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Title: The American Red Cross Bulletin (Vol. IV, No. 1, January 1909)

Author: American National Red Cross

Release date: June 14, 2022 [eBook #68310]

Language: English

Original publication: United States: The American Red Cross, 1909

Credits: hekula03 and the Online Distributed Proofreading Team at (This book was produced from images made available by the HathiTrust Digital Library.)


The American Red Cross Bulletin (Vol. IV, No. 1)

VOL. IV. JANUARY, 1909. No. 1.



The American
Red Cross


National Headquarters
Room 341, State, War and Navy Building
Washington, D. C.

Entered at the Post Office, Washington, D. C., as second-class matter


Note.—Red Crosses Indicate States and Possessions in Which Branch Societies Have Been Organized.


Preface 3
William Howard Taft (with Portrait) 4
Robert W. de Forest (with Portrait) 6
The Forest Fire Disasters (illustrated) 7
By Ernest P. Bicknell.
Report of Michigan Branch 15
By Ralph M. Dyar.
South Carolina Flood Relief (illustrated) 15
By A. C. Kaufman.
Report of Investigation in the Flooded Districts of South Carolina (illustrated) 20
By Janet E. Kemp.
A Short Sketch of the Russian Red Cross (illustrated) 27
By J. de Thal.
The Christmas Stamp 32
The Story of the Red Cross (with Portrait) 34
Report of Chairman of the Central Committee 36
Major General George B. Davis, U. S. A.
Report of the Treasurer 40
Beekman Winthrop.
Fourth Annual Red Cross Meeting 43
Red Cross Endowment Fund 44
Red Cross First-Aid Text-Book 45
By William E. Curtis.
First-Aid Instructions to Merchant Marine 46
By 1st Lieutenant G. H. Richardson, M. R. C., U. S. A.
The Red Cross and Esperanto 48
By Major P.S. Straub, U.S.A., Medical Corps.
Notes 49








Chairman of Central Committee,

National Director,

Board of Consultation

Surgeon-General, U. S. Army.

Surgeon-General, U. S. Navy.

U. S. Public Health and Marine Hospital Service.

Central Committee 1908-1909

Major-General George W. Davis, U. S. A. (ret.), Chairman.

Brigadier-General Robert M. O’Reilly, Surgeon-General, U. S. Army, War Department, Washington, D. C.

Hon. Robert Bacon, Assistant Secretary of State, Department of State, Washington, D. C.

Hon. Beekman Winthrop, Assistant Secretary of the Treasury, U. S. Treasury Dept., Washington, D. C.

Medical Director John C. Wise, U. S. N., Navy Department, Washington, D. C.

Hon. Henry M. Hoyt, Solicitor-General, Department of Justice, Washington, D. C.

President Benjamin Ide Wheeler, University of California.

Mr. John M. Glenn, 105 East 22d street, New York, N. Y.

Miss Mabel T. Boardman, Washington, D. C.

Hon. James R. Garfield, Secretary of the Interior, Washington, D. C.

Hon. A. C. Kaufman, Charleston, S. C.

Hon. H. Kirke Porter, 1600 I street, Washington, D. C.

Mr. John C. Pegram, Providence, R. I.

General Charles Bird, U. S. A., Wilmington, Del.

Col. William Cary Sanger, Sangerfield, N. Y.

Judge Lambert Tree, 70 La Salle street, Chicago, Ill.

Hon. James Tanner, Washington, D. C.

Mr. W. W. Farnam, New Haven, Conn.



With its January issue the Red Cross Bulletin begins its fourth year. The fact that it is becoming of more general interest has led those in charge of the publication to increase its size that it may conform more to the appearance of other magazines. A new cover, symbolical of Red Cross work, will be provided for the April issue. As the expense of publishing the Bulletin has been a heavy drain upon the limited income of the Society, it has also been decided to accept advertisements, so that the Bulletin may in part pay for itself.

That, though elected President of the United States, Mr. Taft consented to be re-elected President of the American Red Cross is a fact upon which the Society is to be not only heartily congratulated, but for which it is most deeply grateful; that, while assuming the great duties and responsibilities of the highest office in the government, Mr. Taft still desires to associate himself in an active way with the American Red Cross is but another proof of his constant desire to be of service to his country and also testifies to his belief in the usefulness of the Society. The Red Cross has also been most fortunate in obtaining the consent of Mr. Robert W. de Forest to act as the Vice-President.

This issue contains reports and illustrations of the last two fields of Red Cross relief. A short sketch of the Russian Red Cross has kindly been prepared by a member of the Russian Embassy in Washington.

The complete story of the Red Cross Christmas stamp can be told only in the April Bulletin. Its remarkable success is a great satisfaction.

We trust our members will read the officer’s reports, the articles on the Endowment Fund and the First-Aid Text-Books. The next problem that our National Society has to meet, and must meet successfully, for it is still young enough to have no such word as “Fail” in its lexicon, is the raising of such an Endowment Fund as will put our Society on a permanent basis and make it the equal of the great societies of the other countries of the world.

The First-Aid Text-Book cannot be too highly commended. We know too little what to do in case of accidents. When statistics show that one person out of every seven of the inhabitants of the United States is injured annually, and that in New York alone during the last three years the annual average of accidents on the surface, elevated and subway traction system has been 34,000, the necessity of the valuable information and instruction this book contains should be realized by everyone. Mr. William E. Curtis has kindly written for the Bulletin a review of the Text-Book, and a further notice in regard to it is contained in the advertising department.

Just as the Bulletin goes to press the Executive Committee learned, through press reports and official channels, of the occurrence of an earthquake in Southern Italy of unprecedented severity, and started its relief machinery into motion by telegraphing the Red Cross Branches and the Governors of several States, requesting that an appeal be issued and contributions received for the relief of the sufferers. Reports of the work of relief and a financial statement will be printed in the April Bulletin.



Hon. William Howard Taft, President of the American Red Cross, President of the United States, March 4, 1909.


On February 8th, 1905, on call of the Secretary of War, the Incorporators of the re-incorporated American National Red Cross held their first meeting for re-organization in the diplomatic reception room of the State Department. At this meeting William Howard Taft was elected the first president of the re-organized Society. At each of the four subsequent annual meetings Mr. Taft has presided, save in 1907, when absence in the Philippines prevented his attendance, and at each of those meetings has been re-elected president.

The active duties of the Society are delegated by its Charter to a Central Committee, the Chairman being appointed by the President of the United States; therefore, the duties devolving upon the President of the Society are supposedly of an honorary nature, but with a man of Mr. Taft’s character, duty becomes honorable rather than honorary.

Shortly after its re-organization and while in its very infancy, there came upon the Society the storm and stress of the San Francisco disaster. A great pressure of work fell also upon the War Department, but in spite of this, and, though no by-law required his presence, Mr. Taft came to the meetings of the Executive Committee, listened to the reports, counseled and advised, and by his wisdom and clear judgment brought order and result out of confusion and indecision. Whenever and however he could be of help, he has given his assistance gladly, and only those who have struggled through the problems of its re-organization can know the pillar of strength he has been to the American Red Cross.

Since Mr. Taft’s nomination and election to the Presidency of the United States, so much has been written of his life and his achievements, it has not seemed necessary to repeat it here. The people of this country have set the seal of their approval upon the labors of his past. The wonderful fidelity of his work for the far-away Philippines has led his country-men to paraphrase scripture—“Thou hast been faithful over a few people; I will make thee ruler over many people.”

In spite of the great and many new duties that the Presidency of the United States will bring upon Mr. Taft, he consented again to be elected president of the American Red Cross. Moreover, he declined an election to honorary membership, saying that he desired to consider himself an active member of the Society. In thus continuing as president of the Red Cross, the official organization for volunteer aid, Mr. Taft, who as President, becomes Chief of the Army and Navy, will be able to bring into close association these departments and the Red Cross, so that in case of the misfortune of war or of great calamities, harmonious and systematic relief work will result.

With such a man for President as William Howard Taft, the American Red Cross must live up to the thought he has, himself, expressed:

“I say to you that there are rewards that are unknown to him who seeks only what he regards as the substantial ones. The best of all is the pure joy of service—to do things that are worth doing, to be in the thick of it; ah! That is to live!”



Robert W. de Forest, Vice-President of the American Red Cross.


The Red Cross has been most fortunate in the acceptance of its Vice-Presidency by Mr. Robert W. de Forest, of New York City. There are few residents of that city so widely known for their philanthropic and public spirit and work as Mr. de Forest.

Mr. de Forest is a graduate of Yale, a lawyer by profession, having received his LL. B. from Columbia, and having also studied at Bonn University. In 1904 the degree of LL. D. was conferred upon him by Yale University. Since 1874 he has been counsel, and since 1902 Vice-President, of the Central Railroad of New Jersey. For twenty years he has been President of the Charity Organization of New York City; he was a founder and first president of the Provident Loan Society, the first philanthropic pawn-broker, the Chairman of the Tenement House Commission of New York State in 1900, trustee and secretary of the Metropolitan Art Museum, manager of the Presbyterian Hospital, a trustee and director in various business institutions, was the first Tenement House Commissioner of New York City, the President of the National Conference of Charities and Correction in 1903, President of the Municipal Art Commission of New York in 1905, and is Vice-President and Chairman of the Executive Committee of the Sage Foundation.

This brief statement of the important positions Mr. de Forest has occupied, or does occupy, is strongly indicative of the character and ability of the man, and the Red Cross is heartily to be congratulated not only upon its President, but upon its second officer, the Vice-President of the Society.



All the country knows of the forest fires which caused loss of life and property in Michigan, Minnesota, Wisconsin, New York and other States, in September and October, 1908. It has been estimated that the losses to property amounted to $50,000,000, most of which lay in the destruction of forests, of which thousands of square miles were swept by fire.

In their progress the fires destroyed several towns and villages and many farm houses. Chisholm, Minnesota, a town of probably 5,000 population, seventy-five miles north of Duluth, was destroyed in an hour. At 5:30 o’clock in the afternoon of September 6, a sudden shift of wind deluged the place in a moment with an overwhelming rain of burning leaves and embers. Almost every building in the town took fire at once. The surprised and panic-stricken people could do nothing but seize a few valuables and run for their lives. When the fire died out it was found that only sixty-five structures of any kind remained standing, but that not a life had been lost. Prompt relief measures were taken, with a state commission in charge. A relief fund of about $130,000 was contributed. Mr. Ernest P. Bicknell, National Director of the Red Cross, visited Chisholm and inspected the progress and methods of relief October 13 to 16, and reported that the methods were good and that normal conditions were being restored rapidly. Hundreds of men were employed in rebuilding the town and houses were going up like magic. Eighty-seven cottages have been built by the relief committee. Employment in the iron mines surrounding the town was not interrupted by the fire. This fact greatly simplified the work of relief, as the usual income of that part of the population least able to endure loss, was preserved.


Michigan Forest Fires—Some of the Homeless.


While in Duluth on October 16, the National Director of the Red Cross learned of a disastrous forest fire, which had occurred in the northern part of the southern peninsula of Michigan on the preceding day. He hurried to the scene, reaching there on the 17th, and for two weeks devoted his time to the work of relief in that State. Following are extracts from the report of the National Director covering this work:Editor.

“The summer and fall had been excessively dry here, as elsewhere, and there had been little wind. Farmers had been clearing up their lands, burning logs and stumps and accumulated rubbish, as is their custom at the end of the summer. In thousands of places fire was smouldering in log heaps, and in the roots of stumps and in the peaty soil which, when dry, will burn without flame and with little smoke until extinguished by rain.

“Early in the afternoon of October 15, a strong wind from the southwest sprang up and almost in a moment these smouldering fires burst into flames. The effect was as though the entire country had taken fire at once. The wind, whose velocity is estimated to have been fifty miles an hour, carried a vast wave of flame which destroyed everything combustible in its path. Several men whose homes were destroyed assured me, with entire seriousness, that the air was on fire. The area damaged extends approximately seventy-five miles along the northeastern shore of the lower peninsula and reaches back inland from fifteen to twenty-five miles. The center and worst of the fire covered an area perhaps twenty-five miles long and ten miles wide. Within this smaller area were the villages of Metz, Posen and Bolton, surrounded by an agricultural country occupied by Polish and German families in moderate circumstances. The Detroit and Mackinac Railroad passes through this district and each of the villages named is upon the line of the road.

“The village of Metz was completely destroyed, not a structure of any character remaining. The village of Bolton was also completely destroyed with the exception of a small church. Posen was saved by a desperate fight. The open farming country offered little hindrance to the progress of the fire, which in many instances leaped across treeless spaces of a quarter of a mile or more, destroying all buildings and fences between. The number of homes destroyed in an area ten miles square was 177. The number of persons made homeless and temporarily destitute by the fire in an area twenty-five miles long and ten miles wide was about 2,000.


Ruins of Chisholm.

One of the Shacks Constructed by Relief Committee.

“When the people of Metz, early in the afternoon of October 15, realized that the village was in danger, they telegraphed to the railroad company for a relief train to carry the women and children to safety. At 2:30 P. M. an engine arrived with a steel gondola car—a steel box with solid walls about four feet high and without roof. The danger did not appear immediate when the train arrived and the people delayed to gather up their more valuable portable property and load it into the car. The trainmen urged haste, but the people were determined, and hours passed. At 5:30 P. M. the train started with about forty-five women and children huddled in the open car. Four trainmen were on board and a farmer and his wife, who were trying to reach home where their children had been left earlier in the day. Two miles from Metz a line of box cars stood on a siding close to the main track. On the opposite side of the track was a huge pile of cross ties awaiting shipment. Both box cars and cross ties[11] were burning. The heat had warped the rails of the main track, but the dense blanket of smoke prevented the engineer from seeing what had happened. The train dashed into the furnace between the burning cars and the burning cross ties and was wrecked. Seventeen of those on board were burned to death. The fireman and brakeman and the farmer were among the killed. The rest were women and children. Those who escaped clambered over the sides of the car and crawled along the ground to an open place where they lay on their faces several hours until the fire had subsided. The wreck occurred within fifty feet of the home of the farmer. The farmer’s wife escaped from the train and reached the burning house. She rushed in, in search of her children, and her bones were found later among the ashes. The three children, the oldest nine, had fled to a neighbor’s house near by and were saved. Many who escaped from the train were terribly burned.

Refugees at Posen.

“The men of Metz, who remained to fight the fire, escaped without loss of life. One of these men told me of his escape. He threw some small valuables into a large wooden candy pail and started to run along the road through the woods. Presently his hair began to burn and his face to blister. He felt himself failing. He emptied the contents from the pail and put it over his head. With this protection he managed to crawl along the road to a field and escaped, with clothing on fire and many injuries.


“After driving about the region a few hours, in order to gain an adequate idea of the extent of the loss, I took a train for Detroit for the purpose of conferring with officers of the State Branch of the Red Cross, concerning relief measures. Some relief supplies were already arriving, contributed by the people of the City of Alpena, twenty-five miles to the east, and hurried in by the railroad company. I found Detroit awakened to the situation. Mr. Emory W. Clark, treasurer of the State Branch, and Mr. Ralph M. Dyar, secretary, had been in conference the morning of my arrival. Mr. Clark took me to call upon the Mayor, who requested me to attend a meeting of business men, which he had called to assemble in his office at noon. The result of the meeting was the appointment of a relief committee. Mr. Clark was made the Red Cross representative upon this committee. The committee appointed Mr. J. D. Hawks, president of the Detroit and Mackinac Railroad, its representative in the field and requested me to return to the fire district with him to help organize and direct the work of relief. It was arranged that we should start to Metz that same evening.

Only Building Left in Bolton.

“In the afternoon, this being October 19, the Red Cross opened a large downtown room for the reception of clothing intended for the fire sufferers. Mrs. R. McD. Campau, an active and enthusiastic member of the Red Cross, took charge of the supply depot and plenty of volunteers joined her staff. The afternoon papers announced the arrangement conspicuously and before night supplies began coming in. In a week so much clothing[13] had been received that the supply room was closed and the public requested to send no more.

“In the fire district three relief stations were opened at Metz, Posen and Alpena. The Alpena relief committee, which was extremely active and efficient, had charge of the relief station in that city. A committee of women managed the clothing distribution, while the men’s committee handled other supplies, including hay for live stock. At Posen the railroad company gave the use of its freight house for relief headquarters. At Metz the railroad company placed freight cars upon a siding for relief supplies. The company also gave the services of a number of its capable officers for the work of relief. For example: President Hawks, of the railroad company, not only gave substantially all of his own time, but detailed the General Superintendent of the road, the Chief Engineer, the District Passenger and Freight Agent, and other men of proved ability. The railroad company also facilitated in every possible way the shipment of supplies of all kinds and put into service a daily relief train which transferred supplies as required from one relief station to another, carried the relief workers back and forth, etc.

“As the climate of northern Michigan is severe, and winter was close at hand, the providing of shelter was of immediate urgency. Mr. Waterman, the chief engineer of the railroad, designed a ‘shack’ which could be built quickly and cheaply and the work of housing the homeless, who in the meantime were crowded with almost incredible congestion into the homes of their more fortunate neighbors, began promptly and went forward with the utmost speed. The ‘shack’ consisted of unplaned lumber, long, upright boards forming the walls, rough boards forming the roof and floor, and the entire exterior of the structure covered with tar building paper. Each ‘shack’ was 14 by 16 feet and contained three small rooms. About twenty carpenters were gathered up along the line of the railroad and brought into the relief work. The plan of procedure was for the farmer to receive the lumber, paper, windows, hardware, etc., for a ‘shack’ and haul it to his farm. Then one carpenter would be sent to the place to direct operations and with the farmer and his neighbors helping, the ‘shack’ would be quickly completed. If two or three ‘shacks’ were to be in a group, one carpenter could supervise all at once.

“On October 29, exactly two weeks after the fire, thirty-eight ‘shacks’ were completed and occupied on the sites of burned homes and twenty-four ‘shacks’ going up. It was estimated that about 150 ‘shacks’ would have to be provided by the relief committee and almost as many more for horses and other domestic animals. These ‘shacks’ cost, complete, only $50 each.

“On October 24, Governor Warner announced the appointment of a State Relief Commission. It was composed of seven men, including Mr. Emory W. Clark as a representative of the Red Cross. It also included Mr. J. D. Hawks, president of the Detroit and Mackinac railroad. The Commission met on October 26, and elected Mr. Frank Buel, a prominent lumberman of Bay City, chairman, and Mr. B. M. Wynkoop, manager of the Bay City Times, secretary. The State Commission requested me to meet with it on October 30, and visit the fire district. This I did, and after a day with the members, became satisfied that they were men of affairs and that they had accepted appointment on the Commission for no purpose other than a sincere desire to serve the State. At this meeting it was decided to take over the relief work and put it upon a permanent basis with men in charge who would be paid for their services, but continuing[14] substantially the same methods of administration then in use. As superintendent, the Commission employed Mr. F. E. Merrill, who had had a responsible position in the relief work from the beginning, and who was given leave of absence by the railroad company for the purpose.

“From two sources should come help which will materially lighten the burden of relief.

“First, from insurance. The total insurance upon the property burned was $149,000. Of this amount $95,000 was upon village property and $54,000 on farm property.

“Second, from the sale of lumber and from wages in lumbering operations. The trees which were killed by the fire will produce good lumber if sawed this winter, but if they remain longer they become almost valueless, except for fuel. Thus in order to save their lumber, the farmers must get their burned trees to the mill this winter. That will mean unusual activity in the woods. Those who own timber will realize some income from its sale and those who do not own timber will find employment with those who do.

Hut Constructed of Blankets—Only Shelter of Two Women.

“The total amount of relief funds collected in the various cities could not be accurately ascertained up to the time of my departure from Michigan, November 1, but was approximately $50,000, including $5,000 given through the State Branch of the Red Cross. This, with the contributions of provisions, clothing, lumber, etc., it is hoped will be enough to carry the work through to completion. In the event that it does not suffice to purchase seed grain for the farmers next spring, it is believed a small additional fund may be obtained by an appeal to the public, or perhaps through an appropriation by the State Legislature.”




Secretary, Michigan Red Cross Branch

November 11, 1908.

Referring to the work done by the Michigan Branch of the American National Red Cross towards raising funds and the handling of contributions for the fire sufferers in northern Michigan, I beg to report results accomplished as follows:

Total amount of cash contributions received to date has been $4,432. Regarding the handling of clothes, supplies, etc., I beg to give you herewith a copy of the report presented by Mrs. R. McD. Campau, who had charge of the receiving and forwarding of all supplies.

“From October 19th to and including October 26th, a ‘Relief Station’ was opened in the Owen Building, in a room donated for that purpose. During that time many contributions of clothing, furniture and some money were received. Many merchants contributed largely and also assisted in collecting individual contributions, there being five hundred and seventy requests by telephone to call for donations. It was impossible to keep account of all these donations, as they came in in such quantities and many had no names attached. Fifteen people worked every day during the week from eight in the morning till five in the afternoon, opening packages, sorting, packing, marking and shipping boxes. Each box was marked with the contents. There being one hundred and sixteen in all, a great deal of furniture and $210.75 sent from the Red Cross Relief Station to the fire sufferers in northern Michigan.”

I can report that a sufficient amount of clothing and other household articles has been forwarded to the district to provide for the needs of all the fire sufferers, and with the money raised by the Citizens’ Committee of Detroit and other cities of the State, together with the amount raised by the Michigan Branch of the Red Cross, sufficient food and fodder for the cattle and horses can be provided to take care of all requirements up to the middle of the winter. When the State Legislature meets they will, no doubt, provide the extra funds that may be needed.



President of State Branch

About the end of last August, a flood more violent in its character than any known to have visited these localities at any previous period, swept down from the mountains of North Carolina, across the Piedmont section of South Carolina, continuing with maddening rush along the Congaree, Wateree and Pee Dee Rivers, overflowing vast tracts of fertile lands in high cultivation. It laid waste completely these fruitful fields—garden spots—smiling with luxuriant crops of cotton and corn, wrecking comfortable homes of all their possessions—yes, their all indeed—the property of a contented, happy and prosperous people.


Columbia Bridge at Time of Flood.

Congaree River—Island Submerged.


As soon as the extent of the disaster reached me, I immediately notified the authorities at Washington and at once came a reply order, by wire, to issue an appeal for help. This appeal was promptly issued as directed, and contributions began to come in. With that noble spirit so characteristic of the present management of the Red Cross, recognizing the fact that instant assistance was needed, a message flashed by wire from Washington, to draw upon the National body for three hundred dollars, reached us, at the right time, and was used with marked effect. Following this quickly came a check from Honorable William H. Taft for one hundred dollars, forwarded to him from a prominent lady in New York, to be devoted to this purpose. On September 11th another Red Cross check for three hundred dollars was sent, and on October 17th still another for one hundred dollars. These added to a check for fifty dollars from Honorable Robert C. Ogden, of New York, made eight hundred and fifty dollars contributed from sources outside the State. Within the State $675.41 are credited, and of this $260.00 were the gift of our colored fellow-citizens. The total amount, therefore, which our Treasurer, John B. Reeves, has had in bank for this fund, as shown by his books, is $1,525.41, reduced by payments to different committees to $1,067.41. Credit must also be given to those who have sent in large donations of wearing apparel, bed clothing, etc. These have been carefully packed by active lady friends and shipped by Mr. W. E. Renneker, agent of the Atlantic Coast Line, free of cost for distribution among the most needy sufferers.

Another act of your body which has won our encomium was to furnish, at our request, an expert to visit the devastated sections and report thereon. The lot most fortunately fell on Miss Janet E. Kemp, a lady of culture, refinement and business experience. Her report will best tell you of the pathetic scenes and incidents that she encountered on her journey of investigation. Her visit partook of the nature of an angel of mercy, and I was blessed in having such an assistant in the time of peril.

The following graphic sketch taken from The News and Courier, of Charleston, and The State, of Columbia, two leading and most influential newspapers, giving an account of the conditions in the Congaree and Wateree districts, may prove interesting to your readers:


“After spending Sunday and Monday,” says The News and Courier, in its issue of September 23rd, “in Columbia, whither he had gone to institute, as closely as possible, an investigation into the condition of the flood sufferers, together with making provision to supply their present necessities, as well as to plan for their relief during the winter months, Mr. A. C. Kaufman, President of the South Carolina Branch, Red Cross, returned to Charleston yesterday. ‘I had an opportunity,’ he said to a reporter last night, ‘during my visit to consult with white and colored men from the afflicted section of the Congaree and Wateree Valley, both as to the extent of their losses and the extremity of their condition. Theirs was, indeed, a harrowing story, enough to make the heart bleed. Some of the sufferers are unable from childhood, age or infirmity to labor in any shape or manner. The only kind of work most of those, able to do anything, can do is to pick cotton in the fields. In remuneration for this labor they receive 50 cents a hundred pounds for the cotton which they gather. This will enable them to eke out existence until the middle of November, and then will gaunt poverty haunt them, labor of all kinds, to which they are adapted, being then at an end. Then will come to them starvation and death unless the humane people of South Carolina place[18] in the hands of the Red Cross, working in co-operation with the local committee of Richland County, the means to save their lives.

“‘A committee composed of three citizens of Columbia of the highest character in connection with sub-committees, to be selected by them, have agreed to handle the matter.

“‘The following article from The State, of Columbia, will give a fuller idea of the business-like manner in which the Red Cross and the committee propose to handle the situation:’”

The State, of Tuesday, says:

Col. A. C. Kaufman, of Charleston, the representative of the Red Cross Society in this section, came to Columbia Saturday night and spent Sunday and yesterday in the city, going over the ground in connection with the Richland flood sufferers.

As a direct result of this visit, a central committee has been formed in Columbia, its members taking part upon the special request and designation of Colonel Kaufman. This committee contains but three members—Captain William E. Gonzales, Editor of The State, Chairman; Mr. W. A. Clark, President of the Carolina National Bank, Treasurer, and Mayor William S. Reamer, of Columbia.

The duties of this committee will be to designate sub-committees throughout the entire flooded district in Richland to secure an accurate census of those persons who need assistance, to estimate the cost of relieving distress until another crop can be procured and to receive and disburse funds.

Mr. Gonzales requests that all moneys be sent to Treasurer W. A. Clark, and it is necessary for the business-like and just distribution of relief that those who have undertaken to extend relief in this section shall work with the central committee, and there shall be an accounting of all funds to the central committee.

As matters now stand it is not likely that much relief will be needed from this committee for the next two months. During that time the people affected, or most of them, will be able to earn a living by picking cotton on the highlands, but from about the middle of November until the next oat crop (in May, 1909) can be harvested, scores and scores of families will be absolutely dependent upon assistance, and it is to prepare for that time of need that the central committee and the sub-committees to be appointed will now work. Of course, every effort will be made to get these people to help themselves. There will be absolutely no encouragement to idleness or pauperism, but there is no use attempting to conceal the fact that later on in the winter there will be a real problem to solve in caring for the destitute.

Columbia and South Carolina, it is hoped, will be able to care for these needy people. What they fail to do the Red Cross will be asked to supplement. The central committee represents Columbia and will also act as agent for the Red Cross.

This visit was made on September 20, 21 and 22.


The account of the conditions in the Pee Dee sections is equally important:

On October 20th last I visited the City of Marion from which radiates the principal business of the Pee Dee section. On my arrival I was met at the depot by Mayor Miles, Associate Justice Woods, of the Supreme Court of South Carolina; Congressman Ellerbee, and many other citizens[19] of prominence and distinction in South Carolina, and beyond her borders—an evidence of their keen anxiety to put themselves in position to provide relief for their unfortunate and crushed neighbors. Two meetings were held that day—one in the morning, the other in the afternoon. The matter was carefully discussed and weighed in every particular. Mayor Miles presided at each meeting.

Hon. W. J. Montgomery, President of the Bank of Marion and Senator from Marion County, spoke as follows:

“We are not so much concerned about the present, although there are some serious cases we are forced to handle now. The problem most difficult to solve, and which creates intense anxiety, is how these hundreds of dependents, unable to find employment to which they can adapt themselves, are to be fed during the coming winter. This can only be done with the kind permission of the Red Cross, to draw upon our share of the fund, which that worthy organization is endeavoring to swell through its urgent appeals to the people of the whole State for money donations, added to that furnished by local contributors.

“Another point,” said Mr. Montgomery, “which I wish to make plain: The idea has gone abroad that the beneficiaries to this fund are only colored people. This is a grave error. Many deserving white people, some of whom were in comparatively easy circumstances previous to the flood, have now become miserably reduced through this visitation of God. Help is solicited for them because help is sorely needed. They ask bread; can we give them a stone? We propose to care for the sufferers of both races.”

Mayor Miles also took a dismal view of the future unless help came. To the Red Cross they look for it.

Mr. Davis, a large planter, spoke in a manly, yet pathetic vein. He stated that his losses had been immense, but that to the best of his ability he had been feeding from his scanty store his helpless, distressed, starving neighbors, white and colored, in their fearful poverty and want. He was willing, and intended to go as far as his circumstances permitted, aye, to make sacrifices in this humanitarian work. That is the spirit which pervades the neighborhood.

The Citizens’ Relief Committee, composed of their first citizens, has the Honorable S. C. Miles, Mayor of Marion, as Chairman, and Mr. Albert G. Woods, as Treasurer. In conclusion, the emergency may be thus summed up: Our prospects are very discouraging. Money is superlatively required. It must be had if human lives are to be saved. The final analysis of the case reads thus: Food or starvation, life or death. Only with money can the evil be averted. It would be unreasonable to expect more from the Red Cross fund. Their provision has been bountiful. Our treasury, however, needs replenishment. After help already rendered, there remains in our treasury about $1,000. By January this amount will be materially reduced, as the committees require aid without delay, and must have it. This small sum is all we can count on to keep the wolf of hunger from the doors of one thousand human beings for six months, during the winter, the most trying season of the year. It does not take a skilled mathematician to tell how far this will go. How long will this last? Echo answers “how long?” Disasters of wider extent and affecting more people are on record. Yet without an attempt at exaggeration, I affirm that never has any been more severe.




Special Red Cross Representative

The itinerary, as outlined by Mr. Kaufman, was to include Columbia, Florence and Marion; each of these cities being the center of districts which were reported to have suffered severely during the recent disaster.


Arriving in Columbia late Monday night, I was met by Mr. Baker, a representative of The State, which is Columbia’s leading daily paper. The city is situated in the Congaree Valley, at the junction of Saluda and Broad rivers.

Broad River Bridge—Two Miles Above Columbia.

Columbia itself escaped with comparatively little injury; the city extending at an elevation considerably above the flood level.

The power house of the street railway company and the city water works situated near the river sustained considerable damage. The cotton factories also located on low ground were obliged to suspend work for a few days; the loss in wages said to be about $4,000.00.

Early next morning I had an interview with Captain William E. Gonzales, editor of The State. Captain Gonzales estimated that there were about two hundred destitute families in the flooded section between Columbia and Kingsville. From information received later, I should think this is probably an under-estimate.


The fertile “swamp” lands on each side of the river belong to a chain of “plantations” extending from Columbia to Kingsville. On some of these the owner lives, surrounded by his tenantry; others belong to non-resident owners. Corn and cotton are the staple crops.

The destitution of which Captain Gonzales spoke exists mainly on those plantations owned by non-residents who have no personal interest in their tenantry; and among the negroes who are working their own land. The flood sufferers living on land occupied by resident owners will not, as a rule, need any outside aid, as their landlords, though themselves very heavy losers, will provide for their pressing needs. The gravity of the situation, even for those who are actually destitute, is mitigated at present by the fact that for the next two months work will be comparatively plentiful, in harvesting crops in sections untouched by the calamity, and in repairing the damages occasioned by the flood.

Mr. C. B. Simmons, agent for a large plantation of 3,000 acres, drove me out to see the conditions on his place, which are typical of those on other places owned by non-residents. Mr. Simmons estimated that the damage done to the crops would be about $12,000. There are 40 tenants on the place, six of whom are white families. The crops are in many cases practically a total loss; the whole year’s work has been swept away. The only thing that will be realized will be a hay crop, which, under favorable conditions, may be harvested before frost. Some of the men had tried to get work in the phosphate mills near by, but without success. The entire body of tenants gathered together by appointment to meet Mr. Simmons, and each in turn gave detailed account of the loss he had sustained.

Mr. Simmons said that the most direct and practical way to help these people would be to provide them with seed-oats, which could be planted in October, and would yield a crop early next June. About 700 bushels would be needed for the 40 tenants on the place.

On Wednesday morning, September 9th, I went to Lykesland by train, a distance of about nine miles from Columbia. Here I was met by Mr. William Lykes, who drove me out to see the conditions in a little colony of negro swamp farmers.

There was not much room for possible exaggeration in the stories we heard here; the white line of mud in the branches of the trees, often 12 or 15 feet from the ground, indicated the height of the flood. Fallen chimneys and wrecked buildings showed the violence of the current. The cotton was ruined, fit only to be plowed under to fertilize next year’s crop. The corn was rotting on its stalks. The poor little, unpainted, windowless frame houses were unspeakably desolate; the walls marked to the very eaves with white mud left by the receding waters, and everything within the homes—bedding, clothes, furniture—wrecked and ruined, and saturated with mud. Nearly all the live stock had perished. They showed us the stockade on a small knoll, a little higher than the surrounding country, into which they had driven all their animals. Here they had managed to save most of their mules, but even at this elevation nearly all the cattle had been drowned.

The largest land-holder in the colony, a very intelligent negro, with a reputation for honesty and industry, had lost 16 acres of corn and 16 of cotton, 6 head of cattle and 10 hogs.

A week before, when Mr. Lykes first visited the colony after the flood, he found the people literally starving. At one house the hungry children were trying to eat the rotten corn. He at once secured $50.00,[22] through Captain Gonzales, from the South Carolina branch of the Red Cross, with which he purchased provisions and supplies to meet the immediate need.

The flood sufferers, who had at first seemed dazed by the calamity, were now making efforts to rehabilitate themselves. Some were rebuilding their chimneys and outbuildings; others had secured work; one man had gone to work on a plantation five miles away, walking that distance twice daily; the women and children had also begun to pick cotton on neighboring plantations. The conditions on this little colony illustrated the situation of the small land holder, who has no resources except the crop, which he had hoped to harvest as the result of his year’s labor.

The flood also had seriously crippled the larger landowners, who could ordinarily be looked to for the relief of their poorer neighbors. From Mr. B. S. Rawls, who has a “general store” on the bluff road that parallels the river between Columbia and Kingsville, we learned, that he had lost 235 acres of his own crops, and would get practically no rent from the 2,000 acres he had rented out. Worse than this he expected to be “out” from $1,200 to $1,500 for supplies advanced to his tenants.

Florence, S. C.

The next point visited was Florence, Florence County, 81 miles from Columbia. Reports of heavy flood losses had come in from the Lynches River section. A Relief Committee had been formed by the Honorable Hartwell Ayer, editor of the Florence Daily Times and a small sum of money raised.

After conferring with the committee, I concluded that it would be desirable for me to make some investigation of conditions for myself, and went down to Cowards, which is located in the flooded district, 16 miles from Florence. Here, at the recommendation of the committee, I called upon Mr. Z. C. Lynch, who keeps a large general store and supplies the needs of over 200 farmers in that vicinity.

Immediately after the flood Mr. Lynch had spent three days in riding around through the section that had been flooded, noting carefully the conditions of the crops, and talking with the farmers. He gave me a positive assurance that he had not met a single case of destitution, and that, as a rule, the loss in that section would not average more than 10% to 25% of the crop. After this frank statement from a man who is in a far better position to get the exact truth than I could possibly be, I decided to make no further investigation, but to await the report of Dr. Hicks.

After spending two days in the flooded district, under circumstances which enabled him to come into touch with representatives from every point, Dr. Hicks returned with exactly the same report as that given by Mr. Lynch. He said that while the losses had been heavy, and many people were considerably crippled, there was no destitution and there was not likely to be any that could not easily be met by local resources.

Marion, S. C.

Proceeding to Marion on Friday night, with the expectation of being able to complete the investigation in another 24 hours, I found a situation which made it imperative that I should spend two or three days in that section.

A very active and interested Relief Committee, with Mayor S. T. Miles as chairman, was fully alive to the needs of the situation, and had[23] succeeded in raising a fund of over $500.00, in addition to what had been sent by the Red Cross. I learned from this committee that the four townships of Marion County had been practically submerged. These townships form a tongue of land lying between Big Peedee and Little Peedee Rivers. During the flood the water of Big Peedee had risen and flowed clear over the intervening strip of land until they met the water of Little Peedee. A sandy ridge extending North and South through the interior ordinarily forms the water shed between the two rivers, and, at many points, the water had covered even this comparatively high land.

Arrangements were at once made for me to proceed to Eulonia, the home of Mr. S. U. Davis, who was said to be more thoroughly familiar with conditions in the flooded section than any one else.

After dinner Mr. Davis drove me through several miles of flooded country. It was a matter of regret with him that I had not come a week earlier when—nearly two weeks after the flood—the whole country was still under water, and boats were the only available means of transit from point to point. At that time most of the homes were vacant, and the occupants, with their cattle and household effects, were camping out wherever they were lucky enough to find a spot that was “high and dry.”

Pee Dee River Flood.

In a little two-room shanty, near Mr. Davis’ place, thirty-four people found shelter at one time during the high water. One resourceful farmer, when forced to move out of his home, which, though partially submerged, was still the dryest spot on the farm, provided for his live stock by tethering the cow to the cook-stove in the kitchen, and quartering his five hogs on the bed. In another instance a couple, who were determined to stay in their homes at all risks, themselves “camped out” on the bed, and at meal times paddled over to the cook-stove on a hastily-constructed raft.

That people who had suffered as these people had could still be brave-hearted enough to dwell upon the humorous side of their tragedy, shows that it is hard to drown out American “grit,” and the American sense of humor. But the tragic side was ever present and needed no emphasis. One woman, of whom Mr. Davis spoke, a widow with three small children,[24] had lost her entire crop. At the time of the flood she was desperately ill, and, when rescued in a boat with the children, it was feared that she would die as a result of the exposure. She was now, however, recovering, but some provision would have to be made for her until another crop could be raised. Throughout all this section there had been comparatively little loss of household goods and effects, because most of the people were warned in time to enable them to remove their belongings to a place of safety.

We drove through acre after acre of rotten corn, and of cotton fit only to be plowed under to fertilize the ground for next year’s crop. Fences had been ruined and bridges swept away, and several times it was necessary to make a wide detour, in order to find a safe crossing place.

One man with whom we talked, who, with his family, had just moved back into their still damp house, said that he had nothing left, but a little corn, a few chufas and a patch of cane. Every farm we visited in that section was practically in the same condition.

The next day, Sunday, we started again at 10 A. M. over a road that led down the sandy ridge that, for the most part, had not been covered by the waters, though even here the lower points had been submerged. Then turning eastward through the section marked on the map as the Low Flat Lands, we left the beaten track and, for a long time, traveled through alternating areas of partially submerged woodland, and sodden savannahs—the South Carolinian term for meadow land. It was not easy to follow the trail across the savannahs, and the drive through the woods was even more difficult. As we lurched along through the water we never knew at what moment the buggy might strike some submerged log or stump.

We took dinner at the home of Mr. Fontaine Davis, a planter and merchant at the lower end of Britton’s Neck Township, who kindly volunteered to take me on down into Woodberry Township, as far as we could go, while Mr. S. U. Davis rested his horse ready for the return journey.

The country we drove through at the upper end of Woodberry Township had suffered severely from the floods, and the crops were an almost total loss. We went as far as the road was open until we struck a point, beyond which all the bridges had been washed away. Woodberry Township forms a peninsula between the two rivers already spoken of. Fortunately it is very thinly settled, and most of the farmers have their homes on the comparatively high land in the center of the township. Mr. Fontaine Davis said that he had only heard of five families in the section below that which we visited who had suffered to any serious extent.

We talked with an old man, who for 43 years had lived on his farm in the upper part of Woodberry Township. “I ain’t never saw anything like it before,” he said, “and I don’t know how to figure it out. The waters was five feet higher than they was in the Sherman ‘fresh’ of ’65.” He said that within a radius of three or four miles there were eight or ten white families, and ten or twelve colored families: all of whom had lost practically their entire crop. He, himself, had lost all of his corn, most of cotton, and nearly all of his live stock.

Mr. Richardson, whom we next interviewed, a man who owned 80 acres of land, 27 in corn, 35 in cotton, the rest in pasture, garden, etc., had lost everything. The cotton had been an exceptionally good crop, and would have made a bale to the acre at the market price of about $40.00 a bale; this alone meant a money loss of $1,400.00. The corn upon which he depended for food for his family and stock was also gone, and, as he[25] put it, “I don’t know what we are going to do for something to eat this winter.”

The next house we passed was a deserted little negro cabin whose wrecked chimney bore witness of the violence of the flood. This had been the home of an honest, hard-working colored man, who, with his family of five children, lived on the little rented patch of about 20 acres. His nine acres of corn would have fed his family and his animals. His seven acres of cotton would have yielded about three bales, which would have given him $120.00 as the cash proceeds of his year’s labor. With this he would have paid off his store bill of $50.00; $20.00 would have gone for rent, and after making a payment upon the horse he had just purchased, the husbandman would have had a small cash balance to see him through to next crop time. Now corn and cotton are both swept away; there is no money to settle the store bill, nor pay for the horse, and there is no food for the family to subsist on through the long winter months.

As nearly as could be estimated by those familiar with the local conditions, there were fully 200 families in the lower end of Marion County, renters and “lienors,” whose situation is about as hopeless as that of the family just referred to. Many, who like Mr. Richardson, owned more or less land, are in a position to obtain advances on their holdings, and though seriously crippled, can probably weather the storm. But for these other families, who are without such resources, some adequate relief measures will have to be undertaken.

The attitude towards customers and tenants assumed by the merchants and plantation owners bears high testimony to their generosity and public spirit. It is taken for granted that no claim for rent will be made and, as far as possible, credit will still be extended to the flood sufferers. But it is too much to expect that these men can assume the whole of the burden, for they have themselves suffered severely. Mr. Davis estimated that in an area of several miles there was only one of the flood victims who was not indebted to him for a larger or smaller amount. Some of these debts would eventually be paid; many of them would never be recovered. He said he had begun to figure out his losses, but they mounted up so appallingly that he had stopped short before he was half way through. I was told that he had advanced over $18,000.00 worth of fertilizer to the farmers trading at one of his four stores. If this was true, it gives some idea of the magnitude of his losses, and shows the impossibility of expecting men, under such circumstances, to do all they would normally be able to do for their poorer neighbors.


At the time of my visit to Columbia The State, in a paragraph announcing that the agent of the Red Cross was in the city, stated that Columbia would consider herself disgraced if she could not do all that was needed for local flood sufferers, without further aid from the Red Cross Association.

At the last census Columbia had over 21,000 inhabitants; its population now numbers some 25,000 people. It is the State capital, and has some thriving cotton mills. Taking Captain Gonzales’ estimate of 100 destitute families as being approximately correct, it would seem that with employment easily obtainable in the fall and spring, it ought to be possible for the people of Columbia and Richland County to undertake such local relief measures as would make further outside aid unnecessary. The[26] dangers of creating a large relief fund, and extensively advertising its existence, are very obvious, especially as most of the people affected are negroes who would very readily accept a position of dependence.

Captain Gonzales told me that the securing of regular monthly subscriptions towards the relief of cases of genuine need had been suggested. This plan seems to be an admirable one, and would be less apt to result in weakening any attempt at self help that might be made by the flood sufferers. If properly and systematically managed, it would also probably be adequate to meet the requirements of the case.


From the foregoing report of conditions in this section it will be readily seen that no outside help is necessary at this point.

Marion and Marion County.

The activity and interest displayed by the local Relief Committee at Marion have already been noted. Probably one reason why they had accomplished so much more than had been done at the other points was that the situation in Marion County was apparently much more serious than in either of the other places.

Immediately following the disaster wagon loads of supplies had been promptly dispatched to the districts affected. The men to whom the distribution of these supplies was entrusted told me that they hoped nothing more would be sent at present. Indeed, Mr. S. U. Davis had asked that a contribution of $200 that had been offered be placed in bank and held for later distribution. He and Mr. F. Davis know personally every family in that section and both urged that no more relief be sent at present. Mr. F. Davis said that as long as the supplies lasted that were sent to his store, the negroes collected around and refused to do any work. When work was offered they said, “We all don’t have to pick no cotton, do white folks am gwine to feed us.” He also told of a white man who had $700 in bank but who, nevertheless, had sent his brother to see if Mr. Davis did not have “something for him.” In this connection it may be noticed that however poverty-stricken a colored family might be nothing would induce any of the girls of the family to accept positions as house-workers. Both Mr. S. U. Davis and Mr. F. Davis urged that hereafter relief be sent direct to individual cases of distress, upon their recommendation, after thorough investigation had proved that help was necessary.

It might be thought that possibly these statements were colored by the anti-negro bias with which the Southerner is usually credited, but though fully alive to the weaknesses of the negro, everyone with whom I talked manifested genuine sympathy with all cases of real distress, whether the sufferers were white or colored. Everyone with whom I spoke agreed that during October and November, while work was plentiful, all relief should be withheld, except in the special cases alluded to above. After this will come the winter months when work is scarce and there are few sources of income except a little fur trapping, or odd jobs. Mr. Davis had already written to a lumber company which has extensive timber holdings throughout the lower part of the county suggesting that if they could see their way clear to commence operations in that section at once the opportunities for employment that this would offer would be a veritable Godsend to the community. But, however favorable conditions may shape themselves and however generous may be the local responses to the need for help, it still would seem to be a certainty that[27] outside assistance will be needed for this section. The destruction has been so great—the committee estimated that from 1,500 to 2,000 bales of cotton had been destroyed within the flooded area—and the loss has fallen so heavily on rich and poor alike, that it does not seem possible that the community can grapple with the problem unaided.

All relief work has been done, so far, through local committees who are thoroughly familiar with every detail of the circumstances of those who need help and if this policy be maintained there is very little possibility that any funds will be unwisely applied.

In conclusion, I should like to say a deeply appreciative word concerning the kindness and courtesy of the Relief Committees in the three cities. Though, during the investigation, I traveled over many miles of country, in no case was it necessary to use Red Cross money in hiring livery rigs, as all this was arranged for by the committees and individuals interested. I would make special mention of the kindness of the committee at Marion, who entertained me while I was in their city, and of the courtesy of Mr. S. U. Davis, at whose home I was entertained and who spent a day and a half in showing me the situation in Marion County, placing at my disposal his invaluable and intimate knowledge of local conditions. I also take great pleasure in expressing appreciation of the active and energetic co-operation of the State President, Mr. A. C. Kaufman, who arranged my itinerary and who, by letters of introduction, paved the way for me in every city visited.

Pee Dee River Flood.


BY MR. J. de THAL.

The first initiative to give private aid to the wounded on the battlefield was taken in Russia in 1854, during the Crimean War, when Grand Duchess Helen Pavlovina (a sister of Emperor Nicholas I) formed a party of trained nurses, who, under the leadership of the afterwards celebrated surgeon, Pirogoff, went to the war and cared for the wounded.

In 1867 was formed a Society for the care of the wounded and sick warriors, which changed its name in 1876 and was then called the Russian Red Cross Society. From its very start the Society was taken under the august protectorate of the Empress Maria Alexandrovina, wife of Emperor Alexander II, and many persons of the imperial family and prominent statesmen became its members.

At the very first, lack of funds prevented the Society from the activity along the broad lines which it desired. Not being able at the start to found its own communities of nurses, with its own hospitals and surgical clinics, the Society for a number of years had to place its nurses, for the purpose of training, in the military, civil and municipal hospitals. Only after the Turkish War in 1876-77, in which the immense utility of the Society’s activity was proved, was its popularity assured. Thus the number of communities of Red Cross nurses from 5 in 1878 rose to 99 in 1906. The total number of hospitals and clinics of the Red Cross at present amount to 148. In 1906 the number of persons cared for in these institutions was 1,294,547.


Russian Red Cross Depot of Supplies.

Red Cross Station.


In 1868 the Russian Red Cross had 35 institutions of all kinds and in 1906, 920.

On the first of January, 1907, the Red Cross Society of Russia consisted of the following institutions: 1 Chief Board of Administration; 8 Boards of District Administration; 95 local Boards of Administration; 509 local Red Cross Committees; 40 Committees of communities of Red Cross nurses; 60 communities of Red Cross nurses; 90 ambulatory clinics; 6 emergency hospitals; 5 asylums for former Red Cross nurses; 1 asylum for invalids; 9 asylums for crippled soldiers; 1 asylum for soldiers’ widows; 3 asylums and 3 sanitariums for children of disabled soldiers; 7 convalescent houses; 1 maternity hospital.

Red Cross Hospital Ship.

Any person entering into a community as nurse is not obliged to take any kind of oath, but gives only the promise to submit to a vigorous discipline, to acquit him or herself conscientiously of all duties and to nurse the sick carefully. The feminine personnel is divided into two categories—sisters of charity and nurses for surgery.

The surgical nurses have to pass a three years’ course, the sister of charity a one-and-a-half year’s course of studies, according to a program established by the Chief Board of Administration. The courses to be followed are theoretical and practical, which consist chiefly of lectures at the sick bed, held mainly in the hospitals of the Red Cross, and partially in military, municipal and private hospitals, according to arrangements[30] between these hospitals and the Red Cross. Having finished the courses, the surgical nurses enter either the institutions of the Red Cross or hospital institutions maintained by the government or municipalities. The sisters of charity are delegated to the military hospitals, which the Red Cross has undertaken to supply with nurses, to other hospitals and to private nursery. In 1906 there were 3,819 of these Red Cross sisters, and since 1875 there have been graduated 2,000 of the higher class of trained surgical nurses.

The care for disabled soldiers after the war includes the furnishing of means for cures at health resorts, as well as furnishing them with warm clothes, artificial limbs, crutches, etc., or provides for their care in asylums of the Society.

The asylums for invalids in 1906 received 737. Among other sums granted, the Society paid in 1906, 10,940 roubles to the former defenders of Sabastopol, during the Crimean War in 1854.

Red Cross Hospital Train.

In St. Petersburg the Society possesses six stations for help in emergency cases, with twelve ambulances and sixteen attendants.

The Russian Red Cross Society has taken part in all wars and military expeditions which have occurred since 1868.

During the Franco-Prussian war, the Russian Red Cross sent to Basel a party of 30 surgeons and large quantities of supplies which were equally distributed to the belligerents.

It sent a generous contribution to both parties during the Civil War in Spain in 1873. In 1876 surgeons and nurses were sent for assistance in the Turkish-Martemgian War, expending $42,000. During the Turkish-Servian War it expended over $263,000 and sent 115 doctors, 4 pharmacists, 118 nurses, 41 medical students, 78 assistant surgeons, besides hospital equipment for 200 beds.

At the time of the Russo-Turkish War in 1876, the Russian Red Cross rendered wonderful service. Contributions flowed into its treasury, over[31] $8,000,000 was received and expended, and the gifts of supplies were equally great.

During the war the Society transported on its ships and trains over 100,000 sick and wounded; 230,000 were cared for at the ports of evacuation, and 18,000 severely wounded at the port. The Red Cross institutions in Russia cared for 116,268 sick and wounded. In the troubles of 1879-81 in Asia, the Red Cross expended $300,000. In 1885 in helping the sick and wounded of both Servia and Bulgaria, expended about $87,000. It assisted Japan in the Chinese-Japanese War of 1894.

Interior of Hospital Train.

In 1896, as the Italian Red Cross declined assistance, it expended $75,000 for Abyssinia relief, and in 1899, as the United States Government declined its offer of assistance, it gave aid to the Spanish Red Gross for the veterans of the war. As England declined assistance, it expended some $56,000 for the Boers in 1899. During the Boxer trouble in China the Red Cross provided most valuable assistance at a cost of over $600,000. Its greatest work was rendered during the late terrible war with Japan, during which it expended over $15,000,000 in relief work, providing hospital trains, ships, field and reserve hospitals, a large medical nursery and administration personnel.



Late as the January Bulletin is in going to press, it is not possible to tell of the result of the Christmas Stamp sale. This must wait for the April issue, but that the result promises to be remarkable is shown by the fact that the wholesale orders received up to December 15th at Red Cross Headquarters from the State Branches and Anti-Tuberculosis Associations authorized by the Red Cross to sell these stamps aggregated twenty-five millions and it has proved most difficult to have the stamps printed rapidly enough to fill these orders. It was not possible when the orders were pouring in at over a million a day to reply as rapidly as was desired. Neither Red Cross Headquarters nor State Branches anticipated any such remarkable demand. For the season of 1909 a new stamp will be issued, for the design of which a prize will be offered. Regulations governing the competition for this prize will be formulated and issued later.

The Red Cross has received through the courtesy of Mr. Einar Holboll, Postmaster of Centofte, Denmark, a copy of this year’s Danish Christmas stamp. The coloring is dark blue with a yellow light shining through the corridors of the Sanitarium for Tuberculosis Children, built by means of the Danish Christmas stamps.

Danish Christmas Stamp for 1908

What Agnes Repplier Has to Say of the Red Cross Christmas Stamps

What does the Red Cross Christmas Stamp mean?

It means that you are asked to spend one cent more on every Christmas present that you send.

It means that this tiny fraction of money, multiplied by thousands, will yield a noble sum for the maintenance of a great work—open-air Day Camps for the cure of Tuberculosis.

It means that by using the stamp, you express confidence in the work of the Red Cross.

It means that you extend the circle of your friendship until it embraces the friendless, and that your good-will reaches beyond the few whom you love to the many whom you are bidden to love.

It means that the spirit of Christmas stirs in the heart of Christendom, and that you respond to this spirit by linking your Christmas gifts with the cause of the poor and the ill, with the work of wisdom and of mercy.




Buy me every chance you get!
Do you good? Just try me!
Lick me light and stick me tight!
Buy me! Buy me! Buy me!
All good luck and Christmas cheer,
All good will I carry,
I’m your friend and—never fear—
Truly sanitary.
I’m the Red Cross Christmas Stamp,
This that I propose is
To summon wealth to fight for health
And beat tuberculosis.
Beat the greatest plague of all,
Oust a pall of sadness,
Treat despair with food and air,
And lift it into gladness.
Buy me! Buy me! I’m your friend.
Help me win my battle!
Help me bring a scourge to end,
Men are more than cattle!
Help me help the suffering!
I’m their supplication
Skill that’s brotherly shall bring
Healing to the nation.



Who’ll pay a cent with a square intent?
Red for their blood—and life is sweet;
White for the gleam of their winding sheet;
Green for their graves—and death, be fleet!
Who’ll pay a cent for a chance to cheat
The great white plague of its winding sheet?
One stamp for a penny—you’ll take how many?
Red’s for the glow of the Christmas cheer;
White’s for the peace of the brand-new year;
Green’s for the brow, not for the bier;
Who’ll drop a penny instead of a tear
To lessen the list in the brand-new year?



(Air: “Wearing of the Green.”)

Nowadays for letter-writing
Here’s the popular receipt:
First with chit-chat that’s inviting
Coyer deftly ev’ry sheet.
Seal it neatly and address it;
Blot the superscription damp.
Then don’t mail the note unless it
Has a little Christmas Stamp.
Oh, the little Christmas Stamp!
Oh, the cheery Christmas Stamp,
With its message to the fireside and the workshop and the camp!
Trav’ling over vale and mountain, over lake and plain and swamp,
As a messenger of mercy goes the little Christmas Stamp.
Postal bureaus are not able
In their wisdom to invent
Any brighter, fairer label
On our letters to be sent.
They may try a new creation,
Or the old designs revamp,
But the meanwhile the population
Craves the little Christmas Stamp.
Stamps of England show the florid
Bearded visage of King Ed.
Stamps from Egypt’s deserts torrid,
Show the Sphynx’s grinning head.
Other stamps show deer and fishes,
Or a pictured urn or lamp,
But the one that bears good wishes
Is the little Christmas Stamp.
Russia sports her eagles mighty
On her postal guarantees;
Spain depicts her monarch flighty,
Germany her own main squeeze.
Other pow’rs use landscapes charming,
Which in narrow space they cramp,
But the one design heart-warming
Marks the little Christmas Stamp.
Now this stamp won’t pay for transit
On our own or other soil,
But ’tis plain to him that scans it
That it pays for Red Cross toil.
And to keep the white plague under
And upon that pest to tramp,
Buy the latest postal wonder,
Buy the little Christmas Stamp.




Throughout the entire action the Emperor Francis Joseph remained calm and composed. Towards the evening the Austrian centre having yielded the left wing, not daring to face the position of the Allies, a general retreat was decided upon and the head of the House of Hapsburg, who throughout the day had watched the bullets raining around him, withdrew with a part of his staff in the direction of Volta. The Austrian officers had fought like lions, many in their despair gave themselves up to death by the enemy’s hands, but not without selling dearly their lives. Most of those who returned to their regiments were covered with the blood of their own wounds or those of their enemies.

The roads were filled with army wagons, carts and reserve artillery. The first convoys of Austrian wounded, consisting of the less serious cases, commenced to come into Villa-Franca, the more seriously wounded followed. The Austrian medical staff dressed the wounds hastily and in a perfunctory manner gave a little nourishment to the sufferers, and then sent them on by rail to Verona, where the crowding was most fearful. Although in the retreat the Austrian Army sought to carry away all the wounded possible, and this at the price of much extra suffering to the poor men, thousands were left behind lying on the ground, still drenched with their blood.

Victor Emanuel, King of Sardinia, later King of Italy.

Towards the close of the day, when the twilight shadows were creeping over this vast field of carnage, more than one French officer, more than one French soldier wandered here and there, seeking some missing friend or compatriot, beside whom, when found, he knelt endeavoring to restore him to consciousness, to staunch the flow of blood, to dress the terrible wounds, to bind his handkerchief around a fractured limb or to vainly seek for water to quench the agonizing thirst. What silent tears must have been shed on that unhappy night!

During the battle flying ambulances were stationed on farms, in churches, convents, in the open air, or under the shade of the trees, which received firstly wounded officers and non-commissioned officers, attending to them in great haste, and afterwards came the rank and file if the medical staff had time to spare for them. Such as could walk betook themselves to the ambulances; others were carried on stretchers and hand-barrows.


During the fight a pennant planted on a slight elevation marked the position of the dressing stations for wounded and the field hospitals of the regiments in action. But, unfortunately, the troops seldom knew their own hospital pennants nor those of the enemy, with the result that shells rained down, sparing neither doctors, attendants, wounded nor the wagons conveying supplies of food and lint.

The heights extending from Castiglione to Volta were dotted with the twinkling lights of thousands of fires fed with the debris of the Austrian gun carriages, supplemented with the branches of trees broken off by the cannon balls or during the storm. Round these fires the soldiers made an effort to dry their soaking garments, then tired out they stretched themselves on the stony ground to sleep.

There were whole battalions without a particle of food. Water, too, was lacking and their thirst was so intense that soldiers and even officers were content to drink from the muddy rain-pools, oft-times stained with blood. Everywhere wounded men were crying piteously for “Water!” In the silence of the night could be heard the groans, the stifled cries of anguish, the despairing appeals for help. What pen can describe the agonies of that horrible night!

The sun of June 25th, 1859, rose on one of the most frightful spectacles that the most vivid imagination can conceive. The battlefield was strewn with the bodies of men and horses, and with the battered forms of men in whom the spark of life still remained, they filled up the roads, they choked the trenches and the ravines, they lay piled in heaps in the bushes and the fields, everywhere for miles around the village of Solferino.

The crops were utterly destroyed, the corn was trodden under foot, hedges were piled up, orchards ravaged. Here and there were pools of blood, formerly prosperous villages, now deserted, bore the marks of shot and shell; apparently deserted houses, whose walls were riddled with bullets, stood shattered, gashed and ruined. Their inhabitants, who for the most part had passed the twenty-four hours during which the conflict raged in their cellars without food or light, now began to issue forth from their hiding places, the vacant expression and blank countenances of these poor peasants witnessing eloquently to the reality of the fright they had endured.

The ground was covered with wreckage of all kinds, broken weapons, accoutrements, camp furniture, and blood-stained articles of clothing. The unfortunate wounded who lay around were pale, livid, and utterly exhausted with their sufferings. Some, very badly wounded, had an imbecile expression, seemed not to understand when spoken to, staring with haggard eyes at those who brought them succor, and others in a state of nervous excitement shivered with a convulsive ague. Yet others, with deep, gaping wounds, in which inflammation had already set in, were delirious from their pain, and implored that they might be put out of their misery, and with drawn faces twisted themselves into indescribable positions in their supreme agony. Besides these there were unfortunate men, who had been struck by cannon balls and grape shot, or whose arms and legs had been shattered by pieces of artillery.

In many cases the bodies of the dead and wounded were robbed by marauders, and thousands of poor fellows, who still lived, were thus despoiled of all their savings, to say nothing of the little trinkets, the gifts of mothers, wives and sweethearts.

Besides these tragic scenes were many dramatic incidents witnessed by Monsieur Dunant himself of which he tells; there an old officer on the[36] retired list, General Breton, wandering over the battlefield in search of his wounded son-in-law; here Colonel Maleville, wounded at Casa-Nova quietly breathing his last, Colonel Genlis with a terrible wound that has produced a high fever, Lieutenant de Selve, just out of St. Cyr, whose arm has been shot away; a poor sergeant-major, whose two arms have been shattered, and of whom he writes: “I saw him again at a hospital at Brescia, but he died in passing Mont Cenis.” Officer after officer gave up his life because of wounds in which gangrene set in through lack of attention.

The scarcity of water was acutely felt, for the burning summer sun had dried up almost all the moisture. Wherever the smallest spring was found sentries were placed, who, with fixed bayonets, guarded it for the need of the most urgent cases.

Wounded horses, that had lost their riders, wandered pitiably about through the night. Whenever opportunity afforded they were mercifully shot.

Among the dead were some whose features bore a calm and serene expression, these were those who had been killed outright. But those who had not immediately succumbed had their faces drawn and distorted by the agony they had endured, their hands clutched the ground, their haggard eyes were wide open and their teeth clenched.

Three days and three nights were occupied in burying the dead on the field of slaughter. Some few bodies, hidden in the thickets, were left unburied, not having been discovered until a fearful stench polluted the air. Terrible as it may seem it is highly probable that in this haste some of the living were interred in the same common grave with the dead.

Monsieur Dunant takes us over this dreadful scene. Here is a youth, the idol of his parents, carefully brought up and well educated, whose mother all his life had watched his slightest illness; there lies a gallant officer, beloved of his family, who has left a wife and little children at home; over yonder is a young soldier, who so short a time ago said farewell to all his dear ones. Behold them, stretched out stark and stiff in the mud and dirt, and drenched with blood. Knocked on the head, the face of one is absolutely unrecognizable; he has expired after cruel sufferings and his body, black, swollen, hideous, is cast into a hastily dug trench, and barely covered with a little earth. Hands and feet protrude and on these the birds of prey presently descend. The bodies of the Austrians in their capots besmeared with mud and their white tunics dyed with crimson stains, were strewn by thousands on the hills and valleys, and hovering above them were clouds of crows ready to feast upon these victims of man’s insensate enmity. Poor mothers in Austria, Hungary and Bohemia, how terrible your grief when first you learned of the death of your dear sons in the enemy’s country without care or aid, without a caressing hand or any words of consolation.


Fortunately, most of the emergencies arising during the year were not of a magnitude very much greater than were easily met and suffering relieved locally. In several cases, however, national relief was asked, and was freely and very promptly rendered.


A brief summary of the principal events respecting catastrophies occurring during the year resulting in losses of life, personal injuries, destitution and destruction of property may be thus stated:

December 2nd.

A mine explosion at Monongah, West Virginia, killed 359 men, who left about 700 dependents. For many weeks the Red Cross had an agent there assisting the local committee and studying and planning for the future of the widows and children, this help being gratefully acknowledged by the local committee.

April 12th.

The Chelsea fire occurred, when the homes of 18,000 of its population were destroyed. Miss Loring, the Secretary of the Massachusetts Branch, took charge of the department of supplies and distributed about 120,000 articles. The local relief committee asked, and secured, the services of Mr. Bicknell, our National Director, to advise on the completion of the relief operation.

April 25th.

A cyclone of great violence wrought extensive havoc in certain localities in Mississippi and other Southern States. Major C. A. Devol, and later Major Wendell L. Simpson, of the Army, both of whom had much experience with the relief operations in San Francisco, were sent to the scene of the disaster by the War Department and kindly offered to act for the Red Cross. Needing $2,000.00 for immediate use, this sum was at once telegraphed and his requisition for twelve trained nurses instantly filled; this number soon after raised to eighteen and supplied by the New York, Pennsylvania and District of Columbia Branches. Hospitals were established, and the injured and helpless, both white and colored, properly cared for. The local authorities expressed their grateful acknowledgments for the assistance rendered, which being more promptly available than was the government relief, was especially appreciated.

May 25th.

A flood in the Trinity River, Texas, swept away many homes. Our Texas Branch installed two emergency hospitals and secured locally the necessary doctors and nurses to care for those requiring aid. This Branch annually installs a hospital and tents at the State Fair Grounds. This year 1,000 persons injured or taken suddenly ill were treated in this emergency hospital.

June 23rd.

Upon a telegraphic call from the U. S. Consul at Canton, $2,000 was cabled to the local committee for use in relieving the distress caused by flood in South China. Later a surplus balance of $34,000 in the hands of the United States and British Consuls at Shanghai, pertaining to the North China Famine Fund, which was partly derived from Red Cross contributions made last year, was forwarded to South China for relief of the sufferers from the June inundations.

August 5th.

Fires in the Canadian forests wrought great distress to the inhabitants whose homes were burned. The Red Cross made a contribution of $1,000 to their aid and received the thanks of the authorities.


Floods in the Carolinas and Georgia swept away the homes and crops of many. The Red Cross promptly responded to calls for help.

The San Francisco Home for the Aged, Infirm, Poor and Helpless Refugees, built and equipped by the Relief Corporation of that City at an expense of $377,000 was on August 5th, 1908, formally transferred to the City of San Francisco. This institution is dedicated “TO THE NATIONAL RED CROSS AND THE PEOPLE OF ALL NATIONALITIES WHO, BY THEIR GENEROSITY, RELIEVED SUFFERING AFTER THE GREAT FIRE OF 1906.” It has a capacity for the accommodation of 1,200 persons.

October 1st.

The Committee secured the services of an expert in relief work, who, in the character of National Director, is able to proceed at once to the scene of any disaster and concert with the local relief agencies those measures which may be deemed requisite to meet the emergency conditions. The lack of an agent to act for the Red Cross on such occasions has often been felt. The Committee considered itself especially fortunate in having been able to secure the services, as National Director, of Mr. Ernest P. Bicknell, who for several years has been at the head of the charity work in the city of Chicago.

Mr. Bicknell’s engagement dated from October 1st, and his initial work was a visit to Minnesota and Michigan to carefully study the situation in the territory devasted by forest fires. It is Mr. Bicknell’s belief that the States and local agencies may be depended upon to render such assistance as the conditions require.

The Central Committee has given much attention to a development of an organization so as to better adapt it to the purposes for which the Association was created.

The preparations required for the relief of suffering caused by war will be generally confined to the elaboration by the War Relief Board of plans for providing the requisite personnel, apparatus and supplies and their application under the direction of military and naval authorities. For emergency relief the instrumentalities of the Red Cross will unfortunately be frequently called into activity, and we should be ready instantly the catastrophe has occurred to have our agents on the spot with the requisite personnel, supplies and resources to undertake the emergency work which Congress has assigned to the Red Cross of America.

It is always the case that local, state and municipal authorities are ready to either assume entire management of relief measures within their jurisdiction, or to co-operate with those who bring help from abroad. Sometimes the outside aid required is many times greater in magnitude than the localities are able to provide. For two independent relief agencies to operate for a common purpose at any scene of want and suffering means duplication and waste and possible friction. It is to avoid such situations that the Central Committee plans to elect the stronger and more efficient charity organization societies as institutional members for the purpose of securing their trained personnel to take charge under the National Director of the necessary relief measure combined.

In furtherance of this general idea of better efficiency, and to provide an authorized official channel through which the aid of the philanthropic and charitable may flow, and be so applied as to yield the maximum benefit, the Committee has organized an emergency relief board of fifteen persons to be appointed by the President of the Red Cross and empowered to study,[39] prepare for and supervise emergency relief throughout the States of the Union and exterior possessions.

Carrying out this general idea of specializing in work of the Red Cross, it is expedient to commit to a separate board the study, preparation for and supervision of relief applied in foreign countries. The organization of such a Board at an early date is contemplated.

It was found by experience that the By-Laws adopted on February 8, 1905, require amendment in several important particulars. Accordingly the necessary amendments were adopted at the annual meeting December 8th.

The general membership has been somewhat increased during the year. This is largely due to the generous co-operation of several of our members who contributed considerable amounts to a fund from which the expenses of a propaganda were guaranteed. Large accessions, it was hoped, would be secured by means of printed circulars and historical data generally distributed. While the propaganda resulted in the accession of several thousand new members, the net result of the efforts did not justify the hopes that had been entertained of a very large increase in membership. The cost of this work was paid from the fund created by the donors and without any inroads upon the resources of the Association.

At the International Conference, held in London last year, it was agreed that the Red Cross throughout the world should assist in the campaign against what has been aptly called “The Great White Plague,” i. e., Tuberculosis. Several Day Camps have been established by our Branches and are efficiently applying with most gratifying results the curative and preventative means for combatting this disease that have been advised by expert practitioners.

A Red Cross Christmas Stamp has been designed and will be sold during the holidays at one cent each, the profits thereby secured to be applied in aiding the tuberculosis campaign in localities where the stamps were sold.

A prominent military surgeon, who is a member of the Red Cross, has prepared a handbook for the Association on First Aid to the Injured and this book has been placed on sale. It is hoped that the Y. M. C. A. will adopt this work as a text book, a wish there is reason to believe may be realized and that every family in the country will be glad to have one. At the request of a prominent railroad official, we are preparing, for travelers and railroad employees, to be hung up in stations, a card containing suggestions for preventatives and remedial measures in respect to accidents.

Special instructions of relief columns have also been commenced. A plan is being developed through which the Federation of Trained Nurses may become affiliated with the Red Cross so as to provide qualified nurses as may be needed in cases of calamity, epidemics, etc.

The evidence is overwhelmingly convincing that where a great disaster has occurred contributions of the people are willingly and generously given to relieve suffering, but unlike the people of some foreign countries, our own do not seem to be as ready to join the Association in great numbers and by their annual dues supply the means for maintaining our organization in a constant state of readiness to respond instantly on call for help. Fortunately, the ordinary general expenses of conducting the business of the Association in Washington are small, since we have no rent to pay and no salaries to pay, save to the National Director, the Secretary and Treasurer, and for one or two clerks, but the stationery, Quarterly Bulletin, printing, telegraphing and postal charges are considerable. The annual revenues available for administration, derived from the half of the yearly dues, are not sufficient to properly conduct the work[40] entrusted to the Association. The income from the Endowment Fund is also small because the fund is small and to the increase of this fund it seems to the Committee special effort should be directed.

Considering to what proportion the endowments of certain public institutions and beneficent organizations have grown through donations and legacies, it does not seem to be an unjustified expectation that the Red Cross Endowment should certainly reach a million dollars, yielding at least $40,000 a year, which sum, with other income, would be sufficient and ample to meet all administrative expenses and leave a considerable balance for application to emergency relief, before measures could be matured for securing gifts from the general public directly appliable to such relief.

With respect to this matter the Committee does not ask for enlarged powers, since the Central Committee a year since took action looking to the appointment of a Committee on Endowment, but for reasons all appreciate the time was not deemed propitious for undertaking the propaganda to this end, but members of the Board of Incorporators can, in their individual capacities, do much to forward the interests of the Association by their suggestion and personal influence.

The statement presented by the Treasurer will show the financial history of the Corporation for the year 1908.

For the Fiscal Year Ended November 30, 1908.

Beekman Winthrop, Treasurer.


Balance December 1, 1907 $ 2,516.25
Contributions from:
Mrs. Russell Sage $ 25,000.00
Mr. F. A. Keep 1,000.00
Admiral Robley D. Evans 400.00
Miscellaneous 121.00
Life membership dues:
Through propaganda $ 875.00
Through Branches 3,875.00
Interest on investments:
West Shore R. R. 4% 1st. Mortgage Bonds $ 720.00
Lehigh Valley R. R. 4% 1st. Mortgage Bonds 40.00
Provident Loan Society Certificates 54.17
Bank Balances 82.83
Total $ 34,634.25[41]
Invested in Provident Loan Society Certificates $ 25,000.00
Interest on investments and bank balances transferred to Administration Fund 847.00
Total $ 25,847.00
Balance December 1, 1908 8,787.25
$ 34,634.25

Note—The Endowment Fund on December 1, 1908, is thus stated:

Invested in $18,000, par value, 4% West Shore R. R. Bonds, cost $ 18,771.50
Invested in $1,000, par value, 4% Lehigh Valley R. R. Bonds, cost 1,000.00
Invested in $25,000, par value, Provident Loan Society Certificates, cost 25,000.00
Cash 8,787.25
$ 53,558.75


Balance December 1, 1907 $ 52.04
*Mississippi Cyclone Relief 695.25
*Georgia and South Carolina Flood Relief 1,146.96
Miscellaneous 241.17
Repayments 1,850.93
Balance of Chinese Famine Fund (closed) 5,047.53
Balance of Russian Famine Fund (closed) 862.43
Balance of Monongah Relief Fund (closed) 7.58
$ 9,903.89
Mississippi Cyclone Relief $ 2,767.38
South Carolina and Georgia Flood Relief 942.05
Chinese Flood Relief (Canton) 2,000.00
Canadian Forest Fire Relief 1,000.00
Michigan and Minnesota Forest Fire Relief 300.00
Total $ 7,009.43
Balance December 1, 1908 2,894.46
$ 9,903.89

* These contributions to special objects of relief are credited here instead of to Special Emergency, because disbursements from General Emergency Funds began before contributions were received. These emergencies were, therefore, treated as general instead of special.



Balance San Francisco Relief contributions $432,037.33
Balance Chinese Famine Fund 5,046.78
Balance Russian Famine Fund 862.43
Balance interest accumulations 46,841.90
Chinese Famine Fund .75
Calabrian Earthquake Fund 233.60
Monongah Mines Fund 3,789.69
Interest on bank balances, all special funds 12,876.70
Total $521,689.18
San Francisco Relief $199,835.00
Calabrian Earthquake Relief 233.60
Monongah Mines Relief 3,782.11
By transfer to General Emergency Fund:
Chinese Famine Relief Fund (closed) 5,047.53
Russian Famine Relief Fund (closed) 862.43
Monongah Mines Relief Fund (closed) 7.58
Total $209,768.25
Balance December 1, 1908 311,920.93


Balance December 1, 1907 $ 4,651.53
Membership dues:
Proceeds special propaganda—Life $ 875.00
Proceeds special propaganda—Annual 3,530.87
Remitted by Branches 3,590.55
Interest on investments of Endowment Fund 847.00
Repayments 1.43
Donations 1,350.00
Proceeds, sale of Christmas Stamps 1,627.95
Proceeds, sale of badges, text-books, etc. 57.95
Total $ 16,532.28
Salaries $ 2,979.08
Clerical services 382.75[43]
Traveling expenses 72.57
Publication of Bulletin (part) 1,936.36
Printing and stationery 554.05
Postage and minor office expenses 450.00
Telephone service 65.36
Telegraph service 85.84
Badges, text-books, etc. 105.00
Refundments 116.73
Transfer to “Guarantee Fund,” for special propaganda 2,500.00
Life dues received through special propaganda, transferred to Endowment Fund 875.00
Total $ 10,122.74
Balance December 1, 1908 6,409.54
$ 16,532.28


Preceding the annual meeting a meeting of the Central Committee was held and the proposed revision of the by-laws discussed. The Committee voted unanimously in favor of the revision.

The morning session of the Fourth Annual Meeting of the American Red Cross was held on Tuesday, December 8th, at the Hubbard Memorial Hall. It was presided over by the Chairman of the Central Committee, Major General George W. Davis. At this meeting reports were read from the Branches, the subject of the Christmas stamp was taken up and an interesting address on the Assistance of the Press was made by Mr. Leigh Mitchell Hodges, of the Philadelphia North American. The revision of the by-laws was informally discussed. The officers, incorporators and branch delegates were kindly entertained at luncheon by the First Assistant Secretary of State and Mrs. Bacon.

Hon. William H. Taft, President of the American Red Cross, presided at the regular session in the afternoon. Besides the reports that are given elsewhere the most important work of the session was the adoption with a few minor changes of the revised by-laws as presented by the Central Committee. The report of the officers and those on Red Cross work are somewhat long so that the publication of the new by-laws will be given in the April Bulletin, but any one desiring a copy will receive one on application to Red Cross Headquarters.

Mr. Taft, greatly to the satisfaction of the Society, consented to be re-elected President, and Mr. Robert W. De Forest, of New York, was elected to the newly-created office of Vice-President. Mr. Ernest P. Bicknell was appointed October 1st, National Director, and the other officers were all re-elected. To fill four vacancies among the Charter Members, John M. Glenn, Henry Stockbridge, Robert W. De Forest and Mrs. Douglas Robinson were elected. The two new members of the Central Committee elected were: Hon. H. Kirke Porter and Mr. John M. Glenn. Mr. John C. Pegram and Miss Mabel T. Boardman were re-elected on this Committee.


As the new by-laws provided that those who have rendered specially meritorious or distinguished service to the association and have been approved for such distinction by two-thirds vote of the members present at any annual meeting shall become honorary members, three names for this honorary membership were proposed, President Roosevelt being at that time the only honorary member of the Society. Those proposed were the Honorable William H. Taft, who since the re-organization of the American Red Cross has been its President and who has always, in spite of being a very busy man, has given his time and assistance to the Red Cross to its great advantage, was the first name proposed. Because of the work she did during the Civil War in the Sanitary Commission, that precursor of the Red Cross, and because of her generous aid in the way of a large contribution to the Endowment Fund of the American Red Cross Mrs. Russell Sage’s was the second name proposed. Dr. Louis Klopsch, Editor of the Christian Herald, during the great famines in Japan and China, raised very large funds for the purposes of relief, amounting to considerably over half a million of dollars, besides collecting moneys for the purchase of food supplies which were forwarded to China, and who sent these generous contributions through the American Red Cross, was the third person proposed for honorary membership in the American Red Cross. Mr. Taft on the proposal of his name made the request that it be withdrawn, as he had consented to stand for re-election as President of the Red Cross, and preferred to consider himself still an active, rather than an honorary member. At this request his name was withdrawn and Mrs. Sage and Dr. Klopsch were unanimously elected honorary members of the American Red Cross.

It was also unanimously voted to present special medals for the rendering of important and unremunerated volunteer services to the Red Cross to Dr. Edward T. Devine, Mr. Ernest P. Bicknell and Mr. F. W. Dohrmann for their services at San Francisco, in 1906, and to Major C. A. Devol, U. S. A., and to Major Wendell L. Simpson, U. S. A., for their services at Hattiesburg, in 1908.

In the evening a reception was given by Miss Boardman, at which the members met the President of the Red Cross and Mrs. Taft.


Balance on hand, December 1st, 1907 $21,516.00
Life memberships, 1908 4,750.00
Contributions to December 1st, 1908.
Mrs. Russell Sage, contribution 25,000.00
Mr. F. A. Keep, contribution 1,000.00
Admiral Robley D. Evans 400.00
Miscellaneous 120.00
Total December 1st, 1908 $52,786.00
Contributions since December 1st, 1908.
Mr. Joseph Rathborne $ 1,000.00

In connection with Admiral Evans’ generous contribution the following letter from the Victor Talking Machine Company is of interest:

“Admiral Evans has lately made for this Company a record of his farewell address to the men of the United States Navy upon the occasion of his leaving the fleet in San Francisco. We are sending to you in Admiral Evans’ name, our check for $400, which he wished you to use for the benefit of the Red Cross Society, in any way you may deem best.”




The Red Cross Society is becoming more and more practical, and is getting closer and closer to the everyday life of the people. In the past it has been distinguished by affording relief in times of great calamities, famines, epidemics, floods, fires and plagues, but, as the organization spreads throughout the country and becomes localized its merciful missions reach the thresholds of the schoolhouse and the home. It is now circulating a little pocket edition of “The American National Red Cross Text Book; a Manual of Instruction; How to Prevent Accidents, and What to Do for Injuries and Emergencies.” It was prepared by Major Charles Lynch of the medical corps of the United States Army, who distinguished himself as medical attache with the Japanese Army during the late war with Russia and has recently been detailed to make a special study of possibilities of Red Cross aid to armies in time of war.

The book is published for the Red Cross Society, and is being circulated from the headquarters in the War Department with the hearty indorsement of Judge Taft, who was president of the Red Cross Society long before he was elected President of the United States. Brigadier General R. M. O’Reilly, surgeon general of the United States Army, writes the preface, in which he explains the necessity and the usefulness of the booklet, which, he says, “will serve to fill a place of its own in the ever-increasing movement for the relief of human suffering.”

“Notwithstanding the many excellent works already in existence on first aid instruction,” continues Surgeon General O’Reilly, “none of the writers so far as I know, have given much thought to teaching the prevention of accidents. While this subject is necessarily treated rather briefly here, at least enough is said to call attention to the importance of prevention as contrasted with cure, and, for this reason, it seems to me peculiarly appropriate that this book should have the indorsement of the Red Cross, as the beneficent mission of that association, like that of the good physician in treating disease, should be to go deeply into causes which are responsible for the physical sufferings of humanity, rather than resort solely to palliative measures.

“Another novelty in the present manual is that it treats not only of first aid as given by the individual but also of relief columns, bodies designed to administer first aid as organizations. Army conditions emphasize the necessity for the creation of organizations in order that first aid may be given with maximum efficiency. And there are many situations in civil life, such as vast concourses of people, great fires, railroad disasters, which equally demand first aid organizations instead of individuals, who, however well taught they may be, must, under such circumstances, work at cross purposes, unless they are united into a disciplined body in which the special duties of each are carefully defined.”

Gen. O’Reilly might have added something about the importance of the little book for the household, for it seems to contain directions for every possible accident that may occur to human creatures from concussion of the brain to chilblains. There ought to be a copy on every farm and ranch, in every factory and workshop, on every football field and in every gymnasium. There ought to be a copy in every automobile. Every railway conductor and brakeman should be required to carry it in his pocket, for it tells him what to do in every kind of accident. Organizations[46] seek such books for the instruction and guidance of their members, but they must be brought to the attention of households, where, I think, this will be most useful in preventing as well as relieving the little accidents that occur daily and the little afflictions that children and grown people suffer. These are often thought to be so insignificant that no attention is paid to them, like mosquito bites, stings of insects, injuries to the eyes, poisons from ivy, burns and scalds, wounds from fish hooks or shotguns, and Dr. Lynch has explained what to do under every circumstance and condition.

The Red Cross book should be used as a text-book in schools, for it is full of practical physiology, and children can be trained to render effective first aid to each other. The ordinary text-books on physiology are doubtless full of important information, but as a rule they are too theoretical to be applied to ordinary everyday accidents.

A copy of Dr. Lynch’s book has been placed by the District Red Cross Society in every police station and engine-house in Washington. The Cleveland society has done the same, and it would seem that every city in the country might follow these examples with profit. The Red Cross relief column at the time of the inauguration will be supplied with copies. The book is compact and small, with flexible covers, so that it can be carried in the pocket.



Section 118 of the latest edition of the U. S. Navigation Laws, enacted June 7th, 1872, amended by Revised statute 4569 of June 26th, 1884, and June 19th, 1896, reads as follows:

“Every vessel belonging to a citizen of the United States bound from a port in the United States to any foreign port, or being of the burden of seventy-five tons or upwards, and bound from a port of the Atlantic to a port on the Pacific, or vice versa, shall be provided with a chest of medicines.” ... The rest of the section relates to the use of lime or lemon juice.

No mention, it will be seen, is made of what this “medicine chest” shall contain nor whether there shall be any one on board capable of using its contents.

Naturally there could be no uniformity in the equipment of these chests for the law, not being explicit, left the matter entirely to the ship owners who could use their judgment as to the requirements of their own vessels.

Besides, in questioning several sea-going officers, I find that there is no book on First Aid which is generally accepted as being a necessary part of the chest’s contents. Many of them have only a book published in 1877, called “Ritter’s Manual,” the first edition of which was issued some forty years before. The U. S. Public Health and Marine Hospital Service published an excellent book in 1900, called the “Hand Book for the Ship’s Medicine Chest,” but there is no law requiring its adoption by ship’s owners and it is, judging from the opinions expressed by several men with whom I spoke on the subject, considered too technical for the average ship officers.


Many of the vessels sailing out of San Francisco provide themselves with chests arranged by a prominent druggist of this city, and they contain a small book, which he has published; it is to be expected that the special preparations which he supplies are particularly dwelt upon.

While considering the subject, especially in regards to the needs of a proper book on First Aid, I was impressed with the fact that whatever book was adopted would be of service only to the degree that its contents were understood and appreciated by those using it.

I therefore called upon the Secretaries of the “Masters, Mates and Pilots Association” and the “Sailors Union,” of this city, and presented to them for the consideration of their respective organizations, a plan whereby a regular course of lectures bearing on First Aid and kindred subjects should be given weekly to their members.

These gentlemen received me very cordially and I can best express their opinions by submitting the letters they sent me which are quoted in full:

California Harbor, No. 15, San Francisco, Cal., Nov. 17th, 1908.

Lt. G. H. Richardson, M. R. C., U. S. Army, Post Hospital, Presidio.

Dear Doctor:

After your talk last evening to the members of California Harbor, No. 15, it was decided to at once begin the course of lectures on First Aid as suggested by you. It seems a good idea that the National Red Cross should take up this matter for it will insure uniformity of instruction to those interested all over this country.

The need of such a course of instruction has been apparent for some time, but no one seemed to be able to devise a plan which was practical.

If convenient to you, would like to have the first lecture on Thursday evening, December 3rd, 1908, at 7:30 p. m., at our lodge rooms.

I shall communicate with Golden Gate Harbor, No. 40, of this city, and invite them to be present.

Thanking you for your kind interest in us and wishing you success in your work, I am.



Sailors Union of the Pacific, San Francisco, Cal., Nov. 17th, 1908.

Dr. G. H. Richardson, Lieutenant U. S. A., Presidio Hospital, City.

Dear Sir:

The kind offer of the California State Branch, of the American National Red Cross Society, made through you, to arrange for a course of lectures to members of this organization on First Aid to Injured, etc., has been submitted to the Union, which accepts same, with thanks; has placed its hall at your disposal any night of the week, excepting Mondays, and has pledged itself to co-operate with you in any way it can, particularly in the matter of securing large and regular attendance at the lectures.


If knowledge on the subjects to be discussed is desirable in people on shore, I should say it is a necessity to the men who go to sea. Seamen have had to endure untold suffering, and many of them have lost their lives, or worse still, have become disabled for life, owing to ignorance of the very first principles of First Aid. By law the vessels are required to carry a medicine chest, but in the majority of cases not a single man in the ship’s company knows anything about the properties of the medicine.

The proposed lectures will be a blessing to the sea-faring men.

If you will kindly let me know in advance when you propose to open the course, I shall do what I can to advertise it.


(Signed) E. ELLISON,

It seems to me that the national character of the American National Red Cross makes it pre-eminently the best organization for doing this work and to establish it in all cities where a Merchant Marine exists.

These lectures have been arranged for and the first of the series will be given on December 3rd, 1908.



Medical Corps

Major Straub was the official delegate of the War Department at the Esperanto Congress held at Dresden, Germany, in August last. The following extract is taken from his report to the Adjutant-General, U. S. A.:Editor.

From a military point of view, the most important application of Esperanto at this time would appear to be in the sanitary service, and I am of the opinion that the Government would be justified in giving it official countenance. It is suggested that a beginning be made by introducing it into the National Red Cross Association, where at first it might be added as an elective study in the course of instruction for the Red Cross columns that are now being organized, and it would appear that a two-fold purpose would be served thereby, in that, the language might become of great practical use in time of war and that it would help to hold the columns together by an additional bond of mutual interest. The officers of the European Red Cross organizations, especially those of France and Germany, have taken an active interest in the propaganda, and many high officials of their organizations were present at the congress. An exhibition was also given by a Dresden Red Cross column, in which all of the exercises were conducted in Esperanto.

Many efforts have been made in former years to introduce a series of manuals for the sanitary personnel of the military establishments to facilitate communication with sick and wounded prisoners of war, but such efforts were unsuccessful, largely on account of the difficulty of learning the proper pronunciation of foreign tongues. This objection cannot apply to Esperanto, as there is no difficulty whatever in this respect, and it is quite easy to understand it whether spoken by Russian, German, Turk, Japanese, or American. Lieutenant Bayol, an officer of the French army, has prepared a set of small pamphlets which give the questions that would be asked by the nurse and patient and their appropriate answers, in French,[49] German, Italian or English, and in a parallel column the corresponding Esperanto.

Recommendation: In view of the extensive use already made of Esperanto in foreign Red Cross organization, it is recommended that it be brought to the attention of our National Red Cross organization, so that it may be included as an elective study in the course of instruction for Red Cross columns.

Second Indorsement. War Department, Office of the Surgeon General, Oct. 24, 1908. Respectfully returned to The Adjutant General of the Army. The study of Esperanto in the military service should be encouraged as it is believed that the proposed international language is destined to play an important role in international intercourse. It is recommended that the attention of the American National Red Cross Association be called to the subject, and that authority be given to furnish it a copy of this report.

R. M. O’REILLY, Surgeon General, U. S. A.

Fourth Indorsement. War Department, The Adjutant-General’s Office, Washington, November 17, 1908. Respectfully returned to the Surgeon-General, approved by the Secretary of War as recommended in the second indorsement. The return of this paper is desired. By order of the Secretary of War.

HENRY P. McCAIN, Adjutant-General.



On Saturday, December 12th, there was a telegraphic report that a hundred men had been killed by a dynamite explosion at Panama. Mr. Taft, being at that time in Washington, on his suggestion an inquiry as to the need of assistance was sent to Colonel Goethals. Fortunately the report was exaggerated and as will be seen by the following dispatches, aid was not required.

Col. Goethals, Chairman Panama Canal Commission, Panama.

Deeply concerned to hear of accident. The Red Cross Society expresses much sympathy, and is prepared to furnish financial assistance for relief if you deem it necessary. Answer.


To which Col. Goethals replied:

We greatly appreciate your kind message and offer of the Red Cross Society. No financial assistance necessary, and Commission hospitals fully equipped to care for wounded.


Bailey, Banks & Biddle, of Philadelphia, who have provided the insignia badge for Red Cross officers, have been asked to prepare a design for special medals to be awarded to those persons who have rendered special volunteer and unremunerated services to the Red Cross at times of war or disaster.

The Executive Committee are much indebted to the help that the American Hospital Association has rendered to the American Red Cross[50] in its efforts to suppress the misuse of the Red Cross insignia by the passing of resolutions against the use of this emblem by civil hospitals at the annual convention held at Toronto, during last September. Dr. Babcock, the Secretary, writes that the proceedings leading up to the adoption of the resolutions will be published in the Transactions and also in The National Hospital Record. So many hospitals have been using the Red Cross on tags for sale on “Tag Day” that it is a satisfaction to report that in San Francisco the officers of The Children’s Hospital, at the request of the California Red Cross, consented not to use the Red Cross, but to substitute in its place the Hospital or Green Cross on the tags and thereby earned a rich and well-deserved harvest. The resolutions passed by the American Hospital Association reads as follows:

Whereas, by the terms of the Treaty of Geneva, 1864, and the revised Treaty of Geneva, 1906, the emblem of the Greek Red Cross on a white ground, and the words Red Cross or Geneva Cross, were adopted to designate the personnel and material of the medical departments of the military and naval forces and of the recognized volunteer aid societies in time of war, for the humane purpose of rendering them immune from attack or capture; and,

Whereas, the United States, as well as all other civilized powers, is a signatory to said treaties; and,

Whereas, the use of the Red Cross insignia by hospitals, ambulances, municipal health departments and commercial houses, as trade marks and otherwise, has become so general in this country as to materially and seriously impair the usefulness of the emblem for the purposes for which it was created and adopted;

Be it therefore Resolved, That it is the sense of the American Hospital Association that the use of the Geneva Red Cross in connection with the hospitals and ambulances of the country, other than those of the Army, Navy and Red Cross Society, should be discontinued and some other insignia, to be known as the “Hospital Cross” adopted and substituted; and,

Be it further Resolved, That the adoption of this resolution be given as wide publicity as practicable in the medical journals of the country.


At the annual meeting of the California Red Cross, resolutions of congratulations on his election as President of the United States were passed and telegraphed to the Hon. William H. Taft, President of the American Red Cross. Dr. G. H. Richardson, of the Army Medical Service, spoke of the purpose of organizing in the Branch Relief Columns or a California Legion of these columns. He said in part:

“Let us at all times be prepared for the work that the Red Cross must do, either in time of war, or during the periods of peace. The purpose of the Red Cross is more far reaching than the general public have any idea of, and we must have a trained body of men in readiness at all times. We have had wars, and they have found us only partly prepared. The disasters throughout the country and the delays that have ensued would not have occurred if we had had a trained force of men to take the field at once. We should have our nurses where they can be reached at any moment, no matter what the call for their services may be.

“Let us have an instructed body which will be able to cope with anything that may arise.”

Report of formation of detachments of the Grand Legion of the Red Cross in California. (Revised to Dec. 1st.)


The State Field Agent of the California Branch, working in connection with Dr. W. S. Thorne, the Medical Director of the Legion, and assisted by the Secretary of the Legion, has begun his official work of Legion formation. Although the work has been begun without a Board of Administrative Affairs that body will be formed immediately and what has been accomplished submitted to its authority and approval. It is believed this work will strengthen reflexly the California Branch, which has languished somewhat for want of something to do.

The work has been undertaken in the universal, international, and creedless spirit of the Red Cross. The organizations already in line and to whom lectures will be given the first week in December are the Sailors Union, the Masters, Mates and Pilots, the Columbia Park Boy’s Club, and the two (!) Chinese detachments of the Chinese Native Sons. The detachments in process of formation are the California Grays, the Young Men’s Hebrew Institute, the Telegraph Hill Neighborhood Association, the First Unitarian Church young men and the Emporium, a large department store. The League of the Cross, an efficient Roman Catholic semi-military society, is also forming a detachment in place of its hospital corps.

The First Aid and Relief Column is popular with Jew and Gentile, Buddhist and Confucian, Catholic and Protestant. Truly we have an International Red Cross in miniature in San Francisco. It broadens and enlarges one’s humanity to talk to them.

At one time it is the bluff, dominating toiler of the sea, jealous of his authority even over his medicine chest, which in inexperienced hands ignorant of First Aid, is a dangerous expedient at best. Often not a single man in the ship’s company knows the properties of the medicines. In England every master, mate and second mate must pass in First Aid before he gets his license.

At another it is the Chinese Native Son’s silent, dignified, slow to smile, yet courteous, listening to the interpreter with unfathomable receptivity.

Again the Japanese, restless, inquiring, keen, proud of Nippon, eager, even greedy to learn.

Then the Jewish young man, reliable, loyal to liberty, patriotic as the Spanish-American war proved. The Labor Unions are interested, and we believe the idea will prove rational in the Police and Fire Department and public schools.

Much educational propaganda is needed. There is much potential sympathy which needs only to be cultivated. The Legion will naturally in time become interested in great health movements through its lectures and by its co-ordinated strength really become a force for national health.

Respectfully submitted,

Secretary Grand Legion of Red Cross, California Branch.


At the annual meeting of the District Branch, Mr. Ernest P. Bicknell, the National Director, spoke on the Michigan Forest Fire Relief, and Dr. P. G. Smith on the Washington Red Cross Day Camp. An appropriation was voted to provide a copy of the Red Cross Text Book on First Aid to each fire and police station in the city of Washington. Plans were discussed in regard to the organizing and training of Red Cross Relief Column[52] of young men, who at the time of public functions will go on active duty. This column would at the time of the Inauguration be supplemented by relief stations with Red Cross doctors and nurses in attendance. During the year the District Branch had raised funds and supplies for several disaster reliefs. It also provided courses in First Aid for men and in Home Nursing for women. It built and maintained a Red Cross Day Camp for Consumptives.

A box of magazines was sent to Fort Shafter, Honolulu and the following letter was received in acknowledgment of the same:

“I take pleasure in acknowledging the receipt of a box of magazines, weighing 186 pounds, and beg to assure you that the reading matter is very much appreciated and will be used for the benefit of the sick. Thanking you, I am very respectfully,

“Sergeant First-Class, Hospital Corps.”

The same officers were re-elected except the Treasurer, Mr. H. S. Reeside, being elected for this position. Mr. Arnold Hague, Mrs. J. Ellen Foster and General Henry G. Sharpe were elected delegates to the national meeting.

The District Branch continues to send monthly to various army posts and stations large quantities of magazines and other periodicals.


During the year the Kansas Branch reached a membership of 104, this membership being largely in Topeka.

At the time of the State fair and Regular Army encampment, immediately following, the Branch maintained a hospital relief tent at the fair grounds in charge of Mr. Kilmaurs W. King; second Vice-President; Christ’s Hospital generously provided the tent; also the physicians, Doctors Kiene and Bowen, who made daily visits and the nurses who interchanged regularly and furnished much of the equipment. About fifty cases were taken care of in this Red Cross Emergency Hospital.

The Branch has also undertaken to assist in the crusade against tuberculosis. The following State officers were elected November 21st.: President, Governor E. W. Hoch; Vice-Presidents, P. H. Coney, K. W. King, Rev. Dr. C. M. Sheldon; Secretary, Mrs. B. B. Smyth; Treasurer, John R. Mulvane; Delegates to the National Meeting, Hon. D. R. Anthony and Hon. Charles F. Scott


At the annual meeting of the Massachusetts Branch, the following officers were elected: President, Dr. Herbert L. Burrell; Vice-Presidents, Hon. W. Murray Crane, Dr. Henry P. Walcott, Hon. Charles C. Washburn, Justice W. C. Loring, Dr. Arthur T. Cabot and Dr. J. F. A. Adams; Executive Committee, Lieutenant Governor Eben S. Draper, Most Rev. W. H. O’Connell, Dr. Alfreda B. Withington, Gardiner M. Lane, Katherine P. Loring; Treasurer, Gardiner M. Lane; Secretary, Katherine P. Loring; Directors, Mrs. Zenas Crane, General Francis H. Appleton, Dr. Homer Gage, George D. Pratt, Dr. Cheever, Richard Saltonstall; Delegates to the National Convention in Washington, Miss Amy Alexander, Mrs. W. Murray Crane.

The Stamp Committee, under the chairmanship of Mr. Walter E. Kreusi, has done very active work. The Berkshire and Hampton County Divisions have both interested themselves in the sale of the stamp for their[53] local tuberculosis work. The latter Division at its annual meeting elected the following officers: President, George Dwight Pratt; Vice-Presidents, Richard Hooker, Miss Harriet Bacon, of Longmeadow, and Mrs. Charles Blaisdell, of Chicopee; Treasurer, Ralph P. Alden; Secretary, Miss Amy B. Alexander.

At the same meeting the Division voted to make an appropriation from its local treasury of $50 towards the salary of a visiting nurse for tuberculosis cases.


The Cleveland Division, by far the most active in the State, at its annual meeting appointed a most active and capable stamp committee of which Mr. R. L. Ireland was chairman, and a First Aid Instruction Committee of which Dr. Crile is chairman for the providing of First Aid Courses to the police of the city. The Division ordered a number of the First Aid Text Books for the use of these classes.


At the annual meeting of the Rhode Island Branch the following officers were elected: President, John C. Pegram; Vice-President, Bishop William N. McVickar; Secretary, Prof. George Grafton Wilson; Treasurer, Edward Aborn Greene; Executive Committee, President John C. Pegram and Governor-elect Aram J. Pothier as ex-officio members, and Dr. J. M. Peters, Dr. G. Alder Blumer and William P. Sheffield; Delegates to National Red Cross, Senator George Peabody Wetmore and President John C. Pegram; Alternates, Congressmen Adin B. Capron and D. L. D. Granger.

In a portion of his address the President, Mr. Pegram, said:

“The obduracy of this generous American people to the appeals of this national and international charity for substantial, for adequate support, is incomprehensible. The merits of the plan under the immediate supervision of the War Department are so plain, the means of acquiring membership and thus helping the cause are so easy (any man, woman or child in America may become an annual member by the payment of one dollar yearly) that it seems incredible that a people who in one small city in one day—‘Tag Day’—should contribute between $16,000 and $17,000 to a local charity, should not long ago have enrolled themselves universally throughout the country as members of this noble institution. I cannot but believe that the day must soon come when it will seem as natural to pay the small annual due of the Red Cross as to pay a poll or a registry tax to qualify a voter—God speed that day.”


The South Carolina Branch held its annual meeting on November 25th at which its president, Mr. A. C. Kaufman, read an interesting report on the work for the relief of the flood sufferers, which report is given elsewhere in this Bulletin.

Mr. A. C. Kaufman was again chosen president of the South Carolina Red Cross, Mr. John B. Reeves was elected treasurer, and Mr. A. W. Litschgi was elected secretary to succeed Mr. George Hoyt Smith, resigned. The following is the executive committee, which was yesterday elected: Henry P. Archer, Charleston; John F. Bennett, Charleston; the Rev. A. J. S. Thomas, D. D., Greenville; Julius D. Koster, A. W. Litschgi, Charleston; B. M. Lebby, M. D. Sumter.


The delegates elected to the annual meeting of the National Red Cross are: Governor M. F. Ansel, Capt. Henry Buist, Jr., and Col. G. G. Greenough, U. S. A.


Miss Nellie Chapman and Miss Annie Swinskey, enrolled Red Cross nurses, have taken an active part in the Texas Branch Red Cross work ever since this Branch was organized. They are both most popular and efficient nurses, receiving calls from the doctors all over the State to take charge of difficult cases, but busy as both of these nurses are, they are both so loyal to the Texas Branch that unselfishly, for it means a large pecuniary loss, they have always been ready and willing to work actively for the good of humanity and the upbuilding of the Red Cross whenever needed. They again had charge of the Red Cross Emergency Hospital during the State fair in October. This hospital was thoroughly equipped with the latest surgical appliances, wards for men and women and reception and rest room. The Red Cross during these fairs has been a popular feature, and all of the leading doctors take great pride in it and willingly give their services when required.

Miss Annie Swinskey, Miss Nellie Chapman, In Charge of Red Cross Hospital at Texas State Fair.



The Argentine Red Cross, though only lately organized, shows in its report of funds and value of property some $36,000. The Society receives from Congress an appropriation of $40 a month, and this will probably be increased. One of the members of its Central Committee belongs to the Senate and another is President of the House of Representatives, and both have shown much interest in the Society. A committee of women has been created whose duty it is to instruct the public in simple hygenic laws.


The Secretary of the American Red Cross received lately the following letter:

Toronto, October, 26th, 1908.

Dear Sir:

As the Council of the Canadian Red Cross Society is considering the matter of reorganizing, I would thank you very much if you would kindly furnish us with about twenty copies of the Constitution of your Society in order that I may send one to each of the members of the Council, as personally I feel that the Canadian Society should be run upon lines somewhat similar to our sister Society in the United States. I would also thank you if you would kindly send me a set of the Bulletins that I may have them bound and kept on file in this office. Thanking you in anticipation of an early and favorable reply, believe me,

Yours very sincerely,

CHAS. A. HODGETH, M. D., Major A. M. C.
Honorary President of the Canadian Red Cross Society.

The desired literature was promptly and gladly sent. The American Red Cross feels naturally a strong bond of sympathy with that of the Society of so close a neighbor as Canada.


In recognition of the services of M. De Valence, representative of the French Red Cross in Morocco, the President of the French Republic has conferred upon him the cross of Knight of the Legion of Honor. The Society has granted diplomas to 3,294 women, who have received instructions in nursing at its dispensary schools. At the Chateau of Amboise, now the Hospital of Enghien and Orleans, fifteen beds for convalescent soldiers and sailors have been placed at the disposition of the Society by the Duke de Chartres.


The first International Life Saving Congress was held at Frankfort, Germany, in June, 1908. The Red Cross department was devoted to reports, practical demonstrations of life saving by its Relief Columns. These columns in Germany have a trained membership of 53,300 men, who during 1907 rendered first aid in 91,701 cases.


The British Red Cross has devoted much time to the forming of committees whose duty it is to arrange for the creation of temporary hospitals in time of war.



The funds and value of the Italian Red Cross Society amount to over a million and a half dollars. The active personnel of the Society is permitted to take part in the regular army manoeuvres.


In a letter lately received from Baron Ozawa, Vice-President of the Japanese Red Cross, he says:

“Ever since my return to Japan, our institute has been trying to enlarge its scope by establishing the Red Cross Hospitals in the Empire, which today number ten altogether. In fact, my idea is to encourage our members, numbering to this date over 1,400,000, to render their service in time of peace for all kinds of charity work.”

During the late war the Russian Red Cross dispensed nearly seventeen million dollars and at the end was left with a war reserve fund of some six million dollars. The Society provided hospital ships and trains, reserve and field hospital besides a large personnel and great quantities of supplies.