer it.Psal. 58. 4. 5. For there it plainelie appeareth, that the adder heareth not the voice of the charmer, charme he never so cunninglie: contrarie to the poets fabling,

Frigidus in pratis cantando rumpitur anguis./Virgil. in Damone.
217.By Ab. Fleming.The coldish snake in medowes greene,
With charmes is burst in peeces cleene.

But hereof more shall be said hereafter in due place.

I grant that words sometimes have singular vertue and efficacie, either in persuasion or disuasion, as also diverse other waies; so as thereby some are converted from the waie of perdition, to the estate of salvation: and so contrariwise, according to the saieng of Solomon;Prover. 18.
Chron. 30.
Psal. 10.
Psal. 51.
Psal. 139.
Jerem. 32.
Isai. 6.
Isai. 50.
Exod. 7. 8. 9.
Prov. 16.
Death and life are in the instru- ment of the toong: but even therein God worketh all in all, as well in framing the heart of the one, as in directing the toong of the other: as appeareth in manie places of the holie scriptures.

175

The second Chapter.

What is forbidden in scriptures concerning witchcraft, of the operation of words, the superstition of the Cabalists and papists, who createth substances, to imitate God in some cases is presumption, words of sanctification.

THAT which is forbidden in the scriptures touching inchantment or witch craft, is not the wonderfull working with words. For where/157. words have had miraculous operation, there hath beene alwaies the speciall providence, power and grace of God uttered to the strengthening of the faith of Gods people, and to the furtherance of the gospell:Acts. 5. as when the apostle with a word slue Ananias and Saphira. But the prophanation of Gods name, the seducing, abusing, and cousening of the people, and mans presumption is hereby prohibited, as whereby manie take upon them after the recitall of such names, as God in the scripture seemeth to appropriate to himselfe, to foreshew things to come, to worke miracles, to detect fellonies, &c: as the Cabalists in times past tooke upon them, by the ten names of God, and his angels, expressed/218. in the scriptures, to worke woonders: and as the papists at this daie by the like names, by crosses, by gospels hanged about their necks, by masses, by exorcismes, by holie water, and a thousand consecrated or rather execrated things, promise unto themselves and others, both health of bodie and soule.

But as herein we are not to imitate the papists, so in such things, as are the peculiar actions of God,Jonas. 1. we ought not to take upon us to counterfet, or resemble him, which with his word created all things. For we, neither all the conjurors, Cabalists, papists, soothsaiers, inchanters, witches, nor charmers in the world, neither anie other humane or yet diabolicall cunning can adde anie such strength to Gods workmanship, as to make anie thing anew, or else to exchange one thing into another. New qualities may be added by humane art, but no new substance can be made or created by man. And seeing that art faileth herein, doubtles neither the illusions of divels, nor the cunning of witches, can bring anie such thing truelie to passe. For by the sound of the words nothing commeth, nothing goeth, otherwise than God in nature hath ordeined to be doone by ordinarie speech, or else by his speciall ordinance. Indeed words of sanctificationWords of sanctification, and wherein they consist. are necessarie and commendable, according to S. Paules rule; Let your meat be sanctified with the word of God, and by praier. But sanctification dooth not here signifie either change of substance of the 176 meate, or the adding of anie new strength thereunto; but it is sanctified, in that it is received with thanksgiving and praier; that our bodies may be refreshed, and our soule thereby made the apter to glorifie God.

The third Chapter.

What effect and offense witches charmes bring, how unapt witches are, and how unlikelie to worke those things which they are thought to doo, what would followe if those things were true which are laid to their charge.

THE words and other the illusions of witches, charmers, and conjurors, though they be not such in operation and effect, as they are commonlie taken to be: yet they are offensive to the majestie/219 and name of God, obscuring the truth of divinitie, & also of philosophie. For if God onlie give life & being to all creatures, who can put any such ver/tue158. or livelie feeling into a body of gold, silver, bread, or wax, as is imagined? If either preests, divels, or witches could so doo, the divine power shuld be checked & outfaced by magicall cunning, & Gods creatures made servile to a witches pleasure. What is not to be brought to passe by these incantations, if that be true which is attributed to witches?An ample description of women commonlie called witches. & yet they are women that never went to schoole in their lives, nor had any teachers: and therefore without art or learning; poore, and therefore not able to make any provision of metal or stones, &c: whereby to bring to passe strange matters, by naturall magicke; old and stiffe, and therefore not nimble handed to deceive your eie with legierdemaine; heavie, and commonlie lame, and therefore unapt to flie in the aire, or to danse with the fairies; sad, melancholike, sullen, and miserable, and therefore it should be unto them (Invita Minerva) to banket or danse with Minerva; or yet with Herodias, as the common opinion of all writers heerein is. On the other side, we see they are so malicious and spitefull, that if they by themselves, or by their divels, could trouble the elements, we should never have faire weather. If they could kill men, children, or cattell, they would spare none; but would destroy and kill whole countries and housholds. If they could transfer corne (as is affirmed) from their neighbors field into their owne, none of them would be poore, none other should be rich. If they could transforme themselves and others (as it is most constantlie affirmed) oh what a number of apes and owles should there be of us! If Incubus could beget Merlins among us, we should have a jollie manie of cold prophets./

177

The fourth Chapter.220.

Why God forbad the practise of witchcraft, the absurditie of the lawe of the twelve tables, whereupon their estimation in miraculous actions is grounded, of their woonderous works.

THOUGH it be apparent,A common and universall error. that the Holie-ghost forbiddeth this art, bicause of the abuse of the name of God, and the cousenage comprehended therein: yet I confesse, the customes and lawes almost of all nations doo declare, that all these miraculous works, before by me cited, and many other things more woonderfull, were attributed to the power of witches. The which lawes, with the executions and judicials thereupon, and the witches confessions, have beguiled almost the whole world. What absurdities concerning witchcraft, are written in the law of the twelve tables, which was the highest and most ancient law of the Romans? Whereupon the strongest argument of witches omnipotent power is framed; as that the wisedome of such lawgivers could not be abused. Whereof (me thinks) might be made a more strong argument on our side; to wit, If the cheefe and principall lawes of the world be in this case ridiculous, vaine, false, incredible, yea and contrarie to Gods lawe; the residue of the lawes and arguments to that effect, are to be suspected. If that argument should hold, it might proove all the popish lawes against protestants, & the hea/thenish159. princes lawes against christians, to be good and in force: for it is like they would not have made them, except they had beene good. Were it not (thinke you) a strange proclamation, that no man (upon paine of death) should pull the moone out of heaven?J. Bodinus.
Danæus.
Hyperius.
Heming.
Bar. Spineus*
Mal. Malef.
* Spinæus. And yet verie many of the most learned witchmongers make their arguments upon weaker grounds; as namelie in this forme and maner; We find in poets, that witches wrought such and such miracles; Ergo they can accomplish and doo this or that wonder. The words of the lawe are these;/221. Qui fruges incantasset pœnas dato, Néve alienam segetem pellexeris excantando, neq́; incantando, Ne agrum defruganto: the sense wherof in English is this; Let him be executed that bewitcheth corne, Transferre not other mens corne into thy ground by inchantment, Take heede thou inchant not at all neither make thy neighbors field barren: he that dooth these things shall die, &c.

178

The fift Chapter.

An instance of one arreigned upon the lawe of the twelve tables, whereby the said lawe is proved ridiculous, of two witches that could doo woonders.

ALTHOUGH among us, we thinke them bewitched that wax suddenlie poore, and not them that growe hastilie rich; yet at Rome you shall understand, that (as PlinieA notable purgation of C. F. C. convented for a witch. reporteth) upon these articles one C. Furius Cressus was convented before Spurius Albinus; for that he being but a little while free, and delivered from bondage, occupieng onelie tillage; grew rich on the sudden, as having good crops: so as it was suspected that he transferred his neighbors corne into his fields. None intercession, no delaie, none excuse, no deniall would serve, neither in jest nor derision, nor yet through sober or honest meanes: but he was assigned a peremptorie daie, to answer for life. And therefore fearing the sentence of condemnation, which was to be given there, by the voice and verdict of three men (as we heere are tried by twelve) made his appearance at the daie assigned, and brought with him his ploughs and harrowes, spades and shovels, and other instruments of husbandrie, his oxen, horsses, and working bullocks, his servants, and also his daughter, which was a sturdie wench and a good huswife, and also (as Piso reporteth) well trimmed up in apparell, and said to the whole bench in this wise; Lo heere my lords I make mine appearance, according to my promise and your pleasures, presenting unto you my charmes and witchcrafts, which have so inriched me. As for the labour, sweat, wat/ching,222. care, and diligence, which I have used in this behalfe, I cannot shew you them at this time. And by this meanes he was dismissed by the consent of that court, who otherwise (as it was thought) should hardly have escaped the sentence of condemnation, and punishment of death.

It is constantlie affirmed in M. Mal.Mal. malef. par. 2. quæ. 1. cap. 5. that Stafus used alwaies to hide himselfe in a *monshoall,[* moushoall] and had a disciple called Hoppo, who made Stadlin a maister witch, and could all when they list invisiblie transferre the third part of their neighbours doong, hay, corne, &c: into theire owne ground, make/160. haile, tempests, and flouds, with thunder and lightning; and kill children, cattell, &c: reveale things hidden, and many other tricks, when and where they list. But these two shifted not so well with the inquisitors, as the other with the Romane and heathen judges. Howbeit, Stafus was too hard for them all: 179for none of all the lawiers nor inquisitors could bring him to appeere before them, if it be true that witchmongers write in these matters.

The sixt Chapter.

Lawes provided for the punishment of such witches as worke miracles, whereof some are mentioned, and of certeine popish lawes published against them.

T HERE are other lawesPunishmēt of impossibilities. of other nations made to this incredible effect: as Lex Salicarum provideth punishment for them that flie in the aire from place to place, and meete at their nightlie assemblies, and brave bankets, carrieng with them plate, and such stuffe, &c: even as we should make a lawe to hang him that should take a church in his hand at Dover, and throwe it to Callice. And bicause in this case also popish lawes shall be seene to be as foolish and lewd as any other whatsoever, and speciallie as tyrannous as that which is most cruell: you shall heare what trim new lawes the church of Rome hath latelie devised. These are therefore the words of pope Innocent the eight to the inquisitors/223. of Almanie, and of pope Julius the second, sent to the inquisitors of Bergomen. It is come to our eares,A wise lawe of pope Innocent and Julie, were it not that they wanted wit when they made it. that manie lewd persons, of both kinds, as well male as female, using the companie of the divels Incubus and Succubus, with incantations, charmes, conjurations, &c: doo destroie, &c: the births of women with child, the yoong of all cattell, the corne of the feeld, the grapes of the vines, the frute of the trees: Item, men, women, and all kind of cattell and beasts of the feeld: and with their said inchantments, &c: doo utterlie extinguish, suffocate, and spoile all vineyards, ortchards, medowes, pastures, grasse, greene corne, and ripe corne, and all other podware: yea men and women themselves are by their imprecations so afflicted with externall and inward paines and diseases, that men cannot beeget, nor women bring foorth anie children, nor yet accomplish the dutie of wedlocke, denieng the faith which they in baptisme professed, to the destruction of their owne soules, &c. Our pleasure therefore is, that all impediments that maie hinder the inquisitors office, be utterlie removed from among the people, least this blot of heresie proceed to poison and defile them that be yet innocent. And therefore we doo ordeine, by vertue of the apostolicall authoritie, that our inquisitors of high Almanie, maie execute the office of inquisition by all tortures and afflictions, in all places, and upon all persons, what and wheresoever, 180 as well in everie place and diocesse, as upon anie person; and that as freelie, as though they were named, expressed, or cited in this our commission./

The seventh Chapter.161.

Poetical authorities commonlie alleaged by witchmongers, for the proofe of witches miraculous actions, and for confirmation of their supernaturall power.

HERE have I place and oportunitie, to discover the whole art of witchcraft; even all their charmes, periapts, characters, amulets, praiers, blessings, curssings, hurtings, helpings, knaveries, cousenages, &c. But first I will shew what authorities are produced to defend and mainteine the same, and that in serious sort,/224. by Bodin, Spinæus, Hemingius, Vairus, Danæus, Hyperius: M. Mal. and the rest.

Virg. eclog. 8.Carmina vel cœlo possunt deducere lunam,
Carminibus Circe socios mut avit*[* mutavit] Ulyssis,
Frigidus in pratis cantando rumpitur anguis:
Inchantments plucke out of the skie,
The moone, though she be plaste on hie:
Dame Circes with hir charmes so fine,
Ulysses mates did turne to swine:
The snake with charmes is burst in twaine,
In medowes, where she dooth remaine.

Againe out of the same poet they cite further matter.

Virg. eclog. 8.Has herbas, atq́; hæc Ponto mihi lecta venena,
Ipsa dedit Mæris: nascuntur plurima Ponto.
His ego sæpè lupam fieri, & se condere sylvis,
Mærim sæpe animas imis exire sepulchris,
Atq́; satas aliò vidi traducere messes.
These herbs did Meris give to me,
And poisons pluckt at Pontus,
For there they growe and multiplie,
And doo not so amongst us.
With these she made hir selfe become,
A wolfe, and hid hir in the wood,
She fetcht up soules out of their toome,
Remooving corne from where it stood.

181

Furthermore out of Ovid they alledge these folowing.

NocteOvid. fast. 6. volant, puerósq; petunt nutricis egentes,
Et vitiant cunis corpora capta suis:
Carpere dicuntur lactentia viscera rostris,/162.
Et plenumpotu*[* plenum potu] sanguine gutur habent:
To children they doo flie by night,
And catch them while their nursses sleepe,/225.
And spoile their little bodies quite,
And home they beare them in their beake.

Againe out of Virgill in forme following.

Hinc mihi Massylæ gentis monstrata sacerdos,Virg. Aene. 4.
Hesperidum templi custos, epulásq; draconi
Quæ dabat, & sacros servabat in arbore ramos,
Spargens humida mella, soporiferúmq; papaver.
Hæc se carminibus promittit solvere mentes,
Quas velit, ast aliis dur as*[* duras] immittere curas,
Sistere aquam fluviis, & vertere sidera retrò,
Nocturnósq; ciet manes, mugire videbis
Sub pedibus terram, & descendere montibus ornos:
From thence a virgine preest is come,Tho. Phaiers translation of the former words of Virg.
from out Massyla land,
Sometimes the temple there she kept,
and from hir heavenlie hand
The dragon meate did take: she kept
also the frute divine,
With herbes and liquors sweete that still
to sleepe did men incline.
The minds of men (she saith) from love
with charmes she can unbind,
In whom she list: but others can
she cast to cares unkind.
The running streames doo stand, and from
their course the starres doo wreath,
And soules she conjure can: thou shalt
see sister underneath
The ground with roring gape, and trees
and mountaines turne upright, &c.

Moreover out of OvidOvid. metamor. 7. they alledge as followeth.

Cùm volui ripis ipsis mirantibus amnes
Infontes*[* In fontes] rediere suos, concússaq́; sisto,/
182226.Stantia concutio, cantu freta nubila pello,
Nubiláq; ìnduco, ventos abigóq; vocóq;
Vipereas rumpo verbis & carmine fauces,/163.
Viváque saxa, sua convulsáque robora terra,
Et sylvas moveo, jubeóque tremescere montes,
Et mugire solum, manésque exire sepulchris,
Téque luna traho, &c:
The rivers I can make retire,
Into the fountaines whence they flo,
(Whereat the banks themselves admire)
I can make standing waters go,
With charmes I drive both sea and clowd,
I make it calme and blowe alowd.
The vipers jawes, the rockie stone,
With words and charmes I breake in twaine
The force of earth congeald in one,
I moove and shake both woods and plaine;
I make the soules of men arise,
I pull the moone out of the skies.

Also out of the same poet.

Ovid. de Medea.Virbáque ter dixit placidos facientia somnos,
Quæ mare turbatum, quæ flumina concita sistant:
And thrise she spake the words that causd
Sweete sleepe and quiet rest,
She staid the raging of the sea,
And mightie flouds supprest.
Ovid. de Medea, epistola. 4. Et miserum tenues in jecur urget acus,
She sticketh also needels fine
In livers, whereby men doo pine.

3. Amor. Eclog. 6.Also out of other poets.

Carmine læsa Ceres, sterilem vanescit in herbam,
Deficiunt læsi carmine fontis aquæ,
Illicibus glandes, cantatáque vitibus uva/227.
Decidit, & nullo poma movente fluunt:
With charmes the corne is spoiled so,
As that it vades to barren gras,
With charmes the springs are dried lowe,
That none can see where water was,
183
The grapes from vines, the mast from okes,
And beats downe frute with charming strokes./164.
Quæ sidera excantata voce Thessala
LunámqueHorac.* epod. 5[* Horat] cœlo diripit:
She plucks downe moone and starres from skie,
With chaunting voice of Thessalie.
Hanc ego de cœlo ducentem sidera vidi,
Fluminis ac rapidi carmine vertit iter,
Hæc cantu findítque solum, manésque sepulchrisTibul. de fascinatrice, lib. 1. Eleg. 2.
Elicit, & tepido devorat ossa rogo:
Cùm lubet hæc tristi depellit lumina cœlo,
Cùm lubet æstivo convocat orbe nives:
She plucks each star out of his throne,
And turneth backe the raging waves,
With charmes she makes the earth to cone,
And raiseth soules out of their graves:
She burnes mens bones as with a fire,
And pulleth downe the lights from heaven,
And makes it snowe at hir desire
Even in the midst of summer season.
Mens hausti nulla sanie polluta veneni,Lucan. lib. de bello civili. 6.
Incantata perit:
A man inchanted runneth mad,
That never anie poison had.
Cessavere vices rerum, dilatáque longaIdem. Ibid.
Hæsit nocte dies, legi non paruit æther,
Torpuit & præceps audito carmine mundus:
The course of nature ceased quite,/228.
The aire obeied not his lawe,
The daie delaid by length of night,
Which made both daie and night to yawe;
And all was through that charming geare,
Which causd the world to quake for feare.
Carmine Thessalidum dura in præcordia fluxit,Idem. Ibid.
Non fatis adductus amor, flammísque severi
Illicitis arsere ignes:
With Thessall charmes, and not by fate
Hot love is forced for to flowe,
Even where before hath beene debate,
They cause affection for to growe.
184Idem. Ibid.Gens invisa diis maculandi callida cœli,/165.
Quos genuit terra, mali qui sidera mundi
Juráque fixarum possunt pervertere rerum:
Nam nunc stare polos, & flumina mittere norunt,
Aethera sub terras adigunt, montésque revellunt:
These witches hatefull unto God,
And cunning to defile the aire,
Which can disorder with a nod
The course of nature everie where,
Doo cause the wandring starres to staie
And drive the winds beelow the ground,
They send the streames another waie,
And throwe downe hilles where they abound.
C. Manilius astronom. suæ. lib. 1.——————linguis dixere volucrum,
Consultare fibras, & rumpere vocibus angues,
Solicitare umbras, ipsúmque Acheronta movere,
In noctémque dies, in lucem vertere noctes,
Omnia conando docilis solertia vincit:
They talked with the toongs of birds,
Consulting with the salt sea coasts,
They burst the snakes with witching words,/
229.Solliciting the spirituall ghosts,
They turne the night into the daie,
And also drive the light awaie:
And what ist that cannot be made
By them that doo applie this trade?

The eight Chapter.

Poetrie and poperie compared in inchantments, popish witchmongers have more advantage herein than protestants.

YOU see in these verses, the poets (whether in earnest or in jest I know not) ascribe unto witches & to their charmes, more than is to be found in humane or diabolicall power. I doubt not but the most part of the readers hereof will admit them to be fabulous; although the most learned of mine adversaries (for lacke of scripture) are faine to produce these poetries for proofes, and for lacke of judgement I am sure doo thinke, that ActæonsOvid Metamorph. lib. 3. fab. 2. transformation was true. And why not? As well as the metamorphosis or transubstantiation of Ulysses his 185 companions into swine: which S. Augustine,Ovid. Metamorph. 14. fab. 5, 6. and so manie great clarkes credit and report.

Neverthelesse, popish writers (I confesse) have advantage herein of our protestants: for (besides these poeticall proofes) they have (for advantage) the word and authoritie of the pope himselfe, and others of that/166. holie crue; whose charmes, conjurations, blessings, curssings, &c: I meane in part (for a tast) to set downe; giving you to understand, that poets are not altogither so impudent as papists herein, neither seeme they so ignorant, prophane, or impious.The authors transition to his purposed scope. And therefore I will shew you how lowd also they lie, and what they on the other side ascribe to their charmes and conjurations; and togither will set downe with them all maner of witches charmes, as convenientlie as I maie./

The ninth Chapter.230.

Popish periapts, amulets and charmes, agnus Dei, a wastcote of proofe, a charme for the falling evill, a writing brought to S. Leo from heaven by an angell, the vertues of S. Saviors epistle, a charme against theeves, a writing found in Christs wounds, of the crosse, &c.

THESE vertues under these verses (written by pope Urbane the fift to the emperour of the Græcians) are conteined in a periapt or tablet, to be continuallie worne about one, called Agnus Dei, which is a little cake, having the picture of a lambe carrieng of a flag on the one side; and Christs head on the other side, and is hollow: so as the gospell of S. John, written in fine paper, is placed in the concavitie thereof: and it is thus compounded or made, even as they themselves report.

Balsamus & munda cera, cum chrismatis unda
Conficiunt agnum, quod munus do tibi magnum,
Fonte velut natum, per mystica sanctificatum:
Fulgura desursum depellit, & omne malignum,
Peccatum frangit, ut Christi sanguis, & angit,
Prægnans servatur, simul & partus liberatur,
Dona refert dignis, virtutem destruit ignis,
Portatus mundè de fluctibus eripit undæ:
Balme, virgine wax, and holie water,Englished by Abraham Fleming.
Looke in the Beehive of the Romish church.
Lib. 4. cap. 1. fol. 243.
an Agnus Dei make:
A gift than which none can be greater,
I send thee for to take.
186From founteine cleere the same hath issue,
in secret sanctifide:
Gainst lightning it hath soveraigne vertue,
and thunder crackes beside./231.
Ech hainous sinne it weares and wasteth,
even as Christs precious blood,
And women, whiles their travell lasteth,
it saves, it is so good.
It doth bestow great gifts and graces,/167.
on such as well deserve:
And borne about in noisome places,
from perill doth preserve.
The force of fire, whose heat destroieth,
it breaks and bringeth downe:
And he or she that this enjoieth,
no water shall them drowne.

A charme against shot, or a wastcote of proofe.

BEfore the comming up of these Agnus Deis, a holie garment called a wastcote for necessitie was much used of our forefathers, as a holy relike, &c: as given by the pope, or some such archconjuror, who promised thereby all manner of immunitie to the wearer thereof; in somuch as he could not be hurt with anie shot or other violence. And otherwise, that woman that would weare it, should have quicke deliverance: the composition thereof was in this order following.

The maner of making a wastecote of proofe. On Christmas daie at night, a threed must be sponne of flax, by a little virgine girle, in the name of the divell: and it must be by hir woven, and also wrought with the needle. In the brest or forepart thereof must be made with needle worke two heads; on the head at the right side must be a hat, and a long beard; the left head must have on a crowne, and it must be so horrible, that it maie resemble Belzebub, and on each side of the wastcote must be made a crosse.

Against the falling evill.

MOreover, this insuing is another counterfet charme of theirs, whereby the falling evill is presentlie remedied.

Gaspar fert myrrham, thus Melchior, Balthasar aurum,
Hæc tria qui secum portabit nomina regum,/
232.Solvitur à morbo Christi pietate caduco.
187Gasper with his myrh beganne
these presents to unfold,
Then Melchior brought in frankincense,
and Balthasar brought in gold.
Now he that of these holie kings
the names about shall beare,
The falling yll by grace of Christ
shall never need to feare.

This is as true a copie of the holie writing, that was brought downe from heaven by an angell to S. Leo pope of Rome; & he did bid/168. him take it to king Charles,These effects are too good to be true in such a patched peece of poperie. when he went to the battell at Roncevall. And the angell said, that what man or woman beareth this writing about them with good devotion, and saith everie daie three Pater nosters, three Aves, and one Creede, shall not that daie be overcome of his enimies, either bodilie or ghostlie; neither shalbe robbed or slaine of theeves, pestilence, thunder, or lightening; neither shall be hurt with fier or water, nor combred with spirits, neither shall have displeasure of lords or ladies: he shall not be condemned with false witnesse, nor taken with fairies, or anie maner of axes, nor yet with the falling evill. Also, if a woman be in travell, laie this writing upō hir bellie, she shall have easie deliverance, and the child right shape and christendome, and the mother purification of holy church, and all through vertue of these holie names of Jesus Christ following:

JesusChristusMessiasSoterEmmanuelSabbaothAdonaiUnigenitusMajestasParacletusSalvator nosterAgiros iskirosAgiosAdanatosGasperMelchior& BalthasarMatthæusMarcusLucasJohannes.

The epistle of S. Savior, which pope Leo sent to king Charles, saieng, that whosoever carrieth the same about him, or in what daie so ever he shall read it, or shall see it, he shall not be killed with anie iron toole, nor be burned with fier, nor be drowned with water, neither anie evill man or other creature maie hurt him. The crosse of Christ is a woonderfull defense ✠ the crosse/233. of Christ be alwaies with me ✠ the crosse is it which I doo alwaies worship ✠ the crosse of Christ is true health ✠ the crosse of Christ dooth lose the bands of death ✠ the crosse of Christ is the truth and the waie ✠ I take my journie upon the crosse of the Lord ✠ the crosse of Christ beateth downe everie evill ✠ the crosse of Christ giveth all good things ✠ the crosse of Christ taketh awaie paines everlasting ✠ the crosse of Christ save me ✠ O crosse of Christ be upon me, before me, and behind me ✠ bicause the ancient enimie cannot abide the sight of 188 thee ✠ the crosse of Christ save me, keepe me, governe me, and direct me ✠ Thomas bearing this note of thy divine majestie ✠ Alpha ✠ Omega ✠ first ✠ and last ✠ middest ✠ and end ✠ beginning ✠ and first begotten ✠ wisedome ✠ vertue ✠.

A popish periapt or charme, which must never be said, but carried about one, against theeves.

I Doo go, and I doo come unto you with the love of God, with the humilitie of Christ, with the holines of our blessed ladie, with the faith of Abraham, with the justice of Isaac, with the vertue of David, with the might of Peter, with the constancie of Paule, with the word of God, with the authoritie of Gregorie, with the praier of Clement, with the floud of Jordan, [ꝑ = per or par]ꝑ ꝑ p c g e g a q q est p t 1 ka b g l k 2 a x t g t b am*[* a m 2. ed.] g 2 4 2 1 q; p x c g k q a 9 9 p o q q r. Oh onelie Father ✠ oh onlie lord ✠ And Jesus ✠ passing through the middest of them ✠ went ✠ In the name of/169. the Father ✠ and of the Sonne ✠ and of the Holie-ghost ✠.

Another amulet.

JOseph of Arimathea did find this writing upon the wounds of the side of Jesus Christ, written with Gods finger, when the bodie was taken away frō the crosse. Whosoever shall carrie this writing about him, shall not die anie evill death, if he beleeve in Christ, and in all perplexities he shall soone be delivered, neither let him feare any danger at all. Fonsalpha & omegafigafigalisSabbaothEmmanuelAdonaioNerayElayIheRentoneNegerSahePangetonCommenaglaMatthæusMarcusLucasJohannes ✠ ✠ ✠ titulus triumphalisJesus Nasa/renus rex Judæorum234.ecce dominicæ crucis signumfugite partes adversæ, vicit leo de tribu Judæ, radix, David, aleluijah, Kyrie eleeson, Christe eleeson, pater noster, ave Maria, & ne nos, & veniat super nos salutare tuum: Oremus, &c.*[* From Fons is in Rom. from titulus in Ital.]

I find in a Primer intituled The houres of our Ladie, after the use of the church of Yorke, printed anno 1516. a charme with this titling in red letters; To all them that afore this image of pitie devoutlie shall saie *five* If the party faile in the number, he may go whistle for a pardon. Pater nosters, five Aves, and one Credo, pitiouslie beholding these armes of Christs passion, are granted thirtie two thousand seven hundred fiftie five yeares of pardon. It is to be thought that this pardon was granted in the time of pope Boniface the ninth; for Platina saith that the pardons were sold so cheape, that the apostolicall authoritie grew into contempt.

189

A papisticall charme.

Signum sanctæ crucis defendat me à malis præsentibus, præteritis, & futuris, interioribus & exterioribus: that is, The signe of the crosse defend me from evils present, past, and to come, inward and outward.

A charme found in the canon of the masse.

Also this charme is found in the canon of the masse, Hæc sacrosancta commixtio corporis & sanguinis domini nostri Jesu Christi fiat mihi, omnibúsque sumentibus, salus mentis & corporis, & ad vitam promerendam, & capessendam, præparatio salutaris: that is, Let this holie mixture of the bodie and bloud of our Lord Jesus Christ, be unto me, and unto all receivers thereof, health of mind and bodie, and to the deserving and receiving of life an healthfull preparative.

Other papisticall charmes.

Aqua benedicta, sit mihi salus & vita:
Let holie water be, both health and life to me.By Ab. Fleming.
Adque nomen Martini omnis hæreticus fugiat pallidus,
When Martins name is soong or said,
Let heretikes flie as men dismaid./

235.But the papists have a harder charme than that; to wit, Fier and fagot, Fier and fagot./

170.A charme of the holie crosse.

Nulla salus est in domo,
Nisi cruce munit homo
Superliminaria.
Neque sentit gladium,
Nec amisit filium,
Quisquis egit talia.
No health within the house dooth dwell,
Except a man doo crosse him well,
at everie doore or frame,
He never feeleth the swords point,
Nor of his sonne shall loose a joint,
that dooth performe the same.

Furthermore as followeth.

Sancta crux æquiparatur salutifero Christo.
O blasphæmiam inenarrabilem!
Ista suos fortiores
Semper facit, & victores,
190Morbos sanat & languores,
Reprimit dæmonia.
Dat captivis libertatem,
Vitæ confert novitatem,
Ad antiquam dignitatem,
Crux reduxit omnia.
O Crux lignum triumphale,
Mundi vera salus vale,
Inter ligna nullum tale,
Fronde, flore, germine.
Medicina Christiana,
Salva sanos, ægros sana,
Quod non valet vis humana,
Fit in tuo nomine, &c./
236.Englished by Abraham Fleming. Looke in the Beehive of the Romish church. lib. 4. cap. 3. fol. 251, 252.It makes hir souldiers excellent,
and crowneth them with victorie,
Restores the lame and impotent,
and healeth everie maladie.
The divels of hell it conquereth,
releaseth from imprisonment,
Newnesse of life it offereth,
it hath all at commandement.
O crosse of wood incomparable,
to all the world most holsome:
No wood is halfe so honourable,/
171.in branch, in bud, or blossome.
O medcine which Christ did ordaine,
the sound save everie hower,
The sicke and sore make whole againe,
by vertue of thy power.
And that which mans unablenesse,
hath never comprehended,
Grant by thy name of holinesse,
it may be fullie ended, &c.

A charme taken out of the Primer.

This charme following is taken out of the Primer aforesaid. OmnipotensDominusChristusMessias ✠ with 34. names more, & as many crosses, & then proceeds in this wise; Ista nomina me protegant ab omni adversitate, plaga, & infirmitate corporis & 191 animæ, plenè liberent, & assistent in auxilium ista nomina regum, Gasper, &c: & 12 apostoli (videlicet) Petrus, &c: & 4 evangelistæ (videlicet) Matthæus, &c: mihi assistent in omnibus necessitatibus meis, ac me defendant & liberent ab omnibus periculis & corporis & animæ, & omnibus malis præteritis, præsentibus, & futuris, &c./

The tenth Chapter.237.

How to make holie water, and the vertues therof. S. Rufins charme, of the wearing and bearing of the name of Jesus, that the sacrament of confession and the eucharist is of as much efficacie as other charmes, & magnified by L. Vairus.

I F I did well, I should shew you the confection of all their stuffe, and how they prepare it; but it would be too long. And therefore you shall onlie have in this place a few notes for the composition of certeine receipts, which in stead of an Apothecarie if you deliver to any morrowmasse preest, he will make them as well as the pope himselfe. Marie now they wax everie parlement deerer and deerer; although therewithall, they utter many stale drugs of their owne.

If you looke in the popish pontificall,In ecclesiæ dedicatione. you shall see how they make their holie water; to wit, in this sort: I conjure thee thou creature of water, in the name of the father, and of the sonne, & of the Holie-ghost, that thou drive the divell out of everie corner and hole of this church, and altar; so as he remaine not within our precincts that are just and righteous. And water thus used (as Durandus saith)In rationali divinorum officiorum. hath power of his owne nature to drive away divels. If you will learne to make any more of this popish stuffe, you may go to the verie masse booke, and find manie good receipts: marrie if you search Durandus, &c; you shall find abundance.

I know that all these charmes, and all these palterie confections (though/172. they were farre more impious and foolish) will be mainteined and defended by massemongers, even as the residue will be by witchmongers: and therefore I will in this place insert a charme, the authoritie wherof is equall with the rest, desiring to have their opinions herein. I find in a booke called Pom. sermon. 32.Pomœrium sermonum quadragesimalium, that S. Francis seeing Rufinus/238. provoked of the divell to thinke himselfe damned, charged Rufinus to saie this charme, when he next met with the divell; Aperi os, & ibi imponam stircus, which is192 as much to saie in English as, Open thy mouth and I will put in a plumme: a verie ruffinlie charme.

Leonard VairusL. Vairus. lib. de fascin. 3. cap. 10.
Idem, ibid.
writeth, De veris, piis, ac sanctis amuletis fascinum atq́; omnia veneficia destruentibus
; wherein he speciallie commendeth the name of Jesus to be worne. But the sacrament of confession he extolleth above all things, saieng, that whereas Christ with his power did but throwe divels out of mens bodies, the preest driveth the divell out of mans soule by confession. For (saith he) these words of the preest, when he saith, Ego te absolvo, are as effectuall to drive awaie the princes of darknes, through the mightie power of that saieng, as was the voice of GodIdem, ibid. to drive awaie the darknes of the world, when at the beginning he said, Fiat lux. He commendeth also, as holesome things to drive awaie divels, the sacrament of the eucharist, and solitarines, and silence. Finallie he saith, that if there be added hereunto an Agnus Dei, and the same be worne about ones necke by one void of sinne, nothing is wanting that is good and holesome for this purpose. But he concludeth, that you must weare and make dints in your forhead, with crossing your selfe when you put on your shooes, and at everie other action, &c: and that is also a present remedie to drive awaie divels, for they cannot abide it.

The eleventh Chapter.

Of the noble balme used by Moses, apishlie counterfeited in the church of Rome.

T HE noble balme that Moses made, having indeed manie excellent vertues, besides the pleasant and comfortable savour thereof; wherewithall Moses in his politike lawes enjoined kings, queenes, and princes to be annointed in their true and lawfull elections and coronations, untill the everlasting king had put on/239. man upon him, is apishlie counterfeited in the Romish church, with diverse terrible conjurations, three breathings, crossewise, (able to make a quezie stomach spue) nine mumblings, and three curtsies, saieng thereunto, Ave sanctum oleum, ter ave sanctum balsamum. And so the divell is thrust out, and the Holie-ghost let into his place. But as for Moses his balme, it is not now to be found either in Rome or elsewhere that I can learne. And according to this papisticall order, witches, and other superstitious people follow on, with charmes and conjurations made in forme; which manie bad physicians also practise, when their learning faileth, as maie appeare by example in the sequele./

193

The twelfe Chapter.173.

The opinion of Ferrarius touching charmes, periapts, appensions, amulets, &c. Of Homericall medicines, of constant opinion, and the effects thereof.

ARGERIUS FERRARIUS,Arg. Fer. lib. de medendi methodo. 2. cap. 11.
De Homerica medicatione.
a physician in these daies of great account, doth saie, that for somuch as by no diet nor physicke anie disease can be so taken awaie or extinguished, but that certeine dregs and relikes will remaine: therefore physicians use physicall alligations, appensions, periapts, amulets, charmes, characters, &c., which he supposeth maie doo good; but harme he is sure they can doo none: urging that it is necessarie and expedient for a physician to leave nothing undone that may be devised for his patients recoverie; and that by such meanes manie great cures are done. He citeth a great number of experiments out of Alexander Trallianus, Aetius, Octavianus, Marcellus, Philodotus, Archigines, Philostratus, Plinie, and Dioscorides; and would make men beleeve that Galen (who in truth despised and derided all those vanities) recanted in his latter daies his former opinion, and all his invectives tending against these magicall cures: writing also a booke intituled De Homerica medicatione, which no man could ever see, but one Alexander Trallianus, who saith he saw it:/240. and further affirmeth, that it is an honest mans part to cure the sicke, by hooke or by crooke, or by anie meanes whatsoever. Yea he saith that Galen (who indeed wrote and taught that Incantamenta sunt muliercularum figmenta, and be the onlie clokes of bad physicians) affirmeth, that there is vertue and great force in incantations.This would be examined, to see if Galen be not slandered. As for example (saith Trallian) Galen being now reconciled to this opinion, holdeth and writeth, that the bones which sticke in ones throte, are avoided and cast out with the violence of charmes and inchanting words; yea and that thereby the stone, the chollicke, the falling sicknes, and all fevers, gowts, fluxes, fistulas, issues of bloud, and finallie whatsoever cure (even beyond the skill of himselfe or anie other foolish physician) is cured and perfectlie healed by words of inchantment. Marie M. Ferrarius (although he allowed and practised this kind of physicke) yet he protesteth that he thinketh it none otherwise effectuall, than by the waie of constant opinion: so as he affirmeth that neither the character, nor the charme, nor the witch, nor the devill accomplish the cure; as (saith he) the experiment of the toothach will manifestlie declare, wherein the cure is wrought by the confidence or diffidence 194 as well of the patient, as of the agent; according to the poets saieng:

Nos habitat non tartara, sed nec sidera cœli,
Spiritus in nobis qui viget illa facit.
Englished by Abraham Fleming.Not hellish furies dwell in us,
Nor starres with influence heavenlie;
The spirit that lives and rules in us,
Doth every thing ingeniouslie,/

174.This (saith he) commeth to the unlearned, through the opinion which they conceive of the characters and holie words: but the learned that know the force of the mind and imagination, worke miracles by meanes thereof; so as the unlearned must have externall helps, to doo that which the learned can doo with a word onelie. He saith that this is called Homerica medicatio, bicause Homer discovered the bloud of the word suppressed, and the infections healed by or in mysteries.

The xiii. Chapter.241.

Of the effects of amulets, the drift of Argerius Ferrarius in the commendation of charmes, &c: foure sorts of Homericall medicines, & the choice thereof; of imagination.

AS touching mine opinion of these amulets, characters, and such other bables, I have sufficientlie uttered it elsewhere: and I will bewraie the vanitie of these superstitious trifles more largelie hereafter. And therefore at this time I onelie saie, that those amulets, which are to be hanged or carried about one, if they consist of hearbs, rootes, stones, or some other metall, they maie have diverse medicinable operations; and by the vertue given to them by God in their creation, maie worke strange effects and cures: and to impute this vertue to anie other matter is witchcraft. And whereas A. Ferrarius commendeth certeine amulets, that have no shew of physicall operation; as a naile taken from a crosse, holie water, and the verie signe of the crosse, with such like popish stuffe: I thinke he laboureth thereby rather to draw men to poperie, than to teach or persuade them in the truth of physicke or philosophie. And I thinke thus the rather, for that he himselfe seeth the fraud hereof; confessing that where these magicall physicians applie three seeds of three leaved grasse to a tertian ague, and foure to a quartane, that the number is not materiall.

195

But of these Homericall medicinesFoure sorts of Homericall medicines, and which is the principall. he saith there are foure sorts, whereof amulets, characters, & charmes are three: howbeit he commendeth and preferreth the fourth above the rest; and that he saith consisteth in illusions, which he more properlie calleth stratagems. Of which sort of conclusions he alledgeth for example, how Philodotus did put a cap of lead upon ones head, who imagined he was headlesse, whereby the partie was delivered from his disease or conceipt. Item another cured a woman that imagined, that a serpent or snake did continuallie gnaw and/242. teare hir entrailes; and that was done onelie by giving hir a vomit, and by foisting into the matter vomited a little serpent or snake, like unto that which she imagined was in hir bellie.

Item,The force of fixed fansie, opinion, or strong conceipt. another imagined that he alwaies burned in the fier, under whose bed a fier was privilie conveied, which being raked out before his face, his fancie was satisfied, and his heate allaied. Hereunto perteineth, that the hickot is cured with sudden feare or strange newes: yea by that meanes agues and manie other strange and extreame diseases have beene healed. And some that have lien so sicke and sore of the gowt, that they could not remove a joint, through sudden feare of fier, or ruine/175. of houses, have forgotten their infirmities and greefes, and have runne awaie. But in my tract upon melancholie, and the effects of imagination, and in the discourse of naturall magicke, you shall see these matters largelie touched.

The xiiii. Chapter.

Choice of Charmes against the falling evill, the biting of a mad dog, the stinging of a scorpion, the toothach, for a woman in travell, for the Kings evill, to get a thorne out of any member, or a bone out of ones throte, charmes to be said fasting, or at the gathering of hearbs, for sore eies, to open locks, against spirits, for the bots in a horsse, and speciallie for the Duke of Albas horsse, for sowre wines, &c.

THERE be innumerable charmes of conjurers, bad physicians, lewd surgians, melancholike witches, and couseners, for all diseases and greefes; speciallie for such as bad physicians and surgions knowe not how to cure, and in truth are good stuffe to shadow their ignorance, whereof I will repeate some.

For the falling evill.

TAke the sicke man by the hand, and whisper these wordes softlie in his eare, I conjure thee by the sunne and moone, 196 and by243. the gospell of this daie delivered by God to Hubert, Giles, Cornelius, and John, that thou rise and fall no more. ❈ Otherwise: Drinke in the night at a spring water out of a skull of one that hath beene slaine. ❈ Otherwise: Eate a pig killed with a knife that slew a man. ❈ Otherwise as followeth.

Ananizapta ferit mortem, dum lædere quærit,
Est mala mors capta, dum dicitur Ananizapta,
Ananizapta Dei nunc miserere mei.
Englished by Abraham Fleming.
{
 
 
Ananizapta smiteth death,
whiles harme intendeth he,
This word Ananizapta say,
and death shall captive be,
Ananizapta ô of God,
have mercie now on me.
}

Against the biting of a mad dog.

PUt a silver ring on the finger,J. Bodinus. lib. de dæmon 3. cap. 5. within the which these words are graven ✠ Habayhabarhebar ✠ & saie to the person bitten with a mad dog, I am thy saviour, loose not thy life: and then pricke him in the nose thrise, that at each time he bleed. ❈ Otherwise: Take pilles made of the skull of one that is hanged. ❈ Otherwise: Write upon a peece of bread, Irioni, khiriora, esser, khuder, feres; and let it be eaten by the/176. partie bitten. ❈ Otherwise: O rex gloriæ Jesu Christe, veni cum pace: In nomine patris max, in nomine filii max, in nomine spiritus sancti prax: Gasper, Melchior, BalthasarpraxmaxDeus I max

But in troth this is verie dangerous; insomuch as if it be not speedilie and cunninglie prevented, either death or frensie insueth, through infection of the humor left in the wound bitten by a mad dog: which bicause bad surgions cannot cure, they have therfore used foolish cousening charmes. But Dodonæus in his herball saith, that the hearbe Alysson cureth it: which experiment, I doubt not, will proove more true than all the charms in the world. But where he saith, that the same hanged at a mans gate or entrie, preserveth him and his cattell from inchantment, or bewitching, he is overtaken with follie./

Against the biting of a scorpion.244.

SAie to an asse secretlie, and as it were whispering in his eare; I am bitten with a Scorpion.

197

Against the toothach.

SCarifie the gums in the greefe, with the tooth of one that hath beene slaine. ❈ Otherwise: Galbes galbat, galdes galdat. ❈ Otherwise: A ab hur hus, &c. ❈ Otherwise: At saccaring of masse hold your teeth togither, and say *Os* That is, You shall not breake or diminish a bone of him. non comminuetis ex eo. ❈ Otherwise: strigiles falcesq; dentatæ, dentium dolorem persanate; O horssecombs and sickles that have so many teeth, come heale me now of my toothach.

A charme to release a woman in travell.

THrowe over the top of the house, where a woman in travell lieth, a stone, or any other thing that hath killed three living creatures; namelie, a man, a wild bore, and a she beare.

To heale the Kings or Queenes evill, or any other sorenesse in the throte.

REmedies to cure the Kings or Queenes evill, is first to touch the place with the hand of one that died an untimelie death. ❈ Otherwise: Let a virgine fasting laie hir hand on the sore, and saie; Apollo denieth that the heate of the plague can increase, where a naked virgine quencheth it: and spet three times upon it.

A charme read in the Romish church, upon saint Blazes daie, that will fetch a thorne out of anie place of ones bodie, a bone out of the throte, &c: Lect. 3.

FOr the fetching of a thorne out of any place of ones bodie, or a bone out of the throte, you shall read a charme in the Romish church upon S. Blazes daie; to wit, Call upon God, and remember S. Blaze. This S. Blaze could also heale all wild beasts that were sicke or lame, with laieng on of his hands: as appeareth in the lesson red on his daie, where you shall see the matter at large.//

A charme for the headach.245. 177.

TIe a halter about your head, wherewith one hath beene hanged.

A charme to be said each morning by a witch fasting, or at least before she go abroad.

THE fier bites, the fier bites, the fier bites; Hogs turd over it, hogs turd over it, hogs turd over it; The father with thee, the 198sonne with me, the holie-ghost betweene us both to be: ter. Then spit over one shoulder, and then over the other, and then three times right forward.

Another charme that witches use at the gathering of their medicinable hearbs.

Haile be thou holie hearbe
growing on the ground
All in the mount *Calvarie* Though neither the hearbe nor the witch never came there.
first wert thou found,
Thou art good for manie a sore,
And healest manie a wound,
In the name of sweete Jesus
I take thee from the ground.

An old womans charme, wherewith she did much good in the countrie, and grew famous thereby.

AN old woman that healed all diseases of cattell (for the which she never tooke any reward but a penie and a loafe) being seriouslie examined by what words she brought these things to passe, confessed that after she had touched the sicke creature, she alwaies departed immediatelie; saieng:

My loafe in my lap,
my penie in my pursse;
Thou are never the better,
and I am never the wursse./

Another like charme.246.

A Gentlewoman having sore eies, made hir mone to one, that promised hir helpe, if she would follow his advise: which was onelie to weare about hir necke a scroll sealed up, whereinto she might not looke. And she conceiving hope of cure thereby, received it under the condition, and left hir weeping and teares, wherewith she was woontNote the force of constant opinion, or fixed fancy. to bewaile the miserable darkenesse, which she doubted to indure: whereby in short time hir eies were well amended. But alas! she lost soone after that pretious jewell, and thereby returned to hir woonted weeping, and by consequence to hir sore eies. Howbeit, hir jewell or scroll being found againe, was looked into by hir deere friends, and this onelie posie was conteined therein:

199

178.The divell pull out both thine eies,
And *etish* Spell the word backward, and you shall soone see this slovenlie charme or appension. in the holes likewise.

Whereby partlie you may see what constant opinion can doo, according to the saieng of Plato; If a mans fansie or mind give him assurance that a hurtfull thing shall doo him good, it may doo so, &c.

A charme to open locks.

AS the hearbes called AethiopidesTheevish charmes. will open all locks (if all be true that inchanters saie) with the help of certeine words: so be there charmes also and periapts, which without any hearbs can doo as much: as for example. Take a peece of wax crossed in baptisme, and doo but print certeine floures therein, and tie them in the hinder skirt of your shirt; and when you would undoo the locke, blow thrise therin, saieng; Arato hoc partiko hoc maratarykin. I open this doore in thy name that I am forced to breake, as thou brakest hell gates, In nomine patris, & filii, & spiritus sancti, Amen.

A charme to drive awaie spirits that haunt anie house.This is called and counted the Paracelsian charme.

HAng in everie of the foure corners of your house this sentence written upon virgine parchment; aa Psal. 150.Omnis spiritus laudet Dominum: bb Luk. 16.Mosen habent & prophetas: cc Psa. 64.Exurgat Deus et dissi/pentur inimici ejus.247.

A prettie charme or conclusion for one possessed.

THe possessed bodie must go upon his or hir knees to the church, how farre so ever it be off from their lodging; and so must creepe without going out of the waie, being the common high waie, in that sort, how fowle and durtie soever the same be; or whatsoever lie in the waie, not shunning anie thing whatsoever, untill he come to the church, where he must heare *masse* Memorandum that hearing of masse be in no case omitted, quoth Nota. devoutlie, and then followeth recoverie.

Another for the same purpose.

THere must be commended to some poore begger the saieng of five Pater nosters, and five Aves; the first to be said in the name of the partie possessed, or bewitched: for that Christ was led into the garden; secondlie, for that Christ did sweat both water and bloud; thirdlie, for that Christ was condemned; fourthlie, for that he was crucified guiltlesse; and fiftlie, for that he suffered to take awaie 200our sinnes. Then must the sicke bodie heare masse eight daies together, standing in the place where the gospell is said, and must mingle holie water with his meate and his drinke, and holie salt also must be a portion of the mixture.

Another to the same effect.

THe sicke man must fast three daies,Johannes Anglicus ex Constantino, Gualtero, Bernardo, Gilberto, &c. and then he with his parents must come to church, upon an embering fridaie, and must heare the masse for that daie appointed, and so likewise the saturdaie and sundaie following. And the preest must read upon the sicke mans head, that gospell which is read in September, and in grape harvest, after the feast of holie crosse In diebus quatuor temporum, in ember daies: then let him write it and carrie it aboute his necke, and he shall be cured./

Another charme or witch-craft for the same.179.

THis office or conjuration following was first authorised and printed at Rome, and afterwards at Avenion, Anno. 1515. And least that the divell should lie hid in some secret part of the/248. bodie, everie part thereof is named; Obsecro te Jesu Christe, &c: that is: I beseech thee O Lord Jesus Christ, that thou pull out of everie member of this man all infirmities, from his head, from his haire, from his braine, from his forhead, from his eies, from his nose, from his eares, from his mouth, from his toong, from his teeth, from his jawes, from his throte, from his necke, from his backe, from his brest, from his paps, from his heart, from his stomach, from his sides, from his flesh, from his bloud, from his bones, from his legs, from his feete, from his fingers, from the soles of his feete, from his marrowe, from his sinewes, from his skin, and from everie joint of his members, &c.

Doubtles Jesus Christ could have no starting hole, but was hereby everie waie prevented and pursued; so as he was forced to doo the cure: for it appeareth hereby, that it had beene insufficient for him to have said; Depart out of this man thou uncleane spirit, and that when he so said he did not performe it. I doo not thinke that there will be found among all the heathens superstitious fables, or among the witches, conjurors, couseners, poets, knaves, fooles, &c: that ever wrote, so impudent and impious a lie or charme as is read in Barnardine de bustis;Barnard. de bustis in Rosar. serm. serm. 15. where, to cure a sicke man, Christs bodie, to wit: a wafer cake, was outwardlie applied to his side, and entred into his heart, in the sight of all the standers by. Now, if grave authors report such lies, what credit in these cases shall we attribute unto the 201 old wives tales, that Sprenger, Institor, Bodine, and others write? Even as much as to Ovids Metamorphosis, Aesops fables, Moores Utopia, and diverse other fansies; which have as much truth in them, as a blind man hath sight in his eie.

A charme for the bots in a horsse.

YOu must both saie and doo thus upon the diseased horsse three daies together, before the sunne rising: In nomine patris & filii & spiritussancti; Exorcizo te vermem per Deum patrem, & filium & spiritumsanctum: that is, In the name of God the Father, the Sonne, & the Holy-ghost, I conjure thee O worme by God the Father, the Sonne, & the Holy-ghost; that thou neither eat nor drinke the flesh bloud or bones of this horsse; and that thou hereby maist be made as patient as Job, and as good as S. John/ Baptist,249. when he baptised Christ in Jordan, In nomine patris & filii & spiritussancti. And then saie three Pater nosters, and three Aves, in the right eare of the horsse, to the glorie of the holie trinitie. Dominus filius spiritus Maria.

There are also divers bookes imprinted, as it should appeare with the authoritie of the church of Rome, wherein are conteined manie medicinall praiers, not onelie against all diseases of horsses, but also for everie impediment and fault in a horsse: in so much as if a shoo fall off in the middest of his journie, there is a praier to warrant your horsses/180. hoofe, so as it shall not breake, how far so ever he be from the SmithesThe smiths will canne them small thankes for this praier. forge.

Item, the Duke of Alba his horsse was consecrated, or canonized, in the lowe countries, at the solemne masse; wherein the popes bull, and also his charme was published (which I will hereafter recite) he in the meane time sitting as Vice-roy with his consecrated standard in his hand, till masse was done.

A charme against vineager.

THat wine wax not eager, write on the vessell,*[* Ps. 33. 9. Vulg.] Gustate & videte, quoniam suavis est Dominus.O notable blasphemie.

202

The xv. Chapter.

The inchanting of serpents and snakes, objections aunswered concerning the same; fond reasons whie charmes take effect therin, Mahomets pigeon, miracles wrought by an Asse at Memphis in Aegypt, popish charmes against serpents, of miracle workers, the tameing of snakes, Bodins lie of snakes.

CONCERNING the charming of serpents and snakes, mine adversaries (as I have said) thinke they have great advantage by the words of David in the fiftie eight psalme; and by Jeremie, chapter eight, expounding the one prophet by Virgil, the other by Ovid. For the words of DavidPsal. 58. are these; Their poison is like the poison of a serpent, and like a deafe adder, that stoppeth his/250. eare, and heareth not the voice of the charmer, charme he never so cunninglie. The words of VirgilVirg. eclog. 8. are these, Frigidus in pratis cantando rumpitur anguis. As he might saie, David thou liest; for the cold natured snake is by the charmes of the inchanters broken all to peeces in the field where he lieth. Then commeth Ovid,Ovid. metamor. 7. and he taketh his countriemans part, saieng in the name and person of a witch; Vipereas rumpo verbis & carmine fauces; that is, I with my words and charmes can breake in sunder the vipers jawes. Marrie JeremieJerem. 8. 17. on the other side encountereth this poeticall witch, and he not onelie defendeth, but expoundeth his fellowe prophets words, and that not in his owne name, but in the name of almightie God; saieng, I will send serpents and cockatrices among you, which cannot be charmed.

Now let anie indifferent man (christian or heathen) judge, whether the words and minds of the prophets doo not directlie oppugne these poets words (I will not saie minds:) for that I am sure they did therein but jest and trifle, according to the common fabling of lieng poets. And certeinlie, I can encounter them two with other two poets; namelie Propertius and Horace, the one merrilie deriding, the other seriouslie impugning their fantasticall poetries, concerning the power and omnipotencie of witches. For where Virgil, Ovid, &c: write that witches with their charmes fetch downe the moone and starres from heaven, etc.; Propertius mocketh them in these words following:/

181.At vos deductæ quibus est fallacia Lunæ,
Et labor in magicis sacra piare focis,
En agedum dominæ mentem convertite nostræ,
Et facite illa meo palleat ore magis,
203Tunc ego crediderim vobis & sidera & amnes
Posse Circeis ducere carminibus:
But you that have the subtill slight,Englished by Abraham Fleming.
Of fetching downe the moone from skies;
And with inchanting fier bright,
Attempt to purge your sacrifies:
Lo now, go to, turne (if you can)
Our madams mind and sturdie hart,/
251.And make hir face more pale and wan,
Than mine: which if by magicke art
You doo, then will I soone beleeve,
That by your witching charmes you can
From skies aloft the starres remeeve,
And rivers turne from whence they ran.

And that you may see more certeinlie, that these poets did but jest and deride the credulous and timerous sort of people, I thought good to shew you what Ovid saith against himselfe, and such as have written so incrediblie and ridiculouslie of witches omnipotencie:

Nec mediæ magicis finduntur cantibus angues,
Nec redit in fontes unda supina suos:
Snakes in the middle are not rivenEnglished by Abraham Fleming.
with charmes of witches cunning,
Nor waters to their fountaines driven
by force of backward running.

As for Horace his verses I omit them, bicause I have cited them in another place. And concerning this matter CardanusCard. lib. 15. de var. rer. cap. 80. saith, that at everie eclipse they were woont to thinke, that witches pulled downe the sunne and moone from heaven. And doubtles, hence came the opinion of that matter, which spred so farre, and continued so long in the common peoples mouthes, that in the end learned men grew to beleeve it, and to affirme it in writing.

But here it will be objected,An objection answered. that bicause it is said (in the places by me alledged) that snakes or vipers cannot be charmed; Ergo other things may: To answer this argument, I would aske the witchmonger this question, to wit; Whether it be expedient, that to satisfie his follie, the Holie-ghost must of necessitie make mention of everie particular thing that he imagineth may be bewitched? I would also aske of him, what privilege a snake hath more than other creatures, that he onelie may not, and all other creatures may be bewitched? 204 I hope they will not saie, that either/182. their faith or infidelitie is the cause thereof; neither doo I admit the answer of such divines as saie, that he cannot be bewitched:/252. for that he seduced Eve; by meanes whereof God himselfe curssed him; and thereby he is so privileged, as that no witches charme can take hold of him. But more shall be said hereof in the sequele.

DanæusDan. in dialog. cap. 3. saith, that witches charmes take soonest hold upon snakes and adders; bicause of their conference and familiaritie with the divell, whereby the rather mankind through them was seduced. Let us seeke then an answer for this cavill; although in truth it needeth not: for the phrase of speach is absolute, & importes not a speciall qualitie proper to the nature of a viper anie more, than when I saie; A connie cannot flie: you should gather & conclude thereupon, that I ment that all other beasts could flie. But you shall understand, that the cause why these vipers can rather withstand the voice & practise of inchanters and sorcerers, than other creatures, is: for that they being in bodie and nature venomous, cannot so soone or properlie receive their destruction by venome, wherby the witches in other creatures bring their mischeefous practises more easilie to passe, according to Virgils saieng

Corrupítque lacus, infecit pabula tabo,Virg. geo. 4.
She did infect with poison strongEnglished by Abraham Fleming.
Both ponds and pastures all along.

And thereupon the prophet alludeth unto their corrupt and inflexible nature, with that comparison: and not (as Tremelius is faine to shift it) with stopping one eare with his taile, and laieng the other close to the ground; bicause he would not heare the charmers voice. For the snake hath neither such reason; nor the words such effect: otherwise the snake must know our thoughts. It is also to be considered, how untame by nature these vipers (for the most part) are; in so much as they be not by mans industrie or cunning to be made familiar, or traind to doo anie thing, whereby admiration maie be procured: as Bomelio FeatesFeates his dog, and Mahomets pigeon. his dog could doo; or Mahomets pigeon, which would resort unto him, being in the middest of his campe, and picke a pease out of his eare; in such sort that manie of the people thought that the Holie-ghost came and told him a tale in his eare: the same pigeon also brought him a scroll, wherein was written, Rex esto, and laid the same in his necke. And bicause I have spoken of the doci/litie of a dog and a pigeon, though I could cite an infinite number of like t253.ales, I will be bold to trouble you but with one more.

205

At Memphis in Aegypt,A storie declaring the great docilitie of an asse. among other juggling knacks, which were there usuallie shewed, there was one that tooke such paines with an asse, that he had taught him all these qualities following. And for gaine he caused a stage to be made, and an assemblie of people to meete; which being done, in the maner of a plaie, he came in with his asse, and said; The Sultane hath great need of asses to helpe to carrie stones and other stuffe, towards his great building which he hath in hand. The asse im/mediatlie183. fell downe to the ground, and by all signes shewed himselfe to be sicke, and at length to give up the ghost: so as the juggler begged of the assemblie monie towards his losse. And having gotten all that he could, he said; Now my maisters, you shall see mine asse is yet alive, and dooth but counterfet; bicause he would have some monie to buie him provender, knowing that I was poore, and in some need of releefe. Hereupon he would needs laie a wager, that his asse was alive, who to everie mans seeming was starke dead. And when one had laid monie with him thereabout, he commanded the asse to rise, but he laie still as though he were dead: then did he beate him with a cudgell, but that would not serve the turne, untill he addressed this speech to the asse, saieng (as before) in open audience; The Sultane hath commanded, that all the people shall ride out to morrow, and see the triumph, and that the faire ladies will then ride upon the fairest asses, and will give notable provender unto them, and everie asse shall drinke of the sweete water of Nilus: and then lo the asse did presentlie start up, and advance himselfe exceedinglie. Lo (quoth his maister) now I have wonne: but in troth the Maior hath borrowed mine asse, for the use of the old ilfavoured witch his wife: and thereupon immediatlie he hoong downe his eares, and halted downe right, as though he had beene starke lame. Then said his maister; I perceive you love yoong prettie wenches: at which words he looked up, as it were with joifull cheere. And then his maister did bid him go choose one that should ride upon him; and he ran to a verie handsome woman, and touched hir with his head: &c. A snake will never be brought to such familiaritie, &c. BodinJ. Bod. lib. de dæm. 2. cap. 6. saith, that this was a man in the likenesse of an asse: but I maie/254. rather thinke that he is an asse in the likenesse of a man. Well, to returne to our serpents, I will tell you a storie concerning the charming of them, and the event of the same.

In the citie of SalisboroghMal. malef. part 2. qu. 3. cap 9.
John. Bodin.
there was an inchanter, that before all the people tooke upon him to conjure all the serpents and snakes within one mile compasse into a great pit or dike, and there to kill them. When all the serpents were gathered togither, as he stood upon the brinke of the pit, there came at the last a great and a 206 horrible serpent, which would not be gotten downe with all the force of his incantations: so as (all the rest being dead) he flew upon the inchanter, and clasped him in the middest, and drew him downe into the said dike, and there killed him. You must thinke that this was a divell in a serpents likenesse, which for the love he bare to the poore snakes, killed the sorcerer; to teach all other witches to beware of the like wicked practise. And surelie, if this be not true, there be a great number of lies conteined in M. Mal. and in J. Bodin. And if this be well weighed, and conceived, it beateth downe to the ground all those witchmongers arguments, that contend to wring witching miracles out of this place. For they disagree notablie, some denieng and some affirming that serpents maie be bewitched. Neverthelesse, bicause in everie point you shall see how poperie agreeth with paganisme, I will recite certeine charmes against vipers, allowed for the most part in and by the church of Rome: as followeth.

Exorcismes or conjuratiōs against serpents. I conjure thee O serpent in this houre, by the five holie woonds of our/184. Lord, that thou remove not out of this place, but here staie, as certeinelie as God was borne of a pure virgine. ❈ Otherwise: I conjure thee serpent In nomine patris, & filii, & spiritus sancti: I command thee serpent by our ladie S. Marie, that thou obeie me, as wax obeieth the fier, and as fier obeieth water; that thou neither hurt me, nor anie other christian, as certeinelie as God was borne of an immaculate virgine, in which respect I take thee up, In nomine patris & filii, & spiritus sancti: Ely lash eiter, ely lash eiter, ely lash eiter. ❈ Otherwise: O vermine, thou must come as God came unto the Jewes.L. Vair. lib. de fascinat. 1. cap. 4. ❈ Otherwise: L. Vairus saith, that Serpens quernis frondibus contacta, that a serpent touched with oke leaves dieth, and staieth even in the beginning of his going, if a feather of the bird Ibis be cast or throwne upon him: and that/255. a viper smitten or hot with a reed is astonied, and touched with a beechen branch is presentlie numme and stiffe.

Usurpers of kinred with blessed Paule and S Katharine. Here is to be remembred, that manie use to boast that they are of S. Paules race and kinred, shewing upon their bodies the prints of serpents: which (as the papists affirme) was incident to all them of S. Paules stocke. Marie they saie herewithall, that all his kinsfolks can handle serpents, or anie poison without danger. Others likewise have (as they brag) a Katharine wheele upon their bodies, and they saie they are kin to S. Katharine, and that they can carrie burning coles in their bare hands, and dip their said hands in hot skalding liquor, and also go into hot ovens. Whereof though the last be but a bare jest, and to be doone by anie that will prove (as a bad fellow in London had used to doo, making no tariance at all therein:) yet there207 is a shew made of the other, as though it were certeine and undoubted; by annointing the hands with the juice of mallowes, mercurie, urine, &c: which for a little time are defensatives against these scalding liquors, and scortching fiers.

But they that take upon them to worke these mysteries and miracles, doo indeed (after rehearsall of these and such like words and charmes) take up even in their bare hands, those snakes and vipers, and sometimes put them about their necks, without receiving anie hurt thereby, to the terror and astonishment of the beholders, which naturallie both feare and abhorre all serpents. But these charmers (upon my word) dare not trust to their charmes, but use such an inchantment, as everie man maie lawfullie use, and in the lawfull use thereof maie bring to passe that they shalbe in securitie, and take no harme, how much soever they handle them: marie with a woollen rag they pull out their teeth before hand, as some men saie; but as truth is, they wearie them, and that is of certeintie. And surelie this is a kind of witchcraft, which I terme private confederacie. BodinJ. Bodin. lib. de dæm. 1. cap. 3. saith, that all the snakes in one countrie were by charmes and verses driven into another region: perhaps he meaneth Ireland, where S. Patrike is said to have doone it with his holinesse, &c.

James Sprenger, and Henrie Institor affirme, that serpents and snakes, and their skins exceed all other creatures for witchcraft: in so much as witches doo use to burie them under mens/256. threshholds, either of the house or stalles, whereby barrennes is procured both to woman and beast: yea and that the verie earth and ashes of them continue to have force of fascination. In respect whereof they wish all men now and then to dig/185. awaie the earth under their threshholds, and to sprinkle holie water in the place, & also to hang boughes (hallowed on midsummer daie) at the stall doore where the cattell stand: & produce examples thereupon, of witches lies, or else their owne, which I omit; bicause I see my booke groweth to be greater than I meant it should be.

208

The xvi. Chapter.

Charmes to carrie water in a sive, to know what is spoken of us behind our backs, for bleare eies, to make seeds to growe well, of images made of wax, to be rid of a witch, to hang hir up, notable authorities against waxen images, a storie bewraieng the knaverie of waxen images.

LEONARDUS VAIRUSL. Vairus lib. fascin. 1. ca. 5.
Oratio Tuscæ vestalis.
saith, that there was a praier extant, whereby might be carried in a sive, water, or other liquor: I thinke it was Clam claie; which a crow taught a maid, that was promised a cake of so great quantitie, as might be kneded of so much floure as she could wet with the water that she brought in a sive, and by that meanes she clamd it with claie, & brought in so much water, as whereby she had a great cake, and so beguiled hir sisters, &c. And this tale I heard among my grandams maides, whereby I can decipher this witchcraft. Item, by the tingling of the eare, men heretofore could tell what was spoken of them. If anie see a scorpion, and saie this word (Bud) Of the word (Bud) and the Greeke letters Π & Α. he shall not be stoong or bitten therewith. These two Greeke letters Π and Α written in a paper, and hoong about ones necke, preserve the partie from bleereiednesse. Cummin or hempseed sowne with curssing and opprobrious words grow the faster and the better. Berosus Anianus maketh witchcraft of great antiquitie: for he saith, that/257. Cham touching his fathers naked member uttered a charme, wherby his father became emasculated or deprived of the powers generative.

A charme teaching how to hurt whom you list with images of wax, &c.

MAke an image in his name, whom you would hurt or kill, of new virgine wax; under the right arme poke whereof place a swallowes hart, and the liver under the left; then hang about the necke thereof a new thred in a new needle pricked into the member which you would have hurt, with the rehearsall of certeine words, which for the avoiding of foolish superstition and credulitie in this behalfe is to be omitted. And if they were inserted, I dare undertake they would doo no harme, were it not to make fooles, and catch gudgins. ❈ Otherwise: Sometimes these images are made of brasse, and then the hand is placed where the foote should be, and the foote where the hand, and the face downeward. ❈ Otherwise: For a greater mischeefe, 209 the like image is made in the forme of a man or woman, upon whose head is written the certeine name of the partie: and on his or hir ribs these words, Ailif, casyl, zaze, hit/ mel meltat:186. then the same must be buried.The practiser of these charmes must have skill in the planetarie motions, or else he may go shoo the goose. ❈ Otherwise: In the dominion of Mars, two images must be prepared, one of wax, the other of the earth of a dead man; each image must have in his hand a sword wherwith a man hath beene slaine, & he that must be slaine may have his head thrust through with a foine. In both must be written certeine peculiar characters, and then must they be hid in a certeine place. ❈ Otherwise: To obteine a womans love, an image must be made in the houre of Venus, of virgine wax, in the name of the beloved, wherupon a character is written, & is warmed at a fier, and in dooing therof the name of some angell must be mentioned. To be utterlie rid of the witch, and to hang hir up by the haire, you must prepare an image of the earth of a dead man to be baptised in another mans name, whereon the name, with a character, must be written: then must it be perfumed with a rotten bone, and then these psalmes read backward: Domine Dominus noster, Dominus illuminatio mea, Domine exaudi orationem meam, Deus laudem meam ne tacueris: and then burie it, first in one place, and/258. afterwards in another. Howbeit, it is written in the 21 article of the determination of Paris, that to affirme that images of brasse, lead, gold, of white or red wax, or of any other stuffe (conjured, baptised, consecrated, or rather execrated through these magicall arts at certeine days) have woonderfull vertues, or such as are avowed in their bookes or assertions, is error in faith, naturall philosophie, and true astronomie: yea it is concluded in the 22 article of that councell, that it is as great an error to beleeve those things, as to doo them.

But concerning these images, it is certeine that they are much feared among the people, and much used among cousening witches, as partlie appeereth in this discourse of mine else-where, & as partlie you may see by the contents of this storieA proved storie concerning the premisses. following. Not long sithence, a yoong maiden (dwelling at new Romnie heere in Kent) being the daughter of one M. L. Stuppenie (late Jurat of the same towne but dead before the execution hereof) and afterwards the wife of Thomas Eps, who is at this instant Maior of Romnie) was visited with sicknesse, whose mother and father in lawe being abused with credulitie concerning witches supernaturall power, repaired to a famous witch called mother Baker, dwelling not far from thence at a place called Stonstreet, who (according to witches cousening custome) asked whether they mistrusted not some bad neighbour, to whom they answered that indeed they doubted a woman neere unto them (and yet the same woman was, of the honester & wiser sort of hir 210 neighbors, reputed a good creature.) Nevertheles the witch told them that there was great cause of their suspicion: for the same (said she) is the verie partie that wrought the maidens destruction, by making a hart of wax, and pricking the same with pins and needels; affirming also that the same neighbor of hirs had bestowed the same in some secret corner of the house. This being beleeved, the house was searched by credible persons, but nothing could be found. The witch or wise woman being certified hereof, continued hir assertion, and would needs go to the house where she hir selfe (as she affirmed) would certeinlie find it. When she came thither, she used hir cunning (as it chanced) to hir owne confusion, or at least/wise187. to hir detection: for heerein she did, as some of the wiser sort mistrusted that she woulde doo, laieng downe privilie such an/259. image (as she had before described) in a corner, which by others had beene most diligentlie searched & looked into, & by that means hir cousenage was notablie bewraied. And I would wish that all witchmongers might paie for their lewd repaire to inchantors, and consultation with witches, and such as have familiar spirits, as some of these did, and that by the order of the high commissioners, which partlie for respect of neighborhood, and partlie for other considerations, I leave unspoken of.

The xvii. Chapter.

Sundrie sorts of charmes tending to diverse purposes, and first, certeine charmes to make taciturnitie in tortures.

I
MPARIBUS meritis triaThis charm seemeth to allude to Christ crucified betweene the two theevs.
pendent corpora ramis,
Dismas & Gestas,
in medio est divina potestas,
Dismas damnatur,
Gestas ad astra levatur:
Englished by Abraham Fleming.Three bodies on a bough doo hang,
for merits of inequalitie,
Dismas and Gestas, in the midst
the power of the divinitie.
Dismas is damned, but Gestas lif-
ted up above the starres on hie.

Also this: Psal. 44.Eructavit cor meum verbum bonum veritatem nunquam dicam regi. ❈ Otherwise: As the milke of our ladie was lussious to our Lord Jesus Christ; so let this torture or rope be pleasant to mine 211 armes and members. ❈ Otherwise:Luk. 4.
John. 19
Jesus autem transiens per medium illorum ibat. ❈ Otherwise: You shall not break a bone of him./

260.Counter charmes against these and all other witchcrafts, in the saieng also whereof witches are vexed, &c.

ERuctavitPsal. 44.
Scripture properlie applied.
cor meum verbum bonum, dicam cuncta opera mea regi. ❈ Otherwise: Domine labia mea aperies, & os meum annunciabit veritatem. ❈ Otherwise: Contere brachia iniqui rei, & lingua maligna subvertetur.

A charme for the choine cough.

TAke three sips of a chalice, when the preest hath said masse, and swallow it downe with good devotion, &c./

For corporall or spirituall rest.188.

In nomine patris, up and downe,
Et filii & spiritus sancti upon my crowne,
Crux Christi upon my brest,
Sweete ladie send me eternall rest!*[* Ital. & Rom.]

Charmes to find out a theefe.

THe meanes O most woonderfull vertue hidden in the letters of S. Helens holie name!how to find out a theefe, is thus: Turne your face to the east, and make a crosse upon christall with oile olive, and under the crosse write these two words [Saint Helen].*[* So in text.] Then a child that is innocent, and a chast virgine borne in true wedlocke, and not base begotten, of the age of ten yeares, must take the christall in his hand, and behind his backe, kneeling on thy knees, thou must devoutlie and reverentlie saie over this praier thrise: I beseech thee my ladie S. Helen, mother of king Constantine, which diddest find the crosse whereupon Christ died: by that thy holie devotion, and invention of the crosse, and by the same crosse, and by the joy which thou conceivedst at the finding thereof and by the love which thou barest to thy sonne Constantine, and by the great goodnes which thou dooest alwaies use, that thou shew me in this christall, whatsoever I aske or desire to knowe; Amen. And when the child seeth the angell in the christall, demand what you will, and the angell will make answer thereunto. Memorandum,†[† Rom.] that this be doone just at the sunne/261. rising, when the wether is faire and cleere.

CardanusCard. lib. 16. de var. rer. cap. 93. derideth these and such like fables, and setteth downe his judgement therein accordinglie, in the sixteenth booke De rerum var. 212 These conjurors and couseners forsooth will shew you in a glasse the theefe that hath stolne anie thing from you, and this is their order. They take a glasse viall full of holie water, and set it upon a linnen cloth, which hath beene purified, not onelie by washing, but by sacrifice, &c. On the mouth of the viall or urinall, two olive leaves must be laid acrosse, with a litle conjuration said over it, by a child; to wit thus: Angele bone, angele candide, per tuam sanctitatem, meámq; virginitatem, ostende mihi furem: with three Pater nosters, three Aves, and betwixt either of them a *crosse* For if the crosse be forgotten all is not woorth a pudding. made with the naile of the thumbe upon the mouth of the viall; and then shall be seene angels ascending and descending as it were motes in the sunne beames. The theefe all this while shall suffer great torments, and his face shall be seene plainlie, even as plainlie I beleeve as the man in the moone. For in truth, there are toies artificiallie conveied into the glasse, which will make the water bubble, and devises to make images appeare in the bubbles: as also there be artificiall glasses, which will shew unto you that shall looke thereinto, manie images of diverse formes, and some so small and curious, as they shall in favour resemble whom so ever you thinke upon. Looke in John Bap. Neap. for the confection of such glasses. The subtilties hereof are so detected, and the mysteries of the glasses so common now, and their/189. cousenage so well knowne, &c: that I need not stand upon the particular confutation hereof. Cardanus in the place before cited reporteth, how he tried with children these and diverse circumstances the whole illusion, and found it to be plaine knaverie and cousenage.

Another waie to find out a theefe that hath stolne anie thing from you.

GO to the sea side, and gather as manie pebles as you suspect persons for that matter; carrie them home, and throwe them into the fier, and burie them under the threshhold, where the parties are like to come over. There let them lie three daies, and then before sunne rising take them awaie. Then set a porrenger/262. full of water in a circle, wherein must be made crosses everie waie, as manie as can stand in it; upon the which must be written: Christ overcommeth, Christ reigneth, Christ commandeth. The porrenger also must be signed with a crosse, and a forme of conjuration must be pronounced. Then each stone must be throwne into the water, in the name of the suspected. And when you put in the stone of him that is guiltie, the stone will make the water boile, as though glowing iron were put 213thereinto. Which is a meere knacke of legier de maine, and to be accomplished diverse waies.

To put out the theeves eie.

REad the seven *psalmes[* penitential] with the Letanie, and then must be said a horrible praier to Christ, and God the father, with a cursse against the theefe. Then in the middest of the step of your foote, on the ground where you stand, make a circle like an eie, and write thereabout certeine barbarous names, and drive with a coopers hammar, or addes into the middest thereof a brasen naile consecrated, saieng: Justus es Domine, & justa judicia tua. Then the theefe shall be bewraied by his crieng out.

Another waie to find out a theefe.

These be meere toies to mocke apes, and have in them no commendable devise.STicke a paire of sheeres in the rind of a sive, and let two persons set the top of each of their forefingers upon the upper part of the sheeres, holding it with the sive up from the ground steddilie, and aske Peter and Paule whether A. B. or C. hath stolne the thing lost, and at the nomination of the guiltie person, the sive will turne round. This is a great practise in all countries, and indeed a verie bable. For with the beating of the pulse some cause of that motion ariseth, some other cause by slight of the fingers, some other by the wind gathered in the sive to be staid, &c: at the pleasure of the holders. Some cause may be the imagination, which upon conceipt at the naming of the partie altereth the common course of the pulse. As may well be conceived by a ring held steddilie by a thred betwixt the finger and the thombe, over or rather in a goblet or glasse; which within short space will strike against the side therof so manie strokes as the holder thinketh it/263. a clocke, and then will staie: the which who so prooveth shall find true.

A charme to find out or spoile a theefe.

OF this matter, concerning the apprehension of theeves by words, I will cite one charme, called S. Adelberts cursse, being both for/190. length of words sufficient to wearie the reader, and for substantiall stuffe comprehending all that apperteineth unto blasphemous speech or curssing, allowed in the church of Rome, as an excommunication and inchantment.

214

Saint Adelberts cursse or charme against theeves.

BY the authoritie of the omnipotent Father, the Sonne, and the Holie-ghost, and by the holie virgine Marie mother of our Lord Jesu Christ, and the holie angels and archangels, and S. Michaell, and S. John Baptist, and in the behalfe of S. Peter the apostle, and the residue of the apostles, and of S. Steeven, and of all the martyrs, of S. Sylvester, and of S. Adelbert, and all the confessors, and S. Alegand, and all the holie virgins, and of all the saints in heaven and earth, unto whom there is given power to bind and loose: we doo excommunicate, damne, cursse, and bind with the knots and bands of excommunication, and we doo segregate from the bounds and lists of our holie mother the church, all those theeves, sacrilegious persons, ravenous catchers, dooers, counsellers, coadjutors, male or female, that have committed this theft or mischeefe,This is not to doo good to our enimies, nor to praie for them that hurt and hate us; as Christ exhorteth. or have usurped any part therof to their owne use. Let their share be with Dathan and Abiran, whome the earth swallowed up for their sinnes and pride, and let them have part with Judas that betraied Christ, Amen: and with Pontius Pilat, and with them that said to the Lord, Depart from us, we will not understand thy waies; let their children be made orphanes. Curssed be they in the field, in the grove, in the woods, in their houses, barnes, chambers, and beds; and curssed be they in the court, in the waie, in the towne, in the castell, in the water, in the church, in the churchyard, in the tribunall place, in battell, in their abode, in the market place, in their talke, in silence, in eating, in watching, in sleeping, in drinking/264. in feeling, in sitting, in kneeling, in standing[,] in lieng, in idlenes, in all their worke, in their bodie and soule, in their five wits, and in everie place. Curssed be the fruit of their wombs, and curssed be the fruit of their lands, and curssed be all that they have. Curssed be their heads, their mouthes, their nostrels, their noses, their lips, their jawes, their teeth, their eies and eielids, their braines, the roofe of their mouthes, their toongs, their throtes, their breasts, their harts, their bellies, their livers, all their bowels, and their stomach.

Curssed be their navels, their spleenes, their bladder. Curssed be their thighs, their legs, their feete, their toes, their necks, their shoulders. Curssed be their backs, curssed be their armes, curssed be their elbowes, curssed be their hands, and their fingers, curssed be both the nails of their hands and feete; curssed be their ribbes and their genitals, and their knees, curssed be their flesh, curssed be their bones, curssed be their bloud, curssed be the skin of their bodies, curssed be the marrowe in their bones, curssed be they from the crowne of the head, to the sole of the foote: and whatsoever is 215 betwixt the same, be it accurssed, that is to saie, their five senses; to wit, their seeing, their hearing, their smelling, their tasting, and their feeling. Curssed be they in the holie crosse, in the passion of Christ, with his five wounds, with the effusi/on191. of his bloud, and by the milke of the virgine Marie. I conjure thee Lucifer, with all thy soldiers, by the *father,* Thus they make the holie trinitie to beare a part in their exorcisme, or else it is no bargaine. the son, and the Holie-ghost, with the humanitie and nativitie of Christ, with the vertue of all saints, that thou rest not day nor night, till thou bringest them to destruction, either by drowning or hanging, or that they be devoured by wild beasts, or burnt, or slaine by their enimies, or hated of all men living. And as our Lord hath given authoritie to Peter the apostle, and his successors, whose place we occupie, and to us (though unworthie) that whatsoever we bind on earth, shall be bound in heaven, and whatsoever we loose on earth, shall be loosed in heaven: so we accordinglie, if they will not amend, doo shut from them the gates of heaven, and denie unto them christian buriall, so as they shall be buried in asses leaze. Furthermore, curssed be the ground wherein they are buried, let them be confounded in the last daie of judgement, let them have no conversation among christians, nor be/houseled*[* be-houseled text.] at the 265.houre of death; let them be made as dust before the face of the wind: and as Lucifer was expelled out of heaven, and Adam and Eve out of paradise; so let them be expelled from the daie light. Also let them be joined with those, to whome the Lord saith at the judgement;Matth. 15. Go ye curssed into everlasting fier, which is prepared for the divell and his angels, where the worme shall not die, nor the fier be quenched. And as the candle, which is throwne out of my hand here, is put out: so let their works and their soule be quenched in the stench of hell fier, except they restore that which they have stolne, by such a daie: and let everie one saie, Amen. After this must be soong ** That is, In the midst of life we are in death, &c.In media vita in morte sumus, &c.

This terrible cursse with bell, booke, and candell added thereunto, must needs worke woonders: howbeit among theeves it is not much weighed, among wise and true men it is not well liked, to them that are robbed it bringeth small releefe: the preests stomach may well be eased, but the goods stolne will never the sooner be restored. Hereby is bewraied both the malice and follie of popish doctrine, whose uncharitable impietie is so impudentlie published, and in such order uttered, as everie sentence (if oportunitie served) might be prooved both hereticall and diabolicall. But I will answer this cruell cursse with another cursse farre more mild and civill, performed by as honest a man (I dare saie) as he that made the other, whereof mention was latelie made.

So it was, that a certeine sir John,*[* i.e. a priest.] with some of his companie, once 216went abroad a jetting, and in a moone light evening robbed a millers weire, and stole all his eeles. The poore miller made his mone to sir John himselfe, who willed him to be quiet; for he would so cursse the theefe, and all his confederates, with bell, booke, and candell, that they should have small joy of their fish. And therefore the next sundaie, sir John got him to the pulpit, with his surplisse on his backe, and his stole about his necke, and pronounced these words following in the audience of the people.

All you that have stolne the millers eeles,*[* Rom.]A cursse for theft.
Laudate Dominum de cœlis,
And all they that have consented thereto,*/
192.Benedicamus Domino./

266.Lo (saith he) there is sauce for your eeles my maisters.

Another inchantment.

CErteine preests use the hundred and eight psalme as an inchantment or charme, or at the leastwise saieng, that against whome soever they pronounce it, they cannot live one whole yeere at the uttermost.

The xviii Chapter.

A charme or experiment to find out a witch.

IN die dominico sotularia juvenum axungia seu pinguedine porci, ut moris est, pro restauratione fieri perungunt: and when she is once come into the church, the witch can never get out, untill the *seachers* [= seekers] for hir give hir expresse leave to depart.

But now it is necessarie to shew you how to prevent and cure all mischeefes wrought by these charmes & witchcrafts, according to the opinion of M. Mal.Preservatives from witchcraft according to M. Mal. L. Vairus & others. and others. One principall waie is to naile a horsse shoo at the inside of the outmost threshhold of your house, and so you shall be sure no witch shall have power to enter thereinto. And if you marke it, you shall find that rule observed in manie countrie houses. ❈ Otherwise: Item the triumphant title to be written crossewise, in everie corner of the house, thus: JesusNazarenusrexJudæorum ✠. Memorandum*[* Rom.] you may joine heerewithall, the name of the virgine Marie, or of the foure evangelists, or Verbum caro factum est. ❈ Otherwise: Item in some countries they naile a woolves head on the doore. ❈ Otherwise: Item they hang Scilla 217 (which is either a roote, or rather in this place garlike) in the roofe of the house, for to keepe awaie witches and spirits: and so they doo Alicium also. ❈ Otherwise: Item perfume made of the gall of a blake dog, and his bloud besmeered on the posts and walles of the house, driveth out of the doores both devils and witches. ❈ Otherwise: The house/267. where Herba betonica is sowne, is free from all mischeefes. ❈ Otherwise: It is not unknowne that the Romish church allowed and used the smoke of sulphur, to drive spirits out of their houses; as they did frankincense and water hallowed. ❈ Otherwise: Apuleius saith, that Mercurie gave to Ulysses, when he came neere to the inchantresse Circe, an hearbe called Verbascum, which in English is called Pullein, or Tapsus barbatus, or Longwoort; and that preserved him from the inchantments. ❈ Otherwise: Item Plinie and Homer both doo saie, that the herbe called Molie is an excellent herbe against inchantments; and saie[,] all that thereby Ulysses escaped Circes hir sorceries, and inchantments. ❈ Otherwise also diverse waies they went to worke in this case, and some used this defensative, some that preservative against incantations.

And heerein you shall see, not onelie how the religion of papists, and infidels agree; but also how their ceremonies and their opinions are all one concerning witches and spirits.

For thus writeth Ovid touching that matter:*[* Ital.]

Ovid de Medea.Térque senem flamma, ter aqua, ter sulphure lustrat:
She purifies with fier thriseEnglished by Abraham Fleming.
old horie headed Aeson,/193.
With water thrise, and sulphur thrise,
as she thought meet in reason.

Againe, the same Ovid commeth in as before:*

Adveniat, quæ lustret anus, lectúmque locúmque,
Deferat & tremula sulphur & ova manu.
Let some old woman hither come,By Ab. Fleming.
and purge both bed and place,
And bring in trembling hand new egs
and sulphur in like case.

And Virgil also harpeth upon the like string:* Virg. in Bucolicis.

————————baccare frontem
Cingite, ne vati noceat mala lingua futuro:/
268.Of berrie bearing baccar bowze [boughs] Englished by Abraham Fleming.
a wreath or garland knit,
And round about his head and browze
see decentlie it sit;
That of an evill talking tung
Our future poet be not stung.

218

Furthermore, was it not in times of tempests the papists use, *or[* ? of or in.] superstition, to ring their belles against divels; trusting rather to the tonging of their belles, than to their owne crie unto God with fasting and praier, assigned by him in all adversities and dangers: according to the order of the Thracian preests, which would rore and crie, with all the noise they could make, in those tempests. Olaus GothusOlaus Goth. lib. de gentib. Septentriona-lib. 3. cap. 8. saith, that his countriemen would shoot in the aire, to assist their gods, whome they thought to be then togither by the eares with others, and had consecrated arrowes, called Sagittæ Joviales, even as our papists had. Also in steed of belles, they had great hammers, called Mallei Joviales, to make a noise in time of thunder. In some countries they runne out of the doores in time of tempest, blessing themselves with a cheese, whereupon there was a crosse made with a ropes end upon ascension daie. Also three hailestones to be throwne into the fier in a tempest, and thereupon to be said three Pater nosters, and three Aves, S. Johns gospell, and in fine fugiat tempestas, is a present remedie. Item, to hang an eg laid on ascension daie in the roofe of the house, preserveth the same from all hurts. *Item,* A witches conjuration to make haile cease and be dissolved. I conjure you haile and wind by the five wounds of Christ, by the three nailes which pearsed his hands and his feete, and by the foure evangelists, Matthew, Marke, Luke, and John, that thou come downe dissolved into water. Item, it hath beene a usuall matter, to carrie out in tempests the sacraments and relikes, &c. Item, against stormes, and manie dumme creatures, the popish church useth excommunication as a principall charme. And now to be delivered from witches themselves, they hang in their entries an hearbe called pentaphyllon, cinquefole, also an olive branch, also frankincense, myrrh, valerian, verven, palme, antirchmon, &c: also haythorne, otherwise white[t]horne gathered on Maie daie: also the smoke of a lappoints fethers driveth spirits/269. awaie. There be innumerable popish exorcismes, and conjurations for hearbs and other things, to be thereby made wholsome both for the bodies and soules of men and beasts, and also for/194. contagion of weather. Memorandum,*[* Rom.] that at the gathering of these magicall herbs, the Credo is necessarie to be said, as VairusL. Vair. lib. de fascin. 2. cap. 11. affirmeth; and also the Pater noster, for that is not superstitious. Also Sprenger saith, that 219to throw up a blacke chickenMal. Malef. par. 2. quæ 1. cap. 15. in the aire, will make all tempests to cease: so it be done with the hand of a witch. If a soule wander in the likenesse of a man or woman by night, molesting men, with bewailingNote that you read never of anie spirit that walked by daie, quoth Nota. their torments in purgatorie, by reason of tithes forgotten, &c: and neither masses nor conjurations can helpe; the exorcist in his ceremoniall apparell must go to the toome of that bodie, and spurne thereat, with his foote, saieng; Vade ad gehennam, Get thee packing to hell: and by and by the soule goeth thither, and there remaineth for ever. ❈ Otherwise: There be masses of purpose for this matter, to unbewitch the bewitched. ❈ Otherwise: You must spet into the pissepot, where you have made water. ❈ Otherwise: Spet into the shoo of your right foote, before you put it on: and that Vairus saith is good and holsome to doo, before you go into anie dangerous place. ❈ Otherwise: That neither hunters nor their dogs maie be bewitched, they cleave an oken branch, and both they and their dogs passe over it. ❈ Otherwise: S. AugustineAug. de civit. Dei. lib. 7. cap. 12. saith, that to pacifie the god Liber, whereby women might have fruite of the seeds they sowe, and that their gardens and feelds should not be bewitched; some cheefe grave matrone used to put a crowne upon his genitall member, and that must be publikelie done.

To spoile a theefe, a witch, or anie other enimie, and to be delivered from the evill.

UPon the Sabboth daie before sunrising, cut a hazell wand, saieng: I cut thee O bough of this summers growth, in the name of him whome I meane to beate or maime. Then cover the table, and saie ✠ In nomine patris ✠ & filii ✠ & spiritus sanctiter. And striking thereon saie as followeth (english it he that can) Drochs myroch, esenaroth, ✠ betubarochassmaaroth ✠: and then saie; Holie trinitie punish him that hath/270. wrought this mischiefe, & take it away by thy great justice, Esonelionemaris, ales, age; and strike the carpet with your wand.

A notable charme or medicine to pull out an arrowhead, or anie such thing that sticketh in the flesh or bones, and cannot otherwise be had out.

SAie three severall times kneeling; Oremus, præceptis salutaribus moniti, Pater noster, ave Maria. Then make a crosse saieng: The Hebrew knightThe Hebrue knight was canonized a saint to wit, S. Longinus. strake our Lord Jesu Christ, and I beseech thee, 220 O Lord Jesu Christ ✠ by the same iron, speare, bloud and water, to pull out this iron: In nomine patris& filii& spiritus sancti

Charmes against a quotidian ague.

CUt an apple in three peeces, and write upon the one; The father is uncreated: upon the other; The father is incomprehensible: upon the third; The father is eternall. ❈ Otherwise: Write upon a massecake cut in three peeces; O ague to be worshipped: on the second; O sicknesse to be ascribed to health and joies: on the third; Paxmaxfax ✠ and let it be eaten fasting. ❈ Otherwise: Paint upon three like peeces of a massecake, Pater paxAdonaifilius vitasabbaothspiritus sanctusTetragrammaton ✠ and eate it, as is afore said./

195.For all maner of agues intermittant.

A crossed appension, with other appensions.JOine two little stickes togither in the middest, being of one length, and hang it about your necke in the forme of a crosse. ❈ Otherwise: For this disease the Turkes put within their doublet a ball of wood, with an other peece of wood, and strike the same, speaking certeine frivolous words. ❈ Otherwise: Certeine monks hanged scrolles about the necks of such as were sicke, willing them to saie certeine praiers at each fit, and at the third fit to hope well: and made them beleeve that they should thereby receive cure.

Periapts, characters, &c: for agues, and to cure all diseases, and to deliver from all evill.

For bodie and soule.THe first chapter of S. Johns gospell in small letters consecrated at a masse, and hanged about ones necke, is an in/comparable271. amulet or tablet, which delivereth from all witchcrafts and divelish practises. But me thinkes, if one should hang a whole testament, or rather a bible, he might beguile the divell terriblie. For indeed so would S. Barnard have done, whom the divell told, that he could shew him seven verses in the psalter, which being dailie repeated, would of themselves bring anie man to heaven, and preserve him from hell. But when S. Barnard desired the divell to tell him which they were, he refused, saieng, he might then thinke him a foole so to prejudice himselfe. Well (quoth S. Barnard)S. Barnard overmatcheth the divell for all his subtiltie. I will doo well enough for that, for I will dailie saie over the whole psalter. The divell hearing him saie so, told him which were the verses, least in reading 221 over the whole psalter dailie, he should merit too much for others. But if the hanging of S. Johns gospell about the necke be so beneficiall; how if one should eate up the same?

More charmes for agues.

TAke the partie by the hand, and saie; Aequè facilis sit tibi hæc febris, atque Mariæ virgini Christi partus. ❈ Otherwise: Wash with the partie, and privilie saie this psalme, Exaltabo te Deus meus, rex, &c. ❈ Otherwise: Weare about your necke, a peece of a naile taken from a crosse, and wrapped in wooll. ❈ Otherwise: Drinke wine, wherein a sworde hath beene drowned that hath cut off ones head. ❈ Otherwise: Take three consecrated massecakes, and write upon the first: Qualis est pater talis est vita: on the second; Qualis est filius, talis est sanctus: on the third; Qualis est spiritus tale est remedium.Pretious restorities.*[* ? restorati[v]es] Then give them to the sicke man, enjoining him to eate none other thing that daie wherein he eateth anie of them, nor yet drinke: and let him saie fifteene Pater nosters, and as manie Aves, in the honour and praise of the Trinitie. ❈ Otherwise: Lead the sicke man on a fridaie before sunne rising towards the east, and let him hold up his hands towards the sunne, and saie: This is the daie, wherein the Lord God came to the crosse. But as the crosse shall never more come to him: so let never the hot or cold fit of this ague come anie more unto this man, In nomine patris ✠ & filii, & spiritussancti ✠. Then saie seven and twentie Pater nosters, and as manie Aves, and use this three daies togither. ❈ Otherwise:/

272.Fécana, cagéti, daphnes, gebáre, gedáco,
This is too mysticall to be englished quoth Nota.Gébali stant, sed non stant phebas, hecas,* & hedas.[* 1584, pheb as, hec as]

Everie one of these words must be written upon a peece of bread, and/196. be given in order one daie after another to the sicke bodie, and so must he be cured. This saith Nicholas Hemingius he chanced to read in the schooles in jest; so as one noting the words, practised the medicine in earnest; and was not onelie cured himselfe, but also cured manie others thereby. And therefore he concludeth, that this is a kind of a miraculous cure, wrought by the illusion of the divell: whereas in truth, it will fall out most commonlie, that a tertian ague will not hold anie man longer than so,Fernelius. though no medicine be given, nor anie words spoken. ❈ Otherwise: This word, Abra cadabra written on a paper, with a certeine figure joined therewith, and hanged about ones necke, helpeth the ague. ❈ Otherwise: Let the urine of the sicke bodie made earlie in the morning, be softlie heated nine daies togither continuallie, untill all be consumed into vapor. ❈ Otherwise: A crosse made of two litle twigs joined togither, wherewith when the partie is touched, he will be whole; speciallie if he weare it about his necke. ❈ Otherwise: Take a like quantitie of water out of three ponds of equall bignesse, and tast thereof in a new earthen vessell, and drinke of it when the fit commeth.

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Notable follies of the Spaniards & Italians.In the yeare of our lord 1568, the Spaniards and Italians received from the pope, this incantation following; whereby they were promised both remission of sinnes, and good successe in their warres in the lowe countries. Which whether it be not as prophane and impious, as anie witches charme, I report me to the indifferent reader. ✠ Crucem pro nobis subiit& stans in illa sitiitJesus sacratis manibus, clavis ferreis, pedibus perfossis, Jesus, Jesus, Jesus: Domine libera nos ab hoc malo, & ab hac peste: then three Pater nosters, and three ave Maries. Also the same yeere their ensignes were by the authoritie aforesaid conjured with certeine ceremonies, & consecrated against their enimies. And if you read the histories of these warres, you maie see what victorie they gained hereby. Item, they baptised their cheefe standard, and gave it to name S. Margaret, who overthrew the divell. And bicause you shall under/stand273. the mysterie hereof, I have the rather set it downe elsewhere, being indeed worth the reading.

For a bloudie flux, or rather an issue of bloud.

TAke a cup of cold water, and let fall thereinto three drops of the same bloud, and betweene each drop saie a Pater noster, and an Ave, then drinke to the patient, and saie; Who shall helpe you? The patient must answer S. Marie.He must answer by none other, for she perhaps hath the curing thereof by patent. Then saie you; S. Marie stop the issue of bloud. ❈ Otherwise: Write upon the patients forhead with the same bloud; Consummatum est. ❈ Otherwise: Saie to the patient; Sanguis mane in te, sicut fecit Christus in se; Sanguis mane in tua vena, sicut Christus in sua pœna; Sanguis mane fixus, sicut Christus quando fuit crucifixus: ter. ❈ Otherwise, as followeth.

In the bloud of Adam death was taken
In the bloud of Christ it was all to shaken
And by the same bloud I doo thee charge,
That thou doo runne no longer at large.     ❈ Otherwise.

Christ was borne at Bethelem, and suffered at Jerusalem, where his bloud was troubled. I command thee by the vertue of God, and through/197. the helpe of all saincts, to staie even as Jordan did, 223 when John baptised Christ Jesus; In nomine patris& filii ✠ & spiritus |sancti ✠ ❈ Otherwise: Put thy nameles finger in the wound, and make therwith three crosses upon the wound, and saie five Pater nosters, five Aves, and one Credo, in the honour of the five wounds. ❈ Otherwise:See J. Wier. cap. 11. conf. Touch that part and saie, De latere ejus exivit sanguis & aqua. ❈ Otherwise: In nomine patris& filii& spiritus sancti&c. Chimrat, chara, sarite, confirma, consona, Imohalite. ❈ Otherwise: Sepasepagasepagogasta sanguis in nomine patrispodendi& filiipodera & spiritus sanctipandoricapax tecum, Amen.

Cures commensed and finished by witchcraft.

THere was a jollie fellowe that tooke upon him to be a notable surgion, in the dutchie of Mentz, 1567. to whom there resorted a Gentleman that had beene vexed with sicknesse, named/274. Elibert, having a kerchiefe on his head, according to the guise of sicke folke. But the surgion made him pull off his kerchiefe, and willed him to drinke with him freelie. The sickeman said he durst not; for he was forbidden by physicke so to doo. Tush (said this cunning man) they know not your disease: be ruled by me, and take in your drinke lustilie. For he thought that when he was well tippled, he might the more easilie beguile him in his bargaine, and make his reward the greater, which he was to receive in part aforehand. When they had well droonke, he called the sicke man aside, and told him the greatnes and danger of his disease, and how that it grew by meanes of witchcraft, and that it would be universallie spread in his house, and among all his cattell, if it were not prevented: and impudentlie persuaded the sicke man to receive cure of him.The surgion here most impudentlie setteth his knaverie abroch. And after bargaine made, he demanded of the sicke man, whether he had not anie at home, whom he might assuredlie trust. The sicke man answered, that he had a daughter and a servant. The cousener asked how old his daughter was? The patient said, twentie. Well (said the cousener) that is fit for our turne. Then he made the mother and father to kneele on their knees to their daughter, and to desire hir in all things to obey the physician, and that she would doo in everie thing as he commanded hir; otherwise hir father could not be restored to his health. In which respect hir parents humblie besought hir on their knees so to doo. Then he assigned hir to bring him into his lodging hir fathers haire, and hir mothers, and of all those which he kept in his house, as well of men and women, as also of his cattell. When she came therewith unto him, according to the match made, and hir parents commandement, he lead hir downe into a lowe parlor,224 where having made a long speech, he opened a booke that laie on the boord, and laieth thereon two knives acrosse, with much circumstance of words.A pretended conjuration. Then conjureth he, and maketh strange characters, and at length he maketh a circle on the ground, wherein he causeth hir to sticke one of those conjured knives; and after manie more strange words, he maketh hir sticke the other knife beside it. Then fell downe the maid in a swoone for feare; so as he was faine to frote hir and put a sop into hir mouth, after the receipt whereof she was sore troubled and amazed. Then he made hir brests to be uncovered, so as when/275. they were bare, he dal/lied198. with them, diverslie and long together. Then he made hir lie right upward, all uncovered and bare belowe hir pappes. Wherein the maid being loth to obeie him, resisted, and in shame forbad that villanie. Then said the knave; Your fathers destruction is at hand: for except you will be ruled, he and all his familie shall susteine greater greefe and inconvenience, than is yet happened unto him. And no remedie, except you will seeke his utter overthrowe, I must have carnall copulation with you, and therewithall fell into hir bosome, and overthrew hir and hir virginitie. So did he the second daie, and attempted the like on the third daie.Ad vada tot vadit urna quòd ipsa cadit. But he failed then of his purpose, as the wench confessed afterwards. In the meane time he ministred so cruell medicines to the sicke man, that through the torments therof he feared present death, and was faine to keepe his bed, whereas he walked about before verie well and lustilie. The patient in his torments calleth unto him for remedie, who being slacke and negligent in that behalfe, made roome for the daughter to accompanie hir father, who asked hir what she thought of the cure, and what hope she had of his recoverie. Who with teares remained silent, as being oppressed with greefe; till at the last in abundance of sorrowe she uttered the whole matter to hir father. This dooth Johannes Wierus report, saieng, that it came unto him by the lamentable relation of the father himselfe. And this is here at this time for none other purpose rehearsed, but that men may hereby learne to take heed of such cousening merchants, and knowe what they be that take upon them to be so cunning in witchcraft; least they be bewitched: as maister Elibert and his daughter were.

Another witchcraft or knaverie, practised by the same surgion.

Three morsels, the first charmed with christs birth, the second with his passion, the third with his resurrection.THis surgion ministred to a noble man, that laie sicke of an ague, offering unto him three peeces of a roote to be eaten at three morsels; saieng to the first: I would Christ had not beene 225 borne; unto the second: I would he had not suffered; unto the third: I would he had not risen againe. And then putting them about the sicke mans necke, said; Be of good cheere. And if he lost them, whosoever tooke them up, should therewithall take awaie/276. his ague. ❈ Otherwise: Jesus Christ, which was borne, deliver thee from this infirmitie ✠ Jesus Christ which died ✠ deliver thee from this infirmitie ✠ Jesus Christ which rose againe ✠ deliver thee from this infirmitie. Then dailie must be said five Pater nosters, and five Aves.

Another experiment for one bewitched.

A cousening physician, and a foolish patient.ANother such cousening physician persuaded one which had a timpanie, that it was one old viper, and twoo yoong mainteined in his bellie by witchcraft. But being watched, so as he could not conveie vipers into his ordure or excrements, after his purgations: at length he told the partie, that he should suffer the paines of childbirth, if it were not prevented; and therefore he must put his hand into his breech, and rake out those wormes there. But the mother of the sicke partie having warning hereof, said she could doo that hir selfe. So the cousener was prevented, and the partie died onelie of a timpanie, and the knave ran awaie out of the countrie.

Otherwise.

MOnsieur BodinJohn. Bodin. telleth of a witch, who undertaking to cure a woman bewitched, caused a masse to be soong at midnight in our ladies chap/pell.199. And when she had overlien the sicke partie, and breathed certeine words upon hir, she was healed. Wherein Bodin saith, she followed the example of EliasKakozelia. the prophet, who raised the Sunamitie. And this storie must needs be true: for goodman Hardivin Blesensis his host at the signe of the lion told him the storie.

A knacke to knowe whether you be bewitched, or no, &c.

ITMal. malef. pa. 1. quæ. 17.
Barth. Spin. in novo
Mal. malef.
is also expedient to learne how to know whether a sicke man be bewitched or no: this is the practise thereof. You must hold molten lead over the sicke bodie, and powre it into a porrenger full of water; and then, if there appeare upon the lead, anie image, you may then knowe the partie is bewitched./

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The xix. Chapter.277.

That one witchcraft maie lawfullie meete with another.

SCOTUS, Hostiensis, Gofridus, and all the old canonists agree, that it is lawfull to take awaie witchcraft by witchcraft, Et vana vanis contundere. And ScotusScotus in 4. distinct. 34. de imperio. saith, It were follie to forbeare to encounter witchcraft by witchcraft; for (saith he) there can be none inconvenience therein; bicause the overthrower of witchcraft assenteth not to the works of the divell. And therefore he saith further, that it is meritorious so to extinguish and overthrow the divels workes. As though he should saie; It maketh no matter, though S. Paule saie; Non facies malum, ut indè veniat bonum, Thou shalt not doo evill, that good maie come thereof. HumbertusDist. 4. saith, that witchcraft maie be taken awaie by that meanes whereby it was brought. But Gofredus Gofred. in summa sua. inveieth sore against the oppugners thereof. Pope Nicholas the fift gave indulgence and leave to bishop Miraties (who was so bewitched in his privities, that he could not use the gift of venerie) to seeke remedie at witches hands. And this was the clause of his dispensation, Ut ex duobus malis fugiatur majus, that of two evils, the greater should be avoided. And so a witch, by taking his doublet, cured him, and killed the other witch: as the storie saith, which is to be seene in M. Mal. and diverse other writers.

The xx. Chapter.

Who are privileged from witches, what bodies are aptest to be bewitched, or to be witches, why women are rather witches than men, and what they are.

NOW if you will know who and what persons are privileged from witches, you must understand, that they be even suchMal. malef. par. 2. quæ. 1. cap. 1. as cannot be bewitched. In the number of whome first be the in/quisitors,278. and such as exercise publike justice upon them. Howbeit,** Whereof looke more in a little booke set foorth in print. a justice in Essex, whome for diverse respects I have left unnamed, not long since thought he was bewitched, in the verie instant whiles he examined the witch; so as his leg was broken therby, &c: which either was false, or else this rule untrue, or both rather injurious unto Gods providence. Secondlie, 227 such as observe dulie the rites and ceremonies of holie church, and worship them with reverence, through the sprinkling of holie water, and receiving consecrated salt, by the lawfull use of candles hallowed on Candelmas daie, and greene leaves consecrated on Palme sundaie (which things they saie the/200. church useth for the qualifieng of the divels power) are preserved from witchcraft. Thirdlie, some are preserved by their good angels, which attend and wait upon them.

But I maie not omit here the reasons, which they bring, to prove what bodies are the more apt and effectuall to execute the art of fascination. And that is, first they saie the force of celestiall bodies, which indifferentlie communicate their vertues unto men, beasts, trees, stones, &c. But this gift and naturall influence of fascination maie be increased in man, according to his affections and perturbations; as thorough anger, feare, love, hate, &c. For by hate (saith Vairus)L. Vair. lib. de fascin. 1. c. 12. entereth a fierie inflammation into the eie of man, which being violentlie sent out by beams and streames, &c: infect and bewitch those bodies against whome they are opposed. And therefore he saith (in the favour of women) that that is the cause why women are oftener found to be witches than men. For (saith he) they have such an unbrideled force of furie and concupiscence naturallie, that by no meanes it is possible for them to temper or moderate the same. So Much like the eiebiting witches, of whom we have elswhere spoken. as upon everie trifling occasion, they (like brute beasts) fix their furious eies upon the partie whom they bewitch. Hereby it commeth to passe, that whereas women having a mervellous fickle nature, what greefe so ever happeneth unto them, immediatlie all peaceablenes of mind departeth; and they are so troubled with evill humors, that out go their venomous exhalations, ingendred thorough their ilfavoured diet, and increased by meanes of their pernicious excrements, which they expell. Women are also (saith he) monethlie filled full of superfluous humors, and with them/279. the melancholike bloud boileth; whereof spring vapors, and are carried up, and conveied through the nosethrels and mouth, &c: to the bewitching of whatsoever it meeteth. For they belch up a certeine breath, wherewith they bewitch whomsoever they list. And of all other women,Who are most likelie to bewitch, and to be bewitched. leane, hollow eied, old, beetlebrowed women (saith he) are the most infectious. Marie he saith, that hot, subtill, and thin bodies are most subject to be bewitched, if they be moist, and all they generallie, whose veines, pipes, and passages of their bodies are open. And finallie he saith, that all beautifull things whatsoever, are soone subject to be bewitched; as namelie goodlie yoongmen, faire women, such as are naturallie borne to be rich, goodlie beasts, faire horsses, ranke corne, beutifull trees, &c. Yea a freend 228 of his told him, that he saw one with his eie breake a pretious stone in peeces. And all this he telleth as soberlie, as though it were true. And if it were true, honest women maie be witches, in despight of all inquisitors: neither can anie avoid being a witch, except shee locke hir selfe up in a chamber.

The xxi. Chapter.

What miracles witchmongers report to have beene done by witches words, &c: contradictions of witchmongers among themselves, how beasts are cured herby, of bewitched butter, a charme against witches, and a counter charme, the effect of charmes and words proved by L. Vairus to be woonderfull.

IF I should go about to recite all charmes, I should take an infinite worke in hand. For the witching writers hold opinion, that anie thing al/most197.[2] maie be therby brought to passe; & that whether the words of the charme be understandable or not, it skilleth not: so the charmer have a steddie intention to bring his desire about. And then what is it that cannot be done by words? For L. VairusL. Vair. lib. de fascin. 1. ca. 5. saith, that old women have infeebled and killed children with words, and have made women with child miscarrie;/280. they have made men pine awaie to death, they have killed horsses, deprived sheepe of their milke, *transformed* According to Ovids saieng of Proteus & Medea, which he indeed alledgeth therefore, Nunc aqua, nunc ales, modò bos, modò cervus abibat. men into beasts, flowne in the aire, tamed and staied wild beasts, driven all noisome cattell and vermine from corne, vines and hearbs, staied serpents, &c: and all with words. In so much as he saith, that with certeine words spoken in a bulles eare by a witch, the bull hath fallen downe to the ground as dead. Yea some by vertue of words have gone upon a sharpe sword, and walked upon hot glowing coles, without hurt; with words (saith he) verie heavie weights and burthens have beene lifted up; and with words wild horsses and wild bulles have beene tamed, and also mad dogs; with words they have killed wormes, and other vermine, and staied all maner of bleedings and fluxes: with words all the diseases in mans bodie are healed, and wounds cured; arowes are with wonderfull strangenesse and cunning plucked out of mens bones. Yea (saith he) there be manie that can heale all bitings of dogs, or stingings of serpents, or anie other poison: and all with nothing but words spoken. And that which is most strange, he saith, that they can remedie anie stranger, and him that is absent, with that verie sword wherewith they are wounded. Yea and that which is beyond all 229 admiration, if they stroke the sword upwards with their fingers, the partie shall feele no paine: whereas if they drawe their finger downewards thereupon, the partie wounded shall feele intollerable paine. With a number of other cures, done altogither by the vertue and force of words uttered and spoken.

Where, by the waie, I maie not omit this speciall note, given by M. Mal.Mal. Malef. par. 2. quæ. 2. cap. 7. to wit, that holie water maie not be sprinkled upon bewitched beasts, but must be powred into their mouthes. And yet he, and also Nider,Nider in præceptorio, præcept. 1. ca. 11. saie, that It is lawfull to blesse and sanctifie beasts, as well as men; both by charmes written, and also by holie words spoken. For (saith Nider)Nider in fornicario. if your cow be bewitched, three crosses, three Pater nosters, and three Aves will certeinlie cure hir: and likewiseMal. Malef. part. 2. cap. 8. all other ceremonies ecclesiasticall. And this is a sure Maxime,*[* Ital.] that they which are delivered from witchcraft by shrift, are ever after in the night much molested (I beleeve by their ghostlie fathers.) Also they loose their monie out of their pursses and caskets: as M. Mal. saith he knoweth by experience./281. Also one generall rule is given by M. Mal.A good devise to starve up poore women. to all butter wives, and dairie maides, that they neither give nor lend anie butter, milke, or cheese, to anie witches, which alwaies use to beg therof, when they meane to worke mischeefe Mal. Malef. part. 2. quæ. 2, cap. 7. to their kine or whitmeats. Whereas indeed there are in milke three substances commixted; to wit, butter, cheese, and whaie: if the same be kept too long, or in an evill place, or be sluttishlie used, so as it be stale and sower, which happeneth sometimes in winter, but oftener in summer, when it is set over the fier, the cheese and butter runneth togither, and congealeth, so as it will rope like birdlime, that you maie wind it about a sticke, and/198.[2] in short space it will be so drie, as you maie beate it to powder. Which alteration being strange, is woondered at, and imputed to witches. And herehence sometime