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Title: Notes and Queries, Number 202, September 10, 1853

Author: Various

Editor: George Bell

Release date: August 29, 2021 [eBook #66168]

Language: English

Credits: Charlene Taylor, Jonathan Ingram and the Online Distributed Proofreading Team at (This file was produced from images generously made available by The Internet Library of Early Journals.)





"When found, make a note of."Captain Cuttle.

No. 202.]

Saturday, September 10. 1853.

[Price Fourpence.
Stamped Edition, 5d.


Notes:— Page
Milton and Malatesti, by Bolton Corney 237
"That Swinney" 238
Tom, Mythic and Material, by V. T. Sternberg 239
Shakspeare Correspondence, by T. J. Buckton, Thos. Keightley, &c. 240
Minor Notes:—Gray: "The ploughman homeward plods"—Poetical Tavern Signs—"Aquæ in Vinum conversæ. Vidit et erubuit lympha pudica Deum"—Spurious Edition of Baily's "Annuities"—"Illustrium Poetarum Flores"—French Jeux d'Esprit 241
Samuel Wilson 242
Minor Queries:—The Rothwell Family—Definition of a Proverb—Latin Riddle—D. Ferrand: French Patois—"Fac precor, Jesu benigne," &c.—The Arms of De Sissonne—Sir George Brown—Professional Poems—"A mockery," &c.—Passage in Whiston—Shoulder Knots and Epaulettes—The Yew Tree in Village Churchyards—Passage in Tennyson—"When the Maggot bites"—Eclipses of the Sun—"An" before "u" long—Reversible Names—Gilbert White of Selborne—Hoby, Family of; their Portraits, &c.—Portrait of Sir Anthony Wingfield—Lofcopp, Lufcopp, or Luvcopp—Humming Ale 243
Minor Queries with Answers:—Dr. Richard Sherlock—Cardinal Fleury and Bishop Wilson—Dr. Dodd a Dramatist—Trosachs—Quarter 246
Jacob Böhme, or Behmen, by J. Yeowell 246
Inscriptions on Bells, by Cuthbert Bede, B.A. 248
Passage in Milton 249
Designed false English Rhymes 249
Attainment of Majority, by Professor De Morgan 250
Lady Percy, Wife of Hotspur (Daughter of Edmund Mortimer, Earl of March), and Jane Seymour's Royal Descent 251
Photographic Correspondence:—Three New Processes by Mr. Lyte—Muller's Processes: Sisson's Developing Solution 252
Replies to Minor Queries:—Alterius Orbis Papa—"All my eye"—"Clamour your tongues"—Spiked Maces represented in Windows of the Abbey Church, Great Malvern—Ampers and—Its—"Hip, hip, hurrah!"—Derivation of "Wellesley"—Penny-come-quick—Eugene Aram's Comparative Lexicon—Wooden Tombs and Effigies—Queen Anne's Motto—Longevity—Irish Bishops as English Suffragans—Green Pots used for drinking from by Members of the Temple—Shape of Coffins—Old Fogies—Swan-marks—Limerick, Dublin, and Cork—"Could we with ink," &c.—Character of the Song of the Nightingale—Adamson's "Lusitania Illustrata"—Adamsoniana—Crassus' Saying, &c. 254
Books and Odd Volumes wanted 258
Notices to Correspondents 258
Advertisements 259



About nine years after Milton visited Italy, he thus briefly noticed, in letter to Carlo Dati, his surviving Florentine friends:

"Carolo Dato patricio Florentino.... Tu interim, mi Carole, valebis, et Cultellino, Francino, Frescobaldo, Malatestæ, Clementillo minori, et si quem alium nostri amantiorem novisti; toti denique Gaddianæ academiæ, salutem meo nomine plurimam dices. Interim vale.—Londino, Aprilis 21. 1647."

The above extract is from The prose works of John Milton, as printed in 1806, and I shall add to it the translation by Robert Fellowes, A.M., from the same edition:

"To Carolo Deodati, a Florentine noble.... In the mean time, my dear Charles, farewell, and present my kind wishes to Cultellino, Francisco, Trescobaldo, Malatesto, the younger Clemantillo, and every other inquiring friend, and to all the members of the Gaddian academy. Adieu.—London, April 21. 1647."

Warton states, in a note on the minor poems of Milton, that Mr. Brand discovered, on a book-stall, a manuscript of La tina of Malatesti, dedicated to Milton while at Florence, and that he gave it to Mr. Hollis, who sent it in 1758, together with the works of Milton, to the Accademia della Crusca. Warton justly observes, "The first piece would have been a greater curiosity in England." With these facts the information of the most recent biographers of Milton seems to terminate. I am enabled, however, to prove that the work is in print, and shall transcribe my authority verbatim:

"Malatesti, Antonio. La tina, equivoci rusticali (in 50 sonetti). Londra, Tommaso Edlin, 1757, in 8ᵒ.

Non è fatta in Londra quest' ediz. nel 1757, ma presso che 80 anni dopo in Venezia, ed in numero di 50 esemplari in carta velina, due in carta grande inglese da disegno, ed uno, unico, in pergamena.

Il Malatesti aveva regalato una copia di questi graziosissimi sonetti al celebre inglese Gio. Milton, nell' anno in cui egli visitava l'Italia. Dopo la morte del Milton pervennero in mano del sig. Brant, gentiluomo inglese, il quale una copia ne fece trarre per{238} regalarla a Gio. Marsili, prof. dell' Università di Padova, che nel 1757 si trovava in Londra. Il MS. del Marsili servì a questa ristampa che porta in fronte quella stessa prefazione in inglese che stava nel MS. Marsiliano."

The authority alluded to is the fourth edition of the Serie dei testi di lingua of Bartolommeo Gamba, Venezia, 1839, royal 8vo.—one of the best bibliographical compilations ever produced. I was led to suspect, on glancing at the note, that Gamba himself was the editor of the volume, and now consider it as certain, for La tina appears under his name in the index. As copies of the work must have reached England I hope to see the dedication reprinted, and am sure it would be received as a welcome curiosity.

I cannot commend Mr. Fellowes as a translator of Milton. To Carolo is a solecism; Deodati should be Dati; the period which precedes the extract is entirely omitted; and the five names which follow Charles, besides being mis-spelt, have the termination which can only be required in Latin composition! I believe we should read Coltellini, Francini, Frescobaldi, Malatesti, and Clementini. On Coltellini and Malatesti there is much valuable information in Poggiali and Gamba.

Bolton Corney.


(Continued from p. 215.)

Swinney was the devoted servant of all men in power—of all who had been or were likely to be in power—except, perhaps, the peace-makers, who, curiously enough, did not please this minister of peace—of all, perhaps, who subscribed to his publications, or had the means to subscribe; and who, if they did not, might hereafter. Swinney's volume of Fugitive Pieces was dedicated to the Duke of Grafton. A third edition contains additions which show how Swinney's great zeal outran his little discretion. The following verses appeared originally in The Public Advertiser on the 27th of May, 1768, and are bad enough to be preserved as a curiosity:

"An Extempore Effusion on reading a Scurrilous Invective against the Duke of G——n [Grafton], published in yesterday's Newspapers.

Cursed be the Wretch, and blasted rot his name,

Who dares to stab an injured G——n's fame!

Who (while his public virtue stands confest,

And lives within his Royal Master's breast)

Can rake for Scandal in his private life,

And widen breaches between man and wife;

Who casts a stone (like some unthinking Elf),

That haply shall recoil against himself!

Anguish, Remorse, and Terror seize his Soul,

And waste it quick where fiends malicious howl;

May those rank pests through which his father fell,

Announce his coming to the Gates of Hell!

And yet, or ere he plunge into the Lake,

Where no cool stream his endless thirst can slake,

May Christ in mercy deprecate his doom,

And may to Him his promised Kingdom come!

"Sidney Swinney."

Not content with future punishment, the Doctor, in another poem, threatens present vengeance:

"But hark thee, wretch; believe him while he swears;

Sid (by the gods) will crop thine asses ears,

Should thou persist a G——n to impeach,

And blast those virtues thou canst never reach."

As Draper had taken Granby under his protection, so Swinney must needs play the chivalrous in defence of Grafton. The dedication of The Battle of Minden is dated 20th May, 1769, and the poet in the exordium goes out of his way to notice, as I suppose, the attacks of Junius:

"His [Sid's] blood recoils with an indignant rage,

'Gainst the base hirelings of a venal age.

Wretches! that spare nor ministers nor kings,

Blend good with bad, profane with sacred things;

Whose vengeful hearts, with wrath and malice curst,

Blast virtuous deeds; and then, with envy burst,

They dart their arrows, innocence traduce,

And load e'en G——n with their vile abuse."

To this passage he appends the following note, which occupies, in his magnificent typographical volume, a whole quarto page:

"It is observable that this amiable personage [the Duke of Grafton], and most consummate statesman, has been bespattered with as much low calumny and abuse, from various quarters, as if he had been the declared enemy of his country, instead of having manfully and courageously stood up in support of its true interests.—S."

Let us consider now, What are the probabilities of Swinney never having spoken to Lord George Sackville?

That he did on that occasion speak to Lord George—that he did ask him "whether or no he was the author of Junius"—may be assumed: and it is very probable that Junius heard of it, at first or at second hand, from Swinney himself; for the impertinent blockhead that would ask such a question, was just the man to tell what he had done, and to think it a good thing. But had he never before spoken to Sackville? Was this a fact or a flourish—an affectation of secret information, like the "sent" and "went" about Garrick—the "every particular next day"—which we now know to have been untrue.

That Swinney had been chaplain to one of the British regiments serving in Germany is manifest from twenty different references in the poem and the notes. I lay no stress on his poetical flights about Euphorbus; but he speaks repeatedly from personal experience—specially refers to circumstances occurring when quartered at a farm-house near Embden—at the camp at Crossdorf—acknowledges personal favours received during the{239} campaign from General Harvey, and on another occasion attentions from Granby. Here, for example, is a poetical picture which brings Swinney vividly before us:

"At Marienbourn, the vaunting army halts,


A pastor from the heav'n-devoted train,

Brings hams and fowls, and spreads them on the plain:

The jovial officers their bellies fill,

Rally their chaplain, and applaud him still."

Swinney must therefore have served under Sackville; for, as he tells us, Sackville

"by George was made

Good Marlbro's successor"—

and certainly the probabilities are that he must have been personally known to—had before spoken to him. Sackville must at this very time have been particularly anxious about Swinney and his doings, wise or unwise. That fatal battle of Minden had been the ruin of all his hopes—the overthrow of all his ambition. In my opinion, Sackville had been shamefully and shamelessly run down on that occasion; but whether justly or unjustly stripped of his honours and degraded for his conduct, here was a man about to write a poem on the battle, to immortalise those who fought in it; and Sackville must have been keenly alive to what he might say of him. Swinney foreshadowed what his opinion would be in the First Book, where he enumerates Sackville amongst his "choice leaders"—

"Good Marlbro', Sackville, Granby, Waldgrave bold,

Brudenell and Kingsley."

This was published early in 1769.

In the Second Book Lord George is brought prominently forward. The "bewilder'd Ferdinand," "doubtful himself," summons a council of war, and calls first on Sackville for advice.

"Sackville, disclose the secret of thy breast:

Say, shall we linger in ignoble rest?

Shall we retreat? advance, or perish here?

Resolve our queries: state thy judgment clear."

Sackville now plays the "high heroical," and talks through six pages; but to what purpose I am unable to conjecture. There seems to be a great deal of angry remonstrance—of offensive remonstrance:

"When I ask [says Sackville to Ferdinand], didst ever thou consult

A chief, till now, and wait the sage result?

When Aalm's camp was deluged all in rain,

And floods rusht o'er an undistinguisht plain,

To thy flint heart remonstrances were vain:

What, then, avail'd neglected Marlbro's prayers!

His instances? His unremitted cares?

The Elector's stables had sufficient room,

Stalls, without end, anticipate the doom

Of British chargers, forced to march, at noon,

Beneath their riders' weight and scorching sun."

Swinney then gives in a note what he calls the genuine queries proposed by Prince Ferdinand, with Sackville's answer: which answer is nearly as void of distinct meaning as the poetry, but in favour I think of risking a battle. The general purport, however, foreshadows what Swinney's conclusion would have been—that Sackville, the friend of the British soldier, protested against the frauds by which they were robbed and starved; protested against their being called on to do all the work, and run all the risks of the campaign; and disdains to humour or flatter Prince Ferdinand. These were, in brief, the explanations given by Sackville's friends as the cause of his disgrace—Granby the favoured, a gallant soldier indeed, but a mere soldier, being comparatively indifferent about such commissarial matters, and much more easily deceived by the cunning of the selfish Germans and English. This intention is made still more clear in another note, wherein Swinney states:

"We may be enabled to account for a certain disgraceful event, in some future observation of ours, equally to the honour of the person disgraced, and to the innocent cause of that disgrace."

Under these circumstances there can be little doubt that Sidney Swinney, D.D., was the party alluded to by Junius; as little, I think, that Swinney had before, and long before, spoken to Lord George Sackville,—must have been dear to Sackville, as one of the few who had served under, and yet had a kind word to say for him,—had said it indeed, and was about to repeat it emphatically. That Swinney was the fool Junius asserted, the extract already given must have abundantly proved; but I will conclude with one other, in which he not only anticipated Fitzgerald, but anticipated the burlesque exaggerations in the "Rejected Addresses:"

"Horse, Foot, Hussars, or ere they march review'd.


The Foot, that form the first and second line,

All smartly drest, like Grecian heroes shine;

Their bold cock'd hats, their spatterdashers white,

And glossy shoes, attract his ravish'd sight."

T. S. J.


"All Toms are alike," quoth the elegant Pelham; and if we were asked to define the leading idea of him, we should describe a downright honest John Bull, essentially manly, but withal a bit—perhaps a large bit—of a dullard. His masculinity is unquestionable. A male cat, as every body knows, is a Tom-cat; a romping boy-like girl is a Tom-boy, or a Tom-rig; a large nob-headed pin is a Tom-pin; and in many provincial dialects the great toe is, par excellence, the Tom-toe. Last, not{240} least, there is the nectar of St. Giles, the venerable Old Tom. In proof of his stupidity we can adduce a goodly show of epithets—Tom-fool, Tom-neddy, Tom-noddy, Tom-cull, Tom-coney, Tom-farthing, &c. We know, indeed, there are people who hold that even in these instances Tom is merely the masculine prefix to distinguish the he-fool (i. e. the Tom-fool) from the Molly or she-fool of the ancient mumming. But the race of Toms must not lay this flattering unction to their souls, for the hypothesis won't stand. The very monosyllable itself, like "Sammy," has a strong twang of the bauble in it. An open truth-loving fellow is a Tom Tell-truth; but, on the other hand, all tinkers—a sadly libelled race of men—are invariably Tom-tinkers, as all tars have been Jack-tars from time immemorial. In some of the old-fashioned country games at cards the knave is called Tom; and the wandering mendicants who used to levy black-mail, under the plea of insanity, were Mad Toms, or "Toms-o'-Bedlam." "Tom all alone" is a northern sobriquet for the Wandering Jew, who, the last time we heard of him, was caught stealing gingerbread nuts at Richmond Fair. In the legendary division there is the notorious Tom-Styles—the depredatory Tom the piper's son (legitimate issue of Tom Piper, the musician of the old Morris Dance)—the fortunate Tom Tidler of the original diggings, and that heroic little liege of Queen Mab, the knight of the thumb. Tom-Tumbler was a saltatory fiend in the days of Reginald Scott; and Tom Poker still devours little folks in Suffolk, without doubt (thinks Forby) a descendant of the Sui.-G. tompte poecke, or house-goblin. As for the ignominious Tom Tiler (North Country for hen-pecked husband) we cannot allow him to belong to the family; for who can imagine a hen-pecked Tom! he must have been a wretched individuality, a suffering, corporeal Tiler.

Tom also bestows his name on divers other things, animate and inanimate. Among fishes there are Tommy-Loach, Tommy-Bar, and Tom-Toddy (the Cornish name of the tod-pole). The Long-Tom and the Tom-tit are both ornithological Toms. Tom Tailor is a child's name for the Harry-long-legs—another singular instance, by the way, of Christian names applied to animals. Tom-trot reminds one of pre-pantaloon orgies, and is (I think) something in the brandy-ball line. Finally, we may remark, that a large proportion of her Majesty's subjects are in the habit of conferring the endearing name upon the staff of life itself. "Navvies," agricultural labourers, and such like gentry, are accustomed to divide all human food into two classes, which they euphonically denominate respectively Todge and Tommy; the former comprising spoon-meat, and the latter all hard food which requires mastication. But this, we think, is not a case of Tom per se, but rather referable to the Camb.-Brit. tama, which has exactly the same acceptation.

V. T. Sternberg.


Shakspearian Parallels.—Searching for Shakspearian parallels, I find the following, which may leave suggested to our bard his Seven Ages. The first is by Solon, extracted from Clemens Alexandrinus (Stromat. vi. p. 685., Paris, 1629), which differs from Philo Judæus (i. p. 25.), the only two authorities to whom we owe the preservation of this ode, as also from the text of the critic Brunck and the grammarian Dalzell. An imitation of the Greek metres is attempted in the paraphrased translation attached. The second is a sonnet from Tusser, who extends the period of life beyond seventy, the age of Solon and David in hotter climes, to eighty-four for hyperboreans, but assigns, with David, the imbecility belonging to such advanced years.

7. Παῖς μὲν ἄνηβος ἐὼν ἔτι νήπιος ἕρκος ὀδόντων

Φύσας, ἐκβάλλει πρῶτον ἐν ἕπτ' ἔτεσιν.

14. Τοὺς δ' ἑτέρους ὅτε δὴ τελέσει Θεὸς ἕπτ' ἐνιαυτοὺς,

Ἥβης ἐκφαίνει σπέρματα γεινομένης.

21. Τῇ τριτατῃ δὲ γένειον ἀεξομένων ἐπὶ γυίων

Λαχνοῦται, χροιῆς ἄνθος ἀμειβομένης.

28. Τῇ δὲ τετάρτῃ πᾶς τις ἐν ἑβδομάδι μέγ' ἄριστος

Ἰσχὺν, ἥντ' ἄνδρες σήματ' ἔχουσ' ἀρετῆς.

35. Πέμπτῃ δ' ὥριον ἄνδρα γάμου μεμνημένον εἶναι.

Καὶ παίδων ζητεῖν εἰς ὀπίσω γενεήν.

42. Τῇ δ' ἕκτῃ περιπάντα καταρτύεται γόος ἀνδρὸς,

Οὐδ' ἐσιδεῖν ἔθ' ὁμῶς ἔργα μάταια θέλει.

49. Ἑπτὰ δὲ νοῦν καὶ[1] γλώσσαν ἐν ἑβδομάσι μέγ' ἄριστος·

56. Οκτὼ δ' ἀμφοτέρων τέσσαρα καὶ δέκ' ἔτη,

63. Τῇ δ' ἐνάτῃ ἔτι μὲν δύναται, μετριώτερα δ' αὐτοῦ,

Πρὸς μεγάλην ἀρετὴν σῶμά τε καὶ δύναμις.

70. Τῇ δεκάτῃ δ' ὅτε δὴ τελέσῃ Θεὸς ἕπτ' ἐνιαυτοὺς,

Οὐκ ἂν ἄωρος ἐὼν μοῖραν ἔχοι θανάτου.

7. Youth immature, not a tooth in his jaws, while an infant he slumbers

Growing, shows teeth i' th' first seven years of his life.

14. God, in the next seven years, to him grants ev'ry pow'r of production;

Thus soon commands man, sacred, to look on the sex.

21. Thirdly, his beard, while it roughens his chin; and his limbs, freely playing,

Grow lust'rously-bright, changing their flowery hue.

28. Fourth, in this sev'n-fold older, the man very speedily shoots forth,

Mighty in muscular limbs, proud of his vigour and strength.{241}

35. Fifth, in maturity, glowing in health, with his heart in the right place,

Let him, wisdom-join'd, think upon children to come.

42. Sixth, let him carefully ponder on things of importance to mankind;

Disdaining whate'er, formerly, foolish he sought.

49. Seventh, in mind or in tongue is he best, either one or the other:

56. Eighth, both join'd in excelling, for a term of fourteen.

63. Ninth, he declines in his powers of force, and the deeds of his youthhood;

Shorn of the vigour of manhood, he awaits his recall.

70. God in the tenth of the seven, mature, all his functions develop'd,

Consigns him, full ripe, darkly to sleep in the dust.

So far Solon. Tusser quaintly but wisely:

"Man's age divided here ye have,

By 'prenticeships, from birth to grave.

7. The first seven years bring up as a child,

14. The next to learning, for waxing too wild.

21. The next, keep under Sir Hobbard de Hoy;

28. The next, a man, no longer a boy.

35. The next, let Lusty lay wisely to wive;

42. The next, lay now, or else never to thrive.

49. The next, make sure for term of thy life;

56. The next, save somewhat for children and wife.

63. The next, be stayd, give over thy lust;

70. The next, think hourly, whither thou must.

77. The next, get chair and crutches to stay;

84. The next, to heaven God send us the way!

Who loseth their youth shall rue it in age.

Who hateth the truth in sorrow shall rage."

T. J. Buckton.


Footnote 1:(return)

Read ἢ for καὶ.

"Contents dies"—Love's Labour's Lost, Act V. Sc. 2. (Vol. viii., pp. 120. 169.).—I must be permitted, with all due courtesy, to correct Mr. Arrowsmith's assertion respecting this phrase; because, from its dogmatic tone, it is calculated to mislead readers, and perhaps editors. He maintains that this is a good concord, and pronounces Johnson and Collier (myself, of course, included) to be "unacquainted with the usage of their own tongue, and the universal language of thought," for not discerning it.

Now it may, perhaps, surprise Mr. Arrowsmith to be told that he has proved nothing—that not a single one of his instances is relevant. In this passage the verb is neuter or active; in all of his quotations it is the verb substantive we meet. Surely one so well versed, as we must suppose him to be, in general grammar, requires not to be told that this verb takes the same case after as before it, and that the governing case often follows. Indeed, he has recognised this principle by giving "This is the contents thereof" as one of his instances of "contents" governing a singular verb. Let him then produce an exact parallel to "contents dies," or even such a structure as this, "the contents is lies and calumnies," and then we may hearken to him. Till that has been done, my interpretation is the only one that gives sense to the passage without altering the text.

An exact parallel to the sense in which I take "contents" is found in—

"But heaven hath a hand in these events,

To whose high will we bound our calmly contents."

Rich. II., Act V. Sc. 2.

In conclusion, I must add that I still regard this emendatory criticism as a "game," the Latin ludus, as it gives scope to sagacity and ingenuity, but can rarely hope to arrive at certainty; and it does not, like questions of ethics or politics, involve important interests, and should never excite our angry feelings. As to "cogging and falsification," which Mr. A. joins with it, they can have no just reference to me, as I have never descended to the employment of such artifices.

Thos. Keightley.

P. S.—I have just seen H. C. K.'s observation on "clamour your tongues" in the Winter's Tale, and it really seems strange that he should not have read, or should have forgotten my view of it in "N. & Q.," which is precisely similar to his own. As to suspecting him of pilfering from me, nothing is farther from my thoughts.

Meaning of Delighted.—With reference to the word delighted in Shakspeare, much discussed in "N. & Q.," may I remind you that we call that which carries (or is furnished, or provided with) wings, winged; that which carries wheels, wheeled; that which carries masts, masted; and so on. Why then should not a pre-Johnsonian writer call that which carries delight, delighted? It appears to me that this will sufficiently explain "delighted beauty;" and "the delighted spirit" I would account for in the same way: only remarking that in this case, the borne delights meant are delights to the bearer; in the other case, delights to all whom the bearer approaches.

J. W. F.

Minor Notes.

Gray—"The ploughman homeward plods."—On looking over some MSS. which I had not seen for years, I met with one of which the following is a copy:

"A person had a paper folded with this line from Gray marked on it—

'The ploughman homewards plods his weary way.'

A poetical friend, on looking at the quotation, thought it might be expressed in various ways without destroying{242} the rhyme, or altering the sense. In a short time he produced the following eleven different readings. It is doubtful whether another line can be found, the words of which admit of so many transpositions, and still retain the original meaning:—

1. The weary ploughman plods his homeward way.

2. The weary ploughman homeward plods his way.

3. The ploughman, weary, plods his homeward way.

4. The ploughman weary homeward plods his way.

5. Weary the ploughman plods his homeward way.

6. Weary the ploughman homeward plods his way.

7. Homeward the ploughman plods his weary way.

8. Homeward the ploughman weary plods his way.

9. Homeward the weary ploughman plods his way.

10. The homeward ploughman weary plods his way.

11. The homeward ploughman plods his weary way."

I know not whether this has ever appeared in print. To me it is new, at least it was, as I now recollect, when I read it several years ago; but as the exercise is ingenious, I thought I would trespass on "N. & Q." with it, so that, if not heretofore printed or known, it might be made "a note of."

A Hermit at Hampstead.

Poetical Tavern Signs.—Passing through Dudley the other day, I jotted down two signs worthy, I think, of a place in "N. & Q."

No. 1. rejoices in the cognomen of the "Lame Dog" with the following distich:

"Step in, my friend, and rest awhile,

And help the Lame Dog over the style."

No. 2., with a spirited representation of a round of beef, invites her Majesty's subjects thus:

"If you are hungry, or adry,

Or your stomach out of order,

Their's sure relief at the 'Round of Beef,'

For both these two disorders."

R. C. Warde.


"Aquæ in Vinum conversæ. Vidit et erubuit lympha pudica Deum."—The interesting note under this title (Vol. vi., p. 358.) refers to Campbell's Poets. The following is an extract from Campbell:

"Richard Crashaw there [Cambridge] published his Latin poems, in one of which is the epigram from a Scripture passage:

"Lympha pudica Deum vidit et erubuit.'"

Campbell's Brit. Poets, ed. 1841, p. 198.

In the Poemata Anglorum Latina is the following epigram on our Saviour's first miracle at the marriage feast:

"Unde rubor vestris et non sua purpura lymphis,

Quæ rosa mirantes tam nova mutat aquas?

Numen (convivæ) præsens agnoscite numen—

Vidit et erubuit nympha pudica Deum."

I presume this epigram is Crashaw's poem to which Campbell refers; but query. Until I saw the note in "N. & Q.," I supposed that the celebrated line—

"Lympha pudica Deum vidit et erubuit."

was the happy ex tempore produce of Dryden's early genius, when a boy, at Westminster School. If the epigram which I have copied is the original, the last line is surely much improved by the (traditional) line which Campbell has recorded. Surely lympha is preferable to nympha; and surely the order of the word erubuit ending the line is the best.

F. W. J.

Spurious Edition of Baily's "Annuities" (Vol. iv., p. 19.).—In the place just referred to, I pointed out how to distinguish the spurious editions, among other marks, by the title-page. I looked at a copy on a stall a few days ago, and found that the title-page has been changed. Those who have reprinted it have chosen the old title-page, which stood in the work before two volumes were made of it.

A. De Morgan.

"Illustrium Poetarum Flores."—On leaving London I thought of bringing with me two or three pocket classics; unfortunately, in looking for them, I picked up Illustrium Poetarum Flores per Octavianum Mirandulam olim Collecti, &c., Londini, 1651, and brought that little book with me instead; and, upon looking into it, I find it the worst printed book I ever saw; and I send you this Note as to it, as a warning against so disgraceful a publication. Such a work, if well executed and properly printed, would be a very pleasant companion in a vacation ramble.

S. G. C.

French Jeux d'Esprit.—In the spring of 1852, when Prince Louis Napoleon was doing all he could to secure the imperial crown, the following hexameter line was passed from mouth to mouth by the Legitimates. I am inclined to think that it never appeared in print:

"Napoleo cupit Imperium, indeque Gallia ridet."

Which translated mot-à-mot gives a clever double sense:

"Napoléon désire l'empire, et la France en rit [Henri]."

J. H. de H.



I should be glad of any information respecting Samuel Wilson, Esq., of Hatton Garden, in the parish of St. Andrew, Holborn, whose will was proved October 24, 1769, and which I have read. He was the donor of the bequest, known as "Wilson's Charity," to the Corporation of the{243} City of London, for loans to poor tradesmen. I wish to ask,—

1. What is known of his origin, family, personal history, &c.?

2. What was his precise degree of relationship to the Halseys, whom he calls "cousins" in his will? Were they related to the family of that name at Great Gaddesden, Herts?

3. Did he publish any, and what, letters or books? for he leaves his MSS. of every kind to his friend Richard Glover, Esq. (the poet I presume), with full power to collect any letters or papers he may have already published, and also to arrange and publish any more which he may think intended or suitable for publication.

4. Is there any published sketch of his life? The only notice I have seen is the one of a few lines in the Gentleman's Magazine, just after his death.

In compliance with your excellent suggestion (Vol. vii., p. 2.), I send my address in a stamped envelope for any private communication which may not interest the general reader.

E. A. D.

Minor Queries.

The Rothwell Family.—When William Flower, Esq., Norroy, confirmed the ancient arms of this family to Stephen Rothwell, gent., of Ewerby, county of Lincoln, on the 1st April, 1585, and granted a crest (no such being found to his ancient arms), the said Stephen Rothwell was stated to be "ex sui cognominis familia antiqua in comitatu Lancastriæ oriundus." Can any of the readers of "N. & Q." give any information respecting the family from which he is stated to be descended?


Definition of a Proverb.—Where can I find the source whence I. D'Israeli took his definition of a proverb, viz. "The wisdom of many and the wit of one?"

C. Mansfield Ingleby.


Latin Riddle.—Aulus Gellius (Noctes Atticæ, lib. XII. cap. vi.) proposes the following enigma, which he terms "Per hercle antiquum, perque lepidum:"

"Semel minusne, an bis minus, non sat scio,

An utrumque eorum, ut quondam audivi dicier

Jovi ipsi regi noluit concedere."

The answer he withholds for the usual reason, "Ut legentium conjecturas in requirendo acueremus."

Is there among the readers of "N. & Q." an Œdipus who will furnish a solution?

R. Price.

St. Ives.

D. Ferrand—French Patois.—Hallman, in the 7th chapter of his Poesie und Beredsamkeit der Franzosen, gives several specimens of the French provincial poets of the sixteenth century, and among these the following from a poem on the dispersing of a meeting of Huguenots by the soldiers:

"Quand des guerriers fut la troupe entinchée

Non n'aleguet le dire du Prescheux,

Que pour souffrir l'ame est de Dieu tombée,

Femme et Mary, comme le fianchée,

Pour se sauver quitest leu zamoreux

En s'enfiant ocun n'avet envie,

De discourir de l'Eternelle vie,

Sainct Pol estet en alieur guissement

No ne palet de Bible en Apostille

Qui en eut palé quand fut en un moment

Les pretendus grippez par la Soudrille.

"Le milleur fut quand la troupe enrangée

Fut aux Fauxbourgs, hors de lieu perilleux,

Car tiel n'estet o combat qu'on Pygmée,

Qui se diset o milieu de stermée

S'estre monstre un géant orgueilleux

Les femmes ossi disest ma sœur, m'amie,

De tout su brit ie sis toute espamie,

Petit troupeau que tu as de tourment,

Pour supporter le faix de l'Evangile

Souffrira-t-on qu'on vaye impudement

Les pretendus grippez par la Soudrille."

D. Ferrand, Inv. Gen., p. 304.

Hallman gives no farther information. I shall be glad if any of your readers can tell me who D. Ferrand was, what he wrote, and of what province the above is the patois.

B. Snow.


"Fac precor, Jesu benigne," &c.—In the Sacra Privata, new edition, Bishop Wilson quotes the following lines:

"Fac precor,

Jesu benigne, cogitem

Hæc semper, ut semper tibi

Summoque Patri, gratias

Agam, pieque vos colam,

Totâque mente diligam."

Can any of your readers inform me where they come from?

William Denton.

The Arms of De Sissonne.—Can any of your correspondents inform me where I could find a copy of Histoire Généalogique de la Maison Royale de France, or any other work in which are blazoned the arms of "De Sissonne" of Normandy, connected with that regal house?

J. L. S.

Sir George Brown.—Sir George Brown, of West Stafford, Berks, and of Wickham Breaux, Kent, married Eleanor, daughter of Sir R. Blount, of Maple Durham, Oxon; and by her had issue several children, and amongst them one son Richard, who was a child under five years of age in 1623. I shall feel obliged if any of your correspondents can tell me where I can find a pedigree of this Richard, and in particular whether he married,{244} whom he married, and the names of his several children, if any.


Professional Poems.—Can you tell me who is the author of Professional Poems by a Professional Gentleman, 12mo., 1827, published at Wolverhampton; and by Longman, London?


"A mockery," &c.—Whence is the quotation, "A mockery, a delusion, and a snare?"

W. P.

Passage in Whiston.—In Taylor on Original Sin, Lond. 1746, p. 94., it is said:

"Mr. Whiston maintains that regeneration is a literal and physical being born again, and is granted to the faithful at the beginning of the millennium."

The marginal reference is, Whiston on Original Sin, &c., p. 68.

I cannot find the book or the doctrine in any collection of Whiston's writings which I have met with; but as he was a copious writer and a versatile theologian, both may exist. Can any reader of "N. & Q." tell me where to find them?

J. T.

Shoulder Knots and Epaulettes.—What is the origin of the shoulder knot, and its ancient use? Has it and the epaulette a common origin?


The Yew Tree in Village Churchyards.—Why did our forefathers choose the yew as the inseparable attendant upon the outer state of the churches raised by them? Apart from its grave and sombre appearance, I cannot help recognising a mysterious embodiment of the spirit of evil as the intention of the planters. We know that in all mediæval edifices there is an apparent and discernible endeavour to place in juxta-position the spirits of good and evil, to materialise the idea of an adversative spirit, antagonistic to the church's teachings, and hurtful to her efforts of advancement. I look upon the grotesque cephalic corbels as one modification of this, and would interpret many equally mysterious emblems by referring them to the same actuating desire. Now the yew is certainly the most deadly of indigenous productions, and therefore would be chosen as the representative of a spirit of destruction, the opposite to one that giveth life by its teachings, of which the building itself is the sensible sign. I crave more information from some learned ecclesiologist on the subject, which is certainly a most interesting one.

R. C. Warde.


Passage in Tennyson.

"Or underneath the barren bush,

Flits by the blue seabird of March."

In Memoriam, xc. What bird is meant?

W. T. M.

Hong Kong.

"When the Maggot bites."—A note will oblige to explain the origin of the phrase, that a thing done on the spur of the moment is done "When the maggot bites."


Eclipses of the Sun.—Where can I find a list of solar eclipses that have taken place since the time of the invasion of Julius Cæsar? I am greatly in want of this information, and shall be grateful to any correspondent who will give me the reference required.

C. Mansfield Ingleby.


"An" before "u" long.—I should be much obliged to any of my fellow-students of "N. & Q." who would answer the following Query: What is the reason of the increasingly prevailing custom of writing an before words beginning with u long, or with diphthongs having the sound of u long? Surely a written language is perfect in proportion as it represents the spoken tongue; if so, this is one of the many instances in which modern fashions are making English orthography still more inconsistent than it was wont to be. It appears to me just as reasonable to say "an youthful (pronounced yoothful) person," as "an useful (pronounced yooseful) person."

If there is a satisfactory reason for the practice, I shall be delighted to be corrected but, if not, I would fain see the fashion "nipped in the bud."

Benjamin Dawson.


Reversible Names.—Some female names spell backwards and forwards the same, as Hannah, Anna, Eve, Ada: so also does madam, which is feminine. Is this in the nature of things, or can any one produce a reversible proprium quod maribus? No arguments, but instances; no surnames, which are epicene; no obsolete names, such as Odo, of which it may be suspected that they have died precisely because an attempt was made to marify them: or say, rather, that Odo, to live masculine, was obliged to become Otho. Failing instances, I shall maintain that varium et mutabile semper femina only means that whatever reads backwards and forwards the same, is always feminine.


Gilbert White of Selborne.—Can any of the correspondents of "N. & Q." inform me whether any portrait, painted, engraved, or sculptured, exists of this celebrated naturalist; and if so, a reference to it will greatly oblige

W. A. L.

St. John's Square.

Hoby, Family of; their Portraits, &c.—In the parish church of Bisham, in the county of Berks, are some fine and costly monuments to the memory of several members of this family, who were long resident in the old conventual building there. Are there any engravings of these monuments?{245} And if so, in what work; or where are the inscriptions to be met with? I possess two fine engraved portraits of this family: the originals by Hans Holbein are said to be in "His Majesty's Collection;" where are the originals now? Do they still adorn the walls of Windsor Castle? The one is inscribed—

"Phillip Hobbie, Knight."

The other—

"The Lady Hobbie."

The orthography of the names is the same as engraved on the portraits. The former was Sir Philip Hoby, one of the Privy Council to King Henry VIII.; and the lady was, I believe, the wife of Sir Thomas Hoby, of Leominster, co. Hereford, who died in 1596, aged thirty-six. Was this the learned Lady Hoby, who wrote one of the epitaphs above referred to? Are there any other portraits of members of this ancient, but now extinct family, in existence? They bore for arms, "Arg. three spindles in fesse gules, threaded or." What was their crest and motto?

J. B. Whitborne.

Portrait of Sir Anthony Wingfield.—Can any person inform me where the picture of Sir Anthony Wingfield is, described in Horace Walpole's Letters, and which he saw in an old house in Suffolk belonging to the family of Naunton, descended from Secretary Naunton, temp. James I.; he says:

"Sir Anthony Wingfield, who, having his hand tucked into his girdle, the housekeeper told us had had his fingers cut off by Henry VIII."


Lofcopp, Lufcopp, or Luvcopp.—In some of the charters granted by our earlier monarchs (Henry I. for instance), there is contained a grant of a toll called lofcopp, lufcopp, or luvcopp. Could any of your correspondents give me any farther information respecting the meaning of the word, than is contained in the first Volume of "N. & Q.," pp. 319. 371.?

J. Ctus.

Humming Ale.—Having lately met with the above epithet applied to ale in one of James's novels (Forest Days), I should be glad to know its meaning.

W. H. P.

Minor Queries with Answers.

Dr. Richard Sherlock.—Dr. Richard Sherlock, afterwards Vicar of Winwick, had his first cure in Ireland. I should be glad to know where he officiated, and to receive any information respecting him beyond what is met with in his nephew, Bishop Wilson's, life of him.

William Denton.

[A few additional notes have been added to Bishop Wilson's Life of Dr. Richard Sherlock, in the seventh edition, 2 vols. 1841-44. The editor, the Rev. H. H. Sherlock, M. A., has the following note on his first cure in Ireland: "Wood (Athen. Oxon., vol. iv. p. 259. Bliss) leads us to suppose that Dr. Sherlock was ordained immediately after taking his Master's degree, and adds, that 'soon after he became minister of several small parishes in Ireland, united together, and yielding no more than 80l. a year.' The editor has not been able to obtain any particulars of his ordination, nor the names of the united parishes in Ireland where he ministered. Canonically, he could not have been ordained earlier than A. D. 1636."]

Cardinal Fleury and Bishop Wilson.—There exists a tradition to the effect that during a war between this country and France, Cardinal Fleury gave directions to the French cruisers not to molest the Island of Man, and this out of regard to the character of its apostolic bishop, Wilson. I should be glad to know whether any and what authority can be assigned for this story.

William Denton.

[The story rests upon the authority of the Rev. C. Cruttwell, the bishop's biographer and editor. The following passage occurs in the Life of Bishop Wilson, vol. i. p. 226 of his Works, third edition, 8vo., 1784, and in the folio edition, p. 57.:—"Cardinal Fleury wanted much to see him [the bishop], and sent over on purpose to inquire after his health, his age, and the date of his consecration; as they were the two oldest bishops, and he believed the poorest, in Europe; at the same time inviting him to France. The Bishop sent the Cardinal an answer, which gave him so high an opinion of him, that he obtained an order that no French privateer should ravage the Isle of Man." Feltham, in his Tour through the Isle of Man, 1798, after quoting this story, adds, "And that the French still respect a Manksman, some recent instances confirm."]

Dr. Dodd a Dramatist.—I have seen it somewhere stated, that after Dr. Dodd's trial, he sent for Mr. Woodfall to consult him respecting the publication of a comedy he had written in his youth, entitled Sir Roger de Coverley, and which he had actually revised and completed while in Newgate. Was it ever published; and if not, where is the MS.?

V. T. Sternberg.

[Woodfall's interview with Dr. Dodd at the Old Bailey, is given in Cooke's Memoirs of Samuel Foote, vol. i. p. 195., and is quoted in Baker's Biographia Dramatica, vol. iii. p. 278., edit. 1812. It appears that Dodd's comedy was commenced in his earlier days, and finished during his confinement in Newgate; but was neither acted nor printed. In a pamphlet, entitled Historical Memoirs of the Life and Writings of the late Rev. William Dodd, published anonymously in 1777, but attributed to Mr. Reed, it is stated at p. 4., that "Sir Roger de Coverley is now in the hands of Mr. Harris of Covent Garden Theatre."]

Trosachs.—Can I learn through "N. & Q." the derivation and meaning of the name Trosachs, as{246} applied to the mountain pass bordering on Loch Katrine?

J. G. T.

Trosachs Hotel.

[The name Trosachs signifies in Gaelic the rough or bristled territory; a signification perfectly applicable to the confused mass of abrupt crags which, in some convulsion of nature, has been separated from the neighbouring mountains of Ben Vennu and Ben An. This glen was first rendered an object of popular attention by Sir Walter Scott, in his poem of The Lady of the Lake.]

Quarter.—Whence comes the use of the word Quarter, as applied to sparing of life in battle?

J. G. T.

Trosachs Hotel.

[A correspondent of the Gent. Mag., vol. lxvi. p. 920., suggests, that it may be traced to the reverence for the sacred symbol of our faith, which the early Christian warriors wore depicted on their military habiliments. Orlando, who bore this emblem on his shield, was called 'Il Cavaliere del Quartiero;' though it is something singular that he won the device from Almonte, a Saracen chief.]



(Vol. viii., p. 13.)

Some farther particulars respecting the writings of that remarkable character, who, according to your correspondent, "led astray William Law, and through him tinctured the religious philosophy of Coleridge, and from whom Schelling stole the corner-stones of his Philosophy of Nature," may perhaps interest the readers of "N. & Q."

Who Böhme, or Behmen, was, may be seen by a reference to Francis Okely's Memoir of him, and to the article in the Penny Cyclopædia (vol. v. p. 61.) written by Dr. Bialloblotzky; which, with the exception of a few trifling errors, is carefully compiled. The true character of his philosophy has been ably and fully described in the later writings of William Law, especially in his Animadversions on Dr. Trapp (at the end of An Appeal to all that Doubt or Disbelieve the Truths of Revelation); in The Way to Divine Knowledge; The Spirit of Love; his Letters; and in the fragment of a Dialogue, prefixed to the first of the four volumes in 4to. of Behmen's Works.

Behmen's writings first became generally known in this country by translations of the most important of them by a gentleman of the name of Ellistone, and of minor ones by Mr. Humphrey Blunden and others. Ellistone dying before he had completed the translation of the great work upon Genesis, it was continued by his cousin, John Sparrow, a barrister in the Temple; who also translated and published the remainder of Behmen's writings in the English language. Respecting these individuals, William Law, in a letter written in reply to one received from a Mr. Stephen Penny, speaks in the following terms:

"The translators of Jacob Behmen, Ellistone and Sparrow, are much to be honoured for their work; they had great piety and great abilities, and well apprehended their author, especially Ellistone: but the translation is too much loaded with words, and in many places the sense is mistaken.[2]

"A new translator of Jacob Behmen is not to have it in intention to make his author more intelligible by softening or refining his language. His style is what it is, strange and uncommon; not because he wanted learning and skill in words, but because what he saw and conceived was quite new and strange, never seen or spoken of before; and therefore if he was to put it down in writing, words must be used to signify that which they had never done before.

"If it shall please God that I undertake this work, I shall only endeavour to make Jacob Behmen speak as he would have spoken, had he wrote in English. Secondly, to guard the reader at certain places from wrong apprehensions of his meaning, by adding here and there a note, as occasion requires. Thirdly, and chiefly, by Prefaces or Introductions to prepare and direct the reader in the true use of these writings. This last is most of all necessary, and yet would be entirely needless, if the reader would but observe Jacob Behmen's own directions. For there is not an error, defect, or wrong turn, which the reader can fall into, in the use of these books, but is most plainly set before him by Jacob Behmen.

"Many persons of learning in the last century read Jacob Behmen with great earnestness; but it was only, as it were, to steal from him certain mysteries of Nature, and to run away with the philosopher's stone; and yet nowhere could they see the folly and impossibility of their attempt so fully shown them, as by Jacob Behmen himself."

A well-engraved portrait of John Sparrow may occasionally be met with in some of the small quarto English treatises of Behmen.

The four-volume edition of Jacob Behmen's Works, in large 4to., 1764-81, is an unsatisfactory performance; having, in fact, nothing in common with the projected edition by William Law, as expressed in the above letter. Nevertheless, it has been useful in many respects; especially as being instrumental in making the productions of Dion. Andreas Freher more generally known. This edition, moreover, is incomplete; as several important treatises, besides his Letters, are entirely omitted. The order, too, in which the pieces are inserted from the Book of the Incarnation is altogether wrong.

It is a common, but erroneous supposition, that William Law was the editor of this edition. From his work, The Way to Divine Knowledge, printed some years after the date of the letter quoted{247} above, it appears that he intended to publish a new and correct translation of Behmen's Works; but did not survive to accomplish it. He died in 1761, before the first of the four volumes was published; and if he were in any way identified with it, it could only be by some one or two of his corrections (found in his own copy of the Works after his decease) being incorporated therein; but of this there is some uncertainty. The Symbols, or Emblems, which are stated in the title-page of this edition to have been "left by Mr. Law," were not his production, but merely copies of the originals themselves. These were all designed by the above Dionysius Andreas Freher, a learned German, who had resided in this country from about the year 1695 till his death in 1728, in illustration of his own systematic elucidations of the ground and principles of the central philosophy of Deity and Nature, opened as a new original, and final revelation from God, in "his chosen instrument, Behmen." It was, I believe, from Freher, that Francis Lee (see "N. & Q." Vol. ii., p. 355.) became so deeply versed in the scope and design of high supersensual and mystical truth. From the year 1740, Freher, by his writings, demonstrations and diagrams, may be considered the closet-tutor of William Law at his philosophical retreat at King's Cliffe, in respect to the great mysteries of Truth and Nature, the origin and constitution of things, glanced at in what are popularly called Law's later or mystical writings.

Next to Behmen's Works, and coupled with those of Law, Freher's writings and illustrations must, in regard to theosophical science, be considered the most valuable and important in existence. Freher also was personally acquainted with Gichtel, who was deeply imbued with the philosophy of Jacob Behmen, viz. "the fundamental opening of all the powers that work both in Nature and Grace;" and who, perhaps more than any other individual, experimentally lived and fathomed it.

Freher's original manuscripts and copies of others (besides those formerly in the possession of William Law), as well as the manuscripts of Law and of Francis Lee, and some original documents relating to the Philadelphian mystic author, Mrs. Jane Lead (Lee's mother-in-law) are now in the possession of Mr. Christopher Walton, of Ludgate Street; who, I understand, is on the eve of completing, for private circulation, a voluminous account of these celebrated individuals. It will also contain, if I am correctly informed, a representation of the whole nature and scope of mystical divinity and theosophical science, as apprehensible from an orthodox evangelical—or, in a word, a standard point of view; as likewise of the nature and relations of the modern experimental transcendentalism of Animal Magnetism, with its inductions of the trance and clairvoyance, in respect to the astral as well as Divine magic; with other similar recondite, but now lost, philosophy. But to return to Behmen.

The publication of the large edition of his Works in question was undertaken at the sole expense of Mrs. Hutcheson, one of the two ladies who were Mr. Law's companions and friends in his retirement at King's Cliffe, out of respect to his memory; and who furnished the books Mr. Law left behind him relating to this object. The chief editor was a Mr. George Ward, assisted by a Mr. Thomas Langcake, two former friends and admirers of Law; who occasionally superintended his pieces through the press, being then resident in London. And the reason of this edition not being completed was, that both Mrs. Hutcheson and Mr. Ward died about the time of the publication of the fourth volume; Mrs. Gibbon[3], the aunt of the historian, it appears, not being willing to continue the publication. All that these parties did as editors was, to take the original translations, change the phraseology here and there without reference to the German original (which language it is supposed they did not understand), omit certain portions of the translator's Prefaces, alter the capital letters of a few words, and conduct the treatises through the press.

The literary productions which have commanded the admiration and approbation of such deep thinkers as Sir Isaac Newton[4], William Law, Schelling, Hegel, and Coleridge, may perhaps, before long, be thought worthy of republication. What is required is a well-edited and correct translation of Behmen's entire Works, coupled with{248} those of Freher, his great illustrator, (including also the Emblems, &c. of Gichtel's German edition), and preceded by those of Law, which treat upon the same subject, namely:—1. Answer to Hoadley on the Sacrament of the Lord's Supper. 2. Christian Regeneration. 3. Animadversions on Dr. Trapp. 4. The Appeal. 5. The Way to Divine Knowledge. 6. The Spirit of Love. 7. Confutation of Warburton. 8. Letters.

To conclude. The following are the terms in which William Law speaks of Behmen's writings in one of his letters:

"Therein is opened the true ground of the unchangeable distinction between God and Nature, making all nature, whether temporal or eternal, its own proof that it is not, cannot be, God, but purely and solely the want of God; and can be nothing else in itself but a restless painful want, till a supernatural God manifests himself in it. This is a doctrine which the learned of all ages have known nothing of; not a book, ancient or modern, in all our libraries, has so much as attempted to open the ground of nature to show its birth and state, and its essential unalterable distinction from the one abyssal supernatural God; and how all the glories, powers, and perfections of the hidden, unapproachable God, have their wonderful manifestation in nature and creature."

And on another occasion:

"In the Revelation made to this wonderful man, the first beginning of all things in eternity is opened; the whole state, the rise, workings, and progress of all Nature is revealed; and every doctrine, mystery, and precept of the Gospel is found, not to have sprung from any arbitrary appointment, but to have its eternal, unalterable ground and reason in Nature. And God appears to save us by the methods of the Gospel, because there was no other possible way to save us in all the possibility of Nature."

And again:

"Now, though the difference between God and Nature has always been supposed and believed, yet the true ground of such distinction, or the why, the how, and in what they are essentially different, and must be so to all eternity, was to be found in no books, till the goodness of God, in a way not less than that of miracle, made a poor illiterate man, in the simplicity of a child, to open and relate the deep mysterious ground of all things."

Thus much upon the "reveries" of our "poor possessed cobbler." It may be well to add, that Freher's writings (in sequence to those of Law above named) are all but essential for the proper understanding of Behmen, especially of his descriptions of the generation of Nature, as to its seven properties, two co-eternal principles, and three constituent parts: which is the deepest and most difficult point of all others to apprehend rightly (that is, with intellectual clearness, as well as sensitively in our own spiritual regeneration), and indeed the key to every mystery of truth and life.

J. Yeowell.


Footnote 2:(return)

This remark especially applies to the Answer to the fourth of the Theosophic Questions.

Footnote 3:(return)

Among the papers of this lady were found, after her decease, several letters to her from her nephew, Edward Gibbon, the historian, and his friend Lord Sheffield, from which it would appear that the religious views of the former had, at least from the year 1788, undergone considerable change. From one of these interesting letters, shortly to be published, I have been kindly permitted to make the following extract:—"Whatever you may have been told of my opinions, I can assure you with truth, that I consider religion as the best guide of youth, and the best support of old age; that I firmly believe there is less real happiness in the business and pleasures of the world, than in the life which you have chosen of devotion and retirement."

Footnote 4:(return)

William Law, in the Appendix to the second edition of his Appeal to all that Doubt or Disbelieve the Truths of the Gospel, p. 314., 1756, mentions that among the papers of Newton (now in Trinity College, Cambridge) were found many autograph extracts from the Works of Behmen. This is also confirmed in an unpublished letter, now before me, from Law to Dr. Cheyne in answer to his inquiries on this points. Law affirms that Newton derived his system of fundamental powers from Behmen; and that he avoided mentioning Behmen as the originator of his system, lest it should come into disrepute.


(Vol. vi., p. 554.; Vol. vii., pp. 454. 633.; Vol. viii., p. 108.)

Himbleton, Worcestershire:

1. "Jesus be our God-speed. 1675."

2. "All prayse and glory be to God for ever. 1675."

3. "John Martin of Worcester, he made wee;

Be it known to all that do wee see. 1675."

4. "All you that hear my roaring sound,

Repent before you lie in ground. 1675."

Hanley Castle, Worcestershire:

1. "Ring vs trve,

We praise you. A.R. 1699."

2. "God prosper all our benefactors. A.R. 1699."

3. "God save yᵉ King.

Abrᵃ Rudhall cast vs all. 1699."

4. "God save yᵉ King and yᵉ Chvrch. 1699."

5. "Abrᵃ Rudhall cast vs all. 1699."

6. "Jas. Badger, minister. Rd. Ross, Gorle Chetle, C. W. 1699."

From the ten bells of St. Thomas's Church, Dudley (rebuilt 1816), the following are the most remarkable:

5. "William, Viscount Dudley and Ward;

To doomsday may the name descend—

Dudley, and the poor man's friend."[5]

6. "Ring and bid thee cry Georgius Rex III., England, thy Sovereign's name. God save the King. T. Mean of London, 1818."

Of the eight bells in St. Mary's Church, Kidderminster, the following are the inscriptions on the first five:

1. "When you us ring

We'll sweetly sing. 1754."

2. "The gift of the Rt. Hon. Lord Foley. 1754."

3. "Fear God and honour the King. 1754."

4. "Peace and good neighbourhood. 1754."

5. "Prosperity to this parish and trade. 1754."

There is a small bell (dated 1780) which is commonly called the "Ting-tang," and is rung for the last five minutes before each service, which bears the appropriate inscription:

"Come away,

Make no delay."


On one of the bells of Burford Church, near Tenbury, is the following inscription:

"At service-time I sound,

And at the death of men;

To serve your God, and well to die,

Remember then."

The inscriptions on the bells of St. Helen's Church, Worcester, are very singular; the names they bear tell their date:

1. "Blenheim.

First is my note, and Blenheim is my name;

For Blenheim's story will be first in fame."

2. "Barcelona.

Let me relate how Louis did bemoan

His grandson Philip's flight from Barcelon."

3. "Ramilies.

Deluged in blood, I, Ramilies, advance

Britannia's glory in the fall of France."

4. "Menin.

Let Menin on my sides engraven be,

And Flanders freed from Gallic slavery."

5. "Turin.

When in harmonious peal I roundly go,

Think on Turin, and triumph of the Po."

6. "Eugene.

With joy I bear illustrious Eugene's name,

Fav'rite of Fortune, and the boast of fame."

7. "Marlborough.

But I, with pride, the greater Marlborough bear.

Terror of tyrants, and the soul of war."

8. "Queen Ann.

Th' immortal praises of Queen Ann I sound;

With union blest, and all those glories crown'd."

In Clifton-on-Teme Church (dedicated to St. Kenelm) are the two following bell-inscriptions, the second of which appears to contain a date:

"Per Kenelmi merita sit nobis cœlica vita."

"HenrICVs Ieffreyes KeneLMo DeVoVIt."

The following are from the six bells of Kinver Church, Worcestershire:

1. "In Christo solo spem meam repono. A.R. 1746."

2. "Cui Deus pater ecclesia est mater. A.R. 1746."

3. "In suo templo numen adoro. A.R. 1746."

4. "We were all cast at Gloucester by Abel Rudhall, 1746. Fac manus puras cœlo attollas."

5. "Jos. Lye and John Lowe, churchwardens, A.R. 1746. Opem petentibus subvenit Deus."

6. "Wᵐ Gosnell and Sam. Brown, churchwardens. John Rudhall fect. 1790."

Cuthbert Bede, B.A.

Footnote 5:(return)

The worthy nobleman's sobriquet must not be confounded with a popular ointment.


"And every shepherd tells his tale

Under the hawthorn, in the dale."

I have read with interest the "Notes" (Vol. i., pp. 286. 316.) on these lines of the Allegro; because, in spite of early prepossession in favour of the idea commonly attached to them, I was converted some years ago, by the late Mr. Constable, R.A., whose close observation of rural scenery and employments no one can question.

His account of the matter was this:

"It is usual in Suffolk, and I have seen it often myself, for the shepherd, assisted by another man or boy, to make the whole flock pass through a gap, in order to facilitate the tale. One fellow drives them through the opening, by moving about, shouting, and clapping his hands, while his comrade, on the other side of the hedge, and under cover of a thorn or other thick bush, counts them as they leap through. I have not only seen but assisted, when a boy, at the shepherd's tale; and I do believe Milton had no other idea in his mind. For, indeed, the early morning is not the time the poets choose for lovers to woo, or maids to listen; and Milton has described a scene where all were up and stirring. Neither is the word 'every' appropriate, according to the common interpretation of the passage; every shepherd would not woo on the same spot; but that spot might be particularly favourable for making the tale of his sheep."

Your correspondent J. M. M. adduces an argument in favour of the romantic versus the pastoral, which seems to me entirely devoid of weight. He thinks that Handel's "'Let no wander' breathes the shepherd's tale of love." Surely there is more imagination than truth in this. There is a series of images in the words of that song: it was necessary, unless the music varied unreasonably to suit them all, to choose a pleasing, but not very significant, melody, and, above all, to make the close of it a fit introduction for the "merry bells," and "jocund Rebecs," which burst in immediately after. I confess I find nothing of the amatory style in Handel's setting of the two disputed lines. He chose the Pastorale or 6/8 time, as for "He shall feed his flock," "O lovely Peace," &c. But were it so, I could not admit Handel as an authority, because, as a foreigner, and an inhabitant of towns, he could not possibly be conversant with the rural customs of England.

S. R.


(Vol. vii., p. 483.)

I was much surprised to see in your paper such a lengthened defence of Irish rhymes by a reference to those of English poets, and particularly to Pope. I thought it was well known that he, at last, became sensible of the cloying effect of his never-varying melody, and sought to relieve it by deviations{250} from propriety. This is particularly remarkable in his Homer, where he has numerous Irish rhymes like "peace" and "race:" besides "war" and "car;" "far," "dare;" with many other still more barbarous metres. But all those were by regular design for, if ever poet "lisped in numbers," it was he; and "the numbers came" at his command. He introduced those uncouth rhymes to somewhat roughen his too long continued melody, just as certain discords are allowed in great musical compositions. It showed good judgment, for they are an agreeable change by variation. Other English poets too have false rhymes; for even Gray, in his celebrated Elegy, has "toil" and "smile;" "abode" and "God."

But, with respect to Irish poets, Swift should not have been mentioned at all because, with perhaps the exception of his "Cadenus and Vanessa," his poetry was of the doggerel kind; and he purposely used Irish rhymes and debased English. Thus, in the "Lady's Dressing-room:"

"Five hours, and who could do it less in?

By haughty Celia spent in dressing."

Will any one say it was through ignorance that he did not sound the g in dressing? Pope, in his "Eloisa to Abelard," which is sweetness to excess, concludes with:

"He best can paint 'em who has felt 'em most."

Why this is a downright vulgarism compared to Swift's open and undisguised doggerel:

"Libertas et natale solum:

Fine words! I wonder where you stole 'em."

Leaving Swift out of the question, Irish poets are much more careful about their rhymes than the English; because they know that what would be excused or overlooked in them, would be deemed ignorance on their own parts. I venture to assert, that there are more false rhymes in Pope's Iliad alone than in all the poems of Goldsmith and Moore together; though I must again observe that those of Pope were all intentional.

A. B. C.


(Vol. viii., p. 198.)

A. E. B. has not quoted quite correctly. He has put two phrases of mine into Italics, which makes them appear to have special relation to one another, while the word which I put in Italics, "ninth," he has made to be "9th." Farther, he has left out some words. The latter part should run thus, the words left out being in brackets:

"... though he were born [a minute before midnight] on the 10th, he is of age to execute a settlement at a minute after midnight on the morning of the 9th, forty-eight hours all but two minutes before he has drawn breath for the space of twenty-one years."

Had the quotation been correct, it would have been better seen that I no more make the day of majority begin a minute after midnight, than I make the day of birth end a minute before midnight. A second, or even the tenth of a second, would have done as well.

The old reckoning, of which I was speaking, was the reckoning which rejects fractions; and the matter in question was the day. For my illustration, any beginning of the day would have done as well as any other; on this I must refer to the paper itself. Nevertheless, I was correct in implying that the day by which age is reckoned begins at midnight and I believe it began at midnight in the time of Ben Jonson. The law recognised two kinds of days;—the natural day of twenty-four hours, the artificial day from sunrise to sunset. The birthday, and with it the day of majority, would needs be the natural day; for otherwise a child not born by daylight would have no birthday at all. I cannot make out that the law ever recognised a day of twenty-four hours beginning at any hour except midnight. For payment of rent, the artificial day was recognised, and the tenant was required to tender at such time before sunset as would leave the landlord time to count the money by daylight; a reasonable provision, when we think upon the vast number of different coins which were legal tender. But even here it seems to have been held that though the landlord might enter at sunset, the forfeiture could not be enforced if the rent were paid before midnight. A legal friend suggested to me that perhaps Ben Jonson had more experience of the terminus of the day as between landlord and tenant, than of that which emancipates a minor. This would not have struck me: but a lawyer views man simply as the agent or patient in distress, ejectment, quo warranto, &c.

A. E. B. twice makes the question refer to usage, whereas I was describing law. If I were as well up in the drama as I should like to be, I might perhaps find a modern plot which turns upon a minor coming of age, in which the first day of majority is what is commonly called the birthday, instead of, as it ought to be, the day before. Writers of fiction have in all times had fictitious law. If we took decisions from the novelists of our own day, we should learn, among other things, that married women can in all circumstances make valid wills, and that the destruction of the parchment and ink which compose the material of a deed is also the destruction of all power to claim under it.

Singularly enough, this is the second case in which my paper on reckoning has been both misquoted and misapprehended in "N. & Q." My knowledge of the existence of this periodical began with a copy of No. 7. (containing p. 107., Vol. i.), forwarded to me by the courtesy of the Editor, on{251} account of a Query signed (not A. E. B. but) B., affirming that I had "discovered a flaw in the great Johnson!" Now it happened that the flaw was described, even in B.'s own quotation from me, as "certainly not Johnson's mistake, for he was a clear-headed arithmetician." B. gave me half a year to answer; and then, no answer appearing, privately forwarded the printed Query, with a request to know whether the readers of "N. & Q." were not of a class sufficiently intelligent to appreciate a defence from me. The fact was, that I thought them too intelligent to need it, after the correction (by B. himself, in p. 127.) of the misquotation. It is not in letters as in law, that Judgment must be signed for the plaintiff if the defendant do not appear. There is also an anonymous octavo tract, mostly directed, or at least (so far as I have read) much directed, against the arguments of the same article, and containing, misapprehensions of a similar kind. That my unfortunate article should be so misunderstood in three distinct quarters, is, I am afraid, sufficient presumption against its clearness; and shows me that obscures fio is, as much as ever, the attendant of brevis esse laboro: but I am still fully persuaded of the truth of the conclusions.

A. De Morgan.


(Vol. vii., p. 42. Vol. viii., pp. 104. 184)

The mischief that arises from apparently the most trifling inaccuracy in a statement of fact is scarcely to be estimated. A mistake is repeated, multiplied, and perpetuated often to an extent that no after rectification can thoroughly efface. Blunders even become sacred by antiquity; and the attempt to correct any misstatement, if it does not entirely fail through the subsequent destruction of evidence that would have contained the refutation, is frequently received with a coldness and suspicion, and can seldom, with every aid from undoubted sources, be brought to prevail against the more familiar and preconceived impression. An illustration of this may be seen in the reference made by your correspondent C. V. to the authority of Dugdale, as overriding the result of later investigations relative to the issue respectively of the fifth and seventh Lords Clifford of Westmoreland. The loose and ill-advised assertion of Miss Strickland, intended as it clearly was to insinuate a mean origin in Jane Seymour, and to lessen her pretension to an exalted birth, has fortunately received a most complete and signal disproof; but a question is now raised, which, if it can be supported, will suit Miss Strickland's view quite as well as her own inconclusive statement. I cannot but think that what she wished to say is, as hinted in the suggestion of C. V., that the claim contended for cannot be supported through the alleged marriage of a Wentworth with the descendant of Elizabeth Percy, because Elizabeth, Lady Percy's only daughter, Lady Elizabeth de Percy, who married John, Lord Clifford, is by some ancient heralds stated to have left no daughter. This would have been an intelligible assertion, and not entirely inconsistent with what may be gathered from peerages, and other works compiled solely upon the authority of Dugdale; and it is indeed the very point of difficulty contemplated by your learned correspondent C.V., who if I do not mistake the signature, is himself an authority entitled to much respect.

Dugdale, Collins, and Nicolas make the intermarriage of Wentworth to have taken place with a daughter of Roger, fifth Lord Clifford; and Dugdale and Collins are silent as to any female issue of John, the seventh Lord. Edmondson (Baronagium Genealogicum, vol. iv. p. 364.) adopts the same conclusion; but no higher authority is cited by any one of the above writers, upon which to found this statement. On the other hand, both Collins and Edmondson, in the Wentworth pedigree, show the marriage of Sir Philip Wentworth, of Nettlested, to have taken place with a daughter of John, seventh Lord Clifford. Edmondson describes the daughter as Elizabeth; but Collins more accurately calls her Mary. Banks (Baronage, vol. ii. p. 90.) gives both statements with an asterisk, implying a doubt as to which of the two is to be accepted.

The Pembroke MS. contains a summary of the lives of the Veteriponts, Cliffords, and the Earls of Cumberland, compiled from original documents and family records for the celebrated Lady Anne Countess Dowager of Pembroke, daughter and sole heir of George Clifford, Earl of Cumberland, who died in 1605. This valuable collection gives the most minute particulars and anecdotes connected with the ancient family of the Lords Clifford and their descendants, and being a few years anterior in date to the publication of Dugdale's Baronage, the information contained there is entitled to the greatest possible weight as an original and independent authority.

In this MS. (a copy of which is in the British Museum, Harl. 6177.) the descendants of Roger, fifth Lord Clifford, are named, but there is no mention of any daughter who formed an alliance with a Wentworth. Afterwards come the issue of the marriage of John, seventh Lord Clifford, with Elizabeth Percy, the only daughter of Henry Lord Percy, surnamed Hotspur, son to Henry Earl of Northumberland.

"This Elizabeth Percy was one of the greatest women of her time, both for her birth and her marriages, &c. Their eldest son, Thomas de Clifford, succeeded his father both in his lands and honours, &c.{252} Henry, their second son, died without issue, but is mentioned in the articles of his brother's marriage. Mary Clifford, married to Sir Philip Wentworth, Kt., of whom descended the Lords Wentworth that are now living, and the Earl of Straffod, and the Earl of Cleveland."

To which of the above statements must we give credit? If Dugdale be right, there will appear a startling discrepance in the ages of the two persons who are presumed to have formed the alliance in question; whereas if the filiation given in the Pembroke MS. is relied upon, their ages will be quite consistent, and all the other circumstances perfectly in accordance.

Roger, fifth Lord Clifford, was born and baptized at Brougham on the 20th of July, 7 Edw. III., 1333; his eldest son Thomas, sixth lord, was born circa 1363, being twenty-six years old at his father's death, which happened on 13th July, 1389, in the fifty-sixth year of his age. Thomas Lord Clifford died on 4th of October, 1392, leaving his son and heir John (seventh Lord Clifford) an infant of about three years old. This lord married the Lady Elizabeth de Percy circa 1413, and his eldest son was born on 20th of August, 1414: he died on 13th March, 1422.

The wife of Sir Philip Wentworth, were she a daughter of Roger, fifth Lord Clifford, must have been born between 1363 and 1389; if a daughter of John, seventh Lord Clifford, she must have been born between 1414 and 1422.

In my former note, it was shown that the father and mother of Sir Philip Wentworth were married before June, 1423; that Sir Philip was born circa 1424, and married in 1447; and that his eldest son, Henry Wentworth, being thirty years of age at his grandmother's death in 1478, must have been born circa 1448. It is therefore clear, that if his wife, Mary de Clifford, were a daughter of the fifth Lord Clifford, she could not have been less than thirty-five years older than her husband, and sixty years old when her eldest son was born. On the other supposition, she may have been about the same age with her husband, or perhaps two or three years only his senior.

Can there then be any longer a doubt that this is a mistake of Dugdale? The other eminent genealogists, cited by your correspondent, have adopted the statement without farther investigation and upon no better authority, and the error has thus become familiarised by constant repetition. Had the misrepresentation been set right in the first instance, your readers would have been spared the infliction of this lengthy confutation, Miss Strickland herself protected from the humiliation of a defeat, "in daring to dispute a pedigree with King Henry VIII.;" and some of the numerous living descendants of the Protector Somerset been saved from much concern at finding a pedigree demolished, through which they had been wont to cherish the harmless vanity of being allied to the honour of a royal lineage.

W. H.


Three New Processes by Mr. Lyte.—Will you kindly allow me room in your pages for the insertion of the following three processes, which may not, perhaps, be uninteresting to some of your readers? The first is respecting a very excellent combination with which to excite collodion. The second is on the subject of a capital developing agent, and, I believe, a partially new one. The third, a certain improvement in the production of positives on albumen paper.

To make my collodion, I use the Swedish filtering paper, as recommended by the Count de Montizon, Mr. Crookes, &c., not so much on account of its superior properties, as the easier manipulation, and the greater certainty of obtaining a completely soluble substance. Having obtained a clear and tolerably thick collodion, take

Rectified spirits of wine 1 oz.
Iodide of ammonium 45 grs.
Bromide of ammonium 12 grs.
Chloride of ammonium 1 gr.

Iodide of silver, freshly precipitated from the ammoniated nitrate, as much as the solution thus produced will take up—a small excess, which will settle at the bottom, will not signify. Nearly the same compound, one which is equally good, is produced as follows. Take

Rectified spirits of wine 1 oz.
Iodide of ammonium 50 grs.
Bromide of ammonium 12 grs.
Chloride of silver 5 grs.

Whichever of these two sensitizers is used, take 1½ drachms, and add to every ounce of the collodion.

Collodion thus prepared is most rapid in its action, giving a deep negative (with Ross's sixteen guinea lens, and the developing agent I shall hereafter describe) in ten seconds in clear weather, and instantaneous positive pictures, which may be afterwards darkened with the solution of terchloride of gold, in chloride of ammonium. It does not easily solarize, and, what is best of all, gives the most pleasing half-tones.

I find it preferable, in taking landscapes, to rather increase the quantity of the iodide of ammonium, in order to give complete opacity to the sky; but if the operator pleases, he may produce the most admirable effect with the above-named proportions, by painting in clouds at the back of the plate with Indian ink: and this latter plan is preferable, as the addition of more of the iodide lowers the half-tones.


If more of the chloride than above specified be added, it will cause the plate to blacken all over during development, before the extreme lights are fully brought up.

My developing agent is made as follows. Take

Distilled water 10 oz.
Pyrogallic acid 6 grs.
Formic acid 1 oz.

The latter is not to be the concentrated acid, but merely the commercial strength. These, when mixed, form so powerful a developing agent, that the picture is brought out in its full intensity, almost instantly, while at the same time all the deep shades are quite unaffected, and the half-tones come out with a brilliancy I have never seen before.

Another excellent developing agent is composed as follows. Take

Distilled water 10 oz.
Sulphuric acid 3 drops.
Protosulphate of iron ½ oz.
Formic acid 1 oz.

The formic acid is also a most capital addition to the protonitrate of iron, and either this or the former liquid produce most brilliant positives leaving a fine coating of white dead silver. I may also make mention of the improvement I have made in the albumen paper, which consists in the introduction of the chloride of barium into the albumen, in place of chloride of ammonium or chloride of sodium. Take

Water 6 oz.
Albumen 6 oz.
Chloride of barium dr.

Whip these up, till they are converted entirely into a white froth; when this has settled into liquid, pour it into a tall jar, and allow the precipitate, which will then separate, to settle completely, and strain the supernatant liquid through fine muslin. The paper, being laid on the surface of this fluid for a space of from five to ten minutes, may be taken off and hung up by a crooked pin to dry, and then ironed. It is to be sensitized with nitrate of silver, 120 grains to the ounce of water. The setting liquid I use is prepared according to the formula given by me in Vol. vii., p. 534. of your journal, except that I prefer to use half to one grain of pyrogallic acid, and 120 grains of chloride of silver. This paper must be soaked for a few minutes or so in rain water, after being printed, before being placed in the hypo.; the presence in the water of any salt seems to destroy the tone of this paper.

Florian, Torquay.

Muller's Processes—Sisson's Developing Solution.—I am glad to find that I have called the attention of your photographic correspondents to Mr. Muller's process, as detailed in The Athenæum of Nov. 22, 1851, which seems to have been strangely overlooked and neglected. As your correspondents have induced you to reprint the article, perhaps you will also yield to my request, and reprint an article from the same journal of later date (Jan. 10, 1852) containing another process, more economical and more sensitive than the other, invented also by Mr. Muller, and the value of which I have proved. In that, as in the other, there is no developing agent required. To save time I have copied from my note-book the article itself, and append it to this communication.

A photographer of several years' standing informs me that my developing solution produces excellent negatives upon glass, and that he has been trying it as a bath with success. He writes me:—"I use your developing solution for negatives only; and by using a very small opening, say about 3/10ths of an inch diameter, single achromatic lens, I have produced negatives in one minute, which print most beautiful bright positives. The views I have taken and developed with your solution were without sunshine, the sky very cloudy, three o'clock p.m. The collodion was prepared by Messrs. Knight & Son."

Since I received his letter I have tried a negative so developed, with the best success; and I attribute the success to the fact that you may go on developing with that solution any length of time almost, without any fear of spoiling the negative, thus getting thickness of deposit; and that the deposit on pictures taking so long a time to develop has a very perceptible yellow tinge, which, like the gold in Professor Maconochie's method (detailed in Photographic Journal for this month), stops the chemical rays.

J. Lawson Sisson.

Edingthorpe Rectory.

"Patna, India, Nov. 9, 1851.

"Plain paper is floated on a bath of acetonitrate of silver, prepared of 25 grs. of nitrate of silver, 1 fluid oz. of water, 60 minims of strong acetic acid. When well moistened on one side, the paper is removed, and lightly dried with blotting-paper; it is then placed with the prepared side downwards on the surface of a bath of hydriodate of iron (8 grs. of the iodide in 1 oz. of silver). It is not allowed to remain on this solution, for if this were the case it would become almost insensitive. The silvered surface must be simply moistened with the hydriodate—the object being to get a minimum quantity of it diffused equally over the silvered surface. The photographer accustomed to delicacy of manipulation will find no difficulty in this. While still wet the paper is placed upon a glass (face downwards), and exposed in the{254} camera for periods varying from 10 to 60 seconds, according to circumstances. In sunshine, and when the object to be copied is bright, 5 seconds in this climate (India) is sufficient. Excellent portraits are obtained in shade in 30 seconds; 60 seconds is the maximum of exposure. The picture is removed from the camera and allowed to develop itself spontaneously in the dark, then soaked in water, and fixed in the usual manner with the hyposulphite of soda."—Athenæum, Jan. 10, 1852.

Replies to Minor Queries.

Alterius Orbis Papa (Vol. iii., p. 497.)—It was Pope Urban II. who, at the Council of Bari, in Apulia, gave this title to St. Anselm, the cotemporary Archbishop of Canterbury, who was present, and, in a learned and eloquent discourse, confuted the Greeks. See Laud's Works (Ang.-Cath. Lib.), vol. ii. p. 190.: note where the authorities William of Malmesbury and John Capgrave are cited.

E. H. A.

"All my eye" (Vol. vii., p. 525.).—An earlier use of this "cant phrase" than that given by Mr. Daniel may be found in Archbishop Bramhall's Answer to the Epistle of M. de la Milletière, which answer was first published in 1653:—

"Fifthly, suppose (all this notwithstanding) such a conference should hold, what reason leave you to promise to yourself such success, as to obtain so easy a victory? You have had conferences and conferences again at Poissy and other places, and gained by them just as much as you might put in your eye and see never the worse."—Bramhall's Works, vol. i. pp. 68-9., edit. Ox. 1842.

The Archbishop elsewhere makes use of the same expression. Of its origin I can say nothing nor of "over the left."

R. Blakiston.

"Clamour your tongues," &c. (Vol. viii., p. 169.).—Surely, surely, the "clame water," in H. C. K.'s extract from The Castel of Helthe, and which is set in an antithetical opposition to "a rough water," is only calme water; by that common metathesis which gives us briddes for birds, brunt for burnt, &c.

H. T. Griffith.

Spiked Maces represented in the Windows of the Abbey Church, Great Malvern.—There is an instrument of this nature described by some of the martyrologists under the name of "Scorpio," and figured by Hieronymus Magius (Jerome Maggi) in his treatise De Equuleo. It is there represented as a thick stick, set with iron points, and was used, together with rods, and the plumbetæ or loaded chain scourges, to torment the confessors.

I am inclined to think, however, that the weapons represented in the windows at Great Malvern are intended for morning stars, which were much employed in arming the watch in the cities of northern Europe in the Middle Ages, and at a later period as well. This weapon (a variety of which was called holy-water sprinkle, from the brush-like arrangement of its spikes) had a long shaft like a halbert, and is often introduced in paintings of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, as borne by the Jewish guard who appear in the various scenes of Our Lord's Passion.

Of course the artists represented their characters as wearing the dress and provided with arms of their own period; as we see the Roman soldiers at the foot of the cross in some German and Dutch pictures, mere portraits of the sworders and swashbucklers of the seventeenth century.

I may mention that a weapon of this coarse description is generally put into the hands of a ruffian, or at least of some very inferior character. In La Mort D'Artur, Sir Lancelot encounters on a bridge "a passing foul churl," who disputes his passage, and "lashes at him with a great club, full of iron pins."

I remember seeing a barbarous weapon taken from a piratical vessel, which consisted of a massive wooden club, heavily loaded with lead, furnished with a spike at the smaller end, and thickly studded with iron nails, tenter hooks, and the hammers of gun locks. This was something like the old Danish club.

W. J. Bernhard Smith.


Ampers and (Ampersand symbol, ornate 'et' style or Ampersand symbol, the more common '&' style) (Vol. viii., p. 173.).—"N. & Q." has exhibited a forgetfulness, of which he is very seldom guilty. If he and his correspondent Mr. Mansfield Ingleby will refer to Vol. ii., p. 230., they will find the same question asked by Mr. M. A. Lower and if they will turn over the leaves to p. 284., they will find an answer by Φ., which he now begs to repeat. The word designated is and-per-se-and. Curiously enough, the first of the above printed symbols seeing to have been formed from Φ.'s explanation, that it was nothing more than a flourishing "et."


Its (Vol. viii., p. 12.).—In compliance with the request of your correspondent B. H. C., I have the pleasure to inform him that in Richard Burnfields Poems (reprinted by James Boswell for the Roxburgh Club), "The Complaint of Poetrie for the death of Liberalitie," 1598, is one of the pieces, and on the first page of signature C. the word its occurs, but as a contraction of it is:

"The maimed souldier comming from the warre;

The woefull wight, whose house was lately burnd;

The sillie soule; the woful traueylar;

And all, whom Fortune at her feet hath spurnd;

Lament the losse of Liberalitie;

Its ease to haue in griefe some companie."


While on the opposite page we have "it soule" for "its soule," thus:

"But as a woefull mother doeth lament,

Her tender babe, with cruel death opprest;

Whose life was spotlesse, pure and innocent,

(And therefore sure it soule is gone to rest):

So Bountie, which herselfe did upright keepe,

Yet for her losse, loue cannot chuse but weepe."

May not this lead to the conclusion that it was to avoid confusion with the ellipsis of it is, that the possessive case was thus written it?

S. W. Singer.

"Hip, hip, hurrah!" (Vol. viii., pp. 20. 185.).—No one, I think, who heard the cheering of the ships' companies at the late naval review can doubt that Cheverell's explanation of "hip, hip," is the true one. They are not words, but interjectional sounds; with no other meaning than to prepare for and time the coming "hurrah!" When the men are ready to cheer, the boatswain's mate gives the signal "hip, hip," and then follows the general "hurrah!" This practice is adopted in public assemblies for the same reason—to ensure concert and unity in the final cheer. "Hurrah!" also I take (pace Sir F. Palgrave) to be a mere sound: a natural exclamation of pleasure, with no more instrinsic meaning than "Oh!" or "Ah!" for pain, or "Bah!" for contempt. It surely can have no connexion with the phrase of old Norman law—"clameurs de haro:" for "haro" is an exclamation of dissent and opposition. "Crier haro sur quelqu'un," is to excite mischief and scandal against him—the very reverse of hurrah!


Derivation of "Wellesley" (Vol. viii., p. 173.).—In reply to J. M., I think the following particulars I may not be uninteresting to him. There is good reason to believe that the name of Wellesley was derived from an ancient manor about one mile south of Wells, called Wellesleigh, which once, belonged to the Bishops of Bath and Wells. It is certain that a family called "De Wellsleigh" lived, and held considerable lands in this manor at a very remote period. In 1253, a Philip de Wellsleigh, and in 1349 another of the same name, are recorded as holding part of the manor of the Bishops of Bath and Wells. These lands, with the serjeanty and office of bailiff and "cryer of the hundred," passed into the family of the Hills of Spaxton, A.D. 1435. In 7 Henry VII., John Stourton held half a knight's fee in this manor: "formerly held by William de Wellsleigh." I have an original deed in my possession dated 26th Edward I., being a feoffment or grant of lands in Dinder (an adjoining parish) by William Le Fleming, "Dn̄s de Dynder," in which "Thomas de Welesleȝe" and "Robert de Welesleȝe" (so the name is spelt) are, among others, named as witnesses. This manor was held by the Bishops of Bath and Wells until the time of Ralph de Salopia (succeeded A.D. 1329, died A.D. 1363), who gave it to the vicars choral of the cathedral, by who it has been held down to the last year (1852), when they sold the fee of it to Robert Charles Tudway, Esq., M.P. for Wells.



Penny-come-quick (Vol. viii., pp. 8. 113. 184.).—Your correspondents on the subject of this name do not appear to be aware that there is a place also so called in Ireland: a small public-house, and one or two others, on the high road between Wicklow and Arklow, near the sea-shore, three miles north of the latter town. In Taylor and Skinners Road Maps of Ireland (1776), it is spelled "Penny-con-quick." I have been there, and do not think that the site countenances H. C. K.'s ingenious etymology.


Eugene Aram's Comparative Lexicon (Vol. vii., p. 597.).—Mr. E. S. Taylor will perhaps be glad to know that specimens of the above Lexicon were printed at the end of a small work published about twenty-five years since by Mr. Bell of Richmond (Yorkshire), entitled The Trial and Life of Eugene Aram.

Norris Deck.


Wooden Tombs and Effigies (Vol. vii., pp. 528. 607., &c.).—At Sparsholt, Berks, in the south transept are two female effigies of wood, under sepulchral arches, richly carved in stone: one of them is engraved in Hollis's Monuments. At Burghfield and Barkham, in the same county, are also wooden effigies of the fourteenth century.

At Hildersham Church, Cambridgeshire, within the altar rails, on the north side, is a wooden monument of a knight and his lady: the knight cross-legged, and drawing his sword. They are said to be the effigies of Sir Thomas Busteler and lady, temp. Edward II.

Norris Deck.


Queen Anne's Motto (Vol. viii., p. 174.).—By an order of the queen in council, 17th of April, 1707, consequent upon the union of Scotland with England, it was declared in what manner the ensigns armorial of the United Kingdom (called Great Britain) should thenceforth be borne; when it was also declared that her majesty's motto, "Semper eadem," should be continued.


Longevity (Vol. vii., p. 368. &c.).—Several of the upland parishes bordering on the river Yare have had remarkable instances of longevity. One of the best authenticated was a man named Pottle, who resided on the Reedham estate of the late J. F. Leathes, Esq., of Herringfleet. When Pottle was 104 years old, the tenantry on the estate subscribed to have his portrait painted,{256} which they presented to their landlord, each retaining a lithograph copy of it. Many of these copies I have seen. Two years after this I conversed with the old man, who was then keeping cows on a common. There was nothing remarkable about him except his voice, which was very loud and powerful. He has now been dead some time, but I do not know his exact age at death.

In the register of burials for the parish of Runham, Norfolk, is this entry:

"August 12, 1788. William Russels, aged One hundred and one years."

The clergyman has entered the age in round text-hand, evidently that the entry might not escape notice.

E. G. R.

Irish Bishops as English Suffragans (Vol. vii., p. 569.).—The following instances of Irish bishops acting as bishops in England will be additional illustrations of the facts adduced by An Oxford B. C. L.

"Requisitus idem Simon de suis Ordinibus dicit, quod apud Oxoniam recepit Ordinem subdiaconi a quodam Episcopo Yberniæ, Albino nomine, tunc vicario Episcopi Lincolniensis. Item ab eodem recepit Ordinem diaconi.... ¶ Capellanus de Sandhurst Johannes De Siveburn dicit, quod ordinatus fuit sudiaconum apud Cicestriam, Diaconum apud Winton., ab Episcopo Godfrido, in Ybernia."—Maskell's Ancient Liturgy of the Church of England, p. 181., note.

W. Fraser.


Green Pots used for drinking from by Members of the Temple (Vol. viii., p. 171.).—The green pots mentioned in Sir Julius Cæsar's letter had been introduced into the Inner Temple about thirty years before its date. This appears from the following passage in Dugdale's Origines Juridiciales (1680), p. 148., where he refers to the register of that Society, fol. 127 a.:

"Untill the second year of Q. Eliz. reign, this Society did use to drink in Cups of Ashen-Wood (such as are still used in the King's Court), but then those were laid aside, and green earthen pots introduced, which have ever since continued."

When were these green pots discontinued? Paper Buildings were erected nearly fifty years before Dugdale's time. The new part built in 1849 was on the south of these, which may, perhaps, have been the site of the dust-hole of the Society, and thus become the depositary of the broken pots mentioned by B.

Edward Foss.

Shape of Coffins (Vol. viii., p. 104.).—As bearing somewhat upon Mr. Ellacombe's Query, allow me to remark that when travelling a few years since in the United States, having about an hour's delay in the city of Rochester, N. Y., I entered one of the churches during a funeral service. When the ceremony (at which a considerable number of persons attended) was concluded, the congregation left their seats and walked in very orderly procession towards the reading-desk, in front of which was placed the coffin, without any pall or covering. They then slowly walked round it, in order, as I afterwards found, to take their last look at the departed. This they were enabled to do without the removal of the lid, by raising the upper or head portion of it, which was hinged a square of glass beneath allowing the face to be seen. This strange custom, which, for my own part, I think would be "more honoured by the breach than the observance," as the recollection of the living face to me is far preferable to that of death, I do not remember to have seen noticed by any of our many travellers in America, though I afterwards found it to be general. The coffins, which are somewhat differently shaped to ours, sloping towards the feet, are rarely covered with cloth; but are generally made of some hard wood such as walnut, highly polished.

Robert Wright.

Old Fogies (Vol. viii., p. 154.).—There may be too much of even a good thing, and I wish some of the writers in "N. & Q." would study compression a little. A short paragraph which I wrote, more in jest than earnest, on the above phrase, has drawn down on me no less than two columns from J. L. But this comes of meddling with Scotland.

One might fancy that J. L. was the Irish, not the Scottish advocate, for he proves the prior claim of Scotland by showing that the word which I had stated to have been in use in Dublin in the first half of the last century, was known in Edinburgh in the last half of it. He must also excuse my saying that he does not seem ever to have studied etymology, one of the rules of which is, that if a probable origin of a word can be found in the language to which it belongs, we should not seek elsewhere. Now fogie (i.e. folkie, the Dutch volkje) comes as surely from folk, as lassie from lass, or any other diminutive from its primitive. I now have done with the subject.

Thos. Keightley.

Swan-marks (Vol. viii., p 62.).—W. Collyn's remark on swan-marks may mislead; therefore it is worth noting that "the swan with two necks" is not "a corruption of the private mark of the owner of the swans, viz. two nicks made by cutting the neck feathers close in two places." The nicks were made in the beak; and the privilege of having swan-marks was by grant from the crown.

The Vintners' Company's mark for their swans on the Thames was two nicks; hence a two-nicked swan was a very appropriate sign for a tavern. The royal swans are marked with five nicks, two lengthwise, and three across the bill (See Hone's{257} Every-day Book, 1827, p. 963; Yarrell's British Birds; Jardine's Nat. Lib.; Penny Cyclop., art. "Swan.") It is to be noted, however, that Hone is in error in saying the two nicks are the royal swan-mark.

Eden Warwick.


Limerick, Dublin, and Cork (Vol. viii., p. 102.).—I should think the author of this doggrel couplet, if we are to consider it as a fair specimen of his poetic genius, may safely be permitted to remain in obscurity. Be that as it may, the lines are by no means new, nor are they confined to the sister isle alone. In the Prophecies of Nixon, the Cheshire Merlin, who lived nobody knows when, except that it was certainly a "long time ago," we are given to understand that:

"London streets shall run with blood,

And at last shall sink

So that it shall be fulfilled,

That Lincoln was, London is, and York shall be

The finest city of the three."

As I have just stated, the original date of these Prophecies is somewhat involved in mystery; but I myself possess copies of three different editions published during the last century, the first of the three, purporting to be the sixth edition, bearing date London, 1719. A Life of Nixon, affixed to this edition, states him to have lived and prophesied in the reign of King James I.; at whose court, we are farther told, he was, in conformity with his own prediction, starved to death. His Prophecies are, by the learned, held to be apocryphal; the country folk of Cheshire, on the contrary, have as much faith in them and their author as they have in the fact of their own existence.

T. Hughes.


"Could we with ink," &c. (Vol. viii., pp. 127. 180.).—I am surprised that none of your correspondents has referred to Smart, the translator of Horace, who has been frequently stated to be the writer of these lines, and I believe with truth.

E. H. D. D.

Character of the Song of the Nightingale (Vol. vii., p. 397.; Vol. viii., p. 112.).—Although Milton seems to have generally used the epithet solemn in its classical sense (as cleverly pointed out by Mr. Sydney Gedge), and meant to represent the nightingale as the customary attendant of night, yet there is at least one passage where the epithet appears to me not to have this meaning; but to express that the song of the nightingale caused "a holy joy," and was heard not only in the day-time, but all through the night. For although Milton calls the nightingale "the night-warbling bird," and so makes it "the customary attendant of the night," yet he also elsewhere as truly speaks of it as a day singer. The passage I referred to is in Paradise Lost, book vii., and seems to me to bear the meaning above spoken of; though Mr. Gedge may perhaps make "solemn" refer back to the last noun "even." And I confess that the meaning seems dubious:

"From branch to branch, the smaller birds with song

Solac'd the woods, and spread their painted wings

Till even; nor then the solemn nightingale

Ceas'd warbling, but all night tun'd her soft lays."

I can add one other epithet to the one hundred and nine which I have already given of the nightingale's song:

Wond'ring. Dryden ("Palamon and Arcite").

I may add, that Otway and Grainger (erroneously printed Graingle) appear to have used "solemn" in the ordinary meaning of the word.

Cuthbert Bede, B.A.

Adamson's "Lusitania Illustrata" (Vol. viii., p. 104.).—Your correspondent W. M. M. may consult the following works with great advantage:

"Résumé de l'Histoire Littéraire du Portugal, suivi du Résumé de l'Histoire Littéraire du Brésil, 12mo.: Paris, 1826."

"Parnaso Lusitano, ou Poesias selectas dos auctores Portuguezos antigos e modernos, illustrados cum notas, percedido de una Historia abreviada da lingua e poesia Portugueza, tom. v., 18mo. Paris, 1826."

The destruction by fire of Mr. Adamson's library, which was so rich in Portuguese literature, has, with other circumstances, hitherto prevented the continuation of the Lusitania Illustrata; but the appearance of future parts, in furtherance of the original plan, is by no means abandoned.

E. H. A.

Adamsoniana (Vol. vii., p. 500.; Vol. viii., p. 135.).—I was aware of the way in which the famous naturalist spelt his name, but supposed that Michel Adanson and Michael Adamson were the same, the former being merely the French mode of writing according to their pronunciation. I was also aware of the leading events in the naturalist's own career, but was desirous if possible of identifying his father: "the gentleman who, after firmly attaching himself to the Stuarts, left Scotland, and entered the service of the Archbishop of Aix."

Perhaps I may be more fortunate in obtaining some information respecting another Scot of the same name: James Adamson, for thirty-one years rector of Tigh, in Rutlandshire, who is described in the inscription upon his tombstone as "natu Scotus, Anglus vita, moribus antiquis, cum rege suo in prosperis et adversis." I believe he was the father of John Adamson, M.A., Rector Of Burton Coggles, in Lincolnshire: the author of two sermons; one published in 1698, and entitled The Duty of Daily frequenting the Public Service{258} of the Church; another in 1707, being the Funeral Sermon for Sir E. Turnor of Stoke Rochford[6] (whose chaplain he was), a great promoter of pious and charitable undertakings. Can these sermons be now procured? Is anything further known respecting the author or his family?

E. H. A.

Footnote 6:(return)

This sermon is in the British Museum.—Ed.

Crassus' Saying (Vol. vii., p. 498.).—Mr. Ewart will not easily extract his English from the Latin, which is simply, "Fit salad for such lips."

S. Z. Z. S.

Stanzas in "Childe Harold" (Vol. iv. passim).—This stanza has already occupied too many of your pages; will you, however, allow me to put a ryder on it, by referring your correspondents to Lord Byron's own ignorance of the meaning of an expression in this stanza, expressed in a letter to Murray, published in Moore's Life, Letter 323, dated Venice, 24th September, 1818, when, after pointing out an error in the same canto, he says:

"What does 'thy waters wasted them' mean? That is not me. Consult the MS. always."

And in a note by Moore on this letter, he says, "This passage retains also uncorrected."

At the end of this letter Byron writes, "I saw the canto by accident." Query: If Byron only saw his cantos by "accident," would not a new edition of his works collated with his MSS. be "a consummation devoutly to be wished."

S. Wmson.


"Well's a fret" (Vol. viii., p. 197.).—This is one of a class which will be lost if not recorded. Forty years ago, in the West of England, and perhaps elsewhere, a servant, when teased by a child to know where such a person was, would answer—

"In his skin

When he jumps out, you may jump in."

The answer to Eh? was always Straw. I dare say more of these things will be produced. What ought they to be called?


Tenet or Tenent (Vol. vii., p. 205.).—We speak of the tenets of a sect. Somewhat less than a century ago the formula would have been their tenents; and was not this the more correct?


Mrs. Catherine Barton (Vol. iii., pp. 328. 434.).—When I answered the Query, I was not aware of what Baily states in the Supplement to Flamstead, p. 750. Rigaud ascertained for Baily that Mrs. C. B. (the title Mistress being given at that period to marriageable young ladies) was not the wife, but the sister of Colonel Barton. Both were the children of Hannah Smith, Newton's half-sister, and Robert Barton. Mrs. C. B. was born about 1680.




Proceedings of the London Geological Society.

Prescott's History of the Conquest of Mexico. 3 Vols. London. Vol. III.

Mrs. Ellis's Social Distinctions. Tallis's Edition. Vols. II. and III. 8vo.

History and Antiquities of Newbury. 8vo. 1839. 340 pages. Two Copies.

Vancouver's Survey of Hampshire.

Hemingway's History of Chester. Large Paper. Parts I. and III.

Correspondence on the Formation of the Roman Catholic Bible Society. 8vo. London, 1813.

Athenæum Journal for 1844.

Correspondents sending Lists of Books Wanted are requested to send their names.

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Notices to Correspondents.

We have postponed Icon's friendly letter on the Shakspeare Correspondence until next week, when we propose to accompany it by some few observations of our own. We shall take that opportunity also of noticing a communication with which we have been favoured by Mr. Singer.

Z. will find some illustrations of his Queries on Passages from Milton and Gray discussed in our present Number. The other shall appear in an early Number.

A. B. C. It does not follow that, because we thought the one paper sent us by this Correspondent worthy of insertion in our columns, every other which he may favour us with is to be printed.

Greek Inscription on a Font.—We have been reminded by several friendly Correspondents that this Query, inserted ante, p. 198., had been discussed in our preceding Volume, pp. 178, 366. 417.

Z. Mr. Winston's book, published by Parker of Oxford, will give him the best information on the subject of Stained or Coloured Glass.

R. W. E. (Clifton). Would our Correspondent oblige us by forwarding a copy of the 1st No. of the Curiosities of Bristol and its Neighbourhood?

C. will find that his Query respecting Grinning like a Cheshire Cat has been anticipated, "N. & Q.," Vol. ii., pp. 377. 412. Vol. v., p. 402.

J. E.'s Query has been long since put and answered, as he will see by an article in the present Number.

T. D. S. (Ruthin). In all probability there is a deficiency of acetic acid in your developing solution, or the acetic acid is impure and is adulterated with sulphuric acid. A few drops of nitrate of baryta would test the purity.

Colouring Collodion Pictures.We should like to see a specimen of Mr. Lane's skill, and should be very happy to insert his process.

Photography at Bath.We understand that a pamphlet impugning the correctness of some processes given in "N. & Q." has been published at Bath, but, as we know neither the author's name nor the publisher, have to request information on those points from some Bath photographer.

Errata.—In p. 194., for "bytleing" read "bything;" for "byth" read "bytl.;" p. 195., the 24th line from the bottom the page, for "the prenzie Angelo", read "the prenze Angelo;" p. 207., for "parish of West Fetton" read "parish of West Felton."

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1. The Grenville Correspondence.

2. The Byzantine Cæsars of the Iconoclastic Period.

3. The Fine Arts at Rome in 1736.

4. State Papers of Henry the Eighth.

5. Dr. Bathurst, Bishop of Norwich.

6. Notes on Shakspeare's Text.

7. Wanderings of an Antiquary: by T. Wright, F.S.A.—The Roman Villa at Bignor (with Engravings).

8. Virtuosi of the Eighteenth Century.

With Correspondence, Notes of the Month, Historical and Miscellaneous Reviews, Reports of Archæological Societies, Historical Chronicle, and Obituary.

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THE GENTLEMAN'S MAGAZINE for AUGUST contains a revised Report of the Proceedings of the Archæological Institute at their Meeting at Chichester, including the Lectures of Professor Willis on Chichester Cathedral, Mr. Sharpe on the Sussex Churches, Dr. Bruce on the Bayeux Tapestry, Mr. Freeman on the Life of Earl Godwin, Mr. Durrant Cooper on Sussex Nomenclature, &c. &c.

The Magazine also contains the following articles:—1. State Papers of the Reign of Henry VIII. 2. Madame de Longueville. 3. The Prospero of "The Tempest." 4. Letter of Major P. Ferguson during the American War. 5. Wanderings of an Antiquary: Bramber Castle and the Sussex Churches, by Thomas Wright, F.S.A. (with Engravings). 6. St. Hilary Church, Cornwall (with an Engraving). 7. Benjamin Robert Haydon. 8. The Northern Topographers—Whitaker, Surtees, and Raine. 9. Passage of the Pruth in the year 1739. 10. Early History of the Post-Office. 11. Correspondence of Sylvanus Urban: A Peep at the Library of Chichester Cathedral—Christ's Church at Norwich—Rev. Wm. Smith of Melsonby—Godmanham and Londesborough. With Reviews of New Publications, a Report of the Meeting of the Archæological Institute at Chichester, and of other Antiquarian Societies, Historical Chronicle, and Obituary. Price 2s. 6d.

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This day, Second Edition, in foolscap 8vo., cloth, price 3s.


"A work greatly needed in the Church of England."—Guardian.

London: J. & C. MOZLEY, 6. Paternoster Row. Oxford: J. H. PARKER.

8vo., price 21s.

SOME ACCOUNT of DOMESTIC ARCHITECTURE in ENGLAND, from the Conquest to the end of the Thirteenth Century, with numerous Illustrations of Existing Remains from Original Drawings. By T. HUDSON TURNER.

"What Horace Walpole attempted, and what Sir Charles Lock Eastlake has done for oil-painting—elucidated its history and traced its progress in England by means of the records of expenses and mandates of the successive Sovereigns of the realm—Mr. Hudson Turner has now achieved for Domestic Architecture in this country during the twelfth and thirteenth centuries."—Architect.

"The writer of the present volume ranks among the most intelligent of the craft, and a careful perusal of its contents will convince the reader of the enormous amount of labour bestowed on its minutest details, as well as the discriminating judgment presiding over the general arrangement."—Morning Chronicle.

"The book of which the title is given above is one of the very few attempts that have been made in this country to treat this interesting subject in anything more than a superficial manner.

"Mr. Turner exhibits much learning and research, and he has consequently laid before the reader much interesting information. It is a book that was wanted, and that affords us some relief from the mass of works on Ecclesiastical Architecture with which of late years we have been deluged.

"The work is well illustrated throughout with wood-engravings of the more interesting remains, and will prove a valuable addition to the antiquary's library."—Literary Gazette.

"It is as a text-book on the social comforts and condition of the Squires and Gentry of England during the twelfth and thirteenth centuries, that the leading value of Mr. Turner's present publication will be found to consist.

"Turner's handsomely-printed volume is profusely illustrated with careful woodcuts of all important existing remains, made from drawings by Mr. Blore and Mr. Twopeny."—Athenæum.

JOHN HENRY PARKER, Oxford; and 377. Strand, London.

Now ready, price 21s. uniform with the above,


This volume is issued on the plan adopted by the late Mr. Hudson Turner in the previous volume: viz., collecting matter relating to Domestic buildings of the Period, from cotemporary records, and applying the information so acquired to the existing remains.

Not only does the volume contain much curious information both as to the buildings and manners and customs of the time, but it is also hoped that the large collection of careful Engravings of the finest examples will prove as serviceable to the profession and their employers in building mansions, as the Glossary was found to be in building churches.

The Text is interspersed throughout with numerous woodcuts.

JOHN HENRY PARKER, Oxford; and 377. Strand, London.

Now ready, Two New Volumes (price 28s. cloth) of

THE JUDGES OF ENGLAND and the Courts at Westminster. By EDWARD FOSS, F.S.A.

Volume Three, 1272-1377.

Volume Four, 1377-1485.

Lately published, price 28s. cloth,

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(The Horticultural Part edited by PROF. LINDLEY,)

Of Saturday, September 3, contains Articles on

Agricultural College examination papers
Apple trees, cider
Bramley Horticultural Society
Bugainvillæa, by Mr. Napier
Calendar, horticultural
—— agricultural
Carnations and picotees
Chrysanthemums in small pots, flowering of, by Mr. Bester
Corn, saving of, in damp weather, by Mr. Prideaux
Cotton in India, Dr. Royle on
Drainage, depths of, by Mr. Milward
Fork, Winton's, by Mr. Russell
Forking, rotatory
Gourds on lawns
Grape, Mustang
Grass seeds for pasturage
Horticultural Society's Garden
Irish Agricultural Improvement Society's Show
Italian Rye-grass
Lawns, Gourds on

Leaves, variegated
Manure, management of
—— for wheat, by Mr. Stickney
Mealy bug, to kill
Mildew, vine, Amici on (with engraving)
Mutton manufacture, by Mr. Milburn
Nightingales, breeding of, in captivity, by Mr. Hanley
Paulovnia, flowering of
Picotees and carnations
Pig breeding
Pine pits, glass for, by Mr. Jackson
Plants, duration of species
—— variegated
Plough v. forking
Poultry show, Surrey
Royle (Dr.) on Cotton
Rye-grass, Italian
Stanhopea tricornis
Steam forking
Vine, Mustang
Vine mildew, Amici on (with engraving)
Wheat, Lois Weedon culture of
—— manure for, by Mr. Stickney

THE GARDENERS' CHRONICLE and AGRICULTURAL GAZETTE contains, in addition to the above, the Covent Garden, Mark Lane, Smithfield, and Liverpool prices, with returns from the Potato, Hop, Hay, Coal, Timber, Bark, Wool, and Seed Markets, and a complete Newspaper, with a condensed account of all the transactions of the week.

ORDER of any Newsvender. OFFICE for Advertisements, 5. Upper Wellington Street, Covent Garden, London.

TO BOOK-BUYERS.—Selling Off at, and in many instances under, Cost Price, on relinquishing Business, a valuable Collection of Standard and Modern Works in Divinity, Classics, and Translations, History, Biography, Voyages and Travels, and General Literature. Catalogues Postage Free.

R. SAYWELL, 29½ Lincoln's Inn Fields.

RALPH'S SERMON PAPER.—This approved Paper is particularly deserving the notice of the Clergy, as, from its particular form (each page measuring 5¾ by 9 inches), it will contain more matter than the size in ordinary use; and, from the width being narrower, is much more easy to read: adapted for expeditious writing with either the quill or metallic pen; price 5s. per ream. Sample on application.

ENVELOPE PAPER.—To identify the contents with the address and postmark, important in all business communications; it admits of three clear pages (each measuring 5½ by 8 inches), for correspondence, it saves time and is more economical. Price 9s. 6d. per ream.

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Printed by Thomas Clark Shaw, of No. 10 Stonefield Street, in the Parish of St. Mary, Islington, at No. 5. New Street Square, in the Parish of St. Bride, in the City of London; and published by George Bell, of No. 186. Fleet Street, in the Parish of St. Dunstan in the West, in the City of London, Publisher, at No. 186 Fleet Street aforesaid.—Saturday, September 10. 1853.