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Title: A Dictionary of Islam

Author: Thomas Patrick Hughes

Release date: February 27, 2020 [eBook #61526]

Language: English

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Original Front Cover.

Original Title Page.


THE KAʿBAH. (Burton.)

THE KAʿBAH. (Burton.)

(All rights reserved.)









The increased interest manifested in relation to all matters affecting the East, and the great attention now given to the study of comparative religion, seem to indicate that the time has come when an attempt should be made to place before the English-speaking people of the world a systematic exposition of the doctrines of the Muslim Faith. The present work is intended to supply this want, by giving, in a tabulated form, a concise account of the doctrines, rites, ceremonies, and customs, together with the technical and theological terms, of the Muhammadan religion.

Although compiled by a clergyman who has had the privilege of being engaged in missionary work at Peshawar for a period of twenty years, this “Dictionary of Islam” is not intended to be a controversial attack on the religious system of Muhammad, but rather an exposition of its principles and teachings.

Divided, as the Muslim world is, into numerous sects, it has been found impossible to take into consideration all the minor differences which exist amongst them. The Dictionary is, for the most part, an exposition of the opinions of the Sunni sect, with explanations of the chief points on which the Shiah and Wahhabi schools of thought differ from it. Very special attention has been given to the views of the Wahhabis, as it is the Author’s conviction that they represent the earliest teachings of the Muslim Faith as they came from Muhammad and his immediate successors. When it is remembered that, according to Mr. Wilfrid Blunt’s estimate, the Shiah sect only numbers some ten millions out of the one hundred and seventy-five millions of Muhammadans in the world, it will be seen that, in compiling a Dictionary of Muhammadanism, the Shiah tenets must of necessity occupy a secondary place in the study of the religion. Still, upon all important questions of theology and jurisprudence, these differences have been noticed.

The present book does not profess to be a Biographical Dictionary. The great work of Ibn Khallikan, translated into English by [vi]Slane, supplies this. But short biographical notices of persons connected with the early history of Islam have been given, inasmuch as many of these persons are connected with religious dogmas and ceremonies; the martyrdom of Husain, for instance, as being the foundation of the Muharram ceremonies; Abu Hanifah, as connected with a school of jurisprudence; and the Khalifah ʿUmar as the real founder of the religious and political power of Islam. In the biographical notice of Muhammad, the Author has expressed his deep obligations to Sir William Muir’s great work, the Life of Mahomet.

It is impossible for anyone to write upon the subject of Muhammadanism without being largely indebted, not only to Sir William Muir’s books, but also to the works of the late Mr. Lane, the author of Modern Egyptians, new editions of which have been edited by Mr. Stanley Lane Poole. Numerous quotations from these volumes will be found in the present work.

But whilst the Author has not hesitated in this compilation to avail himself of the above and similar works, he has, during a long residence amongst Muhammadan peoples, been able to consult very numerous Arabic and Persian works in their originals, and to obtain the assistance of very able Muhammadan native scholars of all schools of thought in Islam.

He is specially indebted to Dr. F. Steingass, of the University of Munich, the author of the English-Arabic and Arabic-English Dictionaries, for a careful revision of the whole work. The interesting article on WRITING is from the pen of this distinguished scholar, as well as some valuable criticisms on the composition of the QURʾAN, and a biographical sketch of the Khalifah ʿUmar.

Orientalists may, perhaps, be surprised to find that Sikhism has been treated as a sect of Islam, but the Compiler has been favoured with a very able and scholarly article on the subject by Mr. F. Pincott, M.R.A.S., in which he shows that the “religion of Nanak was really intended as a compromise between Hinduism and Muhammadanism, if it may not even be spoken of as the religion of a Muhammadan sect,”—the publication of which in the present work seemed to be most desirable.

At the commencement of the publication of the work, the Author received very valuable assistance from the Rev. F. A. P. Shirreff, M.A., Principal of the Lahore Divinity College, as well as from other friends, which he must gratefully acknowledge.

Amongst the numerous suggestions which the Author received for [vii]the compilation of this Dictionary, was one from a well-known Arabic scholar, to the effect that the value of the work would be enhanced if the quotations from the Qurʾan, and from the Traditions, were given in their original Arabic. This, however, seemed incompatible with the general design of the book. The whole structure of the work is intended to be such as will make it available to English scholars unacquainted with the Arabic language; and, consequently, most of the information given will be found under English words rather than under their Arabic equivalents. For example, for information regarding the attributes of the Divine Being, the reader must refer to the English God, and not to the Arabic ALLAH; for all the ritual and laws regarding the liturgical service, to the English PRAYER, and not to the Arabic SALAT; for the marriage laws and ceremonies, to the English MARRIAGE, and not to the Arabic NIKAH. It is hoped that, in this way, the information given will be available to those who are entirely unacquainted with Oriental languages, or, indeed, with Eastern life.

The quotations from the Qurʾan have been given chiefly from Palmer’s and Rodwell’s translations; and those in the Qurʾanic narrative of Biblical characters (MOSES for example) have been taken from Mr. Stanley Lane Poole’s edition of Lane’s Selections. But, when needful, entirely new translations of quotations from the Qurʾan have been given.

The “Dictionary of Islam” has been compiled with very considerable study and labour, in the hope that it will be useful to many;—to the Government official called to administer justice to Muslim peoples; to the Christian missionary engaged in controversy with Muslim scholars; to the Oriental traveller seeking hospitality amongst Muslim peoples; to the student of comparative religion anxious to learn the true teachings of Islam;—to all, indeed, who care to know what are those leading principles of thought which move and guide one hundred and seventy-five millions of the great human family, forty millions of whom are under the rule of Her Most Gracious Majesty the Empress of India.

The Arabic Letters in this Volume have been Transliterated as follows:—

Arabic. Names. Roman. Pronunciation.
ا‎ Alif A a, i, u, at the beginning of a word.
ب‎ B As in English.
ت‎ T A soft dental, like the Italian t.
ث‎ S̤ā Very nearly the sound of th in thing.
ج‎ Jīm J As in English.
ح‎ Ḥā A strong aspirate.
خ‎ K͟hā K͟h Guttural, like the Scotch ch in loch.
د‎ Dāl D Soft dental.
ذ‎ Ẕāl A sound between dh and z.
ر‎ R } As in English.
ز‎ Z
س‎ Sīn S
ش‎ Shīn Sh
ص‎ Ṣād A strongly articulated s; in Central Asia as sw.
ض‎ Ẓād Something like the foreign pronunciation of the th in that; in Central Asia and India z or zw.
ط‎ T̤ā A strongly articulated palatal t.
ظ‎ Z̤ā A strongly articulated z.
ع‎ ʿAin ʿ A guttural, the pronunciation of which must be learnt by ear.
غ‎ G͟hain G͟h A strong guttural g͟h.
ف‎ F As in English.
ق‎ Qāf Q Like ck in stuck.
ك‎ Kāf K } As in English.
ل‎ Lām L
م‎ Mīm M
ن‎ Nūn N
ه‎ H
و‎ Wau W
ى‎ Y
َ‎ Fatḥah a } As in Italian.
ِ‎ Kasrah i
ُ‎ Ẓammah u
ء‎ Hamzah ʾ Pronounced as a, i, u, preceded by a very slight aspiration.




AARON. Arabic Hārūn (هارون‎). The account given of Aaron in the Qurʾān will be found in the article on Moses. In Sūrah xix. 29, the Virgin Mary is addressed as “the Sister of Aaron.” [MARY, MOSES.]

ABAD (ابد‎). Eternity; without end, as distinguished from Azal (ازل‎), without beginning.

ʿABASA (عبس‎). “He frowned.” The title of the LXXXth chapter of the Qurʾān. It is said that a blind man, named ʿAbdu ʾllāh ibn Umm Maktūm, once interrupted Muḥammad in conversation with certain chiefs of Quraish. The Prophet, however, took no notice of him, but frowned and turned away; and in the first verse of this Sūrah, he is represented as reproved by God for having done so:—“He frowned and turned his back, for that the blind man came unto him.”

ʿABBĀS (عباس‎). The son of ʿAbdu ʾl-Mut̤t̤alib, and consequently the paternal uncle of Muḥammad. The most celebrated of the “Companions,” and the founder of the Abbaside dynasty, which held the Khalifate for a period of 509 years, namely, from A.D. 749 to A.D. 1258. He died in A.H. 32. His son Ibn-ʿAbbās was also a celebrated authority on Islamic traditions and law. [IBN ʿABBAS, ABBASIDES.]

ABBASIDES. Arabic al-ʿAbbāsīyah (العباسية‎). The name of a dynasty of K͟halīfahs descended from al-ʿAbbās, the son of ʿAbdu ʾl-Mut̤t̤alib, and a paternal uncle of Muḥammad. On account of their descent from so near a relation of the Prophet, the Abbasides had, ever since the introduction of Islām, been very high in esteem amongst the Arabs, and had at an early period begun to excite the jealousy of the Umaiyade K͟halīfahs, who after the defeat of ʿAlī occupied the throne of the Arabian Empire. The Abbasides had for some time asserted their claims to the Khalifate, and in A.D. 746 they commenced open hostilities. In 749 the Abbaside K͟halīfah Abū ʾl-ʿAbbās, surnamed as-Saffāḥ, “the blood-shedder,” was recognized as K͟halīfah at al-Kūfah, and Marwān II., the last of the Umaiyade K͟halīfahs, was defeated and slain.

Thirty-seven K͟halīfahs of the Abbaside dynasty reigned over the Muḥammadan empire, extending over the period from A.H. 132 (A.D. 749–50) to A.H. 656 (A.D. 1258).

The names of the Abbaside K͟halīfahs are:—Abū ʾl-ʿAbbās as-Saffāḥ (A.D. 749), al-Manṣūr (A.D. 754), al-Mahdī (A.D. 775), al-Hādī (A.D. 785), Hārūn ar-Rashīd (A.D. 786), al-Amīn (A.D. 809), al-Maʾmūn (A.D. 813), al-Muʿtaṣim (A.D. 833), al-Wās̤iq (A.D. 842), al-Mutawakkil (A.D. 847), al-Muntaṣir (A.D. 861), al-Mustaʿīn (A.D. 862), al-Muʿtazz (A.D. 866), al-Muhtadī (A.D. 869), al-Muʿtamid (A.D. 870), al-Muʿtaẓid (A.D. 892), al-Muktafī (A.D. 902), al-Muqtadir (A.D. 908), al-Qāhir (A.D. 932), ar-Rāẓī (A.D. 934), al-Muttaqī (A.D. 940), al-Mustaqfī (A.D. 944), al-Mut̤īʿ (A.D. 945), at̤-T̤āiʿ (A.D. 974), al-Qādir (A.D. 994), al-Qāim (A.D. 1031), al-Muqtadī (A.D. 1075), al-Mustaz̤hir (A.D. 1094), al-Mustarshid (A.D. 1118), ar-Rāshid (A.D. 1135), al-Muqtafī (A.D. 1136), al-Mustanjid (A.D. 1160), al-Mustaẓī (A.D. 1170), an-Nāṣir (A.D. 1180), az̤-Z̤āhir (A.D. 1225), al-Mustanṣir (A.D. 1226), al-Mustaʿṣim (A.D. 1242 to A.D. 1258).

In the reign of al-Mustaʿṣim Hūlākū, grandson of Jingīz K͟hān, entered Persia and became Sultan A.D. 1256. In 1258 he took Bag͟hdād and put the K͟halīfah al-Mustaʿṣim to death. [KHALIFAH.]

ABDĀL (ابدال‎). “Substitutes,” pl. of Badal. Certain persons by whom, it is said, God continues the world in existence. Their number is seventy, of whom forty reside in Syria, and thirty elsewhere. When one dies another takes his place, being so [2]appointed by God. It is one of the signs of the last day that the Abdāl will come from Syria. (Mishkāt, xxiii. c. 3.) No one pretends to be able to identify these eminent persons in the world. God alone knows who they are, and where they are.

ʿABDU ʾLLĀH (عبدالله‎). The father of Muḥammad. He was the youngest son of ʿAbdu ʾl-Mut̤t̤alib. During the pregnancy of his wife Āminah, he set out on a mercantile expedition to Gaza in the south of Palestine, and on his way back he sickened and died at al-Madīnah, before the birth of his son Muḥammad. (Kātibu ʾl-Wāqidī, p. 18; Muir’s Life of Mahomet, vol. i. p. 11.)

ʿABDU ʾLLĀH IBN SAʿD (عبدالله بن سعد‎). One of Muḥammad’s secretaries. It is related that, when Muḥammad instructed ʿAbdu ʾllāh to write down the words (Sūrah xxiii. 12–14), “We (God) have created man from an extract of clay … then we produced it another creation,” ʿAbdu ʾllāh exclaimed, “And blessed be God, the best of creators”; and Muḥammad told him to write that down also. Whereupon ʿAbdu ʾllāh boasted that he had been inspired with a sentence which the Prophet had acknowledged to be part of the Qurʾān. It is of him that it is written in the Qurʾān, Sūrah vi. 93, “Who is more unjust than he who devises against God a lie, or says, ‘I am inspired,’ when he is not inspired at all.”

ʿABDU ʾL-MUT̤T̤ALIB (عبدالمطلب‎). Muḥammad’s grandfather and his guardian for two years. He died, aged 82, A.D. 578. His sons were ʿAbdu ʾllāh (Muḥammad’s father), al-Ḥāris̤, az-Zuhair, Abū T̤ālib, Abū Lahab, al-ʿAbbās, and Ḥamza.

ʿABDU ʾL-QĀDIR AL-JĪLĀNĪ (عبدالقادر الجيلانى‎). The celebrated founder of the Qādirīyah order of darweshes, surnamed Pīr-Dastagīr. He died and was buried at Bag͟hdād, A.H. 561.

ʿABDU ʾR-RAḤMĀN IBN ʿAUF (عبدالرحمن بن عوف‎). One of the Companions who embraced Islām at a very early period, and was one of those who fled to Ethiopia. He also accompanied Muḥammad in all his battles, and received twenty wounds at Uḥud. He died A.H. 32, aged 72 or 75, and was buried at Baqīʿu ʾl-Gharqad, the graveyard of al-Madīnah.

ABEL. Arabic Hābīl (هابيل‎), Heb. ‏הֶבֶל‎ Hebel. In the Qurʾān “the two sons of Adam” are called Hābīl wa Qābīl, and the following is the account given of them in that book (Sūrah v. 30–35), together with the remarks of the commentators in italics (as rendered in Mr. Lane’s Selections, 2nd ed., p. 53), “Recite unto them the history of the two sons of Adam, namely, Abel and Cain, with truth. When they offered [their] offering to God (Abel’s being a ram, and Cain’s being produce of the earth), and it was accepted from one of them (that is, from Abel; for fire descended from heaven, and devoured his offering), and it was not accepted from the other, Cain was enraged; but he concealed his envy until Adam performed a pilgrimage, when he said unto his brother, I will assuredly slay thee. Abel said, Wherefore? Cain answered, Because of the acceptance of thine offering to the exclusion of mine. Abel replied, God only accepteth from the pious. If thou stretch forth to me thy hand to slay me, I will not stretch forth to thee my hand to slay thee; for I fear God, the Lord of the worlds. I desire that thou shouldst bear the sin [which thou intendest to commit] against me, by slaying me, and thy sin which thou hast committed before, and thou wilt be of the companions of the fire.—And that is the recompense of the offenders.—But his soul suffered him to slay his brother: so he slew him; and he became of [the number of] those who suffer loss. And he knew not what to do with him; for he was the first dead person upon the face of the earth of the sons of Adam. So he carried him upon his back. And God sent a raven, which scratched up the earth with its bill and its talons and raised it over a dead raven that was with it until it hid it, to show him how he should hide the corpse of his brother. He said, O my disgrace! Am I unable to be like this raven, and to hide the corpse of my brother?—And he became of [the number of] the repentant. And he digged [a grave] for him and hid him.—On account of this which Cain did We commanded the children of Israel that he who should slay a soul (not for the latter’s having slain a soul or committed wickedness in the earth, such as infidelity, or adultery, or intercepting the way, and the like) [should be regarded] as though he had slain all mankind; and he who saveth it alive, by abstaining from slaying it, as though he had saved alive all mankind.”

“The occasion of their making this offering is thus related, according to the common tradition in the East. Each of them being born with a twin-sister, when they were grown up, Adam, by God’s direction, ordered Cain to marry Abel’s twin-sister, and Abel to marry Cain’s; (for it being the common opinion that marriages ought not to be had in the nearest degrees of consanguinity, since they must necessarily marry their sisters, it seemed reasonable to suppose they ought to take those of the remoter degree;) but this Cain refusing to agree to, because his own sister was the handsomest, Adam ordered them to make their offerings to God, thereby referring the dispute to His determination. The commentators say Cain’s offering was a sheaf of the very worst of his corn, but Abel’s a fat lamb of the best of his flock.”—Sale’s Koran, I., p. 122.

ʿĀBID (عابد‎). “A worshipper [of God].” A term generally used for a devout person. The word frequently occurs in the Qurʾān; e.g. Sūrah ii. 132: “The baptism (ṣibg͟hah) of God! And who is better than God at baptizing? We are the worshippers (ʿābidūn) of God.” The word ṣibg͟hah is translated [3]by Professor Palmer “dye” and “dyeing,” but Sale, following the Muslim commentators, al-Baiẓāwī, Jalālu ʾd-dīn, and Ḥusainī, who say it refers to the Christian rite, translates it “baptism.” Others say that it means fit̤rah or dīn, the religion of God, with an adaptation to which mankind are created. See Lane’s Lexicon. [BAPTISM.]

ĀBIQ (آبق‎). A runaway slave. [ABSCONDING OF SLAVES.]

ABJAD (ابجد‎). The name of an arithmetical arrangement of the alphabet, the letters of which have different powers from one to one thousand. It is in the order of the alphabet as used by the Jews as far as 400, the six remaining letters being added by the Arabians. The letters spell the words—

abjad hawwaz ḥut̤t̤i kalaman
saʿfaṣ qarashat s̤ak͟haẕ ẓaz̤ig͟h

The author of the Arabic Lexicon, al-Qāmūs, says that the first six words are the names of celebrated kings of Madyan (Midian), and that the last two words were added by the Arabians. Some say they are the names of the eight sons of the inventor of the Arabic character, Murāmir ibn Murra.

The following is a list of the letters with their English equivalents, and the power of each in numbers:—

1 a (i, u) ا‎ 60 s س‎
2 b ب‎ 70 ʿ ع‎
3 j ج‎ 80 f ف‎
4 d د‎ 90 ص‎
5 h هـ‎ 100 q ق‎
6 w و‎ 200 r ر‎
7 z ز‎ 300 sh ش‎
8 ح‎ 400 t ت‎
9 ط‎ 500 ث‎
10 y ى‎ 600 k͟h خ‎
20 k ك‎ 700 ذ‎
30 l ل‎ 800 ض‎
40 m م‎ 900 ظ‎
50 n ن‎ 1000 g͟h غ‎


ABLUTION. Arabic, waẓūʾ, wuẓūʾ (وضوء‎), Persian, ābdast (آبدست‎). Ablution is described by Muḥammad as “the half of faith and the key of prayer” (Mishkāt, iii. 3c), and is founded on the authority of the Qurʾān, Sūrah v. 8, “O Believers! when ye prepare yourselves for prayer, wash your faces and hands up to the elbows, and wipe your heads and your feet to the ankles.”

These ablutions are absolutely necessary as a preparation for the recital of the liturgical form of prayer, and are performed as follows: The worshipper, having tucked up his sleeves a little higher than his elbows, washes his hands three times; then he rinses his mouth three times, throwing the water into it with his right hand. After this, he, with his right hand, throws water up his nostrils, snuffing it up at the same time, and then blows it out, compressing his nostrils with the thumb and finger of the left hand—this being also performed three times. He then washes his face three times, throwing up the water with both hands. He next washes his right hand and arm, as high as the elbow, as many times, causing the water to run along his arm from the palm of the hand to the elbow, and in the same manner he washes the left. Then he draws his wetted right hand over the upper part of his head, raising his turban or cap with his left. If he has a beard, he then combs it with the wetted fingers of his right hand, holding his hand with the palm forwards, and passing the fingers through his beard from the throat upwards. He then puts the tips of his fore-fingers into his ears and twists them round, passing his thumbs at the same time round the back of the ears from the bottom upwards. Next, he wipes his neck with the back of the fingers of both hands, making the ends of his fingers meet behind his neck, and then drawing them forward. Lastly, he washes his feet, as high as the ankles, and passes his fingers between the toes. During this ceremony, which is generally performed in less than three minutes, the intending worshipper usually recites some pious ejaculations or prayers. For example:—

Before commencing the waẓūʾ:—“I am going to purify myself from all bodily uncleanness, preparatory to commencing prayer, that holy act of duty, which will draw my soul near to the throne of the Most High. In the name of God, the Great and Mighty. Praise be to God who has given us grace to be Muslims. Islām is a truth and infidelity a falsehood.”

When washing the nostrils:—“O my God, if I am pleasing in Thy sight, perfume me with the odours of Paradise.”

When washing the right hand:—“O my God, on the day of judgment, place the book of my actions in my right hand, and examine my account with favour.”

When washing the left hand:—“O my God, place not at the resurrection the book of my actions in my left hand.”

The Shiyaʿīs, acting more in accordance with the text of the Qurʾān quoted above, only wipe, or rub (masaḥ) the feet, instead of washing them, as do the Sunnīs.

The ablution need not be performed before each of the five stated periods of prayer, when the person is conscious of having avoided every kind of impurity since the last performance of the ablution. The private parts of the body must also be purified when necessary. When water cannot be procured, or would be injurious to health, the ablution may be performed with dust or sand. This ceremony is called Tayammum (q.v.). The washing of the whole body is necessary after certain periods of impurity. [GHUSL.] The brushing of the teeth is also a religious duty. [MISWAK.] The benefits of ablution are highly extolled in the sayings of Muḥammad, e.g., “He who performs the waẓūʾ thoroughly will extract all sin from his body, even though it may be lurking under his finger nails.” “In [4]the day of resurrection people shall come with bright faces, hands and feet, and there will be jewels in every place where the waters of the waẓūʾ have reached.” (Mishkāt, iii. 1.)






In all the principal mosques there are tanks, or wells, which supply water for the purposes of legal purification. [PURIFICATION.]

ABORTION. Arabic Isqāt̤. There is no mention of the subject in the Qurʾān, but according to the Fatāwā-i-ʿĀlamgīrī (vol. iv. p. 238), it is forbidden after the child is formed in the womb. Muḥammad is related to have ordered prayers to be said over an abortion, when supplication should be made for the father and mother, for forgiveness and mercy. (Mishkāt, v. c. 2.)

ABRAHAM. Arabic Ibrāhīm (ابراهيم‎). One of the six great prophets to whom God delivered special laws. The “Friend of God,” K͟halīlu ʾllāh, to whom were revealed twenty portions (ṣaḥīfah) of Scripture.

Abraham is very frequently mentioned in the Qurʾān, together with Ishmael and Isaac. The following are Mr. Lane’s selections (giving in italics the remarks of Muslim commentators):—

Remember when Abraham said to his father Āzar (this was the surname of Terah), Dost thou take images as deities? Verily I see thee and thy people to be in a manifest error.—(And thus, as We showed him the error of his father and his people, did We show Abraham the kingdom of the heavens and the earth, and [We did so] that he might be of [the number of] those who firmly believe.) And when the night overshadowed him, he saw a star (it is said that it was Venus), [and] he said unto his people, who were astrologers, This is my Lord, according to your assertion.—But when it set, he said, I like not those that set, to take them as Lords, since it is not meet for a Lord to experience alteration and change of place, as they are of the nature of accidents. Yet this had no effect upon them. And when he saw the moon rising, he said unto them, This is my Lord.—But when it set, he said, Verily if my Lord direct me not (if He confirm me not in the right way), I shall assuredly be of the erring people.—This was a hint to his people that they were in error; but it had no effect upon them. And when he saw the sun rising, he said, This is my Lord. This is greater than the star and the moon.—But when it set, and the proof had been rendered more strong to them, yet they desisted not, he said, O my people, verily I am clear of the [things] which ye associate with God; namely, the images and the heavenly bodies. So they said unto him, What dost thou worship? He answered, Verily I direct my face unto Him who hath created the heavens and the earth, following the right religion, and I am not of the polytheists.—And his people argued with him; [but] he said, Do ye argue with me respecting God, when He hath directed me, and I fear not what ye associate with Him unless my Lord will that aught displeasing should befall me? My Lord comprehendeth everything by His knowledge. Will ye not therefore consider? And wherefore should I fear what ye have associated with God, when ye fear not for your having associated with God that of which He hath not sent down unto you a proof? Then which of the two parties is the more worthy of safety? Are we, or you? If ye know who is the more worthy of it, follow him.—God saith, They who have believed, and not mixed their belief with injustice (that is, polytheism), for these shall be safety from punishment, and they are rightly directed.” (Sūrah vi. 74–82.)

“Relate unto them, in the book (that is, the Qurʾān), the history of Abraham. Verily, he was a person of great veracity, a prophet. When he said unto his father Āzar, who worshipped idols, O my father, wherefore dost thou worship that which heareth not, nor seeth, nor averteth from thee aught, whether of advantage or of injury? O my father, verily [a degree] of knowledge hath come unto me, that hath not come unto thee: therefore follow me: I will direct thee into a right way. O my father, serve not the devil, [5]by obeying him in serving idols; for the devil is very rebellious unto the Compassionate. O my father, verily I fear that a punishment will betide thee from the Compassionate, if thou repent not, and that thou wilt be unto the devil an aider, and a companion in hell-fire.—He replied, Art thou a rejector of my Gods, O Abraham, and dost thou revile them? If thou abstain not, I will assuredly assail thee with stones or with ill words; therefore beware of me, and leave me for a long time.—Abraham said, Peace from me be on thee! I will ask pardon for thee of my Lord; for He is gracious unto me: and I will separate myself from you and from what ye invoke instead of God; and I will call upon my Lord: perhaps I shall not be unsuccessful in calling upon my Lord, as ye are in calling upon idols.—And when he had separated himself from them, and from what they worshipped instead of God, by going to the Holy Land, We gave him two sons, that he might cheer himself thereby, namely, Isaac and Jacob; and each [of them] We made a prophet; and We bestowed upon them (namely, the three), of our mercy, wealth and children; and We caused them to receive high commendation.” (Sūrah xix. 42–51.)

“We gave unto Abraham his direction formerly, before he had attained to manhood; and We knew him to be worthy of it. When he said unto his father and his people, What are these images, to the worship of which ye are devoted?—they answered, We found our fathers worshipping them, and we have followed their example. He said unto them, Verily ye and your fathers have been in a manifest error. They said, Hast thou come unto us with truth in saying this, or art thou of those who jest? He answered, Nay, your Lord (the being who deserveth to be worshipped) is the Lord of the heavens and the earth, who created them, not after the similitude of anything pre-existing; and I am of those who bear witness thereof. And, by God, I will assuredly devise a plot against your idols after ye shall have retired, turning your backs.—So, after they had gone to their place of assembly, on a day when they held a festival, he break them in pieces with an axe, except the chief of them, upon whose neck he hung the axe; that they might return unto it (namely, the chief) and see what he had done with the others. They said, after they had returned and seen what he had done, Who hath done this unto our gods? Verily he is of the unjust.—And some of them said, We heard a young man mention them reproachfully: he is called Abraham. They said, Then bring him before the eyes of the people, that they may bear witness against him of his having done it. They said unto him, when he had been brought, Hast thou done this unto our gods, O Abraham? He answered, Nay, this their chief did it: and ask ye them, if they [can] speak. And they returned unto themselves, upon reflection, and said unto themselves, Verily ye are the unjust, in worshipping that which speaketh not. Then they reverted to their obstinacy, and said, Verily thou knowest that these speak not: then wherefore dost thou order us to ask them? He said, Do ye then worship, instead of God, that which doth not profit you at all, nor injure you if ye worship it not? Fie on you, and on that which ye worship instead of God! Do ye not then understand?—They said, Burn ye him, and avenge your gods, if ye will do so. So they collected abundance of firewood for him, and set fire to it; and they bound Abraham, and put him into an engine, and cast him into the fire. But, saith God, We said, O fire, be thou cold, and a security unto Abraham! So nought of him was burned save his bonds: the heat of the fire ceased, but its light remained; and by God’s saying, Security,—Abraham was saved from dying by reason of its cold. And they intended against him a plot; but he caused them to be the sufferers. And we delivered him and Lot, the son of his brother Haran, from El-ʿIrāq, [bringing them] unto the land which We blessed for the peoples, by the abundance of its rivers and trees, namely, Syria. Abraham took up his abode in Palestine, and Lot in El-Mutefikeh, between which is a day’s journey. And when Abraham had asked a son, We gave unto him Isaac, and Jacob as an additional gift, beyond what he had asked, being a son’s son; and all of them We made righteous persons and prophets. And We made them models of religion who directed men by Our command unto Our religion; and We commanded them by inspiration to do good works and to perform prayer and to give the appointed alms; and they served Us. And unto Lot We gave judgment and knowledge; and We delivered him from the city which committed filthy actions; for they were a people of evil, shameful doers; and We admitted him into our mercy; for he was [one] of the righteous.” (Sūrah xxi. 52–75.)

“Hast thou not considered him who disputed with Abraham concerning his Lord, because God had given him the kingdom? And he was Nimrod. When Abraham said, (upon his saying unto him, Who is thy Lord, unto whom thou invitest us?), My Lord is He who giveth life and causeth to die,—he replied, I give life and cause to die.—And he summoned two men, and slew one of them, and left the other. So when he saw that he understood not, Abraham said, And verily God bringeth the sun from the east: now do thou bring it from the west.—And he who disbelieved was confounded; and God directeth not the offending people.” (Sūrah ii. 260.)

“And Our messengers came formerly unto Abraham with good tidings of Isaac and Jacob, who should be after him. They said, Peace. He replied, Peace be on you. And he tarried not, but brought a roasted calf. And when he saw that their hands touched it not, he disliked them and conceived a fear of them. They said, Fear not: for we are sent unto the people of Lot, that we may destroy them. And his wife Sarah was standing serving them, and she laughed, rejoicing at the tidings of their destruction. And we gave her good tidings of Isaac; and after Isaac, Jacob. [6]She said, Alas! shall I bear a child when I am an old woman of nine and ninety years, and when this my husband is an old man of a hundred or a hundred and twenty years? Verily this [would be] a wonderful thing.—They said, Dost thou wonder at the command of God? The mercy of God and His blessings be on you, O people of the house (of Abraham)! for He is praiseworthy, glorious.—And when the terror had departed from Abraham, and the good tidings had come unto him, he disputed with Us (that is, with Our messengers) respecting the people of Lot; for Abraham was gentle, compassionate, repentant. And he said unto them, Will ye destroy a city wherein are three hundred believers? They answered, No. He said, And will ye destroy a city wherein are two hundred believers? They answered, No. He said, And will ye destroy a city wherein are forty believers? They answered, No. He said, And will ye destroy a city wherein are fourteen believers? They answered, No. He said, And tell me, if there be in it one believer? They answered, No. He said, Verily in it is Lot. They replied, We know best who is in it. And when their dispute had become tedious, they said, O Abraham, abstain from this disputation; for the command of thy Lord hath come for their destruction, and a punishment not [to be] averted is coming upon them.” (Sūrah xi. 72–78.)

“And when Our decree for the destruction of the people of Lot came [to be executed], We turned them (that is, their cities) upside-down; for Gabriel raised them to heaven, and let them fall upside-down to the earth; and We rained upon them stones of baked clay, sent one after another, marked with thy Lord, each with the name of him upon whom it should be cast: and they [are] not far distant from the offenders; that is, the stones are not, or the cities of the people of Lot were not, far distant from the people of Mekkeh.” (Sūrah xi. 84.)

“And [Abraham] said [after his escape from Nimrod], Verily I am going unto my Lord, who will direct me unto the place whither He hath commanded me to go, namely, Syria. And when he had arrived at the Holy Land, he said, O my Lord, give me a son [who shall be one] of the righteous. Whereupon We gave him the glad tidings of a mild youth. And when he had attained to the age when he could work with him (as some say, seven years; and some, thirteen), he said, O my child, verily I have seen in a dream that I should sacrifice thee (and the dreams of prophets are true; and their actions, by the command of God); therefore consider what thou seest advisable for me to do. He replied, O my father, do what thou art commanded: thou shalt find me, if God please, [of the number] of the patient. And when they had resigned themselves, and he had laid him down on his temple, in [the valley of] Minā, and had drawn the knife across his throat (but it produced no effect, by reason of an obstacle interposed by the divine power), We called unto him, O Abraham, thou hast verified the vision. Verily thus do We reward the well-doers. Verily this was the manifest trial. And We ransomed him whom he had been commanded to sacrifice (and he was Ishmael or Isaac; for there are two opinions) with an excellent victim, a ram from Paradise, the same that Abel had offered: Gabriel (on whom be peace!) brought it, and the lord Abraham sacrificed it, saying, God is most great! And We left this salutation [to be bestowed] on him by the latter generations, Peace [be] on Abraham! Thus do We reward the well-doers: for he was of Our believing servants.” (Sūrah xxxvii. 97–111.)

Remember when Abraham said, O my Lord, show me how Thou will raise to life the dead.—He said, Hast thou not believed? He answered, Yea: but I have asked Thee that my heart may be at ease. He replied, Then take four birds and draw them towards thee, and cut them in pieces and mingle together their flesh and their feathers; then place upon each mountain of thy land a portion of them, then call them unto thee: they shall come unto thee quickly; and know thou that God is mighty [and] wise.—And he took a peacock and a vulture and a raven and a cock, and did with them as hath been described, and kept their heads with him, and called them; whereupon the portions flew about, one to another, until they became complete: then they came to their heads.” (Sūrah ii. 262.)

Remember, when his Lord had tried Abraham by [certain] words, commands and prohibitions, and he fulfilled them, God said unto him, I constitute thee a model of religion unto men. He replied, And of my offspring constitute models of religion. [God] said, My covenant doth not apply to the offenders, the unbelievers among them.—And when We appointed the house (that is, the Kaʿbah) to be a place for the resort of men, and a place of security (a man would meet the slayer of his father there and he would not provoke him [to revenge],) and [said], Take, O men, the station of Abraham (the stone upon which he stood at the time of building the House) as a place of prayer, that ye may perform behind it the prayers of the two rakʿahs [which are ordained to be performed after the ceremony] of the circuiting [of the Kaʿbah].—And We commanded Abraham and Ishmael, [saying], Purify my House (rid it of the idols) for those who shall compass [it], and those who shall abide there, and those who shall bow down and prostrate themselves.—And when Abraham said, O my Lord, make this place a secure territory (and God hath answered his prayer, and made it a sacred place, wherein the blood of man is not shed, nor is any one oppressed in it, nor is its game hunted [or shot], nor are its plants cut or pulled up), and supply its inhabitants with fruits (which hath been done by the transporting of at̤-T̤āʾif from Syria thither, when it [that is, the territory of Makkah] was desert, without sown land or water, such of them as shall believe in God and the last day.—He mentioned them peculiarly in the prayer agreeably with the saying of God, My covenant doth not apply to the offenders.—God replied, And I will supply [7]him who disbelieveth: I will make him to enjoy a supply of food in this world, a little while: then I will force him, in the world to come, to the punishment of the fire; and evil shall be the transit.” (Sūrah ii. 118–120.)

“And remember when Abraham was raising the foundations of the House (that is, building it), together with Ishmael, and they said, O our Lord, accept of us our building; for Thou art the Hearer of what is said, the Knower of what is done. O our Lord, also make us resigned unto Thee, and make from among our offspring a people resigned unto Thee, and show us our rites (the ordinances of our worship, or our pilgrimage), and be propitious towards us; for Thou art the Very Propitious, the Merciful. (They begged Him to be propitious to them, notwithstanding their honesty, from a motive of humility, and by way of instruction to their offspring.) O our Lord, also send unto them (that is, the people of the House) an apostle from among them (and God hath answered their prayer by sending Muḥammad), who shall recite unto them Thy signs (the Qurʾān), and shall teach them the book (the Qurʾān), and the knowledge that it containeth, and shall purify them from polytheism; for Thou art the Mighty, the Wise.—And who will be averse from the religion of Abraham but he who maketh his soul foolish, who is ignorant that it is God’s creation, and that the worship of Him is incumbent on it; or who lightly esteemeth it and applieth it to vile purposes; when We have chosen him in this world as an apostle and a friend, and he shall be in the world to come one of the righteous for whom are high ranks?—And remember when his Lord said unto him, Resign thyself:—he replied, I resign myself unto the Lord of the worlds.—And Abraham commanded his children to follow it (namely, the religion); and Jacob, his children; saying, O my children, verily God hath chosen for you the religion of al-Islām; therefore die not without your being Muslims.—It was a prohibition from abandoning Islām and a command to persevere therein unto death.” (Sūrah ii. 121–126.)

When the Jews said, Abraham was a Jew, and we are of his religion,—and the Christians said the like, [the following] was revealed:—O people of the Scripture, wherefore do ye argue respecting Abraham, asserting that he was of your religion, when the Pentateuch and the Gospel were not sent down but after him a long time? Do ye not then understand the falsity of your saying? So ye, O people, have argued respecting that of which ye have knowledge, concerning Moses and Jesus, and have asserted that ye are of their religion: then wherefore do ye argue respecting that of which ye have no knowledge, concerning Abraham? But God knoweth his case, and ye know it not. Abraham was not a Jew nor a Christian: but he was orthodox, a Muslim [or one resigned], a Unitarian, and he was not of the polytheists.” (Sūrah iii. 58–60.)

ABSCONDING OF SLAVES. Arabic Ibāq (اباق‎). An absconded male or female slave is called Ābiq, but an infant slave who leaves his home is termed ẓāll, a word which is also used for an adult slave who has strayed. The apprehension of a fugitive slave is a laudable act, and the person who seizes him should bring him before the magistrate and receive a reward of forty dirhams. (Hamilton’s Hidāyah, vol. ii. p. 278.)

ABSTINENCE. Arabic Taqwā (تقوىٰ‎). Is very frequently enjoined in the Qurʾān. The word generally applies to abstinence from idolatry in the first instance, but it is used to express a life of piety. An excessive abstinence and a life of asceticism are condemned in the Qurʾān, and the Christians are charged with the invention of the monastic life. (Sūrah lvii. 27.) “As for the monastic life, they invented it themselves.” [MONASTICISM, FASTING.]

ABŪ ʿABDI ʾLLĀH (ابو عبدالله‎). Muḥammad ibn Ismāʾīl al-Buk͟hārī, the author of the well-known collection of traditions received by the Sunnīs. [BUKHARI.]

ABŪ ʿABDI ʾLLĀH AḤMAD IBN ḤANBAL (ابو عبدالله احمد بن حنبل‎). [HANBAL.]

ABŪ ʿABDI ʾLLĀH MĀLIK IBN ANAS (ابو عبدالله مالك بن انس‎). [MALIK.]

ABŪ ʿABDI ʾLLĀH MUḤAMMAD IBN AL-ḤASAN (ابو عبدالله محمد بن الحسن‎). Known as Imām Muḥammad. Born at Wāsit̤, a city in Arabian ʿIrāq, A.H. 132. He studied under the great Imām Abū Ḥanīfah, and had also studied under Imām Mālik for three years. He is celebrated as one of the disciples of the Imām Abū Ḥanīfah, from whom he occasionally differs, as is seen in the Hidāyah. He died at Rai, in K͟hurāsān, where his tomb is still to be seen, A.H. 189.

ABŪ BAKR (ابو بكر‎). Of the origin of his name, there are various explanations. Some think that it means “the father of the maiden,” and that he received this title because he was the father of ʿĀyishah, whom Muḥammad married when she was only nine years old. His original name was ʿAbdu ʾl-Kaʿbah (which the Prophet changed into ʿAbdu ʾllāh) Ibn Abī Quḥāfah. He was the first K͟halīfah, or successor of Muḥammad. [SHIʿAH.] Muḥammadan writers praise him for the purity of his life, and call him aṣ-Ṣiddīq, the Veracious. He only reigned two years, and died August 22nd, A.D. 634.

ABŪ DĀʾŪD (ابو داود‎). Sulaimān Ibn al-Ashʾas̤ al-Sijistānī; born at al-Baṣrah A.H. 202, and died A.H. 275. The compiler of one of the six correct books of Sunnī traditions, called the Sunnan Abī Dāʾūd, which contains 4,008 traditions, said to have been carefully collated from 500,000. [TRADITIONS.]

ABŪ ḤANĪFAH AN-NUʿMĀN (ابو حنيفة النعمان‎). Abū Ḥanīfah an-Nuʿmān is the great Sunnī Imām and jurisconsult, and the founder of [8]the Ḥanīfī sect. His father, S̤ābit, was a silk dealer in the city of al-Kūfah, and it is said his grandfather, Zūt̤a, was a native of Kābul. He was born at al-Kūfah, A.H. 80 (A.D. 700), and died at Bag͟hdād, A.H. 150. He is regarded as the great oracle of Sunnī jurisprudence, and his doctrines, with those of his disciples, the Imām Abū Yūsuf and the Imām Muḥammad, are generally received throughout Turkey, Tartary, and Hindustan. It is related that Imām Mālik said that the Imām Abū Ḥanīfah was such a logician that, if he were to assert a wooden pillar was made of gold, he would prove it by argument.

ABŪ HURAIRAH (ابو هريرة‎). One of the most constant attendants of Muḥammad, who from his peculiar intimacy has related more traditions of the sayings and doings of the Prophet than any other individual. His real name is doubtful, but he was nicknamed Abū Hurairah on account of his fondness for a kitten. He embraced Islām in the year of the expedition to K͟haibar, A.H. 7, and died in al-Madīnah, A.H. 57 or 59, aged 78.

ABŪ JAHL (ابو جهل‎). An implacable adversary of Muḥammad. His real name was ʿAmr ibn Hishām, but he was surnamed, by the Muslims, Abū Jahl, or the “Father of Folly.” He is supposed to be alluded to in the Qurʾān, Sūrah xxii. 8:—“There is a man who disputeth concerning God without either knowledge or direction.” He was a boastful and debauched man, and was killed in the battle of Badr.

ABŪ LAHAB (ابو لهب‎). One of the sons of Abū Mut̤t̤alib, and an uncle to Muḥammad. He was a most bitter enemy to the Prophet, and opposed the establishment of Islām to the utmost of his power. His name was ʿAbdu ʾl-Uzza, but he was surnamed by Muḥammad, Abū Lahab, “The Father of the Flame.” When Muḥammad received the command to admonish his relations, he called them all together, and told them he was a warner sent unto them before a grievous chastisement. Abū Lahab rejected his mission, and cried out, “Mayest thou perish! Hast thou called us together for this?” and took up a stone to cast at him; whereupon the CXIth Sūrah of the Qurʾān was produced:—

“Let the hands of Abū Lahab perish, and let himself perish!

His wealth and his gains shall avail him naught.

Burned shall he be at a fiery flame,

And his wife laden with fire wood,

On her neck a rope of palm fibre.”

Abū Lahab is said to have died of grief and vexation at the defeat which his friends had received at the battle of Badr, surviving that misfortune only seven days. His body was left unburied for several days.

Zaid and Abū Lahab are the only relatives or friends of Muḥammad mentioned by name in the Qurʾān.

ABŪ ʾL-HUẔAIL ZUFAR IBN AL-HUẔAIL (ابو الهذيل زفر بن الهذيل‎). Celebrated as the Imām Zufar, and as a contemporary and intimate friend of the great Imām Abū Ḥanīfah. He died at al-Baṣrah, A.H. 158.

ABŪ ʾL-QĀSIM (ابو القاسم‎). “The father of Qāsim.” One of the names of Muḥammad, assumed on the birth of his son Qāsim, who died in infancy. [MUHAMMAD.]

ABUSIVE LANGUAGE is forbidden by the Muslim law, and the offender must be punished according to the discretion of the Qāẓi. Abū Ḥanīfah says: “If a person abuse a Musalmān by calling him an ass or a hog, punishment is not incurred, because these expressions are in no respect defamatory of the person to whom they are used, it being evident that he is neither an ass nor a hog. But some allege that in our times chastisement is inflicted, since, in the modern acceptation, calling a man an ass or a hog is held to be abuse. Others, again, allege that it is esteemed only to be abuse when the person of whom it is said occupies a dignified position.” According to Abū Ḥanīfah, the greatest number of stripes that can be inflicted for abusive language is thirty-nine. (Hamilton’s Hidāyah, vol. ii. 78.)

Muḥammad is related to have said, “Abusing a Muslim is disobedience to God, and it is infidelity for anyone to join such an one in religious warfare.” (Mishkāt, xxii. 2.)

ABŪ T̤ĀLIB (ابو طالب‎). Muḥammad’s uncle and guardian; the father of ʿAlī. He is believed to have died as he had lived, an unbeliever in the Prophet’s mission; but for forty years he had been his faithful friend and guardian. He died in the third year before the Hijrah.

ABŪ ʿUBAIDAH (ابو عبيدة‎) IBN AL-JARRAḤ. One of the Companions, who was with the Prophet in all his wars, and distinguished himself at the battle of Uḥud. He was highly esteemed by Muḥammad, who made him one of the ʿAsharah al-Mubashsharah, or ten patriarchs of the Muslim faith. He died A.H. 18, aged 58.

ABŪ YŪSUF (ابو يوسف‎). Known also as Yaʿqūb ibn Ibrāhīm. Born at Bag͟hdād, A.H. 113. Studied under the Imām Abū Ḥanīfah, and is celebrated, together with the Imām Muḥammad and the Imām Zufar, as disciples of the great Imām; from whose opinions, however, the three disciples not unfrequently differ, as will be seen upon reference to the Hidāyah. He died A.H. 182.

ADĀʾ (اداء‎). Payment; satisfaction; completing (prayers, &c.).

ADAM. Arabic, Ādam (ادم‎). The first man. Reckoned by Muslim writers as the first prophet, to whom ten portions of scripture (ṣaḥīfah) are said to have been revealed. He is distinguished by the title of Ṣafīyu ʾllāh, or, the “chosen one of God.” He is mentioned in the Qurʾān in the following Sūrahs, which are taken from Mr. Lane’s Selections (new edition, by Mr. Stanley Lane-Poole; Trübner, 1879), with the commentary in italics:—

Remember, O Muḥammad, when thy Lord said unto the angels, I am about to place in the earth a vicegerent to act for me in the execution of my ordinances therein, namely, Adam,—they said, Wilt Thou place in it one who will corrupt in it by disobediences, and will shed blood (as did the sons of El-Jānn, who were in it; where ore, when they acted corruptly, God sent to them the angels, who drove them away to the islands and the mountains), when we [on the contrary] celebrate the divine perfection, occupying ourselves with Thy praise, and extol Thy holiness? Therefore we are more worthy of the vicegerency.—God replied, Verily I know that which ye know not, as to the affair of appointing Adam vicegerent, and that among his posterity will be the obedient and the rebellious, and the just will be manifest among them. And he created Adam from the surface of the earth, taking a handful of every colour that it comprised, which was kneaded with various waters; and he completely formed it, and breathed into it the soul; so it became an animated sentient being. And he taught Adam the names of all things, infusing the knowledge of them into his heart. Then He showed them (namely, the things) to the angels, and said, Declare unto me the names of these things, if ye say truth in your assertion that I will not create any more knowing than ye, and that ye are more worthy of the vicegerency. They replied, [We extol] Thy perfection! We have no knowledge excepting what Thou hast taught us; for Thou art the Knowing, the Wise.—God said, O Adam, tell them their names. And when he had told them their names, God said, Did I not say unto you that I know the secrets of the heavens and the earth, and know what ye reveal of your words, saying, Wilt thou place in it, etc., and what ye did conceal of your words, saying, He will not create any more generous towards Him than we, nor any more knowing”? (Sūrah ii. 28–31.)

“We created you; that is, your father Adam: then We formed you; we formed him, and you in him: then We said unto the angels, Prostrate yourselves unto Adam, by way of salutation; whereupon they prostrated themselves, except Iblees, the father of the jinn, who was amid the angels: he was not of those who prostrated themselves. God said, What hath hindered thee from prostrating thyself, when I commanded thee? He answered, I am better than he: Thou hast created me of fire, and Thou hast created him of earth. [God] said, Then descend thou from it; that is, from Paradise; or, as some say, from the heavens; for it is not fit for thee that thou behave thyself proudly therein: so go thou forth: verily thou shalt be of the contemptible. He replied, Grant me respite until the day when they (that is, mankind) shall be raised from the dead. He said, Thou shalt be of those [who are] respited: and, in another verse [in xv. 38, it is said], until the day of the known period; that is, until the period of the first blast [of the trumpet]. [And the devil] said, Now, as Thou hast led me into error, I will surely lay wait for them (that is, for the sons of Adam) in Thy right way, the way that leadeth to Thee: then I will surely come upon them, from before them, and from behind them, and from their right hands, and from their left, and hinder them from pursuing the way (but, saith Ibn ʿAbbās, he cannot come upon them above, lest he should intervene between the servant and God’s mercy), and Thou shalt not find the great number of them grateful, or believing. [God] said, Go forth from it, despised and driven away from mercy. Whosoever of them (that is, of mankind) shall follow thee, I will surely fill hell with you all; with thee, and thy offspring, and with men.” (Sūrah vii. 10–17.)

“And we said, O Adam, dwell thou and thy wife (Howwā [or Eve], whom God created from a rib of his left side) in the garden, and eat ye therefrom plentifully, wherever ye will; but approach ye not this tree, to eat thereof; (and it was wheat, or the grape-vine, or some other tree;) for if ye do so, ye will be [10]of the number of the offenders. But the devil, Iblees, caused them to slip from it, that is from the garden, by his saying unto them, Shall I show you the way to the tree of eternity? And he sware to them by God that he was one of the faithful advisers to them; so they ate of it, and He ejected them from that state of delight in which they were. And We said, Descend ye to the earth, ye two with the offspring that ye comprise [yet unborn], one of you (that is, of your offspring) an enemy to another; and there shall be for you, in the earth, a place of abode, and a provision, of its vegetable produce, for a time, until the period of the expiration of your terms of life. And Adam learned, from his Lord, words, which were these:—O Lord, we have acted unjustly to our own souls, and if Thou do not forgive us, and be merciful unto us, we shall surely be of those who suffer loss. And he prayed in these words; and He became propitious towards him, accepting his repentance; for He is the Very Propitious, the Merciful. We said, Descend ye from it (from the garden) altogether; and if there come unto you from Me a direction (a book and an apostle), those who follow my direction, there shall come no fear on them, nor shall they grieve in the world to come; for they shall enter paradise: but they who disbelieve and accuse our signs of falsehood, these shall be the companions of the fire: they shall remain therein for ever.” (Sūrah ii. 33–37.)

The Muḥammadans say, that when they were cast down from Paradise [which is in the seventh heaven], Adam fell on the isle of Ceylon, or Sarandīb, and Eve near Jiddah (the port of Makkah) in Arabia; and that, after a separation of two hundred years, Adam was, on his repentance, conducted by the angel Gabriel to a mountain near Makkah, where he found and knew his wife, the mountain being then named ʿArafāt; and that he afterwards retired with her to Ceylon.—Sale.

ADAB (ادب‎). Discipline of the mind and manners; good education and good breeding; politeness; deportment; a mode of conduct or behaviour. A very long section of the Traditions is devoted to the sayings of Muḥammad regarding rules of conduct, and is found in the Mishkātu ʾl-Maṣābīḥ under the title Bābu ʾl-Adab (book xxii. Matthew’s Mishkāt). It includes—(1) Salutations, (2) Asking permission to enter houses, (3) Shaking hands and embracing, (4) Rising up, (5) Sitting, sleeping and walking, (6) Sneezing and yawning, (7) Laughing, (8) Names, (9) Poetry and eloquence, (10) Backbiting and abuse, (11) Promises, (12) Joking, (13) Boasting and party spirit. The traditional sayings on these subjects will be found under their respective titles. ʿIlmu ʾl-Adab is the science of Philology.

ʿĀDIYĀT (عاديات‎). “Swift horses.” The title of the 100th Sūrah of the Qurʾān, the second verse of which is, “By the swift chargers and those who strike fire with their hoofs.” Professor Palmer translates it “snorting chargers.”

ADʿIYATU ʾL-MĀS̤ŪRAH (ادعية الماثورة‎). “The prayers handed down by tradition.” Those prayers which were said by Muḥammad, in addition to the regular liturgical prayers. They are found in different sections of the traditions or Aḥādīs̤.

ʿADL (عدل‎). Justice. Appointing what is just; equalising; making of the same weight. Ransom. The word occurs twelve times in the Qurʾān, e.g., Sūrah iv. 128, “Ye are not able, it may be, to act equitably to your wives, even though ye covet it.” Sūrah ii. 44, “Fear the day wherein no soul shall pay any ransom for another soul.” Sūrah ii. 123, “And fear the day when no soul shall pay any ransom for a soul, nor shall an equivalent be received therefrom, nor any intercession avail; and they shall not be helped.” Sūrah ii. 282, “Write it down faithfully … then let his agent dictate faithfully.” Sūrah v. 105, “Let there be a testimony between you when any one of you is at the point of death—at the time he makes his will—two equitable persons from amongst you.” Sūrah vi. 69, “And though it (soul) compensate with the fullest compensation it would not be accepted.” Sūrah v. 115, “The words of thy Lord are fulfilled in truth and justice.” Sūrah xvi. 78, “Is he to be held equal with him who bids what is just, and who is on the right way?” Sūrah xvi. 92, “Verily God bids you do justice.” Sūrah xlix. 8, “Make peace with them with equity and be just.” Sūrah lxxxii. 8, “Thy generous Lord, who created thee and moulded thee and disposed thee aright.”

AL-ʿADL (العدل‎). One of the ninety-nine special names of God. It signifies “the Just.” It does not occur in the Qurʾān as an attribute of the Divine Being, but it is in the list of attributes given in the Traditions. (Mishkāt, book x.)

ʿADN (عدن‎). The garden of Eden. Jannatu ʿAdn. The garden of perpetual abode. The term is used both for the garden of Eden, in which our first parents dwelt, and also for a place in celestial bliss. [JANNATU ʿADN.]

ADOPTION. Arabic Tabannī (تبنى‎). An adopted son, or daughter, of known descent, has no right to inherit from his, or her, adoptive parents and their relatives,—the filiation of this description being neither recommended nor recognised by Muḥammadan law. Such son or daughter is, however, entitled to what may be given under a valid deed in gift or will. In this particular the Muḥammadan agrees with the English, and the Hindu with the Roman law. (Tagore Law Lectures, 1873, p. 124.)

ADORATION. The acts and postures by which the Muslims express adoration at the time of prayer are similar to those used by the ancient Jews (vide Smith’s Dictionary of the Bible, in loco), and consist of [11]Rukūʿ, or the inclination of the body, the hands being placed on the knees; and Sujūd, or prostration upon the earth, the forehead touching the ground. [PRAYER.] The adoration of the black stone at Makkah forms an important feature in the ceremonies of the pilgrimage. [HAJJ.]

ADULTERY. Arabic zināʾ (زناء‎). The term zināʾ includes both adultery and fornication, but there is a difference in the punishment for these offences. [FORNICATION.]

Adultery is established before a Qāẓi, either by proof or confession. To establish it upon proof, four witnesses are required. (Qurʾān, Sūrah iv. 1.) When witnesses come forward, it is necessary that they should be examined particularly concerning the nature of the offence. When the witnesses shall have borne testimony completely, declaring that “they have seen the parties in the very act of carnal conjunction,” the Qāẓi passes sentence.

A confession of adultery must be made by the person who has committed the sin, at four different times, although, according to the Imām ash-Shāfiʿī, one confession is sufficient. Some of the doctors hold that if a person retract his confession, his retraction must be credited, and he must be forthwith released.

At the commencement of Muḥammad’s mission, women found guilty of adultery and fornication were punished by being literally immured—Sūratu ʾn-nisā (iv.) 19, “Shut them up within their houses till death release them, or God make some way for them.” This, however, was cancelled, and lapidation was substituted as the punishment for adultery, and 100 stripes and one year’s banishment for fornication.

When an adulterer is to be stoned to death, he should be carried to some barren place, and the lapidation should be executed, first by the witnesses, then by the Qāẓi, and afterwards by the by-standers. When a woman is stoned, a hole or excavation should be dug to receive her, as deep as her waist, because Muḥammad ordered such a hole to be dug for G͟handia.

It is lawful for a husband to slay his wife and her paramour, if he shall find them in the very act. If a supreme ruler, such as a K͟halīfah, commit adultery, he is not subject to such punishment.

The state of marriage which subjects a whoremonger to lapidation, requires that he be free (i.e. not a slave), a Muslim, and one who has consummated a lawful marriage.

It will be seen that Muḥammadan law is almost identical with the divine law of the Jews with regard to adultery (Deut. xxiii. 22, Lev. xix. 20); but the Mosaic penalty applied as well to the betrothed as to the married woman.

AFFINITY. Arabic Qarābah (قرابة‎). The prohibited degrees (ḥurmah) with regard to marriages are as follows:—Mother, daughter, paternal aunt, maternal aunt, brother’s or sister’s daughter, grandmother, granddaughter, mother-in-law, step-mother, daughter-in-law, granddaughter-in-law. Nor can any man marry any who stand in any of these relationships from fosterage. The marriage of two sisters at the same time is forbidden, but the marriage of a deceased wife’s sister is allowed. Marriage with a deceased brother’s wife is very common in Muslim countries, such marriages being held to be a very honourable means of providing for a brother’s widow. The marriage of cousins is also considered most desirable, as being the means of keeping families and tribes together. The passage of the Qurʾān on the subject of affinity, is as follows (Sūrah v. 27):—

“Marry not women whom your fathers have married: for this is a shame, and hateful, and an evil way:—though what is past (i.e. in times of ignorance) may be allowed.

“Forbidden to you are your mothers, and your daughters, and your sisters, and your aunts, both on the father and mother’s side, and your nieces on the brother and sister’s side, and your foster-mothers, and your foster-sisters, and the mothers of your wives, and your step-daughters who are your wards, born of your wives to whom ye have gone in: (but if ye have not gone in unto them, it shall be no sin in you to marry them;) and the wives of your sons who proceed out of your loins; and ye may not have two sisters; except where it is already done. Verily, God is Indulgent, Merciful!

Forbidden to you also are married women, except those who are in your hands as slaves: This is the law of God for you. And it is allowed you, beside this, to seek out wives by means of your wealth, with modest conduct, and without fornication. And give those with whom ye have cohabited their dowry. This is the law. But it shall be no crime in you to make agreements over and above the law. Verily, God is Knowing, Wise!”

AFFLICTION. Arabic ḥuzn (حزن‎), g͟hamm (غم‎). The benefits of affliction are frequently expressed in both the Qurʾān and Traditions. For example: Sūrah ii. 150, “We will try you with something of fear, and hunger, and loss of wealth, and souls and fruit; but give good tidings to the patient who, when there falls on them a calamity, say, ‘Verily we are God’s and verily to Him we return.’ ” This formula is always used by Muḥammadans in any danger or sudden calamity, especially in the presence of death.

In the traditions (see Mishkātu ʾl-Maṣābīḥ), Muḥammad is related to have said, “A Muslim is like unto standing green corn, which sometimes stands erect, but is sometimes cast down by the wind.” “No affliction befals a servant of God but on account of the sins which he commits.”

AFSŪN (افسون‎). The Persian term for Daʿwah or exorcism. [EXORCISM.]

ʿAFŪ (عفو‎). Lit. “erasing, cancelling.” The word is generally used in Muḥammadan books for pardon and forgiveness. It [12]occurs eight times in the Qurʾān, e.g. Sūrah ii. 286, “Lord, make us not to carry what we have not strength for, but forgive us and pardon us and have mercy on us.” Sūrah iv. 46, “Verily God pardons and forgives.”

Al-ʿAfū is one of the ninety-nine special names of God. It means “one who erases or cancels;” “The Eraser (of sins).” See Qurʾān, Sūrah iv. 51.

AGENT. Arabic wakīl (وكيل‎). One legally appointed to act for another. For the Muḥammadan law regarding the appointment of agents to transact business, or to negotiate marriages, see Hamilton’s Hidāyah, vol. iii. p. 1; Baillie’s Digest. Hanīfī Code, p. 75; Imāmīyah Code, p. 29. The author of the Hidāyah says, “It is lawful for a person to appoint another his agent for the settlement, in his behalf, of every contract which he might lawfully have concluded himself, such as sale, marriage, and so forth;” and he then proceeds to lay down rules for guidance in such matters at great length. A woman who remains in privacy and is not accustomed to go into Court, ought, according to the saying of Abū Bakr, to appoint an agent and not appear herself. A slave or a minor may be appointed agent for a free man.

AL-AḤAD (الاحد‎). “The One.” A title given to God. [NAMES OF GOD.]

AḤADĪYAH (احدية‎). Unity, concord. Al-Aḥadīyah is a term used by Ṣūfī mystics to express a condition of the mind, completely absorbed in a meditation on the Divine Unity. (See ʿAbdu ʾr-Razzāq’s Dictionary of the Technical Terms of the Ṣūfīs. Sprenger’s edition.)

AḤQĀF (احقاف‎). The name of a tract of land in Sihr in Yaman. The title of the XLVIth Sūrah of the Qurʾān.

AHLU ʾL-BAIT (اهل البيت‎). “The people of the house.” A term used in the Qurʾān (Sūrah xxxiii. 33), and in the Ḥadīs̤ (Mishkāt, xxiv. 21), for Muḥammad’s household.

AHLU ʾL-HAWĀʾ (اهل الهواء‎). A visionary person; a libertine.

AHLU ʾL-KITĀB (اهل الكتاب‎). Lit. “The people of the book.” A term used in the Qurʾān for Jews and Christians, as believers in a revealed religion. Some sects of the Shīʿahs include the Majūsī (Magī) under this term.

AḤMAD (احمد‎). The name under which Muḥammad professes that Jesus Christ foretold his coming. Vide Qurʾān, Sūrah lxi. 6, “And remember when Jesus the son of Mary said, ‘O children of Israel! of a truth I am God’s Apostle to you to confirm the law which was given before me, and to announce an apostle that shall come after me, whose name shall be Aḥmad.’ ” Muḥammad had, no doubt, heard that Our Lord had promised a Paracletos (παρακλητος), John xvi. 7. This title, understood by him, probably from the similarity of sound, as equivalent to Periclytos (περικλυτος), he applied to himself with reference to his own name Muḥammad, the praised or glorified one. Muir thinks that in some imperfect Arabic translation of the Gospel of St. John, the word παρακλητος may have been translated Aḥmad, or praised. (Life of Mahomet, vol. i. 17.)

AḤZĀB (احزاب‎). “Confederates.” The title of the XXXIIIrd Sūrah of the Qurʾān, which is said to have been written when al-Madīnah was besieged by a confederation of the Jewish tribes with the Arabs of Makkah. A.H. 5.

AIYŪB (ايوب‎). [JOB.]

AJAL (اجل‎). The appointed time of death, said to be ordained by God from the first. Qurʾān, Sūrah xxxv. 44, “He respites them until the appointed time. When their appointed time comes, verily God looks upon His servants.” [DEATH.]

AJĪR (اجير‎). A term used in Muḥammadan law for a person hired for service. [IJARAH.]

AJNABĪ (اجنبى‎). A foreigner; any person not of Arabia.

ĀK͟HIR-I-CHAHĀR-I-SHAMBAH (آخر چهار شنبه‎). The last Wednesday of the month of Ṣafar. It is observed as a feast in commemoration of Muḥammad’s having experienced some mitigation of his last illness, and having bathed. It was the last time he performed the legal bathing, for he died on the twelfth day of the next month. In some parts of Islām it is customary, in the early morning of this day to write verses of the Qurʾān, known as the Seven Salāms (q.v.), and then wash off the ink and drink it as a charm against evil. It is not observed by the Wahhābīs, nor is its observance universal in Islām.

AK͟HLĀQ (اخلاق‎). The plural of K͟hulq. Natures, dispositions, habits, manners. The general term for books on morality, e.g. Ak͟hlāq-i-Jalālī, Ak͟hlāq-i-Muḥsinī, the name of a dissertation on Ethics by Ḥusain Wāʾiz̤ Kāshifī, A.H. 910, which has been translated into English by the Rev. H. G. Keene (W. H. Allen & Co.).

ĀK͟HŪND (آخوند‎). A maulawī; a teacher. A title of respect given to eminent religious teachers. One of the most celebrated Muḥammadan teachers of modern times was the “Āk͟hūnd of Swāt,” who died A.D. 1875. This great religious leader resided in the village of Saidū, in the district of Swāt, on the north-west frontier of India.

ĀK͟HŪNDZĀDAH (آخوندزاده‎). The son of an Āk͟hūnd. A title of respect given to the sons or descendants of celebrated religious teachers. [AKHUND.]

ĀL (آل‎). Lit. “offspring, or posterity.” Used in Muslim works for the offspring of Muḥammad.


AL-AʿLA (الاعلى‎). “The Most High.” The title of the LXXXVIIth Sūrah of the Qurʾān, in the second verse of which the word occurs: “The name of thy Lord the Most High is celebrated.”

ʿALAM (علم‎). A standard or ensign. A term used for the flags and standards paraded during the Muḥarram. [MUHARRAM, STANDARDS.]

ʿĀLAM (عالم‎). The universe; world; condition, state of being.

ʿĀlamu ʾl-arwāḥ The world of spirits.
ʿĀlamu ʾl-k͟halq The world; this life.
ʿĀlamu ʾl-bāqī The future state.
ʿĀlamu ʾl-aʿz̤amah The highest heaven.
ʿĀlamu ʾsh-shahādah The visible world.
ʿĀlamu ʾl-g͟haib The invisible world.
ʿĀlamu ʾl-maʿqūl The rational world.

The four mystic stages of the Ṣūfīs are—

ʿĀlamu ʾn-nāsūt The present world.
ʿĀlamu ʾl-malakūt The state of angels.
ʿĀlamu ʾl-jabarūt The state of power.
ʿĀlamu ʾl-lāhūt The state of absorption into the Divinity.


ʿALĀMĀT (علامات‎). The greater signs of the resurrection. [ʿALAMATU ʾS-SAʿAH, RESURRECTION.]

ʿALĀMĀTU ʾN-NUBŪWAH (علامات النبوة‎). “The signs of Prophecy.” A term used for the supposed miracles and other proofs of the mission of Muḥammad. The title of a chapter in the Traditions. (Mishkāt, xxi. c. vi.)

ʿALĀMĀTU ʾS-SĀʿAH (علامات الساعة‎). “The signs of the hour,” i.e. the signs of the time of the Resurrection and of the Day of Judgment. The title of a section of the Traditions. (Mishkāt, xxiii. c. 3.) [RESURRECTION.]

ʿALAQ (علق‎). “Congealed blood.” The title of the XCVIth Sūrah, the first five verses of which are generally allowed to be the earliest portion of the Qurʾān.

AL-BALDAH (البلدة‎). “The City.” A name sometimes used in the Ḥadīs̤ for Makkah.

ALCHEMY. Arabic Kīmiyāʾ (كيمياء‎). According to the Kashfu ʾz̤-z̤unūn, in loco, learned Muslims are not agreed as to the existence of this occult science, nor are they of one opinion as to its lawfulness, even if it should exist.

ALEXANDER THE GREAT. Mentioned in the Qurʾān as Ẕū ʾl-Qarnain, i.e. “He of the two horns,” with which he is represented on his coins. (Sūrah xviii. 82.) He seems to have been regarded by Muḥammad as one invested with a divine commission:—“Verily we established his power upon earth”; but commentators are not agreed whether to assign to him the position of a Prophet. [ZU ʾL-QARNAIN.]

AL-ḤAMD (الحمد‎). “Praise.” A title given to the first Sūrah, so called because its first word is Al-ḥamd. This chapter is also called Fātiḥah, which term is used by modern Muslims for the Sūrah when it is said for the benefit of the dead, Al-ḥamd being its more usual title. [FATIHAH.]

AL-ḤAMDU-LIʾLLĀH (الحمد لله‎). “Praise belongs to God.” An ejaculation which is called Taḥmīd, and which occurs at the commencement of the first chapter of the Qurʾān. It is used as an ejaculation of thanksgiving—“Thank God!” It is very often recited with the addition of Rabbi ʾl-ʿālamīn, “Lord of the Universe.” [TAHMID.]

AL-ʿALĪ (العلى‎). One of the ninety-nine special names of God. It means “The Exalted One.”

ʿALĪ (على‎). The son of Abū-T̤ālib, and a cousin-german to Muḥammad, who adopted him as his son. He married Fāt̤imah, the daughter of Muḥammad, and had by her three sons, Ḥasan, Ḥusain, and Muḥassin. He was the fourth K͟halīfah, and reigned from A.H. 35 to A.H. 40. He was struck with a poisoned sword by Ibn Muljam, at al-Kūfah, and died after three days, aged fifty-nine years. The Shīʿahs hold that, on the death of Muḥammad, ʿAlī was entitled to the Khalifate, and the respective claims of Abū Bakr, ʿUmar, and ʿUs̤mān on the one hand, and of ʿAlī on the other, gave rise to the Shīʿah schism. ʿAlī is surnamed by the Arabs Asadu ʾllāh, and by the Persians Sher-i-K͟hudā, i.e. “The Lion of God.” [SHIʿAH.]

ALIF. The letter Alif (ا‎) is a monogram frequently placed at the head of letters, prescriptions, &c. It is the initial letter of the word Allāh (الله‎), “God.”

ALIF LĀM MĪM. The Arabic letters الم‎, corresponding to A L M, which occur at the commencement of six Sūrahs, namely Sūratu ʾl-Baqarah (II.), Sūratu Ālu ʿImrān (III.), Sūratu ʾl-ʿAnkabūt (XXIX.), Sūratu ʾr-Rūm (XXX.), Sūratu Luqmān (XXXI.), and Sūratu ʾs-Sijdah (XXXII.). Muḥammad never explained the meaning of these mysterious letters, and consequently they are a fruitful source of perplexity to learned commentators. Jalālu ʾd-dīn gives an exhaustive summary of the different views in his Itqān (p. 470). Some suppose they stand for the words Allāh, “God”; Lat̤īf, “gracious”; Majīd, “glorious.” Others say they stand for Ana ʾllāhu aʿlamu, “I am the God who knoweth.” Others maintain that they were not meant to be understood, and that they were inserted by the Divine command without explanation, in order to remind the reader that there were mysteries which his intellect would never fathom.

ĀLU ʿIMRĀN (آل عمرآن‎). “The family of ʿImrān.” The title of the third chapter of the Qurʾān.

ʿĀLIM (عالم‎), pl. ʿulamāʾ. A learned [14]man. The term usually includes all religious teachers, such as Imāms, Muftīs, Qāẓīs, and Maulawīs; and in Turkey it denotes the political party led by the religious teachers.

AL-ʿALĪM (العليم‎). One of the ninety-nine special names of God. It frequently occurs in the Qurʾān, and means “The Wise One.”

ALLĀH (الله‎). [GOD.]

ALLĀHU AKBAR (الله اكبر‎). “God is great,” or “God is most great.” An ejaculation which is called the Takbīr. It occurs frequently in the liturgical forms, and is used when slaying an animal for food. [TAKBIR.]

ALMSGIVING. The word generally used for alms is Ṣadaqah, or that which manifests righteousness; the word zakāt, or purification, being specially restricted to the legal alms. [ZAKAT.] Ṣadaqātu ʾl-Fit̤r are the offerings given on the Lesser Festival. The duty of almsgiving is very frequently enjoined in the Qurʾān, e.g. Sūrah ii. 274–5, “What ye expend of good (i.e. of well-gotten wealth), it shall be paid to you again, and ye shall not be wronged. (Give your alms) unto the poor who are straitened in God’s way and cannot traverse the earth.… Those who expend their wealth by night and by day, secretly and openly, they shall have their hire with their Lord.”

The following are some of the sayings of Muḥammad on the subject of almsgiving, as they occur in the Traditions:—“The upper hand is better than the lower one. The upper hand is the giver of alms, and the lower hand is the poor beggar.” “The best of alms are those given by a man of small means, who gives of that which he has earned by labour, and gives as much as he is able.” “Begin by giving alms to your own relatives.” “Doing justice between two people is alms; assisting a man on his beast is alms; good words are alms.” “A camel lent out for milk is alms; a cup of milk every morning and evening is alms.” “Your smiling in your brother’s face is alms; assisting the blind is alms.” “God says, Be thou liberal, thou child of Adam, that I may be liberal to thee.” (See Mishkāt, Matthew’s edition, vol. i. p. 429.)

ALWĀḤ (الواح‎), pl. of Lauḥ. “The tables” (of the Law). Mentioned in the Qurʾān, Sūrah vii. 142, “We wrote for him (Moses) upon the Tables (al-Alwāḥ) a monition concerning every matter.”

Muslim divines are not agreed as to the number either of the tables, or of the Commandments. The commentators Jalālain say they were either seven or ten. [TEN COMMANDMENTS.]

ʿAMAL-NĀMAH (عمل نامه‎). The Persian word for Ṣaḥīfatu ʾl-Aʿmāl, or record of actions kept by the recording angels. [SAHIFATU ʾL-AʿMAL, KIRAMU ʾL-KATIBIN.]

AMĀN (امان‎). Protection given by a Muslim conqueror to those who pay Jizyah, or poll tax. [JIHAD.]

AMBIYĀʾ (انبياء‎), pl. of Nabī. “Prophets.” The title of the XXIst Sūrah. [PROPHETS.]

ĀMĪN (امين‎), Hebrew ‏אָמֵן‎. An expression of assent used at the conclusion of prayers, very much as in our Christian worship. It is always used at the conclusion of the Sūratu ʾl-Fātiḥah, or first chapter of the Qurʾān.

Amīn, “Faithful.” Al-Amīn is the title which it is said was given to Muḥammad when a youth, on account of his fair and honourable bearing, which won the confidence of the people.

Amīnu ʾl-Bait, one who wishes to perform the pilgrimage to Makkah.

ĀMINAH (آمنة‎). Muḥammad’s mother. She was the wife of ʿAbdu ʾllāh, and the daughter of Wahb ibn ʿAbdi Manāf. She died and was buried at al-Abwāʾ, a place midway between Makkah and al-Madīnah, before her son claimed the position of a Prophet.

AMĪR (امير‎), Anglicè, Emir. “A ruler; a commander; a chief; a nobleman.” It includes the various high offices in a Muslim state; the Imām, or K͟halīfah, being styled Amīru ʾl-Umarāʾ, the ruler of rulers; and Amīru ʾl-Muʾminīn, the commander of the believers.

AMĪRU ʾL-ḤAJJ (امير الحج‎). The chief of the pilgrimage.” The officer in charge of the pilgrims to Makkah. [HAJJ.]

AMĪRU ʾL-MUʾMINĪN (امير المومنين‎). “The Commander of the Believers.” A title which was first given to ʿAbdu ʾllāh ibn Jaḥsh after his expedition to Nak͟hlah, and which was afterwards assumed by the K͟halīfahs (first by ʿUmar) and the Sult̤āns of Turkey. [KHALIFAH.]

ʿAMR IBN AL-ʿĀṢĪ (عمرو بن العاصى‎). One of the Companions, celebrated for his conquest of Syria, Palestine and Egypt, in the reigns of Abū Bakr and ʿUmar. He died (according to an-Nawawī) A.H. 43.

AMULETS. Arabic Ḥamāʾil (حمائل‎), “anything suspended”; Taʿwīẕ, “a refuge”; Ḥijāb, “a cover.”

Amulets, although of heathen origin, are very common in Muḥammadan countries. The following are used as amulets: (1) a small Qurʾān, encased in silk or leather, and suspended from the shoulder; (2) a chapter or verse of the Qurʾān, written on paper and folded in leather or velvet; (3) some of the names of God, or the numerical power (see ABJAD) of these names; (4) the names of prophets, celebrated saints, or the numerical power of the same; (5) the Muḥammadan creed, engraven on stone or silver. The chapters of the Qurʾān generally selected for Amulets are: Sūrahs i., vi., xviii., xxxvi., xliv., lv., [15]lxvii., lxxviii. Five verses known as the Āyātu ʾl-Ḥifz̤, or “verses of protection,” are also frequently inscribed on Amulets. They are Sūrahs ii. 256; xii. 64; xiii. 12; xv. 17; xxxvii. 7. [AYATU ʾL-HIFZ.]

These charms are fastened on the arm or leg, or suspended round the neck, as a protection against evil. They are also put on houses and animals, and, in fact, upon anything from which evil is to be averted. Strictly, according to the principles of Islām, only the names of God, or verses from the Qurʾān, should be used for amulets. Information regarding the formation of magic squares and amulets will be found in the article on Exorcism. [EXORCISM, DAʿWAH.]


ظ‎ ف‎ ا‎ ح‎
ح‎ ظ‎ ف‎ ا‎
ا‎ ح‎ ظ‎ ف‎
ف‎ ا‎ ح‎ ظ‎



AL-ANʿĀM (الانعام‎). “The Cattle.” The title of the VIth Sūrah, in verse 137 of which some superstitious customs of the Meccans, as to certain cattle, are incidentally mentioned.

ANĀNĪYAH (انانية‎). From ana, “I.” “Egotism.” Al-anānīyah is a term used by the Ṣūfīs to express the existence of man.

ANAS IBN MĀLIK (انس ابن مالك‎). The last of the Companions of Muḥammad, and the founder of the sect of the Mālikīs. He died at al-Baṣrah, A.H. 93, aged 103.

AL-ANFĀL (الانفال‎). “The Spoils.” The title of the VIIIth Sūrah which was occasioned by a dispute regarding the spoils taken at the battle of Badr, between the young men who had fought and the old men who had stayed with the ensigns.

ANGEL. Arabic malʾak or malak (ملاك‎, ملك‎). Persian Firishtah (فرشته‎). “It is believed,” says Ibn Mājah, “that the angels are of a simple substance (created of light), endowed with life, and speech, and reason; and that the difference between them, the Jinn, and Shait̤āns is a difference of species. Know,” he adds, “that the angels are sanctified from carnal desire and the disturbance of anger: they disobey not God in what He hath commanded them, but do what they are commanded. Their food is the celebrating of His glory; their drink, the proclaiming of His holiness; their conversation, the commemoration of God, Whose name be exalted; their pleasure, His worship; and they are created in different forms and with different powers.” (Arabian Nights, Lane’s edition, Notes to the Introduction, p. 27.)

Four of them are archangels, or, as they are called in Arabic, Karūbīyūn (Cherubim), namely, Jabraʾīl, or Jibrīl, (Gabriel), the angel of revelations; Mīkaʾīl, or Mīkāl, (Michael), the patron of the Israelites; Isrāfīl, the angel who will sound the trumpet at the last day; and ʿIzrāʾīl, or ʿAzrāʾīl, the angel of death. Angels are said to be inferior in dignity to human prophets, because all the angels were commanded to prostrate themselves before Adam (Sūrah ii. 32). Every believer is attended by two recording angels, called the Kirāmu ʾl-kātibīn, one of whom records his good actions, and the other his evil actions. There are also two angels, called Munkar and Nakīr, who examine all the dead in their graves. The chief angel who has charge of hell is called Mālik, and his subordinates are named Zabāniyah, or guards. A more extended account of these angels will be found under their particular titles.

The angels intercede for man: “The angels celebrate the praise of their Lord, and ask forgiveness for the dwellers on earth.” (Sūrah xlii. 3.) They also act as guardian angels: “Each hath a succession of angels before him and behind him, who watch over him by God’s behest.” (Sūrah xiii. 12.) “Is it not enough for you that your Lord aideth you with three thousand angels sent down (from on high)?” (Sūrah iii. 120.) “He is the supreme over His servants, and sendeth forth guardians who watch over you, until, when death overtaketh any one of you, our messengers receive him and fail not.” (Sūrah vi. 61.)

There are eight angels who support the throne of God, “And the angels shall be on its sides, and over them on that day eight shall bear up the throne of thy Lord.” (Sūrah lxix. 17.) Nineteen have charge of hell. “Over it are nineteen. None but angels have we made guardians of the fire.” (Sūrah lxxiv. 30, 31.)

The names of the guardian angels given in the book on Exorcism (daʿwah), entitled the Jawāhiru ʾl-K͟hamsah, are Isrāfīl, Jibrāʾīl, Kalkāʾīl, Dardāʾīl, Durbāʾīl, Raftmāʾīl, Sharkāʾīl, Tankafīl, Ismāʾīl, Sarakīkāʾīl, K͟harūrāʾīl, T̤at̤āʾīl, Rūyāʾīl, Hūlāʾīl, Hamwākīl, ʿItrāʾīl, [16]Amwākīl, ʿAmrāʾīl, ʿAzrāʾīl, Mīkāʾīl, Mahkāʾīl, Hartāʾīl, ʿAtāʾīl, Nurāʾīl, Nukhāʾīl. [EXORCISM.]

ANIMALS. Arabic Ḥayawān (حيوان‎). According to the Qurʾān, Sūrah xxiv. 44, “God hath created every animal of water.” “An idea,” says Rodwell, “perhaps derived from Gen. i. 20, 21.”

It is believed that at the Resurrection the irrational animals will be restored to life, that they may be brought to judgment, and then be annihilated. See Qurʾān, Sūrah vi. 38, “No kind of beast is there on the earth, nor fowl that flieth with its wings, but is a community like you; nothing have We passed over in the book (of the Eternal decrees): then unto their Lord shall they be gathered.”

AL-ʿANKABŪT (العنكبوت‎). “The Spider.” The title of the XXIXth Sūrah, in which there is a passing reference to this insect in the 40th verse:—“The likeness for those who take to themselves guardians besides God is the likeness of the spider who buildeth her a house; but truly the frailest of all houses surely is the house of the spider.”

AL-ANṢĀR (الانصار‎). “The Helpers,” a term used for the early converts of al-Madīnah; but when all the citizens of al-Madīnah were ostensibly converted to Islām, they were all named Anṣār, while those Muslims who accompanied the Prophet from Makkah to al-Madīnah were called Muhājirūn, or exiles. (Muir’s Life of Mahomet, vol iii. p. 26.) [MUHAMMAD.]


APOSTASY FROM ISLĀM. Arabic irtidād (ارتداد‎). According to Muslim law, a male apostate, or Murtadd, is liable to be put to death if he continue obstinate in his error; a female apostate is not subject to capital punishment, but she may be kept in confinement until she recant. (Hamilton’s Hidāyah, vol. ii. p. 227.) If either the husband or wife apostatize from the faith of Islām, a divorce takes place ipso facto; the wife is entitled to her whole dower, but no sentence of divorce is necessary. If the husband and wife both apostatize together, their marriage is generally allowed to continue, although the Imām Zufar says it is annulled. But if, after their joint apostasy, either husband or wife were singly to return to Islām, then the marriage would be dissolved. (Hamilton’s Hidāyah, vol. ii. p. 183.)

According to Abū Ḥanīfah, a male apostate is disabled from selling or otherwise disposing of his property. But Abū Yūsuf and Imām Muḥammad differ from their master upon this point, and consider a male apostate to be as competent to exercise every right as if he were still in the faith. (Hidāyah, vol. ii. p. 235.)

If a boy under age apostatize, he is not to be put to death, but to be imprisoned until he come to full age, when, if he continue in the state of unbelief, he must be put to death. Neither lunatics nor drunkards are held to be responsible for their apostasy from Islām. (Hidāyah, vol. ii. 246.) If a person upon compulsion become an apostate, his wife is not divorced, nor are his lands forfeited. If a person become a Musalmān upon compulsion, and afterwards apostatize, he is not to be put to death. (Hidāyah, vol. iii. 467.)

The will of a male apostate is not valid, but that of a female apostate is valid. (Hidāyah, vol. iv. 637.)

ʿIkrimah relates that some apostates were brought to the K͟halīfah ʿAlī, and he burnt them alive; but Ibn ʿAbbās heard of it, and said that the K͟halīfah had not acted rightly, for the Prophet had said, “Punish not with God’s punishment (i.e. fire), but whosoever changes his religion, kill him with the sword.” (Ṣaḥīḥu ʾl-Buk͟hārī.)

APOSTLE. Arabic rasūl (رسول‎), ḥawārī (حوارى‎). The term rasūl (apostle or messenger) is applied to Muḥammad, that of ḥawārī being used in the Qurʾān (Sūrah iii. 4, 5; Sūrah iv. 111, 112; Sūrah lxi. 14) for the Apostles of Jesus. The word ḥawārī seems to be derived from the Æthiopic ḥōra, “to go”; ḥawāryā, “apostle”; although, according to al-Baiẓāwī, the commentator, it is derived from ḥawira, “to be white,” in Syriac, ḥewar, and was given to the disciples of Jesus, he says, on account of their purity of life and sincerity, or because they were respectable men and wore white garments. In the Traditions (Mishkāt, book i. c. vi. part 2) ḥawārī is used for the followers of all the prophets. [PROPHETS.]

AL-ʿAQABAH (العقبة‎). A sheltered glen near Minā, celebrated as the scene of the two pledges, the first and second pledge of al-ʿAqabah. The first pledge was made by ten men of the tribe of K͟hazraj and ten of Aus, when they plighted their faith to Muḥammad thus:—“We will not worship any but one God; we will not steal; nor commit adultery; nor kill our children; nor will we slander our neighbour; and we will obey the Prophet of God.” The date assigned to this pledge by Sir W. Muir is April 21, A.D. 621. The second pledge was a few months afterwards, when seventy-three men and two women came forward, one by one, and took an oath of fealty to the Prophet. Muḥammad named twelve of the chief of these men, and said:—“Moses chose from amongst his people twelve leaders. Ye shall be sureties for the rest, even as were the Apostles of Jesus; and I am surety for my people. And the people answered, Āmīn, So be it.” (Muir’s Life of Mahomet, vol. ii. pp. 216, 232.)

ʿĀQIB (عاقب‎). “A successor or deputy.” “One who comes last.” Al-ʿāqib is a title given to Muḥammad as being styled “the last of the prophets.”

ʿĀQILAH (عاقلة‎). The relatives who pay the expiatory mulct for manslaughter, or any other legal fine. They must [17]be relatives descended from one common father. (Hamilton’s Hidāyah, vol. iv. pages 449, 452; Baillie’s Law of Sale, p. 214.)

ʿAQĪQAH (عقيقة‎). A custom observed by the Arabs on the birth of a child; namely, leaving the hair on the infant’s head until the seventh day, when it is shaved, and animals are sacrificed, namely, two sheep for a boy and one for a girl. (Mishkāt, xviii. c. 3.) It is enjoined by Muḥammadan law, and observed in all parts of Islām.



ARABIA. Bilādu ʾl-ʿArab (بلاد العرب‎), Jazīratu ʾl-ʿArab (جزيرة العرب‎), ʿArabistān (عربستان‎). The peninsula bearing, amongst the Arabs, these names is the country situated on the east of the Red Sea, and extending as far as the Persian Gulf.

The word probably signifies a “barren place,” “desert” (Heb. ‏עֲרָבָה‎).

Ptolemy divides Arabia into three parts, Arabia Petræa, Arabia Felix, and Arabia Deserta; but Arabian geographers divide it into Tiḥāmah, al-Ḥijāz, an-Najd, al-ʿArūz̤, and al-Yaman.

The races which have peopled Arabia are divided into three sections, al-ʿArabu ʾl-Bāʾidah, al-ʿArabu ʾl-ʿĀribah, and al-ʿArabu ʾl-Mustaʿribah.

I. Al-ʿArabu ʾl-Bāʾidah, are the old “lost Arabs,” of whom tradition has preserved the names of several tribes, as well as some memorable particulars regarding their extinction. This may well be called the fabulous period of Arabian history; but, as it has the sanction of the Qurʾān, it would be sacrilege in a Muslim to doubt its authenticity. According to this account, the most famous of the extinct tribes were those of ʿĀd, S̤amūd, Jadīs, and T̤asm, all descended in the third or fourth generation from Shem. ʿĀd, the father of his tribe, settled, according to tradition, in the Great Desert of al-Aḥqāf soon after the confusion of tongues. Shaddād his son succeeded him in the government, and greatly extended his dominions. He performed many fabulous exploits; among others, he erected a magnificent city in the desert of ʿAdan, which had been begun by his father, and adorned it with a sumptuous palace and delightful gardens, in imitation of the celestial paradise, in order to inspire his subjects with a superstitious veneration for him as a god. This superb structure was built with bricks of gold and silver alternately disposed. The roof was of gold, inlaid with precious stones and pearls. The trees and shrubs were of the same precious materials. The fruits and flowers were rubies, and on the branches were perched birds of similar metals, the hollow parts of which were loaded with every species of the richest perfumes, so that every breeze that blew came charged with fragrance from the bills of these golden images. To this paradise he gave the name of Iram (see Qurʾān, Sūrah lxxxix. 6). On the completion of all this grandeur, Shaddād set out with a splendid retinue to admire its beauties. But heaven would not suffer his pride and impiety to go unpunished; for, when within a day’s journey of the place, they were all destroyed by a terrible noise from the clouds. As a monument of Divine justice, the city, we are assured, still stands in the desert, though invisible. Southey, in his Thalaba, has viewed this and many of the other fables and superstitions of the Arabs with the eye of a poet, a philosopher, and an antiquary. According to at̤-T̤abarī, this legendary palace was discovered in the time of Muʿāwiyah, the first K͟halīfah of Damascus, by a person in search of a stray camel. A fanciful tradition adds, that the Angel of death, on being asked whether, in the discharge of his duties, an instance had ever occurred in which he had felt some compassion towards his wretched victims, admitted that only twice had his sympathies been awakened—once towards a shipwrecked infant, which had been exposed on a solitary plank to struggle for existence with the winds and waves, and which he spared; and the second time in cutting off the unhappy Shaddād at the moment when almost within view of the glorious fabric which he had erected at so much expense. No sooner had the angel spoken, than a voice from heaven was heard to declare that the helpless innocent on the plank was no other than Shaddād himself; and that his punishment was a just retribution for his ingratitude to a merciful and kind Providence, which had not only saved his life, but raised him to unrivalled wealth and splendour. The whole fable seems to be a confused tradition of Belus and the ancient Babylon; or, rather, as the name would import, of Benhadad, mentioned in Scripture as one of the most famous of the Syrian kings, who, we are told, was worshipped by his subjects.

Of the ʿĀdites and their succeeding princes, nothing certain is known, except that they were dispersed or destroyed in the course of a few centuries by the sovereigns of al-Yaman.

The tribe of S̤amūd first settled in Arabia Felix, and on their expulsion they repaired to al-Ḥijr, on the confines of Syria. Like the ʿĀdites, they are reported to have been of a most gigantic stature, the tallest being a hundred cubits high and the least sixty; and such was their muscular power, that, with a stamp of the foot in the driest soil, they could plant themselves knee-deep in the earth. They dwelt, the Qurʾān informs us, “in the caves of the rocks, and cut the mountains into houses, which remain to this day.” In this tribe it is easy to discover the Thamudeni of Diodorus, Pliny, and Ptolemy.

The tribes of T̤asm and Jadīs settled between Makkah and al-Madīnah, and occupied the whole level country of al-Yaman, living promiscuously under the same government. Their history is buried in darkness; and when the Arabs wish to denote anything of dubious authority, they call it a fable of T̤asm.

The extinction of these tribes, according to the Qurʾān, was miraculous, and a signal example of Divine vengeance. The posterity of ʿĀd and S̤amūd had abandoned [18]the worship of the true God, and lapsed into incorrigible idolatry. They had been chastised with a three years’ drought, but their hearts remained hardened. To the former was sent the Prophet Hūd, to reclaim them and preach the unity of the Godhead. “O my people!” exclaimed the prophet, “ask pardon of your Lord; then turn unto Him with penitence, (and) He will send down the heavens upon you with copious rains, and with strength in addition to your strength will He increase you.” Few believed, and the overthrow of the idolaters was effected by a hot and suffocating wind, that blew seven nights and eight days without intermission, accompanied with a terrible earthquake, by which their idols were broken to pieces, and their houses thrown to the ground. (See Qurʾān, Sūrah vii. 63, xi. 53.) Luqmān, who, according to some, was a famous king of the ʿĀdites, and who lived to the age of seven eagles, escaped, with about sixty others, the common calamity. These few survivors gave rise to a tribe called the Latter ʿĀd; but on account of their crimes they were transformed, as the Qurʾān states, into asses or monkeys. Hūd returned to Ḥaẓramaut, and was buried in the neighbourhood, where a small town, Qabr Hūd, still bears his name. Among the Arabs, ʿĀd expresses the same remote age that Saturn or Ogyges did among the Greeks; anything of extreme antiquity is said to be “as old as King ʿĀd.”

The idolatrous tribe of S̤amūd had the prophet Ṣāliḥ sent to them, whom D’Herbelot makes the son of Arphaxad, while Bochart and Sale suppose him to be Peleg, the brother of Joktan. His preaching had little effect. The fate of the ʿĀdites, instead of being a warning, only set them to dig caverns in the rocks, where they hoped to escape the vengeance of winds and tempests. Others demanded a sign from the prophet in token of his mission. As a condition of their belief, they challenged him to a trial of power, similar to what took place between Elijah and the priests of Baal, and promised to follow the deity that should gain the triumph. From a certain rock a camel big with young was to come forth in their presence. The idolaters were foiled; for on Ṣāliḥ’s pointing to the spot, a she-camel was produced, with a young one ready weaned. This miracle wrought conviction in a few; but the rest, far from believing, hamstrung the mother, killed her miraculous progeny, and divided the flesh among them. This act of impiety sealed their doom. “And a violent tempest overtook the wicked, and they were found prostrate on their breasts in their abodes.” (Qurʾān, Sūrah vii. 71, xi. 64.)

The tribes of Jadīs and T̤asm owe their extinction to a different cause. A certain despot, a T̤asmite, but sovereign of both tribes, had rendered himself detested by a voluptuous law claiming for himself a priority of right over all the brides of the Jadīsites. This insult was not to be tolerated. A conspiracy was formed. The king and his chiefs were invited to an entertainment. The avengers had privately hidden their swords in the sand, and in the moment of mirth and festivity they fell upon the tyrant and his retinue, and finally extirpated the greater part of his subjects.

II.—The pure Arabs are those who claim to be descended from Joktan or Qaḥt̤ān, whom the present Arabs regard as their principal founder. The members of this genuine stock are styled al-ʿArabu ʾl-ʿĀribah, the genuine Arabs. According to their genealogy of this patriarch, his descendants formed two distinct branches. Yaʿrub, one of his sons, founded the kingdom of al-Yaman, and Jurhum that of al-Ḥijāz. These two are the only sons spoken of by the Arabs. Their names do not occur in Scripture; but it has been conjectured that they were the Jerah and Hadoram mentioned by Moses as among the thirteen planters of Arabia (Gen. x. 26).

In the division of their nation into tribes the Arabs resemble the Jews. From an early era they have retained the distinction of separate and independent families. This partition was adverse to the consolidation of power or political influence, but it furnishes our chief guide into the dark abyss of their antiquities. The posterity of Yaʿrub spread and multiplied into innumerable clans. New accessions rendered new subdivisions necessary. In the genealogical tables of Sale, Gagnier, and Saiyid Aḥmad K͟hān, are enumerated nearly three-score tribes of genuine Arabs, many of whom became celebrated long before the time of Muḥammad, and some of them retain their names even at the present day.

III.—The ʿArabu ʾl-Mustaʿribah, the mixed Arabs, claim to be descended from Ishmael and the daughter of al-Muẓāẓ, King of al-Ḥijāz, whom he took to wife, and was of the ninth generation from Jurhum, the founder of that kingdom. Of the Jurhumites, till the time of Ishmael, little is recorded, except the names of their princes or chiefs, and that they had possession of the territory of al-Ḥijāz. But as Muḥammad traces his descent to this alliance, the Arabs have been more than usually careful to preserve and adorn his genealogy. The want of a pure ancestry is, in their estimation, more than compensated by the dignity of so sacred a connexion; for they boast as much as the Jews of being reckoned the children of Abraham. This circumstance will account for the preference with which they uniformly regard this branch of their pedigree, and for the many romantic legends they have grafted upon it. It is not improbable that the old giants and idolaters suffered an imaginary extinction to make way for a more favoured race, and that Divine chastisements always overtook those who dared to invade their consecrated territories.

The Scripture account of the expulsion and destiny of this venerated progenitor of the Arabs is brief, but simple and affecting. Ishmael was the son of Abraham by Hagar, an Egyptian slave. When fourteen years of age, he was supplanted in the hopes and affections of his father by the birth of Isaac, [19]through whom the promises were to descend. This event made it necessary to remove the unhappy female and her child, who were accordingly sent forth to seek their fortune in some of the surrounding unoccupied districts. A small supply of provisions, and a bottle of water on her shoulder, was all she carried from the tent of her master. Directing her steps towards her native country, she wandered with the lad in the wilderness of Beer-sheba, which was destitute of springs. Here her stock failed, and it seemed impossible to avoid perishing by hunger or thirst. She resigned herself to her melancholy prospects, but the feelings of the mother were more acute than the agonies of want and despair. Unable to witness her son’s death, she laid him under one of the shrubs, took an affecting leave of him, and retired to a distance. “And she went, and sat her down over against him, a good way off, as it were a bow-shot; for she said, Let me not see the death of the child. And she sat over against him, and lifted up her voice and wept.” (Gen. xxi. 16.) At this moment an angel directed her to a well of water close at hand,—a discovery to which they owed the preservation of their lives. A promise formerly given was renewed, that Ishmael was to become a great nation—that he was to be a wild man—his hand against every man, and every man’s hand against him. The travellers continued their journey to the wilderness of Paran, and there took up their residence. In due time the lad grew to manhood, and greatly distinguished himself as an archer, and his mother took him a wife out of her own land. Here the sacred narrative breaks off abruptly, the main object of Moses being to follow the history of Abraham’s descendants through the line of Isaac. The Arabs, in their version of Ishmael’s history, have mixed a great deal of romance with the narrative of Scripture. They assert that al-Ḥijāz was the district where he settled, and that Makkah, then an arid wilderness, was the identical spot where his life was providentially saved, and where Hagar died and was buried. The well pointed out by the angel, they believe to be the famous Zamzam, of which all pious Muslims drink to this day. They make no allusion to his alliance with the Egyptian woman, by whom he had twelve sons (Gen. xxv. 12–18), the chiefs of as many nations, and the possessors of separate towns; but as polygamy was common in his age and country, it is not improbable he may have had more wives than one.

It was, say they, to commemorate the miraculous preservation of Ishmael that God commanded Abraham to build the Kaʿbah, and his son to furnish the necessary materials.

Muḥammadan writers give the following account of Ishmael and his descendants:—Ishmael was constituted the prince and first high-priest of Makkah, and, during half a century he preached to the incredulous Arabs. At his death, which happened forty-eight years after that of Abraham, and in the 137th of his age, he was buried in the tomb of his mother Hagar. Between the erection of the Kaʿbah and the birth of their Prophet, the Arabs reckon about 2,740 years. Ishmael was succeeded in the regal and sacerdotal office by his eldest son Nebat, although the pedigree of Muḥammad is traced from Kedar, a younger brother. But his family did not long enjoy this double authority; for, in progress of time, the Jurhumites seized the government and the guardianship of the temple, which they maintained about 300 years. These last, again, having corrupted the true worship, were assailed, as a punishment of their crimes, first by the scimitars of the Ishmaelites, who drove them from Makkah, and then by divers maladies, by which the whole race finally perished. Before quitting Makkah, however, they committed every kind of sacrilege and indignity. They filled up the Zamzam well, after having thrown into it the treasures and sacred utensils of the temple, the black stone, the swords and cuirasses of Qalaʿah, the two golden gazelles presented by one of the kings of Arabia, the sacred image of the ram substituted for Isaac, and all the precious movables, forming at once the object and the workmanship of a superstitious devotion. For several centuries the posterity of Ishmael kept possession of the supreme dignity.

The following is the list of chiefs who are said to have ruled the Ḥijāz, and to have been the lineal ancestors of Muḥammad, as far as ʿAdnān:—

A.D. 538 ʿAbdu ʾllāh, the father of Muḥammad.
505 ʿAbdu ʾl-Mut̤t̤alib.
472 Hāshim.
439 ʿAbd Manāf.
406 Quṣaiy.
373 Kilāb.
340 Murrah.
307 Kaʿab.
274 Luwaiy.
241 Ghālib.
208 Fihr or Quraish.
175 Mālik.
142 an-Naẓr.
109 Kinānah.
76 Khuzaimah.
43 Mudrikah.
10 al-Yaʾs.
B.C. 23 Muẓar.
56 Nizār.
89 Maʿadd.
122 ʿAdnān.

The period between Ishmael and ʿAdnān is variously estimated, some reckoning forty, others only seven, generations. The authority of Abū ʾl-Fidāʾ, who makes it ten, is that generally followed by the Arabs, being founded on a tradition of one of Muḥammad’s wives. Making every allowance, however, for patriarchal longevity, even forty generations are insufficient to extend over a space of nearly 2,500 years. From ʿAdnān to Muḥammad the genealogy is considered certain, comprehending twenty-one generations, and nearly [20]160 different tribes, all branching off from the same parent stem.

(See Abū ʾl-Fidāʾ; Gagnier’s Vie de Mahomet; Pocock, Specim. Arab. Hist.; Saiyid Ahmad K͟hān’s Essays; Sale’s Koran, Prelim. Dis.; Crichton’s Hist. Arabia.)

ARABIC. Lisānu-ʾl-ʿArab; Lug͟hatu ʾl-ʿArab. The classical language of Arabia is held to be the language of the Qurʾān, and of the Traditions of Muḥammad, and by reason of its incomparable excellence is called اللغة‎ al-lug͟hah, or “the language.” (See Qurʾān, Sūrah xvi. 105, “They say, Surely a person teacheth him [i.e. Muḥammad]. But the tongue of him at whom they hint is foreign, while this [i.e. the Qurʾān] is plain Arabic.”)

This classical language is often termed, by the Arabians themselves, the language of Maʿadd, and the language of Muẓar, and is a compound of many sister dialects, very often differing among themselves, which were spoken throughout the whole of the Peninsula before the religion of Muḥammad incited the nation to spread its conquering armies over foreign countries. Before that period, feuds among the tribes, throughout the whole extent of their territory, had prevented the blending of their dialects into one uniform language; but this effect of disunion was counteracted in a great measure by the institution of the sacred months, in which all acts of hostility were most strictly interdicted, and by the annual pilgrimage, and the yearly fair held at ʿUkāz̤, at which the poets of the various tribes contended for the meed of general admiration.

Qatādah says that the Quraish tribe used to cull what was most excellent in the dialects of Arabia, so that their dialect became the best of all. This assertion, however, is not altogether correct, for many of the children of the tribe of Quraish, in the time of Muḥammad, were sent into the desert to be there nursed, in order to acquire the utmost chasteness of speech. Muḥammad himself was sent to be brought up among the tribe of Saʿd ibn Bakr ibn Hawāzin, descendants of Muẓar, but not in the line of Quraish; and he is said to have urged the facts of his being a Quraish, and having also grown up among the tribe of Saʿd, as the grounds of his claim to be the most chaste in speech of the Arabs. Certain it is that the language of Maʿadd was characterised by the highest degree of perfection, copiousness, and uniformity, in the time of Muḥammad, although it afterwards declined.

The language of the Qurʾān is universally acknowledged to be the most perfect form of Arabic speech. At the same time we must not forget that the acknowledged claims of the Qurʾān to be the direct utterance of the Divinity have made it impossible for any Muslim to criticise the work, and it has become the standard by which other literary compositions have to be judged. (See Lane’s Introduction to his Arabic Dictionary, and Palmer’s Qurʾān.)

ARABIC LEXICONS. The first Arabic lexicon is that which is generally ascribed to al-K͟halīl, and entitled Kitābu ʾl ʿAin. The following are the most celebrated Arabic dictionaries composed after the ʿAin.

The Jamharah, by Ibn Duraid, died A.H. 321.

The Tahẕīb, by al-Azhari, died A.H. 370.

The Muḥīt̤, by the Ṣāḥib Ibn ʿAbbād, died A.H. 385.

The Mujmal, by Ibn Fāris, died A.H. 395.

The Ṣiḥāḥ, by al-Jauharī, died A.H. 398.

The Jāmiʿ, by al-Qazzāz, died A.H. 412.

The Mūʿab, by Abū G͟hālib, died A.H. 436.

The Muḥkam, by Ibn Sīdah, died A.H. 458.

The Asās, by az-Zamak͟hsharī, died A.H. 538.

The Mughrib, by al-Mut̤arrizī, died A.H. 610.

The ʿUbāb, by aṣ-Ṣāghānī, died A.H. 660.

The Lisānu ʾl-ʿArab, by Ibn Mukarram, died A.H. 711.

The Tahẕību ʾt-Tahẕīb, by Maḥmūd at-Tanūk͟hi, died A.H. 723.

The Miṣbāḥ, by Aḥmad ibn Muḥammad al-Faiyūmī, compiled A.H. 734.

The Mughni ʾl-Labīb, by Ibn Hishām, died A.H. 761.

The Qāmūs, by al-Fairūzābādī, died A.H. 816.

The Ṣiḥāḥ (says Mr. Lane in his Preface to his Dictionary), is among the books of lexicology like the Ṣaḥīḥ of Al-Buk͟hārī amongst the books of traditions; for the point on which turns the title to reliance is not the copiousness of the collection, but the condition of genuineness and correctness.

Two well-known dictionaries, compiled in modern times in Hindustān, are the G͟hiyās̤u ʾl-Lug͟hat, by Maulawī G͟hiyās̤u ʾd-dīn of Rāmpūr, and the Muntaha ʾl-ʿArab, by ʿAbdu ʾr-Raḥīm ibn ʿAbdu ʾl-Karīm of Ṣafīpūr. These are both Arabic and Persian lexicons.

The Arabic-Latin dictionary of Jacob Golius, was printed at Leyden, A.D. 1653; that of Freytag at Halle, A.D. 1830–35.

The Arabic-English and English-Arabic dictionaries extant are—

Richardson’s Persian-Arabic-English, A.D. 1777.

Richardson’s English-Persian-Arabic, A.D. 1810.

Francis Johnson’s Persian-Arabic-English, A.D. 1852.

Catafago’s Arabic-English and English-Arabic, new edition, 1873.

Lane’s Arabic-English, A.D. 1863 to 1882, imperfect.

Dr. Badger’s English-Arabic, A.D. 1881.

Dr. Steingass’s English-Arabic, A.D. 1882.

AL-AʿRĀF (الاعراف‎). (1) The partition between heaven and hell, described in the Qurʾān, Sūrah vii. 44, “Betwixt the two (heaven and hell) there is a partition; and on al-Aʿrāf are men who know all by their marks; and they shall cry out to the inhabitants of Paradise, ‘Peace be upon you!’ (but) they have not (yet) entered it, although they so desire. And when their sight is turned towards the dwellers in the Fire, they say, ‘O our Lord, [21]place us not with the unjust people.’ ” According to Sale, al-Aʿrāf is derived from the verb ʿarafa, which signifies “to distinguish between things, or to part them”; though some commentators give another reason for the imposition of this name, because, say they, those who stand on this partition will know and distinguish the blessed from the damned by their respective marks or characteristics: and others say the word properly intends anything that is elevated, as such a wall of separation must be supposed to be. Some imagine it to be a sort of limbo for the patriarchs and prophets, or for the martyrs and those who have been most eminent for sanctity. Others place here those whose good and evil works are so equal that they exactly counterpoise each other, and therefore deserve neither reward nor punishment; and these, say they, will on the last day be admitted into Paradise, after they shall have performed an act of adoration, which will be imputed to them as a merit, and will make the scale of their good works to preponderate. Others suppose this intermediate space will be a receptacle for those who have gone to war, without their parents’ leave, and therein suffered martyrdom; being excluded from Paradise for their disobedience, and escaping hell because they are martyrs. (2) The title of Sūrah vii. (3) A term used by Ṣūfī mystics to express a condition of the mind and soul when meditating on the existence of God in all things.

ʿARAFAH (عرفة‎). The vigil of the ʿĪdu ʾl-Aẓḥā, or Feast of Sacrifice, when the pilgrims proceed to Mount ʿArafāt. [ʿIDU ʾL-AZHA.]

ʿARAFĀT (عرفات‎), or ʿArafah. The “Mount of Recognition,” situated twelve miles from Makkah; the place where the pilgrims stay on the ninth day of the pilgrimage, and recite the mid-day and afternoon prayers, and hear the K͟hut̤bah or sermon. Hence it is a name given to the ninth day of the month Ẕū ʾl-Ḥijjah. Upon the origin of the name given to this mountain, Burton says, “The Holy Hill owes its name to the following legend:—When our first parents forfeited heaven for eating wheat, which deprived them of their primeval purity, they were cast down upon earth. The serpent descended upon Ispahān, the peacock at Cābul; Satan at Bilbays (others say Semnān or Seistān), Eve upon ʿArafāt, and Adam at Ceylon (Sarandīb). The latter, determining to seek his wife, began a journey, to which the earth owes its present mottled appearance. Wherever our first father placed his foot, which was large, a town afterwards arose; and between the strides will always be country. Wandering for many years, he came to the Mountain of Mercy, where our common mother was continually calling upon his name, and their recognition of each other gave the place the name of ʿArafah.”

ARĀẒĪ (اراضى‎). Lit. “lands”; the sale of lands. Tombs are not included in the sale of lands. A place or station for casting the harvest is not considered to be amongst the rights and advantages of land, and therefore does not enter into the sale of it. (Baillie’s Law of Sale, pages 54, 55.) [LAND.]

ARCHITECTURE. The term Saracenic is usually applied by English writers to Muḥammadan architecture. But though the style may be traced to the Arabians, they cannot themselves be considered the inventors of it. They had, in fact, no distinctive style of their own when they made their rapid conquests, but adapted existing styles of architecture to meet the religious and national feelings of the Muslims.

Muḥammad built a mosque at al-Madīnah, but it was an exceedingly simple structure, and he left no directions in the Qurʾān or in the Traditions on the subject.

The typical varieties of the earlier Muḥammadan architecture are those which appeared in Spain and in Egypt; its later form appeared in Constantinople. The oldest specimen of Saracenic architecture in Spain is the mosque of Cordova, which now serves as the cathedral of the city. It was commenced by the K͟halīfah ʿAbdu ʾr-Raḥmān, 786 A.D., with the avowed intention that it should be the finest mosque in the world, and Byzantine architects are said to have been specially invited to superintend its construction.



The earliest of the Muḥammadan buildings in Egypt, of which any portions still remain, is the Mosque of ʿAmr at old Cairo, begun about A.D. 642, but greatly altered or rebuilt about sixty years later.

On the capture of Constantinople, St. Sophia was converted by the Muslim conquerors into their chief Mosque, and made their architectural model. The older Saracenic style, as seen at Cordova and old Cairo, continued to be the basis of the new, but it was modified throughout by Byzantine influence. In Persia [22]we may clearly trace in Muḥammadan buildings the older Persian type, and in India the Saracenic architects showed the same pliancy in adopting the styles of the various peoples amongst whom they settled. It thus happens (says Fergusson, in his History of Indian Architecture), that we have at least twelve or fifteen different styles of Muḥammadan architecture in Central Asia and in India.









A striking and distinctive feature in early Muḥammadan architecture is the horse-shoe arch, which in time gives way to a cusped or scalloped arch, strictly so termed, the outline being produced by intersecting semi-arches. Another variety of Saracenic arch is the circular-headed and stilted form. The pillars are commonly of exceedingly slender proportions, almost to apparent insecurity; but owing to the style of the embellishment, this lightness of particular forms tends to heighten the general luxuriance. Some have imagined that this element of slenderness in regard to pillars indicates a tent origin of the style. This tent-like character has been further kept up by concave ceilings and cupolas, emblazoned with painting and gilding. Decorations composed of animal and human figures, being interdicted by Muḥammadan law [PICTURES] are not found in Saracenic architecture; but their geometrical patterns exhibit singular beauty and complexity, inexhaustible variety of combinations, and a wonderful degree of harmonious intricacy, arising out of very simple elements. Lattice or open trellis work is another fertile source of embellishment, and is similar to the tracery met with in Gothic buildings. Another characteristic of Saracenic style is that of the dome. For the most part domes occur in mosques and tombs, and are of Byzantine origin. Minarets are also a special feature in Muḥammadan mosques, and contribute much to the picturesqueness of these buildings. They are [23]found in mosques of the later Saracenic style. (See Fergusson’s Indian and Eastern Architecture, Mr. Owen Jones’s Alhambra Palace, Hersemer’s Arabische Bauverzierungen.)



ʿARĪYAH (عرية‎). A kind of sale permitted in Islām, namely, when a person computes what quantity of fruit there is on a tree and sells it before it is plucked. (Mishkāt, xii. c. v.)

ʿĀRĪYAH (عارية‎) (1) A loan for the use of anything of which Qarẓ cannot be made: e.g. the loan of a horse is ʿĀrīyah; the loan of money is Qarẓ. (2) A gift, of which the following is an example:—A person makes a gift to another of the dates of a palm-tree in his garden; but having afterwards some doubt of the propriety of that person coming daily to his garden where his family usually are, and being at the same time unwilling to depart from his promise, or to retract his gift, he gives some of the dates that have already been pulled in lieu of those upon the tree. (Baillie’s Law of Sale, p. 300.)

ARK, NOAH’S (فلك نوح‎). It is mentioned in the history of the Deluge, as recorded in the Qurʾān, in two places—Sūrah xi. 39, “Build the ark under our eye and after our revelation,” and Sūrah xxiii. 27. There is also supposed to be an allusion to the ark in Sūrah xxxvi. 41, “And a sign to them is that we bare their offspring in the laden ship.”

Al-Baiẓāwī says that Noah was two years building the ark, which was 300 cubits long, 50 wide, and 30 broad, and which was made of Indian plane-tree; that it consisted of three storeys, the lowest for beasts, the middle for men and women (who were separated from each other), and the highest for birds.

The ark is said to have rested on the mountain al-Jūdī. [NOAH.]

ARK OF THE COVENANT. The Hebrew word for “Ark” is ‏תֵּבָה‎ (i.e. a chest, a coffer), Chald. ‏תֵּיבוּתָא‎, Arabic تابوت‎, تابوة‎. See Qurʾān, Sūrah ii. 249, “The sign of his (Saul’s) kingdom is that there shall come unto you the ark (Tābūt); in it shall be security (or the Shechinah, sakīnah, Heb. ‏שְׁכִינָה‎) from your Lord, and the relics of what the family of Moses and the family of Aaron left; the angels shall bear it.” Jalālu ʾd-dīn says this ark contained the images of the prophets, and was sent down from heaven to Adam, and at length came to the Israelites, who put great confidence therein, and continually carried it in front of their army, till it was taken by the Amalekites. But on this occasion the angels brought it back in the sight of all the people, and placed it at the feet of Saul (T̤ālūt), who was thereupon unanimously received as king.

ARMS, The Sale of. The sale of armour or warlike stores to rebels, or in their camp, is forbidden, because selling arms into the hands of rebels is an assistance to defection. But it is not forbidden to sell the materials for making arms to such persons. (Hamilton’s Hidāyah, vol. ii. 225.)

ARSH (ارش‎). (1.) A legal term for compensation. (2.) A mulct; a fine; particularly that which is paid for shedding of blood. (3.) A gift for conciliating the favour of a judge; a bribe. (4.) Whatever a purchaser receives from a seller after discovering a fault in the article bought.

ʿARSH (عرش‎). The term used in the Qurʾān for the throne of God. Sūrah ix. 131, “He is the Lord of the mighty throne.” Husainī, the commentator, says the throne has 8,000 pillars, and the distance between each pillar is 3,000,000 miles.

ʿAṢABAH (عصبة‎). A legal term for male relatives by the father’s side, agnates.

ĀṢAF (اصف‎). The wazīr or prime minister of Solomon. Alluded to in the Qurʾān, Sūrah xxvii. 40, as “He with whom was knowledge of the scripture.” Muḥammadan commentators say he was the son of Bark͟hīya.

AS̤AR (اثر‎). Relating; handing down by tradition. Generally used for a Ḥadīs̤ related by one of the Companions, as distinguished from one of the Prophet’s own.

AL-AS̤ARU ʾSH-SHARĪF (الاثر الشريف‎). The sacred relic. A hair of either the beard or mustachios of Muḥammad, or a foot-print of the Prophet. One of these sacred relics (a hair of his beard) is exhibited in the great mosque at Delhi, another in a mosque in Cashmere.

AṢḤĀB (اصحاب‎), pl. of Ṣāḥib. The Companions or Associates of Muḥammad. [24]The term used for a single companion is ṣaḥābī. Concerning the title of “Companion,” there is considerable controversy as to the persons to whom it can be applied. Saʿīd ibn al-Musaiyab reckoned none a “Companion,” but those who had been a year or more with Muḥammad, and had gone on a warlike expedition with him. Some say that everyone who had attained puberty, had embraced Islām, and had seen the Prophet, was a “Companion,” even though he had attended Muḥammad but an hour. Others, however, affirm that none could be a “Companion” unless Muḥammad chose him and he chose Muḥammad, and he adhered to the Prophet at all times. The general opinion is that every one who embraced Islām, saw the Prophet, and accompanied him, even for a short time, was a “Companion.”

It is related that the Prophet marched to Makkah with 10,000 Muslims, to Ḥunain with 12,000, and that 40,000 accompanied him on the farewell pilgrimage. The number of the “Companions” at his death is said to have been 144,000.

In point of merit, the refugees (Muhājirūn) are more worthy than the auxiliaries (Anṣār); but by way of precedence, the auxiliaries are more worthy than the later refugees.

The “Companions” have been arranged in thirteen classes, which are given by Abū ʾl-Fidāʾ as follows:—I. Those who first embraced Islām, such as K͟hadījah, ʿAlī, Zaid, and Abū Bakr, and those who did not delay till he had established his mission. II. The Companions who believed in him after his mission had been fully established, amongst whom was ʿUmar. III. Those who fled to Abyssinia. IV. The first Companions of ʿAqabah, who preceded the Auxiliaries. V. The second Companions of ʿAqabah. VI. The third Companions of ʿAqabah, who were seventy. VII. The refugees who went to the Prophet after his flight, when he was at Qubā, before the erection of the temple. VIII. The soldiers of the great battle of Badr. IX. Those who joined Islām between Badr and Hudaibiyah. X. Those who took the oath of fealty under the acacia tree at Hudaibiyah. XI. Those who joined after the treaty of Hudaibiyah, but before the conquest. XII. Those that embraced Islām on the day of conquest. XIII. Those who were children in the time of the Prophet, and had seen him.

Muḥammad frequently commended the “Companions,” and spoke of their excellences and virtues, a chapter in the Traditions being devoted to this subject. (Mishkāt, xxiv. c. xiii.) He is related to have said, “My companions are like stars by which roads are found, for which ever companion you follow you will find the right road.”

AL-AṢḤĀBU ʾL-FĪL (اصحاب الفيل‎). “The Companions of the Elephant.” A term used in the Chapter of the Elephant, or the CVth Sūrah:—“Hast thou not seen how thy Lord dealt with the companions of the elephant? Did He not cause their stratagem to miscarry? And He sent against them birds in flocks, small stones did they hurl down upon them, and he made them like stubble eaten down!”

This refers to the army of Abrahah, the Christian king of Abyssinia and Arabia Felix, said to have been lost, in the year of Muḥammad’s birth, in an expedition against Makkah for the purpose of destroying the Kaʿbah. This army was cut off by small-pox, and there is no doubt, as the Arabic word for small-pox also means “small stones,” in reference to the hard gravelly feeling of the pustules, what is the true interpretation of the fourth verse of this Sūrah, which, like many other poetical passages in the Qurʾān, has formed the starting point for the most puerile and extravagant legends.

AṢḤĀBU ʾL-KAHF (اصحاب الكهف‎). “The Companions of the Cave,” i.e. the Seven Sleepers, mentioned in the Sūratu ʾl-kahf, or Chapter xviii. of the Qurʾān. The story, as told by early Christian writers, is given by Gibbon (Rise and Fall, Chapter xxxi.). When the Emperor Decius persecuted the Christians, seven noble youths of Ephesus are said to have concealed themselves in a cave in the side of a mountain, where they were doomed to perish by the tyrant, who gave orders that the entrance should be firmly secured with a pile of huge stones. They immediately fell into a deep slumber, which was miraculously prolonged, without injuring the powers of life, during a period of 187 years. This popular tale, which Muḥammad must have heard when he drove his camels to the fairs of Syria, is introduced into the Qurʾān as a divine revelation.

AṢḤĀBU ʾṢ-ṢUFFAH (اصحاب الصفة‎). “The sitters on the bench” of the temple at Makkah. They are thus described by Abū ʾl-Fidāʾ: “They were poor strangers, without friends or place of abode, who claimed the promises of the Apostle of God and implored his protection. Thus the porch of the temple became their mansion, and thence they obtained their name. When Muḥammad went to meals, he used to call some of them to partake with him; and he selected others to eat with his companions.”

ʾASHARAH MUBASHSHARAH (عشرة مبشرة‎). “The ten who received glad tidings.” Ten of the most distinguished of Muḥammad’s followers, whose certain entrance into Paradise he is said to have foretold. They are Abū Bakr, ʿUmar, Us̤mān, ʿAlī, T̤alḥah, az-Zubair, ʿAbdu ʾr-Raḥmān, Saʿd-ibn-Abū-Waqqāṣ, Saʿīd ibn Zaid, Abū ʿUbaidah ibn al-Jarrāḥ. (Mishkāt, book xxiv. c. xx., part ii.) Muḥammad declared it presumption for anyone to count upon an entrance into heaven with absolute certainty, but he made an exception in favour of these ten distinguished persons.

AL-ASHʿARĪYAH (الاشعرية‎). A sect formed by Abū ʾl-Ḥasan ʿAlī ibn Ismāʿīl al-Ashʿarī, born A.H. 260 (A.D. 873–4). [25]

They hold that the attributes of God are distinct from His essence, yet in such a way as to forbid any comparison being made between God and His creatures. They say they are not “ʿain nor g͟hair:” not of His essence, nor distinct from it: i.e. they cannot be compared with any other things. They also hold that God has one eternal will, from which proceed all things, the good and the evil, the useful and the hurtful. The destiny of man was written on the eternal table before the world was created. So far they go with the Ṣifātīs, but in order to preserve the moral responsibility of man, they say that he has power to convert will into action. But this power cannot create anything new, for then God’s sovereignty would be impaired; so they say that God in His providence so orders matters that whenever “a man desires to do a certain thing, good or bad, the action corresponding to the desire is, there and then, created by God, and, as it were, fitted on to the desire.” Thus it seems as if it came naturally from the will of the man, whereas it does not. This action is called Kasb (acquisition), because it is acquired by a special creative act of God. It is an act directed to the obtaining of profit or the removing of injury: the term is therefore inapplicable to the Deity. Abū Bakr al-Bakil­lānī, a disciple of al-Ashʿarī, says: The essence or substance of the action is the effect of the power of God, but its being a action of obedience, such as prayer, or an action of disobedience, such as fornication, are qualities of the action, which proceed from the power of man.” The Imām Al-Ḥaramain (A.H. 419–478) held “that the actions of men were effected by the power which God has created in man.” Abū Isḥaq al-Isfarāyinī says: “That which maketh impression, or hath influence on action, is a compound of the power of God and the power of man.” They also believe that the word of God is eternal, though they acknowledge that the vocal sounds used in the Qurʾān, which are the manifestation of that word, are created. They say, in short, that the Qurʾān contains (1) the eternal word which existed in the essence of God before time was; and (2) the word which consists of sounds and combinations of letters. This last they call the created word.

Thus Al-Ashʿarī traversed the main positions of the Mutazilites, denying that man can, by the aid of his reason alone, rise to the knowledge of good and evil. He must exercise no judgment, but accept all that is revealed. He has no right to apply the moral laws which affect men to the actions of God. It cannot be asserted by the human reason that the good will be rewarded or the bad punished in a future world. Man must always approach God as a slave, in whom there is no light or knowledge to judge of the actions of the Supreme. Whether God will accept the penitent sinner or not cannot be asserted, for He is an absolute Sovereign, above all law. (Sale, from Ibn K͟haldun; Die Muʿtaziliten oder die Freidenker in Islām, von H. Steiner, 1865; Zur Geschichte Abu ʾl-Ḥasan al-ashʿarīsh, von W. Spitta, 1876; De Strijd over het Dogma in den Islām tot op El-ashʿarī, door Dr. M. Th. Houtsma, Leiden, 1875; and Exposé de la Réforme de l’Islamisme, by M. A. F. Mehren, Leiden, 1878.)

ʿĀSHŪRĀʾ (عاشوراء‎). Lit. “the tenth.” A voluntary fast day, observed on the tenth of the month of Muḥarram. It is related that Muḥammad observed it, and said it was a day respected by Jews and Christians. (Mishkāt, vii. c. vii. 1.)

It is the only day of Muḥarram observed by the Sunnī Muslims, being the day on which it is said God created Adam and Eve, heaven and hell, the tablet of decree, the pen, life, and death. It is kept by the Sunnīs as a fast. [MUHARRAM.]

ĀSIYAH (آسية‎). The wife of Pharaoh. One of the four perfect women (the Virgin Mary, K͟hadījah, and Fāt̤imah, being the other three). See Mishkātu ʾl-Masābīḥ, xxiv. c. 22. She is mentioned in the Qurʾān (Sūrah lxvi. 11): “And God striketh out a parable for those who believe: the wife of Pharaoh, when she said, ‘My Lord, build for me a house with Thee in Paradise, and save me from Pharaoh and his works, and save me from the unjust people.

AṢL (اصل‎). Cause, first principle, foundation. Aṣl-wafarʿ, “cause and effect,” “fundamental and derivative principle.”

ASMĀʾU ʾLLĀH (آسماء الله‎). [GOD, NAMES OF.]

ʿASR (عصر‎). The afternoon prayer. [PRAYERS.] The title of the CIIIrd Sūrah of the Qurʾān.

ASS. According to the Imām Abū Ḥanīfah, the ass is an unclean animal, and its flesh and milk are unlawful; nor is zakāt to be given on an ass. (Hamilton’s Hidāyah, vol. i. 16, iv. 74, 86.)


ASTROLOGY. Arabic ʿIlmu ʾn-nujūm. Qatādah says, referring to the Qurʾān, that God has created stars for three uses: (1) as an ornament to the heavens (Sūrah lxvii. 5); (2) to stone the Devil with (Sūrah lxvii. 5); and (3) to direct travellers through the forests and on the sea (Sūrah xv. 16). Muḥammad condemns those who study the stars for any other purpose (Mishkāt, xxi. c. iii. pt. iii.), and consequently the science of Astrology is not considered lawful in Islām.

ASWAD (الاسود‎). An impostor who, in the time of Muḥammad, claimed the prophetic office. His name was ʿAbhalah ibn Kaʿb, and he belonged to the tribe of ʿAus, of which he was an influential chief. He was surnamed Ẕū ʾl-Ḥimār, or “The Master of the Ass,”1 because he used [26]frequently to say, “The master of the ass is coming unto me,” and pretended to receive his revelations from two angels, named Suhaik and Shuraik. Being a good hand at legerdemain, and having a smooth tongue, he gained mightily on the multitude by the strange feats which he shewed them, and the eloquence of his discourse. By these means he greatly increased his power, and having made himself master of Najrān and the territory of T̤āʾif, on the death of Bādhān, the governor of Yaman for Muḥammad, he seized that province also, killing Shahr, the son of Bādhān, and taking to wife his widow Āzād, whose father he had also slain. The news being brought to Muḥammad, he sent to his friends and to the tribe of Hamdān, a party of whom conspiring with Qais ibn ʿAbd Yaghūth, who bore Aswad a grudge, and with Fīrūz and Aswad’s wife, broke by night into his house, where Fīrūz surprised him and cut off his head. While dying, it is said that he roared like a bull, at which his guards came to the chamber door, but were sent away by his wife, who told them that the prophet was only agitated by the divine inspiration. This was done the very night before Muḥammad died. The next morning the conspirators caused the following proclamation to be made, viz. “I bear witness that Muḥammad is the Apostle of God, and that ʿAbhalah is a liar”; and letters were immediately sent away to Muḥammad, with an account of what had been done; but a messenger from heaven outstripped them, and acquainted the prophet with the news, which he imparted to his Companions a little before his death, the letters themselves not arriving till Abū Bakr was chosen Khalif. It is said that Muḥammad on this occasion told those who attended him that before the Day of Judgment thirty more impostors, besides Musailimah and Aswad, should appear. The whole time from the beginning of Aswad’s rebellion to his death was four months.


ʿATĪRAH (عتيرة‎). The sacrifice offered by the idolatrous Arabs in the month of Rajab. It was allowed by the Prophet at the commencement of his mission, but was afterwards abolished. Mishkāt, book iv. c. 50, “Let there be no Faraʿ nor ʿAtīrah.”

AT-TAḤĪYĀT (التحيات‎). Lit. “the greetings.” A part of the stated prayers, recited after the Takbīru ʾl-Quʿūd, after every two rakʿahs. It is recited whilst the worshipper kneels upon the ground. His left foot bent under him, he sits upon it, and places his hands upon his knees, and says:—“The adorations (i.e. at-taḥīyātu) of the tongue are for God, and also of the body and of alms-giving. Peace be on thee, O Prophet, with the mercy of God and His blessing. Peace be upon us, and upon God’s righteous servants.” (Mishkāt, iv., c. xvi.) [PRAYER.]


AULĪYĀʾ (اولياء‎), pl. of walī. “Favourites of God.” The expression occurs in the Qurʾān in the following verse, “Are not the favourites of God those on whom no fear shall come, nor shall they be put to grief?” (Sūrah x. 63).

AUTĀD (اوتاد‎). Lit. “props or pillars.” A term used by the Ṣūfīs for the four saints, by whom the four corners of the world are said to be supported.

AʿŪẔU BILLĀH (اعوذ بالله‎). Another name for the Taʿauwuẕ, or the prayer in the daily liturgy: “I seek refuge with God from the cursed Satan.” [PRAYER.]

AVENGER OF BLOOD. In the Muḥammadan law, as in the Jewish, the punishment for wilful murder is left to the next of kin; but in the Jewish code the avenger of blood was compelled to take the life of the murderer, whilst in the Muslim code he may accept compensation, vide Qurʾān, Sūrah ii. 173, “O believers! retaliation (Qiṣāṣ) for blood-shedding is prescribed to you: the free man for the free, and the slave for the slave, and the woman for the woman; but he to whom his brother shall make any remission is to be dealt with equitably; and a payment should be made to him with liberality. This is a relaxation (i.e. of the stricter lex talionis) from your Lord, and a mercy.” [QISAS.]

ĀYAH (آية‎). Lit. “a sign, or miracle.” The term used for one of the smaller portions of the chapters of the Qurʾān, which we call verses. The number of verses is often set down after the title of the chapter, but the verses are not marked in the text as they are in our English Bibles. The number of verses in the Qurʾān is variously estimated, but they are generally said to be about six thousand two hundred. [QURʾAN.]

AL-AʿYĀNU ʾS̤-S̤ĀBITAH (الاعيان الثابتة‎), pl. of ʿayn, in the sense of “the essence” of a thing. The established essences. A term used by the Ṣūfī mystics to express figures emblematic of the names of God. (ʿAbdu ʾr-Razzāq’s Dictionary of Technical Terms of the Ṣūfīs. Sprenger’s edition.)

ĀYATU ʾL-FATḤ (اية الفتح‎). Lit. “The verse of victory.” The fifty-ninth verse of the Sūratu ʾl-Anʿām (vi.) of the Qurʾān. The powers of this verse are said to be so great, that if a person constantly recite it he will obtain his desires. It is generally recited with this object forty times after each season of prayer. It is as follows:—“And with Him are the keys of the secret things; none knoweth them but He; and He knoweth whatever is on the land and in the sea; and no leaf falleth but He knoweth it; neither is there a grain in the darknesses of the earth, nor a green thing nor a dry thing, but it is noted in a clear book.”


ĀYĀTU ʾL-ḤIFZ̤ (ايات الحفظ‎). The verses of protection.” Certain verses of the Qurʾān which are usually inscribed on amulets. They are:—Sūrah ii. 256, “And the preservation of both (heaven and earth) is no burden unto Him.” Sūrah xii. 64, “God is the best protector.” Sūrah xiii. 12, “They guard him by the command of God.” Sūrah xv. 17, “We guard him from every devil driven away by stones.” Sūrah xxxvii. 7, “A protection against every rebellious devil.”

ĀYATU ʾL-KURSĪ (اية الكرسى‎). “The verse of the throne.” Verse 256 of the Sūratu ʾl-Baqarah, or chap. ii. of the Qurʾān. It is related (Mishkāt, book iv., c. xix., part iii.) that ʿAlī heard Muḥammad say in the pulpit, “that person who repeats the Āyatu ʾl-Kursī after every prayer, nothing prevents him entering into Paradise but life; and whoever says it when he goes to his bed-chamber, God will keep him in safety, together with his house and the house of his neighbour. The verse is as follows:—“God! There is no God but He; the Living, the Abiding. Neither slumber seizeth Him, nor sleep. To Him belongeth whatsoever is in heaven and whatsoever is in earth. Who is he that can intercede with Him but by His own permission? He knoweth what hath been before them, and what shall be after them; yet nought of His knowledge do they comprehend, save what He willeth. His THRONE reacheth over the heavens and the earth, and the upholding of both burdeneth Him not; and He is the High, the Great.”

ĀYATUʾL-MAWĀRĪS̤ (اية المواريث‎). “The verse of inheritances.” The twelfth verse of the Sūratu ʾn-nisā, or fourth chapter of the Qurʾān. It relates to inheritance, and is the foundation of the Muslim law on the subject. It is given in the article on Inheritance. [INHERITANCE.]

AYIMMATUʾL-ASMĀʾ (ائمة الاسماء‎). “The leading names.” The seven principal names or titles of God, namely:—

Al-Ḥayy The Living.
Al-ʿAlīm The Knowing.
Al-Murīd The Purposer.
Al-Qādir The Powerful.
As-Samīʿ The Hearer.
Al-Baṣīr The Seer.
Al-Mutakallim The Speaker.

ʿĀYISHAH (عائشة). The daughter of Abū Bakr, and the favourite wife of Muḥammad, to whom she was married when only nine years of age. She survived her husband many years, and died at al-Madīnah, A.H. 58 (A.D. 678), aged sixty-seven, and obtained the title of Ummu ʾl-Muʾminīn, “The Mother of the Believers.”

AYMĀN (ايمان‎), pl. of Yamīn. [OATHS.]

AYYĀMUʾL-BĪẒ (ايام البيض‎). “The days of the bright nights,” mentioned in the Mishkāt (book vii. c. 7, part 3), as days on which Muḥammad did not eat, whether halting or marching. They are the 13th, 14th, and 15th nights of the month. (See Lane’s Dict., p. 284.)

AYYĀMU ʾL-QARR (ايام القر‎). The day of rest after the day of sacrifice at the Pilgrimage. [HAJJ.]

AYYĀMU ʾN-NAḤR (ايام النحر‎). The season of sacrifice at the Pilgrimage. [HAJJ.]

AYYĀMU ʾT-TASHRĪQ (ايــام التشريق‎). The three days after the feast of sacrifice at Minā during the Pilgrimage. So called because the flesh of the victims is then dried, or because they are not slain until after sun-rise. [HAJJ, PILGRIMAGE.]

AYYIM (ايم‎). A legal term for a woman having no husband, whether she be a virgin or a widow.

ʿAẔĀBU ʾL-QABR (عذاب القبر‎). “The punishment of the grave.” That all persons, whether believers or not, undergo some punishment in their graves, is a fundamental article of the Muslim belief. These punishments are described in the following Ḥadīs̤ on the authority of Abū Hurairah:—

“The Prophet of God said, When a corpse is placed in its grave, two black angels come to it, with blue eyes. The name of the one is Munkar and of the other Nakīr, and they interrogate the dead person concerning the Prophet of God. If he be a Muslim, he will bear witness to the Unity of God and the mission of Muḥammad. The angels will then say, ‘We knew thou wouldst say so’; and the grave will then expand seventy times seventy yards in length, and seventy times seventy in breadth. A light will then be given for the grave, and it will be said, ‘Sleep.’ Then the dead person will say, ‘Shall I return to my brethren and inform them of this?’ Then the angels will say, ‘Sleep like the bridegroom, till God shall raise thee up from the grave on the Day of Resurrection.’ But if the corpse be that of an unbeliever, it will be asked, ‘What sayest thou about the Prophet?’ and he will reply, ‘I know him not.’ And then the angels will say, ‘We knew thou wouldst say so.’ Then the ground will be ordered to close in upon him, and it will break his sides, and turn his right side to his left, and he will suffer perpetual punishment till God raise him therefrom.” In another tradition, recorded by ʿAnas, it is said, “The wicked will be struck with a rod (mit̤raqah), and they will roar out, and their cries will be heard by all animals that may be near the grave excepting man and the genii.” (Mishkāt, book i., c. v.).

All Muḥammadan doctors of the orthodox schools (whether we apply the term orthodox to Sunnī or Shīʿah) believe in the literal interpretation of these punishments in the grave, which are said to take place as soon as the funeral party has left the grave-yard. A [28]perusal of the various traditions on the subject must convince any unprejudiced mind that Muḥammad intended to teach a literal interpretation of his sayings on this subject. It is related that on one occasion, when the Prophet was riding through a grave-yard, his mule, hearing the groans of the dead, tried to throw his master. On that occasion, Muḥammad said, “If I were not afraid that you would leave off burying, I would ask God to give you the power of hearing what I hear.” Shaik͟h ʿAbdu ʾl-Ḥaqq, in his commentary on the Mishkāt, says, “The accounts which are here given of the punishment of the grave, are undoubtedly true, and they are not either imaginary or figurative.” (Mishkāt, book i., chap. v.; see Persian edition with ʿAbdu ʾl-Ḥaqq’s commentary.)

AZAL (ازل‎). Eternity with respect to the past, as distinguished from abad (ابد‎), eternity without end.

AẔĀN (اذان‎). Lit. “announcement.” The call or summons to public prayers proclaimed by the Muʾaẕẕin (or crier)—in small mosques from the side of the building or at the door, and in large mosques from the minaret.

It is in Arabic as follows:—

الله اكبر — الله اكبر — الله اكبر — الله اكبر — اشهد ان لا اله الا الله — اشهد ان لا اله الا الله — اشهد ان محمدا رسول الله — اشهد ان محمدا رسول الله — حى على الصلوة — حى على الصلوة — حى على الفلاح — حى على الفلاح — الله اكبر — الله اكبر — لا اله الا الله.‎

Allāhu akbar! Allāhu akbar! Allāhu akbar! Allāhu akbar! Ashhadu an lā ilāha illa ʾllāh! Ashhadu an lā ilāha illa ʾllāh! Ashhadu anna Muḥammadan rasūlu-llāh! Ashhadu anna Muḥammadan rasūlu-llāh! Ḥayya ʿala ʾṣ-ṣalāti! Ḥayya ʿala ʾṣ-ṣalāti! Ḥayya ʿala ʾl-falāḥ! Ḥayya ʿala ʾl-falāḥ! Allāhu akbar! Allāhu akbar! Lā ilāha illa ʾllāh!

Which is translated:—

“God is most great! God is most great! God is most great! God is most great! I testify that there is no god but God! I testify that there is no god but God! I testify that Muḥammad is the Apostle of God! I testify that Muḥammad is the Apostle of God! Come to prayer! Come to prayer! Come to salvation! Come to salvation! God is most great! God is most great! There is no god but God!”

In the Aẕān in the early morning, after the words, “Come to salvation!” is added الصلوة خير من النوم — الصلوة خير من النوم.؜‎ Aṣ-ṣalātu k͟hairun mina ʾn-naumi! Aṣ-ṣalātu k͟hairun mina ʾn-naumi! “Prayer is better than sleep! Prayer is better than sleep!”

The Shīʿahs make a slight alteration in the Aẕān, by adding the words, حى على خير العمل — حى على خير العمل‎ Ḥayya ʿalā k͟hairi ʾl-ʿamali! Ḥayya ʿalā k͟hairi ʾl-ʿamali!Come to the best of works! Come to the best of works!” and by repeating the last sentence of the Aẕān, “There is no god but God,” twice instead of once, as in the Sunnī Aẕān.

When the Aẕān is recited, it is usual for men of piety and religious feeling to respond to each call, as, for example, when the Muʾaẕẕin cries:—

“Allāhu akbar! Allāhu akbar! Allāhu akbar! Allāhu akbar!”

Those who hear it repeat:—

“Allāhu akbar! Allāhu akbar! Allāhu akbar! Allāhu akbar!”

The Muʾaẕẕin says:—

“I testify that there is no god but God; I testify that there is no god but God.”

They reply:—

“I testify that there is no god but God; I testify that there is no god but God.”

Muʾaẕẕin.—“I testify that Muḥammad is the Apostle of God.”

Reply.—“I testify that Muḥammad is the Apostle of God.”

Muʾaẕẕin.—“Come to prayer.”

Reply.—“I have no power nor strength but from God the most High and Great.”

Muʾaẕẕin.—“Come to salvation.”

Reply.—“What God willeth will be; what He willeth not willeth not be.”

The recital of the Aẕān must be listened to with great reverence. If a person be walking at the time, he should stand still; if reclining, sit up. Mr. Lane, in his Modern Egyptians, says, “Most of the Muʾaẕẕins of Cairo have harmonious and sonorous voices, which they strain to the utmost pitch; yet there is a simple and solemn melody in their chants which is very striking, particularly in the stillness of the night.” But Vambéry remarks that “the Turkistānees most carefully avoid all tune and melody. The manner in which the Aẕān is cried in the west is here (in Bokhārā) declared sinful, and the beautiful melancholy notes which, in the silent hour of a moonlit evening, are heard from the slender minarets on the Bosphorus, fascinating every hearer, would be listened to by the Bok͟hariot with feelings only of detestation.”

The summons to prayer was at first the simple cry, “Come to public prayer.” After the Qiblah was changed, Muḥammad bethought himself of a more formal call. Some suggested the Jewish trumpet, others the Christian bell; but neither was grateful to the Prophet’s ear. The Aẕān, or call to prayer was then established. Tradition claims for it a supernatural origin, thus:—“While the matter was under discussion, ʿAbdu ʾllāh, a Khazrajite, dreamed that he met a man clad in green raiment, carrying a bell. ʿAbdu ʾllāh sought to buy it, saying that it would do well for bringing together the assembly of the faithful. I will show thee a better way, replied the stranger; let a crier cry aloud, God is most great, &c. Waking from sleep, ʿAbdu ʾllāh proceeded to Muḥammad, and told him his dream. (Muir, from Kātibu ʾl-Wākidī.) Hishāmi recites the story as if ʿAbdu ʾllāh had actually met the man.

Bingham, in his Antiquities (vol. ii., book [29]viii. chap. vii.), relates that, in the monastery of virgins which Paula, the famous Roman lady, set up and governed at Jerusalem, the signal for prayer was given by one going about and singing “Hallelujah!” for that was their call to church, as St. Jerome informs us.

The Aẕān is proclaimed before the stated times of prayer, either by one of the congregation, or by the Muʾaẕẕin or crier, who is paid for the purpose. He must stand with his face towards Makkah, with the points of his forefingers in his ears, and recite the formula which has been given above.

It must not be recited by an unclean person, a drunkard, a madman, or a woman.

ĀZAR (آزر‎). Terah, the father of Abraham. Sūrah vi. 74, “And when Ābrahīm said to his father Āzar, Takest thou images as gods?”

“The Eastern authors unanimously agree that he was a statuary, or carver of idols; and he is represented as the first who made images of clay, pictures only having been in use before, and taught that they were to be adored as gods. However, we are told his employment was a very honourable one, and that he was a great lord, and in high favour with Nimrod, whose son-in-law he was, because he made his idols for him, and was excellent in his art. Some of the Rabbins say Terah was a priest and chief of the order.”—(Sale.)

AL-AZĀRIQAH (الازارقة‎). A sect of heretics founded by Nāfiʿ ibn al-Azraq, who say that ʿAlī was an infidel, and that his assassin was right in killing him. (See ash-Shahrastānī, ed. Cureton, p. ٨٩‎, Haarbruecker’s translation, I., p. 133.)

AL-ʿAẒBĀʾ (العضباء‎). The slit-eared; one of Muḥammad’s favourite camels.

AL-AẒḤĀ (الاضحى‎). [ʿIDUʾL-AZHA.]

AL-ʿAZ̤ĪM (العظيم‎). One of the ninety-nine special names of God. “The great One.”

ʿAZĪMAH (عزيمة‎). An incantation. [EXORCISM.]

AL-ʿAZĪZ (العزيز‎). One of the ninety-nine special names of God. It frequently occurs in the Qurʾān. It means “the powerful, or the mighty One.”

ʿAZRĀʾĪL (عزرائيل‎). The angel of Death. Mentioned in the Qurʾān under the title of Malaku ʾl-Maut, Sūrah xxxii. 11, “The angel of death who is charged with you shall cause you to die.” [MALAKU ʾL-MAUT.]


BABEL. Arabic بابل‎ Bābil. Mentioned once in the Qurʾān, Sūrah ii. 96: “Sorcery did they teach to men, and what had been revealed to the two angels Hārūt and Mārūt at Bābil.” Babel is regarded by the Muslims as the fountain-head of the science of magic. They suppose Hārūt and Mārūt to be two angels who, in consequence of their want of compassion for the frailties of mankind, were sent down to earth to be tempted. They both sinned, and, being permitted to choose whether they would be punished now or hereafter, chose the former, and are still suspended by the feet at Babel in a rocky pit, and are the great teachers of magic. (Lane’s Thousand and One Nights, ch. iii. note 14.) Vide Tafsīr-i-ʿAzīzī in loco.

BĀBU ʾL-ABWĀB (باب الابواب‎). Lit. “The door of doors.” A term used by the Ṣūfīs for repentance. (ʿAbdu ʾr-Razzāq’s Dictionary of Ṣūfī Terms.)

BĀBU ʾS-SALĀM (باب السلام‎). “The Gate of Peace.” The gateway in the sacred mosque at Makkah through which Muḥammad entered when he was elected by the Quraish to decide the question as to which section of the tribe should lift the Black Stone into its place. It was originally called the Bāb Banī Shaibah, “the Gate of the Banū Shaibah,” the family of Shaibah ibn ʿUs̤mān, to whom Muḥammad gave the key of the Kaʿbah. Burkhardt says that there are now two gateways called by this name. Burton says, “The Bābu ʾs-Salām resembles in its isolation a triumphal arch, and is built of cut stone.” (Burton’s Pilgrimage, vol. ii. p. 174. See Muir’s Life of Mahomet, pp. 28, 29.)

BĀBU ʾN-NISĀʾ (باب النساء). “The Women’s Gate.” In later years, as Muḥammad added to the number of his wives, he provided for each a room or house on the same side of the mosque at al-Madīnah. From these he had a private entrance into the mosque, used only by himself, and the eastern gate still bears in its name, Bābu ʾn-Nisāʾ, the memory of the arrangement. (Muir’s Life of Mahomet, iii. p. 20.)

BACKBITING. Anything secretly whispered of an absent person which is calculated to injure him, and which is true, is called G͟hībah, a false accusation being expressed by Buhtān. Abū Hurairah says, “The question was put to the Prophet, ‘Do you know what backbiting is?’ and he replied, ‘It is saying anything bad of a Muslim.’ It was then said, ‘But what is it if it is true?’ [30]And he said, ‘If it is true it is G͟hībah, and if it is a false accusation, it is Buhtān (i.e. slander).’ ” (Mishkāt, xxii. c. x.)

The following are sayings of Muḥammad on the subject:—“The best of God’s servants are those who when you meet them speak of God. The worst of God’s servants are those who carry tales about, to do mischief and separate friends, and seek out the defects of good people.” “He who wears two faces in this world shall have two tongues of fire in the day of the Resurrection.” “It is unworthy of a believer to injure people’s reputations, or to curse anyone, or to abuse anyone, or to talk vainly.” “The best atonement you can make for backbiting is to say, ‘O God pardon me and him (whom I have injured).’ ” Mishkāt, xxii. c. x.

BADAWĪ (بدوى‎). A name given to the Bedouin Arabs, or the Arabs of the desert. Bedouin is only a corruption of the plural of this word, which is derived from Badw = Bādiyah, “a desert.”

AL-BADĪʿ (البديع‎) is one of the ninety-nine special names of God. It means “He who originates.” It occurs in the Qurʾān, Sūrah ii. 111, “He is the wonderful originator of the heavens and the earth; when He decreeth a matter, He doth but say to it, ‘Be,’ and it is.”

BADR, The battle of. Arabic, G͟hazwatu ʾl-Badr. The first battle of Badr was fought in the month of Ramaẓān, A.H. 2 (March, A.D. 624), between Muḥammad and the Quraish. Many of the principal men of the Quraish were slain, including Abū Jahl, whose head was brought to the Prophet, and when it was cast at his feet, he exclaimed, “It is more acceptable to me than the choicest camel of Arabia.” After the battle was over, some of the prisoners were cruelly murdered. Ḥusain says the losses of the Quraish at Badr were seventy killed and seventy prisoners. This victory at Badr consolidated the power of Muḥammad, and it is regarded by Muslim historians as one of the most important events of history. An account of this celebrated battle will be found in the article on Muḥammad.

The second battle of Badr was a bloodless victory, and took place in the month Ẕū ʾl-Qaʿdah, A.H. 4 (April, A.D. 626).

BAḤĪRĀ (بحيرا‎). A Nestorian monk whom Muḥammad met when he was journeying back from Syria to Makkah, and who is said to have perceived by various signs that he was a prophet. His Christian name is supposed to have been Sergius (or Georgius).

Sprenger thinks that Baḥīrā remained with Muḥammad, and it has been suggested that there is an allusion to this monk in the Qurʾān, Sūrah xvi. 105: “We know that they say, ‘It is only a man who teacheth him.’ ” Ḥusain the commentator says on this passage that the Prophet was in the habit of going every evening to a Christian to hear the Taurāt and Injīl. (Tafsīr-i-Ḥusainī; Sale, p. 228; Muir’s Life of Mahomet, p. 72.)

BAḤĪRAH (بحيرة‎). (1.) A she-camel, she-goat or ewe, which had given birth to a tenth young one. (2.) A she-camel, the mother of which had brought forth ten females consecutively before her.

In these and similar cases, the pagan Arabs observed certain religious ceremonies, such as slitting the animal’s ear, &c., all of which are forbidden in the Qurʾān: “God hath not ordained any Baḥīrah.” (Sūrah v. 102.)

BAIʿ (بيع‎, pl. بيوع‎ buyūʿ). A sale; commercial dealing; barter. Baiʿ, or “sale,” in the language of the law, signifies an exchange of property for property with the mutual consent of parties. For the rules concerning sales and barter, see Hamilton’s Hidāyah, vol. ii. 360; Baillie’s Muḥammadan Law of Sale; The Fatāwā ʿĀlamgīrī.

Sale, in its ordinary acceptation, is a transfer of property in consideration of a price in money. The word has a more comprehensive meaning in the Muḥammadan law, and is applied to every exchange of property for property with mutual consent. It, therefore, includes barter as well as sale, and also loan, when the articles lent are intended to be consumed, and replaced to the lender by a similar quantity of the same kind. This transaction, which is truly an exchange of property for property, is termed qarz̤ in the Muḥammadan law.

Between barter and sale there is no essential distinction in most systems of law, and the joint subject may in general be considerably simplified by being treated of solely as a sale. A course has been adopted in the Muḥammadan law, which obliges the reader to fix his attention on both sides of the contract. This may at first appear to him to be an unnecessary complication of the subject, but when he becomes acquainted with the definition of price, and the rules for the prohibition of excess in the exchange of a large class of commodities, which apply to every form of the contract, he will probably be of opinion that to treat of the subject in any other way would be attended with at least equal difficulties.

The first point which seems to require his attention is the meaning of the word “property” as it occurs in the definition of sale. The original term (māl), which has been thus translated, is defined by Muḥammadan lawyers to be “that which can be taken possession of and secured.” This definition seems to imply that it is tangible or corporeal, and things or substances are accordingly the proper subjects of sale. Mere rights are not māl, and cannot therefore be lawfully sold apart from the corporeal things with which they may happen to be connected. Of such rights one of the most important is the right [31]of a creditor to exact payment of a debt, which is not a proper subject of sale. In other words, debts cannot, by the Muḥammadan law, any more than by the common laws of England and Scotland, be lawfully sold.

Things are commonly divided into moveable and immoveable, the latter comprehending land and things permanently attached to it. But the distinction is not of much importance in the Muḥammadan law, as the transfer of land is in nowise distinguished from that of other kinds of property.

A more important division of things is that into mis̤lī and kammī. The former are things which, when they happen to perish, are to be replaced by an equal quantity of something similar to them; and the latter are things which, in the same circumstances, are to be replaced by their value. These two classes have been aptly styled “similars” and “dissimilars” by Mr. Hamilton, in his translation of the Hidāyah. Similars are things which are usually sold or exchanged by weight, or by measurement of capacity, that is, by dry or liquid measure; and dissimilars are things which are not sold or exchanged in either of these ways. Articles which are nearly alike, and are commonly sold or exchanged by number or tale, are classed with the first division of things, and may be termed “similars of tale”; while articles which differ materially from each other, yet are still usually sold or exchanged by number, belong to the second division, and may be called “dissimilars of tale.” Dirhams and dīnārs, the only coined money known to the old Arabs, are included among similars of weight.

Similars of weight and capacity are distinguished in the Muḥammadan law from all other descriptions of property in a very remarkable way. When one article of weight is sold or exchanged for another article of weight, or one of measure is sold or exchanged for another of measure, the delivery of both must be immediate from hand to hand, and any delay of delivery in one of them is unlawful and prohibited. Where, again, the articles exchanged are also of the same kind, as when wheat is sold for wheat, or silver for silver, there must not only be reciprocal and immediate delivery of both before the separation of the parties, but also absolute equality of weight or measure, according as the articles are weighable or measurable, and any excess on either side is also unlawful and prohibited. These two prohibitions constitute in brief the doctrine of reba, or “usury,” which is a marked characteristic of the Muḥammadan law of sale. The word reba properly signifies “excess,” and there are no terms in the Muḥammadan law which correspond to the words “interest” and “usury,” in the sense attached to them in the English language; but it was expressly prohibited by Muḥammad to his followers to derive any advantage from loans, and that particular kind of advantage which is called by us interest, and consists in the receiving back from the borrower a larger quantity than was actually lent to him, was effectually prevented by the two rules above-mentioned. These, like some other principles of Muḥammadan law, are applied with a rigour and minuteness that may to us seem incommensurate with their importance, but are easily accounted for when we know that they are believed to be of divine origin.

Similars of weight and capacity have a common feature of resemblance, which distinguishes them in their own nature from other commodities, and marks with further peculiarity their treatment in the Muḥammadan law. They are aggregates of minute parts, which are either exactly alike, or so nearly resemble each other, that the difference between them may be safely disregarded. For this reason they are usually dealt with in bulk, regard being had only to the whole of a stipulated quantity, and not to the individual parts of which it is composed. When sold in this manner they are said to be indeterminate. They may, however, be rendered specific in several ways. Actual delivery, or production with distinct reference at the time of contract, seems to be sufficient for that purpose in all cases. But something short of this would suffice for all similars but money. Thus, flour, or any kind of grain, may be rendered specific by being enclosed in a sack; or oil, or any liquid, by being put into casks or jars; and though the vessels are not actually produced at the time of contract, their contents may be sufficiently particularised by description of the vessels and their locality. Money is not susceptible of being thus particularised, and dirhams and dīnārs are frequently referred to in the following pages as things which cannot be rendered specific by description, or specification, as it is more literally termed. Hence, money is said to be always indeterminate. Other similars, including similars of tale, are sometimes specific and sometimes indeterminate. Dissimilars, including those of tale, are always specific.

When similars are sold indeterminately, the purchaser has no right to any specific portion of them until it be separated from a general mass, and marked or identified as the subject of the contract. From the moment of offer till actual delivery, he has nothing to rely upon but the seller’s obligation, which may, therefore, be considered the direct subject of the contract. Similars taken indeterminately are accordingly termed dayn, or “obligations,” in the Muḥammadan law. When taken specifically, they are classed with dissimilars, under the general name of ʿayn. The literal meaning of this term is “substance or thing”; but when opposed to dayn it means something determinate or specific. The subject of traffic may thus be divided into two classes, specific and indeterminate; or, if we substitute for the latter the word “obligation,” and omit the word “specific” as unnecessary when not opposed to “indeterminate,” these classes may, according to the view of Muḥammadan lawyers, be described as things and obligations.

There is some degree of presumption in using [32]a word in any other than its ordinary acceptation; and it is not without hesitation that (Mr. Baillie says) I have ventured to employ the word “obligation” to signify indeterminate things. My reasons for doing so are these: first it expresses the exact meaning of the Arabic word dayn, and yet distinguishes this use of it from another sense, in which it is also employed in the Muḥammadan law; second, it preserves consistency in the law. Thus, it will be found hereafter that the effect of sale is said to be to induce a right in the buyer to the thing sold, and in the seller to the price, and that this effect follows the contract immediately before reciprocal possession by the contracting parties. Now, it is obvious that this is impossible with regard to things that are indeterminate, if the things themselves are considered the subject of the contract, and cases are mentioned where it is expressly stated that there is no transfer of property to the purchaser, when similars of weight or capacity are sold without being distinctly specified, until actual possession takes place. The difficulty disappears if we consider not the thing itself but the obligation to render it to be the subject of contract; for a right to the obligation passes immediately to the purchaser, and the seller may be compelled to perform it. If we now revert to the division of things into similars and dissimilars, money—which, it has been remarked, is always indeterminate—is therefore an obligation; dissimilars, which are always specific, are never obligations; and other similars, except money, being sometimes specific and sometimes indeterminate, are at one time obligations, and at another time things or substances.

Before proceeding farther it is necessary to advert more particularly to the other sense in which the word dayn is frequently employed in the Muḥammadan law. It means strictly “obligation,” as already observed; but the obligation may be either that of the contracting party himself, or of another. In the former sense dayn is not only a proper subject of traffic, but forms the sole subject of one important kind of sale, hereafter to be noticed. But when dayn is used to signify the obligation of another than the contracting party, it is not a proper subject of traffic, and, as already observed, cannot be lawfully sold. In the following pages dayn has been always translated by the word “debt” when it signifies the obligation of a third party, and generally by the word “obligation,” when it signifies the engagement of the contracting party himself, though when the things represented by the obligation are more prominently brought forward, it has sometimes been found necessary to substitute the expression, “indeterminate things.”

Though barter and sale for a price, are confounded under one general name in the Muḥammadan law, it is sometimes necessary to consider one of the things exchanged as more strictly the subject of sale, or thing sold, and the other as the price. In this view the former is termed mabīʿ, and the latter S̤aman. S̤aman, or “price,” is defined to be dayn fī ẕimmah, or, literally, an “obligation in responsibility.” From which, unless the expression is a mere pleonasm, it would appear that the word dayn is sometimes used abstractly, and in a sense distinct from the idea of liability. That idea, however, is necessary to constitute price; for though cloth, when properly described, may, by reason of its divisibility and the similarity of its parts, be sometimes assumed to perform the function of price in a contract of sale, it is only when it is not immediately delivered, but is to remain for some time on the responsibility of the contracting party, that it can be adopted for that purpose.

It is a general principle of the Muḥammadan law of sale, founded on a declaration of the Prophet, that credit cannot be opposed to credit, that is, that both the things exchanged cannot be allowed to remain on the responsibility of the parties. Hence, it is only with regard to one of them that any stipulation for delay in its delivery is lawful. Price, from its definition above given, admits of being left on responsibility, and accordingly a stipulation for delay in the payment of the price is quite lawful and valid. It follows that a stipulation for delay in the delivery of the things sold cannot be lawful. And this is the case, with the exception of one particular kind of sale, hereafter to be noticed, in which the thing sold is always indeterminate, and the price is paid in advance. It may, therefore, be said of all specific things when the subject of sale, that a stipulation for delay in their delivery is illegal, and would invalidate a sale. The object of this rule may have been to prevent any change of the thing sold before delivery, and the disputes which might in consequence arise between the parties. But if they were allowed to select whichever they pleased of the articles exchanged to stand for the price, and the other for the thing sold, without any regard to their qualities, the object of the last-mentioned rule, whatever it may have been, might be defeated. This seems to have led to another arrangement of things into different classes, according to their capacities for supporting the functions of price or of the thing sold in a contract of sale. The first class comprehends dirhams and dīnārs, which are always price. The second class comprises the whole division of dissimilars (with the single exception of cloth), which are always the thing sold, or subject of sale, in a contract. The third class comprises, first, all similars of capacity; second, all similars of weight, except dirhams and dīnārs; and, third, all similars of tale. The whole of this class is capable of supporting both functions, and is sometimes the thing sold, and sometimes the price. The fourth class comprises cloth, and the copper coin called fulūs.

Sale implies a reciprocal vesting of the price in the seller and of the thing sold in the purchaser. This, as already remarked, is called its legal effect, and sale may be divided into different stages or degrees of completeness, according as this effect is immediate, [33]suspended, invalid, or obligatory. Thus, sale must first of all be duly constituted or contracted. After that, there may still be some bar to its operation, which occasions a suspension of its effect. This generally arises from a defect of power in the seller, who may not be fully competent to act for himself, or may have insufficient authority, or no authority whatever, over the subject of sale. In this class of sales the effect is dependent on the assent or ratification of some other person than the party actually contracting. But whether the effect of a sale be immediate or suspended, there may be some taint of illegality in the mode of constituting it, or in its subject, or there may be other circumstances connected with it, which render it invalid. The causes of illegality are many and various. But even though a sale should be unimpeachable on the previous grounds, that is, though it should be duly constituted, operative or immediate in its effect, and free from any ground of illegality, still it may not be absolutely binding on the parties. This brings us to another remarkable peculiarity of the Muḥammadan law, viz. the doctrine of option, or right of cancellation. The Prophet himself recommended one of his followers to reserve a locus penitentiæ, or option, for three days in all his purchases. This has led to the option by stipulation, which may be reserved by either of the parties. But besides this, the purchaser has an option without any stipulation, with regard to things which he has purchased without seeing, and also on account of defects in the thing sold. The greatest of all defects is a want of title or right in the seller. The two last options to the purchase constitute a complete warranty of title and against all defects on the part of the seller, in which respect the Muḥammadan more nearly resembles the Scotch than the English law of sale.

There are many different kinds of sale. Twenty or more have been enumerated in the Nihāyah, of which eight are mentioned and explained. Four of these, which have reference to the thing sold, may require some notice in this place. The first, called Muqāyaẓah, is described as a sale of things for things, and corresponds nearly with barter; but the word “thing” (ʿayn) is here opposed to obligations, and muqāyaẓah is therefore properly an exchange of specific for specific things. So that if the goods exchanged were on both sides or on either side indeterminate, the transaction would not, I think, be a muqāyaẓah, though still barter. The second sale is called ṣarf, and is defined to be an exchange of obligations for obligations. The usual objects of this contract are dirhams and dīnārs, which being obligations, the definition is generally correct. But an exchange of money for bullion, or bullion for bullion, is also a ṣarf, and every sale of an obligation for an obligation is not a ṣarf, so that the definition is redundant as well as defective. It is essential to the legality of this kind of sale, that both the things exchanged should be delivered and taken possession of before the separation of the parties, and that when they are of the same kind, as silver for silver, or gold for gold, they should also be exactly equal by weight. These rules are necessary for the avoidance of reba, or “usury,” as already explained; and the whole of ṣarf, which is treated of at a length quite disproportionate to its importance, may be considered as a continued illustration of the doctrine of reba. The third kind of sale is salam. It has been already observed that there can be no lawful stipulation for a postponement of the delivery of the thing sold, except under one particular form of sale. The form alluded to is salam. This word means, literally, “an advance”; and in a salam sale the price is immediately advanced for the goods to be delivered at a future fixed time. It is only things of the class of similars that can be sold in this way, and as they must necessarily be indeterminate, the proper subject of sale is an obligation; while, on the other hand, as the price must be actually paid or delivered at the time of the contract, before the separation of the parties, and must, therefore, even in the case of its being money, be produced, and in consequence be particularised or specific, a salam sale is strictly and properly the sale of an obligation for a thing, as defined above. Until actual payment or delivery of the price, however, it retains its character of an obligation, and for this reason the price and the goods are both termed “debts,” and are adduced in the same chapter as examples of the principle that the sale of a debt, that is, of the money or goods which a person is under engagement to pay or deliver, before possession, is invalid. The last of the sales referred to is the ordinary exchange of goods for money, which being an obligation, the transaction is defined to be the sale of things for obligations.

There is another transaction which comes within the definition of sale, and has been already noticed, but may be further adverted to in this place. It is that which is called Qarẓ in the Arabic, and “loan” in the English language. The borrower acquires an absolute right of property in the things lent, and comes under an engagement to return an equal quantity of things of the same kind. The transaction is therefore necessarily limited to similars, whether of weight, capacity, or tale, and the things lent and repaid being of the same kind, the two rules already mentioned for the prevention of reba, or “usury,” must be strictly observed. Hence it follows that any stipulation on the part of the borrower for delay or forbearance by the lender, or any stipulation by the lender for interest to be paid by the borrower are alike unlawful.

Notwithstanding the stringency of the rules for preventing usury, or the taking any interest on the loan of money, methods were found for evading them and still keeping within the letter of the law. It had always been considered lawful to take a pledge to secure the repayment of a debt. Pledges were ordinarily [34]of movable property; when given as security for a debt, and the pledge happened to perish in the hands of the pawnee, the debt was held to be released to the extent of the value of the pledge. Land, though scarcely liable to this incident, was sometimes made the subject of pledge, and devices were adopted for enabling the lender to derive some advantage from its possession while in the state of pledge. But the moderate advantage to be derived in this way does not seem to have contented the money-lenders, who in all ages and countries have been of a grasping disposition, and the expedient of a sale with a condition for redemption was adopted, which very closely resembles an English mortgage. In the latter, the condition is usually expressed in one of two ways, viz. either that the sale shall become void, or that the lender shall resell to the seller, on payment of principal and interest at an assigned term. The first of these forms would be inconsistent with the nature of sale under the Muḥammadan law, but a sale with a covenant by the lender to reconvey to the seller on repayment of the loan seems to have been in use probably long before the form was adopted in Europe. It is probable that a term was fixed within which the repayment should be made. If repayment were made at the assigned term, the lender was obliged to reconvey; but if not, the property would remain his own, and the difference between its value and the price or sum lent might have been made an ample compensation for the loss of interest. This form of sale, which was called Baiʿu ʾl-Wafāʾ, seems to have been strictly legal according to the most approved authorities, though held to be what the law calls abominable, as a device for obtaining what it prohibits.

In constituting sale there is no material difference between the Muḥammadan and other systems of law. The offer and acceptance, which are expressed or implied in all cases, must be so connected as to obviate any doubt of the one being intended to apply to the other. For this purpose the Muḥammadan law requires that both shall be interchanged at the same meeting of the parties, and that no other business shall be suffered to intervene between an offer and its acceptance. A very slight interruption is sufficient to break the continuity of a negotiation, and to terminate the meeting in a technical sense, though the parties should still remain in personal communication. An acceptance after the interruption of an offer made before it would be insufficient to constitute a sale. This has led to distinctions of the meeting which may appear unnecessarily minute to a reader unacquainted with the manners of Eastern countries, where the people are often very dilatory in their bargains, interspersing them with conversation on indifferent topics. It is only when a meeting has reference to the act of contracting that its meaning is thus liable to be restricted; for when the word occurs in other parts of the law, as, for instance, when it is said of a ṣarf contract that the things exchanged must be taken possession of at the meeting, the whole period that the parties may remain together is to be understood. As personal communication may be inconvenient in some cases, and impossible in others, the integrity of the meeting is held to be sufficiently preserved when a party who receives an offer by message or letter declares his acceptance of it on receiving the communication and apprehending its contents.

When a sale is lawfully contracted, the property in the things exchanged passes immediately from and to the parties respectively. In a legal sale, delivery and possession are not necessary for this purpose. Until possession is taken, however, the purchaser is not liable for accidental loss, and the seller has a lien for the price on the thing sold. Delivery by one party is in general tantamount to possession taken by the other. It is, therefore, sometimes of great importance to ascertain when there is a sufficient delivery; and many cases, real or imaginary, on the subject, are inserted in the Fatāwā ʿĀlamgīrī. It sometimes happens that a person purchases a thing of which he is already in possession, and it then becomes important to determine in what cases his previous possession is convertible into a possession under the purchase. Unless so converted, it would be held that there is no delivery under the sale, and the seller would of course retain his lien and remain liable for accidental loss.

Though possession is not necessary to complete the transfer of property under a legal sale, the case is different where the contract is illegal; for here property does not pass till possession is taken. The sale, however, though so far effectual, is still invalid, and liable to be set aside by a judge, at the instance of either of the parties, without any reference to the fact of the person complaining being able to come before him with what in legal phraseology is termed clean hands. A Muḥammadan judge is obliged by his law to interfere for the sake of the law itself, or, as it is more solemnly termed, for the right of God, which it is the duty of the judge to vindicate, though by so doing he may afford assistance to a party who personally may have no just claim to his interference. (The Muhammadan Law of Sale, according to the Haneefee Code, from the Fatawa Alamgiri, by Neil B. E. Baillie. Smith, Elder & Co., London.)

BAIL. Arabic كفالة‎ kafālah. Bail is of two descriptions: Kafālah bi-ʾn-nafs, or “security for the person”; Kafālah bi-ʾl-māl, or “security for property.” In the English courts in India, bail for the person is termed Ḥāẓir-ẓamānī, and bail for property Ẓamānah, or “security.” Bail for the person is lawful except in cases of punishment (Ḥudūd) and retaliation (Qiṣāṣ). (Hidāyah, vol. ii. p. 576.)

AL-BĀʿIS̤ (الباعث‎). One of the ninety-nine special names of God. It means [35]“He who awakes”; “The Awakener” (in the Day of Resurrection).

BAITU ʾL-ḤAMD (بيت الحمد‎). “The House of Praise.” An expression which occurs in the Traditions (Mishkāt v. 7). When the soul of a child is taken, God says, “Build a house for my servant in Paradise and call it a house of praise.”

BAITU ʾL-ḤARĀM (بيت الحرام‎). “The Sacred House.” A name given to the Meccan mosque. [MASJIDU ʾL-HARAM.]

BAITU ʾL-ḤIKMAH (بيت الحكمة‎). Lit. “The House of Wisdom.” A term used by Ṣūfīs for the heart of the sincere seekers after God. (ʿAbdu ʾr-Razzāq’s Dictionary of Ṣūfī Terms.)

BAITU ʾL-LĀH (بيت الله‎). “The House of God.” A name given to the Meccan mosque. [MASJIDU ʾL-HARAM.]

BAITU ʾL-MĀL (بيت المال‎). Lit. “The House of Property.” The public treasury of a Muslim state, which the ruler is not allowed to use for his personal expenses, but only for the public good.

The sources of income are: (1) Zakāt, or the legal tax raised upon land, personal property, and merchandise, which, after deducting the expense of collecting, should be expended in the support of the poor and destitute. (2) The fifth of all spoils and booty taken in war. (3) The produce of mines and of treasure-trove. (4) Property for which there is no owner. (5) The Jizyah, or tax levied on unbelievers. (Hidāyah, Arabic ed., vol. i. p. 452.)

AL-BAITU ʾL-MAʿMŪR (البيت المعمور‎). Lit. “The Inhabited House.” A house in the seventh heaven, visited by Muḥammad during the Miʿrāj or night-journey. It is said to be immediately over the sacred temple at Makkah. [MIʿRAJ.]

BAITU ʾL-MIDRĀS (بيت المدراس‎). “The House of Instruction.” A term (used in a tradition given by Abū Hurairah) for a Jewish school. (Mishkāt, xvii. c. xi.) In Heb. ‏בֵּית הַמִּדְרָשׁ‎.

AL-BAITU ʾL-MUQADDAS (البيت المقدس‎). “The Holy House.” A name given to the temple at Jerusalem. [AL-MASJIDU ʾL-AQSA.]

BAITU ʾL-QUDS (بيت القدس‎). Lit. “The House of Holiness.” A term used by the Ṣūfīs for the heart of the true seeker after God when it is absorbed in meditation. (ʿAbdu ʾr-Razzāq’s Dictionary of Ṣūfī Terms.)

BAIʿU ʾL-WAFĀʾ (بيع الوفاء‎). The word wafā means the performance of a promise, and the Baiʿu ʾl-Wafāʾ is a sale with a promise to be performed. It is, in fact, a pledge in the hands of the pawnee, who is not its proprietor, nor is he free to make use of it without the permission of the owner. There are different opinions about the legality of this form of sale, but it is now the common form of mortgage in use in India, where it is usually styled Baiʿ bi-ʾl-wafā. (See Baillie’s Muḥammadan Law of Sale, p. 303.)

AL-BAIYINAH (البينة‎). Lit. “The Evidence.” A title given to the XCVIIIth Sūrah of the Qurʾān, in which the word occurs.

BAʿL (بعل‎), Heb. ‏הַבַּעַל‎, i.e. “Lord.” The chief deity worshipped by the Syro-Phœnician nations. It is known to the Muḥammadans as an idol worshipped in the days of the Prophet Elisha. (See G͟hiyās̤u ʾl-Lug͟hah.)

BALAAM. There is said to be an allusion to Balaam in the Qurʾān, Sūrah vii. 174, “Recite to them the story of him to whom we gave our signs, and he departed therefrom, and Satan followed him, and he was of those who were beguiled.”

The commentary of the Jalālain says that he was a learned man amongst the Israelites, who was requested by the Canaanites to curse Moses at the time when he was about to attack the Jabbārūn or “giants,” a tribe of the Canaanites. Balaam at first refused to do so but at last yielded, when valuable presents were made to him. (See Tafsīru ʾl-Jalālain, p. 142.)

BALAD (بلد‎). Lit. Any country, district, or town, regarded as an habitation. Al-Balad, the sacred territory of Makkah. A title given to the XCth Sūrah, in which the word occurs.

BĀLIGH (بالغ‎). “Of years of legal maturity; adult.” [PUBERTY.]

BANISHMENT. Arabic تغريب‎ Tag͟hrīb. Expatriation for fornication is enjoined by Muḥammadan law, according to the Imām ash-Shāfiʿī, although it is not allowed by the other doctors of the law, and it is also a punishment inflicted upon highway robbers.

BANKRUPT. There is no provision in the Muḥammadan law for declaring a person bankrupt, and so placing him beyond the reach of his creditors; but the Qāẓī can declare a debtor insolvent, and free him from the obligation of zakāt and almsgiving.

BANŪ ISRĀʾĪL (بنو اسرآئيل‎). “The Children of Israel.” A title of the XVIIth Sūrah or chapter of the Qurʾān, called also Sūratu ʾl-Miʿrāj.

BANŪN (بنون‎). The plural of ibn (Heb. ‏בָּנִים‎). “Sons; posterity; tribe.” The word is more familiar to English readers in its inflected form Banī. The tribes whose names occur frequently in the early history of Islām, and are mentioned in the Traditions, are the Banū-Quraish, Banū ʾn-Najjār, Banū-Quraiẓah, Banū-Kinānah, Banū ʾn-Naẓr, Banū-K͟huzāʿah, Banū-Bakrʾ, [36]Banū-ʿĀmir, Banū-Asad, Banū-Fazārah, Banū-Liḥyān, Banū-Tamīm, Banū-Umaiyah, Banū-Zahrah, and Banū-Isrāʾīl.

BAPTISM. The only allusion to baptism in the Qurʾān is found in Sūrah ii. 132: “(We have) the baptism of God, and who is better to baptise than God?” The word here translated baptism is ṣibg͟hah, lit. “dye,” which, the commentators al-Jalālain and al-Baiẓāwī say, may, by comparison, refer to Christian baptism, “for,” says al-Baiẓāwī, “the Naṣārā (Christians) were in the habit of dipping their offspring in a yellow water which they called al-Maʿmūdiyah and said it purified them and confirmed them as Christians.” (See Tafsīru ʾl-Jalālain and Tafsīru ʾl-Baiẓāwī, in loco.)

AL-BĀQĪ (الباقى‎). One of the ninety-nine special names of God. It means “He who remains;” “The Everlasting One.”

AL-BAQARAH (البقرة‎). “The Cow.” The title of the second Sūrah of the Qurʾān, occasioned by the story of the red heifer mentioned in verse 63, “When Moses said to his people, God commandeth you to sacrifice a cow.”

BAQĪʿU ʾL-G͟HARQAD (بقيع الغرقد‎), or for shortness al-Baqī (البقيع‎). The burying-ground at al-Madīnah, which Muḥammad used to frequent at night to pray for forgiveness for the dead. (Mishkāt, iv. c. 28.)

BARĀʾAH (براءة‎). “Immunity, or security.” A title given to the IXth Chapter of the Qurʾān, called also Sūratu ʾt-Taubah, “The Chapter of Repentance.” It is remarkable as being the only Sūrah without the introductory form, “In the name of God, the Merciful, the Compassionate.” Various reasons are assigned for this omission. Some commentators say that the prayer of mercy is not placed at the head of a chapter which speaks chiefly of God’s wrath.

BĀRAH-I-WAFĀT (باره وفات‎). Bārah (Urdū) “twelve,” and Wafāt. The twelfth day of the month Rabīʿu ʾl-Awwal, observed in commemoration of Muḥammad’s death.

It seems to be a day instituted by the Muḥammadans of India, and is not observed universally amongst the Muslims of all countries. On this day Fātiḥahs are recited for Muḥammad’s soul, and both in private houses and mosques portions of the Traditions and other works in praise of the Prophet’s excellences are read.

The Wahhābīs do not observe this day, as it is believed to be an innovation, not having been kept by the early Muslims.

AL-BARĀʾ IBN ʿĀZIB (البراء بن عازب‎). One of the Companions who accompanied Muḥammad at the battle of the Ditch, and in most of his subsequent engagements. He assisted in conquering the district of Rai, A.H. 22, and was with the K͟halīfah ʿAlī at the battle of the Camel, A.H. 36.

AL-BĀRĪʾ (البارىء). “The Maker.” One of the ninety-nine special names of God. It occurs in the Qurʾān, Sūrah lix. 24: “He is God the Creator, the Maker, the Fashioner. His are the excellent names.”

BĀRIQAH (بارقة‎). Lit. “Refulgence, lightning.” A term used by the Ṣūfīs for that enlightenment of the soul, which at first comes to the true Muslim as an earnest of greater enlightenment. (ʿAbdu ʾr-Razzāq’s Dictionary of Ṣūfī Terms.)

BARNABAS, the Gospel of. The Muḥammadans assert that a gospel of Barnabas existed in Arabic, and it is believed by some that Muḥammad obtained his account of Christianity from this spurious gospel.

“Of this gospel the Moriscoes in Africa have a translation in Spanish, and there is in the library of Prince Eugene of Savoy a manuscript of some antiquity, containing an Italian translation of the same gospel, made, it is supposed, for the use of renegades. This book appears to be no original forgery of the Muḥammadans, though they have no doubt interpolated and altered it since, the better to serve their purpose; and in particular, instead of the Paraclete or Comforter (St. John xiv. 16, 26; xv. 26; xvi. 7), they have in this apocryphal gospel inserted the word Periclyte, that is, “the famous or illustrious,” by which they pretend their prophet was foretold by name, that being the signification of Muḥammad in Arabic; and this they say to justify that passage in the Qurʾān (Sūrah 61) where Jesus is formally asserted to have foretold his coming, under his other name of Aḥmad, which is derived from the same root as Muḥammad, and of the same import. From these or some other forgeries of the same stamp, it is that Muḥammadans quote several passages of which there are not the least footsteps in the New Testament.” (Sale.)

After Mr. Sale had written the extract which we have quoted, he inspected a Spanish translation of the Italian copy of this apocryphal gospel, of which he gives the following account:—

“The book is a moderate quarto, in Spanish, written in a very legible hand, but a little damaged towards the latter end. It contains two hundred and twenty-two chapters of unequal length, and four hundred and twenty pages; and is said, in the front, to be translated from the Italian by an Aragonian Moslem named Moṣtafā de Aranda. There is a preface prefixed to it, wherein the discoverer of the original MS., who was a Christian monk called Fra Marino, tells us that, having accidentally met with a writing of Irenæus (among others), wherein he speaks against St. Paul, alleging for his authority the gospel of St. Barnabas, he became exceedingly desirous to find this gospel; and that God, of his mercy, having made him very intimate with Pope Sixtus V., one day, as they were together [37]in that Pope’s library, his Holiness fell asleep, and he, to employ himself, reaching down a book to read, the first he laid his hand on proved to be the very gospel he wanted; overjoyed at the discovery, he scrupled not to hide his prize in his sleeve, and on the Pope’s awaking, took leave of him, carrying with him that celestial treasure, by reading of which he became a convert to Muḥammadanism.

“This Gospel of Barnabas contains a complete history of Jesus Christ, from His birth to His ascension, and most of the circumstances of the four real gospels are to be found therein, but many of them turned, and some artfully enough, to favour the Muḥammadan system. From the design of the whole, and the frequent interpolations of stories and passages, wherein Muḥammad is spoken of and foretold by name, as the messenger of God, and the great prophet who was to perfect the dispensation of Jesus, it appears to be a most bare-faced forgery. One particular I observe therein induces me to believe it to have been dressed up by a renegade Christian, slightly instructed in his new religion, and not educated as a Muḥammadan (unless the fault be imputed to the Spanish, or, perhaps, the Italian translator, and to the original compiler). I mean the giving to Muḥammad the title of Messiah, and that not once or twice only, but in several places; whereas, the title of Messiah, or, as the Arabs write it, al-Masîḥ, i.e. Christ, is appropriated to Jesus in the Qurʾān, and is constantly applied by the Muḥammadans to him, and never to their own Prophet. The passages produced from the Italian MS. by M. de la Monnoye are to be seen in this Spanish version almost word for word.”

The Rev. Joseph White, D.D., in his Bampton Lectures of 1784, gives a translation of those chapters in this spurious Gospel of Barnabas, which relate to the supposed crucifixion of Judas in the place of our Lord, and which we insert:—

“Judas came near to the people with whom Jesus was; and when He heard the noise He entered into the house where the disciples slept. And God, seeing the fear and danger of His servant, ordered Gabriel and Michael and Rafaīl and Azraīl to carry Him out of the world.

“And they came in all haste, and bare Him out of the window which looks towards the south. And they placed Him in the third heaven, where He will remain blessing God, in the company of angels, till near the end of the world.” (Chapter 216.)

“And Judas the traitor entered before the rest into the place from which Jesus had just been taken up. And the disciples were sleeping. And the Wonderful God acted wonderfully, changing Judas into the same figure and speech with Jesus.

“We believing that it was He, said to him, Master, whom seekest thou? And he said to them, smiling, Ye have forgotten yourselves, since ye do not know Judas Iscariot.

“At this time the soldiery entered; and seeing Judas so like in every respect to Jesus, laid hands upon him,” &c. (Chapter 217.)

“In which (Chap. 218) is related the passion of Judas the traitor.

“The soldiers afterwards took Judas and bound him, notwithstanding he said with truth to them that he was not Jesus. And soldiers mocked him saying, Sir, do not be afraid; for we are come to make thee King of Israel; and we have bound thee, because we know thou hast refused the kingdom. And Judas said, Ye have lost your senses.

“I came to show you Jesus, that ye might take Him; and ye have bound me, who am your guide. The soldiers lost their patience, hearing this, and they began to go with him, striking and buffeting him, till they reached Jerusalem,” &c. &c. (Chapter 218.)

“They carried him to Mount Calvary, where they executed criminals, and crucified him, stripping him naked for the greater ignominy. Then he did nothing but cry out, O my God, why hast thou forsaken me, that I should die unjustly, when the real malefactor hath escaped? I say in truth that he was so like in person, figure, and gesture to Jesus, that as many as knew Him, believed firmly that it was He, except Peter; for which reason many left his doctrine, believing that it had been false; as He had said that He should not die till the end of the world.

“But those who stood firm were oppressed with grief, seeing him die whom they understood to be Jesus: not recollecting what He had told them. And in company with His mother, they were present at his death, weeping continually. And by means of Joseph Abarimatheas (sic), they obtained from the president the body of Judas. And they took him down from the cross, burying him with much lamentation in the new sepulchre of Joseph; having wrapped him up in linen and precious ointments.” (Chapter 219.)

“They all returned, each man to his house: and he who writeth, with James and John, went with the mother of Jesus to Nazareth. And the disciples, who did not fear God with truth, went by night and stole the body of Judas, and hid it; spreading a report that He (i.e. Jesus) had risen again, from whence sprung great confusion among the people.

“And the High Priest commanded, under pain of anathema, that no one should talk of him; and on this account raised a great persecution, banishing some, tormenting others, and even stoning some to death: because it was not in the power of anyone to be silent on this subject. And then came news to Nazareth, that Jesus had risen again. And he that writeth desired the mother of Jesus to leave off her lamentation. And Mary said, Let us go to Jerusalem, to see if it is truth. If I see Him I shall die content. (Chapter 220).

“The Virgin returned to Jerusalem with him that writeth, and James and John, the same day that the decree of the High Priest came out.

“And as she feared God, though she knew [38]the command was unjust, she entreated those who talked with her not to speak of her Son. Who can say, how we were then affected? God, who knows the heart of man, knows that between the grief for the death of Judas, whom we understood to be Jesus, and the pleasure of seeing him risen again, we almost expired. And the angels who were the guardians of Mary went up to heaven the third day, and told Jesus what was passing. And He, moved with compassion for His mother, entreated of God that He might be seen by His disciples. And the Compassionate God ordered His four favourite angels to place Him within His own house, and to guard Him three days; that they and they only might see Him, who believed in His doctrine. Jesus descended, surrounded with light, into the house of His mother, where were the two sisters, Martha and Mary, and Lazarus, and he that writeth, and John and James, and Peter. And when they saw Him, they fell with their faces on the earth as if dead. And Jesus lifted them up, saying, Fear not, for I am your Master. Lament not henceforth, for I am alive. They were astonished at seeing Jesus, because they thought Him dead. And Mary weeping said, Tell me, my Son, why, if God gave Thee power to raise up the dead, did He consent that Thou shouldest die, with so much reproach and shame to Thy relations and friends, and so much hurt to Thy doctrine, leaving us all in desolation? Jesus replied, embracing His mother, Believe me, for I tell thee the truth, I have not been dead; for God has reserved Me for the end of the world. In saying this He desired the angels to manifest themselves, and to tell how He had passed through everything. At the instant they appeared like four suns; and all present prostrated themselves on the ground, overcome by the presence of the angels. And Jesus gave to all of them something to cover themselves with, that they might be able to hear the angels speak.

“And Jesus said to His mother, These are the Ministers of God. Gabriel knows His secrets; Michael fights with His enemies; Asrafiel will cite all to judgment; and Azrael receives the souls. And the holy angels told how they had, by the command of God, taken up Jesus, and transformed Judas, that he might suffer the punishment which he wished to bring on Jesus. And he that writeth said, Is it lawful for me to ask of Thee, in the same manner as when thou wast in the world? And Jesus answered, Speak, Barnabas, what thou wishest.

“And he said, I wish that Thou wouldest tell me how God, being so compassionate, could afflict us so much, in giving us to understand that Thou wast he that suffered, for we have been very near dying? And Thou being a prophet, why did He suffer Thee to fall under disgrace, by (apparently) placing Thee on a cross, and between two robbers? Jesus answered, Believe Me, Barnabas, let the fault be ever so small God chastiseth it with much punishment. And as my mother and faithful disciples loved me with a little earthly love, God chastised that love by this grief; that He might not chastise it in the other world. And though I was innocent, yet as they called Me God, and His Son, that the devils might not mock Me on the Day of Judgment, He has chosen that I should be mocked in this world.

“And this mocking shall last till the holy Messenger of God (i.e. Muḥammad) shall come, who shall undeceive all believers. And then He said, Just art Thou, O God! and to Thee only belongeth the honour and glory, with worship, for ever.” (Chapter 221.)

“And then He said, Barnabas, that thou by all means write my gospel, relating everything which has happened in the world concerning Me; and let it be done exactly; in order that the faithful may be undeceived, knowing the truth. He that writeth said, Master, I will do it as Thou commandest me, God willing: but I did not see all that happened with Judas. Jesus answered, Here stand Peter and John, who saw it, and will relate it to thee.

“And He told James and John to call the seven apostles who were absent, and Nicodemus, and Joseph Abarimatheas (sic), and some of the seventy-two disciples. When they were come, they did eat with Him; and on the third day He commanded them all to go to the mount of Olives with His mother: because He was to return to heaven. All the apostles and disciples went, except twenty-five of the seventy-two, who had fled to Damascus with fear. And exactly at mid-day, while they were all in prayer, Jesus came with many angels (blessing God), with so much brightness that they all bent their faces to the ground. And Jesus raised them up, saying, Fear not your Master, who comes to take leave of you; and to recommend you to God our Lord, by the mercies received from His bounty: and be He with you!

“And upon this He disappeared with the angels; all of us remaining amazed at the great brightness in which he left us.” (Chapter 222.)

AL-BARR (البر‎). One of the ninety-nine special names of God. In its ordinary sense it means “pious,” or “good.” As applied to God, it means “The Beneficent One.”


BARZAK͟H (برزخ‎). (1) A thing that intervenes between any two things; a bar; an obstruction; or a thing that makes a separation between two things. In which sense it is used in the Qurʾān in two places. Sūrah xxv. 55, “He hath put an interspace between them (i.e. the two seas), and a barrier which it is forbidden them to pass.” Sūrah lv. 20, “Yet between them (the two seas) is a barrier.”

(2) The interval between the present life and that which is to come. See Qurʾān, Sūrah xxiii. 99, “And say, My Lord, I seek refuge with Thee from the incitings of the devils, and I seek refuge with Thee from their [39]presence. Until when death comes to any one of them, he says, My Lord! send me back (to life), if haply I may do right in that which I have left. Not so! A mere word that he speaks! But behind them there is barzak͟h (a bar), until the day when they shall be raised. And when the trumpet shall be blown, there shall be no relation between them on that day, nor shall they beg of each other then.” Upon this verse the commentator Baiẓāwī says: “Barzak͟h is an intervening state (ḥāʾil, ‘a barrier’) between death and the Day of Judgment, and whoever dies enters it.” The commentator Ḥusain remarks: “Barzak͟h is a partition (māniʿ) between the living and the Day of Judgment, namely, the grave in which they will remain until the resurrection.” The commentators al-Jalālain speak of it as a ḥājiz, or intervening state between death and judgment. ʿAbdu ʾr-Razzāq in his Dictionary of Technical Terms of the Ṣūfīs (Sprenger’s Edition), gives a similar definition.

The word is employed by Muḥammadan writers in at least two senses, some using it for the place of the dead, the grave, and others for the state of departed souls between death and judgment.

The condition of believers in the grave is held to be one of undisturbed rest, but that of unbelievers one of torment; for Muḥammad is related to have said, “There are appointed for the grave of the unbeliever ninety-nine serpents to bite him until the Day of Resurrection.” (Mishkāt, i. c. 5, p. 12.) The word seems generally to be used in the sense of Hades, for every person who dies is said to enter al-Barzak͟h.

BAʿS̤ (بعث‎). Lit. “Raising.” (1) The Day of Resurrection. (2) The office of a messenger or prophet.

BASE MONEY. The sale of one pure dirham and two base ones in exchange for two pure dirhams and one base one is lawful. By two base ones (g͟halat̤ain), are to be understood such as pass amongst merchants but are rejected at the public treasury. (Hidāyah, vol. ii. 560.)

AL-BAṢĪR (البصير‎). One of the ninety-nine special names of God. It frequently occurs in the Qurʾān, and means “The All-seeing One.”

BAṢĪRAH (بصيرة‎). Lit. “Penetration.” The sight of the heart as distinguished from the sight of the eye (Baṣārah or Baṣar). A term used by theologians to express that enlightenment of the heart “whereby the spiritual man can understand spiritual things with as much certainty as the natural man can see objects with the sight of the eye.” The word occurs twice in the Qurʾān, Sūrah xii. 108, “This is my way; I cry unto God, resting on clear evidence;” Sūrah lxxv. 14, “A man shall be evidence against himself.”

AL-BĀSIT̤ (الباسط‎). One of the ninety-nine special names of God. It means “He who spreads, or stretches out,” and occurs in the Qurʾān, Sūrah xiii. 15. As applied to God, it means, “He who dispenses riches,” &c.

BASTARD (ولد الزنا‎, waladu ʾz-zinā). An illegitimate child has, according to Muḥammadan law, no legal father, and consequently the law does not allow the father to interfere with his illegitimate child, even for the purposes of education. He cannot inherit the property of his father, but he is acknowledged as the rightful heir of his mother (Baillie’s Digest, p. 432). The evidence of a bastard is valid, because he is innocent with respect to the immorality of his parents; but the Imām Mālik maintains that his testimony is not to be accepted with respect to a charge of whoredom. (Hidāyah, vol. ii. 692.)

BATHING. The Arabic term for ordinary bathing is (غسل‎) g͟hasl, and that for the religious purification of the whole body g͟husl. In all large mosques, and in most respectable dwellings in Muḥammadan countries, there are bathing-rooms erected, both for the ordinary purposes of bathing and for the religious purification. An account of the legal purification will be found in the article GHUSL. Although purifications and bathing form so essential a part of the Muslim religion, cleanliness does not distinguish Muḥammadans, who are generally in this respect a striking contrast to their Hindū fellow subjects in India. According to the saying of Muḥammad, decency should be observed in bathing, and the clothes from the waist downwards should not be taken off at such times. (Mishkāt, ii. c. iv.)

BĀT̤IL (باطل‎). That which is false in doctrine.

AL-BĀT̤IN (الباطن‎). (1) One of the ninety-nine special names of God. It means “that which is hidden or concealed,” “The Hidden One,” or “He that knows hidden things.” (2) A term used in theology for that which is hidden in its meaning, in contradistinction to that which is evident.

BATŪL (بتول‎). Lit. “A shoot or offset of a palm-tree cut off from its mother tree;” “a virgin” (as cut off or withheld from men). The term al-Batūl is applied to Fāt̤imah, the daughter of Muḥammad, because she was separated from the other women of her age by her excellences. Heb. ‏בְּתוּלָה‎ Bethūlāh.

BĀʿŪS̤ (باعوث‎). A Syriac word, ‏בָּעוּתָא‎ (i.e. “petition, prayer”), which, in the dictionary al-Qāmūs, is said to mean the Christian Easter; and also prayers for rain, or the Istisqā of the Christians. (Majmu ʾl-Biḥār, p. 101.)

BĀẔAQ or BĀẔIQ (باذق‎). A prohibited liquor. The juice of the grape boiled [40]until a quantity less than two-thirds evaporates.

BEARD. Arabic لحية‎ liḥyah or ذقن‎ ẕaqan. The beard is regarded by Muslims as the badge of the dignity of manhood. The Prophet is related to have said, “Do the opposite of the polytheists and let your beard grow long.” (Mishkāt, xx. iv.) And the growing of a beard is said to be Fit̤rah, or one of those customs which have been observed by every Prophet. [FITRAH.]

BEAUTY, Female. “The maiden, whose loveliness inspires the most impassioned expression in Arabic poetry and prose, is celebrated for her slender figure; she is like the cane among plants, and is elegant as the twig of the oriental willow. Her face is like the full moon, presenting the strongest contrast to the colour of her hair, which (to preserve the nature of the simile just employed) is of the deepest hue of night, and descends to the middle of her back. A rosy blush overspreads the centre of each cheek; and a mole is considered an additional charm. The Arabs, indeed, are particularly extravagant in their admiration of this natural beauty-spot, which, according to its place, is compared to a globule of ambergris upon a dish of alabaster, or upon the surface of a ruby. The eyes of the Arab beauty are intensely black, large, and long, of the form of an almond; they are full of brilliancy; but this is softened by a lid slightly depressed, and by long silken lashes, giving a tender and languid expression, which is full of enchantment, and scarcely to be improved by the adventitious aid of the black border of the kuḥl; for this the lovely maiden adds rather for the sake of fashion than necessity, having what the Arabs term natural kuḥl. The eye-brows are thin and arched, the forehead is wide, and fair as ivory; the nose straight, the mouth small; the lips are of a brilliant red, and the teeth “like pearls set in coral.” The forms of the bosom are compared to two pomegranates; the waist is slender; the hips are wide and large; the feet and hands small; the fingers tapering, and their extremities dyed with the deep orange-red tint imparted by the leaves of ḥinnā.

The following is the most complete analysis of Arabian beauty, given by an unknown author, quoted by Al-Isḥāqī:—

“Four things in a woman should be black: the hair of the head, the eye-brows, the eye-lashes, and the dark part of the eyes; four white: the complexion of the skin, the white of the eyes, the teeth, and the legs; four red: the tongue, the lips, the middle of the cheeks, and the gums; four round: the head, the neck, the fore-arms, and the ankles; four long: the back, the fingers, the arms, and the legs; four wide: the forehead, the eyes, the bosom, and the hips; four fine: the eye-brows, the nose, the lips, and the fingers; four thick: the lower part of the back, the thighs, the calves of the legs, and the knees; four small: the ears, the breasts, the hands, and the feet.” (Lane’s Arabian Nights, vol. i. p. 25.)

BEGGING. It is not lawful for any person possessing sufficient food for a day and night to beg (Durru ʾl-Muk͟htār, p. 108), and it is related that the Prophet said: “Acts of begging are scratches and wounds with which a man wounds his own face.” “It is better for a man to take a rope and bring in a bundle of sticks to sell than to beg.” “A man who continues to beg will appear in the Day of Judgment without any flesh on his face.” (Mishkāt, Book vi. chap. v.)

BEINGS. According to Muḥammadan belief, there are three different species of created intelligent beings: (1) Angels (Malāʾikah), who are said to be created of light; (2) Genii (Jinn), who are created of fire; (3) Mankind (Insān), created of earth. These intelligent beings are called Ẕawū ʾl-ʿUqūl, or “Rational beings,” whilst unintelligent beings” are called G͟hair Ẕawū ʾl-ʿUqūl. Ḥayawāni-Nāt̤iq is also a term used for rational beings (who can speak), and Ḥayawāni-ʿAjam for all irrational creatures. [JINN.]

BELIEVERS. The terms used for believers are—Muʾmin, pl. Muʾminūn; and Muslim, pl. Muslimūn. The difference expressed in these two words is explained in the Traditions, in a Ḥadīs̤ given in the Ṣaḥīḥ of Muslim (p. 27), where it is recorded by ʿUmar, as having been taught by Muḥammad, that a Muʾmin is one who has īmān, or “faith;” Faith being a sincere belief in God, His angels, His inspired books, His prophets, the Day of Resurrection, and the predestination of good and evil; and that a Muslim is one who is resigned and obedient to the will of God, and bears witness that there is no god but God, and that Muḥammad is His Apostle, and is steadfast in prayer, and gives zakāt, or “legal alms,” and fasts in the month of Ramaẓān, and makes a pilgrimage to the Temple (Bait) at Makkah, if he have the means.

The rewards in store for the believer are as follows (see Sūratu ʾl-Baqarah, Sūrah ii. 76):—

“They who have believed and done the things that be right, they shall be the inmates of Paradise,—therein to abide for ever.”

Sūratu ʾn-Nisā, Sūrah iv. 60:—

“Those who have believed, and done the things that are right, we will bring them into gardens ’neath which the rivers flow—therein to abide eternally; therein shall they have wives of stainless purity: and we will bring them into shadowing shades.”

Sūratu ʾl-Aʿrāf, Sūrah vii. 40:—

“Those who have believed and done the things which are right, (we will lay on no one a burden beyond his power)—these shall be inmates of Paradise: for ever shall they abide therein;

“And will we remove whatever rancour was in their bosoms; rivers shall roll at their feet; and they shall say, ‘Praise be to God who hath guided us hither! We had not been guided had not God guided us! Of a surety [41]the Apostles of our Lord came to us with truth.’ And a voice shall cry to them, ‘This is Paradise, of which, as the meed of your works, ye are made heirs.’

“And the inmates of Paradise shall cry to the inmates of the Fire, Now have we found what our Lord promised us to be true. Have ye too found what your Lord promised you to be true?’ And they shall answer, ‘Yes.’

And a Herald shall proclaim between them: ‘The curse of God be upon the evil doers, who turn men aside from the way of God, and seek to make it crooked, and who believe not in the life to come!’

“And between them shall be a partition; and on the wall al-Aʿrāf, shall be men who will know all, by their tokens, and they shall cry to the inmates of Paradise, ‘Peace be on you!’ but they shall not yet enter it, although they long to do so.

“And when their eyes are turned towards the inmates of the Fire, they shall say, ‘O our Lord! place us not with the offending people.’

“And they who are upon al-Aʿrāf shall cry to those whom they shall know by their tokens, ‘Your amassings and your pride have availed you nothing.

“ ‘Are these they on whom ye sware God would not bestow mercy? Enter ye into Paradise! where no fear shall be upon you, neither shall ye put to grief.’

“And the inmates of the Fire shall cry to the inmates of Paradise: ‘Pour upon us some water, or of the refreshments God hath given you!’ They shall say, ‘Truly God hath forbidden both to unbelievers.

For a further description of the Muḥammadan future state the reader is referred to the article PARADISE, which deals more directly with the sensual character of the heaven supposed to be in store for the believer in the mission of Muḥammad.

The following is a description of the believer which is given in the Qurʾān, Sūratu ʾl-Muʾminīn, the XXIIIrd Sūrah, v. 1:—

“Happy now the Believers,

Who humble themselves in their prayer,

And who keep aloof from vain words,

And who are doers of alms-deeds (zakāt),

And who restrain their appetites,

(Save with their wives, or the slaves whom their right hands possess; for in that case they shall be free from blame:

But they whose desires reach further than this are transgressors:)

And who tend well their trusts and their covenants,

And who keep them strictly to their prayers:

These shall be the heritors, who shall inherit Paradise, to abide therein for ever.”



BENEFICENCE (Arabic سماحة‎ samāḥah) is commended by Muḥammad as one of the evidences of faith. (Mishkāt, Book i. c. i. part 3.)

ʿAmr ibn ʿAbaratah relates: “I came to the Prophet and said, ‘O Prophet, what is Islām?’ And he said, ‘It is purity of speech and hospitality.’ I then said, ‘And what is faith?’ And he said, ‘Patience and beneficence.

BENJAMIN. Heb. בִּנְיָמִין, Arabic بنيامين‎ Binyāmīn. The youngest of the children of Jacob. He is not mentioned by name in the Qurʾān, but he is referred to in Sūrah xii. 69, “And when they entered in unto Joseph, he took his brother (i.e. Benjamin) to stay with him. He said Verily I am thy brother, then take not that ill which they have been doing. And when he had equipped them with their equipment, he placed the drinking-cup in his brother’s pack,” &c. [JOSEPH.]

BEQUESTS. Arabic وصية‎ waṣīyah, pl. waṣāyā. A bequest or will can be made verbally, although it is held to be better to execute it in writing. Two lawful witnesses are necessary to establish either a verbal bequest or a written will. A bequest in favour of a stranger to the amount of one-third of the whole property, is valid, but a bequest to any amount beyond that is invalid, unless the heirs give their consent. If a person make a bequest in favour of another from whom he has received a mortal wound, it is not valid, and if a legatee slay his testator the bequest in his favour is void. A bequest made to part of the heirs is not valid unless the other heirs give their consent. The bequest of a Muslim in favour of an unbeliever, or of an unbeliever in favour of a Muslim, is valid. If a person be involved in debt, legacies bequeathed by him are not lawful. A bequest in favour of a child yet unborn is valid, provided the fœtus happen to be less than six months old at the time of the making of the will.

If a testator deny his bequest, and the legatee produce witnesses to prove it, it is generally held not to be a retractation of it. If a person on his death-bed emancipate a slave, it takes effect after his death.

If a person will that “the pilgrimage incumbent on him be performed on his behalf after his death,” his heirs must depute a person for the purpose, and supply him with the necessary expenses. (Hamilton’s Hidāyah, vol. iv. 466.)

BESTIALITY is said by Muslim jurists to be the result of the most vitiated appetite and the utmost depravity of sentiment. But if a man commit it, he does not incur the Ḥadd, or stated punishment, as the act is not considered to have the properties of whoredom; the offender is to be punished by a discretionary correction (Taʿẕīr). According to Muslim law, the beast should be killed, and if it be of an eatable species, it should be burnt. (Hidāyah, vol. ii. 27.) Obs. According to the Mosaic code, a man guilty of this crime was surely to be put to death. (Ex. xviii. 19.)



BĪʿAH (بيعة‎). A Christian church. The word occurs in a tradition in the Mishkāt (iv. c. vii. 2), and is translated by ʿAbdu ʾl-Ḥaqq “Kalīsah.” [CHURCH.]

BIDʿAH (بدعة‎). A novelty or innovation in religion; heresy; schism.

BIER. Arabic جنازة‎ jināzah and janāzah. The same word is used for the corpse, the bier, and the funeral. In most Muḥammadan countries the ordinary charpoy, or “bedstead,” is used for the bier, which, in the case of a female, is covered with a canopy. [BURIAL.]

BIHISHT (بهشت‎). The Persian word for the celestial regions. [PARADISE, JANNAH, FIRDAUS.]

BILĀDU ʾL-ISLĀM (بلاد الاسلام‎). “The countries of Islām.” A term used in Muḥammadan law for Muslim countries. It is synonymous with the term Dāru ʾl-Islām. [DARU ʾL-ISLAM.]

BILĀL (بلال‎). The first Muʾaẕẕin or caller to prayer appointed by Muḥammad. He was an Abyssinian slave who had been ransomed by Abū Bakr. He was tall, dark, and gaunt, with negro features and bushy hair. Muḥammad honoured and distinguished him as the “first fruits of Abyssinia.” He survived the Prophet.

BILQĪS (بلقيس‎). The Queen of Sabaʾ, who visited Solomon and became one of his queens. An account of her, as it is given in the Qurʾān, will be found in the story of King Solomon. [SOLOMON.]

BINT LABŪN (بنت لبون‎). “The daughter of a milk-giver.” A female camel two years old; so called because the mother is then suckling another foal. The proper age for a camel given in zakāt, or “legal alms,” for camels from thirty-six in number up to forty-five.

BINT MAK͟HĀẒ (بنت مخاض‎). “The daughter of a pregnant.” A female camel passed one year; so called because the mother is again pregnant. This is the proper age for a camel given in zakāt, or “alms,” for camels from twenty-five in number up to thirty-five.

BIOGRAPHERS OF MUḤAMMAD. Although the Qurʾān may be said to be the key-stone to the biography of Muḥammad, yet it contains but comparatively few references to the personal history of the Prophet. The Traditions, or Aḥādīs̤, form the chief material for all biographical histories. [TRADITION.] The first who attempted to compile an account of Muḥammad in the form of a history, was az-Zuhrī, who died A.H. 124, and whose work, no longer extant, is mentioned by Ibn K͟hallikān. The earliest biographical writers whose works are extant are—Ibn Isḥāq, A.H. 151; Al-Wāqidī, A.H. 207; Ibn Hishām, A.H. 218; Al-Buk͟hārī (history), A.H. 256; At̤-T̤abarī, A.H. 310. Amongst more recent biographies, the most noted are those by Ibnu ʾl-Aṣīr, A.H. 630, and Ismāʿīl Abū ʾl-Fidāʾ, A.H. 732. Abū ʾl-Fidāʾ’s work was translated into Latin by John Gagnier, Professor of Arabic at Oxford, A.D. 1723, and into English by the Rev. W. Murray, Episcopal clergyman at Duffus in Scotland, and published (without date) at Elgin. The first life of Muḥammad published in English is that by Dean Prideaux, which first appeared in 1723, and afterwards passed through several editions. Dr. Sprenger commenced a life of Muḥammad in English, and printed the first part at Allahabad, India, A.D. 1851; but it was never completed. The learned author afterwards published the whole of his work in German, at Berlin, 1869. The only complete life of Muḥammad in English which has any pretension to original research, is the well-known Life of Mahomet, by Sir William Muir, LL.D. (First Edition, four vols., London. 1858–61; Second Edition, one vol., London. 1877).

BIOGRAPHY. A Dictionary of Biography is called اسماء الرجال‎ asmāʾu ʾr-rijāl (lit. “The Names of Men”). The most celebrated of these is, amongst Muslims, that by Ibn K͟hallikān, which has always been considered a work of the highest importance for the civil and literary history of the Muḥammadan people. Ibn K͟hallikān died A.H. 681 (A.D. 1282), but his dictionary received numerous additions from subsequent writers. It has been translated into English by MacGuckin De Slane (Paris, 1843).

BIRDS. It is commonly believed by the Muḥammadans that all kinds of birds, and many, if not all, beasts, have a language by which they communicate their thoughts to each other, and in the Qurʾān (Sūrah xxvii. 16) it is stated that King Solomon was taught the language of birds.

BIʾR ZAMZAM (بئر زمزم‎). The well of Zamzam. [ZAM-ZAM.]

BIʾR MAʿŪNAH (بئر معونة‎). The well of Maʿūnah. A celebrated spot four marches from Makkah, where a party of Muḥammad’s followers were slain by the Banū ʿĀmir and Banū Sulaim. He professed to have received a special message from heaven regarding these martyrs, which runs thus:—“Acquaint our people that we have met our Lord. He is well pleased with us, and we are well pleased with Him.” It is a remarkable verse, as having for some reason or other been cancelled, and removed from the Qurʾān. (Muir’s Life of Mahomet, vol. iii. p. 207.)

BIRTH, Evidence of. According to the Imām Abū Ḥanīfah, if a married woman should claim to be the mother of a child, her claim is not to be valid unless the birth of the child is attested by the testimony of one woman. But in the case of a father, inasmuch [43]as the claim of parentage is a matter which relates purely to himself, his testimony alone is to be accepted.

The testimony of the midwife alone is sufficient with respect to birth, but with regard to parentage, it is established by the fact of the mother of the child being the wife of the husband.

If the woman be in her ʿiddah [ʿIDDAH] from a complete divorce, the testimony of the midwife is not sufficient with respect to birth, but the evidence of two men, or of one man and two women, is requisite. (Hamilton’s Hidāyah, vol. iii. p. 134.)

It is also ruled that it is not lawful for a person to give evidence to anything which he has not seen, except in the cases of birth, death, and marriage. (Vol. ii. 676.)

BISHĀRAH (بشارة‎). [BUSHRA.]

BĪ-SHARʿ (بى شرع‎). Lit. “Without the law.” A term applied to those mystics who totally disregard the teaching of the Qurʾān. Antinomians. [SUFI.]

BISMILLĀH (بسم الله‎). Lit. “In the name of God.” An ejaculation frequently used at the commencement of any undertaking. There are two forms of the Bismillah:—

1. Bi-ʾsmi ʾllāhi ʾr-raḥmāni ʾr-raḥīm, i.e. “In the name of God, the Compassionate, the Merciful.” This is used at the commencement of meals, putting on new clothes, beginning any new work, and at the commencement of books. It occurs at the head of every chapter or sūrah in the Qurʾān, with the exception of the IXth (i.e. the Sūratu ʾl-Barāʾah).

2. Bi-ʾsmi ʾllāhi ʾllāhi ʾl-akbar, i.e. “In the name of God, God the Most Great.” Used at the time of slaughtering of animals, at the commencement of a battle, &c., the attribute of mercy being omitted on such occasions.

The formula Bi-ʾsmi ʾllāhi ʾr-raḥmāni ʾr-raḥīm is of Jewish origin. It was in the first instance taught to the Quraish by Umaiyah of T̤āʾif, the poet, who was a contemporary but somewhat older than Muḥammad, and who, during his mercantile journeys into Arabia Petræa and Syria, had made himself acquainted with the sacred books and doctrines of Jews and Christians. (Kitābu ʾl-Aghānī, 16, Delhi; quoted by Rodwell.)

BIẒĀʿAH (بضاعة‎). A share in a mercantile adventure. Property entrusted to another to be employed in trade.


BLASPHEMY. Arabic كفر‎ kufr. Lit. “to hide” (the truth). It includes a denial of any of the essential principles of Islām.

A Muslim convicted of blasphemy is sentenced to death in Muḥammadan countries. [APOSTASY.]

BLEEDING. Arabic حجامة‎ ḥijāmah. The two great cures recommended by Muḥammad were blood-letting and drinking honey; and he taught that it was unlucky to be bled on a Friday, Saturday, or Sunday, the most lucky day being Tuesday, and the most lucky date the seventeenth of the month. (Mishkāt, xxi. c. 1.)

BLIND, The. Arabic أعمى‎ Aʿmā, pl. ʿUmyān. It is not incumbent upon a blind man to engage in Jihād, or a religious war. And, according to the Imām Abū Ḥanīfah, the evidence of a blind person is not admissible, but the Imām Zufar maintains that such evidence is lawful when it affects a matter in which hearsay prevails. Sales and purchases made by a blind person are lawful. (Hamilton’s Hidāyah, vol. ii. pp. 141, 402, 682.)

BLOOD. The sale of blood is unlawful. (Hamilton’s Hidāyah, vol. ii. p. 428.)

BLOOD, The Avenger of. [QISAS.]


BOASTING. Arabic مفاخرة‎ mufāk͟harah. Muḥammad is related to have said, “I swear by God, a tribe must desist from boasting of their forefathers; for they are nothing more than coals from hell-fire (i.e. they were idolaters); and if you do not leave off boasting, verily you will be more hateful in the sight of God than a black-beetle. Mankind are all the sons of Adam, and Adam was of the earth.” (Mishkāt, xxii. c. 13.)


BOOKS, Stealing. The hand of a thief is not to be cut off for stealing a book, whatever be the subject of which it treats, because the object of the theft can only be the contents of the book, and not the book itself. But yet, it is to be observed, the hand is to be cut off for stealing “an account book,” because in this case it is evident that the object of the theft is not the contents of the book, but the paper and material of which the book is made. (Hamilton’s Hidāyah, vol. ii. 92.)


BREACH OF TRUST. Arabic خيانة‎ k͟hiyānah. The punishment of amputation of the hand is not inflicted for a breach of trust. And if a guest steal the property of his host whilst he is staying in his house, the hand is not cut off. Breach of trust in Muslim law being a less offence than ordinary theft, the punishment for breach of trust is left to the discretion of the judge. (Hamilton’s Hidāyah, vol. ii. pp. 93–102.)

BRIBERY (Arabic رشوة‎ rishwah) is not mentioned in the Qurʾān. In the Fatāwā ʿĀlamgīrī it is stated that presents to magistrates are of various kinds; for example, if a present be made in order to establish a friendship, it is lawful; but if it be given to influence the decision of the judge in the donor’s favour, it is unlawful. It is also said, if a present be made to a judge from a sense of [44]fear, it is lawful to give it, but unlawful to accept it. (Hamilton’s Hidāyah, vol. iii. p. 332.)

BUʿĀS̤, Battle of. Arabic حرب بعاث‎ Ḥarb Buʿās̤. A battle fought between the Banū K͟hazraj and Banū Aus, about six years before the flight of Muḥammad from Makkah.

BUHTĀN (بهتان‎). A false accusation; calumny.

The word occurs twice in the Qurʾān:—

Sūrah iv. 112: “Whoso commits a fault or sin, and throws it upon one who is innocent, he hath to bear calumny (buhtān) and manifest sin.”

Sūrah xxiv. 15: “And why did ye not say when ye heard it, ‘It is not for us to speak of this’? Celebrated be Thy praises, this is a mighty calumny (buhtān).” [BACKBITING.]

BUKĀʾ (بكاء‎). Heb. ‏בָּכָה‎ he wept. Weeping and lamentation for the dead. Immoderate weeping and lamentation over the graves of the dead is clearly forbidden by Muḥammad, who is related to have said, “Whatever is from the eyes (i.e. tears), and whatever is from the heart (i.e. sorrow), are from God; but what is from the hands and tongue is from the devil. Keep yourselves, O women, from wailing, which is the noise of the devil.” (Mishkāt, v. c. vii.) The custom of wailing at the tombs of the dead is, however, common in all Muḥammadan countries. (See Arabian Nights, Lane’s Modern Egyptians, Shaw’s Travels in Barbary.) [BURIAL.]

AL-BUK͟HĀRĪ (البخارى‎). A short title given to the well-known collection of Sunnī traditions by Abū ʿAbdu ʾllāh Muḥammad ibn Ismāʿīl ibn Ibrāhīm ibn al-Mug͟hīrah al-Juʿfī al-Buk͟hārī, who was born at Buk͟hārā, A.H. 194 (A.D. 810), and died at the village of K͟hartang near Samarqand, A.H. 256 (A.D. 870). His compilation comprises upwards of 7,000 traditions of the acts and sayings of the Prophet, selected from a mass of 600,000. His book is called the Ṣaḥīḥ of al-Buk͟hārī, and is said to have been the result of sixteen years labour. It is said that he was so anxious to record only trustworthy traditions that he performed a prostration in worship before the Almighty before he recorded each tradition.

BUK͟HTU NAṢṢAR (بخت نصر‎). “Nebuchadnezzar.” It is thought by Jalālu ʾd-dīn that there is a reference to his army taking Jerusalem in the Qurʾān, Sūrah xvii. 8, “And when the threat for the last (crime) came (to be inflicted, we sent an enemy) to harm your faces, and to enter the temple as they entered it the first time.” The author of the Qāmūs says that Buk͟ht is “son,” and Naṣṣar, “an idol,” i.e. “the son of Naṣṣar.”

BŪLAS (بولس‎). “Despair.” The name of one of the chambers of hell, where the proud will drink of the yellow water of the infernal regions. (Mishkāt, xxii. c. 20.)

BURĀQ (براق‎). Lit. “The bright one.” The animal upon which Muḥammad is said to have performed the nocturnal journey called Miʿrāj. He was a white animal, between the size of a mule and an ass, having two wings. (Majmaʿu ʾl-Biḥār, p. 89.) Muḥammad’s conception of this mysterious animal is not unlike the Assyrian gryphon, of which Mr. Layard gives a sketch. [MIʿRAJ.]

THE ASSYRIAN GRYPHON (Layard ii. 459).

THE ASSYRIAN GRYPHON (Layard ii. 459).

BURGLARY is punished as an ordinary theft, namely by the amputation of the hand, but it is one of the niceties of Muḥammadan law, according to the Ḥanafī code, that if a thief break through the wall of the house, and enter therein, and take the property, and deliver it to an accomplice standing at the entrance of the breach, amputation of the hand is not incurred by either of the parties, because the thief who entered the house did not carry out the property. (Hidāyah, vol. ii. 103.)

BURIAL OF THE DEAD (جنازة‎ Jināzah or Janāzah). The term Janāzah is used both for the bier and for the Muḥammadan funeral service. The burial service is founded upon the practice of Muḥammad, and varies but little in different countries, although the ceremonies connected with the funeral procession are diversified. In Egypt and Buk͟hārā, for instance, the male relations and friends of the deceased precede the corpse, whilst the female mourners follow behind. In India and Afg͟hānistān, women do not usually attend funerals, and the friends and relatives of the deceased walk behind the bier. There is a tradition amongst some Muḥammadans that no one should precede the corpse, as the angels go before. Funeral processions in Afg͟hānistān are usually very simple in their arrangements, and are said to be more in accordance with the practice of the Prophet, than those of Egypt and Turkey. It is considered a very meritorious act to carry the bier, and four from among the near relations, every now and then relieved by an equal number, carry it on their shoulders. Unlike our Christian custom of walking slowly to the grave, the Muḥammadans carry their dead quickly to the place of interment; for Muḥammad is related to have said, that it is good to carry the dead quickly to the grave, to cause the righteous person to arrive soon at happiness, [45]and if he be a bad man, it is well to put wickedness away from one’s shoulders. Funerals should always be attended on foot; for it is said that Muḥammad on one occasion rebuked his people for following on horse-back. “Have you no shame?” said he, since God’s angels go on foot, and you go upon the backs of quadrupeds?” It is a highly meritorious act to attend a funeral, whether it be that of a Muslim, a Jew, or a Christian. There are, however, two traditions which appear to mark a change of feeling on the part of the Prophet of Arabia towards the Jews and Christians. “A bier passed by the Prophet, and he stood up; and it was said to the Prophet, this is the bier of a Jew. ‘It is the holder of a soul,’ he replied, ‘from which we should take warning and fear.’ ” This rule is said to have been abrogated, for, “on one occasion the Prophet was sitting on the road when a bier passed, and the Prophet disliked that the bier of a Jew should be higher than his head, and he therefore stood up.” (Mishkāt, v. c. v.) Notwithstanding these contradictory traditions, we believe that in all countries Muḥammadans are wont to pay great respect to the funerals of both Jews and Christians.

The Muḥammadan funeral service is not recited in the graveyard, it being too polluted a place for so sacred an office; but either in a mosque, or in some open space near the dwelling of the deceased person or the graveyard. The owner of the corpse, i.e. the nearest relative, is the proper person to recite the service; but it is usually said by the family Imām, or the Qāẓī.

The following is the order of the service:—

Some one present calls out,—

“Here begin the prayers for the dead.”

Then those present arrange themselves in three, five, or seven rows opposite the corpse, with their faces Qiblah-wards (i.e. towards Makkah). The Imām stands in front of the ranks opposite the head (the Shīʿahs stand opposite the loins of a man) of the corpse, if it be that of a male, or the waist, if it be that of a female.

The whole company having taken up the Qiyām, or standing position, the Imām recites the Nīyah.

“I purpose to perform prayers to God for this dead person, consisting of four Takbīrs.”

Then placing his hands to the lobes of his ears, he says the first Takbīr.

“God is great!”

Then folding his hands, the right hand placed upon the left, below the navel, he recites the Subḥān:—

“Holiness to Thee, O God,

And to Thee be praise.

Great is Thy Name.

Great is Thy Greatness.

Great is Thy Praise.

There is no deity but Thee.”

Then follows the second Takbīr:—

“God is great!”

Then the Durūd:—

“O God, have mercy on Muḥammad and upon his descendants, as Thou didst bestow mercy, and peace, and blessing, and compassion, and great kindness upon Abraham and upon his descendants.

“Thou art praised, and Thou art great!

“O God, bless Muḥammad and his descendants, as Thou didst bless and didst have compassion and great kindness upon Abraham and upon his descendants.”

Then follows the third Takbīr:—

“God is great!”

After which the following prayer (Duʿā) is recited:—

“O God, forgive our living and our dead and those of us who are present, and those who are absent, and our children, and our full grown persons, our men and our women. O God, those whom Thou dost keep alive amongst us, keep alive in Islām, and those whom Thou causest to die, let them die in the Faith.”

Then follows the fourth Takbīr:—

“God is great!”

Turning the head round to the right, he says:—

“Peace and mercy be to Thee.”

Turning the head round to the left, he says:—

“Peace and mercy be to Thee.”

The Takbīr is recited by the Imām aloud, but the Subḥān, the Salām, the Durūd, and the Duʿā, are recited by the Imām and the people in a low voice.

The people then seat themselves on the ground, and raise their hands in silent prayer in behalf of the deceased’s soul, and afterwards addressing the relatives they say, “It is the decree of God.” To which the chief mourner replies, “I am pleased with the will of God.” He then gives permission to the people to retire by saying, “There is permission to depart.”

Those who wish to return to their houses do so at this time, and the rest proceed to the grave. The corpse is then placed on its back in the grave, with the head to the north and feet to the south, the face being turned towards Makkah. The persons who place the corpse in the grave repeat the following sentence: “We commit thee to earth in the name of God and in the religion of the Prophet.”

The bands of the shroud having been loosed, the recess, which is called the laḥd, is closed in with unburnt bricks and the grave filled in with earth. [GRAVE.] In some countries it is usual to recite verse 57 of the XXth Sūrah of the Qurʾān as the clods of earth are thrown into the grave; but this practice is objected to by the Wahhābīs, and by many learned divines. The verse is as follows:—

“From it (the earth) have We (God) created you, and unto it will We return you, and out of it will We bring you forth the second time.”

After the burial, the people offer a fātiḥah (i.e. the first chapter of the Qurʾān) in the name of the deceased, and again when they have proceeded about forty paces from the grave they offer another fātiḥah; for at this [46]juncture, it is said, the two angels Munkar and Nakīr examine the deceased as to his faith. [PUNISHMENTS OF THE GRAVE.] After this, food is distributed to beggars and religious mendicants as a propitiatory offering to God, in the name of the deceased person.

If the grave be for the body of a woman, it should be to the height of a man’s chest, if for a man, to the height of the waist. At the bottom of the grave the recess is made on the side to receive the corpse, which is called the lāḥid or laḥd. The dead are seldom interred in coffins, although they are not prohibited.

To build tombs with stones or burnt bricks, or to write a verse of the Qurʾān upon them, is forbidden in the Ḥadīs̤; but large stone and brick tombs are common to all Muḥammadan countries, and very frequently they bear inscriptions.

On the third day after the burial of the dead, it is usual for the relatives to visit the grave, and to recite selections from the Qurʾān. Those who can afford to pay Maulavīs, employ these learned men to recite the whole of the Qurʾān at the graves of their deceased relatives; and the Qurʾān is divided into sections to admit of its being recited by the several Maulavīs at once. During the days of mourning the relatives abstain from wearing any article of dress of a bright colour, and their soiled garments remain unchanged.

A funeral procession in Egypt is graphically described by Mr. Lane in his Modern Egyptians. We give the account as it contrasts strikingly with the simple processions of Sunnī Muḥammadans in India.

“The first persons are about six or more poor men, called ‘Yamanīyah,’ mostly blind, who proceed two and two, or three and three, together. Walking at a moderate pace, or rather slowly, they chant incessantly, in a melancholy tone, the profession of faith (‘There is no deity but God; Muhammad is God’s Apostle; God favour and preserve him!’). They are followed by some male relations and friends of the deceased, and, in many cases, by two or more persons of some sect of darweshes, bearing the flags of their order. This is a general custom at the funeral of a darwesh. Next follow three or four or more schoolboys; one of them carries a mus̤ḥaf (or copy of the Qurʾān), or a volume consisting of one of the thirty sections of the Qurʾān, placed upon a kind of desk formed of palm-sticks, and covered over, generally with an embroidered kerchief. These boys chant, in a higher and livelier voice than the Yamanīyah, usually some words of a poem called the Ḥashrīyah, descriptive of the events of the last day, the judgment, &c. The schoolboys immediately precede the bier, which is borne head-foremost. Three or four friends of the deceased usually carry it for a short distance; then three or four other friends bear it a little further; and then these are in like manner relieved. Casual passengers, also, often take part in this service, which is esteemed highly meritorious. Behind the bier walk the female mourners; sometimes a group of more than a dozen, or twenty; with their hair dishevelled, though generally concealed by the head-veil; crying and shrieking, as before described; and often, the hired mourners accompany them, celebrating the praises of the deceased. Among the women, the relations and domestics of the deceased are distinguished by a strip of linen or cotton stuff or muslin, generally blue, bound round the head, and tied in a single knot behind: the ends hanging down a few inches. Each of these also carries a handkerchief, usually dyed blue, which she sometimes holds over her shoulders, and at other times twirls with both hands over her head, or before her face. The cries of the women, the lively chanting of the youths, and the deep tones uttered by the Yamanīyah, compose a strange discord.

“The funeral procession of a man of wealth, or of a person of the middle classes, is sometimes preceded by three or four or more camels, bearing bread and water to give to the poor at the tomb, and is composed of a more numerous and varied assemblage of persons. The foremost of these are the Yamanīyah, who chant the profession of the faith, as described above. They are generally followed by some male friends of the deceased, and some learned and devout persons who have been invited to attend the funeral. Next follows a group of four or more faqīhs, chanting the ‘Sūratu ʾl-Anʿām’ (the VIth chapter of the Qurʾān); and sometimes, another group, chanting the ‘Sūratu Yā-sīn’ (the XXXVIth chapter); another, chanting the ‘Sūratu ʾl-Kahf’ (the XVIIIth chapter); and another chanting the ‘Sūratu ʾd-Duk͟hān’ (the XLIVth chapter). These are followed by some munshids, singing the ‘Burdah;’ and these by certain persons called ‘Aṣḥābu ʾl-Aḥzāb,’ who are members of religious orders founded by celebrated shaikhs. There are generally four or more of the order of the Ḥizbu ʾs-Sādāt, a similar group of the Ḥizbu ʾsh-Shāzilī, and another of the Ḥizbu ʾsh-Shaʿrāwī; each group chants a particular form of prayer. After them are generally borne two or more half-furled flags, the banners of one or other of the principal orders of darweshes. Then follow the school-boys, the bier, and the female mourners, as in the procession before described, and, perhaps, the led horses of the bearers, if these be men of rank. A buffalo, to be sacrificed at the tomb, where its flesh is to be distributed to the poor, sometimes closes the procession.

“The funeral of a devout shaikh, or of one of the great ʿUlamā, is still more numerously attended, and the bier of such a person is not covered with a shawl. A ‘walī’ is further honoured in his funeral by a remarkable custom. Women follow his bier, but, instead of wailing, as they would after the corpse of an ordinary mortal, they rend the air with the shrill and quavering cries of joy called ‘zaghārīt̤’; and if these cries are discontinued but for a minute, the bearers of the bier protest that they cannot proceed, that a supernatural power rivets them to the spot on [47]which they stand. Very often, it is said, a ‘walī’ impels the bearers of his corpse to a particular spot. The following anecdote, describing an ingenious mode of puzzling a dead saint in a case of this kind, was related to me by one of my friends. Some men were lately bearing the corpse of a ‘walī’ to a tomb prepared for it in the great cemetery on the north of the metropolis, but on arriving at the gate called Bābu ʾn-Naṣr, which leads to the cemetery, they found themselves unable to proceed further, from the cause above-mentioned. ‘It seems,’ said one of the bearers, ‘that the shaikh is determined not to be buried in the cemetery of Bābu ʾn-Naṣr, and what shall we do?’ They were all much perplexed, but being as obstinate as the saint himself, they did not immediately yield to his caprice. Retreating a few paces, and then advancing with a quick step, they thought by such an impetus to force the corpse through the gateway; but their efforts were unsuccessful; and the same experiment they repeated in vain several times. They then placed the bier on the ground to rest and consult; and one of them, beckoning away his comrades to a distance beyond the hearing of the dead saint, said to them, ‘Let us take up the bier again, and turn it round several times till the shaikh becomes giddy; he then will not know in what direction we are going, and we may take him easily through the gate.’ This they did; the saint was puzzled as they expected, and quietly buried in the place which he had so striven to avoid.

“In the funerals of females and boys, the bier is usually only preceded by the Yamanīyah, chanting the profession of the faith, and by some male relations of the deceased; and followed by the female mourners; unless the deceased were of a family of wealth, or of considerable station in the world; in which case, the funeral procession is distinguished by some additional display. I shall give a short description of one of the most genteel and decorous funerals of this kind that I have witnessed: it was that of a young, unmarried lady. Two men, each bearing a large, furled, green flag, headed the procession, preceding the Yamanīyah, who chanted in an unusually low and solemn manner. These faqīrs, who were in number about eight, were followed by a group of fakīhs, chanting a chapter of the Qurʾān. Next after the latter was a man bearing a large branch of ‘Nabq’ (or lote-tree), an emblem of the deceased. On each side of him walked a person bearing a tall staff or cane, to the top of which were attached several hoops ornamented with strips of various coloured paper. These were followed by two Turkish soldiers, side by side, one bearing, on a small round tray, a gilt silver ‘qumqum’ of rose-water, and the other bearing, on a similar tray, a ‘mibk͟harah’ of gilt silver, in which some odoriferous substance (as benzoin, or frankincense) was burning. These vessels diffused the odour of their contents on the way, and were afterwards used to perfume the sepulchral vault. Passengers were occasionally sprinkled with the rose-water. Next followed four men, each of whom bore, upon a small tray, several small lighted tapers of wax, stuck in lumps of paste of ‘ḥinnā.’ The bier was covered with rich shawls, and its shāhid was decorated with handsome ornaments of the head, having, besides the ṣafā, a ‘quṣṣah almās’ (a long ornament of gold and diamonds worn over the forehead), and, upon its flat top, a rich diamond qurṣ. These were the jewels of the deceased, or were, perhaps, as is often the case, borrowed for the occasion. The female mourners, in number about seven or eight, clad in the usual manner of the ladies of Egypt (with the black silk covering, &c.), followed the bier, not on foot, as is the common custom in funerals in this country, but mounted on high-saddled asses; and only the last two or three of them were wailing; these being, probably, hired mourners. In another funeral procession of a female, the daughter of a Turk of high rank, the Yamanīyah were followed by six slaves, walking two by two. The first two slaves bore each a silver qumqum of rose-water, which they sprinkled on the passengers; and one of them honoured me so profusely as to wet my dress very uncomfortably; after which, he poured a small quantity into my hands; and I wetted my face with it, according to custom. Each of the next two bore a silver mibk͟harah, with perfume; and the other two carried a silver ʾāzqi (or hanging censer), with burning charcoal of frankincense. The jewels on the shāhid of the bier were of a costly description. Eleven ladies, mounted on high-saddled asses, together with several naddābahs, followed.”

BURNING THE DEAD. There is no express injunction, in either the Qurʾān or the Traditions, regarding the burning of dead bodies, although the burning of the living is strictly forbidden. For Muḥammad said, “Punish not with God’s punishment (which is fire), for it is not fit for anyone to punish with fire but God.” (Mishkāt, xiv. c. v. part 1.)

The teaching of the Traditions is that a dead body is as fully conscious of pain as a living body, for ʿĀyishah said, that the Prophet said, “The breaking of the bones of a corpse is the same as doing it in life.” (Mishkāt, v. c. vi. part 2.)

It is, therefore, pretty clearly established that cremation of the dead is strictly forbidden by the Muḥammadan religion. There is, however, nothing to confirm the impression that the burning of a corpse in any way prevents its soul entering paradise.

BURNING TO DEATH is strictly forbidden by Muslim law. ʿIkrimah relates that some apostates from Islām were brought to the K͟halīfah ʿAlī, and he burnt them; and when Ibn ʿAbbās heard of it, he said, “Had they been brought to me, I would not have burnt them; for the Prophet said, ‘Punish not with God’s punishment. Verily it is not fit for anyone to punish with fire but God.’ ” (Mishkāt, xiv. c. v. part 1.)


BURQAʿ (برقع‎). The veil or covering used for the seclusion of women when walking abroad. [VEILING OF WOMEN.]

BURŪJ (بروج‎). Lit. “Towers,” which some interpret as real towers wherein the angels keep watch. A term used for the twelve signs of the zodiac. [SIGNS OF THE ZODIAC.] Al-Burūj is the title of the LXXXVth Sūrah of the Qurʾān.

BURYING OF THE DEAD. It is said by commentators that God taught mankind to bury their dead when “God sent a crow to scratch the earth, to show him (Cain) how he might hide his brother’s body.” (Qurʾān, Sūrah v. 34; Tafsīr-i-Ḥusainī, in loco.) The custom of burying their dead is universal in Islām. The ceremonies connected with funerals will be found in the article on Burial. [BURIAL.]

BURYING-GROUND. Arabic مقبرة‎ maqbarat or maqbarah, “The place of graves.” Persian Qabr-gāh, or Qabristān. They are sometimes spoken of by religious Muslims as Marqad, a “cemetery” or “sleeping-place,” but the name has not obtained a general application to burial-grounds in the East as it has in the West. They are generally situated outside the city, the graves being covered with pebbles, and distinguished by headstones, those on the graves of men being with a turban-like head. The graves are dug from north to south. The grave-yards are usually much neglected. The Wahhābīs hold it to be a meritorious act, in accordance with the injunctions of the Prophet, to neglect the graves of the dead, the erection of brick tombs being forbidden. (Hidāyah, Arabic ed., vol. i. p. 90.) A grave-yard does not become public property until the proprietor formally makes a gift or bequest of it. (Hidāyah, vol ii., p. 357.)

BUSHRĀ (بشرى‎). “Good news;” “the gospel.” A word used in the Traditions for the publication of Islām. (Mishkāt, xxiv. c. i.) “Accept good news, O ye sons of Tamīm,” which ʿAbdu ʾl-Ḥaqq says means “embrace Islām.”


BUZURG (بزرگ‎). Lit. “great.” A Persian word used in the East for a saintly person, an old man, or a person of rank.


CÆSAR. The Arabic and Persian form of the Latin Cæsar is Qaiṣar. The word occurs in the traditions of the Ṣaḥīḥu ʾl-Muslim (vol. ii. p. 99), where it is applied to the Emperor Heraclius, who received a letter from Muḥammad inviting him to Islām, when he was at Edessa on his way to Jerusalem, August, A.D. 628. The origin of the title is uncertain. Spartianus, in his life of Aelius verus (c. ii.), mentions four different opinions respecting its origin: (1) That the word signified an elephant in the language of the Moors, and was given as a surname to one of the Julii because he had killed an elephant; or (2) That it was given to one of the Julii because he had been cut (caesus) out of his mother’s womb after her death; or (3) Because he had been born with a great quantity of hair (caesaries) on his head; or (4) Because he had azure-coloured (caesii) eyes. Of these opinions the second is the one adopted by the Arabic-Persian Dictionary the G͟hiyās̤u ʾl-Lug͟hāt.

The first of the Julian family who occurs in history as having obtained the surname of Cæsar is Sex. Julius Cæsar, prætor in B.C. 208. It was first assumed as an imperial title by Augustus as the adopted son of the dictator, and was by Augustus handed down to his adopted son Tiberius. It continued to be used by Caligula, Claudius, and Nero, as members, either by adoption or female descent, of Cæsar’s family; but though the family became extinct with Nero, succeeding emperors still retained it as part of their titles, and it was the practice to prefix it to their own name, as, for instance, Imperator Cæsar Domitianus Augustus. The title was superseded in the Greek Empire under Alexis Commenus by that of Sebastocrator. In the west, it was conferred on Charles the Great, and was borne by those who succeeded him on the imperial throne. Although this dignity came to an end with the resignation of Francis II. in 1806, the title Kaiser is still assumed by the Emperors of Austria and Germany, and more recently by the Queen of England as Qaiṣar-i-Hind, or Empress of India.

CAIN. Arabic قابل‎ Qābil (Qābīl). The account of Cain and Abel as given in the Qurʾān, Sūrah v. 30, will be found in the article ABEL. The Commentators say that the occasion of making the offering was as follows: Each of them being born with a twin sister, Adam by God’s direction ordered Cain to marry Abel’s twin sister, and Abel to marry Cain’s, but that Cain refused. They were then ordered to submit the question by making a sacrifice, and Cain offered a sheaf of the very worst of his corn, whilst Abel offered the best fatted lamb of his flock. (Tafsīru ʾl-Baiẓāwī, in loco.)

CALEB. Arabic كالب‎ Kālab. The son of Jephunneh (Yūfannah). He is not mentioned in the Qurʾān, but his name occurs in the Tafsīru ʾl-Baiẓāwī, in Sūrah iv. 13.


CALF, GOLDEN, The, which the Israelites worshipped, is mentioned five times in the Qurʾān. Sūrahs ii. 48, 88; iv. 152; vii. 146; xx. 90. In Sūrah xx. 90, the person who made it is said to be as-Sāmirī. [MOSES.]


CALUMNY is expressed by the word G͟hībah, which means anything whispered to the detriment of an absent person, although it be true. Buhtān, expressing a false accusation. It is strictly forbidden in both the Qurʾān and Ḥadīs̤. [GHIBAH.]

CAMEL. Arabic Ibil. In the Qurʾān (Sūrah lxxxviii. 17), the institution of camels to ride upon is mentioned as an example of God’s wisdom and kindness: “Do they not look then at the camel how she is created.” As a proof of the great usefulness of the camel to the Arabian, and of the manner in which its very existence has influenced his language, it is remarkable that in almost every page of the Arabic Dictionary Qāmūs (as also in Richardson’s edition), there is some reference to a camel.

Camels are a lawful sacrifice on the great festivals and on other occasions. And although it is lawful to slay a camel by ẕabḥ, or by merely cutting its throat, the most eligible method, according to Muslim law, is to slay a camel by naḥr, or by spearing it in the hollow of the throat near the breast-bone, because, says Abū Ḥanīfah, it is according to the sunnah, or practice of Muḥammad, and also because in that part of the throat three blood-vessels of a camel are combined. (Hamilton’s Hidāyah, vol. iv. p. 72.) There is zakāt, or legal alms, on camels. [ZAKAT.] Muḥammadan law rules that the person who leads a string of camels is responsible for anything any one of the camels may injure or tread down. (Ibid., iv. 379.)

CANAAN. Arabic Kanʿān. According to al-Jalālain and al-Baiẓāwī, the commentators, Canaan was the unbelieving son of Noah, but, according to the Qāmūs dictionary, the grandson, who was drowned in the flood, and whose case is recorded in the Qurʾān (Sūrah xi. 44). He is said to be a son of Noah’s wife Wāʿilah, who was an infidel. “And the Ark moved on them amid waves like mountains: and Noah called to his son—for he was apart—‘Embark with us, O my child! and be not with the unbelievers.’ He said, ‘I will betake me to a mountain that shall secure me from the water.’ He said, ‘None shall be secure this day from the decree of God, save him on whom He shall have mercy.’ And a wave passed between them, and he was among the drowned.”

CAPTIVES. Asīr, pl. Usārā and Usarāʾ. With respect to captives, the Imām, or leader of the army, has it in his choice to slay them, “because the Prophet put captives to death, and also because slaying them terminates wickedness”; or, he may if he choose make them slaves. It is not lawful for the Imām to send captives back to their home and country, because that would be to strengthen the cause of infidelity against Islām. If they become Muslims after their capture, they must not be put to death, but they may be sold after their conversion. A converted captive must not be suffered to return to his country, and it is not lawful to release a captive gratuitously. The only method of dividing plunder which consists of slaves, is by selling them at the end of the expedition and then dividing the money. (Hidāyah, ii. 160.) [SLAVERY.]

CARAVAN. Persian Kārwān, Arabic Qāfilah. As the roads in the East are often unsafe and lead through dreary wastes, merchants and travellers associate together for mutual defence and comfort. These companies are called both kārwān and qāfilah. The party is always under the direction of a paid director, who is called Kārwān- or Qāfilah-Bāshī. If a caravan is attacked on the road, the Muḥammadan law allows the punishment of crucifixion for the offence. (Hidāyah, vol. ii. 131.) But it is a curious provision of the Muslim law that if some of the travellers in a caravan commit a robbery upon others of the same caravan, punishment (i.e. of amputation) is not incurred by them. (Vol. ii. 137.)

CARRION (Arabic Maitah) is forbidden in the Qurʾān, Sūrah ii. 80. “That which dieth of itself, and blood, and swine’s flesh, and that over which any other name than that of God hath been invoked, is forbidden. But he who shall partake of them by constraint, without lust or wilfulness, no sin shall be upon him.”

CASTING LOTS. Zalam, or casting lots by shooting arrows, was an ancient Arabic custom, which is forbidden by Muḥammad in his Qurʾān, Sūrah v. 4; but qurʿah, or casting lots, in its ordinary sense, is not forbidden, for ʿĀyishah relates that when the Prophet went on a journey, he used to cast lots as to which wife he should take with him. (Mishkāt Bābu ʾl-Qaṣam.)

CATS. Arabic Hirrah. According to a Ḥadīs̤ of Abū Qutādah, who was one of the Companions, Muḥammad said, “Cats are not impure, they keep watch around us.” He used water from which a cat had drunk for his purifications, and his wife ʿĀyishah ate from a vessel from which a cat had eaten. (Mishkāt, book iii., c. 10, pt. 2.)

CATTLE. Arabic Anʿām. They are said in the Qurʾān to be the gift of God, Sūrah xl. 79, “God it is who hath made for you cattle, that ye may ride on some and eat others.”

Cattle kept for the purpose of labour, such as carrying burthens, drawing ploughs, &c., are not subject to zakāt, neither is there zakāt on cattle who are left to forage for one half year or more. (Hidāyah, i. 18.)

Al-Anʿām is the title of the sixth Sūrah of the Qurʾān.


CAVE, The Companions of the (Arabic Aṣḥābu ʾl-kahf), or the Seven Sleepers of Ephesus, form the subject of one of the chapters of the Qurʾān, Sūrah xviii. 6. [ASHABU ʾL-KAHF.]

CELIBACY (Arabic ʿUzūbah), although not absolutely condemned by Muḥammad, is held to be a lower form of life to that of marriage. It is related that ʿUs̤mān ibn Maz̤ʿūn wished to lead a celibate life, and the Prophet forbade him, for, said he, “When a Muslim marries he perfects his religion.” (Mishkāt, book xii. c. xx.)

CEYLON. Arabic Sarandīb. The Commentators say that when Adam and Eve were cast out of Paradise, Adam fell on the island of Ceylon, and Eve near Jiddah in Arabia, and that after a separation of 200 years, Adam was, on his repentance, conducted by the angel Gabriel to a mountain near Makkah, where he found and knew his wife, the mountain being named ʿArafah; and that afterwards he retired with her to Ceylon, when they continued to propagate their species. (D’Herbelot, Bibl. Orient., p. 55.)

CHASTITY. “Neither their (the Muslims’) tenets nor their practice will in any respect bear to come into competition with Christian, or even with Jewish morality.… For instance, we call the Muslims chaste because they abstained from indiscriminate profligacy, and kept carefully within the bounds prescribed as licit by their Prophet. But those bounds, besides the utmost freedom of divorce and change of wives, admitted an illimitable licence of cohabitation with ‘all that the right hand of the believer might possess,’ or, in other words, with any possible number of damsels he might choose to purchase, or receive in gift, or take captive in war.” (Muir’s Life of Mahomet, vol. i. 272.) [CONCUBINAGE, SLAVES, MUTʿAH, DIVORCE, MARRIAGE.]

CHARITY, as it implies tenderness and affection, is expressed by ḥubb, or maḥabbah; as it denotes almsgiving, it is ṣadaqah. He who is liberal and charitable to the poor is called muḥibbu ʾl-fuqarāʾ.

CHERUBIM. Arabic Karūbī, pl. Karūbīn; Lit. “Those who are near.” Heb. ‏כְּרוּבִים‎. The word karūbīn is used by the commentator al-Baiẓāwī, for the angels mentioned in the Qurʾān, Sūrah xl. 70: “Those around it (the throne of God) celebrate the praise of their Lord, and believe in Him, and ask pardon for those who believe.” Al-Baiẓāwī says the Karūbīn are the highest rank, and the first created angels. Ḥusain says there are 70,000 ranks of them round the throne of God. (Tafsīru ʾl-Baiẓāwī, Tafsīru Ḥusain, in loco.)

CHESS. Arabic Shat̤ranj. According to the Hidāyah, “It is an abomination to play at chess, dice, or any other game, for if anything be staked it is gambling (maisir), which is expressly forbidden in the Qurʾān; or if, on the other hand, nothing be hazarded, it is useless and vain. Besides, the Prophet has declared all the entertainments of a Muslim to be vain except three: the breaking in of his horse, the drawing of his bow, and playing and amusing himself with his wives. Several of the learned, however, deem the game at chess lawful as having a tendency to quicken the understanding. This is the opinion of ash-Shāfiʿī. If a man play at chess for a stake, it destroys the integrity of his character, but if he do not play for a stake, the integrity of his character is not affected. (Hamilton’s Hidāyah, vol. iv. p. 122.)

CHILDREN. Arabic Aulād. There are no special injunctions in the Qurʾān regarding the customs to be observed at the birth of an infant (circumcision not being even once mentioned in that book), nor with reference to the training and instruction of the young; but the subject is frequently referred to in the Traditions and in Muḥammadan books on Ethics. Muḥammadans have so largely incorporated the customs of the Hindus in India with their own, especially those observed at the births of children, that it is sometimes difficult to distinguish those which are special characteristics of Islām; many of the customs recorded in Herklots’ Musalmans, for example, being merely those common to Hindus as well as Muḥammadans. We shall, however, endeavour to describe those which are generally admitted to have some authority in the precepts of the Muslim religion.

(1.) At the birth of a child, after he has been properly washed with water and bound in swaddling clothes, he is carried by the midwife to the assembly of male relatives and friends, who have met on the occasion, when the chief Maulawī, or some person present, recites the Aẕān, or summons to prayer [AZAN], in the infant’s right ear, and the Iqāmah, which is the Aẕān with the addition of the words, “We are standing up for prayers” [IQAMAH], in the left ear; a custom which is founded on the example of the Prophet, who is related to have done so at the birth of his grandson Ḥasan (Mishkāt, book xviii. c. iv. 2). The Maulawī then chews a little date fruit and inserts it into the infant’s mouth, a custom also founded upon the example of Muḥammad. (Mishkāt, book xviii. c. iv. 1.) This ceremony being over, alms are distributed, and fātiḥahs are recited for the health and prosperity of the child. According to the traditions, the amount of silver given in alms should be of the same weight as the hair on the infant’s head—the child’s head being shaved for this purpose. (Mishkāt, ibid., part 2.) The friends and neighbours then visit the home, and bring presents, and pay congratulatory compliments on the joyful occasion.

(2.) The naming of the child should, according to the Traditions (Mishkāt, ibid.), be [51]given on the seventh day; the child being either named after some member of the family, or after some saint venerated by the family, or some name suggested by the auspicious hour, the planet, or the sign of the zodiac. [EXORCISM.]

(3.) On this, the seventh day, is observed also the ceremony of ʿAqīqah, established by Muḥammad himself (Bābu ʾl-ʿAqīqah in Arabic Ed. Ṣaḥīḥ of Abū Dāūd, vol. ii. p. 36). It consists of a sacrifice to God, in the name of the child, of two he-goats for a boy, and one he-goat for a girl. The goats must be not above a year old, and without spot or blemish. The animal is dressed and cooked, and whilst the friends eat of it they offer the following prayer:—“O God! I offer to thee instead of my own offspring, life for life, blood for blood, head for head, bone for bone, hair for hair, skin for skin. In the name of the great God, I do sacrifice this goat!”

(4.) The mother is purified on the fortieth day, when she is at liberty to go about as usual, and it is on this day that the infant is generally placed in the swinging cradle peculiar to eastern households. It is a day of some rejoicing amongst the members of the Ḥaram.

(5.) As soon as the child is able to talk, or when he has attained the age of four years, four months, and four days, he is taught the Bismillah; that is, to recite the inscription which occurs at the commencement of the Qurʾān: “Bi-ʾsmi ʾllāhi ʾr-raḥmāni ʾr-raḥīm.” In the name of God the Merciful, the Gracious. After this ceremony, the child is sent to school and taught the alphabet, and to recite certain chapters of the Qurʾān by rote.

(6.) According to the opinion of Sunnī doctors, the circumcision of the child should take place in his seventh year; the operation being generally performed by the barber. [CIRCUMCISION.] The child is not required to observe all the customs of the Muslim law until he has arrived at puberty [PUBERTY]; but it is held incumbent on parents and guardians to teach him the prayers as soon as he has been circumcised.

(7.) The time when the child has finished reciting the whole of the Qurʾān, once through, is also regarded as an important epoch in the life of a child. On this occasion the scholar makes his obeisance to his tutor and presents him with trays of sweetmeats, a suit of clothes, and money.

As we have already remarked, the instruction of youth is a frequent subject of discussion in books of Muslim Ethics. The following, which is taken from the Ak͟hlāq-i-Jalālī, is an interesting specimen of Muḥammadan ideas on the subject:—The first requisite is to employ a proper nurse of a well-balanced temperament, for the qualities, both temperamental and spiritual, of the nurse are communicated to the infant. Next, since we are recommended by the Traditions to give the name on the seventh day (after birth), the precept had better be conformed to. In delaying it, however, there is this advantage, that time is given for a deliberate selection of an appropriate name. For, if we give the child an ill-assorted one, his whole life is embittered in consequence. Hence caution in determining the name is one of the parent’s obligations towards his offspring.

If we would prevent the child’s acquiring culpable habits, we must apply ourselves to educate him as soon as weaned. For though men have a capacity for perfection, the tendency to vice is naturally implanted in the soul. The first requisite is to restrain him absolutely from all acquaintance with those excesses which are characterised as vice. For the mind of children is like a clear tablet, equally open to any inscription. Next to that, he should be taught the institutes of religion and rules of propriety, and, according as his power and capacity may admit, confined to their practice, and reprehended and restrained from their neglect. Thus, at the age of seven, we are told by the Traditions to enjoin him merely to say his prayers; at the age of ten, if he omits them, to admonish him by blows. By praising the good and censuring the bad, we should render him emulous of right and apprehensive of wrong. We should commend him when he performs a creditable action, and intimidate him when he commits a reprehensible one; and yet we should avoid, if possible, subjecting him to positive censure, imputing it rather to oversight, lest he grow audacious. If he keep his fault a secret, we are not to rend away the disguise; but if he do so repeatedly, we must rebuke him severely in private, aggravating the heinousness of such a practice, and intimidating him from its repetition. We must beware, however, of too much frequency of detection and reproof, for fear of his growing used to censure, and contracting a habit of recklessness; and thus, according to the proverb, “Men grow eager for that which is withheld,” feeling a tendency to repeat the offence. For these reasons we should prefer to work by enhancing the attraction of virtue.

On meat, drink, and fine clothing, he must be taught to look with contempt, and deeply impressed with the conviction that it is the practice of women only to prize the colouring and figuring of dress; that men ought to hold themselves above it. The proprieties of meal-taking are those in which he should be earliest instructed, as far as he can acquire them. He should be made to understand that the proper end of eating is health and not gratification; that food and drink are a sort of medicine for the cure of hunger and thirst; and just as medicines are only to be taken in the measure of need, according as sickness may require their influence, food and drink are only to be used in quantity sufficient to satisfy hunger and remove thirst. He should be forbidden to vary his diet, and taught to prefer limiting himself to a single dish. His appetite should also be checked, that he may be satisfied with meals at the stated hours. Let him not be a lover of delicacies. He should now and then be kept on dry bread only, in order that in time of need he may be [52]able to subsist on that. Habits like these are better than riches. Let his principal meal be made in the evening rather than the morning, or he will be overpowered by drowsiness and lassitude during the day. Flesh let him have sparingly, or he will grow heavy and dull. Sweetmeats and other such aperient food should be forbidden him, as likewise all liquid at the time of meals. Incumbent as it is on all men to eschew strong drinks, there are obvious reasons why it is superlatively so on boys, impairing them both in mind and body, and leading to anger, rashness, audacity, and levity, qualities which such a practice is sure to confirm. Parties of this nature he should not be allowed unnecessarily to frequent, nor to listen to reprehensible conversation. His food should not be given to him till he has despatched his tasks, unless suffering from positive exhaustion. He must be forbidden to conceal any of his actions, lest he grow bold in impropriety; for, manifestly, the motive to concealment can be no other than an idea that they are culpable. Sleeping in the day and sleeping overmuch at night should be prohibited. Soft clothing and all the uses of luxury, such as cool retreats in the hot season, and fires and fur in the cold, he should be taught to abstain from; he should be inured to exercise, foot-walking, horse-riding, and all other appropriate accomplishments.

Next, let him learn the proprieties of conversation and behaviour. Let him not be tricked out with trimmings of the hair and womanly attention to dress, nor be presented with rings till the proper time for wearing them. Let him be forbidden to boast to his companions of his ancestry or worldly advantages. Let him be restrained from speaking untruths or from swearing in any case, whether true or false; for an oath is wrongful in anyone, and repugnant to the letter of the Traditions, saving when required by the interest of the public. And even though oaths may be requisite to men, to boys they never can be so. Let him be trained to silence, to speaking only when addressed, to listening in the presence of his elders, and expressing himself correctly.

For an instructor he should have a man of principle and intelligence, well acquainted with the discipline of morals, fond of cleanliness, noted for stateliness, dignity, and humanity, well acquainted with the dispositions of kings, with the etiquette of dining in their company, and with the terms of intercourse with all classes of mankind. It is desirable that others of his kind, and especially sons of noblemen, whose manners have always a distinguished elegance, should be at school with him, so that in their society he may escape lassitude, learn demeanour, and exert himself with emulation in his studies. If the instructor correct him with blows, he must be forbidden to cry, for that is the practice of slaves and imbeciles. On the other hand, the instructor must be careful not to resort to blows, except he is witness of an offence openly committed. When compelled to inflict them, it is desirable in the outset to make them small in number and great in pain; otherwise the warning is not so efficacious, and he may grow audacious enough to repeat the offence.

Let him be encouraged to liberality, and taught to look with contempt on the perishable things of this world; for more ill comes from the love of money than from the simoom of the desert or the serpent of the field. The Imām al-G͟hazzālī, in commenting on the text, “Preserve me and them from idolatry,” says that by idols is here meant gold and silver; and Abraham’s prayer is that he and his descendants may be kept far removed from the worship of gold and silver, and from fixing their affections on them; because the love of these was the root of all evil. In his leisure hours he may be allowed to play, provided it does not lead to excess of fatigue or the commission of anything wrong.

When the discerning power begins to preponderate, it should be explained to him that the original object of worldly possessions is the maintenance of health; so that the body may be made to last the period requisite to the spirit’s qualifying itself for the life eternal. Then, if he is to belong to the scientific classes, let him be instructed in the sciences. Let him be employed (as soon as disengaged from studying the essentials of the religion) in acquiring the sciences. The best course is to ascertain, by examination of the youth’s character, for what science or art he is best qualified, and to employ him accordingly; for, agreeably to the proverb, “All facilities are not created to the same person”; everyone is not qualified for every profession, but each for a particular one.

This, indeed, is the expression of a principle by which the fortunes of man and of the world are regulated. With the old philosophers it was a practice to inspect the horoscope of nativity, and to devote the child to that profession which appeared from the planetary positions to be suitable to his nature. When a person is adapted to a profession, he can acquire it with little pains; and when unadapted, the utmost he can do is but to waste his time and defer his establishment in life. When a profession bears an incongruity with his nature, and means and appliances are unpropitious, we should not urge him to pursue it, but exchange it for some other, provided that there is no hope at all of succeeding with the first; otherwise it may lead to his perplexity. In the prosecution of every profession, let him adopt a system which will call into play the ardour of his nature, assist him in preserving health, and prevent obtusity and lassitude.

As soon as he is perfect in a profession, let him be required to gain his livelihood thereby; in order that, from an experience of its advantages, he may strive to master it completely, and make full progress in the minutiæ of its principles. And for this livelihood he must be trained to look to that honourable emolument which characterises the well-connected. He must not [53]depend on the provision afforded by his father. For it generally happens, when the sons of the wealthy, by the pride of their parents’ opulence, are debarred from acquiring a profession, that they sink by the vicissitudes of fortune into utter insignificance. Therefore, when he has so far mastered his profession as to earn a livelihood, it is expedient to provide him with a consort, and let him depend on his separate earning. The Kings of Fārs, forbearing to bring their sons up surrounded by domestics and retinue, sent them off to a distance, in order to habituate them to a life of hardship. The Dilemite chiefs had the same practice. A person bred upon the opposite principle can hardly be brought to good, especially if at all advanced in years; like hard wood which is with difficulty straightened. And this was the answer Socrates gave, when asked why his intimacies lay chiefly among the young.

In training daughters to that which befits them, domestic ministration, rigid seclusion, chastity, modesty, and the other qualities already appropriated to women—no care can be too great. They should be made emulous of acquiring the virtues of their sex, but must be altogether forbidden to read and write. When they reach the marriageable age, no time should be lost in marrying them to proper mates. (See Ak͟hlāq-i-Jalālī, Thompson’s ed.)

CHILD STEALING. The hand of a thief is not to be cut off for stealing a free-born child, although there be ornaments upon it, because a free person is not property, and the ornaments are only appendages; and also because the thief may plead that he took the child up when it was crying, with a view to appease it, and to deliver it to the nurse. But Abū Yūsuf does not agree with Ḥanīfah; for he says where the value of the ornaments amounts to ten dirms, amputation is incurred. Amputation is also inflicted for stealing an infant slave, because a slave is property, although Abū Yūsuf says it is not. (Hidāyah, ii. 91.)

CHOSROES. Arabic K͟husraw. The King of Persia to whom Muḥammad sent a letter inviting him to Islām. He is said to be Nausherwān. (See G͟hiyās̤u ʾl-Lug͟hāt, in loco; refer also to Muir’s Life of Mahomet, vol. ii. 54 n.)


CHRISTIANITY and CHRISTIANS. Arabic, Naṣrānīyah, “Christianity”; the terms used for Christians being Naṣrān, pl. Naṣāra, or ʿĪsawī.

Christianity seems to have been widely diffused in Arabia at the time of Muḥammad. According to Caussin de Perceval, who quotes from Arabic writers, Christianity existed amongst the Banū Tag͟hlib of Mesopotamia, the Banū ʿAbdu ʾl-Qais, the Banū Hāris̤ of Najrān, the Banū G͟hassān of Syria, and other tribes between al-Madīnah and al-Kūfah.

The historian Philostorges (Hist. Eccles. lib. 1, c. 3) tells us that a monk named Theophilus, who was an Indian bishop, was sent by the Emperor Constance, A.D. 342, to the Ḥimyarite King of Yaman, and obtained permission to build three Christian churches for those who professed Christianity; one at Zafār, another at ʿAdan, and a third at Hurmuz on the Persian Gulf. According to the same author, the Christian religion was introduced into Najrān in the fifth century. A bishop sent by the Patriarch of Alexandria was established in the city of Zafār, and we are told by Muslim authors, quoted by Caussin de Perceval, that a Christian church was built at Ṣanʿāʾ which was the wonder of the age, the Roman Emperor and the Viceroy of Abyssinia furnishing the materials and workmen for the building. The Arabs of Yaman were ordered by the ruler of Abyssinia to perform a pilgrimage to this new church instead of to the Kaʿbah; an edict which is said to have been resisted and to have given rise to the “War of the Elephant,” when Abrahah, the Viceroy of Egypt, took an oath that he would destroy the Meccan temple, and marched at the head of an army of Abyssinians, mounted on an elephant. This “War of the Elephant” marks the period of Muḥammad’s birth. [MUHAMMAD.]

The Christianity of this period is described by Mosheim as “expiring under a motley and enormous heap of superstitious inventions, with neither the courage nor the force to raise her head or display her national charms to a darkened and deluded world.” Doubtless much of the success of Islām in its earlier stage was due to the state of degradation into which the Christian Church had fallen. The bitter dissensions of the Greeks, Nestorians, Eutychians, and Monophysites are matters of history, and must have held up the religion of Jesus to the ridicule of the heathen world. The controversies regarding the nature and person of our Divine Lord had begotten a sect of Tritheists, led by a Syrian philosopher named John Philoponus of Alexandria, and are sufficient to account for Muḥammad’s conception of the Blessed Trinity. The worship of the Virgin Mary had also given rise to a religious controversy between the Antiduo-Marianites and the Collyridians; the former holding that the Virgin was not immaculate, and the latter raising her to a position of a goddess. Under the circumstances it is not surprising to find that the mind of the Arabian reformer turned away from Christianity and endeavoured to construct a religion on the lines of Judaism. [JUDAISM.]

Al-Baiẓāwī and other Muslim commentators, admit that Muḥammad received Christian instruction from learned Christians, named Jubrā and Yasāra (al-Baiẓāwī on Sūrah xvi. 105), and that on this account the Quraish said, “It is only some mortal that teaches him!” For the Traditions relate that Muḥammad used to stop and listen to these two Christians as they read aloud the Books of Moses (Taurāt) and the New Testament (Injīl). But it is remarkable that Muḥammad [54]should, after all, have obtained such a cursory knowledge of Christianity. For from the text of the Qurʾān (extracts of which are subjoined), it is evident that he was under the impression that the Sacrament of Baptism was Ṣibg͟hah, or the dyeing of the Christians’ clothes; and if the Chapter of the Table refers to the Sacrament of the Lord’s Supper (which is uncertain), it was “a table sent out of heaven that it may be a recurring festival.” The doctrine of the Trinity is supposed to be a Tritheism of God, Jesus Christ, and the Virgin Mary; and a proof against the Divinity of Christ is urged from the fact that He and His mother “both ate food.” The crucifixion is denied, and Mary the mother of Jesus is confounded with Mary the sister of Aaron. Such mistakes and omissions could only arise from a most imperfect acquaintance with the ordinary institutions and beliefs of the Christian communities, with whom Muḥammad must have been brought in contact. The gentler tone and spirit of the Christians seems to have won the sympathy of Muḥammad, and his expressions regarding them are less severe than with reference to the Jews; but the abstruse character of their creed, as shown in their endless schisms regarding the nature of the Trinity and the person of Christ, and the idolatrous character of their worship, as still seen in the ancient Syrian and Coptic churches, led him to turn from Christianity to Judaism as a model whereby to effect the reformation of a degraded and idolatrous people like the ancient Arabians. The Jewish and Mosaic character of Muḥammad’s system will be treated of in another place. [JUDAISM.]

The following selections from the Qurʾān will show the actual teaching of that book regarding Christianity. In the whole of the Qurʾān there is not a single quotation from the New Testament, and it is noticeable that nearly all the allusions to Christianity are contained in Meccan Sūrahs; Sūrah ii. being according to Jalālu ʾd-din Suyūt̤ī, one of the earliest chapters given at Makkah, and Sūrah v. the last.

Sūrah v. 85:—

“Of all men thou wilt certainly find the Jews, and those who join other gods with God, to be the most intense in hatred of those who believe; and thou shalt certainly find those to be nearest in affection to them who say, ‘We are Christians.’ This, because there are amongst them priests (qissīsūn) and monks, and because they are not proud.”

Sūrah ii. 59:—

“Verily, they who believe (Muslims), and they who follow the Jewish religion, and the Christians, and the Sabeites—whoever of these believeth in God and the last day, and doeth that which is right, shall have their reward with their Lord: fear shall not come upon them, neither shall they be grieved.”

(The same verse occurs again in Sūrah v. 74.)

Sūrah ii. 105:—

“And they say, ‘None but Jews or Christians shall enter Paradise:’ This is their wish. Say: Give your proofs if ye speak the truth. But they who set their face with resignation Godward, and do what is right,—their reward is with their Lord; no fear shall come on them, neither shall they be grieved. Moreover, the Jews say, ‘The Christians lean on naught:’ ‘On naught lean the Jews,’ say the Christians. Yet both are readers of the Book. So with like words say they who have no knowledge. But on the resurrection day, God shall judge between them as to that in which they differ. And who committeth a greater wrong than he who hindereth God’s name from being remembered in His temples, and who hasteth to ruin them? Such men cannot enter them but with fear. Theirs is shame in this world, and a severe torment in the next. The East and the West is God’s: therefore, whichever way ye turn, there is the face of God. Truly God is immense and knoweth all. And they say, ‘God hath a son:’ No! Praise be to Him! But—His, whatever is in the Heavens and the Earth! All obeyeth Him, sole maker of the Heavens and of the Earth! And when He decreeth a thing, He only saith to it, ‘Be,’ and it is. And they who have no knowledge say, ‘Unless God speak to us, or thou shew us a sign …!’ So, with like words, said those who were before them: their hearts are alike. Clear signs have we already shown for those who have firm faith. Verily, with the Truth have we sent thee, a bearer of good tidings and a warner: and of the people of Hell thou shalt not be questioned. But until thou follow their religion, neither Jews nor Christians will be satisfied with thee. Say: Verily, guidance of God,—that is the guidance! And if, after ‘the Knowledge,’ which hath reached thee, thou follow their desires, thou shalt find neither helper nor protector against God.”

Sūrah iv. 156:—

“Nay, but God hath sealed them up for their unbelief, so that but few believe. And for their unbelief,—and for their having spoken against Mary a grievous calumny,—and for their saying, ‘Verily we have slain the Messiah (Masīḥ), Jesus (ʿĪsā) the son of Mary, an Apostle of God.’ Yet they slew him not, and they crucified him not, but they had only his likeness. And they who differed about him were in doubt concerning him. No sure knowledge had they about him, but followed only an opinion, and they did not really slay him, but God took him up to Himself. And God is Mighty, Wise!”

Sūrah ii. 130:—

“They say, moreover, ‘Become Jews or Christians that ye may have the true guidance.’ Say: Nay! the religion of Abraham, the sound in faith, and not one of those who join gods with God! [55]Say ye: ‘We believe in God, and that which hath been sent down to us, and that which hath been sent down to Abraham and Ishmael and Isaac and Jacob and the tribes: and that which hath been given to Moses and to Jesus, and that which was given to the prophets from their Lord. No difference do we make between any of them: and to God are we resigned (Muslims).’ If, therefore, they believe even as ye believe, then have they true guidance; but if they turn back, then do they cut themselves off from you: and God will suffice to protect thee against them, for He is the Hearer, the Knower. The Baptism of God, and who is better to baptize than God? And Him do we serve.”

Sūrah v. 75:—

“They surely are Infidels who say, ‘God is the third of three:’ for there is no God but one God: and if they refrain not from what they say, a grievous chastisement shall light on such of them as are Infidels. Will they not, therefore, be turned unto God, and ask pardon of Him? since God is Forgiving, Merciful! The Messiah, Son of Mary, is but an Apostle; other Apostles have flourished before him; and his mother was a just person: they both ate food. Behold! how we make clear to them the signs! then behold how they turn aside! Say: Will ye worship, beside God, that which can neither hurt nor help? But God! He only Heareth, Knoweth. Say: O people of the Book! outstep not bounds of truth in your religion; neither follow the desires of those who have already gone astray, and who have caused many to go astray, and have themselves gone astray from the evenness of the way. Those among the children of Israel who believed not were cursed by the tongue of David, and of Jesus, Son of Mary. This, because they were rebellious, and became transgressors: they forbade not one another the iniquity which they wrought! detestable are their actions!”

Sūrah v. 18:—

“And of those who say, ‘We are Christians,’ have we accepted the covenant. But they too have forgotten a part of what they were taught; wherefore we have stirred up enmity and hatred among them that shall last till the day of the Resurrection; and in the end will God tell them of their doings. O people of the Scriptures! now is our Apostle come to you to clear up to you much that ye concealed of those Scriptures, and to pass over many things. Now hath a light and a clear Book come to you from God, by which God will guide him who shall follow after His good pleasure to paths of peace, and will bring them out of the darkness to the light, by His will: and to the straight path will He guide them. Infidels now are they who say, ‘Verily God is al-Masīḥ Ibn Maryam (the Messiah, son of Mary)! Say: And who could aught obtain from God, if He chose to destroy al-Masīḥ Ibn Maryam, and his mother, and all who are on the earth together? For with God is the sovereignty of the Heavens and of the Earth, and of all that is between them! He createth what He will; and over all things is God potent. Say the Jews and Christians, ‘Sons are we of God and His beloved.’ Say: Why then doth He chastise you for your sins? Nay! ye are but a part of the men whom He hath created!”

Sūrah v. 58:—

“O Believers! take not the Jews or Christians as friends. They are but one another’s friends. If any one of you taketh them for his friends, he surely is one of them! God will not guide the evil-doers. So shalt thou see the diseased at heart speed away to them, and say, ‘We fear lest a change of fortune befall us.’ But haply God will of Himself bring about some victory or event of His own ordering: then soon will they repent them of their secret imaginings.”

Sūrah xxii. 18:—

“As to those who believe, and the Jews, and the Sabeites, and the Christians, and the Magians, and those who join other gods with God, of a truth, God shall decide between them on the day of resurrection: for God is witness of all things.”

Sūrah v. 112:—

“Remember when the Apostles said—‘O Jesus, Son of Mary! is Thy Lord able to send down a furnished TABLE to us out of Heaven?’ He said—‘Fear God if ye be believers.’ They said—‘We desire to eat therefrom, and to have our hearts assured; and to know that thou hast indeed spoken truth to us, and to be witnesses thereof.’ Jesus, Son of Mary, said—‘O God, our Lord! send down a table to us out of Heaven, that it may become a recurring festival to us, to the first of us and to the last of us, and a sign from Thee; and do Thou nourish us, for Thou art the best of nourishers.’ And God said—Verily, I will cause it to descend unto you; but whoever among you after that shall disbelieve, I will surely chastise him with a chastisement wherewith I will not chastise any other creature. And when God shall say—‘O Jesus, Son of Mary, hast Thou said unto mankind—“Take me and my mother as two Gods, beside God?” ’ He shall say—‘Glory be unto Thee! it is not for me to say that which I know to be not the truth; had I said that, verily Thou wouldest have known it: Thou knowest what is in me, but I know not what is in Thee; for Thou well knowest things unseen!

Sūrah xix. 35:—

“This is Jesus, the son of Mary; this is a statement of the truth concerning which they doubt. It beseemeth not God to beget a son. Glory be to Him! when He decreeth a thing, He only saith to it, Be, and it is. And verily, God is my Lord and your Lord; adore Him then. This is the right way. But The Sects have fallen to variance among themselves about Jesus: but woe, [56]because of the assembly of a great day, to those who believe not!”

The only New Testament saints mentioned by name in the Qurʾān, are John the Baptist, Zacharias, and the Virgin Mary.

In the Mishkātu ʾl-Maṣābīḥ, there are recorded in the traditional sayings of Muḥammad, about six apparent plagiarisms from the New Testament; but whether they are the plagiarisms of Muḥammad himself or of those who profess to record his sayings, it is impossible to tell:—

Abū Hurairah says the Prophet said, “Of the seven persons whom God, in the last day, will draw to Himself, will be a man who has given alms and concealed it, so that his left hand knoweth not what the right hand doeth.” (Book i. c. viii. pt. 1; comp. Matt. vi. 3.)

Again: “God accepts not the prayers of those who pray in long robes.” (Book i. c. ix. pt. 2; comp. Matt. xii. 38.)

Again: “The doors of the celestial regions shall not open to them (the wicked) until a camel pass through the eye of a needle.” (Book v. c. iii. pt. 3; comp. Mark x. 25.)

Abū Umamah relates that the Prophet said, “Blessed be Him who hath seen me. And blessed be him who hath not seen me and yet hath believed.” (Book xxiv. c. xxvi. pt. 3; comp. John xx. 29.)

Muʿāẕ relates that the Prophet said, “Do unto all men as you would they should do unto you, and reject for others what you would reject for yourself.” (Book i. c. i. pt. 3; Matt. vii. 12.)

Abū Hurairah relates that the Prophet said, “Verily God will say in the day of resurrection, O ye sons of men! I was sick and ye did not visit me. And the sons of men will say, O Thou defender, how could we visit Thee, for Thou art the Lord of the universe, and art free from sickness? And God will say, O ye sons of men, did you not know that such a one of my servants was sick and ye did not visit him,” &c. &c. (Book v. c. i. pt. 1; comp. Matt. xxv. 21.)

Although it would be difficult to prove it from the text of the Qurʾān, the general belief of Muḥammadans is that Christians are not in a state of salvation, and Laz̤a, or the “blazing fire,” mentioned in Sūrah lxx. 15, is, according to the Imām al-Bag͟hawī, reserved for them.

The condition of a Christian in a Muslim state is that of a Ẕimmī, or one who pays tribute to a Muḥammadan governor, for which he enjoys protection. He is allowed to repair any old church which may have been in existence at the time the country was subdued by Islām, but he is not allowed to erect new ones; “for,” says Abū Ḥanīfah, “the construction of churches or synagogues in Muslim territory is unlawful, being forbidden in the Traditions.” “It also behoves the Imām to make distinction between Muslims and Ẕimmīs (i.e. Christians, Jews, and others paying tribute). It is therefore not allowable for them to ride upon horses or use armour, or to wear the same dresses as Muslims.” The reason for this, says Abū Ḥanīfah, “is that Muḥammadans are to be held in honour and Ẕimmīs are not.”

The wives also of Ẕimmīs are to be kept apart from those of Muslims on the public roads and baths. And it is also ordered that a mark should be placed on their doors, in order that when Muslim beggars come to them they should not pray for them!

The learned have ruled that a Ẕimmī should not be allowed to ride at all, except in cases of necessity, and if he be thus of necessity allowed to ride, he should dismount when he meets a Muslim. (Hidāyah, vol. ii. 219.)

A judge when he administers an oath to a Christian, must direct him to say: “I swear by God who sent the Gospel to Jesus.”

It is a singular ruling of the Muḥammadan law that a claim of parentage made by a Christian is preferable to a claim of bondage advanced by a Muslim. Abū Ḥanīfah says if a boy be in the possession of two men, the one a Muslim and the other a Christian, and the Christian assert that the boy is his son, and the Muslim assert that he is his slave, he must be decreed to be the son of the Christian and free, because although Islām is the superior religion, there can be no balance between the claim of offspring and the claim of bondage. (Idem, vol. iv. 133.)

Sir William Muir, referring to Muḥammad’s reception of the Banū Ḥanīfah and other Christian tribes, A.H. 9, says, “On the departure of the embassy the Prophet gave them a vessel with some water in it running over from his own ablutions, and said to them, ‘When ye reach your country break down your church, sprinkle its site with this water, and build a Masjid in its place.’ These commands they carried into effect, and abandoned Christianity without compunction. To another Christian tribe he prohibited the practice of baptism; so that although the adults continued to be nominally Christian, their children grew up with no provision but that of the Qurʾān.… It is no wonder that Christianity, thus insulted and trampled under foot, languished and soon disappeared from the peninsula.” (Life of Mahomet, vol. iv. 219.)

CHURCHES. Arabic Bīaʾh and Kanīsah, which terms include equally churches and synagogues. The construction of churches or synagogues in Muslim territory is unlawful, this being forbidden in the Traditions; but as for places of worship which belonged to the Jews or Christians before the country was conquered by the Muḥammadan power, they are at liberty to repair them, because the buildings cannot endure for ever, and, as the Imām of the Muslim army has left these people to the exercise of their own religion, it is a necessary inference [57]that he has engaged not to prevent them from building or repairing their churches or synagogues. If, however, they attempt to remove these, and to build them in a place different from their former situation, the Imām must prevent them, since this is an actual construction. Monasteries and hermitages are under the same law. Places of prayer within their dwellings are allowed to be constructed, because they are merely an appurtenance to a private habitation. What is here said is held to be the rule with regard to cities, but not with respect to villages, because as the “tokens of Islām” (i.e. prayer, festivals, &c.) appear in cities, ẕimmīs (i.e. those paying tax for protection) should not be permitted to exhibit the tokens of their infidelity in the face of Islām. But as the tokens of Islām do not appear in villages, the erection of churches and synagogues is not prohibited there. But the Imām Abū Ḥanīfah held that this exemption merely applied to the village of Kusa, where the greater part of the inhabitants were ẕimmīs. He adds that in the country of Arabia, Jews and Christians are prohibited from constructing synagogues and churches, either in cities or villages, according to the saying of the Prophet, “Two religions cannot exist in the country of Arabia.” (Hidāyah, book ix. c. viii.)

If a Jew or a Christian, being in sound health, build a church or a synagogue and then die, such building is an inheritance, and descends to the heirs of the founder. According to Abū Ḥanīfah, it is a pious appropriation; but his two disciples hold such erections to be sinful, and only to be considered as ordinary property. If a Jew or a Christian will that his house after his death shall be converted into either a synagogue or church, the bequest is valid. (Hidāyah, book lii. c. vi.)

The following tradition related by T̤alāq ibn ʿAlī (Mishkāt, iv. c. viii. 2) exhibits Muḥammad’s determination to destroy Christian churches: “We told the Prophet that there was a church on our ground; and we requested the favour of his giving us the water which remained after he had performed waẓū. And the Prophet called for water, performed waẓū and washed out his mouth; after which he poured the water for us into a vessel and ordered us to return, saying, ‘When you arrive, destroy your church (Arabic bīʿah), and pour this water on the spot, and build a mosque there.

CIRCUMCISION. Arabic K͟hitān, k͟hitānah, or k͟hatnah. Circumcision is not once alluded to in the Qurʾān. The omission is remarkable, and Muslim writers do not attempt any explanation of it. It is held to be sunnah, or founded upon the customs of the Prophet (Fatāwa ʿĀlamgīrī, vol. iv. p. 237), and dating its institution from the time of Abraham. There is no authentic account of the circumcision of Muḥammad, but it is asserted by some writers that he was born circumcised. This, however, is denied by the most eminent scholars. (Radduʾl-Muk͟htār, vol. v. p. 835.)

In the Ṣaḥīḥu ʾl-Buk͟hārī, p. 931, a short chapter is devoted to the subject of k͟hitān, or “circumcision,” in which there are three traditions:—

Abū Hurairah relates that the Prophet said one of the observances of Fit̤rah is circumcision.

Abū Hurairah relates that the Prophet said that Abraham was circumcised when he was eighty years old.

Said ibn Jubair relates that it was asked of Ibn ʿAbbās, “How old were you when the Prophet died?” He said, “I was circumcised in the days when it occurred.” And Jubair says they did not circumcise in those days until men were full grown.

It is recommended to be performed upon a boy between the ages of seven and twelve, but it is lawful to circumcise a child seven days after his birth. In the case of a convert to Islām from some other creed, to whom the operation may be an occasion of great suffering, it can be dispensed with, although it is considered expedient and proper for all new converts to be circumcised. In all cases an adult is expected to circumcise himself, as it is a shame for an adult person to uncover himself to another.

The circumcision of females is also allowed, and is commonly practised in Arabia. (Fatāwa ʿĀlamgīrī, vol. iv. p. 237.)

The barber is generally the person employed for the circumcision of boys, and the operation as practised by Muḥammadans in India is performed in the following manner. A bit of stick is used as a probe, and carried round and round between the glans and prepuce, to ascertain the exact extent of the frænum, and that no unnatural adhesions exist. The foreskin is then drawn forwards and a pair of forceps, consisting of a couple of pieces of split bamboo, five or six inches long and a quarter of an inch thick, tied firmly together at one end with a string to the extent of an inch, applied from above in an oblique direction, so as to exclude about an inch and a half of the prepuce above and three-quarters of an inch below. The forceps severely grasping it, causes a good deal of pain, but this state of suffering does not continue long, since the next thing to be done is the removal, which is done by one stroke of the razor drawn directly downwards. The hæmorrhage which follows is inconsiderable and easily stopped by the application of burnt rags and ashes.

According to several Muḥammadan doctors, there were seventeen of the prophets born in a circumcised state, namely, Zakarīyā, Shīs, Idrīs, Yūsuf, Ḥanz̤alah, ʿĪsā, Mūsā, Ādam, Nūḥ, Shuʿaib, Sām, Lūt̤, Ṣāliḥ, Sulaimān, Yaḥyā, Hūd, and Muḥammad. (Durru ʾl-Muk͟htār, p. 619.)

CLEAN AND UNCLEAN ANIMALS. All quadrupeds that seize their prey with their teeth, and all birds which seize it with their talons, are unlawful (ḥarām), the Prophet having prohibited mankind from eating them. [58]

Hyenas and foxes, being both included under the class of animals of prey, are unlawful. (This is the doctrine of Abū Ḥanīfah, but ash-Shāfiʿī holds that they are lawful.) Elephants and weasels are also animals of prey. Pelicans and kites are abominable (makrūh), because they devour dead bodies.

Crows which feed on grain are mubāḥ, or indifferent, but carrion crows and ravens are unlawful. Abū Ḥanīfah says the magpie is indifferent (mubāḥ), but the Imām Yūsuf says it is abominable (makrūh).

Crocodiles and otters and wasps, and, in general, all insects are makrūh, or abominable. The ass and the mule are both unlawful. According to Abū Ḥanīfah and Mālik, horse-flesh is unlawful, but ash-Shāfiʿī says it is indifferent. The flesh of hares is also indifferent.

No animal that lives in the water, except fish, is lawful. But Mālik allows them.

Fishes dying of themselves are unlawful, and so are all animals who are not slain by ẕabāḥ. (Hidāyah, vol. iv. p. 74.) [ZABIHAH.]

It must be observed that in Muḥammadan law animals are either ḥalāl, “lawful,” or mubāḥ, “indifferent,” or makrūh, “abominable” (i.e. which is condemned but still is lawful), or ḥarām, “unlawful.”

CLERGY. The Christian clergy are mentioned in the Qurʾān with expressions of comparative praise. Sūrah v. 85: “Thou wilt surely find that the strongest in enmity against those who believe are the Jews, and the idolaters; and thou wilt find those to be nearest in affection to them who say ‘We are Christians’; that is because there are amongst them priests (qissīsūn) and monks, and because they are not proud.”

The Muḥammadans have no class of people occupying the precise position of priests or clergy, although the Imāms, or leaders of prayers in the public assembly, are persons of learning appointed by the congregation. In Central Asia, it is usual to set apart a learned man (well skilled in theology) by binding the turban round his head, the act being performed by a leading maulawī or scholar.

In Turkey and the western portion of Islām, those who are qualified to give an opinion in religious matters, and to take the lead in guiding the people in spiritual affairs, are called ʿulamāʾ (pl. of ʿālim), a term which has, in Hindustān and Central Asia, assumed the form of maulawī, a word derived from maulā, “lord.”

The recognised offices in Islām corresponding to that of a priest or religious teacher, are, Imām, Muftī, and Qāẓī. Imām (in addition to its being used for the K͟halīfah, or Caliph, in the Traditions), is the person who leads the public prayers, an office answering to the Latin Antistes. This official is appointed either by the congregation, or by the parish or section of the town or village, who frequent the mosque in which he leads the prayers. Muftī is the legal adviser, who decides difficult religious questions, and assists the Qāẓī, or judge. Qāẓī is the judge and the administrator of the law. The appointments of Muftī and Qāẓī are in the hands of the Muslim government of the place. It is usual for the Qāẓī to take the lead in prayers at funerals, whilst the Imām of the parish generally performs the nikāḥ, or religious service at marriages. [MARRIAGE.]

These offices are not necessarily hereditary, but it is usual in Muḥammadan countries for them to pass from father to son. In India at the present time there are families who retain the titles of Muftī and Qāẓī, although the duties connected with these offices are no longer performed by them.

CAUTION (Arabic Ḥaẕar) is enjoined by Muḥammad, who is related to have said, “A Muslim is not bitten twice at the same hole.” “He is no perfect man who has not fallen into trouble, for there is no skilful physician but experience.” “When a man has spoken, and has then looked first to his right and then to his left, what he has said is sacred to those present, and they must not disclose it to others.” (Mishkāt, xxii. c. xviii.)


COLLECTOR OF TAXES. Arabic ʿĀshir, a collector of the tenths; and ʿĀmil mutaṣaddiq, a collector of alms.

The K͟halīfah is to allow the officer employed in the collection of the zakāt as much out of it as is in proportion to his labour, and will remunerate himself and his assistants. (Hidāyah, vol. i. p. 54.)

COMMANDMENTS, The Ten. In the Qurʾān it is stated that God gave Moses certain monitions on tables (of stone), and also that he gave him nine clear signs. (See Sūrah vii. 142, and Sūrah xvii. 103.) These two statements have perplexed the commentators very much, and every effort is made by them to reconcile the nine signs with the Ten Commandments, although it is evident from the Qurʾān itself, that the nine clear signs refer to the miracles of Moses. [PLAGUES OF EGYPT.]

According to the Traditions, the Prophet himself was a little confused in the matter, and may to some extent be responsible for the mistakes of the commentators on his book, for it is related (Mishkāt, book i. c. ii. pt. 2) that a Jew came to the Prophet and asked him about the nine (sic) wonders which appeared by the hands of Moses. The Prophet said, “Do not associate anything with God, do not steal, do not commit adultery, do not kill, do not take an innocent before the king to be killed, do not practise magic, do not take interest, do not accuse an innocent woman of adultery, do not run away in battle, and especially for you, O Jews, not to work on the Sabbath.” ʿAbdu ʾl-Ḥaqq remarks on this tradition that the Jew asked about the nine (sic) miracles (or plagues) of Egypt, and the Prophet gave him the Ten Commandments. [59]

A comparison of the Ten Commandments given by the great Jewish law-giver with those recorded in the above tradition and in the VIth Sūrah of the Qurʾān, verse 152, will show how imperfectly the Arabian Prophet was acquainted with the Old Testament scriptures.

The commentator Ḥusain, who wrote four hundred years ago, says the following verses in the Sūratu ʾl-Anʿām (vi.) are those Ten Commandments which in every dispensation are incumbent on mankind, and cannot be abrogated (meaning undoubtedly the Ten Commandments given to Moses).

Say: Come, I will rehearse what your Lord hath made binding on you—(1) that ye assign not aught to Him as partner: (2) and that ye be good to your parents: (3) and that ye slay not your children, because of poverty; for them and for you will we provide: (4) and that ye come not near to pollutions, outward or inward: (5) and that ye slay not anyone whom God hath forbidden you, unless for a just cause. This hath he enjoined on you, to the intent that ye may understand. (6) And come not nigh to the substance of the orphan, but to improve it, until he come of age: (7) and use a full measure, and a just balance: We will not task a soul beyond its ability. (8) And when ye give judgment, observe justice, even though it be the affair of a kinsman, (9) and fulfil the covenant of God. This hath God enjoined you for your monition—And, ‘this is my right way.’ Follow it then: (10) and follow not other paths lest ye be scattered from His path. This hath He enjoined you, that ye may fear Him.” (Sūrah vi. 152.)

COMMANDER OF THE FAITHFUL. Arabic Amīru ʾl-Muʾminīn (امير المومنين‎). A title given by the Muslims in the first instance to the first K͟halīfah, Abū Bakr, and afterwards retained by succeeding K͟halīfahs. It is assumed by almost any Muḥammadan ruler in the present day.


COMMERCE. Arabic Tijārah (تجارة‎). Commerce and merchandise are said in the Qurʾān to be of God. Sūrah xvii. 68: “It is your Lord who drives the ships for you in the sea that ye may seek after plenty from Him; verily He is ever merciful to you. And when distress touches you in the sea, those whom ye call upon, except Him, stray away from you; but when He has brought you safe to shore, ye also turn away (from God); for man is ever ungrateful.”

Zakāt is due on merchandise of every description, in proportion to 5 per cent.


COMPULSION. Arabic Ikrāh (اكراه‎). Muḥammadan law makes provision for persons acting under compulsion, when the person who compels has it in his power to execute what he orders, be he a king or a thief. (Hidāyah, vol. iii. p. 452.) E.g. a person forced into a contract may dissolve it. A Muslim may lawfully eat food which is prohibited if he be compelled to do so, being threatened with loss of life or limb. Nor is a Muslim guilty of sin who declares himself an unbeliever when the loss of a limb or of life is threatened. According to the Imām Abū Ḥanīfah, if a Muslim be compelled to divorce his wife, the divorce is valid; but with him the other three Imāms are not agreed in this ruling.

CONCUBINE. Arabic Surrīyah (سرية‎), pl. sarārī. The Muḥammadan religion appears to give almost unlimited license to concubinage, provided the woman be a slave, and not a free Muslim woman.

These female slaves must be either (1) taken captive in war, (2) or purchased by money, (3) or the descendants of slaves. Even married women, if taken in war, are, according to an injunction of the Qurʾān, Sūrah iv. 28, entirely at the disposal of the Muslim conqueror. “(Unlawful) to you are married women, except such as your right hand possess (i.e. taken in war, or purchased slaves).” This institution of concubinage is founded upon the example of Muḥammad himself, who took Rīḥānah the Jewess as his concubine after the battle with the Banū Quraiz̤ah (A.H. 5), and also Maria the Copt, who was sent him as a slave by the Governor of Egypt.

Should a concubine bear her master a child, the Muḥammadan law rules that she and her offspring are ipso facto free. For a further treatment of this subject, see article on SLAVES.

Amongst the Shīʿahs, the temporary marriage called Mutʿah exhibits the worst form of concubinage. [MUTʿAH.]

It is interesting to compare the condition of the concubine under Muslim law and under the Mosaic. Under the law of Moses, a concubine would generally be either a Hebrew girl bought of her father, or a Gentile captive taken in war. So that whilst the Muḥammadan law forbids concubinage with a free woman, the Mosaic law permitted it and legislated for it. See Exodus xxi.: “If a man sell his daughter to be a maid-servant, she shall not go out as men-servants do. If she please not her master who hath betrothed her to himself, then shall he let her be redeemed; to sell her unto a strange nation he shall have no power, seeing he hath dealt deceitfully with her.”

With regard to female slaves taken in war, the Mosaic law ruled. Deut. xxi. 10: “When thou goest to war against thine enemies, and the Lord thy God hath delivered them into thine hands, and thou hast taken them captive, and seest a beautiful woman, and hast a desire unto her, that thou wouldst have her to thy wife; then thou shalt bring her to thine home, &c.… And it shall be, if thou have no delight in her, then thou shalt let her go whither she will; but thou shalt not sell her,” &c.


CONGREGATION. The Assembly of people in a mosque is called Jamʿah (جمعة), the term also being used in Afghanistan for the mosque itself.

There are special rewards for those Muḥammadans who assemble together for the stated prayers; for Muḥammad has said, “The prayers which are said in a congregation increase the rewards of the worshipper twenty-seven degrees.” “Say your prayers in a congregation, for a wolf does not eat the sheep except one has strayed from the flock.” (Mishkāt, book iv. ch. xxiv.)

The Sunnī style themselves Ahlu Sunnah wa Jamʿah, i.e. “the people of the traditions and of the congregation,” in contradistinction to the Shīʿahs, who do not worship in a congregation unless the Imām, or leader, be a man entirely free from sin. [IMAM.]

The word jamʿah is also used for an assembly of people collected to decide a question of law or theology, the ijmāʿ being their decision, more frequently called ijmāʿu ʾl-ummah.

CONSCIENCE. There is no word in the Qurʾān which exactly expresses the Christian conception of conscience. The word nafs (نفس‎), which, according to Arabic lexicons, expresses very much the same idea as the Hebrew ‏נֶפֶשׁ‎ nephesh, “life, animal spirit, breath” (Job xli. 21), seems to be used in the Qurʾān to convey the meaning of conscience, although English translators render it “soul.” Muslim theologians say there are four kinds of consciences spoken of in the Qurʾān: (1) Nafs lawwāmah, the “self-accusing soul or conscience” (Sūrah lxxv. 3). (2) Nafs ammārah, the “soul or conscience prone to evil” (Sūrah xii. 53). (3) Nafs mut̤maʾinnah, the “peaceful soul or conscience” (Sūrah lxxxix. 12). (4) Nafs mulhammah, the “soul or conscience in which is breathed both bad and good” (Sūrah lxxxiv. 27).

It occurs also in the sense of conscience in the Traditions (Mishkāt, book i. ch. i. pt. 3): “When anything pricks your soul (nafs) forsake it.” ʿAbdu ʾl-Ḥaqq, in his Persian commentary on the Mishkāt, renders it by zāt, but the English word conscience would seem to express the precise idea. In Persian Muḥammadan works, as well as in common conversation, the word nafs is now used in its evil sense, of desire or passion, but it must be evident that this is not its Qurʾānic meaning. The word ذمة‎ ẕimmah, which in later Arabic, together with ضمير‎ ẓamīr, is used to express conscience, has in the only passage where it occurs in the Qurʾān a decidedly different meaning, e.g. Sūrah ix. 8, 10, where it means clientship. Sale and Rodwell both translate it “faith,” but Palmer more accurately renders it “ties of clientship.”

CONVERSATION. The following instructions are given in the Qurʾān regarding talking and conversation. Sūrah xxxi. 17, “Be moderate in thy walk, and lower thy voice; verily the most disagreeable of voices is the voice of asses.” Sūrah ii. 77, “Speak to men kindly.” In the Traditions, Ibn Masʿūd relates that Muḥammad said, “May those people go to the fire of hell who speak much.”

On the subject of conversation, Faqīr Jani Muḥammad Asʿad, the author of the celebrated ethical work entitled the Ak͟hlāq-i-Jalālī, p. 288, says:—

“He should not talk much, for it is a sign of levity in feeling and weakness in judgment, and tends to lower him in point of consideration and position. We are told that the Prophet used to observe the strictest medium in his language; so much so, that, in the most protracted interviews, you might have counted the words he uttered. Buzurg Jamihr used to say, ‘When you see a person talking much without occasion, be sure he is out of his senses.’ Let him not give vent to expressions till he has determined in his own mind what he is going to say. When anyone is relating a story, however well known to the listener, the latter is not to intimate his acquaintance with it till the narrative is concluded. A question put to others he must not himself reply to; if put to a body of which he is a member, let him not prevent the others; and if another is engaged in answering what himself could answer better, let him keep silence till the other’s statement is completed, and then give his own, but in such sort as not to annoy the former speaker. Let him not commence his reply till the querist’s sentence is concluded. Conversations and discussions which do not concern him, although held in his presence, he is not to interfere in; and if people conceal what they are saying, he must not attempt furtively to overhear. To his elders he should speak with judgment, pitching his voice at a medium between high and low. Should any abstruse topic present itself, he should give it perspicuity by comparison. Prolixity he should never aim at, when not absolutely required; on the contrary, let it be his endeavour to compress all he has to say. Neither should he employ unusual terms or far-fetched figures. He should beware of obscenity and bad language; or if he must needs refer to an indecent subject, let him be content with allusion by metaphor. Of all things, let him keep clear of a taste for indelicacy, which tends to lower his breeding, degrade his respectability, and bring him into general disagreement and dislike. Let his language upon every occasion correspond with the exigency of his position; and if accompanied by gesticulation of the hand or eye or eyebrow, let it be only of that graceful sort which his situation calls for. Let him never, for right or wrong, engage in disputes with others of the company; least of all with the elders or the triflers of it: and when embarked in such dispute, let him be rigidly observant of the rules of candour.

“Let him not deal in profound observation beyond the intellect of those he is addressing, [61]but adapt his discourse to the judgment of his hearers. Thus even the Prophet has declared—‘We of the prophetic order are enjoined to address men in the measure of their understandings’: and Jesus (blessed be he) said, ‘Use not wisdom with the unwise to their annoyance’ (St. Matthew vii. 6?). In all his conversation let him adhere to the ways of courtesy. Never let him mimic anyone’s gestures, actions, or words, nor give utterance to the language of menace.

“When addressing a great person, let him begin with something ominous of good, as the permanence of his fortune, felicity, and so forth.

“From all back-biting, carping, slander, and falsehood, whether heard or spoken, let him hold it essential to keep clear; nay, even from any partnership with those addicted to such practices. Let him listen more than he speaks. It was the answer of a wise man to those who asked him why he did so, ‘Because,’ said he, ‘God has given me two ears and only one tongue’; which was as much as to say, ‘Hear twice as much as you speak.’ ”

CONVERTS TO THE MUḤAMMADAN RELIGION. According to the author of the Hidāyah (vol. ii. 170), if a hostile infidel embrace Islām in a hostile country, his person is his own, and he is not made a slave, nor can his children be enslaved. His property is also his own. But it is not so in the case of one who has been first conquered and then embraces Islām, for his own person and his children become slaves, and his wives are at the mercy of the victorious Muslim, whilst his lands also become the property of the State.

COVENANT. The word in the Qurʾān and the Traditions for God’s Covenant with His people is Mīs̤āq. Muḥammad taught, both in the Qurʾān and in the Traditions, that in the beginning God called all the souls of mankind together and took a promise (waʿdah) and a covenant (mīs̤āq) from them.

The account of this transaction is given as follows in the Qurʾān, Sūrah vii. 171:—

“Thy Lord brought forth their descendants from the reins of the sons of Adam and took them to witness against themselves, ‘Am I not,’ said He, ‘your Lord?’ They said, ‘Yes, we witness it.’ This we did, lest ye should say on the Day of Resurrection, ‘Truly, of this were we heedless, because uninformed.’

“Or lest ye should say, ‘Our fathers, indeed, aforetime joined other gods with our God, and we are their seed after them: wilt thou destroy us for the doings of vain men?’ ”

But the story as told in the Traditions is more graphic:—

“Ubai ibn Kaʿb relates, in explanation of the verse in the Sūratu ʾl-Aʿrāf (verse 171): When God created (the spirits of) the sons of Adam, he collected them together and made them of different tribes, and of different appearances, and gave them powers of speech. Then they began to speak, and God took from them a promise (waʿdah), and a covenant (mīs̤āq), and said, ‘Am I not thy Lord?’ They all answered and said, ‘Thou art.’ Then God said, ‘Swear by the seven heavens and the seven earths, and by Adam your father, that you will not say in the resurrection, We did not understand this. Know ye therefore that there is no Deity but Me, and there is no God but Me. Do not associate anything with Me. I will verily send to you your own apostles who shall remind you of this Promise and of this Covenant, and I will send to you your own books.’ The sons of Adam then replied, ‘We are witnesses that Thou art our Lord (Rabb), and our God (Allah). There is no Lord but Thee and no God but Thee.’ Then they confessed this and made it known to Adam. Then Adam looked at them and beheld that there were amongst them those that were rich and poor, handsome and ugly, and he said, ‘O Lord, why didst Thou not make them all alike?’ And the Lord said, ‘Truly I willed it thus in order that some of my servants may be thankful.’ Then Adam saw amongst his posterity, prophets, like unto lamps, and upon these lamps there were lights, and they were appointed by special covenants of prophecy (nabūwah) and of apostleship (rasālah). And thus it is written in the Qurʾān (Sūrah xxxiii. 7), ‘Remember we have entered into covenant with the Prophets, with thee Muḥammad, and with Noah, and with Abraham, and with Mūsā, and with Jesus the Son of Mary, and we made with them a covenant.’ And (continues Ubai) Jesus was amongst the spirits.” (Mishkāt, Arabic Ed. Bābu ʾl-Qadr.)

COVERING THE HEAD. There is no injunction in either the Qurʾān or Traditions as to a man covering his head during prayers, although it is generally held to be more modest and correct for him to do so.

With reference to women, the law is imperative, for ʿĀyishah relates that Muḥammad said, “God accepts not the prayer of an adult woman unless she cover her head.” (Mishkāt, iv. c. ix.)

CORRUPTION OF THE SCRIPTURES. Muḥammadans charge the Jews and Christians with having altered their sacred books. The word used by Muḥammadan writers for this supposed corruption of the sacred Scriptures of the Jews and Christians is Taḥrīf.

The Imām Fak͟hru ʾd-dīn Rāẓī, in his commentary, Tafsīr-i-Kabīr, explains Taḥrīf to mean “to change, alter, or turn aside anything from the truth.” Muslim divines say there are two kinds of taḥrīf, namely, taḥrīf-i-maʿnawī, a corruption of the meaning; and taḥrīf-i-lafz̤ī, a corruption of the words.

Muḥammadan controversialists, when they become acquainted with the nature of the contents of the sacred books of the Jews and Christians, and of the impossibility of reconciling the contents of the Qurʾān with those of [62]the sacred Scriptures, charge the Christians with the taḥrīf-i-lafz̤ī. They say the Christians have expunged the word aḥmad from the prophecies, and have inserted the expression “Son of God,” and the story of the crucifixion, death, and resurrection of our blessed Lord. This view, however, is not the one held by the most celebrated of the Muslim commentators.

The Imām Muḥammad Ismāʿīl al-Buk͟hārī (p. 1127, line 7), records that Ibn ʿAbbās said that “the word Taḥrīf (corruption) signifies to change a thing from its original nature; and that there is no man who could corrupt a single word of what proceeded from God, so that the Jews and Christians could corrupt only by misrepresenting the meaning of the words of God.”

Ibn Mazar and Ibn Abī Hātim state, in the commentary known as the Tafsīr Durr-i-Manṣūr, that they have it on the authority of Ibn Munīyah, that the Taurāt (i.e. the books of Moses), and the Injīl (i.e. the Gospels), are in the same state of purity in which they were sent down from heaven, and that no alterations had been made in them, but that the Jews were wont to deceive the people by unsound arguments, and by wresting the sense of Scripture.

Shāh Walīyu ʾllāh, in his commentary, the Fauzu ʾl-Kabīr, and also Ibn ʿAbbās, support the same view.

This appears to be the correct interpretation of the various verses of the Qurʾān charging the Jews with having corrupted the meaning of the sacred Scriptures.

For example, Sūratu Āli ʿImrān (iii.), 72: “There are certainly some of them who read the Scriptures perversely, that ye may think what they read to be really in the Scriptures, yet it is not in the Scriptures; and they say this is from God, but it is not from God; and they speak that which is false concerning God against their own knowledge.”

The Imām Fak͟hru ʾd-dīn, in his commentary on this verse, and many others of the same character which occur in the Qurʾān, says it refers to a taḥrīf-i-maʿnawī, and that it does not mean that the Jews altered the text, but merely that they made alterations in the course of reading.

But whilst all the old commentators, who most probably had never seen a copy of the sacred books of the Jews and Christians, only charge them with a taḥrīf-i-maʿnawī, all modern controversialists amongst the Muḥammadans contend for a taḥrīf-i-lafz̤ī, as being the only solution of the difficulty.

In dealing with such opponents, the Christian divine will avail himself of the following arguments:—

1. The Qurʾān does not charge the Jews and Christians with corrupting the text of their sacred books; and many learned Muslim commentators admit that such is not the case.

2. The Qurʾān asserts that the Holy Scriptures of the Jews and Christians existed in the days of Muḥammad, who invariably speaks of them with reverence and respect.

3. There now exist manuscripts of the Old and New Testaments of an earlier date than that of Muḥammad (A.D. 610–632).

4. There are versions of the Old and New Testaments now extant, which existed before Muḥammad; for example, the Septuagint, the Latin Vulgate, the Syriac, the Coptic, and the Armenian versions.

5. The Hexapla, or Octapla of Origen, which dates four centuries before Muḥammad, gives various versions of the Old Testament Scriptures in parallel columns.

6. The Syrian Christians of St. Thomas, of Malabar and Travancore, in the south of India, who were separated from the western world for centuries, possess the same Scriptures.

7. In the works of Justin Martyr, who lived from A.D. 103 to 167, there are numerous quotations from our sacred books, which prove that they were exactly the same as those we have now. The same may be said of other early Christian writers.

Muḥammadan controversialists of the present day urge that the numerous readings which exist in the Christian books are a proof that they have been corrupted. But these do not affect, in the least, the main points at issue between the Christian and the Muslim. The Divine Sonship of Christ, the Fatherhood of God, the Crucifixion, Death, and Resurrection of Christ, and the Atonement, are all clearly stated in almost every book of the New Testament, whilst they are rejected by the Qurʾān.

The most plausible of modern objections urged by Muslim divines is, that the Christians have lost the Injīl which was sent down from heaven to Jesus; and that the New Testament contains merely the Ḥadīs̤, or Sunnah—the traditions handed down by Matthew, Mark, Luke, John, Paul, and others. It is, of course, a mere assertion, unsupported by any proof; but it appears to be a line of argument which commends itself to many modern Muslims.

CREATION. Arabic K͟halqah. The following are the allusions to the Creation which occur in the Qurʾān, Sūrah l. 37: “Of old We (God) created the heavens and the earth and all that is between them in six days, and no weariness touched Us.” Sūrah xli. 8: “Do ye indeed disbelieve in Him who in two days created the earth? Do ye assign Him equals? The Lord of the World is He. And He hath placed on the earth the firm mountains which tower above it, and He hath blessed it, and distributed its nourishments throughout it (for the cravings of all are alike), in four days. Then He applied Himself to the heaven, which was but smoke: and to it and to the earth He said, “Come ye, in obedience or against your will?” and they both said, “We come obedient.” And He completed them as seven heavens in two days, and in each heaven made known its office; and We furnished the lower heaven with lights and guardian angels. This is the disposition of the Almighty, the all-knowing one.” Sūrah xvi. 3: [63]“He created the heavens and the earth to set forth his truth, high let Him be exalted above the gods they join with Him! Man hath He created out of a moist germ; yet lo! man is an open caviller. And the cattle! for you hath He created them, &c.… Shall He who hath created be as he who hath not created? Will ye not consider?” Sūrah xiii. 2: “It is God who hath reared the heavens without pillars, thou canst behold; then seated Himself upon His throne, and imposed laws on the sun and moon; each travelleth to its appointeth goal. He ordereth all things. He maketh His signs clear. Haply ye will have firm faith in a meeting with your Lord. And He it is who hath outstretched the earth, and placed on it the firm mountains, and rivers; and of every fruit He hath placed on it two kinds. He causeth the night to enshroud the day.” Sūrah xxxv. 12: “God created you of dust—then of the germs of life—then made you two sexes.”

According to the Traditions (Mishkāt, xxiv. c. i. pt. 3), God created the earth on Saturday, the hills on Sunday, the trees on Monday, all unpleasant things on Tuesday, the light on Wednesday, the beasts on Thursday, and Adam, who was the last of Creation, was created after the time of afternoon prayers on Friday.

CREED. The Muḥammadan Creed, or Kalimatu ʾsh-shahādah (shortly Kalimah) is the well-known formula:—

“I testify that there is no deity but God, and Muḥammad is the Apostle of God.”

It is the belief of Muḥammadans that the first part of this creed, which is called the nafī wa is̤bāt, namely, “There is no deity but God,” has been the expression of belief of every prophet since the days of Adam, and that the second portion has been changed according to the dispensation; for example, that in the days of Moses it would be: “There is no deity but God, and Moses is the Converser with God.” In the Christian dispensation it was: “There is no deity but God, and Jesus is the Spirit of God.”

Jābir relates that Muḥammad said “the keys of Paradise are bearing witness that there is no deity but God.”

The recital of the Kalimah, or Creed, is the first of five pillars of practical religion in Islām; and when anyone is converted to Islām he is required to repeat this formula, and the following are the conditions required of every Muslim with reference to it:—

1. That it shall be repeated aloud, at least once in a life-time.

2. That the meaning of it shall be fully understood.

3. That it shall be believed in “by the heart.”

4. That it shall be professed until death.

5. That it shall be recited correctly.

6. That it shall be always professed and declared without hesitation.

(Sharḥu ʾl-Wiqāyah.)


CRESCENT. The figure of the crescent is the Turkish symbol, and hence it has been regarded by Europeans as the special emblem of the Muḥammadan religion, although it is unknown to the Muḥammadans of the East. This figure, however, did not originate with the Turks, but it was the symbol of sovereignty in the city of Byzantium previous to the Muslim conquest, as may be seen from the medals struck in honour of Augustus Trajan and others. The crescent has been the symbol of three different orders of knighthood; the first of which was instituted by Charles I., King of Naples, A.D. 1268; the second in 1448 by René of Anjou; the third by Sultan Selim in 1801. It must have been adopted by Muḥammadans for the first time upon the overthrow of the Byzantine Empire by Muḥammad II., and it is now generally used by the Turks as the insignia of their creed.

CROCODILE. Arabic Timsāḥ. The flesh of a crocodile is unlawful for food to a Muḥammadan. (Hamilton’s Hidāyah, iv. 74.)

CROSS, The. Arabic Aṣ-Ṣalīb. The Qurʾān denies the crucifixion of our blessed Lord [CRUCIFIXION], and it is related by al-Wāqidī that Muḥammad had such a repugnance to the form of the cross that he broke everything brought into his house with that figure upon it. (Muir, iii. 61.) According to Abū Hurairah, the Prophet said, “I swear by heaven, it is near, when Jesus the Son of Mary will descend from heaven upon your people, a just king, and He will break the cross, and kill the swine. (Mishkāt, xxiii. c. vi.) The Imām Abū Yūsuf says that if a cross or a crucifix is stolen from a church, amputation (the punishment for theft) is not incurred; but if it is stolen from a private dwelling it is theft. (Hamilton’s Hidāyah, vol. ii. p. 90.)

CRUCIFIXION. The Crucifixion of the Lord Jesus Christ is denied by the teaching of the Qurʾān. [JESUS CHRIST.] It is a punishment sanctioned by the Muḥammadan religion for highway robbers. (Hamilton’s Hidāyah, vol. ii. 131.)

CRUELTY. A striking instance of the cruelty of Muḥammad’s character occurs in a tradition given in the Ṣaḥīḥu ʾl-Buk͟hārī (p. 1019). Anas relates, “Some of the people of the tribe of ʿUkl came to the Prophet and embraced Islām; but the air of al-Madīnah did not agree with them, and they wanted to leave the place. And the Prophet ordered them to go where the camels given in alms were assembled, and to drink their milk, which they did, and recovered from their sickness. But after this they became apostates, and renounced Islām, and stole the camels. Then the Prophet sent some people after them, and they were seized and brought [64]back to al-Madīnah. Then the Prophet ordered their hands and their feet to be cut off as a punishment for theft, and their eyes to be pulled out. But the Prophet did not stop the bleeding, and they died.” And in another it reads, “The Prophet ordered hot irons to be drawn across their eyes, and then to be cast on the plain of al-Madīnah; and when they asked for water it was not given them, and they died.”

Sir William Muir (vol. iv. p. 307) says: “Magnanimity or moderation are nowhere discernible as features in the conduct of Muḥammad towards such of his enemies as failed to tender a timely allegiance. Over the bodies of the Quraish who fell at Badr he exulted with savage satisfaction; and several prisoners, accused of no crime but of scepticism and political opposition, were deliberately executed at his command. The Prince of K͟haibar, after being subjected to inhuman torture for the purpose of discovering the treasures of his tribe, was, with his cousin, put to death on the pretext of having treacherously concealed them, and his wife was led away captive to the tent of the conqueror. Sentence of exile was enforced by Muḥammad with rigorous severity on two whole Jewish tribes at al-Madīnah; and of a third, likewise his neighbours, the women and children were sold into distant captivity, while the men, amounting to several hundreds, were butchered in cold blood before his eyes.”


DĀBBATU ʾL-ARẒ (دابة الارض‎). Lit. “The Reptile of the Earth.” A monster who shall arise in the last day, and shall cry unto the people of the earth that mankind have not believed in the revelations of God (vide Qurʾān, Sūrah xxvii. 84): “And when sentence falls upon them we will bring forth a beast out of the earth, that shall speak to them and say, ‘Men of our signs would not be sure.’ ” According to the Traditions he will be the third sign of the coming resurrection, and will come forth from the mountain of Ṣufah. (Mishkāt, xxiii. c. iv.) Both Sale and Rodwell have confounded the Dābbatu ʾl-Arẓ with Al-Jassāsah, the spy, mentioned in a tradition by Fāt̤imah (Mishkāt, xxiii. c. iv.), and which is held to be a demon now in existence. [AL-JASSASAH.] For a description of the Dābbah, see the article on the RESURRECTION.

DABŪR (دبور‎). “The West wind.” A term used by the Ṣūfīs to express the lust of the flesh, and its overwhelming power in the heart of man. (ʿAbdu ʾr-Razzāq’s Dictionary of Ṣūfī Terms.)

DAHHĀ (ده​ها‎). Plural of the Persian ده‎, ten. The ten days of the Muḥarram, during which public mourning for ʿAlī and his sons is observed by Shīʿah Muḥammadans. (Wilson’s Glossary of Indian Terms.)

AD-DAHR (الدهر‎). “A long space of time.” A title given to the LXXVIth chapter of the Qurʾān; called also Sūratu ʾl-Insān, “The Chapter of Man.” The title is taken from the first verse of the chapter: “Did not there pass over man a long space of time?”

DAHRĪ (دهرى‎). One who believes in the eternity of matter, and asserts that the duration of this world is from eternity, and denies the Day of Resurrection and Judgment; an Atheist. (G͟hiyās̤u ʾl-Lug͟hāt, in loco.)

DAIN (دين‎). A debt contracted with some definite term fixed for repayment, as distinguished from qarẓ, which is used for a loan given without any fixed term for repayment. [DEBT.]

DAJJĀL (دجال‎). Lit. “false, lying.” The name given in the Ḥadīs̤ to certain religious impostors who shall appear in the world; a term equivalent to our use of the word Antichrist. Muḥammad is related to have said there would be about thirty.

The Masīḥu ʾd-Dajjāl, or “the lying Christ,” it is said, will be the last of the Dajjāls, for an account of whom refer to article on MASIHU ʾD-DAJJAL.

DALĪL (دليل‎). “An argument; a proof.” Dalīl burhānī, “a convincing argument.” Dalīl qat̤īʿ, “a decisive proof.”

DAMASCUS. Arabic Dimashq. According to Jalālu ʾd-dīn Suyūt̤ī, Damascus is the second sacred city in Syria, Jerusalem being the first; and some have thought it must be the “Iram of the columns” mentioned in the Qurʾān, Sūrah lxxxix. 6, although this is not the view of most Muslim writers. [IRAM.] Damascus is not mentioned in the Qurʾān. With regard to the date of the erection of the city, Muḥammadan historians differ. Some say it was built by a slave named Dimashq, who belonged to Abraham, having been given to the patriarch by Nimrod; others say Dimashq was a slave belonging to Alexander the Great, and that the city was built in his day.

Damascus was taken by K͟hālid in the reign of the K͟halīfah ʿUmar, A.H. 13, and it became the capital of the Umaiyade K͟halīfahs under Muʿāwiyah, A.H. 41, and remained the chief city of Islām until the fall of that [65]dynasty, A.H. 132, when the Abbasides moved their capital first to al-Kūfah and then to Bag͟hdād.

The great mosque at Damascus was erected by ʿAbdu ʾl-Malik ibn Marwān, the fifth K͟halīfah of the Umaiyades. It was commenced A.H. 86, and finished in ten years, being erected on the ruins of an ancient Greek temple and of a Christian church.

The account, as given by Jalālu ʾd-dīn Suyūt̤ī, in his History of the Temple of Jerusalem, is curious and interesting, showing that for a time the Muslims and Christians worshipped in the same building together.

“Here (in Damascus) all the servants of God joined, and built a church to worship God in. Some say, however, that this church was built by the Greeks: for ʿAbdu ʾllāh Ibn ʿAbbās, having marched against Damascus and besieged it, demolished the walls, after he had entered the city by storm. Then there fell down a stone, having certain letters inscribed thereon in the Greek language. They therefore sent to bring a certain monk who could read Greek; but he said, ‘Bring me in pitch the impression of the letters on the stone, which he found to be as follows: ‘Woe unto thee, mother of shame! Pious is he who inflicts upon thee with usury the ill which God designs for thee in retribution. Woe unto thee from five eyes, who shall destroy thy wall after four thousand years.’ Now, ʿAbdu ʾllāh’s entire name was ʿAbdu ʾllāh Ibn ʿAlī Ibn ʿAbdi ʾllāh Ibn ʿAbbās Ibn ʿAbdu ʾl-Muqallib.

“Again, the historian Ibn Isahir says: When God had granted unto the Muslims the possession, as conquerors of the whole of Syria, He granted them among other cities that of Damascus with its dependencies. Thus God sent down His mercy upon them, and the commander-in-chief of the army (besieging Damascus), who was either Abū ʿUbaidah or, as some say, K͟hālid Ibn al-Walīd, wrote a treaty of capitulation and articles of surrender. By these he settled and appointed fourteen churches to remain in the hands of the Muslims. The church of which we have spoken above was left open and free for future consideration. This was on the plea that K͟hālid had entered the city at the sword’s point by the eastern gate; but that the Christians at the same time were allowed to surrender by Abū ʿUbaidah, who entered at the western gate, opened under articles. This caused dissension; but at length it was agreed that half the place should be regarded as having capitulated and half as stormed.

“The Muslims therefore took this church, and Abū ʿUbaidah made it into a mosque. He was afterwards appointed Emir of Syria, and was the first who prayed here, all the company of Companions praying after him in the open area, now called the Companions’ Tower; but the wall must then have been cut through, hard by the leaning tower, if the Companions really prayed in the ‘blessed precinct.’ At first the Christians and Muslims entered by the same gate, which was ‘the gate of Adoration and Prayer,’ over against the Qiblah, where the great tower now stands. Afterwards the Christians changed and went into their church by the gate facing the west; the Muslims taking the right-hand mosque. But the Christians were not suffered to chant aloud, or recite their books or strike their bells (or clappers), in order to honour the Companions with reverence and fear. Also, Muʿāwiyah built in his days a house for the Amīr, right opposite the mosque. Here he built a green chapel. This palace was noted for its perfection. Here Muʿāwiyah dwelt forty years; nor did this state of things change from A.H. 14 to A.H. 86. But Al-Walīd Ibn ʿAbdu ʾl-Malik began to think of destroying the churches, and of adding some to those already in the hands of the Muslims, so as to construct one great mosque; and this because some of the Muslims were sore troubled by hearing the recitations of the Christians from the Gospel, and their uplifted voices in prayer. He designed, therefore, to remove them from the Muslims and to annex this spot to the other, so as to make one great mosque. Therefore he called for the Christians, and asked them whether they would depart from those places which were in their hands, receiving in exchange greater portions in lieu thereof; and also retaining four churches not mentioned in the treaty—the Church of Maria, the Church of the Crucified, just within the eastern gate, the church Tallu ʾl-Ḥabn, and the Church of the Glorious Mother, occupied previously by the burnishers. This, however, they vehemently refused to do. Thereupon the K͟halīfah said, ‘Bring me then the treaty which you possess since the time of the Companions.’ They brought it, therefore, and it was read in al-Walīd’s presence; when, lo! the Church of Thomas, outside the gate of Thomas, hard by the river, did not enter into the treaty, and was one of those called ‘the greater of churches left upon’ (for future disposal). ‘There,’ he said, ‘this will I destroy and convert it into a mosque.’ They said, ‘Nay, let it alone, O commander of the Faithful, even although not mentioned among the churches, for we are content that you take the chapel of the church.’ To this agreement, then, he held them, and received from them the Qubbah (or chapel vault, dome) of the church. Then he summoned workmen able to pull down, and assembled all the amīrs, chiefs, and great men. But the Christian bishops and priests coming, said, ‘O commander of the Faithful, we find in our books that whosoever shall demolish this church will go mad.’ Then said the K͟halīfah, ‘And I am very willing to be mad with God’s inspiration; therefore no one shall demolish it before me.’ Then he ascended the western tower, which had two spires, and contained a monastic cell. Here he found a monk, whom he ordered to descend. The monk making difficulties, and lingering, al-Walīd took him by the back of his neck, and ceased not pushing him until he had thrown him down stairs. Then he ascended to the most lofty spot in the church, above the great altar, called ‘the Altar of [66]the Martyrs.’ Here he seized the ends of his sash, which was of a bright yellow colour, and fixed them into his belt. Taking, then, an axe into his hand, he struck against the very topmost stone, and brought it down. Then he called the amīrs, and desired them to pull down the building as quickly as possible. Hereupon all the Muslims shouted, ‘God is great!’ three times; also the Christians loudly cried out with their wailing and woe upon the steps of Jairūn, where they had assembled. Al-Walīd therefore desired the commander of his guard to inflict blows upon them until they should depart, which he did. The Muslims then demolished all that the Christians had built in the great square here—altars and buildings and cloisters—until the whole square was one flat surface. He then resolved to build a splendid pile, unrivalled for beauty of architecture, which none could hereafter surpass. Al-Walīd therefore commissioned the most eminent architects and mathematicians to build the mosque, according to the model they most preferred. His brother chiefly moved and stirred him up to this undertaking, and next to him presided Sulaimān ʿAbdu ʾl-Malik. It is said that al-Walīd sent to the king of Greece to demand stone-masons and other workmen, for the purpose of building this mosque in the way he desired, sending word, that if the king refused, he would overrun his territory with his army, and reduce to utter ruin every church in his dominions, even the Church of the Holy City, and the Church of Edessa, and utterly destroy every vestige of the Greeks still remaining. The king of Greece, sent, therefore, numerous workmen, with a letter, expressing himself thus: ‘If thy father knoweth what thou doest, and permits it, then truly I accuse him of disgraceful conduct, and blame him more than thee. If he understandeth it not, but thou only art conscious, then I blame thee above him.’ When the letter came to al-Walīd, he wished to reply unto it, and assembled several persons for consultation. One of these was a well-known poet, who said, ‘I will answer him, O Commander of the Faithful! out of the Book of God.’ So said al-Walīd, ‘Where, then, is that answer?’ He replied this verse, ‘David and Solomon, lo! they assume a right to the corn-field, a right to the place where the people are shearing their sheep. Also, we are witnesses of their decree; for Solomon hath given us to understand it, and both (David and Solomon) have come to us as judges and learned men.’ Al-Walīd, by this reply, caused great surprise to the king of Greece. Al-Firsuk alludes to this in these verses:—

“I have made a separation between the Christians and their churches, and between the people who shine and those who are in darkness.”

“I neglected for a season thus to apportion their happiness, I being a procrastinating vindicator of their grievances.”

“Thy Lord hath made thee to resolve upon removing their churches from those mosques wherein good words are recited.”

“Whilst they were together in one place, some were praying and prostrating themselves on their faces, slightly separated from others who, behold! were adoring God and idols.”

“How shall the people of the Cross unite to ring their bells, when the reading of the Qurʾān is perpetually intermingled?”

“I resolved then to remove them, just as did those wise men when they decreed themselves a right to the seed-field and the flocks.”

“When al-Walīd resolved to build the chapel which is in the midst of the cloister, called ‘the Vulture’s Chapel’ (a name given to it by the country-people, because the porticos on each side look like two wings), he dug deep at the four corners of the intended chapel, until they came to sweet and limpid water. Here they first placed the foundation of the wall of the vineyard. Upon this they built with stone, and when the four corners were of sufficient height, they then built thereon the chapel; but it fell down again. Then said al-Walīd to some one of the mathematicians, who well knew the plan of the Vulture’s Chapel, ‘I wish you to build this chapel; for the injunction of God hath been given me, and I am confident that no one but thyself may build it.’ He therefore built the four corners, and covered them with wicker, and disappeared for a whole year, al-Walīd not knowing where he was. After a year, al-Walīd dug down to the four corner foundations. Then he (i.e. the architect) said, ‘Do not be in a hurry, O commander of the Faithful!’ Then he found the mathematician, who had a man’s head with him. He came to the four corners, and uncovered the wicker work, and lo! all that had been built above the earth had fallen down, until they were on a level with the earth. So he said, ‘From this (work have I come).’ Then he proceeded to build, and firmly fixed and supported a beautiful fabric.

“Some person also said al-Walīd wished to construct a brilliant chapel of pure gold, whereby the rank of the mosque might be magnified. Hereupon the superintendent said unto him, ‘You cannot effect this.’ Upon which al-Walīd struck him fifty blows with a whip, saying, ‘Am I then incapable of effecting this?’ The man replied, ‘Certainly.’ Then he said, ‘I will, then, find out a way to know the truth. Bring forth all the gold thou hast’; which he did: and al-Walīd melted it, and formed it into one large brick, which contained one thousand pieces of gold. But the man said, ‘O Commander of the Faithful! we shall require so many thousand bricks of this sort, if thou dost possess them; nor will this suffice for our work. Al-Walīd seeing that he was true and just, presented him with fifty dīnārs; and when al-Walīd roofed the great precinct, he adorned the roof, as well as the whole extent of the pavement, with a surface of gold. Some of al-Walīd’s family also said unto him, ‘They who come after thee will emulate thee in rendering the outer roof of this mosque more commodious every year.’ Upon this al-Walīd ordered all the [67]lead of the country to be collected together, in order to construct therewith an exterior outward covering, answering to the interior, which should be light upon the roof, and on the side-posts that supported the roof. So they collected lead throughout all Syria and many other countries; and whilst they were returning, they met with a certain woman who possessed a weight of lead—a weight of many talents. They began to chaffer with the woman for it; but she refused to sell it, except for its weight in silver. So they wrote to the Commander of the Faithful, informing him of this, who replied, ‘Buy it from her, even for its weight in silver.’ When, then, they offered this sum unto her, she said, ‘Now that you have agreed to my proposal, and are satisfied to give the weight in silver, I give the weight as an offering unto God, to serve for the roof of the mosque.’ Hereupon they marked one corner of the weight with the impression of a seal, ‘This is God’s.’ Some say the woman was an Israelite; some say that they sought for lead in open ditches or holes, and came to a stone sepulchre, within which was a leaden sepulchre, whence they brought forth a dead body, and laid it on the ground. Whilst dragging it out, the head fell to the ground, and the neck being broken, much blood flowed forth from the mouth, which terrified them so much, that they rapidly fled away. This is said to have been the burial-place of King Saul. Also, the guardian of the mosque came unto al-Walīd and said, ‘O Commander of the Faithful! men say that al-Walīd hath expended the money of the treasury unjustly.’ Hereupon al-Walīd desired that all the people should be summoned to prayer. When all were assembled, al-Walīd mounted the pulpit, and said, ‘Such and such reports have reached me.’ Then he said, ‘O ʿUmar Ibn al-Muhājir! stand up and produce the money of the treasury.’ Now it was carried upon mules. Therefore, pieces of hide being placed in the midst, beneath the chapel, he poured out all the gold and silver, to such a height, that those who stood on either side could not see one another. Scales being then brought out, the whole was weighed, when it was found that the amount would suffice for the public use for three years to come, even if nothing were added to the amount. Then all the people rejoiced, praising and glorifying God for this. Then said the K͟halīfah, ‘O people of Damascus! you boast among men of four things; of your air, of your water, of your cheerfulness, and of your gracefulness. Would that you would add to these a fifth, and become of the number of those who praise God, and are liberal in his service. Would that, thus changing, you would become thankful suppliants.’

“In the Qiblah of this mosque were three golden scimitars, enamelled in lapis lazuli. Upon each scimitar was engraved the following sentence: ‘In the name of God, the Merciful and Compassionate! There is no god but God. He is the ever-living, the self-subsisting Being, who never slumbers nor sleeps. There is no god but God. He has no partner. We will never adore any but our Lord, the one God. Our faith is Islām, and our Prophet is Muḥammad. This mosque was built, and the churches which stood on the site of the chapel were demolished, by order of the servant of God, the Commander of the Faithful, al-Walīd Ibn ʿAbdu ʾl-Malik Ibn Marwān, in the month Ẕū ʾl-Qaʿdah, A.H. 86.’ Upon another tablet was inscribed the whole of the first chapter of the Qurʾān. Here also were depicted the stars, then the morning twilight, then the spiral course of the sun, then the way of living which obtained after the arrival of the Faithful at Damascus. Also, it is said, that all the floor of this mosque was divided into small slabs, and that the stone (carving) of the walls extended to the utmost pinnacle. Above was a great golden vine, and above this were splendid enamelled knobs of green, red, blue, and white, whereby were figured and expressed all countries and regions, especially the Kaʿbah, above the tower; also all the countries to the right and left (of Makkah), and all the most beautiful shrubs and trees of every region, famous either for their fruits or flowers. The roof had cornices of gold. Here was suspended a chain of gold and silver, which branched off into seven separate lights. In the tower of the Companions were two stones—beryls (some say they were the jewels called pearls); they were called ‘The Little Ones.’ When the candles were put out, they inflamed the eyes by their brilliant light. In the time of al-Amīn Ibn ar-Rashīd, Sulaimān, captain of the guard, was sent by that K͟halīfah to Damascus, to steal those stones and bring them to him; which he did. When al-Maʾmūn discovered this, he sent them to Damascus, as a proof of his brother’s misconduct. They afterwards again vanished, and in their place is a glass vessel. In this mosque all the gates, from the dome (gallery) unto the entrance, are open, and have no bars or locks. Over each is a loose curtain. In like manner there is a curtain upon all the walls as far as the bases of the golden vine, above which are the enamelled knobs. The capitals of the pillars were thickly covered with dead gilding. Here were also small galleries, to look down from, enclosed on the four sides of the skirting wall. Al-Walīd also built the northern minaret, now called ‘the Bridegroom’s Tower.’ As to the western gallery, that existed many ages before, in each corner of this was a cell, raised upon very lofty walls, and used by the Greeks as an observatory. The two northern of these fell, and the two opposite remained. In the year 740, part of the eastern had been burnt. It then fell down, but was built up anew out of the Christians’ money, because they had meditated the destruction (of it) by fire. It then was restored after a most beautiful plan. This is the tower (but God knows) upon which Jesus son of Maria will alight, for Muḥammad is reported to have said, ‘I saw Jesus son of Maria come forth from near the [68]white minaret, east of the mosque, placing his hands upon the wings of two angels, firmly bound to him. Upon him was the Divine glory (the Shechinah). He was marked by the red tinge of baptism. This is the mark of original sin.’ Jesus (it is also said) shall come forth from the White Tower by the eastern gate, and shall enter the mosque. Then shall the word come forth for Jesus to fight with Antichrist at the corner of the city, as long as it shall please God. Now, when this mosque (the slaves’ mosque) was completed, there was not to be found upon the face of the earth a building more beautiful, more splendid, more graceful, than this. On whatever side, or area, or place, the spectator looked, he still thought that side or spot the most preferable for beauty. In this mosque were certain talismans, placed therein since the time of the Greeks; so that no venomous or stinging creature could by any means obtain entrance into this enclosure, neither serpent, scorpion, beetle, nor spider. They say, also, that neither sparrows nor pigeons built their nests there, nor was anything to be found there which could annoy people. Most, or all, of those talismans were burnt by the fire that consumed the mosque, which fire took place in the night of Shaʿbān, A.H. 461. Al-Walīd frequently prayed in the mosque. One night (it is related) he said to his people, ‘I wish to pray to-night in the mosque; let no one remain there whilst I pray therein.’ So when he came unto the gate of the Two Moments, he desired the gate to be opened, and entering in, he saw a man standing between the gate of the Two Moments and the gate of St. George, praying. He was rather nearer to the gate of St. George than to the other. So the K͟halīfah said unto his people, ‘Did I not charge you that no one should remain whilst I was praying in the mosque?’ Then one of them said, ‘O Commander of the Faithful! this is St. George, who prays every night in the mosque.’ Again, one prayer in this mosque equals thirty thousand prayers.

“Again. A certain man, going out of the gate of the mosque which is near the Jairūn, met Kaʿb the scribe, who said, ‘Whither bound?’ He replied, ‘To the Baitu ʾl-Muqaddas, therein to pray.’ Then said Kaʿb, ‘I will show you a spot wherein whosoever prayeth shall receive the same blessings as if he prayed in the Baitu ʾl-Muqaddas.’ The man, therefore, went with him. Then Kaʿb showed him the space between the little gate from whence you go to Abyssinia, that is, the space covered by the arch of the gate, containing about one hundred yards, to the west, and said, ‘Whoso prayeth within those two points shall be regarded as praying within the Baitu ʾl-Muqaddas.’ Now, this spot is said to be a spot fit to be sought by pilgrims. Here, it is asserted, is the head of John, son of Zacharias (Peace be with him!). For al-Walīd Ibn Muslim being desired to show where John’s head was to be found, pointed with his hand to the plastered pillar—the fourth from the east corner. Zaid Ibn Wakad says, ‘At the time it was proposed to build the mosque of Damascus, I saw the head of John, son of Zacharias, brought forth from underneath one of the corners of the chapel. The hair of the head was unchanged.’ He says in another place, ‘Being nominated by al-Walīd superintendent of the building, we found a cave, of which discovery we informed al-Walīd. He came, therefore, unto us at night, with a wax taper in his hand. Upon descending we found an elaborately carved little shrine, three within three (i.e. within the first a second, within the second a third). Within this last was a sarcophagus, and within this a casket; within which was the head of John, son of Zacharias. Over the casket was written, “Here is the head of John, son of Zacharias. Peace be with him!” By al-Walīd’s command we restored the head to the spot whence it had been taken. The pillars which are above this spot are inclined obliquely to the others to distinguish the place. There is also over it a pillar with a head in plaster.’ He asserts again, that when the happy event occurred of the conquest of Damascus, a certain person went up the stairs which led to the church, then standing where the mosque now stands. Here the blood of John, son of Zacharias was seen to flow in torrents and to boil up, nor did the blood sink down and become still until that seventy thousand had been slain over him. The spot where the head was found is now called al-Sakasak (perhaps, the Nail of the Narrow Cave).

“In the days of ʿUmar, the Christians requested that he would confirm their claim to the right of meeting in those places which al-Walīd had taken from them and converted into mosques. They, therefore, claimed the whole inner area as their own from ʿUmar. The latter thought it right to restore them what al-Walīd had taken from them, but upon examination he found that the churches without the suburbs were not comprehended in the articles of surrender by the Companions, such, for example, as the great Church of the Monastery of Observants or Carmelites, the Church of the Convent behind the Church of St. Thomas, and all the churches of the neighbouring villages. ʿUmar therefore gave them the choice, either to restore them the churches they demanded, demolishing in that case all the other churches, or to leave those churches unmolested, and to receive from them a full consent to the free use of the open space by the Muslims. To this latter proposal they, after three days deliberation, agreed; and proper writings were drawn up on both sides. They gave the Muslims a deed of grant, and ʿUmar gave them full security and assurance of protection. Nothing was to be compared to this mosque. It is said to be one of the strongholds of Paradise, and that no inhabitant of Damascus would long for Paradise when he looks upon his beautiful mosque. Al-Maʾmūn came to Damascus in company with his brother al-Muʿtaṣim, and the Qāẓī Yaḥyā Ibn Aks̤am. Whilst viewing the mosque he said, ‘What is [69]the most wondrous sight here?’ His brother said, ‘These offerings and pledges.’ The Qāẓī said, ‘The marble and the columns.’ Then said al-Maʾmūn, ‘The most wondrous thing to me is, whether any other could be built at all like this.’ ” (Hist. Temple of Jerusalem, by Jalālu ʾd-dīn, translated by Reynolds, p. 407.)

DANCING. Arabic Raqs. Dancing is generally held to be unlawful, although it does not appear to be forbidden in either the Qurʾān or the Traditions, but according to al-Buk͟hārī (Arabic ed., p. 135), the Prophet expressly permitted it on the day of the great festival. Those who hold it to be unlawful quote the following verse from the Qurʾān, Sūrah xvii. 39, “Walk not proudly on the earth,” as a prohibition, although it does not seem to refer to the subject.

The Ṣūfīs make dancing a religious exercise, but the Sunnī Muslims consider it unlawful. (Hidāyatu ʾs-Sāʾil, p. 107.)

DANIEL. Arabic Dāniyāl. A prophet celebrated amongst Muḥammadans as an interpreter of dreams. He is not mentioned in either the Qurʾān or the Traditions, but in the Qaṣaṣu ʾl-Ambiyāʾ, p. 231, it is stated that in the reign of Buk͟htu Naṣṣar (Nebuchadnezzar) he was imprisoned; and when he was in prison, the king had a dream which he had forgotten, and hearing that Daniel was an interpreter of dreams, he sent for him. When Daniel was in the presence of the King, he refused to prostrate, saying, it was lawful to prostrate alone to the Lord Almighty. For this he nearly lost his life, but was spared to interpret the king’s dream, which was as follows: “He saw a great idol, the head of which was of gold, above the navel of silver, below the navel of copper, the legs of iron, and the feet of clay. And suddenly a stone fell from heaven upon the idol, and ground it to powder, and mixed all the substances, so that the wind blew them in all directions; but the stone grew gradually, and to such an extent that it covered the whole earth.” The interpretation of it, as given by Daniel is said to be this: The idol represented different nations; the gold was the kingdom of Nebuchadnezzar, the silver the kingdom of his son, the copper the Romans, the iron the Persians, and the clay the tribe Zauzan, from which the kings of Persia and Rome should be descended; the great stone being a religion which should spread itself over the whole earth in the last day.

DĀR (دار‎). “A house, dwelling, habitation, land, country.” A word which is used in various combinations, e.g.:—

ad-Dār The abode—the city of al-Madīnah.
ad-Dārain The two abodes—this world and the next.
Dāru ʾl-adab A seat of learning; a university.
Dāru ʾl-baqāʾ The abode which remaineth—heaven.
Dāru ʾl-fanā The abode which passeth away—earth.
Dāru ʾl-g͟hurūr The abode of delusion—the world.
Dāru ʾl-ḥuzn The vale of tears—the earth.
Dāru ʾl-ibtilāʾ The abode of temptation—the world.
Dāru ʾl-k͟hilāfah The seat of the Imām or K͟halīfah—capital.
Dāru ʾl-kutub A library.
Dāru ʾl-k͟huld The home of eternity—Paradise.
ad-Dāru ʾn-naʿīm The blessed abode—Paradise.
Dāru ʾl-qaẓāʾ The Qāẓī’s court.
Dāru ʾsh-shifāʾ A hospital.
Dāru ʾs-surur The abode of joy—Paradise.
Dāru ʾẓ-ẓarb A mint.
Dāru ʾẓ-ẓiyāfah A banqueting-room.


DARGĀH (درگاه‎). A royal court (Persian). In India it is a term used for a Muḥammadan shrine or tomb of some reputed holy person, and which is the object of pilgrimage and adoration. (Wilson’s Glossary of Indian Terms.)

DĀRU ʾL-BAWĀR (دار البوار‎). Lit. “The abode of perdition.” A term used for hell in the Qurʾān, Sūrah xiv. 33: “And have made their people to alight at the abode of perdition.”

DĀRU ʾL-ḤARB (دار الحرب‎). “The land of warfare.” According to the Dictionary G͟hiyās̤u ʾl-Lug͟hāt, Dāru ʾl-ḥārb is “a country belonging to infidels which has not been subdued by Islām.” According to the Qāmūs, it is “a country in which peace has not been proclaimed between Muslims and unbelievers.”

In the Fatāwā ʿĀlamgīrī, vol. ii. p. 854, it is written that a Dāru ʾl-ḥarb becomes a Dāru ʾl-Islām on one condition, namely, the promulgation of the edicts of Islām. The Imām Muḥammad, in his book called the Ziyādah, says a Dāru ʾl-Islām again becomes a Dāru ʾl-ḥarb, according to Abū Ḥanīfah, on three conditions, namely: (1) That the edicts of the unbelievers be promulgated, and the edicts of Islām be suppressed; (2) That the country in question be adjoining a Dāru ʾl-ḥarb and no other Muslim country lie between them (that is, when the duty of Jihād or religious war becomes incumbent on them, and they have not the power to carry it on); (3) That no protection (amān) remains for either a Muslim or a ẕimmī; viz. that amānu ʾl-awwal, or that first protection which was given them when the country was first conquered by Islām. The Imāms Yūsuf and Muḥammad both say that when the edicts of unbelievers are promulgated in a country, it is sufficient to constitute it a Dāru ʾl-ḥarb.

In the Raddu ʾl-Muk͟htār, vol. iii. p. 391, it is stated, “If the edicts of Islām remain in force, together with the edicts of the unbelievers, then the country cannot be said to be [70]a Dāru ʾl-ḥarb.” The important question as to whether a country in the position of Hindustān may be considered a Dāru ʾl-Islām or a Dāru ʾl-ḥarb has been fully discussed by Dr. W. W. Hunter, of the Bengal Civil Service, in his work entitled, Indian Musulmāns, which is the result of careful inquiry as to the necessary conditions of a Jihād, or a Crescentade, instituted at the time of the excitement which existed in India in 1870–71, in consequence of a Wahhābī conspiracy for the overthrow of Christian rule in that country. The whole matter, according to the Sunnī Musulmāns, hinges upon the question whether India is Dāru ʾl-ḥarb, “a land of warfare,” or Dāru ʾl-Islām, “a land of Islām.”

The Muftīs belonging to the Ḥanīfī and Shāfiʿī sects at Makkah decided that, “as long as even some of the peculiar observances of Islām prevail in a country, it is Dāru ʾl-Islām.”

The decision of the Muftī of the Mālikī sect was very similar, being to the following effect: “A country does not become Dāru ʾl-ḥarb as soon as it passes into the hands of the infidels, but when all or most of the injunctions of Islām disappear therefrom.”

The law doctors of North India decided that, “the absence of protection and liberty to Musulmāns is essential in a Jihād, or religious war, and also that there should be a probability of victory to the armies of Islām.”

The Shīʿah decision on the subject was as follows: “A Jihād is lawful only when the armies of Islām are led by the rightful Imām, when arms and ammunitions of war and experienced warriors are ready, when it is against the enemies of God, when he who makes war is in possession of his reason, and when he has secured the permission of his parents, and has sufficient money to meet the expenses of his journey.”

The Sunnīs and Shīʿahs alike believe in the eventual triumph of Islām, when the whole world shall become followers of the Prophet of Arabia; but whilst the Sunnīs are, of course, ready to undertake the accomplishment of this great end, “whenever there is a probability of victory to the Musulmāns,” the Shīʿahs, true to the one great principle of their sect, must wait until the appearance of a rightful Imām. [JIHAD.]

DĀRU ʾL-ISLĀM (دار الاســلام‎). “Land of Islām.” According to the Raddu ʾl-Muk͟htār, vol. iii. p. 391, it is a country in which the edicts of Islām are fully promulgated.

In a state brought under Muslims, all those who do not embrace the faith are placed under certain disabilities. They can worship God according to their own customs, provided they are not idolaters; but it must be done without any ostentation, and, whilst churches and synagogues may be repaired, no new place of worship can be erected. “The construction of churches, or synagogues, in Muslim territory is unlawful, this being forbidden in the Traditions; but if places of worship belonging to Jews, or Christians, be destroyed, or fall into decay, they are at liberty to repair them, because buildings cannot endure for ever.”

Idol temples must be destroyed, and idolatry suppressed by force in all countries ruled according to strict Muslim law. (Hidāyah, vol. ii. p. 219.)

For further particulars, see article DARU ʾL-HARB.

DĀRU ʾL-QARĀR (دار الــقــرار‎). “The abode that abideth.” An expression which occurs in the Qurʾān, Sūrah xl. 42: “O my people! this present life is only a passing joy, but the life to come is the mansion that abideth.”

DĀRU ʾS-SALĀM (دار الــســلام‎). “The abode of peace.” An expression which occurs in the Qurʾān, Sūrah vi. 127: “For them is a dwelling of peace with their Lord! and in recompense for their works, shall He be their protector.”

DĀRU ʾS-SALT̤ANAH (دار السلطنة‎). “The seat of government.” A term given to the capital of a province, or a Muslim state.

DĀRU ʾS̤-S̤AWĀB (دار الثواب‎). “The house of recompense.” A name given to the Jannatu ʿAdn, or Garden of Eden, by the commentator al-Baiẓāwī.

DARVESH, DARWĪSH (درويش‎). A Persian word for a religious mendicant. A dervesh. It is derived from the word dar, “a door”; lit. one who goes from door to door. Amongst religious Muḥammadans, the darvesh is called a faqīr, which is the word generally used for religious mendicant orders in Arabic books. The subject is, therefore, considered in the article on FAQIR.

DAUGHTERS. Arabic Bint, pl. Banāt; Heb. Bath (‏בַּת‎). In the law of inheritance, the position of a daughter is secured by a verse in the Qurʾān, Sūrah iv. 12: “With regard to your children, God has commanded you to give the sons the portion of two daughters, and if there be daughters, more than two, then they shall have two-thirds of that which their father hath left, but if she be an only daughter she shall have the half.”

The Sirājīyah explains the above as follows:—

“Daughters begotten by the deceased take in three cases: half goes to one only, and two-thirds to two or more: and, if there be a son, the male has the share of two females, and he makes them residuaries. The son’s daughters are like the daughters begotten by the deceased; and they may be in six cases: half goes to one only, and two-thirds to two or more, on failure of daughters begotten by the deceased; with a single daughter of the deceased, they have a sixth, completing (with the daughter’s half) two-thirds; but, with two daughters of the deceased, they have no share of the inheritance, unless there be, in an equal degree with, or in a lower [71]degree than, them, a boy, who makes them residuaries. As to the remainder between them, the male has the portion of two females; and all of the son’s daughters are excluded by the son himself.

“If a man leave three son’s daughters, some of them in lower degrees than others, and three daughters of the son of another son, some of them in lower degree than others, and three daughters of the son’s son of another son, some of them in lower degrees than others, as in the following table, this is called the case of tashbīh.

First set. Second set. Third set.
Son. Son. Son.
Son, daughter. Son. Son.
Son, daughter. Son, daughter. Son.
Son, daughter. Son, daughter. Son, daughter.
Son, daughter. Son, daughter.
Son, daughter.

“Here the eldest of the first line has none equal in degree with her; the middle one of the first line is equalled in degree by the eldest of the second, and the youngest of the first line is equalled by the middle one of the second, and by the oldest of the third line; the youngest of the second line is equalled by the middle one of the third line, and the youngest of the third set has no equal in degree. When thou hast comprehended this, then we say: the eldest of the first line has a moiety; the middle one of the first line has a sixth, together with her equal in degree, to make up two-thirds; and those in lower degrees never take anything, unless there be a son with them, who makes them residuaries, both her who is equal to him in degree, and her who is above him, but who is not entitled to a share; those below him are excluded.” (Ramsay’s ed. As-Sirājīyah.)

The age of puberty, or majority, of a daughter is established by the usual signs of womanhood; but in the absence of these signs, according to Abū Ḥanīfah, she is not of age until she is eighteen. But the two Imāms, Muḥammad and Yūsuf, fix the age at fifteen, and with this opinion the Imām ash-Shāfiʿī agrees.

With regard to a daughter’s freedom in a marriage contract, Shaik͟h ʿAbdu ʾl-Ḥaqq, in his commentary on the Traditions (vol. iii. p. 105), says, “All the learned doctors are agreed that a virgin daughter, until she has arrived at the age of puberty, is entirely at the disposal of her father or lawful guardian, but that in the event of a woman having been left a widow after she has attained the age of puberty, she is entirely at liberty to marry whom she likes.” There is, however, he says, some difference of opinion as to the freedom of a girl who has not been married and has arrived at the age of puberty. Abū Ḥanīfah rules that she is entirely free from the control of her guardian with regard to her marriage, but ash-Shāfiʿī rules otherwise. Again, as regards a widow who is not of age, Abū Ḥanīfah says she cannot marry without her guardian’s permission, but ash-Shāfiʿī says she is free.

According to the teaching of the Prophet, “a virgin daughter gives her consent to marriage by silence.” He also taught “that a woman ripe in years shall have her consent asked, and if she remain silent her silence is consent, but if she do not consent, she shall not be forced.” But this tradition is also to be compared with another, in which he said, “There is no marriage without the permission of the guardians.” (Mishkāt, xiii. c. iv. pt. 2.) Hence the difference between the learned doctors on this subject.

The author of the Ak͟hlāq-i-Jalālī says it is not advisable to teach girls to read and write, and this is the general feeling amongst Muḥammadans in all parts of the world, although it is considered right to enable them to recite the Qurʾān and the liturgical prayers.

The father or guardian is to be blamed who does not marry his daughter at an early age, for Muḥammad is related to have said, “It is written in the Book of Moses, that whosoever does not marry his daughter when she hath reached the age of twelve years is responsible for any sin she may commit.”

The ancient Arabs used to call the angels the “daughters of God,” and objected strongly, as the Badawīs do in the present day, to female offspring, and they used to bury their infant daughters alive. These practices Muḥammad reprobates in the Qurʾān, Sūrah xvi. 59: “And they ascribe daughters unto God! Glory be to Him! But they desire them not for themselves. For when the birth of a daughter is announced to any one of them, dark shadows settle on his face, and he is sad; he hideth him from the people because of the ill tidings. Shall he keep it with disgrace, or bury it in the dust? Are not their judgments wrong?”

Mr. Rodwell remarks on this verse: “Thus Rabbinism teaches that to be a woman is a great degradation. The modern Jew says in his Daily Prayers, fol. 5, 6, Blessed art thou, O Lord our God! King of the Universe! who hath not made me a woman.

DŪMAH (دومة‎). A fortified town held by the Christian chief Ukaidar, who was defeated by the Muslim general K͟hālid, and by him converted to Muḥammadanism, A.H. 9. But the mercenary character of Ukaidar’s conversion led him to revolt after Muḥammad’s death. (Muir’s Life of Mahomet, vol. iv. p. 191.)

DAVID. Arabic Dāwud, or Dāwūd. A king of Israel and a Prophet, to whom God revealed the Zabūr, or Book of Psalms. [ZABUR.] He has no special title or kalimah, as all Muslims are agreed that he was not a law-giver or the founder of a dispensation. The account of him in the Qurʾān is exceedingly meagre. It is given as follows, with the commentator’s remarks translated in italics by Mr. Lane:—

“And God gave him (David) the kingship over the children of Israel, and wisdom, after the death of Samuel and Saul, and they [72][namely these two gifts] had not been given together to any one before him; and He taught him what He pleased, as the art of making coats of mail, and the language of birds. And were it not for God’s repelling men, one by another, surely the earth had become corrupt by the predominance of the polytheists and the slaughter of the Muslims and the ruin of the places of worship: but God is beneficent to the peoples, and hath repelled some by others.” (Sūrah ii. 227.)

“Hath the story of the two opposing parties come unto thee, when they ascended over the walls of the oratory of David, having been prevented going in unto him by the door, because of his being engaged in devotion? When they went in unto David, and he was frightened at them, they said, Fear not: we are two opposing parties. It is said that they were two parties of more than one each; and it is said that they were two individuals, angels, who came as two litigants, to admonish David, who had ninety-nine wives, and had desired the wife of a person who had none but her, and married her and taken her as his wife. [One of them said,] One of us hath wronged the other; therefore judge between us with truth, and be not unjust, but direct us into the right way. Verily this my brother in religion had nine-and-ninety ewes, and I had one ewe; and he said, Make me her keeper. And he overcame me in the dispute.—And the other confessed him to have spoken truth.—[David] said, Verily he hath wronged thee in demanding thy ewe to add her to his ewes; and verily many associates wrong one another, except those who believe and do righteous deeds: and few indeed are they.—And the two angels said, ascending in their [proper or assumed] forms to heaven, The man hath passed sentence against himself. So David was admonished. And David perceived that We had tried him by his love of that woman; wherefore he asked pardon of his Lord, and fell down bowing himself (or prostrating himself), and repented. So We forgave him that; and verily for him [was ordained] a high rank with Us (that is, an increase of good fortune in this world), and [there shall be for him] an excellent retreat in the world to come.” (Sūrah xxxviii. 20–24.)

“We compelled the mountains to glorify Us, with David, and the birds also, on his commanding them to do so, when he experienced languor; and We did this. And We taught him the art of making coats of mail (for before his time plates of metal were used) for you among mankind in general, that they might defend you from your suffering in warring with your enemies.—Will ye then, O people of Mecca, be thankful for My favours, believing the apostles?” (Sūrah xxi. 79, 80.)

Sale observes that Yaḥyā the commentator, most rationally understands hereby the divine revelations which David received from God, and not the art of making coats of mail.—The cause of his applying himself to this art is thus related in the Mirātu ʾz-Zamān:—He used to go forth in disguise; and when he found any people who knew him not, he approached them and asked them respecting the conduct of David, and they praised him and prayed for him; but one day, as he was asking questions respecting himself as usual, God sent to him an angel in the form of a human being, who said, “An excellent man were David if he did not take from the public treasury.” Whereupon the heart of David was contracted, and he begged of God to render him independent: so He made iron soft to him, and it became in his hands as thread; and he used to sell a coat of mail for four thousand [pieces of money—whether gold or silver is not said], and with part of this he obtained food for himself, and part he gave in alms, and with part he fed his family. Hence an excellent coat of mail is often called by the Arabs “Dāwudī,” i.e. “Davidean.” (See Lane’s translation of The Thousand and One Nights, chap. viii. note 5.)

David, it is said, divided his time regularly, setting apart one day for the service of God, another day for rendering justice to his people, another day for preaching to them, and another day for his own affairs.

DAʿWĀ (دعوى‎). A claim in a law-suit. A claim or demand. (See Hamilton’s Hidāyah, vol. iii. p. 63.)

DAʿWAH (دعوة‎). Lit. “A call, invocation (i.e. of God’s help).” A term used to express a system of incantation which is held to be lawful by orthodox Muḥammadans; whilst siḥr, “magic,” and kahānah, “fortune-telling,” are said to be unlawful, the Prophet having forbidden both.

From the Muslim books it appears that Muḥammad is believed to have sanctioned the use of spells and incantations, so long as the words used were only those of the names of God, or of the good angels, and of the good genii; although the more strict amongst them (the Wahhābīs, for example,) would say that only an invocation of God Himself was lawful—teaching which appears to be more in accordance with that of Muḥammad, who is related to have said, “There is nothing wrong in using spells so long as you do not associate anything with God.” (Mishkāt, xxi. c. i.) It is therefore clearly lawful to use charms and amulets on which the name of God only is inscribed, and to invoke the help of God by any ceremony, provided no one is associated with Him.

The science of daʿwah has, however, been very much elaborated, and in many respects its teachers seem to have departed from the original teaching of their Prophet on the subject.

In India, the most popular work on daʿwah is the Jawāhiru ʾl-K͟hamsah, by Shaik͟h Abū ʾl-Muwayyid of Gujerat, A.H. 956, in which he says the science is used for the following purposes. (1) To establish friendship or enmity between two persons. (2) To cause the cure, or the sickness and death, of a person. (3) To secure the accomplishment of one’s wishes, both temporal and spiritual. (4) To obtain defeat or victory in battle. [73]

This book is largely made up of Hindu customs which, in India, have become part of Muḥammadanism; but we shall endeavour to confine ourselves to a consideration of those sections which exhibit the so-called science as it exists in its relation to Islām.

In order to explain this occult science, we shall consider it under the following divisions:

1. The qualifications necessary for the ʿāmil, or the person who practices it.

2. The tables required by the teacher, and their uses.

3. An explanation of the terms niṣāb, zakāt, ʿushr, qufl, daur, bazl, k͟hatm, and sarīʿu ʾl-ijābah, and their uses.

4. The methods employed for commanding the presence of the genii.

I. When anyone enters upon the study of the science, he must begin by paying the utmost attention to cleanliness. No dog, or cat, or any stranger, is allowed to enter his dwelling-place, and he must purify his house by burning wood-aloes, pastilles, and other sweet-scented perfumes. He must take the utmost care that his body is in no way defiled, and he must bathe and perform the legal ablutions constantly. A most important preparation for the exercise of the art is a forty-days’ fast (chilla), when he must sleep on a mat spread on the ground, sleep as little as possible, and not enter into general conversation. Exorcists not unfrequently repair to some cave or retired spot in order to undergo complete abstinence.

The diet of the exorcist must depend upon the kind of asmā, or names of God he intends to recite. If they are the asmāʾu ʾl-jalālīyah, or “terrible attributes” of the Almighty, then he must refrain from the use of meat, fish, eggs, honey, and musk. If they are the asmāʾu ʾl-jamālīyah, or “amiable attributes,” he must abstain from butter, curds, vinegar, salt, and ambergrise. If he intends to recite both attributes, he must then abstain from such things as garlic, onions, and assafœtida.

It is also of the utmost importance that the exorcist should eat things which are lawful, always speak the truth, and not cherish a proud or haughty spirit. He should be careful not to make a display of his powers before the world, but treasure up in his bosom the knowledge of his acquirements. It is considered very dangerous to his own life for a novice to practice the science of exorcism.

II. Previous to reciting any of the names or attributes of God for the establishment of friendship or enmity in behalf of any person, it is necessary to ascertain the initials of his or her name in the Arabic alphabet, which letters are considered by exorcists to be connected with the twelve signs of the zodiac, the seven planets, and the four elements. The following tables, which are taken from the Jawāhiru ʾl-K͟hamsah, occur, in a similar form, in all books on exorcism, give the above combinations, together with the nature of the perfume to be burnt, and the names of the presiding genius and guardian angel. These tables may be considered the key to the whole science of exorcism.

Letters of the Alphabet arranged according to the Abjad [ABJAD], with their respective number. 1 ا‎ 2 ب‎ 3 ج‎ 4 د‎ 5 ه‎
The Special Attributes or Names of God. الله‎ باقى‎ جامع‎ ديان‎ هادى‎
Allāh. Bāqī. Jāmiʿ. Dayyān. Hādī.
The Number of the Attribute. 66 113 114 65 20
The Meaning of the Attribute. God. Eternal. Assembler. Reckoner. Guide.
The Class of the Attribute. Terrible. Amiable. Terrible & Amiable combined. Terrible. Amiable.
The Quality, Vice, or Virtue of the Letter. Friendship. Love. Love. Enmity. Enmity.
The Elements. (Arbaʿah ʿAnāṣir.) Fire. Air. Water. Earth. Fire.
The Perfume of the Letter. Black Aloes. Sugar. Cinnamon. Red Sandal. White Sandal.
The Signs of the Zodiac. (Burūj.) Ḥamal. Jauzāʾ. Sarat̤ān. S̤aur. Ḥamal.
Ram. Twins. Crab. Bull. Ram.
The Planets. (Kawākib.) Zuḥal. Mushtarī. Mirrīk͟h. Shams. Zuhrah.
Saturn. Jupiter. Mars. Sun. Venus.
The Genii. (Jinn.) Qayupūsh. Danūsh. Nulūsh. T̤wayūsh. Hūsh.
The Guardian Angels. (Muwakkil.) Isrāfīl. Jibrāʾīl. Kalkāʾīl. Dardāʾīl. Durbāʾīl.


Letters of the Alphabet arranged according to the Abjad [ABJAD], with their respective number. 6 و‎ 7 ز‎ 8 ح‎ 9 ط‎ 10 ى‎
The Special Attributes or Names of God. ولى‎ زكى‎ حق‎ طاهر‎ ياسين‎
Walī. Zakī. Ḥaqq. T̤āhir. Yāsīn.
The Number of the Attribute. 46 37 108 215 130
The Meaning of the Attribute. Friend. Purifier. Truth. Holy. Chief.
The Class of the Attribute. Amiable. Combined. Combined. Terrible. Amiable.
The Quality, Vice, or Virtue of the Letter. Love. Love. Hatred. Desire. Attraction.
The Elements. (Arbaʿah ʿAnāṣir.) Air. Water. Earth. Fire. Air.
The Perfume of the Letter. Camphor. Honey. Saffron. Musk. Rose Leaves.
The Signs of the Zodiac. (Burūj.) Jauzāʾ. Sarat̤ān. Jady. Ḥamal. Mīzān.
Twins. Crab. Goat. Ram. Scales.
The Planets. (Kawākib.) ʿUt̤ārid. Qamar. Zuḥal. Mushtarī. Mirrīk͟h.
Mercury. Moon. Saturn. Jupiter. Mars.
The Genii. (Jinn.) Puyūsh. Kapūsh. ʿAyūsh. Badyūsh. Shahbūsh.
The Guardian Angels. (Muwakkil.) Raftmāʾīl. Sharkāʾīl. Tankafīl. Ishmāʾīl Sarakīkāʾīl.

Letters of the Alphabet arranged according to the Abjad [ABJAD], with their respective number. 20 ك‎ 30 ل‎ 40 م‎ 50 ن‎ 60 س‎
The Special Attributes or Names of God. كافى‎ لطيف‎ ملك‎ نور‎ سميع‎
Kāfī. Lat̤īf. Malik. Nūr. Samīʿ.
The Number of the Attribute. 111 129 90 256 180
The Meaning of the Attribute. Sufficient. Benignant. King. Light. Hearer.
The Class of the Attribute. Amiable. Amiable. Terrible. Amiable. Combined.
The Quality, Vice, or Virtue of the Letter. Love. Separation. Love. Hatred. Desire.
The Elements. (ʿArbaʿah ʿAnāṣir.) Water. Earth. Fire. Air. Water.
The Perfume of the Letter. White rose leaves. Apples. Quince. Hyacinth. Different kinds of Scents.
The Signs of the Zodiac. (Burūj.) ʿAqrab. S̤aur. Asad. Mīzān. Qaus.
Scorpion. Bull. Lion. Scales. Archer.
The Planets. (Kawākib.) Shams. Zuhrah. ʿUt̤ārid. Qamar. Zuḥal.
Sun. Venus. Mercury. Moon. Saturn.
The Genii. (Jinn.) Kadyūsh. ʿAdyūsh. Majbūsh. Damalyūsh. Faʿyūsh.
The Guardian Angels. (Muwakkil.) Kharurāʾīl. T̤at̤āʾīl. Rūyāʾīl. Hūlāʾīl. Hamwākīl.


Letters of the Alphabet arranged according to the Abjad [ABJAD], with their respective number. 70 ع‎ 80 ف‎ 90 ص‎ 100 ق‎ 200 ر‎
The Special Attributes or Names of God. على‎ فتاح‎ صمد‎ قادر‎ رب‎
ʿAlī. Fattāḥ. Ṣamad. Qādir. Rabb.
The Number of the Attribute. 110 489 134 305 202
The Meaning of the Attribute. Exalted. Opener. Established. Powerful. Lord.
The Class of the Attribute. Terrible. Amiable. Terrible. Combined. Terrible.
The Quality, Vice, or Virtue of the Letter. Riches. Enmity. Intimacy. Desire. Friendship.
The Elements. (ʿArbaʿah ʿAnāṣir.) Earth. Fire. Air. Water. Earth.
The Perfume of the Letter. White Pepper. Walnut. Nutmeg. Orange. Rosewater.
The Signs of the Zodiac. (Burūj.) Sumbulah. Asad. Mīzān. Ḥūt. Sumbulah.
Virgin. Lion. Scales. Fish. Virgin.
The Planets. (Kawākib.) Mushtarī. Mirrīk͟h. Shams. Zuhrah. ʿUt̤ārid.
Jupiter. Mars. Sun. Venus. Mercury.
The Genii. (Jinn.) Kashpūsh. Lat̤yūsh. Kalapūsh. Shamyūsh. Rahūsh.
The Guardian Angels. (Muwakkil.) Lumāʾīl. Sarhmāʾīl. Ahjmāʾīl. ʿItrāʾīl. Amwākīl.

Letters of the Alphabet arranged according to the Abjad [ABJAD], with their respective number. 300 ش‎ 400 ت‎ 500 ث‎ 600 خ‎
The Special Attributes or Names of God. شفيع‎ تواب‎ ثابت‎ خالق‎
Shafīʿ. Tawwāb. S̤ābit. K͟hāliq
The Number of the Attribute. 460 409 903 731
The Meaning of the Attribute. Accepter. Forgiver. Stable. Creator.
The Class of the Attribute. Amiable. Amiable. Terrible. Combined.
The Quality, Vice, or Virtue of the Letter. Enmity. Sleeplessness. Hatred. Love.
The Elements. (ʿArbaʿah ʿAnāṣir.) Fire. Air. Water. Earth.
The Perfume of the Letter. White Aloes. Amber. White Aloes. Violet.
The Signs of the Zodiac. (Burūj.) ʿAqrab. Dalw. Ḥūt. Jady.
Scorpion. Watering Pot. Fish. Goat.
The Planets. (Kawākib.) Qamar. Zuḥal. Mushtarī. Mirrīk͟h.
Moon. Saturn. Jupiter. Mars.
The Genii. (Jinn.) Tashyūsh. Lat̤yūsh. T̤wahyūsh. Dālāyūsh.
The Guardian Angels. (Muwakkil.) Amrāʾīl. Azrāʾīl. Mīkāʾīl. Mahkāʾīl.


Letters of the Alphabet arranged according to the Abjad [ABJAD], with their respective number. 700 ذ‎ 800 ض‎ 900 ظ‎ 1000 غ‎
The Special Attributes or Names of God. ذاكر‎ ضار‎ ظاهر‎ غفور‎
Ẕākir. Ẓārr. Z̤āhir. G͟hafūr.
The Number of the Attribute. 921 1001 1106 1285
The Meaning of the Attribute. Rememberer. Punisher. Evident. Great Forgiver.
The Class of the Attribute. Combined. Terrible. Terrible. Amiable.
The Quality, Vice, or Virtue of the Letter. Hatred. Hatred. Enmity. Convalescence.
The Elements. (ʿArbaʿah ʿAnāṣir.) Fire. Air. Water. Earth.
The Perfume of the Letter. Sweet Basil. Laburnum. Jasmine. Cloves.
The Signs of the Zodiac. (Burūj.) Qaus. Dalw. Ḥūt. Ḥūt.
Archer. Watering Pot. Fish. Fish.
The Planets. (Kawākib.) Shams. Zuhrah. ʿUt̤ārid. Qamar.
Sun. Venus. Mercury. Moon.
The Genii. (Jinn.) T̤wakapūsh. Ghayūsh. Ghafūpūsh. ʿArkupūsh.
The Guardian Angels. (Muwakkil.) Hart̤āʾīl. ʿAtāʾīl. Nurāʾīl. Nuk͟hāʾīl.

The sex of the signs of the Zodiac (burūj) has been determined as in the following table. Between males and females exists friendship; between males and hermaphrodites sometimes friendship sometimes enmity; between females and hermaphrodites the most inveterate enmity:—

Ram Burj-i-Ḥamal. Bull Burj-i-S̤aur. Twins Burj-i-Jauzāʾ.
Lion Burj-i-Asad. Scales Burj-i-Mīzān. Virgin Burj-i-Sumbulah.
Scorpion Burj-i-ʿAqrab. Crab Burj-i-Sarat̤ān. Goats Burj-i-Jady.
Fish Burj-i-Ḥūt. Watering Pot Burj-i-Dalw.
Archer Burj-i-Qaus.

Astrologists have determined the relative dispositions of the planets (kawākib) to be as follows:—

Venus Venus Jupiter Jupiter Sun Jupiter Sun } Friendship.
and and and and and and and
Saturn. Moon. Venus. Sun. Moon. Moon. Venus.
Moon Saturn Jupiter Mars Venus Mars Sun } Mixed Friendship and Enmity or Indifference.
and and and and and and and
Mercury. Mercury. Mercury. Mercury. Mercury. Venus. Mercury.
Saturn Saturn Mars Mars Saturn Jupiter Jupiter } Enmity.
and and and and and and and
Sun. Moon. Moon. Sun. Sun. Mars. Saturn.


The four elements (arbaʿah ʿanāṣir) stand in relation to each other as follows:—

Water and Water. Earth and Earth. } Friendship.
Fire and Fire. Air and Air.
Fire and Air. Air and Water. Mixed Friendship and Enmity or Indifference.
Fire and Water. Earth and Water. } Enmity.
Fire and Earth.

As an illustration of the use of these tables, two persons, Akram and Raḥīmah, contemplate a matrimonial alliance, and wish to know if it will be a happy union or otherwise.

The exorcist must first ascertain if the elements (arbaʿah ʿanāṣir), the signs of the zodiac (burūj), and the planets (kawākib), are amicably or inimicably disposed to each other in the cases of these two individuals, and also if there is a combination expressed in the ism or name of God connected with their initial letters.

In the present instance the initial letter of Akram is alif, and that of Raḥīmah, , and a reference to the foregoing tables will produce the following results:—

Akram. Raḥīmah.
(اكرم‎). (رحيمة‎).
Initial letter. Alif ا‎. ر‎.
The quality of the letter. Friendship. Friendship.
The element. Fire. Earth.
The attribute. Allāh. Rabb.
The quality of the attribute. Terrible. Terrible.
The planet. Saturn. Mercury.
The sign of the zodiac. The ram. The virgin.
The perfume. Black aloes. Rose water.
The genius. Qayupūsh. Rahūsh.
The angel. Isrāfīl. Amwākīl.

In considering this case, the exorcist will observe that there is a combination in the attributes of God, both belonging to the asmāʾu ʾl-jalālīyah, or terrible attributes. There is also a combination in the quality of the letters, both implying friendship. Their respective planets, Saturn and Mercury, show a combination of either mixed friendship and enmity, or, perhaps, indifference. The sign of the zodiac, the ram being a male, and that of the virgin a hermaphrodite, show a possible alternation of friendship and enmity between the parties. The elements, fire and earth, being opposed, imply enmity. It therefore appears that there will be nothing against these two persons, Akram and Raḥīmah forming a matrimonial alliance, and that they may reasonably expect as much happiness from their union as usually falls to the lot of the human race. Should the good offices of the exorcist be requested, he will, by incantation, according to the table given, appeal to the Almighty as Allāh and Rabb, call in the aid of the genii Qayupūsh and Rahūsh, and of the guardian angels, Isrāfīl and Amwākīl. The perfumes he will burn in his numerous recitals will be black aloes and rose-water, and so bring about a speedy increase in the happiness of the persons of Akram and Raḥīmah!

III. As we have already explained, the incantations used by exorcists consist in the recital of either the names or attributes of God, or of certain formulæ which are given in books on the subject. In the Jawāhiru ʾl-K͟hamsah, there were many forms of incantation, but we select the following one to illustrate the subject:—

سبحانك لا اله الا انت رب كل شى و وارثه ورازقه و راحمه‎

Subḥānaka! lā ilāha illā anta! Rabba-kulli-shaiʾin! wa wāris̤ahu! wa rāziqahu! wa rāḥimahu!

Glory be to Thee! There is no deity but Thee! The Lord of All! and the Inheritor thereof! and the Provider therefor! and the Merciful thereon!

This incantation consists of forty-four letters, exclusive of vowel points, as is shown by the following table:—

1 س‎ Sīn 60
2 ب‎ 2
3 ح‎ Ḥā 8
4 ا‎ Alif 1
5 ن‎ Nūn 50
6 ك‎ Kāf 20
7 ل‎ Lām 30
8 ا‎ Alif 1
9 ا‎ Alif 1
10 ل‎ Lām 30
11 هـ‎ 5
12 ا‎ Alif 1
13 ل‎ Lām 30
14 ل‎ Lām 30
15 ا‎ Alif 1
16 ا‎ Alif 1
17 ن‎ Nūn 50
18 ت‎ 400 [78]
19 ر‎ 200
20 ب‎ 2
21 ب‎ 2
22 ك‎ Kāf 20
23 ل‎ Lām 30
24 ل‎ Lām 30
25 ش‎ Shīn 300
26 ى‎ 10
27 ء‎ Hamzah 1
28 و‎ Wau 6
29 و‎ Wau 6
30 ا‎ Alif 1
31 ر‎ 200
32 ث‎ S̤ā 500
33 هـ‎ 5
34 و‎ Wau 6
35 ر‎ 200
36 ا‎ Alif 1
37 ز‎ 7
38 ق‎ Qāf 100
39 هـ‎ 5
40 و‎ Wau 6
41 ر‎ 200
42 ا‎ Alif 1
43 ح‎ Ḥā 8
44 م‎ Mīm 40
45 هـ‎ 5

In reciting such an invocation, units are reckoned as hundreds, tens as thousands, hundreds as tens of thousands, and thousands as hundreds of thousands.

In the above formula—

Its niṣāb, or fixed estate, is the number of letters (i.e. 45) put into thousands = 4,500
Its zakāt, or alms, is the half of the niṣāb added to itself, 4,500 and 2,250 = 6,750
Its ʿushr, or tithes, is half of the above half added to the zakāt, 6,750 and 1,125 = 7,875
Its qufl, or lock, is half of 1,125 = 563
Its daur, or circle, is obtained by adding to its qufl the sum of the ʿushr and then doubling the total:—
—— 8,438
—— 16,876
Its baẕl, or gift, is the fixed number 7,000
Its k͟hatm, or seal, is the fixed number 1,200
Its sarīʿu ʾl-ijābah, or speedy answer, is the fixed number 12,000
Total 56,764

After the exorcist has recited the formula the above number of times, he should, in order to make a reply more certain, treble the niṣāb, making it 135,000, and then add 2,613, the value of the combined number of letters, making a total of 137,613 recitals. The number of these recitals should be divided as nearly as possible in equal parts for each day’s reading, provided it be completed within forty days. By a rehearsal of these, says our author, the mind of the exorcist becomes completely transported, and, whether asleep or awake, he finds himself accompanied by spirits and genii (jinn) to the highest heavens and the lowest depths of earth. These spirits then reveal to him hidden mysteries, and render souls and spirits obedient to the will of the exorcist.

IV. If the exorcist wish to command the presence of genii in behalf of a certain person, it is generally supposed to be effected in the following manner. He must, first of all, shut himself up in a room and fast for forty days. He should besmear the chamber with red ochre, and, having purified himself, should sit on a small carpet, and proceed to call the genius or demon. He must, however, first find out what special genii are required to effect his purpose. If, for example, he is about to call in the aid of these spirits in behalf of a person named Bahrām (بهرام‎) he will find out, first, the special genii presiding over the name, the letters of which are, omitting the vowel points, B H R A M. Upon reference to the table it will be seen that they are Danūsh, Hūsh, Rahūsh, Qayupūsh, and Majbūsh. He must then find out what are the special names of God indicated by these letters, which we find in the table are al-Bāqī, “the Eternal,” al-Hādī, “the Guide,” ar-Rabb, “the Lord,” Allāh, “God,” al-Malik, “the King.” He must then ascertain the power of the letters, indicating the number of times for the recital, which will be thus:—

B, 2 equal to 200
H, 5 equal,, to,, 500
R, 200 equal,, to,, 20,000
A, 1 equal,, to,, 100
M, 40 equal,, to,, 4,000
Total 24,800

The exorcist should then, in order to call in the help of the genii, recite the following formula, not fewer than 24,800 times:—

Danūshu! for the sake of the Eternal One!

Yā Hūshu! for the sake of the Guide!

Yā Rahūshu! for the sake of the Lord!

Yā Qayupūshu! for the sake of Allāh!

Yā Majbūshu! for the sake of the King!

The exorcist will perform this recital with his face turned towards the house of the object he wishes to affect, and burn the perfumes indicated according to the table for the letters of Bahrām’s name.

There are very many other methods of performing this exorcism, but the foregoing will suffice as a specimen of the kind of service. [MAGIC.]


DAY. The Muḥammadan day commences at sun-set; our Thursday evening, for example, being the beginning of the Muslim Friday. The Arabic Yaum denotes the day of twenty-four hours, and Nahār, the day in contradistinction to the night (lail). The days of the week are as follows:—

Yaumu ʾl-aḥad, first-day, Sunday.

Yaumu ʾl-is̤nain, second day, Monday.

Yaumu ʾs̤-s̤alās̤āʾ, third day, Tuesday.

Yaumu ʾl-arbāʿ, fourth day, Wednesday.

Yaumu ʾl-k͟hamīs, Thursday.

Yaumu ʾl-jumʿah, Day of Assembly, Friday.

Yaumu ʾs-sabt, Sabbath-day, Saturday.

Of the days of the week, Monday, Wednesday, Thursday, and Friday, are esteemed good and auspicious; the others evil. (Qānūn-i-Islām, p. 403.) Friday is the special day appointed by Muḥammad for meeting in the chief mosque for public worship. [FRIDAY.]


DEATH. Arabic Maut; Wafāt. It is distinctly taught in the Qurʾān that the hour of death is fixed for every living creature.

Sūrah xvi. 63: “If God were to punish men for their wrong-doing, He would not leave on the earth a single living creature; but He respites them until a stated time; and when their time comes they cannot delay it an hour, nor can they hasten it.”

Sūrah iii. 182: “Every soul must taste death, and ye shall only be paid your hire on the day of resurrection.”

Sūrah l. 17: “The agony of death shall come in truth, that is what thou didst shun.”

In the Traditions, Muḥammad has taught that it is sinful to wish for death: “Wish not for death, not even if thou art a doer of good works, for peradventure thou mayest increase them with an increase of life. Nor even if thou art a sinner, for with increase of life thou mayest obtain God’s pardon.”

One day the Prophet said: “Whosoever loves to meet God, God will love to meet him, and whoever dislikes to meet God, God will dislike to meet him.” Then ʿĀyishah said, “Truly we all dislike death and consider it a great affliction.” The Prophet replied, “Thou dost not understand me. When death comes near a believer, then God gives him a spirit of resignation, and so it is that there is nothing which a believer likes so much as death.”

Al-Barāʾ ibn ʿĀẕib, one of the Companions, says:—

“I came out with the Prophet at the funeral of one of the assistants, and we arrived just at the grave, before they had interred the body, and the Prophet sat down, and we sat around him with our heads down, and were so silent, that you might say that birds were sitting upon our heads. And there was a stick in the Prophet’s hand with which he kept striking the ground. Then he raised his head and said twice or thrice to his companions, ‘Seek the protection of God from the punishments of the grave.’ After that he said: ‘Verily, when a Muslim separateth from the world and bringeth his soul to futurity, angels descend to him from the celestial regions, whose faces are white. You might say their faces are the sun, and they have a shroud of the shrouds of paradise, and perfumes therefrom. So they sit apart from the deceased, as far as the eyes can see. After which the Angel of Death (Malaku ʾl-Maut) comes to the deceased and sits at his head, and says, “O pure soul, come forth to God’s pardon and pleasure.” Then the soul comes out, issuing like water from a bag, and the Angel of Death takes it; and when he takes it, the angels do not allow it to remain in his hands for the twinkling of an eye. But when the Angel of Death has taken the soul of a servant of God, he resigns it to his assistants, in whose hands is a shroud, and they put it into the shroud and with the perfumes, when a fragrance issues from the soul like the smell of the best musk that is to be found on the face of the earth. Then the angels carry it upwards, and they do not pass by any concourse of angels who do not say, “What is this pure soul, and who is owner of it?” And they say, “Such a one, the son of such a one,” calling him by the best names by which he was known in the world, till they reach the lowest region of heaven with him. And the angels ask the door to be opened for him, which is done. Then angels follow it through each heaven, the angel of one region to those of the next, and so on till it reaches the seventh heaven, when God says, “Write the name of My servant in ʿIllīyūn, and return him towards the earth, that is, to his body which is buried in the earth, because I have created man from earth and return him to it, and will bring him out from it again as I brought him out at first.” Then the souls are returned into their bodies, when two angels [MUNKAR and NAKIR] come to the dead man and cause him to sit up, and say to him, “Who is thy Lord?” He replies, “My Lord is God.” Then they say, “What is thy religion?” He says, “Islām.” Then they say, “What is this man who is sent to you?” (i.e. the Prophet). He says, “He is the Prophet of God.” Then they say, “What is your proof of his mission?” He says, “I read the book of God, and believed in it, and I proved it to be true.” Then a voice calls out from the celestial regions, “My servant hath spoken true, therefore throw for him a bed from Paradise, and dress him in clothes from Paradise, and open a door for him towards Paradise.” Then peace and perfumes come for him from Paradise, and his grave is enlarged for him as far as the eye can see. Then a man with a beautiful face comes to him, elegantly dressed, and perfumed, and he says, “Be joyful in that which hath made thee so, this is the day which was promised thee.” Then the dead person says to him, “Who art thou, for thy face is perfectly beautiful?” And the man replies, “I am thy good deeds.” Then the dead person cries out, “O Lord, hasten the resurrection for my sake!” ’ [80]

“ ‘But,’ continued the Prophet, ‘when an infidel dies, and is about to pass from the world and bring his soul to futurity, black-faced angels come down to him and with them sackcloths. Then they sit from the dead as far as the eye can see, after which the Angel of Death comes in order to sit at his head, and says, “O impure soul! come forth to the wrath of God.” Then the soul is disturbed in the infidel’s body. Then the Angel of Death draws it out as a hot spit is drawn out of wet wool.

“ ‘Then the Angel of Death takes the soul of the infidel, and having taken it, the angels do not allow it to remain with him the twinkling of an eye, but they take it in the sackcloth, and a disagreeable smell issues from the soul, like that of the most fetid carcass that can be met with upon the face of the earth. Then the angels carry it upwards and do not pass by any assembly of angels who do not ask whose filthy soul is this. They answer such an one, the son of such an one, and they mention him by the worst names that he bore in the world, till they arrive with it at the lowest heaven, and call the door to be opened, but it cannot be done.’ Then the Prophet repeated this verse: ‘The doors of the celestial regions shall not be opened for them, nor shall they enter into paradise till a camel passes through the eye of a needle.’ Then God says, ‘Write his history in Sijjīn,’ which is the lowest earth; then his soul is thrown down with violence. Afterwards the Prophet repeated this verse: ‘Unite no partner with God, for whoever uniteth gods with God is like that which falleth from high, and the birds snatch it away, or the wind wafteth it to a distant place.’ Then his soul is replaced in his body, and two angels [MUNKAR and NAKIR] come to him and set him up, and say, ‘Who is thy Lord?’ He says, ‘Alas! alas! I do not know.’ Then they say, ‘What is thy religion?’ He says, ‘Alas! alas! I do not know.’ And they say to him, ‘What is the condition of the man who is sent down to you?’ He says, ‘Alas! alas! I do not know.’ Then a voice comes from above, saying, ‘He lieth; therefore spread a bed of fire for him and open a door for him towards hell.’ Then the heat and hot winds of hell come to him, and his grave is made tight upon him, so as to squeeze his ribs. And a man with a hideous countenance comes to him shockingly dressed, of a vile smell, and he says, ‘Be joyful in that which maketh thee miserable; this is the day that was promised thee.’ Then the dead man says, ‘Who art thou? Thy face is hideous, and brings wickedness.’ He says, ‘I am thy impure actions.’ Then the dead person says, ‘O Lord, delay the resurrection on my account!’ ”

The ceremonies attending the death of a Muslim are described as follows by Jāfir Shārīf in Herklots’ Qānūn-i-Islām, as follows:—

Four or five days previous to a sick man’s approaching his dissolution, he makes his will in favour of his son or any other person, in the presence of two or more witnesses, and either delivers it to others or retains it by him. In it he likewise appoints his executor. When about to expire, any learned reader of the Qurʾān is sent for, and requested to repeat with a loud voice the Sūrah Yā Sīn (or chap. xxxvi.), in order that the spirit of the man, by the hearing of its sound, may experience an easy concentration. It is said that when the spirit was commanded to enter the body of Adam, the soul having looked into it once, observed that it was a bad and dark place, and unworthy of its presence! Then the Just and Most Holy God illuminated the body of Adam with “lamps of light,” and commanded the spirit to re-enter. It went in a second time, beheld the light, and saw the whole dwelling, and said, “There is no pleasing sound here for me to listen to.” It is generally understood from the best works of the mystics of the East, that it was owing to this circumstance that the Almighty created music. The holy spirit, on hearing the sound of this music became so delighted that it entered Adam’s body. Commentators on the Qurʾān, expositors of the Traditions and divines have written, that that sound resembled that produced by the repeating of the Sūratu Yā Sīn; it is therefore advisable to read at the hour of death this chapter for tranquillising the soul.

The Kalimatu ʾsh-shahādah [CREED] is also read with an audible voice by those present. They do not require the patient to read it himself, as at such a time he is in a distressing situation, and not in a fit state of mind to repeat the Kalimah.

Most people lie insensible, and cannot even speak, but the pious retain their mental faculties and converse till the very last. The following is a most serious religious rule amongst us, viz. that if a person desire the patient to repeat the Kalimah, and the sick man expire without being able to do so, his faith is considered dubious; whilst the man who directed him so to do thereby incurs guilt. It is therefore best that the sitters-by read it, in anticipation of the hope that the sick man, by hearing the sound of it, may bring it to his recollection, and repeat it either aloud or in his own mind. In general, when a person is on the point of death, they pour sharbat, made of sugar and water, down his throat, to facilitate the exit of the vital spark, and some procure the holy water of the Zamzam well at Makkah. The moment the spirit has fled, the mouth is closed; because, if left open, it would present a disagreeable spectacle. The two great toes are brought in contact and fastened together with a thin slip of cloth, to prevent the legs remaining apart. They burn perfumes near the corpse. Should the individual have died in the evening, the shrouding and burial take place before midnight; if he die at a later hour, or should the articles required not be procurable at that late hour, he is buried early on the following morning. The sooner the sepulchral rites are performed the better, for it is not proper to keep a corpse long in the house, and for this reason the Prophet said that [81]if he was a good man, the sooner he is buried the more quickly he will reach heaven; if a bad man, he should be speedily buried, in order that his unhappy lot may not fall upon others in the house; as also that the relatives of the deceased may not, by holding the corpse, weep too much or go without food. There are male and female washers, whose province it is to wash and shroud the corpse for payment. Sometimes, however, the relatives do it themselves. In undertaking the operation of washing, they dig a hole in the earth to receive the water used in the process, and prevent its spreading over a large surface, as some men and women consider it bad to tread on such water. Then they place the corpse on a bed, country-cot, plank, or straw. Some women, who are particular in these matters, are afraid even to venture near the place where the body has been washed. Having stripped the corpse and laid it on its back, with its head to the east and feet to the west, they cover it with a cloth—reaching, if it be a man, from the navel to the calves of the legs, if a woman, extending from the chest to the feet—and wash it with warm or with cold water. They raise the body gently and rub the abdomen four or five times, then pour plenty of water, and wash off all the dirt and filth with soap, &c., by means of flocks of cotton or cloth; after which, laying the body on the sides, they wash them; then the back, and the rest of the body; but gently, because, life having but just departed, the body is still warm and not insensible to pain. After this they wash and clean it well, so that no offensive smell may remain. They never throw water into the nostrils or mouth, but clean them with wicks of cloth or cotton. After that they perform wuẓūʾ for him, i.e. they wash his mouth, the two upper extremities up to the elbows, make masaḥ [MASAH] on his head, and throw water on his feet; these latter constituting the four parts of the wuẓūʾ ceremony [ABLUTIONS]. They then put some camphor with water into a new large earthen pot, and with a new earthen pot they take out water and pour it three times, first from the head to the feet, then from the right shoulder to the feet, lastly from the left shoulder to the feet. Every time that a pot of water is poured the Kalimatu ʾsh-shahādah is repeated, either by the person washing or another. Having bathed the body and wiped it dry with a new piece of cloth, they put on the shroud. The shroud consists of three pieces of cloth, if for a man, and five if for a woman.

Those for men comprise, 1st, a lungī, or izār, reaching from the navel down to the knees or ankle-joints; 2nd, a qamīṣ, or kurta, or alfā; its length is from the neck to the knees or ankles; 3rd, a lifāfah, or sheet, from above the head to below the feet. Women have two additional pieces of cloth: one a sīnah-band, or breast-band, extending from the arm-pits to above the ankle-joints; the other a damnī, which encircles the head once and has its two ends dangling on each side. The manner of shrouding is as follows: having placed the shrouds on a new mat and fumigated them with the smoke of perfumes, the lifāfah is spread first on the mat, over it the lungī or izār, and above that the qamīṣ; and on the latter the sīnah-band, if it be a woman; the damnī is kept separate and tied on afterwards. The corpse must be carefully brought by itself from the place where it was bathed, and laid in the shrouds. Surmah is to be applied to the eyes with a tent made of paper rolled up, with a ring, or with a pice, and camphor to seven places, viz. on the forehead, including the nose, on the palms of the hands, on the knees and great toes, after which the different shrouds are to be properly put on one after another as they lay. The colour of the shroud is to be white; no other is admissible. It is of no consequence, however, if a coloured cloth is spread over the bier; which, after the funeral, or after the fortieth day, is given away to the faqīr who resides in the burying-ground, or to any other person, in charity. Previous to shrouding the body, they tear shreds from the cloths for the purpose of tying them on; and after shrouding the body, they tie one band above the head, a second below the feet, and a third about the chest, leaving about six or seven fingers’ breadth of cloth above the head and below the feet, to admit of the ends being fastened. Should the relict of the deceased be present, they undo the cloth of the head and show her his face, and get her, in presence of two witnesses, to remit the dowry which he had settled upon her; but it is preferable that she remit it while he is still alive. Should the wife, owing to journeying, be at a distance from him, she is to remit it on receiving the intelligence of his demise.

Should his mother be present, she likewise says, “The milk with which I suckled thee I freely bestow on thee”; but this is merely a custom in India; it is neither enjoined in books of theology nor by the law of Islām. Then they place on the corpse a flower-sheet or merely wreaths of flowers. [GRAVE, BURIAL.]

DEATH, EVIDENCE OF. The Muḥammadan law admits of the evidence of death given in a court of justice being merely by report or hearsay. The reason of this is that death is an event of such a nature as to admit the privacy only of a few. But some have advanced that, in cases of death, the information of one man or woman is sufficient, “because death is not seen by many, since, as it occasions horror, the sight of it is avoided.”

If a person say he was present at the burial of another, this amounts to the same as an actual sight of his death. (Hidāyah, vol. iv. p. 678.)

DEBT. In Muḥammadan law there are two words used for debt. Dain (دين‎), or money borrowed with some fixed term of payment, and qarẓ (قرض‎), or money lent without any definite understanding as to [82]its repayment. Imprisonment for debt is allowed. (Hidāyah, vol. ii. p. 624.)

Upon the decease of a debtor, the law demands that after the payment of the funeral expenses, his just debts must be paid before payment of legacies.

To engage in a Jihād or religious war, is said by Muḥammad to remit every sin except that of being in debt. [JIHAD, DAIN, QARZ.]

DECORUM, or modesty of demeanour between the sexes, is strictly enjoined in Muslim law, and a special chapter is devoted to it in the Durru ʾl-Muk͟htār and other works on Muḥammadan law.

A man is not allowed to look at a woman except at her hands and face, nor is he allowed to touch her. But a physician is permitted to exercise the duties of his profession without restriction.

A judge in the exercise of his office may look in the face of a woman, and witnesses are under the same necessity.

DECREES OF GOD, The. Arabic Qadar or Taqdīr. [PREDESTINATION.]

DEEDS. Written deeds are, according to Muḥammadan law, of three kinds: I. Mustabīn-i-marsūm, or regular documents, such as are executed on paper, and have a regular title, superscription, &c., which are equivalent to oral declaration, whether the person be present or absent. II. Mustabīn-i-ghair-i-marsūm, or irregular documents, such as are not written on paper, but upon a wall or the leaf of a tree, or upon paper without any title or superscription or signature. III. Ghair-i-mustabīn, writings which are not documents in any sense, such as are delineated in the air or in the water by the motions of a dumb person.

DEFENDANT. Arabic muddaʿa ʿalaihi (مدعى عليه‎). Lit. “A claim upon him.”

The author of the Hidāyah (vol. iii. p. 63) says a defendant is a person who, if he should wish to avoid the litigation, is compellable to sustain it. Some have defined a plaintiff, with respect to any article of property, to be a person who, from his being disseized of the said article, has no right to it but by the establishment of proof; and a defendant to be a person who has a plea of right to that article from his seizing or possession of it.

The Imām Muḥammad has said that a defendant is a person who denies. This is correct; but it requires a skill and knowledge of jurisprudence to distinguish the denier in a suit, as the reality and not the appearance is efficient, and it frequently happens that a person is in appearance the plaintiff, whilst in reality he is the defendant. Thus a trustee, when he says to the owner of the deposit, “I have restored to you your deposit,” appears to be plaintiff, inasmuch as he pleads the return of the deposit; yet in reality he is the defendant, since he denies the obligation of responsibility, and hence his assertion, corroborated by an oath, must be credited.

DELIBERATION (Arabic taʾannī تانى‎) is enjoined by Muḥammad in the Traditions. He is related to have said, “Deliberation in your undertakings is pleasing to God, and hurry (ʿajalah) is pleasing to the devil.” “Deliberation is best in everything except in the things concerning eternity.” (Ḥadīs̤-i-Tirmiẕī.)

DELUGE, The. Arabic Ṭūfān (طوفان‎). The story of the deluge is given by Muḥammad in his Qurʾān, to the Arabians as a “secret history, revealed to them (Sūrah xi. 51). The following are the allusions to it in the Qurʾān:—

Sūrah lxix. 11:—

“When the Flood rose high, we bare you in the Ark,

“That we might make that event a warning to you, and that the retaining ear might retain it.”

Sūrah liv. 9:—

“Before them the people of Noah treated the truth as a lie, Our servant did they charge with falsehood, and said, ‘Demoniac!’ and he was rejected.

“Then cried he to his Lord, ‘Verily, they prevail against me; come thou therefore to my succour.’

“So we opened the gates of Heaven with water which fell in torrents,

“And we caused the earth to break forth with springs, and their waters met by settled decree.

“And we bare him on a vessel made with planks and nails.

“Under our eyes it floated on: a recompense to him who had been rejected with unbelief.

“And we left it a sign: but, is there any one who receives the warning?

“And how great was my vengeance and my menace!”

Sūrah xi. 38:—

“And it was revealed unto Noah: ‘Verily, none of thy people shall believe, save they who have believed already; therefore be not thou grieved at their doings.

But build the Ark under our eye and after our revelation: and plead not with me for the evil-doers, for they are to be drowned.’

“So he built the Ark; and whenever the chiefs of his people passed by they laughed him to scorn: said he, ‘Though ye laugh at us, we truly shall laugh at you, even as ye laugh at us; and in the end ye shall know

On whom a punishment shall come that shall shame him; and on whom shall light a lasting punishment.’

Thus was it until our sentence came to pass, and the earth’s surface boiled up. We said, ‘Carry into it one pair of every kind, and thy family, except him on whom sentence hath before been passed, and those who have believed.’ But they believed not with him except a few.

“And he said, ‘Embark ye therein. In the name of God be its course and its riding [83]at anchor! Truly my Lord is right Gracious, Merciful.’

“And the Ark moved on with them amid waves like mountains: and Noah called to his son—for he was apart—‘Embark with us, O my child! and be not with the unbelievers.’

“He said, ‘I will betake me to a mountain that shall secure me from the water.’ He said, ‘None shall be secure this day from the decree of God, save him on whom He shall have mercy.’ And a wave passed between them, and he was among the drowned.

“And it was said, ‘O Earth! swallow up thy water’; and ‘cease, O Heaven!’ And the water abated, and the decree was fulfilled, and the Ark rested upon al-Jūdī; and it was said, ‘Avaunt! ye tribe of the wicked!’

“And Noah called on his Lord and said, ‘O Lord! verily my son is of my family: and thy promise is true, and thou art the most just of judges.’

“He said, ‘O Noah! verily, he is not of thy family: in this thou actest not aright. Ask not of me that whereof thou knowest nought: I warn thee that thou become not of the ignorant.’

“He said, ‘To thee verily, O my Lord, do I repair lest I ask that of thee wherein I have no knowledge: unless thou forgive me and be merciful to me I shall be one of the lost.’

“It was said to him, ‘O Noah! debark with peace from Us, and with blessings on thee and on peoples from those who are with thee; but as for part, we will suffer them to enjoy themselves, but afterwards they shall suffer a grievous punishment from us to be inflicted.’

“This is a secret history which we reveal to thee. Thou didst not know them, thou nor thy people before this.”


DEPORTMENT. Arabic ʿilmu ʾl-muʿāsharah (علم المعاشرة‎). Persian nishast u barkhāst. The Traditionists take some pains to explain the precise manner in which their Prophet walked, sat, slept, and rose, but their accounts are not always uniform and consistent. For example, whilst ʿAbbād relates that he saw the Prophet sleeping on his back with one leg over the other, Jābir says the Prophet distinctly forbade it.

Modesty of deportment is enjoined in the Qurʾān, Sūrah xvii. 39: “Walk not proudly on the earth,” which the commentators say means that the believer is not to toss his head or his arms as he walks. Sūrah xxv. 64: “The servants of the Merciful One are those who walk upon the earth lowly, and when the ignorant address them say, ‘Peace!

Faqīr Jānī Muḥammad Asʿad, the author of the celebrated ethical work, the Ak͟hlāq-i-Jalālī, gives the following advice as regards general deportment:—

“He should not hurry as he walks, for that is a sign of levity; neither should he be unreasonably tardy, for that is a token of dulness. Let him neither stalk like the overbearing, nor agitate himself in the way of women and eunuchs; but constantly observe the middle course. Let him avoid going often backwards and forwards, for that betokens bewilderment; and holding his head downwards, for that indicates a mind overcome by sorrow and anxiety. In riding, no less, the same medium is to be observed. When he sits, let him not extend his feet, nor put one upon another. He must never kneel except in deference to his king, his preceptor, and his father, or other such person. Let him not rest his head on his knee or his hand, for that is a mark of dejection and indolence. Neither let him hold his neck awry, nor indulge in foolish tricks, such as playing with his fingers or other joints. Let him avoid twisting round or stretching himself. In spitting and blowing his nose, let him be careful that no one sees or hears him; that he blow it not towards the Qiblah, nor upon his hand, his skirt, or sleeve-lappet.

“When he enters an assembly, let him sit neither lower nor higher than his proper station. If he be himself the head of the party, he can sit as he likes, for his place must be the highest wherever it may be. If he has inadvertently taken a wrong place, let him exchange it for his own as soon as he discovers his mistake; should his own be occupied, he must return without disturbing others or annoying himself.

“In the presence of his male or female domestics, let him never bare anything but his hands and his face: the parts from his knee to his navel let him never expose at all; neither in public nor private, except on occasions of necessity for ablution and the like. (Vide Gen. ix. 20; Lev. xvii. 6, xx. 11; Deut. xxii. 30.)

“He must not sleep in the presence of other persons, or lie on his back, particularly as the habit of snoring is thereby encouraged.

“Should sleep overpower him in the midst of a party, let him get up, if possible, or else dispel the drowsiness by relating some story, entering on some debate, and the like. But if he is with a set of persons who sleep themselves, let him either bear them company or leave them.

“The upshot of the whole is this: Let him so behave as not to incommode or disgust others; and should any of these observances appear troublesome, let him reflect, that to be formed to their contraries would be still more odious and still more unpleasant than any pains which their acquirement may cost him.” (Ak͟hlāq-i-Jalālī, Thompson’s Translation, p. 292.)

DEPOSIT (Arabic wadīʿah وديعة‎, pl. wadāiʿ), in the language of the law, signifies a thing entrusted to the care of another. The proprietor of the thing is called mūdiʿ, or depositor; the person entrusted with it is mūdaʿ, or trustee, and the property deposited is wadīʿah, which literally means the leaving of a thing with another. [84]

According to the Hidāyah, the following are the rules of Islām regarding deposits.

A trustee is not responsible for deposit unless he transgress with respect to it. If therefore it be lost whilst it is in his care, and the loss has not been occasioned by any fault of his, the trustee has not to make good the loss, because the Prophet said, “an honest trustee is not responsible.”

A trustee may also keep the deposit himself or he may entrust it to another, provided the person is a member of his own family, but if he gives it to a stranger he renders himself responsible.

If the deposit is demanded by the depositor, and the trustee neglects to give it up, it is a transgression, and the trustee becomes responsible.

If the trustee mix the deposit (as of grain, oil, &c.) with his own property, in such a manner that the property cannot be separated, the depositor can claim to share equally in the whole property. But if the mixture be the result of accident, the proprietor becomes a proportionate sharer in the whole.

If the trustee deny the deposit upon demand, he is responsible in case of the loss of it. But not if the denial be made to a stranger, because (says Abū Yūsuf) the denial may be made for the sake of preserving it.

In the case of a deposit by two persons, the trustee cannot deliver to either his share, except it be in the presence of the other. And when two persons receive a divisible article in trust, each must keep one half, although these restrictions are not regarded when they are held to be inconvenient, or contrary to custom.

DEVIL, The. The devil is believed to be descended from Jānn, the progenitor of the evil genii. He is said to have been named ʿAzazīl, and to have possessed authority over the animal and spirit kingdom. But when God created Adam, the devil refused to prostrate before him, and he was therefore expelled from Eden. The sentence of death was then pronounced upon Satan; but upon seeking a respite, he obtained it until the Day of Judgment, when he will be destroyed. (Vide Qurʾān, Sūrah vii. 13.) According to the Qurʾān, the devil was created of fire, whilst Adam was created of clay. There are two words used in the Qurʾān to denote this great spirit of evil: (1) Shait̤ān (شيطان‎, ‏שָׂטָן‎), an Arabic word derived from shat̤n, “opposition,” i.e. “one who opposes; (2) Iblīs (ابليس‎, διάβολος), “devil,” from balas, “a wicked or profligate person,” i.e. “the wicked one.” The former expression occurs in the Qurʾān fifty-two times, and the latter only nine, whilst in some verses (e.g. Sūrah ii. 32–34) the two words Shait̤ān and Iblīs occur for the same personality. According to the Majmaʿu ʾl-Biḥār, shait̤ān denotes one who is far from the truth, and iblīs one who is without hope.

The following is the teaching of Muḥammad in the Traditions concerning the machinations of the devil (Mishkāt, book i. c. iii.):—

“ ‘Verily, the devil enters into man as the blood into his body.

“ ‘There is not one amongst you but has an angel and a devil appointed over him.’ The Companions said, ‘Do you include yourself in this?’ He said, ‘Yes, for me also; but God has given me victory over the devil, and he does not direct me except in what is good.’

“There is not one of the children of Adam, except Mary and her son (Jesus), but is touched by the devil at the time of its birth, hence the child makes a loud noise from the touch.

“Devil rests his throne upon the waters, and sends his armies to excite contention and strife amongst mankind; and those in his armies who are nearest to him in power and rank, are those who do the most mischief. One of them returns to the devil and says, ‘I have done so and so,’ and he says, ‘You have done nothing’; after that another comes, and says, ‘I did not quit him till I made a division between him and his wife’; then the devil appoints him a place near himself, and says, ‘You are a good assistant.’

“The devil sticks close to the sons of Adam, and an angel also; the business of the devil is to do evil, and that of the angel to teach him the truth; and he who meets with truth and goodness in his mind, let him know it proceeds from God, and let him praise God; and he who finds the other, let him seek for an asylum from the devil in God.

“Then the Prophet read this verse of the Qurʾān: ‘The devil threatens you with poverty if ye bestow in charity; and orders you to pursue avarice; but God promises you grace and abundance from charity.’

“ʿUs̤mān said, ‘O Prophet of God! indeed the devil intrudes himself between me and my prayers, and my reading perplexes me.’ Then the Prophet said, ‘This is a demon called K͟hanzab, who casts doubt into prayer: when you are aware of it, take protection with God, and spit over your left arm three times.’ ʿUs̤mān said, ‘Be it so’; and all doubt and perplexity was dispelled.”

DEVIL, The Machinations of the. [WASWASAH.]

DIBĀG͟HAH (دباغة‎). “Tanning.” According to the Traditions, the skins of animals are unclean until they are tanned. Muḥammad said, “Take nothing for any animals that shall have died until you tan their skins.” And again, “Tanning purifies. (Mishkāt, book iii. c. xi. 2.)


DĪN (دين‎). The Arabic word for “religion.” It is used especially for the religion of the Prophets and their inspired books, but it is also used for idolatrous religion. [RELIGION.]

DĪNĀR (دينار‎). Greek δηνάριον. A gold coin of one mis̤qāl weight, or ninety-six barley grains, worth about ten shillings. [85]According to Mr. Hussey (Ancient Weights, p. 142), the average weight of the Roman denarii, at the end of the Commonwealth was sixty grains, whilst the English shilling contains eighty grains. Mr. Lane, in his Arabic dictionary, says, “its weight is seventy-one barley-corns and a half, nearly, reckoning the dāniq as eight grains of wheat and two-fifths; but if it be said that the dāniq is eight grains of wheat, then the dīnār is sixty-eight grains of wheat and four-sevenths. It is the same as the mis̤qāl.” The dīnār is only mentioned once in the Qurʾān, Sūrah ii. 66: “And some of them if thou entrust them with a dīnār, he will not give it back.” It frequently occurs in books of law.





DIRHAM (درهم‎). Greek δραχμή. A silver coin, the shape of which resembled that of a date stone. During the caliphate of ʿUmar, it was changed into a circular form; and in the time of Zubair, it was impressed with the words Allāh, “God,” barakah, “blessing.” Ḥajjāj stamped upon it the chapter of the Qurʾān called Ik͟hlāṣ (cxii.), and others say he imprinted it with his own name. Various accounts are given of their weights; some saying that they were of ten, or nine, or six, or five mis̤qāls; whilst others give the weights of twenty, twelve, and ten qīrāt̤s, asserting at the same time that ʿUmar had taken a dirham of each kind, and formed a coin of fourteen qīrāt̤s, being the third part of the aggregate sum. (Blochmann’s Aīn-i-Akbari, p. 36.)

The dirham, although it is frequently mentioned in books of law, only occurs once in the Qurʾān, Sūrah xii. 20, “And they sold him (Joseph) for a mean price, dirhams counted out, and they parted with him cheaply.”

DIRRAH (درة‎). Vulg. durrah. A scourge made either of a flat piece of leather or of twisted thongs, and used by the public censor of morals and religion, called the muḥtasib. This scourge is inflicted either for the omission of the daily prayer, or for the committal of sins, which are punishable by the law with the infliction of stripes, such as fornication, scandal, and drunkenness. It is related that the K͟halīfah ʿUmar punished his son with the dirrah for drunkenness, and that he died from its effects. (Tarikh-i-K͟hamīs, vol. ii. p. 252.)

The word used in the Qurʾān and Ḥadīs̤ for this scourge is jaldah, and in theological works, saut̤; but dirrah is now the word generally used amongst modern Muslims.



DITCH, Battle of the. Arabic G͟hazwatu ʾl-K͟handaq (غزوة الخندق‎). The defence of al-Madīnah against the Banū Quraiz̤ah, A.H. 5, when a trench was dug by the advice of Salmān, and the army of al-Madīnah was posted within it. After a month’s siege, the enemy retired, and the almost bloodless victory is ascribed by Muḥammad in the Qurʾān to the interposition of Providence. Sūrah xxxiii. 9: “Remember God’s favours to you when hosts came to you [86]and we sent against them a wind and hosts (of angels), that ye could not see, but God knew what ye were doing.” (Muir’s Life of Mahomet, vol. iii. p. 258.)

DIVINATION. Kahānah, or foretelling future events, is unlawful in Islām.

Muʿāwiyah ibn Ḥākim relates: “I said to the Prophet, ‘O Messenger of God, we used to do some things in the time of ignorance of which we are not sure now. For example, we used to consult diviners about future events?’ The Prophet said, ‘Now that you have embraced Islām you must not consult them.’ Then I said, ‘And we used to take bad omens?’ The Prophet said, ‘If from a bad omen you are thrown into perplexity, let it not hinder you from doing the work you had intended to do.’ Then I said, ‘And we used to draw lines on the ground?’ And the Prophet said, ‘There was one of the Prophets who used to draw lines on the ground, therefore if you can draw a line like him it is good, otherwise it is vain.’ ”

ʿĀyishah says, “the people asked the Prophet about diviners, whether they spoke true or not. And he said, ‘You must not believe anything they say.’ The people then said, ‘But, O Prophet! they sometimes tell what is true?’ The Prophet replied, ‘Because one of the genii steals away the truth and carries it into the diviner’s ear; and the diviners mix a hundred lies to one truth.’ ” [MAGIC.]

DIVORCE. Arabic t̤alāq (طلاق‎). In its primitive sense the word t̤alāq means dismission, but in law it signifies a release from the marriage tie.

The Muḥammadan law of divorce is founded upon express injunctions contained in the Qurʾān, as well as in the Traditions, and its rules occupy a very large section in all Muḥammadan works on jurisprudence.

I. The teaching of the Qurʾān on the subject is as follows:—

Sūrah ii. 226:—

“They who intend to abstain from their wives shall wait four months; but if they go back from their purpose, then verily God is Gracious, Merciful:

“And if they resolve on a divorce, then verily God is He who Heareth, Knoweth.

“The divorced shall wait the result, until they have had their courses thrice, nor ought they to conceal what God hath created in their wombs, if they believe in God and the last day; and it will be more just in their husbands to bring them back when in this state, if they desire what is right. And it is for the women to act as they (the husbands) act by them, in all fairness; but the men are a step above them. God is Mighty, Wise.

“Ye may give sentence of divorce to your wives twice: Keep them honourably, or put them away with kindness. But it is not allowed you to appropriate to yourselves aught of what ye have given to them, unless both fear that they cannot keep within the bounds set up by God. And if ye fear that they cannot observe the ordinances of God, no blame shall attach to either of you for what the wife shall herself give for her redemption. These are the bounds of God: therefore overstep them not; for whoever oversteppeth the bounds of God, they are evil doers.

“But if the husband give sentence of divorce to her a third time, it is not lawful for him to take her again, until she shall have married another husband; and if he also divorce her then shall no blame attach to them if they return to each other, thinking that they can keep within the bounds fixed by God. And these are the bounds of God; He maketh them clear to those who have knowledge.

“But when ye divorce women, and the time for sending them away is come, either retain them with generosity, or put them away with generosity: but retain them not by constraint so as to be unjust towards them. He who doth so, doth in fact injure himself. And make not the signs of God a jest; but remember God’s favour towards you, and the Book and the Wisdom which He hath sent down to you for your warning, and fear God, and know that God’s knowledge embraceth everything.

“And when ye divorce your wives, and they have waited the prescribed time, hinder them not from marrying the husbands when they have agreed among themselves in an honourable way. This warning is for him among you who believeth in God and in the last day. This is most pure for you, and most decent. God knoweth, but ye know not.

“Mothers, when divorced, shall give suck to their children two full years, if the father desire that the suckling be completed; and such maintenance and clothing as is fair for them, shall devolve on the father. No person shall be charged beyond his means. A mother shall not be pressed unfairly for her child, nor a father for his child: And the same with the father’s heir. But if they choose to wean the child by consent and by bargain, it shall be no fault in them. And if ye choose to have a nurse for your children, it shall be no fault in you, in case ye pay what ye promised her according to that which is fair. Fear God, and know that God seeth what ye do.

“It shall be no crime in you if ye divorce your wives so long as ye have not consummated the marriage, nor settled any dowry on them. And provide what is needful for them—he who is in ample circumstances according to his means, and he who is straitened, according to his means—with fairness: This is binding on those who do what is right.

“But if ye divorce them before consummation, and have already settled a dowry on them, ye shall give them half of what ye have settled, unless they make a release, or he make a release in whose hand is the marriage tie. But if ye make a release, it will be nearer to piety.”

Sūrah lxv. 1:—

“O Prophet! when ye divorce women, [87]divorce them at their special times. And reckon those times exactly, and fear God your Lord. Put them not forth from their houses, nor allow them to depart, unless they have committed a proven adultery. This is the precept of God; and whoso transgresseth the precept of God, assuredly imperilleth his own self. Thou knowest not whether, after this, God may not cause something new to occur which may bring you together again.

“And when they have reached their set time, then either keep them with kindness, or in kindness part from them. And take upright witnesses from among you, and bear witness as unto God. This is a caution for him who believeth in God and in the latter day. And whoso feareth God, to him will He grant a prosperous issue, and will provide for him whence he reckoned not upon it.

“And for him who putteth his trust in Him will God be all-sufficient. God truly will attain his purpose. For everything hath God assigned a period.

“As to such of your wives as have no hope of the recurrence of their times, if ye have doubts in regard to them, then reckon three months, and let the same be the term of those who have not yet had them. And as to those who are with child, their period shall be until they are delivered of their burden. God will make His command easy to Him who feareth Him.

*   *   *

“Lodge the divorced wherever ye lodge, according to your means; and distress them not by putting them to straits. And if they are pregnant, then be at charges for them till they are delivered of their burden; and if they suckle your children, then pay them their hire and consult among yourselves, and act generously: And if herein ye meet with obstacles, then let another female suckle for him.”

II. The teaching of Muḥammad on the general subject of Divorce is expressed in the Traditions as follows:—

“The thing which is lawful but disliked by God is divorce.”

“The woman who asks her husband to divorce her without a cause, the smell of Paradise is forbidden her.”

“There are three things which, whether done in joke or in earnest, shall be considered serious and effectual, namely, marriage, divorce, and taking a wife back.”

“Every divorce is lawful except a mad-man’s.”

“Cursed be the second husband who makes the wife (divorced) lawful for her first husband, and cursed be the first husband for whom she is made lawful.”—(Mishkāt, xiii. c. xv.)

III. Sunnī Muḥammadan Doctors are not agreed as to the Moral Status of Divorce.

The Imām ash-Shāfiʿī, referring to the three kinds of divorce (which will be afterwards explained), says: “They are unexceptionable and legal because divorce is in itself a lawful act, whence it is that certain laws have been instituted respecting it; and this legality prevents any idea of danger being annexed to it. But, on the other hand, the Imām Abū Ḥanīfah and his disciples say that divorce is in itself a dangerous and disapproved procedure, as it dissolves marriage, an institution which involves many circumstances both of a spiritual as well as of a temporal nature. Nor is its propriety at all admitted, but on the ground of urgency of release from an unsuitable wife. And in reply to ash-Shāfiʿī, they say that the legality of divorce does not prevent its being considered dangerous, because it involves matters of both a spiritual and temporal character.

The author of the Sharḥu ʾl-Wiqāyah, p. 108, says:—“Divorce is an abominable transaction in the sight of God, therefore such an act should only take place from necessity, and it is best to only make the one sentence of divorce (i.e. t̤alāqu ʾl-aḥsan).

IV. The Sunnī Law of Divorce:—Divorce may be given either in the present time or may be referred to some future period. It may be pronounced by the husband either before or after the consummation of the marriage. It may be either given in writing or verbally.

The words by which divorce can be given are of two kinds:—Ṣarīḥ, or “express,” as when the husband says, “Thou art divorced”; and kināyah, or “metaphorical,” as when he says, “Thou art free; thou art cut off; veil yourself! Arise! seek for a mate,” &c. &c.

Divorce is divided into t̤alāqu ʾs-sunnah, or that which is according to the Qurʾān and the Traditions, and t̤alāqu ʾl-badiʿ, or a novel or heterodox divorce, which, although it is considered lawful, is not considered religious.

T̤alāqu ʾs-sunnah is either the aḥsan, or “the most laudable,” or ḥasan, the “laudable” method. T̤alāqu ʾl-aḥsan, or the “most laudable” method of divorce, is when the husband once expressly pronounces to his enjoyed but un-pregnant wife the sentence, “Thou art divorced!” when she is in t̤uhr or a state of purity, during which he has had no carnal connection with her, and then leaves her to complete the prescribed ʿiddah, or “period of three months.” Until the expiration of the ʿiddah, the divorce is revocable, but after the period is complete, it is irreversible, and if the husband wishes to take his wife back, they must go through the ceremony of marriage. But it must be observed that after the t̤alāqu ʾl-aḥsan, the woman is not, as in the other kinds of divorce, compelled to marry another man, and be divorced before she can return to her former husband. All that is required is a re-marriage. The author of the Hidāyah says this mode of divorce is called aḥsan, or “most laudable,” because it was usually adopted by the Companions of the Prophet, and also because it leaves it in the power of the husband to take his wife back, and she thus remains a lawful subject for re-marriage to him. Some European writers on Muḥammadanism have overlooked this fact in condemning the Muslim system of divorce.

The t̤alāqu ʾl-ḥasan, or “laudable divorce,” [88]is when the husband repudiates an enjoyed wife by three sentences of divorce, either express or metaphorical, giving one sentence in each t̤uhr, or “period of purity.” Imām Mālik condemns this kind of divorce, and says it is irregular. But Abū Ḥanīfah holds it to be ḥasan, or “good.”

The t̤alāqu ʾl-badiʿ, or “irregular form of divorce,” is when the husband repudiates his wife by three sentences, either express or metaphorical, given them one at a time: “Thou art divorced! Thou art divorced! Thou art divorced!” Or, “Thou art free! Thou art free! Thou art free!” Even holding up three fingers, or dropping three stones, is held to be a sufficiently implied divorce to take legal effect. The Muslim who thus divorces his wife is held, in the Hidāyah, to be an offender against the law, but the divorce, however irregular, takes legal effect.

In both these kinds of divorce, badiʿ and ḥasan, the divorce is revocable (rajīʿ) after the first and second sentences, but it is irrevocable (bāʾin) after the third sentence. After both ḥasan and badiʿ divorces, the divorced wife cannot, under any circumstances, return to her husband until she has been married, and enjoyed, and divorced by another husband. Muḥammadan doctors say the law has instituted this (somewhat disgraceful) arrangement in order to prevent divorces other than t̤alāqu ʾl-aḥsan.

A husband may divorce his wife without any misbehaviour on her part, or without assigning any cause. The divorce of every husband is effective if he be of a sound understanding and of mature age; but that of a boy, or a lunatic, or one talking in his sleep, is not effective.

If a man pronounce a divorce whilst in a state of inebriety from drinking fermented liquor, such as wine, the divorce takes place. Repudiation by any husband who is sane and adult, is effective, whether he be free or a slave, willing, or acting under compulsion; and even though it were uttered in sport or jest, or by a mere slip of the tongue, instead of some other word. (Fatāwā-i-ʿĀlamgīrī, vol. i. p. 497.)

A sick man may divorce his wife, even though he be on his death-bed.

An agent or agents may be appointed by a husband to divorce his wife.

In addition to the will and caprice of the husband, there are also certain conditions which require a divorce.

The following are causes for divorce, but generally require to be ratified by a decree from the Qāẓī or “judge”:—

(1.) Jubb. That is, when the husband has been by any cause deprived of his organ of generation. This condition is called majbūb. In this case the wife can obtain instant divorce if the defect occurred before marriage. Cases of evident madness and leprosy are treated in the same way. Divorce can be obtained at once.

(2.) ʿUnnah, or “impotence.” (This includes ratq, “vulva impervia cœunti”; and qarn, “vulva anteriore parte enascens.”) In cases of impotency in either husband or wife, a year of probation can be granted by the judge.

(3.) Inequality of race or tribe. A woman cannot be compelled to marry a man who belongs to an inferior tribe, and, in case of such a marriage, the elders of the superior tribe can demand a divorce; but if the divorce is not demanded, the marriage contract remains.

(4.) Insufficient dower. If the stipulated dowry is not given when demanded, divorce takes place.

(5.) Refusal of Islām. If one of the parties embrace Islām, the judge must offer it to the other three distinct times, and if he or she refuse to embrace the faith, divorce takes place.

(6.) Laʿn, or “imprecation.” That is, when a husband charges his wife with adultery, the charge is investigated, but if there is no proof, and the man swears his wife is guilty, and the wife swears she is innocent, a divorce must be decreed.

(7.) Īlāʾ, or “vow.” When a husband makes a vow not to have carnal intercourse with his wife for no less than four months, and keeps the vow inviolate, an irreversible divorce takes place.

(8.) Reason of property. If a husband become the proprietor of his wife (a slave), or the wife the proprietor of her husband (a slave), divorce takes place.

(9.) An invalid marriage of any kind, arising from incomplete nikāḥ, or “marriage ceremony,” or from affinity, or from consanguinity.

(10.) Difference of country. For example, if a husband flee from a dāru ʾl-ḥarb, or “land of enmity,” i.e. “a non-Muslim country,” to a dāru ʾl-Islām, or “country of Islām,” and his wife refuse to perform hijrah (flight) and to accompany him, she is divorced.

(11.) Apostasy from Islām. The author of the Raddu ʾl-Muk͟htār (vol. ii. p. 643) says: “When a man or woman apostatises from Islām, then an immediate dissolution (fask͟h) of the marriage takes place, whether the apostasy be of the man or of the woman, without a decree from the Qāẓī.” And again, (p. 645), “If both husband and wife apostatise at the same time, their marriage bond remains; and if at any future time the parties again return to Islām, no re-marriage is necessary to constitute them man and wife; but if one of the parties should apostatise before the other, a dissolution of the marriage takes place ipso facto.”

Mr. J. B. S. Boyle, of Lahore, says: “As relevant to this subject, I give a quotation from Mr. Currie’s excellent work on the Indian Criminal Codes, p. 445. The question is as to the effect of apostasy from Islām upon the marriage relation, and whether sexual intercourse with the apostate renders a person liable to be convicted for adultery under Section 497 of the Indian Penal Code. A. and B., Mahommedans, married under the Mahommedan law, are converted to Christianity. The wife, B., is first converted, but continues to live with her husband; subsequently the [89]husband, A., is converted. Subsequent to the conversion of B., A. and B., still living together as husband and wife, both professing Christianity, B. has sexual intercourse with C. Will a conviction hold against C. under Section 497? Both Macnaghten and Baillie say the marriage becomes dissolved by apostasy of either party, and Grady, in his version of Hamilton’s Hidāyah, p. 66, says: “If either husband or wife apostatize from the faith, a separation takes place, without divorce, according to Abū Haneefa and Abū Yoosuf. Imām Mahommed alleges if the apostasy is on the part of the husband.

“Apostasy annuls marriage in Haneefa’s opinion, and in apostasy separation takes place without any decree of the magistrate. Cases which might decide this point have been lately tried both at Lucknow and Allahabad: at the former place in re Afzul Hosein v. Hadee Begum, and at the latter Zuburdust Khan v. Wife. But from certain remarks to be found in the judgment of the High Court, N. W. P., the Courts of Oudh and N. W. P., appear to differ on the most essential point. The point before the Oudh Court was (Hadee Begum’s plea) that her marriage contract was dissolved by reason of her own apostasy, a sufficient answer to a suit brought by her Mahommedan husband for restitution of conjugal rights; i.e. Does the apostasy of a Mahommedan wife dissolve a marriage contract against the express wish of a Mahommedan husband in dar-ool-harb (land of war)? for India, it is contended, is not, under its present administration, dar-ool-Islam (land of safety). The Oudh Court held (admitting that apostasy by the husband dissolved the marriage and freed the wife) that apostasy by the wife did not free her if her husband sued for restitution of conjugal rights. They argued that apostasy by the wife, without the wish of the husband, could not be entertained; in fact, that as regards her husband’s volition, the apostasy could not exist, and would not be recognised. That a suit for restitution of conjugal rights before the competent court of the time, seemed to them to be equivalent of the suit before the Cazee (Judge). The Oudh judges, in the absence of distinct precedent, say they fell back on the customs of the people amongst whom they lived. The Oudh Court evidently considered there was an essential difference between apostasy of a man and apostasy of a woman, of the husband or the wife; also between apostasy to a faith in a book and apostasy to the idol worship Mahommed and his followers renounce. Does such an essential difference exist? The point before the High Court N. W. P. was: Can a Mahommedan professing Christianity subsequent to his marriage with a Mussulmani, according to the Mahommedan law, obtain a decree for dissolution of that marriage under Act IV. of 1869, his wife having subsequently to him professed Christianity, and they under their new faith having lived together as man and wife? or whether the wife’s contention is sound, that her marriage was cancelled by her husband’s apostasy? They held the apostasy of the husband dissolved the marriage tie. This the Oudh Court admits, but the point before the Oudh Court was not before the High Court, N. W. P.; nevertheless from comments made by the High Court, N. W. P., on the Oudh decision, they evidently did not agree with the finding come to by the latter Court, on the point before it.

“Now, Mr. Currie asks in the above extract, does such an essential difference exist between apostasy to a book—that is, to a kitabee faith—and apostasy to idol worship? Answering this question necessitates a few remarks upon the judgments above mentioned. According to Mahommedan law, a man may lawfully marry a kitabeeah, but marriage with a Pagan or polytheist is unlawful. But the principle in Mahommedan law is, that when one of the parties turns to a state of religion that would render the marriage contract illegal if it were still to be entered into, what was legal before is made void. A Mahommedan woman, becoming a kitabeeah, does not render the marriage void, for there is nothing to render the marriage contract illegal if it were still to be entered into; but if the Mahommedan woman becomes an idolatress, the marriage is void, for the woman has turned to a state of religion that would render the marriage contract illegal if it were still to be entered into; a Mahommedan woman, becoming a Christian, consequently, would not be separated from her husband, because she belongs to the religion of the book, that is, a kitabee faith. If a kitabeeah becomes an idolatress, the marriage is dissolved, but if she change from one religion to another, and still remain a kitabeeah, the marriage is not vitiated. So far the Oudh Court is correct in its decision, that the Mahommedan wife’s conversion to Christianity did not render the marriage null and void, but that a suit for restitution of conjugal rights would lie; and taking the case of C. having sexual intercourse with B. the wife of A. converted to Christianity, a conviction under Section 497, Indian Penal Code, would hold good. But with all deference, I do not think that the Oudh Court is correct when it states that ‘apostasy by the wife without the wish of the husband could not be entertained; in fact, that as regards her husband’s volition, the apostasy could not exist, and would not be recognised.’

“So far as regards a woman’s apostatising to a kitabee faith, this holds good; but if a woman turns to Paganism, ipso facto the marriage is void, and does not depend upon the volition of the husband (having regard to the principle we have adverted to above), so that the husband under such circumstances could not maintain a suit for conjugal rights, nor would a conviction hold good against C., under Section 497, Indian Penal Code for sexual intercourse with B., the wife of A., who has apostatised to Paganism. The decisions of the two Courts, however, seem correct, on the principles of Mahommedan law, as to the effect of a husband apostatising from Islām. [90]By Mahommedan law, a marriage by a female Moslem with a man not of the Mahommedan faith is unlawful: applying the principle quoted before, the man having turned to a state of religion that would render the contract illegal if it were still to be entered into, the marriage is void. The apostasy of the husband dissolves the marriage tie; consequently there does exist an essential difference between apostasy of a man and of a woman, of the apostasy of the husband or the wife; also between apostasy to a faith in a book, that is, a revealed religion having a book of faith, and apostasy to the idol worship Mahommed and his followers renounce. The law allows a person the right to cease to be a Mahommedan in the fullest sense of the word, and to become a Christian, and to claim for himself and his descendants all the rights and obligations of a British subject.” (Hogg v. Greenway, &c., 2, Hyde’s Reports, 3. Manual of Laws relating to Muḥammadans and their Relations of Life.)

V. In addition to the forms of divorce already explained, there are three others of a peculiar nature, called k͟hulaʾ, mubāraʾah, and z̤ihār.

The form of divorce known as k͟hulaʾ, is when, a husband and wife disagreeing, or for any other cause, the wife, on payment of a compensation or ransom to her husband, is permitted by the law to obtain from him a release from the marriage tie. The k͟hulaʾ is generally effected by the husband giving back the dower or part thereof. When the aversion is on the part of the husband, it is generally held that he should grant his wife’s request without compensation; but this is purely a matter of conscience, and not of law.

Mubāraʾah is a divorce which is effected by a mutual release.

Z̤ihār, from z̤ahr, “back,” is a kind of divorce which is effected by a husband likening his wife to any part or member of the body of any of his kinswomen within the prohibited degree. As for example, if he were to say to his wife, “Thou art to me like the back of my mother.” The motive of the husband in saying so must be examined, and if it appear that he meant divorce, his wife is not lawful to him until he have made expiation by freeing a slave, or by fasting two months, or by feeding sixty poor men. (See Qurʾān, Sūrah lviii. 4.)

(For the Sunnī Law of Divorce, see the Hidāyah and its Commentary, the Kifāyah; Durru ʾl-Muk͟htār and its Commentary, the Raddu ʾl-Muk͟htār; the Fatāwā-i-ʿĀlamgīrī; Hamilton’s English Edition, Hidāyah; Tagore Law Lectures, 1873.)

VI. The Shīʿah law of Divorce differs only in a few particulars from that of the Sunnīs. According to Shīʿah law, a man must be an adult of understanding, of free choice and will, and of design and intention, when he divorces his wife. A marked contrast to the licence and liberty allowed by the Sunnī law. Nor can the Shīʿah divorce be effected in any language of a metaphorical kind. It must be express and be pronounced in Arabic (if the husband understand that language), and it must be spoken and not written. A divorce amongst the Shīʿahs does not take effect if given implicatively or ambiguously, whether intended or not. It is also absolutely necessary that the sentence should be pronounced by the husband in the presence of two just persons as witnesses, who shall hear and testify to the wording of the divorce.

(For the Shīʿah law of divorce, see Shirʿatu ʾl-Islām; Taḥrīru ʾl-Aḥkām; Mafātīḥ; Mr. Neil Baillie’s Digest of Muḥammadan Law; Imamiah Code; Tagore Law Lectures, 1874.)

VII. Compared with the Mosaic Law. When compared with the Mosaic law, it will be seen that by the latter, divorce was only sanctioned when there was “some uncleanness” in the wife, and that whilst in Islām a husband can take back his divorced wife, in the law of God it was not permitted. See Deut. xxiv. 1–4.

“When a man hath taken a wife, and married her, and it come to pass that she find no favour in his eyes, because he hath found some uncleanness in her; then let him write her a bill of divorcement, and give it in her hand, and send her out of his house.

“And when she is departed out of his house, she may go and be another man’s wife.

“And if the latter husband hate her, and write her a bill of divorcement, and giveth it in her hand, and sendeth her out of his house; or if the latter husband die, which took her to be his wife;

“Her former husband, which sent her away, may not take her again to be his wife, after that she is defiled; for that is abomination before the Lord: and thou shalt not cause the land to sin, which the Lord thy God giveth thee for an inheritance.”

The ground of divorce in the Mosaic law was “some uncleanness in her.” There were two interpretations of this by the Jewish doctors of the period of the New Testament. The School of Shammai seemed to limit it to a moral delinquency in the woman, whilst that of Hillel extended it to trifling causes. Our Lord appears to have regarded all the lesser causes than fornication as standing on too weak a ground.

Matt. v. 32: “But I say unto you, that whosoever shall put away his wife, saving for the cause of fornication, causeth her to commit adultery: and whosoever shall marry her that is divorced committeth adultery.”

It will be seen that Muḥammad adopted the teaching of the School of Hillel, omitting the bill of divorcement, which was enjoined in Deut. xxiv. 3, thereby placing the woman entirely at the will and caprice of her husband.

Burkhardt tells us of an Arab, forty-five years old, who had had fifty wives, so that he must have divorced two wives and married two fresh ones on the average every year. We have cases of Muḥammad’s own “Companions” not much better. This is the natural and legitimate effect of the law.

Sir William Muir (Life of Mahomet, vol. iii. p. 305) says: “The idea of conjugal unity is utterly unknown to Mahometans, excepting when the Christian example is by chance [91]followed; and even there, the continuance of the bond is purely dependent on the will of the husband.… I believe the morale of Hindu society, where polygamy is less encouraged, to be sounder, in a very marked degree, than that of Mahometan society.”

DĪWĀN (ديوان‎). (1) In Muḥammadan law, the word signifies an account or record book, and also the bags in which the Qāẓī’s records are kept. (2) It is also a court of justice, a royal court. (3) Also a minister of state; the chief officer in a Muḥammadan state; a finance minister. (4) In British courts a law-suit is called dīwānī, when it refers to a civil suit, in contradistinction to faujdārī, or “criminal suit.” (5) A collection of odes is called a dīwān, e.g. Dīwān-i-Ḥāfiz̤, “the Poems of Ḥāfiz̤.”

DIYAH (دية‎). A pecuniary compensation for any offence upon the person. [FINES.]

DOGS (Arabic kalb, pl. kilāb; Heb. ‏כֶּלֶב‎) are unclean animals; for according to a tradition by Abū Hurairah, Muḥammad said that when a dog drinks in a vessel, it must be washed seven times, and that the first cleansing should be with earth. (Mishkāt, book iii. c. ii. pt. 1.)

“Most people believe that when a dog howls near a house it forebodes death, for, it is said, a dog can distinguish the awful form of Azrāʿīl, the Angel of Death.” (Burton’s Arabia, vol. i. p. 290.)

Ibn ʿUmr says that dogs used to come into the Masjid at Makkah in the time of the Prophet, but the Companions never purified the mosque when the dog was dry.

The Imām Abū Yūsuf holds that the sale of a dog that bites is unlawful, whilst the Imām ash-Shāfiʿī has said that the sale of a dog is absolutely illegal, because the Prophet said the wages of whoredom and the price of a dog are forbidden. Abū Ḥanīfah holds that dogs which are trained to hunt or watch may be lawfully sold. (Hamilton’s Hidāyah, vol. ii. p. 543.)

It is lawful to hunt with a trained dog, and the sign of a dog being trained is that he catches game three times without killing it. The dog must be let slip with the ejaculation: Bismillāhi ʾllāhi Akbar! “In the name of God, the great God!” when all game seized by him becomes lawful food. This custom is founded upon a verse in the Qurʾān, Sūrah v. 6: “Lawful for you are all good things and what ye have taught beasts of prey to catch, training them like dogs; ye teach them as God taught you. And mention the name of God over it.”

Rules for hunting with dogs will be found in Hamilton’s Hidāyah, vol. iv. p. 170.

DOG STAR. Sirius, or the dog star, was an object of worship amongst the ancient Arabs, and is mentioned in the Qurʾān, under the name of ash-Shiʿra, Sūrah liii. 50: “He (God) is the Lord of the Dog Star.”

DOWER. Arabic, mahr (مهر‎), Heb. (‏מֹהַר‎). Dower is considered by some lawyers to be an effect of the marriage contract, imposed on the husband by the law as a mark of respect for the subject of the contract—the wife; while others consider that it is in exchange for the usufruct of the wife, and its payment is necessary, as upon the provision of a support to the wife depends the permanency of the matrimonial connection. Thus, it is indispensable a fortiori, so much so, that if it were not mentioned in the marriage contract, it would be still incumbent on the husband, as the law will presume it by virtue of the contract itself, and award it upon demand being made by the wife. In such case, the amount of dower will be to the extent of the dowers of the women of her rank and of the ladies of her father’s family. Special beauty or accomplishments may, however, be pleaded for recovering a larger award than the customary dower, where the amount of dower is not mentioned in the contract. There is no limit to the amount of dower; it may be to a very large amount, considering the position and circumstance of the bridegroom, but its minimum is never less than ten dirhams; so where it is fixed at a lesser amount, the law will augment it up to ten dirhams. The dower need not invariably be in currency, or even in metal; everything, except carrion, blood, wine, and hog. Also the bridegroom’s own labour, if he is a free man, being held by the law to be a good dower.

Dower is generally divided into two parts, termed muʿajjal, “prompt,” and muʾajjal, “deferred.” The muʿajjal portion is exigible on entering into the contract, while the muʾajjal part of the dower is payable upon dissolution of the contract. Although the first part is payable, and is sometimes paid, at the time the contract is entered into, yet it has been the general practice (at least in India) to leave it unpaid, and so like an on-demand obligation it remains due at all times—the wife’s right to the same not being extinguished by lapse of time. The wife’s (or her guardian’s) object in leaving the exigible part of the dower unrealised, seems to be that there may always exist a valid guarantee for the good treatment of her by her husband. The women of the respectable classes reserve their right and power to demand their exigible dowers till such time as occasion should require the exercise thereof. The custom of fixing heavy dowers, generally beyond the husband’s means, especially in India, seems to be based upon the intention of checking the husband from ill-treating his wife, and, above all, from his marrying another woman, as also from wrongfully or causelessly divorcing the former. For in the case of divorce the woman can demand the full payment of the dower. In the event of the death of the husband, the payment of the dower has the first claim on the estate after funeral expenses; the law regarding it as a just debt. (Tagore Law Lectures, 1873, p. 341; Hidāyah, vol. i. p. 122.)


DREAMS. Arabic ḥulm (حـلـم‎); manām (منام‎); rūyāʾ (روياء‎). The term used for a bad dream is ḥulm, and for an ordinary dream manām, rūyāʾ being used to express a heavenly vision. [RUYA.]

According to the traditions, the Prophet is related to have said, “A good dream is of God’s favour and a bad dream is of the devil; therefore, when any of you dreams a dream which is such as he is pleased with, then he must not tell it to any but a beloved friend; and when he dreams a bad dream, then let him seek protection from God both from its evil and from the wickedness of Satan; and let him spit three times over his left shoulder, and not mention the dream to anyone; then, verily, no evil shall come nigh him.” “The truest dream is the one which you have about day-break.” “Good dreams are one of the parts of prophecy.” (Mishkāt, xxi. c. iv.)

DRESS. Arabic libās (لـبـاس‎). Decent apparel at the time of public worship is enjoined in the Qurʾān, Sūrah vii. 29: “O children of Adam! wear your goodly apparel when ye repair to any mosque.” Excess in apparel and extravagance in dress are reproved, Sūrah vii. 25: “We (God) have sent down raiment to hide your nakedness, and splendid garments; but the raiment of piety, this is the best.”

According to the Hidāyah (vol. iv. p. 92), a dress of silk is not lawful for men, but women are permitted to wear it. Men are prohibited from wearing gold ornaments, and also ornaments of silver, otherwise than a silver signet ring. The custom of keeping handkerchiefs in the hand, except for necessary use, is also forbidden.

The following are some of the sayings of the Prophet with regard to dress, as recorded in the Traditions. Mishkāt, xx. c. i.: “God will not look at him on the Day of Resurrection who shall wear long garments from pride.” “Whoever wears a silken garment in this world shall not wear it in the next.” “God will not have compassion upon him who wears long trousers (i.e. below the ankle) from pride.” “It is lawful for the women of my people to wear silks and gold ornaments, but it is unlawful for the men.” “Wear white clothes, because they are the cleanest, and the most agreeable; and bury your dead in white clothes.”

According to the Traditions, the dress of Muḥammad was exceedingly simple. It is said he used to wear only two garments, the izār, or “under garment” which hung down three or four inches below his knees, and a mantle thrown over his shoulders. These two robes, with the turban, and white cotton drawers, completed the Prophet’s wardrobe. His dress was generally of white, but he also wore green, red, and yellow, and sometimes a black woollen dress. It is said by some traditionists that in the taking of Makkah he wore a black turban. The end of his turban used to hang between his shoulders. And he used to wrap it many times round his head. It is said, “the edge of it appeared below like the soiled clothes of an oil dealer.”

He was especially fond of white-striped yamanī cloth. He once prayed in a silken dress, but he cast it aside afterwards, saying, “it doth not become the faithful to wear silk.” He once prayed in a spotted mantle, but the spots diverted his attention, and the garment was never again worn.

His sleeves, unlike those of the Eastern choga or k͟haftān, ended at the wrist, and he never wore long robes reaching to his ankles.

At first, he wore a gold ring with the stone inwards on his right hand, but it distracted his attention when preaching, and he changed it for a silver one. His shoes, which were often old and cobbled, were of the Ḥaẓramaut pattern, with two thongs. And he was in the habit of praying with his shoes on. [SHOES.]

The example of Muḥammad has doubtless influenced the customs of his followers in the matter of dress, the fashion of which has remained almost the same in eastern Muḥammadan countries centuries past; for although there are varieties of dress in Eastern as well as in European countries, still there are one or two characteristics of dress which are common to all oriental nations which have embraced Islām, namely, the turban folded round the head, the white cotton drawers, or full trousers, tied round the waist by a running string; the qamīs, or “shirt,” the k͟haftān, or “coat,” and the lungī, or “scarf.” The qamīṣ is the same as the ketoneth of the Hebrews, and the χίτων of the Greeks, a kind of long shirt with short sleeves, the ends of which extend over the trousers or drawers, reaching below the knees. The k͟haftān answers to the Hebrew ‏מְעִיל‎ meil (1 Sam. xviii. 4), a tunic worn as an outer garment. The Jewish ‏בֶּגֶד‎ beged, or ‏שִׂמְלָה‎ simlah, must have been similar to the quadrangular piece of cloth still worn as a scarf in Central Asia, and called a lungī, and similar to the ʿabāʾ of the Egyptians. It is worn in various ways, either wrapped round the body, or worn over the shoulders, and sometimes folded as a covering for the head.

The dress of Muḥammadans in Egypt is very minutely described by Mr. Lane in his Modern Egyptians, vol. i. p. 36.

The dress of the men of the middle and higher classes of Egypt consists of the following articles. First a pair of full drawers of linen or cotton tied round the body by a running string or band, the ends of which are embroidered with coloured silks, though concealed by the outer dress. The drawers descend a little below the knees or to the ankles; but many of the Arabs will not wear long drawers, because prohibited by the Prophet. Next is worn a qamīs or “shirt,” with very full sleeves, reaching to the wrist; it is made of linen of a loose open texture, or of cotton stuff, or of muslin, or silk, or of a mixture of silk and cotton in strips, but all white. Over this, in winter, or in cool weather, most persons wear a sudeyree, which [93]is a short vest of cloth, or of striped coloured silk, or cotton, without sleeves. Over the shirt and the sudeyree, or the former alone, is worn a long vest of striped silk or cotton (called kaftān) descending to the ankles, with long sleeves extending a few inches beyond the fingers’ ends, but divided from a point a little above the wrist, or about the middle of the fore-arm, so that the hand is generally exposed, though it may be concealed by the sleeve when necessary, for it is customary to cover the hands in the presence of a person of high rank. Round this vest is wound the girdle, which is a coloured shawl, or a long piece of white-figured muslin.

The ordinary outer robe is a long cloth coat, of any colour, called by the Turks jubbah, but by the Egyptians gibbeh, the sleeves of which reach not quite to the wrist. Some persons also wear a beneesh, which is a robe of cloth with long sleeves, like those of the kaftān, but more ample; it is properly a robe of ceremony, and should be worn over the other cloth coat, but many persons wear it instead of the gibbeh.

Another robe, called farageeyeh, nearly resembles the beneesh; it has very long sleeves, but these are not slit, and it is chiefly worn by men of the learned professions. In cold or cool weather, a kind of black woollen cloak, called abāyeh, is commonly worn. Sometimes this is drawn over the head.



In winter, also, many persons wrap a muslin or other shawl (such as they use for a turban) about the head and shoulders. The head-dress consists, first, of a small close-fitting cotton cap, which is often changed; next a tarboosh, which is a red cloth cap, also fitting close to the head with a tassel of dark-blue silk at the crown; lastly, a long piece of white muslin, generally figured, or a kashmere shawl, which is wound round the tarboosh. Thus is formed the turban. The kashmere shawl is seldom worn except in cool weather. Some persons wear two or three tarbooshes one over another. A shereef (or descendant of the Prophet) wears a green turban, or is privileged to do so, but no other person; and it is not common for any but a shereef to wear a bright green dress. Stockings are not in use, but some few persons in cold weather wear woollen or cotton socks. The shoes are of thick red morocco, pointed, and turning up at the toes. Some persons also wear inner shoes of soft yellow morocco, and with soles of the same; the outer shoes are taken off on stepping upon a carpet or mat, but not the inner; for this reason the former are often worn turned down at the heel.



The costume of the men of the lower orders is very simple. These, if not of the very poorest class, wear a pair of drawers, and a long and full shirt or gown of blue linen or cotton, or of brown woollen stuff, open from the neck nearly to the waist, and having wide sleeves. Over this some wear a white or red woollen girdle; for which servants often substitute a broad red belt of woollen stuff or of leather, generally containing a receptacle for money. Their turban is generally composed of a white, red, or yellow woollen shawl, or of a piece of coarse cotton or muslin wound round a tarboosh, under which is a white or brown felt cap; but many are so poor, as to have no other cap than the latter, no turban, nor even drawers, nor shoes, but only the blue or brown shirt, or merely a few rags, while many, on the other hand, wear a sudeyree under the blue shirt, and some, particularly servants in the houses of great men, wear a white shirt, a sudeyree, and a kaftān, or gibbeh, or both, and the blue shirt over all. The full sleeves of this shirt are sometimes drawn up by means of a cord, which [94]passes round each shoulder and crosses behind, where it is tied in a knot. This custom is adopted by servants (particularly grooms), who have cords of crimson or dark blue silk for this purpose.

In cold weather, many persons of the lower classes wear an abayeh, like that before described, but coarser and sometimes (instead of being black) having broad stripes, brown and white, or blue and white, but the latter rarely. Another kind of cloak, more full than the abayeh, of black or deep blue woollen stuff, is also very commonly worn, it is called diffeeyeh. The shoes are of red or yellow morocco, or of sheep-skin. Those of the groom are of dark red morocco. Those of the door-keeper and the water-carrier of a private house, generally yellow.

The Muslims are distinguished by the colours of their turbans from the Copts and the Jews, who (as well as other subjects of the Turkish Sultān who are not Muslims) wear black, blue, gray, or light-brown turbans, and generally dull-coloured dresses.

The distinction of sects, families, dynasties, &c., among the Muslim Arabs by the colour of the turban and other articles of dress, is of very early origin. There are not many different forms of turbans now worn in Egypt; that worn by most of the servants is peculiarly formal, consisting of several spiral twists one above another like the threads of a screw. The kind common among the middle and higher classes of the tradesmen and other citizens of the metropolis and large towns is also very formal, but less so than that just before alluded to.

The Turkish turban worn in Egypt is of a more elegant fashion. The Syrian is distinguished by its width. The Ulama and men of religion and letters in general used to wear, as some do still, one particularly wide and formal called a mukleh. The turban is much respected. In the houses of the more wealthy classes, there is usually a chair on which it is placed at night. This is often sent with the furniture of a bride; as it is common for a lady to have one upon which to place her head-dress. It is never used for any other purpose.

The dress of the women of the middle and higher orders is handsome and elegant. Their shirt is very full, like that of the men, but shorter, not reaching to the knees; it is also, generally, of the same kind of material as the men’s shirt, or of coloured crape, sometimes black. A pair of very wide trousers (called shintiyān) of a coloured striped stuff, of silk and cotton, or of printed or plain white muslin, is tied round the hips under the shirt, with a dikkeh; its lower extremities are drawn up and tied just below the knee with running strings, but it is sufficiently long to hang down to the feet, or almost to the ground, when attached in this manner. Over the shirt and shintiyān is worn a long vest (called yelek), of the same material as the latter; it nearly resembles the kaftān of the men, but is more tight to the body and arms; the sleeves also are longer, and it is made to button down the front from the bosom to a little below the girdle, instead of lapping over; it is open, likewise on each side, from the height of the hip downwards.

In general, the yelek is cut in such a manner as to leave half of the bosom uncovered, except by the shirt, but many ladies have it made more ample at that part, and according to the most approved fashion it should be of sufficient length to reach to the ground, or should exceed that length by two or three inches or more. A short vest (called anteree) reaching only a little below the waist, and exactly resembling a yelek of which the lower part has been cut off, is sometimes worn instead of the latter. A square shawl, or an embroidered kerchief, doubled diagonally, is put loosely round the waist as a girdle, the two corners that are folded together hanging down behind; or sometimes the lady’s girdle is folded after the ordinary Turkish fashion, like that of the men, but more loosely.

Over the yelek is worn a gibbeh of cloth or velvet or silk, usually embroidered with gold or with coloured silk; it differs in form from the gibbeh of the men, chiefly in being not so wide, particularly in the fore part, and is of the same length as the yelek. Instead of this, a jacket (called saltah), generally of cloth or velvet, and embroidered in the same manner as the gibbeh, is often worn.



The head-dress consists of a takeeyeh and tarboosh, with a square kerchief (called faroodeeyeh) of printed or painted muslin or one of crape, wound tightly round, composing what is called a rabtah. Two or more such kerchiefs were commonly used a short time since, and still are sometimes to form the ladies’ turban, but always wound in a high flat shape, very different from that of the turban of the men. A kind of crown, called kurs, and other ornaments, are attached to the ladies’ head-dress. A long piece of white muslin, embroidered at each end with coloured silks [95]and gold, or of coloured crape ornamented with gold thread, &c., and spangles, rests upon the head, and hangs down behind, nearly or quite to the ground; this is called tarhah, it is the head-veil; the face-veil I shall presently describe. The hair, except over the forehead and temples, is divided into numerous braids or plaits, generally from eleven to twenty-five in number, but always of an uneven number; these hang down the back. To each braid of hair are usually added three black silk cords with little ornaments of gold, &c., attached to them. Over the forehead the hair is cut rather short, but two full locks hang down on each side of the face; these are often curled in ringlets and sometimes plaited.

Few of the ladies of Egypt wear stockings or socks, but many of them wear mezz (or inner shoes) of yellow or red morocco, sometimes embroidered with gold. Over these, whenever they step off the matted or carpeted part of the floor, they put on baboog (or slippers) of yellow morocco, with high-pointed toes, or use high wooden clogs or pattens, generally from four to nine inches in height, and usually ornamented with mother-of-pearl or silver, &c.





The riding or walking attire is called tezyeereh. Whenever a lady leaves the house, she wears, in addition to what has been above described, first, a large, loose gown (called tob or sebleh), the sleeves of which are nearly equal in width to the whole length of the gown; it is of silk, generally of a pink or rose or violet colour. Next is put on the burkaʾ or face-veil, which is a long strip of white muslin, concealing the whole of the face except the eyes, and reaching nearly to the feet. It is suspended at the top by a narrow band, which passes up the forehead, and which is sewed, as are also the two upper corners of the veil, to a band that is tied round the head. The lady then covers herself with a habarah, which, for a married lady, is composed of two breadths of glossy, black silk, each ell-wide, and three yards long; these are sewed together, at or near the selvages (according to the height of the person) the seam running horizontally, with respect to the manner in which it is worn; a piece of narrow black ribbon is sewed inside the upper part, about six inches from the edge, to tie round the head. But some of them imitate the Turkish ladies of Egypt in holding the front part so as to conceal all but that portion of the veil that is above the hands. The unmarried ladies wear a habarah of white silk, or a shawl. Some females of the middle classes, who cannot afford to purchase a habarah, wear instead of it an eezār (izār), which is a piece of white calico, of the same form and size as the former, and is worn in the same manner. On the feet are worn short boots or socks (called khuff), of yellow morocco, and over these the baboog. The dress of a large proportion of those women of the lower orders who are not of the poorest class, consists of a pair of trousers or drawers [96](similar in form to the shintiyān of the ladies, but generally of plain white cotton or linen), a blue linen or cotton shirt (not quite so full as that of the men), reaching to the feet, a burkaʾ of a kind of coarse black crape, and a dark blue tarhah of muslin or linen. Some wear, over the long shirt, or instead of the latter, a linen tob, of the same form as that of the ladies; and within the long shirt, some wear a short white shirt; and some, a sudeyree also, or an anteree. The sleeves of the tob are often turned up over the head; either to prevent their being incommodious, or to supply the place of a tarhah. In addition to these articles of dress, many women who are not of the very poor classes wear, as a covering, a kind of plaid, similar in form to the habarah, composed of two pieces of cotton, woven in small chequers of blue and white, or cross stripes, with a mixture of red at each end. It is called milayeh; in general it is worn in the same manner as the habarah, but sometimes like the tarhah. The upper part of the black burkaʾ is often ornamented with false pearls, small gold coins, and other little flat ornaments of the same metal (called bark); sometimes with a coral bead, and a gold coin beneath; also with some coins of base silver and more commonly with a pair of chain tassels of brass or silver (called oyoon) attached to the corners. A square black silk kerchief (called asbeh), with a border of red and yellow, is bound round the head, doubled diagonally, and tied with a single knot behind; or, instead of this, the tarboosh and faroodeeyeh are worn, though by very few women of the lower classes.



The best kind of shoes worn by the females of the lower orders are of red morocco, turned up, but generally round, at the toes. The burkaʾ and shoes are most common in Cairo, and are also worn by many of the women throughout lower Egypt; but in Upper Egypt, the burkaʾ is very seldom seen, and shoes are scarcely less uncommon. To supply the place of the former, when necessary, a portion of the tarhah is drawn before the face, so as to conceal nearly all the countenance except one eye.

Many of the women of the lower orders, even in the metropolis, never conceal their faces.

Throughout the greater part of Egypt, the most common dress of the women, merely consists of the blue shirt or tob and tarhah. In the southern parts of Upper Egypt chiefly above Akhmeem, most of the women envelop themselves in a large piece of dark-brown woollen stuff (called a hulāleeyeh), wrapping it round the body and attaching the upper parts together over each shoulder, and a piece of the same they use as a tarhah. This dull dress, though picturesque, is almost as disguising as the blue tinge which women in these parts of Egypt impart to their lips. Most of the women of the lower orders wear a variety of trumpery ornaments, such as ear-rings, necklaces, bracelets, &c., and sometimes a nose-ring.

The women of Egypt deem it more incumbent upon them to cover the upper and back part of the head than the face, and more requisite to conceal the face than most other parts of the person. I have often seen women but half covered with miserable rags, and several times females in the prime of womanhood, and others in more advanced age, with nothing on the body but a narrow strip of rag bound round the hips.

Mr. Burckhardt, in his Notes on the Bedouins and Wahabys (p. 47), thus describes the dress of the Badawīs of the desert:—

In summer the men wear a coarse cotton shirt, over which the wealthy put a kombar, or “long gown,” as it is worn in Turkish towns, of silk or cotton stuff. Most of them, however, do not wear the kombar, but simply wear over their shirt a woollen mantle. There are different sorts of mantles, one very thin, light, and white woollen, manufactured at Bag͟hdād, and called mesoumy. A coarser and heavier kind, striped white and brown (worn over the mesoumy), is called abba. The Bag͟hdād abbas are most esteemed, those made at Hamah, with short wide sleeves, are called boush. (In the northern parts of Syria, every kind of woollen mantle, whether white, black, or striped white and brown, or white and blue, are called meshlakh.) I have not seen any black abbas among the Aenezes, but frequently among the sheikhs of Ahl el Shemal, sometimes interwoven with gold, and worth as much as ten pounds sterling. The Aenezes do not wear drawers; they walk and ride usually barefooted, even the richest of [97]them, although they generally esteem yellow boots and red shoes. All the Bedouins wear on the head, instead of the red Turkish cap, a turban or square kerchief, of cotton or cotton and silk mixed; the turban is called keffie; this they fold about the head so that one corner falls backward, and two other corners hang over the fore part of the shoulders; with these two corners they cover their faces to protect them from the sun’s rays, or hot wind, or rain, or to conceal their features if they wish to be unknown. The keffie is yellow or yellow mixed with green. Over the keffie the Aenezes tie, instead of a turban, a cord round the head; this cord is of camel’s hair, and called akal. Some tie a handkerchief about the head, and it is then called shutfe. A few rich sheikhs wear shawls on their heads of Damascus or Bag͟hdād manufacture, striped red and white; they sometimes also use red caps or takie (called in Syria tarboush), and under those they wear a smaller cap of camel’s hair, called maaraka (in Syria arkye, where it is generally made of fine cotton stuff).



The Aenezes are distinguished at first sight from all the Syrian Bedouins by the long tresses of their hair. They never shave their black hair, but cherish it from infancy, till they can twist it in tresses, that hang over the cheeks down to the breast: these tresses are called keroun. Some few Aenezes wear girdles of leather, others tie a cord or a piece of rag over the shirt. Men and women wear from infancy a leather girdle around the naked waist, it consists of four or five thongs twisted together into a cord as thick as one’s finger. I heard that the women tie their thongs separated from each other, round the waist. Both men and women adorn the girdles with pieces of ribands or amulets. The Aenezes called it hhakou; the Ahl el Shemal call it bereim. In summer the boys, until the age of seven or eight years, go stark naked; but I never saw any young girl in that state, although it was mentioned that in the interior of the desert the girls, at that early age, were not more encumbered by clothing than their little brothers. In winter, the Bedouins wear over the shirt a pelisse, made of several sheep-skins stitched together; many wear these skins even in summer, because experience has taught them that the more warmly a person is clothed, the less he suffers from the sun. The Arabs endure the inclemency of the rainy season in a wonderful manner. While everything around them suffers from the cold, they sleep barefooted in an open tent, where the fire is not kept up beyond midnight. Yet in the middle of summer an Arab sleeps wrapt in his mantle upon the burning sand, and exposed to the rays of an intensely hot sun. The ladies’ dress is a wide cotton gown of a dark colour, blue, brown, or black; on their heads they wear a kerchief called shauber or mekroune, the young females having it of a red colour, the old of black. All the Ranalla ladies wear black silk kerchiefs, two yards square, called shale kās; these are made at Damascus. Silver rings are much worn by the Aeneze ladies, both in the ears and noses; the ear-rings they call terkie (pl. teraky), the small nose-rings shedre, the larger (some of which are three inches and a half in diameter), khezain. All the women puncture their lips and dye them blue; this kind of tattooing they call bertoum, and apply it likewise in spotting their temples and foreheads. The Serhhān women puncture their cheeks, breasts, and arms, and the Ammour women their ankles. Several men also adorn their arms in the same manner. The Bedouin ladies half cover their faces with a dark-coloured veil, called nekye, which is so tied as to conceal the chin and mouth. The Egyptian women’s veil (berkoa) is used by the Kebly Arabs. Round their wrists the Aeneze ladies wear glass bracelets of various colours; the rich also have silver bracelets and some wear silver chains about the neck. Both in summer and winter the men and women go barefooted.

Captain Burton, in his account of Zanzibar, (vol. i. p. 382), says:—

The Arab’s head-dress is a kummeh or kofiyyāh (red fez), a Surat calotte (afiyyah), or a white skull-cap, worn under a turban (kilemba) of Oman silk and cotton religiously mixed. Usually it is of fine blue and white cotton check, embroidered and fringed with a broad red border, with the ends hanging in [98]unequal lengths over one shoulder. The coiffure is highly picturesque. The ruling family and grandees, however, have modified its vulgar folds, wearing it peaked in front, and somewhat resembling a tiara. The essential body-clothing, and the succedaneum for trousers is an izor (nguo yaku Chini), or loin-cloth, tucked in at the waist, six to seven feet long by two to three broad. The colours are brickdust and white, or blue and white, with a silk border striped red, black, and yellow. The very poor wear a dirty bit of cotton girdled by a hakab or kundāvi, a rope of plaited thongs; the rich prefer a fine embroidered stuff from Oman, supported at the waist by a silver chain. None but the western Arabs admit the innovation of drawers (sūrū­wali). The jama or upper garment is a collarless coat, of the best broad-cloth, leek-green or some tender colour being preferred. It is secured over the left breast by a silken loop, and the straight wide sleeves are gaily lined. The kizbāo is a kind of waistcoat, covering only the bust; some wear it with sleeves, others without. The dishdashes (in Kisawahili Khanzu), a narrow-sleeved shirt buttoned at the throat, and extending to midshin, is made of calico (baftah), American drill and other stuffs called doriyāh, tarabuzun, and jamdani. Sailors are known by khuzerangi, a coarse cotton, stained dingy red-yellow, with henna or pomegranate rind, and rank with wars (bastard saffron) and shark’s oil.

Respectable men guard the stomach with a hizâm, generally a Cashmere or Bombay shawl; others wear sashes of the dust-coloured raw silk, manufactured in Oman. The outer garment for chilly weather is the long tight-sleeved Persian jubbeh, jokhah, or caftān, of European broad-cloth. Most men shave their heads, and the Shafeis trim or entirely remove the moustaches.

The palms are reddened with henna, which is either brought from El Hejāz, or gathered in the plantations. The only ring is a plain cornelian seal and the sole other ornament is a talisman (hirz, in Kisawahili Hirizi). The eyes are blackened with kohl, or antimony of El Shām—here, not Syria, but the region about Meccah—and the mouth crimsoned by betel, looks as if a tooth had just been knocked out.

Dr. Eugene Schuyler, in his work on Turkestan (vol. i. p. 122), says:—



The dress of the Central Asiatic is very simple. He wears loose baggy trousers, usually made of coarse white cotton stuff fastened tightly round the waist, with a cord and tassel; this is a necessary article of dress, and is never or rarely taken off, at all events not in the presence of another. Frequently, when men are at work, this is the only garment, and in that case it is gradually turned up under the cord, or rolled up on the legs, so that the person is almost naked. Over this is worn a long shirt, either white or of some light-coloured print, reaching almost to the feet, and with a very narrow aperture for the neck, which renders it somewhat difficult to put the head through. The sleeves are long and loose. Beyond this there is nothing more but what is called the chapan, varying in number according to the weather, or the whim of the person. The chapan is a loose gown, cut very sloping in the neck, with strings to tie it together in front; and inordinately large sleeves, made with an immense gore, and about twice as long as is necessary; exceedingly inconvenient, but useful to conceal the hands, as Asiatic politeness dictates. In summer, these are usually made of Russian prints, or of the native alatcha, a striped cotton material, or of silk, either striped or with most gorgeous eastern patterns, in bright colours, especially red, yellow, and green. I have sometimes seen men with as many as four or five of these gowns, even in summer; they say that it keeps out the heat. In winter, one gown will frequently be made of cloth, and lined with fine lamb-skin or fur. The usual girdle is a large handkerchief, or a small shawl; at times, a long scarf wound several times tightly round the waist. The Jews in places under native rule are allowed no girdle, but a bit of rope or cord, as a mark of ignominy. From the girdle hang the accessory knives and several small bags and pouches, often prettily embroidered, for combs, money, &c. On the head there is a skull-cap; these in Tashkent are always embroidered with silk; in Būkhārā they are usually worked with silk, or worsted in cross-stitch in gay patterns. The turban, called tchilpetch, or “forty turns,” is very long; and if the wearer has any pretence to elegance, it should be of fine thin material, which is chiefly imported from England. It requires considerable experience to wind one properly round the head, so that the folds will be well made and the appearance fashionable. One extremity is left to fall over the left shoulder, but is usually, except at prayer time, tucked in over the top. Should this end be on the right shoulder, it is said to be in the Afghān style. The majority of turbans are white, particularly so in Tashkent, though white is [99]especially the colour of the mūllāhs and religious people, whose learning is judged by the size of their turbans. In general, merchants prefer blue, striped, or chequered material.



At home the men usually go barefooted, but on going out wear either a sort of slippers with pointed toes and very small high heels, or long soft boots, the sole and upper being made of the same material. In the street, one must in addition put on either a slipper or golosh, or wear riding-boots made of bright green horse hide, with turned-up pointed toes and very small high heels.

The dress of the women, in shape and fashion, differs but little from that of the men, as they wear similar trousers and shirts, though, in addition, they have long gowns, usually of bright-coloured silk, which extend from the neck to the ground. They wear an innumerable quantity of necklaces, and little amulets, pendents in their hair, and ear-rings, and occasionally even a nose-ring. This is by no means so ugly as is supposed: a pretty girl with a turquoise ring in one nostril is not at all unsightly. On the contrary, there is something piquant in it. Usually, when outside of the houses, all respectable women wear a heavy black veil, reaching to their waists, made of woven horse-hair, and over that is thrown a dark blue, or green khalat, the sleeves of which, tied together at the ends, dangle behind. The theory of this dull dress is, that the women desire to escape observation, and certainly for that purpose they have devised the most ugly and unseemly costume that could be imagined. They are, however, very inquisitive, and occasionally in bye-streets one is able to get a good glance at them before they pull down their veils.

The dress of the citizens of Persia has been often described, both by ancient and modern travellers. That of the men has changed very materially within the last century. The turban, as a head-dress, is now worn by none but the Arabian inhabitants of that country. The Persians wear a long cap covered with lamb’s wool, the appearance of which is sometimes improved by being encircled with a cashmere shawl. The inhabitants of the principal towns are fond of dressing richly. Their upper garments are either made of chintz, silk, or cloth, and are often trimmed with gold or silver lace; they also wear brocade; and in winter their clothes are lined with furs, of which they import a great variety. It is not customary for any person, except the king, to wear jewels; but nothing can exceed the profusion which he displays of these ornaments; and his subjects seem peculiarly proud of this part of royal magnificence. They assert that when the monarch is dressed in his most splendid robes, and is seated in the sun, that the eye cannot gaze on the dazzling brilliancy of his attire.

DRINKABLES. Arabic ashribah (اشربة‎). There is a chapter in the Traditions devoted to this subject, and entitled Bābu ʾl-Ashribah. The example of Muḥammad in his habit of drinking, having influenced the Eastern world in its habits, the following traditions are noticeable. Anas says, “the Prophet has forbidden drinking water standing,” and that he used to take breath three times in drinking; and would say drinking in this way cools the stomach, quenches the thirst, and gives health and vigour to the body.

Ibn ʿAbbās says the Prophet forbade drinking water from the mouth of a leather bag.

Umm Salimah says, “the Prophet said, He who drinks out of a silver cup drinks of hell fire.” (Mishkāt, book xix. c. iii.)

DRINKING VESSELS. There are four drinking vessels which Muslims were forbidden by their Prophet to drink out of (Mishkāt, bk. i., c. i.): ḥantam, a “green vessel”; dubbāʾ, a large gourd hollowed out; naqīr, a cup made from the hollowed root of a tree; muzaffat, a vessel covered with pitch, or with a glutinous substance. These four kinds of vessels seem to have been used for drinking wine, hence the prohibition.

When a dog drinks from a vessel used by man, it should be washed seven times. (Mishkāt, book iii. c. ix. pt. i.)

DROWNING. Arabic g͟haraq (غرق‎). It is a strange anomaly in Muḥammadan law, according to the teaching of Abū Ḥanīfah, that if a person cause the death of another by immersing him under water until he die, the offence does not [100]amount to murder, and retaliation (qiṣāṣ) is not incurred. The arguments of the learned divine are as follows: First, water is analogous to a small stick or rod, as is seldom or ever used in murder. Now, it is said in the Traditions that death produced by a rod is only manslaughter, and as in that a fine is merely incurred, so here likewise. Secondly, retaliation requires the observance of a perfect equality; but between drowning and wounding there is no equality, the former being short of the latter with regard to damaging the body. [MURDER.]

DRUNKENNESS. Shurb (شرب‎) denotes the state of a person who has taken intoxicating liquor, whilst sukr (سكر‎) implies a state of drunkenness. Wine of any kind being strictly forbidden by the Muslim law, no distinction is made in the punishment of a wine-drinker and a drunkard. If a Muslim drink wine, and two witnesses testify to his having done so, or if his breath smell of wine, or if he shall himself confess to having taken wine, or if he be found in a state of intoxication, he shall be beaten with eighty stripes, or, in the case of a slave, with forty stripes. (Hidāyah, vol. ii. p. 57; Mishkāt, bk. xv. c. iv.) [KHAMR.]

DRUZES. A heretical mystic sect of Muḥammadans, which arose about the beginning of the eleventh century in the mountains of Syria. They are now chiefly found in the districts of Lebanon, and in the neighbourhood of Damascus. They were founded by al-Ḥakīm, the fanatical K͟halīfah of the Fāt̤imite race, who reigned at Cairo, assisted by two Persians named Hamzah and al-Darāzī, from the latter of whom the sect derives its name.

De Sacy, in his Exposé de la Religion des Druzes, gives the following summary of their belief:—

“To acknowledge only one God, without seeking to penetrate the nature of His being and of His attributes; to confess that He can neither be comprehended by the senses nor defined by words; to believe that the Divinity has shown itself to men at different epochs, under a human form, without participating in any of the weaknesses and imperfections of humanity; that it has shown itself at last, at the commencement of the fifth age of the Hejira, under the figure of Hakim Amr Allah; that that was the last of His manifestations, after which there is none other to be expected; that Hakim disappeared in the year 411 of the Hejira, to try the faith of His servants, to give room for the apostasy of hypocrites, and of those who had only embraced the true religion from the hope of worldly rewards; that in a short time he would appear again, full of glory and of majesty, to triumph over all his enemies, to extend His empire over all the earth, and to make His faithful worshippers happy for ever; to believe that Universal Intelligence is the first of God’s creatures, the only direct production of His omnipotence; that it has appeared upon the earth at the epoch of each of the manifestations of the Divinity, and has finally appeared since the time of Hakim under the figure of Hamza, son of Ahmad; that it is by His ministry that all the other creatures have been produced; that Hamza only possesses the knowledge of all truth, that he is the prime minister of the true religion, and that he communicates, directly or indirectly, with the other ministers and with the faithful, but in different proportions, the knowledge and the grace which he receives directly from the Divinity, and of which he is the sole channel; that he only has immediate access to God, and acts as a mediator to the other worshippers of the Supreme Being; acknowledging that Hamza is he to whom Hakim will confide his sword, to make his religion triumph, to conquer all his rivals, and to distribute rewards and punishments according to the merits of each one; to know the other ministers of religion, and the rank which belongs to each of them; to give to each the obedience and submission which is their due; to confess that every soul has been created by the Universal Intelligence; that the number of men is always the same; and that souls pass successively into different bodies; that they are raised by their attachment to truth to a superior degree of excellence, or are degraded by neglecting or giving up religious meditation; to practise the seven commandments which the religion of Hamza imposes upon its followers, and which principally exacts from them the observance of truth, charity towards their brethren, the renunciation of their former religion, the most entire resignation and submission to the will of God; to confess that all preceding religions have only been types more or less perfect of true religion, that all their ceremonial observances are only allegories, and that the manifestation of true religion requires the abrogation of every other creed. Such is the abridgment of the religious system taught in the books of the Druzes, of which Hamza is the author, and whose followers are called Unitarians.”

There is a very full and correct account of the religious belief of the Druzes in the Researches into the Religions of Syria, by the Rev. J. Wortabet, M.D. In this work Dr. Wortabet gives the following Catechism of the Druzes, which expresses their belief with regard to Christianity:—

“Q. What do ye say concerning the gospel which the Christians hold?

“A. That it is true; for it is the sayings of the Lord Christ, who was Salman el Pharisy during the life of Mohammed, and who is Hamzeh the son of Ali—not the false Christ who was born of Mary, for he was the son of Joseph.

“Q. Where was the true Christ when the false Christ was with the disciples?

“A. He was among the disciples. He uttered the truths of the gospel and taught Christ, the son of Joseph, the institutes of the Christian religion; but when Jesus disobeyed the true Christ, he put hatred into the hearts of the Jews, so that they crucified him. [101]

Q. What became of him after the crucifixion?

“A. They put him into a grave, and the true Christ came and stole him, and gave out the report among men that Christ had risen out of the dead.

“Q. Why did he act in this manner?

“A. That he might establish the Christian religion, and confirm its followers in what he had taught them.

“Q. Why did he act in such a manner as to establish error?

“A. So that the Unitarians should be concealed in the religion of Jesus and none of them might be known.

“Q. Who was it that came from the grave and entered among the disciples when the doors were shut?

“A. The living Christ, who is immortal, even Hamzeh, the son and slave of our Lord.

“Q. Who brought the gospel to light, and preached it?

“A. Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John.”

“Q. Why did not the Christians acknowledge the unity of God?

“A. Because God had not so decreed.

“Q. Why does God permit the introduction of evil and infidelity?

“A. Because He chooses to mislead some from, and to guide others to, the truth.

“Q. If infidelity and error proceed from Him, why does he punish those who follow them?

“A. Because when He deceived them, they did not obey Him.

“Q. How can a deluded man obey, when he is ignorant of the true state of the case?

“A. We are not bound to answer this question, for God is not accountable to his creatures for his dealings with them.”

DUʿĀʾ (دعاء‎). “Prayer.” The word duʿāʾ is generally used for supplication, as distinguished from ṣalāt, or the liturgical form of prayer, e.g. Qurʾān, Sūrah xiv. 42: “O my Lord! make me and my posterity to be constant in prayer (ṣalāt). O our Lord! and accept my supplication (duʿāʾ). [PRAYERS.]

DUʿĀʾ-I-MAʾS̤ŪR (دعــاء مــاثــور‎). Lit. “Recorded prayer.” A term used for prayers which were offered up by the Prophet, and have been handed down in the Traditions.

DUʿĀʾU ʾL-QUNŪT (دعاء القنوت‎), called also the Qunūtu ʾl-Witr, “The prayer said standing.” A form of prayer recited after the qarāʾah in the night prayer. Recited by some sects in the early morning. It is found in the Traditions. It is as follows:—

“O God, we seek help from Thee, and forgiveness of sins.

“We believe in Thee and trust in Thee.

“We praise Thee. We thank Thee. We are not unthankful.

“We expel, and we depart from him who does not obey Thee.

“We serve Thee only, and to Thee do we pray.

“We seek Thee, we prostrate ourselves and we serve Thee.

“We hope for Thy mercy. We fear Thy punishments.

“Surely Thy judgments are upon the infidels.”

DUALISM. Professor Palmer, following the remarks of al-Baiẓāwī the commentator, says there is a protest against the dualistic doctrine that Light and Darkness were two co-eternal principles, in the Qurʾān, Sūrah vi. 1: “Praised be God who created the heavens and the earth, and brought into being the Darkness and the Light.” (Palmer’s Qurʾān, vol. i. p. 115; al-Baiẓāwī in loco.)

AD-DUK͟HĀN (الـدخان‎). “The Smoke.” The title of the XLIVth chapter of the Qurʾān, in which the words occur (9th verse): “Expect thou the day when the heaven shall bring a palpable smoke.”

DULDUL (دلدل‎). The name of the Prophet’s mule which he gave to ʿAlī.

DUMB, The. Arabic abkam (ابكم‎), pl. bukm.

The intelligible signs of a dumb person suffice to verify his bequests and render them valid; he may also execute a marriage contract, or give a divorce, or execute a sale or purchase, or sue or incur punishment by signs, but he cannot sue in a case of qiṣāṣ, or retaliation for murder. This rule does not apply to a person who has been deprived of speech, but merely to one who has been born dumb. (Hidāyah, vol. iv. p. 568.) A dumb person can also acknowledge and deny the faith by a sign.

AD-DURRATU ʾL-BAIẒĀʾ (الـدرة البيضاء‎). Lit. “The pearl of light.” A term used by Ṣūfī mystics to express the ʿāqlu ʾl-awwal, the first intelligence which God is said to have created at the beginning of the animate world. (ʿAbdu ʾr-Razzāq’s Dictionary of Ṣūfī Terms.)

DURŪD (درود‎); a Persian word. Arabic aṣ-Ṣalāt (الصلوة‎). A benediction; imploring mercy. A part of the stated prayer, recited immediately after the Tashahhud, whilst in the same posture. It is as follows: “O God, have mercy on Muḥammad and on his descendants, as Thou didst have mercy on Abraham and on his descendants! Thou art to be praised, and Thou art great! O God, bless Muḥammad and his descendants as Thou didst bless Abraham and his descendants. Thou art to be praised and Thou art great.” The merits of this form of prayer are said to be very great; for, according to Anas, the Prophet said, “He who recites it will have blessings on his head ten times, ten sins will be forgiven, and he will be exalted ten steps.” (Mishkāt, book iv. c. xvii.) [PRAYER.]

DŪZAK͟H (دوزخ‎). The Persian word for hell. [HELL.]

DYER. According to the Imām Abū Ḥanīfah, a dyer of cloth is at liberty to [102]detain it until he receive his hire for dyeing it; and if the cloth perish in his hands whilst it is detained, he is not responsible. (Hidāyah, vol. iii. 320.)

DYING, The. Very special instructions are given in Muslim books as to the treatment of the dying. In the Durru ʾl-Muk͟htār (p. 88), the friends of the dying are recommended, if possible, to turn the head of the dying person towards Makkah; but if this be not convenient, his feet should be placed in that direction and his head slightly raised. The Kalimatu ʾsh-Shahādah should then be recited, and the Sūrah Yā-Sīn (xxxvi.) and Sūratu ʾr-Raʿd (xiii.) should be read from the Qurʾān. When the spirit has departed from the body, the mouth should be tied up and the eyes closed and the arms straightened, and the body should be perfumed, and no unclean person should be suffered to approach the corpse. Immediate steps should then be taken for the washing of the corpse. [DEATH.]


EAR-RINGS; NOSE-RINGS. In the East it is the universal custom of Muḥammadan women to wear ear-rings, and they are not unfrequently worn by young men and children. Gold ear-rings are, however, forbidden in the Traditions; for Abū Hurairah relates that the Prophet said, “Whoever wishes to put into the ear or the nose of a friend a ring of hell fire, let him put in the ear or the nose of his friend a gold ring … let your ornament be of silver.” And Asmāʾ bint Yazīd relates the same tradition. (Mishkāt, book xx. c. 11, part 2.)



EARTH, The. Arabic arẓ (ارض‎). Muḥammad taught his followers that just as there are seven heavens [HEAVEN] one above another, so there are seven earths one beneath another, the distance between each of these regions being five hundred years’ journey. (Mishkāt, book xxiv. c. i. part 3.)

In the Qurʾān the earth is said to be stretched out like a carpet or bed (Sūrah ii. 20; xiii. 3; lxxviii. 6), which expression the ancient commentators understood to imply that the earth was a vast plane, but circular; and (Sūrah xxxix. 67) to be but a handful in the sight of God, which in the last day shall be changed into another earth (Sūrah xiv. 49).

The earth is believed by Muḥammadan writers to be surrounded by a great sea called al-Baḥru ʾl-Muḥīt̤, or the circumambient ocean, which is bounded by the mountains of Qāf. The extent of the earth is said to be equal to a journey of five hundred years; two hundred years’ journey being allotted to the sea, two hundred to the uninhabited desert, eighty to the country of Gog and Magog (Yājūj wa Mājūj) and the rest to the civilised world. Certain terræ incognitæ in the midst of the mountains of Qāf are said to be inhabited by the jinn, or genii. According to some, Makkah (or Jerusalem according to others) is situated in the centre of the earth. On the Muḥīt̤ is the ʿArshu ʾl-Iblīs, or “Throne of Satan.” The western portion of the Muḥīt̤ is often called the Baḥru ʾz̤-Z̤ulmāt, or “Sea of Darkness,” and in the south-west corner of the earth is the Fountain of Life of which al-K͟hiẓr drank, and in virtue of which he still lives, and will live till the Day of Judgment. The mountains of Qāf which bound the great sea Muḥīt̤, form a circular barrier round the whole earth, and are said to be of green chrysolite, the colour of which the Prophet said imparts a greenish tint to the sky. The general opinion is that the mountains of Qāf bound our earth, but some say there are countries beyond, each country being a thousand years’ journey.

The seven earths, which are five hundred years’ journey from each other, are situated one beneath the other, and each of these seven regions has its special occupants. The occupants of the first are men, genii, and animals; the second is occupied by the suffocating wind which destroyed the infidel tribe of ʿĀd (Sūrah lxix. 6); the third is filled with the stones of hell, mentioned in the Qurʾān (Sūrah ii. 22; lxvi. 6) as “the fuel of which is men and stones”; the fourth by the sulphur of hell; the fifth by the serpents of hell; the sixth by the scorpions of hell, which are in size and colour like black mules, and have tails like spears; and the seventh by the devil and his angels. Our earth is said to be supported on the shoulders of an angel, who stands upon a rock of ruby, which rock is supported on a huge bull with four thousand [103]eyes, and the same number of ears, noses, mouths, tongues, and feet; between every one of each is a distance of five hundred years’ journey. The name of this bull is Kujūta, who is supported by an enormous fish, the name of which is Bahamūt.

The above is but a brief outline of the Muḥammadan belief as regards the earth’s formation; but the statements of Muḥammadan commentators are so wild on the subject, that it seems quite useless to quote them as authorities, for they contradict each other in endless variety.

EARTHQUAKE, The. Arabic az-Zalzalah (الزلزلة‎). The title of the XCIXth Sūrah of the Qurʾān, in which it is stated that an earthquake will take place at the commencement of the signs of the last day:—

“When the Earth with her quaking shall quake

“And the Earth shall cast forth her burdens,

“And man shall say, What aileth her?

“On that day shall she tell out her tidings,

“Because thy Lord shall have inspired her.

“On that day shall men come forward in throngs to behold their works,

“And whosoever shall have wrought an atom’s weight of good shall behold it,

“And whosoever shall have wrought an atom’s weight of evil shall behold it.”

EATING. According to the Traditions, Muḥammadans have been enjoined by their Prophet to eat in God’s name, to return thanks, to eat with their right hand, and with their shoes off, and to lick the plate when the meal is finished. The following are some of Muḥammad’s precepts on the subject:—

“The Devil has power over that food which is eaten without remembering God.”

“Repeat the name of God. Eat with the right hand and eat from before you.”

“When a man comes into a house at meal-time, and remembers the name of God, the devil says to his followers, ‘There is no place here for you and me to-night, nor is there any supper for us.

“When anyone eats he must not wash his fingers until he has first licked them.”

“Whoever eats a dish and licks it afterwards, the dish intercedes with God for him.”

“When victuals are placed before you, eat them with your shoes off, because taking off your shoes will ease your feet.” (ʿAbdu ʾl-Ḥaqq adds, “and do it out of respect to the food.”)

“Whoever eats from a plate and licks it afterwards, the dish says to him, ‘May God free you from hell as you have freed me from the devils licking me.’ ”

Qatādah says that Anas said: “The Prophet did not eat off a table, as is the manner of proud men, who do it to avoid bending their backs.” (Mishkāt, Arabic ed., Bābu ʾl-At̤ʿimah.)

The following directions are given for eating, by Faqīr Muḥammad Asʿad, the author of the Ak͟hlāq-i-Jalālī (Thompson’s English Translation, p. 294):—



“First of all, he should wash his hands, [104]mouth, and nose. Before beginning he should say, ‘In the name of God’ (Bismillāh); and after ending he must say, ‘Glory to God’ (Al-ḥamdu lillāh). He is not to be in a hurry to begin, unless he is the master of the feast; he must not dirty his hands, or clothes, or the table-linen; he must not eat with more than three fingers, nor open his mouth wide; not take large mouthfuls, nor swallow them hastily, nor yet keep them too long unswallowed. He must not suck his fingers in the course of eating; but after he has eaten, he may, or rather ought, as there is scripture warrant for it.

“Let him not look from dish to dish, nor smell the food, nor pick and choose it. If there should be one dish better than the rest, let him not be greedy on his own account, but let him offer it to others. He must not spill the grease upon his fingers, or so as to wet his bread and salt. He must not eye his comrades in the midst of his mouthfuls. Let him eat from what is next him, unless of fruit, which it is allowable to eat from every quarter. What he has once put into his mouth (such as bones, &c.), he must not replace upon his bread, nor upon the table-cloth; if a bone has found its way there, let him remove it unseen. Let him beware of revolting gestures, and of letting anything drop from his mouth into the cup. Let him so behave, that, if anyone should wish to eat the relics of his repast, there may be nothing to revolt him.

“Where he is a guest, he must stay his hand sooner than the master of the feast; and whenever the rest discontinue eating, he must act in concert with them, except he be in his own house, or some other where he constitutes part of the family. Where he is himself the host, he must not continue eating when the rest have stayed their hands, so that something may be left for anyone who chances to fancy it.

“If he has occasion to drink in the course of his meal, let him do it softly, that no noise in his throat or mouth may be audible to others. He must not pick his teeth in the view of the company, nor swallow what his tongue may extract from between them; and so of what may be extracted by the tooth-pick, let him throw it aside so as to disgust no one.

“When the time comes for washing his hands, let him be exceedingly careful in cleansing his nails and fingers. Similar must be his particularity in washing his lips, mouth, and nostrils. He must not void his rheum into the basin; even the water in which his mouth has been rinsed, let him cover with his hand as he throws it away.

“Neither must he take the turn from others in washing his hands, saving when he is master of the entertainment, and then he should be the first to wash.”



EATING WITH JEWS OR CHRISTIANS. In Muḥammadan countries, where the people have not been brought in contact with Hindus, with caste prejudices, Muslims never hesitate to eat with Jews and Christians, provided the drink and victuals are such as are lawful in Islām. Since the British occupation of India, the question has often been raised, and few Muḥammadans will eat with Englishmen. Syud Aḥmad K͟hān, C.S.I., has written a book, in which he proves that it is lawful for Muḥammadans to eat with both Christians and Jews, and his arguments would seem to be in accordance with the teaching of the Qurʾān. Sūrah v. 7: “Lawful for you to-day are the good things, and the food of the people of the Book (i.e. Jews and Christians) is lawful for you, and your food is lawful for them.”

Al-Baiẓāwī, commenting on this verse, [105]says: “This verse includes all kinds of food, that which is slain lawfully (ẕabḥ) or not, and this verse is of common application to all the people of the Book, whether Jews or Christians. But on one occasion K͟halīfah ʿAlī did not observe its injunctions with regard to the Banū Tag͟hlib, a Christian tribe, because he said these people were not Christians, for they had not embraced anything of Christianity except wine-drinking. And he does not include amongst the people of the Book, the Majūsīs, although he included the Majūsīs with the people of the Book when he took the poll-tax from them, according to a tradition which Muḥammad gave regarding the Majūsīs, viz. ‘Treat the Majūsīs as you would treat the people of the Book, but do not marry with them, nor eat what they slay.” (Tafsīru ʾl-Baiẓāwī, p. 216.)

The commentators, al-Kamālān, say the only question raised was that of animals slain by Jews and Christians, and the learned are all agreed that animals slain by them are lawful. (Tafsīru ʾl-Jalālain wa ʾl-Kamālain, p. 93.)

The following Ḥadīs̤ is given in the Ṣaḥīḥ Muslim on the subject: Abū S̤aʿlabah related, “I said, O Prophet of God! Verily we live in a land belonging to the people of the Book (i.e. Jews or Christians); is it lawful for us to eat out of their dishes? The Prophet replied, The order for dishes is this: if you can get other dishes, then eat of them; but if ye cannot, then wash those of the people of the Book and eat from them.”

The Imām Nawawī, the commentator on the Ṣaḥīḥ Muslim, says Abū Dāʾud has given this Ḥadīs̤. in a somewhat different form to that in the text. He says: “Abū S̤aʿlabah relates, we were passing through the country of the people of the Book (i.e. Christians), and they were cooking pigs’ flesh in their dishes, and drinking wine from their vessels.” “For” (continues Nawawī), “the learned are all agreed that it is lawful to eat with Jews and Christians unless their vessels are polluted with wine or pork, in which case they must be washed before they are used.” (Ṣaḥīḥ Muslim wa Sharḥu Nawawī, p. 146.)

ECLIPSE. The Arabic k͟husūf (خسوف‎) is used to denote either an eclipse of the sun or of the moon (vide Mishkāt, book iv. c. li.); but it is more specially applied to an eclipse of the moon; and kusūf (كسوف‎) for an eclipse of the sun (vide Richardson’s Dictionary). Special prayers, consisting of two rakʿahs, are enjoined in the Traditions (Mishkāt, book iv. c. li.) at the time of an eclipse of either the sun or moon.

ʿAbdu ʾllāh ibn ʿAbbās says: “There was an eclipse of the sun in the time of the Prophet, and he recited prayers, and the people recited after him; and he stood up for a long time, as long as anyone would be repeating the Chapter of the Cow (i.e. Sūrah ii.). Then he performed a long rukūʿ, after which he raised up his head and stood a long time, which was under the first standing; after which he did the second rukūʿ, which was the same as the first in point of time; then he raised his head up from the second rukūʿ; and performed two prostrations, as is customary. Then he stood up a long time, in the second rakʿah, and this was shorter than the first standing, in the first rakʿah; after which he did a long rukūʿ in the second rakʿah, and this was under the first rukūʿ, in the first rakʿah. After this, he raised up his head, and stood a long time; and this was shorter than the first, in the second rakʿah. Then he did a long rukūʿ; and this was not so great as the first, in the second rakʿah. Then he rose up, and performed two prostrations; and after repeating the creed, and giving the salām, he concluded his prayers. And the sun was bright. And the Prophet said, ‘Verily, the sun and moon are two signs, amongst those which prove the existence of God, and are not eclipsed on account of the life or death of any person; and when ye see this, remember God.’ The Companions said, ‘O Prophet! We saw you about to take something in the place where you stood in prayer, after which we saw you draw back a little.’ And the Prophet said, I saw Paradise, and gathered a bunch of grapes from it; and if I had taken it and given it to you, verily you would have eaten of it as long as the world lasts. I also saw hell, and never saw such a horrid sight till this day; and I saw that they were mostly women there.’ And the Companions said, ‘O Prophet, why are most of the people of hell women?’ He said, ‘On account of their infidelity; not on account of their disobedience to God, but that they are ungrateful to their husbands, and hide the good things done them; and if you do good to one of them perpetually, after that, if they see the least fault in you, they will say, I never saw you perform a good work.’ ” (Mishkāt, book iv. c. ii.)

EDEN. Arabic ʿAdn (عدن‎), which al-Baiẓāwī says means “a fixed abode.” The Hebrew ‏עֵדֶן‎ is generally understood by Hebrew scholars to mean “pleasure” or “delight.”

The word ʿAdn is not used in the Qurʾān for the residence of our first parents, the term used being al-jannah, “the garden”; although the Muslim Commentators are agreed in calling it the Jannatu ʿAdn, or “Garden of Eden.” The expressions, Jannatu ʿAdn, “the Garden of Eden,” and Jannātu ʿAdn, “the Gardens of Eden,” occur ten times in the Qurʾān, but in each case they are used for the fourth heaven, or stage, of celestial bliss. [PARADISE.]

According to the Qurʾān, it seems clear that Jannatu ʿAdn is considered to be a place in heaven, and not a terrestrial paradise, and hence a difficulty arises as to the locality of that Eden from which Adam fell. Is it the same place as the fourth abode of [106]celestial bliss? or, was it a garden situated in some part of earth? Al-Baiẓāwī says that some people have thought this Eden was situated in the country of the Philistines, or between Fāris and Kirmān. But, he adds, the Garden of Eden is the Dāru ʾs̤-S̤awāb, or “the House of Recompense,” which is a stage in the paradise of the heavens; and that when Adam and Eve were cast out of Paradise, Adam fell on the isle of Ceylon, or Sarandīb, and Eve near Jiddah in Arabia; and after a separation of 200 years, Adam was, on his repentance, conducted by the Angel Gabriel to a mountain near Makkah, where he knew his wife Eve, the mountain being thence named ʿArafah (i.e. “the place of recognition); and that he afterwards retired with her to Ceylon, where they continued to propagate their species.

Muḥammad T̤āhir (Majmaʿu ʾl-Biḥār, p. 225), in remarking upon the fact that in the Traditions the rivers Jaihūn and Jaihān are said to be rivers in “the garden” (al-Jannah), says the terms are figurative, and mean that the faith extended to those regions and made them rivers of paradise. And in another place (idem, p. 164) the same author says the four rivers Saiḥān (Jaxartes), Jaihān (Jihon), Furāt (Euphrates), and Nil (Nile), are the rivers of Paradise, and that the rivers Saiḥān and Jaihān are not the same as Jaihūn and Jaihān, but that these four rivers already mentioned originally came from Paradise to this earth of ours.

EDUCATION. Education without religion is to the Muḥammadan mind an anomaly. In all books of Traditions there are sections specially devoted to the consideration of knowledge, but only so far as it relates to a knowledge of God, and of “God’s Book.” (See Ṣaḥīḥu ʾl-Buk͟hārī, Bābu ʾl-ʿIlm.) The people who read the “Book of God” are, according to the sayings of the Prophet, described as “assembling together in mosques, with light and comfort descending upon them, the grace of God covering them, and the angels of God encompassing them round about.” The chief aim and object of education in Islām is, therefore, to obtain a knowledge of the religion of Muḥammad, and anything beyond this is considered superfluous, and even dangerous. Amongst Muḥammadan religious leaders there have always been two classes—those who affect the ascetic and strictly religious life of mortification, such as the Ṣūfī mystics and the Faqīrs [FAQIR]; and those who, by a careful study of the Qurʾān, the Traditions, and the numerous works on divinity, have attained to a high reputation for scholarship, and are known in Turkey as the ʿUlamāʾ, or “learned,” and in India, as Maulawīs.

Amongst Muḥammadans generally, a knowledge of science and various branches of secular learning is considered dangerous to the faith, and it is discouraged by the religious, although some assert that Muḥammad has encouraged learning of all kinds in the Qurʾān, by the following verse, Sūrah ii. 272:—

“He giveth wisdom to whom He will, and He to whom wisdom is given hath had much good given him.”

Mr. Lane, in his Modern Egyptians, says: “The parents seldom devote much of their time or attention to the intellectual education of their children; generally contenting themselves with instilling into their young minds a few principles of religion, and then submitting them, if they can afford to do so, to the instruction of a school. As early as possible, the child is taught to say, ‘I testify that there is no deity but God, and I testify that Muḥammad is God’s Apostle.’ He receives also lessons of religious pride, and learns to hate the Christians, and all other sects but his own, as thoroughly as does the Muslim in advanced age.”

In connection with all mosques of importance, in all parts of Islām whether in Turkey, Egypt, Persia, or India, there are small schools, either for the education of children, or for the training of students of divinity. The child who attends these seminaries is first taught his alphabet, which he learns from a small board, on which the letters are written by the teacher. He then becomes acquainted with the numerical value of each letter. [ABJAD.] After this he learns to write down the ninety-nine names of God, and other simple words taken from the Qurʾān. [GOD.] When he has mastered the spelling of words, he proceeds to learn the first chapter of the Qurʾān, then the last chapter, and gradually reads through the whole Qurʾān in Arabic, which he usually does without understanding a word of it. Having finished the Qurʾān, which is considered an incumbent religious duty, the pupil is instructed in the elements of grammar, and perhaps a few simple rules of arithmetic. To this is added a knowledge of one Hindustanī, or Persian book. The ability to read a single Persian book like the Gulistān or Bostān, is considered in Central Asia to be the sign of a liberal education. The ordinary schoolmaster is generally a man of little learning, the learned Maulawī usually devoting himself to the study of divinity, and not to the education of the young.

Amongst students of divinity, who are called t̤alabatu (sing. t̤ālib) ʾl-ʿilm, or “seekers after knowledge,” the usual course of study is as follows: aṣ-ṣarf, grammatical inflection; an-naḥw, syntax; al-mant̤iq, logic; al-ḥisāb, arithmetic; al-jabr wa ʾl-muqābalah, algebra; al-maʿna wa ʾl-bayān, rhetoric and versification; al-fiqh, jurisprudence; al-ʿaqāʾid, scholastic theology; at-tafsīr, commentaries on the Qurʾān; ʿilmu ʾl-uṣūl, treatises on exegesis, and the principles and rules of interpretation of the laws of Islām; al-aḥādīs̤, the traditions and commentaries thereon. These are usually regarded as different branches of learning, and it is not often that a Maulawī, or ʿĀlim, attains to the knowledge of each section. For example, a scholar will be celebrated as being well educated in al-aḥādīs̤, but he may be weak in al-fiqh. The teacher, when instructing his pupils, seats himself on the [107]ground with his hearers all seated round him in a ring. Instruction in mosques is usually given in the early morning, after the morning prayer, and continues some three or four hours. It is again renewed for a short time after the mid-day prayer.

Students in mosques are generally supported by the people of the parish, (each mosque having its section or parish), who can be called upon for food for all the inmates of a mosque every morning and evening. Not unfrequently mosques are endowed with land, or rents of shops and houses, for the payment of professors. Mr. Lane speaks of a mosque in Cairo, which had an endowment for the support of three hundred blind students. The great mosque al-Azhar, in Cairo, is the largest and most influential seat of learning in Islām. In 1875, when the present writer visited it, it had as many as 5,000 students gathered from all parts of the Muḥammadan world.

In India almost every mosque of importance has its class of students of divinity, but they are not established for the purposes of general education, but for the training of students of divinity who will in time become the Imāms of mosques. Some of the Maulawīs are men held in great reputation as Arabic scholars, but they are, as a rule, very deficient in general knowledge and information. Whether we look to India, or Persia, or Egypt, or Turkey, the attitude of Muḥammadanism is undoubtedly one in direct antagonism to the spread of secular education.



Much has been made by some writers of the liberal patronage extended to literature and science by ʿAbdu ʾr-Raḥmān and his successors as K͟halīfahs of Cordova in the Middle Ages. But there was nothing original, or Islāmic, in the literature thus patronised, for, as Professor Uerberweg remarks in his History of Philosophy, “the whole philosophy of the Arabians was a form of Aristotelianism, tempered more or less with Neo-Platonic conceptions.” The philosophical works of the Greeks and their works of medical and physical science, were translated from Greek into Arabic by Syrian Christians, and not by Arabian Muslims. Muḥammadans cannot be altogether credited with these literary undertakings.

Al-Maqqarī, in his History of the Dynasties of Spain, has an interesting notice of education in that country, in which he writes:—

“Respecting the state of science among the Andalusians (Spaniards), we must own in justice that the people of that country were the most ardent lovers of knowledge, as well as those who best knew how to appreciate and distinguish a learned man and an ignorant one; indeed, science was so much esteemed by them, that whoever had not been endowed by God with the necessary qualifications to acquire it, did everything in his power to distinguish himself, and conceal from the people his want of instruction; for an ignorant man was at all times looked upon as an object of the greatest contempt, while the learned man, on the contrary, was not only respected by all, nobles and plebeians, but was trusted and consulted on every occasion; [108]his name was in every mouth, his power and influence had no limits, and he was preferred and distinguished in all the occasions of life.

“Owing to this, rich men in Cordova, however illiterate they might be, encouraged letters, rewarded with the greatest munificence writers and poets, and spared neither trouble nor expense in forming large collections of books; so that, independently of the famous library founded by the K͟halīfah al-Ḥākim, and which is said by writers worthy of credit to have contained no less than four hundred thousand volumes, there were in the capital many other libraries in the hands of wealthy individuals, where the studious could dive into the fathomless sea of knowledge, and bring up its inestimable pearls. Cordova was indeed, in the opinion of every author, the city in Andalus where most books were to be found, and its inhabitants were renowned for their passion for forming libraries. To such an extent did this rage for collection increase, says Ibn Saʿīd, that any man in power, or holding a situation under Government, considered himself obliged to have a library of his own, and would spare no trouble or expense in collecting books, merely in order that people might say,—Such a one has a very fine library, or, he possesses a unique copy of such a book, or, he has a copy of such a work in the hand-writing of such a one.”

EGGS. According to the Imām Abū Ḥanīfah, if a person purchase eggs and after opening them discover them to be of bad quality and unfit for use, he is entitled to a complete restitution of the price from the seller. (Hidāyah, vol. ii. p. 415.)

EGYPT. Arabic Miṣr (مصر‎). The land of Egypt is mentioned several times in the Qurʾān in connection with the history of Joseph and Moses. In the year A.H. 7 (A.D. 628), Muḥammad sent an embassy to al-Muqauqis, the Roman Governor of Egypt, who received the embassy kindly and presented the Prophet with two female Coptic slaves.

ELEMENTS. Arabic al-ʿAnāṣiru ʾl-arbaʿah (العناصر الاربعة‎). “The four elements” of fire (nār), air (hawā), water (māʾ), and earth (arẓ), from which all creation mineral, animal, and vegetable is produced.

The respective properties of these elements are said to be as follows: Fire, hot and dry; air, hot and cold; water, cold and wet; earth, cold and dry. A knowledge of the properties of the four elements is required in the so-called science of Daʿwah. [DAʿWAH.]

ELEPHANT, The year of. Arabic ʿĀmu ʾl-Fīl (عام الفيل‎). The year in which Muḥammad was born. Being the year in which Abrahatu ʾl-Ashram, an Abyssinian Christian and Viceroy of the King of Ṣanʿāʾ in Yaman marched with a large army and a number of elephants upon Makkah, with the intention of destroying the Kaʿbah. He was defeated and his army destroyed in so sudden a manner, as to give rise to the legend embodied in the CVth Sūrah of the Qurʾān, which is known as the Chapter of the Elephant.

Professor Palmer says it is conjectured that small-pox broke out amongst the army. [ASHABU ʾL-FIL.]

ELIJAH. Arabic Ilyās (الياس‎), Ilyāsīn (الياسين‎); Heb. ‏אֵלִיָּהוּ‎; New Testament, Ἠλίας. A prophet mentioned in the following verses in the Qurʾān:—

Sūrah xxxvii. 123: “Verily Ilyās (Elias) was of the Apostles; and when he said to his people, ‘Will ye not fear, Do ye call upon Baʿl and leave the best of Creators, God your Lord, and the Lord of your fathers in the old time? But they called him a liar; verily, they shall surely be arraigned, save God’s sincere servants. And we left him amongst posterity. Peace upon Ilyāsīn (Elias) verily, thus do we reward those who do well; verily he was of our servants who believe.”

Sūrah vi. 85: “And Zachariah and John, and Jesus, and Ilyās, all righteous ones.”

Al-Baiẓāwī says, “It has been said that this Ilyās, is the same as Idrīs, prefather of Noah, whilst others say he was the son of Yāsīn and descended from Aaron, the brother of Moses.” [IDRIS.]

ELISHA. Arabic al-Yasaʿ (اليسع‎). Heb. ‏אֱלִישָׁע‎. Elisha is mentioned twice in the Qurʾān, under the name al-Yasaʿ.

Sūrah xxxviii. 48: “And remember Ishmael and Elisha, and Ẕū ʾl-kifl, for each was righteous.”

Sūrah vi. 85, 86: “And Zachariah, and John, and Jesus, and Elias, all righteousness; and Ishmael and Elisha and Jonah and Lot, each have We preferred above the worlds.”

The Commentators give no account of him except that he was the son of Uk͟htūb, although the Bible says he was the son of Shaphat. Ḥusain says he was Ibnu ʾl-ʿajūz (the son of the old woman).

ELOQUENCE. The Arabic word al-Bayān (البيان‎), which is defined in the G͟hiyās̤u ʾl-Lug͟hah as speaking fluently and eloquently, occurs once in the Qurʾān, Sūrah lv. 3: “He created man: he hath taught him distinct speech.” The word also occurs in the Traditions, and it is remarkable that although the Qurʾān is written in rhythm, and in a grandiloquent style, that in the Traditions the Prophet seems to affect to despise eloquence, as will be seen from the following Aḥādīs̤:—Ibn ʿUmar says the Prophet said, “May they go to hell who amplify their words.” Abū Umāmah relates that the Prophet said, “Eloquence (al-bayān) is a kind of magic.” Ibn Masʿūd relates that the Prophet said, “Vain talking and embellishing (bayān) are two branches of hypocrisy.” ʿAmr ibn al-ʿĀṣī relates that the Prophet said, “I have [109]been ordered to speak little, and verily it is best to speak little.” (Mishkāt, book xxii. c. ix.)

EMANCIPATION OF SLAVES. Arabic Iʿtāq (اعتاق‎). The emancipation of slaves is recommended by the Prophet, but the recommendation applies exclusively to slaves who are of the Muslim faith. He is related to have said: “Whoever frees a Muslim slave God will redeem that person from hell-fire member for member.” (Mishkāt, book xiii. c. xix.) It is therefore laudable in a man to release his slave or for a woman to free her bond-woman, in order that they may secure freedom in the next world. (Hidāyah, vol. i. p. 420.)

ENFRANCHISEMENT. In an orthodox Muḥammadan state, only those persons who have embraced the Muslim faith are enfranchised; all others are called upon to pay a poll tax (jizyah), for which they obtain security (amān). Those residents in a Muslim country who are not Muḥammadans are expected to wear a distinctive dress and to reside in a special part of the village or town in which they live. Slaves who may embrace the Muslim faith do not become ipso facto enfranchised, unless their master be an unbeliever, in which case their becoming Muslims secures their emancipation. Ẕimmīs, or persons not Muslims in a Muslim state, cannot give evidence against a Muslim. (See Durru ʾl-Muk͟htār, in loco.)


ENTERING INTO HOUSES. To enter suddenly or abruptly into any person’s home or apartment, is reckoned a great incivility in all eastern countries. With Muḥammadans it is a religious duty to give notice before you enter a house. The custom is founded upon an express injunction in the Qurʾān, Sūrah xxiv. 57–61:—

“O ye who believe! let your slaves and those of you who have not come of age, ask leave of you, three times a day, ere they come into your presence;—before the morning prayer, and when ye lay aside your garments at mid-day, and after the evening prayer. These are your three times of privacy. No blame shall attach to you or to them, if after these times, when ye go your rounds of attendance on one another, they come in without permission. Thus doth God make clear to you His signs: and God is Knowing, Wise!

“And when your children come of age, let them ask leave to come into your presence, as they who were before them asked it. Thus doth God make clear to you his signs: and God is Knowing, Wise.

“As to women who are past childbearing, and have no hope of marriage, no blame shall attach to them if they lay aside their outer garments, but so as not to shew their ornaments. Yet if they abstain from this, it will be better for them: and God Heareth, Knoweth.

“No crime shall it be in the blind, or in the lame, or in the sick, to eat at your tables: or in yourselves, if ye eat in your own houses, or in the houses of your fathers, or of your mothers, or of your brothers, or of your sisters, or of your uncles on the father’s side, or of your aunts on the father’s side, or of your uncles on the mother’s side, or of your aunts on the mother’s side, or in those of which ye possess the keys, or in the house of your friend. No blame shall attach to you whether ye eat together or apart.

“And when ye enter houses, salute one another with a good and blessed greeting as from God. Thus doth God make clear to you His signs, that haply ye may comprehend them.”

The following are the traditions given in the Mishkāt on the subject (book xxii. c. ii.): Muḥammad is related to have said, “Do not permit anyone to enter your home unless he gives a salam first.” ʿAbdu ʾllāh ibn Masʿūd says the Prophet said, “The signal for your permission to enter is that you lift up the curtain and enter until I prevent you.” ʿAbdu ʾllāh ibn Busr says, “Whenever the Prophet came to the door of a house, he would not stand in front of it, but on the side of the door, and say, ‘The peace of God be with you.’ ” ʿAt̤āʾ ibn Yasār says the Prophet told him to ask leave to enter even the room of his mother.

ENVY. Arabic Ḥasad (حسد‎). The word occurs twice in the Qurʾān.

Sūrah ii. 103: “Many of those who have the Book would fain turn you again into unbelievers, even after ye have once believed, and that through envy.”

Sūrah cxiii.: “I seek refuge … from the evil of the envious when he envies.”

EPHESUS, The Seven Sleepers of. [ASHABU ʾL-KAHF.]

ESOP. The Luqmān of the Qurʾān is generally supposed by European writers to be Esop. Sale is of opinion that Maximus Planudes borrowed the greater part of his life of Esop from the traditions he met with in the East concerning Luqmān. [LUQMAN.]

ETERNITY OF PUNISHMENT. The Muḥammadan religion teaches that all Muslims (i.e. those who have embraced the religion of their Prophet) will be ultimately saved, although they will suffer for their actual sins in a purgatorial hell. But those who have not embraced Islām will suffer a never-ending torment in “the fire” (an-nār).

Sūrah ii. 37: “Those who misbelieve and call our signs lies, they are the fellows of hell, they shall dwell therein for ever” (k͟hālidūn).

Sūrah xi. 108, 109: “And as for those who are wretched—why in the fire shall they groan and sob! to dwell therein for ever (k͟hālidūn) as long as the heavens and the earth endure.”

Al-Baiẓāwī says the expression “as long as the heavens and the earth endure,” is an Arabic idiom expressing that which is eternal. [110]

Ibn ʿArabī (died A.D. 638), in his book Fuṣūṣu ʾl-Ḥikam, says the word k͟hālid in the verses quoted above does not imply eternal duration, but a period, or age, of long duration. Al-Baiẓāwī, the commentator, also admits that the literal meaning of the word only expresses a period of extended duration; but the Jalālān and Ḥusain both contend that its meaning is that of abadī, or “never ending,” in which no being will be annihilated, and which no one can ever escape.

It is also to be observed that this word k͟hālid is that used for the eternity of bliss of those in Paradise:—

Sūrah xi. 110: “As for those who are glad—why in Paradise! to dwell therein for ever” (k͟hālidūn).

EUCHARIST, or LORD’S SUPPER. It is a singular omission in the Qurʾān, that there is no direct allusion to this Christian institution.

Both Sale and Rodwell think that there is a reference to it in the following passages in the Qurʾān, Sūrah v. 112–114:—

“Remember when the Apostles said:—O Jesus, Son of Mary, is thy Lord able to send down a table (māʾidah, ‘a table,’ especially one covered with victuals) to us out of heaven? He said, Fear God if ye be believers. They said:—We desire to eat therefrom, and to have our hearts assured; and to know that thou hast indeed spoken truth to us, and we be witnesses thereof. Jesus, Son of Mary, said:—‘O God, our Lord! send down a table to us out of heaven, that it may become a recurring festival to us, to the first of us, and to the last of us, and a sign from Thee; and do Thou nourish us, for Thou art the best of nourishers.’ ”

Muslim commentators are not agreed as to the meaning of these verses, but none of them suggest the institution of the Lord’s Supper as an explanation. The interpretations are as confused as the revelation.

According to the Imām al-Bag͟hawī, ʿAmmār ibn Yāsir said that the Prophet said it was flesh and bread which was sent down from heaven; but because the Christians to whom it was sent were unfaithful, it was taken away, and they became pigs and monkeys!

Ibn ʿAbbās says that after a thirty days’ fast, a table was sent down with seven loaves and seven fishes, and the whole company of disciples ate and were filled (St. Matt. xv. 34). The commentators al-Jalālān also give these two explanations, and the Sacrament of the Lord’s Supper is never once suggested by any Muslim doctor in explanation of the above verses.

EUNUCH. Arabic k͟haṣī (خصى‎). Although in all parts of the East it is usual for wealthy Muḥammadans to keep an establishment of eunuchs to guard the female members of the household, it has been strictly forbidden by Muḥammad for any of his followers to make themselves such, or to make others. ʿUs̤mān ibn Maz̤ʿūn came to him and said, “O Prophet! permit me to become a eunuch.” But Muḥammad said, “He is not of my people who makes another a eunuch or becomes so himself. The manner in which my people become eunuchs is to exercise fasting.” (Mishkāt, book iv. c. viii.)

EVE. Arabic Ḥawwāʾ (حـــواء‎). [ADAM.]

EVIDENCE. Arabic Shahādah (شهادة‎). The law of evidence is very clearly laid down in all Muḥammadan books of law, especially in the Hidāyah, and the Durru ʾl-Muk͟htār, and it is interesting to observe the difference between the law of evidence as provided for in the law of Moses, and that laid down in Muḥammadan books. In the Pentateuch two witnesses at least were required to establish any charge (Num. xxxv. 30), and the witness who withheld the truth was censured (Lev. v. 1), whilst slanderous reports and officious witnesses were discouraged (Ex. xxiii. 1; Lev. xix. 16), and false witnesses were punished with the punishment due to the offence they sought to establish (Deut. xix. 16). According to Josephus, women and slaves were not admitted to give evidence. (Ant. iv. c. 8, s. 15.)

The Sunnī law, as explained by the author of the Hidāyah (vol. iii. p. 664), is in many respects the same as the Jewish and is as follows:—

It is the duty of witnesses to bear testimony, and it is not lawful for them to conceal it, when the party concerned demands it from them. Because it is written in the Qurʾān, Sūrah ii. 282, “Let not witnesses withhold their evidence when it is demanded of them.” And again, “Conceal not your testimony, for whoever conceals his testimony is an offender.”

The requisition of the party is a condition, because the delivery of evidence is the right of the party requiring it, and therefore rests upon his requisition of it, as is the case with respect to all other rights.

In cases inducing corporal punishment, witnesses are at liberty either to give or withhold their testimony as they please; because in such case they are distracted between two laudable actions; namely, the establishment of the punishment, and the preservation of the criminal’s character. The concealment of vice is, moreover, preferable; because the prophet said to a person that had borne testimony, “Verily, it would have been better for you, if you had concealed it”; and also because he elsewhere said, Whoever conceals the vices of his brother Muslim, shall have a veil drawn over his own crimes in both worlds by God.” Besides, it has been inculcated both by the Prophet and his Companions as commendable to assist in the prevention of corporal punishment; and this is an evident argument for the concealment of such evidence as tends to establish it. It is incumbent, however, in the case of theft, to bear evidence to the property, by testifying [111]that “a certain person took such property,” in order to preserve the right of the proprietor; but the word taken must be used instead of stolen, to the end that the crime may be kept concealed; besides, if the word stolen were used, the thief would be rendered liable to amputation; and as, where amputation is incurred, there is no responsibility for the property, the proprietor’s right would be destroyed.

The evidence required in a case of whoredom is that of four men, as has been ruled in the Qurʾān (Sūrah xxiv. 3); and the testimony of a woman in such a case is not admitted; because, az-Zuhrī says, “in the time of the Prophet and his two immediate successors, it was an invariable rule to exclude the evidence of women in all cases inducing punishment or retaliation,” and also because the testimony of women involves a degree of doubt, as it is merely a substitute for evidence, being accepted only where the testimony of men cannot be had; and therefore it is not admitted in any matter liable to drop from the existence of a doubt.

The evidence required in other criminal cases is that of two men, according to the text of the Qurʾān; and the testimony of women is not admitted, on the strength of the tradition of az-Zuhrī above quoted. In all other cases the evidence required is that of two men, or of one man and two women, whether the case relate to property or to other rights, such as marriage, divorce, agency, executorship, or the like. Ash-Shāfiʿī has said that the evidence of one man and two women cannot be admitted, excepting in cases that relate to property, or its dependencies, such as hire, bail, and so forth; because the evidence of women is originally inadmissible on account of their defect of understanding, their want of memory and incapacity of governing, whence it is that their evidence is not admitted in criminal cases.

The evidence of one woman is admitted in cases of birth (as where one woman, for instance, declares that a certain woman brought forth a certain child). In the same manner also, the evidence of one woman is sufficient with respect to virginity, or with respect to the defects of that part of a woman which is concealed from man. The principle of the law in these cases is derived from a traditional saying of the Prophet: “The evidence of women is valid with respect to such things as it is not fitting for man to behold.” Ash-Shāfiʿī holds the evidence of four women to be a necessary condition in such cases.

The evidence of a woman with respect to istihlāl (the noise made by a child at its birth), is not admissible, in the opinion of Abū Ḥanīfah, so far as relates to the establishment of the right of heritage in the child; because this noise is of a nature to be known or discovered by men; but is admissible so far as relates to the necessity of reading funeral prayers over the child; because these prayers are merely a matter of religion: in consequence of her evidence, therefore, the funeral prayers are to be repeated over it. The two disciples, Muḥammad and Abū Yūsuf, maintain that the evidence of a woman is sufficient to establish the right of heritage also; because the noise in question being made at the birth, none but women can be supposed to be present when it is made. The evidence of a woman, therefore, to this noise, is the same as her evidence to a living birth; and as the evidence of women in the one case is admissible, so also is it in the other.

In all rights, whether of property or otherwise, the probity of the witness, and the use of the word ashhadu, “I bear witness,” is absolutely requisite, even in the case of the evidence of women with respect to birth and the like. If, therefore, a witness should say, “I know,” or “I know with certainty,” without making use of the word ashhadu, in that case his evidence cannot be admitted. With respect to the probity of the witness, it is indispensable, because it is written in the Qurʾān, Sūrah lxv. 2, “Take the evidence of two just men”; and also because the probity of the witnesses induces a probability of the truth.

If the defendant throw a reproach on the witnesses, it is in that case incumbent on the Qāẓī to institute an enquiry into their character; because, in the same manner as it is probable that a Muslim abstains from falsehood as being a thing prohibited in the religion he professes, so also is it probable that one Muslim will not unjustly reproach another.

It is not lawful for a person to give evidence to such things as he has not actually seen, excepting in the cases of birth, death, marriage, and cohabitation.

But if a person, in any of the above cases, gives evidence from creditable hearsay, it is requisite that he give it in an absolute manner, by saying, for instance, “I bear testimony that A. is the son of B.,” and not, “I bear testimony so and so, because I have heard it,” for in that case the Qāẓī cannot accept it.

The testimony of any person who is property—that is to say, a slave, male or female—is not admissible; because testimony is of an authoritative nature; and as a slave has no authority over his own person, it follows that he can have no authority over others, a fortiori.

The testimony of a person that has been punished for slander is inadmissible, because it is said in the Qurʾān, Sūrah xxiv. 4, “But as to those who accuse married persons of whoredom, and produce not four witnesses of the fact, scourge them with four-score stripes, and receive not their testimony for ever; for such are infamous prevaricators,—excepting those who shall afterwards repent.”

If an infidel who has suffered punishment for slander should afterwards become a Muslim, his evidence is then admissible; for although, on account of the said punishment, [112]he had lost the degree in which he was before qualified to give evidence (that is, in all matters that related to his own sect), yet by his conversion to the Muslim faith he acquires a new competency in regard to evidence (namely, competency to give evidence relative to Muslims), which he did not possess before, and which is not affected by any matter that happened prior to the circumstance which gave birth to it.

Testimony in favour of a son or grandson, or in favour of a father or grandfather, is not admissible, because the Prophet has so ordained. Besides, as there is a kind of communion of benefits between these degrees of kindred, it follows that their testimony in matters relative to each other is in some degree a testimony in favour of themselves, and is therefore liable to suspicion.

So also the Prophet has said, “We are not to credit the evidence of a wife concerning her husband, or of a husband concerning his wife; or of a slave concerning his master; or of a master concerning his slave; or, lastly, of a hirer concerning his hireling.”

The testimony of one partner in favour of another, in a matter relative to their joint property, is not admissible; because it is in some degree in favour of himself. The testimony, however, of partners, in favour of each other, in matters not relating to their joint property, is admissible, because in it there is no room for suspicion. The testimony of a person who has committed a great crime, such as induces punishment, is not admissible, because in consequence of such crime he is unjust. The testimony of a person who goes naked into the public bath is inadmissible, because of his committing a prohibited action in the exposure of his nakedness.

The testimony of a person who receives usury is inadmissible; and so, also, of one who plays for a stake at dice or chess. The evidence of a person guilty of base and low actions, such as making water or eating his victuals on the high road, is not admissible; because where a man is not refrained, by a sense of shame, from such actions as these, he exposes himself to a suspicion that he will not refrain from falsehood.

The evidence of a person who openly inveighs against the Companions of the Prophet and their disciples is not admissible, because of his apparent want of integrity. It is otherwise, however, where a person conceals his sentiments in regard to them, because in such case the want of integrity is not apparent.

The testimony of ẕimmīs with respect to each other is admissible, notwithstanding they be of different religions.

The Imām Abū Ḥanīfah is of opinion that a false witness must be stigmatised, but not chastised with blows. The two disciples are of opinion that he must be scourged and confined; and this also is the opinion of ash-Shāfiʿī.

The mode of stigmatising a false witness is this:—If the witness be a sojourner in any public street or market-place, let him be sent to that street or market place; or, if otherwise, let him be sent to his own tribe or kindred, after the evening prayers (as they are generally assembled in greater numbers at that time than any other); and let the stigmatiser inform the people that the Qāẓī salutes them, and informs them that he has detected this person in giving false evidence; that they must, therefore, beware of him themselves, and likewise desire others to beware of him.

If witnesses retract their testimony prior to the Qāẓī passing any decree, it becomes void; if, on the contrary, the Qāẓī pass a decree, and the witnesses afterwards retract their testimony, the decree is not thereby rendered void.

The retraction of evidence is not valid, unless it be made in the presence of the Qāẓī.

EVIL EYE. Iṣābatu ʾl-ʿAin (اصابة العين‎). Muḥammad was a believer in the baneful influence of an evil eye. Asmāʾ bint ʿUmais relates that she said, “O Prophet, the family of Jaʿfar are affected by the baneful influences of an evil eye; may I use spells for them or not?” The Prophet said, “Yes, for if there were anything in the world which would overcome fate, it would be an evil eye.” (Mishkāt, book xxi. c. i. part 2.)

EXECUTION. The Muḥammadan mode of execution is as follows:—The executioner (jallād) seizes the condemned culprit by the right hand, while with a sharp sword or axe he aims a blow at the back of the neck, and the head is detached at the first stroke. This mode of execution is still, or was till lately, practised in Muḥammadan states in India.

If a Qāẓī say, I have sentenced such a person to be stoned, or to have his hand cut off, or to be killed, do you therefore do it; it is lawful for that person to whom the Qāẓī has given the order to carry it out.

And according to Abū Ḥanīfah, if the Qāẓī order the executioner to cut off the right hand, and the executioner wilfully cut off the left, he is not liable to punishment. But other doctors do not agree with him.

EXECUTOR. Arabic Waṣī (وصى‎), a term also used for the testator; wakīl ʿalā ʾl-waṣīyah (وكيل على الوصية‎). An executor having accepted his appointment in the presence of the testator, is not afterwards at liberty to withdraw, and any act indicative of his having accepted the position of executor binds him to fulfil his duties.

A Muslim may not appoint a slave, or a reprobate (fāsiq) or an infidel as his executor, and in the event of his doing so, the Qāẓī must nominate a proper substitute. But if none of the testator’s heirs have attained their majority, a slave may be appointed as executor until they are of age.

If joint executors have been appointed and [113]one of them die, the Qāẓī must appoint a substitute in office.

In the cases of infants or absent heirs, the executor is entitled to possess himself pro tem. of their property, but he cannot trade with his ward’s portion.

If a person die without appointing an executor, the next of kin administers the estate, and it is an arrangement of Muslim law that his father is his executor and not his eldest son. (Hidāyah, vol. iv. p. 554.)


EXISTENCES. The Arabic word wujūd (وجود‎), expresses a substance, or essence, or existence. According to Muḥammadan writers (see G͟hiyās̤u ʾl-Lug͟hah), existences are of three kinds: Wājibu ʾl-wujūd, “a necessary existence,” e.g. Almighty God; mumkinu ʾl-wujūd, “a possible existence,” e.g. the human kind; mumtaniʿu ʾl-wujūd, “an impossible existence,” e.g. a partner with the Divine Being.

These terms are used by Muḥammadan scholars when discussing the doctrine of the Eternal Trinity with Christian Evangelists.


EXPIATION. The doctrine of expiation or atonement for neglected duties, sins of omission and commission, is distinguished in the Muslim religion from the doctrine of sacrifice; sacrifices being strictly confined to the ʿIdu ʾl-Aẓḥā, or Feast of Sacrifice in the month of pilgrimage.

There are two words employed in the Qurʾān to express the doctrine of expiation: kaffārah (كفارة‎), from kafr, “to hide”; and fidyah (فدية‎), from fidāʾ, “to exchange, or ransom.”

(1) Kaffārah occurs in the following verses:—

Sūrah v. 49:—

“And therein (Ex. xxi. 23) have we enacted for them, ‘Life for life, an eye for eye, and nose for nose, and ear for ear, and tooth for tooth, and for wounds retaliation:’—Whoso shall compromise it as alms shall have therein the expiation of his sin; and whoso will not judge by what God hath sent down—such are the transgressors.”

Sūrah v. 91:—

“God will not punish you for a mistaken word in your oaths: but he will punish you in regard to an oath taken seriously. Its expiation shall be to feed ten poor persons with such middling food as ye feed your own families with, or to clothe them; or to set free a captive. But he who cannot find means, shall fast three days. This is the expiation of your oaths when ye shall have sworn.”

Sūrah v. 96:—

“O believers! kill no game while ye are on pilgrimage. Whosoever among you shall purposely kill it, shall compensate for it in domestic animals of equal value (according to the judgment of two just persons among you), to be brought as an offering to the Kaʿbah; or in expiation thereof shall feed the poor; or as the equivalent of this shall fast, that he may taste the ill consequence of his deed. God forgiveth what is past; but whoever doeth it again, God will take vengeance on him; for God is mighty and vengeance is His.”

(2) Fidyah occurs in the following verses:—

Sūrah ii. 180:—

“But he amongst you who is ill, or on a journey, then let him fast another number of days; and those who are fit to fast and do not, the expiation of this shall be the maintenance of a poor man. And he who of his own accord performeth a good work, shall derive good from it: and good shall it be for you to fast—if ye knew it.”

Sūrah ii. 192:—

“Accomplish the Pilgrimage and Visitation of the holy places in honour of God: and if ye be hemmed in by foes, send whatever offering shall be the easiest: and shave not your heads until the offering reach the place of sacrifice. But whoever among you is sick, or hath an ailment of the head, must expiate by fasting, or alms, or an offering.”

Sūrah lvii. 13:—

“On that day the hypocrites, both men and women, shall say to those who believe, ‘Tarry for us, that we may kindle our light at yours.’ It shall be said, ‘Return ye back, and seek light for yourselves.’ But between them shall be set a wall with a gateway, within which shall be the Mercy, and in front, without it, the Torment. They shall cry to them, ‘Were we not with you?’ They shall say, ‘Yes! but ye led yourselves into temptation, and ye delayed, and ye doubted, and the good things ye craved deceived you, till the doom of God arrived:—and the deceiver deceived you in regard to God.’

“On that day, therefore, no expiation shall be taken from you or from those who believe not:—your abode the fire!—This shall be your master! and wretched the journey thither!”

(3) In theological books the term kaffāratu ʾẕ-ẕunūb, “the atonement for sins,” is used for the duties of prayer, fasting, almsgiving, and pilgrimage. There is also a popular saying that ziyāratu ʾl-qubūr is kaffāratu ʾẕ-ẕunūb, i.e. the visiting of shrines of the saints is an atonement for sins.

Theologians define the terms kaffārah and fidyah as expressing that expiation which is due to God, whilst diyah and qiṣāṣ are that which is due to man. [FINES, SACRIFICES.]

For that expiation which is made by freeing a slave, the word taḥrīr is used, a word which implies setting a slave free for God’s sake, although the word does not in any sense mean a ransom or atonement for sin. It occurs in the Qurʾān, Sūrah iv. 94, “Whosoever kills a believer by mistake let him FREE a believing neck” (i.e. a Muslim slave).

EXTRAVAGANCE. Arabic Isrāf (اسراف‎). An extravagant person or [114]prodigal is musrif, or mubaẕẕir, and is condemned in the Qurʾān:—

Sūrah xvii. 28, 29: “Waste not wastefully, for the wasteful were ever the brothers of the devil; and the devil is ever ungrateful to his Lord.”

Sūrah vii. 29: “O sons of men, take your ornaments to every mosque; and eat and drink, but be not extravagant, for He loves not the extravagant.”

EYES. Arabic ʿAyn (عين‎); pl. ʿUyūn, Aʿyun, Aʿyān. “If a person strike another in the eye, so as to force the member with its vessels out of the socket, there is no retaliation in this case, it being impossible to preserve a perfect equality in extracting an eye. But if the eye remain in its place, and the sight be destroyed, retaliation is to be inflicted, as in this case equality may be effected by extinguishing the sight of the offender’s corresponding eye with a hot iron.” (Hidāyah, iv. 294.)

There is a tradition by Mālik that the diyah or “fine” for blinding one eye is fifteen camels. (Mishkāt, book xiv. 167.) [EVIL EYE.]

EZEKIEL. Arabic Ḥizqīl. Not mentioned by name, but there is generally supposed to be an allusion to Ezekiel’s vision of the dry bones (Ezek. xxxvii. 1) in the Qurʾān, Sūrah ii. 244:—

“Dost thou not look at those who left their homes by thousands, for fear of death; and God said to them ‘Die,’ and He then quickened them again?”

Al-Baiẓāwī says that a number of Israelites fled from their villages either to join in a religious war, or for fear of the plague, and were struck dead, but Ezekiel raised them to life again.

The Kamālān say he is perhaps the same as Ẕū ʾl-Kifl. [ZU ʾL-KIFL.]

EZRA. Arabic ʿUzair. The son of Sharaḥyāʾ, the scribe. Mentioned only once by name in the Qurʾān, Sūrah ix. 30:—

“The Jews say ʿUzair (Ezra) is a son of God.”

Al-Baiẓāwī says that during the Babylonish captivity the taurāt (the law) was lost, and that as there was no one who remembered the law when the Jews returned from captivity, God raised up Ezra from the dead, although he had been buried a hundred years. And that when the Jews saw him thus raised from the dead, they said he must be the son of God.

This story is supposed to have been revealed in the Qurʾān, Sūrah ii. 261:—

“[Hast thou not considered] him who passed by a city (which was Jerusalem), riding upon an ass, and having with him a basket of figs and a vessel of the juice of grapes and he was ʿUzair, and it was falling down upon its roofs, Nebuchadnezzar having ruined it? He said, wondering at the power of God, How will God quicken this after its death?—And God caused him to die for a hundred years. Then He raised him to life: and He said unto him, How long hast thou tarried here?—He answered I have tarried a day, or part of a day.—For he slept in the first part of the day, and was deprived of his life, and was reanimated at sunset. He said Nay, thou hast tarried a hundred years: but look at thy food and thy drink: they have not become changed by time: and look at thine ass.—And he beheld it dead, and its bones white and shining.—We have done this that thou mayest know, and that We may make thee a sign of the resurrection unto men. And look at the bones of thine ass, how We will raise them; then We will clothe them with flesh. So he looked at them, and they had become put together, and were clothed with flesh, and life was breathed into it, and it brayed. Therefore when it had been made manifest to him he said, I know that God is able to accomplish everything.”


FAIʾ (فى‎). Booty obtained from infidels. According to Muḥammad ibn T̤āhir, faiʾ is booty taken from a country which submits to Islām without resistance, as distinguished from g͟hanīmah, or plunder. The K͟halīfah ʿUmar said it was the special privilege of the Prophet to take booty as well as plunder, a privilege not permitted to any other prophet.

ʿAuf ibn Mālik says the Prophet used to divide booty on the same day he took it, and would give two shares to a man with a wife, and only one share to a man without one. (Mishkāt, book xvii. c. xii.)


FAIẒ-I-AQDAS (فيض اقدس‎, Persian). Communications of divine grace made to angels and prophets and other superior intelligences.

AL-FAJR (الفجر‎), “The Daybreak.” The title of the LXXXIXth Sūrah of the Qurʾān, in the first verse of which the word occurs.

FAʾL (فال‎). A good omen, as distinguished from t̤iyārah, “a bad omen.”

Muḥammad is related to have said, “Do not put faith in a bad omen, but rather take a good one.” The people asked, “What is a good omen?” And he replied, “Any good word which any of you may hear.”

Ibn ʿAbbās says, “The Prophet used to take good omens by men’s names, but he would not take bad omens.”

Qat̤ʿān ibn Qabīṣah says, “The Prophet forbade taking omens from the running of animals, the flight of birds, and from throwing pebbles, which were done by the idolators of Arabia.” (Mishkāt, book xxi. c. ii.)

It is, however, very commonly practised [115]amongst the Muḥammadans of India. For example, if a person start out on an important journey, and he meet a woman first, he will take it as a bad omen, and if he meet a man he will regard it as a good one.

AL-FALAQ (الفلق‎), “The Daybreak.” The title of the CXIIIth Sūrah of the Qurʾān. The word signifies cleaving, and denotes the breaking forth of the light from the darkness.

FALL, The (of Adam). Is known amongst Muslim writers as zallatu Ādam, “the fall,” or slip of Adam. The term zallah, “a slip” or “error,” being applied to prophets, but not ẕamb, “a sin,” which they say Prophets do not commit.

The following is the account of Adam’s “slip,” as given in the Qurʾān, Sūrah ii. 33:—

“And we said, ‘O Adam! dwell thou and thy wife in the Garden, and eat ye plentifully therefrom wherever ye list; but to this tree come not nigh, lest ye become of the transgressors.’

“But Satan made them slip (azallahumā) from it, and caused their banishment from the place in which they were. And we said, ‘Get ye down, the one of you an enemy to the other: and there shall be for you in the earth a dwelling-place, and a provision for a time.’ ”

Sūrah vii. 18–24:—

“ ‘And, O Adam! dwell thou and thy wife in Paradise, and eat ye whence ye will, but to this tree approach not, lest ye become of the unjust doers.’

“Then Satan whispered them to show them their nakedness, which had been hidden from them both. And he said, ‘This tree hath your Lord forbidden you, only lest ye should become angels, or lest ye should become immortals.’

“And he sware to them both, ‘Verily I am unto you one who counselleth aright.’

“So he beguiled them by deceits: and when they had tasted of the tree, their nakedness appeared to them, and they began to sew together upon themselves the leaves of the garden. And their Lord called to them, ‘Did I not forbid you this tree, and did I not say to you, “Verily, Satan is your declared enemy”?’

“They said, ‘O our Lord! With ourselves have we dealt unjustly: if thou forgive us not and have pity on us, we shall surely be of those who perish.’

“He said, ‘Get ye down, the one of you an enemy to the other; and on earth shall be your dwelling, and your provision for a season.’

“He said, ‘On it shall ye live, and on it shall ye die, and from it shall ye be taken forth.’ ”

Sūrah xx. 114–120:—

“And of old We made a covenant with Adam; but he forgat it; and we found no firmness of purpose in him.

“And when We said to the angels, ‘Fall down and worship Adam,’ they worshipped all, save Eblis, who refused: and We said, ‘O Adam! this truly is a foe to thee and to thy wife. Let him not therefore drive you out of the garden, and ye become wretched;

“ ‘For to thee is it granted that thou shalt not hunger therein, neither shalt thou be naked;

“ ‘And that thou shalt not thirst therein, neither shalt thou parch with heat’;

“But Satan whispered him: said he, ‘O Adam! shall I shew thee the tree of Eternity, and the Kingdom that faileth not?’

“And they both ate thereof, and their nakedness appeared to them, and they began to sew of the leaves of the Garden to cover them, and Adam disobeyed his Lord and went astray.

“Afterwards his Lord chose him for himself, and was turned towards him, and guided him.”

The Muslim Commentators are much perplexed as to the scene of the fall of Adam. From the text of the Qurʾān it would appear that the Paradise spoken of was in heaven and not on earth; and the tradition, that when Adam was cast forth he fell on the island of Ceylon, would support this view. But al-Baiẓāwī says some say the Garden of Eden was situated either in the country of the Philistines or in Fāris, and that Adam was cast out of it and sent in the direction of Hindustān. But this view he rejects, and maintains that the Garden of Eden was in the heavens, and that the fall occurred before Adam and Eve inhabited this earth of ours. [EDEN.]

The Muḥammadan commentators are silent as to the effects of Adam’s fall upon the human race.

FALSE WITNESS. The Imām Abū Ḥanīfah is of opinion that a false witness must be publicly stigmatised, but not chastised with blows; but the Imāms ash-Shāfiʿī, Yūsuf, and Muḥammad are of opinion that he should be scourged and imprisoned.

In the Law of Moses, a false witness was punished with the punishment of the offence it sought to establish. Deut. xx. 19: “Thou shalt do unto him as he had thought to do unto his brother.” [EVIDENCE.]

FANĀʾ (فناء‎). Extinction. The last stage in the Ṣūfīistic journey. [SUFIISM.]

FAQĪH (فقيه‎). A Muḥammadan lawyer or theologian. The term is still retained in Spanish as alfaqui. [FIQH.]

FAQĪR (فقير‎). Persian darwesh. The Arabic word faqīr signifies “poor”; but it is used in the sense of being in need of mercy, and poor in the sight of God, rather than in need of worldly assistance. Darwesh is a Persian word, derived from dar, “a door,” i.e. those who beg from door to door. The terms are generally used for those who lead a religious life. Religious faqīrs are divided into two great classes, the ba sharʿ (with the law), or those who govern their conduct according to the principles of Islām; [116]and the be sharʿ (without the law), or those who do not rule their lives according to the principles of any religious creed, although they call themselves Musulmāns. The former are called sālik, or travellers on the pathway (t̤arīqah) to heaven; and the latter are either āzād (free), or majẕūb (abstracted). The sālik embrace the various religious orders who perform the ẕikrs, described in the article ZIKR.

The Majẕūb faqīrs are totally absorbed in religious reverie. The Āzād shave their beards, whiskers, moustachios, eye-brows, and eye-lashes, and lead lives of celibacy.

The Āzād and Majẕūb faqīrs can scarcely be said to be Muḥammadans, as they do not say the regular prayers or observe the ordinances of Islām, so that a description of their various sects does not fall within the limits of this work. The Sālik faqīrs are divided into very numerous orders; but their chief difference consists in their silsilah, or chain of succession, from their great teachers, the K͟halīfahs Abū Bakr and ʿAlī, who are said to have been the founders of the religious order of faqīrs.

It is impossible to become acquainted with all the rules and ceremonies of the numerous orders of faqīrs; for, like those of the Freemasons and other secret societies, they are not divulged to the uninitiated.

The doctrines of the darwesh orders are those of the Ṣūfī mystics, and their religious ceremonies consist of exercises called ẕikrs, or “recitals.” [ZIKR, SUFIISM.]

M. D’Ohsson, in his celebrated work on the Ottoman Empire, traces the origin of the order of faqīrs to the time of Muḥammad himself:—

“In the first year of the Hijrah, forty-five citizens of Makkah joined themselves to as many others of al-Madīnah. They took an oath of fidelity to the doctrines of their Prophet, and formed a sect or fraternity, the object of which was to establish among themselves a community of property, and to perform every day certain religious practices in a spirit of penitence and mortification. To distinguish themselves from other Muḥammadans, they took the name of Sūfīs. [SUFIISM.] This name, which later was attributed to the most zealous partizans of Islām, is the same still in use to indicate any Musulmān who retires from the world to study, to lead a life of pious contemplation, and to follow the most painful exercises of an exaggerated devotion. To the name of Sūfī they added also that of faqīr, because their maxim was to renounce the goods of the earth, and to live in an entire abnegation of all worldly enjoyments, following thereby the words of the Prophet, al-faqru fak͟hrī, or ‘Poverty is my pride.’ Following their example, Abū Bakr and ʿAlī established, even during the life-time of the Prophet and under his own eyes, religious orders, over which each presided, with Ẕikrs or peculiar religious exercises, established by them separately, and a vow taken by each of the voluntary disciples forming them. On his decease, Abū Bakr made over his office of president to one Salmānu ʾl-Fārisī, and ʿAlī to al-Ḥasanu ʾl-Baṣrī, and each of these charges were consecrated under the title K͟halīfah, or successor. The two first successors followed the example of the K͟halīfahs of Islām, and transmitted it to their successors, and these in turn to others, the most aged and venerable of their fraternity. Some among them, led by the delirium of the imagination, wandered away from the primitive rules of their society, and converted, from time to time, these fraternities into a multitude of religious orders.

“They were doubtlessly emboldened in this enterprise by that of a recluse who, in the thirty-seventh year of the Hijrah (A.D. 657) formed the first order of anchorets of the greatest austerity, named Uwais al-Karānī, a native of Kārū, in Yaman, who one day announced that the archangel Gabriel had appeared to him in a dream, and in the name of the Eternal God commanded him to withdraw from the world, and to give himself up to a life of contemplation and penitence. This visionary pretended also to have received from that heavenly visitor the plan of his future conduct, and the rules of his institution. These consisted in a continual abstinence, in retirement from society, in an abandonment of the pleasures of innocent nature, and in the recital of an infinity of prayers day and night (Ẕikrs). Uwais even added to these practices. He went so far as to draw out his teeth, in honour, it is said, of the Prophet, who had lost two of his own in the celebrated battle of Uḥud. He required his disciples to make the same sacrifice. He pretended that all those who would be especially favoured by heaven, and really called to the exercises of his Order, should lose their teeth in a supernatural manner; that an angel should draw out their teeth whilst in the midst of a deep sleep; and that on awakening they should find them by their bedside. The experiences of such a vocation were doubtless too severe to attract many proselytes to the order; it only enjoyed a certain degree of attraction for fanatics and credulously ignorant people during the first days of Islām. Since then it has remained in Yaman, where it originated, and where its partisans were always but few in number.”

It was about A.H. 49 (A.D. 766), that the Shaik͟h Alwān, a mystic renowned for his religious fervour, founded the first regular order of faqīrs, now known as the Alwanīyah, with its special rules and religious exercises, although similar associations of men without strict rules had existed from the days of Abū Bakr, the first K͟halīfah. And although there is the formal declaration of Muḥammad, “Let there be no monasticism in Islām,” still the inclinations of Eastern races to a solitary and a contemplative life, carried it even against the positive opposition of orthodox Islām, and now there is scarcely a maulawī or learned man of reputation in Islām who is not a member of some religious order. [117]

Each century gave birth to new orders, named after their respective founders, but in the present day there is no means of ascertaining the actual number of these associations of mystic Muslims. M. D’Ohsson, in the work already quoted, gives a list of thirty-two orders, but it is by no means comprehensive.

No. Name of the Order. Founder. Place of the Founder’s Shrine. Date. Date.
A.H. A.D.
1 Alwaniyah Shaik͟h Alwan Jeddah 149 766
2 Adhamiyah Ibrahim ibn Adham Damascus 161 777
3 Bastamiyah Bayazid Bastami Jabal Bastam 261 874
4 Saqatiyah Sirri Saqati Bag͟hdād 295 907
5 Qadiriyah Abdu ʾl-Qadir Jilani Bag͟hdād 561 1165
6 Rufaiyah Saiyid Ahmad Rufai Bag͟hdād 576 1182
7 Suhrwardiyah Shihabu ʾd-Din Bag͟hdād 602 1205
8 Kabrawiyah Najmu ʾd-Din Khawazim 617 1220
9 Shaziliyah Abu ʾl-Hasan Makkah 656 1258
10 Maulawiyah Jalalu ʾd-Din Rumi Conyah 672 1273
11 Badawiyah Abu ʾl-Fitan Ahmad Tanta, Egypt 675 1276
12 Naqshbandiyah Pir Muhammad Qasri Arifan 719 1319
13 Sadiyah Sadu ʾd-Din Damascus 736 1335
14 Bakhtashiyah Haji Bakhtash Kīr Sher 736 1357
15 Khalwatiyah Umar Khalwati Cæsarea 800 1397
16 Zainiyah Zainu ʾd-Din Kufah 838 1438
17 Babaiyah Abdu ʾl-Ghani Adrianople 870 1465
18 Bahramiyah Haji Bahrami Angora 876 1471
19 Ashrafiyah Ashraf Rumi Chīn Iznic 899 1493
20 Bakriyah Abu Bakr Wafai Aleppo 902 1496
21 Sunbuliyah Sunbul Yusuf Bulawi Constantinople 936 1529
22 Gulshaniyah Ibrahim Gulshani Cairo 940 1533
23 Ighit Bashiyah Shamsu ʾd-Din Magnesia 951 1544
24 Umm Sunaniyah Shaik͟h Umm Sunan Constantinople 959 1552
25 Jalwatiyah Pir Uftadi Broosa 988 1580
26 Ashaqiyah Hasanu ʾd-Din Constantinople 1001 1592
27 Shamsiyah Shamsu ʾd-Din Madīnah 1010 1601
28 Sunan Ummiyah Alim Sunan Ummi Alwali 1079 1668
29 Niyaziyah Muhammad Niyaz Lemnos 1100 1694
30 Muradiyah Murad Shami Constantinople 1132 1719
31 Nuruddiniyah Nuru ʾd-Din Constantinople 1146 1733
32 Jamaliyah Jamalu ʾd-Din Constantinople 1164 1750



Three of these orders, the Bast̤āmīyah, the Naqshbandīyah, and the Bak͟htāshīyah, descend from the original order established by the first K͟halīfah, Abū Bakr. The fourth K͟halīfah, ʿAlī, gave birth to all the others. Each order has its silsilah, or chain of succession, from one of these two great founders.

The Naqshbandīyah, who are the followers of K͟hwajah Pīr Muḥammad Naqshband, are a very numerous order. They usually perform the Ẕikr-i-K͟hafī, or silent devotions, described in the account of ZIKR.

The first duty of the members of this Order is to recite, daily, particular prayers, called the k͟hātim k͟hāwjagān; once, at least, the Istīg͟hfār (Prayer for Forgiveness); seven times the salāmāt; seven times the Fātiḥah (first chapter of the Qurʾān); nine times the chapter of the Qurʾān called Inshirāh (Chapter xciv.); lastly, the Ik͟hlāṣ (Chapter cxii.). To these are added the ceremonies called Ẕikr. [ZIKR.]

For these recitals they meet together once a week. Ordinarily, this is on Thursday, and after the fifth prayer of the day, so that it occurs after night-fall. In each city, suburb, or quarter, the members of this association, divided into different bodies, assemble at the house of their respective pīr or shaik͟h, where, seated, they perform their [118]pious exercises with the most perfect gravity. The shaik͟h, or any other brother in his stead, chants the prayers which constitute the association, and the assembly respond in chorus, “Hū (He),” or “Allāh!” In some cities, the Naqshbandīyah have especial halls, consecrated wholly to this purpose, and then the shaik͟h only is distinguished from the other brethren by a special turban.

The Bak͟htāshīyah was founded by a native of Buk͟hārā, and is celebrated as being the order which eventually gave birth to the fanatical order of Janissaries. The symbol of their order is the mystic girdle, which they put off and on seven times, saying:—

1. “I tie up greediness, and unbind generosity.”

2. “I tie up anger, and unbind meekness.”

3. “I tie up avarice, and unbind piety.”

4. “I tie up ignorance, and unbind the fear of God.”

5. “I tie up passion, and unbind the love of God.”

6. “I tie up hunger, and unbind (spiritual) contentment.”

7. “I tie up Satanism and unbind Divineness.”

The Maulawīyah are the most popular religious order of faqīrs in the Turkish empire. They are called by Europeans, who witness their ẕikrs and various religious performances at Constantinople and Cairo, the “dancing,” or “whirling” darweshes. They were founded by the Maulawī Jalālu ʾd-dīn ar-Rūmī, the renowned author of the Mas̤nawī, a book much read in Persia, and, indeed, in all parts of Islām.



They have service at their takyah, or “convent,” every Wednesday and Sunday at two o’clock. There are about twenty performers, with high round felt caps and brown mantles. At a given signal they all fall flat on their faces, and rise and walk slowly round and round with their arms folded, bowing and turning slowly several times. They then cast off their mantles and appear in long bell-shaped petticoats and jackets, and then begin to spin, revolving, dancing and turning with extraordinary velocity. [ZIKR.]





The Qādirīyah sprang from the celebrated Saiyid ʿAbdu ʾl-Qādir, surnamed Pīr-i-Dastagīr, whose shrine is at Bagdad. They practise both the Ẕikr-i-Jalī and the Ẕikr-i-K͟hafī. Most of the Sunnī Maulawīs on the north-west frontier of India are members of this order. In Egypt it is most popular among fishermen.

The Chishtīyah are followers of Muʿīnu ʾd-dīn Banda Nawāz, surnamed the Gīsū darāz, or the “long-ringletted.” His shrine is at Calburgah.

The Shīʿahs generally become faqīrs of this order. They are partial to vocal music, for the founder of the order remarked that [119]singing was the food and support of the soul. They perform the Ẕikr-i-Jalī, described in the article on ZIKR.

The Jalālīyah were founded by Saiyid Jalālu ʾd-dīn, of Buk͟hārā. They are met with in Central Asia. Religious mendicants are often of this order.

The Suhrwardīyah are a popular order in Afg͟hānistān, and comprise a number of learned men. They are the followers of Shihābu ʾd-dīn of Suhrward of al-ʿIrāq. These are the most noted orders of ba sharʿ faqīrs.

The be sharʿ faqīrs are very numerous.

The most popular order in India is that of the Murdārīyah, founded by Zinda Shāh Murdār, of Syria, whose shrine is at Makanpur, in Oudh. From these have sprung the Malang faqīrs, who crowd the bazaars of India. They wear their hair matted and tied in a knot. The Rufāʿīyah order is also a numerous one in some parts of India. They practise the most severe discipline, and mortify themselves by beating their bodies. They are known in Turkey and Egypt as the “Howling Darweshes.”

Another well-known order of darweshes is the Qalandarīyah, or “Wandering Darweshes,” founded by Qalandar Yūsuf al-Andalusī, a native of Spain. He was for a time a member of the Bak͟htāshīs; but having been dismissed from the order, he established one of his own, with the obligation of perpetual travelling. The Qalandar faqīr is a prominent character in Eastern romance.

A QALANDAR. (Brown.)

A QALANDAR. (Brown.)





Each order is established on different principles, and has its rules and statutes and peculiar devotions. These characteristics extend even to the garments worn by their followers. Each order has, in fact, a particular dress, and amongst the greater part of them this is chosen so as to mark a difference in that of the shaik͟h from that of the ordinary members. It is perceived principally in the turbans, the shape of the coat, the colours, and the nature of the stuff of which the dresses are made. The shaik͟hs wear robes of green or white cloth; and any of those who in winter line them with fur, use that kind called petit gris and zibaline martin. Few darweshes use cloth for their dress. Black or white felt dresses called ʿabāʾ, such as are made in some of the cities of Anatolia, are the most usual. Those who wear black felt are the Jalwatīs and the Qādirīs. The latter have adopted it for their boots, and muslin for their turbans. [120]Some, such as the Maulawīs and the Bakrīs, wear tall caps called kulāhs, made also of felt; and others, such as the Rufāʿīs, use short caps called T̤āqīyah, to which is added a coarse cloth. The head-dress of almost all the darweshes is called tāj, which signifies a “crown.” These turbans are of different forms, either from the manner in which the muslin is folded, or by the cut of the cloth which covers the top of the head. The cloth is in several gores. Some have four, as the Adhamīs; some six, as the Qādirīs and the Saʿdīs; the Gulshanīs have eight; the Bak͟htāshīs twelve; and the Jalwatīs eighteen.

AN EGYPTIAN FAKIR. (From a Photograph.)

AN EGYPTIAN FAKIR. (From a Photograph.)

AN EGYPTIAN FAKIR. (From a Photograph.)

AN EGYPTIAN FAKIR. (From a Photograph.)

The darweshes carry about with them one or other of the following articles: a small crooked stick or iron, which the devotee places under his arm-pit or forehead, to lean upon when he meditates, or an iron or brass bar on which there is a little artificial hand wherewith to scratch his unwashed body, a bag made of lamb-skin, a kashkūl or beggar’s wallet.

Generally, all the darweshes allow their beards and mustachios to grow. Some of the orders—the Qādirīs, Rufāʿīs, K͟halwatīs, Gulshanīs, Jalwatīs, and the Nūru ʾd-dīnīs—still wear long hair, in memory of the usage of the Prophet and several of his disciples. Some allow their hair to fall over their shoulders; others tie it up and put it under their turban.

Whilst private Musulmāns are in the habit of holding rosaries of beads as a pastime, the darweshes do the same, only in a spirit of religion and piety. These rosaries have thirty-three, sixty-six, or ninety-nine beads, which is the number of the attributes of the Divinity [GOD]. Some have them always in their hands, others in their girdles; and all are required to recite, several times during the day, the particular prayers of their order. [TASBIH.]

The individual who desires to enter an order is received in an assembly of the fraternity, presided over by the shaik͟h, who touches his hand and breathes in his ear three times the words, “Lā ilāha illa ʾllāh” (“There is no god but God”), commanding him to repeat them 101, 151, or 301 times each day. This ceremony is called the Talqīn. The recipient, faithful to the orders of his chief, obligates himself to spend his time in perfect retirement, and to report to the shaik͟h the visions or dreams which he may have during the course of his novitiate. These dreams, besides characterising the sanctity of his vocation, and his spiritual advancement in the order, serve likewise as so many supernatural means to direct the shaik͟h regarding the periods when he may again breathe in the ear of the neophyte the second words of the initiation, “Yā Allāh!” (“O God!”), and successively all the others to the last, “Yā Qahhār!” (“O avengeful God!”). The full complement of this exercise is called Chilleh, or “forty days,” a period sometimes even longer, according to the dispositions, more or less favourable, of the candidate. Arrived at the last grade of his novitiate, he is then supposed to have fully ended his career, called Takmīlu ʾs-Sulūk, and acquired the degree of perfection for his solemn admission into the corps to which he has devoted himself. During all his novitiate, the recipient bears the name of Murīd, or “Disciple,” and the shaik͟h who directs him in this pretended celestial career takes the title of Murshid, or “Spiritual Guide.”

The founder of the Alwānīs laid out the first rules of this novitiate; they were subsequently perfected by the institution of the Qādirīs, and more so by the K͟halwatīs. The darweshes of these two last societies are distinguished in some countries by the decoration of their turban, on the top of which [121]are embroidered the words “Lā ilāha illā ʾllāh” (There is no god but God).

The tests of the novice among the Maulawīs seem to be still more severe, and the reception of these dervishes is attended with ceremonies peculiar to their order. The aspirant is required to labour in the convent or takyah 1,001 successive days in the lowest grade, on which account he is called the kārrā kolak (jackal). If he fails in this service only one day, or is absent one night, he is obliged to recommence his novitiate. The chief of the kitchen, or ashjibāshī, one of the most notable of the darweshes, presents him to the shaik͟h, who, seated in an angle of the sofā, receives him amid a general assembly of all the darweshes of the convent. The candidate kisses the hand of the shaik͟h, and takes a seat before him on a mat, which covers the floor of the hall. The chief of the kitchen places his right hand on the neck, and his left hand on the forehead of the novice, whilst the shaik͟h takes off his cap and holds it over his head, reciting the following Persian distich, the composition of the founder of the order:—

“It is true greatness and felicity to close the heart to all human passions; the abandonment of the vanities of this world is the happy effect of the victorious strength given by the grace of our Holy Prophet.”

These verses are followed by the exordium of the Takbīr, “Allāhu akbar—God is great,” after which the shaik͟h covers the head of the new darwesh, who now rises and places himself with the Ashjibāshī in the middle of the hall, where they assume the most humble posture, their hands crossed upon the breast, the left foot over the right foot, and the head inclined towards the left shoulder. The shaik͟h addresses these words to the head of the kitchen:—

“May the services of this darwesh, thy brother, be agreeable to the throne of the Eternal, and in the eyes of our Pīr (the founder of the order); may his satisfaction, his felicity, and his glory grow in this nest of the humble, in the cell of the poor; let us exclaim ‘Hū!’ in honour of our Maulawī.”

They answer “Hū!” and the accepted novice, arising from his place, kisses the hand of the shaik͟h, who at this moment addresses to him some paternal exhortations on the subject of the duties of his new condition, and closes by ordering all the darweshes of the meeting to recognise and embrace their new brother.

The following is said to be the usual method of admitting a Muḥammadan to the order of a ba sharʿ faqīr in India. Having first performed the legal ablutions, the murīd (disciple) seats himself before the murshid (spiritual guide). The murshid then takes the murīd’s right hand, and requires of him a confession of sin according to the following form:—

“I ask forgiveness of the great God than Whom there is no other deity, the Eternal, the Everlasting, the Living One: I turn to Him for repentance, and beg His grace and forgiveness.”

This, or a similar form of repentance, is repeated several times. The murīd then repeats after the murshid:—

“I beg for the favour of God and of the Prophet, and I take for my guide to God such a one (here naming the murshid) not to change or to separate from him. God is our witness. By the great God. There is no deity but God. Amen.”

The murshid and the murīd then recite the first chapter of the Qurʾān, and the murīd concludes the ceremony by kissing the murshid’s hand.

After the initiatory rite, the murīd undergoes a series of instructions, including the ẕikrs, which he is required to repeat daily. The murīd frequently visits his murshid, and sometimes the murshids proceed on a circuit of visitation to their disciples. The place where these “holy men” sit down to instruct the people is ever afterwards held sacred, a small flag is hoisted on a tree, and it is fenced in. Such places are called “takyah,” and are protected and kept free from pollution by some faqīr engaged for the purpose.

Another account of the admission of a murīd, or “disciple,” into the order of Qādirīyah faqīrs, is given by Tawakkul Beg in the Journal Asiatique:—

“Having been introduced by Ak͟hūnd Mullā Muḥammad to Shaik͟h Mulla Shāh, my heart, through frequent intercourse with him, was filled with such a burning desire to arrive at a true knowledge of the mystical science, that I found no sleep by night, nor rest by day. When the initiation commenced, I passed the whole night without sleep, and repeated innumerable times the Sūratu ʾl-Ik͟hlāṣ:—

‘Say: He is God alone;

God the eternal:

He begetteth not, and He is not begotten:

And there is none like unto Him.’

(Sūrah cxii.)

“Whosoever repeats this Sūrah one hundred times can accomplish all his vows. I desired that the shaik͟h should bestow on me his love. No sooner had I finished my task, than the heart of the shaik͟h became full of sympathy for me. On the following night I was conducted to his presence. During the whole of that night he concentrated his thoughts on me, whilst I gave myself up to inward meditation. Three nights passed in this way. On the fourth night the shaik͟h said:—‘Let Mullā Sang͟him and Ṣāliḥ Beg, who are very susceptible to ecstatic emotions, apply their spiritual energies to Tawakkul Beg.’

“They did so, whilst I passed the whole night in meditation, with my face turned toward Makkah. As the morning drew near, a little light came into my mind, but I could not distinguish form or colour. After the morning prayers, I was taken to the shaik͟h who bade me inform him of my mental state. I replied that I had seen a light with [122]my inward eye. On hearing this, the shaik͟h became animated and said: ‘Thy heart is dark, but the time is come when I will show myself clearly to thee.’ He then ordered me to sit down in front of him, and to impress his features on my mind. Then having blindfolded me, he ordered me to concentrate all my thoughts upon him. I did so, and in an instant, by the spiritual help of the shaik͟h, my heart opened. He asked me what I saw. I said that I saw another Tawakkul Beg and another Mullā Shāh. The bandage was then removed, and I saw the shaik͟h in front of me. Again they covered my face, and again I saw him with my inward eye. Astonished, I cried: ‘O master! whether I look with my bodily eye, or with my spiritual sight, it is always you I see.’ I then saw a dazzling figure approach me. The shaik͟h told me to say to the apparition, ‘What is your name?’ In my spirit I put the question, and the figure answered to my heart: ‘I am ʿAbdu ʾl-Qādir al-Jilānī, I have already aided thee, thy heart is opened.’ Much affected, I vowed that in honour of the saint, I would repeat the whole Qurʾān every Friday night.

“Mullā Shāh then said: ‘The spiritual world has been shown to thee in all its beauty.’ I then rendered perfect obedience to the shaik͟h. The following day I saw the Prophet, the chief Companions, and legions of saints and angels. After three months I entered the cheerless region in which the figures appeared no more. During the whole of this time the shaik͟h continued to explain to me the mystery of the doctrine of the Unity and of the knowledge of God; but as yet he did not show me the absolute reality. It was not until a year had passed that I arrived at the true conception of unity. Then in words such as these I told the shaik͟h of my inspiration. ‘I look upon the body as only dust and water, I regard neither my heart nor my soul, alas! that in separation from Thee (God) so much of my life has passed. Thou wert I and I knew it not.’ The shaik͟h was delighted, and said that the truth of the union with God was now clearly revealed to me. Then addressing those who were present, he said:—

“ ‘Tawakkul Beg learnt from me the doctrine of the Unity, his inward eye has been opened, the spheres of colours and of images have been shown to him. At length, he entered the colourless region. He has now attained to the Unity; doubt and scepticism henceforth have no power over him. No one sees the Unity with the outward eye, till the inward eye gains strength and power.’ ”

Each institution imposes on its darweshes the obligation to recite certain passages at different times of the day in private, as well as in common with others. Several have also practices which are peculiar to themselves, and which consist in dances, or rather religious circular movements. In each convent there is a room consecrated to these exercises. Nothing is simpler than its construction; it contains no ornaments of any nature; the middle of the room, turned towards Makkah, contains a niche or miḥrāb, in front of which is a small carpet, mostly made of the skin of a sheep, on which the shaik͟h of the community reclines; over the niche the name of the founder of the order is written. In some halls this inscription is surmounted by two others—one containing the Confession of Faith, and the other the words “Bismillāh,” &c. (“In the name of God, the most Clement and Merciful.”) In others are seen on the wall to the right and the left of the niche tablets, on which are written in large letters the name of God (Allāh), that of Muḥammad, and those of the four first K͟halīfahs. At others are seen the names of al-Ḥasan and al-Ḥusain, grandsons of the Prophet, and some verses of the Qurʾān, or others of a moral character.

The exercises which are followed in these halls are of various kinds, a description of which is given in the account of ZIKR.

The more zealous faqīrs devote themselves to the most austere acts, and shut themselves up in their cells, so as to give themselves up for whole hours to prayer and meditation; the others pass very often a whole night in pronouncing the words and Allāh, or rather the phrase, Lā ilāha illā ʾllāh. So as to drive away sleep from their eyes, some of them stand for whole nights in very uncomfortable positions. They sit with their feet on the ground, the two hands resting upon their knees: they fasten themselves in this attitude by a band of leather passed over their neck and legs. Others tie their hair with a cord to the ceiling, and call this usage Chilleh. There are some, also, who devote themselves to an absolute retirement from the world, and to the most rigid abstinence, living only on bread and water for twelve days successively, in honour of the twelve Imāms of the race of ʿAlī. This retirement is called K͟halwah. They pretend that the shaik͟h ʿAmr K͟halwatī was the first to follow it, and that he often practised it. They add that one day, having left his retirement, he heard a celestial voice saying, “O ʿAmr K͟halwatī, why dost thou abandon us?” and that, faithful to this oracle, he felt himself obliged to consecrate the rest of his days to works of penitence, and even to institute an order under the name of K͟halwatīs, a name signifying “living in retirement.” For this reason, darweshes of this order consider it their duty, more than any others, to live in solitude and abstinence. The more devoted among them observe sometimes a painful fast of forty days consecutively, called by them al-arbaʿūn (forty). Amongst them all their object is the expiation of their sins, the sanctification of their lives, and the glorification of Islām; the prosperity of the state, and the general salvation of the Muḥammadan people. The most ancient and the greatest of the orders, such as the Alwānīs, the Adhamīs, the Qādirīs, the Rufaʿīs, the Naqshbandīs, the K͟halwatīs, &c., are considered as the cardinal orders; for which reason they call themselves the Uṣūls, or “Originals.” [123]They give to the others the names of the Furūʿ, or “Branches,” signifying thereby secondary ones, to designate their filiation or emanation from the first. The order of the Naqshbandīs and K͟halwatīs hold, however, the first rank in the temporal line; the one on account of the conformity of its statutes to the principles of the ten first confraternities, and to the lustre which causes the grandees and principal citizens of the empire to incorporate themselves in it; and the other, because of its being the source of the mother society which gave birth to many others. In the spiritual line, the order of the Qādirīs, Maulawīs, Bak͟htāshīs, Rufaʿīs, and the Sāʿdīs, are the most distinguished, especially the three first, on account of the eminent sanctity of their founders, of the multitude of the miracles attributed to them, and of the superabundance of the merit which is deemed especially attached to them.

Although all of them are considered as mendicant orders, no darwesh is allowed to beg, especially in public. The only exception is among the Bak͟htāshīs, who deem it meritorious to live by alms; and many of these visit not only private houses, but even the streets, public squares, bureaux, and public houses, for the purpose of recommending themselves to the charity of their brethren.

They only express their requests by the words “Shayid Ullāh,” a corruption from “Shayun li-ʾllāh,” which means, “Something for the love of God.” Many of these make it a rule to live only by the labour of their hands, in imitation of Ḥājī Bak͟htāsh, their founder; and, like him, they make spoons, ladles, graters, and other utensils, of wood or marble. It is these, also, who fashion the pieces of marble, white or veined, which are used as collars or buckles for the belts of all the darweshes of their order, and the kashkūls, or shell cups, in which they are obliged to ask alms.

Although in no wise bound by any oaths, all being free to change their community, and even to return to the world, and there to adopt any occupation which may please their fancy, it is rarely that anyone makes use of this liberty. Each one regards it as a sacred duty to end his days in the dress of his order. To this spirit of poverty and perseverance, in which they are so exemplary, must be added that of perfect submission to their superior. This latter is elevated by the deep humility which accompanies all their conduct, not only in the interior of the cloisters, but even in private life. One never meets them anywhere but with head bent and the most respectful countenance. They never salute anyone, particularly the Maulawīs, and the Bak͟htāshīs, except by the exclamation, “Yā Hū!” The words Ai bi-ʾllāh, “thanks to God,” frequently are used in their conversation; and the more devout or enthusiastic speak only of dreams, visions, celestial spirits, supernatural objects, &c.

They are seldom exposed to the trouble and vexations of ambition, because the most ancient darweshes are those who may aspire to the grade of shaik͟h, or superior of the convent. The shaik͟hs are named by their respective generals, called the Raisu ʾl-Mashāʾik͟h (chief of shaik͟hs). Those of the Maulawīs have the distinctive title of Cheleby Efendi. All reside in the same cities which contain the ashes of the founders of their orders, called by the name of Āstāneh signifying “the court.” They are subordinate to the Muftī of the capital, who exercises absolute jurisdiction over them. In the Turkish Empire the Shaik͟hu ʾl-Islām has the right of removing all the generals of the various orders, even those of the Qādirīs, the Maulawīs, and of the Bak͟htāshīs, although the dignity be hereditary in their family, on account of their all three being sprung from the blood of the same founders of their orders. The Muftī has likewise the right to confirm the shaik͟hs who may be nominated by any of the generals of the orders.

(See The Dervishes or Oriental Spiritualism, by John P. Brown; Malcolm’s Persia; Lane’s Modern Egyptians; D’Ohsson’s Ottoman Empire; Ubicini’s Letters on Turkey; Herklots’ Musalmans; Taẕkiratu ʾl-Auliyā, by Shaik͟h Farīdu ʾd-Dīn al-ʿAt̤t̤ār.)

FAQR (فقر‎). The life of a Faqīr or an ascetic.

FARAʿ (فرع‎). The first-born of either camels, sheep, or goats, which the Arab pagans used to offer to idols. This was allowed by the Prophet at the commencement of his mission, but afterwards abolished. (Mishkāt, book iv. c. 50.)

FARĀʾIẒ (فرائض‎), pl. of Farīẓah. “Inheritances.” A term used for the law of inheritance, or ʿIlmu ʾl-Farāʾiẓ. Farīẓah means literally an ordinance of God, and this branch of Muslim law is so called because it is established fully in the Qurʾān, Sūrah iv. [INHERITANCE.]

FARAQ (فرق‎). Lit. “Separation.” Faraq-i-Awwal is a term used by Ṣūfī mystics to express that state of mind in which the soul is drawn away from a contemplation of God by a contemplation of his creation; and faraq-i-s̤ānī (the second separation) is when the soul is constantly contemplating the stability of the creation with the eternity of the Creator. (ʿAbdu ʾr-Razzāq’s Dictionary of Ṣūfī Terms.)

FĀRAQLĪT̤ (فارقليط‎). The Arabic rendering of the Greek παράκλητος, “Paraclete.” Muḥammadan writers assert that it is the original of the word translated Aḥmad in the following verse in the Qurʾān, Sūrah lxi. v. 6:—

“And call to mind when Jesus, son of Mary, said:—‘O children of Israel! Verily I am an Apostle of God unto you, attesting the Taurāt revealed before me, and giving good tidings of a Prophet that shall come after whose name is Aḥmad.

Aḥmad is another derivative of the root to which Muḥammad belongs, signifying, like it, [124]“the Praised.” It is not improbable that in some imperfect copies of St. John xvi. 7, παράκλητος may have been rendered περικλυτος, which in some early Arabic translation of the Gospel may have been translated Aḥmad. In the Majmaʿu ʾl-Biḥār, a work written three hundred years ago, the word fāraqlīt̤ is said to mean a distinguisher between truth and error. The word also occurs several times in the well-known Shīʿah work, the Ḥayātu ʾl-Qulūb (vide Merrick’s translation, page 86). The author says, “It is well known that his (the Prophet’s) name in the Taurāt is Mūādmūād, in the gospels (Injīl) Tābtāb, and in the Psalms (Zabūr) Farakleet.” And again (p. 308), “God said to Jesus, O Son of my handmaid … verily I will send the chosen of prophets, Aḥmad, whom I have selected of all my creatures, even Farakleet, my friend and servant.” [JESUS.]

FARSAK͟H (فرسخ‎). Persian Farsang. A land measure which occurs in Muḥammadan books of law. It is a league of 18,000 feet, or three and a half miles in length.

FARWAH (فروة‎). An Arab of the Banū Juẕām and Governor of ʿAmmān, who is represented by tradition (upon imperfect evidence) as one of the early martyrs of Islām. Having been converted to Islām, the Roman authorities crucified him. (Muir’s Life of Mahomet, vol. ii. p. 103.)

FARẒ (فرض‎). That which is obligatory. A term used for those rules and ordinances of religion which are said to have been established and enjoined by God Himself, as distinguished from those which are established upon the precept or practice of the Prophet, and which are called sunnah.

FARẒ KIFĀʾĪ (فرض كفائى‎). A command which is imperative (farẓ) upon all Muslims, but which if one person in eight or ten performs it, it is sufficient (kifāʾī), or equivalent to all having performed it.

They are generally held to be five in number: (1) To return a salutation; (2) To visit the sick and inquire after their welfare; (3) To follow a bier on foot to the grave; (4) To accept an invitation to dinner; (5) Replying to a sneeze. [SNEEZING.]

They are also said to be six or seven in number, when there are added one or two of the following: (1) To give advice when asked for it; (2) To help a Muslim to verify his oath; (3) To assist a person in distress. ʿAbdu ʾl-Ḥaqq says this last injunction applies to all cases, whether that of a Muslim or an infidel. (Mishkāt, book v. c. i. part 1.)

FARẒU ʾL-ʿAIN (فرض العين‎). An injunction or ordinance the obligation of which extends to every Muslim, as prayer, fasting, &c.

FĀSID (فاسد‎). A seditious or rebellious person.

FĀSIQ (فاسق‎). A term used in Muḥammadan law for a reprobate person who neglects decorum in his dress and behaviour. The acceptance of such a person’s evidence is not admissible. He is not regarded as a Muslim citizen, although he may profess Islām.

FASTING. Arabic Ṣaum (صوم‎); Persian Rozah (روزه‎). Fasting was highly commended by Muḥammad as an atonement for sin. The following are the fasts founded upon the example of the Prophet and observed by devout Muslims:—

(1) The thirty-days of the month of Ramaẓān. This month’s fast is regarded as a divine institution, being enjoined in the Qurʾān (Sūrah ii. 180) and is therefore compulsory. [RAMAZAN.]

(2) The day ʿĀshūrāʾ. The tenth day of the month Muḥarram. This is a voluntary fast, but it is pretty generally observed by all Muslims, for Abū Qatādah relates that the Prophet said he hoped that the fast of ʿĀshūrāʾ would cover the sins of the coming year. (Mishkāt, book vii. ch. vii. pt. 1.) [ʿASHURAʾ.]

(3) The six days following the ʿĪdu ʾl-Fit̤r. Abū Aiyūb relates that the Prophet said, “The person who fasts the month of Ramaẓān, and follows it up with six days of the month of Shawwāl, will obtain the rewards of a continued fast.” (Mishkāt, book vii. ch. vii. pt. 1.)

(4) The Monday and Thursday of every week are recommended as fast days, as distinguished from the Christian fast of Wednesday. Abū Hurairah relates that the Prophet said, “The actions of God’s servants are represented at the throne of God on Mondays and Thursdays.” (Mishkāt, book vii. ch. vii. pt. 2.) These days are only observed by strictly religious Muslims.

(5) The month of Shaʿbān. ʿĀyishah relates that “the Prophet used sometimes to fast part of this month and sometimes the whole.” (Mishkāt, book vii. ch. vii. pt. 1.) It is seldom observed in the present day.

(6) The 13th, 14th, and 15th of each month. These days are termed al-ayyāmu ʾl-bīẓ, i.e. the bright days, and were observed by Muḥammad himself as fasts. (Mishkāt, book vii. ch. vii. pt. 2.) These are generally observed by devout Muslims.

(7) Fasting alternate days, which Muḥammad said was the fast observed by David, King of Israel. (Mishkāt, book vii. ch. vii. pt. 1.)

In the Traditions, fasting is commended by Muḥammad in the following words:—

“Every good act that a man does shall receive from ten to seven hundred rewards, but the rewards of fasting are beyond bounds, for fasting is for God alone, and He will give its rewards.”

“He who fasts abandons the cravings of his appetites for God’s sake.”

“There are two pleasures in fasting, one when the person who fasts breaks it, and the other in the next world when he meets his [125]Lord. The very smell of the mouth of a keeper of a fast is more agreeable to God than the smell of musk.”

“Fasting is a shield.”

“When any of you fast utter no bad words, nor raise your voice in strife. If anyone abuse one who is fasting, let him refrain from replying; let him say that he is keeping a fast.” (Mishkāt, book vii. ch. i. pt. 1.)


AL-FATḤ (الفتح‎), “The victory.” The title of the XLVIIIth Sūrah of the Qurʾān, in the first verse of which the word occurs. “Verily We (God) have given thee an obvious victory, that God may pardon thee thy former and later sin.”

Professor Palmer says “Some of the commentators take this to mean sins committed by Muḥammad before his call and after it. Others refer the word to the liaison with the Coptic handmaiden Mary, and to his marriage with Zainab, the wife of his adopted son Zaid.” None of the commentators we have consulted, including al-Baiẓāwī, al-Jalālān, al-Kamālān, and Ḥusain, give the last interpretation. They all say it refers to his sins before and after his call to the Apostleship.

FATHER. In the Sunnī law of inheritance, a father is a sharer in the property of his son or son’s son, taking one-sixth, but if his son die unmarried and without issue, the father is the residuary and takes the whole.

According to the law of qiṣāṣ or retaliation, if a father take the life of his son, he is not to be slain, for the Prophet has said, “Retaliation must not be executed upon the parent for his offspring”; and Abū Ḥanīfah adds, “because as the parent is the efficient cause of his child’s existence, it is not proper that the child should require or be the occasion of his father’s death”; whence it is that a son is forbidden to shoot his father, when in the army of the enemy, or to throw a stone at him, if suffering lapidation for adultery.

In the law of evidence, the testimony of a father for or against his child is not admitted in a court of law.

AL-FĀTIḤAH (الفاتحة‎). Lit. “The opening one.” The first chapter of the Qurʾān, called also the Sūratu ʾl-Ḥamd, or the “Chapter of Praise.” It is held in great veneration by Muḥammadans, and is used by them very much as the Paternoster is recited by Roman Catholics. It is repeated over sick persons as a means of healing and also recited as an intercession for the souls of the departed, and occurs in each rakʿah of the daily prayer. Muḥammad is related to have said it was the greatest Sūrah in the Qurʾān, and to have called it the Qurʾānu ʾl-ʿAz̤īm, or the “exalted reading.” It is also entitled the Sabʿu ʾl-Mas̤ānī, or the “seven recitals,” as it contains seven verses; also Ummu ʾl-Qurʾān, the “Mother of the Qurʾān.” According to a saying of the Prophet, the fātiḥah was revealed twice; once at Makkah and once at al-Madīnah. The Amīn is always said at the conclusion of this prayer.

The following transliteration of the Arabic of the Fātiḥah into English characters may give some idea of the rhythm in which the Qurʾān is written:—

Al-ḥamdu li-ʾllāhi Rabbi ʾl-ʿālamīn.

Ar-raḥmāni ʾr-raḥīm.

Māliki yaumi ʾd-dīn.

Iyyāka naʿbudu, wa-iyyāka nastaʿīn.

Ihdinā ʾṣ-ṣirāt̤a ʾl-mustaqīm.

Ṣirāt̤a ʾllaẕīna anʿamta ʿalaihim.

G͟hairi ʾl-mag͟hẓūbi ʿalaihim, walā ʾẓ-ẓāllīn.

Which is translated by Rodwell in his English Qurʾān as follows:—

“Praise be to God, Lord of all the worlds!

The Compassionate, the Merciful!

King on the Day of Judgment!

Thee do we worship, and to Thee do we cry for help!

Guide Thou us on the right path!

The path of those to whom Thou art gracious!

Not of those with whom Thou art angered, nor of those who go astray.”

FĀT̤IMAH (فاطمة‎). A daughter of Muḥammad, by his first wife K͟hadījah. She married ʿAlī the cousin of Muḥammad, by whom she had three sons, al-Ḥasan, al-Ḥusain, and al-Muḥsin; the latter died in infancy. From the two former are descended the posterity of the Prophet, known as Saiyids. Fāt̤imah died six months after her father. She is spoken of by the Prophet as one of the four perfect women, and is called al-Batūl, or “the Virgin,” by which is meant one who had renounced the World, also Fāt̤imatu ʾz-zuhrāʾ, or “the beautiful Fāt̤imah.”

There are three women of the name of Fāt̤imah mentioned in the Traditions: (1) Fāt̤imah, the daughter of Muḥammad; (2) The mother of ʿAlī; (3) The daughter of Ḥamzah, the uncle of Muḥammad.

AL-FĀT̤IMĪYAH (الفاطمية‎). “The Fatimides.” A dynasty of K͟halīfahs who reigned over Egypt and North Africa from A.D. 908 to A.D. 1171. They obtained the name from the pretensions of the founder of their dynasty Abū Muḥammad ʿUbaidu ʾllāh, who asserted that he was a Saiyid, and descended from Fāt̤imah, the daughter of the Prophet and ʿAlī. His opponents declared he was the grandson of a Jew of the Magian religion.

There were in all fourteen K͟halīfahs of this dynasty:—

(1) ʿUbaidu ʾllāh, the first Fatimide K͟halīfah, was born A.D. 882. Having incurred the displeasure of al-Muktafī, the reigning Abasside K͟halīfah, he was obliged to wander through various parts of Africa, till through fortunate circumstances he was raised in A.D. 910 from a dungeon in Segelmessa to sovereign power. He assumed the title of al-Mahdī, or “the Director of the Faithful.” [126][MAHDI.] He subdued the Amīrs in the north of Africa, who had become independent of the Abbasides, and established his authority from the Atlantic to the borders of Egypt. He founded Mahadi on the site of the ancient Aphrodisium, a town on the coast of Africa, about a hundred miles south of Tunis, and made it his capital. He became the author of a great schism among the Muḥammadans by disowning the authority of the Abassides, and assuming the titles of K͟halīfah and Amīru ʾl-Muʾminīn, “Prince of the Faithful.” His fleets ravaged the coasts of Italy and Sicily, and his armies frequently invaded Egypt, but without any permanent success.

(2) Al-Qāʾim succeeded his father in A.D. 933. During his reign, an impostor, Abū Yazīd, originally an Ethiopian slave, advanced certain peculiar doctrines in religion, which he was enabled to propagate over the whole of the north of Africa, and was so successful in his military expeditions as to deprive al-Qāʾim of all his dominions, and confine him to his capital, Mahadi, which he was besieging when al-Qāʾim died.

(3) Al-Manṣūr succeeded his father in A.D. 946, when the kingdom was in a state of the greatest confusion. By his valour and prudence he regained the greater part of the dominions of his grandfather ʿUbaidu ʾllāh, defeated the usurper Abū Yazīd, and laid the foundation of that power which enabled his son al-Muʿizz to conquer Egypt.

(4) Al-Muʿizz (A.D. 955) was the most powerful of the Fatimide K͟halīfahs. He was successful in a naval war with Spain, and took the island of Sicily; but his most celebrated conquest was that of Egypt, which was subdued in A.D. 972. Two years afterwards he removed his court to Egypt, and founded Cairo. The name of the Abasside K͟halīfah was omitted in the Friday prayers, and his own substituted in its place; from which time the great schism of the Fatimide and Abasside K͟halīfahs is more frequently dated than from the assumption of the title by ʿUbaidu ʾllāh. The armies of al-Muʿizz conquered the whole of Palestine and Syria as far as Damascus.

(5) Al-ʿAzīz (A.D. 978). The dominions recently acquired by al-Muʿizz were secured to the Fatimide K͟halīfahs by the wise government of his son, al-ʿAzīz, who took several towns in Syria. He married a Christian woman, whose brothers he made patriarchs of Alexandria and Jerusalem.

(6) Al-Ḥākim was only eleven years of age when he succeeded his father in A.D. 996. He is distinguished even among Oriental despots by his cruelty and folly. His tyranny caused frequent insurrections in Cairo. He persecuted the Jews and Christians, and burnt their places of worship. By his order the Church of the Resurrection at Jerusalem was destroyed (A.D. 1009). His persecutions of the Christians induced them to appeal to their brethren in the West, and was one of the causes that led to the crusades. He carried his folly so far as to seek to become the founder of a new religion, and to assert that he was the express image of God. He was assassinated in A.D. 1021, and was succeeded by his son.

(7) Az̤-Z̤āhir (A.D. 1021) was not so cruel as his father, but was addicted to pleasure, and resigned all the cares of government to his Vizirs. In his reign the power of the Fatimide K͟halīfahs began to decline. They possessed nothing but the external show of royalty; secluded in the harem, they were the slaves of their vizirs whom they could not remove, and dared not disobey. In addition to the evils of misgovernment, Egypt was afflicted in the reign of az̤-Z̤āhir with one of the most dreadful famines that ever visited the country.

(8) Al-Mustanṣir (A.D. 1037) was only nine years old when he succeeded his father. The Turks invaded Syria and Palestine in his reign, took Damascus and Jerusalem (1076), where the princes of the house of Ortok, a Turkish family, established an independent kingdom. They advanced to the Nile with the intention of conquering Egypt, but were repulsed.

(9) Al-Mustaʿlī (A.D. 1094), the second son of al-Mustanṣir, was seated on the throne by the all-powerful Vizir Afẓal, in whose hands the entire power rested during the whole of al-Mustaʿlī’s reign. The invasion of Asia Minor by the Crusaders in 1097 appeared to Afẓal a favourable opportunity for the recovery of Jerusalem. Refusing to assist the Turks against the Crusaders, he marched against Jerusalem, took it (1098), and deprived the Ortok princes of the sovereignty which they had exercised for twenty years. His possession of Jerusalem was, however, of very short duration, for it was taken in the following year (1099) by the Crusaders. Anxious to recover his loss, he led an immense army in the same year against Jerusalem, but was entirely defeated by the Crusaders near Ascalon.

(10) Al-Āmir (A.D. 1101).

(11) Al-Ḥāfiẕ (A.D. 1129).

(12) Az̤-Z̤āfir (A.D. 1149).

(13) Al-Fāʾiz (A.D. 1154).

During these reigns the power of the Fatimides rapidly decayed.

(14) Al-ʿĀẓid (A.D. 1160) was the last K͟halīfah of the Fatimide dynasty. At the commencement of his reign Egypt was divided into two factions, the respective chiefs of which, Dargham and Shāwir, disputed for the dignity of Vizir. Shāwir implored the assistance of Nūru ʾd-dīn, who sent an army into Egypt under the command of Shīrkūh, by means of which his rival was crushed. But becoming jealous of Nūru ʾd-dīn’s power in Egypt, he solicited the aid of Amauri, King of Jerusalem, who marched into Egypt and expelled Shīrkūh from the country. Nūru ʾd-dīn soon sent another army into Egypt under the same commander, who was accompanied by his nephew, the celebrated Ṣalāḥu ʾd-dīn (Saladin). Shīrkūh was again unsuccessful, and was obliged to retreat. The ambition of Amauri afforded [127]shortly afterwards a more favourable opportunity for the reduction of Egypt. Amauri, after driving Shīrkūh out of the country, meditated the design of reducing it to his own authority. Shāwir, alarmed at the success of Amauri, entreated the assistance of Nūru ʾd-dīn, who sent Shīrkūh for the third time at the head of a numerous army. He repulsed the Christians, and afterwards put the treacherous Vizir to death. Shīrkūh succeeded to his dignity, but dying shortly after, Saladin obtained the post of Vizir. As Nūru ʾd-dīn was attached to the interests of the Abassides, he gave orders for the proclamation of al-Mustahdī, the Abasside K͟halīfah, and for depriving the Fatimides of the K͟halīfate. ʿĀẓid, who was then on a sick-bed, died a few days afterwards. [KHALIFAH.]

FATQ (فتق‎). Lit. “Opening.” A term used by Ṣūfī mystics to explain the eternity of matter, together with its development in creation. (ʿAbdu ʾr-Razzāq’s Dict. of Ṣūfī Terms.)

FATRAH (فترة‎). Lit. “Languor,” or “Intermission.” (1) The interval between the supposed revelation of the XCVIth Sūrah of the Qurʾān and the LXXIVth and XCIIIrd Sūrahs. It is during this period that the powers of inspiration of the Prophet are said to have been suspended, and it was then that he contemplated suicide by intending to cast himself from Mount Ḥirāʾ. The accounts of this interval are confused and contradictory, and various are the periods assigned to it, viz. from seven months to seven years.

(2) The term is also used for the time which elapses between the disappearance of a prophet and the appearance of another. (G͟hiyās̤u ʾl-Lug͟hah in loco.)

(3) A term used by Ṣūfī mystics for a declension in spiritual life. (ʿAbdu ʾr-Razzāq’s Dict. of Ṣūfī Terms.)

AL-FATTĀḤ (الفتاح‎), “The Opener” of that which is difficult.

One of the ninety-nine names or attributes of God. It occurs in the Qurʾān, Sūrah xxxiv., “For He is the opener who knows.”

FATWĀ (فتوى‎). A religious or judicial sentence pronounced by the K͟halīfah or by a Muftī, or Qāẓī. It is generally written. The following is a fatwā delivered by the present Muftī of the Ḥanafī sect at Makkah in reply to the question as to whether India is a Dāru ʾl-Islām. Fatwās are generally written in a similar form to this, but in Arabic:—

“All praises are due to the Almighty, who is Lord of all the creation!

O Almighty, increase my knowledge!

As long as even some of the peculiar observances of Islām prevail in it, it is the Dāru ʾl-Islām.

The Almighty is Omniscient, Pure and High!

This is the Fatwā passed by one who hopes for the secret favour of the Almighty, who praises God, and prays for blessings and peace on his Prophet.

(Signed) Jamal ibn ʿAbdu ʾl-lah Shaikh ʿUmaru ʾl-Ḥanafi, the present Muftī of Makkah (the Honoured).

May God favour him and his father.”

FAUJDĀR (فوجدآر‎). An officer of the Mog͟hul Government who was invested with the charge of the police, and jurisdiction in all criminal matters. A criminal judge. Faujdārī is a term now used in British courts for a criminal suit as opposed to dīwānī, or civil.

FAUTU ʾL-ḤAJJ (فوت الحج‎). The end of the Pilgrimage. [PILGRIMAGE.]

FAẒL (فضل‎). Lit. “That which remains over and above; redundant.” A word used in the Qurʾān for God’s grace or kindness. Sūrah ii. 244: “God is Lord of grace to men, but most men give no thanks.” The Christian idea of divine grace, as in the New Testament, seems to be better expressed by fayẓ-i-aqdas.

FAẒŪLĪ (فضولى‎). Lit. “That which is in excess.” A term used in Muḥammadan law for anything unauthorised, e.g. baiʿ-i-faẓūlī, is an unauthorised sale. Nikāḥ-i-faẓūlī is an unauthorised marriage, when the contracts are made by an unauthorised agent.

FEAST DAYS. Arabic ʿīd (عيد‎); dual ʿīdān; plural aʿyād. The two great festivals of the Muḥammadans are, the ʿĪdu ʾl-Fit̤r, and the ʿĪdu ʾl-Aẓḥā. The other festivals which are celebrated as days of rejoicing are, the Shab-i-Barāt, or the fifteenth day of Shaʿbān; the Nau-Roz, or New Year’s day; the Ak͟hir-i-Chahār Shamba, or the last Wednesday of the month of Ṣafar; the Laylatu ʾr-Rag͟hāʾib, or the first Friday in the month of Rajab; the Maulūd, or the birthday of Muḥammad.

An account of these feasts is given under their respective titles.

FEMALE INFANTICIDE, which existed amongst the ancient Arabians, was condemned by Muḥammad. Vide Qurʾān:—

Sūrah xvi. 60: “For when the birth of a daughter is announced to any one of them, dark shadows settle on his face, and he is sad. He hideth himself from the people because of the bad news: shall he keep it with disgrace or bury it in the dust? Are not their judgments wrong.”

Sūrah xvii. 33: “Kill not your children for fear of want: for them and for you will We (God) provide.”

Sūrah lxxxi. 8: “… And when the damsel that had been buried alive shall be asked (at the Day of Judgment) for what crime she was put to death.”

FIDYAH (فدية‎). A ransom. From fidāʾ, “to ransom,” “to exchange.” An expiation [128]for sin, or for duties unperformed. The word occurs three times in the Qurʾān:—

Sūrah ii. 180: “For those who are able to keep it (the fast) and yet break it, there shall be as an expiation the maintenance of a poor man.”

Sūrah ii. 192: “Perform the pilgrimage and the visitation of the holy places.… But whoever among you is sick, or hath an ailment of the head, must expiate by fasting, or alms, or a sacrifice.”

Sūrah lvii. 14: “On that day (the Day of Judgment) no expiation shall be taken from you (i.e. the hypocrites) or from those who do not believe; your abode is the fire.”

The other word used in the Qurʾān for the same idea is kaffārah. [KAFFARAH, EXPIATION.]

FIG. Arabic at-Tīn (التين‎). The title of the XCVth Sūrah of the Qurʾān, so called because Muḥammad makes the Almighty swear by that fruit in the first verse. Al-Baiẓāwī says God swears by figs because of their great use. They are most excellent, because they can be eaten at once, having no stones, they are easy of digestion, and help to carry off the phlegm, and gravel in the kidneys or bladder, and remove obstructions of the liver, and also cure piles and gout. (Tafsīru ʾl-Baiẓāwī, in loco.)

FIJĀR (فجار‎). Lit. “That which is unlawful.” A term given to a series of sacrilegious wars carried on between the Quraish, and the Banū Hawāzin, when Muḥammad was a youth, about A.D. 580–590. (Muir, vol. ii. 3.)

AL-FĪL (الفيل‎). The title of the CVth Sūrah of the Qurʾān, as it gives an account of the Aṣḥābu ʾl-Fīl, or “People of the Elephant.” [ELEPHANT.]

FINES. Arabic Diyah (دية‎). A term which, in its strictest sense, means a sum exacted for any offence upon the person, in consideration for the claim of qiṣāṣ, or retaliation, not being insisted upon. (This does not apply to wilful murder.) A full and complete fine is that levied upon a person for manslaughter, which consists of either one hundred female camels or ten thousand dirhams (silver), or one thousand dīnārs (gold).

The fine for slaying a woman is half that for slaying a man, “because the rank of a woman is lower than that of a man, so also her faculties and uses!” The fine for slaying a ẕimmī (be he a Jew, Christian, or idolater) is the same as for slaying a Muslim.

A complete fine is also levied for the destruction of a nose, or a tongue, or a virile member, and, also, if a person tear out the beard, or the hair of the scalp, or the whiskers, or both eyebrows, so that they never grow again, “because the beauty of the countenance is thereby effaced.”

A complete fine is due for any fellow parts, as for two eyes, two lips, &c., and one half the fine for one single member.

For each finger, a tenth of the complete fine is due, and as every finger has three joints, a third of the fine for the whole is due for each joint.

The fine for a tooth is a twentieth of the complete fine.

A half fine is due for merely destroying the use of a limb, but if a person strike another in any way so as to completely destroy the beauty of his person, a complete fine must be paid. Wounds on the face, viz. from the crown of the head to the chin, are specially treated, and are termed shijāj. Of shijāj, or “face wounds,” there are ten: (1) hārifah, or such as draw no blood—a mere scratch; (2) dāmiyah, a scratch which draws blood, without causing it to flow; (3) damīyah, a scratch which causes blood to flow; (4) bāẓiʿah, a cut through the skin; (5) mutalāḥimah, a cut to the flesh; (6) simḥāq, a wound reaching into the pericranium; (7) mūẓiḥah, a wound which lays bare the bone; (8) hāshimah, a fracture of the skull; (9) munākilah, a fracture which causes the removal of part of the skull; (10) āmmah, a wound extending to the brain.

For an āmmah wound, a third of the complete fine is due. Fifteen camels are due for a munākilah, ten for a hāshimah, five for a mūẓiḥah, and so on.

All other wounds on other parts of the body may be adjusted for according to the above scale, but are left to the decision of the judge.

For further information on the subject see “Bābu ʾl-Diyah” in the Durru ʾl-Muk͟htār, or the Hidāyah, or the Fatāwā ʿĀlamgīrī, or the Raddu ʾl-Muḥtār.

FIQH (فقه‎). The dogmatic theology of the Muslims. Works on Muḥammadan law, whether civil or religious. The books most read by the Sunnīs are the Hidāyah, written by a learned man named ʿAlī ibn Abū Bakr, A.H. 593, part of which has been translated by the late Colonel Charles Hamilton; the Durru ʾl-Muk͟htār, by ʿAlāʾu ʾd-dīn, A.H. 1088; the Sharḥu ʾl-Wiqāyah, by ʿUbaidu ʾllāh ibn Masʿūd, A.H. 745; the Raddu ʾl-Muḥtār, by Saiyid Muḥammad Amīn ibn ʿĀbidi ʾd-dīn, and the Fatāwā ʿĀlamgīrī. Amongst the Imāmīyah School, or Shīʿahs, the principal works are Kitābu ʾsh-Sharāiʿ, by Abū ʾl-Ḥasan ʿAlī (A.H. 326); the Muqniʿ fī ʾl-Fiqh, by Abū Jaʿfar (A.H. 360); the Sharāʿiʾu ʾl-Islām, by Shaik͟h Najmu ʾd-dīn (A.H. 679); and the Jāmiʿu ʾl-ʿAbbāsi, by Bahāʾu ʾd-dīn (A.H. 1031).

FĪRĀSAH (فراسة‎), or farāsah. A Ṣūfī term for the enlightenment of the heart. A penetration into the secrets of the unknown. ʿIlmu ʾl-firāsah, “The science of physiognomy.”

FIRĀSH (فراش‎). Lit. “A couch.” In Muḥammadan law “a wife.”

FIRʿAUN (فرعون‎). [PHARAOH.]

FIRDAUS (فردوس‎). The highest stage of celestial bliss. [PARADISE.]


FIRE. Arabic nār (نار‎). (1) The term an-nār, “the fire,” is generally used in the Qurʾān and the Traditions for “hell.” (2) In the Qurʾān (Sūrah xxxvii. 29) the power of God is declared as being able to “give fire out of a green tree.” On which al-Baiẓāwī says, “the usual way of getting fire is by rubbing two pieces of wood together, one of which is mark͟h and the other afār, and they produce fire, although both the sticks are green. (3) The burning to death of human beings is condemned by Muḥammad, who said “Let no one punish with the punishment of fire but God.”

FIRST-BORN. Although the Arabian legislator followed the Mosaic law in so many of his legal enactments, he has carefully avoided any legislation as to the rights of primogeniture, although it formed such a marked feature in the Pentateuch, in which the first-born of man and beast were devoted to God, and were redeemed with a price. In the Muslim law of inheritance, all the sons share equally, whilst in the Mosaic law the eldest son received a double portion of the father’s inheritance. (Deut. xxi. 17.)

In cases of chiefship, or monarchy, the eldest son usually inherits, but it rests entirely upon his fitness for the position. Very often the eldest son is passed by and a younger brother selected as ruler. This was also the case amongst the Jews when Solomon succeeded his father in the kingdom. (1 Kings i. 30; ii. 22.)

The curious fact that Muḥammad made no provision for these rights of primogeniture, may have arisen from his having had no son to survive him.

FISH. Arabic samak (سمك‎). (1) Fish which, dying of themselves, float upon the surface of the water, are abominated, according to Abū Ḥanīfah. Ash-Shāfiʿī, and Mālik say they are indifferent. Abū Ḥanīfah teaches that fish which are killed by accident are lawful, but such as die of themselves without any accident are unlawful. There are, however, different opinions regarding those which die of extreme heat or cold.

(2) In the law of sale, it is not lawful to sell fish which is not yet caught, nor is it lawful to sell fish which the vendor may have caught and afterwards thrown into a large tank.

(3) Whilst the destruction of all animals, except noxious ones, is forbidden during the pilgrimage, fishing in the sea is permitted by the Qurʾān, Sūrah v. 97: “Lawful for you is the game of the sea.”

FITAN (فتن‎), pl. of fitnah. Seditions; strifes; commotions.

A term specially used for those wars and commotions which shall precede the Resurrection. A chapter is devoted to the subject in all the books of traditions. (See Ṣaḥīḥu ʾl-Buk͟hārī, p. 1045; Ṣaḥīḥu Muslim, p. 388.)

Muḥammad is related to have said, “There will be K͟halīfahs after me that will not go the straight road in which I have gone, nor will follow my example, but in those times there will be the hearts of devils in the bodies of men.” Ḥuẕaifah then said to him, “O Prophet, what shall I do if I live to see those days?” And the Prophet said, “Obey him who has the rule over you, even though he flog your back and take your money.”

Ṣafīyah, in a tradition (recorded in at-Tirmiẕī and Abū Dāʾūd), said that Muḥammad said that the succession would last for thirty years, and that the “four rightly directed K͟halīfahs” reigned exactly that time: Abū Bakr, two years; ʿUmar, ten; ʿUs̤mān, twelve; and ʿAlī, six.

A mover or leader of sedition is called a bag͟hī or rebel. [REBELLION.]

FIT̤RAH (فطرة‎). Lit. “Nature.” Certain ancient practices of the prophets before the time of Muḥammad, which have not been forbidden by him.

ʿĀyishah relates that the Prophet said: “There are ten qualities of the prophets—clipping the mustachios, so that they do not enter the mouth, not cutting or shaving the beard, cleansing the teeth (i.e. miswāk), cleansing the nostrils with water at the usual ablutions, cutting the nails, cleaning the finger joints, pulling out the hairs under the arm-pits, shaving the hair of the privates, washing with water after passing urine, and cleansing the mouth with water at the time of ablution.” (See Ṣaḥīḥu Muslim.)

The nose is to be washed out with water because it is supposed that the devil resides in the nose during the night. (See Mishkāt.)

There is a chapter in the Avesta of the Parsees, containing injunctions as to the paring of the nails of the hands and feet.

FIVE FOUNDATIONS OF ISLĀM. (1) Shahādah, or bearing witness that there is no deity but God; (2) Ṣalāt, or the observance of the five stated periods of prayer; (3) Zakāt, giving the legal alms once a year; (4) Ṣaum, fasting during the whole of the month of Ramaẓān; (5) Ḥajj, the pilgrimage to Makkah once in a life-time. They are also called the five foundations of practice, as distinguished from the six foundations of faith. [ISLAM, IMAN.]

FIVE KEYS OF SECRET KNOWLEDGE, which are with God alone, are said to be found in the last verse of the Sūrah Luqmān (XXXIst, 34) of the Qurʾān: “God! with Him is (1) the Knowledge of the Hour; (2) and He sendeth down rain; (3) and He knoweth what is in the wombs; (4) but no soul knoweth what shall be on the morrow; (5) neither knoweth any soul in what land he shall die. Verily God is knowing and is informed of all.”

FIVE SENSES, The. Arabic al-ḥawāssu ʾl-k͟hamsah (الحواسّ الخمسة‎). According to Muḥammadan writers, there are five external (z̤āhirī) senses, and five internal [130](bāt̤inī) senses. The former being those five faculties known amongst European writers as seeing (baṣirah), hearing (sāmiʿah), smelling (shāmmah), taste (ẕāʾiqah), touch (lāmisah). The latter: common sense (ḥiss-i-mushtarak), the imaginative faculty (qūwat-i-k͟hayāl), the thinking faculty (qūwat-i-mutaṣarrifah), the instinctive faculty (qūwat-i-wāhimah), the retentive faculty (qūwat-i-ḥāfiz̤ah).

FOOD. Arabic t̤aʿām (طعام‎), pl. at̤ʿimah. The injunctions contained in the Qurʾān (Sūrah ii. 167) respecting food are as follows: “O ye who believe! eat of the good things with which we have supplied you, and give God thanks if ye are His worshippers. Only that which dieth of itself, and blood, and swine’s flesh, and that over which any other name than that of God hath been invoked, hath God forbidden you. But he who shall partake of them by constraint, without desire, or of necessity, then no sin shall be upon him. Verily God is forgiving and merciful.” Sūrah v. 92.: “O Believers! wine (k͟hamr) and games of chance, and statues, and divining-arrows are only an abomination of Satan’s work! Avoid them that ye may prosper.”

The other injunctions concerning food are found in the Traditions and sayings of Muḥammad.

No animal, except fish and locusts, is lawful food unless it be slaughtered according to the Muḥammadan law, namely, by drawing the knife across the throat and cutting the wind-pipe, the carotid arteries, and the gullet, repeating at the same time the words “Biʾsmi ʾllāhi, Allāhu akbar,” i.e. “In the name of God, God is great.” A clean animal, so slaughtered, becomes lawful food for Muslims, whether slaughtered by Jews, Christians, or Muḥammadans, but animals slaughtered by either an idolater, or an apostate from Islām, is not lawful.

Ẕabḥ, or the slaying of animals, is of two kinds. Ik͟htiyārī, or of choice, and Iẓt̤irārī, or of necessity. The former being the slaughtering of animals in the name of God, the latter being the slaughter effected by a wound, as in shooting birds or animals, in which case the words Biʾsmi ʾllāhi, Allāhu akbar must be said at the time of the discharge of the arrow from the bow or the shot from the gun.

According to the Hidāyah, all quadrupeds that seize their prey with their teeth, and all birds which seize it with their talons are unlawful, because the Prophet has prohibited mankind from eating them. Hyenas, foxes, elephants, weasels, pelicans, kites, carrion crows, ravens, crocodiles, otters, asses, mules, wasps, and in general all insects, are forbidden. But there is some doubt as to the lawfulness of horses’ flesh. Fishes dying of themselves are also forbidden.

The prohibition of wine in the Qurʾān under the word k͟hamr is held to exclude all things which have an intoxicating tendency, such as opium, chars, bhang, and tobacco.

A Muslim can have no religious scruples to eat with a Christian, as long as the food eaten is of a lawful kind. Saiyid Aḥmad K͟hān Bahādur, C.S.I., has written a treatise proving that Muḥammadans can eat with the Ahl-i-Kitāb, namely, Jews or Christians. The Muḥammadans of India, whilst they will eat food cooked by idolatrous Hindūs, refuse to touch that cooked either by Native or European Christians; and they often refuse to allow Christians to draw water from the public wells, although Hindūs are permitted to do so. Such objections arise solely from jealousy of race, and an unfriendly feeling towards the ruling power. In Afghanistan and Persia, no such objections exist; and no doubt much evil has been caused by Government allowing Hindūstānī Muslims to create a religious custom which has no foundation whatever, except that of national hatred to their English conquerors. [EATING.]

FORBIDDEN FRUIT, The. Mentioned in the Qurʾān, Sūrah ii. 33: “And we (God) said, ‘O Adam, dwell thou and thy wife in Paradise and eat therefrom amply as you wish; but do not draw near this tree’ (shajarah).”

Concerning this tree, the Commentators have various opinions. Ḥusain says some say it was a fig tree, or a vine, but most people think it was a grain of wheat (ḥint̤ah) from a wheat stalk. [ADAM, FALL.]


FORGIVENESS OF INJURIES. Enjoined in the Qurʾān in the following words (Sūrah xlii. 38): “Let the recompense of evil be only a like evil—but he who forgiveth and maketh peace, shall find his reward for it from God; verily He loveth not those who act unjustly. And there shall be no way open (i.e. no blame) against those who, after being wronged, avenge themselves.… Whoso beareth wrongs and forgiveth—this is a bounden duty.”

FORNICATION. Arabic zināʾ (زناء‎). The word zināʾ includes both fornication with an unmarried person, and adultery with a married person. [ADULTERY.]

The sin of fornication must be established, as in the case of adultery, either by proofs or by confession.

To establish it by proof, four witnesses are required, and if any person bring an accusation against a woman of chaste reputation and fail to establish it, he must be punished with eighty stripes. [QAZF.]

When a person for conscience sake confesses the sin of fornication, the confession must be repeated four times at four different appearances before a qāẓī, and the person confessing must be very exact and particular as to the circumstances, so that there can be no mistake. A self-accused person may also retract the confession at any period before, or during, the infliction of the punishment, and the retractation must be accepted.

The punishment for fornication is one hundred stripes (or fifty for a slave). The [131]scourging to be inflicted upon a man standing and upon a woman sitting; and the woman is not to be stripped. It should be done with moderation, with a strap or whip, which has no knots upon it, and the stripes should be given not all upon the same part of the body. [DIRRAH.]

In some countries banishment is added to the punishment of scourging for fornication, especially if the sin is often repeated, so as to constitute common prostitution.

The law is founded upon the following verse in the Qurʾān, Sūrah xxiv. 2–5:—

“The whore and the whoremonger—scourge each of them with an hundred stripes; and let not compassion keep you from carrying out the sentence of God, if ye believe in God and the last day: And let some of the faithful witness their chastisement.

“The whoremonger shall not marry other than a whore or an idolatress; and the whore shall not marry other than a whoremonger or an idolater. Such alliances are forbidden to the faithful.

“They who defame virtuous women, and bring not four witnesses, scourge them with fourscore stripes, and receive ye not their testimony for ever, for these are perverse persons—

“Save those who afterwards repent and live virtuously; for truly God is Lenient, Merciful!”

The Muḥammadan law differs from Jewish law with regard to fornication; see Exodus xxii. 16, 17:—“If a man entice a maid that is not betrothed, and lie with her, he shall surely endow her to be his wife. If her father utterly refuse to give her unto him, he shall pay money according to the dowry of virgins.” Deut. xxii. 25–29:—“If a damsel that is a virgin be betrothed unto a husband, and a man find her in the city and lie with her, then ye shall bring them out unto the gate of the city, and ye shall stone them with stones that they die: the damsel because she cried not, being in the city, and the man because he hath humbled his neighbour’s wife; so shalt thou put away evil from among you. But if a man find a betrothed damsel in the field, and the man force her and lie with her, then the man only that lay with her shall die. But unto the damsel shalt thou do nothing: there is in the damsel no sin worthy of death.… If a man find a damsel that is a virgin, which is not betrothed, and lay hold on her, and lie with her, and they be found, then the man that lay with her shall give unto the damsel’s father fifty shekels of silver, and she shall be his wife; because he hath humbled her, he may not put her away all his days.”

FORTUNE-TELLING. Arabic kahānah (كهانة‎). Muʿāwiyah ibn Ḥakam relates that he asked the Prophet if it were right to consult fortune-tellers about future events, and he replied, “Since you have embraced Islām, you must not consult them.” [MAGIC.]

FOSTERAGE. Arabic raẓāʿah, riẓāʿah (رضاعة‎). According to Abū Ḥanīfah, the period of fosterage is thirty months; but the two disciples, Yūsuf and Muḥammad, hold it to be two years, whilst Zufar maintains that it is three years. Fosterage with respect to the prohibitions attached to it is of two kinds; first, where a woman takes a strange child to nurse, by which all future matrimonial connection between that child and the woman, or her relations within the prohibited degrees, is rendered illegal; secondly, where a woman nurses two children, male and female, upon the same milk, which prohibits any future matrimonial connection between them. For further particulars on this subject, see Hamilton’s Hidāyah, vol. i. page 187.

FOUNDLING. Arabic laqīt̤ (لقيط‎). Lit. “That which is picked up.” The person who finds the child is called the multaqit̤. The taking up of a foundling is said to be a laudable and generous act, and where the finder sees that the child’s life is in peril, it is an incumbent religious duty. (Hidāyah, vol. ii. p. 252.)

The maintenance of a foundling is defrayed from the public treasury, but the finder is not to demand anything for his trouble and expense, but after the finding of the child has been reported to the magistrate, the child is legally placed under the care of the multaqit̤, and supported by the state. A foundling is declared to be free, and not a slave, and unless he be found on the land or property of a Jew or Christian, he is declared a Muslim. But if the child be found on the property of a Jew or Christian, he will be declared a Jew or Christian as the case may be. The multaqit̤ cannot contract the foundling in marriage without the sanction of the magistrate, but he may send him to school and in every respect see to his education and training without consulting the magistrate.

FRIDAY. Arabic Jumʿah (جمعة‎). “The Day of Assembly.” The Muḥammadan Sabbath, on which they assemble in the Jāmiʿ Masjid, or chief mosque, and recite two rakʿahs of prayers and listen to the oration, or k͟hut̤bah at the time of mid-day prayer. Muḥammad claims in the Traditions to have established Friday as a day of worship by divine command. He says, “Friday was ordered as a divine day of worship both for the Jew and Christian, but they have acted contrary to the command. The Jew fixed Saturday and the Christian fixed Sunday.”

According to the same traditions, Friday is “the best day on which the sun rises, the day on which Adam was taken into Paradise and turned out of it, the day on which he repented and on which he died. It will also be the Day of Resurrection.”

There is also a certain hour on Friday (known only to God) on which a Muslim obtains all the good he asks of the Almighty. Muḥammad prayed that God may put a seal on the heart of every Muslim who through [132]negligence omits prayer for three successive Fridays. Muḥammad said:—

“Whoever bathes on Friday and comes to prayers in the beginning and comes on foot and sets near the Imām and listens to the k͟hut̤bah, and says nothing playful, but sits silent, every step he took will get the rewards of a whole year’s worshipping and rewards of one year’s fast and one year’s prayings at night.”

“There are three descriptions of people present on Friday, one of them who comes to the masjid talking triflingly, and this is what he gets instead of rewards; and there is a man who is present for making supplications, and he asks God, and if He wills He gives him, if not, refuses; the third a man who attends to hear the k͟hut̤bah and is silent, and does not incommode anyone, and this Friday covers his sins till the next, and three days longer; for God says, Whoever doth one good act will receive ten in return.” (Mishkāt, book iv. c. xliii.) [KHUTBAH.]

FRIENDSHIP with Jews and Christians is condemned in the Qurʾān, Sūrah v. 56: “O ye who believe! take not the Jews and Christians for your friends (or patrons); they are the friends of each other; but whoso amongst you takes them for friends, verily he is of them, and, verily, God guides not an unjust people.”

FRUITS OF THE EARTH are described in the Qurʾān as evidences of God’s love and care for his creatures.

Sūrah vi. 142:—

“He it is who produceth gardens of the vine trellised and untrellised, and the palm trees, and the corn of various food, and olives, and pomegranates, like and unlike. Eat of their fruit when they bear fruit, and pay the due thereof on the day of its ingathering: and be not prodigal, for God loveth not the prodigal.”

Sūrah xiii. 3:—

“And He it is who hath outstretched the earth, and placed on it the firm mountains, and rivers: and of every fruit He hath placed on it two kinds: He causeth the night to enshroud the day. Verily in this are signs for those who reflect.

“And on the earth hard by each other are its various portions: gardens of grapes and corn, and palm trees single or clustered. Though watered by the same water, yet some make we more excellent as food than other: Verily in all this are signs for those who understand.”

FUGITIVES. (1) A fugitive slave, either male or female, is called ābiq (آبق‎). The capture of a fugitive slave is a laudable act, and the captor is entitled to a reward of forty dirhams. (2) A fugitive on account of religion is called muhājir (مهاجر‎). Special blessings are promised to those who flee their country on account of their being Muslims.

Sūrah iv. 101: “Whosoever flees in the way of God shall find in the earth a spacious refuge.”

Sūrah xxii. 57: “Those who flee in God’s way and then are slain or die, God will provide them with a godly provision.” [SLAVES, MUHAJIR.]

FULS (فلس‎). An idol (or an idol temple), belonging to the Banī T̤aiy, a tribe divided between the profession of idolatry and Christianity. Destroyed by ʿAlī by order of Muḥammad, A.H. 630. (Muir, vol. iv. p. 177.)

FUNERAL. Arabic janāzah (جنازه‎). [BURIAL.]

FURĀT (فــرات‎). The river Euphrates, said to be one of the rivers of Eden. [EDEN.]

AL-FURQĀN (الفرقان‎). (1) The title of the XXVth Sūrah of the Qurʾān. (2) One of the titles of the Qurʾān (Sūrah ii. 181; iii. 2; xxv. 1). (3) The title given to the Taurāt revealed to Moses (Sūrah ii. 50; xxi. 49). (4) The victory on the day of the battle of Badr (Sūrah viii. 42). (5) A term used by Ṣūfī mystics for a distinguishing between truth and error.

Muḥammadan lexicographers are unanimous in interpreting the word furqān to mean that which distinguishes between good and evil, lawful and unlawful. The Jews use the word perek, or pirka, from the same root, to denote a section or portion of scripture.

FUṢṢILAT (فصلت‎). Lit. “Were made plain.” A title of the XLIst Sūrah of the Qurʾān, from the word occurring in the second verse. The Sūrah is also known as the Hāmīm as-Sajdah, to distinguish it from the Sūrah XXXIInd, which is also called as-Sajdah, or “Adoration.”

FUTURE LIFE. The immortality of the soul and the reality of a future life are very distinctive doctrines of the religion of Muḥammad, and very numerous are the references to it in the Qurʾān. The whole system of Islām is based upon the belief in the future existence of the soul of man. A description of the special character of this future life will be found in the article on PARADISE.

The terms generally used to express a future life are Dāru ʾl-Ak͟hirat, Dāru ʾl-Baqāʾ, Dāru ʾl-Uqbā. [133]


GABR (گبر‎). [MAJUS.]

GABRIEL. Arabic Jibrāʾīl (جبرايل‎). In the Qurʾān Jibrīl (جبريل‎). The angelic being who is supposed to have been the medium of the revelation of the Qurʾān to Muḥammad. He is mentioned only twice in the Qurʾān by name. Sūratu ʾl-Baqarah ii. 91: “Whoso is the enemy of Gabriel—for he hath by God’s leave caused to descend on thy heart the confirmation of previous revelations,” &c. And again in Sūratu ʾt-Taḥrīm, lxvi. 4: “God is his Protector, and Gabriel.” He is, however, supposed to be spoken of in Sūrahs ii. 81, 254; v. 109; xvi. 104, as “the Holy Spirit,” Rūḥu ʾl-Qudus; in Sūrah xxvi. 193, as “the Faithful Spirit,” ar-Rūḥu ʾl-Amīn; and in liii. 5, as “one terrible in power,” Shadīdu ʾl-Quwā.

The account of Gabriel’s first appearance to Muḥammad is related as follows by Abū ʾl-Fidāʾ: “Muḥammad was wont to retire to Mount Ḥirā for a month every year. When the year of his mission came, he went to Mount Ḥirā in the month of Ramaẓān for the purpose of sojourning there, having his family with him; and there he abode until the night arrived in which God was pleased to bless him. Gabriel came to him, and said to him, ‘Recite!’ And he replied, ‘What shall I recite?’ And he said, ‘Recite thou, in the name of thy Lord who created. Created man from clots of blood. Recite thou! For the Lord is most Beneficent. Who hath taught the use of