The Project Gutenberg eBook of Notes and Queries, Number 199, August 20, 1853

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Title: Notes and Queries, Number 199, August 20, 1853

Author: Various

Editor: George Bell

Release date: September 1, 2021 [eBook #66197]

Language: English

Credits: Charlene Taylor, Jonathan Ingram and the Online Distributed Proofreading Team at (This file was produced from images generously made available by The Internet Library of Early Journals.)

Transcriber's note: A few typographical errors have been corrected. They appear in the text like this, and the explanation will appear when the mouse pointer is moved over the marked passage.




"When found, make a note of."—Captain Cuttle.

No. 199.]

Saturday, August 20. 1853.

[Price Fourpence.
Stamped Edition, 5d.


Notes:— Page
Bacon's Essays, by Markby 165
Bishop Burnet, H. Wharton, and Smith 167
Early Philadelphia Directories 168
Shakspeare Correspondence 168
Mottos of the Emperors of Germany, by Joshua G. Fitch 170
Poems by Miss Delaval 171
Minor Notes:—The Rights of Women—Green Pots used for drinking from by Members of the Temple—Quarles and Pascal—Offer to intending Editors—Head-dress 171
Minor Queries:—Fox-hunting—Broderie Anglaise—"The Convent," an Elegy—Memorial of Newton—Mammon—Derivation of Wellesley—The Battle of Cruden: a Query for Copenhagen Correspondents—Ampers and—The Myrtle Bee—Henry Earl of Wotton—Connexion between the Celtic and Latin Languages—Queen Anne's Motto—Anonymous Books 172
Minor Queries with Answers:—Major André—"The Fatal Mistake"—Anonymous Plays—High Commission Court 174
Rosicrucians 175
Searson's Poems 176
"From the Sublime to the Ridiculous," &c., by Henry H. Breen 177
Passage in the Burial Service, by Geo. A. Trevor and John Booker 177
Patrick's Purgatory, by William Blood 178
Lord William Russell 179
Oaken Tombs, &c. 179
"Could we with ink," &c., by the Rev. Moses Margoliouth, &c. 180
Photographic Correspondence:—Washing or not washing Collodion Pictures after developing, previous to fixing—Stereoscopic Angles—Sisson's Developing Solution 181
Replies to Minor Queries:—Robert Drury—Real Signatures versus Pseudo-Names—Lines on the Institution of the Garter—"Short red, God red," &c.—Martha Blount—Longevity—Its—Oldham, Bishop of Exeter—Boom—Lord North—Dutch Pottery—Cranmer's Correspondences—Portable Altars—Poem attributed to Shelley—Lady Percy, Wife of Hotspur (Daughter of Edmund Mortimer, Earl of March)—"Up, guards, and at them!"—Pennycomequick—Captain Booth of Stockport—"Hurrah," &c.—Detached Belfry Towers—Blotting-paper—Riddles for the Post-Office—Mulciber 181
Notes on Books, &c. 185
Books and Odd Volumes wanted 186
Notices to Correspondents 186
Advertisements 186



(Continued from Vol. viii., p. 144.)

Essay XXIX. Of the true Greatness of Kingdoms.—

"The speech of Themistocles."] See Plut. Them. 2., Cimon, 9.

"Negotiis pares."] An expression of Tacitus. In Ann. vi. 39., he says of Poppæus Sabinus: "Maximis provinciis per quatuor et viginti annos impositus; nullam ob eximiam artem, sed quod par negotiis neque supra erat." Again, in Ann. xvi. 18. of C. Petronius: "Proconsul Bithyniæ, et mox consul, vigentem se ac parem negotiis ostendit."

"As Virgil saith, 'It never troubles the wolf how many the sheep be.'"] Lord Bacon, as Mr. Markby observes, evidently alludes to the following verses of Eclogue vii.:

"Hic tantum Boreæ curamus frigora, quantum

Aut numerum lupus, aut torrentia flumina ripas."

The meaning is, however, doubtless correctly explained by Heyne: "Ut numerato pecori parcat." "Quia solam considerat lupus prædam," says Servius. The sense of the passage is, that after the shepherd has "told his tale," after he has counted his sheep, the wolf does not care how much he deranges the reckoning.

For the advice of Parmenio to attack Darius by night, and the refusal of Alexander to steal the victory, see Arrian, Exp. Alex. iii. 10.; Plut. Alex. 31., Curt. iv. 13.

"Neither is money the sinews of war, as it is trivially said."] "Nervi belli, pecunia infinita," Cic. Phil. v. 2. Machiavel, like Bacon, questions the truth of this dictum, Disc. ii. 10.

"Solon said well to Crœsus (when in ostentation he showed him his gold), 'Sir, if any other come that hath better iron than you, he will be master of all this gold.'"] This saying is not in Herodotus, or in Plutarch's Life of Solon. Query, In what ancient author is it to be found?

"Even as you may see in coppice-woods; if you leave your staddles too thick, you shall never have clean underwood, but shrubs and bushes."] The same illustration is used by Lord Bacon, in{166} his History of Henry VII.: "Like to coppice-woods, that, if you leave in them staddles too thick, they will run to bushes and briars, and have little clean underwood" (vol. iii. p. 236., ed. Montagu). The word staddle means an uncut tree in a coppice, left to grow. Thus Tusser says, "Leave growing for staddles the likest and best." See Richardson in v., and Nares' Glossary in Staddle, where other meanings of the word are explained.

"The device of King Henry VII."] See Lord Bacon's History, ib. p. 234.

"Nay, it seemeth at this instant they [the Spaniards] are sensible of this want of natives; as by the Pragmatical Sanction, now published, appeareth."] To what law does Lord Bacon allude?

"Romulus, after his death (as they report or feign), sent a present to the Romans, that above all they should intend arms, and then they should prove the greatest empire of the world."] See Livy, i. 16., where Romulus is described as giving this message to Proculus Julius. A similar message is reported in Plut. Rom. 28.

"No man can by caretaking (as the Scripture saith) add a cubit to his stature."] See Matt. vi. 27.

Essay XXX. Of Regimen of Health.—See Antith., No. 4. vol. viii. p. 355.

Essay XXXI. Of Suspicion.—See Antith., No. 45. vol. viii. p. 377.

Essay XXXII. Of Discourse.—

"I knew two noblemen of the west part of England," &c.] Query, Who are the noblemen referred to?

Essay XXXIII. Of Plantations.—

"When the world was young it begat more children; but now it is old it begets fewer."] This idea is taken from the ancients. Thus Lucretius:

"Sed quia finem aliquam pariendi debet habere,

Destitit, ut mulier spatio defessa vetusto."

V. 823-4.

"Consider likewise, what commodities the soil where the plantation is doth naturally yield, that they may some way help to defray the charge of the plantation; so it be not, as was said, to the untimely prejudice of the main business, as it hath fared with tobacco in Virginia."] On the excessive cultivation of tobacco by the early colonists of Virginia, see Grahame's History of North America, vol. i. p. 67. King James's objection to tobacco is well known.

"But moil not too much underground."] This old word, for to toil, to labour, has now become provincial.

"In marish and unwholesome grounds."] Marish is here used in its original sense, as the adjective of mere. Spenser and Milton use it as a substantive; whence the word marsh.

"It is the guiltiness of blood of many commiserable persons."] No instance of the word commiserable is cited in the Dictionaries from any other writer than Bacon.

Essay XXXIV. Of Riches.—See Antith., No. 6. vol. viii. p. 356.

"In sudore vultûs alieni."] Gen. iii. 19.

"The fortune in being the first in an invention, or in a privilege, doth cause sometimes a wonderful overgrowth in riches, as it was with the first sugar-man in the Canaries."] When was the growth of sugar introduced into the Canaries? To what does Bacon allude? It does not appear that sugar is now grown in these islands; at least it is enumerated among their imports, and not among their exports.

Essay XXXV. Of Prophecies.—

"Henry VI. of England said of Henry VII., when he was a lad and gave him water, 'This is the lad that shall enjoy the crown for which we strive.'"] Query, Is this speech reported by any earlier writer?

"When I was in France I heard from one Dr. Pena, that the queen-mother, who was given to curious arts, caused the king her husband's nativity to be calculated under a false name, and the astrologer gave a judgment that he should be killed in a duel; at which the queen laughed, thinking her husband to be above challenges and duels; but he was slain upon a course at tilt, the splinters of the staff of Montgomery going in at his beaver."] The king here alluded to is Henri II., who was killed at a tournament in 1559; his queen was Catherine de Medici. Bacon's visit to France was in 1576-9 (Life, by Montagu, p. xvi.), during the reign of Henri III., when Catherine of Medici was queen-mother. Query, Is this prophecy mentioned in any French writer?

"Octogesimus octavus mirabilis annus." Concerning the prophecy which contained this verse, see Bayle, Dict., art. Stofler, note E: art. Bruschius, note E.

Essay XXXVII. Of Masques and Triumphs.—

"The colours that show best by candlelight are white, carnation, and a kind of sea-water green; and oes, or spangs, as they are of no great cost, so they are of most glory." Mr. Markby says that Montagu and Spiers take the liberty of altering the word oes to ouches. Halliwell, in his Dictionary, explains oes to mean eyes, citing one manuscript example. This would agree tolerably with the sense of the passage before us. Ouches would mean jewels.

Essay XXXVIII. Of Nature in Men.—See Antith., No. 10. vol. viii. p. 459.

"Optimus ille animi vindex," &c.] "Ille fuit vindex" in Ovid.


"Like as it was with Æsop's damsel, turned from a cat to a woman."] See Babrius, Fab. 32.

"Otherwise they may say, 'Multum incola fuit anima mea.'" Whence are these words borrowed?

Essay XXXIX. Of Custom and Education.—See Antith., No. 10. vol. viii. p. 359.

"Only superstition is now so well advanced, that men of the first blood are as firm as butchers by occupation, and votary resolution is made equipollent to custom, even in matter of blood."] This is an allusion to the Gunpowder Plot.

"The Indian wives strive to be burnt with the corpse of their husbands."] The practice of suttee is of great antiquity. See Strabo, xv. 1. § 30. 62.; Val. Max. ii. 6. 14.

"The lads of Sparta, of ancient time, were wont to be scourged upon the altar of Diana, without so much as queching."] To queche here means to squeak.

"Late learners cannot so well take the ply."] To take the ply is to bend according to the pressure; to be flexible and docile under instruction.

Essay XL. Of Fortune.—See Antith., No. 11. vol. viii. p. 359.

"Serpens, nisi serpentem comederit, non fit draco."] What is the origin of this saying?

The character of Cato the elder, cited from Livy, is in xxxix. 40.; but the words are quoted memoriter, and do not agree exactly with the original.

For the anecdote of Timotheus, see "N. & Q.," Vol. vii., p. 493.

Essay XLII. Of Youth and Age.—See Antith., No. 3. vol. viii. p. 355.

"Hermogenes the rhetorician, whose books are exceedingly subtle, who afterwards waxed stupid."] Hermogenes of Tarsus, who lived in the reign of Marcus Aurelius, wrote some able rhetorical works while he was still a young man; but at the age of twenty-five fell into a state of mental imbecility, from which he never recovered.

"Scipio Africanus, of whom Livy saith in elect, 'Ultima primis cedebant.'"] The allusion is to Ovid, Heroid. ix. 23-4.:

"Cœpisti melius quam desinis: ultima primis

Cedunt: dissimiles hic vir et ille puer."

Essay XLIII. Of Beauty.—See Antith., No. 2. vol. viii. p. 354.

"A man cannot tell whether Apelles or Albert Durer were the more trifler; whereof the one would make a personage by geometrical proportions, the other by taking the best parts out of divers faces to make one excellent."] With regard to Apelles, Lord Bacon probably alludes to the story of Zeuxis in Cic. De Inv. ii. 1.

"Pulcrorum autumnus pulcher."] Query, What is the source of this quotation?

Essay XLVI. Of Gardens.—

Many of the names of plants in this Essay require illustration. Gennitings appear to be broom, from genista; quodlins are codlings, a species of apple; wardens are a species of pear, concerning which see Hudson's Domestic Architecture of the Thirteenth Century, p. 137. Bullaces are explained by Halliwell to be a small black and tartish plum, growing wild in some parts of the country.

"My meaning is perceived, that you may have ver perpetuum, as the place affords."] The allusion, probably, is to Virgil, Georg. ii. 149.:

"Hic ver assiduum, atque alienis mensibus æstas."

"Little low hedges, round, like welts, with some pretty pyramids, I like well."] A welt was the turned-over edge of a garment.

"Abeunt studia in mores."] From Ovid's Epistle of Sappho to Phaon, Ep. xv. 83.

"Let him study the schoolmen, for they are cymini sectores."] The word κυμινοπρίστης is applied in Aristot., Eth. Nic. iv. 3., to a miserly person; one who saves cheeseparings and candle-ends.

Essay LII. Of Ceremonies and Respects.—See Antith., No. 34. vol. viii. p. 371.

"It doth much add to a man's reputation, and is (as Queen Isabella saith) like perpetual letters commendatory, to have good forms."] Query, Which Queen Isabella was the author of this saying?

Essay LIII. Of Praise.—See Antith., No. 10. vol. viii. p. 358.

"Pessimum genus inimicorum laudantium."] From Tacit. Agric. c. 41., where the words are: "Pessimum inimicorum genus, laudantes." Laudantium for laudantes in the text of Bacon is an error.

Essay LIV. Of Vain-glory.—See Antith., No. 19. vol. viii. p. 364.

Essay LVI. Of Judicature.—

"Judges ought to remember that their office is jus dicere, and not jus dare."] Compare Aph. 44. and 46., in the eighth book De Augmentis.



The following curious piece of literary history is quoted from pp. 145-147. of Smith's De Re Nummaria:

"But having thus owned the bishop's generosity, I must next inform the reader what occasion I have to make some complaint of hard usage, partly to myself, but infinitely more to Dr. H. Wharton, and that after his decease also. The matter of fact lies in this order. After Ant. Harmer had published his Specimen of Errors to be found in the Bishop's History of the Reformation, there was a person that frequented the coffee-house where we met daily at Oxon, and who{168} afterwards became a prelate in Scotland, that was continually running down that History for the errors discovered in it, many of which are not very material, and might in so large a work have been easily pardoned; and in order to obtain such a pardon, I acquainted his Lordship with some more considerable errata to be found in the first volume of Anglia Sacra, out of which I had drawn up as many mistakes as I could possibly meet with, and had descanted upon them, as far as I was able, in the same method Ant. Harmer had drawn up his, and without acquainting the Bishop who was the author, sent them up to his Lordship with license, if he thought fitting, to print them. But when the collection was made, I had prefixed a letter to his Lordship, and next an epistle to the reader. In the former it was but fitting to compliment his Lordship, but the latter was altogether as large a commendation of Dr. Wharton's skill, diligence, and faithfulness in viewing and examining the records of our English church history. The disgust that this last gave his Lordship obliged him to stifle the whole tract; but yet he was pleased to show part of it to many by way, as I suppose, of excuse or answer for his own mistakes; but as I take it, after the Doctor's decease, he made it an occasion of foully bespattering him as a man of no credit, and all he had writ in that Specimen was fit to go for nothing; which practice of his lordship, after I came to read both in the preface and introduction to his third volume, I was amazed at his injustice both to the living and the dead. For I had acquainted his Lordship that the faults were none of Dr. Wharton's own making, who had never seen the MS. itself, but only some exscript of it, writ by some raw and illiterate person employed by some of his Oxford friends to send him a copy of it. I once threatened my Lord Bishop's son that I had thoughts of publishing this and some other facts the Bishop had used to avoid the discovery of some other errata communicated to him by other hands; but I forbore doing so, lest I should seem ungrateful for kindnesses done and offered to me."

E. H. A.


The first Philadelphia Directories were published in the year 1785, when two appeared: White's and M'Pherson's. The latter is a duodecimo volume of 164 pages, and contains some things worth making a note of.

Some persons do not seem to have comprehended the object of the inquiries made of the inhabitants as to their names and occupations; supposing, perhaps, that they had some connexion with taxation. The answers given by such are put down in the Directory as the names of the respondents. Thus:

"'I won't tell you,' 3. Maiden's Lane."

"'I won't tell it,' 15. Sugar Alley."

"'I won't tell you my name,' 160. New Market Street."

"'I won't have it numbered,' 478. Green Street."

"'I won't tell my name,' 185. St. John's Street."

"'I shall not give you my name,' 43. Stamper's Alley."

"'What you please,' 49. Market Street."

In the errata are the following:

"For Cross Woman read Cross Widow."

"For Cox Cats read Cox Cato."

The alphabetical arrangement of a Directory is as great a leveller as the grave. In the Directory for 1798, after—

"Dennis, Mr., Taylor, Pewter Platter Alley."

appears the following:

"Dorleans, Messrs., Merchants, near 100. South Fourth Street."

These were Louis Philippe and one of his brothers, who lived at the north-west corner of Fourth and Princes Streets, in a house still standing, and now numbered 110.

Talleyrand and Volney lived for some time in Philadelphia; but, not being house-keepers, their names do not appear in any of the Directories.




Shakspeare Readings, No. X.—"Sheer" versus "Warwick-sheer."—At page 143. of Notes and Emendations, Mr. Collier indulges in the following reverie:—

"Malone did not know what to make of 'sheer ale,' but supposed that it meant sheering or reaping ale, for so reaping is called in Warwickshire. What does it mean? It is spelt sheere in the old copies; and that word begins one line, Warwick having undoubtedly dropped out at the end of the preceding line.... It was formerly not at all unusual to spell 'shire' sheere; and Sly's 'sheer ale' thus turns out to have been Warwickshire ale, which Shakspeare celebrated, and of which he had doubtless often partaken at Mrs. Hacket's. We almost wonder that, in his local particularity, he did not mention the sign of her house," &c.

The meaning of sheer ale was strong ale—that which we now call "entire"—ale unmixed, unreduced, unmitigated—the antithesis of that "small ale," for a pot of which poor Sly begged so hard, sinking his demand at last to "a pot o' the smallest ale." If Christopher lived in our own times, he might, on common occasions, indulge in small; but for great treats he would have Barclay's entire: and, instead of bullying Dame Hacket about "sealed quarts," he would perhaps, in these educated days, be writing to The Times under the signature of "A Thirsty Soul." Sly evidently was rather proud of underlying a score of fourteenpence for sheer ale.

Let us hear in what sense old Phil. Holland, in Precepts of Health, uses the word:

"And verily water (not that onely wherewith wine is mingled, but also which is drunke betweene whiles,{169} apart by itselfe) causeth the wine tempered therewith to doe the lesse harme: in regard whereof, a student ought to use himselfe to drinke twice or thrice every day a draught of sheere water," &c.

Here "sheere water" is put in apposition to that with which "wine is mingled;" the meaning of sheer, therefore, is integer: and sheer milk would be milk before it goes to the pump.

But perhaps it will be objected that sheer, applied to water, as in this place, may mean clear, bright, free from foulness. Well, then, here is another example from Fletcher's Double Marriage, where Castruccio is being tantalised after the fashion of the Governor of Barataria:

"Cast. (tastes.) Why, what is this? Why, Doctor!

Doctor. Wine and water, sir. 'Tis sovereign for your heat: you must endure it.

Villio. Most excellent to cool your night-piece, sir!

Doctor. You're of a high and choleric complexion, and must have allays.

Cast. Shall I have no SHEER WINE then?"

The step from this to sheer ale is not very difficult.

It may be remarked that, at present, we apply several arbitrary adjectives, in this sense of sheer, to different liquors. Thus, to spirits we apply "raw," to wines and brandy "neat," to malt drink "stout" or "strong;" and then we reduce to "half and half," until at length we come to the very "small," a term which, like other lowly things, seems to have been permitted to endure from its very weakness.

A. E. B.


"Clamour your tongues," &c.

"Clamour your tongues, and not a word more."

Wint. Tale, Act IV. Sc. 4.

Notwithstanding the comments upon this word clamour, both in the pages of "N. & Q.," and by the various editors of Shakspeare, I have not yet seen anything that appears to my mind like a satisfactory elucidation.

Gifford, not being able to make anything of the word, proposed to read charm, which at all events is plausible, though nothing more. Nares says the word is in use among bell-ringers, though now shortened to clam. Unfortunately the meaning attached to the term by the ringers is at variance with that of clamour in the text; for to clam the bells is what we should now call putting them on sette or setting them, and this is but preparatory to a general crash: still it is possible that the words may be the same.

Mr. Arrowsmith (Vol. vii., p. 567.) maintains the genuineness of clamour in preference to charm; and, without a word of comment, quotes two passages from Udall's translation of Erasmus his Apothegms—"oneless hee chaumbreed his tongue," &c.; and again—"did he refrein or chaumbre the tauntying of his tongue." I confess I cannot fathom Mr. Arrowsmith's intention; for the obvious conclusion to be drawn from these quotations is, that charm, and not clamour, is an abbreviation of the older word chaumbre.

I am very much inclined to think that the verb in question comes directly from the A.-S. We find the word clam or clom—a bond, that which holds or retains, a prison; in the latter form the word is frequently used, and for the use of the former in the same sense Bosworth quotes Boethius (Rawlinson's ed., Oxon. 1698, p. 152.), which work I am unable to consult. From these words, then, we have clommian, clæmian, &c., to bind or restrain. It seems not very unlikely that from this original came Shakspeare's word clammer or clamour. I may add that Skinner explains the word clum by a note of silence, quoting "Chaucer in fab. Molitoris" (I have no copy of Chaucer at this moment within reach); and in the A.-S. we find clumian, to keep close, to press, to mutter, comprimere, mussitare: all these words probably have the same root.

An instance of the use of the word clame or clamour is to be found in a work entitled The Castel of Helthe; gathered and made by Syr Thomas Elyot, Knight, &c.; printed by Thomas Berthelet: London, 1539 (black-letter). At p. 52. is the following:

"Nauigation or rowynge nigh to the lande, in a clame water, is expedient for them that haue dropsies, lepries, palseyes, called of the vulgar people, takynges, and francies. To be carried on a rough water, it is a violent exercise," &c.

H. C. K.

—— Rectory, Hereford.

Shakspeare Suggestions (Vol. viii., p. 124.).—Icon asks—"Has any one suggested 'Most busy, when least I do.' The 'it' seems mere surplusage?"

The same suggestion, nearly verbatim, even to the curtailment of the "it," may be found in this present month's number of Blackwood's Magazine, p. 186.

But Icon will also find the same reading, with an anterior title of nearly three years, together with some good reasons for its adoption, in "N. & Q.," Vol. ii., p. 338. And he may also consult with advantage an illustrative quotation in Vol. iii., p. 229.

In the original suggestion in "N. & Q.," there is no presumption of surplusage: the word "it" is understood in relation to labours; that word being taken as a collective singular, like contents, and other words of the same construction.

The critic in Blackwood disclaims consulting "N. & Q.;" and it is, no doubt, a convenient disclaimer. He follows the herd of menstrual Aristarchi, by hailing, with wondering admiration, the substitution of ethics for checks! And he shows his fitness for the task he has undertaken, by stating{170} that "Mr. Singer alone had the good taste to print it (ethics) in his text of 1826."

Mr. Halliwell, however, in a recent pamphlet, states that—

"This new emendation has not only been mentioned in a great variety of editions, but has been introduced into the text by no fewer than five editors, the first, I believe, in point of time, being the Rev. J. Rann, who substituted ethics into the text as early as 1787."

A. E. B.


Critical Digest.—Your readers have seen no more welcome announcement than that contained in p. 75. of your present volume, that this project of a work, bringing into one view the labours of preceding editors and commentators, is in good hands and likely to be brought to bear. On the form of such a work it is perhaps premature to offer an observation; but, to be perfect, it ought to range with that remarkable monument of a lady's patient industry, Mrs. Cowden Clarke's Concordance. On the materials to be employed, all your readers have such an interest in the subject as to warrant them in making suggestions; and it will be well to do so before the plans are fully matured.

It ought, in my opinion, to be more comprehensive than even the largest scheme suggested by your correspondent; for, in addition to the comments which may be thought most worthy of insertion in full, or nearly so, it ought to contain at least a reference to every known comment, in the slightest degree worthy of notice, in relation to any passage in the work. To accomplish this would of course be a work of enormous labour, and the object of the present Note is to suggest, as first step, the circulation of a list of works intended to be consulted, for the purpose of inviting additions; not that such a list should encumber the pages of "N. & Q." but I am much mistaken if you would not afford facilities for receiving the communications asked for. This course is the more necessary, inasmuch as, in addition to works written exclusively on the subject of Shakspeare, there is a vast amount of Shakspearian criticism spread over works, the titles of which give no indication of the necessity for consulting them. For instance, upwards of two hundred pages of Coleridge's Literary Remains are so employed; and though, perhaps, the work is so well known that it would have found a place in the first copy of the list I have suggested, it may serve as an illustration of the sort of information which it would be desirable to invite.

J. F. M.


I was much interested in the lists given in "N. & Q." last year of the mottos adopted by serjeants-at-law on arriving at that dignity; and it then occurred to me, that it would be curious to collect in like manner a complete list of the sentences, which, as is well known to students of history, the Emperors of Germany were accustomed to assume at their coronations. A recent visit to Frankfort has given me an opportunity of making and sending you such a list. The materials are collected from inscriptions on a series of imperial portraits which adorn the principal chamber in the Römer or town hall of that city. The list, if it have no other interest, will at least serve to remind us that some of the Latin aphorisms and "wise saws" current among us now, have been doing duty in the same capacity for centuries:

Conrad I. 911. (Franconia.) Fortuna cum blanditur fallit.

Henry I. 918. (Saxony.) Ad vindictam tardus, ad beneficentiam velox.

Otho I. (The Great.) 936. (Saxony.) Satius est ratione æquitatis mortem oppetere, quam fugere et inhonesta vivere.

Otho II. 974. (Saxony.) Cum omnibus pacem; adversus vitia bellum.

Otho III. 983. (Saxony.) Facile singula rumpuntur jacula; non conjuncta.

Henry II. 1002. (Bavaria.) Nihil impense ames, ita fiet ut in nullo contristeris.

Conrad II. 1024. (Franconia.) Omnium mores, imprimis observato.

[1]Henry III. 1039. (Franconia.) Qui litem aufert; execrationem in benedictionem mutat.

Henry IV. 1056. (Franconia.) Multi multa sciunt, se autem nemo.

Henry V. 1106. (Franconia.) Miser qui mortem appetit, miserior qui timet.

Lothaire. 1125. (Saxony.) Audi alteram partem.

Conrad III. 1137. (Swabia.) Pauca cum aliis, multa tecum loquere.

Frederick I. (Barbarossa.) 1152. (Swabia.) Præstat uni probo quam mille improbis placere.

Henry VI. 1190. (Swabia.) Qui tacendi non habet artem, nec novit loquendi.

Philip. 1197. (Swabia.) Quod male cœptum est, ne pudeat mutasse.

Otho IV. 1208. (Brunswick.) Strepit anser inter olores.

Frederick II. 1218. (Swabia.) Complurimum Thriorum, ego strepitum audiri.

1250-1272. Grand interregnum. (See Hallam, Middle Ages, ch. v.)

Rodolph of Hapsburgh. 1273. Melius bene imperare quam imperium ampliare.


Adolphus. 1291. (Nassau.)

Albert I. 1298. (Austria.) Fugam victoria nescit.

Henry VII. 1308. (Luxemburg.) Calicem vitæ dedisti mihi in mortem.[2]

Louis IV. 1314. (Bavaria.)

Charles IV. 1347. (Bohemia.)

Wenceslaus. 1378. (Bohemia.)

Robert. (Count Palatine.) 1400. Misericordia non causam, sed fortunam spectat.

Sigismund. 1411. (Luxemburg.) Mala ultro adsunt.

Albert II. 1438. ([3]Austria, House of Hapsburgh.) Amicus optimæ vitæ possessio.

Frederick III. 1440. Austriæ imperare orbi universo.

Maximilian I. 1493. Tene mensuram et respice finem.

Charles V. 1519. Plus ultra.

Ferdinand I. 1558. Fiat justitia, et pereat mundus.

Maximilian II. 1564. Deus providebit.

Rodolph II. 1576. Fulget Cæsaris astrum.

Matthew. 1612. Concordi lumine major.

Ferdinand II. 1619. Legitime certantibus.

Ferdinand III. 1637. Pietate et justitiâ.

Leopold I. 1657. Consilio et industriâ.

Joseph I. 1705. Amore et timore.

Charles VI. 1711. Constantiâ et fortitudine.

Charles VII. 1742.

Francis I. 1745. Pro Deo et imperio.

Joseph II. 1765. Virtute et exemplo.

Leopold II. 1790. Opes regum, corda subditorum.

Francis II. 1792. Lege et fide.

I have added, by way of rendering the catalogue more complete, the name of the particular family of German princes, for which each emperor was selected. A glance at these names furnishes a remarkable illustration of an observation of Sismondi:

"That the great evil of an elective monarchy, is the continual struggle on the part of the rulers to make it hereditary."

It is scarcely necessary to remind your readers, that the integrity of Charlemagne's empire was preserved until the deposition of Charles the Fat; that France and Germany did not become separate until after that event; and that Conrad was, therefore, the first of the German sovereigns, as he was certainly the first elected by the confederate princes.

Joshua G. Fitch.

Footnote 1:(return)

Hallam says, that the imperial prerogative never reached so high a point as in the reign of this monarch. The succession to the throne appears to have been regarded as hereditary; and a very efficient control preserved by the emperor over the usually insubordinate confederacy.

Footnote 2:(return)

At the death of Henry, Frederick the son of Albert disputed Louis's election, alleging that he had a majority of genuine votes. He assumed the motto, Beatâ morte nihil beatius.

Footnote 3:(return)

All the succeeding princes were of this family.


If the accompanying songs have not been printed before, they may perhaps be worth preserving. They were written and set to music by a highly accomplished lady, the daughter of Edward Hussey Delaval, Esq., the last of his name and race, sometime Fellow of Pembroke College, Cambridge; the cotemporary of Gray and Mason, and well known for his literary and scientific attainments:

"Where the murm'ring streams meander,

Where the sportive zephyrs play,

Whilst in sylvan shades I wander,

Softly steal the hours away.

I nor splendor crave nor treasure,

Calmer joys my bosom knows;

Smiling days of rural pleasure,

Peaceful nights of soft repose."

"Oh Music, if thou hast a charm,

That may the sense of pain disarm,

Be all thy tender tones address'd

To soothe to peace my Anna's breast,

And bid the magic of thy strain

To still the throb of wakeful pain;

That, rapt in the delightful measure,

Sweet hope again may whisper pleasure,

And seem the notes of spring to hear,

Prelusive to a happier year.

And if thy magic can restore,

The shade of days that smile no more,

And softer, sweeter colors give

To scenes that in remembrance live,

Be to her pensive heart a friend;

And whilst the tender shadows blend,

Recall, ere the brief trace be lost,

Each moment that she priz'd the most."

E. H. A.

Minor Notes.

The Rights of Women.—Single women, who were freeholders, voted in the State of New Jersey as late as the year 1800. In a newspaper of that date is a complimentary editorial to the female voters for having unanimously supported Mr. John Adams (the defeated candidate) for President of the United States, in opposition to Mr. Jefferson, who was denounced as wanting in religion.



Green Pots used for drinking from by Members of the Temple.—During the summer of 1849, when the new part of Paper Buildings in the Temple was being built, the workmen, in making the necessary excavations, dug up a great number of pots or cups, which are supposed to have been used for drinking from by the students. I have recently met with the following letter from Sir{172} Julius Cæsar to Sir W. More, which may be interesting to some of your readers:

"After my hartie commendac'ons, &c. Whereas in tymes past the bearer hereof hath had out of the Parke of Farnham, belonging to the Bishopricke of Winchester, certaine white clay for the making of grene potts usually drunk in by the gentlemen of the Temple, and nowe understandinge of some restraint thereof, and that you (amongst others) are authorized there in divers respects during the vacancye of the said Bishopricke; my request, therefore, unto you is, and the rather for that I am a member of the said house, that you would in favoʳ of us all p'mytt the bearer hereof to digge and carrie away so muche of the said claye as by him shalbe thought sufficient for the furnishinge of the said house wᵗʰ grene potts aforesaid, paying as he hath heretofore for the same. In accomplishment whereof myself with the whole societie shall acknowledge oʳselves much beholden unto you, and shalbe readie to requite you at all times hereafter wᵗʰ the like pleasure. And so I bid you moste heartilie farewel.

"Inner Temple, this xixᵗʰ of August, 1591.

"To the right worshipful Sir W'm More, Knight, geve these."

This letter is printed in the Losely Manuscripts, p. 311.



Quarles and Pascal.—In Quarles' Emblems, book i. Emblem vi., there is a passage:

"The world's a seeming paradise, but her own

And man's tormentor;

Appearing fixed, yet but a rolling stone

Without a tenter;

It is a vast circumference where none

Can find a centre."

And Pascal, in one of his Pensées, says:

"Le monde est une sphère infinie, dont le centre est partout, la circonférence nulle part."

Here we have two propositions, which, whether taken separately, or opposed to each other, would seem to contain nothing but paradox or contradiction. And yet I believe they are but different modes of expressing the same thing.

Henry H. Breen.

St. Lucia.

Offer to intending Editors.—I had hoped that some one would accept Mr. Crossley's offer of Ware's MS. notes for a new edition of Foxes and Firebrands. I myself will with pleasure contribute a copy of the book to print from (assuming that it will be properly executed), and also of his much rarer Coursing of the Romish Fox, which should form part of the volume.

If any one is disposed to edit the works of Dr. John Rogers, the sub-dean of Wells, I will, with the same pleasure, supply his Address to the Quakers, of which I possess Mr. Brand's copy, which he has twice marked as extra rare; and Rodd, from whom I purchased it, had never seen another copy. The entire works might be comprised in two volumes octavo.

It is to be regretted that Mr. Flintoff has not yet published Wallis's Sermons on the Trinity, to accompany his excellent edition of Wallis's Letters, 1840. Would it not be possible to obtain so many names as would defray the expense of printing?

S. Z. Z. S.

Head-dress.—The enormous head-dresses worn in the time of Charles I. gave rise to the following lines:

"Hoc magis est instar tecti quam tegminis; hoc non

Ornare est; hoc est ædificare caput."

Clericus (D.)

Minor Queries.

Fox-hunting.—Can any of your correspondents inform me, when the great national sport of fox-hunting first came into vogue?

Gervase Markham, whose work on sports, called Country Contentments, or the Husbandman's Recreations, was published in 1654, gives due honour to stag-hunting, which he describes as "the most princely and royall chase of all chases." Speaking of hare-hunting, he says, "It is every honest man's and good man's chase, and which is indeed the freest, readiest, and most enduring pastime;" but he classes the hunting of the fox and the badger together, and he describes them as "Chases of a great deal lesse use or cunning than any of the former, because they are of a much hotter scent, and as being intituled stinking scents, and not sweet scents."

Although he does admit that this chase may be profitable and pleasant for the time, insomuch as there are not so many defaults, but a continuing sport; he concludes, "I will not stand much upon them, because they are not so much desired as the rest."

R. W. B.

Broderie Anglaise.—Being a young lady whose love for the fine arts is properly modified by a reverence for antiquity, I am desirous to know whether the present fashionable occupation of the "Broderie Anglaise," being undoubtedly a revival, is however traceable (as is alleged) to so remote a period as the days of Elizabeth?

Sarah Anna.

"The Convent," an Elegy.—Among the works ascribed to the Abbé François Arnaud, a member of the French Academy, who died in 1784, there is one entitled, Le Couvent, Elégie traduite de l'Anglais. What is the English poem here alluded to?

Henry H. Breen.

St. Lucia.

Memorial of Newton.—The subscription now in progress for raising a statue to Sir Isaac Newton{173} at Grantham, the place of his early education, recalls to my recollection a memorial of him, about which I may possibly learn a few particulars from some one of the numerous readers of "N. & Q."

I remember hearing when a school-boy at the college, Grantham, some thirty-five years ago, that Newton's name, cut by himself on a stone in the recess of one of the windows of the school-house, was to be seen there no long time back; but that the stone, or the portion of it which contained the name, had been cut out by some mason at a time when the building was being repaired, and was in the possession of a gentleman then living in the largest house in Grantham—built, I believe, by himself. Those of your readers who knew Grantham at the time, will not need to be told the name of the gentleman to whom I allude. The questions I would wish to ask are these:

1. Was such a stone to be seen, as described, some forty or fifty years since?

2. Is it true that it was removed in the way that I have stated?

3. If so, in whose possession is the stone at this present time?

M. A.

Mammon.—Perhaps some of your readers could refer me to some work containing information in reference to the following allegation of Barnes, on Matt. vi. 24.:

"Mammon is a Syriac word, a name given to an idol worshipped as the god of riches. It has the same meaning as Plutus among the Greeks. It is not known that the Jews even formally worshipped this idol, but they used the word to denote wealth."

My question relates to the passages in Italics.

B. H. C.

Derivation of Wellesley.—In a note to the lately published Autobiographic Sketches of Thomas De Quincey, I find (p. 131.) the following passage:

"It had been always known that some relationship existed between the Wellesleys and John Wesley. Their names had in fact been originally the same; and the Duke of Wellington himself, in the earlier part of his career, when sitting in the Irish House of Commons, was always known to the Irish journals as Captain Wesley. Upon this arose a natural belief, that the aristocratic branch of the house had improved the name into Wellesley. But the true process of change had been precisely the other way. Not Wesley had been expanded into Wellesley, but inversely, Wellesley had been contracted by household usage into Wesley. The name must have been Wellesley in its earliest stage, since it was founded upon a connexion with Wells Cathedral."

May I ask what this connexion was, and whence the authority for the statement? Had the illustrious Duke's adoption of his title from another town in Somersetshire anything to do with it?

J. M.

Cranwells, Bath.

The Battle of Cruden—A Query for Copenhagen Correspondents.—In the year 1059, in the reign of Malcolm III., king of Scotland, a battle was fought on the Links of Cruden, in the county of Aberdeen, between the Danes and the Scots, in which the Prince Royal, who commanded the Danish forces, was slain. He was buried on the Danish field, near to which, according to the custom of the times, King Malcolm "biggit ane kirk." This church was overblown with sand, and another built farther inland, which is the present parish church. To the churchyard wall there leans a black marble gravestone, about 7 ft. × 3 ft. 6 in., which is said to have been sent from Denmark as a monument for the grave of his royal highness. The stone has the appearance of considerable antiquity about it, and appears to have been inlaid with marble, let into it about half an inch; the marks of the iron brads, and the lead which secured it, are still visible.

"Tradition says it did from Denmark come,

A monument the king sent for his son."

And it is also stated that, until within the last hundred years, a small sum of money was annually sent by the Danish government to the minister of Cruden for keeping the monument in repair. I should be glad to learn if there are any documents among the royal archives at Copenhagen, which would invalidate or substantiate the popular tradition.


Ampers and (Ampersand symbol, ornate 'et' style or Ampersand symbol, the more common '&' style).—I have heard this symbol called both ampers and and apussé and. Which, if either, is the correct term; and what is its derivation?

C. Mansfield Ingleby.


The Myrtle Bee.—I should feel much obliged to any reader of "N. & Q." who would answer the following questions respecting the bird called the Myrtle Bee; separating carefully at the same time the result of his personal experience from any hearsay evidence that he may have collected on the subject. In what places in the British Isles has the bird been seen? During what months? Is it gregarious, or solitary? What are its haunts and habits, and on what does it feed? What is its colour, shape, and size? Its mode of flight? Does any cabinet contain a preserved specimen, and has any naturalist described or figured it either as a British or a foreign bird?

W. R. D. Salmon.


Henry Earl of Wotton.—Jan van Kerckhove, Lord of Kerkhoven and Heenvliet, who died at Sassenheim, March 7, 1660, married Catherine Stanhope, daughter of the Earl of Chesterfield; and had issue Charles Henry, who in 1659 was chief magistrate of Breda, and was created Earl{174} of Wotton by the king of England. Could any of your readers favour me with the date of the above marriage, as also those of the birth of the father and the son; as well as that of the elevation of the latter to the peerage of England?—From the Navorscher.

A. I.

Connexion between the Celtic and Latin Languages.—Can any of your correspondents supply any links of connection between the Celtic and Latin languages?


Queen Anne's Motto.—What authority have we for asserting that "Semper eadem" was Queen Anne's motto, and that it expired with her?

Clericus (D.)

Anonymous Books.—Can any of the readers of "N. & Q." furnish the names of the authors of either of the following works?

1. The Watch; an Ode, humbly inscribed to the Right Hon. the Earl of M—f—d. To which is added, the Genius of America to General Carleton, an Ode. London: J. Bew, 1778. 4to.

2. Fast Sermon, preached at —— Feb. 10th, 1779, by the Reverend —— ——; showing the Tyranny and Oppression of the British King and Parliament respecting the American Colonies. Inscribed to the Congress. 8vo. (Sine loco aut anno. An ironical Piece, severe on America.)

3. National Prejudice opposed to the National Interest; candidly considered in the Detention or Yielding up Gibraltar and Cape Breton, by the ensuing Treaty of Peace, &c. In a Letter to Sir John Bernard. London: W. Owen, 1748. 8vo.

4. The Blockheads; or Fortunate Contractor. An Opera, in Two Acts, as it was performed at New York, &c. Printed at New York. London: reprinted for G. Kearsley, 1783. 12mo.

5. The Present State of the British Empire in Europe, America, Asia, and Africa, &c.: London, 1768, 8vo., pp. 486.

Who prepared the chapters on America in this volume?


Minor Queries with Answers.

Major André.—A subscriber having observed the amount of valuable and recondite information elicited by a happy Query concerning General Wolfe, hopes to obtain like success in one he now puts forward in regard to the personal history, &c. of the unfortunate Major John André, who was hung by the Americans as a spy during their Revolutionary War. Being engaged upon a biography of Major André, he has already collected considerable matter; but wishes to leave no stone unturned in his task, and therefore begs his brethren of "N. & Q." to publish therein any anecdotes or copies of any letters or documents concerning that gallant but ill-fated gentleman. A reference to passages occurring in printed books bearing on this subject, might also well be given; for there is so little known about Major André, and that little scattered piecemeal in so many and various localities, that it is hardly possible some of them should not have escaped this writer's notice.


[Smith's Authentic Narrative of Major André, 8vo. 1808, has most probably been consulted by our correspondent. There is a good account of the Major in vol. ii. of the Biographical Dictionary of the Useful Knowledge Society, and it is worth consulting for the authorities quoted at the end of the article. See also the Encyclopædia Americana, article "Benedict Arnold;" the American Whig Review, vol. v. p. 381.; New England Magazine, vol. vi. p. 353.; and for a vindication of the captors of André, the Analectic Magazine, vol. x. p. 307. Articles also will be found respecting him in Gentleman's Magazine, vol. l. pp. 540. 610.; vol. li. p. 320.; vol. lii. p. 514. Major André is one of the principal subjects of The British Hero in Captivity, a poem attributed to Mr. Puddicombe, 4to. 1782.]

"The Fatal Mistake."—Can you tell me where the scene of the following play is laid, and the names of the dramatis personæ: The Fatal Mistake, a Tragedy, by Joseph Haynes, 4to., 1696?

The author of this play, who was known by the name of Count Haynes, was an actor in the theatre at Drury Lane about the time of James II., and died in 1701. There is an account of his life written by Tom Browne.


[The title-page of A Fatal Mistake states that it was written by Jos. Hayns; but according to the Biog. Dramatica, it is not certain that Count Haines was the author. The dramatis personæ are: Men, Duke, Duke of Schawden's ambassador, Rodulphus, Baldwin, Eustace, Ladovick, Albert, Godfrey, Arnulph, Frederick, Welpho, Conradine, Gozelo, Lewis, Ferdinando. Women, Duchess Gertruedo, Lebassa, Clementia, Idana, Thierrie, Maria, Lords and Ladies, Masquers, Soldiers.]

Anonymous Plays.

1. A Match for a Widow; or, the Frolics of Fancy. A Comic Opera, in Three Acts, as performed at the Theatre Royal, Dublin. London: C. Dilly, 1788. 8vo.

2. The Indians; a Tragedy. Performed at the Theatre Royal, Richmond. London: C. Dilly, 1790. 8vo.

3. André; a Tragedy in Five Acts, as now performing at the Theatre in New York. To which is added the Cow Chase; a Satirical Poem, by Major André. With the Proceedings of the Court Martial, and authentic Documents concerning him. London: Ogilvy & Son, 1799. 8vo.


[A Match for a Widow is by Joseph Atkinson, Treasurer of the Ordnance in Ireland, the friend and associate of Curran, Moore, and the galaxy of Irish genius. He died in 1818.


2. The Indians is by William Richardson, Professor of Humanity in the University of Glasgow, who died in 1814.

3. André is by William Dunlap, an American dramatist.]

High Commission Court.—Can any of your readers refer me to works bearing on the proceedings of the High Commission Court? The sort of information of which I am in search is not so much on the great constitutional questions involved in the history of this court, as in the details of its mode of procedure; as shown either by actual books of practice, or the history of particular cases brought before it.

J. F. M.

[Some account of the proceedings of the High Commission Court is given in Reeves's History of the English Law, vol. v. pp. 215-218. The Harleian MS. 7516. also contains Minutes of the Proceedings of the High Commissioners at Whitehall, July 6, 1616, on the question of Commendums, the king himself being present. It makes twenty-one leaves.]



(Vol. vii., p. 619.; Vol. viii., p. 106.)

We frequently see Queries made in these pages which could be satisfactorily answered by turning to the commonest books of reference, such as Brand, Fosbroke, Hone, the various dictionaries and encyclopædias, and the standard works on the subjects queried. Now it seems to me that "N. & Q." is not intended for going over old ground, and thus becoming a literary treadmill; but its mission lies in supplying information not easily found, and in perfecting, as far as possible, our standard works and books of reference. Mr. Taylor's Query affords an opportunity for this, as the ordinary sources of information are very deficient as regards the Rosicrucians.

According to some, the name is derived from their supposed founder, Christian Rosencreutz, who died in 1484. And they account for the fact of the Rosicrucians not being heard of till 1604, by saying that Rosencreutz bound his disciples by an oath not to promulgate his doctrines for 120 years after his death. The mystical derivation of the name is thus given in the Encyc. Brit.:—

"The denomination evidently appears to be derived from the science of chemistry. It is not compounded, as many imagine, of the two words rosa and crux, which signify rose and cross, but of the latter of these two words and the Latin ros, which signifies dew. Of all natural bodies dew was deemed the most powerful dissolvent of gold; and the cross in the chemical language is equivalent to light, because the figure of the cross exhibits at the same time the three letters of which the word lux, light, is compounded. Now lux is called by this sect the seed or menstruum of the red dragon, or, in other words, gross and corporeal light, which, when properly digested and modified, produces gold. Hence it follows, if this etymology be admitted, that a Rosicrucian philosopher is one who, by the intervention and assistance of the dew, seeks for light; or, in other words, the philosopher's stone.

"The true meaning and energy of this denomination did not escape the penetration and sagacity of Gassendi, as appears by his Examen Philos. Fludd, tom. iii. s. 15. p. 261.; and it was more fully explained by Renaudot in his Conférences Publiques, tom. iv. p. 87."

The encyclopædist remarks that at first the title commanded some respect, as it seemed to be borrowed from the arms of Luther, which were a cross placed upon a rose.

The leading doctrines of the Rosicrucians were borrowed from the Eastern philosophers[4]; the Christian Platonists, schoolmen, and mystics: mixed up with others derived from writers on natural history, magic, astrology, and especially alchemy. All these blended together, and served up in a professional jargon of studied obscurity, formed the doctrinal system of these strange philosophers. In this system the doctrine of elemental spirits, and the means of communion and alliance with them, and the doctrine of signatures, are the most prominent points.

Let me refer Mr. Taylor to Michael Meyer's Themis Aurea, hoc est de legibus Fraternitatis Roseæ Crucis, Col. 1615; the works of Jacob Behmen, Robt. Fludd, John Heydon, Peter Mormius, Eugene Philalethes; the works of the Rosicrucian Society, containing seventy-one treatises in different languages; the Catalogue of Hermetic books by the Abbé Lenglet du Fresnoi, Paris, 1762; Manget's Biblioth. Chem. Curios., Col. 1702, 2 vols. folio; and the Theatrum Chemicum, Argent. 1662, 6 vols. 8vo.

I must make particular mention of the two most celebrated of the Rosicrucian works; the first is La Chiave del Cabinetto, Col. 1681, 12mo. The author, Joseph Francis Borri, gives a most systematic account of the doctrine of the Rosic Cross in this interesting little volume. He was imprisoned for magic and heresy, and died in his prison at Rome in 1695 at the age of seventy years. On this work was founded one still more remarkable—

"Le Compte de Gabalis, ou Entretiens sur les Sciences Secrètes. 'Quod tanto impendio absconditur etiam solum modo demonstrare, destruere est.'—Tertull. Sur la Copie imprimée à Paris, chez Claude Barbin.—M.DC.LXXI. 12mo., pp. 150."


This work, thus published anonymously, was from the pen of the Abbé de Villars. An English translation was published at London in 1714.

The doctrine of the Rosy Cross entered largely into the literature of the seventeenth century. This applies especially to the masques of James I. and Charles I. To the same source Shakspeare owes his Ariel, and Milton much of his Comus.

It is strange, but instructive, to observe how variously different minds make use of the same materials. What greater contrast can we have than The Rape of the Lock and Undine?—the one redolent of the petit-maître and the Cockney; the other a work sui generis, of human conceptions the most exquisite and spirit-fragrant. Wieland's Idris and Zenide, Bulwer's Zanoni, and Mackay's Salamandrine, are also based on Rosicrucian principles. Mention of the Rosicrucians occurs in Izaak Walton's Angler and Butler's Hudibras—see Zachary Grey's note and authorities referred to by him. See also two interesting papers on the subject in Chambers's Edinb. Journal, ed. 1846, vol. vi. pp. 298. 316.


July 20, 1853.

P. S.—I may as well notice here a very curious book of Rosicrucian emblems, as I have it beside me:

"Atalanta Fugiens, hoc est, Emblemata Nova de Secretis Naturæ Chymica. Accommodata partim oculis et intellectui, figuris cupro incisis, adjectisque sententiis, Epigrammatis et notis, partim auribus et recreationi animi plus minus 50 Fugis Musicalibus trium vocum, quarum duæ ad unam simplicem melodiam distichis canendis peraptam correspondeant, non absq; singulari jucunditate videnda, legenda, meditanda, intelligenda, dijudicanda, canenda, et audienda. Authore Michaele Majero, Imperial. Consistorii Comite, Med. D. Eq. Ex. etc.: Oppenheimii, ex Typographia Hieronymi Galleri, sumptibus Joh. Theodori de Bry, MDCXVIII." Small 4to. pp. 211.

The title-page is adorned with emblematical figures. The work contains a portrait of the author, and fifty emblems executed with much spirit. Amongst others we have a Salamander in the fire, a green lion, a hermaphrodite, a dragon, &c. Every right page has a motto, an emblem, and an epigram under the emblem in Latin. The left page gives the same in German, with the Latin words set to music. After each emblem we have a "Discursus."

The following remarks on the title occur in the preface:

"Atalanta Poëtis celebrata est propter fugam, qua omnes procos in certamine antevertit, ideoque ipsis victis pro Virgine, præmio Victoriæ proposito, mors obtigit, donec ab Hippomene, Juvene audaciore et provido, superata et obtenta sit trium malorum aureorum per Vices inter currendum objectu, quæ dum illa tolleret, præventa est ab eo, metam jam attingente: Hæc Atalanta ut fugit, sic una vox musicalis semper fugit ante aliam et altera insequitur, ut Hippomenes: In tertia tamen stabiliuntur et firmantur, quæ simplex est et unius valoris, tanquam malo aureo: Hæc eadem virgo merè chymica est, nempe Mercurius philosophicus a sulfure aureo in fuga fixatus et retentus, quem si quis sistere noverit, sponsam, quam ambit, habebit, sin minus, perditionem suarum rerum est interitum," &c.—Page 9.

Footnote 4:(return)

The Jewish speculations on the subject of elemental spirits and angels (especially those that assumed corporeal forms, and united themselves with the daughters of men) were largely drawn on by the Rosicrucians. (See the famous Liber Zohar, Sulzbaci, 1684, fol.; and Philo, Lib. de Gigantibus. See also Hoornbeek, Lib. pro Convert. Jud., Lug. Bat., 1665, 4to.)


(Vol. vii., p. 131.)

John Searson was a merchant in Philadelphia in the year 1766. A few days before seeing the inquiry respecting him, I came across his advertisement in the Pennsylvania Gazette; but not having made a note of the date, I have since been unable to find it. His stock was of a very miscellaneous character, as "Bibles and warming pans," "spelling-books and swords," figured in it in juxtaposition. He taught school at one time in Basking Ridge, New Jersey.

A copy of his poem on "Down Hill" is before me; and it is quite as curious a production as the volume of poems which he afterwards published.

He describes himself in the title-page as "Late Master of the Free School in Colerain, and formerly of New York, Merchant." The volume was printed in 1794 by subscription at Colerain.

The work is introduced by "A Poem, being a Cursory View of Belfast Town," thus commencing:

"With pleasure I view the Town of Belfast,

Where many dear friends their lots have been cast:

The Buildings are neat, the Town very clean,

And Trade very brisk are here to be seen;

Their Shipping are numerous, as I behold,

And Merchants thrive here in riches, I'm told."

Here are some farther specimens from this poem:

"I've walk'd alone, and view'd the Paper Mill,

Its walk, the eye with pleasure fill.

I've view'd the Mountains that surround Belfast,

And find they are romantic to the last.


The Church of Belfast is superb and grand,

And to the Town an ornament does stand;

Their Meeting Houses also is so neat,

The congregation large, fine and complete."

The volume contains a dedication to the Rev. Mr. Josiah Marshall, rector of Maghera, a preface, a table of contents, and "A Prayer previous to the Poem."

The whole book is so intensely ridiculous that it is difficult to select. The following are rather chosen for their brevity than for any pre-eminent absurdity:

"The Earl of Bristol here some time do dwell,

Which after-ages sure of him will tell."


"Down Hill's so pleasing to the traveller's sight,

And th' marine prospect would your heart delight."

"The rabbit tribe about me run their way,

Their little all to man becomes a prey.

The busy creatures trot about and run;

Some kill them with a net, some with a gun.

Alas! how little do these creatures know

For what they feed their young, so careful go.

The little creatures trot about and sweat,

Yet for the use of man is all they get."

"He closed his eyes on ev'ry earthly thing.

Angles surround his bed: to heaven they bring

The soul, departed from its earthly clay.

He died, he died! and calmly pass'd away,

His children not at home; his widow mourn,

And all his friends, in tears, seem quite forlorn."

Some of the London booksellers ought to reprint this work as a curiosity of literature. Some of the subscribers took a number of copies, and one might be procured for the purpose. The country seats of the largest subscribers are described in the poem.

The book ends with these lines (added by the "devil" of the printing-office, no doubt):

"The above rural, pathetic, and very sublime performance was corrected, in every respect, by the author himself."

This is erased with a pen, and these words written below—"Printer's error."




(Vol. v., p. 100.)

Since my former communication on the use of the phrase "From the sublime to the ridiculous there is but a step," I have met with some farther examples of kindred forms of expression, which you may deem worth inserting in "N. & Q."

Shakspeare has an instance in Romeo and Juliet, where he describes "Love" as—

"A madness most discreet,

A choaking gall, and a preserving sweet."

Quarles has it in his Emblems, Book iv. Epigram 2.:—

"Pilgrim, trudge on; what makes thy soul complain?

Crowns thy complaint; the way to rest is pain:

The road to resolution lies by doubt;

The next way home's the farthest way about."

We find it in this couplet in Butler:

"For discords make the sweetest airs,

And curses are a kind of prayers."

Rochester has it in the line—

"An eminent fool must be a man of parts."

It occurs in Junius's remark—

"Your Majesty may learn hereafter how nearly the slave and the tyrant are allied."

and in the following well-known passage in the same writer:

"He was forced to go through every division, resolution, composition, and refinement of political chemistry, before he happily arrived at the caput mortuum of vitriol in your grace. Flat and insipid in your retired state; but, brought into action, you become vitriol again. Such are the extremes of alternate indolence or fury which have governed your whole administration."

The thought here (be it said in passing) seems to have been adopted from these lines in Rochester:

"Wit, like tierce claret, when 't begins to pall,

Neglected lies, and 's of no use at all;

But in its full perfection of decay

Turns vinegar, and comes again in play."

But the most beautiful application of this sentiment that I have met with, occurs in an essay on "The Uses of Adversity," by Mr. Herman Hooker, an American writer:—

"A pious lady, who had lost her husband, was for a time inconsolable. She could not think, scarcely could she speak, of anything but him. Nothing seemed to take her attention but the three promising children he had left her, singing to her his presence, his look, his love. But soon these were all taken ill, and died within a few days of each other; and now the childless mother was calmed even by the greatness of the stroke. As the lead that goes quickly down to the ocean's depth ruffled its surface less than lighter things, so the blow which was strongest did not so much disturb her calm of mind, but drove her to its proper trust."

Henry H. Breen.

St. Lucia.


(Vol. iii., p. 78.)

"In the midst of life we are in death."

A writer in the Parish Choir (vol. iii. p. 140.) gives the following account of this passage. He says:

"The passage in question is found in the Cantarium Sti. Galli, or choir-book of the monks of St. Gall in Switzerland, published in 1845, with, however, a slight deviation from the text, as we are accustomed to it.

'Mediâ Vitâ of St. Notker.

'Mediâ Vitâ in morte sumus: quem quærimus adjutorem, nisi Te Domine, qui pro peccatis nostris justè irasceris. Ad te clamaverunt patres nostri, speraverunt, et liberasti eos. Sancte Deus: ad te clamaverunt patres nostri, clamaverunt et non sunt confusi. Sancte Fortis, ne despicias nos in tempore senectutis: cum defecerit virtus nostra, ne derelinquas nos. Sancte et misericors Salvator amaræ morti ne tradas nos.'

"On consulting the Thesaurus Hymnologicus of Daniel (vol. ii. p. 329.) I find the following notice.{178} It is called 'Antiphona pro Peccatis,' or 'de Morte;' and the text there given corresponds nearly with that in our Burial Service.

"Mediâ vitâ in morte sumus:

Quem quærimus adjutorem nisi Te Domine,

Qui pro peccatis nostris justè irasceris:

Sancte Deus, sancte fortis, sancte et misericors Salvator,

Amaræ morti ne tradas nos.

"Rambach says, '"In the midst of life" occurs in MSS. of the thirteenth century, as an universally common dirge and song of supplication on all melancholy occasions, and was in this century regularly sung at Compline on Saturdays. A German translation was known long before the time of Luther, and was enlarged by him by the addition of two strophes.' Martene describes it as forming part of a religious service for New Year's Eve, composed about the year 1800.

"Hoffmann says that this anthem 'by Notker the Stammerer, a monk of St. Gall's (an. 912), was an extremely popular battle-song, through the singing of which, before and during the fight, friend and foe hoped to conquer. It was also, on many occasions, used as a kind of incantation song. Therefore the Synod of Cologne ordered (an. 1316) that no one should sing the Mediâ vitâ without the leave of his bishop.'

"Daniel adds that it is not, to his knowledge, now used by the Roman Church in divine worship; but that the admirable hymn of Luther, 'Mitten wir im Leben sind,' still flourishes amongst the Protestants of Germany, just as the translation in our Prayer-Book is popular with us."

Geo. A. Trevor.

Your correspondent J. G. T. asks whence comes the expression in the Burial Service, "In the midst of life we are in death?" There are some lines in Petrarch which express precisely the same idea in nearly the self-same words; but as the thought is by no means an unlikely one to occur to two separate and independent authors, we may not go to the length of charging the seeming plagiarism upon the compilers of our Prayer-Book. I have mislaid the exact reference[5], but subjoin the lines themselves:

"Omnia paulatim consumit longior ætas,

Vivendoque simul morimur, rapimurque manendo:

Ipse mihi collatus enim, non ille videbor;

Frons alia est, moresque alii, nova mentis imago,

Voxque aliud mutata sonat."

John Booker.


Footnote 5:(return)

Barbato Sulmonensi, epist. i.—Ed.


(Vol. vii., p. 552.)

Dr. Lanigan, in his learned Ecclesiastical History of Ireland (vol. i. p. 368.), states that the so-called Patrick's Purgatory is situated at Lough Derg (Donegal). It is never mentioned in any of the lives of the apostle, nor heard of till the eleventh century, the period at which the canons regular of St. Augustine first appeared, for it was to persons of that order, as the story goes, that St. Patrick confided the care of that cavern of wonders. Now there were no such persons in the island in which it is situated, nor in that of St. Davoc [Dabeoc?] in the same lake, until about the beginning of the twelfth century. This purgatory, or purging place, of Lough Derg, was set up against another Patrick's purgatory, viz. that of Croagh Patrick, mentioned by Jocelyn, which, however ill-founded the vulgar opinion concerning it, was less objectionable. Some writers have said that it got the name of Patrick's Purgatory from an Abbot Patrick, that lived in the ninth century; but neither were there canons regular of St. Augustine at that time, nor were such abridged modes of atoning to the Almighty for the sins of a whole life then thought of. It was demolished in the year 1497, by order of the Pope, although it has since been in some manner restored.

The original Patrick's Purgatory then, it would appear, was at Croagh Patrick, in Mayo, near Westport; speaking of the pilgrimages made to which, the monk Jocelyn (in his Life of St. Patrick, written A.D. 1180, cap. 172.) says that—

"Some of those who spent a night there stated that they had been subjected to most fearful torments, which had the effect, as they supposed, of purging them from their sins, for which reason also certain of them gave to that place the name of St. Patrick's Purgatory."

By the authority of the Lords Justices who governed Ireland in 1633, previously to the appointment of Wentworth, Lough Derg Purgatory was once more suppressed; but the sort of piety then fostered among the members of the Roman communion in Ireland could ill afford to resign without a struggle what was to them a source of so much consolation. High influence was, therefore, called into action to procure the reversal of the sentence; and the Roman Catholic Queen of Charles I. was induced to address to the Lord Deputy of Ireland a letter in which she requested that he would be pleased "to allow, that the devotions which the people of that country have ever been wont to pay to a St. Patrick's place there, may not be abolished." The Lord Deputy declined acceding to this request, and said in his reply, "I fear, at this time, when some men's zeal hath run them already, not only beyond their wits, but almost forth of their allegiance too, it might furnish them with something to say in prejudice and scandal to his majesty's government, which, for the present indeed, is by all means to be avoided." And adds, "your Majesty might do passing well to let this devotion rest awhile." After this second suppression, the devotion has a second time been "in some manner restored;" and{179} multitudes throng to the place on the faith of a false tradition, so long since exposed and exploded by their own authorities. Three hundred and fifty years ago, the Pope, the representative of the Bishop of Clogher, and the head of the Franciscans in Donegal, combined their efforts to put down the scandalous fabrication; but yet it remains to this day an object of cherished religious veneration—an object of confidence and faith, on which many a poor soul casts itself to find consolation and repose. And those multitudes of pilgrims, year after year, assemble there, no influence which they look to for guidance forbidding them, to do homage to the vain delusion.

D. W. S. P. will find farther information on this subject in The Catholic Layman for April last: Curry, Dublin.

William Blood.



(Vol. viii., p. 100.)

In answer to W. L. M.'s inquiry, "where the virtuous and patriotic William Lord Russell was buried?" I beg to state that I possess a pamphlet entitled:

"The whole Tryal and Defence of William Lord Russel, who Dyed a Martyr to the Romish Fury in the Year 1683, with the Learned Arguments of the Council on both sides. Together with his Behaviour and Speech upon the Scaffold: His Character and Behaviour. London: printed by J. Bradford, at the Bible in Fetter Lane."

There is no date to it; but from the appearance of the paper, type, a rude woodcut of the execution, &c., I doubt not that it was printed soon after the event, or certainly immediately after the Revolution, to meet the popular wishes to have information on the subject. It consists of sixteen octavo pages, very closely printed. The opening paragraph says:

"Among the many that suffered in a Protestant cause [all the Italics used in this communication are those of the pamphlet], and indeed whose measure seem'd to be the hardest of all, was this honorable person William Lord Russel, who was generally lamented for his excellent Temper and good Qualities; being allowed to be one of the most sober and judicious Noblemen in the Kingdom, which even his Enemies could not deny; and the Merit and Esteem he bore was more cause of Offence against him than any Matter that was reap'd up at his Tryal; all which in effect was merely grounded upon Malice (I mean Popish Malice) that could not be forgot, from his Lordship's being one of those earnest sticklers for Protestant Liberty, and even the very foremost that prefer'd the Bill of Exclusion," &c.

Then follows the trial, headed "July 13, 1683, the Lord Russel came to his Tryal at the Old Bailey." The indictment is described; the names of the jury are given; judges and counsel named; the evidence, examinations, and cross-examinations (by Lord Russel) very interestingly narrated: the Report concluding, after a short address from Lord Russel, "Then the Court adjourned till four in the afternoon, and brought him in guilty."

These particulars are followed by "The last Speech and Carriage of the Lord Russel upon the Scaffold, &c." As to the executioner's work, all other accounts that I have seen state that after "two" strokes the head was severed from the body. The publication says:

"The Executioner, missing at his first Stroke, though with that he took away his Life, at two more severed the Head from the Body.... Mr. Sheriff [continues the account] ordered his Friends or Servants to take the Body, and dispose of it as they pleased, being given them by His Majesty's Favour and Bounty."

The narrative proceeds:

"His Body was conveyed to Cheneys in Buckinghamshire, where 'twas Buried among his Ancestors. There was a great Storm, and many loud Claps of Thunder the Day of his Martyrdom. An Elegy was made on him immediately after his Death, which seems, by what we have of it, to be writ with some Spirit, and a great deal of Truth and Good-will; only this Fragment on't could be retriev'd, which yet may not be unwelcome to the Reader:

''Tis done—he's Crown'd, and one bright Martyr more,

Black Rome, is charg'd on thy too bulky score.

All like himself, he mov'd so calm, so free,

A general whisper question'd—Which is he?

Decked like a Lover—tho' pale Death's his Bride,

He came, and saw, and overcame, and dy'd.

Earth weeps, and all the vainly pitying Crowd:

But Heaven his Death in Thunder groan'd aloud.'"

A "sketch of his character" closes the account. Perhaps W. S. M. may deem these particulars not wholly uninteresting, but tolerably conclusive, considering the time of publication, when the fact must have been notorious.

A Hermit at Hampstead.


(Vol. vii., p. 528.)

At Banham, Norfolk, in a recess in the wall of the north aisle of the church, is an oaken effigy of a knight in armour in a recumbent position. Blomefield says:

"It is plain that it was made for Sir Hugh Bardolph, Knight, sometime lord of Gray's Manor, in this town, who died in 1203, for under his left arm there is a large cinquefoil, which is the badge of that family," &c.

Since he wrote, however (1739), with a view to the better preservation of this interesting relic, some spirited churchwarden has caused it to be{180} well painted and sanded so that it now looks almost as well as stone. At the same time, the marks by which Blomefield thought to identify it are necessarily obliterated.

T. B. B. H.

William de Valence, Earl of Pembroke, who was slain at Bayonne in 1296,—his effigy in wood is in St. Edmund's Chapel in Westminster Abbey, covered with enamelled brass. There is also in Abergavenny Church, amongst the general wreck of monumental remains there, a cross-legged effigy in wood, represented in chain mail; which the late Sir Samuel Meyrick supposed to have been that of William de Valence. It is mentioned in Coxe's Monmouthshire, p. 192.

The effigy of Aymer de Valence referred to in Whitaker ("N. & Q.," Vol. vii., p. 528.) is not of wood; he evidently refers to that of William de Valence.

In Gloucester Cathedral there is the wooden monument of a cross-legged knight attributed to Robert Duke of Normandy, the eldest son of the Conqueror; but it is probably of a little later period.

Thomas W. King (York Herald).

College of Arms.

In the Cathedral of Gloucester, there is a wooden effigy of the unfortunate Robert Duke of Normandy, eldest son of the Conqueror. It is so many years since I saw it, that I do not offer any description: but, if my memory be correct, it has the legs crossed, and (what is curious) is loose, and can be turned about on the tomb.

A. C. M.


On the south side of the chancel of St. Giles' Church, Durham, is a wooden effigy in full armour; the head resting on a helmet, and the hands raised as in prayer. It is supposed to be the tomb of John Heath, who became possessed of the Hospital of St. Giles Kepyer, and is known to have been buried in the chancel of St. Giles' Church. He died in 1590. At the feet of the wooden effigy, are the words "HODIE MICHI." The figure was restored in colours about ten years ago.

Cuthbert Bede, B. A.


(Vol. viii., p. 127.)

The bonâ fide author of the following lines—

"Could we with ink the ocean fill,

And were the heavens of parchment made,

Were every stalk on earth a quill,

And every man a scribe by trade;

To write the love of God above,

Would drain the ocean dry;

Nor could the scroll contain the whole,

Though stretch'd from sky to sky."

is Rabbi Mayir ben Isaac. The above eight lines are almost a literal translation of four Chaldee ones, which form part of a beautiful ode on the attributes of God, not unmixed with a considerable proportion of the fabulous, which is sung in every synagogue during the service of the first day of the feast of Pentecost.

May I now be permitted to ask you, or any of your numerous correspondents, to inform me who was the bonâ fide translator of Rabbi Mayir ben Isaac's lines? The English lines are often quoted by itinerant advocates of charity societies as having been found inscribed, according to some, on the walls of a lunatic asylum, according to others, on the walls of a prison, as occasion requires; but extempore quotations on platforms are sometimes vague.

Moses Margoliouth.


The verses are in Grose's Olio (p. 292.), and are there said to be written by nearly an idiot, then living (March 16, 1779) at Cirencester. It happens, however, that long before the supposed idiot was born, one Geoffrey Chaucer made use of the same idea, and the same expressions, although applied to a totally different subject, viz. in his "Balade warnynge men to beware of deceitful women:"—

"In soth to saie though all the yerth so wanne

Wer parchment smoth, white and scribbabell,

And the gret see, that called is th' Ocean,

Were tourned into ynke blackir than sabell,

Eche sticke a pen, eche man a scrivener able,

Not coud thei writin woman's treacherie,

Beware, therefore, the blind eteth many a flie."

Again in the "Remedie of Love," the same lines occur with a few slight alterations.

In vol. x. of the Modern Universal History, p. 430. note, I meet with this sentence:

"He was succeeded by Jochanan; not in right of descent, but of his extraordinary merits; which the Rabbies, according to custom, have raised to so surprising a height, that, according to them, if the whole heavens were paper, all the trees in the world pens, and all the men writers, they would not suffice to pen down all his lessons."

In later times, in Miss C. Sinclair's Hill and Valley, p. 25., we have:

"If the lake could be transformed into an ink-stand, the mountains into paper; and if all the birds that hover on high were to subscribe their wings for quills, it would be still insufficient to write half the praise and admiration that are justly due."

C. I. R.

These lines are by Dr. Watts. I cannot just now distinctly recollect where they are to be found, but I think in Milner's Life of Watts. My recollection of them is that they were impromptu, given at an evening party.

H. S. S.



Washing or not washing Collodion Pictures after developing, previous to fixing.—Since the question has been mooted I have tried both ways, and have come to the conclusion that there is very little difference in the resulting appearance of the picture. The hypo. is certainly deteriorated when no washing is adopted. I think it is best to pour off the first quantity applied into a cup kept for the purpose; this is discoloured: I then pour on more clean hypo., and let it remain till the picture clears, and pour this into another cup or bottle for future use. What was poured into the first cup may, when a sufficient quantity is obtained, be filtered, and by adding more of the salt is not useless. I pour on merely enough at first to wash off the developing fluid, and pour it off at once. The picture is cleared much sooner if the saturated hypo. solution is warmed, which I do by plunging the bottle into a pewter pint pot filled with hot water.

W. M. F.

Stereoscopic Angles (Vol. viii., pp. 109. 157.).—I perfectly agree with your correspondent Mr. T. L. Merritt (p. 109.) respecting "stereoscopic angles," having arrived at the same conclusion some months since, while at Hastings, where I produced stereoscopic pictures by moving the camera only two inches: having in one, seven houses and five bathing-machines; and in the other, five houses and eight bathing-machines. If I had separated the two pictures more, I should have had all bathing-machines in one and all houses in the other; which convinced me that nothing more is required than the width of the two eyes for all distances, or, slightly to exaggerate it, to three inches, which will produce a pleasing and natural effect: for it is quite certain that our eyes do not become wider apart as we recede from an object, and that the intention is to give a true representation of nature as seen by one person. Now, most stereoscopic pictures represent nature as it never could be seen by any one person, from the same point of view; and I feel confident that all photographers, who condescend to make stereoscopic pictures, will arrive at the same conclusion before the end of this season.

If this be correct, all difficulty is removed; for it is always advisable to take two pictures of the same prospect, in case one should not be good: and two very indifferent negatives will combine into one very good positive, when viewed by the stereoscope: thus proving the old saying, that two negatives make an affirmative.

Henry Wilkinson.


Sisson's Developing Solution.—In answer to S. B.'s inquiry, I beg to say, that I have not tried the above solution as a bath. I have always poured it on, believing that it was easier to observe the progress of the picture by that mode. If S. B. will forward me his address, I shall be happy to enter more minutely into my mode of operating with it than I can through the medium of "N. & Q." I have received other favourable testimony as to the value of my developing fluid for glass positives.

While I am writing, will you allow me to ask your photographic correspondents whether any of them have tried Mr. Müller's paper process referred to by Mr. Delamotte at p. 145. of his work? It was first announced in the Athenæum of Nov. 2, 1851. When I first commenced photography (June, 1852), I tried the process; and from what I did with it, when I was almost entirely ignorant of the manipulation, I am inclined to think it a valuable process. The sharpness of the tracery in my church windows, in a picture I took by the process, is remarkable. Mr. Delamotte truly says: "This is a most striking discovery, as it supersedes the necessity of any developing agent after the light has acted on the paper." Mr. Müller says, that simple washing in water seems to be sufficient to fix the picture. This is also a striking discovery, and totally unlike any other very sensitive process that I am acquainted with; and more striking still, that the process should not have been more practised.

J. Lawson Sisson.

Edingthorpe Rectory.

Replies to Minor Queries.

Robert Drury (Vol. v., p. 533.; Vol. vii., p. 485.; vol. viii., p. 104.).—I believe the Journal of Robert Drury to be a genuine book of travels and adventures, and here is my voucher:

"The best and most authentic account ever given of Madagascar was published in 1729, by Robert Drury, who being shipwrecked in the Degrave East Indiaman, on the south side of that island, in 1702, being then a boy, lived there as a slave fifteen years, and after his return to England, among those who knew him (and he was known to many, being a porter at the East India House), had the character of a downright honest man, without any appearance of fraud or imposture."—John Duncombe, M. A., one of the six preachers in Christ Church, Canterbury, 1773.

Mr. Duncombe quotes several statements from Drury which coincide with those of the Reverend William Hirst, the astronomer, who touched at Madagascar, on his voyage to India, in 1759. Ten years afterwards Mr. Hirst perished in the Aurora, and with him the author of The Shipwreck.

Bolton Corney.

Real Signatures versus Pseudo-Names (Vol. vi., p. 310.; Vol. viii., p. 94.).—There is no doubt that the straightforwardness of open and undisguised communications to your excellent miscellany{182} is desirable; but a few words may be said on behalf of your anonymous contributors. If the rule were established that every correspondent should add his name to his communication, many of your friends might, from motives of delicacy, decline asking a question or hazarding a reply. By adopting a nom-de-guerre, men eminent in their various pursuits can quietly and unostentatiously ask a question, or contribute information. If the latter be done with reference to standard works of authority, or to MSS. preserved in our public depositories, the disclosure of the name of the contributor adds nothing to the matter contributed, and he may rejoice that he has been the means of promoting the objects of the "N. & Q." without the "blushing to find it fame." It should, however, be a sine quâ non that all original communications, and those of matters of fact, should be authenticated by a real signature, when no reference can be given to authorities not accessible to the public; and it is to be regretted that such authentication has not, in such cases, been generally afforded.

Thos. Wm. King (York Herald).

Lines on the Institution of the Garter (Vol. viii., p. 53.).—

"Her stocking's security fell from her knee,

Allusions and hints, sneers and whispers went round."

May I put a Query on the idea suggested by these lines—that the accidental dropping of her garter implied an imputation on the fair fame of the Countess of Salisbury. Why should this be? That it did imply an imputation, I judge as well from the vindication of the lady by King Edward, as also from the proverbial expression used in Scotland, and to be found in Scott's Works, of "casting a leggin girth," as synonymous with a female "faux pas." I have a conjecture, but should not like to venture it, without inquiring the general impression as to the origin of this notion.

A. B. R.


"Short red, God red," &c. (Vol. vii., p. 500.).—Sir Walter Scott has committed an oversight when, in Tales of a Grandfather, vol. i. p. 85., he mentions a murderer of the Bishop of Caithness to have made use of the expression, "Schort red, God red, slea ye the bischop." Adam, Bishop of Caithness, was burnt by the mob near Thurso, in 1222, for oppression in the exaction of tithes; John, Earl of Orkney and Caithness, was killed in retaliation by the bishop's party in 1231.

The language spoken at that time on the sea-coast of Caithness must have been Norse. Sutherland would appear to have been wrested from the Orkney-Norwegians before that period, and the Celtic tongue and race gaining on the Norse; but on the sea-coast of Caithness I should apprehend the Norse continued to be the spoken tongue till a later period, when it was superseded by the Scottish. The Norwegians in the end of the ninth century colonised Orkney, and expelled or destroyed the former inhabitants. The Western Isles were also subjugated by them at that time, and probably Caithness, or at all events a little later. It would be desirable to know the race and tongue previously existing in Caithness, and if these were lost in the Norwegians and Norse, and an earlier Christianity in Scandinavian Paganism. This may, however, lead to the unfathomably dark subject of the Picts. Is it known when Norse ceased to be spoken in Caithness? The story of the burning of the Bishop of Caithness forms the conclusion of the Orkneyinga Saga; and vide Torfæus, Orcades, p. 154., and Dalrymple's Annals of Scotland, of dates 1222 and 1231.


Martha Blount (Vol. vii., pp. 38. 117.).—At "Brandon," the seat of the Harrisons on the James River, Virginia, is a likeness of Miss Blount by Sir Godfrey Kneller; and at "Berkeley," also on the James River, and the residence of another branch of the same family, is one of the Duchess of Montagu, also by Kneller. Thus much in answer to the Query. But in this connexion I would mention, that on the James River are many fine pictures, portraits of worthies famous in English history. At "Shirley" there is one of Col. Hill, by Vandyke; at Brandon, one of Col. Byrd, by Vandyke; also Lord Orrery, Duke of Argyle, Lord Albemarle, Lord Egmont, Sir Robert Walpole, and others, by Kneller.

These pictures are mentioned in chap. ix. of Travels in North America during the Years 1834-1836, by the Hon. Charles Augustus Murray; a gentleman who either is, or was, Master of the Queen's Household.

T. Balch.


Longevity (Vol. viii., p. 113.).—As W. W. asserts that there is a lady living (or was two months ago) in South Carolina, who is known to be 131 years old, he will no doubt be good enough to let the readers of "N. & Q." know it also. And although W. W. thinks it will not be necessary to search in "annual or parish registers" to prove the age of the singular Singleton, yet he must produce documentary evidence of some sort; unless, indeed, he knows an older person who remembers the birth of the aged Carolinian.

Having paid the well-known Mr. Barnum a fee to see a negress, whom the cute showman exhibited as the nurse of the great Washington, I have fifty cents worth of reasons to subscribe myself

A Doubter.

Its (Vol. vii., p. 578.).—B. H. C. is perfectly correct in saying, that I was mistaken in my quotation from Fairfax's Tasso. It only remains for{183} me to explain how I fell into the error. It was, then, from using Mr. Knight's edition of the work for though the orthography was modernised, which I like, I never dreamed of an editor's taking the liberty of altering the text of his author. I love to be corrected when wrong, and here express my thanks to B. H. C. I inform him that there is another passage in Shakspeare with its in it, but not having marked it, I cannot find it just now: I think it is in Lear.

I have said that I like modernised orthography. We have modernised that of the Bible, and of the dramatists; why then are we so superstitious with respect to the barbarous system of Spenser? I am convinced that the Fairy Queen, if printed in modern orthography, would find many readers who are repelled by the uncouth and absurd spelling of the poet, who wanted to rhyme to the eye as well as to the ear. Let us then have a "Spenser for the People."

Thos. Keightley.

Oldham, Bishop of Exeter (Vol. vii., pp. 14. 164. 189. 271.).—Mr. Walcott will be interested to learn, that Bishop Hugh Oldham was not a native of Oldham, but was born at Crumpsall, in the parish of Manchester; as appears from Dugdale's Visitation of Lancashire, and the "Lancashire MSS.," vol. xxxi. His brother, Richard Oldham, appointed 22nd Abbot of St. Werburgh's Abbey, Chester, in 1452, was afterwards elevated to the bishoprick of Man, and, dying Oct. 13, 1485, was buried at Chester Abbey, Chester.

T. Hughes.


Boom (Vol. vii., p. 620.).—This word, expressive of the cry of the bittern, is also used as a noun:

"And the loud bittern from his bull-rush home

Gave from the salt-ditch side his bellowing boom."

Crabbe, The Borough, xxii.

Ebenezer Elliott is another who uses the word as a verb:

"No more with her will hear the bittern boom

At evening's dewy close."

Cuthbert Bede, B.A.

Lord North (Vol. vii., p. 317.).—If C. can procure a copy of Lossing's Pictorial Field-book of the American Revolution, he will find in one of the volumes a woodcut from an English engraving, presenting to our view George III. as he appeared at the era of the American Revolution. It may serve to modify his present opinion as to the king's figure, face, &c.

M. E.


Dutch Pottery (Vol. v., p. 343.; Vol. vi. p. 253.).—At Arnhem, about sixty-five or seventy years ago, there existed a pottery founded by two Germans: H. Brandeis, and the well-known savant H. von Laun, maker of the planetarium (orrery) described by Professor van Swinden, and purchased by the Society Felix Meritis in Amsterdam. The son of Mr. Brandeis has still at his residence, No. 419. Rapenburgerstraat, several articles manufactured there: such as plates, &c. What I have seen is much coarser than the Saxon porcelain, yet much better than our Delft ware. Perhaps Mr. Van Embden, grandson and successor of Von Laun, could give farther information.

S. J. Mulder.

P.S.—Allow me to correct some misprints in Vol. vi., p. 253. Dutch and German names are often cruelly maltreated in English publications. In this respect "N. & Q." should be an exception. For "Lichner" read Leichner; for "Dorpheschrÿver" read Dorpbeschrÿver; for "Blasse" read Blüssé; for "Heeren" read Haeren; for "Pallandh" read Palland; for "Daenbar" read Daeuber.—From the Navorscher.

Cranmer's Correspondences (Vol. vii., p. 621.).—Will Mr. Walter be so good as to preserve in your columns the letter of which Dean Jenkyns has only given extracts?

Two points are to be distinguished, Cranmer's wish that Calvin should assist in a general union of the churches protesting against Romish error—Calvin's offer to assist in settling the Church of England. The latter was declined; and the reason is demonstrated in Archbp. Laurence's Bampton Lectures.

S. Z. Z. S.

Portable Altars (Vol. viii., p. 101.).—I am not acquainted with any treatise on the subject of portable altars, from which your correspondent can obtain more information, than from that which occupies forty-six pages in the Decas Dissertationum Historico-Theologicarum, published, for the second time, by Jo. Andr. Schmidt, 4to. Helmstad. 1714.

R. G.

Poem attributed to Shelley (Vol. viii., p. 71.).—The ridiculous extravaganza attributed to Shelley by an American newspaper, was undoubtedly never written by that gifted genius. It bears throughout unmistakeable evidence of its transatlantic origin. No person, who had not actually witnessed that curious vegetable parasite, the Spanish moss of the southern states of America, hanging down in long, hairy-like plumes from the branches of a large tree, would have imagined the lines,—

"The downy clouds droop

Like moss upon a tree."

Who, again, could believe that Shelley, an English gentleman and scholar, could ever, either in writing or conversation, have made use of the common American vulgarism, "play hell!"


The question of the authorship of such a production, apart from its being attributed to Shelley, is, in my humble opinion, a matter of little or no interest. But as a probable guess, I should say that it carries strong internal evidence of having been written by that erratic mortal, Edgar Poe.

W. Pinkerton.


Lady Percy, Wife of Hotspur (Daughter of Edmumd Mortimer, Earl of March) (Vol. viii., p. 104.).—On reference to the volume and page of Miss Strickland's Lives of the Queens of England, cited by your correspondent G., I find that not only does this lady, by her sweeping assertion, bastardise the second E. of Northumberland, but, in her zeal to outsay all that "ancient heralds" ever can have said, she annihilates, or at least reduces to a myth, the mother of Thomas, eighth Lord Clifford. This infelicitous statement may have been corrected in the second edition of the Lives, for in "N. & Q.," Vol. vii., p. 42., there is a detailed pedigree tracing the descent of Jane Seymour through Margaret Wentworth, her mother, by an intermarriage with a Wentworth, and a granddaughter of Hotspur, Lord Percy, (not daughter, as Miss Strickland writes) from the blood-royal of England. My object, however, in writing this is not farther to point attention to Miss Strickland's mistake, but to invite discussion to the point where this pedigree may be possibly faulty. I will not say "all ancient heralds," but some heralds, at least, of acknowledged reputation, viz. Nicolas, Collins, and Dugdale[6], have stated that the wife of Sir Philip Wentworth was a daughter of Roger fifth Lord Clifford. If this be so, in truth there is an end at once of the Seymour's claim to royal lineage; for it is an undoubted fact that it was the grandson of Roger fifth Lord, namely, John, seventh Lord Clifford, K.G., who married Hotspur's only daughter.

C. V.

Footnote 6:(return)

Nicolas, Scrope and Grosvenor Roll, ii. 471.; Collins, Peerage, 5th ed., vi. 358.; Dugdale, Baronage, i. 341.

"Up, guards, and at them!" (Vol. v., p. 426.; Vol. viii., p. 111.).—Some years ago, about the time that the Wellington statue on the arch at Hyde Park Corner was erected, I was dining at a table where Wyatt the artist was present. The conversation turned much upon the statue, and the exact period at which the great Duke is represented. Wyatt said that he was represented at that moment when he is supposed to have used the words: "Up, guards, and at them!" It having been questioned whether he ever uttered the words, I asked the artist whether, when he was taking the Duke's portrait, the Duke himself acknowledged using them? To which he replied, that the Duke said that he did not recollect having uttered those words and, in fact, that he could not say what expression he did use on that occasion. The company at dinner seemed much satisfied with Wyatt's authority on this point.

J. D. Gardner.

Pennycomequick (Vol. viii., p. 113.).—A similar story to that related by your correspondent Mr. Hele is told of Falmouth. Previously to its being incorporated as a town by Charles II., it was called Smithick, from a smith's shop, near a creek, which extended up the valley. The old Cornish word ick signifies a "creek;" and as it became a village it was called "Pennycomequick," which your correspondent H. C. K. clearly explains. The Welsh and Cornish languages are in close affinity. The name "Pennycomequick" is evidently a corrupted old Cornish name: see Pryce's Archæologia Cornu-Britannica, v. "Pen," "Coomb," and "Ick," the head of the narrow valley, defile or creek. It has been thought by some to mean "the head of the cuckoo's valley;" and your correspondent's Welsh derivation seems to countenance such a translation. The cuckoo is known in Scotland, Wales, and Cornwall as "the Gawk Gwich." Mr. Hele, perhaps, will be amused at the traditional story of the Falmouthians respecting the origin of Pennycomequick. Before the year 1600, there were few houses on the site of the present town: a woman, who had been a servant with an ancestor of the late honourable member for West Cornwall, Mr. Pindarves, came to reside there, and that gentleman directed her to brew some good ale, as he should occasionally visit the place with his friends. On one of his visits he was disappointed, and expressed himself angry at not finding any ale. It appeared on explanation that a Dutch vessel came into the harbour the preceding day, and the Dutchmen drained her supply; she said the Penny come so quick, she could not refuse to sell it.

James Cornish.


Captain Booth of Stockport (Vol. viii., p. 102.).—In answer to Mr. Hughes's inquiry about this antiquary, I beg to state that he will find an Ordinary of Arms, drawn up by Captain Booth of Stockport, in the Shepherd Library, Preston, Lancashire. It is one among the numerous valuable MSS. given by the executors of the late historian of Lancashire, Ed. Baines, Esq., M.P., to that library. In Lysons' Magna Britannia (volume Cheshire), your correspondent will also find a mention of a John Booth, Esq., of Twemlow, Cheshire, who was the author of various heraldic manuscripts. It may, perhaps, be hardly necessary to inform Cheshire antiquaries that an almost inexhaustible fund of information, on heraldry and genealogy, is to be found in the manuscripts of Randle Holme, formerly of Chester, which are{185} now preserved among the Harleian MSS. in the British Museum.


"Hurrah," &c. (Vol. viii., p. 20.).—The clameur de Haro still exists in Jersey, and is the ancient form there of opposing all encroachments on landed property, and the first step to be taken by which an ejectment can be finally obtained. It was decided in Pinel and Le Gallais, that the clameur de Haro does not apply to the opposal of the execution of a decree of the Royal Court.

It is a remarkable feature in this process, that it is carried on by the crown; and that the losing party, whether plaintiff or defendant, is mulcted in a small fine to the king, because the sacred name of Haro is not to be carelessly invoked with impunity.

See upon the subject of the clameur, Le Geyt sur les Constitutions, etc. de Jersey, par Marett, vol. i. p. 294.

M. L.

Lincoln's Inn.

I do not think that the explanation of these words, quoted by Mr. Brent, is much more probable than that of "Hierosolyma est perdita." In the first place, if we are to believe Dr. Johnson, hips are not sloes, but the fruit or seed-vessels of the dog-rose or briar, which usually go by that name, and from which it would be difficult to make any infusion resembling wine. In the next place, it will be found, on reference to Ben Jonson's lines "over the door at the entrance into the Apollo" (vol. vii. p. 295., ed. 1756), of which the distich forms a part, that it is misquoted. The words are,—

"Hang up all the poor hop-drinkers,

Cries old Sym, the king of skinkers;"

the hop or ale-drinkers being contrasted with the votaries of wine, "the milk of Venus," and "the true Phœbeian liquor." Is it not possible, after all, that the repetition of, "Hip, hip, hip," is merely intended to mark the time for the grand exertion of the lungs to be made in enunciating the final "Hurrah!"?


Detached Belfry Towers (Vol. vii., p. 333.; Vol. viii., p. 63.).—The bell-tower at Hackney, mentioned by B. H. C., is that of the old parish church of St. Augustine. This church was rebuilt in the early part of the sixteenth century, which is about the time of the present tower; and when the church was finally taken down in 1798, the tower was forced to be left standing, because the new parish church of St. John-at-Hackney was not strong enough to support the peal of eight bells.

H. T. Griffith.


Blotting-paper (Vol. viii., p. 104.).—I am disposed to agree with Speriend in thinking Carlyle must be mistaken in saying this substance was not used in Cromwell's time. The ordinary means for drying writing was by means of the fine silver sand, now but rarely used for that purpose; but I have seen pieces of blotting-paper among MSS. of the time of Charles I., so as to lead me to think it was even then used, though sparingly. This is only conjecture; but I can, however, establish its existence at a rather earlier date than 1670. In an "Account of Stationery supplied to the Receipt of the Exchequer and the Treasury, 1666-1668," occur several entries of "one quire of blotting-paper," "two quires of blotting," &c. Earlier accounts of the same kind (which may be at the Rolls House, Chancery Lane) might enable one to fix the date of its introduction.

J. B-t.

The following occurs in Townesend's Preparative to Pleading (Lond. 12mo. 1675), p. 8.:

"Let the dusting or sanding of presidents in books be avoided, rather using fine brown paper to prevent blotting, if time of the ink's drying cannot be allowed; for sand takes away the good colour of the ink, and getting into the backs of books makes them break their binding."

From this passage it may be inferred, that fine brown paper, to prevent blotting, was then rather a novelty.

C. H. Cooper.


Riddles for the Post-Office (Vol. vii., p. 258.).—The following is an exact copy of the direction of a letter mailed a few years ago by a German living in Lancaster county, Pa.:

"Tis is fur old Mr. Willy wot brinds de Baber in Lang Kaster ware ti gal is gist rede him assume as it cums to ti Pushtufous."


"This is for old Mr. Willy, what prints the paper in Lancaster, where the jail is. Just read him as soon as it comes to the Post-Office."

Inclosed was an essay against public schools.



Mulciber (Vol. iii., p. 102.).—I beg to inform Mr. Warde that in the printed Key to the Dispensary it is said, "'Tis the opinion of many that our poet means here Mr. Thomas Foley, a lawyer of notable parts."

T. K.



Although, like Canning's knife-grinder, we do not care to meddle with politics, we have one volume on our table belonging to that department of life which deserves passing mention, we mean Mr. Urquhart's Progress of Russia in the West, North, and South, by opening the Sources of Opinion, and appropriating the{186} Channels of Wealth and Power, which those who differ most widely from Mr. Urquhart will probably deem worth reading at a moment when all eyes are turned towards St. Petersburgh. It is of course a knowledge of the great interest everywhere felt in the Russian-Turkish question, which has induced Messrs. Longman to reprint in their Traveller's Library, in a separate form and with additions, Turkey and Christendom, an Historical Sketch of the Relations between the Ottoman Empire and the States of Europe.

The Rev. R. W. Eyton announces for publication by subscription Antiquities of Shropshire, which is intended to contain such accessible materials as may serve to illustrate the history of the county during the first two centuries after the Norman Conquest, though that period is not proposed as an invariable limit. The preface to the first Number will give an account of the public authorities which the author has consulted, as well as of the materials which have been supplied or promised by the kindness of individuals. Each Number will contain six sheets (96 pages), and will be accompanied by maps or illustrations referable to the period. Each fourth Number will include an Index. The first part will be put to press as soon as 200 Subscribers are obtained, and the number of copies printed will be limited to those originally subscribed for.

We are again indebted to Mr. Bohn for several valuable additions to our stores of cheap literature. In his Standard Library he has published two volumes of Lectures delivered at Broadmead Chapel, Bristol, by the late John Foster. In his Antiquarian Library he has given us the second volume of Matthew of Westminster's Flowers of History, translated by C. D. Yonge, who has added a short but very useful Index: while in his Classical Library we have the first volume of The Comedies of Aristophanes: a New and Literal Translation from the revised Text of Dindorf, with Notes and Extracts from the best Metrical Versions, by W. J. Hickie. The present volume contains The Acharnians, Knights, Clouds, Wasps, Peace, and Birds.


Howard Family, Historical Anecdotes of, by Charles Howard, 1769. 12mo.

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Nuces Philosophicæ, by E. Johnson.

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Dibdin's Typographical Antiquities. 4to. Vol. II.

Bayley's Londiniana. Vol. II. 1829.

The Scripture Doctrine of the Trinity Justified. 1774.

Parkhurst on the Divinity of Our Saviour. 1787.

Hawarden on the Trinity.

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—— Second Review. 1719.

Bishop of London's Letter to Incumbents on Doxologies. 26th Dec. 1718.

Bishop Marsh's Speech in the House of Lords, 7th June, 1822.

—— Address to the Senate (Cambridge).

—— Commencement Sermon. 1813.

Reply to Academicus by a Friend to Dr. Kipling. 1802.

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Hamilton's Letters on Roman Catholic Bible. Dubl. 1826.

Dicken on the Marginal Renderings of the Bible.

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Life of Admiral Blake, written by a Gentleman bred in his Family. London. 12mo. With Portrait by Fourdrinier.

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Unheard-of Curiosities, translated by Chilmead. London, 1650. 12mo.

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Verus has misunderstood our Notice. Our object was to ascertain where he had found the Latin lines which formed the subject of his Query.

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‎תּוֹרָה נְבִיאִים וּכְתוּבִים

THE HEBREW OLD TESTAMENT, with CRITICAL, PHILOLOGICAL, HISTORICAL, POLEMICAL, and EXPOSITORY ENGLISH COMMENTS; the principal Portions of which are Original. In 3 vols. (650 pp. in each volume). By the REV. MOSES MARGOLIOUTH, B.A., Curate of Wybunbury, near Nantwich, Cheshire. To be dedicated by Permission to the Right Reverend the LORD BISHOP OF MANCHESTER.

The Author humbly trusts that, with the blessing of God, the work which he has set before himself to accomplish, will not only prove useful to the advanced Theological Student, but also an important auxiliary to the Bible reader in general who may be altogether unacquainted with the sacred Tongue.

To make the Work more acceptable, a new fount of Hebrew type will be cast for the purpose.

Price to Subscribers, Three Guineas—One Guinea to be paid in advance, to defray current expenses—to Non-Subscribers, Four Guineas.

The Work will be proceeded with as soon as an adequate number of Subscribers is secured to warrant the expenses of the press.

At Press, to be ready shortly, in 2 vols. small 8vo.

DRAMAS OF CALDERON, Tragic, Comic, and Legendary. Translated from the Spanish, by D. F. M'CARTHY, Esq., Barrister-at-Law.

Just published, price 5s. cloth, lettered; by post, 5s. 6d.

TRAVELS OF AN IRISH GENTLEMAN IN SEARCH OF RELIGION. With Notes and Illustrations. By THOMAS MOORE. A New Edition, with a Biographical and Literary Introduction, by JAMES BURKE, Esq.

London: C. DOLMAN, 61. New Bond Street.

Just published, in 3 vols. 8vo., price 2l. 2s., cloth lettered,


Also, by the same.

TWELVE LECTURES ON THE CONNEXION BETWEEN SCIENCE AND REVEALED RELIGION. With Map and Plates. Fifth Edition. In 2 vols. small 8vo. cloth, lettered, 10s.

London: C. DOLMAN, 61. Bond Street, and 22. Paternoster Row.

HANDEL SOCIETY.—CRAMER, BEALE & CHAPPELL beg to inform the Subscribers and the Public, that they have undertaken the pecuniary responsibility of publishing the Works, and eventually carrying out the original scheme of the above Society. In undertaking engagements which involve so large an expenditure, they solicit the assistance of the Original Subscribers, who, they trust, will afford the necessary encouragement to an undertaking so important and so closely connected with the Art of Music. The Subscription to the Society is One Guinea annually, and New Subscribers may still have the Works from the commencement by payment of the arrears. The first eleven volumes have been printed for eight years' subscription. The Oratorio of "SAMSON," published for the present year, is now ready for delivery.—Catalogues and full particulars may be obtained on application to the Secretary, MR. CHARLES COMPTON, 201. Regent Street.


Classical Examiner at the University of London.


DR. WM. SMITH'S DICTIONARY of GREEK and ROMAN ANTIQUITIES. By various Writers. Second Edition. 500 Woodcuts. Medium 8vo. 42s.


DR. WM. SMITH'S DICTIONARY of GREEK and ROMAN BIOGRAPHY and MYTHOLOGY. By various Writers. 500 Woodcuts. 3 vols. medium 8vo. 5l. 15s. 6d.


DR. WM. SMITH'S DICTIONARY of GREEK and ROMAN GEOGRAPHY. By various Writers. Illustrated with Coins, Plans of Cities, Districts, Battles, &c. Quarterly Parts. Medium 8vo. 1 to 7, 4s. each, are ready.


DR. WM. SMITH'S NEW CLASSICAL DICTIONARY of MYTHOLOGY, BIOGRAPHY, and GEOGRAPHY. Compiled and abridged from the larger Works. New and Cheaper Edition. 8vo. 15s.


DR. WM. SMITH'S SMALLER CLASSICAL DICTIONARY. Abridged from the larger Work. Cheaper Edition, with 200 Woodcuts. Crown 8vo. 7s. 6d.


DR. WM. SMITH'S SMALLER DICTIONARY of GREEK and ROMAN ANTIQUITIES, New and Cheaper Edition, with 200 Woodcuts. Crown 8vo. 7s. 6d.


Just published, price 10s. 6d.


Containing Four Pictures:—

UMBERSLEY PARK. By Alfred Rosling.

PENSHURST CASTLE. By Philip Delamotte.


THE VILLAGE ELM. By Joseph Cundall.

Parts I. II. and III. are now reprinted. Part V. will shortly be ready.

Just published, price 16s.

PHOTOGRAPHIC STUDIES. Part II. By GEORGE SHAW, ESQ., of Queen's College, Birmingham.





Part I. is now reprinted. Part III. is in preparation.

Just published, fcap. 8vo. cloth, price 4s. 6d.

THE PRACTICE OF PHOTOGRAPHY: A Manual for Students and Amateurs. By PHILIP H. DELAMOTTE, F.S.A. Illustrated with a Picture taken by the Collodion Process.

⁂ This Manual contains much practical information.

Now ready, price 10s. 6d.






JOSEPH CUNDALL, 168. New Bond Street.



(The Horticultural Part edited by PROF. LINDLEY,)

Of Saturday, August 13, contains Articles on

Allotment gardens, by Mr. Bailey
Books, botanical
Botanical Society of Edinburgh
Calceolaria, culture of the, by Mr. Constantine
Calendar, horticultural
—— agricultural
Cannas for bedding
Carnation and Picotee
Society, National
Chelsea Botanic Garden, by Mr. Moore
Clover, Alsyke
Crops, reports of the state of
Cropping, double, by Mr. Ayres
Dahlias, to shade
Draining match, Hertfordshire Entomological Society
Farmers, importance of science to
Farming, Dartmoor
Forest, New
Forests, royal
Fungi, red coloured
Gladioli, from seed
Glendinning's (Mr.) nursery
Guano, to apply, by Mr. Legard
Lois Weedon cultivation of Swedes and Wheat,
by the Rev. S. Smith

Manure, straw as, by Mr. Goodiff
—— adulterated
Passiflora Kermesina
Potato, Lapstone, by Mr. Ayres
Potato disease in Ireland, by Mr. Murphy
Potato sets, dried, by Mr. Goodiff
Poultry shows
Rose, Geant des Batailles
Rye-grass, Italian
Salep, British, to make
Salt and weeds
Schools, industrial
Stock, short-horned
—— Lord Ducie's
Straw as manure, by Mr. Goodiff
Tile machine
Trees, size of, in Kemaon, &c., by Mr. Strachey
Turnips, Lois Weedon culture of
Wall fruit, stoning of
Weeds, to kill
Wheat, Lois Weedon culture of
Yorkshire Agricultural Society
—— Philosophical Society, show of

THE GARDENERS' CHRONICLE and AGRICULTURAL GAZETTE contains, in addition to the above, the Covent Garden, Mark Lane, Smithfield, and Liverpool prices, with returns from the Potato, Hop, Hay, Coal, Timber, Bark, Wool, and Seed Markets, and a complete Newspaper, with a condensed account of all the transactions of the week.

ORDER of any Newsvender. OFFICE for Advertisements, 5. Upper Wellington Street, Covent Garden, London.

In a few days will be published, Part IV. of

A CATALOGUE of a particularly Valuable and Interesting Collection of RARE, CURIOUS, AND USEFUL BOOKS in English History, Topography, Antiquities, Heraldry, Early English Literature and Black-letter Books, and Miscellaneous Literature, English and Foreign.

Splendid and Valuable Books of Prints and Illustrated Books, including a most valuable and extensively Illustrated Pennant's London, 6 vols. fol.; Clarendon's History of the Rebellion, 4 vols. folio; Evelyn's Memoirs, 5 vols. 4to.; Harte's Life of Gustavus Adolphus the Great, 4 vols. 4to.; and other similarly Illustrated Books.

Extensive Collections of Engravings and Woodcuts from the infancy of the Art to the present time, in folio volumes, with leaves, &c. Now on Sale at the Reasonable Prices affixed by

JOSEPH LILLY, 19. King Street, Covent Garden, London.

This valuable and truly interesting Catalogue will be forwarded to any Gentleman desiring it, on the receipt of Four Postage Stamps, the expense of pre-paying it.

Printed by Thomas Clark Shaw, of No. 10. Stonefield Street, in the Parish of St. Mary, Islington, at No. 5. New Street Square, in the Parish of St. Bride, in the City of London; and published by George Bell, of No. 186. Fleet Street, in the Parish of St. Dunstan in the West, in the City of London, Publisher, at No. 186. Fleet Street aforesaid.—Saturday, August 20, 1853.