The Project Gutenberg eBook of London and Its Environs Described, vol. 6 (of 6)

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Title: London and Its Environs Described, vol. 6 (of 6)

Author: Anonymous

Release date: January 31, 2020 [eBook #61279]

Language: English

Credits: Produced by Brian Wilsden and the Online Distributed
Proofreading Team at (This file was
produced from images generously made available by The
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The cover has been created by the transcriber and is placed in the public domain.









An Account of whatever is most remarkable
or USE,

In the CITY and in the COUNTRY
Twenty Miles round it.


Whatever is most material in the History and Antiquities
of this great Metropolis.

Decorated and illustrated with a great Number of
Views in Perspective, engraved from original
Drawings, taken on purpose for this Work.

Together with a Plan of LONDON,
A Map of the ENVIRONS, and several other
useful CUTS.


Printed for R. and J. DODSLEY in Pall-Mall.





Those with this mark generally derived their name from the ground landlord, who built the street, lane, or alley, &c.
* From signs.
From neighbouring places, as churches, &c.
From trees formerly growing there.
|| From ridicule.
§ From their situation, as backwards, forwards, with respect to other streets.

Sion College, adjoining to St. Alphage’s church, London Wall, was founded for the improvement of the London clergy, and situated upon the ruins of Elsing Spital, which consisted of a college for a warden, four priests and two clerks, and an hospital for an hundred old, blind and poor persons of both sexes.

This college owes its foundation to Dr. Thomas White, Vicar of St. Dunstan’s in the West, who, among other charities, left 3000l. to purchase and build a college for the use of the London clergy, with almshouses for twenty poor people, ten men and ten women. He also gave 160l. a year for ever to the college and almshouses, 120l. for the support of the alms-people, and 40l. per annum, for the expences of the foundation.


The ground was purchased in 1627; but the library was not appointed by the founder; for a clergyman observing to Mr. Simson one of Dr. White’s executors, that a convenient library might be erected over the almshouse, which was then building, Mr. Simson took the hint, and erected it at his own expence.

The work being finished, in prosecution of the will, a charter was procured under the great seal of England in the sixth year of King Charles I. for incorporating the clergy of London, by which all the rectors, vicars, lecturers and curates, are constituted fellows of the college, and out of the incumbents, are annually to be elected on Tuesday three weeks after Easter, as governors, a president, two deans, and four assistants, who are to meet quarterly, to hear a Latin sermon, and afterwards to be entertained at dinner in the college hall, at the charge of the foundation. And in 1632 the governors and clergy being summoned, agreed upon a common seal, which had the good Samaritan, with the inscription Vade & fac similiter, and round it Sigillum Collegii de Sion Londini.

The books were given by many benefactors, whose names were preserved in a large vellum book, and the library much augmented [3] by that of the old cathedral of St. Paul’s, which was brought to the college in the year 1647.

However the dreadful fire of London, which consumed so many other public structures, also destroyed this, and burnt a third part of the books, with the almshouses, several convenient chambers for students, besides those reserved for the meeting of the governors and fellows, and for the clerk and the library-keeper, to dwell in. The whole edifice was however afterwards rebuilt, except the chambers for the students; that part of the ground, being let out on building leases: the expence of erecting the library and almshouse amounted to above 1300l. and the hall with the other buildings to 2000l. more.

The edifice is extremely plain, and consists of brick buildings surrounding a square court.

Since the fire the library has been enriched by many benefactions; particularly by a part of the books of the jesuits seized in the year 1679, and by the Lord Berkley’s giving half his uncle Cooke’s books to the library: One gentleman gave the interest of 100l. to be annually laid out in books, and another 20l. per annum for the same use, payable by the leatherseller’s company: there are [4] also a great number of other benefactors to the library, whose names are set down in a book kept for that purpose.

In order to augment the library it has been also proposed, that every author be desired to give one copy of every book he publishes; and also every minister at his admission into a living, that every governor at his admission give one of at least 10s. value; and that the booksellers give one copy of every book they cause to be printed.

The library is surveyed twice a year: and had at first a librarian, an under librarian, and an ostiary: but now one serves for all.

The almshouse consists of twenty rooms, for ten men within the college, and ten women without it. Four of whom are nominated by the city of Bristol, where Mr. White was born; eight by the merchant taylor’s company, six by the parish of St. Dunstan, where he was minister forty-nine years; and two by St. Gregory’s parish, where he had lived about twenty years: except any of the kindred of either of his wives appeared, who were first to be considered; but these were not to exceed four at a time. The alms-people formerly received 6l. a year; but the lowering of rents has caused their allowance to be somewhat lessened.


Sion court, Philip lane, London wall.

Sion House, one of the seats of the right Honourable the Earl and Countess of Northumberland, stands upon the banks of the Thames, between Brentford and Isleworth in Middlesex, and opposite to the King’s Garden at Richmond. It is called Sion from a monastery of the same name, which was founded by Henry the Vth. in 1414, very near the place where the house now stands, and was endowed with 1000 marks a year, for the maintenance of sixty Nuns (including the Abbess and twenty-five men), and was dedicated to St. Saviour and St. Bridget; from the latter of whom the Nuns, &c. were called Bridgettines, and were of the order of Augustines, as reformed by some new regulations made by the aforesaid Bridget.

Sion was almost one of the first of the monasteries that was suppressed by Henry the VIIIth, perhaps not on account of any greater irregularities of behaviour, which had been discovered in it by the visitors, but because the members of that society had been remarkably favourable to the King’s declared enemies, and particularly to the maid of Kent; for she met with a very friendly reception amongst them, and so far excited the curiosity of the neighbourhood, [6] as to induce the famous Sir Thomas More to have two private conferences with her at this very place. When the monastery was suppressed, its revenues according to Speed, amounted to 1944l. 11s. 11d. ¾, and on account of its fine situation, it was not sold or given immediately to any court-favourite, but appropriated to the King’s own use. And accordingly we find, that when the corpse of Henry the VIIIth. was to be removed from Westminster to Windsor to be interred, it laid the first night, not at Richmond as is commonly supposed, but at Sion; which by this means became the scene in which a prophecy was supposed to be fulfilled. For Father Peto, preaching before the King at Greenwich in 1534, told him that the dogs would lick his blood as they had done Ahab’s. Now as the King died of a dropsical disorder, and had been dead a fortnight before he was removed to Sion, it so happened that some corrupted matter of a bloody colour ran through the coffin at that place. Whereupon the incident, though only a natural consequence of the aforesaid circumstances, was misconstrued into a completion of Peto’s pretended prophecy, and considered as a piece of divine justice, inflicted upon the King for having forced [7] the Bridgettines from their religious sanctuary.

S. Wale delin. Elliot sculp.
Sion House, view’d from Richmond Gardens.

In the next reign the monastery was given by the King to his uncle the Duke of Somerset the Protector, who in 1547 (as is generally supposed) began to build Sion House, and finished the shell of it, as it now remains, excepting a few alterations, which will be mentioned in their proper places. The house is built on the very spot where the church belonging to the monastery formerly stood, and is a very large, venerable, and majestic structure, built of white stone, in the form of a hollow square, so that it has four external, and as many internal fronts; the latter of which surround a square court in the middle. The roof is flat, covered with lead, and surrounded with indented battlements, like the walls of a fortified city. Upon every one of the four outward angles of the roof, there is a square turret, flat-roofed, and embattled like the other parts of the building. The house is three stories high, and the east-front, which faces the Thames, is supported by arches, forming a fine piazza, as it appears in the print. The gardens formed two square areas, enclosed with high walls before the east and west fronts, and were laid out and finished in a very grand manner, but being made [8] at a time when extensive views were judged to be inconsistent with that solemn reserve and stately privacy affected by the great, they were so situated as to deprive the house of every beautiful prospect which the neighbourhood afforded. None of them at least could be seen from the lower apartments. To remedy in some measure that inconvenience, the Protector built a very high triangular terrace in the angle between the walls of the two gardens; and this it was that his enemies afterwards did not scruple to call a fortification, and to insinuate that it was one proof, amongst many others, which they alledged of his having formed a design very dangerous to the liberties of the King and people. Such was the State of the gardens as finished by the Protector. After his attainder and execution on Jan. 22, 1552, Sion was confiscated to the crown. Whereupon the furniture of the apartments, in which the Duke had lived (and they were probably a part of the old monastery) were given to Sir John Wroth the Keeper, and the new house, that is, the present house at Sion, to the Duke of Northumberland, which then became the residence of his son the Lord Guilford and his daughter-in-law the unfortunate Lady Jane Grey. The Duke [9] being beheaded August 22, 1553, Sion house once more reverted to the crown. Three years after this, Queen Mary restored it to the Bridgettines; and it remained in their possession until the society was expelled by Queen Elizabeth in the first year of her reign. Such of the Nuns as persisted in their errors carried away their portable treasure, and settled successively at Zurickzee in Zealand, at Mechlin, Roan, and lastly at Lisbon, where the society still subsists. Some years after this second dissolution, which Sion had undergone as a monastery, it was granted by a lease of a long term to Henry Earl of Northumberland, who, in consideration of his eminent services to the government, was permitted to enjoy it by paying a very small rent as an acknowledgement, and even that, when offered, was generally remitted.

King James the First considered his lordship no longer as a tenant, but gave Sion to him and his heirs for ever. Many improvements were made in his time; for it appears from one of his lordship’s letters to the King in 1613, that he had laid out 9000l. in the house and gardens; which sum was probably expended in finishing them according to the Protector’s plan. His son Algernon, [10] afterwards appointed Lord high Admiral of England, succeeded to the estate in November 1632. He employed Inigo Jones to new face the inner court, to make many alterations in the apartments, and to finish the great hall in the manner in which it at present appears.

It must not be omitted in the history of this place, that the Dukes of York, and Gloucester, and the Princess Elizabeth were sent hither by an order of the parliament agreed upon August 27, 1646, and according to Lord Clarendon were treated by the Earl and Countess of Northumberland in all respects as was most suitable to their birth. The unhappy King frequently visited them at Sion in 1647, and thought it a very great alleviation of his misfortunes to find his children so happy in their confinement. The Duke of Gloucester and the Princess Elizabeth continued at Sion till 1649, at which time the Earl resigned them to the care of his sister the Countess of Leicester.

May 30th 1682, Charles Duke of Somerset married the Lady Elizabeth Percy, the only daughter and heiress of Josceline Earl of Northumberland, by which means Sion and the immense estate of the Percies became his Grace’s property. [11] The Duke and Duchess lent this house at Sion to the Princess of Denmark, who honoured it with her residence during the time of a misunderstanding which arose between her royal highness and her sister Queen Mary.

Upon the death of Charles Duke of Somerset, December 2, 1748. Algernon Earl of Hertford, his only surviving son succeeded to the title and a vast estate, and soon after gave Sion to his daughter and son-in-law, the present Countess and Earl of Northumberland, to whose fine taste and liberality are owing the many and great improvements which have made the gardens at Sion so universally admired.

The old Gardens, as we have already observed, were indeed very grand and magnificent according to the fashion of the age in which they were made, but, in consequence of the taste that then prevailed, they deprived the lower apartments of almost every advantage of prospect, which the fine situation of Sion house naturally affords. To make the necessary alterations required nothing less than his Lordship’s generosity. Accordingly the high triangular terrace, which the Protector had raised at a great expence, was removed, the walls of the old gardens [12] were taken down, and the ground before the house levelled, and it now forms a fine lawn extending from Isleworth to Brentford. By these means also a beautiful prospect is opened into the King’s gardens at Richmond, as well as up and down the Thames. Towards the Thames the lawn is bounded by an ha-ha, and a meadow; which his lordship ordered to be cut down into a gentle slope, so that the surface of the water may now be seen even from the lowest apartments and the gardens. In consequence of these improvements, the most beautiful piece of scenery imaginable is formed before two of the principal fronts, for even the Thames itself seems to belong to the gardens, and the different sorts of vessels, which successively sail as it were through them, appear to be the property of their noble proprietor.

The house stands nearly in the middle point of that side of the lawn, which is the farthest from the Thames, and communicates with Isleworth and Brentford, either by means of the lawn or a fine gravel walk, which in some places runs along the side, and in others through the middle of a beautiful shrubbery; so that even in the most retired parts of this charming maze, where the prospect is most confined, [13] almost the whole vegetable world rises up as it were in miniature around you, and presents you with every foreign shrub, plant, and flower, which can be adopted by the soil of this climate. His Lordship has not only thus improved the ground where the old gardens stood, but has also made a very large addition to it, and separated the two parts by making a new serpentine river. It communicates with the Thames, is well stored with all sorts of river fish, and can be emptied and filled by means of a sluice, which is so contrived as to admit the fish into the new river, but to prevent their returning back again into the Thames. His Lordship has also built two bridges, which form a communication between the two gardens, and has erected in that, which lies near Brentford, a stately doric column; upon the top of which is a fine proportioned statue of Flora, so judiciously placed as to command as it were a distinct view of the situation over which she is supposed to preside.

S. Wale delin. E. Rooker sculp.
Sion House, view’d from opposite Isleworth Church.

The kitchen gardens are very large, lie at a very proper distance from the house, and contain every thing, as an hot-house, fire-walls, &c. The greenhouse is a very neat building with a gothic front, [14] designed by his Lordship in so light a style as to be greatly admired. The back and end walls of it are the only remains of the old monastery. This building stands near a circular bason of water, well stored with gold and silver fish; and in the middle of the bason is a spouting fountain, which is well supplied and plays without intermission.

What has hitherto been said is only an imperfect account of the several steps pursued in the planning and finishing of the gardens; to which we must add, that his lordship has also made many considerable alterations in the apartments of the east-front over the long gallery, and, as we are informed, intends to make many more in the other parts of the house, as he has lately done in the approach to it.

To conduct (as it were) the reader through the rooms would be a task too difficult to be executed in an intelligible manner; however we cannot help taking notice of the great gallery, which extends the whole length of the east-front over the arcades, and of that immense quantity of old china vases, of different forms and sizes, which are crowded together in almost every apartment.


We must also inform the reader that many fine prospects may be seen from the leads on the top of the house; for they command a view of the country to the distance of twelve or fourteen miles, and consequently the greatest part of London may be seen from them. To these observations we must add, that the gardens, when viewed from the top of the house, form a finer landskip than can easily be conceived.

In the history of Sion we should be guilty of an unpardonable omission, did we not mention the pedigree picture, which is perhaps one of the greatest curiosities of its kind in England, and exhibits the noble and royal connections of the Percies; all which are now united in the present Countess of Northumberland, whose many virtues are an ornament to that high station of life, which has been for many centuries enjoyed by her illustrious progenitors.

Sir William Warren’s square, Wapping dock.†

Six Bells alley, Foster lane, Cheapside.*

Six Bells court, Six Bells alley.*

Six Clerks Office, in Chancery lane. This is an office in chancery, and these six clerks are next in degree to the twelve masters of that court. They inroll [16] commissions, pardons, patents, warrants, &c. that have passed the seal.

Under these six clerks are sixty other clerks, ten to each of the six; who with their under clerks dispatch the business of this office; there are also attornies for plaintiffs and defendants in causes depending in this court. Chamberlain’s present State.

Six Garden’s court, Paul’s alley Barbican.

Six Penny Receiver’s Office, on Tower Hill. Here six pence a month is paid by all seamen, both in the royal navy and merchants service, for the benefit of Greenwich hospital. The principal officers here are, a receiver who has 300l. a year; an accomptant who has 200l. a year; and a comptroller who has also 200l. a year.

Size yard, Whitechapel.

Skin Market, 1. Bank-side, Southwark: 2. in a square behind Wood’s close, where great quantities of sheep-skins are sold.

Skin Market yard, Bank-side Southwark.

Skinner street, Bishopsgate Street, without.

Skinner Street passage, leading to the above street.


Skinners, a society incorporated by letters patent granted by Edward III. in the year 1327, by the following singular title, The Master and Wardens of the guild or fraternity of the Body of Christ of the Skinners of London: which was confirmed by Henry VI. in the year 1438, whereby every person admitted to the freedom of this company is to be presented to the Lord Mayor: and by these grants the corporation was restrained from making by-laws.

The government of this company is vested in a matter, four wardens and sixty assistants, with a livery of one hundred and thirty-seven members, who on their admission, pay a fine of 15l.

The members of this company pay no quarterage, which is owing to the great estates they are possessed of; out of which, according to the wills of the respective donors, they annually pay about 700l. to charitable uses.

They have a very handsome hall on Dowgate hill; the hall-room is neatly wainscotted with oak, and the parlour with cedar.

Skinners rents, 1. Old Market lane, Ratcliff: 2. Perewinkle street, Ratcliff cross.

Sky yard, Swan yard.

Slaughterhouse alley, Spitalfields Market.

Slaughterhouse yard, Fashion street, Spitalfields.

Slaughter’s court, Blue Anchor alley, Rosemary lane.†


Sleep’s alley, Islington Road, St. John’s street.†

Slipper court, Hand alley, Petticoat lane, Whitechapel.

Sloane’s Museum and Library. See the article British Museum.

Slop alley, Gray’s Inn lane.

Sluce street, Rotherhith.

Smallcoal alley, 1. Brick lane, Spitalfields: 2. Fashion street, Artillery lane, Spitalfields: 3. Rupert street: 4. St. John’s street Smithfield.

Small Pox Hospital, in Cold Bath Fields, is a very plain neat structure. The centre which projects a little from the rest of the building, is terminated on the top by an angular pediment, on the apex of which is placed a vase upon a small pediment.

This excellent charity was instituted in the year 1746, supported by a subscription then made by several noblemen, gentlemen and ladies, who were desirous that a charity useful in itself, and so beneficial to the public, might be begun near this great metropolis, there not being any hospital of this kind in Europe.

The relief of the necessitous under that severe, nauseous, and frequent distemper, the small-pox, is a work of charity so evidently attended with many [19] beneficial circumstances, as well to the public as to the unhappy objects, that it is in reality not a little strange, that the establishing a fund for such a charity should be a design of no longer standing.

It is universally agreed, that amongst all distempers, to which Providence has made the human body liable, there is none so afflicting, so alarming, or which demands such careful, speedy, and continual assistance, as the small-pox; to which the inferior sort of people are at least equally liable with those in a higher sphere of life, though utterly unable to support themselves under so dreadful a malady, or to procure the necessary means for their recovery.

As this disease is so frightful, even in its first appearance, and at the same time contagious, and almost inevitable, families of all degrees are thrown into the utmost confusion, when it invades any person amongst them, let his or her station be what it will. To keep a servant in such a condition is, generally speaking, exceedingly inconvenient: to thrust them out of doors under such circumstances, always inhuman, commonly fatal. How agreeable, therefore, must the information prove to all considerate and charitable persons, that for removing of these difficulties, [20] for securing private families, and for the preservation of the wretched individuals labouring under this disease, there is established, an hospital for the small-pox, where persons of both sexes, and of all ages, may be carefully provided for, both as to physic and diet, and properly attended in that calamitous condition; and this at a very easy expence to the governors, who by their charitable contributions support the fund for so glorious, and so compassionate an undertaking, which, only to mention, is to recommend. A needless pomp of words would rather obscure, than illustrate this design; the utility and humanity of which, all, who have the smallest attention or tenderness, cannot fail to comprehend.

As what has been said sufficiently shews, how well adapted a charity this is, in respect to such as are afflicted with this disease in the natural way; so the other part of the scheme, which has a tendency to preserve our species from the ravages of this infectious malady, by rendering it less malignant and less destructive, in the way of inoculation, deserves likewise public approbation and effectual encouragement.

The objections that have been made against this practice, are founded rather [21] in an aversion to novelty, however useful, than in an adherence to reason and experience. The strange imputation that a well established method of preserving many lives, is an attempt upon the prerogative of the Almighty, will make no impression upon any, who consider that the same thing may be urged against exhibiting medicines at all, either sanative or preventive, and the extraordinary methods that are often necessary to be made use of, to stop the progress of any particular disease.

The benefits of inoculation appear every year, by fresh trials, greater and more certain. This dreadful, this destructive distemper is thereby rendered mild and manageable, and becomes rather a purgation of the body from the latent seeds of an expected disease, than creating a disease itself. It delivers people from those apprehensions, with which, till they have had the small-pox, they are always haunted. It frees them from the objections, that are continually made to their being received into any family, while they remain exposed to that disease in the natural way. It gives them courage to enter into the service of their country, either by land or sea; and protects them, while in that service, from the risque of [22] being carried off, for want of those accommodations, which camps and ships rarely supply.

To all these, if we add the general and great consideration of preserving so many lives, which may evidently arise from these different ways of having the disease, (for upon a general calculation, twenty-five or thirty die out of one hundred and fifty patients, having the distemper in the natural way, and one only out of this number, when inoculated,) it will appear, that this is a thing of very high importance; and that it is not easy to name an undertaking more laudable in itself, or more beneficial in its consequences, than the making a provision, that those, who really stand in the greatest need of this preservative, and yet from their low, though useful stations in life, are precluded from it, should be rescued from a condition, equally injurious to them and to society.

But as the world will be often divided in sentiments, in matters of such a nature; so, by the constitution of this charity, due care is taken, that the intentions of such well disposed persons, as shall contribute to any branch of it, shall be punctually answered. For they may direct their benefactions to be bestowed upon [23] such persons only, as are infected with the natural small-pox; or, if they judge the promoting inoculation the more beneficial, they may confine their gifts thereto; or, if given without any distinction, it will be applied to the general fund, both for natural small-pox and for inoculation.

To these considerations, it is proper to add one circumstance, which, duly considered, cannot but have great weight with all, who have any feeling for their fellow-creatures in distress; which is, that it is an hospital, in aid of all other hospitals, being calculated, by its very constitution, to receive those miserable creatures, whom the rules of all other charities expresly and prudentially exclude.

As this useful and necessary charity loudly calls for further assistance, may it not be justly hoped, that many pious and compassionate hands will bountifully contribute to the support, continuance, and enlargement of a design, which reason, good policy, humanity, and religion so powerfully recommend?

This hospital consists of two houses, at a due distance from each other in airy situations.

That for preparing the patients for inoculation is in the Lower street, Islington; and that for receiving them, when the [24] disease appears, and for the reception of patients in the natural way, is in Cold Bath fields.

Stated general courts are held half yearly, to wit, in April and October, or within ten days before or after each of those months; notice of which is sent to each governor, as well as publicly advertised.

Two presidents, four vice-presidents, and a treasurer, are annually elected out of the governors.

A house-committee of thirteen governors is chosen half yearly, who meet the first Thursday in the month at ten in the forenoon at the hospital in Cold Bath fields, and the other Thursdays at Child’s coffee-house in St. Paul’s church-yard, at five in the afternoon, to transact the business of the hospital; at which meetings all governors present have a vote, and their attendance will be esteemed a favour.

A Physician and Surgeon attend the hospital without fee or reward.

There are a Secretary, two Apothecaries, a Messenger, Matrons, proper Nurses, &c.——No fee, reward, or gratuity, to be taken from any patients, tradesmen, or other persons, on account of the hospital, on pain of expulsion.


Thirty guineas constitutes a governor for life; five guineas per annum, a governor during such subscription, or after two such annual subscriptions any person, by paying not less than twenty guineas, on or before the fourteenth of October, 1760, becomes a governor for life. Smaller benefactions are accepted with gratitude.

Every governor has a vote at all general courts and committees, and is entitled to have one patient in each house at a time. Ladies have the same privilege, and may vote, by proxies, at all elections.

Every annual subscriber is entitled to have one patient in the hospital for the natural way at a time, provided there are three beds for men, and two for women patients, in reserve, for governors recommendations.

A committee of accompts of seven governors is annually held between Lady day and Michaelmas, who meet at least once a quarter to examine and audit all tradesmens bills, which are afterwards ordered by the house-committee for payment.

The accounts are regularly kept, and open at all times for the inspection of the governors.

Two governors are appointed visitors, by the house-committee, for six months, [26] who frequently attend the hospital for inoculation; and also the hospital for the natural way, alternately; to inspect into the conduct and management of the officers, servants, and others therein.

Every person destitute of friends, or money, and labouring under this melancholy disease, or desirous of being inoculated, is a proper object of this charity.

Patients in the natural way are received every day; but enquiry must first be made if there is room to prevent the danger and expence of a disappointment.

Patients for inoculation are received about eight times in the year, of which timely notice is given in the Public Advertiser, men and boys at one time, and women and girls at another, alternately; and the governors are desired to be careful in recommending none but those who are really necessitous, as a want of that care will be an injury to proper objects. Governors are desired to send their recommendations as soon as signed to the apothecary at the house of preparation, in Islington, which will be by him immediately entered on the books, and when the turn of such person, so recommended, comes for admittance, a letter will be sent for his or her attendance, which, if punctually observed, they will be admitted.


If any persons omit to attend according to their turn on the admission days, they will be excluded, and cannot have the benefit of this charity, without first obtaining a new recommendation.

There is no charge attending the admission of patients for inoculation, but patients in the natural way, a deposit of one pound and six pence, to answer the expences of burial in case of death, or to be returned to the person who paid the same, when discharged the hospital.

For the sake of the patients, and for fear of spreading this dangerous infection, it is necessary to forbid strangers to visit them; and therefore, it is hoped that the affection or curiosity of particular persons will not be offended at this unavoidable precaution.

Proper dresses are provided for the patients, and worn by them in the hospital, while their own cloaths are fumigated with brimstone, which is always done before their discharge.

The sums received for the support of this hospital since its foundation in 1746, amount to 18,926l. And there have been received into the house for the natural way from the 26th of September 1746, to the 25th of March 1759, 3946 patients, of which 2916 have been cured; [28] A very great number considering the fatality of this distemper, and that most of them were adults, often admitted after great irregularities, and some when past cure.

But what appears much more extraordinary, out of 131 who were inoculated before the 31st of December 1751, only two died, one by worms, who did not appear to have them before the inoculation, and the other apprehended to have first caught the distemper in the natural way. From that period till the 25th of March 1759, the number of inoculated amounts to 1567, out of which only four have died. An astonishing proof of the advantages of inoculation! From the account published by the governors.

Small’s rents, Petticoat lane, Whitechapel.†

Smart’s key, Billingsgate.†

Smart’s rents, Lamb alley, St. Giles’s.†

Smithfield, or West Smithfield, though the epithet West is never used but to distinguish it from East Smithfield near Little Tower Hill. This is the greatest market for black cattle, sheep and horses, in Europe; and also a considerable market for hay and straw; for the sale of which it was famous five hundred years ago. Maitland derives its name from its being originally a smooth or level field; and observes that it was anciently much larger [29] than at present, it being greatly diminished by the buildings with which it is inclosed, the whole west side extended as far as the sheep market does at present, and was called the Elms, from the many elm-trees growing there; this was the place of execution for offenders in the year 1219, and it seems long before.

King Henry II. granted to the priory of St. Bartholomew the privilege of a fair to be kept annually at Bartholomew tide, on the eve, the day, and the morrow, to which the clothiers of England, and the drapers of London repaired, and had their booths and standings in the church-yard within the priory, which was separated from Smithfield only by walls and gates, that were locked every night and watched, for the safety of the goods deposited there; and the narrow street or lane afterwards built where the cloth was sold, still retains the name of cloth fair.

This fair, which was appointed to be kept three days, was at length prolonged to a fortnight, and became of little other use but for idle youth, and loose people to resort to it, upon which it was again reduced to the original standard; and the booths, for drolls and plays in the middle of Smithfield, by the [30] falling of which many persons had lost their lives, were ordered to be no longer permitted.

Smithfield was also used in very early times for jousts and tournaments, to which the King and nobility resorted, of which we find upon record several instances in the reigns of Edward III. Richard II. Henry IV. Henry V. Henry VI. and Edward IV.

In short, in the middle part of Smithfield, and in the centre of the space now enclosed with rails, many martyrs were burnt at the stake, for steadily adhering to the dictates of their own consciences, and in defence of the doctrines of the reformation, during the cruel reign of Mary.

Smithfield is surrounded by many good houses; but they are far from being regular and uniform. The author of the Review of the public Buildings, observes, that this vast area, is capable of great beauty; but is at present destitute of all; and a scene of filth and nastiness.

“’Tis true, the use which is made of it as a market, he adds, is something of an excuse for it, and in some degree attones for the want of that decency that would improve it so much: yet ’tis my opinion, that ways and means might be found [31] to make it tolerable at least, and an obelisk, pyramid or statue in the centre, defended with handsome and substantial rails, would go a great way in so desirable a project.”

Indeed something of this kind has been frequently proposed, and it has been often represented to the public, that it would be proper to raise a monument on the spot where the stake was fixed for the martyrs, representing the cruelty of popish persecution, adorned with proper relivoes and inscriptions.

East Smithfield. See the article East.

Smithfield bars, at the north end of Smithfield, by St. John’s street.

Smith’s Almshouse, on St. Peter’s hill near Thames street was founded by Mr. David Smith embroiderer to Queen Elizabeth, in the year 1584, and consists of six rooms for the habitation of so many poor widows turned of fifty-six: but the old structure being destroyed by the fire of London in 1666, it was rebuilt by Sir Thomas Fitch, and the charge of maintaining it committed to Christ’s hospital, from which each of the alms-women annually receive 1l. 9s. 4d. and also from the company of embroiderers the annual 1l. 14s. 6d. each, left by the founder’s [32] daughter, as an addition to the foundation. Maitland.

Smith’s alley, 1. Joyners street, by Tooley street, Southwark.† 2. King’s street, Westminster.† 3. Ropemaker’s fields, Limehouse.†

Smith’s court, 1. Aldersgate street.† 2. Brackley street, Bridgewater Gardens.† 3. Fashion street, Spitalfields.† 4. Great Windmill street, Picadilly.† 5. Holbourn.†

Smith’s passage, in the Curtain, Nortain Falgate.†

Smith’s rents, 1. Bank-side, Southwark.† 2. Barnaby street, Southwark.† 3. Catharine Wheel alley.† 4. Five Feet lane.† 6. St. John’s street, Smithfield.† 7. Kent street, Southwark.† 8. Petty France, Westminster.†

Smith’s square, Millbank, Westminster.†

Smith’s street, Marsham street, Westminster.†

Smith’s yard, 1. Blue Anchor alley.† 2. Fleet lane, by Fleet Market.† 3. Maiden lane.† 4. Ratcliff Highway.† 5. Ropemaker’s field, Limehouse.†

Smock alley, 1. Hockley in the Hole: 2. Petticoat lane, Whitechapel.

Snade’s court, Brick street.†

Snader’s court, Moorfields.†


Snart’s rents, Goswell street, Aldersgate street.†

Snow fields, Barnaby street.

Snow hill, extends from the upper end of the Little Old Bailey to Holbourn bridge.

Snow street, Snow fields.

Snow’s rents, white Lion yard.†

Soapmaker’s. See Sopemakers.

Society, for propagating Christian Knowledge, in Bartlet’s buildings, Holbourn. This society which was founded in the year 1699, consists of several bishops, dignified clergymen, and persons of piety, rank, and fortune, who unite their endeavours, in order to diffuse a spirit of religion among the people; by dispersing little printed books among the poor, among which are small books for the use of seamen and soldiers; books of preparation for receiving the holy sacrament; and others against profaneness and debauchery.

They have bought a great number of useful books for furnishing our plantations with parochial libraries; and used means for providing catechetical libraries in the smaller parishes of this kingdom, to enable the inferior clergy the better to perform their duty of catechizing; and the greater parishes with learned libraries for the use of the poorer clergy. They [34] have particularly applied themselves to the setting up of schools for the education of children, and work-houses for the employment of the poor.

This society in 1710, assisted the Danish missionaries at Tranquebar, and afterwards at Madras in the East Indies, for the conversion of the pagan inhabitants.

In the year 1720, they extended their regard to the Greek church in Palestine, Syria, Mesopotamia, Arabia, and Egypt, and having printed an edition in Arabic on a new set of types, caused ten thousand copies of the new testament, six thousand psalters, and five thousand catechetical instructions, with an abridgement of the history of the bible annexed, to be dispersed through those countries, and in Persia.

In the year 1732, the society raised collections for the persecuted protestants of Saltzburgh, made large remittances to Germany; and some time after sent above two hundred protestant emigrants to Georgia, who built and settled at Ebenezar.

In 1743, they undertook a new edition of the bible in Welch, with the common prayer and psalms in metre, and in 1748 finished an impression of fifteen thousand [35] copies; which they speedily dispersed; but that large impression falling far short of the demand for it: the society printed another edition of the bible, consisting of the same number of copies; and also five thousand of the new testament, and as many common prayer books in the same language: by which means the Welch had the blessing of the holy scriptures in their own tongue, wherein alone they could possibly read them, and that at an easier expence than the people of England enjoy it.

This society meets weekly to deliberate upon what appears most expedient for carrying on their pious intentions. Stow’s Survey, last edit.

Society for propagating the Gospel in Foreign Parts, at the chapter house in St. Paul’s church-yard. This society was established by letters patent granted in the 13th year of the reign of King William III. by which the archbishop of Canterbury, and ninety-three of the bishops, clergy, nobility and gentry were incorporated, and impowered to purchase 2000l. per annum inheritance, with goods and chattels of any value: and allowed a common seal, which has the representation of a ship under sail, making towards a foreign coast, where the natives [36] near the shore, stand with their hands stretched out, or lifted up, and some on their knees: A minister in a gown, in the fore part of the ship, is looking towards them, with the gospel open in his right hand; and in a label in the middle of the seal are the words, Transiens adjuva nos. The sun is represented shining; and round the edge are these words, Sigillum Societatis de promovendo Evangelio in partibus Transmarinis.

This society has sent several ministers of the church of England to his Majesty’s colonies in the West Indies, to instruct the English and such Indians as live near them in the principles of the Christian religion; and have dispersed throughout our plantations common prayer books, and other devotional and practical tracts. They have also contributed to the propagation of the gospel in Malabar, in the East Indies, and not only sent thither an impression of the new testament in Portuguese, but a printing press, types, and paper, together with a printer.

By their charter they are annually to meet upon the third Friday in February in order to chuse a president, one or more vice-presidents, a treasurer, or treasurers, two or more auditors, one secretary, and such other officers, ministers, [37] and servants, as should be thought convenient for the ensuing year.

No act of the society is valid, unless the president, or vice president, and seven others of the members be present, and consenting thereto.

The society is every year to give an account in writing to the Lord Chancellor, or Lord Keeper of the great seal, the Lord Chief Justice of the King’s Bench, or the Lord Chief Justice of the Common Pleas, or any two of them, of the several sums of money by them received and laid out, and of the management and disposition of the revenues and charities of the society.

The members of the society meet once a month or oftner at the late archbishop Tenison’s library in St. Martin’s in the Fields, and several committees are besides appointed to meet at the chapter house at St. Paul’s. But their annual meeting on the third Friday in February is at St. Mary le Bow church in Cheapside, at which time they have there an anniversary sermon.

Society for the Reformation of Manners. This society began in the year 1690, when five or six private gentlemen, members of the church of England, meeting and consulting together of the most advisable methods of putting the [38] penal laws in execution against the profaneness and other public vices, practiced openly in the streets, entered into a fraternity for remedying these evils. This being afterwards made known to the lords spiritual and temporal, and to the judges, a considerable number approved of it under their hands; the society, which was continually encreasing, was also countenanced by most of the bishops in extraordinary circular letters printed in 1699; and one of the chief ministers of state laying the affair before King William, he promised the society his protection.

This design was, however, violently opposed by the champions and advocates for debauchery; yet by the favour of the above Prince, and his royal consort Queen Mary, the patronage of Queen Anne, and the countenance of the clergy of the greatest figure in the church, it soon met with prodigious success, and many virtuous and pious persons of the several denominations readily united their endeavours, and joined in the expences necessarily occasioned by putting the laws in execution against vast numbers of the vicious and profane.

This society appoints and encourages constables and others to go about the [39] streets, markets, and other public places, to take up drunkards, and profane swearers; to suppress lewd and disorderly houses, and to prosecute, all who encourage tippling, or follow their professions on the Lord’s day.

By the endeavours of this society many thousands of lewd and scandalous persons have been brought to legal punishment: great numbers have been convicted in the court of King’s Bench, and at the sessions, for keeping houses of lewdness, and punished by fine and imprisonment, by which means the streets have been much cleared of night-walkers, and other public places of gangs of detestable sodomites. In short some thousands of good books have been dispersed through the kingdom, and put into the hands of the profane, the lewd and the vicious, which in many instances have, by the divine blessing, produced a singular reformation, even among those who seemed the most abandoned.

This society from time to time publish an account of the progress they have made, by which it appears, that they have prosecuted above an hundred thousand persons; and sermons are preached quarterly before the members, by [40] some of the most eminent preachers of this city, at Bow church.

In short, what is most surprizing, the fame of this society, which had so small a beginning, has produced amazing effects; after their example, other societies of the same kind have arisen, not only in the different parts of England and Scotland; but in several of our plantations in America, in Holland, Germany, the several cantons of Swisserland, the Grisons, in Sweden and Denmark: and the book which contains an account of this society, has been translated into Latin, French, High-Dutch, the Danish and Swedish languages.

Soho, St. Giles’s.

Soho Square, or King’s Square, is of considerable extent, and has an area surrounded with high palisado pales, enclosing a garden, in which is a statue of King Charles II. standing upon a pedestal placed in the midst of a small bason, at his Majesty’s feet lie the representations of the four principal rivers, the Thames, Trent, Humber and Severn, pouring out their waters. On the south side of this square are Frith street and Greek street, on the east Sutton street, on the north Charles street, and on the west, Denmark street.


There is not much taste or regularity in the Buildings of this square, but the place, if it has nothing to excite our praise does not appear to have any thing to provoke censure. My Lord Bateman’s house on the south side is the most remarkable. It has the appearance of grandeur and magnificence, and though it may have some defects, it has elegance sufficient to make us excuse them.

Somerset House, on the south side of the Strand, near the new church, is esteemed one of the royal palaces. It was built about the year 1549 by the Duke of Somerset, uncle to Edward VI. and protector of England, who demolished the palaces of the bishops of Chester and Worcester, an Inn of Chancery called Strand Inn, with the church of St. Mary le Strand, that stood there, and building this palace with the materials, it from him obtained the name of Somerset House. But the Duke soon after being attainted, it fell to the crown, and has usually been assigned for the residence of the Queen Dowager. In this palace Anne of Denmark, King James the First’s Queen, kept her court, upon which account, it was called Denmark house during that reign; but it soon [42] after recovered the name of its first founder.

The front towards the Strand is adorned with columns and other decorations, which are much defaced by time and the smoke of the city, the principal ornaments having mouldered away. This front together with the quadrangle, seem to have been the first attempts to restore the ancient architecture in England. In the middle of the Strand front is a handsome gate which opens into the quadrangle, adorned with a piazza, perhaps more in taste than any other in the kingdom of the same antiquity, and the whole building on this side, has an air of grandeur. But the most beautiful front is that towards the garden, situated upon an elevation, part of which has been new built, with a fine piazza and lofty apartments over it. This part of the building is however irregular, and left unfinished; some of the old building being still standing on that side. The garden is extremely pleasant, it leading down to the Thames, from which it is separated by a parapet wall, and there is here a handsome landing-place, with stairs, which lead up to the principal walk to the palace.


This garden used to be public, and any person might have the liberty of walking in it; but since the Foot-guards have been quartered in the palace we are informed this privilege is discontinued, the passage to the garden through the palace is extremely disagreeable, the broken staircase, the appearance of the walls, the darkness, and the filth, render it like the descent into a prison; however the pleasantness of the garden, and the fine view it affords of the Thames, give a full recompence for whatever is disagreeable in our way to it. The view we have here given of Somerset house, is the garden front taken from the Thames, and shews the whole extent of the front that way, and consequently the old part of the building as well as the modern. The appearance altogether is picturesque. The new part, which is of stone, contains the royal apartments built by Inigo Jones, and was no doubt only a part of his design, the stairs and gate to the water shewing where he intended the center.

S. Wale delin. E. Rooker sculp.
Somerset House.

Somerset stable yard, a large yard to the west of Somerset house, in which are coach-houses, stables and a guard-room, where a detachment of foot guards do [44] duty daily, as well as at Somerset house, to which it belongs.

Somerset stairs, Strand.†

Somerset Water-Gate stairs, Strand.†

Somerset street, Whitechapel.

Sommer’s key, near Thames street.†

Sommer’s rents, Old Gravel Lane, Ratcliff Highway.†

Sommer’s street, Hockley in the Hole.†

Sope yard, Harrow Corner Deadman’s Place.

Sopemakers, a fraternity incorporated by letters patent granted by King Charles I. in the year 1638. This company is governed by a master, two wardens, and eighteen assistants; they have however neither livery nor hall, and therefore, manage their affairs in Guildhall.

Soper’s alley, Whitecross street, Cripplegate.†

Soper’s yard, Harrow Corner, Deadman’s Place.†

Southampton buildings, 1. Chancery Lane: 2. in High Holbourn, where the Bishop of Lincoln had his city mansion; but that edifice afterwards coming to the Earls of Southampton, it was taken down, and on the site thereof was erected the above buildings. Stow’s Survey.

Southampton court, 1. Southampton Buildings: 2. Southampton row.


Southampton row, Queen’s square, Bloomsbury.

Southampton street, 1. High Holbourn: 2. in the Strand.

Southampton’s Almshouse, near Monmouth street. The ground upon which this house stands, together with a piece of ground adjoining, were granted by lease to the parish of St. Giles’s in the Fields, by the Earl of Southampton, in the year 1656, for the use of the poor, for the term of five hundred years. And towards the support of twenty poor inhabitants, Henry Carter, in the year 1674, gave the sum of 50l. the profits whereof to be destributed among them, out of which, and the produce of the ground which is now built upon, each of the poor women have an allowance of 2l. 8s. and twelve bushels of coals annually. They also receive out of the Lady Dudly’s gift at Christmas and Whitsuntide 20s. Maitland.

Southmoulton row, David street.

Southmoulton street, Hanover square.

South Sea alley, in the Mint, Southwark.

South Sea Company. This company had the following origin: in the glorious and successful war against France, in the reign of Queen Anne, due care was not taken of the regular payment of seamen employed [46] in the royal navy; for those necessitous and useful men, had tickets granted them instead of pay; which they were frequently obliged to get discounted at 40l. and sometimes 50l. per cent. to avaricious men, who taking advantage of the necessities of those brave fellows, raised great estates upon their ruin.

The debt due from the government upon this and other accounts unprovided for by parliament, amounted to 9,177,967l. 15s. 4d. and these people taking it into their hands, were incorporated by act of parliament in the year 1710; the following year the company, after the discharge of the debt due to them from the government, was made perpetual; and in 1714, lending the government an additional sum of 822,032l. 4s. 8d. the capital of the company was, by act of parliament, enlarged to ten millions; for which the members received six per cent. interest, or 600,000l. per annum.

But in 1720 an act of parliament was passed, by which the company were granted the sole privilege of trading to the South Seas within certain limits, and enabled to increase their capital, by redeeming several of the public debts, but by the arts used on this occasion the capital stock of the company was soon raised to [47] thirty-three millions, five hundred and forty-three thousand, two hundred and sixty-three pounds. It would take up too much room were we to enter here into an account of the measures by which this iniquitous scheme was carried on; many wealthy persons lost their estates, and others acquired immense fortunes; and, in short, a considerable number of the directors, were obliged by parliament to refund their ill-gotten treasures.

By an act passed in the sixth year of the reign of his present Majesty, it was enacted, that after the 24th of June 1733, the capital stock of the company, which then amounted to 14,651,103l. 8s. 1d. and the shares of the respective proprietors, should be divided into four equal parts, three fourths of which should be converted into a joint stock, attended with annuities, after the rate of 4 per cent. till redemption by parliament, and should be called the new South Sea annuities, and the other fourth part should remain in the company as a trading capital stock, attended with the residue of the annuities or funds payable at the Exchequer to the company till redemption, and that the company’s accomptant should twice every year, at Christmas and Midsummer, or within one month after, state [48] an account of the company’s affairs, which should be laid before the next general court, in order to their declaring a dividend, but that such dividend should not exceed 4l. per cent. per annum, till their debts were discharged. That the South Sea company, and their trading stock should, exclusively from the new joint stock of annuities, be liable to all the debts and incumbrances of the company; and that the company should cause to be kept within the city of London, an office, and books, in which all transfers of the new annuities, should be entered and signed by the party making such transfer, or his attorney; and the person to whom such transfer should be made, or his attorney, should underwrite his acceptance, and no other method of transferring annuities should be good in law. The annuities of this company are some of them reduced to 3l. 10s. per cent. and others to 3l.

It is necessary to observe with respect to this company, that they have never carried on any considerable trade; however by the assiento contract they had for some years the privilege of furnishing the Spaniards with negroe slaves for their mines and plantations in America, and of sending a large ship annually with European [49] goods, consisting chiefly of our woollen manufactures, to the Spanish West Indies; and for nine years they annually sent a small number of ships to fish for Whales on the coast of Greenland. As they have now no trade, they only receive interest for their capital, which is in the hands of the government, and also 8000l. a year out of the treasury, towards the expence attending the management of their affairs.

The hours of payment of dividends are from nine o’clock till eleven, and the hours of transfer from twelve o’clock till one.

The days of transferring South Sea stock are Monday and Friday.

Old annuities Monday, Wednesday and Friday.

New annuities Tuesday, Thursday, and Saturday.

Three per cent. 1751, Tuesday and Thursday. Except on holidays, which are in general the same as at the Bank.

The business of this company is managed by a governor, subgovernor, deputy governor, and twenty-one directors, annually chosen before the 6th of February, by a majority of votes: such members of the company as have 1000l. in the capital stock in their own names, having one [50] vote; such as have 3000l. two votes; such as have 5000l. three votes, and such as have 10,000l. stock or more, four votes, and none above: but no person can be governor, subgovernor, deputy governor, or director, while governor, deputy governor, or director of the bank of England.

S. Wale delin. J. Fougeron sculp.
South Sea House.

South Sea House, a very neat brick building at the north-west corner of Threadneedle street, opposite the church of St. Martin’s Outwich. In this building the South Sea company transact their affairs.

The front is very large and plain, and is a modern edifice with stone copings, rustic quoins, and window cases. The entrance has no relation to it, and is much too fine and principal, a fault not often committed, but is only so by being in the extreme; over the entrance is raised a handsome well proportioned window, ornamented with rustic work, in conformity to the angles of the building, and crowned with a pediment: and on the inside of the gate is a handsome square court, surrounded with a piazza formed by columns of the Doric order.

South Sea court, Lumbard street.

South Sea passage, Broad street, leading through the South Sea house into Threadneedle street.


South Sea yard, Threadneedle street.☐

South street, 1. Audley street 2. Spitalfields market.§

South-West yard, Spitalfields market.§

Southwark, a considerable part of this great metropolis on the south side of the Thames, consists of the parishes of St. Olave, St. Saviour, St. George and St. Thomas, and for its extent and number of inhabitants is inferior to few cities in England.

It is mentioned in history in the year 1052, when Earl Godwin arrived there with a powerful fleet, and having cast anchor till the return of the tide, passed London Bridge without opposition, in order to engage the royal navy, which consisted of fifty ships of war, and then lay opposite to Westminster; but matters being accommodated between the King and Earl Godwin, the latter returned, and repassed the bridge, which was then of wood.

Southwark was governed by its own bailiffs till the year 1327. The city however found great inconveniences from its neighbourhood, malifactors escaping thither out of the reach and cognizance of the city magistrates. This made the city long desirous of getting Southwark under her subjection, and a grant was [52] made of that town to the city in the last mentioned period, when the mayor of London was constituted bailiff of Southwark, and impowered to govern it by his deputy.

The inhabitants some time after recovered their former privileges; but in the fourth year of the reign of Edward VI. the crown granted it to the city of London for the sum of 647l. 2s. 1d. and within about a month after the passing of that patent, in consideration of the farther sum of 500 marks, paid to the crown by the city, Southwark was made one of the city wards, named Bridge Ward without, when the number of the aldermen being increased from twenty-five to twenty-six, a new one was chosen to govern that borough: In virtue of the above grant, Southwark has ever since been subject to the Lord Mayor, who has under him a steward and bailiff, the former of whom holds a court of record every Monday at St. Margaret’s hill, for all debts, damages, and trespasses, within his limits, and the Lord Mayor proclaims Southwark fair on the 19th of September.

There are five prisons in Southwark, the King’s Bench, just finished in St. George’s fields; the Marshalsea; the New prison, which is the [53] county jail for felons; the Clinke, and the Compter: and also two hospitals, that of St. Thomas, and Guy’s. All which see under their respective names. And for the most remarkable passages in the history of this borough, see the article London.

Southwick’s rents, Bett’s street.†

Spark’s court, Duke’s place, Aldgate.

Sparrow’s Nest yard, Oxford street.

Spaw field, a field near the New-river-head, Islington road: so called from a famous mineral spring.

Spectaclemakers, a company incorporated by letters patent granted by King Charles I. in the year 1630.

They are governed by a master, two wardens and fifteen assistants; but have neither livery nor hall.

Spectacles alley, Shoe lane, Fleet street.*

Mr. Spencer’s. See Green-park.

Spicer street, Brick lane Spitalfields.†

Spingel’s alley, Cable street, Ragfair.†

Spinners yard, Windmill hill.†

Spit alley, St. Giles’s pound.

Spitalfields, a place of very considerable extent on the east side of Bishopsgate street, formerly fields belonging to St. Mary Spital; but now formed into a great number of streets, lanes, and alleys, [54] wherein the weaving business is carried to the greatest perfection by the descendents of French refugees, especially silks, and the richest brocades.

Spitalfields market, by Spitalfields church, is a very great market chiefly for roots and greens.

Spital square, Bishopsgate street without.

Spital Square passage, Lamb street, Spitalfields.

Spital street, Pelham street, Spitalfields.

Sprat’s Almshouse, in College church-yard, Deadman’s place, Southwark, was founded by Mr. Henry Sprat, in the year 1709, for two poor old men, who have an allowance of 4l. per annum, each.

Spread Eagle alley, 1. Kingsland road.* 2. Whitechapel.*

Spread Eagle court, 1. Bread street, Cheapside.* 2. Church lane, Rotherhith.* 3. Gray’s Inn lane, Holbourn.* 4. Hand alley, Petticoat lane.* 5. Kingsland road.* 6. Threadneedle street.*

Spread Eagle yard, Kingsland road.*

Spring Garden, Charing cross.

Spring Garden mews, Spring Garden.

Spring street, Fox lane, Upper Shadwell: 2. Middle Shadwell.

Spur inn yard, St. Margaret’s Hill.*

Spur street, Leicester Fields.*


Spurstowe’s Almshouse, in Back lane, Hackney, was founded by Mr. William Spurstowe, in the year 1666; but dying before it was endowed, his brother Henry, settled lands upon it, for the payment of 4l. per annum, to each of the six poor widows therein. Maitland.

Squirrel alley, in the Minories.*

Squirries, a fine seat near Westerham. See the article Westerham.

Stable yard, 1. Jockey Fields, near Grays Inn: 2. St. James’s street Pallmall: 3. Northumberland alley, Fenchurch street: 4. near Smith’s street, Marsham street: 5. Warner street, Cold Bath Fields.

Stacey’s street, Monmouth street.†

Stafford’s Almshouse, at the lower end of Gray’s Inn lane, was founded by Alexander Stafford, Esq; in the year 1633, for four poor men and six women, who have an annual allowance of 6l. and half a chaldron of coals each, besides a coat and gown every other year.

Stafford street, Bond street.

Stag’s alley, Bedfordbury.*

Staining lane, 1. Maiden lane: 2. near Wood street, Cheapside.

Stains, or Stanes, a populous town in Middlesex, situated on the Thames, nineteen miles from London, it obtained its name from the Saxon word [56] Stana or stone, because there anciently stood a boundary stone in this place to denote the extent of the city of London’s jurisdiction upon the river. It has a bridge over the Thames, and is governed by two constables, and four headboroughs appointed by his Majesty’s steward, on account of its being a lordship belonging to the crown. The church stands alone, at almost half a mile distance from the town.

Stamford Hill, a hill with a small village on its side between Newington, and Tottenham Highcross.

Stamford’s buildings, Old street.†

Stamp corner, Old street.

Stamp Office, on the west side of Lincoln’s Inn Square, extends from the passage leading to Lincoln’s Inn Fields to near the south-west corner.

This office is under the government of five commissioners who have 400l. a year each. There are besides a receiver general who has 500l. per annum, under whom are four clerks, one who has 100l. a year, and three who have 60l. A secretary, who has 300l. a year, who has four clerks, one of whom has 130l. per annum, another 70l. another 60l. and another 50l. a year. A comptroller, who has 400l. per annum, and has three clerks, [57] one who has 100l. and two others who have 60l. a year each.

The other officers are an accomptant clerk, a sollicitor, a teller of stamps, three inspectors of courts and corporations in the country, and one inspector of courts in town, and also a supervisor of the stamps, each of whom has a salary of 100l. a year. There are likewise a register and comptroller of the apprentice duty, who has 150l. a year; a register of warrants, who has 140l. and a warehouse keeper of stampt goods who has 160l. a year: and besides these there are many inferior officers, who have smaller sallaries.

Stanbury’s court, Picadilly.

Stanes, a town in Middlesex. See Stains.

Stangate stairs, Lambeth.

Stangate street, Lambeth.

Stanhope’s court, Charing Cross.†

Stanhope’s street, Clare Market.†

Stanley’s yard, Stony lane.†

Stanbury’s court, Picadilly.†

Stanton’s rents, Rotherhith Wall.†

Stanton’s Wharf, near Stony lane, Southwark.†

Staples court, Beck street.†

Staples Inn, one of the inns of chancery, is seated on the south side of Holbourn, [58] near the bars, and consists of two large courts surrounded with good buildings.

Staples rents, Love lane.†

Star alley, 1. Barnaby street, Southwark.* 2. East Smithfield, Tower Hill.* 3. Fenchurch street.* 4. in the Minories.*

Star court, 1. Bread street, Cheapside.* 2. Bread street hill, Thames street.* 3. Butcher Row, Temple Bar.* 4. Castle street.* 5. Chancery lane.* 6. Cheapside.* 7. Compton street.* 8. Cross lane, Parker’s lane.* 9. Great Eastcheap.* 10. Grub street, Fore street.* 11. Little Britain.* 12. London Wall.* 13. in the Minories.* 14. Old Fish street.*

Star street, Wapping Wall.*

Star yard, 1. Barnaby street.* 2. Huggen lane, Thames street.* 3. Kingsland road.* 4. Moor lane.*

Starch alley, 1. Greenback, Southwark: 2. Rotten Row, Goswell street.

Starch yard, 1. Back lane, Lambeth: 2. Old Gravel lane.

Starchmakers, a company incorporated by letters patent granted by King James I. in the year 1622. They are governed by a master, two wardens, and twenty-four assistants, but have neither livery nor hall.

Starling School, on Little Tower Hill, was founded in the year 1673, by Sir Samuel [59] Starling, knt. and alderman, for forty boys, and thirty girls, of the parish of St. Botolph without Aldgate, who are taught reading, writing and arithmetic, and also instructed in the principles of the Christian religion. Maitland.

Stationers, a company incorporated by letters patent granted in the third and fourth of Philip and Mary, in the year 1557. They are governed by a master, two wardens, and thirty-six assistants, with a livery of 280 members, who upon their admission, pay a fine of 20l.

This company has stock of about 15000l. denominated the English stock, which is employed in printing almanacks, hornbooks, primmers, psaltars, and some school books, the sole printing whereof is confirmed to them by letters patent granted by several kings.

This stock consists of twenty whole shares of 320l. each, which are generally possessed by those who are of the court of assistants: the second are forty half shares, of 160l. each, the third are eighty quarter shares, of 80l. each, and the fourth are one hundred and sixty half quarter shares, of 40l. each; all which are divided among those who have fined for or served the office of renter-warden.


Upon the death of any of the married possessors of this stock, the profits arising from his share devolve to his widow, which she enjoys during her widowhood or life: but at the expiration of either, another person is chosen to enjoy the profits of her share; and he is no sooner elected, than he pays the deposit-money to the late widow, her husband, or executors.

The dividends upon the stock are made at Christmas, and increased or decreased according to the expence of the preceding year; however, it is seldom less than 40l. upon a whole share, or 320l.

The master and wardens of the company are always in the direction of the stock, to whom are joined six other members annually elected; who adjust all accounts relating to it, and at Christmas report the state thereof to the board, who regulate the dividends accordingly.

The stationers company have also a share in the Irish estate, and other considerable estates, out of which they pay about 300l. per annum in pensions, and other charities. Maitland.

Stationers Hall, a spacious brick building near Amen Corner. There is an ascent to it by a flight of steps, and the light is thrown in by two series of windows, [61] the lower large and upright, and the upper of an elliptical form. Underneath it, and at the north end are the warehouses for the company’s stock. This hall has but few ornaments; but it is however extremely convenient.

Stationers court, in which stationers hall is placed, has three passages into it one from Ludgate street; one from Ave Mary lane, and one from Amen Corner. This court, and the passages into it, are inhabited by eminent booksellers.

Staymakers alley, Booth street, Spitalfields.

Stebbing’s rents, Portpool lane, Leather lane, Holbourn.†

Steedwell street, Hog lane, St. Giles’s.†

Steel’s court, Bread street, Cheapside.†

Steel yard, in Thames street above the Bridge. Here was originally the hall of the Anseatic merchants, and the warehouses where they used to stow their steel, flax, hemp, pitch, tar, masts, cables, linen cloth, wheat, rye and other grain. And in this place are still large warehouses for iron, in bars, &c.

Steel yard stairs, by the Steel yard.

Steel yard wharf, at the end of the Steel yard.

Steep’s garden, Kent street, near St. George’s church, Southwark.


St. Stephen’s chapel, at the south-east corner of Westminster hall, was founded by King Stephen, who dedicated it to St. Stephen the Proto martyr. See House of Commons.

St. Stephen’s Coleman street, is situated on the west side of that street, and in the ward of the same name. It is of great antiquity, and was originally a chapel belonging to the dean and chapter of St. Paul’s, who between the years 1171, and 1181, granted the church of St. Olave Jewry, together with this chapel, as an appendage to it, to the prior and abbot of Butley in Suffolk.

This chapel was made parochial in the year 1456, but continued under the patronage of the prior and canons of Butley, till the suppression of that convent, when it came to the crown. However in the year 1577, Queen Elizabeth granted the patronage, together with the church and rectory to Thomas Paskins and others, and in 1590 to William Daniel, serjeant at law, and other parishioners; which rectory impropriate, and right of advowson, have been held by the parish in fee farm of the crown ever since. Newc. Repert. Eccless.

This church sharing the common fate in the dreadful fire of London, the [63] present structure was erected in its stead about four years after. It is a plain and solid building strengthened with rustic at the corners, and enlightened by one series of large windows. The steeple is a square tower crowned with a lanthorn which has four faces.

The rector, besides several annual donations, and other advantages, receives 110l. per annum.

Mr. Munday, in his edition of Stow’s Survey, mentions several monumental inscriptions in this church, among which are the following.

1. Our life is all but death; time that ensueth,
Is but the death of time that went before:
Youth is the death of childhood; age of youth.
Die once to God, and then thou diest no more.
2. Agnes, the wife of Leonard Darr, whose sight,
By sickness much impair’d, in heav’nly light,
Look’d, liv’d and died, as dimness her were giv’n,
That her soul’s eyes might better look to heav’n.

In this church Munday himself lies, and on his monument is the following inscription.

3. To the Memory of that ancient servant to the
city with his pen in divers employments, especially
the Survey of London, master Anthony Munday,
citizen and draper of London.
He that hath many an antient Tombstone read,
(I’th’ labour seeming more among the dead
To live, than with the living) that survey’d
Obstruse antiquities, and o’er them laid
Such vive and beauteous colours with his pen,
That (spite of time) those old are new again,
Under this marble lies interr’d; his tomb
Claiming (as worthily it may) this room,
Among those many monuments his quill
Has so reviv’d, helping now to fill
A place (with those) in his Survey; in which
He has a monument, more fair, more rich
Than polish’d stones could make him, where he lies,
Though dead, still living, and in that ne’er dies.

St. Stephen’s Hospital, situated in the Woolstaple at Westminster, was founded by Henry VIII. in the year 1544, for eight maimed soldiers, who have each a convenient room, and an allowance of 5l. per annum out of the Exchequer.

St. Stephen’s Walbrook, behind the Mansion-house of the Lord Mayor, in Walbrook ward. We read of a church near the same spot dedicated to the same patron so early as the year 1135; but it then stood on the other side of the street. However about the year 1428, Robert Chichely, Mayor of London, purchased the ground of the present church and cemetry of the Grocers company, and the first stone of the new structure was laid in 1429; but the work advanced so slowly, that it was not finished, till the year 1439.


The old structure was destroyed by the fire of London in the year 1666, and the present noble edifice was erected in its place by the great Sir Christopher Wren. The steeple rises square to a considerable height, and is then surrounded with a balustrade, within which rises a very light and elegant tower in two stages, the first adorned with Corinthian, and the second with Composite columns, and covered with a dome, whence rises the vane.

The outside of the church is plain and void of ornament, but in the center of the roof is a large dome; which cannot be seen to advantage, on account of its being in a manner hid by the Mansion-house. The principal beauties of this justly admired edifice are on the inside; where this dome, which is spacious and noble, is finely proportioned to the church, and divided into small compartments decorated with great elegance, and crowned with a lanthorn, while the roof, which is also divided into compartments, is supported by very noble Corinthian columns, raised on their pedestals. It has three isles and a cross isle; is seventy-five feet in length, and thirty-six in breadth, the height of the middle roof is thirty-four feet, and of the cupola and [66] lanthorn fifty-eight feet. On the sides under the lower roofs are only circular windows, but those which enlighten the upper roof are small arched ones; and at the east end are three very noble arched windows.

In the opinion of some persons this is Sir Christopher Wren’s masterpiece. It is even thought that Italy itself can produce no modern structure equal to this in taste, proportion, elegance and beauty. It is certain that foreigners, to whom it is well known, might very justly call our judgments in question, were we not to allow it as high a degree both of merit and fame as they have bestowed upon it. It is one of the happy productions of Sir Christopher Wren’s great genius without a strict observance of the rules of art. It has a very striking effect at entering, every part coming at once to your eye, except the bases of the columns, which are injudiciously eclipsed by the carving on the top of the pews (these are not represented in the print) and was not the design of the architect. The outside is now in part hid by the Mansion house. The plate also represents a plan and section.

To this church that of St. Bennet Sherehog is annexed, whereby the profits of the rector are much increased: besides other advantages, he receives 100l. a year in lieu of tithes.

S. Wale delin. E. Rooker sculp.
St Stephen’s Walbrook


Stepney, a very ancient village near London; but as it not joined to it by contiguous buildings, we shall not, after the example of some of our late compilers, represent it as a part of this metropolis.

This parish was of such a vast extent, and so amazingly increased in buildings, as to produce the parishes of St. Mary Stratford at Bow, St. Mary Whitechapel, St. Ann’s Limehouse, St. John’s at Wapping, St. Paul’s Shadwell, St. George’s Ratcliff Highway, Christ Church Spitalfields, and St. Matthew’s Bethnal Green; all which have been separated from it, and yet it still remains one of the largest parishes within the bills of mortality, and contains the hamlets of Mile-end, Old and New Towns, Ratcliff and Poplar.

The village of Stepney, is remarkable for its church, and the great number of tombstones, both in that edifice and its spacious cemetry. It has also an independant meeting-house, and an almshouse. The village, however, is but small, and consists of few houses besides those of public entertainment; vast crowds of people of both sexes resorting thither on Sundays, and at Easter and Whitsun holidays, [68] to eat Stepney buns, and to regale themselves with ale, cyder, &c.

There was a church here so long ago as the time of the Saxons, when it was called the church of all Saints, Ecclesia omnium Sanctorum, and we read of the manor of Stepney under the reign of William the Conqueror, by the name of Stibenhede, or Stiben’s-heath; but it does not appear when the church changed its name by being dedicated to St. Dunstan, the name it at present bears. To this church belong both a rectory and vicarage; the former, which was a sinecure, was in the gift of the bishop of London, and the latter, in the gift of the rector, till Ridley, bishop of London, gave the manor of Stepney, and the advowson of the church to Edward VI. who, in his turn, granted them to Sir Thomas Wentworth, Lord Chamberlain of his houshold. But the advowson being afterwards purchased by the principal and scholars of King’s Hall and Brazen-Nose college in Oxford, they presented two persons to the rectory and vicarage by the name of the Portionists of Ratcliff and Spitalfields, till the year 1744, when the hamlet of Bethnal Green being separated from it, and made a new parish by act of [69] parliament, Stepney became possessed by only one rector.

As this is at present a rectory impropriate, the above principal and scholars receive the great tithes, and the incumbent the small, together with Easter offerings, garden pennies, and surplice fees, which are very considerable. Newc. Repert. Eccles.

When the present church was erected is not recorded; the wall and battlements are built of brick and wrought stone, plastered over; and the roof is covered with lead. It is of a very considerable extent, for it is an hundred and four feet long, though it is no more than fifty-four broad; the height of the roof is thirty-five feet, and that of the tower, with its turret, ninety-two feet. The pillars, arches and windows, are of the modern Gothic, and the west porch, built in 1610, has no resemblance to the rest of the building, it being of the Tuscan order. The tower, which is plain and heavy, is supported at the corners by a kind of double buttresses; it is crowned with square plain battlements, without pinnacles, and with a small mean turret; and the same kind of battlements are carried round the body of the church.


On the inside are three galleries and an organ, and the altar-piece is adorned with four Corinthian pilasters, with their entablature and a pediment; these have gilt capitals; with the arms of Queen Anne carved: but what is most singular is a stone on the east side of the portico, leading up to the gallery, on which is the following inscription.

Of Carthage great I was a stone,
O mortals read with pity!
Time consumes all, it spareth none,
Men, mountains, towns, nor city:
Therefore O mortals! all bethink
You where unto you must,
Since now such stately buildings
Lie buried in the dust.

It is probable this stone was really brought from Carthage, otherwise this inscription would scarcely be permitted to be there; but as a modern author observes, it is to be hoped, that he who ordered it to be fixed there, did not go to Carthage on purpose to fetch it.

At the east end of the church-yard near the church is a monument of white marble, adorned with a cherub, urn, palm-branches and a coat of arms, under which is the following inscription:

Here lieth interred the body of Dame Rebecca Berry, the wife of Thomas
[71] Elton of Stratford Bow, gent. who departed this life April 16, 1696, aged 52.

Come ladies, you that would appear
Like angels fair, come dress you here;
Come dress you at this marble stone
And make that humble Grace your own,
Which once adorn’d as fair a mind,
As e’er yet lodg’d in womankind.
So she was dress’d, whose humble life
Was free from pride, was free from strife:
Free from all envious brawls and jars
(Of human life the civil wars)
These ne’er disturb’d her peaceful mind,
Which still was gentle, still was kind.
Her very looks, her garb, her mien,
Disclos’d the humble soul within.
Trace her through ev’ry scene of life,
View her as widow, virgin, wife,
Still the same humble she appears,
The same in youth, the same in years;
The same in low and high estate,
Ne’er vex’d with this, ne’er mov’d with that.
Go, Ladies, now, and if you’d be     }
As fair, as great, as good as she,       }
Go learn of her humility.                  }

On another grave-stone near the south-east corner of the church-yard, is the following inscription on Mary Angel:

To say an angel here interr’d doth lie,
May be thought strange, for angels never die.
Indeed some fell from heav’n to hell.
Are lost, and rise no more:
This only fell by death to earth,
Not lost but gone before.
Her dust lodg’d here, her soul perfect in grace,
’Mongst saints and angels now hath took its place.


Near the south side of the church on a marble tomb-stone, adorned with a coat of arms, are the following lines on capt. Thomas Chevers, his wife, and a son who died at five days old.

Reader, consider well how poor a span,
And how uncertain is the life of man:
Here lie the husband, wife, and child, by death
All three in five days time deprived of breath.
The child dies first, the mother on the morrow
Follows, and then the father dies with sorrow.
A Cæsar falls by many wounds, well may
Two stabs at heart the stoutest captain slay.

On a stone near the foot path on the north-west side, is the following inscription:

Whoever treadeth on this stone,
I pray you tread most neatly,
For underneath the same doth lye
Your honest friend Will. Wheatly.

The last inscription we shall mention is the following short one on the south-west side of the church.

Here lies the body of Daniel Saul,
Spittlefields weaver, and that is all.

Stepney causeway, Whitehorse lane.☐

Stepney green, Stepney.☐

Stepney rents, Shoreditch.☐

Stern’s yard, Kent street, Southwark.†

Sterry’s rents, in the Minories.†


Stevens’s alley, Chanel row, New Palace yard.† 2. King’s street, Westminster.†

Stevens’s court, New Palace yard, Westminster.†

Stevens’s yard, Poplar.†

Steward’s court, Clerkenwell green.†

Steward’s rents, Great Wild street.†

Steward’s street, Artillery lane, Spitalfields.†

Stewart’s School, for the benefit of twenty poor boys of the parish of St. George Hanover square, was founded and endowed by lieut. general Stewart, who about the year 1728, bequeathed the sum of 500l. for that purpose. Maitland.

Stew lane, High Timber street.

Stews, a number of brothels anciently situated on the Bank-side, Southwark, and licensed by the bishop of Winchester. There were at first eighteen of these houses, but afterwards only twelve were allowed: they stood in a row, and had signs on their fronts towards the Thames, not hung out, but painted on the walls, as the Boar’s Head, the Cross Keys, the Castle, the Cardinal’s Hat, the Bell, the Swan, &c. These houses which were frequently kept by Flemish bawds, were under very strict regulations, among which were the following, confirmed [74] by act of parliament, in the reign of Henry II.

That no stewholder or his wife should hinder any single woman from going and coming as often as she pleased.

That no stewholder should board any single woman; but she should board abroad at her pleasure, and that no more should be taken for the woman’s chamber than 14d. a week.

That the doors should be shut up on all holidays, and no single woman suffered in the house.

That no single woman desirous of forsaking her sins, should be kept against her will.

That no stewholder should receive a nun, or any man’s wife.

That no man should be drawn or inticed into any of these houses, nor any single woman take money for lying with a man, unless he lay all night.

That no stewholder should keep any woman that had the perilous infirmity of burning; [the venereal disease;] nor sell bread, flesh, fish, ale, wood, coals, or any kind of food; and that the constables, bailiffs and others should search every stewhouse weekly.

These and many other orders were to be observed, under the penalty of suffering [75] great pains and punishments; and any woman leading a life of lewdness was forbidden the rights of the church, and denied Christian burial, if she was not reconciled before her death. And therefore there was a plot of ground called the single woman’s church-yard, appointed for these women at a distance from the parish church.

These stews were put down by order of Henry VIII. in the year 1546, when it was proclaimed by sound of trumpet, that this row of stews was no longer to be privileged, and used as a common brothel. Stow’s Survey.

Stichbone’s court, High Holbourn.†

Still alley, Bishopsgate street without.* 2. Bluegate field, Upper Shadwell.† 3. George street.* 4. Houndsditch.† 5. Long alley, Moorfields.* 6. New street, St. Thomas’s.* 7. Petticoat lane, Whitechapel.*

Still stairs, Pickleherring street.*

Still yard, 1. Liquorpond street, Leather lane.* 2. Maze Pond street, Southwark.* See Steel yard.

Stockdon’s yard, Vine yard, Horselydown lane.†

Stocking Frame alley, Shoreditch.*

Stocks Market, stood at the north-east corner of Walbrook, where the Mansion House [76] of the Lord Mayor is now erected. This was made a market about the year 1282, at which time was a pair of stocks there, for the punishment of offenders, the first set up in the city of London.

This market was about 230 feet long from north to south, and about 180 feet broad, besides the room left for passengers on each side. On the east side were planted rows of trees, and on the north were twenty-two stalls covered over for fruit, as well on market days, as at other times. The rest of the market was taken up by gardeners, only at the south-west corner were two ranges of stalls for butchers.

But what was most singular in this market, was, there being placed at the north end, a pretended Equestrian statue of King Charles II. set up at the expence of Sir Robert Viner, alderman, knt. and baronet. This statue was originally made for John Sobieski King of Poland, but, by some accident, was left upon the workman’s hands: about the same time the city was loyal enough to pay their devoirs to King Charles, immediately upon his restoration; and, finding this statue ready made to their hands, resolved to do it the cheapest way, and convert the Polander into a Briton, and [77] the Turk, underneath his horse, into Oliver Cromwell, to make their compliment compleat. In this very manner it appeared, and the turbant upon the last mentioned figure was an undeniable proof of the truth of the story.

The above statue and all the stalls were removed in the year 1738, in order to lay the foundation of the present Mansion-house.

Stoke Green, a village in Buckinghamshire, a little to the north of Windsor. Sir Thomas Stapleton has here a very handsome house, and large and most beautiful gardens.

In the neighbourhood of this village is Stoke House, which belongs to the Lady Cobham, and is a noble and large edifice, with a pleasant park. Adjoining to the house is the parish church of Stoke, and a neat hospital, built and endowed by —— Countess of Huntingdon, for the support and maintenance of 12 ancient poor people of both sexes.

Stoke Poges, a village so called from the Poges, its ancient Lords, is situated a little to the north of Stoke Green. Here Edward Lord Hastings, in the reign of Queen Mary, erected a chapel and hospital, adorned with a portico supported by pillars, that still remain on the east end [78] of this ancient seat. The entrance to the house, is like that of the Villa Borghese at Rome, by a great hall paved with marble, and adorned with many fine ancient busts of the Roman Emperors, some of marble, some of granate, and others of porphyry, brought from Rome by the late Sir Robert Gayer. At the bottom of this hall is a pretty little chapel paved with marble, seeming to rise like steps. From this hall there is an entrance into a fine park, with seven avenues in the form of a star; from each of which there is a delightful prospect, and from one of them a good view of Windsor Castle.

Stone alley, Broad street, Ratcliff.

Stone court, 1. Aldersgate street: 2. St. Catharine’s by the Tower: 3. Lower East Smithfield: 4. New street, Fetter lane.

Stone Cutters alley, 1. Black Friars: 2. Fleet ditch: 3. Little Queen street: 4. Pallmall.

Stone Cutters court, 1. Gutter lane, Cheapside: 2. Old street. 3. Pallmall.

Stone Cutter street, next to Harp ally, in the Fleet market.

Stone Cutter yard, 1. Blackman street: 2. Butcher row, Ratcliff: 3. near Castle street: 4. Great stone stairs, Ratcliff: 5. St. Martin’s lane, Charing Cross: [79] 6. Kent street, by St. George’s church, Southwark: 7. Millbank, Westminster horse-ferry: 8. Peter’s street: 9. Poor Jewry lane, Aldgate.

Stone’s rents, Limehouse.†

Stone stairs, near Ratcliff cross.

Stone yard, 1. Lower East Smithfield: 2. Tooley street, Southwark.

Stony lane, St. Olave street, Southwark: 2. Old horselydown, Southwark: 3. Petticoat lane.

Stony street, near Deadman’s Place, Southwark: 2. Cock lane, Shoreditch.

Storehouse yard, New Rag Fair, East Smithfield.

Storey’s passage, and Storey’s gate, by Storey’s coffee-house; both removed in order to extend the view through Great George street into St. James’s Park.†

Strafford street, Albemarle street.

Strand, a street which extends from Temple bar to the corner of St. Martin’s lane, Charing cross. Maitland observes that the Strand was anciently a village, which took its name from its being placed on the bank of the Thames, and that its ancient situation was not much higher than that river; as upon digging the foundation of the New church called St. Mary le Strand, the virgin earth was discovered at the depth of nineteen feet.


In this street formerly resided many of the Nobility, whose gardens extended to the Thames, among which there are still remaining Northumberland house, Somerset house, and the ruins of the Savoy.

As this is the grand channel of communication between the city of London and Westminster it would have been a great ornament to both, had it been a spacious, straight and uniform street, without that incumberance which begins at Butcher Row, and ends at the New Church. In this case, the prospect from Temple Bar would have afforded a noble vista, terminated by Charing Cross, and this might have been still enlarged, by letting in the more distant view of the park, through a street of the same breadth with itself.

Strand Bridge, a handsome structure formerly erected a little to the east of Catharine street. It was raised over a brook which ran from the fields, and crossing the Strand fell into the Thames, near Somerset stairs.

Strand bridge, Strand lane.

Strand Bridge stairs, near Strand lane.

Strand lane, a narrow passage leading from the Strand towards the Thames.

Strangeway’s street, Saffron hill.†

Stratford Le Bow, a village to the east of Mile-end. See the article Bow.


Stratford or Stratford Long-thorn, the first village in Essex, next to London, in the parish of Westham. It had an abbey which together with the church was given by King Henry VIII. to Sir Peter Meautys of Westham. This parish has greatly increased of late years in buildings and inhabitants, every vacancy being in a manner filled up, by the addition of two little new built hamlets, if they may be thus called, on the forest side of the town; these are Maryland Point, and the Gravel Pits, one facing the road to Woodford and Epping, and the other that to Ilford: while the hither part, in spite of rivers, canals, and marshy grounds, is almost joined to Bow.

Stratton’s ground, near Tothil Fields, Westminster.†

Stretham, a village in Surry, six miles south-west of London, and three miles to the north of Croydon, used to be much frequented for its medicinal waters. It has a charity school, and a seat belonging to the Duke of Bedford, Lord of the manor.

Stretton’s grounds, Westminster.†

Stretton’s street, 1. Hyde Park Road, from the Lord Berkley of Stretton’s mansion-house. 2. Berkley street, Westminster.†


Strawberry court, Tower Royal, near St. Thomas Apostles.

Streud’s court, St. James’s.†

Stroud’s court, Leather lane, Holbourn.†

Strumbels, Chelsea.

Strype’s yard, Petticoat lane.†

Stubb’s rents, 1. Charter house lane.† 2. Saffron hill, near Snow hill.†

Stut’s alley, Kent street, near St. George’s church, Southwark.†

Subpæna Office, in Symmond’s Inn Chancery lane. In this office writs are issued to summon persons to appear in Chancery.

Suffolk lane, by Little Bush lane, Thames street.

Suffolk street, Pallmall: 2. in the Mint Southwark.

Sugarbaker’s lane, Duke’s Place, near Aldgate.

Sugarbaker’s yard, Duke’s Place.

Sugarhouse yard, Butcher Row.

Sugarloaf alley, 1. Barnaby street, Southwark.* 2. Garlick hill, Thames street.* 3. Mark lane, Fenchurch street.* 4. Moses and Aaron alley, Whitechapel.* 5. Portpool lane, Leather lane.* 6. Wentworth street, Petticoat lane, Spitalfields.*

Sugarloaf court, 1. Angel alley, Bishopsgate street.* 2. Catharine Wheel alley.* 3. Dorset street.* 4. Garlick hill, Thames [83] street.* 5. Goodman’s yard, Whitechapel.* 6. Halfmoon alley, Bishopsgate street without.* 7. Holiwell street.* 8. Lamb alley, Bishopsgate street.* 9. Leadenhall street.* 10. Little Distaff lane, Old Change.* 11. Little Elbow lane, Thames street.* 12. Moor lane, Cripplegate.* 13. Peter’s street, Hicks’s hall.* 14. Spitalfields.* 15. Wentworth street, Petticoat lane.* 16. Whitecross street, Cripplegate.*

Sugarloaf yard, Holiwell lane, Shoreditch.*

Sun alley, 1. Barnaby street, Southwark.* 2. Chick lane, Smithfield.* 3. Cowcross, near Smithfield.* 4. East Smithfield.* 5. Golden lane, Redcross street.* 6. Grub street, Fore street.* 7. St. John’s street, Westminster.* 8. Kent street, Southwark.* 9. King street, Cheapside.* 10. Old Gravel lane, Ratcliff Highway.*

Sun and Gun yard, Narrow street, Limehouse.*

Sun and Raven yard, Five Feet lane.*

Sun and Trumpet alley, Whitechapel.*

Sun court, 1. Bow lane, Cheapside.* 2. Cock lane, Shoreditch.* 3. Cornhill.* 4. Deadman’s Place, Southwark.* 5. East Smithfield.* 6. Ivy lane, Newgate street.* 7. King street, Covent garden.* 8. Petticoat lane.* 9. Saffron hill.* 10. Sutton’s [84] street, St. John’s street, Smithfield.* 11. Threadneedle street.* 12. Whitechapel.* 13. Wood street, Cheapside.* 14. Sun Dial alley, Moorfields.*

Sun Fire Office, in Threadneedle street, near the Royal Exchange, and in Craig’s court, Charing Cross, for insuring houses and other buildings, goods, wares, and merchandize from loss and damage by fire.

This office, which was the first that attempted the insurance of goods and that of houses beyond the bills of mortality, was according to Maitland projected by Mr. John Povey about the year 1706, who having carried it on for sometime with success, conveyed his right to certain purchasers; who by a deed of settlement of the 7th of April 1710, erected themselves into a society; and that all persons may, with the greater security insure in this office, the proprietors have raised an hundred thousand pounds, as a fund for that purpose.

Insurances may be made in this office on the following terms.

I. All policies shall be signed and sealed by three or more trustees, or acting members: by which policies may be insured houses, and other buildings, houshold furniture, goods, wares, merchandize, [85] and utensils and implements in trade, being the property of the persons insuring; except all manner of writings, books of accompts, bills, bonds, tallies, ready money, jewels, pictures, and gunpowder.

II. Houses, buildings, and goods in trust, and merchandize on commission, (except as aforesaid) may be insured, provided the same are declared in the policy to be in trust or on commission, but not otherwise.

III. On bespeaking policies, all persons are to deposite 7s. 6d. for the policy, stamp-duty and mark; and shall pay the premium to the next quarter-day, and from thence for one year more at least, and shall, as long as the managers agree to accept the same, make all future payments annually at the said office, within fifteen days after the day limited by their respective policies, upon forfeiture of the benefit thereof; and no insurance is to take place till the premium be actually paid by the insured, his, her or their agent or agents.

IV. The several heads of insurance are, 1. Common insurances, which are buildings covered with slate, tile, or lead, and built on all sides with brick, or stone; where no hazardous trades are carried on, or hazardous goods and merchandize [86] deposited. On such houses and goods, any sum not exceeding 200l. is insured for 4s. per annum; any sum from 200l. to 1000l. for 2s. per cent. per annum; and any sum from 1000l. to 3000l. at 2s. 6d. per cent. per annum.

2. Hazardous insurances are either timber or plaster buildings, containing goods and merchandize not hazardous; and in which no hazardous trades are carried on: or brick or stone buildings wherein hazardous goods are deposited or hazardous trades carried on. These hazardous trades and goods are apothecaries, chemists, bread and biscuit bakers, colourmen, ship and tallow chandlers, stable-keepers, innholders, malthouses, hemp, flax, tallow, pitch, tar, and turpentine. On such houses and goods this office insures any sum not exceeding 200l. at 6s. per annum: any sum from 200l. to 1000l. at 3s. per cent. per annum; any sum from 1000l. to 2000l. at 4s. per cent. per annum; and any sum from 2000l. to 3000l. at 5s. per cent. per annum.

3. Double hazardous insurances are thatch’d buildings, and goods and merchandize therein; timber or plaster buildings, wherein hazardous goods are deposited, or hazardous trades carried on; and also plate, china, glass, or earthen [87] wares, hay, straw, all manner of fodder, and corn unthrash’d. Such houses and goods are insured upon the following terms, any sum not exceeding 200l. at 10s. per annum; any sum from 200l. to 1000l. at 5s. per cent. per annum; and any sum from 1000l. to 2000l. at 7s. 6d. per cent. per annum.

V. Any number of houses, out-houses, with goods or wearing apparel therein may be insured in one policy, provided the sum insured on each is particularly mentioned; but in all insurances the premium is to be paid for even hundred pounds.

If insurances are desired for mills, or for any larger sums than are specified in the above articles; or for any other insurances more hazardous than those already described, as sugarbakers, distillers, or the like; or by reason of the nature of the trade or goods, the narrowness of the place, or other dangerous circumstances, it may be done by special agreement.

VI. To prevent frauds, persons insured by this office shall receive no benefit from their policies, if the same houses or goods are insured in any other office, unless such insurance be first specify’d and allow’d by an indorsement on the back of the [88] policy, in which case this office will pay their ratable proportion on any loss or damage; and if any person or persons shall insure his, her, or their houses, goods, wares or merchandize, and shall cause the same to be described in the policy otherwise than as they really are, so as the same be insured at a lower premium than proposed in the table, such insurance shall be of no force nor the person insuring receive any benefit by such policy, in case of any loss or damage.

VII. No loss or damage to be paid on fire happening by any invasion, foreign enemy, civil commotion, or any military or usurped power whatsoever.

VIII. When any person dies, the policy and interest therein shall continue to the heir, executor, or administrator respectively, to whom the right of the premises insured shall belong; provided, before any new payment made, such heir, executor, or administrator, do procure his or her right to be indorsed on the policy at the said office, or the premium be paid in the name of the said heir, executor, or administrator.

IX. Persons changing the habitations or wherehouses, may preserve the benefit of their policies, if the nature and circumstance of such policy is not alter’d; but [89] such insurance will be of no force, till such removal or alteration is allow’d at the office by indorsement on the policy. Insurances on buildings and goods are deemed distinct and separate risks; so that the premium on goods is not advanced by reason of any insurance on the building wherein the goods are kept, nor the premium on the buildings by reason of any insurance on the goods.

X. Persons insured, sustaining any loss or damage by fire, are forthwith to give notice thereof at the office, and as soon as possible afterwards deliver in as particular an account of their loss and damage, as the nature of the case will admit of, and make proof of the same by their oath or affirmation, according to the form practis’d in the said office, and by their books of accounts, or other proper vouchers, as shall be reasonably required, and procure a certificate under the hands of the minister and church wardens, together with some other reputable inhabitants of the parish, not concern’d in such loss, importing, that they are well acquainted with the character and circumstances of the person or persons insured, and do know or verily believe, that he, she, or they, really and by misfortune, without any fraud or evil [90] practice, have sustain’d by such fire, the loss and damage, as his, her, or their loss, to the value therein mention’d; but till such affidavit and certificate of such the insured’s loss shall be made and produced, the loss-money shall not be payable. And if there appear any fraud or false swearing, such sufferers shall be excluded from all benefit by their policies. And in case any difference arise between the office and the insured, touching any loss or damage, such difference shall be submitted to the judgment and determination of arbitrators indifferently chosen, whole award in writing shall be conclusive and binding to all parties: And when any loss or damage is settled and adjusted, the insured are to receive immediate satisfaction for the same, deducting only the usual allowance of 3l. per cent.

N. B. In adjusting losses on houses or goods, no wainscot, or any sculpture or carving-work, is to be valu’d at more than 3s. per yard, or plate at more than 5s. 6d. per ounce.

XI. No receipts are to be taken for any premiums of insurance, but such as are printed, and issued from the office, and witnessed by one of the clerks or agents of the office.


Persons may insure for any number of years more than one; and in such case, there will be an abatement of 6d. in the pound per annum on the premiums agreed for, for every year except the first: As to instance, in a common insurance of 1000l. for seven years, the premium to be paid by the table will be 7l. from which 6d. in the pound per annum is to be deducted for the last six years, that is, 3s. and 6d. per annum, which amounts to 1l. 1s. and reduces the sum to be paid to 5l. 19s. and in the same proportion for any other sums or number of years; and persons insuring can never be subject to any calls or contributions to make good losses.

N. B. For the farther encouragement of persons insuring, there are provided several fire engines, and there are also employ’d in the service of the said office, (within the bills of mortality) thirty ablebody’d firemen, cloath’d in blue liveries, having silver badges with the Sun mark upon their arms, and twenty able porters, likewise wearing silver badges with the Sun mark, who are always ready to assist in quenching fires and removing goods, having given bonds for their fidelity: And also, all cities and great towns [92] may receive assistance and encouragement for purchasing engines and proper machines for putting out fires, upon application to the said office, agreeable to the number of insurances made by this office in such respective cities or great towns. From the proposal delivered by the office in Threadneedle street, September 21, 1758.

This office is governed by twenty-four directors, under whom is a secretary, and several clerks.

Sun street, Bishopsgate street without.*

Sun Tavern fields, Shadwell.*

Sun Tavern fields lane, Ratcliff.*

Sun yard, 1. Bishopsgate street within.* 2. Blackman street, Southwark.* 3. Bread street, London wall.* 4. Brown street, Bunhill fields.* 5. Ivy lane, Newgate street.* 6. Nightingale lane, East Smithfield.* 7. Stepney rents, Shoreditch.* 8. Swan alley Golden lane.*

Supersedeas Office, in the Poultry Compter. See the article Compter.

Surgeons, a company incorporated with the barbers by Edward IV. in the year 1461, by the name of Barbers, who were then the only surgeons; but afterwards others practising surgery, who were not barbers, soon erected themselves into a [93] separate company commonly called the surgeons of London; but were not incorporated, which the parliament taking into consideration, united them, with the barbers in the thirty-second year of the reign of Henry VIII. exempting those practising surgery from bearing arms, or serving ward and parish offices: by the same act those who practised shaving were enjoined not to meddle with the art of surgery, except drawing of teeth; and those who practised surgery forbid to shave.

In the fifth year of the reign of King Charles I. the surgeons were by letters patent authorised to elect ten of the freemen of that society to be examiners of the surgeons of London during life; and it was ordered, that no person whether a freeman of London, or a foreigner, should practise surgery within the cities of London and Westminster, or within the distance of seven miles of the city of London, without being first examined by two or more of the above examiners, and having authority from the company of barber surgeons to practise the art of surgery: allowing all who were thus approved, to practise surgery in any part of England. It was likewise ordained that no one whether a freeman of the 94] barber surgeons company, or a foreigner, a native, or alien, should undertake the office of surgeon of any ship, whether in the service of the crown, or of any merchant or others, unless they, and their medicines, instruments and chests, were first examined, inspected and allowed by two such masters or governors of this company.

The surgeons continued thus incorporated with the barbers, under the denomination of barber surgeons, till the year 1745; having the same hall, a very noble structure erected by Inigo Jones, in which is a theatre, wherein dissections were performed and lectures read. At that period the surgeons applying to parliament, observed, that since the two companies had been united, those who had practised surgery have from their constant application to the study of that science, rendered it of great benefit to the nation; while the barbers have been long, and still are employed in a business foreign to, and independent of the practice of surgery, and therefore finding their union with the barbers in many respects inconvenient, and that their separation would greatly contribute to the improvement of surgery, desired that they might be made distinct and separate companies; upon which an [95] act was passed accordingly, and the surgeons incorporated by the name of the master, governors and commonalty of the art and science of surgery of London.

By the above act they were confirmed in the possession of all their former privileges, impowered to chuse a principal, master, or governor, two other governors, or wardens, ten examiners of surgeons, and to have a court of assistants consisting of twenty-one persons. See the article Barbers.

But their fine hall was however by the same act given to the barbers, on which they erected a theatre in the Old Bailey, which is an elegant, though not an expensive structure. It has a basement story, with square windows. The principal floor is however raised considerably above the level of the street, and there is an ascent to it by a double flight of steps, under which is a door, level with the ground, for the convenience of bringing in dead bodies executed at Tyburn, for dissection. The face of this part is Rustic work. At the height of the steps is a range of Ionic pilasters, within the height of which there are two series of windows, a row of large ones, with square ones above. The entablature of the Ionic pilasters supports a plain Attic course, crowned with vases.


Surry street, in the strand.

Sutton’s court, 1. Bishopsgate street within.† 2. Bishopsgate street without.† 3. Holbourn hill.† 4. Lincoln’s Inn Fields.†

Sutton’s rents, Chequer Alley.†

Sutton’s street, Hog lane, Soho.†

Swale court, Play House yard.

Swallow street, Lower Brook street.

Swallow’s gardens, Rosemary lane.

Swan alley, 1. Barnaby street.* 2. Birchin lane, Cornhill.* 3. Brown’s lane, Spitalfields.* 4. near White’s alley, Coleman street.* 5. East Smithfield.* 6. Golden lane, Redcross street.* 7. Golden lane, Redcross street.* 7. Goswell street, Aldersgate street.* 8. in the Minories.* 9. Puddle Dock hill.* 10. near Ratcliff Cross.* Rotherhith Wall.* 12. Wardour street.

Swan and Two Necks, stable yard, Tothill street.*

Swan court, 1. Bartholomew lane, Threadneedle street.* 2. Butcher Row, Temple Bar.* 3. East Smithfield.* 4. Foster lane, Cheapside.* 5. Grub street, Fore street.* 6. King street, Oxford street.* 7. Mansel street, Goodman’s Fields.* 9. Narrow Wall, Lambeth.* 10. Petticoat lane, Whitechapel.*

Swan fields, Shoreditch.†


Swan inn yard, Holbourn Bridge.*

Swan street, Swan Fields.*

Swan yard, 1. Blackman street, Southwark.* 2. Church street, Lambeth.* 3. Holiwell street, Shoreditch.* 4. Newgate street.* Nightingale lane.* 6. Old Soho.* 7. Ratcliff Cross.* 8. in the Strand.† 9. Townsend lane.*

Swan’s rents, Turnmill street.*

Swedeland court, 1. Bishopsgate street within: 2. Little Tower Hill.

Swede’s church, Princes square, Ratcliff Highway. See Prince’s Square.

Swede’s court, 1. Great Trinity lane, from the Swedish church there. 2. New Bond street.

Sweetapple court, Bishopsgate street. So called from Sir John Sweetapple, the owner.

Sweeting’s alley, generally called Swithin’s alley, the passage by the east end of the Royal Exchange, from Cornhill into Threadneedle street. Before the fire of London this whole alley contained but one house, a very spacious building which belonged to Mr. Swithin or Sweeting a merchant.

Sweeting’s passage, Moor lane, Cripplegate.†

Sweeting’s rents, Threadneedle street.†

Switch’s yard, Upper Ground, Southwark.


Swithin’s alley, and Swithin’s rents. See Sweeting’s alley, and Sweeting’s rents.

St. Swithin’s, in Canon street, at the west corner of St. Swithin’s lane in Walbrook ward, is thus denominated from its dedication to St. Swithin chancellor to King Egbert and Bishop of Winchester, who died in 806. We read of a church in the same place dedicated to St. Swithin before the year 1331, but how long it was standing before that time is uncertain: however the old church was destroyed by the fire of London, and the present structure arose in its place.

This edifice is sixty-one feet long, and forty-two broad; the roof is forty feet, and the steeple an hundred and fifty feet in height. The body is well enlightened, and the windows are arched and well proportioned. The tower is plain, solid, and cut off at the top, to give the easier diminution between that part and the base of the spire, which is surrounded by a balustrade, and has a good diminution.

This church appears to have been anciently under the patronage of the prior and convent of Tortington in the diocese of Chester, in whom it continued till the dissolution of that monastery, when Henry VIII. granted it to the Earl of Oxford, who soon after disposed of [99] it, and it was at length purchased by the Salters company, in whom it still continues. On its being rebuilt the Parish of St. Mary Bothaw was united to it. The rector, besides his other profits, receives 140l. a year in lieu of tithes. Newc. Repert. Eccles.

Swithin’s lane, extends from Lombard street, by St. Swithin’s church into Cannon street.

Sword and Buckler court, Ludgate hill.*

Sycamore yard, Kent street.‡

Symond’s inn, on the east side of Chancery lane, is neither an inn of court nor chancery: but contains several public offices, among which is the register office. It has been lately rebuilt, and serves to accommodate several masters in chancery, sollicitors and attornies.

Syth lane, commonly called Size lane, near Queen street, Cheapside.


Tabernacle yard, 1. Petticoat lane: 2. Wheeler street, Spitalfields.

Tackle Block court, at the Hermitage, Wapping.

Tackle Porters. See the article Porters.

Talbot court, 1. Fleet street.* 2. Gracechurch street.* 3. Little Eastcheap.* 4. Portpool lane, Leather lane.*


Talbot inn yard, St. Margaret’s hill.*

Tallow Chandlers, a company incorporated by letters patent granted by King Edward IV. in the year 1463.

This society anciently dealt not only in candles; but in oil, vinegar, butter, hops and sope; when great frauds being committed by adulterating oil, they were impowered by Act of Parliament to search for, and destroy, all that should be found bad; but no reward being allowed to the searchers, it was soon neglected.

This company has a master, four wardens, and thirty-eight assistants; with a livery of one hundred and seventy members, who when admitted pay a fine of 15l. each.

They have a handsome hall on the west side of Dowgate hill; it is a large building with piazzas formed by arches and columns of the Tuscan order.

Tally Court in the Exchequer. See the article Exchequer.

Tan alley, 1. Godder’s rents, Wheeler street, Spitalfields: 2. Long lane, Southwark.

Tan yard, Whitecross street.

Tanfield court, inner Temple.†

Tanner’s row, Montague street.†

Tanner’s yard, 1. Five Feet lane, Barnaby street: 2. Marsham street.†


Tarplet’s yard, Narrow street, Limehouse.†

Tarre’s wharf, Durham yard, in the Strand.†

Tart’s court, Smithfield.†

Tash court, Tash street.†

Tash street, Grays Inn lane.†

Tattle street, Little Grays Inn lane.||

Tavistock court, near Covent Garden.

Tavistock street, Covent Garden. The above court and this street were built upon the ground where the Dukes of Bedford had their house and gardens, till the year 1704, and took this name from his title of Marquis of Tavistock. Maitland.

Taxter’s rents, Rotherhith Wall.†

Tax Office, in New Palace yard, is under the direction of six commissioners, each of whom has 500l. per annum: under whom is a comptroller of duties on houses who has 200l. a year, and his clerk 50l. ten general surveyors who have 100l. per annum each; 163 surveyors of counties who have 50l. a year in England, and 40l. a year in Wales; a secretary, who has 90l. a year; an assistant secretary, who has 60l. a year; a sollicitor, who has 100l. a year; and two clerks, one of 60l. per annum, and the other of 50l.


Taylor’s court, Bow lane, Cheapside.†

Taylor’s yard, St. Giles’s street.†

Teed’s yard, Worcester street.†

Teem’s rents, Cowcross.†

Temple, two of the inns of court, thus denominated from the edifice being founded by the knights Templars in England, who had first a house in Holborn, and afterwards settled here in the reign of Henry II. when it was dedicated to God and the Blessed Virgin in the year 1185, by Honorius, patriarch of the church of the holy Resurrection in Jerusalem.

These Templars took their rise in the following manner, several of the crusaders settled at Jerusalem, about the year 1118, formed themselves into an uniform militia, under the name of Templars, or knights of the Temple, a name they assumed from their being quartered near a church built on the spot where Solomon’s temple had stood.

These first guarded the roads, in order to render them safe for the pilgrims who came to visit the Holy Sepulchre, and sometime after they had a rule appointed them by Pope Honorius II. who ordered them to wear a white habit; and soon after they were farther distinguished by having crosses made of red cloth on their upper garments. In a short [103] time many noblemen in all parts of Christendom became brethren of this order, and built themselves temples in many cities and great towns in Europe, and particularly in England, where this in Fleet street was their chief house.

In the thirteenth century the Templars in Fleet street, were in so flourishing a situation that they frequently entertained the nobility, the Pope’s nuncio, foreign embassadors, and even the King himself; and many parliaments and great councils have been held there.

However in the year 1308 all the Templars both in England, and the other parts of Christendom, were apprehended and committed to prison, and five years after Edward II. gave Aimer de la Valence, Earl of Pembroke, this house of the Templars, with all their possessions within the city of London. At his death it reverted to the crown, and in 1324, was given to the knights Hospitallers of the order of St. John of Jerusalem, who had driven the Turks out of the isle of Rhodes, and had their chief house where St. John’s square is now situated. These knights soon after let this edifice to the students [104] of the common law, in whose possession it has remained ever since.

The Temple which contained all that space of ground from the White Friars westward to Essex house, is divided into two inns of court, the Inner Temple, and the Middle Temple. These inns have separate halls, but both houses resort to the Temple church: And yet the buildings which have been erected at very different times, with very little order or regularity are perfectly united, and it is impossible for a stranger to know where the Inner Temple ends and the Middle Temple begins, except at the entrances, which are the only visible fronts to the street. Backwards there are many courts of handsome new built houses, and behind them, the buildings of the Temple have gardens and walks fronting the Thames. That side lies open and airy, and enjoys a delightful prospect into Surry.

The Middle Temple gate, next Fleet street is built in the stile of Inigo Jones, It was erected in 1684, and there is here a graceful front; but it is extremely narrow, and cannot be called the front of so vast a building, or rather number of separate buildings, as the Temple. It is of brick-work, with four large stone pilasters of the Ionic order, and a handsome [105] pediment with a round in the middle in which is inscribed in large capitals SURREXIT IMPENSIS SOCIETAT. MED. TEMPLI, MDCLXXXIV. and beneath, just over the arch, the figure of a holy lamb.

In the treasury chamber of the Middle Temple is preserved a great quantity of armour, which belonged to the knights Templars, consisting of helmets, breast and back pieces, together with several pikes, a halbard, and two very beautiful shields, with iron spikes in their centers, of the length of six inches in diameter, and each of about twenty pounds weight. They are curiously engraved, and one of them richly inlaid with gold: the insides are lined with leather stuffed, and the edges adorned with silk fringe; and broad leathern belts are fixed to them, for the bearers to sling them upon their shoulders.

In garden court in the Middle Temple is a library founded by the will of Robert Ashley, Esq; in the year 1641, who bequeathed his own library for that purpose, and 300l. to be laid out in a purchase, for the maintenance of a librarian, who must be a student of the society, and be elected into that office by the benchers. Mr. Ashley also bequeathed [106] all his furniture to be disposed of for the benefit of his library.

The number of volumes in the year 1738 amounted to 3982, in most branches of literature; but more especially in law and parliamentary affairs; and as it is continually encreasing, by the benefactions of authors and others, it will probably become a numerous, and very valuable collection.

This library is duly kept open (except in the dead time of the long vacation) from ten in the morning till one in the afternoon, and from two in the afternoon till six in summer, and four in winter.

The Inner Temple is situated to the east of Middle Temple gate, and has a cloister, a larger garden, and more spacious walks than the other. This society consists of benchers, barristers and students; the former of whom, as governors at commons have their table at the upper end of the hall, and the barristers and students in the middle. Anciently at these entertainments their bread served instead of plates, and they had no other drinking vessels than wooden cups; but at present they are allowed trenchers for their meat, and coarse green earthen pots for their liquor. However, though the antient custom of using [107] mean vessels still prevails, yet there are few who fare better.

All the members of the society who have chambers, are obliged to be in commons a fortnight every term, for which they pay about 10s. a week. Sixteen of these terms, with a regular course of study, qualifies a student for the bar.

Upon the admission of a member, the fees of the house are 3l. 6s. 8d. which, with other disbursements, amount to 4l. 2d.

The parliament, wherein the affairs of the society are treated is commonly held twice every term.

The officers and servants of the house are, a treasurer, a sub-treasurer, a steward, a chief and three under butlers, an upper and under cook, a pannierman, a gardener, two porters, and two wash pots.

The Middle Temple, which joins to the Inner Temple on the west, is thus denominated from its having been the middle or central part of the antient Temple or Priory of knights Templars. The chief officer of this house, like that of its neighbour, is a treasurer, who is annually elected from among the benchers, and whose office is to admit students; to assign them their chambers, [108] and to receive and pay all the cash belonging to the society.

The officers and governors of this inn, are in all respects like that of the Inner Temple, except the charge of admission, which is 5l. and the time to qualify a student for the bar, instead of sixteen terms in that, is twenty-eight in this.

The print exhibits the entrance of the Middle Temple, which is elegant, together with the east side of Temple Bar, as it appears from the end of Chancery lane in Fleet street, the situation of the Temple along the side of the river is very fine, yet nothing can be more void of harmony or decoration than the buildings of which it is composed, owing chiefly to the division and subdivision of property, which renders regularity next to impossible. The thing most worthy of notice in the Temple is the old church which belonged to the knights Templars of Jerusalem. You enter it through a circular tower of Saxon architecture in which are buried some Knights Templars, whose figures lying on the ground are preserved by iron rails. The church is purely Gothic, and it is great pity that the altar, pulpit, organ, gallery, &c. had not been kept in the same stile of architecture. This would have made it as regular though not so rich, as the chapel of Henry the seventh.


But the temple church requires a more particular description. We shall therefore trace it from its origin, and describe its several parts.

The first church here was founded in the year 1185, by the knights Templars; it was dedicated to the Virgin Mary, but was more generally called by the name of the founders, than the protectress. In 1240, the old structure was taken down, and another erected after the same model. The present edifice was one of those that escaped the fire of London in 1666; but in 1695 the south-west part was new built, and in 1706 the whole was thoroughly repaired.

The whole edifice is stone firmly put together and enriched with ornaments. It consists of a long body with a turret, and a round tower at the west end, that has much the air of a piece of fortification. The length of the church from the altar to the screen is eighty-three feet, its breadth sixty feet; and the height of the roof thirty-four. The round tower is forty-eight feet high; its diameter at the floor, fifty-one feet, and its circumference 160 feet.

The windows which enlighten the body of the church are large and well proportioned. They are composed of [110] three Gothic arches, a principal, and a lower on either side. These windows stand so close that there are but very slender piers left between them to support a very heavy roof; they are therefore strengthened with buttresses; but these buttresses, as in most other Gothic structures, exclude more light than the piers would have done, had they been larger, and the windows considerably smaller.

The tower which is very massy, has few windows, and those small, yet there are buttresses carried up between them; the top is crowned with plain square battlements, and from the center rises a fane.

The turret upon the body of the church is small and plain, and serves to receive a bell. In short, what can be seen of the outside has a venerable aspect, but nothing either grand or elegant: the principal beauties are to be seen within.

On entering the round tower, you find it supported with six pillars, wainscotted with oak six feet high, and adorned all round, except the east part, which opens into the church, with an upper and lower range of small arches, and black apertures; but what is most remarkable in this part, is, that there are here the tombs of eleven of the knights Templars who lie interred [111] here; eight of which, are covered with the figures of armed knights; of these five, to shew the veneration they had for the cross of Christ, lie cross legged; and these had made a vow, to go to the Holy Land, in order to make war on the infidels. Three of these are the tombs of the Earls of Pembroke, William Marshal the elder, who died in 1219; his son, who died in 1231, and Gilbert Marshal, his brother, who was slain in a tournament at Hertford in 1241, The other effegies lie strait legged; and the rest of the tombs are only coped stone; but both the effegies and these stones are all gray marble.

This tower is divided from the body of the church by a very handsome screen in the modern taste; which will be described hereafter. On passing this screen we find the church has three roofs supported by tall and slender pillars of Sussex marble. The windows are also adorned with small neat pillars of the same stone, and the floor paved with black and white marble. The isles are five in number; three, as usual, running east and west, and two cross isles.

The walls are neatly wainscotted with oak above eight feet high, and the alterpiece, which is of the same wood, is much higher, [112] finely carved, and adorned with four pilasters and two columns of the Corinthian order: it is also ornamented with cherubims, a shield, festoons, fruit and leaves. The pulpit, which is placed near the east end of the middle isle, is finely carved and veniered; the sounding board is pendant from the roof, and enriched with several carved arches, a crown, festoons, cherubims and vases.

The screen at the west end of the isles is like the alterpiece, of wainscot, and adorned with ten pilasters of the Corinthian order, with three portals and pediments. The organ gallery, over the middle gallery is supported by two fluted Corinthian columns, and ornamented with an entablature and a compass pediment, with the King’s arms well carved. Near the pediment on the south side is an enrichment of cherubims and a carved figure of a Pegasus, the badge of the society of the Inner Temple, and in the pediment on the north side an enrichment of cherubims, and the figure of a Holy Lamb, the badge of the society of the Middle Temple: for though these two houses have one church, they seldom sit promiscuously there; but the gentlemen of the Inner Temple on the south, [113] and those of the Middle Temple northward from the middle isle.

In the church are the tombs of many judges, masters in chancery, and eminent lawyers.

Since the reign of Henry VIII. there has been a divine belonging to this church named a master, or custos, who is constituted by his Majesty’s letters patent, without institution or induction. Besides the master, there is a reader, who reads divine service twice a day, at eight o’clock in the morning, and at four in the afternoon. Formerly they had a fixed lecturer for Sundays in the afternoon; who had 80l. a year from each house, convenient lodging, and his diet at the benchers table; but of late the lecture is carried on by various preachers appointed and paid by the treasurers of the two houses.

Temple Bar, at the end of Fleet street, and at the extremity of the liberties of the city, is a very handsome gate, where anciently were only posts, rails, and a chain, such as are now at Holbourn, Smithfield, and Whitechapel-bars. Afterwards a house of timber was erected across the street, with a narrow gateway, and an entry through the south side of it. But since the fire of London, the present structure was erected, and is the only gate at the extremity of the city liberties.


This gate is a very noble one, and has two posterns, one on each side, for the advantage of foot passengers. It is built entirely of Portland stone, of Rustic work below, and of the Corinthian order. Over the gateway on the east side, in two niches are stone statues of Queen Elizabeth and King James I. with the King’s arms over the keystone, and on the west side, are the statues of King Charles I. and King Charles II. in Roman habits.

Since the erection of this gate it has been particularly distinguished by having the heads of such as have been executed for high treason placed upon it.

Temple key, Thames street.☐

Temple lane, White Friars.☐

Temple mews, Fleet street.☐

Temple stairs, Temple lane.☐

Temple street, White Friars.☐

Ten Bell court, Snow hill.*

Tench street, Bird street, Wapping.†

Tenderdown street, Hanover square.

Ten Feet way, Nightingale lane, East Smithfield.

Tennis court, 1. Church entry, Black Friars: 2. High Holbourn: 3. Middle row, Holborn.

S. Wale delin. E. Rooker sc.
Entrance into the Temple & Temple Bar.
S. Wale delin. E. Rooker sc.
York Stairs.


Tenths Office, in the Temple. In this office is a receiver of the tenths and his clerk, and a comptroller of the first fruits and tenths.

Tenter alley, 1. Little Moorfields.☐ 2. Tooly street, Southwark.☐

Tenter Ground alley, Castle street.☐

Tenter grounds, Curtain row, Norton Falgate: 2. Gravel lane: 3. Hog lane, Shoreditch.

The Tents, near Maze pond, Snow fields.

Terras walk, York buildings.

Territs court, Duck lane, Smithfield.† 2. Islington.†

Thacket’s court, Bishopsgate street without.†

Thackham’s court, Vine street, by Chandois street.†

Thames. As this river is the principal source of the wealth of this metropolis, and as the Lord Mayor’s jurisdiction over it is very extensive, a particular description of it in this place can be neither improper nor unnecessary.

The Thames if considered with respect to its course and navigation, is not to be equalled by any other river in the known world. It rises from a small spring near the village of Hemble, in the parish of Cubberly or Coberley, a little to the south-west of Cirencester in Gloucestershire; [116] and taking its course eastward, becomes navigable at Lechlade for vessels of fifty tons, and there receives the river Colne about 138 miles from London. From Lechlade it continues its course north-east to Oxford, where it receives the Charwel; after which it runs south-east to Abingdon, and from thence to Dorchester, where it receives the Thame, and continues its course south-east by Wallingford to Reading, flowing through Berkshire, Buckinghamshire, Surry, Middlesex, Essex and Kent, and washing the towns of Henly, Marlow, Maidenhead, Windsor, Eaton, Staines, Chertsey, Weybridge, Shepperton, Walton, Sunbury, Hampton, Thames Ditton, Kingston, Twickenham, Richmond, Shene, Isleworth, Kew, Brentford, Mortlake, Barnes, Chiswick, Hammersmith, Putney, Fulham, Wandsworth, Battersea, Chelsea, and Lambeth, from whence both shores may be termed a continued city, through Westminster, Southwark, and the city of London, Horselydown, Wapping, Rotherhith, Shadwell, Ratcliff, Limehouse, almost to Deptford, and Greenwich; and from thence this river proceeds to Woolwich, Erith, Grays, Gravesend and Milton.

It is impossible to represent the beauties with which the banks of this noble river [117] are embellished from Windsor to London; the numerous villages on both its banks being all along adorned with the magnificent houses and fine gardens of the nobility.

A person unaccustomed to the sight, cannot behold without surprise the vast number of barges and boats, as well of pleasure as of burden, above bridge, continually passing and repassing for the convenience and supply of the towns and counties washed by its gentle stream; and much more observe the vast fleets which constantly appear below bridge, carrying away the manufactures of Britain and bringing back the produce of the whole earth.

We should be inexcusable, if we did not here introduce Sir John Denham’s fine description of this river, in his Cooper’s Hill, as it would be difficult to say any thing so just, and impossible to say any thing so well upon the subject.

My eye descending from the hill surveys
Where Thames among the wanton valleys strays.
Thames, the most lov’d of all the Ocean’s sons,
By his old sire to his embraces runs,
Hasting to pay his tribute to the sea,
Like mortal life to meet eternity.
Tho’ with those streams he no resemblance hold,
Whose foam is amber, and their gravel gold;
His genuin and less guilty wealth t’explore,
Search not his bottom, but survey his shoar;
O’er which he kindly spreads his spacious wing,
And hatches plenty for th’ ensuing spring.
Nor then destroys it with too fond a stay,
Like mothers which their infants overlay.
Nor with a sudden and impetuous wave,
Like profuse Kings, resume the wealth he gave.
No unexpected inundations spoil
The mower’s hopes, nor mock the plowman’s toil:
But godlike his unwearied bounty flows;
First loves to do, then loves the good he does.
Nor are his blessings to his banks confin’d,
But free and common as the sea or wind;
When he to boast, or to disperse his stores
Full of the tributes of his greateful shores
Visits the world, and in his flying tow’rs
Brings home to us, and makes both Indies ours;
Finds wealth where ’tis, bestows it where it wants,
Cities in deserts, woods in cities plants.
So that to us nothing, no place is strange,
While his fair bosom is the world’s exchange.
O could I flow like thee, and make thy stream
My great example, as it is my theme!
Tho’ deep yet clear, tho’ gentle, yet not dull,
Strong without rage, without o’erflowing full.
Heav’n her Eridanus no more shall boast,
Whose fame in thine, like lesser currents lost.

The great advantage of this river is the tides flowing above seventy miles up it, twice in every twenty-four hours, and hence arises its great convenience with respect to trade and navigation; and as the tide is influenced by the moon, so each tide is twenty-four minutes later than that before, and therefore wants but twelve minutes of a whole hour in twenty-four: by this rule the return of the tide [119] at any distance from the new or full moon may be easily computed by the following tide table at London Bridge.

    Time of
  at London
N. Moon.
F. Moon.
Hour.  Min.
 1     3          48
 2     4          31
 3     5          14
 4     6          52
 5     6          30
 6     7            3
 7     7          36
 8     8          24
 9     9          27
10   10          30
11   11          28
12   12          26
13     1          19
14     2          12

Any person who wants to be informed when it will be high-water at London Bridge may by this table be immediately satisfied if he does but know how many days it is since the last new or full moon; for supposing it is the eighth day after, by looking at 8 in the first column he finds the tide on that day is at the 8th [120] hour and 24 minutes, or twenty-four minutes past eight o’clock.

The Lord Mayor’s jurisdiction over the river Thames extends from Colne ditch, a little to the westward of Staines bridge, to Yendal or Yenleet, to the east, including part of the rivers Medway and Lea, and his Lordship has a deputy or substitute named the water bailiff, whose office is to search for, and punish, all offenders who infringe the laws made for the preservation of the river and its fish. Eight times in the year the Lord Mayor and aldermen sit in person in the four counties of Middlesex, Surry, Kent, and Essex, in order to maintain the rights and privileges of this river, and to charge four juries by oath to make inquisition after all offences committed on the river in order to proceed to judgment against those who are found guilty.

The laws with respect to fishing and preserving the fry and spawn are very numerous, among which are the following:

No fisherman shall use any net under two inches and a half in the mesh above Richmond Crane, nor any net in the work called beating of the bush, flag or reed, of less than three inches in the [121] mesh; nor use any weights or stones to their nets, upon the forfeiture of 2l. for each offence.

That no pike net or other net or engine be drawn over the weeds for catching of pikes by any fisherman within the jurisdiction of the Lord Mayor, by reason it is destructive to, and occasions the driving of all the other fish out of the western rivers, that would otherwise lie, spawn, and breed in the weeds, upon the same penalty of 2l. for every such offence.

That no fisherman shall bend any net by anchors, or otherwise, across the channel, or so as to draw another net into it, whereby the spawn of barbel and other fish may be destroyed, upon the forfeiture of the same sum for each offence.

That no such person shall draw any net for salmon of less than three inches in the mesh, from the 10th of March, till the 14th of September, in any part of the river of Thames, from Kew pile westward, to the city of London mark Stone above Stains bridge, upon forfeiture of 2l. for every offence.

That no person shall take or sell any fish contrary to the ancient assize: pike, fourteen inches; barbel, twelve inches; salmon, sixteen inches; trout, eight inches; [122] tench, eight inches; roach, six inches; dace, six inches; and flounders, six inches.

That every fisherman shall have on his boat both his christian and surname, and the name of his parish legibly painted, where any one may see it; on the forfeiture of 1l. for every offence.

No person whatsoever shall fish for smelts or shads, or any other fish whatsoever, or lay leaps, or rods, for eels in any place within the Lord Mayor’s jurisdiction, without a licence from the water bailiff, who shall appoint the proper seasons for fishing: And that upon every such occasion all the fishermen shall upon due summons or notice given, repair to the water bailiff at the chapel at Guildhall, to take out their several licences for going to fish, and to hear the ordinances for the preservation of the fisheries publicly read, that they may be the better able to preserve and keep them; and that none go out to fish without such a licence; and that every fisherman offending herein shall pay 5l. for every such offence.

For the better preventing the use of unlawful nets or engines it is farther ordained, that any person or persons authorized by the water bailiff may enter any fishermens boats or vessels, to view [123] and search for all unsizeable nets and engines, and for any fish they shall suspect to be taken contrary to the laws of this kingdom; to seize and carry such nets to the water bailiff, with the names of the offenders, that they may be brought to justice; likewise to seize the fish taken contrary to law, and distribute it among the poor; and whosoever shall resist or disturb the water bailiff, or his deputies, in their searching for and seizing unlawful nets, engines, or fish, shall forfeit twenty marks.

Tho’ the Thames is said to be navigable an hundred and thirty eight miles above bridge, yet there are so many flats in that course, that in the summer season the navigation westward would be entirely put a stop to when the springs are low, were it not for a number of locks or machines made of wood, placed quite across the river, and so contrived as to confine the current of water as long as found convenient; that is, till the water rises to such a height as to allow depth enough for the barges to pass over the shallows; which being effected, the confined water is set at liberty, and the loaded vessel proceeds on its voyage, till another shoal requires the same contrivance to carry it forward: but though this is a very great convenience yet it is attended with considerable [124] expence; for a barge passing from Lechlade to London pays for passing through these locks 13l. 15s. 6d. and from Oxford to London 12l. 18s. This charge is however only in summer when the water is low: and there is no lock on this river from London Bridge to Bolter’s lock, that is for the space of fifty-one miles and an half above bridge.

Thames street, is of a prodigious length, it extending from Black Friars to Tower Dock. It is the first street that lies parallel to the Thames, on its north bank, and is chiefly inhabited by wholesale dealers.

Thatch’d alley, Chick lane.

Thatch’d House alley, in the Strand.

Thatch’d House court, St James’s street.

Thavie’s Inn, near the west end of St. Andrew’s church Holbourn, is one of the inns of chancery, and is thus named from its founder John Thavie, who liv’d in the reign of Edward III. It is a member of Lincoln’s inn, and has been lately rebuilt in a very handsome manner.

This house is governed by a principal and eleven ancients, who, with the other members, are to be ten days in commons in issuable terms, and in each of the rest a week.

Thavie’s Inn court, Thavie’s inn.

Thavie’s Inn passage, Thavie’s inn.


Theatres, there are only two theatres in this metropolis worthy of notice, and these have no fronts to the street. They are both under his Majesty’s companies of comedians, and no new play can be acted in either without the approbation of the Lord Chamberlain, as well as the managers. Drury Lane house appears to be best calculated for the advantage of speaker and hearer, that of Covent Garden for splendor and magnificence. Besides these there is also a theatre for the exhibition of operas, call’d the Opera house, in the Haymarket.

Theatre court, Vinegar yard, Drury lane.

Theobalds, a pleasant village in Cheshunt parish in Hertfordshire, situated by the New River. Here the great Lord Burleigh built a magnificent seat, the gallery, says Hentzner in his Itinerarium, was painted with the genealogy of the Kings of England, and from thence was a descent into the garden, which was encompassed with a ditch filled with water, and large enough to have the pleasure of rowing in a boat between the shrubs; it was adorned with a great variety of trees and plants, labyrinths made with much labour, a jet d’eau with its bason of white marble, and with columns and pyramids. In the summer house, the lower part of [126] which was built semicircularly, were the twelve Roman Emperors in white marble, and a table of touchstone; the upper part of it was set round with leaden cisterns, into which water was conveyed through pipes. This seat the Lord Burleigh gave to his younger son Sir Robert Cecil, in whose time King James I. staying there for one night’s refreshment, as he was coming to take possession of the crown of England, he was so delighted with the place that he gave him the manor of Hatfield Regis in exchange for it, and afterwards enlarged the park, and encompassed it with a wall ten miles round. This palace he often visited, in order to enjoy the pleasure of hunting in Enfield Chase and Epping Forest, and at last died there. In the civil wars it was however plundered and defaced; it being the place from whence King Charles I. set out to erect his standard at Nottingham: King Charles II. granted the manor to George Monk, Duke of Albemarl; but it reverting again to the crown, for want of heirs male, King William III. gave it to William Bentinck, whom he created Earl of Portland, from whom it descended to the Duke his grandson: the great park, a part of which was in [127] Hertfordshire, and a part in Middlesex, is now converted into farms.

Here are several houses belonging to persons of distinction, and in this neighbourhood Richard Cromwell, who had been protector, but abdicated, passed the last part of his life in a very private manner.

Theobald’s court, 1. in the Strand: 2. Theobald’s row.†

Theobald’s row, Red Lion street, Holbourn.†

Thieving lane, King street, Westminster. So called from thieves passing that way to the Gatehouse prison, during the continuance of the sanctuary. Maitland.

Thistleworth, or Isleworth. See Isleworth. Maitland.

St. Thomas Apostles, a church which stood where the cemetry is now in Queen street, Cheapside, and was of great antiquity, since we have an account of the state thereof so early as the year 1181. It owes its name to its dedication to St. Thomas the Apostle.

This church being destroyed by the dreadful fire of London in 1666, and not rebuilt, the parish was by act of parliament united to the church of St. Mary Aldermary, which is become the place of public worship for both, whereby the incumbent’s profits are considerably increased.


St. Thomas of Acars, or Acons, an hospital formerly situated where Mercers chapel now stands in Cheapside. This hospital was under this name dedicated to St. Thomas a Becket archbishop of Canterbury, probably upon the following occasion: when the city of Acars or Acon in the Holy Land was besieged by the Christians, an Englishman, chaplain to Radulphus de Diceto, dean of London, going to Jerusalem, bound himself by a vow that if he should prosperously enter Acon he would build a chapel to St. Thomas the Martyr at his own charge, and also procure a church-yard to be consecrated there to the honour of that supposed Martyr; this he actually performed, when many resorting to his chapel, he took the character of prior, and employed himself sometimes in fighting as a soldier, and at others, in burying the bodies of such as died either naturally or were slain by the enemy. Maitland.

Matthew Paris however says that the order of St. Thomas was instituted by Richard surnamed Cœur de Lyon, after the surprisal of Acars, in honour of Thomas a Becket; that they held the rule of St. Augustine, and wore a white habit, and a full red cross, charged in the middle with a white scallop, and that [129] Peter de Rupibus, bishop of Winchester, being in the Holy Land, caused the patriarch of Jerusalem to direct that the brethren of this church should be under the order of the Templars. M. Paris in vita Hen. III.

S. Wale delin. Elliot. sculp.
St. Thomas’s Hospital.

However it is evident, that as the Templars and other orders, formed societies in England in imitation of those founded in Palestine, so this in Cheapside was founded in imitation of that at Acon, and therefore had the same name.

The revenue of this hospital, when it was surrendered to Henry VIII. amounted to 277l. 3s. 4d. per annum. The edifice was soon after purchased by the Mercer’s company. The image of Thomas a Becket however stood over the gate, till the beginning of the reign of Queen Elizabeth, when somebody threw it down, broke it, and stuck up a writing on the church door, reflecting on those who placed it there. See the article Mercers.

Thomas court, 1. Benjamin street: 2. Tackle Block court, Wapping.

St. Thomas’s Hospital, on the east side of the street called the Borough in Southwark, is a very noble and extensive charity, for the reception of the necessitous sick and wounded.

As to the origin of this hospital, it is to be observed, that the priory of St. [130] Mary Overies being destroyed by fire in the year 1207, the canons erected at a small distance an occasional edifice to answer the same purpose, till their monastery could be rebuilt; which being accomplished, Peter de Rupibus, Bishop of Winchester, for the greater convenience of air and water, pulled it down in 1215, and erected it in a place where the prior of Bermondsey had two years before built an almonry, or almshouse, for the reception of indigent children, and necessitous proselytes; and having dedicated the new structure to St. Thomas the Apostle, he endowed it with land to the value of 343l. a year: from which time it was held of the abbot of Bermondsey, and ever since an hospital has continued in the same place.

In 1428, one of the abbots granted the foundation lands to Nicholas Buckland, the master of the hospital, and in that condition they remained, till at the dissolution of religious houses in the reign of Henry VIII. this fell with the rest.

In the year 1551 the Lord Mayor and Citizens having purchased of King Edward VI. the manor of Southwark, with its appurtenances, for the sum of 647l. 2s. 1d. a part whereof being this hospital, the city immediately repaired and enlarged it at the expence [131] of about 1100l. and in November following receiving into it two hundred and sixty poor sick and helpless objects, the hospital still retained its antient name, St. Thomas’s, and in 1553 the King incorporated a society of persons for its government, in common with the two other great charities, Bridewell and Christ’s Hospital.

Though the great fire of London in 1666 spared this hospital, it destroyed a great part of its possessions, and two others which happened a few years after in Southwark added to the distress. By these accidents the hospital of St. Thomas was almost reduced to ruin. The building was old, and wanted great repairs, and the funds that should have supported it were exhausted; but the benevolence of the principal persons in the city interposed for its preservation; the governors in 1699 set on foot a voluntary subscription, which they opened by large donations from themselves and their friends, and the public followed the example. The building was begun upon a larger and more commodious plan, and erected at different times by the assistance of different benefactors, till it became entirely completed, and consists [132] in the whole of three quadrangles or square courts.

Next the street is a handsome pair of large iron gates, with a door of the same work on each side for the convenience of foot passengers. These are fastened on the sides to a stone pier, on each of which is a statue representing one of the patients. These gates open into a very neat square court, encompassed on three sides with a colonade, surrounded with benches next the wall, for people to sit down. On the south under an empty niche is the following inscription,

This building on the south side of this court, containing three wards, was erected at the charge of Thomas Frederick of London, Esq; a worthy governor and liberal benefactor to this hospital, Anno 1708.

Under the same kind of niche on the opposite side is this inscription,

This building on the north side of this court, containing three wards, was erected at the charge of Thomas Guy, Esq; Citizen and Stationer of London, a worthy governor and bountiful benefactor to this hospital, Anno 1707.

The centre of the principal front, which is on the west side, facing the street, [133] is of stone. On the top is a clock under a small circular pediment, and beneath that a niche with a statue of Edward VI. holding a gilt sceptre in his right hand, and the charter in his left. A little lower in niches on each side is a man with a crutch, and a sick woman: and under them, in other niches, a man with a wooden leg, and a woman with her arm in a sling: over the niches are festoons, and between the last mentioned figures the King’s arms in relievo. Under which is the following inscription,

King Edward the Sixth, of pious memory, in the year of our Lord 1552 founded and endowed this Hospital of St. Thomas the Apostle, together with the Hospital of Christ and Bridewell in London.

Underneath is a spacious passage down several steps into the second court, which is by far the most elegant. It has colonades like the former, except at the front of the chapel which is on the north side, and is adorned with lofty pilasters of the Corinthian order, placed on high pedestals which rise from the ground, and on the top is a pediment, as there is also in the centre of the west and east sides: [134] and above the piazzas the fronts of the wards are ornamented with handsome Ionic pilasters.

In the midst of this court is a good brass statue of King Edward VI. by Mr. Scheemakers, and behind him is placed upon a kind of small pedestal his crown laid upon a cushion. This statue is surrounded with iron rails, and stands upon a lofty stone pedestal, upon which is the following inscription in capitals:

This statue
Of King Edward the Sixth,
A most excellent Prince,
Of exemplary Piety and Wisdom
above his years;
The glory and ornament of his age,
and most munificent founder
Of this hospital,
Was erected at the expence
Of Charles Joyce, Esquire,
in the year mdccxxxvii.

On the opposite face of the pedestal is the same inscription in Latin.

In the middle of the east side of this court is a spacious passage into the next, the structure above being supported by rows of columns. The buildings in the third court are older than the others, and are entirely surrounded with a colonade, above which they are adorned with a kind of long slender Ionic pilasters, with [135] very small capitals. In the centre is a stone statue of Robert Clayton, Esq; dressed in his robes as Lord Mayor, surrounded with iron rails, upon the west side of the pedestal is his arms in relievo, and on the south side the following inscription:

To Sir Robert Clayton, knight, born in Northamptonshire, Citizen and Lord Mayor of London, president of this hospital, and vice president of the new work-house, and a bountiful benefactor to it; a just magistrate, and brave defender of the liberty and religion of his country. Who (besides many other instances of his charity to the poor) built the girls ward in Christ’s hospital, gave first toward the rebuilding of this house 600l. and left by his last will 2300l. to the poor of it. This statue was erected in his life time by the governors, An. Dom. mdcci. as a monument of their esteem of so much worth; and to preserve his memory after death, was by them beautified Anno Dom. mdccxiv.

By this noble charity many hundred thousand of the poor have since its foundation received relief, and been cured of the various disorders to which human [136] nature is subject; and though the estates at first belonging to this foundation were ruined, yet by the liberal munificence of the citizens since that time, the annual disbursements have of late amounted to near 8000l. The house contains nineteen wards, and 474 beds, which are constantly kept filled, and they have always a considerable number of out-patients.

The number of governors in this and the other city hospitals are unlimited, and therefore uncertain. They chuse their own officers and servants, both men and women: these are a president, a treasurer, an hospitaller or chaplain, four physicians, three surgeons, an apothecary, a clerk, a steward, a matron, a brewer and butcher, a cook, assistant and servant, an assistant clerk in the compting house, two porters, four beadles, nineteen sisters, nineteen nurses, nineteen watch-women, a chapel clerk and sexton, and one watchman.

St. Thomas’s lane, Drury lane.*

Thomas’s rents, Fore street, Limehouse.

St. Thomas’s Southwark, on the north side of St. Thomas’s street was erected for the use of the above hospital, from which it is denominated; but the number of houses and inhabitants having greatly increased in the precinct of that hospital, it was judged [137] necessary to make the church parochial for the use of the inhabitants, and to erect a chapel in the hospital for the use of the patients. This church is therefore neither a rectory, vicarage, nor donative, but a sort of impropriation in the gift of the hospital.

This church is a plain brick building enlightened by one series of large windows, and the corners strengthened and adorned with rustic, as is the corners of the tower. The principal door has a cornice supported by scrolls and a circular pediment, and the tower, instead of a balustrade, is crowned with a blocking course of the Attic kind.

St. Thomas’s street, near St. Thomas’s hospital, in the Borough, Southwark.

Thomas street, 1. Coverleads Fields, Spitalfields. 2. Gainsford street, Horselydown lane: 3. Shoreditch Fields: 4. Virginia row, East Smithfield.

Thompson’s rents, 1. Halfmoon alley.† 2. London Wall.†

Thompson’s yard, upper ground, Southwark.†

Thrall street, Spitalfields.

Threadneedle alley, Little Moorfields.

Threadneedle street, extends from Princes street opposite the Lord Mayor’s mansion-house, and running by the back of the [138] Royal Exchange, reaches into Bishopsgate street.

Three Anchor alley, Shoe lane, Fleet street.*

Three Bell alley, Whitechapel.*

Three Bowl alley, Moorfields.*

Three Bowl court, Houndsditch.*

Three CCC court, Garlick hill, Thames street.*

Three Colts alley, 1. near Bishopsgate street within.* 2. Cinnamon street.*

Three Colts court, Three Colts street Limehouse.*

Three Colts corner, St. John street.*

Three Colts lane, Air street, Spitalfields.*

Three Colts street, Limehouse.*

Three Colts yard, 1. Crutched Friars, near Tower Hill.* 2. London Wall.* 3. Mile-end.* 4. Three Colts street.*

Three Compasses alley, East Smithfield.*

Three Compasses court, near Brook street.*

Three Coney walk, Butt’s street, Lambeth.*

Three Crane court, Southwark.*

Three Crane lane, Thames street.*

Three Crane stairs, at the bottom of Queen street, Cheapside.*

Three Cranes, a street by Thames street.

Three Crane wharf, three Crane stairs.

Three Crown court, 1. in the Borough.* 2. Castle street.* 3. Foster lane, Cheapside.* 4. Garlick hill, Thames street. [139] 5. In the Minories.* 6. Poor Jewry lane, Aldgate.* 7. Wheeler street, Spitalfields.* 8. White’s alley, Little Moorfields.*

Three Crown yard, Bride lane, Fleet street.

Three Cup alley, 1. Dean street.* 2. Shoreditch.*

Three Cup yard, Bedford street.*

Three Dagger court, 1. Fore street, Crippelgate.* 2. Old Change.*

Three Diamonds court, Hosier lane, Smithfield.

Three Falcons alley, St. Margaret’s hill.*

Three Falcons court, 1. Fleet street.* 2. St. Margaret’s hill.*

Three Fox court, 1. Clements lane.* 2. Long Acre.* 3. Long lane, Smithfield.* 4. Narrow street, Ratcliff.* 5. Three Fox yard.*

Three Fox yard, Ratcliff.*

Three Griffin yard, Aldgate street.*

Three Gun lane, Three Colts street, Lambeth.*

Three Hammer alley, Green alley, Tooley street.*

Three Hats alley, Horselydown lane.*

Three Herrings court, 1. Creechurch lane, Leadenhall street.* 2. Long Acre.* 3. Redcross street, Crippelgate.* 4. St. Thomas’s in the Borough.*


Three Hoop yard, Holiwell street.*

Three Horseshoe alley, Old street, Upper Moorfields.*

Three Horseshoe court, 1. Chick lane, Smithfield.* 2. Giltspur street, without Newgate.* 3. Long lane, Smithfield.* 4. Whitecross street, Cripplegate.*

Three Horseshoe yard, James’s street.*

Three King’s court, 1. Chandois street.* 2. Clement’s lane.* 3. Fleet street.* 4. King street, Covent Garden.* 5. Lombard street.* 6. in the Minories.* 7. Whitecross street, Cripplegate.*

Three King’s yard, David street, Grosvenor square.*

Three Leg alley, East Harding street, by Shoe lane, Fleet street.*

Three Leg court, Whitecross street, Cripplegate.*

Three Link alley, Fashion street, Spitalfields.*

Three Mariners court, Fleet street, Spitalfields.*

Three Mariners stairs, Rotherhith.*

Three Moulds court, Cherry-tree alley.*

Three Needle alley, Moorfields.*

Three Nuns alley, Threadneedle street.*

Three Nuns court, Threadneedle street.*

Three Nuns yard, Whitechapel.*

Three Oaks lane, Horselydown.*

Three Pigeons alley, Hockley in the Hole.*

Three Pigeons court, 1. Barbican, Aldersgate street.* 2. Jewin street, Aldersgate street.* 3. Moorfields.*


Three Sisters court, St. Catharine’s court, by the Tower.*

Three Slipper court, Bishopsgate street.*

Three Step alley, Rotherhith.

Three Stills court, Bishopsgate without.*

Three Tuns alley, 1. Bishopsgate street without.* 2. Cowcross, Smithfield.* 3. London wall.* 4. St. Margaret’s hill, Southwark.* 5. Petticoat lane, Whitechapel.* 6. Thames street.* 7. Tothill street, Westminster.* 8. White street by Kent street, Southwark.*

Three Tuns court, 1. Crooked lane.* 2. Brown’s street.* 3. Halfmoon alley.* 4. Hart street, Mark lane.* 5. Ivy lane, Newgate street.* 6. St. Margaret’s hill, Southwark.* 7. St Michael’s lane, Great Eastcheap.* 8. Moorfields.* 9. Nightingale lane East Smithfield.* 10. Old Castle street, Wentworth street.* 11. Redcross street, Cripplegate.* 12. Threadneedle street.*

Three Tuns yard, Cloth fair, Smithfield.*

Three Twisters alley, Bunhill row.*

Thrift street, Soho.†

Thrift’s alley, Spring street.†

Throgmorton street, extends from Broad street to the end of Bartholomew lane.


Throwsters yard, Lamb alley.

Thrum street, King street, Cheapside.

Thrum yard, Sutton street.

Thunderbolt alley, Windmill row. Upper Moorfields.

Thwait’s rents, Newington Causeway.†

Tichbourn court, 1. Holbourn.† 2. Vine yard, Drury lane.†

Tichfield street, 1. Chapel street: 2. Margaret street.†

Tidewaiters court, Little Minories.

Tilbury, or West Tilbury, a very ancient town in Essex, situated near the Thames; here the four proconsular ways made by the Romans, crossed each other, and in the year 630, this was the see of a bishop named Ceadda, who converted the East Saxons, In the reigns of Edward I. Edward II. and Edward III. it was held of the crown by the family of the Tilburies, and from them probably took its name. It is situated by level unhealthy marshes called the Three Hundreds, which are rented by the farmers, salesmen and grazing butchers of London, who generally stock them with Lincolnshire and Leicestershire weathers, which are sent hither from Smithfield in September and October, and fed here till Christmas or Candlemas; and this is what the butchers call right marsh mutton.


Tilbury fort, is situated in the marsh on the bank of the Thames, at some distance from the above town, from which it took its name, and is placed opposite to Gravesend. It is a regular fortification, and may justly be termed the key of the city of London. The plan was laid by Sir Martin Beckman, chief engineer to King Charles II. who also designed the works at Sheerness. It was intended to be a pentagon, but the water bastion was never built.

The foundation is laid upon piles driven down in two ranges, one over the other, which reach below the channel of the river, and the lowermost being pointed with iron, enter the solid chalk rock, which extends under the Thames and joins to the chalk hills on the other side. The esplanade of the sort is very large, and the bastions which are faced with brick are said to be the largest of any in England. It has a double moat, the innermost of which is 180 feet broad; with a good counterscarp, a covered way, ravelins, and terails. On the land side are also two small redoubts of brick; but its chief strength on that side consists in its being able to lay the whole level under water, and by that means to render it impossible for an enemy to carry on approaches that way.


On the side next the river is a very strong curtain, with a noble gate, called the water-gate in the middle, and the ditch is palisadoed. Before this curtain is a platform in the place of a counterscarp, on which are planted 106 cannon, carrying from 24 to 46 pounds each, besides smaller ones planted between them; and the bastions and curtains are also planted with guns. Here likewise is a high tower called the blockhouse, which is said to have been built in the reign of Queen Elizabeth.

Tilers and Bricklayers, a fraternity of considerable antiquity, though it was not incorporated till the year 1568, when Queen Elizabeth granted them letters patent.

This company consists of a master, two wardens, thirty-eight assistants, and 103 liverymen, who, upon their admission, pay a fine of 12l.

They have a convenient hall in a court in Leadenhall street. Maitland.

Tilt yard, Whitehall. So called from the tilts and tournaments formerly used there. Maitland.

Tin Plate Workers, a company incorporated by letters patent granted by King Charles II. in the year 1670; by the name of the master, wardens, assistants and commonalty of the art and mystery of Tin [145] Plate Workers, alias Wire Workers of the city of London.

This fraternity is governed by a master, two wardens, and twenty assistants; but has neither hall nor livery. Maitland.

Tinderbox alley, Norton Falgate.

Tinderbox court, White Lion yard.

Tite’s alley, Limehouse.†

Tittenhanger, three miles south-east of St. Albans, is situated near Colney, and is a very handsome seat belonging to Sir Henry Pope Blunt, Bart.

Titmouse alley, Farmer’s street, Shadwell.

Titus’s court, Holbourn hill.†

Tobaccopipe alley, 1. Little St. Anne’s lane.* 2. Sun yard, Nightingale lane, East Smithfield.*

Tobaccopipe Makers, a company incorporated by letters patent, granted by King Charles II. in the year 1663.

They are governed by a master, two wardens, and eighteen assistants; but have neither hall nor livery. Maitland.

Tobaccopipe yard, Old Gravel lane, Ratcliff Highway.*

Tobacco Roll court, 1. Gracechurch street*, 2. Long alley, Moorfields.*

Tobacco Roll yard, Sun yard, Nightingale lane.*


Tokenhouse yard, 1. Leadenhall street: 2. A very handsome place in Lothbury, chiefly inhabited by merchants.

Tom’s yard, Whitechapel.†

Tongue’s alley, Whitechapel.†

Tongue’s yard, Whitechapel.†

Tonson’s wharf, Puddle Dock.†

Tooley’s gate, Tooley street.†

Tooley’s gate yard, Tooley street.†

Tooley’s stairs, Tooley street.†

Tooley street, the first street in Southwark next London Bridge.†

Tooley’s Watergate, Tooley street.†

Tooley’s Watergate stairs, Tooley street.†

Torment hill, Broadway.

Tothil court, Tothil street.

Tothilfields, Peter street, Westminster.

Tothilfields School, situated in Rochester row, Tothilfields, was founded by Emery Hill, Esq; in the year 1667, for the instruction of twenty boys of the parish of St. Margaret, Westminster, in english, latin, writing and arithmetic. Maitland.

Tothil Side, Tothilfields.

Tothil street, Broad Sanctuary, Westminster.

Tottenham Court, a pleasant village situated between St. Giles’s and Hampstead.

Tottenham court road, St. Giles’s.

Tottenham High Cross, a village on the west side of the river Lea, five miles north-east from London in the road to Ware. [147] David King of Scotland being possessed of this manor, after it had belonged to the Earls of Northumberland and Chester, gave it to the monastery of the Trinity in London; but Henry VIII. granted it to William Lord Howard of Effingham, who being afterwards attainted, it reverted again to the King, who then granted it to the dean and chapter of St. Paul’s to whom it still belongs. The present Earl of Northumberland and the Lord Colerain have seats here, and there are also a great number of pretty houses belonging to the citizens of London, the church stands on a hill, which has a little river called the Mosel at the bottom, to the west, north and east.

The parish is divided into four wards, viz. 1. Nether ward, in which stands the parsonage and vicarage: 2. Middle ward, comprehending Church end, and Marsh street. 3. High Cross ward, containing the hall, the mill, Page green, and the High cross; and 4. Wood Green ward, which comprehends all the rest of the parish, and is bigger than the three other wards put together.

The cross, which gives name to the place, was once much higher than it is at present, and upon that spot Queen Eleanor’s corps was rested, [148] when on the road from Lincolnshire to London. St. Loy’s well, in this parish, is said to be always full, and never to run over; and the people report many strange cures performed at Bishop’s Well. In 1596, an almshouse was founded here by one Zancher, a Spaniard, the first confectioner ever known in this kingdom. Here are also a free-school, and a charity school for twenty-two girls, who are cloathed and taught.

Tower of London, on the east side of the city, near the Thames. This edifice, at first consisted of no more than what is at present called the White Tower; and without any credible authority, has been vulgarly said to have been built by Julius Cæsar; though there is the strongest evidence of its being marked out, and a part of it first erected by William the Conqueror in the year 1076, doubtless with a view to secure to himself and followers a safe retreat, in case the English should ever have recourse to arms to recover their liberties. That this was the Conqueror’s design, evidently appears from its situation on the east side of London, and its communication with the Thames, whence it might be supplied with men, provisions, and military stores, and it even still seems formed for a place of defence rather than offence.

S. Wale delin. Elliot sculp.
The Tower.


However the death of the Conqueror in 1087, about eight years after he had begun this fortress, for some time prevented its progress, and left it to be completed by his son William Rufus, who in 1098 surrounded it with walls, and a broad and deep ditch, which was in some places 120 feet wide, several of the succeeding Princes added additional works, and Edward III. built the church.

Since the restoration, it has been thoroughly repaired: in 1663 the ditch was scoured; all the wharfing about it was rebuilt with brick and stone, and sluices made for letting in and retaining the Thames water as occasion may require: the walls of the White Tower, have been repaired; and a great number of additional buildings have been added. At present, besides the White Tower, are the offices of Ordnance, of the Mint, of the keepers of the records, the jewel office, the Spanish armoury, the horse armoury, the new or small armoury, barracks for the soldiers, handsome houses for the chief officers residing in the Tower, and other persons; so that the Tower now seems rather a town than a fortress. Lately new barracks were also erected on the Tower wharf; and the ditch was in the year 1758, railed round to prevent [150] for the future those melancholy accidents which have frequently happened to people passing over Tower Hill in the dark.

The Tower is in the best situation that could have been chosen for a fortress, it lying only 800 yards to the eastward of London Bridge, and consequently near enough to cover this opulent city from invasion by water. It is to the north of the river Thames, from which it is parted by a convenient wharf and narrow ditch, over which is a drawbridge, for the readier taking in or sending out ammunition and naval or military stores. Upon this wharf is a line of about sixty pieces of iron cannon, which are fired upon days of state.

Parallel to this part of the wharf upon the walls is a platform seventy yards in length called the Ladies line, from its being much frequented in summer evenings by the ladies, as on the inside it is shaded with a row of lofty trees, and without affords a fine prospect of the shipping, and of the boats passing and repassing the river. The ascent to this line is by stone steps, and being once upon it, you may walk almost round the Tower walls without interruption, in doing which you will pass three batteries, the first called the Devil’s battery, where is a [151] platform, on which are mounted seven pieces of cannon: the next is named the Stone battery, and defended by eight pieces of cannon; and the last, called the Wooden battery is mounted with six pieces of cannon: all these are brass, and nine pounders.

But to return to the wharf, which is divided from Tower Hill at each end, by gates opened every morning for the convenience of a free intercourse between the respective inhabitants of the tower, the city, and its suburbs. From this wharf is an entrance for persons on foot over the drawbridge, already mentioned; and also a water-gate under the Tower wall, commonly called Traitor’s Gate, through which it has been customary, for the greater privacy, to convey traitors and other state prisoners by water, to and from the Tower: the water of the ditch having here a communication with the Thames, by means of a stone bridge on the wharf. However the Lords committed to the Tower for the last rebellion, were publicly admitted at the main entrance. Over this water-gate, is a regular building terminated at each end by a round tower, on which are embrasures for cannon, but at present none are mounted there. In this building are an infirmary, a mill, and [152] the water-works that supply the Tower with water.

The principal entrance into the Tower is by two gates to the west, one within the other, and both large enough to admit coaches and heavy carriages. Having passed thro’ the first of these you proceed over a strong stone bridge, built over the ditch, which on the right-hand leads to the lions tower, and to a narrow passage to the draw bridge on the wharf, while on the left-hand is a kind of street in which is the Mint. The second gate is at a small distance beyond the lions tower, and is much stronger than the first, it has a portcullis to let down upon occasion, and is guarded not only by some soldiers, but by the warders of the Tower, whose dress and appearance will be immediately described.

The Officers of the Tower. The principal of these to whom the government of the Tower is committed, are, first the Constable of the Tower, who has 1000l. per annum, and is usually a person of quality, as his post at all coronations and state ceremonies, is of the utmost importance, and as the crown and other regalia are in his custody: he has under him a Lieutenant, and a deputy Lieutenant; these officers are likewise of great [153] dignity; the first has 700l. a year, and the last, who is commonly called the Governor of the Tower, has 1l. a day. The other officers are, a tower-major, a chaplain, a physician, a gentleman-porter, a yeoman-porter, a gentleman-jailer, four quarter-gunners, and forty warders, who wear the same uniform as the King’s yeomen of the guard. They have round flat crowned caps, with bands of party-coloured ribbands: Their coats, which are of a particular make, but very becoming, have large sleeves, and very full skirts gathered round, somewhat in the manner of a petticoat. These coats are of fine scarlet cloth, laced round the edges and seams with several rows of gold lace, and girt round their waists with a broad laced girdle. Upon their breasts and backs they wear the King’s silver badge, an embroidered thistle and rose, and the letters G. R. in very large capitals.

The ceremony at opening and shutting the gates. This is done every morning and night with great formality. A little before six in the morning in summer, and as soon as it is well light in winter, the yeoman-porter goes to the Governor’s house for the keys, and from [154] thence proceeds back to the innermost gate, attended by a serjeant and six of the main guard. This gate being opened to let them pass, is again shut; while the yeoman-porter and the guard proceed to open the outermost gates, at each of which the guards rest their firelocks, as do the spur-guard, while the keys pass and repass. The yeoman-porter then returning to the innermost gate, calls to the warders in waiting to take in King George’s keys; whereupon the gate is opened, and the keys lodg’d in the warders hall, till the time of locking them up again, which is usually about ten or eleven at night, with the same formality as when opened. After they are shut, the yeoman and guard proceed to the main guard, who are all under arms, with the officers upon duty at their head. The usual challenge from the main guard is, Who comes here? To which the yeoman-porter answers The keys. The challenger returns Pass keys, and the officer orders the guard to rest their firelocks; upon which the yeoman-porter says, God save King George, and Amen is loudly answered by all the guard. The yeoman-porter then proceeds with his guard to the Governor’s, where the keys are left; after which no person can go out, or come in upon any pretence whatsoever till the next morning, [155] without the watch-word for the night, which is kept so secret, that none but the proper officers, and the serjeant upon guard, ever come to the knowledge of it; for it is the same on the same night, in every fortified place throughout England. But when that is given by any stranger to the centinel at the spur-guard, or outer gate, he communicates it to his serjeant, who passes it to the next on duty, and so on till it comes to the Governor, or commanding officer, by whom the keys are delivered to the yeoman-porter, who, attended as before, the main guard being put under arms, brings them to the outer gate, where the stranger is admitted, and conducted to the Governor; when having made known his business, he is conducted back to the outer gate; and dismissed, the gate shut, and the keys delivered again with the same formality as at first. It is happy for us that all this seems mere form and parade; but it is however fit that all this ceremony should be duly observed.

The Lions Tower. In examining the curiosities of the Tower, it will be proper to begin with those on the outside the principal gate, the first thing a stranger, usually goes to visit is the wild beasts, which from their situation first present [156] themselves: for having entered the outer gate, and passed what is called the spur-guard, the keeper’s house presents itself before you, which is known by a painted lion on the wall, and another over the door which leads to their dens; and by ringing a bell, and paying six pence each person, you may easily gain admittance.

At your entrance, you come to a range of dens in the form of an half moon. These dens are rooms about twelve or thirteen feet high, divided into two apartments, the upper and the lower. In the upper apartment the beasts generally live in the day, and at night retire into the lower to rest: you view them through large iron grates, like those before the windows of a prison; so that you may see them with the utmost safety, be they ever so savage. Some of these dens are empty, and other inhabited by lionesses of different ages, who are here kept with the utmost care, particularly while young; for hardly any creature is more tender than a lion’s whelp, and they would here infallibly perish, were they not immediately taken from their dams as soon as whelped; for even in Barbary, where they are a part of the inhabitants of the woods and forests, many of them die in strong convulsions, from [157] the pain they suffer in breeding their teeth. Those bred in the Tower are kept twelve months in a warm room, and fed mostly with milk diet, before they are put into their dens: when about five or six weeks old, they are as gentle as a lamb; but it is observed, that their savage nature gradually increases with their growth, which at three years is at the full, and then they seem as fierce as those brought from abroad.

The first they shew is Dido, a beautiful lioness, about twelve years of age; and the next is a young lioness from Africa, that used to play with her keeper like a puppy. She was taken by a negroe boy, as she was drinking in the river Gambia, on the coast of Africa, when no bigger than a cat; for the boy being sent to fetch water, found her without her dam, and carried her home: but the dam afterwards coming in search of her, and not finding her, ran roaring about, and killed several negroes, the cattle and every living thing that came in her way. The boy and the lioness were bought by the French, but being taken in their passage to Europe, were sent to the Tower, where she seemed incredibly fond of the young negroe.

After having seen another lioness or two, you are conducted to another range, [158] where you are shewn a fine leopard, and three most beautiful tygers. The tyger, in shape resembles a cat, only is much larger, and when wild is extremely fierce and ravenous, it lurks in the woods, and seizes its prey by a sudden spring, and men in traversing the desarts, are frequently surprized by this animal. These tygers are finely spotted or streaked with black upon a yellowish ground. They are full of play, and leap a prodigious height, when, like a cat, they are playing their gambols. As to the leopard, he is a most beautiful creature; his colour is a shining yellow, finely interspersed with bright spots. No description can give the reader a complete idea of these beasts; for every image that words can convey, must fall short of that original beauty stamped upon them by nature.

Having satisfied your curiosity with the sight of these extraordinary beasts, you are shewn a variety of birds, among which is a golden eagle, a noble bird that has been kept here above ninety years; besides which there are other eagles from different countries, all of them having something different in their shape or colour, by which a curious observer may easily distinguish them.


You are next shewn an horned owl, which is a very surprizing bird, and as there is not perhaps such another in England, we shall give a particular description of it. Its head seems full as big as that of a cat, and its eyes, which are large, have circles round them of a bright shining gold colour. The feathers that compose the horns begin just above the eyes, and rise intermixed with a little white; but as they extend beyond the head, become of a red brown clouded with a more dusky colour, and are tipp’d with black. The spaces round the eyes, which compose the face, are of a light brown, confusedly mixed with orange colour, gradually becoming more dusky as it borders on the eyes. The top of the head, neck, back, wings, and upper side of the tail are of a dark brown, spotted and intermixed with some confused transverse small lines of ash colour and reddish. The great wing-feathers, and the tail, are barred across with dusky bars of half an inch in breadth, more or less; but between the back and wings the feathers are of an ash colour. The fore part of the neck and breast are a bright brown, inclining to orange, which gradually grows fainter on the sides. This brown part is spotted with pretty large dark spots, and intermixed [160] between them, with the same dusky colour. The middle of the breast, belly, thighs, and under side of the tail are a faint ash colour, pretty regularly barred transversely with dusky lines; and the inside of the wings are coloured and variegated in the same manner: the legs and toes, almost to the ends are covered with light ash coloured feathers, and the ends of the toes and the claws, are of a dark horn colour, and very strong and sharp.

From these extraordinary birds you are conducted to a den where you are shewn the Great Pompey, the finest and largest lion ever seen in England; he is about twelve years of age, and of a noble and majestic appearance. His head is large, and his neck covered with a long shagged mane that reaches to his shoulders. He is of a yellowish colour, and about four feet high; his body is small in proportion to his head; but his legs have the appearance of amazing strength; his large muscles being very visible. The bones of his fore-legs seem about the thickness of a man’s wrist, and his fore-feet are armed with five prodigious claws, sheathed like those of a cat, with which he seizes his prey like that animal; but his hinder feet have only four. He seems very [161] gentle and tractable to his feeder, and will lie down and let him play with him like a spaniel.

You are next shewn what your guides call their school of apes, which consists of two apes from Turky, and two Egyptian night-walkers. Of the largest of these creatures they will tell you abundance of surprizing stories. There are also one or two man tygers, a man of the wood, a Guinea racoon, much more beautiful than those brought from America; a jackal, a fine tyger cat, two large hyenas, a male and a female, and a very uncommon beast which the keeper calls the whistler of the woods. This is a beautiful little creature of the size of a badger, brought from Guinea, and receives her name from her counterfeiting in the woods the whistling and chirping of birds, by which she allures them to her, and so makes them her prey.

These animals are all regularly fed with proper food, and attended with all possible care.

But to proceed; the next place worthy of observation is the Mint, which comprehends near one third of the Tower, and contains houses for all the officers belonging to the coinage. See the article Mint.


The white Tower, on passing the principal gate you see the White Tower, built, as has been already said, by William the Conqueror. This is a large, square, irregular stone building, situated almost in the centre, no one side answering to another, nor any of its watch towers, of which there are four at the top, built alike. One of these towers is now converted into an observatory.

The building itself consists of three very lofty stories, under which are spacious and commodious vaults, chiefly filled with saltpetre. It is covered on the top with flat leads, from whence there is an extensive and delightful prospect.

In the first story are two noble rooms, one of which is a small armoury for the sea service, it having various sorts of arms very curiously laid up, for above 10,000 seamen. In the other room are many closets and presses, all filled with warlike engines and instruments of death. Over this are two other floors, one principally filled with arms; the other with arms and other warlike instruments, as spades, shovels, pick-axes, and cheveaux de Frize. In the upper story are kept match, sheep-skins, tanned hides, &c. and in a little room called Julius Cæsar’s chapel are deposited some records, containing [163] perhaps the ancient usages and customs of the place. In this building are also preserved models of the new invented engines of destruction that have from time to time been presented to the government.

On the top of one of the towers is a large cistern or reservoir for supplying the whole garrison with water; it is about seven feet deep, nine broad, and about sixty in length, and is filled from the Thames by means of an engine very ingeniously contrived for that purpose.

The Spanish Armoury. Near the south-west angle of the White Tower is the Spanish armoury, in which are deposited the spoils of what was vainly called the Invincible Armada, in order to perpetuate to latest posterity the memory of that signal victory obtained by the English over the whole naval power of Spain in the reign of Philip II. which will ever render the glorious name of Queen Elizabeth dear to Britons: for of 132 ships that arrived in the British channel; scarce 70 of them returned home, and of 30,000 men on board, upwards of 20,000 were either killed, drowned, or made prisoners in England, such was the fate of this vain-glorious enterprize!


The trophies preserved here of this memorable victory, with some other curiosities are,

1. A Spanish battle-ax, so contrived as to strike four holes in a man’s skull, at once; it has besides a pistol in its handle with a match-lock.

2. The Spanish General’s halbert, covered with velvet. All the nails are double gilt, and on the top is the pope’s head, curiously engraven.

3. The Spanish morning star; a destructive engine in the form of a star; of which there were many thousands on board, and all of them with poisoned points; designed to strike at the English, in case they boarded them.

4. Thumb screws, of which there were several chests full on board the Spanish fleet. The use they were intended for is said to have been to extort confession from the English where their money was hid, had they prevailed.——Certain it is, that; after the defeat, the whole conversation of the court and country turned upon the discoveries made by the Spanish prisoners of the racks, the wheels, and the whips of wire, with which they were to scourge the English of every rank, age, and sex. The most noted hereticks were to be put to death; those who survived [165] were to be branded on the forehead with a hot iron; and the whole form of government, both in church and state, was to be overturned.

5. A Spanish poll-ax, used in boarding of ships.

6. Spanish halberts, or spears, some of them curiously engraved and inlaid with gold.

7. Spanish spadas, or long swords, poison’d at the points, so that if a man received but ever so slight a wound, it would prove certain death.

8. Spanish cravats, as they are called; these are engines of torture, made of iron, and put on board to lock the feet, arms, and heads of English Hereticks together.

9. Spanish bilboes, also made of iron, to yoke the English prisoners two and two.

10. Spanish shot, which are of four sorts; spike-shot, star-shot, chain-shot, and link-shot; all admirably contrived, as well for the destruction of the masts and rigging of ships, as for sweeping the men off the decks.

11. The banner, with a crucifix upon it, which was to have been carried before the Spanish General. Upon it is the Pope’s benediction before the Spanish fleet sailed; for the Pope, it is said, came [166] to the water side, and seeing the fleet, blessed it, and stiled it Invincible.

12. An uncommon piece of arms, being a pistol in a shield, so contrived that the pistol might be fired, and the body covered at the same time. It is to be fired by a match-lock, and the sight of the enemy taken through a little grate in the shield, which is pistol proof.

13. The Spanish rançeur, made in different forms, and intended either to kill the men on horseback, or to pull them off their horses. At the back is a spike, which your attendants say, was to pick the roast beef out of the Englishmen’s teeth. And on one of them is a piece of silver coin, which they intended to make current in England. On this coin are three heads, suppos’d to be the Pope’s, Philip the II’s and Queen Mary’s.——This is a curiosity which most Spaniards who arrive in London come to see.

14. The Spanish officers lances finely engraved. These were formerly gilt, but the gilding is now almost worn off with cleaning. ’Tis said, that when Don Pedro de Valdez, a captain of one of the Spanish ships that was taken, passed his examination before Lord Burleigh, he told his Lordship, that those fine polish’d lances were put on board to bleed the [167] English with; to which that Nobleman, merrily replied, that, if he were not mistaken, the English had performed that operation better on their good friends the Spaniards with worse instruments.

15. The common soldiers pikes eighteen feet in length, pointed with long sharp spikes, and shod with iron; designed to keep off the horse, to facilitate the landing of their foot.

16. The last thing shewn of these memorable spoils, is the Spanish General’s shield, not worn by him; but carried before him as an ensign of honour. Upon it are depicted in most curious workmanship, some of the labours of Hercules, and other allegories which seem to throw a shade upon the boasted skill of modern artists. This was made near an hundred years before the art of printing was known in England: and upon it is the following inscription in Roman characters, ADVLTERIO DEIANIRA CONSPURCANS OCCIDITR CACVS AB HERCVL. OPPRIMITVR 1379.

17. The other curiosities deposited here, are Danish and Saxon clubs, weapons which each of those people are said to have used in their conquest of England. These are, perhaps, curiosities of the greatest antiquity of any in the Tower, they having lain there above 850 years. [168] The warders call them the Womens weapons, because, say they,

“the British women made prize of them, when, in one night, they all conspired together, and cut the throats, of 35,000 Danes; the greatest piece of secrecy the English women ever kept, for which they have ever since been honoured with the right-hand of the man, the upper end of the table, and the first cut of every dish of victuals they happen to like best.”

The massacre of the Danes, was not however performed by the women alone, but by the private orders of Ethelred II. who in 1012, privately commanded his officers to extirpate those cruel and tirannical invaders.

18. King Henry the VIII’s walking staff, which has three match-lock pistols in it, with coverings to keep the charges dry.

“With this staff, the warders tell you, the King sometimes walked round the city, to see that the constables did their duty; and one night, as he was walking near the bridge foot, the constable stopt him to know what he did with such an unlucky weapon, at that time of the night. Upon which the King struck him; but the constable calling the watch-men to his assistance, his Majesty was apprehended, and [169] carried to the Poultry Compter, where he lay till morning, without either fire or candle. When the keeper was informed of the rank of his prisoner, he dispatched a messenger to the constable, who came trembling with fear, expecting nothing less than to be hanged, drawn and quartered: but instead of that, the King applauded him for his resolution in doing his duty, and made him a handsome present. At the same time he settled upon St. Magnus’s parish an annual grant of 23l. and a mark, and made a provision for furnishing thirty chaldron of coals and a large allowance of bread annually for ever, towards the comfortable relief of his fellow prisoners and their successors; which, the warders say, is paid them to this day.”

19. A large wooden cannon called Policy, because, as we are informed, when King Henry VIII. besieged Bulloign, the roads being impassable for heavy cannon, he caused a number of these wooden ones to be made, and mounted on proper batteries before the town, as if real cannon; which so terrified the French commandant, that he gave up the place without firing a shot.——The truth is, the Duke of Suffolk, who commanded at this [170] siege under the King, soon made himself master of the lower town; but it was not till seven weeks afterwards that the upper town capitulated, in which time the English sustained great loss in possessing themselves of the Bray. The warders must therefore be greatly mistaken in their account of this piece.

20. The ax with which Queen Anne Bullen, the mother of Queen Elizabeth, was beheaded, on the 19th of May 1536. The Earl of Essex, Queen Elizabeth’s favourite, was also beheaded with the same ax.

21. A small train of ten pieces of pretty little cannon, neatly mounted on proper carriages, being a present from the foundery of London to King Charles I. when a child, to assist him in learning the art of gunnery.

22. Weapons made with the blades of scithes fixed strait to the end of poles. These were taken from the Duke of Monmouth’s party, at the battle of Sedgemoore, in the reign of James II.

23. The partizans that were carried at the funeral of King William III.

24. The perfect model of the admirable machine, the idea of which was brought from Italy by Sir Thomas Lombe, and first erected at Derby, at his own expence, [171] for making orgazine or thrown silk. This model is well worth the observation of the curious.

You now come to the grand storehouse, a noble building to the northward of the White Tower, that extends 245 feet in length, and 60 in breadth. It was begun by King James II. who built it to the first floor; but it was finished by King William III. who erected that magnificent room called the New, or Small Armoury, in which that prince, with Queen Mary, his consort, dined in great form, having all the warrant workmen and labourers to attend them, dressed in white gloves and aprons, the usual badges of the order of masonry.

This structure is of brick and stone, and on the north side is a stately door case adorned with four columns, with their entablature and triangular pediment of the Doric order, and under the pediment are the King’s arms, with enrichments of trophy work.

The Small Armoury. To this noble room you are led by a folding door adjoining to the east end of the Tower chapel, which leads to a grand staircase of fifty easy steps. On the left-side of the uppermost landing-place is the workshop, in which are constantly employed about fourteen furbishers, [172] in cleaning, repairing, and new placing the arms.

On entering the armoury you see what they call a wilderness of arms, so artfully disposed, that at one view you behold arms for near 80,000 men, all bright, and fit for service at a moment’s warning: a sight which it is impossible to behold without astonishment, and besides those exposed to view, there were before the present war sixteen chests shut up, each chest holding about 1200 muskets. Of the disposition of the arms no adequate idea can be formed by description; but the following account may enable the spectator to view them to greater advantage, and help him to retain what he sees.

The arms were originally disposed in this manner by Mr. Harris, who contrived to place them in this beautiful order both here and in the guard chamber of Hampton Court. He was a common gunsmith, but after he had performed this work, which is the admiration of people of all nations, he was allowed a pension from the crown for his ingenuity.

The north and south walls are each adorned with eight pilasters, formed of pikes sixteen feet long, with capitals of the Corinthian order composed of pistols.


At the west end, on the left-hand, as you enter, are two curious pyramids of pistols, standing upon crowns, globes, and scepters, finely carved and placed upon pedestals five feet high.

At the east, or farther end, in the opposite corner are two suits of armour, one made for that warlike prince Henry V. and the other for his son Henry VI. over each of which is a semicircle of pistols: between these is represented an organ, the large pipes composed of brass blunderbusses, the small of pistols. On one side of the organ is the representation of a fiery serpent, the head and tail of carved work, and the body of pistols winding round in the form of a snake; and on the other an hydra, whose seven heads are artfully combined by links of pistols.

The inner columns that compose the wilderness, round which you are conducted by your guides, are,

1. Some arms taken at Bath in the year 1715, distinguished from all others in the Tower, by having what is called dog locks; that is, a kind of locks with a catch to prevent their going off at half-cock.

2. Bayonets and pistols put up in the form of half moons and fans, with the [174] imitation of a target in the center made of bayonet blades. These bayonets, of which several other fans are composed, are of the first invention, they having plug handles which go into the muzzle of the gun, instead of over it, and thereby prevent the firing of the piece, without shooting away the bayonet. These were invented at Bayonne in Spain, and from that place take their name.

3. Brass blunderbusses for sea service, with capitols of pistols over them. The waves of the sea are here represented in old fashioned bayonets.

4. Bayonets and sword-bayonets, in the form of half moons and fans, and set in carved scollop-shells. The sword-bayonet is made like the old bayonet, with a plug handle, and differs from it only in being longer.

5. The rising sun irradiated with pistols set in a chequered frame of marine hangers of a peculiar make, having brass handles, and a dog’s head on their pommels.

6. Four beautiful twisted pillars formed of pistols up to the top, which is about twenty-two feet high, and placed at right angles; with the representation of a falling star on the cieling exactly in the middle of them, being the center of this [175] magnificent room. Into this place opens the grand staircase door, for the admission of the royal family, or any of the nobility, whose curiosity leads them to view the armoury; opposite to which opens another door into the balcony that affords a fine prospect of the parade, the Governor’s house, the Surveyor General’s, the Storekeeper’s, and other general officers in the Tower.

7. The form of a large pair of folding gates made of serjeant’s halberts, of an antique make.

8. Horsemen’s carbines, hanging very artificially in furbeloes and flounces.

9. Medusa’s head, vulgarly called the witch of Endor, within three regular ellipses of pistols, with snakes. The features are finely carved, and the whole figure contrived with the utmost art. This figure terminates the north side.

10. Facing the east wall, as you turn round, is a grand figure of a lofty organ, ten ranges high, in which are contained upwards of two thousand pair of pistols.

11. On the south side, as you return, the first figure that attracts attention is Jupiter riding in a fiery chariot drawn by eagles, as if in the clouds, holding a thunderbolt in his left hand, and over [176] his head is a rainbow, this figure is finely carved, and decorated with bayonets.

The figures on this side answer pretty nearly to those on the other, and therefore need no farther description, till you come again to the centre; where, on each side the door leading to the balcony, you see,

12. A fine representation in carved work, of the star and garter, thistle, rose and crown, ornamented with pistols, &c. and very elegantly enriched with birds, &c.

13. The arms taken from Sir William Perkins, Sir John Friend, Charnock, and others concerned in the assassination plot, in 1696; among which they shew the very blunderbuss with which they intended to shoot King William near Turnham Green, in his way to Hampton Court: also the carbine with which Charnock undertook to shoot that Monarch, as he rode a hunting.

14. Lastly, the Highlanders arms, taken in 1715, particularly the Earl of Mar’s fine piece, exquisitely wrought, and inlaid with mother of pearl: also a Highland broad sword, with which a Highlander struck General Evans, and at one blow cut him through the hat, wig, and iron skull cap; on which that General is [177] said to have shot him dead; others say he was taken prisoner, and generously forgiven for his bravery. Here is also the sword of justice, with a sharp point, and the sword of mercy, with a blunt point, carried before the Pretender on his being proclaimed King of Scotland, in 1715. Here are likewise some of the Highlanders pistols, the barrels and stocks being all iron; also a Highlander’s Loughabor ax, with which it is said Col. Gardner was killed at the battle of Preston Pans.

A discerning eye will discover a thousand peculiarities in the disposition of so vast a variety of arms, which no description can reach, and therefore it is fit that every one who has a taste for the admirable combinations of art, should gratify it with the sight of the noblest curiosities of this kind in the whole world.

The Royal Train of Artillery. Upon the ground floor under the small armoury, is a large room of equal dimensions with that, supported by twenty pillars, all hung round with implements of war. This room which is twenty-four feet high, has a passage in the middle sixteen feet wide.

At the sight of such a variety of the most dreadful engines of destruction, before whose thunder the most superb edifices, [178] the noblest works of art, and numbers of the human species, fall together in one common undistinguished ruin, one cannot help wishing that these horrible inventions had still lain, like a false conception, in the womb of nature, never to have been ripened into birth. But when, on the other hand, we consider, that with us they are not used to answer the purposes of ambition; but for self defence and in the protection of our just rights, our terror subsides, and we view these engines of devastation with a kind of solemn complacency, as the means providence has put into our hands for our preservation.

1. You are shewn two large pieces of cannon employed by Admiral Vernon before Carthagena; each of which has a large scale driven out of their muzzles by balls from the castle of Bocca Chica.

2. Two pieces of excellent workmanship, presented by the city of London to the young Duke of Gloucester, son to Queen Anne, to assist him in learning the art of war.

3. Four mortars in miniature, for throwing hand granadoes, invented by Col. Brown. They are fired with a lock like a common gun, but have not yet been introduced into practice.


4. Two fine brass cannon taken from the walls of Vigo in 1704, by the late Lord Cobham. Their breeches represent lions couchant, with the effigy of St. Barbara, to whom they were dedicated.

5. A petard for bursting open the gates of a city or castle.

6. A large train of fine brass battering cannon, 24 pounders.

7. Some cannon of a new invention from 6 to 24 pounders. Their superior excellence consists, first, in their lightness, the 24 pounders not weighing quite 1700 weight, whereas formerly they weighed 5000; the rest are in proportion; and secondly, in the contrivance for leveling them, which is by a screw, instead of beds and coins. This new method is more expeditious, and saves two men to a gun, and is said to be the invention of his Royal Highness the Duke of Cumberland.

8. Brass mortars of thirteen inches diameter, which throw a shell of 300 weight; with a number of smaller mortars, and shells in proportion.

9. A carcase, which they fill at sieges with pitch, tar, and other combustibles to set towns on fire. It is thrown out of an eighteen inch mortar, and will burn two hours where it happens to fall.


10. A Spanish mortar of twelve inches diameter, taken on board a ship in the West Indies.

11. Six French pieces of cannon, six pounders, taken from the rebels at the battle of Culloden, April 16, 1745.

12. A beautiful piece of ordnance, made for King Charles I. when Prince of Wales. It is finely ornamented with emblematical devices, among which is an eagle throwing a thunder bolt in the clouds.

13. A train of field-pieces, called the galloping train, carrying a ball of a pound and half each.

14. A destroying engine, that throws thirty hand granadoes at once, and is fired by a train.

15. A most curious brass cannon made for Prince Henry, the eldest son of King James I. the ornamenting of which is said to have cost 200l.

16. A piece with seven bores, for throwing so many balls at once, and another with three, made as early as Henry the Eighth’s time.

17. The Drum-major’s chariot of state, with the kettle drums placed. It is drawn by four white horses at the head of the train, when upon a march.


18. Two French field-pieces, taken at the battle of Hochstadt in 1704.

19. An iron cannon of the first invention, being bars of iron hammered together, and hooped from top to bottom with iron hoops, to prevent its bursting. It has no carriage, but was to be moved from place to place by means of six rings fixed to it at proper distances.

20. A very large mortar weighing upwards of 6600 weight, and throwing a shell of 500 weight two miles. This mortar was fired so often at the siege of Namur by King William, that the very touch hole is melted, for want of giving it time to cool.

21. A fine twisted brass cannon twelve feet long made in Edward the Sixth’s time, called Queen Elizabeth’s Pocket pistol; which the warders, by way of joke, tell you she used to wear on her right side when she rode a hunting.

22. Two brass cannon three bores each, carrying six pounders, taken by the Duke of Marlborough at the glorious battle of Ramelies.

23. A mortar that throws nine shells at a time; out of which the balloons were cast at the fire-works, for the last peace.


Besides those above enumerated, there were in the stove-room before the present war, a vast number of new brass cannon; together with spunges, ladles, rammers, handspikes, wadhooks, &c. with which the walls were lined round; and under the cieling there hang on poles upwards of four thousand harness for horses, besides men’s harness, drag-ropes, &c. And besides the trophies of standards, colours, &c. taken from the enemy, it is now adorned with the transparent pictures brought hither from the fire-works played off at the conclusion of the last peace.

The horse armoury, is a plain brick building a little to the eastward of the white tower; and is an edifice rather convenient than elegant, where the spectator is entertained with a representation of those kings and heroes of our own nation with whose gallant actions it is to be supposed he is well acquainted; some of them equipped and sitting on horseback, in the same bright and shining armour they were used to wear when they performed those glorious actions that give them a distinguished place in the British annals.

In ascending the staircase, just as you come to the landing-place, on casting your eye into the room, you see the figure of a grenadier in his acoutrements, [183] as if upon duty, with his piece rested upon his arm; which is so well done, that at the first glance you will be apt to mistake it for real life.

When you enter the room, your conductor presents to your notice,

1. The figures of the horse and foot on your left-hand, supposed to be drawn up in military order to attend the kings on the other side of the house. These figures are as big as the life, and have been lately new painted.

2. A large tilting lance of Charles Brandon, Duke of Suffolk, King Henry the Eighth’s general in France; a nobleman who excelled at the then fashionable diversion of tilting.

3. A complete suit of tilting armour, such as the kings, nobility and gentlemen at arms used to wear; with the tilting lance, the rest for the lance, and grand guard.

4. A complete suit of armour made for King Henry VIII. when he was but eighteen years of age, rough from the hammer. It is at least six feet high, and the joints in the hands, arms and thighs, knees and feet play like the joints of a rattle snake, and are moved with all the facility imaginable.


The method of learning the exercise of tilting, was upon wooden horses set upon castors, which by the sway of the body could be moved every way; so that by frequent practice, the rider could shift, parry, strike, unhorse, and recover with surprizing dexterity. Some of the horses in this armoury have been used for this purpose; and it is but lately that the castors have been taken from their feet.

5. A little suit of armour made for King Charles II. when Prince of Wales, and about seven or eight years of age; with a piece of armour for his horse’s head; the whole most curiously wrought and inlaid with silver.

6. Lord Courcy’s armour. This nobleman, as the warders tell you, was grand champion of Ireland, and as a proof shew you the very sword he took from the French champion; for which valiant action he and all his successors have the honour to wear their hats in the King’s presence, which privilege is still enjoyed by the Lord Kinsale, as head of that antient and noble family.

7. Real coats of mail, called Brigandine Jackets. They consist of small bits of steel, so artfully quilted one over another, as to resist the point of a sword, [185] and perhaps a musket ball, and yet are so flexible, that the wearer might bend his body any way, as well as in his ordinary clothes.

8. An Indian suit of armour, sent by the Great Mogul as a present to King Charles II. This is a very great curiosity; it is made of iron quills about two inches long, finely japanned and ranged in rows, one row easily slipping over another: these are bound very strong together with silk twist, and are used in that country as a defence against darts and arrows.

9. A neat little suit of armour worn by a carved figure representing Richard Duke of York, the youngest son of King Edward IV. who, with his brother Edward V. were smothered in the Tower, by order of their uncle and guardian, Richard III.

10. The armour of John of Gaunt Duke of Lancaster, who was the son of a King, the father of a King, and the uncle of a King, but was never King himself: and Dugdale observes, that more kings and sovereign princes sprang from his loins, than from any King in Christendom. The armour here shewn is seven feet high, and the sword and lance of an enormous size.


11. The droll figure of Will Somers, who, as the warders tell you, was King Henry the Eighth’s jester. They add, “He was an honest man of a woman’s making—he had a handsome woman to his wife, who made him a cuckold; and he wears his horns on his head, because they should not wear holes in his pockets.——He would neither believe King, Queen, nor any about the court, that he was a cuckold, till he put on his spectacles to see, being a little dim sighted, as all cuckolds should be:” in which antic manner he is here represented.

12. What your conductors call, a collar of torments, which say they, “used formerly to be put about the womens necks that cuckolded their husbands, or scolded at them when they came home late, but that custom is left off now-a-days, to prevent quarrelling for collars, there not being smiths enough to make them, as most married men are sure to want at one time or other.”

You now come to the line of Kings, which your conductor begins by reversing the order of chronology; so that in following them we must place the last first.


1. His late Majesty King George I. in a complete suit of armour, sitting with a truncheon in his hand on a white horse richly caparisoned, having a fine Turky bridle gilt, with a globe, crescent and star; velvet furniture laced with gold, and gold trappings.

2. King William III. dressed in the suit of armour worn by Edward the Black Prince son to Edward III. at the glorious battle of Cressey. He is mounted on a sorrel horse, whose furniture is green velvet embroidered with silver, and holds in his right hand a flaming sword.

3. King Charles II. dressed in the armour worn by the champion of England, at the coronation of his present Majesty. He sits with a truncheon in his hand, on a fine horse richly caparisoned, with crimson velvet laced with gold.

4. King Charles I. in a rich suit of his own armour gilt, and curiously wrought, presented to him by the city of London when he was Prince of Wales, and is the same that was laid on the coffin at the funeral procession of the late great Duke of Marlborough, on which occasion a collar of SS was added to it, and is now round it.


5. James I. who sits on horseback dressed in a complete suit of figured armour, with a truncheon in his right hand.

6. King Edward VI. dressed in a curious suit of steel armour, whereon are depicted in different compartments a great variety of scripture histories. He sits like the rest on horseback, with a truncheon in his hand.

7. King Henry VIII. in his own armour, which is of polished steel with the foliages gilt or inlaid with gold. He holds a sword in his right hand.

8. King Henry VII. who also holds a sword. He sits on horseback in a complete suit of armour finely wrought, and washed with silver.

9. King Edward V. who with his brother Richard was smothered in the Tower, and having been proclaimed King, but never crowned, a crown is hung over his head. He holds a lance in his right hand, and is dressed in a rich suit of armour.

10. King Edward IV. father to the two unhappy princes above mentioned, is distinguished by a suit of bright armour studded. He holds a drawn sword in his hand.


11. King Henry VI. who though crowned King of France at Paris, lost that kingdom, and was at last murdered in the Tower by the Duke of Gloucester, afterwards Richard III.

12. The victorious Henry V. who by his conquests in France caused himself to be acknowledged regent, and presumptive heir to that kingdom.

13. Henry IV. the son of John of Gaunt.

14. King Edward III. John of Gaunt’s father, and father to Edward the Black Prince, is represented here with a venerable beard, and in a suit of plain bright armour, with two crowns on his sword, alluding to his being crowned King both of France and England.

15. King Edward I. dressed in a very curious suit of gilt armour, and in shoes of mail. He has a battle axe in his hand.

16. William the Conqueror the first in the line, though last shewn, sits in a suit of plain armour.

17. Over the door where you go out of the armoury is a target on which are engraved by a masterly hand, the figures as it should seem, of Justice, Fortune, and Fortitude; and round the room the walls are every where lined with various uncommon pieces of old armour, for [190] horses heads and breasts, targets, and many pieces that now want a name.

The other curiosities contained in the Tower, are in the Jewel office, and the manner of coining money in the mint. There are here also the office of ordnance, which has the government of all the above store rooms, and the office of keeper of the records. For which see the articles Jewel Office, Mint, Office of Ordnance, and Record Office, and for the church in the Tower, see St. Peter ad Vincula.

The Tower is a place so considerable and so much frequented by all who visit this metropolis, that it would have been unpardonable to have omitted a view: this in the print is taken from the river, but exhibits a mixture of old and new buildings which are neither remarkable for their beauty nor grandeur.

Tower Court, a court of record held by prescription, at the king’s arms on Great Tower Hill, by a steward appointed by the constable of the Tower, by whom are tried actions of debt for any sum, damage and trespass.

Here also the grand jury, try all persons taken up in the Tower liberties for murders, felonies and other crimes, when if they are found guilty they are committed [191] to Newgate, to take their trials at the Old Bailey.

And in short, in the same house the Coroners inquest sit for the Tower liberties.

Tower dock, near the Tower Wharf.

Tower Hill, a very spacious area to the north, east and west of the Tower ditch, divided into Great and Little Tower Hill. The west end extending much farther to the north is called by the former name, and the east end, in which is the victualling office, by the latter. It must be confessed that Tower Hill has many handsome buildings, particularly among the row of houses which bound it to the west; but though this great area might be rendered extremely beautiful, it is quite the reverse, in almost every other part besides that just mentioned, we find it ill built, and the ground a mere dunghill; particularly in Little Tower Hill, where we see either the backs of the houses next this fine area, or mean edifices in ruins. But as the hill is now improved and rendered more safe by placing strong wooden rails on the outside of the ditch, it is to be hoped that the ground will be completely levelled, and laid out to greater advantage, and that some care will be taken to rebuild the [192] houses that are falling down, particularly as this is a place visited by all strangers.

Tower Hill passage, Little Tower Hill.

Tower Liberties, these are not confined within the Tower wall; but include both the Tower Hills, part of East Smithfield, Rosemary lane, Wellclose square, and the Little Minories; and in Spitalfields, all the streets, lanes and allies, built upon the artillery ground, formerly belonging to the Tower, as Artillery street, French alley, Duke street, Steward street, Gun street, Fort street, and the courts and alleys within their compass.

Tower Royal, a street near St. Thomas Apostle’s, so called from a large fortified house or tower belonging to the kings of England, formerly at the upper end of that street. Maitland.

Tower Royal court, Tower Royal.

Tower Royal lane, Budge row.

Tower street, 1. begins at Idle lane, and running eastward extends to Tower Hill, it is a spacious street, pretty well built. 2. Hackney: 3. Soho.

Tower Street Ward, takes its name from the principal street therein, and is the first ward in the south-east part of the city. It is bounded on the south by the river Thames, on the east by Tower Hill, [193] and part of Aldgate Ward; on the north, by Langbourn Ward, and on the west by Billingsgate Ward. It extends from the Tower on the east, to the middle of the way between Great Dice key, and Smart’s key on the west, and from the west corner of Tower dock on the south to within 70 feet of the north end of Rood lane. In which compass are contained Tower street, a part of Thames street, Seething lane, Mark lane, Mincing lane, Hart street, Idle lane, St. Dunstan’s hill, Harp lane, Water lane, and Beer lane, with many others, and a considerable number of courts and alleys.

The principal buildings in this ward, are the churches of St. Dunstan’s and Alhallows Barking, the Custom house, Navy office, Trinity house and Corn Exchange in Mark lane, which see under their several articles. This ward is governed by an Alderman, twelve common council men, one of whom is the Alderman’s deputy, thirteen wardmotemen, twelve scavengers, thirteen constables, and a beadle. The jurymen returned by the wardmote inquest, serve in the several courts at Guildhall in the month of May.

Town Clerk, or Common Clerk, an officer who keeps the original charters of the city, the books, rolls, and other records, wherein [194] are registered the acts and proceedings of the city; so that he may properly be stiled the city register; that he may take down any extraordinary proceedings, he attends the Lord Mayor and Aldermen at their courts. This is an office of great profit. The town-clerk and common serjeant take place according to their seniority. Maitland.

Town Ditch, the area behind Christ’s hospital, so called from part of the ditch belonging to the city wall formerly passing through it.

Townsend lane, 1. Hockley in the hole.† 2. Thames street.†

Townsend street, Thames street.†

Townsend’s yard, Queen street, in the Park Southwark.†

Towting, there are two villages of this name in Surry, situated near each other, and distinguished by the epithets Upper and Lower. Upper Towting lies in the road from Southwark to Epsom, about a mile and a half to the westward of Stretham, and has an almshouse founded in 1709, by the mother of Sir John Bateman Lord Mayor of London, for six poor alms-women, to be nominated by the eldest heir of the family; and is adorned with several fine seats belonging to the gentlemen and citizens of London, particularly [195] the house and gardens of the Bateman’s family.

Lower Towting is two miles S. W. of Wandsworth; and here the Lord Gray and the Earl of Lindsey had their seats in the last century.

Trade and Plantation Office, in the Treasury, St. James’s Park. This office is under the government of eight Commissioners, whose business is to examine the custom house accounts of all the goods and merchandize exported and imported to and from the several ports of the kingdom, as well as from foreign ports, in order to inform the government of the advantages and disadvantages of the trade of this nation, with other kingdoms and states, in regard to the balance of trade. And also to encourage our plantations abroad by endeavouring to promote their trade, by discovering and encouraging such branches as are most conducive to their respective interests, as well as to that of this kingdom.

Each of these Commissioners has a salary of 1000l. per annum. Under them are two joint Secretaries who have 500l. a year each; a deputy secretary, who has 200l. a year, a sollicitor and clerk of the reports, enjoyed by the same person, who has 200l. a year; and seven clerks, one [196] of whom has 80l. another 70l. another 60l. another 50l. a year, and two others 40l. a year each.

Traitor’s bridge, over a part of the Thames which runs into Tower ditch, and under the wall, near the middle of the wharf. See the article Tower.

Trance’s lane, Kent street, Southwark.†

Treasurer of St. Paul’s, an officer who has the custody of every thing of value belonging to that cathedral, for the faithful keeping of which he is bound by oath to the dean and chapter. He has a sacrist for an assistant, and has the third stall on the south side of the choir. Newc. Repert.

Trig stairs, Trig lane, Thames street, near Paul’s wharf.†

Trig lane, by Lambert hill, Thames street.†

The Treasury & Horse Guards.

Treasury, a stone building fronting the parade in St. James’s Park. The whole front is rustic; it consists of three stories, of which the lowermost is of the basement kind, with small windows, though they are contained in large arches; this story has the Tuscan proportion, and the second the Doric, with arched windows of a good size; but what is very singular, the upper part of this story is adorned with the triglyphs and metopes of the Doric freeze, though this range of ornament is supported by neither columns nor [197] pilasters. Over this story is a range of Ionic columns in the centre, supporting a pediment. Upon the whole the Treasury must be allowed to be a building composed of very beautiful parts, but it were to be wished they were fewer and larger, as there is a sufficient distance to view it.

This edifice, has on the inside a court surrounded with buildings, and here is not only the Treasury, but the office of trade and plantations.

The Treasury is under the government of five Lords Commissioners, one of whom is called first Lord of the Treasury, and has a salary of 4000l. per annum, and the rest have 1600l. a year each. Under these are two joint Secretaries, four chief clerks, and sixteen other clerks: two clerks of the revenue who have 100l. a year each, two sollicitors who have 500l. a year each, and an assistant, an office keeper who has 300l. a year, and finds coals and candles for the office, four messengers of the Exchequer, a messenger of the chamber, and other servants. See the article Exchequer.

Trinity court, 1. Aldersgate street.☐ 2. Little Minories.☐ 3. Little Trinity lane, Bow lane.☐

Trinity Hall, in Aldersgate street, near the corner of Little Britain. Here formerly [198] stood a priory belonging to the abbey of Cluny in France, which being suppressed by King Henry V. his Majesty granted its revenues to the parishioners of St. Botolph, on condition of their founding in that church a fraternity dedicated to the Holy Trinity. Part of the building is still existing and let out to a coffee-house; but the upper part, says Maitland, retains somewhat of the appearance of its original use, it serving for a place of worship to a congregation of Nonjurors. Here also the parishioners meet in vestry on particular occasions.

Trinity Hospital, at Mile-end, is a very noble, and yet unexpensive edifice, rendered beautiful by its situation, and the agreeable manner in which it is laid out. It consists of two wings and a center, wherein is the chapel, which rises considerably higher than the other buildings, and has an ascent to it by a handsome flight of steps secured by iron rails; this chapel has large windows, and is adorned with a pediment; behind it rises a turret, ornamented with a clock, and crowned with a fane. On each side of the chapel, are two sets of apartments exactly resembling the wings.

The wings are low but neat buildings, with an ascent of seven steps to each pair [199] of doors, secured by brick walls capped with stone, and there are six of these ascents to each wing, besides two in the front, one on each side the chapel. Between each of these ascents is a pump fixed close to the wall.

It is remarkable that all these ascents lead to the upper story; there are however rooms below, but these are under ground and the windows upon a level with a broad stone pavement, that surrounds the area next the houses. In the centre of each wing is a handsome pediment, adorned with the company’s arms, with the representation of ropes, anchors, and sea weeds, in open work, spread over the face of the pediments, and the area within consists of handsome grass-plats, divided by gravel-walks, kept in excellent order, leading down the middle, and across to the centre of the area, where is a statue in stone of Mr. Robert Sandes well executed. He has a bale of goods placed behind; he stands with his right-foot upon another bale, and near his left-foot is a small globe, and anchor. On the pedestal is the following inscription:

To the memory of Captain Robert Sandes, an elder brother, and deputy-master of the corporation of Trinity House, [200] who dy’d in 1701, and bequeath’d to the poor thereof one hundred pounds, also the reversion (after two lives) of a freehold estate in the county of Lincoln of 147l. a year, now in their possession. This statue was erected by the corporation A.D. 1746.

The end of each wing next the road has an empty niche, and over it is a very small pediment, on each side which is placed a small ship.

The ground on which this hospital stands was given to the corporation of the Trinity house by capt. Henry Mudd, an elder brother, and the above beautiful and commodious building erected by the company in the year 1695, for the reception of twenty-eight masters of ships, or their widows, each of whom receives 16s. per month, 20s. a year for coals, and a gown every second year.

Trinity House, a society founded in the year 1515, by Sir Thomas Spert, Knt. commander of the great ship Henry Grace de Dieu, and comptroller of the navy to Henry VIII. for the regulation of seamen, and the convenience of ships and mariners on our coast, and incorporated by the above mentioned Prince who confirmed to them not only the ancient rights and [201] privileges of the company of mariners of England; but their several possessions at Deptford; which together with the grants of Queen Elizabeth and King Charles II. were also confirmed by letters patent of the first of James II. in 1685, by the name of The master, wardens and assistants of the guild or fraternity of the most glorious and undivided Trinity, and of St. Clement in the parish of Deptford Strond in the county of Kent.

This corporation is governed by a master, four wardens, eight assistants, and eighteen elder brethren; but the inferior members of the fraternity, named younger brethren, are of an unlimited number, for every master, or mate, expert in navigation may be admitted as such; and these serve as a continual nursery to supply the vacancies among the elder brethren when removed by death, or otherwise.

The master, wardens, assistants, and elder brethren are by charter invested with the following powers:

1. That of examining the mathematical children of Christ’s hospital.

2. The examination of the masters of his Majesty’s ships; the appointing pilots to conduct ships in and out of the river Thames; and the amercing all such as shall presume to act as master of a ship of war [202] or pilot, without their approbation, in a pecuniary mulct of 20s.

3. The settling the several rates of pilotage and erecting light-houses, and other sea marks upon the several coasts of the kingdom, for the security of navigation; to which light-houses all ships pay one half-penny a tun.

4. The granting licences to poor seamen, not free of the city, to row on the river Thames for their support, in the intervals of sea service, or when past going to sea.

5. The preventing of aliens from serving on board English ships, without their licence, upon the penalty of 5l. for each offence.

6. The punishing of seamen for desertion, or mutiny, in the merchants service.

7. The hearing and determining the complaints of officers and seamen in the merchants service; but subject to an appeal to the Lords of the Admiralty, or the Judge of the court of Admiralty.

To this company belongs the ballast office, for clearing and deepning the river Thames, by taking from thence a sufficient quantity of ballast, for the supply of all ships that sail out of that river; in which service sixty barges with two men [203] in each, are constantly employed, and all ships that take in ballast pay them 1s. a ton, for which it is brought to the ships sides.

In consideration of the great increase of the poor of this fraternity, they are by their charter impowered to purchase in mortmain lands, tenements, &c. to the amount of 500l. per annum; and also to receive charitable benefactions of well disposed persons, to the like amount of 500l. per annum, clear of reprizes.

There are annually relieved by this company about 3000 poor seamen, their widows, and orphans, at the expence of about 6000l.

They commonly meet to chuse their master at their house at Deptford; but are not obliged to do it there. See the article Deptford.

Their meetings are generally on Wednesdays and Saturdays, at their house in Water lane, Thames street; but their courts are not constantly fixed to a set time.

Their house in Water lane has been twice burnt down, once at the fire of London, and the last time in the year 1718. Among the curiosities preserved in the hall of this building is a flag taken from the Spaniards, by the brave Sir [204] Francis Drake, whose picture is also there: a large and exact model of a ship entirely rigged, and two large globes; and in the parlour are five large drawings curiously performed by the pen, of several engagements at sea in the reign of King Charles II. Maitland.

Trinity lane, Garlick hill, Thames street.☐

Trinity Minories, a curasy situated in the Little Minories, in Portsoken-ward, where anciently stood an abbey of nuns of the order of St. Clare, called the Minoresses, founded by Edmund Earl of Lancaster, brother to King Edward I. in the year 1293, but being suppressed in the year 1539, a number of houses were erected in its room, and a small church was built for the inhabitants, and dedicated to the Trinity, whence it received its present appellation, the additional epithet of Minories being added from the above Monastery.

The present church is a small brick edifice with a low tower crowned with a turret.

The patronage has been all along in the crown: but the income of the curate is said to be so small as to amount to no more than 25l. per annum, besides surplice fees.


Trinity the Less, a church formerly seated at the north-east corner of Little Trinity lane, where at present a German chapel, denominated the Swedish church, is situated; it received the epithet of Less, to distinguish it from the Trinity priory at Aldgate: but this church suffering the fate of the other public buildings, at the fire of London in 1666, and not being rebuilt, the parish was by act of parliament united to the church of St. Michael’s Queenhithe.

Trinity Priory, on the south side within Aldgate, was founded by Queen Matilda, daughter to Malcolm King of Scotland, wife to Henry I. in the year 1108, in the place where Siredus had begun to erect a church in honour of the holy cross and St. Mary Magdalen: she endowed it with the port of Aldgate, the customs belonging to it, and the sum of 25l.

This priory was built on a piece of ground upwards of three hundred feet long, in the parish of St. Catharine, near a parochial chapel dedicated to St. Michael, which stood where are now the row of houses by the pump, fronting the gate; and soon obtained the name of Christ church; in a short time it grew rich in lands and ornaments, and surpassed all the priories in the city of London [206] and county of Middlesex, for its church, got into its possession the parishes belonging to the neighbouring churches of St. Mary Magdalen, St. Michael, and St. Catharine, and the prior was frequently an Alderman. This priory was dissolved by King Henry VIII. in the year 1531, and of nine well-tuned bells that belonged to the conventual church, the four largest are now in the steeple of Stepney church, and the other five at St. Stephen’s Coleman street. Maitland.

Trinity stairs, Broad street, Ratcliff.☐

Trinity street, Rotherhith.☐

Trinity yard, Broad street, Ratcliff.☐

Tripp’s alley, Whitechapel.☐

Trotter alley, Barnaby street, Southwark.

Trotterbone alley. Duke street.

Trumball’s yard, Queen street, Windmill street.†

Trump alley, Cheapside.

Trump street, King street.

Trumpet yard, Whitechapel.*

Tryance court, Red lion street, Spitalfields.

Trype yard, 1. Catharine Wheel alley: 2. Dunning’s alley, Bishopsgate street without: 3. Petticoat lane.

Tudor street, Bridewell Precinct.

Tufton street, Lumley street, Westminster.

Tuke’s court, Chancery lane.†


Tun, in Cornhill, a prison built with stone by Henry Wallis, Mayor of London in the year 1282, as a prison for night-walkers, and other suspicious persons, and called the Tun from its resembling a tun standing upon one end. This prison being, in 1401, made a cistern for water conveyed by leaden pipes from Tyburn; was thence called the conduit. It had at the same time a strong prison made of timber placed upon it, which was called the cage; this prison had a pair of stocks, and was for the punishment of night-walkers. On the top of the cage was placed a pillory for the punishment of bakers offending in the assize of bread; for millers stealing of corn at the mill; for bawds, scolds, and persons guilty of perjury; the last mentioned persons were usually brought on horseback from Newgate with paper mitres on their heads, and with their faces to the horses tails, and having stood in this pillory, were in the same manner conducted back to Newgate.

Tun alley, Love lane, Wood street.*

Turk’s Head court, Golden lane, Barbican.*

Turk’s Head yard, Turnmill street, Cowcross.*

Turks Row, Chelsea.


Turky or Levant Company, a body of merchants incorporated by Queen Elizabeth in the year 1579, when that Princess granted them many great privileges, which have been confirmed by several succeeding Princes.

The trade of this company originally extended no farther than to Venice; but discovering there oriental gems, and other valuable commodities brought from the east, they extended their trade to Turky; and tho’ the English East Company, which was afterwards incorporated, deprived them of the trade of jewels and spices, they have almost ever since carried on a trade to the Levant with success, though it is now upon the decline. Maitland.

In the Turky trade there was always a balance against us; and yet it was esteemed of no disservice to the nation, as that company imported raw silk, cotton, and several other articles that were purchased with our cloth and other woollen goods; but the French have supplanted us by making a slight sort of cloth, that appears as fine as ours, and being made thinner and lighter, is not only fitter for warm climates; but can be afforded cheaper.

In the year 1754, an act was passed, by which it was ordered that every subject [209] of Great Britain, who desired admission into the Turky company, should be admitted within thirty days after such request, and enjoy all the privileges of the company, on their paying 20l. for such admission.

The affairs of this company are managed by a Governor, deputy governor and a court of assistants, consisting of eighteen members, annually chosen in the month of February; who hold a court monthly, or as occasion requires, for the management of the company’s affairs; as appointing Consuls, Vice-consuls, factors, &c. to the places where their factories are kept; as at Smyrna, Aleppo, Constantinople, Cyprus, &c. who are answerable to the company for what they do or act under them.

Turn-about alley, Windmill Hill row.

Turn-again lane, 1. Snow Hill: 2. Thomas street.

Turnbull street, Cowcross, this street was anciently denominated Turnmill Street, from the mills erected in it, turned by a stream of water from Hampstead and Highgate; which being at present seemingly dried up, some writers have represented it as lost; but that stream is brought to the suburbs of London in [210] two large wooden pipes, each of a seven inch bore. Maitland.

Turnbull yard, White’s alley, Longditch.

Turners, a society incorporated by letters patent granted by King James I. in the year 1604; by the name of The master, wardens and commonalty of the art or mystery de lez Turners of London.

This company is governed by a master, two wardens, and twenty-four assistants; with a livery of 144 members, who, upon their admission, pay a fine of 8l. They have a convenient hall on College hill, Thames street.

Turner’s alley, Little Eastcheap.†

Turner’s court, St. Martin’s lane.†

Turner’s street, Derby street.†

Turnmill street, the ancient name of the street now corruptly called Turnbull street. See Turnbull street.

Turnpike passage, King street.

Turn-stile, 1. Drury lane: 2. Holbourn.

Turnwheel lane, Cannon street, by Wallbrook.

Turret yard, Little sanctuary, Westminster.

Turnville street, Shoreditch Fields.

Tuttle court, Barnaby street, Southwark.

Tweed street, Berwick street, Old Soho.


Tweezer’s alley, Milford lane, in the Strand.

Twelve Bell court, Bow church-yard, Cheapside.*

Twickenham, a pleasant village in Middlesex situated on the Thames between Teddington and Isleworth, and between two brooks that here fall into that river. The church, which is a modern edifice, rebuilt by the contribution of the inhabitants, is a fine Doric structure. Here is a charity school for fifty boys, who are cloathed and taught: And this delightful village is adorned with the seats of several persons of distinction, particularly on the bank of the river. To begin at the upper end; there is an elegant Gothic seat called Strawberry Hill, belonging to the Honorable Mr. Walpole; then a beautiful house, late the Earl of Radnor’s, now in the possession of Mr. Hindley. The next of considerable note is Sir William Stanhope’s, formerly the residence of our most celebrated poet Mr. Alexander Pope; then Mrs. Backwell’s; and the last on this beautiful bank is doctor Battie’s, at present in the possession of Mr. Paulet. All these houses, besides several others on this delightful bank, enjoy a most pleasing prospect both up and down the river, perpetually enlivened with the west country navigation, [212] and other moving pictures on the surface of this enchanting river. Then below the church, you have the fine seat of Mr. Whitchurch, that of the Earl of Strafford, Mrs. Pitt, and at the entrance into the meadows, the elegant structure called Marble Hall, belonging to the Countess of Suffolk. Still further down the stream you have the small but very pretty house of Mr. Barlow; the larger and more grand one of Mr. Cambridge; and the sweet retirement called Twickenham Park, the residence of the Countess of Montrath. This brings you down to Isleworth, which from the entrance into the meadows at Lady Suffolk’s, is about a mile and a half on the bank of the river, opposite to Ham-walks and Richmond-hill, and is one of the most beautiful walks in England.

Twig’s rents, Blue Anchor alley.†

Twisters alley, Whitecross street.

Two Brewer’s yard, in the Curtain, Hog lane.*

Two Leg alley, Old Bethlem.*

Two Swan yard, Bishopsgate street.*

Twyford’s alley, Petty France, Westminster.†

Tyburn, anciently a village situated on the eastern bank of the rivulet Tyburn, [213] from whence it took its name, and at the east end of the Lord Mayor’s banquetting house bridge, in the neighbourhood of which the city has nine conduits, that were first erected about the year 1238, for supplying the city with water; but it having for many years been better supplied from the New River, the citizens in the year 1703, let the water of those conduits on a lease of forty-three years, for the sum of 700l. per annum.

At the north-east corner of Tyburn Bridge stood the Lord Mayor’s banqueting house, to which it was usual for his Lordship to repair with the Aldermen, accompanied by their ladies in waggons, to view the city conduits, after which they had an entertainment at the banqueting house. This edifice under which were two cisterns, for the reception of the water from the neighbouring conduits, having been for many years, neglected, was taken down in the year 1737, and Tyburn is now only known by the gallows, erected where that village stood, and at present alone bears the name of Tyburn. Maitland.

Tyburn lane, Hyde Park road.

Tyburn road, Oxford street.


Tyger court, Whitecross street, Cripplegate.*

Tyer’s gate, Barnaby street, Southwark.†

Tyler’s street, King’s street, Golden Square.†

Tyson’s street, Shoreditch Fields.†


Valiant Soldier alley, Barnaby street.*

Vauxhall, a hamlet in the parish of Lambeth, particularly famous for the pleasantness of the gardens, that have been many years converted into a place of genteel entertainment, during the spring and summer seasons. They were the first of the kind perhaps in the world: in the midst of the garden is a superb orchestre containing a fine organ and a band of music with some of the best voices, and the seats or boxes are disposed to the best advantage with respect to hearing the music. In most of the boxes are pictures painted from the designs of Mr. Hayman, on subjects admirably adapted to the place. But there are in the grand pavilion four pictures of his own hand from the historical plays of Shakespear that are universally admired for the [215] design, colouring and expression. The trees are scattered here with a pleasing confusion. At some distance are several noble vistas of very tall trees, where the spaces between each are filled up with neat hedges, and on the inside are planted flowers and sweet smelling shrubs. Some of these vistas terminate in a view of ruins, and others in a prospect of the adjacent country, and some are adorned with the painted representation of triumphal arches. There are here also several statues, and in particular a good one in marble by Mr. Roubiliac of the late Mr. Handell playing on a lyre in the character of Orpheus. As Ranelagh has its rotunda, so here also is a rotund and ball room, finely illuminated, in which is an orchestre with an organ, where if the evening proves rainy the company may be safely sheltered and entertained. When it grows dark the garden near the orchestre is illuminated, almost in an instant, with about 1500 glass lamps, which glitter among the trees, and render it exceeding light and brilliant: and soon after a very extraordinary piece of machinery has of late been exhibited, on the inside of one of the hedges near the entrance into the vistas: by removing a curtain is shewn a very fine landscape illuminated by concealed light; in which [216] the principal objects that strike the eyes are the cascade or waterfall, and a miller’s house. The exact appearance of water is seen flowing down a declivity, and turning the wheel of the mill: it rises up in foam at the bottom, and then glides away. This moving picture, attended with the noise of the water, has a very pleasing and surprizing effect both on the eye and ear; but we cannot help observing, with respect to this piece, that however well it is executed, yet peoples being obliged to wait till the curtain is drawn; and after beholding it for a few minutes, having it again suddenly concealed from the view, when the exhibition is ended for that night, has too much the air of a raree show. If it could have been contrived to make its appearance gradually, with the rising of the moon in the same picture, which might seem to enlighten the prospect, and at length by degrees to become obscured by the passing of that luminary behind a cloud, the effect would perhaps have been much more agreeable. Every thing is provided in these gardens in the most elegant manner for the company who chuse to sup.

S. Wale delin. E. Rooker sc.
View at the Entrance into Vaux Hall.

Vauxhall court, Little Chapel street.

Vauxhall stairs, Vauxhall.


Vauxhall Stairs lane, leading from the above stairs toward the garden.

Vauxhall walk, Bull street, Lambeth.

St. Vedast’s, situated on the east side of Foster lane, in the Ward of Farringdon within. A church has stood for many centuries in the place where this is situated; but not under the same tutelage: the first building was dedicated to St. Foster, and from that the lane in which it stands was called Foster lane: but afterwards the church being rebuilt, was put under the patronage of St. Vedast, Bishop of Arras, in France, who died in the year 550.

This church was so far destroyed by the fire of London in 1666, that nothing was left standing but the steeple and the walls; but these being repaired, continued till the year 1694, when they were taken down, and the present edifice was finished in 1697. It is built entirely of stone, and the body is sixty-nine feet in length, fifty-one broad, and thirty-six feet high. It is well enlightened by a range of windows placed so high that the doors open under them. The tower is plain, and the spire which is short rises from a double base. English architecture.


The author of The Critical Review of the public buildings, mentioning this steeple says, “It is not a glaring pile that strikes the eye at the first view with an idea of grandeur and magnificence; but then the beautiful pyramid it forms, and the just and well proportioned simplicity of all its parts, satisfy the mind so effectually, that nothing seems to be wanting, and nothing can be spared.”

The patronage of this church was anciently in the prior and convent of Canterbury, till coming to the archbishop of that see in the year 1352 it has been in him and his successors ever since, and is one of the thirteen peculiars in the city belonging to the archiepiscopal see. To this church the parish of St. Michael Quern is united, and the rector receives 160l. a year in lieu of tithes. Maitland.

Vere street, 1. Beer street: 2. Brook’s street, Ratcliff: 3. Clare Market: 4. Oxford street. Thus named from the Lady of the late Earl of Oxford.

Victualling Office, on the upper part of Little Tower Hill near the end of King street; is separated from Tower Hill by a wall and gates, and contains some houses for the officers, with store rooms, slaughter houses, a brewhouse, [219] for salting, barrelling, &c. of provisions.

This office is under the direction of seven commissioners, each of whom has his separate department, as in the Navy Office, and a salary of 400l. per annum, as the first commissioner and comptroller, the commissioner of the bakehouse, another of the cutting house, another of the brewhouse; another of the accounts; another of the cooperage; and another who is hoytaker.

Under these commissioners is a secretary who has 200l. per annum, and five clerks; a cash accomptant who has 120l. per annum, and four clerks, besides an extra-clerk; an accomptant for stores, who has 100l. per annum, and five clerks, besides an extra-clerk; the clerk of the bakehouse and master baker, who has 130l. a year, and two clerks, besides an extra-clerk, a clerk of the cutting house who has 110l. a year, a clerk and extra-clerk. Besides these there are a storekeeper of the brewhouse, who has 60l. a year; a master cooper; a muster master of the workmen; a master butcher; a surveyor of oxen and hogs; clerks to keep charge on pursers, a clerk for stating a purser’s accounts, a short allowance clerk, and a clerk to [220] bring up accounts of stores in arrears, most of these have clerks under them: and there are also a few other officers and servants.

Vigo lane, 1. Burlington Gardens: 2. Swallow street.

Villar’s court, 1. Huggen lane: 2. St. James’s street.

Villar’s street, in the Strand, so called from its being built on the ground where the house of Villars Duke of Buckingham formerly stood. See York Buildings.

Vincent’s court, Silver street.†

Vine court, 1. Bishopsgate street without.* 2. Brook’s street.* 3. Chequer alley.* 4. Golden lane.* 5. Gravel lane.* 6. Harp alley, Shoe lane.* 7. Lamb street, Spitalfields.* 8. Moor lane.* 9. Narrow street, Limehouse.* 10. Onslow street, Vine street.* 11. Shoemaker row, Aldgate.* 12. Three Crane lane, Thames street.* 13. Vine street, in the Minories.* 14. Vine yard, Horsely down lane.* 15. Vineyard, St. Olave’s street.* 16. Whitechapel.*

Vine street, 1. Fore street, Limehouse.* 2. St. Giles’s.* 3. Hatton Wall.* 4. Lamb street.* 5. Maiden lane, Deadman’s place.* 6. Millbank.* 7. in the Minories.* 8. Narrow Wall, Lambeth.* 9. Chandois street.* 10. Warwick street.

Vine yard, 1. Old Horselydown lane.* 2. Pickax street, Aldersgate [221] street.* 3. Ratcliff.* 4. Redcross street.* 5. Tooley street, Southwark.*

Vinegar yard, 1. Barnaby street, Southwark: 2. Blue Anchor, alley: 3. Bowl alley, St. Giles’s: 4. Dirty lane, Blackman street, Southwark: 5. Drury lane: 6. George street, in the Mint: 7. St. John’s lane, Smithfield: 8. Sun yard, Nightingale lane.

Vintner alley, Thames street.

Vintners, one of the twelve principal companies, were anciently denominated Merchant wine tunners of Gascoyne, and were of two sorts, the Veneatrii, who imported the wine, and the Tabernarii who sold it by retail, either kept taverns or wine cellars. They were however incorporated by letters patent granted by King Henry VI. in the year 1437, by the name of the master, wardens, freemen and commonalty of the mystery of Vintners of the city of London; but without the power of making by-laws.

They are governed by a master, three wardens, twenty-eight assistants, with a livery of 194 members, who, upon their admission, pay a fine of 31l. 13s. 4d. They are possessed of a very considerable estate, out of which is paid to charitable uses about 600l. a year, and have a handsome hall in Thames street, [222] where was formelry the house of Sir John Stody, who gave it the company: it was called in antient records the place of Stody, or the manor of the Vintry.

The buildings enclose a square court, and in the north front next the street is a large and handsome gate, with columns wreathed with grapes and supporting a Bacchus on three tons. Behind the hall is a garden through which is a passage to the Thames.

Vintners Almshouse, at Mile-end, was founded by the company of Vintners, for the use of twelve widows of deceased members, each of whom receives 3s. a week, and every year a chaldron of coals, and about 40s. given at certain times. Maitland.

Vintry Ward, takes its name from the Vintry, situated where the Vintners hall now stands, and where the antient vintners or wine merchants, who lived on the banks of the Thames, landed their wines, which they were obliged to sell in forty days, till Edward I. granted them longer time, and certain privileges. This ward is bounded on the north by Cordwainers wards; on the east, by Walbrook and Dowgate wards; on the south by the Thames, and on the west by Queenhithe ward. The principal streets are a part [223] of Thames street, from Little Elbow lane in the east, to Townsend lane, in the west; a part of Queen street, Great St. Thomas Apostles, Garlick hill, Great and Little Elbow lane, &c. and the most remarkable buildings are the parish churches of St. Michael’s Royal, St. Martin’s Vintry, and St. James Garlickhithe; Vintners hall, Cutlers hall, Plumbers hall, and Fruiterers hall.

The government of this ward is by an alderman, and nine common councilmen, under whom are four scavengers, fourteen wardmote inquest men, and a beadle. The jurymen returned by the wardmote inquest for this ward are to serve in the several courts held in Guildhall in the month of April. Stow. Maitland.

Virginia court, 1. Artichoke lane: 2. Butcher Row, East Smithfield.

Virginia Planters hill, Upper Shadwell.

Virginia row, 1. Greyhound lane, Limehouse: 2. Shoreditch.

Virginia street, Ratcliff Highway.

Underwood’s Almshouse, was at first erected at the west end of the rectory house of St. Botolph’s Bishopsgate, by one Mr. Underwood, for the accommodation of sixteen poor old women; but on the rebuilding of Petty France, when it changed its name to that of Broad street, &c. [224] this almshouse, with that of Alleyn’s adjoining, were in the year 1730, forced to make way for the new passage leading into Bishopsgate street; and a new building was erected in Lamb Alley, in the same parish, for these poor women, each of whom is allowed 2s. 6d. per month.

Unicorn alley, 1. Blackman street, Southwark.* 2. Fore street, Cripplegate.* 3. Holiwell street.* 4. Kent street, Southwark.* 5. in the Minories.* 6. Wheeler street.*

Unicorn court, 1. in the Haymarket.* 2. Kent street.* 3. Redcross street.*

Unicorn yard, 1. Blackman street Southwark.* 2. Butcher Row, East Smithfield.* 3. St. Olave’s street, Southwark.* 4. Old street, Horselydown.* 5. Tooly street, Southwark.*

Union bridge, Old Horselydown, Southwark.

Union court, 1. a well built court in Broad street, London Wall, extending into Wormwood street: 2. Scroop’s court, Holbourn: 3. Throgmorton street, Lothbury.

Union Fire Office, is a very handsome building, erected for that purpose in Maiden lane, near Cheapside, where goods and merchandize, but not houses, are [225] insured from loss by fire, by a mutual contribution.

This office, like that of the Hand-in-Hand Fire Office, was erected by a considerable number of persons, who mutually agreeing to insure one another’s goods and merchandize from loss by fire by an amicable contribution, entered into a deed of settlement for that purpose, on the 16th of February, 1714–15, and had it inrolled in chancery on the 3d of July following, and this deed being signed by all persons desirous of becoming members, they are thereby admitted to an equal share in the profit and loss, in proportion to their respective policies.

This office insures for all merchants, traders, housekeepers, and others in the cities of London and Westminster and within ten miles round, merchandize, goods, wares, utensils in trade, houshold furniture, and wearing apparel; except plate, pictures, glass and china ware not in trade; except also ready money, jewels, books of account, tallies, writings, barns, ricks and stacks of corn, hay, straw and horses. The term of insurance to be seven years, or less if desired.

The terms and methods of insurance are as follows


I. For the policy and mark are paid 8s. 6d. over and above all other expences.

II. Every person designing to insure, shall before surveying the goods, pay 10s. earnest money, to go towards the charge of insuring, if agreed to, and the policy be taken up within three months after, otherwise the said 10s. is sunk to the society: but if the directors do not agree to such insurance, the earnest money to be returned. Also old policies directed to be renewed, and not taken away within three months are also to be cancelled, and the charge of the policies and stamps of such renewals deducted out of the deposit-money of such insurers.

III. For every 100l. insured on goods inclosed within brick or stone, 2s. premium, and 10s. deposit; and on goods not so inclosed, 3s. premium, and 15s. deposit. And so in proportion within part brick part timber.

IV. For insurances deemed hazardous, as to situation, or kind of goods, each 100l. inclosed in brick or stone, 4s. premium, and 1l. deposit; in timber, 6s. premium, and 1l. 10s. deposit. Hazardous Insurances both by situation and kind of goods, if inclosed in brick or stone, 6s. premium, and 1l. 10s. deposit; in timber 9s. premium, and 2l. 5s. deposit. And [227] so in proportion within part brick part timber.

V. Those who insure above 1000l. not exceeding 2000l. in one policy, to pay double the premium that others do, but the same deposit; and from 2000l. to 3000l. on the following terms, viz. For every 100l. insured on goods inclosed in brick or stone, 6s. premium and 10s. deposit, and on goods not so inclosed, 9s. premium, and 15s. deposit. Insurances deemed hazardous, as to situation or kind of goods, each 100l. inclosed in brick or stone, 12s. premium, and 1l. deposit; in timber 18s. premium, and 1l. 10s. deposit. Hazardous insurances, both by situation and kind of goods, if inclosed in brick or stone, 18s. premium, and 1l. 10s. deposit; in timber 1l. 7s. premium, and 2l. 5s. deposit; and so in proportion within part brick part timber. Since the 15th of November 1738, the society have enlarged their insurances to 4000l. on the following terms, viz. For every 100l. insured on goods inclosed in brick or stone, 6s. premium, and 10s. deposit; and on goods not so inclosed, 9s. premium, and 15s. deposit; and the hazardous insurances in the same proportion as the 3000l. insurances; and so in [228] proportion within part brick part timber, and since to 5000l.

VI. If more than twenty pounds weight of gunpowder is kept on the premises insur’d, the policy is to be void.

VII. All insurances beyond the bills of mortality pay 3s. to the surveyor for his charges, &c.

VIII. Every member to have a policy under the hands and seals of three of the trustees, and the society’s mark (being a double Hand-in-Hand) affix’d upon his house, &c. The insurance to be good from the time the charge is paid, and the deed of settlement subscribed by the person insuring. The policy, on expiration (after accounting for the deposit-money and mean profits) to be returned to the Office, as also the mark.

IX. So much of the deposit-money is to be returned at the expiration of the policy, as has not been applied to the making good of losses, and the payment of necessary charges, together with a proportionable dividend of profits. And beyond the deposit, no one to be answerable for above 10s. per cent. on brick, and proportionably for part brick and timber, to any one loss.

X. Every member transferring his policy, and the executors or administrators of [229] every member dying, shall within three months at farthest, give notice thereof to the directors or their clerk, and bring the policy to the office, to have such transfer, or death, indorsed, and enter’d in the books, and in default thereof the benefit of the insurance to be lost. Every of which indorsements to be sign’d by two trustees at least, and 6d. for every 100l. on each removal insured to be paid for the same. Provided, that if the directors do not allow of such executor, administrator or assignee to be a member, or do not admit of any such indorsement of any such transfer, or death, (all questions thereabouts to be decided by balloting) then such executor, administrator or assignee, or person, shall only have what shall be due to their respective policies, and all farther demands on the said policies shall henceforth cease, any forfeitures or disabilities incurred by the breach of this article, where no loss has happened, may be relieved by the directors, if from the nature and circumstances of the case they think it reasonable.

XI. Any members of this society removing their goods from the places where they were assured, shall have no benefit of such assurance, or be paid for any loss that may happen, till such removal [230] be allowed by the directors for the time being; and if notice be not given of such removal within three kalendar months after the time of such removal, the policy to be void.

XII. The insurance of any goods, &c. in this society, which shall be insured in any other office at the same time, to be void: And yet such insurer shall be liable to his covenants. Nevertheless a liberty is given to insure in any other office, so as such other insurance is indorsed on this society’s policy, and subscribed by two of the trustees, for which 6d. per cent. is to be paid; and in which case a proportionable part of any loss is to be paid by this society.

XIII. All members sustaining any loss, shall give immediate notice of it to the directors, or clerk, in order to a view, and shall make out their loss by the oaths on affirmations of themselves, or by their domesticks or servants, or by their books or vouchers, or the Certificates of the minister, churchwardens, constables, or other neighbouring inhabitants, not concern’d in such loss, or by such other method as the directors shall reasonably require; and in case of fraud or perjury, such pretended sufferers to lose all benefits of the insurance. In case of any violent [231] suspicion of fraud or clandestine practices, (though the same for want of evidence may not be fully proved) it shall be lawful for the directors to declare such member’s policy void, and exclude him the society; and he is never afterwards to be capable of insuring in this office. All questions relating thereunto to be decided among the directors by balloting.

XIV. The directors, shall on all alarms of fire meet together at their office to determine upon the methods most conducive to the safety of the office, and service of the public.

XV. The directors with all convenient expedition, after any loss, shall settle a rate of contribution, and set it up in the office, and publish it in the Gazette, and otherwise as they think fit. And when such loss amounts to 50l. or upwards, such rate shall be settled by a majority of the directors at two successive weekly-meetings at the least; and if any five members, insuring to the value of 5000l. think themselves agrieved, they may within fourteen days after such publication, inspect all the office accounts, &c. and offer their exceptions to the directors; and not being there agreed, it shall stand referred to the next general meeting. Nevertheless when such rates shall exceed the [232] deposit-money, every member shall pay into the office his proportion, within thirty days after such publication; and all defaulters may by the directors be excluded the benefit of their insurances, and yet be liable to the payment of the said rates, pursuant to these articles.

Other offices of insurance on goods either deduct at least 3 per cent. out of each claim for defraying charges, &c. or oblige the sufferers to agree to an average; which this office is so far from doing, that no person is put to any charge but that of an affidavit to prove his loss. And though it is objected against this office, that the members are liable to farther contributions, upon extraordinary losses, which is not the case in any other office that insures goods; yet this is certainly so far from being an objection against the Union Office, and a recommendation of those other offices, with such as reason justly, that this single confederation proves the excellency of the Union establishment, in making such provision for answering losses, as it is presumed, cannot be exceeded by any human contrivance. This office has paid since its first establishment in 1715 to the end of the year 1757, to sufferers by fire, the sum of 62,538l. 18s. 11d. ½ besides which, there [233] have paid to porters and other necessary charges occasioned by fires upwards of 5600l.

This office is under the management of twenty-four directors, elected by a majority of the members out of their own body, by balloting, at a general meeting in the month of September; at which time the oldest eight of the twenty-four go out, and eight others are elected in their stead in a way of constant rotation. These appoint all the other officers, and meet every Wednesday in the afternoon between the hours of three and seven, to dispatch business, and in March to ascertain the dividends and contributions for the preceding year. The directors annually chuse out of their own body by balloting, a treasurer, and two assistant treasurers; also six trustees, three of whom sign all policies; and five auditors, to examine and pass the accounts; but as this office is solely calculated for the public good, none of the directors have any advantage above the rest of the members.

There are porters and watermen, &c. provided by the office, who assist in removing of goods; these wearing the societies livery and badge, and having given security for their fidelity, may be trusted in case of danger. Extracted from a copy [234] of the proposals, and an abstract of the deed of settlement received at the office in October 1758.

Union square, in the Minories.

Union stairs, Wapping.

Union street, 1. King street, Westminster: 2. New Bond street.

Upholders, or Upholsterers, a fraternity incorporated by letters patent granted by King Charles I. in the year 1627. They are governed by a master, two wardens, and twenty-eight assistants with a livery of an hundred and thirty-one members; who upon their admission, pay a fine of 4l. 10s. but they have no hall.

Upper Brook street, Grosvenor square.†

Upper East Smithfield, near Tower Hill.

Upper Ground street, near the Falcon, Southwark.

Upper Gun-alley, Wapping.*

Upper Middle-row, Broad St. Giles’s.§

Upper Moorfields, near St. Luke’s hospital.

Upper Millbank, Horseferry.

Upper Moorfields-row, Upper Moorfields.

Upper Shadwell street, Shadwell.

Upper street, Islington, the street and row on the west side of Islington.

Upper Turn-stile, High Holbourn.☐

Upper Well-alley, Wapping.

Gentleman, Ushers, an order of officers under the Lord Chamberlain, of which there [235] are several classes, as the gentlemen ushers of the privy chamber; those of the presence chamber daily-waiters; and those who are quarter-waiters in ordinary.

The gentlemen ushers of the privy-chamber are four in number, and have the power of commanding all officers under them in the privy-lodgings, the bed-chamber excepted, and when there is a Queen, have the honour of leading her, in the absence of the Lord Chamberlain and Vice Chamberlain. The salary of each is 400l. a year.

The gentlemen ushers of the presence chamber, are also four, who are daily-waiters in ordinary, the first of whom has the considerable office of black rod. This gentleman in time of parliament attends every day the house of Lords, and is also usher of the most noble order of the Garter. See BLACK ROD. These gentlemen ushers wait in the presence chamber, where they attend next the King’s person; these under the Lord Chamberlain and Vice Chamberlain order all affairs, and all the under officers above stairs obey them. They have each 150l. per annum. There is also an assistant gentleman usher whose salary is 66l. 13s. 4d. a year.

The gentlemen ushers quarterly-waiters in ordinary, are eight in number. These [236] also wait in the presence chamber, and give directions in the absence of the gentlemen ushers daily-waiters, to whom they are subordinate. Their salary is only 50l. a year. Chamberlain’s present state.

Usher’s court, Seething lane, Tower street.†

Uxbridge, a town in Middlesex, in the road from London to Oxford, from the first of which it is distant eighteen miles and a half. Though it is entirely independent, and is governed by two bailiffs, two constables, and four headboroughs, it is only a hamlet to Great Hillington. The river Coln runs through it in two streams, full of trout, eels, and other fish, and over the main stream is a stone bridge that leads into Buckinghamshire. The church, or rather chapel, was built in the reign of Henry VI. This town has many good inns, and is particularly distinguished by the whiteness of the bread, particularly their rolls. There are many corn-mills at a small distance, and a considerable number of waggon loads of meal are carried from thence every week to London. Uxbridge gives the title of Earl to the noble family of Paget.



Wade’s rents, Gunpowder alley.†

Waite’s yard, Blackman street, Southwark.†

Wake’s court, Five Feet lane.†

Walbrook, a street which runs down from the south-west corner of the Mansion-house, towards the Thames. This street, which is chiefly inhabited by merchants and tradesmen, especially furriers, took its name from a rivulet called Walbrook, on account of its entering the city through the wall, between Bishopsgate and Moorgate, and after many turnings and windings, ran down this street, and emptied itself into the Thames near Dowgate. The loss of this rivulet was owing to the many bridges built over it, which at last increased to such a number, covered with houses, that whole streets were erected over it, and the channel of the river became a common sewer.

Walbrook Church. See St. Stephen’s Walbrook.

Walbrook Ward, takes its name from the above street. It is bounded on the east by Langbourn ward, on the south, by Dowgate ward; on the west, by Cordwainers ward; and on the north, by Cheap ward. Its principal streets and lanes are, [238] Walbrook, Cannon street on both sides the way from Green Lettice court to Abchurch lane; the east end of Bucklersbury; St. Swithin’s lane, almost as far as Bearbinder lane, a small part of Lombard street, and almost all Bearbinder lane.

The most remarkable buildings are the fine church of St. Stephen Walbrook, and St. Swithin’s; the Mansion-house for the residence of the Lord Mayor; Salter’s hall; and that antient piece of antiquity called London stone.

This ward is governed by an Alderman, and eight common council men, one of whom is the Alderman’s deputy; thirteen inquestmen, six scavengers, seven constables, and a beadle. The jurymen returned by the wardmote inquest serve in the several courts of Guildhall in the month of October.

Walingford court, Throgmorton street.†

Walker’s court, 1. Berwick street, Old Soho.† 2. Knave’s Acre.†

Walker’s yard, Tothill street.†

Wall of London. See London Wall.

Wall’s alley, in the Minories.†

Wallis’s street, Shoreditch.†

Walnut-tree alley, 1. Bishopsgate street.‡ 2. Tooley street, Southwark.‡

Walnut-tree court, Tooley street.‡ 2. Whitechapel.‡


Walnut-tree yard, Bishopsgate street without.‡

Walter’s Almshouses, of these there are the three following founded by Mr. John Walter, citizen and draper: one of which was in Blackman street, Southwark, built and endowed in the year 1651, for four poor men and eight poor women, each of whom receives 5s. a month, 10s. every new year’s day, and a chaldron of coals yearly. This almhouse is now removed to the south-east side of the New Road, leading from Westminster bridge to Blackman street.

Another founded by the same person in the year 1651, at Newington Butts, for sixteen poor men and women, who have each an allowance of 5s. per month, half a chaldron of coals every year, and 10s. every new year’s day.

Another in Old street, founded by the above Mr. Walters, in the year 1658, for eight poor widows, each of whom have likewise an allowance of 5s. per month, and half a chaldron of coals every Christmas. Maitland.

Walton, a village in Surry, situated on the Thames, opposite to Shepperton in Middlesex. It is said that the last mentioned county once joined to this town, till about 300 years ago, the old current [240] of the Thames was changed by an inundation, and a church destroyed by the waves.

At this place is a very curious bridge over the Thames, erected by the public spirited Samuel Decker, Esq; who lives in this town, and who applying to parliament for that purpose, obtained in the year 1747, an act to impower him to erect a bridge there, and this admirable structure was completed in August 1750.

It consists of only four stone piers, between which are three large truss arches of beams and joists of wood, strongly bound together with mortises, iron pins, and cramps; under these three arches the water constantly runs; besides which are five other arches of brick-work on each side, to render the ascent and descent the more easy; but there is seldom water under any of them, except in great floods, and four of them on the Middlesex side are stopped up, they being on high ground above the reach of the floods.

The middle arch, when viewed by the river side, affords an agreeable prospect of the country, beautifully diversified with wood and water, which is seen through it to a considerable distance. The prodigious compass of this great arch to a person below, occasions a very [241] uncommon sensation of awe and surprize; and his astonishment and attention are increased, when he proceeds to take notice, that all the timbers are in a falling position; for there is not one upright piece to be discovered; and at the same time considers the very small dimensions of the piers by which the whole is supported. The manner of its construction is better shewn in the print than can be described in words.

In passing over this bridge, when you have proceeded past the brick-work, the vacant interfaces between the timbers, yield, at every step, a variety of prospects, which, at the centre, are seen to a still greater advantage. But though each side is well secured by the timber and rails, to the height of eight feet; yet as it affords only a parapet of wide lattice-work, and the apertures seem, even to the eye, large enough to admit the passage of any person to go through, provided he climbs, or is lifted up, and as the water is seen through every opening at a great depth below, those unused to such views cannot approach the side without some apprehensions.

It would, indeed, have been easy to have closed these openings between the braces and rails with boards; but they are [242] purposely left open to admit a free passage for the air, in order to keep the timbers the more sound, and that the least decay may be the more easily perceived and repaired.

From this admirable bridge the nobility and gentry in this neighbourhood find a very agreeable benefit, especially as the ferries are dilatory, dangerous, and at times impassable; and its being erected has caused the roads thereabouts, in both counties, especially on the Surry side, to be greatly improved.

Waltham Abbey, a village in Essex, on the east side of the river Lea, which here dividing, incloses some islands with fine meadows, and parts it from Waltham Cross. The abbey from whence it took its name, was built in honour of the holy cross, by Harold son to Earl Godwin, to whom Edward the Confessor gave the village; and this abbey Harold endowed with West Waltham, now called Waltham Cross, and sixteen other manors. Its abbots, who were mitred, and had the twentieth place in parliament, lived in a most splendid, but hospitable manner, and were frequently visited by Henry III. when he was reduced, and obliged to carry his family about for a dinner. The abbey was at its dissolution bestowed by [243] King Henry VIII. on Sir Anthony Denny, his groom of the stole, whose grandson afterwards employing workmen to convert it into a seat for himself, they are said to have dug up the corpse of Harold, which after his being slain in battle against William the Conqueror, was at his mother’s request, by the Conqueror’s consent, interred in the abbey.

This is now, or was lately, the seat of —— Jones, Esq; the gardens belonging to the house, were some years since much admired; but since the taste for inclosed gardens has been condemned, they have been little frequented unless by some curious persons, to see the fine tulip tree that grows in a grass plot near the house.

Waltham Cross, also called West Waltham, is a post and market town on the west side of the river Lea in Middlesex, in the road to Ware, twelve measured miles from London. It takes its distinguishing epithet from the cross built there by Edward I. in honour of his beloved Queen Eleanor, whose corps in its way from Lincolnshire to London rested here. That Princess’s effigies are placed round the pillar with the arms of her consort, and those of her own, viz. England, Castile, Leon, and Poictou, which are still in part remaining though greatly defaced.


Walthamstow, a village in Essex, situated on the river Lea, contiguous to Low-Layton. Here are three manors, Walthamstow Tony or High-hall, Walthamstow Frances, or Low-hall, which was the manor of the late J. Conyers, Esq; and the manor of the rectory, which once belonged to Trinity abbey in London.

In this parish are several ancient seats, and handsome houses, belonging to persons of distinction, the most remarkable of which was that of Higham-hall, pleasantly situated upon Higham-hills, a rising ground, about half a mile north from Clay street, just above the river Lea, overlooking the counties of Middlesex and Hertfordshire, and commanding a most delightful and extensive prospect. It has been a magnificent and spacious fabric, and in ancient times, when the Lords resided upon their royalties, no place could be more admirably situated than this mansion, erected at the top of the hill of Higham, and having within its view the whole extent of its jurisdiction: but there are now hardly any traces of its ancient grandeur remaining.

The church of Walthamstow, dedicated to the Blessed Virgin, is a large edifice situated upon a hill, and consists [245] of three isles, that on the north side built by Sir George Monox, Knt. Alderman and Lord Mayor of London in the reign of Henry VIII. is called Monox’s isle; that on south side bears the name of Thorne’s isle, from a citizen and merchant taylor of that name, who was probably at the expence of building it. In this church are a great number of monuments.

Before the communion table within the rails, is a piece of marble over the body of Doctor Pierse, Bishop of Bath and Wells.

On leaving the altar there is a monument erected to the memory of Sir Thomas Stanley, Knt. second son to the Earl of Derby, on which there is the effigy of a Lady on her knees. Besides which there are many others. Additions to Stows Survey.

Walton’s court, Church-yard alley.†

Wandsworth, a village in Surry, situated between Battersea and Putney, is said to obtain its name from the river Wandle, which passes through it under a bridge called the sink of the country, into the Thames. Here are several handsome houses belonging to the gentry and citizens of London.

Wanley’s court, Black Friars.†


Wansted, a village in Essex, adjoining to Woodford, and separated from Barking parish by the river Roding. There are in this place and its neighbourhood several fine seats of the nobility, gentry and wealthy citizens; but their lustre is greatly eclipsed by Wansted-house, the magnificent seat of the Earl of Tilney. This noble seat was prepared by Sir Josiah Child, his Lordship’s grandfather, who added to the advantage of a fine situation, a vast number of rows of trees, planted in avenues and vistas leading up to the spot of ground where the old house stood. The late Lord, before he was enobled, laid out the most spacious pieces of ground in gardens, that are to be seen in this part of England. The green house is a very superb building furnished with stoves and artificial places for heat, from an apartment which has a bagnio, and other conveniences, that render it both useful and pleasant.

The house was built since these gardens were finished, and is a magnificent edifice two hundred and sixty feet in length, and seventy in depth, fronted with Portland stone, which, where it is not discoloured by the smoke, as in London, grows whiter and whiter, the longer it is exposed to the open air.

S. Wale delin. J. Taylor sc.
Wansted, the Seat of the Earl of Tilney.


The fore front of the house has a long vista that reaches to the great road at Leighton Stone, and from the back front facing the gardens is an easy descent that leads to the terrace, and affords a most beautiful prospect of the river, which is formed into canals; and beyond it the walks and wildernesses extend to a great distance, rising up the hill, as they sloped downwards before; so that the sight is lost in the woods, and the whole country, as far as the eye can reach, appears one continued garden. Tour through Great Britain.

The house was built by the late Earl of Tilney and designed by Col. Campbell, and is certainly one of the noblest houses not only near London, but in the kingdom: it consists of two stories, the state and ground story. This latter is the basement, into which you enter by a door in the middle underneath the grand entrance, which is in a noble portico of six Corinthian columns supporting a pediment in which are the arms of this nobleman. To this you ascend by a flight of steps and pass into a magnificent saloon richly decorated with painting and sculpture, through which you pass into the other state rooms which are suitably furnished with pictures, gilding, velvet, tapestry, [248] and other rich hangings. Before this house is an octangular bason which seems equal to the length of the front, here are no wings, though it seems probable it was the original design of the architect. On each side as you approach the house, are two marble statues of Hercules and Venus, with obelisks and vases alternately placed, which makes some attonement for the defect just mentioned. The garden front has no portico, but a pediment with a bas relief supported by six three quarter columns.

The parish church has been lately rebuilt, chiefly by the liberality of Sir Richard Child, Bart. Lord Viscount Castlemain, and in the chancel is a very superb monument for Sir Josiah Child, whose statue in white marble stands pointing downward to the inscription. Underneath lies the figure of Bernard his second son, and on each side sits a woman, vailed, one leaning her head upon her hand, and the other closing her hands and wringing them. There are also several boys in mourning postures, and one expressing the vanity of life by blowing up a bubble.

Wapping, anciently an hamlet in the parish of St. Mary Whitechapel, situated on the north bank of the Thames, at some distance [249] east from London, but by the increase of buildings is not only rendered a separate and distinct parish, but is entirely joined to this metropolis. The site of this parish is supposed by Maitland to have been formerly within the flux of the river Thames; but when, or by whom it was at first imbanked, is unknown; however, the same author supposes it to have been first taken from the river about the year 1544; though it was not inhabited till after the year 1571.

Mr. Strype, in his edition of Stow’s Survey, gives the following account of the origin of this hamlet. The banks of the river Thames, says he, were frequently damaged by the inundations of that river, particularly about the year 1561, when several breaches were made therein, and these were no sooner repaired, than another happened in 1571, when the commissioners of sewers, after viewing the place, were of opinion, that the most effectual way to secure the bank of the river in those parts, would be to erect houses thereon, upon which the first foundation of the houses of Wapping was laid.

The most remarkable things in this district are St. John’s church, a Presbyterian, Quakers, and French meeting [250] houses; a work-house for the reception of the poor, and two charity schools; one square, a yard for ship-building, and eight pair of stairs or steps to go down to and return from the river, two of which are denominated docks, the one being called Bell-dock, and the other Execution-dock, this is the common place of execution for pirates, who are here hung on a gallows which projects over the river.

Wapping Dock stairs, Wapping.

Wapping Dock street, Wapping,

Wapping New-stairs, Wapping.

Wapping Old-stairs, at Wapping.

Wapping street, Hermitage.

Wapping wall, Shadwell.

War Office, at Whitehall. This office is under the government of the secretary at war, who has under him a deputy secretary, a first clerk, and twelve other clerks.

Wardens court, Clerkenwell-close.

Wards, certain districts into which the city and its liberties are divided, each being under the government of an Alderman and his deputy, and represented by several common councilmen.

Maitland supposes that the first division of this city into wards was not merely on account of government, as at present; [251] but that London, like the other cities and towns in this kingdom, was anciently held of the Saxon Kings and nobility in demesne, and their several properties therein being so many sokes or liberties, were under the immediate dominion of their respective Lords, who were the governors or wardens thereof, and from thence arose the Saxon appellation ward, which signifies a quarter or district. This opinion, he adds, is not only corroborated by the wards of Baynard’s Castle, Faringdon, Coleman street, and Basinghall, or Bassishaw’s, still retaining the names of their ancient proprietors, but also by the other wards of the city being alienable, and the purchasers becoming the proprietors thereof, with the additional epithet of Aldermen.

What the number of wards in this city at first was, does not appear upon record; however, by the first account we have of them in the year 1284, we find that they were then twenty-four; but in 1393, Faringdon being much increased in the number of its houses and inhabitants, was divided by parliament into the inward and outward wards, whereby the number was augmented to twenty-five; and in 1550, the citizens having purchased the borough of Southwark of King Edward VI. with [252] the privileges belonging to it, they erected that into a twenty-sixth ward: but the power granted them by charter, not proving sufficient to support their title to it, by excluding the justices of peace for the county of Surry from interfering in the government, it became only a nominal ward: it, however, serves to dignify the senior Alderman, called The father of the city, who generally, by his great age, is rendered unable to undergo the fatigue of business, and has therefore this ward, in which there is no business to be done.

The wards into which the city is divided were originally known by other names, though they have long been called by those by which they are at present distinguished. These are, Aldersgate, Aldgate, Bassishaw, Billingsgate, Bishopsgate, Bread street, Bridge ward within, Bridge ward without, Broad street, Candlewick, Castle Baynard, Cheap, Cordwainer, Coleman street, Cornhill, Cripplegate, Dowgate, Faringdon within, Faringdon without, Langbourn, Lime street, Queenhithe, Portsoken, Tower street, Vintry and Walbrook, of each of which we have given a particular account under the several articles. Aldersgate Ward, Aldgate Ward, Bassishaw Ward, &c.


Every one of these wards is like a little free state under the government of its own Alderman and his deputy, who is always one of the common council, and is at the same time subject to the Lord Mayor as chief magistrate of the city. The housekeepers of each ward elect their representatives the common council, who join in making by-laws for the government of the city; and each ward has a number of officers and servants, who are solely employed in the business of their respective districts. Of these there are in the several wards, 26 Aldermen, 236 common councilmen, 241 constables, 423 inquestmen, 218 scavengers, who employ rakers to clean the streets, at the expence of 3466l. 19s. per annum; 32 beadles, 672 watch-men, to prevent robberies by night, and 4800 lamps, to illuminate the streets, all maintained at the expence of the wards in which they are placed. In short each ward manages the affairs belonging to it, without the assistance of the rest, and each has a court for the management of its affairs, called a court of wardmote.

Court of Wardmote, is thus denominated from the words Ward and Mote, that is, the Ward-court. It is constituted for transacting the business of the ward, for [254] which purpose the Lord Mayor annually issues a precept to the several Aldermen, to hold a court of wardmote on St. Thomas’s day.

Wardours street, Oxford street.

Wardrobe, or the King’s great wardrobe, in Scotland-yard. This office in ancient times was usually kept near Puddle-wharf, Great Carter lane, in an house built by Sir John Beauchamp, son to Guy de Beauchamp, Earl of Warwick, and afterwards sold to King Edward III.

The master of this office is an officer of great antiquity and dignity. High privileges and immunities were conferred on him by Henry VI. which were confirmed by his successors, and King James I. not only enlarged them, but ordained that this office should be a corporation, or body politic, for ever.

This office provides robes for the coronations, marriages, and funerals of the Royal Family; furnishes the court with hangings, cloths of state, carpets, beds, and other necessaries; furnishes houses for Embassadors at their first arrival; cloths of state, and other furniture for the Lord Lieutenant of Ireland, and all his Majesty’s Embassadors abroad; provides all robes for foreign Knights of the garter, robes for the Knights of the garter at home, [255] with robes and all other furniture for the officers of the garter; coats for kings, heralds, and pursuivants at arms; robes for the Lords of the Treasury, and Chancellor of the Exchequer, &c. livery for the Lord Chamberlain, Grooms of his Majesty’s privy-chamber, officers of his Majesty’s robes; for the two Chief Justices, for all the Barons of the Exchequer, and several officers in those courts; all liveries for his Majesty’s servants, as yeomen of the guard, and wardens of the Tower, trumpeters, kettle-drummers, drummers and fifes; the messengers, and all belonging to the stables, as coachmen, footmen, littermen, postillions and grooms, &c. all the King’s coaches, chariots, harnesses, saddles, bits, bridles, &c. the King’s watermen, game-keepers, &c. as also furniture for the royal yachts, and all rich embroidered tilts, and other furniture for the barges. Chamberlain’s present state.

Besides the master or keeper of the wardrobe, who has a salary of 800l. a year; and his deputy, who has 200l. there are a comptroller and a patent clerk, each of whom has 300l. a year, two under clerks and a clerk of the robes and wardrobes; besides many tradesmen and artificers, to the number of about sixty, who are all sworn servants to the King.


Besides the great wardrobe, there is a removing wardrobe, to which there belong a yeoman, who has 230l. per annum; two grooms, who have 130l. a year each, and two pages, each of whom has 100l. per annum.

There are likewise standing wardrobe-keepers at St. James’s, Windsor Castle, Hampton Court, Kensington, and Somerset house.

Wardrobe court, Great Carter lane, so called from the above wardrobe formerly situated there. See the foregoing article.

Ward’s court, Goswell street.†

Ware, a town in Hertfordshire, situated on the river Lea, twenty-two miles from London. As this town lies low, and upon a level with the river, it was drowned in the year 1408, by floods from the neighbouring park and other uplands; and sluices and wears being made in its river to preserve it from the like inundations, Camden supposes, that it from thence acquired the name of Ware.

The plenty of water about this town gave rise to that admirable project of cutting a channel from hence, for conveying the New River to London. Here is a very considerable market for corn, and so great is the malt trade here, and in the neighbourhood, that 5000 quarters of [257] malt and other corn are frequently sent in a week to London, by the barges, which return with coals. Here is a school for the younger children of Christ’s hospital in London, a charity school, and six or seven almshouses; and at the crown inn is a great bed much visited by travellers, it being twelve feet square, and is said to hold twenty people.

The heir of the late Thomas Byde, Esq; Lord of the manor, has a house pleasantly situated in the park, with an ascent on every side: and among other improvements, is a vineyard, and a canal cut from the Rib, which turns that stream along the south side of the park.

Warehouse yard, 1. Bridge yard: 2. Mincing lane, Fenchurch street.

Warner’s square, Wapping.†

Warner’s street, Coldbath fields.†

Warner’s yard, Mincing lane, Fenchurch street.†

Warnford court, Throgmorton street, Lothbury.†

Warwick court, 1. Berry street: 2. High Holbourn: 3. Warwick lane. See the next article: 4. Warwick street Charing cross.

Warwick lane, extends from Newgate street to the end of Paternoster row, near Amen corner, and obtained its name, from there being formerly here in Warwick court, [258] the city mansion of the Earls of Warwick. Maitland. This lane is now famous for its containing the College of Physicians.

Warwick street, 1. Charing cross: 2. Cockspur street, Pallmall: 3. near Golden square: 4. Mary le Bonne.

Warwick’s wharf, near the Strand.†

Washermaid’s alley. Five Feet lane.

Washer’s yard, White’s yard, Rosemary lane.

Watch-house bridge yard, Old Horselydown lane.

Water Bailiff, one of the great officers of the city, whose business is to prevent all encroachments on the river Thames; to look after the fishermen for the preservation of the young fry, and to prevent their being destroyed by the use of unlawful nets. For this purpose there are juries in each county, bordering on the river, summoned by the water bailiff to make enquiry of all offences relating to the river and the fish; and to make their presentments accordingly. See the article Thames.

The water bailiff, has apartments in Cripplegate, and is obliged, on set days in the week to attend the Lord Mayor. Maitland.

Watercock alley, East Smithfield.

Watergruel row, Hackney.

Waterhouse lane, Lower Shadwell.


Waterhouse wharf, London Bridge.

Water lane, 1. Black Friars: 2. Fleet street: 3. Mill street: 4. Tower street. All these lanes lead to the Thames.

Waterman’s alley, New street, St. Thomas’s.

Waterman’s court, Pepper alley, near the south end of London Bridge.

Waterman’s lane, White Friars.

Watermen, a company under the power and command of the Lord Mayor. For the regulation of this fraternity several statutes have been made, particularly on the second and third of Philip and Mary, when it was enacted, among other things, that at the first court of Aldermen in London, next after the first of March, eight overseers should be chosen out of the watermen between Gravesend and Windsor, to keep order among the rest.

That the Lord Mayor and Aldermen of London, and the justices of peace within the counties adjoining to the river Thames, upon complaint of any two of the overseers, or of any waterman’s master, have power, not only to hear and determene any offence committed against this act; but to enlarge any watermen unjustly confined by those overseers; but also to punish the overseers themselves, in case they make an ill use of their power.


That the court of Aldermen should assess the fares of watermen, which being subscribed by two at least of the privy council, should be set up in Guildhall and Westminster Hall, &c. and the waterman that takes more than according to the fare so assessed, shall, for every such offence, suffer half a year’s imprisonment, and forfeit 40s.

That any waterman withdrawing himself in time of pressing, shall suffer a fortnight’s imprisonment, and be prohibited rowing any more on the Thames for a year and a day.

Other regulations were made in the succeeding reigns, particularly in that of William III. when for the better ordering and governing the watermen, wherrymen and lightermen, on the river Thames, it was enacted, that every lighterman, or owner, keeper, or worker of any lighter, or other large craft on the Thames between Gravesend and Windsor, shall be taken to be of the society, or company of wherrymen, watermen and lightermen, who by this act are made a society, or company under the direction of the court of Lord Mayor and Aldermen of this city; who are thereby impowered annually to appoint eight persons of the best character among the watermen, and three persons out [261] of twelve annually nominated by the lightermen; which eleven persons are to be stiled, the overseers and rulers of all the wherrymen, watermen, and lightermen, that shall use or exercise any rowing upon the river of Thames between Gravesend and Windsor; in order to keep good order among the watermen and lightermen.

By this act the rulers and assistants of the company are likewise enabled annually on the first of June, to appoint and direct the watermen of the principal towns, stairs, and plying places between Gravesend and Windsor; and to chuse a free waterman who is a housekeeper, for each of the said places, to be of their assistants, so that they do not exceed the number of sixty, nor be less than that of forty; to which shall be added nine lightermen, who together shall compose the number of assistants of the said company.

These overseers are by the above act impowered to appoint any number of watermen not exceeding forty, to ply and work on Sundays between Vauxhall and Limehouse, at such stairs and plying places, being seventeen in number, besides the two at Westminster, for carrying passengers across the river Thames, for one penny each: the money arising thereby, [262] which annually amounts to about 1450l. including those at Westminster, is by each of the working watermen to be paid every Monday morning, to the order of the said rulers; who, after having paid those watermen their proper wages, the surplus is to be applied to the use of the poor of the company. The watermen of Westminster being however exempt from the immediate direction of the watermens company in this affair, they annually appoint their own watermen to ply and work on Sundays, for carrying passengers across the Thames, from and to Westminster bridge and Stangate, and the horse-ferry at Lambeth; which money is applied to the use of the poor watermen, or their widows, of St. Margaret’s parish.

It is also declared in the said act, that if the Lord High Admiral, or the Commissioners of the Admiralty, shall at any time give notice to the watermens company, that there is occasion for a certain number of that company to serve on board the royal navy; then all such persons as shall be duly summoned for that purpose, and shall not appear before the overseers and rulers of that company, shall not only suffer imprisonment for one month; but be rendered incapable of enjoying any privilege belonging to the company for two years.


In the year 1701, an order was made by the court of rulers, auditors and assistants of the company of watermen and lightermen of the river Thames, observing, that several watermen and their apprentices, while they are rowing upon that river, or at their plying places between Gravesend and Windsor often use immodest, obscene, and lewd expressions towards passengers, and to each other, that are offensive to all sober persons, and tend to the corruption of youth, it is ordained, that any waterman, or lighterman, after the sixteenth of October 1701, convicted of using such expressions, shall forfeit 2s. 6d. for every such offence, and if any waterman or lighterman’s apprentice shall offend in the same manner, his master or mistress shall on his conviction, forfeit the like sum; or in case of their refusal, the offender shall suffer such correction as the rulers of this company shall think fit and necessary. And that the forfeitures, when paid, shall be applied to the use of the poor, aged, decayed, and maimed members of the company, their widows and children.

By the constitutions of this company, all boats and barges belonging to the several members thereof are obliged to be numbered and entered in the company’s [264] register; and to prevent the citizens from being imposed upon, the following table of rates have been appointed by the court of Lord Mayor and Aldermen to be taken by the respective watermen rowing upon the river Thames, between Gravesend and Windsor.

Rates of Watermen plying upon the river Thames, either with oars, or skullers.

  Oars. Skul.
  s.    d. s.    d.
From London Bridge to Limehouse, New Crane,    
    Shadwell dock, Bell wharf, Ratcliff cross 1    0 0    6
From London Bridge to Wapping dock, Wapping Old and    
   New-stairs, the Hermitage, or Rotherhithe Church stairs 0    6 0    3
From St. Olave’s to Rotherhithe Church stairs,    
    and Rotherhithe stairs 0    6 0    3
From Billingsgate and St. Olave’s to St. Saviour’s mill 0    6 0    3
From any stairs between London bridge and Westminster 0    6 0    3
From either side above London bridge to Lambeth, or Vauxhall 1    0 0    6
From Whitehall to Lambeth, or Vauxhall 0    3 0    6
From the Temple, Dorset-stairs, Black Friars stairs, or    
    Paul’s wharf, to Lambeth 0    8 0    4
Over the water directly, from any place between Vauxhall    
    and Limehouse 0    4 0    2


Rates of oars up and down the river, as well for the whole fare as company.

Up the River.

  Fare. Comp.
To Chelsea, Battersea, and Wandsworth 1    6 0    3
To Putney, Fulham, or Barnelms 2    0 0    4
To Hammersmith, Chiswick, or Mortlack 2    6 0    6
To Brentford, Isleworth, or Richmond  3    6 0    6
To Twickenham  4   0 0   6
To Kingston  5   0 0   9
To Hampton Court  6   0 1   0
To Hampton Town, Sunbury, or Walton 7   0 1   0
To Weybridge, and Chertsey 10   0  1   0
To Stanes 12  0  1  0
To Windsor 14   0  1   0


Down the River.

  Fare. Comp.
  s.    d. s.    d.
From London to Gravesend 4   6 0   9
To Grays, or Greenhithe 4   0 0   8
To Purfleet, or Erith 3   0 0   6
To Woolwich 2   6 0   4
To Blackwall 2   0 0   4
To Greenwich, or Deptford 1   6 0   3

Rates of carrying goods in the tilt-boat from London to Gravesend.

  l.  s.  d.
For every single person in the ordinary passage 0   0   9
For a hogshead 0   2   0
For a whole firkin 0   0   2
For half a firkin 0   0   1
One hundred weight 0   0   4
One sack of corn, salt, &c. 0   0   6
An ordinary chest, or trunk 0   0   6
An ordinary hamper 0   0   6
The hire of the whole tilt-boat 1   2   6

Any waterman who takes more than the above rates is liable to forfeit 40s. and to suffer half a year’s imprisonment, and if he sets up a sail between Lambeth and London Bridge, upon complaint being made, as hereafter mentioned, forfeits 5s.

However any person going by water, need not make any bargain with the waterman, but only let him know at [267] what stairs he is to land him; then paying him according to the foregoing rates, if he refuses to accept the money, the best way is to offer him more money than he demands, and to charge him not to take more than his due: But be sure to remember the number of your waterman’s boat; for if he has taken more than his fare, and you have a mind to correct him for imposing upon you, you may go to Watermens hall, by the Old Swan-stairs, and acquaint the clerk with your business (giving him at the same time the number of the boat) who will summon the waterman to the hall, to answer to your complaint: And if he is found to have acted against the prescribed rules, he will be punished according to the nature of his crime, whether it relates to exaction, sauciness, or other misbehaviour towards you.

It is proper to add, that to prevent the losing the lives of persons passing on the river, it is enacted in a statute of the 10th of George II. that no tilt-boat, row-barge, or wherry, take at one time more than thirty-seven passengers, and three more by the way; nor in any other boat or wherry more than eight, and two more by the way; nor in any ferry-boat or wherry, allowed to work on Sundays, [268] any more than eight passengers, on pain of forfeiting for the first offence 5l. for the second offence 10l. and for the third offence to be disfranchised for twelve months from working on the river, and from enjoying the privileges of the company: And in case any person shall be drowned, where a greater number of passengers is taken in than is allowed, the watermen shall be deemed guilty of felony, and transported as felons.

By the same statute it is also enacted, that every tilt-boat shall be of the burthen of fifteen tons, and any other boat or wherry three tons; and that no Gravesend boats or wherries with close decks or bails nailed down, and not moveable, be navigated, tilt-boats only excepted, on the penalty of 10l.

Any watermen or wherrymen who wilfully or negligently lose their tide from Billingsgate to Gravesend, or from thence to Billingsgate, by putting ashore for other passengers, or by waiting or loitering by the way, so that the first passengers shall be set on shore two miles short of the place to which they are bound; such passengers shall be discharged from paying any thing for their passage.

The rulers of the watermens company are to appoint two or more officers to [269] attend, one at Billingsgate, at every time of high-water at London Bridge, and the other at Gravesend at the first of flood; who shall publicly ring a bell for fifteen minutes, to give notice to the tilt-boats and wherries to put off. And if such wherrymen, &c. do not immediately put off on ringing the said bell; and do not effectually proceed on their voyage, but put on shore within two miles of Billingsgate or Gravesend, as the case may be; or if such boats are not navigated by two sufficient men, the youngest to be eighteen years old at least; in every such case the owners of such boats shall forfeit 5l. to be levied on the boats or goods of the owners of such boats.

And if the company of watermen neglect setting up the said bells, and appointing proper persons to ring them, they shall forfeit 50l. as shall such persons appointed to ring the said bells, forfeit 40l. for every neglect.

Watermen’s Hall near London Bridge, a handsome brick building situated with its front towards the Thames.

Waterside row, Upper Ground street.

Water street, 1. Arundel street: 2. Black Friars: 3. Bridewell Precinct.

Watford, a market town in Hertfordshire on the east side of Cashiobury, [270] and seventeen miles from London, is situated upon the Colne, where it has two streams that run separately to Rickmansworth. The town is very long but consists of only one street, which is extremely dirty in winter, and the waters of the river at the entrance of the town, were frequently so much swelled by floods as to be impassable: But in the year 1750, the road at the entrance of Watford was raised by a voluntary contribution; by which means the river is now confined within its proper bounds. In the church are several handsome monuments; there are also a free-school and several almshouses belong to the town.

Watling street, St. Paul’s church-yard; thus called from the Roman road of the same name, which ran through this street. Maitland.

Wat’s alley, Long ditch.

Watson’s Almshouse, in Old street, near Shoreditch, was erected chiefly at the expence of Mr. William Watson, citizen and weaver, for the widows of twelve weavers, who annually receive 20s. and twenty-four bushels of coals, with a gown every second year. Maitland.

Watson’s rents, Angel alley.†

Watts’s court, Deadman’s place.†

Watts’s rents, St. Catharine’s lane.†


Wax Chandlers, a company incorporated by letters patent granted by King Richard III. in the year 1483. This corporation is governed by a master, two wardens, and twenty assistants; with 113 liverymen, who upon their admission pay a fine of 5l. They have a handsome hall in Maiden lane, Wood street.

Weatherby’s rents, Whitecross street Cripplegate.†

Weaver alley, near Spicer’s street, Spitalfields.

Weavers, this company, which was anciently denominated Thenarii, appears to have been the most ancient guild of this city, for in the reign of Henry I. they paid 16l. a year to the crown for their immunities. Their privileges were afterwards confirmed at Winchester by letters patent granted by Henry II. which are still in the company’s possession; but are without a date; and in these letters, the annual sum payable to the crown is fixed at two marks of gold, to be paid yearly at Michaelmas, on the penalty of 10l.

This company originally consisted of the cloth, and tapestry weavers, who in the seventh of Henry IV. were put under the management, and authority of the Lord Mayor and Aldermen of the city.


They are now governed by two bailiffs, two wardens, and sixteen assistants, with a livery of 279 members, whose fine upon their admission is 6l.

The weavers have a handsome hall in Basinghall street, adorned on the inside with hangings, fretwork, and a screen of the Ionic order. Maitland.

Weavers Arms yard, Booth street, Spitalfields.*

Weavers lane, Horselydown.†

Weavers street, Fleet street Spitalfields.

Webb’s court, Red Lion alley.†

Webb’s square, Shoreditch.†

Webb’s yard, Vine yard, Old Horselydown lane.†

Weddon street, Chancery lane, Fleet street.

Weigh-house, at the north-west corner of Love lane, entering into Little Eastcheap. This house stands on the ground where the church of St. Andrew Hubbard stood before the fire of London, at which time the weigh-house was in Cornhill. In the weigh-house were weighed, by the King’s beam, foreign merchandize brought to London. It was under a master, and four master porters, with labouring porters under them; who used to have carts and horses to fetch the merchants goods to the beam, and to carry them back.


The house belongs to the grocers company, who chose the several porters, &c. but of late years little is done in this office, as a compulsive power is wanting to oblige merchants to have their goods weighed, they alledging it to be an unnecessary trouble and expence.

In a large room over the weigh-house is a commodious meeting-house used by a congregation of Protestant dissenters.

Welch Copper Office, in Philpot lane, Fenchurch street, is under the government of a company first incorporated by letters patent granted by King William III. in the year 1694, by the stile of the Governor and company of copper miners of the principality of Wales: by which charter they are allowed to purchase lands, tenements, &c. in mortmain, without limitation. Maitland.

Well alley, 1. in the Minories: 2. near Tooley street, Southwark: 3. Ropemakers fields, Limehouse.

Well and Bucket alley, Old street.

Well and Bucket court, Old street.

Wellbeck street, a handsome new street, by Marybone fields, built on the estate of the late Earl of Oxford, and thus named from Wellbeck his Lordship’s seat in Hertfordshire.


Wellbeck mews, a street of stables, coach-houses, &c. by Wellbeck street.

Wellclose square, by the upper end of Rosemary lane, by some called Marine square, from the number of sea officers who live there. It is a neat square of no great extent; its principal ornament is the Danes church, situated in the centre, in the midst of a church-yard well planted with trees, and surrounded by a handsome wall adorned at equal distances with iron rails.

This church is a commodious and elegant structure. Though the architect appears to have understood ornaments, he has not been too lavish in the use of them. The edifice consists of a tall and handsome body, with a tower and turret. The body is divided by the projection of the middle part, into a fore front in the center, and two smaller: at the west end is the tower, and at the east it swells into the sweep of circle; the corners of the building are faced with rustic. The windows, which are large and well proportioned, are cased with stone with a cherub’s head at the top of the arch, and the roof is concealed by a blocking course. The tower has a considerable diminution in the upper stage, which has on each side, a pediment, and is covered by a dome, [275] from which rises an elegant turret, supported by composite columns.

Well court, 1. Glean alley, Tooley street: 2. Queen street, Cheapside: 3. Shoe lane, Fleet street.

Well yard, 1. Church-yard alley, Rosemary lane: 2. Little Britain.

Wells, a rivulet which anciently ran through a part of this metropolis, and was called the river of Wells, and was thus named from its having many springs uniting to supply its current. It afterwards obtained the name of Turnmill brook, from certain mills erected upon it, by the Knights of St. John of Jerusalem, which appellation is still preserved in a street of that name called Turnmill street, through part of which this water took its course, towards the bottom of Holbourn hill, and thence into the Thames. Maitland.

Wells row, Islington.

Wells street, 1. Coverlid’s fields, East Smithfield.† 2. Great Jermain street.† 3. Hackney.†

Wells yard, 1. Mainhard street, near St. Giles’s Pound.† 2. Wells row, Islington.

Wenches yard, in the Minories.||

Wentworth street, Petticoat lane, Spitalfields.†

Were’s row, Whitechapel.†


Westbury street, Wheeler street, Spitalfields.†

West court, Spitalfields market.

Westby’s Almshouse, on Hoxton causeway, was founded by Mrs. Mary Westby of Bocking in Essex, widow, in the year 1749, for ten poor women. Maitland.

Westerham or Westram, a neat well built market town, on the western borders of Kent, situated about eight miles to the west of Sevenoaks. Near this place, a very noble seat was begun to be built by a private gentleman; but it was finished by the late Earl of Jersey, and called Squirries. The house stands on a small eminence with respect to the front; but on the back of the edifice the ground rises very high, and is divided into several steep slopes; near the house are some woods, through which are cut several ridings. On the other side the hill behind the house arise nine springs, which, uniting their streams, form the river Dart, or Darent.

West Ham, a pleasant village, about a mile from Stratford in the Essex Road; thus named from another Ham on the east called East Ham. Here are the country houses of several wealthy citizens.

West Harding street, Fetter lane, Fleet street.

West lane, Rotherhith wall.


West lane stairs, Rotherhith.

Westminster, had its name from its abbey or minster situated to the westward of the city of London; which according to several modern historians was thus denominated to distinguish it from the Abbey of Grace on Tower Hill, called Eastminster: but Maitland proves this to be a mistake, by shewing that the former is called Westminster in a charter of sanctuary granted by Edward the Confessor in the year 1066, and that the latter was not founded till 1359; he therefore supposes that the appellation of Westminster was given to distinguish it from St. Paul’s church in the city of London. In early times, this noble part of the great metropolis of the kingdom, was a little, mean, unhealthy place, with nothing worthy of notice but its minster or abbey, situated in a marshy island, surrounded on one side by the Thames, and on the others by what was called Long ditch; a branch of the river which began near the east end of the place, where Manchester court is now situated, intersected King street, and running along where Gardener’s lane now is, to the place called from thence Long ditch, crossed Tothill street, a little to the west of the Gatehouse, and continued its course along [278] the south wall of the abbey garden, where a common sewer is erected over it. The island thus formed was in a manner a waste over grown with thorns and briars, and was thence called Thorny Island.

In this situation was the abbey, minster, or monastery founded; for the convenience of which a few houses were probably first erected, and these at length grew into a small town, in ancient books called the town of Westminster.

It was thus for many ages a place entirely distinct from London, and there was a large space between them. The Strand was the road which led from London to that town, and it was open on either side to the Thames and to the fields. In 1385 we find that this road was paved as far as the Savoy; and many years after Sir Robert Cecil building a house at Ivy bridge, his interest brought the pavement of the road to be extended thither; and many of the houses of the nobility were erected in the Strand.

Westminster owed its most distinguished privileges to Henry VIII. for in the 37th year of his reign an act was passed to authorize him by either letters patent or proclamation, to make it an honour, a title of distinction which he was impowered by the same act to confer upon [279] Kingston upon Hull, St. Osyth’s in Essex, and Donnington in Berkshire; and after the dissolution of the monastery, he converted it into a bishoprick, in the year 1541, with a dean and twelve prebendaries, and appointed the whole county of Middlesex, except Fulham, which was still to belong to the bishoprick of London, as its diocese. Upon this occasion Westminster became a city, for the making of which, according to the Lord Chief Justice Coke, nothing more is required than the appellation of a bishop’s see. It had many years before been the seat of the royal palace, the high court of parliament, and of our law tribunals; most of our Sovereigns had been crowned, and had their sepulchres in the abbey church, and the ancient palace, being almost destroyed by fire, the last mentioned Prince had here his palace of Whitehall, which he purchased of Cardinal Wolsey. He also built the palace of St. James’s, inclosed a fine spot of ground which he converted into a park, for the accommodation of both palaces, and this was no sooner finished, than he erected the stately gate lately near the banquetting house, and added to it a magnificent gallery for the accommodation of the royal family, the nobility and gentry, to sit in, in order to see the [280] justings and other military exercises in the tilt yard; and soon after the same Prince erected, contiguous to the said gate, a tennis-court, cock-pit, and places for bowling.

From that time the buildings about Westminster began to extend on every side; though it did not long enjoy the honour of being a city, and even the palace was some time after burnt; for it never had but one bishop, and he being translated to the see of Norwich, by Edward VI. in 1550, the new bishoprick was dissolved by that Prince; and its right to the epithet of city was thereby lost, though by public complaisance it has retained that name ever since: but yet Westminster had not any arms till the year 1601. For a more particular account of the antiquities of Westminster, see the articles Abbey, Westminster Hall, Whitehall, &c.

The city of Westminster at present consists but of two parishes, St. Margaret’s and St. John the Evangelist; but the liberties contain seven parishes, which are as follow: St. Martin’s in the fields, St. James’s, St. Anne’s, St. Paul’s Covent Garden, St. Mary le Strand, St. Clement’s Danes, and St. George’s Hanover square; and the precinct of the Savoy. Each of the above parishes is of such a prodigious extent, [281] considering the number of houses they contain; that it would be impossible for one tenth part of the inhabitants to attend divine worship at one and the same time, there are therefore many chapels of ease for the convenience of those who could not be so well accommodated in their parish churches.

The government of both the city and liberties are under the jurisdiction of the dean and chapter of Westminster, in civil as well as ecclesiastical affairs, and their authority also extends to the precinct of St. Martin’s le Grand, by Newgate street, and in some towns of Essex, that are exempted from the jurisdiction of the Bishop of London, and the Archbishopric of Canterbury: but the management of the civil part has ever since the reformation been in the hands of laymen, elected from time to time, and confirmed by the dean and chapter.

Of these magistrates, the principal is the High Steward, who is usually one of the prime nobility: this great officer is chosen by the dean and chapter; his post is not unlike that of chancellor of an University, and he holds it during life: but upon his death or resignation, a chapter is called for the election of another, in [282] which the dean sits as high steward, till the election be over.

The next great officer is the Deputy Steward, who is chosen by the high steward, and confirmed by the dean and chapter. This officer, who also holds his post during life, supplies the place of a sheriff, for he keeps the court leet, with the other magistrates, and is always chairman at the quarter sessions.

The High Bailiff, who is the next in rank, is nominated by the dean, and confirmed by the high steward. He likewise holds his office for life, and has the chief management in the election of members of parliament for Westminster, and all the other bailiffs are subordinate to him. He summons juries, and in the court leet sits next to the deputy steward. To him all fines, forfeitures and strays belong, which renders his place very beneficial; but it is commonly executed by a deputy well versed in the laws.

There are also sixteen burgesses and their assistants, whose office in all respects resembles that of the Aldermen’s deputies of the city of London, each having his proper ward under his jurisdiction; and out of these are elected two head burgesses, one for the city, and the other [283] for the liberties, who take place in the court leet, next to the head bailiff.

There is also a High Constable, who is also chosen by the court leet, and has all the other constables under his direction.

Thus the government of Westminster has but little resemblance to that of an opulent and noble city; it being much more like that of a little country borough, since its representatives are chosen by its householders, and it has not the power of making freemen; has no trading companies; nor any other courts, besides those of the leet, the sessions, and a court of requests lately erected, and yet, according to Maitland, it contains 15,445 houses; many of which are laid out in handsome streets and squares, and pays annually 11,870l. 8s. 9d. on account of the church; and 20,723l. 17s. 3d. on account of the poor.

Besides the above officers, there are in Westminster, and its liberties, 52 inquestmen, 12 surveyors of the highways, 55 constables, 31 beadles, 236 watch-men, and 80 scavengers, who pay to the rakers 4127l. per annum for cleaning the streets.

Westminster Bridge. The horse-ferry at Westminster was perhaps one of the most frequented passages over the river [284] of Thames, ever since the building of London Bridge, and laying aside the ancient ferry there. From the multitude of coaches, carriages and horses continually passing and repassing at all hours, times, and seasons, many inconveniences and accidents unavoidably happened, and in a course of time many lives were lost. To prevent these inconveniences and dangers the Archbishop of Canterbury and several other noblemen, in the year 1736, procured an act of parliament for building a bridge across the Thames, from New Palace yard, to the opposite shore in the county of Surry: but this act was not obtained without great opposition from the people of London and Southwark, and some fainter efforts used by the bargemen and watermen of the Thames; but private interest was obliged to give way to the public advantage, and preparations were made for carrying on this great work under the sanction of the legislature.

At length the ballastmen of Trinity house were employed to open a large hole for the foundation of the first pier to the depth of five feet under the bed of the river, and this being finished and levelled at the bottom, it was kept to a level by a proper inclosure of strong piles. [285] Mean while, a strong case of oak, secured and strengthened with large beams, was prepared of the form and dimensions of the intended pier in the clear; this was made water proof and being brought over the place, was secured within the piles.

In this wooden case the first stone was laid on the 29th of January, 1738–9, by the late Earl of Pembroke; the case of boards was above the high-water mark, and it sinking gradually by the weight of the prodigious blocks of stone strongly cemented to its bottom, the men continued to work as on dry ground, though at a great depth under water. Thus the western middle pier was first formed, and in the same manner were all the other piers erected, and when finished, the planks on the sides being taken off, the stone work appeared entire. The superstructure was added in the common method, and the whole finished in the most neat and elegant manner, and with such simplicity and grandeur, that whether viewed from the water, or more closely examined by the passenger who goes over it, it fills the mind with an agreeable surprise.

This bridge is universally allowed to be one of the finest in the world. It is adorned and secured on each side by a [286] very lofty and noble balustrade, there are recesses over every pier, which is a semioctogan. Twelve of them are covered with half domes, viz., four at each end, and four in the middle. Between these in the middle are pedestals on which was intended a group of figures; this would greatly add to the magnificence by making the centre more principal (which it ought to be) and giving it an air of magnificence and grandeur suitable to the city to which it belongs; a great number of lamps are so agreeably disposed on the top of the recesses as at once to contribute to the purposes of use and beauty. This magnificent structure is 1223 feet in length, and above three hundred feet longer than London Bridge. The ascent at the top is extremely well managed, and the room allowed for passengers, consists of a commodious foot way seven feet broad on each side, paved with broad Moor stone, and raised above the road allowed for carriages. This last is thirty feet wide, and is sufficient to admit the passage of three carriages and two horses on a breast, without the least danger.

The construction and distance of the piers from each other are so managed, that the vacancies under the arches allowed for the water-way, are four times [287] as much as at London Bridge, and in consequence of this, there is no fall, nor can the least danger arrive to boats in passing through the arches. The piers, which are fourteen, have thirteen large and two small arches, all semicircular. These with two abutments constitute the bridge, whose strength is not inferior to its elegance.

The length of every pier is seventy feet, and each end is terminated with a saliant angle against either stream. The breadth of the two middle piers is seventeen feet at the springing of the arches, and contain three thousand cubic feet, or near two hundred tons of solid stone; and the others on each side, regularly decrease one foot in breadth, so that the two next to the largest are each sixteen feet, and so on to the two least next the sides, which are no more than twelve feet wide at the springing of the arches.

The centre arch is seventy-six feet wide, and the others decrease in width four feet on each side, so that the two next to the centre arch are seventy-two feet wide, and so on to the least of the large arches, which are each fifty-two feet wide, and the two small ones in the abutments close to the shore, are about twenty feet in width.


The foundation of the bridge is laid on a solid and firm mass of gravel which lies at the bottom of the bed of the river; but at a much greater depth on the Surry, than the Westminster side; and this inequality of the ground, required the heights of the several piers to be very different; as some have their foundations laid at five feet, and others at fourteen feet under the bed of the river. The piers are all four feet wider at their foundation than at the top, and are founded on the bottoms of the above mentioned wooden cases formed of the most substantial work, eighty feet in length, twenty-eight in breadth, and these timbers are two feet in thickness. The caisson or wooden case, in which the first pier was built, contained an hundred and fifty loads of timber; and forty thousand pound weight is computed to be always under water in stone and timber.

Westminster Bridge.
S. Wale delin. B. Green sc. Oxon.
Walton Bridge.

The materials are much superior to those commonly used on such occasions: the inside is usually filled up with chalk, small stones, or rubbish; but here all the piers are the same on the inside as without, of solid blocks of Portland stone, many of which are four or five tons weight, and none less than a ton, except the closers, or smaller ones, intended for [289] fastening the others, one of which has its place between every four of the large ones. These vast blocks are perfectly well wrought for uniting; they are laid in Dutch terrace, and also fastened together with iron cramps run in with lead. All this iron work is however entirely concealed, and so placed that none of them can be affected by the water.

It is also worthy of remark, that the soffit of every arch is turned and built quite through with blocks of Portland stone, over which is built and bonded in with it, another arch of Purbeck stone, four or five times thicker on the reins than over the key; and by this secondary arch, together with the incumbent load of materials, all the parts of every arch are in equilibrio, and the whole weight so happily adjusted, that each arch can stand single, without affecting, or being affected by the other arches. In short, between every two arches a drain is contrived to carry off the water and filth, that might in time penetrate and accumulate in those places, to the great detriment of the arches.

Though the greatest care was taken in laying the foundation deep in the gravel, and using every probable method to prevent the sinking of the piers, yet [290] all this was in some degree ineffectual, for one of them sunk so considerably when the work was very near compleated, as to retard the finishing it a considerable time. This gave the highest satisfaction to those who had opposed this noble work: but the commissioners for building the bridge, immediately ordered the arch supported by that pier, on the side where it had sunk, to be taken down, and then caused the base of the pier to be loaded with incredible weights, till all the settlement that could be forced was made. After this the arch was rebuilt, and has ever since been as secure as the rest.

In short the last stone was laid in November 1747, eleven years and nine months from the beginning of the construction; a very short period, considering the vastness of the undertaking, the prodigious quantity of stone made use of, hewn out of the quarry, and brought by sea; the interruptions of winter, the damage frequently done by the ice to the piles and scaffolding, and the unavoidable interruptions occasioned twice a day by the tide, which for two years together, reduced the time of labour to only five hours a day. The expence of erecting this bridge, and of procuring all the requisite conveniences was defrayed by [291] parliament, and amounted to 389,000l. which was raised by several lotteries.

This bridge, considered in itself, is not only a great ornament to this metropolis, and of the most singular advantage to the city of Westminster; but it has entirely changed the appearance of that city; new and beautiful streets have been erected; those that were before narrow, crooked and ill built, have been widened,rendered straight and rebuilt with regularity and elegance. And new plans of improvement are daily formed, and continually putting in execution.

Westminster Fire Office, in Bedford street, Covent Garden, was originally kept at Tom’s coffee-house, in St. Martin’s lane; the deed of settlement was executed on the 13th of February, 1717, and two days after was inrolled in the high court of chancery. Maitland.

This office was erected for insuring only houses from fire, and, like the Hand-in-Hand fire office, is a joint copartnership, every one insuring becoming an equal sharer in the profits and loss, in proportion to his or her respective insurance.

The conditions of insurance are,

I. No house is insured at more than 2000l. but such sums of money as the [292] directors, or any three or more of them shall think proper, may be insured upon the wing or wings of any house, having a brick wall between the wings and the body of the house, by a separate policy; provided such sum do not exceed three fourths of the value of the wings.

II. New houses may be insured when tiled in; but not at more than two thirds of their value.

III. The limits of insurance in this office extend to twenty-five miles distance from it; but the proprietors of all houses that are five miles, or a greater distance, are to defray the charge of the surveyor and messenger’s journey, to survey the premises, and set up the mark; and also to defray the charge of the director’s journey to estimate a damage, when and after such loss happens, and the directors are impowered to deduct the charges out of the money due on such loss.

IV. All whose houses are insured pay 12s. deposit and 4s. per cent. premium, on all brick houses, and double for all timber buildings; as a pledge for the performance of their covenants, to be returned at the expiration of their policies, with the yearly dividends of profits, incident charges and contribution to losses first deducted. Persons paying for each [293] policy, besides the stamps; 4d. for all houses within, and 1s. without the bills of mortality.

V. Each policy is to contain but one house, unless where two, three or more small houses stand together, in which case 500l. may be insured upon them, each being distinctly valued.

VI. Every insurance is for seven years; and such insurance is to continue in force till six o’clock of the evening of that day seven years, on which the same is dated; and in the mean time such insurers property in the premises insured ceases, when such insurer or legal representative, may receive the return of deposit due upon the respective policy or policies, the same being delivered up to the office to be cancelled. But the deposit-money on policies expired, not demanded within two years after, is sunk to the society, and all policies either new or to be renewed, directed to be made out and not taken away in three months after, are cancelled. The earned money paid for such new policies is sunk; and the stamp and charge of such renewed policies are deducted out of every insurer’s deposit-money.

VII. Every house that is by reason of fire destroyed from the first floor upwards, is deemed as demolished, and the directors [294] are impowered either to pay the money insured thereon within sixty days after notice given to them at their office, or to rebuild the same with all convenient speed; but no more than 30l. is allowed for any chimney piece destroyed by fire; and gilding, history, painting and carving are excepted from the insurance.

VIII. Every member, upon any loss, is to certify the same to the directors within thirty days after such loss happened, that skilful persons may view and report the same, and a rate of contributions be made thereon; otherwise the society is not obliged to make good such losses.

IX. Every member neglecting to pay his rate towards any loss for twenty-five days after publication in the Gazette, or otherwise, forfeits double the said rates; and neglecting to pay these forfeits, for five days more, forfeits all his right and deposit-money, and may be excluded by the directors from the society, and the benefit of his insurance; his covenant nevertheless, to abide in force.

X. Contributions to losses are dated annually, and every person insuring in the same year contributes in proportion to his insurance, to the losses, and receives a dividend of the profits of that year, [295] arising from interest, &c. also in proportion to the sum insured. Every year’s account commencing on the first of October, and ending on the 30th of September following: but the contribution of no member is to be charged above 10s. per cent. for brick, and double for timber houses.

XI. If any house is insured in any other office at the same time it is insured in this such insurance is void.

XII. Twenty-four firemen are employed by this office in extinguishing fires, all of whom are cloathed by the office, and have badges bearing the mark of the office, which is a portcullis, crowned with the Prince of Wales’s coronet. Settlement of the Westminster contributionship.

Westminster Hall, was first built by William Rufus, as an addition to the palace of Westminster, and that Prince at his return from Normandy kept the high festival of Christmas in this room, which for several reigns was used for great feasts, whenever our Kings entertained in a splendid manner the nobility and clergy: of this we find many instances; but what appears most remarkable, King Henry III. on New Year’s Day 1236, gave a public entertainment to 6000 poor men, women and children [296] in this hall and the other rooms of the palace.

S. Wale delin. J. Green sc. Oxon.
Westminster Hall.

At length this great hall becoming very ruinous, it was rebuilt by Richard II. in the year 1397, as it at present appears, together with the buildings on the east and west sides; and it was no sooner finished than it received the appellation of the new palace, to distinguish it from the old palace, where the house of Lords and Commons at present assemble.

In the year 1399, the King kept his Christmas here, during which time 10000 persons were plentifully entertained in this spacious hall, and the other rooms of the palace; for whose supply were daily killed about eighty oxen, and three hundred sheep, besides a vast number of fowls. It is still used for our coronation feasts; and for the three great courts of justice, the chancery, king’s bench, and common pleas, besides the court of exchequer which adjoins to it.

The front of this hall is extremely narrow, it is built with stone in the gothic taste, with a tower on each side the entrance, adorned with abundance of carved work. The print represents this front. The hall itself is esteemed the largest room in Europe unsupported by pillars, it being 270 feet in length [297] and 74 broad. The roof is admired for the excellence of the workmanship, and the sides contain a number of shops belonging to booksellers, &c. It is paved with stone, and to the courts of justice at the end is an assent by a flight of steps. The inside is most remarkable for being so wide and having no columns to support a roof so large. It is a regular Gothic, and gives us a good idea of the skill in architecture of our fore fathers so early as the time of Richard II.

Westminster Hall court, Dunning’s alley, Bishopsgate street.

Westminster Infirmary, a plain neat building in James street, by Petty France, Westminster; founded for the relief of the sick, and of those who suffer by any of the unavoidable accidents to which the human frame is always liable. This charitable and noble foundation was first set on foot on the second of December, 1719, when the subscription was first opened, and trustees appointed. Benefactions were soon procured, and several of the most eminent Physicians and Surgeons not only became subscribers, but generously offered their assistance gratis. About the beginning of April 1720, a house was taken in Petty France, and fitted up with all the necessary accommodations [298] for an infirmary; but it being soon found too small to contain the number of miserable objects brought thither, they four years after were removed to a larger house in Chapel street, where they continued till the present edifice in James street was erected.

The standing orders of this noble charity are as follow.

I. All persons who shall subscribe 2l. 2s. or more per annum, are trustees of this charity: but any trustee or subscriber neglecting to pay his subscription for the space of two years, is no longer deemed a trustee or subscriber, or to have any vote or privilege till his arrears are paid.

II. Every person giving a benefaction of 30l. or upwards, immediately becomes a trustee.

III. Every person who, by will, bequeaths a legacy of 50l. or upwards, may nominate another person, who, immediately after payment of the said legacy, is deemed a trustee.

IV. Each trustee may have one in-patient and one out-patient at a time; every person who becomes a subscriber of 2l. 2s. per annum, may have two in-patients and four out-patients in a year, and every person who becomes a subscriber of 1l. 1s. per annum, may have one [299] in-patient and two out-patients in a year; but the treasurer, physicians, and surgeons, may have each two in-patients and two out-patients at a time, or four out-patients.

V. No person is to act as a trustee during the time that he, or any other person for his benefit, is employed as a tradesman, or appointed to work for, or supply the charity with provisions, or any other commodity, nor for the space of six months after his having been so employed.

VI. No person who has the venereal disease is to be admitted as a patient: And if any such person shall obtain admission under pretence of some other distemper; he or she, upon the discovery, is to be immediately discharged.

VII. Four quarterly general boards are held every year; and the weekly board, on the Wednesday after each quarter-day, is to appoint such quarterly board, within forty days after each quarter-day, and to nominate a committee of three, five, or more trustees, to prepare the business to be laid before such board.

VIII. The weekly board may, as often as they see occasion, appoint special general boards to be held (during the intervals between the quarterly general boards;) [300] and may call a special general board when required by any seven trustees; giving notice in the summons of the occasion of calling such special board.

IX. If a ballot be demanded by three or more trustees at any quarterly or special general board, the chairman is to appoint a special general board for taking the same, at any time after fourteen days, and not exceeding twenty-one days, from the demand of such ballot; which is to begin at eleven o’clock in the forenoon, and be closed at two in the afternoon: And notice of such ballot, and the question on which it was demanded, is to be given to the trustees in the summons, and be advertised in some of the public papers.

X. All general boards are to consist of at least thirteen trustees.

XI. No standing order of this society is to be repealed, or altered, or any new one be in force, without the approbation of two general boards.

XII. The treasurer is chosen annually at the first general board after the general audit, proposed to the weekly board three weeks before his election.

XIII. The accounts of this society are to be annually closed upon the 31st of December.


XIV. All bonds, or other securities, for money belonging to the society, are secured in an iron chest under three different keys, kept by the vice-president and treasurer for the time being, and a third person nominated by a general board.

XV. The physicians, surgeons, apothecary, clerk, and matron, are appointed by the general board; and no addition is to be made to the salary of the apothecary, clerk, or matron, or any gratuity given them, without the consent of a general board. The inferior servants of the house, and tradesmen to be employed, are also appointed by the weekly board: And any gentleman may be candidate for physician, who has been educated, and taken his degrees in physick, in any university, or is a fellow or member of a college of physicians, in Great Britain or Ireland. A general board is to appoint the day for election of a treasurer, physician, surgeon, apothecary, clerk, or matron; and the first weekly board is to appoint a special general board to declare such vacancy by death or resignation; and in the mean time, the weekly board is impowered, in case of necessity, to employ such person or persons to officiate as treasurer, physicians, surgeons, apothecary, clerk, or matron, as occasion [302] requires, till a proper person is chosen by a general board.

XVI. When any extraordinary operation in surgery is to be performed, all surgeons, who are trustees, have liberty to attend.

XVII. Pursuant to the will of a considerable benefactor to this charity, none but Protestants are at any time to be admitted into any service or employ in or about this infirmary.

XVIII. A weekly board, consisting of as many trustees as please to attend, meet at the infirmary every Wednesday; and have power, from time to time, to make such rules, and give such instructions and orders, as they find necessary for the immediate direction of the several officers, servants, and others, employed in this charity; for the admitting or dismissing of patients; and regulating every thing relating to the good management of the house: But no new order of the weekly board is to be of force (if objected to by any two trustees present,) till it be approved of by the majority at the next weekly board.

XIX. Two trustees are nominated every Wednesday, by the weekly board, to be visitors for the ensuing week, who are to attend daily, and inquire into the [303] behaviour of the officers, servants, and patients, the quantity and quality of the provisions, and every thing relating to the oeconomy of the house; and these visitors have power to suspend any servant for misbehaviour, and to reject such provisions as they shall find deficient or improper, and provide others in their room, till they have made their report to the next weekly board.

XX. All questions at every board and committee are decided by the votes of the majority of the trustees present, and of the proxies for the ladies who are trustees, such proxy being given in writing to some person who is a trustee, and being entered in a book to be kept for that purpose by the secretary. And the minutes of each board and committee are to be signed by the respective chairmen.

XXI. It having been resolved that all subscriptions to this hospital are payable in advance, upon the respective quarter days for the year then to come; letters, signed by the chairman of every quarterly general board, are to be sent to each subscriber whose subscription shall then appear to have been three months due, according to the foregoing resolution, to remind him of such arrear, and to request the payment of it. From the orders published by the general board.


Westminster market, a very convenient and handsome market in King street.

Westminster school, or Queen’s college, Westminster, was founded by Queen Elizabeth, in the year 1590, for the education of forty boys, who are taught classical learning, and in the best manner prepared for the university. Besides whom, a great number of the sons of the nobility and gentry are educated there, which has rendered it one of the greatest schools in the kingdom. Instead of one master, and an usher, as at first; there are now an upper and under master, and five ushers, who have about 400 young gentlemen under their tuition. Maitland.

Westmoreland court, 1. Bartholomew close, so called from the mansion of the Earls of Westmoreland, formerly situated there: 2. Noble street, Foster lane.

Weston’s rents, Houndsditch.†

West’s gardens, New Gravel lane.†

West Side alley, near Tooley street, Southwark.

West Smithfield. See the article Smithfield. The epithet West is never used but to distinguish it from East Smithfield.

West street, 1. Soho: 2. Spitalfields market.


Weybridge, a village in Surry, four miles south-west of Hampton Court, took its name from a bridge formerly erected here over the river Wey. About this village are several fine seats, particularly those of the Earls of Portmore and Lincoln. The former was beautified by the Countess of Dorchester, in the reign of King James II. and has a fine walk of acacia trees, which when first planted were esteemed great curiosities. Among the advantages of the other, is a noble terrace walk, raised so high above the neighbouring ground, as to afford a fine prospect of the country and the river. For some farther account of both these seats. See Oatlands and Ham Farm.

Whalebone court, 1. Bow lane, Cheapside: 2. Little Old Bailey: 3. Lothbury: 4. Throgmorton street.

Wharton’s court, 1. Church-yard alley.† 2. Holbourn.† 3. Lambeth or Lambert hill, Thames street.†

Wharton’s rents, New Gravel lane.†

Wheatsheaf alley, 1. Barnaby street, Southwark.* 2. Lambeth.* 3. Michael’s lane, Thames street.*

Wheel yard, Stony lane.

Wheelbarrow alley, Rosemary lane.

Wheeler street, Lamb street, Spitalfields.


Wheeler’s alley, Old street.†

Wheeler’s lane, St. Olave street, Southwark.†

Wheeler’s yard, Redcross street, Barbican.† 2. Wheeler’s lane, Southwark.†

Wheelwrights, a company incorporated by letters patent granted by King Charles II. in the year 1670, and governed by a master, two wardens, and twenty-two assistants; but they have neither hall nor livery.

Wheelwright yard, Nightingale lane.†

Whetster’s ground, 1. Millbank, Westminster.† 2. Peter street.†

Whetston’s park, Lincoln’s Inn fields.†

Whistler’s court, Salter’s Hall court, St. Swithin’s lane.†

Whitcher’s almshouse, situated at Tothill side, Westminster, was founded by Mr. George Whitcher, in the year 1683, for six poor old people, each of whom are allowed the annual sum of 5l. and a gown. Maitland.

Whitcomb’s alley, Great Queen street.†

Whitcomb’s court, Hedge lane, Charing Cross.†

Whitcomb’s street, Hedge lane.†

White Ball court, Castle street.*

White Bear alley, 1. Kent street, Southwark.* 2. Addle hill.* 3. Redcross [307] street.* 4. Rosemary lane, Little Tower Hill.* 5. Whitechapel.*

White Bear court, Addle hill.*

White Bear yard, Holiwell street.*

Whitechapel, a long and broad street which extends from the north-east corner of the Minories, to near Mile-end. It derived its name from St. Mary’s church, which was originally a chapel of ease to St. Dunstan’s Stepney, and from its whiteness called the White chapel.

Whitechapel bars, a little to the west of Whitechapel church, placed where the liberties of the city end.

Whitechapel common, Mile-end.

Whitechapel court, is a court of record belonging to Stepney manor; wherein the steward of the manor tries actions for any sum, as well as of damage, trespass, &c.

Whitechapel field gate, Whitechapel.

Whitechapel market, a considerable flesh market consisting only of a range of butchers shops on the south side of the street, near the west end.

Whitechapel school, was founded by Mr. Ralph Davenant, rector of the parish of St. Mary Whitechapel, by Mary, his wife, and Sarah, her sister, in the year 1680: and this foundation being greatly augmented by the charitable benefaction [308] of 1000l. given in the year 1721, by a person unknown, a master receives a salary of 30l. per annum for teaching of sixty boys, as does a mistress 20l. for instructing forty girls. Maitland.

White Cock alley, Thames street.*

White court, Peter lane.

Whitecross alley, Moorfields.

Whitecross street, Fore street, Cripplegate, so named from a white cross which anciently stood at the upper end of it: 2. Queen street, Southwark: 3. Spitalfields, these last had probably their name from the same original.

White Friars, a number of lanes, alleys, and passages extending from the west side of Water lane to the Temple; and from Fleet street to the Thames. It took its name from the White Friars, or Carmelites, who had their house in this place next to Fleet street, and their garden probably extended from thence to the water side. They were cloathed in white, and having made a vow of poverty lived by begging. Their convent was founded by Sir Richard Gray, Knt. ancestor to the Lord Gray of Codnor in Derbyshire in the year 1241, and was afterwards rebuilt by Hugh Courtney, Earl of Devonshire, about the year 1350. In the conventual church were interred many persons of distinction.


This convent and its church were surrendered to Henry VIII. in the thirtieth year of his reign, when they were valued at no more than 26l. 7s. 3d. and being soon after pulled down, other houses were built in their room. Maitland.

In the year 1608, the inhabitants obtained several liberties, privileges and exemptions by a charter granted them by King James I. and this rendered the place an asylum for insolvent debtors, cheats, and gamesters, who gave to this district the name of Alsatia: but the inconveniences the city suffered from this place of refuge, and the riotous proceedings carried on there, at length induced the legislature to interpose; and to deprive them of privileges so pernicious to the community.

White Friars dock, White Friars.

White Friars stairs, White Friars.

Whitehall, a palace originally built by Hubert de Burgh, Earl of Kent, who in the year 1243, bequeathed it to the Black Friars in Chancery lane, Holbourn, in whose church he was interred. But in 1248, these friars having disposed of it to Walter de Grey, Archbishop of York, he left it to his successors, the Archbishops of that see, for their city mansion, and hence it obtained the name of York place. [310] However, the royal palace at Westminster suffering greatly by fire in the reign of Henry VIII. and that Prince having a great inclination for York place, purchased it of Cardinal Wolsey, in the year 1530.

Henry had no sooner obtained the possession of this palace than he enclosed the park for the accommodation of both palaces, and built the beautiful gate opposite the banqueting house (which has been lately pulled down) to which he added a magnificent gallery, for the accommodation of the Royal Family, the nobility and great officers of state; for there they sat to see the tournaments performed in the tiltyard; and soon after the King, who had a greater taste for pleasure, than for elegance of building, ordered a tennis-court, a cock-pit, and bowling greens to be formed, with other places for different kinds of diversion.

From this time Whitehall continued the royal residence of the Sovereigns of England; and Hentzner in his Itinerarium says it was a structure truly royal: and it was furnished in a peculiar manner.

“Near this palace, says he, are seen an immense number of swans, who wander up and down the river for some miles, in great security; no body daring to molest, much less to kill any of them, [311] under the penalty of a considerable fine.

In the palace is a library, well stored with Greek, Latin, Italian and French books; and among the rest, a small one in French, upon parchment, in the hand writing of the present Queen Elizabeth thus inscribed:

A tres haut & tres puissant & redoubtè Prince Henry VIII. de ce nom, Roy d’Angleterre, de France, & d’Irelande, defenseur de la foy:

Elisabeth sa tres humble fille rend salut & obedience.

In English thus:

To the most high, puissant, and redoubted Prince, Henry VIII. of the name, King of England, France and Ireland, defender of the faith:

Elizabeth, his most humble daughter, health and obedience.

All these books are bound in velvet of different colours, though chiefly red, with clasps of gold and silver; some have pearls, and precious stones, set in their bindings.


II. Two little silver cabinets of exquisite work, in which the Queen keeps her paper, and which she uses for writing boxes.

III. The Queen’s bed; ingeniously composed of woods of different colours, with quilts of silk, velvet, gold, silver, and embroidery.

IV. A little chest ornamented all over with pearls, in which the Queen keeps her bracelets, ear-rings, and other things of extraordinary value.

V. Christ’s passion in painted glass.

VI. Portraits: among which are Queen Elizabeth at sixteen years of age. Henry, Richard, Edward, Kings of England; Rosamond, Lucrece, a Grecian bride, in her nuptial habit; the genealogy of the Kings of England; a picture of King Edward VI. representing at first sight something quite deformed, till by looking through a small hole in the cover, which is put over it, you see it in its true proportions; the Emperor Charles V. Charles Emanuel Duke of Savoy, and Catharine of Spain, his wife; Ferdinand Duke of Florence, with his daughters; one of Philip King of Spain, when he came into England, and married Mary; Henry VII. Henry VIII. and his mother; [313] besides many more of illustrious men and women; and a picture of the siege of Malta.

VII. A small hermitage, half hid in a rock, finely carved in wood.

VIII. Variety of emblems, on paper, cut in the shape of shields, with mottoes used by the nobility at tilts and tournaments, hung up here for a memorial.

IX. Different instruments of music, upon one of which two persons may perform at the same time.

X. A piece of clock-work, an Æthiop riding upon a rhinoceros, with four attendants, who all make their obeisance, when it strikes the hour; these are all put into motion by winding up the machine.”

In short, at the entrance into the park, from Whitehall, was this romantic inscription, which the honourable Horatio Walpole supposes might allude to Philip II. who wooed the Queen after her sister’s death, and to the destruction of his armada.

Ictus piscator tandem sapit,
Sed infelix Actæon semper præceps.
Casta virgo facilè miseretur;
Sed potens Dea scelus ulciscitur.
Præda canibus, exemplum juvenibus,
Suis dedecus, pereat Actæon.
Cura cœlitibus, chara mortatibus, suis securitas,
Vivat Diana.


Thus englished:

The fisherman who has been wounded, learns, though late, to beware;
But the unfortunate Actæon always presses on.
The chaste virgin naturally pitied;
But the powerful goddess revenged the wrong.
Let Actæon fall a prey to his dogs,
An example to youth,
A disgrace to those that belong to him!
May Diana live the care of heaven;
The delight of mortals;
The security of those that belong to her!

Hentzner’s journey into England.

But to proceed, in the reign of King James I. the old banquetting house, which was then used for public entertainments, being much decayed, that Prince formed the design of pulling down the whole palace of Whitehall, and erecting in its room an edifice worthy the Kings of England: a most noble plan was actually drawn for that purpose, by the celebrated Inigo Jones, and this plan being finished, the old banquetting house was demolished, and the present elegant structure erected in its room. This was to have been but a small part of the intended work; but it was all that was performed; and the old palace continued still the residence of our Kings, till it was destroyed by fire in 1697: and has never yet been rebuilt. See the article Banquetting House.

S. Wale delin. E. Booker sc.
A Gate belonging to the Old palace of White Hall.


As this was esteemed the principal palace, and that of St. James’s only an additional, though there have been long no remains of it left, and there are several houses of the nobility and other buildings scattered about the place where it stood, it is still considered in the same light; the great offices are kept in some of these detached edifices, and all public business is still dated from Whitehall.

Whitehall gate. The gate here represented and the house adjoining have since the engraving this print been pulled down to render the street more spacious and convenient. It belonged, as was observed in the preceding article, to the old palace of Whitehall, and was built by Henry VIII. from a design of Hans Holbein the celebrated painter. Here were on each side four bustos in front with ornamented mouldings round them of baked clay in proper colours, and glazed in the manner of delf ware, which has preserved them intire to this time, whereas the festoons of stone in the banquetting house, which was built much later, are so corroded as to be scarce intelligible.

Whitehall stairs, Whitehall.

White Hart alley, Leadenhall street.*

White Hart buildings, the corner of Drury lane.*


White Hart court, 1. Barnaby street*: 2. Bishopsgate street without.* 3. Broad street.* 4. Castle street, Leicester Fields.* 5. Cat alley, Long lane, Smithfield.* 6. Leadenhall street.* 7. Old street.* 8. Whitechapel.*

White Hart inn yard, in the Borough.*

White Hart lane, Broadway, Westminster.*

White Hart row, 1. Baker’s row.* 2. Bell lane.* 3. Hackney road.*

White Hart stairs, Lambeth.*

White Hart street, 1. Kent street, Southwark.* 2. Warwick lane, Newgate street.*

White Hart yard, 1. Barnaby street, Southwark.* 2. Broad way, Westminster.* 3. Charterhouse lane, by Hicks’s hall.* 4. Drury lane.* 5. Fore street.* 6. Gracechurch street.* 7. Islington.* 8. Long Acre.* 9. Lower East Smithfield.* 10. Newington Butts.* 11. Whitecross street.*

White Hind court, 1. Bishopsgate street, without.* 2. Coleman street.*

White Hind yard, Hoxton.*

White Horn court, near new Gravel lane.*

White Horse alley, 1. Arundel street in the Strand.* 2. Barnaby street, Southwark.* 3. Chick lane, Smithfield.* 4. Cowcross, near Smithfield.* 5. Fenchurch street.* 6. Fleet market.* 7. Great Eastcheap.* 8. near Guy of [317] Warwick court, Upper ground, Southwark.* 9. St. John’s street, Smithfield.* 10. Kent street, Southwark.* 11. Turnmill street.*

White Horse court, 1. Addle Hill.* 2. Barnaby street.* 3. Borough.* 4. Fore street.* 5. Kent street. 6. King street, Westminster.* 7. Rosemary lane.* 8. Whitecross street.*

White Horse inn meal market, near Holbourn.*

White Horse inn yard, St. Margaret’s hill, Southwark.*

White Horse lane, 1. Mile-End Old Town.* 2. White horse street, Ratcliff.*

White Horse passage, Great Swallow street.*

White Horse street, 1. Hide Park road.* 2. Queen street.* 3. Ratcliff.*

White Horse yard, 1. Aldersgate.* 2. Blackman street, Southwark.* 3. Berry street.* 4. Chiswell street.* 5. Coleman street.* 6. Drury lane.* 7. Duke’s street, Lincoln’s Inn fields.* 8. East Smithfield.* 9. Fan’s alley, Goswell street.* 10. Fetter lane, Fleet street.* 11. Islington road, St. John’s street.* 12. Kent street, Southwark.* 13. King street, Oxford street.* 14. London wall.* 15. Love lane.* 16. Lower East Smithfield.* 17. Pear Tree street, Brick lane, Old street.* 18. Piccadilly.* 19. Pickax street.* 20. Ratcliff Highway.* 21. Rosemary lane, Little [318] Tower Hill.* 22. Seething lane, Tower street.* 23. Upper Ground street, Southwark.*

Whitehouse’s court, St. Thomas’s street, Southwark.†

White Lion alley, Birching lane, Cornhill.*

White Lion court, 1. Addle hill, Thames street.* 2. Barbican, Aldersgate street.* 3. Barnaby street, Southwark.* 4. Birching lane.* 5. Blossom’s street, Norton Falgate.* 6. Broad street by the east end of Throgmorton street.* 7. Carpenter’s yard, London wall.* 8. Charterhouse lane, near Smithfield.* 9. Corn hill.* 10. Fleet street.* 11. New street: 12. Newtoners lane: 13. Petticoat lane, Whitechapel.* 14. in the Savoy.* 15. Throgmorton street, Lothbury.* 16. Tower street.*

White Lion street, 1. Norton Falgate, by Shoreditch.* 2. St. George’s Fields.* 3. Rag Fair.*

White Lion wharf, Thames street.*

White Lion yard, 1. Barnaby street, Southwark.* 2. Narrow street, Limehouse.* 3. Norton Falgate.* 4. Upper Shadwell.*

White Rose alley, Whitecross street, Cripplegate.*

White Rose court, Coleman street.*

White row, Bell lane, Spitalfields.


Whitening ground, near Maiden lane: 2. Morgan’s lane, Southwark.

White Swan coach yard, Blackman street.*

White Swan court, Newgate street.*

White Swan stairs, near Thames street.*

White Swan yard, Shoreditch.*

White’s alley, 1. Bond’s stables, by Fetter lane.† 2. St. Catharine’s court, St. Catharine’s.† 3. Chancery lane.† 4. Between Swan alley, and Great Bell alley, Coleman street.† 5. Holbourn.† 6. Little Moor fields.† 7. Long ditch, Westminster.† 8. Middle Moor fields.†

White’s court, Vine yard, St. Olave’s street.†

White’s ground, Crucifix lane, Barnaby street, Southwark.†

White’s rents, Fore street, Limehouse.†

White’s row, Baker’s row.†

White’s street, 1. Blackman street.† 2. Houndsditch.† 3. Rotherhith.† 4. Horselydown.† 5. Pelham street, Spitalfields.†

White’s yard, 1. East Smithfield.† 2. Green walk, Southwark.† 3. Lamb alley.† 4. Rosemary lane.† 5. Whitecross street.†

Whiting’s alley, 1. Morgan’s lane.† 2. near Tooley street, Southwark.†

Whittal’s rents, Long lane.†

Whittington’s Almshouse, Sir Richard Whittington several times Mayor of this [320] city, about the year 1413, founded a college on the north side of the church of St. Michael Pater Noster, for a master, four fellows, clerks, choristers, &c. together with an almshouse for thirteen poor men; one of whom to be tutor, with a salary of 1s. 4d. per week, and the twelve others 1s. 2d. each, with necessary provisions. The college was dissolved by act of parliament in the reign of Edward VI. but the almshouse situated upon College hill still remains under the direction of the mercers company; who, besides a handsome room for the use of each of the pensioners, allow them 3s. 10d. per week, and the men every third year coats and breeches, and the women, who are now also admitted, have gowns and petticoats. Stow’s Survey.

Whore’s Nest, Harrow corner.||

Wickham’s court, Great Wild street.†

Widegate alley, Bishopsgate street without.

Wigan’s court, Church lane, Limehouse.†

Wigan’s key, Thames street.†

Wightman’s alley, St. John’s street, Smithfield.†

Wigmore row, Marybone fields.

Wigmore street, Wellbeck street, near Marybone fields.

Wilday’s wharf, Cock hill, Ratcliff.†

Wild court, Great Wild street.†


Wilderness lane, Salisbury court, Fleet street.

Wildernessrow, Chelsea.

Wild-goose alley, Thames street.*

Wild’s passage, Drury lane.†

Wild’s rents. Long lane Southwark.†

Williams’s court, New Gravel lane.†

Dr. Williams’s Library, in Redcross street, Cripplegate, for the use of the dissenting ministers, of the presbyterian, independant and baptist persuasions, was founded by Daniel Williams, D. D. a presbyterian divine, who in 1711, among other considerable legacies, bequeathed his valuable collection of books and manuscripts for the above purpose, with a handsome salary for a librarian and a housekeeper, in pursuance of his will a neat building was erected in Redcross street, with a genteel apartment for the librarian, &c. and a spacious room capable of containing 40,000 volumes. The original library has been augmented by many thousand volumes presented to it.

This library is under the direction of twenty-three trustees, fourteen of whom are ministers, and nine of them lay gentlemen; but all of the presbyterian denomination: with a secretary and a steward.

In this library is a register, wherein parents may enter the birth of their children. This is of the greater use to the [322] dissenters, as few or none of the dissenting meeting houses have any register of christenings, and as a great body of them do not allow of the baptising of infants. Here also are some curiosities, as an Egyptian mummy, and a glass bason, which held the water wherewith Queen Elizabeth was baptized. This last is kept in a bag, whereon is fixed a paper that shews how this bason came into the possession of the managers of the library.

Williams’s rents, Millbank, Westminster Horseferry.†

Willifrid’s rents, Shad Thames, Horselydown.†

Willow street, Bank-side, Southwark.‡

Willow-tree alley, 1. Nightingale lane.‡ 2. Wapping dock.‡

Willow-tree court, 1. Charter House lane.‡ 2. Lower Shadwell.‡

Willow-tree yard, Maudlin’s rents.‡

Wilson’s alley, Fore street, Lambeth.†

Wilson’s court, Rosemary lane, Little Tower Hill.†

Wiltshire lane, East Smithfield.

Wimbleton, a village in Surrey, three miles south of Putney church, where Ethelbert King of Kent was defeated in a battle by Ceaulin the West Saxon, in the year 568. Wimbleton house stands about half a mile south from the road [323] on Wimbleton common; it was built by Sir Thomas Cecil, son of the Lord Treasurer Burleigh, in the year 1588, and was afterwards General Lambert’s, who had here the finest flower garden in England. The manor of Wimbleton was purchased by Sarah Churchill, Duchess Dowager of Marlborough, who left it to the late John Spencer, Esq; brother to the late Duke of Marlborough, together with a fine seat she built here, which is adorned with a grand terrace walk, that extends from the house to the seat of Sir Abraham Janssen, Bart. and has a fine prospect to the south. Wimbleton common or heath which is supposed to be as high as Hampstead heath, is about a mile each way, and is adorned on the sides with several handsome seats.

Wimple mews, Wimple street.

Wimple street, Henrietta street.

Winchester court, Monkwell street, near Cripplegate.

Winchester street, 1. by Broad street, so called from the Mansion house of the Earls of Winchester there, built by Sir William Pawlet Knt. created Earl of Wilts, and Marquis of Winchester, Lord High Treasurer of England in the reign of Edward VI. Maitland. 2. St. Mary Overies, from the palace of the Bishops of Winchester.


In its neighbourhood were the licensed stews under the jurisdiction of the Bishop, whence the common prostitutes were called Winchester geese. Maitland. The name of stews was given to lewd houses from the fishponds near this place.

Winchester yard, Winchester street, St. Mary Overies.

Wincle court, Pallmall.

Windelow’s court, Black Friars.†

Windmill alley, 1. St. Margaret’s hill.* 2. Whitechapel.☐

Windmill bank, Isle of Dogs, so called from windmills there.

Windmill court, 1. Coleman street.* 2. Pie corner, near Smithfield.* 3. Snow hill.*

Windmill hill, 1. Hatton wall: 2. Leather lane, Holbourn: 3. near Upper Moorfields. This last hill was raised by above a thousand cart loads of human bones, brought from St. Paul’s Charnel house and laid there in the year 1549, which being soon after covered with street dirt from the city, the place was converted into a lay stall, whereby the ground was so raised, that three windmills were erected upon it, whence it obtained its present name. Maitland.

Windmill Hill row, Upper Moorfields.☐

Windmill lane, Whitechapel.☐


Windmill street, 1. Haymarket*: 2. Tottenham Court road.

Windmill yard, Coleman street.*

Windsor, so called from its winding shore, is a pleasant, and well inhabited borough, twenty-three miles from London, agreeably situated on the south bank of the Thames, in the midst of delightful vallies. Its church is a spacious ancient building situated in the High street of the town, in which is also the town house, a neat regular edifice built in 1686, and supported with columns and arches of Portland stone; at the north end is placed in a niche the statue of Queen Anne, in her royal robes, with the globe and other regalia; and underneath, in the freeze of the entablature of the lesser columns and arches, is the following inscription in gold letters:

Anno Regni VIº.
Dom. 1707.

Arte tua, sculptor, non est imitabilis Anna;
Annæ vis similem sculpere? sculpe Deam
S. Chapman, Prætore.

And in another niche on the south side is the statue of Prince George of Denmark, her Majesty’s royal consort, in a Roman military habit, and underneath is the following inscription:


Serenissimo Principi
Georgia Principi Daniæ,
Heroi omni sæculo venerando,
Christophorus Wren, Arm.

In the area, underneath the town hall the market is kept every Saturday and is plentifully supplied with corn, meat, fish, and all other provisions.

Besides the castle, the chief ornament of the place; many gentlemen of fortune and family constantly reside in the town and its neighbourhood. The Duke of St. Albans has a handsome large house on the east part of the town, with pleasant gardens that extend to the park: and at the south side of the town is Sir Edward Walpole’s house, a neat regular edifice with large gardens beautifully laid out and designed; where Marshal Bellisle resided for some time while a prisoner in England, during the last war.

Windsor Castle, the most delightful palace of our Sovereigns, was first built by William the Conqueror soon after his being established on the throne of this kingdom, on account of its pleasant and healthful situation, and as a place of security; it was greatly improved by Henry I. who added many additional buildings, and surrounded the whole with a strong wall. Our succeeding Monarchs resided in the same castle, till King Edward III. caused the ancient building to be taken down; erected the present stately castle, and St. George’s chapel; inclosed the whole with a strong wall or rampart of stone, and instituted the most noble order of the garter.

S. Wale del. B. Green sculp.
Windsor Castle.


It may be proper to observe, that William of Wickham, afterwards Bishop of Winchester, was principally employed by Edward III. in building this castle, and when he had finished it, he caused this doubtful sentence to be cut on one of the towers:

This made Wickham.

which being reported to the King, as if that prelate had assumed to himself the honour of building this castle, that Bishop would probably have fallen under his Majesty’s displeasure, had he not readily assured his royal master, that he meant it only as an acknowledgment, that this building had made him great in the favour of his Prince; and had occasioned his being raised to his present high station.

Great additions were in succeeding times made to the castle, by several of our Monarchs, particularly by Edward IV. Henry VII. Henry VIII. Elizabeth, and Charles II. This last Prince soon after the restoration, entirely repaired the castle, and though it had suffered greatly by [328] plunder and rapine, in the preceding times of national disorder, he restored it to its ancient splendor. As that Prince usually kept his court there during the summer season, he spared no expence in rendering it worthy the royal residence; he entirely changed the face of the upper court; he enlarged the windows and made them regular, richly furnished the royal apartments, and had them decorated with large and beautiful paintings, and erected a large magazine of arms.

In short, King Charles II. left little to be done to the castle except some additional paintings in the apartments, which were added by his successors James II. and William III. in whose reign the whole was completed.

This stately and venerable castle is divided into two courts or wards, with a large round tower between them called the middle ward, it being formerly separated from the lower ward by a strong wall and drawbridge. The whole contains above twelve acres of land, and has many towers and batteries for its defence: but length of time have abated their strength, and the happy union that subsists between the Prince and people, has made it unnecessary to keep these fortifications in perfect repair.


The castle is situated upon a high hill, which rises by a gentle ascent, and enjoys a most delightful prospect around it, in the front is a wide and extensive vale, adorned with corn fields and meadows, with groves on either side, and the calm smooth water of the Thames running through it, and behind it are every where hills covered with woods, as if dedicated by nature, for game and hunting.

On the declivity of the hill is a fine terrace faced with a rampart of free stone, 1870 feet in length. This may justly be said to be one of the noblest walks in Europe, both with respect to the strength and grandeur of the building, and the fine and extensive prospect over the Thames of the adjacent country on every side, where from the variety of fine villas scattered about, nature and art seem to vie with each other in beauty.

From this terrace you enter a beautiful park, which surrounds the palace, and is called the little or house park, to distinguish it from another adjoining, which is of a much larger extent. This little park is four miles in circumference, and surrounded by a brick wall. The turf is of the most beautiful green, and it is adorned with many shady walks; especially that called Queen Elizabeth’s, [330] which, on the summer evenings is frequented by the best company. A fine plain on the top of the hill was made level for bowling in the reign of King Charles II. and from hence is the like extended prospect over the Thames, and the same beautiful and well cultivated country. The park is well stocked with deer and other game, and the keeper’s lodge at the farther end is a delightful habitation.

But to return to the castle. In the upper court is a spacious and regular square, containing on the north side the royal apartments, and St. George’s chapel and hall, on the south and the east sides are the royal apartments, those of the Prince of Wales, and the great officers of state, and in the centre of the area is an equestrian statue in copper of King Charles II. in the habit of one of the Cæsars, standing on a marble pedestal, adorned with various kinds of fruit, fish, shipping and other ornaments. On the east side is the following inscription on a shield:

CAROLO Secundo.
Regum Optimo,
Domino suo clementissimo.
Tobias Rustat
Hanc Effigiem humilime
Dedit et Dedicavit,
Anno Domini Mdclxxx.


The Round tower, which forms the west side of this upper court, contains the Governor’s apartments. It is built on the highest part of the mount, and there is an ascent to it by a large flight of stone steps: these apartments are spacious and noble, and among the rest is a guard-room or magazine of arms. King Charles II. began to face this mount with brick, but only compleated that part next the court.

The Lower court is larger than the other, and is in a manner divided into two parts by St. George’s chapel, which stands in the centre. On the north, or inner side are the several houses and apartments of the Dean and canons of St. George’s chapel, with those of the minor canons, clerks and other officers; and on the south and west sides of the outer part, are the houses of the poor knights of Windsor. In this court are also several towers belonging to the officers of the crown, when the court is at Windsor, and to the officers of the order of the garter.

The royal apartments are on the north side of the Upper court, and are usually termed the Star building, from a star and garter in gold in the middle of the structure, on the out side next the terrace.


The entrance into the apartments is through a handsome vestibule, supported by columns of the Ionic order, with some antique bustos in several niches; from hence you proceed to the great staircase, which is finely painted with several fabulous stories from Ovid’s Metamorphoses: In the dome Phaeton is represented desiring Apollo to grant him leave to drive the chariot of the sun; in large compartments on the staircase, are the transformation of Phaeton’s sisters into poplar trees, with this inscription, Magnis tamen excidit Ausis; and Cycnus changed into a swan. In several parts of the ceiling are represented the signs of the Zodiac supported by the winds, with baskets of flowers beautifully disposed: at the corners are the four Elements each express’d by a variety of figures. Aurora is also represented with her nymphs in waiting, giving water to her horses. In several parts of the staircase are the figures of Music, Painting, and the other sciences. The whole is beautifully disposed and heightened with gold, and from this staircase you have a view of the back stairs painted with the story of Meleager and Atalanta.

I. Having ascended the staircase, you enter first into the Queen’s guard chamber, [333] which is compleatly furnished with guns, pistols, bayonets, pikes, swords, &c. beautifully ranged and disposed into various forms, as the star and garter, the royal cypher, and other ornaments. On the cieling is Britannia in the person of Queen Catharine of Portugal, consort to King Charles II. seated on a globe, bearing the arms of England and Portugal, with the four grand divisions of the earth Europe, Asia, Africa, and America, attended by deities, making their several offerings. On the outer part of this beautiful group, are the signs of the Zodiac, and in different parts of the cieling are Minerva, Mars, Venus, and other heathen deities, with Zephyrs, Cupids, and other embellishments properly disposed; over the chimney is a portrait of Prince George of Denmark on horseback, by Dahl; with a view of shipping by Vandewell.

II. You next enter the Queen’s presence chamber, where Queen Catharine is represented attended by Religion, Prudence, Fortitude and other Virtues: she is under a curtain spread by Time, and supported by Zephyrs, while Fame sounds the happiness of Britain; below, Justice is driving away Envy, Sedition, and other evil genii. The room is hung with [334] tapestry, containing the history of the beheading of St. Paul, and the persecution of the primitive Christians; and adorned with the pictures of Judith and Holofernes, by Guido Reni; a Magdalen, by Sir Peter Lelly; and a Prometheus by young Palma.

III. On entering the Queen’s audience chamber, you see the cieling painted with Britannia in the person of Queen Catharine, in a carr drawn by swans to the temple of Virtue, attended by Flora, Ceres, Pomona, &c. with other decorations heightened with gold. The canopy is of fine English velvet, set up by Queen Anne; and the tapestry was made at Coblentz in Germany, and presented to King Henry VIII. The pictures hung up in this room, are, a Magdalen by moonlight, by Carracci; St. Stephen stoned, by Rotterman; and Judith and Holofernes, by Guido Reni.

IV. On the cieling of the ball room King Charles II. is represented giving freedom to Europe by the figures of Perseus and Andromeda; on the shield of Perseus is inscribed Perseus Britannicus, and over the head of Andromeda is wrote Europa Liberata, and Mars attended by the celestial deities, offers the olive branch. On the coving of [335] this chamber is the story of Perseus and Andromeda, the four seasons, and the signs of the Zodiac, the whole heightened with gold. The tapestry, which was made at Brussels, and set up by King Charles II. represents the seasons of the year; and the room is adorned with the following pictures, the Roman Charity, after Tintoret; Duns Scotus, by Spagnoletto; a Madona, by Titian; Fame, by Palmegiani, the Arts and Sciences, also by Palmegiani; and Pan and Syrinx by Stanick.

V. The next room you enter is the Queen’s drawing room, where on the cieling is painted the assembly of the gods and goddesses, the whole intermixed with cupids, flowers, &c. and heightened with gold. The room is hung with tapestry representing the twelve months of the year, and adorned with the pictures of Lot and his daughters, after Angelo; Lady Digby, wife of Sir Kenelm Digby, by Vandyke; a sleeping Venus, by Poussin; a family in the character of Mark Anthony and Cleopatra, by de Bray; a Spanish family, after Titian; and a flower piece by Varelst.

VI. In the Queen’s bed-chamber, the bed of state is rich flowered velvet made in Spitalfields, by order of Queen Anne, and the tapestry, which represents [336] the harvest season, was also made at London, by Poyntz. The cieling is painted with the story of Diana and Endymion, and the room is adorned with the pictures of the Holy family, by Raphael; Herod’s cruelty by Giulio Romano; and Judith and Holofernes, by Guido.

VII. The next is the room of Beauties, so named from the portraits of the most celebrated beauties in the reign of King Charles II. they are fourteen in number, viz. Lady Ossory, the Duchess of Somerset, the Duchess of Cleveland, Lady Gramont, the Countess of Northumberland, the Duchess of Richmond, Lady Birons, Mrs. Middleton, Lady Denham and her sister, Lady Rochester, Lady Sunderland, Mrs. Dawson, and Mrs. Knott. These are all original paintings drawn to great perfection by Sir Peter Lelly.

VIII. In the Queen’s dressing room are the following portraits, Queen Henrietta Maria, wife to King Charles I. Queen Mary, when a child, and Queen Catharine; these three are all done by Vandyke; the Duchess of York, mother to Queen Mary and Queen Anne, by Sir Peter Lelly.

In this room is a closet wherein are several paintings, and in particular a portrait of the Countess of Desmond, who is said to have lived to within [337] a few days of an hundred and fifty years of age; also a portrait of Erasmus and other learned men. In this closet is likewise the banner of France annually delivered on the second of August by the Duke of Marlborough, by which he holds Blenheim house built at Woodstock in Oxfordshire in the reign of Queen Anne, as a national reward to that great General for his many glorious victories over the French.

IX. You are next conducted into Queen Elizabeth’s or the picture gallery, which is richly adorned with the following paintings: King James I. and his Queen, whole lengths, by Vansomer; Rome in flames, by Giulio Romano; a Roman family, by Titian; the Holy family, after Raphael; Judith and Holofernes, by Tintoret; a night piece, by Skalkin; the pool of Bethesda, by Tintoret; a portrait of Charles VI. Emperor of Germany, by Sir Godfrey Kneller; the wise men making their offerings to Christ, by Paulo Veronese; two usurers, an admired piece, by the famous blacksmith of Antwerp; Perseus and Andromeda, by Schiavone; Aretine and Titian, by Titian; the Duke of Gloucester, a whole length by Sir Godfrey Kneller; Prince George of Denmark, a whole length by Dahl; King [338] Henry VIII. by Hans Holbein; Vandanelli, an Italian statuary, by Correggio; the founders of different orders in the Romish church, by Titian and Rembrant; a rural piece in low life, by Bassano; a fowl piece, by Varelst; the battle of Spurs near Terevaen in France, in 1513, by Hans Holbein; two views of Windsor Castle, by Wosterman, and two Italian markets, by Michael Angelo. In this room is also a curious amber cabinet, presented by the King of Prussia to Queen Caroline.

There is here likewise Queen Caroline’s china closet, filled with a great variety of curious china elegantly disposed, and the whole room is finely gilt and ornamented; over the chimney are the pictures of Prince Arthur, and his two sisters, the children of King Henry VII. by Holbein; and in this closet is also a fine amber cabinet, presented to Queen Anne, by Dr. Robinson, Bishop of London, and plenipotentiary at the congress of Utrecht.

X. From this gallery a return is made to the King’s closet, the cieling of which is adorned with the story of Jupiter and Leda. Among the curiosities in this room is a large frame of needle work, said to be wrought by Mary Queen of Scots, while a prisoner in Fotheringhay castle; among other figures, she herself is represented [339] supplicating for justice before the Virgin Mary, with her son, afterwards King James I. standing by her; in a scrawl is worked these words Sapientiam amavi et exquisivi a juventute mea. This piece of work, after its having lain a long time in the wardrobe, was set up by order of Queen Anne. The pictures are, a Magdalen, by Carracci; a sleeping cupid, by Correggio; contemplation, by Carracci; Titian’s daughter, by herself; and a German Lady, by Raphael.

XI. You are next conducted into the King’s dressing room, where the cieling is painted with the story of Jupiter and Danae; and adorned with the pictures of the birth of Jupiter, by Giulio Romano; and of a naked Venus asleep, by Sir Peter Lelly.

XII. On leaving the above room, you are conducted into the King’s bed chamber, which is hung with tapestry representing the story of Hero and Leander; the bed of state, which was set up in the reign of King Charles II. is of fine blue cloth, richly embroidered with gold and silver; and on the cieling that Prince is represented in the robes of the garter, under a canopy supported by Time, Jupiter and Neptune, with a wreath of laurel over his head, and he is attended by Europe, Asia, Africa, and America, paying [340] their obedience to him. The paintings are, King Charles II. when a boy, in armour, by Vandyke; and St. Paul stoned at Lystra, by Paulo Veronese.

XIII. The cieling of the King’s drawing room, which is next seen, is finely painted with King Charles II. riding in a triumphal carr, drawn by the horses of the sun, attended by Fame, Peace, and the polite arts; Hercules is driving away Rebellion, Sedition and Ignorance; Britannia and Neptune, properly attended, are paying obedience to the Monarch as he passes; and the whole is a lively representation of the restoration of that Monarch, and the introduction of arts, and sciences in these kingdoms. In the other parts of the cieling are painted the labours of Hercules, with festoons of fruit and flowers, the whole beautifully decorated in gold and stone colour. The pictures hung up in this room are, a converted Chinese, by Sir Godfrey Kneller; the Marquis of Hamilton, after Vandyke, by Hanneman; Herodias’s daughter, by Carlo Dolci; a Magdalen, by Carlo Dolci; and a Venetian Lady, by Titian.

XIV. You next enter the King’s drawing room, where the painted cieling represents the banquet of the gods, with a variety of fish and fowl. [341] The pictures hung up here are, the portraits of his present Majesty, and the late Queen Caroline, whole lengths; Hercules and Omphale, Cephalus and Procris, the birth of Venus, and Venus and Adonis, the four last by Genario; a naval triumph of King Charles II. by Verrio; the marriage of St. Catharine, by Dawkers; nymphs and satyrs, by Rubens and Snyders; hunting the wild boar, by Snyders; a picture of still life, by Girardo; the taking of the bears, by Snyders; a night piece, being a family singing by candle light, by Quistin; a Bohemian family, by de Brie; divine love, by an unknown hand; and Lacy, a famous comedian in King Charles the Second’s time, in three characters, by Wright.

Many of the paintings in this room are best seen at noon by the reflection of the sun; the carving of this chamber is very beautiful, representing a great variety of fowl, fish and fruit, done to the utmost perfection on lime wood, by Mr. Gibbons, a famous statuary and carver in the reign of King Charles II.

XV. In the King’s audience chamber, the canopy, which was set up in the reign of King Charles II. is of green velvet, richly embroidered with gold, and on the cieling is represented the establishment [342] of the church of England at the restoration, in the characters of England, Scotland and Ireland, attended by Faith, Hope, Charity, and the Cardinal Virtues; Religion triumphs over Superstition and Hypocrisy, who are driven by cupids from before the face of the church, all which are represented in their proper attitudes, and highly finished. The pictures hung up in this room are, our Saviour before Pilate, by Michael Angelo; the Apostles at our Saviour’s tomb, by Scavoni; Peter, James and John, by Michael Angelo; and the Duchess of Richmond, by Vandyke.

XVI. The King’s presence chamber is hung with tapestry containing the history of Queen Athaliah, and the cieling is finely adorned with painting, Mercury is represented with an original portrait of King Charles II. which he shews to the four quarters of the world introduced by Neptune; Fame declaring the glory of that Prince, and Time driving away Rebellion, Sedition, and their companions. Over the canopy is Justice in stone colour, shewing the arms of Britain to Thames and the river nymphs, with the star of Venus, and this label, Sydus Carolynum, at the lower end of the chamber is Venus in a marine carr drawn by tritons and [343] sea-nymphs. The portraits hung up are, Henry Duke of Gloucester, brother to King Charles II. and his governess the Countess of Dorset, both by Vandyke; and father Paul, by Tintoret.

XVII. The King’s guard chamber, which you next enter, is a spacious and noble room, in which is a large magazine of arms, consisting of some thousands of pikes, pistols, guns, coats of mail, swords, halberts, bayonets, and drums, disposed in a most curious manner in colonades, pillars, circles, shields, and other devices by Mr. Harris, late master gunner of this castle; the person who invented this beautiful arrangement of arms, and placed those in the great armoury in the Tower of London. The cieling is finely painted in water-colours: in one circle is Mars and Minerva, and in the other Peace and Plenty. In the dome is also a representation of Mars, and over the chimney piece is a picture of Charles XI. King of Sweden, on horseback, as big as the life, by Wyck.

At an installation, the Knights of the garter dine here in great state in the absence of the Sovereign.

XVIII. You next enter St. George’s chamber, which is particularly set apart to the honour of the most illustrious order of the garter, and is perhaps one of [344] the noblest rooms in Europe, both with regard to the building and the painting, which is here performed in the most grand taste. In a large oval in the centre of the ceiling King Charles II. is represented in the habit of the order, attended by England, Scotland and Ireland; Religion and Plenty hold the crown of these kingdoms over his head; Mars and Mercury, with the emblems of war and peace stand on each side. In the same oval Regal Government is represented upheld by Religion and Eternity, with justice attended by Fortitude, Temperance and Prudence, beating down Rebellion and Faction. Towards the throne is represented in an octogon St. George’s cross incircled with the garter, within a star or glory supported by Cupids, with the motto,

Honi soit qui mal y pense.

and besides other embellishments relating to the order, the Muses are represented attending in full consort.

On the back of the state, or Sovereign’s throne, is a large drapery, on which is painted St. George encountering the dragon, as large as the life, and on the lower border of the drapery is inscribed,

Veniendo restituit rem,


in allusion to King William III. who is painted in the habit of the order, sitting under a royal canopy, by Sir Godfrey Kneller. To the throne is an ascent by five steps of fine marble, to which the painter has added five more, which are done with such perfection as to deceive the sight, and induce the spectator to think them equally real.

This noble room is an hundred and eight feet in length, and the whole north side is taken up with the triumph of Edward the Black Prince, after the manner of the Romans. At the upper part of the hall is Edward III. that Prince’s father, the conqueror of France and Scotland, and the founder of the order of the garter, seated on a throne, receiving the Kings of France and Scotland prisoners; the Black Prince is seated in the middle of the procession, crowned with laurel; and carried by slaves; preceded by captives, and attended by the emblems of Victory, Liberty, and other ensignia of the Romans, with the banners of France and Scotland displayed. The painter has given a loose to his fancy by closing the procession with the fiction of the Countess of Salisbury, in the person of a fine lady, making garlands for the [346] Prince, and the representation of the merry wives of Windsor.

At the lower end of the hall is a noble music gallery, supported by slaves, larger than the life, in proper attitudes, said to represent a father and his three sons, taken prisoners by the Black Prince in his wars abroad. Over this gallery on the lower compartment of the ceiling is the collar of the order of the garter fully displayed. The painting of this room was done by Verro, and is highly finished and heightened with gold.

XIX. You are next conducted to St. George’s or the King’s chapel, which is no less royally adorned. On the ceiling is finely represented our Lord’s ascension; and the altar-piece is adorned with a noble painting of the last supper. The north side of the chapel is ornamented with the representation of our Saviour’s raising Lazarus from the dead, his curing the sick of the palsy, and other miracles, beautifully painted by Verro; and in a group of spectators the painter has introduced his own effigy, with those of Sir Godfrey Kneller, and Mr. Cooper, who assisted him in these paintings. The east end of this chapel is taken up with the closets belonging to his Majesty and the Royal family. The canopy, curtains, [347] and furniture are of crimson velvet, fringed with gold; and the carved work of this chapel, which is well worthy the attention of the curious, is done by that famous artist Gibbons, in lime-tree, representing a great variety of pelicans, doves, palms, and other allusions to scripture history, with the star and garter, and other ornaments finished to great perfection.

From St. George’s chapel you are conducted to the Queen’s guard chamber, the first room you entered; for this is the last of the state apartments at present shown to the public; the others being only opened when the court resides at Windsor. They consist of many beautiful chambers, adorned with the paintings of the greatest masters.

In passing from hence the stranger usually looks into the inner or horn court, so called from a pair of stag’s horns of a very extraordinary size, taken in the forest and set up in that court, which is painted in bronze and stone colour. On one side is represented a Roman battle, and on the opposite side a sea fight, with the images of Jupiter, Neptune, Mercury and Pallas; and in the gallery is a representation of King David playing before the ark.


From this court a flight of stone steps lead to the King’s guard chamber; and in the cavity under these steps, and fronting this court, is a figure of Hercules also in stone colours. On a dome over the steps, is painted the battle of the Gods, and on the sides of the stair case is a representation of the four ages of the world, and two battles of the Greeks and Romans in fresco.

St. George’s chapel, among the buildings of this noble palace we have mentioned the chapel of St. George situated in the middle of the lower court. This antient structure, which is now in the purest style of Gothic architecture, was first erected by King Edward III. in the year 1337, soon after the foundation of the college, for the honour of the order of the garter, and dedicated to St. George, the patron of England; but however noble the first design might be, King Edward IV. not finding it entirely completed, enlarged the structure and designed the present building, together with the houses of the dean and canons, situated on the north and west sides of the chapel; the work was afterwards carried on by Henry VII. who finished the body of the chapel, and Sir Reginald Bray, knight of the garter, and the favourite of that King, [349] assisted in ornamenting the chapel and compleating the roof.

The architecture of the inside has always been esteemed for its neatness and great beauty, and in particular the stone roof is reckoned an excellent piece of workmanship. It is an ellipsis supported by Gothic pillars, whose ribs and groins sustain the whole ceiling, every part of which has some different device well finished, as the arms of Edward the Confessor, Edward III. Henry VI. Edward IV. Henry VII. and Henry VIII. also the arms of England and France quarterly, the cross of St. George, the rose, portcullis, lion rampant, unicorn, &c. In a chapel in the south isle is represented in ancient painting, the history of John the Baptist, and in the same isle are painted on large pannels of oak, neatly carved and decorated with the several devices peculiar to each Prince, the portraits at full length of Prince Edward, son to Henry VI. Edward IV. Edward V. and Henry VII. In the north isle is a chapel dedicated to St. Stephen, wherein the history of that saint is painted on the pannels and well preserved. In the first of these pannels St. Stephen is represented preaching to the people; in the second he is before Herod’s tribunal; in the third he is stoning; and [350] in the fourth he is represented dead. At the east end of this isle is the chapter house of the college, in which is a portrait at full length, by a masterly hand, of the victorious Edward III. in his robes of state, holding in his right hand a sword, and bearing the crowns of France and Scotland, in token of the many victories he gained over those nations. On one side of this painting is kept the sword of that great and warlike Prince.

But what appears most worthy of notice is the choir. On each side are the stalls of the Sovereign and Knights companions of the most noble order of the garter, with the helmet, mantling, crest, and sword, of each Knight set up over his stall on a canopy of antient carving curiously wrought, and over the canopy is affixed the banner or arms of each Knight properly blazon’d on silk, and on the back of the stalls are the titles of the Knights, with their arms neatly engraved and blazoned on copper. The Sovereign’s stall is on the right hand of the entrance into the choir, and is covered with purple velvet and cloth of gold, and has a canopy and compleat furniture of the same valuable materials; his banner is likewise of velvet, and his mantling of cloth of gold. The Prince’s [351] stall is on the left, and has no distinction from those of the rest of the Knights companions, the whole society, according to the statutes of the institution, being companions and collegues, equal in honor and power.

The altar-piece was soon after the restoration, adorned with cloth of gold and purple damask by King Charles II. but on removing the wainscot of one of the chapels in 1707, a fine painting of the Lord’s supper was found, which being approved of by Sir James Thornhill, Verrio, and other eminent masters, was repaired and placed on the altar-piece.

Near the altar is the Queen’s gallery, for the accommodation of the ladies at an installation.

In a vault under the marble pavement of this choir, are interred the bodies of Henry VIII. and Jane Seymour his Queen, King Charles I. and a daughter of the late Queen Anne. In the south isle, near the door of the choir, is buried Henry VI. and the arch near which he was interred was sumptuously decorated by Henry VIII. with the royal ensigns and other devices, but they are now much defaced by time.

In this chapel is also the monument of Edward Earl of Lincoln, Lord high Admiral of England in the reign of Queen [352] Elizabeth, erected by his Lady, who is also interred with him. The monument is of alabastar, with pillars of porphyry.

Another, within a neat screen of brass work, is erected to the memory of Charles Somerset, Earl of Worcester, and Knight of the garter, who died in 1526, and his lady, daughter to William Earl of Huntingdon.

A stately monument of white marble erected to the memory of Henry Somerset, Duke of Beaufort, and Knight of the garter, who died in 1699. There are here also the tombs of Sir George Manners, Lord Roos; that of the Lord Hastings, Chamberlain to Edward IV. and several others.

Before we conclude our account of this ancient chapel, it will be proper to observe that King James II. made use of it for the service of popery, and mass being publicly performed there, it has ever since been neglected and suffered to run to ruin; and being no appendage to the collegiate church, waits the royal favour to retrieve it from the disgrace of its present situation. Delices de Windsore.

With respect to the royal foundations in this castle, they are the most noble order of the garter, which consists of the Sovereign and twenty-five Knights companions: [353] the royal college of St. George, which consists of a dean, twelve canons, seven minor canons, eleven clerks, an organist, a verger, and two sacrists; and the alms-knights, who are eighteen in number; viz. thirteen of the royal foundation, and five of the foundation of Sir Peter le Maire, in the reign of King James I.


Of the Knights of the Garter. Windsor Castle being the seat of this most illustrious order, it may be expected that we should here give some account of it. The order of the garter was instituted by Edward III. in the year 1349, for the improvement of military honour, and the reward of virtue. It is also called the order of St. George, the patron of England, under whose banner the English always went out to war, and St. George’s cross was made the ensign of the order. The garter was, at the same time, appointed to be worn by the Knights on the left leg, as a principal mark of distinction, not from any regard to a Lady’s garter, “but as a tye or band of association in honour and military virtue, to bind the knights companions strictly to himself and each other, in friendship and true agreement, and as an ensign or bage of unity and combination, to promote [354] the honour of God, and the glory and interest of their Prince and Sovereign.” At that time King Edward being engaged in prosecuting, by arms, his right to the crown of France, caused the French motto HONI SOIT QUI MAL Y PENSE, to be wrought in gold letters round the garter, declaring thereby the equity of his intention, and at the same time retorting shame and defiance upon him who should dare to think ill of the just enterprize in which he had engaged, for the support of his right to that crown.

The installation of a Knight of this most noble order consists of many ceremonies established by the royal founder, and the succeeding Sovereigns of the order, the care of which is committed to Garter king at arms, a principal officer of the order, appointed to support and maintain the dignity of this noble order of knighthood.

On the day appointed for the installation, the Knights commissioners appointed by the Sovereign to instal the Knights elect, meet in the morning, in the great chamber in the dean of Windsor’s house, dressed in the full habit of the order, where the officers of the order also attend in their habits; but the Knights elect come thither [355] in their under habits only, with their caps and feathers in their hands.

From hence the Knights walk two and two in procession to St. George’s chapel, preceded by the poor knights, prebends, heralds, pursuivants, and other officers of the order, in their several habits; being arrived there, the Knights elect rest themselves in chairs behind the altar, and are respectively introduced into the chapter house, where the Knights commissioners (Garter and the other officers attending) invest them with the surcoat or upper habit of the order, while the register reads the following admonition: “take this robe of crimson to the increase of your honour, and in token or sign of the most noble order you have received, wherewith you being defended, may be bold, not only strong to fight, but also to offer yourself to shed your blood for Christ’s faith, and the liberties of the church, and the just and necessary defence of them that are oppressed and needy.” Then Garter presents the crimson velvet girdle to the commissioners, who buckle it on, and also girds on the hanger and sword.

The procession of each Knight elect separately is afterwards made into the choir attended by the Lords commissioners, [356] and other companions of the order, and preceded by the poor knights, prebends, &c. as before, Garter in the middle carrying on a crimson velvet cushion, the mantle, hood, garter, collar, and george, having the register on his right hand, who carries the New Testament, and the oath fairly written on parchment, and the black rod on his left. On entering the choir, after reverence made to the altar, and the Sovereign’s stall, the Knights are conducted to their several stalls, under their respective banners, and other ensigns of honour. The Knights elect then take the oath, and are compleatly dressed, invested with the mantle of the order, and the great collar of St. George, which is done with great state and solemnity.

After the installation, the Knights make their solemn offerings at the altar, and prayers being ended, the grand procession of the Knights is made from the choir in their full habits of the order, with their caps frequently adorned with diamonds and plumes of feathers, on their heads, round the body of the church, and passing out at the south door, the procession is continued in great state through the courts of the castle into St. George’s hall, preceded by his Majesty’s music; in the following order, the poor knights of [357] Windsor; the choir of St. George’s chapel; the canons, or prebends of Windsor, the heralds, and pursuivants at arms; the dean of Windsor, register of the order, with garter king at arms on his right hand, and on his left the black rod of the order; the Knights companions, according to their stalls, their trains supported by the choristers of St. George’s chapel.

The Knights having for some time rested in the royal apartments, a sumptuous banquet is prepared, if the Sovereign be present, in St. George’s hall, and in his absence, in the great guard chamber next adjoining, and the Knights are introduced and dine with great state in the habits of the order, the music attending. Before dinner is ended, Garter king at arms proclaims the style and dignity of each Knight, after which the company retire, and the evening is closed with a ball for the ladies in the royal lodgings. For the farther illustration of the preceding account of Windsor Castle, we have given a plan of it, which shews the exact disposition of the whole, and the situation of its several parts with regard to each other. The perspective view is taken from

Windsor great park and forest. As we have already described the town of Windsor, [358] the little park and castle, and given some account of the order of Knights of the garter, we are naturally led to mention the great park, which lies on the south side of the town and opens by a noble road in a direct line to the top of a delightful hill at near thee miles distance. This road leads through a double plantation of trees on each side, to the ranger’s or keeper’s lodge, at present the residence of his Royal Highness the Duke of Cumberland, who has greatly improved the natural beauties of the park, and by large plantations of trees, extensive lawns, new roads, canals, and rivers, has rendered this villa an habitation worthy of a Prince.

The great park is fourteen miles in circumference, and is well stocked with deer and other game; many foreign beasts and birds are here also kept by his Royal Highness, who is continually adding new improvements. The new erected building on Shrub’s hill, adorned beneath with the prospect of the most beautiful verdure, and a young plantation of trees, is very elegant, and promises in a short time to afford the most delightful rural scene, the noble piece of water below, produced at a great expence from a small stream, is now rendered capable of carrying barges and boats of pleasure. Over [359] this river, which terminates in a grotto, and large cascade, his Royal Highness has erected a bridge on a noble and bold plan, it consisting of one single arch 165 feet wide.

But his Royal Highness’s attention is not confined to the park alone; but in like manner extends to the adjoining forest, which is of great extent, and was appropriated to hunting and the residence of the royal game by William the Conqueror, who established many laws and regulations for the preservation of the deer, that are still observed. In this extensive tract of land are several pleasant towns and villages, of which Wokingham, situated near the center of the forest, is the principal, and though the soil is generally barren and uncultivated, yet it is finely diversified with hills and vales, woods and lawns, and interspersed with pleasant villas. These rural scenes are finely painted by Mr. Pope, who resided here when he wrote his Windsor forest, and was himself a native of the place, being born at Binfield.

Here waving groves and chequer’d scenes display,
And part admit, and part exclude the day;
There, interspers’d in lawns and op’ning glades,
There trees arise, that shun each others shades.
Here in full light the russet plains extend;
There wrapt in clouds the blueish hills ascend; [360]
Ev’n the wild heath displays her purple dyes,
And ’midst the desart, fruitful fields arise,
That crown’d with tufted trees and springing corn,
Like verdant isles the sable waste adorn.

Among the many fine villas which are in this forest we shall only here mention Cranborne lodge, which now belongs to the Duke of Cumberland, as keeper of the forest. It is large and well built, and is happily situated, it commanding an extensive prospect over a fine plain, and a rich country, that forms a most beautiful landscape.

Windsor court, 1. Drury lane: 2. Little Knightrider street, by Addle hill: 3. Monkwell street, by Silver street, near Cripplegate: 4. in the Strand.

Wine Licence Office, in Arundel street in the Strand. This office is under the management of five commissioners, who grant licences to the several retailers of wine in all parts of the kingdom, except to the free vintners of London.

Wine Office court, in Fleet street, leading into Gough’s square.

Wine street, 1. Fore street, Limehouse: 2. Liquor Pond street, Leather lane.

Wine yard, Long alley, Moorfields.

Wingfield’s court, Three Colts street, Limehouse.†

Wingoose alley, Thames street.†

S. Wale delin. F. Vivares sculp.
A Scene in Wooburn Farm.


Winkworth’s buildings, Austin Friars, Broad street.†

Winsley street, Oxford street.†

Winston’s court, Silver street, Wood street.†

Wisdoms alley, Millbank, Westminster.

Wise’s court, Wheeler street, Spitalfields.†

Wiseman’s alley, Brook street.†

Wiseman’s court, Gardeners lane.†

Witchellor’s yard, Thames street.†

Wither-rush court, Whitecross street.

Woburn Farm, the seat of the late Philip Southcote, Esq; it joins to the Earl of Portmore, just beyond it. ’Tis what the French call a Ferme ornée, but perhaps it is rather too much ornamented for the simple plainness of a farm; it is altogether however a very pleasing place. It has a deal of variety and many prospects which are remarkably beautiful and picturesque. Indeed, there are few places within the same distance from London which afford such a variety of fine landscapes.

Wood street, 1. a long street extending from Cheapside to Cripplegate; in this street is one of the two city compters: 2. Hare street, Spitalfields: 3. North street, Westminster.

Wood wharf, 1. Northumberland street, in the Strand: 2. near Broken wharf, Thames street: 3. Millbank, Westminster: 4. Wapping.


Wood yard, 1. Back street, Lambeth: 2. Brick lane: 3. Church lane, Houndsditch: 4. Gravel lane, Houndsditch: 5. Long acre: 6. Maze pond, Southwark: 7. Moses and Aaron alley, Whitechapel: 8. Ratcliff highway.

Woodford, a village near Chingfield in Essex, derived its name from a ford in Epping forest, where now is Woodford bridge.

Woodroff lane, Crutched Friars.†

Wood’s Almshouse, adjoins to that of Gibson’s at Ratcliff, and was founded by Toby Wood, of Lincoln’s Inn, Esq; in the year 1613, for six decayed coopers, who have an allowance of 6l. per annum, and thirty bushels of coals each.

Wood’s alley, Harrow alley.†

Wood’s Close, a street which extends from the end of St. John’s street almost to the turnpike in Islington road.†

Wood’s court, 1. Norton falgate by Shoreditch.† 2. Oxford street.†

Wood’s mews, Tyburn lane.†

Wood’s yard, 1. Norton falgate, by Shoreditch.† 2. Redcross street.†

Woodstock court, Charing Cross.

Woodstock mews, Woodstock street.

Woodstock street, Oxford street.

Woolham’s yard, Gray’s Inn lane, Holborn.†


Woolis’s court, in the Minories.†

Woolmen, a company probably of great antiquity, though they have no charter, and are a community only by prescription. They have a master, two wardens, and eleven assistants; but neither hall nor livery.

Woolpack alley, Houndsditch.*

Woolpack yard, Kent street, Southwark.*

Woolstaple lane, New Palace yard, so called from the woolstaple formerly held there. Stow.

Worcester Place, Thames street.

Worcester Place lane, Thames street.

Worcester street, 1. Old Gravel lane, Ratcliff Highway: 2. in the Park Southwark; 3. Peter street.

World’s-end bridge, St. Olave’s street, Southwark.

World’s-end yard, Old Horselydown lane, Southwark.

Worley’S court, Redgate court, in the Minories.†

Wormwood street, extends from Bishopsgate street to Broad street.

Worrel’s rents, Cherry-tree alley, Golden lane.†

Worship street, near Upper Moorfields.

Worsley’s yard, Field lane, the bottom of Holbourn hill.†

Wray’s court, Cross lane, Parker’s lane.†


Sir Christopher Wren, the celebrated architect, many of whose most excellent works of this kind are described in several places of this work, and views of them given, has on this account an equal claim to our regard in this place, with Inigo Jones, his competitor in the same path of fame, some account of whom we have already given under his name.

Sir Christopher was descended from a branch of the ancient family of the Wrens, of Binchester in the bishoprick of Durham. He was grandson of Mr. Francis Wren, citizen of London, and son of Christopher Wren, dean of Windsor, a younger brother of doctor Matthew Wren, successively Bishop of Hereford, Norwich, and Ely. He was born at London October the eighth 1632, and became gentleman commoner of Wadham college in Oxford, where he took the degree of bachelor of arts, March the eighteenth 1650, and that of master December the eleventh 1653, and the same year was chosen fellow of Allsouls college there. While he was very young he discovered a surprising genius for the mathematics; in which science he made great advancement before he was sixteen years old, as Mr. Oughtred informs us in the preface to the third edition of his Clavis [365] Mathematica, printed at Oxford in 1652. August the seventh 1652, he was made professor of astronomy at Gresham college in London. In the beginning of July 1658, he communicated to Doctor Wallis several papers concerning the Cycloide which were published by Doctor Wallis 1659, in his treatise de Cycloide. In February 1660, Mr. Wren resigned his professorship at Gresham college, upon being chosen to the Savilian professorship of astronomy in Oxford. The same year he was sent for by order of King Charles the Second, to assist Sir John Denham, surveyor of his Majesty’s works. September the twelfth 1661 he was created Doctor of laws, and May twenty 1663, was elected fellow of the Royal Society; in the history of which society by Doctor Sprat, we have an account of some of his discoveries in philosophy and mathematics made before the year 1667, the most considerable of which is his Doctrine of Motion, which is the best of all others for establishing the first principles of philosophy by geometrical demonstrations. He also published a History of Seasons, in which he proposed to comprehend a diary of wind, weather, and other conditions of the air, as to heat, cold, and weight, which might be of admirable [366] use if constantly pursued and derived down to posterity. He also contrived a thermometer to be its own register, and an instrument to measure the quantities of rain that fall, and he devised many subtle ways for the easier finding the gravity of the atmosphere. Some discoveries in the Pendulum are to be attributed to him, and he has invented many ways to make astronomical observations more easy and accurate. He added many devices and improvements to telescopes, and improved the theory of dioptrics, it being a question among the problems of navigation, to what mechanical power, sailing against the wind especially, was reducible, he shewed it to be a wedge. The geometrical mechanics of rowing he shewed to be a Vectis, on a moving or cedent Fulcrum. He invented a curious and speedy way of etching, and has started several things towards the emendation of water-works. He was the first inventor of drawing pictures by microscopical glasses. He found out long-liv’d lamps, and registers of furnaces for keeping a perpetual temper in order to various uses, as hatching eggs, insects, production of plants, chemical preparations, imitating nature in producing fossils and minerals, keeping the motion of watches equal in order to longitude [367] and astronomical uses, and infinite other advantages. He was the first author of the noble anatomical experiment of injecting liquors into the veins of animals, an experiment now well known. It were easy to enumerate a great number of other inventions and improvements of his, from Doctor Sprat’s account of them, but these may suffice as a specimen.

In 1665 Sir Christopher Wren travelled into France, and about the same year was one of the commissioners for the reparation of St. Paul; and in September the same year drew up a model for rebuilding the city of London after the fire in the beginning of that month. Upon the decease of Sir John Denham, who died in March 1668, he was made Surveyor-general of his Majesty’s works. In 1669, he finished the magnificent theatre at Oxford, April the ninth 1673, he resigned his professorship of astronomy at Oxford, and some time after married the daughter of Sir Thomas Coghill of Bletchington in Oxfordshire, by whom he had only one son named Christopher. His wife dying in childbed, he afterwards married Jane daughter of William Lord Fitz-Williams, Baron of Lifford in Ireland, by whom he had two children, a son William, and a daughter Jane. In 1680 he [368] was chosen president of the Royal Society. He was one of the commissioners of Chelsea college, and twice member of parliament, first for Plymouth in Devonshire, in 1685; and in 1700, for Melcomb Regis in Devonshire. In 1718 he was removed from his place of Surveyor-general. He died February the twenty-fifth 1723, in the ninety-first year of his age, and was interred in the vault under St. Paul’s. He was the author of several treatises on different subjects. Amongst the works of architecture of his designing are the cathedral of St. Paul’s, the churches of St. Stephen Walbrook and St. Mary le Bow, the Monument, the palace of Hampton court, Chelsea college, and Greenwich hospital, &c. an account of all which see under their several names in this work.

Wrestley’s court, London wall.†

Wright’s rents, 1. Barnaby street, Southwark.† 2. Ratcliff highway.†

Wright’s street, Rotherhith.†

Wright’s yard, New Marten’s street, near East Smithfield.†

Wrotham, or Wortham, a town in Kent, twenty-five miles from London, and three miles and a half from West Malling, received its name from the great quantity of the herb wort, which grows near it. It has a very large church, in [369] which are sixteen stalls supposed to have been made for the clergy who attended the Archbishops of Canterbury, to whom the manor formerly belonged, and who had a palace here, till Simon Islip the Archbishop in the fourteenth century, pulled it down, and built another at Maidstone; the rectory is however still reckoned one of the best livings in Kent. It has a market on Tuesdays.

Wych street, Drury lane.

Wych’s court, Wych street.†

Wynam’s court, Great Russel street.†


Yeat’s court, 1. Clements lane, Temple bar.† 2. Redcross street.†

Yeat’s rents, Jamaica street.†

Yeat’s street, Lincoln’s Inn fields.†

Yellow street, in the Minories.

York alley, St. Mary Magdalen’s church-yard.

York buildings, in the Strand, so denominated from the Archbishop of York’s house there, purchased by Nicholas Heath the Archbishop, about the year 1556, of the Bishop of Norwich, but afterwards coming to John Duke of Buckingham, he demised the house and garden to several builders, and they erected there several [370] handsome streets and alleys, in which his name and title are recorded, viz. John street, Villars street, Duke street, Off alley, and Buckingham street. However these streets together are still denominated York buildings.

York Buildings Waterworks, an edifice with a high tower, erected behind York buildings by the Thames, for raising water for the supply of that neighbourhood. The company to whom it belongs were incorporated by act of parliament in the year 1691.

York Buildings stairs, Terrace walk, York buildings. The beautiful design for these stairs is of the celebrated Inigo Jones, of the Tuscan order with rustic work, as the print shews, and is admirably adapted to the situation. The print is on the same plate with that of the Temple, which See.

York street, 1. Anchor street: 2. Bridges street: 3. Jermain street.

York yard, Long lane, East Smithfield.

Yorkshire court, 1. Mile-end New Town: 2. Whitechapel.

Yorkshire yard, 1. Bishopsgate street: 2. Brick lane.

Young’s Almshouse, in College church-yard, Southwark, was founded by Mr. Henry Young in the year 1694, for two [371-2] poor women, with an allowance of only one shilling per week each. Maitland.

Young’s court, 1. Basinghall street.† 2. Nightingale lane.†

Young’s key, Thames street.†


Zoar street, Gravel lane.



Directions to the Binder for placing the Cuts.

Vol. I.

    To face Page
1   Frontispiece, to face the Title  
2   Abby Church of St. Peter’s Westminster 1
3   Monument of Shakespear 51
4   Capt. Cornwall’s Monument 75
5   Henry the Seventh’s Chapel 113
6   Admiralty 134
7   The Bank 234
8   Banquetting House 244
9   St. Bartholomew’s Hospital 260
10   Belvedere House 271
11   Bethlem, with London Bridge 297
12   Figures on Bethlem Gates 298
13   Sir Gregory Page’s Seat 314
14   Bedford House 330

Vol. II.

1   British Museum 17
2   Plan of the British Museum 32
3   Burlington House 57
4   Cashiobury, with Moor Park 71
5   Chelsea Hospital 105
6   Chesterfield House and L. Egremont’s 110
7   Chiswick House 114
8   Christ’s Church Hospital 135
9   Claremont 139
10   House of Commons and Entrance to the House of Lords 165 [374]
11   Covent Garden 194
12   Custom House 213
13   Devonshire House 225
14   St. Dunstan’s in the East 253
15   East India House 263
16   Esher Place 277
17   Eton College 280
18   Fool’s Cray Place 312
19   Foundling Hospital 327
20   Map of the Environs or Countries twenty  
        Miles round London, place to face the  
        Title Page of this Volume.  

Vol. III.

1   Bloomsbury Church 5
2   Gray’s Inn 58
3   Mr. Spenser’s 65
4   Greenwich Hospital 69
5   Gresham College 76
6   Guild Hall 100
7   Gunnersbury 110
8   Guy’s Hospital 112
9   Cascade at Ham Farm 132
10   Hampton Court from the Gardens 162
11   St. James’s Palace 215
12   Kensington Palace 266
13   Lambeth Palace 291
14   Lincoln’s Inn 309

Vol. IV.

 1   Plan of London to face the Title  
 2   Shaftsbury’s House and center of Lincoln’s Inn Fields 160
 3   The Mansion-House 244
 4   Marlborough House 262
 5   Bow Steeple 288
 6   Part of the Meuse and St. Martin’s Church 323

Vol. V.[375]

1   Monument 1
2   Northumberland House and Charing Cross 53
3   South View of Northumberland House 59
4   View from the Terrace at Oatlands 60
5   A Scene in the Gardens of Pain’s Hill 101
6   St. Paul’s 139
7   College of Physicians 193
8   View of Ranelagh Gardens 244
9   Royal Exchange 280

Vol. VI.

1   Sion House view’d from Richmond Gardens                             7
2   Sion House view’d from opposite Isleworth Church 14
3   Somerset House  43
4   South Sea House 50 [376]
5   St. Stephen’s Walbrook 66
6   Entrance into the Temple and Temple Bar, &c. 114
7   St. Thomas’s Hospital 129
8   The Tower 148
9   The Treasury and Horse Guards 196
10   View at the Entrance into Vaux Hall 216
11   Wansted, the Seat of the Earl of Tilney 247
12   Westminster and Walton Bridges 288
13   Westminster Hall 296
14   A Gate belonging to the old Palace of Whitehall 315
15   Windsor Castle 326
16   Plan of Windsor Castle 353
17   A Scene in Wooburn Farm 361

Transcriber’s Notes.

1. Silently corrected simple spelling, grammar, and typographical errors.

2. Retained anachronistic and non-standard spellings as printed.

3. The key to the marks used to show name derivations, which can be found at the start of the main text, has been copied from the first volume by the transcriber for the convenience of the reader. Punctuation for these codes has been standardised for consistency with other volumes. For example [1. Basinghall street.†] in place of [1. Basinghall street†.]

4. Pound, shilling and pence abbreviations (l. s. d.) are regularized to be italic, consistent with all other volumes.

5. Inconsistent spelling and hyphenation were made consistent.

6. The illustration on Page 114, [_Entrance into the Temple & Temple Bar._] and [_York Stairs._], has been changed to two separate illustrations by the transciber.